WorldWideScience

Sample records for hybrid internal combustion

  1. Internal combustion engines in hybrid vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Weijer, C.J.T. van de; Beckman, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the use of internal combustion engines in hybrid powertrains is investigated. The substantial difference between the use of internal combustion engines in conventional and in hybrid vehicles mean that engines for hybrid vehicles should be designed specifically for the purpose. At the

  2. Internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmich, M.J.; Hoagland, M.C.; Hubbard, R.L.; Schaub, F.S.

    1981-12-22

    A method of combusting natural gas fuel in a two cycle, turbocharged internal combustion engine substantially reduces the production of nitrogen-oxygen emissions. An improved turbocharger design provides increased air charging pressure, produces a controlled lean air/fuel mixture and lowers peak combustion temperatures. A jet cell ignition device ensures uniform, reliable ignition of the lean air/fuel mixture under all operating conditions and the lean air/fuel mixture in turn encourages complete fuel combustion and provides excellent combustion characteristics with methane, ethane and heavier paraffinic hydrocarbon fuels. These structural modifications and adjustment of other operating parameters combine to reduce nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) emissions by as much as 75% while effecting only a negligible increase in fuel consumption.

  3. STEADY-STATE AND IDLE OPTIMIZA- TION OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Feng; MAO Xiaojian; YANG Lin; ZHUO Bin

    2008-01-01

    A novel steady-state optimization (SSO) of internal combustion engine (ICE) strategy is proposed to maximize the efficiency of the overall powertrain for hybrid electric vehicles, in which the ICE efficiency, the efficiencies of the electric motor (EM) and the energy storage device are all explicitly taken into account. In addition, a novel idle optimization of ICE strategy is implemented to obtain the optimal idle operating point of the ICE and corresponding optimal parking generation power of the EM using the view of the novel SSO of ICE strategy. Simulations results show that potential fuel economy improvement is achieved relative to the conventional one which only optimized the ICE efficiency by the novel SSO of ICE strategy, and fuel consumption per voltage increment decreases a lot during the parking charge by the novel idle optimization of ICE strategy.

  4. Hybrid drives. Competitor or support of internal combustion systems?; Hybridantrieb. Konkurrenz oder Unterstuetzung fuer Verbrennungsmotoren?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buschmann, G.; Mayr, B.; Knobel, C. [Ingenieurgesellschaft Auto und Verkehr GmbH (IAV), Berlin (Germany); Link, M. [TEMIC Automotive Electric Motors GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    With a hybrid drive the fuel consumption and the emissions of today's Otto and Diesel engines can be improved. Depending on the power of the used electrical motor and the energy storage method, the hybrid drives can be classified in four stages: Micro, mild, basic and fully hybrid drive. Using a Diesel engine in conjunction with a hybrid drive, the best possible fuel consumption is obtained, whereas a hybrid drive connected with an Otto engine the best possible emissions are realized. However, the fuel consumption levels of the different hybrid stages can also be achieved with further developed Diesel and Otto engines, which produces the same costs. The reasons for and against the hybrid drive rather depends on other factors, e.g. image, driving comfort and legal requirements. (orig.)

  5. Internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, G.J.

    1986-06-03

    A variable power internal combustion engine is described which consists of: a separate air compressor for receiving and compressing a flow of air to a given pressure, the compressor having an inlet valve introducing a flow of air into the compressor and an outlet valve for exhausting compressed air out of the compressor into a compressed air storage means, at least one expander having a cylinder, a cylinder head closing an end of the cylinder, a piston reciprocally mounted in the cylinder for movement away from the cylinder head in a power stroke from an initial position defining a combustion chamber within the cylinder between the cylinder head and the piston, the compressed air storage means receiving the pressurized flow of air from the compressor and being of a volume adequate to provide compressed air in the combustion chamber essentially at the given pressure essentially over the power output of the engine, means for introducing an amount of combustible fuel in the compressed charge to be present with compressed air in the combustion chamber and providing combustion of the amount of fuel in the cylinder with the inlet and exhaust valves closed, cam shaft means in contact with the piston for absorbing and storing the energy of the power stroke of the piston and controlling movement of the piston within the cylinder during the exhaust stroke; the means for varying the volume of the combustion chamber being controlled in accordance with power requirements to provide variable power output and improved efficiency of the engine at power outputs reduced relative to a given design power output of the engine by providing a variable expansion ratio of a minimum of at least about 30 to 1 at the given design power output and higher with reduced power output.

  6. Internal combustion piston engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segaser, C.L.

    1977-07-01

    Current worldwide production of internal combustion piston engines includes many diversified types of designs and a very broad range of sizes. Engine sizes range from a few horsepower in small mobile units to over 40,000 brake horsepower in large stationary and marine units. The key characteristics of internal combustion piston engines considered appropriate for use as prime movers in Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES) are evaluated. The categories of engines considered include spark-ignition gas engines, compression-ignition oil (diesel) engines, and dual-fuel engines. The engines are evaluated with respect to full-load and part-load performance characteristics, reliability, environmental concerns, estimated 1976 cost data, and current and future status of development. The largest internal combustion piston engines manufactured in the United States range up to 13,540 rated brake horsepower. Future development efforts are anticipated to result in a 20 to 25% increase in brake horsepower without increase in or loss of weight, economy, reliability, or life expectancy, predicated on a simple extension of current development trends.

  7. Rotary internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witkowski, J.

    1989-12-05

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine assembly. It includes: a central rotor means formed with at least one peripheral fuel cavity. The cavity having a first surface defining a thrust surface and a second surface defining a contoured surface; a housing means enclosing the rotor and having an internal wall encircling the rotor. The internal wall being intercepted by at least two recesses defining cylinder means. The housing means and the rotor means being relatively rotatable; piston means individual to each the cylinder means and reciprocable therein; each piton means having a working face complementary to aid contoured surface; and power means for urging the working face into intimate areal contact with the contoured surface to create a first seal means. The housing means having at lest one fuel inlet port, at least one fuel ignition means and at least one exhaust port whereby during the course of a revolution of the rotor means relative to the housing means, the first seal means, the power means, the respective ports, the ignition means and the fuel cavity cooperate to develop fuel compression, fuel ignition and exhaust functions.

  8. Internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskaris, M.A.; Broitman, K.; Natale, S.E.

    1991-08-27

    This patent describes improvement in a two-stroke internal combustion engine adapted to run on a diesel or a kerosene type of fuel, and including a piston connected to the crankshaft of the engine to move within a cylinder through a first stroke from a top dead center position to a bottom dead center position and through a second stroke from the bottom dead center position back to the top dead center position. The improvement comprises: means providing a cylinder head at the top end of the engine cylinder in the shape of an open bowl having a generally cup-shaped configuration including a sidewall portion, a spark plug positioned centrally within the bowl at the top end of the cylinder, and means for injecting fuel into the top end of the engine cylinder at a location between the spark plug and the sidewall portion, the fuel injecting means including an injection nozzle having a plurality of nozzle openings therein, the nozzle openings being constructed and arranged to discharge a plurality of plume-like sprays into the top end of the cylinder at a location within the bowl, two of the sprays being directed from the nozzle to diverge and pass along opposite sides of the spark plug, and additional sprays being directed from the nozzle against the sidewall portion or the cylinder head to be deflected therefrom back toward the piston and the spark plug to thereby form a cloud of fuel over the spark plug for good ignition.

  9. Free Energy and Internal Combustion Engine Cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, William D

    2012-01-01

    The performance of one type (Carnot) of Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) cycle is analyzed within the framework of thermodynamic free energies. ICE performance is different from that of an External Combustion Engine (ECE) which is dictated by Carnot's rule.

  10. Hydrogen Internal Combustion Stirling Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Sanyo; Morita, Hiroyuki; Kurata, Osamu; Yamashita, Iwao

    The hydrogen combustion Stirling engine utilizes internal combustion of a stoichiometric H2 and O2 mixture injected into the working gas as thermal input, and the cyclic operation is completed with the removal of water from the engine after condensation at the cooler. In the prototype engine, a catalytic combustor is substituted for the conventional heater, and the H2-O2 mixture is injected at a constant flow rate from the boundary between the regenerator and the cooler. The engine internal heating characteristics were compared to those on external heating to clarify the internal heating effect on the engine performance. The internal heating performance showed almost the same characteristics as those of external heating, except for the increase of expansion work due to the direct thermal input. The increase of expansion work improved the engine performance, particularly in the region of high engine speed. Furthermore, it was found that the steady injection method was able to suppress the mixture strength to a relatively low level.

  11. Modeling the internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleznik, F. J.; Mcbride, B. J.

    1985-01-01

    A flexible and computationally economical model of the internal combustion engine was developed for use on large digital computer systems. It is based on a system of ordinary differential equations for cylinder-averaged properties. The computer program is capable of multicycle calculations, with some parameters varying from cycle to cycle, and has restart capabilities. It can accommodate a broad spectrum of reactants, permits changes in physical properties, and offers a wide selection of alternative modeling functions without any reprogramming. It readily adapts to the amount of information available in a particular case because the model is in fact a hierarchy of five models. The models range from a simple model requiring only thermodynamic properties to a complex model demanding full combustion kinetics, transport properties, and poppet valve flow characteristics. Among its many features the model includes heat transfer, valve timing, supercharging, motoring, finite burning rates, cycle-to-cycle variations in air-fuel ratio, humid air, residual and recirculated exhaust gas, and full combustion kinetics.

  12. 77 FR 37361 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion... Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines.'' The EPA... Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines...

  13. Thermodynamic Simulation of a Hybrid Pneumatic-Combustion Engine Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Chamaillard

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Although internal combustion engines display high overall maximum global efficiencies, this potential cannot be fully exploited in automotive applications: in real conditions, the average engine load (and thus efficiency is quite low and the kinetic energy during a braking phase is lost. This work presents a new hybrid pneumatic-combustion engine and the associated thermodynamic cycles, which is able to store energy in the form of compressed air. This energy can be issued from a braking phase or from a combustion phase at low power. The potential energy from the air tank can then be restored to start the engine, or charge the engine at full load. The regenerative breaking and the suppression of the idling phases could provide an improvement in terms of fuel economy as high as 15% or more if combined with engine downsizing.

  14. Parametric optimization of a new hybrid pneumatic-combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higelin, P.; Vasile, I.; Charlet, A.; Chamaillard, Y. [Universite d' Orleans, LME-ESEM, Orleans (France)

    2004-06-01

    Although internal combustion engines display high overall maximum global efficiencies, this potential cannot be fully exploited in automotive applications: in real conditions, the average engine load (and thus efficiency) is quite low and the kinetic energy during a braking phase is lost. One solution to this problem is to switch to a new hybrid pneumatic-combustion engine concept, which is able to store energy in the form of compressed air. This energy can be issued from a braking phase or from a combustion phase at low power. The potential energy from the air tank can then be restored to start the engine, use the stored air to drive the engine as a pneumatic motor at low load or charge the engine at full load. Optimization of the compressed air tank maximum pressure and volume as well as the operating mode switching strategy provides an improvement in terms of fuel economy as high as 31 per cent if combined with engine downsizing. (Author)

  15. Internal combustion engine and method for control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Daniel G

    2013-05-21

    In one exemplary embodiment of the invention an internal combustion engine includes a piston disposed in a cylinder, a valve configured to control flow of air into the cylinder and an actuator coupled to the valve to control a position of the valve. The internal combustion engine also includes a controller coupled to the actuator, wherein the controller is configured to close the valve when an uncontrolled condition for the internal engine is determined.

  16. Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert Andrus; Gregory Burns; John Chiu; Gregory Lijedahl; Peter Stromberg; Paul Thibeault

    2009-01-07

    For the past several years Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), a leading world-wide power system manufacturer and supplier, has been in the initial stages of developing an entirely new, ultra-clean, low cost, high efficiency power plant for the global power market. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion-gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology The process consists of the oxidation, reduction, carbonation, and calcination of calcium-based compounds, which chemically react with coal, biomass, or opportunity fuels in two chemical loops and one thermal loop. The chemical and thermal looping technology can be alternatively configured as (i) a combustion-based steam power plant with CO{sub 2} capture, (ii) a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas for gas turbines or fuel cells, or (iii) an integrated hybrid combustion-gasification process producing hydrogen for gas turbines, fuel cells or other hydrogen based applications while also producing a separate stream of CO{sub 2} for use or sequestration. In its most advanced configuration, this new concept offers the promise to become the technology link from today's Rankine cycle steam power plants to tomorrow's advanced energy plants. The objective of this work is to develop and verify the high temperature chemical and thermal looping process concept at a small-scale pilot facility in order to enable AL to design, construct and demonstrate a pre-commercial, prototype version of this advanced system. In support of this objective, Alstom and DOE started a multi-year program, under this contract. Before the contract started, in a preliminary phase (Phase 0) Alstom funded and built the required small-scale pilot facility (Process Development Unit, PDU) at its Power Plant Laboratories in Windsor, Connecticut. Construction was completed in calendar year 2003. The objective for Phase I was to develop the indirect combustion loop with CO{sub 2

  17. Time Resolved FTIR Analysis of Combustion of Ethanol and Gasoline Combustion in AN Internal Combustion Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Allen R.; Sakai, Stephen; Devasher, Rebecca B.

    2011-06-01

    In order to pursue In Situ measurements in an internal combustion engine, a MegaTech Mark III transparent spark ignition engine was modified with a sapphire combustion chamber. This modification will allow the transmission of infrared radiation for time-resolved spectroscopic measurements by an infrared spectrometer. By using a Step-scan equipped Fourier transform spectrometer, temporally resolved infrared spectral data were acquired and compared for combustion in the modified Mark III engine. Measurements performed with the FTIR system provide insight into the energy transfer vectors that precede combustion and also provides an in situ measurement of the progress of combustion. Measurements were performed using ethanol and gasoline.

  18. Two phase exhaust for internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuk, Carl T [Denver, IA

    2011-11-29

    An internal combustion engine having a reciprocating multi cylinder internal combustion engine with multiple valves. At least a pair of exhaust valves are provided and each supply a separate power extraction device. The first exhaust valves connect to a power turbine used to provide additional power to the engine either mechanically or electrically. The flow path from these exhaust valves is smaller in area and volume than a second flow path which is used to deliver products of combustion to a turbocharger turbine. The timing of the exhaust valve events is controlled to produce a higher grade of energy to the power turbine and enhance the ability to extract power from the combustion process.

  19. Internal Combustion Engines as Fluidized Bed Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavich, Zoe; Taie, Zachary; Menon, Shyam; Beckwith, Walter; Daly, Shane; Halliday, Devin; Hagen, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    Using an internal combustion engine as a chemical reactor could provide high throughput, high chemical conversion efficiency, and reactant/product handling benefits. For processes requiring a solid catalyst, the ability to develop a fluidized bed within the engine cylinder would allow efficient processing of large volumes of fluid. This work examines the fluidization behavior of particles in a cylinder of an internal combustion engine at various engine speeds. For 40 micron silica gel particles in a modified Megatech Mark III transparent combustion engine, calculations indicate that a maximum engine speed of about 60.8 RPM would result in fluidization. At higher speeds, the fluidization behavior is expected to deteriorate. Experiments gave qualitative confirmation of the analytical predictions, as a speed of 48 RPM resulted in fluidized behavior, while a speed of 171 RPM did not. The investigation shows that under certain conditions a fluidized bed can be obtained within an engine cylinder. Corresponding Author.

  20. 30 CFR 57.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 57.4103... Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before refueling if the fuel tanks are integral parts of...

  1. 30 CFR 56.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 56.4103... Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 56.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before refueling if the fuel tanks are integral parts of...

  2. Wear aspects of internal combustion engine valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panţuru, M.; Chicet, D.; Paulin, C.; Alexandru, A.; Munteanu, C.

    2016-08-01

    Because the surface engineering is becoming an increasingly viable alternative to the constructive changes made to improve the efficiency of internal combustion engines, have been proposed and tested various types of coatings of some organs of internal combustion engines. One vital organ is the engine valves, which is subjected during operation to combined thermal, mechanical, corrosion and wear solicitations, which are leading to severe corrosion and complete breakdown. In this paper were analyzed aspects of valves wear and the active surfaces were coated using the atmospheric plasma spraying method (APS) with two commercial powders: Ni-Al and YSZ. Microstructural analyzes were made on these layers and also observations regarding the possibility of using them as thermal barrier and anti-oxidant coatings.

  3. 78 FR 54606 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion... emission standards for hazardous air pollutants for stationary reciprocating internal combustion engines and the standards of performance for stationary internal combustion engines. Subsequently, the EPA...

  4. 77 FR 60341 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines to..., ``National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New...

  5. Internal combustion engine using premixed combustion of stratified charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Craig D.; Reitz, Rolf D. (Madison, WI

    2003-12-30

    During a combustion cycle, a first stoichiometrically lean fuel charge is injected well prior to top dead center, preferably during the intake stroke. This first fuel charge is substantially mixed with the combustion chamber air during subsequent motion of the piston towards top dead center. A subsequent fuel charge is then injected prior to top dead center to create a stratified, locally richer mixture (but still leaner than stoichiometric) within the combustion chamber. The locally rich region within the combustion chamber has sufficient fuel density to autoignite, and its self-ignition serves to activate ignition for the lean mixture existing within the remainder of the combustion chamber. Because the mixture within the combustion chamber is overall premixed and relatively lean, NO.sub.x and soot production are significantly diminished.

  6. Combustion system for hybrid solar fossil fuel receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehos, Mark S.; Anselmo, Kenneth M.; Moreno, James B.; Andraka, Charles E.; Rawlinson, K. Scott; Corey, John; Bohn, Mark S.

    2004-05-25

    A combustion system for a hybrid solar receiver comprises a pre-mixer which combines air and fuel to form an air-fuel mixture. The mixture is introduced tangentially into a cooling jacket. A burner plenum is fluidically connected to the cooling jacket such that the burner plenum and the cooling jacket are arranged in thermal contact with one another. The air-fuel mixture flows through the cooling jacket cooling the burner plenum to reduce pre-ignition of the air-fuel mixture in the burner plenum. A combustion chamber is operatively associated with and open to the burner plenum to receive the air-fuel mixture from the burner plenum. An igniter is operatively positioned in the combustion chamber to combust the air-fuel mixture, releasing heat. A recuperator is operatively associated with the burner plenum and the combustion chamber and pre-heats the air-fuel mixture in the burner plenum with heat from the combustion chamber. A heat-exchanger is operatively associated and in thermal contact with the combustion chamber. The heat-exchanger provides heat for the hybrid solar receiver.

  7. The FCF Combustion Integrated Rack: Microgravity Combustion Science Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    OMalley, Terence F.; Weiland, Karen J.

    2002-01-01

    The Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) is one of three facility payload racks being developed for the International Space Station (ISS) Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF). Most microgravity combustion experiments will be performed onboard the Space Station in the Combustion Integrated Rack. Experiment-specific equipment will be installed on orbit in the CIR to customize it to perform many different scientific experiments during the ten or more years that it will operate on orbit. This paper provides an overview of the CIR, including a description of its preliminary design and planned accommodations for microgravity combustion science experiments, and descriptions of the combustion science experiments currently planned for the CIR.

  8. Twenty-second symposium (international) on combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The following research areas were discussed at the symposium: coal combustion: carbon burnout, pyrolysis, furnaces, laboratory-scale combustion, and fluidized bed combustion; combustion-generated particulates: soot inception, growth, and soot formation in diffusion flames; engine combustion; turbulent combustion: flames in vortices, fractals and cellular automations, nonpremixed flames, premixed flames, premixed flame structure, and lifted flames; reaction kinetics: hydrocarbon oxidation, free radical chemistry, unsaturated species, aromatics, and nitrogen compounds/pollutant formation; combustion generated NO/sub x/ and SO/sub x/; fires: flame spread, radiation, characterization, and unsteady flames; Laminar flames: structure, opposed-flow combustion, shape, propagation/extinction, and inhibition, oscillations, microgravity; ignition; detonations; dusts; propellants; diagnostics; combustion of drops, sprays, and dispersions, and slurries. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  9. Internal combustion engine report: Spark ignited ICE GenSet optimization and novel concept development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, J.; Blarigan, P. Van [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    In this manuscript the authors report on two projects each of which the goal is to produce cost effective hydrogen utilization technologies. These projects are: (1) the development of an electrical generation system using a conventional four-stroke spark-ignited internal combustion engine generator combination (SI-GenSet) optimized for maximum efficiency and minimum emissions, and (2) the development of a novel internal combustion engine concept. The SI-GenSet will be optimized to run on either hydrogen or hydrogen-blends. The novel concept seeks to develop an engine that optimizes the Otto cycle in a free piston configuration while minimizing all emissions. To this end the authors are developing a rapid combustion homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine using a linear alternator for both power take-off and engine control. Targeted applications include stationary electrical power generation, stationary shaft power generation, hybrid vehicles, and nearly any other application now being accomplished with internal combustion engines.

  10. Internal combustion engine with compound air compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, M.A.; Paul, A.

    1991-10-15

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine in combination with a compound air compression system. It comprises: a reciprocator with at least one cylinder, at least one piston reciprocal in the cylinder and a combustion chamber formed in substantial part by portions of the piston and cylinder, the reciprocator having a drive shaft; a rotary compressor having a drive shaft mechanically coupled to the drive shaft of the reciprocator, the rotary compressor having a Wankel-type, three-lobe, epitrochiodal configuration sides having a conduit conjected to the reciprocator for supplying compressed air to the reciprocator; a turbocharged with a gas turbine and a turbocompressor, the turbocompressor having an air conduit connected to the expander side of the rotary compressor; and a bypass conduit with a valve means connecting the turbocharger to the reciprocator for supplying compressed air directly to the reciprocator wherein the drive shaft of the reciprocator and the drive shaft of the compressor have connecting means for transmitting mechanical energy to the reciprocator at mid to high operating speeds of the engine when the turbocharge supplies compressed air to the rotary compressor and, at least in part, drives the rotary compressor.

  11. Variable compression ratio device for internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Ronald P.; Faletti, James J.

    2004-03-23

    An internal combustion engine, particularly suitable for use in a work machine, is provided with a combustion cylinder, a cylinder head at an end of the combustion cylinder and a primary piston reciprocally disposed within the combustion cylinder. The cylinder head includes a secondary cylinder and a secondary piston reciprocally disposed within the secondary cylinder. An actuator is coupled with the secondary piston for controlling the position of the secondary piston dependent upon the position of the primary piston. A communication port establishes fluid flow communication between the combustion cylinder and the secondary cylinder.

  12. Method and device for diagnosing and controlling combustion instabilities in internal combustion engines operating in or transitioning to homogeneous charge combustion ignition mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Robert M [Knoxville, TN; Daw, Charles S [Knoxville, TN; Green, Johney B [Knoxville, TN; Edwards, Kevin D [Knoxville, TN

    2008-10-07

    This invention is a method of achieving stable, optimal mixtures of HCCI and SI in practical gasoline internal combustion engines comprising the steps of: characterizing the combustion process based on combustion process measurements, determining the ratio of conventional and HCCI combustion, determining the trajectory (sequence) of states for consecutive combustion processes, and determining subsequent combustion process modifications using said information to steer the engine combustion toward desired behavior.

  13. 75 FR 75937 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of... ignition stationary reciprocating internal combustion engines. Subsequently, the Administrator received two... internal generation, combustion engine. transmission, or distribution. 622110 Medical and surgical...

  14. Effect of grain port length-diameter ratio on combustion performance in hybrid rocket motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guobiao; Zhang, Yuanjun; Tian, Hui; Wang, Pengfei; Yu, Nanjia

    2016-11-01

    The objectives of this study are to develop a more accurate regression rate considering the oxidizer mass flow and the fuel grain geometry configuration with numerical and experimental investigations in polyethylene (PE)/90% hydrogen peroxide (HP) hybrid rocket. Firstly, a 2-D axisymmetric CFD model with turbulence, chemistry reaction, solid-gas coupling is built to investigate the combustion chamber internal flow structure. Then a more accurate regression formula is proposed and the combustion efficiency changing with the length-diameter ratio is studied. A series experiments are conducted in various oxidizer mass flow to analyze combustion performance including the regression rate and combustion efficiency. The regression rates are measured by the fuel mass reducing and diameter changing. A new regression rate formula considering the fuel grain configuration is proposed in this paper. The combustion efficiency increases with the length-diameter ratio changing. To improve the performance of a hybrid rocket motor, the port length-diameter ratio is suggested 10-12 in the paper.

  15. Survey of Greener Ignition and Combustion Systems for Internal Combustion Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Wuqiao; Li, Yun; Tian, Zhong; Gao, Bo; Tong, Ling; Wang, Houjun; Zeng, Baoqing

    2015-01-01

    The spark and compression ignition principles of, petrol and diesel internal combustion engines (ICEs) have, not advanced for a century. These do not lead to complete, combustion and hence result in high exhaust emission and, low energy efficiency. This paper presents a comprehensive survey on the attempts and developments of greener ignition, and combustion systems for ICEs and points out that, homogeneous charge microwave ignition (HCMI) holds the, key to a perfect solution. Increasing the ...

  16. Rotary-piston internal combustion engine. Rotationskolbenbrennkraftmaschine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiermann, D.

    1991-08-08

    Rotary-piston internal combustion engine in trochoidal design with a slide bearing piston which is controlled by a synchronous gear. The gear is covered by an insert unit which is screwed at the eccentric. The insert unit seals the synchronous gear from the remaining machine parts; it has a hollow cylinder which covers the hollow gear of the synchronous gear and is eccentric to the eccentric shaft; it is sealed with a sealing ring from a shoulder of the piston. A further hollow cylinder is coaxial to the eccentric shaft; it surrounds the mount part with a clearance for the pinion; it projects into the boring at the side of the shaft and it is sealed by a sealing ring from the boring. An annular space which is sealed from the remaining engine rooms is on the other side of the bearing. The oil which escapes from the bearing is led from this annular space through the cooling rooms of the piston to the synchronous gear. The oil is carried off into a drain channel through the space which is formed by the coaxial hollow cylinder in the sidewall.

  17. 75 FR 80761 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of... air pollutants for reciprocating internal combustion engines and requesting public comment on one...

  18. 3rd International Conference on Numerical Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Larrouturou, Bernard; Numerical Combustion

    1989-01-01

    Interest in numerical combustion is growing among applied mathematicians, physicists, chemists, engine manufacturers and many industrialists. This proceedings volume contains nine invited lectures and twenty seven contributions carefully selected by the editors. The major themes are numerical simulation of transsonic and supersonic combustion phenomena, the study of supersonic reacting mixing layers, and turbulent combustion. Emphasis is laid on hyperbolic models and on numerical simulations of hydrocarbon planes with a complete set of chemical reactions carried out in two-dimensional geometries as well as on complex reactive flow simulations.

  19. Internal combustion engine for natural gas compressor operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, Christopher; Babbitt, Guy

    2016-12-27

    This application concerns systems and methods for compressing natural gas with an internal combustion engine. In a representative embodiment, a method is featured which includes placing a first cylinder of an internal combustion engine in a compressor mode, and compressing a gas within the first cylinder, using the cylinder as a reciprocating compressor. In some embodiments a compression check valve system is used to regulate pressure and flow within cylinders of the engine during a compression process.

  20. 8th International symposium on transport phenomena in combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The 8th International Symposium on Transport Phenomena in Combustion will be held in San Francisco, California, U.S.A., July 16-20, 1995, under the auspices of the Pacific Center of Thermal-Fluids Engineering. The purpose of the Symposium is to provide a forum for researchers and practitioners from around the world to present new developments and discuss the state of the art and future directions and priorities in the areas of transport phenomena in combustion. The Symposium is the eighth in a series; previous venues were Honolulu 1985, Tokyo 1987, Taipei 1988, Sydney 1991, Beijing 1992, Seoul 1993 and Acapulco 1994, with emphasis on various aspects of transport phenomena. The current Symposium theme is combustion. The Symposium has assembled a balanced program with topics ranging from fundamental research to contemporary applications of combustion theory. Invited keynote lecturers will provide extensive reviews of topics of great interest in combustion. Colloquia will stress recent advances and innovations in fire spread and suppression, and in low NO{sub x} burners, furnaces, boilers, internal combustion engines, and other practical combustion systems. Finally, numerous papers will contribute to the fundamental understanding of complex processes in combustion. This document contains abstracts of papers to be presented at the Symposium.

  1. 78 FR 6673 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 20... Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines...

  2. Commercial combustion research aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schowengerdt, F. D.

    1999-01-01

    The Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS) is planning a number of combustion experiments to be done on the International Space Station (ISS). These experiments will be conducted in two ISS facilities, the SpaceDRUMS™ Acoustic Levitation Furnace (ALF) and the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) portion of the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF). The experiments are part of ongoing commercial projects involving flame synthesis of ceramic powders, catalytic combustion, water mist fire suppression, glass-ceramics for fiber and other applications and porous ceramics for bone replacements, filters and catalyst supports. Ground- and parabolic aircraft-based experiments are currently underway to verify the scientific bases and to test prototype flight hardware. The projects have strong external support.

  3. Potential of Porous-Media Combustion Technology as Applied to Internal Combustion Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslaw Weclas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes the knowledge concerning porous media combustion techniques as applied in engines. One of most important reasons of this review is to introduce this still not well known technology to researchers doing with internal combustion engine processes, thermal engines, reactor thermodynamics, combustion, and material science. The paper gives an overview of possible applications of a highly porous open cell structures to in-cylinder processes. This application means utilization of unique features of porous media for supporting engine processes, especially fuel distribution in space, vaporization, mixing with air, heat recuperation, ignition and combustion. There are three ways for applying porous medium technology to engines: support of individual processes, support of homogeneous combustion process (catalytic and non-catalytic with temperature control, and utilization of the porous structure as a heat capacitor only. In the first type of application, the porous structure may be utilized for fuel vaporization and improved fuel distribution in space making the mixture more homogeneous in the combustion chamber. Extension of these processes to mixture formation and ignition inside a combustion reactor allows the realization of a homogeneous and a nearly zero emissions level combustion characterized by a homogeneous temperature field at reduced temperature level.

  4. Temperature Estimation in the Combustion Chamber of an Internal Combustion Engine

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The mathematical model of heat transfer phenomena is considered at the combustion chamber wall in an internal combustion (IC) engine. The mathematical model of proposed phenomena is established with respect to the crank angle. An inverse heat conduction problem is derived at the cylinder wall, and this problem is investigated numerically using Alifanov's regularization method. This problem studied as an optimization problem in which a squared residual functional is minimized with the conjugat...

  5. International evaluation of the programme on engine-related combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcoumanis, D. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Greenhalgh, D. [Cranfield Univ. (United Kingdom); Magnusson, B.F. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway); Peters, N. [Institut fuer Technische Mechanik, RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    The 12 projects in the engine related combustion programme cover the entire range from fundamental and theoretical aspects of combustion to more applied subjects such as engine control. The common denominator in the programme clearly is the internal combustion engine, both the reciprocating as well as the gas turbine engine. Such a large coverage by a relatively small number of projects necessarily leads to an isolation of some of the projects in terms of their subject as well as the methodology that is used. On the other hand, all the research areas of interest in combustion technology are represented by at least one of the projects. These are: mathematical and numerical methods in combustion; modelling of turbulent combustion; laser diagnostics of flows with combustion; studies of engine performance and their control; semi-empirical model development for practical applications. As a conclusion, the evaluation committee believes that the programme is well balanced between fundamental and applied projects. It covers the entire range of modern methodologies that are used on the international level and thereby contributes to the application and further development of these research tools in Sweden

  6. Backfire prediction in a manifold injection hydrogen internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xing-hua; Liu, Fu-shui; Zhou, Lei; Sun, Bai-gang [School of Mechanical and Vehicular Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Schock, Harold J. [Engine Research Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Hydrogen internal combustion engine (H2ICE) easily occur inlet manifold backfire and other abnormal combustion phenomena because of the low ignition energy, wide flammability range and rapid combustion speed of hydrogen. In this paper, the effect of injection timing on mixture formation in a manifold injection H2ICE was studied in various engine speed and equivalence ratio by CFD simulation. It was concluded that H2ICE of manifold injection have an limited injection end timing in order to prevent backfire in the inlet manifold. Finally, the limit of injection end timing of the H2ICE was proposed and validated by engine experiment. (author)

  7. Hybrid rocket fuel combustion and regression rate study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, L. D.; Ray, R. L.; Anderson, F. A.; Cohen, N. S.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to develop hybrid fuels (1) with higher regression rates and reduced dependence on fuel grain geometry and (2) that maximize potential specific impulse using low-cost materials. A hybrid slab window motor system was developed to screen candidate fuels - their combustion behavior and regression rate. Combustion behavior diagnostics consisted of video and high speed motion pictures coverage. The mean fuel regression rates were determined by before and after measurements of the fuel slabs. The fuel for this initial investigation consisted of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene binder with coal and aluminum fillers. At low oxidizer flux levels (and corresponding fuel regression rates) the filled-binder fuels burn in a layered fashion, forming an aluminum containing binder/coal surface melt that, in turn, forms into filigrees or flakes that are stripped off by the crossflow. This melt process appears to diminish with increasing oxidizer flux level. Heat transfer by radiation is a significant contributor, producing the desired increase in magnitude and reduction in flow dependency (power law exponent) of the fuel regression rate.

  8. Numerical analysis of combustion characteristics of hybrid rocket motor with multi-section swirl injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengen; Cai, Guobiao; Tian, Hui

    2016-06-01

    This paper is aimed to analyse the combustion characteristics of hybrid rocket motor with multi-section swirl injection by simulating the combustion flow field. Numerical combustion flow field and combustion performance parameters are obtained through three-dimensional numerical simulations based on a steady numerical model proposed in this paper. The hybrid rocket motor adopts 98% hydrogen peroxide and polyethylene as the propellants. Multiple injection sections are set along the axis of the solid fuel grain, and the oxidizer enters the combustion chamber by means of tangential injection via the injector ports in the injection sections. Simulation results indicate that the combustion flow field structure of the hybrid rocket motor could be improved by multi-section swirl injection method. The transformation of the combustion flow field can greatly increase the fuel regression rate and the combustion efficiency. The average fuel regression rate of the motor with multi-section swirl injection is improved by 8.37 times compared with that of the motor with conventional head-end irrotational injection. The combustion efficiency is increased to 95.73%. Besides, the simulation results also indicate that (1) the additional injection sections can increase the fuel regression rate and the combustion efficiency; (2) the upstream offset of the injection sections reduces the combustion efficiency; and (3) the fuel regression rate and the combustion efficiency decrease with the reduction of the number of injector ports in each injection section.

  9. Bulkhead insert for an internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, Clifford E.; Chottiner, Jeffrey Eliot; Williams, Rick L.; Thibault, Mark W.; Ervin, James Douglas; Boileau, James Maurice; McKeough, Bryan

    2017-08-01

    An engine includes a cylinder block defining at least one main bearing bulkhead adjacent to a cylinder, and a crankshaft rotatably housed within the block by a main bearing. A bulkhead insert has a cap portion, and an insert portion provided within the bulkhead. The insert portion has having first and second end regions connected by first and second straps. Each strap having a flanged beam cross section. The first and second ends of the insert portion are configured to connect a main bearing cap column to a cylinder head column. Each of the first and second end regions define at least one protrusion having a surface substantially normal to engine combustion and reactive loads. The cap portion is configured to mate with the first end region at the main bearing cap column and support the main bearing.

  10. High efficiency stoichiometric internal combustion engine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsor, Richard Edward; Chase, Scott Allen

    2009-06-02

    A power system including a stoichiometric compression ignition engine in which a roots blower is positioned in the air intake for the engine to control air flow. Air flow is decreased during part power conditions to maintain the air-fuel ratio in the combustion chamber of the engine at stoichiometric, thus enabling the use of inexpensive three-way catalyst to reduce oxides of nitrogen. The roots blower is connected to a motor generator so that when air flow is reduced, electrical energy is stored which is made available either to the roots blower to temporarily increase air flow or to the system electrical load and thus recapture energy that would otherwise be lost in reducing air flow.

  11. Harmonic components of cylinder pressure variation and their characteristics for combustion noise in internal combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.R.; Miyamoto, Noboru; Murayama, Tadashi

    1987-10-31

    Combustion noise is a serious problem in internal combustion engines, especially diesel engines. Although the cylinder pressure variation is easily visible tool to evaluate the combustion noise and thermal efficiency, the exciting force in engine combustion noise has not been completely determined. Cylinder pressure variation for different combustion behaviors and their harmonic components were calculated and an attempt was made to correlate the various components. It was found that the logarithmic harmonic components of cylinder pressure variations, the cylinder pressure level (CPL) can be described by a function with four variables, the values of cylinder pressure variation. The results of this paper is summarized as follows: 1) A relationship was established between CPL and four characteristic values describing the cylinder pressure and variation diagram. 2) Harmonic components of cylinder pressure variations are described by a linear function with four variables and four characteristic values. 3) In this case, the coefficients of the four variables depend solely on the order of engine revolutions and are independent of combustion behavior and engine operating conditions. (13 figs, 7 refs)

  12. 3rd International Workshop on Turbulent Spray Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Gutheil, Eva

    2014-01-01

    This book reflects the results of the 2nd and 3rd International Workshops on Turbulent Spray Combustion. The focus is on progress in experiments and numerical simulations for two-phase flows, with emphasis on spray combustion. Knowledge of the dominant phenomena and their interactions allows development of predictive models and their use in combustor and gas turbine design. Experts and young researchers present the state-of-the-art results, report on the latest developments and exchange ideas in the areas of experiments, modelling and simulation of reactive multiphase flows. The first chapter reflects on flame structure, auto-ignition and atomization with reference to well-characterized burners, to be implemented by modellers with relative ease. The second chapter presents an overview of first simulation results on target test cases, developed at the occasion of the 1st International Workshop on Turbulent Spray Combustion. In the third chapter, evaporation rate modelling aspects are covered, while the fourth ...

  13. Internal and Surface Phenomena in Heterogenous Metal Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreizin, Edward L.

    1997-01-01

    The phenomenon of gas dissolution in burning metals was observed in recent metal combustion studies, but it could not be adequately explained by the traditional metal combustion models. The research reported here addresses heterogeneous metal combustion with emphasis on the processes of oxygen penetration inside burning metal and its influence on the metal combustion rate, temperature history, and disruptive burning. The unique feature of this work is the combination of the microgravity environment with a novel micro-arc generator of monodispersed metal droplets, ensuring repeatable formation and ignition of uniform metal droplets with a controllable initial temperature and velocity. Burning droplet temperature is measured in real time with a three wavelength pyrometer. In addition, particles are rapidly quenched at different combustion times, cross-sectioned, and examined using SEM-based techniques to retrieve the internal composition history of burning metal particles. When the initial velocity of a spherical particle is nearly zero, the microgravity environment makes it possible to study the flame structure, the development of flame nonsymmetry, and correlation of the flame shape with the heterogeneous combustion processes.

  14. DYNAMIC DESIGN OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE BLOCK STRUCTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Several main steps of internal combustion engine block structure dynamic design,such as model set-up,structure dynamic response analysis,optimizing design and vibration and noise control,are discussed for the type of EQ6100 gasoline engine block.

  15. Temperature Estimation in the Combustion Chamber of an Internal Combustion Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Reza Safakish

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model of heat transfer phenomena is considered at the combustion chamber wall in an internal combustion (IC engine. The mathematical model of proposed phenomena is established with respect to the crank angle. An inverse heat conduction problem is derived at the cylinder wall, and this problem is investigated numerically using Alifanov's regularization method. This problem studied as an optimization problem in which a squared residual functional is minimized with the conjugate gradient method. To show the ability of the proposed method, some test problems are considered.

  16. CAD/CAM/CAI Application for High-Precision Machining of Internal Combustion Engine Pistons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Postnov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available CAD/CAM/CAI application solutions for internal combustion engine pistons machining was analyzed. Low-volume technology of internal combustion engine pistons production was proposed. Fixture for CNC turning center was designed.

  17. ANALYSIS OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE WITH A NEW CONCEPT OF POROUS MEDIUM COMBUSTION FOR THE FUTURE CLEAN ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok A Dhale

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the emissions of internal combustion engine can only be improved by catalytic treatments of the exhaust gases. Such treatments, however, result in high costs and relatively low conversion efficiency. This suggests that a new combustion technique should be developed to yield improved primary combustion processes inside the engine with drastically reduced exhaust gas emissions. To fulfill all requirements, Dr. Franz Drust has proposed a new combustion concept to perform homogenous combustion in internal combustion engines. This concept used the porous medium combustion technique and is called "PM-engine". It is shown that the PM combustion technique can be applied to internal combustion engines. Theoretical considerations are presented for internal combustion engines, indicating that an overall improvement in thermal efficiency can be achieved for the PM-engine. This is explained and general performance of the new PM-engines is demonstrated for a single cylinder, water cooled, direct injection diesel engine. Verification of experiments at primary stage is described that were carried out as a part of the present study.

  18. Electro-hydraulic variable valve system for hybrid pneumatic-internal combustion engine%气动-内燃混合动力系统的电液可变气门研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶锦; 李道飞; 王雷; 徐焕祥; 俞小莉

    2013-01-01

    针对气动-内燃混合动力在不同工作模式下顺利切换的关键问题,开展了电液驱动全可变气门开发研究.介绍了气动-内燃混合动力的不同工作模式,基于热力循环,分析了3种关键工作模式下的可变气门控制策略.以低速工况下混合动力系统气动模式为例,设计开发了无复位弹簧电液全可变气门原型样机,利用高速开关电磁阀控制可变气门液压油路通断,并基于NI-CompactRIO平台开发了可变气门控制系统,最后对电液气门进行了初步的试验分析.研究结果表明,电液全可变气门存在一定的响应延时,通过控制进油时间和保持时间,可以实现气门升程和正时的调整,满足气动模式常用转速范围工作要求.%In order to switch among multiple working modes of the concept hybrid engine,including air motor mode,supercharged combustion mode and regenerative braking mode,an electro-hydraulic variable valve system was designed and manufactured.Based on a newly designed prototype,the intake and exhaust valving strategies in different modes were analyzed.The on/off of hydraulic line was controlled with high speed electromagnetic valves.By using NI-CompactRIO platform,the control system hardware and software of valve prototype were designed and optimized.Finally,preliminary tests of the variable valve were conducted.The results indicate that,though there is some dynamic delay of valve lift,by regulating the opening and duration of electromagnetic valves,the optimal lift and timing strategy of the engine valve can be achieved for the air motor mode of the hybrid engine concept.

  19. Using Alcohols as an Alternative Fuel in Internal Combustion Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih ÖZER

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study summarizes the studies on alcohol use in internal combustion engines nature. Nowadays, alcohol is used in internal combustion engines sometimes in order to reduce emissions and sometimes as an alternative fuel. Even vehicle manufacturers are producing and launching vehicles that are running directly with alcohol. Many types of pure alcohol that can be used on vehicles are available on the world. Using all of these types of alcohol led to the formation of engine emissions and power curves. The studies reveal that these changes are because of the physical and chemical characteristics of alcohols. Thıs study tries to explain what kind of conclusions the physical and chemical properties cause

  20. Introduction to Analytical Methods for Internal Combustion Engine Cam Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, J J

    2013-01-01

    Modern design methods of Automotive Cam Design require the computation of a range of parameters. This book provides a logical sequence of steps for the derivation of the relevant equations from first principles, for the more widely used cam mechanisms. Although originally derived for use in high performance engines, this work is equally applicable to the design of mass produced automotive and other internal combustion engines.   Introduction to Analytical Methods for Internal Combustion Engine Cam Mechanisms provides the equations necessary for the design of cam lift curves with an associated smooth acceleration curve. The equations are derived for the kinematics and kinetics of all the mechanisms considered, together with those for cam curvature and oil entrainment velocity. This permits the cam shape, all loads, and contact stresses to be evaluated, and the relevant tribology to be assessed. The effects of asymmetry on the manufacture of cams for finger follower and offset translating curved followers is ...

  1. Enhanced efficiency of internal combustion engines by employing spinning gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyko, V I; Fisch, N J

    2014-08-01

    The efficiency of the internal combustion engine might be enhanced by employing spinning gas. A gas spinning at near sonic velocities has an effectively higher heat capacity, which allows practical fuel cycles, which are far from the Carnot efficiency, to approach more closely the Carnot efficiency. A remarkable gain in fuel efficiency is shown to be theoretically possible for the Otto and Diesel cycles. The use of a flywheel, in principle, could produce even greater increases in efficiency.

  2. Twenty-Seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    pollutant emissions on human driving the development of highly efficient low- health range from respiratory diseases (e.g., child- emission combustion...Systems (N. 101. Stein, S. E., Walker, J. A., Suryan, M. M., and Fahr , Peters and B. Rogg, eds.), Lecture Notes in Physics, A., in Twenty-Third Symposium...M. M., and Fahr , A., and Kawano, H., Int. j. Chem. Kinet. 21:643-666 in Twenty-Third Symposium (International) on Com- (1989). bustion, The

  3. A Simplified Model of the Internal Combustion Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christofer Neff

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This project further investigates a model of a simplified internal combustion engine considered by Kranc in 1977. Using Euler’s method for ordinary differential equations, we modeled the interaction between the engine’s flywheel and thermodynamic power cycle. Approximating with sufficiently small time intervals (0.001 seconds over a period of 12 seconds reproduced Kranc’s results with the engine having an average angular velocity of 72/sec.

  4. Enhanced efficiency of internal combustion engines by employing spinning gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyko, V. I.; Fisch, N. J.

    2014-08-01

    The efficiency of the internal combustion engine might be enhanced by employing spinning gas. A gas spinning at near sonic velocities has an effectively higher heat capacity, which allows practical fuel cycles, which are far from the Carnot efficiency, to approach more closely the Carnot efficiency. A remarkable gain in fuel efficiency is shown to be theoretically possible for the Otto and Diesel cycles. The use of a flywheel, in principle, could produce even greater increases in efficiency.

  5. Polymer Combustion as a Basis for Hybrid Propulsion: A Comprehensive Review and New Numerical Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasily Novozhilov

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid Propulsion is an attractive alternative to conventional liquid and solid rocket motors. This is an active area of research and technological developments. Potential wide application of Hybrid Engines opens the possibility for safer and more flexible space vehicle launching and manoeuvring. The present paper discusses fundamental combustion issues related to further development of Hybrid Rockets. The emphasis is made on the two aspects: (1 properties of potential polymeric fuels, and their modification, and (2 implementation of comprehensive CFD models for combustion in Hybrid Engines. Fundamentals of polymeric fuel combustion are discussed. Further, steps necessary to accurately describe their burning behaviour by means of CFD models are investigated. Final part of the paper presents results of preliminary CFD simulations of fuel burning process in Hybrid Engine using a simplified set-up.

  6. The Combination of Internal-Combustion Engine and Gas Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinner, K.

    1947-01-01

    While the gas turbine by itself has been applied in particular cases for power generation and is in a state of promising development in this field, it has already met with considerable success in two cases when used as an exhaust turbine in connection with a centrifugal compressor, namely, in the supercharging of combustion engines and in the Velox process, which is of particular application for furnaces. In the present paper the most important possibilities of combining a combustion engine with a gas turbine are considered. These "combination engines " are compared with the simple gas turbine on whose state of development a brief review will first be given. The critical evaluation of the possibilities of development and fields of application of the various combustion engine systems, wherever it is not clearly expressed in the publications referred to, represents the opinion of the author. The state of development of the internal-combustion engine is in its main features generally known. It is used predominantly at the present time for the propulsion of aircraft and road vehicles and, except for certain restrictions due to war conditions, has been used to an increasing extent in ships and rail cars and in some fields applied as stationary power generators. In the Diesel engine a most economical heat engine with a useful efficiency of about 40 percent exists and in the Otto aircraft engine a heat engine of greatest power per unit weight of about 0.5 kilogram per horsepower.

  7. Pneumatic-Combustion Hybrid Engine: A Study of the Effect of the Valvetrain Sophistication on Pneumatic Modes Moteur hybride pneumatique: une étude de l’effet de la complexité de la distribution sur les modes pneumatiques

    OpenAIRE

    Brejaud P.; Charlet A.; Chamaillard Y.; Ivanco A.; Higelin P.

    2009-01-01

    Although internal combustion engines display high overall maximum global efficiencies, this potential cannot be fully exploited in automotive applications: in real conditions, the average engine load (and thus efficiency) is quite low and the kinetic energy during a braking phase is lost. This work presents a hybrid pneumatic-combustion engine and the associated thermodynamic cycles, which is able to store and recover energy in the form of compressed air. The study focuses on the two maj...

  8. Combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor systems, and chemical reactant sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peter C

    2013-11-26

    Combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor systems, chemical reactant sources, and related methods are disclosed. In one embodiment, a combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor system comprising a reaction chamber, a combustion torch positioned to direct a flame into the reaction chamber, and one or more reactant feed assemblies configured to electrically energize at least one electrically conductive solid reactant structure to form a plasma and feed each electrically conductive solid reactant structure into the plasma to form at least one product is disclosed. In an additional embodiment, a chemical reactant source for a combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor comprising an elongated electrically conductive reactant structure consisting essentially of at least one chemical reactant is disclosed. In further embodiments, methods of forming a chemical reactant source and methods of chemically converting at least one reactant into at least one product are disclosed.

  9. 75 FR 37732 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule... internal combustion engines. The amendments inadvertently removed paragraphs from the regulation. EPA is... combustion engines. 40 CFR 63.6590 was amended by revising paragraphs (b)(1) and (3). Inadvertently...

  10. Virtual Instrument for Emissions Measurement of Internal Combustion Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Pérez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The gases emissions measurement systems in internal combustion engines are strict and expensive nowadays. For this reason, a virtual instrument was developed to measure the combustion emissions from an internal combustion diesel engine, running with diesel-biodiesel mixtures. This software is called virtual instrument for emissions measurement (VIEM, and it was developed in the platform of LabVIEW 2010® virtual programming. VIEM works with sensors connected to a signal conditioning system, and a data acquisition system is used as interface for a computer in order to measure and monitor in real time the emissions of O2, NO, CO, SO2, and CO2 gases. This paper shows the results of the VIEM programming, the integrated circuits diagrams used for the signal conditioning of sensors, and the sensors characterization of O2, NO, CO, SO2, and CO2. VIEM is a low-cost instrument and is simple and easy to use. Besides, it is scalable, making it flexible and defined by the user.

  11. Virtual Instrument for Emissions Measurement of Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Armando; Montero, Gisela; Coronado, Marcos; García, Conrado; Pérez, Rubén

    2016-01-01

    The gases emissions measurement systems in internal combustion engines are strict and expensive nowadays. For this reason, a virtual instrument was developed to measure the combustion emissions from an internal combustion diesel engine, running with diesel-biodiesel mixtures. This software is called virtual instrument for emissions measurement (VIEM), and it was developed in the platform of LabVIEW 2010® virtual programming. VIEM works with sensors connected to a signal conditioning system, and a data acquisition system is used as interface for a computer in order to measure and monitor in real time the emissions of O2, NO, CO, SO2, and CO2 gases. This paper shows the results of the VIEM programming, the integrated circuits diagrams used for the signal conditioning of sensors, and the sensors characterization of O2, NO, CO, SO2, and CO2. VIEM is a low-cost instrument and is simple and easy to use. Besides, it is scalable, making it flexible and defined by the user. PMID:27034893

  12. Liquid butane fuel injection for internal combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufman, R.L.; Brunges, V.E.; Bisel, H.I.

    1991-07-30

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine powered by a fuel of liquefied petroleum gas. It comprises at least one cylinder head which includes an intake port region communicating with a combustion chamber through an intake valve; a fuel injection rail including at least one fuel injector, all injectors operably connected to all intake port regions with one intake region connected to one injector whereby fuel may be injected into the intake regions; a conduit connecting the container to the injection rail; means for pumping the fuel from the injection rail and maintaining the fuel at a temperature below a temperature value and pressure above a pressure value required to sustain the fuel in a liquid state whereby the fuel in the liquid state is transferred from the storage container to the rail.

  13. Air supply system for an internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eftink, A.

    1992-06-11

    The present invention describes a system for supplying the primary combustion air to a reciprocating piston internal combustion engine including a trochoidal chamber air pump having a pair of pumping chambers interposed between an air intake and each of the cylinders of the engine. Each pumping chamber has an air inlet connected to an air intake, and an air outlet that is connected to the cylinders. In a two-cycle mode of operation, each pumping chamber outlet is connected to one engine cylinder. In a four-cycle mode of operation, each pumping chamber outlet is connected to a pair of cylinders to supply air during the intake stroke. The input shaft of the trochoidal chamber air pump is driven by, and may be connected to, the crankshaft of the engine so as to rate on a 1:1 ratio. (author)

  14. Internal Combustion Engine Powered by Synthesis Gas from Pyrolysed Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chríbik Andrej

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the application of synthesis gas from pyrolysis of plastics in petrol engine. The appropriate experimental measurements were performed on a combustion engine LGW 702 designated for micro-cogeneration unit. The power parameters, economic parameters in term of brake specific fuel consumption, and internal parameters of the engine were compared to the engine running on the reference fuel - natural gas and synthesis gas. Burning synthesis gas leads to decreased performance by about 5% and to increased mass hourly consumption by 120 %. In terms of burning, synthesis gas has similar properties as natural gas. Compared with [5] a more detailed study has been prepared on the effects of angle of spark advance on the engine torque, giving more detailed assessment of engine cycle variability and considering specification of start and end of combustion in the logarithm p-V diagram.

  15. Nitrogen enriched combustion of a natural gas internal combustion engine to reduce NO.sub.x emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biruduganti, Munidhar S.; Gupta, Sreenath Borra; Sekar, R. Raj; McConnell, Steven S.

    2008-11-25

    A method and system for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from an internal combustion engine. An input gas stream of natural gas includes a nitrogen gas enrichment which reduces nitrous oxide emissions. In addition ignition timing for gas combustion is advanced to improve FCE while maintaining lower nitrous oxide emissions.

  16. Influence of intake air temperature on internal combustion engine operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birtok-Băneasă, C.; Raţiu, S.; Hepuţ, T.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents three methods for reduce thermal losses in the intake system with improvement of airflow and thermal protection. In the experiment are involved two patented devices conceived by the author and one PhD theme device: 1- Dynamic device for air transfer, 2-Integrated thermal deflector, and, 3-Advanced thermal protection. The tests were carried on different vehicle running in real traffic and in the Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory, within the specialization “Road vehicle” belonging to the Faculty of Engineering Hunedoara, component of Politehnica University of Timişoara. The results have been processed and compared whit the ones obtained without these devices.

  17. Study Regarding the Identification of an Internal Combustion Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Ruja

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the scientific investigations performed on an Otto engine. One conducted surveys on the analytic and experimental modelling of the internal combustion engine, considered as automated system element. The results of the analytical study are concretised in the mathematical model of the engine, expressed in the operational. The experimental results are concretised in the indicial response in rotating speed, as well as in the determination of the constants of interest. The investigation methods used in conducting the survey were: experimental identification based on the indicial response of the engine and the analytical identification based on the mathematical models of diverse engine subsystems.

  18. Internal combustion engine for natural gas compressor operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, Christopher L.; Babbitt, Guy; Turner, Christopher; Echter, Nick; Weyer-Geigel, Kristina

    2016-04-19

    This application concerns systems and methods for compressing natural gas with an internal combustion engine. In a representative embodiment, a system for compressing a gas comprises a reciprocating internal combustion engine including at least one piston-cylinder assembly comprising a piston configured to travel in a cylinder and to compress gas in the cylinder in multiple compression stages. The system can further comprise a first pressure tank in fluid communication with the piston-cylinder assembly to receive compressed gas from the piston-cylinder assembly until the first pressure tank reaches a predetermined pressure, and a second pressure tank in fluid communication with the piston-cylinder assembly and the first pressure tank. The second pressure tank can be configured to receive compressed gas from the piston-cylinder assembly until the second pressure tank reaches a predetermined pressure. When the first and second pressure tanks have reached the predetermined pressures, the first pressure tank can be configured to supply gas to the piston-cylinder assembly, and the piston can be configured to compress the gas supplied by the first pressure tank such that the compressed gas flows into the second pressure tank.

  19. Internal combustion engine for natural gas compressor operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Christopher L.; Babbitt, Guy; Turner, Christopher; Echter, Nick; Weyer-Geigel, Kristina

    2016-04-19

    This application concerns systems and methods for compressing natural gas with an internal combustion engine. In a representative embodiment, a system for compressing a gas comprises a reciprocating internal combustion engine including at least one piston-cylinder assembly comprising a piston configured to travel in a cylinder and to compress gas in the cylinder in multiple compression stages. The system can further comprise a first pressure tank in fluid communication with the piston-cylinder assembly to receive compressed gas from the piston-cylinder assembly until the first pressure tank reaches a predetermined pressure, and a second pressure tank in fluid communication with the piston-cylinder assembly and the first pressure tank. The second pressure tank can be configured to receive compressed gas from the piston-cylinder assembly until the second pressure tank reaches a predetermined pressure. When the first and second pressure tanks have reached the predetermined pressures, the first pressure tank can be configured to supply gas to the piston-cylinder assembly, and the piston can be configured to compress the gas supplied by the first pressure tank such that the compressed gas flows into the second pressure tank.

  20. Development and Validation of a Reduced DME Mechanism Applicable to Various Combustion Modes in Internal Combustion Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory T. Chin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 28-species reduced chemistry mechanism for Dimethyl Ether (DME combustion is developed on the basis of a recent detailed mechanism by Zhao et al. (2008. The construction of reduced chemistry was carried out with automatic algorithms incorporating newly developed strategies. The performance of the reduced mechanism is assessed over a wide range of combustion conditions anticipated to occur in future advanced piston internal combustion engines, such as HCCI, SAHCCI, and PCCI. Overall, the reduced chemistry gives results in good agreement with those from the detailed mechanism for all the combustion modes tested. While the detailed mechanism by Zhao et al. (2008 shows reasonable agreement with the shock tube autoignition delay data, the detailed mechanism requires further improvement in order to better predict HCCI combustion under engine conditions.

  1. Research Needs and Impacts in Predictive Simulation for Internal Combustion Engines (PreSICE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckerle, Wayne [Cummins, Inc., Columbus, IN (United States); Rutland, Chris [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Rohlfing, Eric [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science; Singh, Gurpreet [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; McIlroy, Andrew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-03-03

    This report is based on a SC/EERE Workshop to Identify Research Needs and Impacts in Predictive Simulation for Internal Combustion Engines (PreSICE), held March 3, 2011, to determine strategic focus areas that will accelerate innovation in engine design to meet national goals in transportation efficiency. The U.S. has reached a pivotal moment when pressures of energy security, climate change, and economic competitiveness converge. Oil prices remain volatile and have exceeded $100 per barrel twice in five years. At these prices, the U.S. spends $1 billion per day on imported oil to meet our energy demands. Because the transportation sector accounts for two-thirds of our petroleum use, energy security is deeply entangled with our transportation needs. At the same time, transportation produces one-quarter of the nation’s carbon dioxide output. Increasing the efficiency of internal combustion engines is a technologically proven and cost-effective approach to dramatically improving the fuel economy of the nation’s fleet of vehicles in the near- to mid-term, with the corresponding benefits of reducing our dependence on foreign oil and reducing carbon emissions. Because of their relatively low cost, high performance, and ability to utilize renewable fuels, internal combustion engines—including those in hybrid vehicles—will continue to be critical to our transportation infrastructure for decades. Achievable advances in engine technology can improve the fuel economy of automobiles by over 50% and trucks by over 30%. Achieving these goals will require the transportation sector to compress its product development cycle for cleaner, more efficient engine technologies by 50% while simultaneously exploring innovative design space. Concurrently, fuels will also be evolving, adding another layer of complexity and further highlighting the need for efficient product development cycles. Current design processes, using “build and test” prototype engineering, will not

  2. Research Needs and Impacts in Predictive Simulation for Internal Combustion Engines (PreSICE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckerle, Wayne [Cummins, Inc., Columbus, IN (United States); Rutland, Chris [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Rohlfing, Eric [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science; Singh, Gurpreet [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; McIlroy, Andrew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-03-03

    This report is based on a SC/EERE Workshop to Identify Research Needs and Impacts in Predictive Simulation for Internal Combustion Engines (PreSICE), held March 3, 2011, to determine strategic focus areas that will accelerate innovation in engine design to meet national goals in transportation efficiency. The U.S. has reached a pivotal moment when pressures of energy security, climate change, and economic competitiveness converge. Oil prices remain volatile and have exceeded $100 per barrel twice in five years. At these prices, the U.S. spends $1 billion per day on imported oil to meet our energy demands. Because the transportation sector accounts for two-thirds of our petroleum use, energy security is deeply entangled with our transportation needs. At the same time, transportation produces one-quarter of the nation’s carbon dioxide output. Increasing the efficiency of internal combustion engines is a technologically proven and cost-effective approach to dramatically improving the fuel economy of the nation’s fleet of vehicles in the near- to mid-term, with the corresponding benefits of reducing our dependence on foreign oil and reducing carbon emissions. Because of their relatively low cost, high performance, and ability to utilize renewable fuels, internal combustion engines—including those in hybrid vehicles—will continue to be critical to our transportation infrastructure for decades. Achievable advances in engine technology can improve the fuel economy of automobiles by over 50% and trucks by over 30%. Achieving these goals will require the transportation sector to compress its product development cycle for cleaner, more efficient engine technologies by 50% while simultaneously exploring innovative design space. Concurrently, fuels will also be evolving, adding another layer of complexity and further highlighting the need for efficient product development cycles. Current design processes, using “build and test” prototype engineering, will not

  3. A comprehensive study on waste heat recovery from internal combustion engines using organic Rankine cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahani Mojtaba

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are a substantial amount of waste heat through exhaust gas and coolant of an Internal Combustion Engine. Organic Rankine cycle is one of the opportunities in Internal Combustion Engines waste heat recovery. In this study, two different configurations of Organic Rankine cycle with the capability of simultaneous waste heat recovery from exhaust gas and coolant of a 12L diesel engine were introduced: Preheat configuration and Two-stage. First, a parametric optimization process was performed for both configurations considering R-134a, R-123, and R-245fa as the cycle working fluids. The main objective in optimization process was maximization of the power generation and cycle thermal efficiency. Expander inlet pressure and preheating temperature were selected as design parameters. Finally, parameters like hybrid generated power and reduction of fuel consumption were studied for both configurations in different engine speeds and full engine load. It was observed that using R-123 as the working fluid, the best performance in both configurations was obtained and as a result the 11.73% and 13.56% reduction in fuel consumption for both preheat and Two-stage configurations were found respectively.

  4. Mixer for internal combustion engines. Gemischbildner fuer Brennkraftmaschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haertel, G.; Schiele, W.; Schuerfeld, A.; Bianchi, V.; Abidin, A.

    1981-06-11

    The invention concerns a mixer for internal combustion engines with a pipe wall limiting the main flow path and heated for part of its length and with a throttle upstream and a fuel allocation device in the upstream part of a mixing chamber inside the pipe wall. The invention is characterised by the fact that the pipe wall surrounding the mixing chamber is made as a heating wall from the fuel allocation device to the throttle and the fuel allocation device guides the fuel to the heating wall. The heating wall is made as a double wall of a heat exchanger to guide the liquid or gaseous heating medium, such as engine cooling water or engine exhaust gas. The heating wall consists of an electrical resistance heating material on the inside. Other measures of the invention are described by system drawings and 33 patent claims.

  5. Dynamic estimator for determining operating conditions in an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellstrom, Erik; Stefanopoulou, Anna; Jiang, Li; Larimore, Jacob

    2016-01-05

    Methods and systems are provided for estimating engine performance information for a combustion cycle of an internal combustion engine. Estimated performance information for a previous combustion cycle is retrieved from memory. The estimated performance information includes an estimated value of at least one engine performance variable. Actuator settings applied to engine actuators are also received. The performance information for the current combustion cycle is then estimated based, at least in part, on the estimated performance information for the previous combustion cycle and the actuator settings applied during the previous combustion cycle. The estimated performance information for the current combustion cycle is then stored to the memory to be used in estimating performance information for a subsequent combustion cycle.

  6. Traveling-Wave Thermoacoustic Engines With Internal Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Nathan Thomas; Zinn, Ben T.; Swift, Gregory William

    2004-05-11

    Thermoacoustic devices are disclosed wherein, for some embodiments, a combustion zone provides heat to a regenerator using a mean flow of compressible fluid. In other embodiments, burning of a combustible mixture within the combustion zone is pulsed in phase with the acoustic pressure oscillations to increase acoustic power output. In an example embodiment, the combustion zone and the regenerator are thermally insulated from other components within the thermoacoustic device.

  7. 78 FR 14457 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 60 and 63 RIN 2060-AQ58 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion...

  8. 46 CFR 62.35-35 - Starting systems for internal-combustion engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Starting systems for internal-combustion engines. 62.35-35 Section 62.35-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE... Starting systems for internal-combustion engines. The starting systems for propulsion engines and for prime...

  9. Effect of Gas Mixture Composition on the Parameters of an Internal Combustion Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Chríbik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the use of the internal combustion piston engine, which is a drive unit for micro-cogeneration units. The introduction is a brief statement of the nature of gas mixture compositions that are useful for the purposes of combustion engines, together with the basic physical and chemical properties relevant to the burning of this gas mixture. Specifically, we will discuss low-energy gases (syngases and mixtures of natural gas with hydrogen. The second section describes the conversion of the Lombardini LGW 702 combustion engine that is necessary for these types of combustion gases. Before the experimental measurements, a simulation in the Lotus Engine simulation program was carried out to make a preliminary assessment of the impact on the performance of an internal combustion engine. The last section of the paper presents the experimental results of partial measurements of the performance and emission parameters of an internal combustion engine powered by alternative fuels.

  10. Development of High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, Craig; Gonzalez, Manual; Russell, Durrett

    2011-06-30

    This report summarizes activities related to the revised STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated June 2010 for the Development of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines (COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-05NT42415) project. In both the spark- (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) development activities covered in this program, the goal was to develop potential production-viable internal combustion engine system technologies that both reduce fuel consumption and simultaneously met exhaust emission targets. To be production-viable, engine technologies were also evaluated to determine if they would meet customer expectations of refinement in terms of noise, vibration, performance, driveability, etc. in addition to having an attractive business case and value. Prior to this activity, only proprietary theoretical / laboratory knowledge existed on the combustion technologies explored The research reported here expands and develops this knowledge to determine series-production viability. Significant SI and CI engine development occurred during this program within General Motors, LLC over more than five years. In the SI program, several engines were designed and developed that used both a relatively simple multi-lift valve train system and a Fully Flexible Valve Actuation (FFVA) system to enable a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion process. Many technical challenges, which were unknown at the start of this program, were identified and systematically resolved through analysis, test and development. This report documents the challenges and solutions for each SOPO deliverable. As a result of the project activities, the production viability of the developed clean combustion technologies has been determined. At this time, HCCI combustion for SI engines is not considered production-viable for several reasons. HCCI combustion is excessively sensitive to control variables

  11. Towards a detailed soot model for internal combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosbach, Sebastian; Celnik, Matthew S.; Raj, Abhijeet; Kraft, Markus [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom); Zhang, Hongzhi R. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Utah, 1495 East 100 South, Kennecott Research Building, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Kubo, Shuichi [Frontier Research Center, Toyota Central R and D Labs., Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Kim, Kyoung-Oh [Higashifuji Technical Center, Toyota Motor Corporation, Mishuku 1200, Susono, Shizuoka 480-1193 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    In this work, we present a detailed model for the formation of soot in internal combustion engines describing not only bulk quantities such as soot mass, number density, volume fraction, and surface area but also the morphology and chemical composition of soot aggregates. The new model is based on the Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) engine code, which uses detailed chemistry and takes into account convective heat transfer and turbulent mixing, and the soot formation is accounted for by SWEEP, a population balance solver based on a Monte Carlo method. In order to couple the gas-phase to the particulate phase, a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism describing the combustion of Primary Reference Fuels (PRFs) is extended to include small Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as pyrene, which function as soot precursor species for particle inception in the soot model. Apart from providing averaged quantities as functions of crank angle like soot mass, volume fraction, aggregate diameter, and the number of primary particles per aggregate for example, the integrated model also gives detailed information such as aggregate and primary particle size distribution functions. In addition, specifics about aggregate structure and composition, including C/H ratio and PAH ring count distributions, and images similar to those produced with Transmission Electron Microscopes (TEMs), can be obtained. The new model is applied to simulate an n-heptane fuelled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine which is operated at an equivalence ratio of 1.93. In-cylinder pressure and heat release predictions show satisfactory agreement with measurements. Furthermore, simulated aggregate size distributions as well as their time evolution are found to qualitatively agree with those obtained experimentally through snatch sampling. It is also observed both in the experiment as well as in the simulation that aggregates in the trapped residual gases play a vital role in the soot

  12. Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Glassman, Irvin

    1987-01-01

    Combustion, Second Edition focuses on the underlying principles of combustion and covers topics ranging from chemical thermodynamics and flame temperatures to chemical kinetics, detonation, ignition, and oxidation characteristics of fuels. Diffusion flames, flame phenomena in premixed combustible gases, and combustion of nonvolatile fuels are also discussed. This book consists of nine chapters and begins by introducing the reader to heats of reaction and formation, free energy and the equilibrium constants, and flame temperature calculations. The next chapter explores the rates of reactio

  13. Real time identification of the internal combustion engine combustion parameters based on the vibration velocity signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiuliang; Cheng, Yong; Wang, Limei; Ji, Shaobo

    2017-03-01

    Accurate combustion parameters are the foundations of effective closed-loop control of engine combustion process. Some combustion parameters, including the start of combustion, the location of peak pressure, the maximum pressure rise rate and its location, can be identified from the engine block vibration signals. These signals often include non-combustion related contributions, which limit the prompt acquisition of the combustion parameters computationally. The main component in these non-combustion related contributions is considered to be caused by the reciprocating inertia force excitation (RIFE) of engine crank train. A mathematical model is established to describe the response of the RIFE. The parameters of the model are recognized with a pattern recognition algorithm, and the response of the RIFE is predicted and then the related contributions are removed from the measured vibration velocity signals. The combustion parameters are extracted from the feature points of the renovated vibration velocity signals. There are angle deviations between the feature points in the vibration velocity signals and those in the cylinder pressure signals. For the start of combustion, a system bias is adopted to correct the deviation and the error bound of the predicted parameters is within 1.1°. To predict the location of the maximum pressure rise rate and the location of the peak pressure, algorithms based on the proportion of high frequency components in the vibration velocity signals are introduced. Tests results show that the two parameters are able to be predicted within 0.7° and 0.8° error bound respectively. The increase from the knee point preceding the peak value point to the peak value in the vibration velocity signals is used to predict the value of the maximum pressure rise rate. Finally, a monitoring frame work is inferred to realize the combustion parameters prediction. Satisfactory prediction for combustion parameters in successive cycles is achieved, which

  14. 40 CFR 60.4238 - What are my compliance requirements if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines â¤19 KW (25 HP) or a manufacturer... Standards of Performance for Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Compliance Requirements... SI internal combustion engines ≤19 KW (25 HP) or a manufacturer of equipment containing such engines...

  15. Recurrence plot for parameters analysing of internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexa, O.; Ilie, C. O.; Marinescu, M.; Vilau, R.; Grosu, D.

    2015-11-01

    In many technical disciplines modem data analysis techniques has been successfully applied to understand the complexity of the system. The growing volume of theoretical knowledge about systems dynamic's offered researchers the opportunity to look for non-linear dynamics in data whose evolution linear models are unable to explain in a satisfactory manner. One approach in this respect is Recurrence Analysis - RA which is a graphical method designed to locate hidden recurring patterns, nonstationarity and structural changes. RA approach arose in natural sciences like physics and biology but quickly was adopted in economics and engineering. Meanwhile. The fast development of computer resources has provided powerful tools to perform this new and complex model. One free software which was used to perform our analysis is Visual Recurrence Analysis - VRA developed by Eugene Kononov. As is presented in this paper, the recurrence plot investigation for the analyzing of the internal combustion engine shows some of the RPA capabilities in this domain. We chose two specific engine parameters measured in two different tests to perform the RPA. These parameters are injection impulse width and engine angular speed and the tests are I11n and I51n. There were computed graphs for each of them. Graphs were analyzed and compared to obtain a conclusion. This work is an incipient research, being one of the first attempts of using recurrence plot for analyzing automotive dynamics. It opens a wide field of action for future research programs.

  16. Soot filter for the exhaust gas of internal combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abthoff, J.; Schuster, H.D.; Langer, H.J.

    1980-06-19

    In the previously known soot filters, the exhaust gas flows through the cylindrical filter radially from the outside to the inside. The exhaust gas touches a relatively large area of the filter housing and therefore loses a large part of the thermal energy required for post-combustion. According to the invention, these disadvantages are avoided in the new filter, where the filter material forms hollow spaces at the internal wall of the filter, which take the exhaust gas after it has flowed through the filter and carry it in an axial direction of the filter housing to the exhaust. Due to this design of the filter and the saving in heat, the areas on which the exhaust gas impinges can be kept appreciably smaller and better use can be made of the heat in the exhaust gas. The ceramic filter material can consist of an outer layer of loose ceramic fibres and an inner woven ceramic fibre mat. In order to increase the effectiveness of the filter, the soot filter can be used as a fine filter after a coarse filter.

  17. Concept for lowest emissions of a hydrogen internal combustion engine; Niedrigstemissionskonzept fuer einen wasserstoffbetriebenen Verbrennungsmotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouquet, Marcel Christian Thomas

    2012-03-15

    This paper describes a concept with lowest emissions for a hydrogen internal combustion engine for passenger cars. With optimisation of the combustion concept the level of nitrogen oxide is below 90%, hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide below 99% of the SULEV target (CARB). This concept enables a potential in power density that is comparable to current supercharged combustion engines at lowest emission level without catalytic aftertreatment. Additionally with a catalytic aftertreatment system, the emission level of a current hydrogen combustion engine (mono-fuel) is lowered to a level, that this car can be labeled as air cleaning vehicle for hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide.

  18. OPTIMUM PLANNING OF EXPERIMENTS AT MODELING FUEL CONSUMPTION IN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Koshevoy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of optimum experiments planning by cost expenses at studying the processes of fuel consumption internal combustion engines is shown. The mathematical models of these processes in different state of engine working are synthesized.

  19. PARAMETER MATCHING OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND ELECTROMECHANICAL POWER TRAIN OF WHEEL TRACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kliuchnikov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers stepless electromechanical power train of a wheel tractor. Methodology for parameter matching of electromechanical transmission and internal combustion engine for their optimum performance as part of a power wheel tractor unit. 

  20. A stochastic model for the indicated pressure process and the dynamics of the internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzoni, G. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (USA). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science)

    1989-08-01

    In-cylinder gas pressure has long been recognized as a fundamental measure of performance in the internal combustion engine. Among the issues that have been the subject of research in recent years is the study of the effects cyclic combustion variability has on the cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder fluctuations in combustion pressures. Some of the research problems pertaining to cyclic combustion variability are to reformulate from a perspective markedly different from the fluid dynamic and thermodynamic models which traditionally characterize this research: a system viewpoint is embraced to construct a stochastic model for the indicated pressure process and the dynamics of the internal combustion engine. First a deterministic model for the dynamics of the engine is described; then a stochastic model is proposed for the cylinder pressure process. The deterministic model and the stochastic representation are then tied together in a Kalman filter model. Experimental results are discussed to validate the models.

  1. Compounded turbocharged rotary internal combustion engine fueled with natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, P.E.

    1992-10-15

    This patent describes a compounded engine. It comprises: a first Wankel engine having a housing with a trochoidal inner surface containing a generally triangular shaped rotor, the engine containing a fuel supply system suitable for operating the engine with natural gas as a fuel; a turbocharge compressing air for combustion by the engine, the turbocharger being driven by the exhaust gases which exit from the engine; a combustion chamber in fluid communication with the exhaust from the engine after that exhaust has passed through the turbocharger, the chamber having an ignition device suitable for igniting hydrocarbons in the engine exhaust, whereby the engine timing, and the air and fuel mixture of the engine are controlled so that when the engine exhaust reaches the combustion chamber the exhaust contains a sufficient amount of oxygen and hydrocarbons to enable ignition and combustion of the engine exhaust in the combustion chamber without the addition of fuel or air, and whereby the engine operating conditions are controlled to vary the performance of the secondary combustor; and a controllable ignition device to ignite the exhaust gases in the combustion chamber at predetermined times.

  2. Use of the graphical analytic methods of studying the combustion processes in the internal combustion engine combustion chamber on the basis of similarity criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Krasheninnikov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The task of improving the economic and ecological parameters of the internal combustion engines remains topical within the frameworks of the modern engine-building technology. Since a combustion engine is a complex system combining such units as an intake manifold, combustion chamber, exhaust manifold, one of directions of the engine development is adjustment of the joint operation of its units. The specified adjustment should better be performed with the use of the so-called integral characteristics. The author means under an integral characteristic the rating plate of a unit (engine containing information about all the possible modes and conditions of its use, specifies the optimal operating range and indicates all the basic values of efficiency – reliability – environmental friendliness at each point of its field. As a rule, integral characteristics are multi-parametric. It is common practice to coordinate the field of such characteristic by similarity criteria determining the unit or engine behavior in whole.

  3. Constant speed control of four-stroke micro internal combustion swing engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dedong; Lei, Yong; Zhu, Honghai; Ni, Jun

    2015-09-01

    The increasing demands on safety, emission and fuel consumption require more accurate control models of micro internal combustion swing engine (MICSE). The objective of this paper is to investigate the constant speed control models of four-stroke MICSE. The operation principle of the four-stroke MICSE is presented based on the description of MICSE prototype. A two-level Petri net based hybrid model is proposed to model the four-stroke MICSE engine cycle. The Petri net subsystem at the upper level controls and synchronizes the four Petri net subsystems at the lower level. The continuous sub-models, including breathing dynamics of intake manifold, thermodynamics of the chamber and dynamics of the torque generation, are investigated and integrated with the discrete model in MATLAB Simulink. Through the comparison of experimental data and simulated DC voltage output, it is demonstrated that the hybrid model is valid for the four-stroke MICSE system. A nonlinear model is obtained from the cycle average data via the regression method, and it is linearized around a given nominal equilibrium point for the controller design. The feedback controller of the spark timing and valve duration timing is designed with a sequential loop closing design approach. The simulation of the sequential loop closure control design applied to the hybrid model is implemented in MATLAB. The simulation results show that the system is able to reach its desired operating point within 0.2 s, and the designed controller shows good MICSE engine performance with a constant speed. This paper presents the constant speed control models of four-stroke MICSE and carries out the simulation tests, the models and the simulation results can be used for further study on the precision control of four-stroke MICSE.

  4. Enhancement of hybrid rocket combustion performance using nano-sized energetic particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risha, Grant Alexander

    Until now, the regression rate of classical hybrid rocket engines have typically been an order of magnitude lower than solid propellant motors; thus, hybrids require a relatively large fuel surface area for a given thrust level. In addition to low linear regression rates, relatively low combustion efficiency (87 to 92%), low mass burning rates, varying oxidizer-to-fuel ratio during operation, and lack of scaling laws have been reported. These disadvantages can be ameliorated by introducing nano-sized energetic powder additives into the solid fuel. The addition of nano-sized energetic particles into the solid fuel enhances performance as measured by parameters such as: density specific impulse, mass and linear burning rates, and thrust. Thermophysical properties of the solid fuel such as density, heat of combustion, thermal diffusivity, and thermal conductivity are also enhanced. The types of nano-sized energetic particles used in this study include aluminum, boron, boron carbide, and some Viton-A coated particles. Since the combustion process of solid fuels in a hybrid rocket engine is governed by the mass flux of the oxidizer entering the combustion chamber, the rate-limiting process is the mixing and reacting of the pyrolysis products of the fuel grain with the incoming oxidizer. The overall goal of this research was to determine the relative propulsive and combustion behavior for a family of newly-developed HTPB-based solid-fuel formulations containing various nano-sized energetic particles. Seventeen formulations contained 13% additive by weight, one formulation (SF4) contained 6.5% additive by weight, and one formulation (SF19) contained 5.65% boron by weight. The two hybrid rocket engines which were used in this investigation were the Long Grain Center-Perforated (LGCP) rocket engine and the X-Ray Transparent Casing (XTC) rocket engine. The smaller scale LGCP rocket engine was used to evaluate all of the formulations because conducting experiments using the

  5. Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion, Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Fundamental Aspects of Combustion, Oxford University Press, New York, 1993, p. 81. 12. Ross, H. D., Miller, F. J., Schiller, D. N., and Sirig- nano , W...Mech. 48:547-591 (1971). 2. Lazaro , B. J. and Lasheras, J. C, Phys. Fluids 1:1035 (1989). 3. Kiger, K. T. and Lasheras, J. C, Twenty-Fifth Sympo

  6. EDWARDS' REFERENCE CYCLE FOR INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Piir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Useful physical regularities of a reversible thermodynamic cycle for heat engines have been established in the paper. The engines are using fuel combustion products as a heat source, and the environment - as a heat sink that surpasses Carnot cycle according to efficiency factor.

  7. TRENDS OF INDEXES IMPROVEMENT OF MODERN INTERNAL COMBUSTION EGNINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motlokhov, A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The author of this scientific paper has suggested an effective method of indexes improvement of engines with spark ignition by means of complete fuel combustion that allows to in-crease economy, remove detonation, and use a high rate of compression and cheap low octane gaso-line as well as BFC fuel.

  8. The dynamic interaction between combustible renewables and waste consumption and international tourism: the case of Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Jebli, Mehdi; Ben Youssef, Slim; Apergis, Nicholas

    2015-08-01

    This paper employs the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds methodological approach to investigate the relationship between economic growth, combustible renewables and waste consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and international tourism for the case of Tunisia spanning the period 1990-2010. The results from the Fisher statistic of both the Wald test and the Johansen test confirm the presence of a long-run relationship among the variables under investigation. The stability of estimated parameters has been tested, while Granger causality tests recommend a short-run unidirectional causality running from economic growth and combustible renewables and waste consumption to CO2 emissions, a bidirectional causality between economic growth and combustible renewables and waste consumption and unidirectional causality running from economic growth and combustible renewables and waste consumption to international tourism. In the long-run, the error correction terms confirm the presence of bidirectional causality relationships between economic growth, CO2 emissions, combustible renewables and waste consumption, and international tourism. Our long-run estimates show that combustible renewables and waste consumption increases international tourism, and both renewables and waste consumption and international tourism increase CO2 emissions and output. We recommend that (i) Tunisia should use more combustible renewables and waste energy as this eliminates wastes from touristic zones and increases the number of tourist arrivals, leading to economic growth, and (ii) a fraction of this economic growth generated by the increase in combustible renewables and waste consumption should be invested in clean renewable energy production (i.e., solar, wind, geothermal) and energy efficiency projects.

  9. Hybrid intelligent control of combustion process for ore-roasting furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aijun YAN; Tianyou CHAI; Fenghua WU; Pu WANG

    2008-01-01

    Because of its synthetic and complex characteristics, the combustion process of the shaft ore-roasting furnace is very difficult to control stably. A hybrid intelligent control approach is developed which consists of two systems: one is a cascade fuzzy control system with a temperature soft-sensor, and the other is a ratio control system for air flow with a compensation model for heating gas flow and air-fuel ratio. This approach combined intelligent control, soft-sensing and fault diagnosis with conventional control. It can adjust both the heating gas flow and the air-fuel ratio in real time. By this way, the difficulty of online measurement of the furnace temperature is solved, the fault ratios during combustion process is decreased, the steady control of the furnace temperature is achieved, and the gas consumption is reduced. The successful application in shaft furnaces of a mineral processing plant in China indicates its effectiveness.

  10. Fundamental phenomena on fuel decomposition and boundary layer combustion processes with applications to hybrid rocket motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Kenneth K.; Lu, Y. C.; Chiaverini, Martin J.; Harting, George C.

    1994-11-01

    An experimental study on the fundamental processes involved in fuel decomposition and boundary layer combustion in hybrid rocket motors is being conducted at the High Pressure Combustion Laboratory of the Pennsylvania State University. This research should provide a useful engineering technology base in the development of hybrid rocket motors as well as a fundamental understanding of the complex processes involved in hybrid propulsion. A high pressure slab motor has been designed and manufactured for conducting experimental investigations. Oxidizer (LOX or GOX) supply and control systems have been designed and partly constructed for the head-end injection into the test chamber. Experiments using HTPB fuel, as well as fuels supplied by NASA designated industrial companies will be conducted. Design and construction of fuel casting molds and sample holders have been completed. The portion of these items for industrial company fuel casting will be sent to the McDonnell Douglas Aerospace Corporation in the near future. The study focuses on the following areas: observation of solid fuel burning processes with LOX or GOX, measurement and correlation of solid fuel regression rate with operating conditions, measurement of flame temperature and radical species concentrations, determination of the solid fuel subsurface temperature profile, and utilization of experimental data for validation of a companion theoretical study (Part 2) also being conducted at PSU.

  11. Fundamental phenomena on fuel decomposition and boundary layer combustion processes with applications to hybrid rocket motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Kenneth K.; Lu, Y. C.; Chiaverini, Martin J.; Harting, George C.

    1994-01-01

    An experimental study on the fundamental processes involved in fuel decomposition and boundary layer combustion in hybrid rocket motors is being conducted at the High Pressure Combustion Laboratory of the Pennsylvania State University. This research should provide a useful engineering technology base in the development of hybrid rocket motors as well as a fundamental understanding of the complex processes involved in hybrid propulsion. A high pressure slab motor has been designed and manufactured for conducting experimental investigations. Oxidizer (LOX or GOX) supply and control systems have been designed and partly constructed for the head-end injection into the test chamber. Experiments using HTPB fuel, as well as fuels supplied by NASA designated industrial companies will be conducted. Design and construction of fuel casting molds and sample holders have been completed. The portion of these items for industrial company fuel casting will be sent to the McDonnell Douglas Aerospace Corporation in the near future. The study focuses on the following areas: observation of solid fuel burning processes with LOX or GOX, measurement and correlation of solid fuel regression rate with operating conditions, measurement of flame temperature and radical species concentrations, determination of the solid fuel subsurface temperature profile, and utilization of experimental data for validation of a companion theoretical study (Part 2) also being conducted at PSU.

  12. Pocket wheel engine as an internal combustion engine. Taschenscheibenmotor als Verbrennungsmotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellmuth, H.J.

    1990-09-27

    All spark ignition and diesel engines have large oscillating masses, a high frictional resistance and do not run vibration-free. Wankel engines effect only a partial combustion due to the unfavourable shape of the combustion chamber: the expansive force is converted into rotating movement via mechanical deflection. The new internal combustion engine is to have a low weight, require little space and run vibration-free with a high efficiency. The expansive force is to be converted directly into rotating movement. A screw compressor (3) suctions and compresses an air-fuel mixture. The combustion chamber is charged periodically with the compressed mixture via a slit side shaft (6). The slit side shaft (6) closes the combustion chamber (7) at the rear. The mixture is ignited. The flap (8) opens the combustion chamber (7) at the front and the exanding gas sets the pocket wheel connected to the main shaft (15) rotating. The compressor (3) and the slit side shaft (6) are driven directly by the main shaft (15). The pocket wheel engine can be employed in all fields where internal combustion engines have been used until now.

  13. Biomass downdraft gasifier with internal cyclonic combustion chamber: design, construction, and experimental results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Krushna; Bhoi, Prakash; Huhnke, Raymond; Bellmer, Danielle

    2011-05-01

    An exploratory downdraft gasifier design with unique biomass pyrolysis and tar cracking mechanism is evolved at Oklahoma State University. This design has an internal separate combustion section where turbulent, swirling high-temperature combustion flows are generated. A series of research trials were conducted using wood shavings as the gasifier feedstock. Maximum tar cracking temperatures were above 1100°C. Average volumetric concentration levels of major combustible components in the product gas were 22% CO and 11% H(2). Hot and cold gas efficiencies were 72% and 66%, respectively.

  14. Fuel injection for internal combustion engines. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning research and development of fuel injection systems applied to internal combustion engines and turbines. Gasoline, diesel, synthetic fuels, and liquid gas systems are discussed relative to systems` variations and performances. Fuel injection atomization and combustion are considered in theory, and fuel injection relative to emission control is included.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  15. Fuel injection for internal combustion engines. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning research and development of fuel injection systems applied to internal combustion engines and turbines. Gasoline, diesel, synthetic fuels, and liquid gas systems are discussed relative to systems' variations and performances. Fuel injection atomization and combustion are considered in theory, and fuel injection relative to emission control is included. (Contains a minimum of 223 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Co-Optimization of Internal Combustion Engines and Biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Robert L.

    2016-03-08

    The development of advanced engines has significant potential advantages in reduced aftertreatment costs for air pollutant emission control, and just as importantly for efficiency improvements and associated greenhouse gas emission reductions. There are significant opportunities to leverage fuel properties to create more optimal engine designs for both advanced spark-ignition and compression-ignition combustion strategies. The fact that biofuel blendstocks offer a potentially low-carbon approach to fuel production, leads to the idea of optimizing the entire fuel production-utilization value chain as a system from the standpoint of life cycle greenhouse gas emissions. This is a difficult challenge that has yet to be realized. This presentation will discuss the relationship between chemical structure and critical fuel properties for more efficient combustion, survey the properties of a range of biofuels that may be produced in the future, and describe the ongoing challenges of fuel-engine co-optimization.

  17. Investigation of a Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engine via IR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Stephen; White, Allen R.; Gross, Kevin; Devasher, Rebecca B.

    2010-06-01

    Previous work has shown that the automotive fuel components of isopropanoland ethanol can be excited by a 10.2 um and 9.3 um CO2 lasers, respectively. Through the use of a monochromator and an indium antimonide detector, the decay time of the excited molecules was measured and found to be significantly long enough to allow for the possibility of experimentation in an internal combustion (IC) engine. In order to pursue In Situ measurements in an internal combustion engine, a MegaTech Mark III transparent engine was modified with a sapphire combustion chamber. This modification will allow the transmission of infrared radiation for time-resolved spectroscopic measurements by an infrared spectrometer. By using a Telops FIRST-MWE imaging Fourier transform spectrometer, temporally and spatially resolved infrared spectral data can be acquired and compared for combustion in the engine both with and without laser excitation. Measurements performed with system provide insight into the energy transfer vectors that precede combustion as well as provide an in situ measurement of the progress of combustion.

  18. Study of Second Generation Biofuels in Internal Combustion Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, Dhandapani

    2012-07-01

    fuel, vis-a-vis neat diesel fuel (DF). The CO, THC, smoke and TPM emissions were reduced significantly, while NOx emissions were somewhat higher with BD blended fuels compared to neat FT fuel. The reductions in CO, THC, smoke and TPM emissions with BD blends were mainly due to the oxygen content in the BD blended fuel, while the increases in NOx emissions with BD fuels were due to advances in injection timing, higher percentages of fatty acids with double bonds in the carbon chain and higher heat release in the pre-mixed combustion. Secondly, a four-stroke, single-cylinder, naturally-aspirated (NA), direct-injection (DI) diesel engine with 8 BHP at 1500 rpm coupled with water-cooled, eddy current dynamometer was used for the experiments. Ethanol (5% by volume) was injected into the intake manifold by the port injection method with the assistance of a mechanical fuel injection pump. Therefore, the volumetric blending percentages of ethanol, BD and diesel fuels (E:D:JME) are (0:100:0), (5:95:0), (5:75:20), (5:55:40), (5:35:60), (5:15:80) (5:0:95) and (0:0:100) respectively. Ethanol pre-mixed with intake air, assisted in improving combustion in both diesel and the JME blends. The addition of ethanol to high-viscosity Jatropha methyl ester (JME) through port injection is investigated in order to determine its effect on the fuels viscosity and thereby on the diesel engine performance. In addition to viscosity alteration, the impact of ethanol addition on combustion characteristics such as combustion duration, ignition delay and emissions levels from diesel engines fuelled with blends of ethanol, diesel and JME was studied in particular. It was found that blending of oxygenated fuels with diesel modifies the chemical structure and physical properties which in turn, alter the engines operating conditions, combustion parameters and emissions levels. However, the injection of only 5% ethanol through port injection allows for up to 25% blending of diesel with biofuels, while

  19. Applications of Combustion Research on the International Space Station to Industrial Processes on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schowengerdt, F.

    2002-01-01

    The mission of the Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS) at the Colorado School of Mines is to conduct research and educate students in scientific areas related to combustion. The center focuses on those areas where results can be applied to the development of commercial products and processes and where the research can benefit from the unique properties of space. The center is planning combustion-related research aboard the International Space Station (ISS) that will further this mission. The research will be conducted in the two ISS facilities designed for combustion experiments, Space-DRUMSTM and the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) of the Fluids and Combustion Facility. Space-DRUMSTM is a containerless processing facility employing dynamic acoustic positioning. Guigne International, Ltd. of St. John's, Newfoundland, a CCACS member, is developing the facility in partnership with Astrium Space- Infrastructure and Teledyne Brown Engineering. This universal processing facility can handle large samples with virtually complete vibration isolation from the space station and no contamination from the experimental processing chamber. The CCACS research to be done in Space-DRUMSTM includes combustion synthesis of glass-ceramics and porous materials, nanoparticle synthesis, catalytic combustion, fluid physics and granular materials. The launch of Space-DRUMSTM to the ISS is currently scheduled for ULF-1 in January of 2003. The CIR is being developed by NASA-Glenn Research Center, and is a general-purpose combustion furnace designed to accommodate a wide range of scientific experiments. The CCACS research to be done in the CIR includes water mist fire suppression, flame synthesis of ceramic powders, nanoparticle synthesis and catalytic combustion. The CIR is currently under development, with an expected launch date in the 2005 timeframe. The applications of this combustion research in manufacturing and processing industries are far

  20. Towards a detailed soot model for internal combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, Markus; Mosbach, Sebastian; Celnik, Matthew S. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Zhang, Hongzhi R. [Univ. of Utah (United States); Kubo, Shuichi; Kim, Kyoung-Oh [Toyota (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    In this work, we integrate previously developed models for engine combustion and soot formation. Namely, we combine the stochastic reactor model (SRM) engine code, which uses detailed chemistry and takes into account convective heat transfer and turbulent mixing, with SWEEP, a population balance solver based on a Monte Carlo method. In order to couple the two codes, a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism describing the combustion of primary reference fuels (PRFs) is extended to include small Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as pyrene, which function as soot precursor species for particle inception in the soot model. The integrated model provides not only averaged quantities as functions of crank angle like soot mass, volume fraction, aggregate diameter, and the number of primary particles per aggregate for example, but also more detailed information such as aggregate and primary particle size distribution functions. In addition, specifics about aggregate structure and composition, including C/H ratio and PAH ring count distributions, and images similar to those produced with transmission electron microscopes (TEMs), can be obtained. The combined model is applied to simulate an n-heptane fuelled homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine which is operated at an equivalence ratio of 1.93. In-cylinder pressure and heat release predictions show satisfactory agreement with measurements. Furthermore, simulated aggregate size distributions as well as their time evolution are found to qualitatively agree with those obtained experimentally through snatch sampling. It is also seen both in the experiment as well as in the simulation that aggregates in the trapped residual gases play a vital role in the soot formation process. (orig.)

  1. Overview of initial research into the effects of strong vortex flow on hybrid rocket combustion and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloyer, P.; Knuth, William H.; Goodman, J.

    1993-01-01

    An examination of the effect of vortex flow on hybrid rocket combustion and performance is underway. Emphasis is on response of the fuel regression rate when subjected to vortex flow. Initial results show that there is a definite effect of the vortex on fuel regression rate. Future work will focus on quantitatively measuring this regression rate. This work is part of an overall program to develop an ultra low cost fuel system for hybrid rocket engines.

  2. 40 CFR 60.4239 - What are my compliance requirements if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... engines in 40 CFR part 90 or 40 CFR part 1054, and manufacturers of stationary SI emergency engines that... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines >19 KW (25 HP) that use gasoline or... manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines >19 KW (25 HP) that use gasoline or a manufacturer...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - State Regulation of Nonroad Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State Regulation of Nonroad Internal Combustion Engines A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...-IGNITION ENGINES General Pt. 89, Subpt. A, App. A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 89—State Regulation...

  4. Internal combustion engines: Computer applications. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex plus database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the application of computers and computerized simulations in the design, analysis, operation, and evaluation of various types of internal combustion engines and associated components and apparatus. Special attention is given to engine control and performance. (Contains a minimum of 67 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. 内燃机行业的“绿色革命”%China International Internal Combustion Engine Industry Sustainable Development Forum Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩超

    2016-01-01

    China International Internal Combustion Engine Industry Sustainable Development Forum was held at China International Exhibition Center in Beijing on Sept. 21, 2016. Leaders, experts and representatives from governmental departments, European Association of Internal Combustion Engine Manufacturers and domestic engine R & D institutes, as well as engine manufactures, whole-vehicles production factories got together to discuss and exchange view of current situations and development trend of internal combustion engine industry both in China and abroad. to bring even high-quality oils and service.

  6. The railplug: A new ignitor for internal combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faidley, R.W.; Darden, M.H.; Weldon, W.F.

    1995-01-01

    A miniaturized railgun, termed the {open_quotes}railplug,{close_quotes} has been developed for use as an ignitor of combustible mixtures in engines. The device drives a plasma armature in a multishot mode with the aim of creating a line-source for ignition rather than the point source provided by traditional spark plugs. Railplugs have been fabricated in both parallel rail and co-axial rail geometries. The railplug differs from most plasma armature railguns in two striking ways: (1) no fuse or pellet is used to initially establish the plasma (the armature is simply the arc created by a high-voltage pulse), and (2) it operates over a range of elevated pressures (up to 500 psi). Consequently, the railplug power supply must provide a high voltage spike to breakdown the gap between the rails followed by a sustaining voltage that supplies current to drive the arc down the rails. Conceptually, this is the equivalent of combining the electrostatic problem of a sparkplug with the electrodynamic one of a railgun. Two power supply options that do this are outlined, as well as details of railplug geometries. Successes to date have demonstrated the firing of plugs for over 10{sup 4} shots at delivered arc energies of 1 J per shot. Rep rates have been demonstrated up to 50 Hz.

  7. Combustion research in the Internal Fluid Mechanics Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mularz, Edward J.

    1986-01-01

    The goal of this research is to bring computational fluid dynamics to a state of practical application for the aircraft engine industry. The approach is to have a strongly integrated computational and experimental program for all the disciplines associated with the gas turbine and other aeropropulsion systems by advancing the understanding of flow physics, heat transfer, and combustion processes. The computational and experimental research is integrated in the following way: the experiments that are performed provide an empirical data set so that physical models can be formulated to describe the processes that are occurring - for example, turbulence or chemical reaction. These experiments also form a data base for those who are doing code development by providing experimental data against which the codes can be verified and assesed. Models are generated as closure to some of the numerical codes, and they also provide physical insight for experiments. At the same time, codes which solve the complete Navier-Stokes equations can be used as a kind of numerical experiment from which far more extensive data can be obtained than ever could be obtained experimentally. This could provide physical insight into the complex processes that are taking place. These codes are also exercised against experimental data to assess the accuracy and applicability of models.

  8. Combustion characteristics of natural gas-hydrogen hybrid fuel turbulent diffusion flame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Ghafour, S.A.A.; El-dein, A.H.E.; Aref, A.A.R. [Mechanical Power Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Suez Canal University, Port-Said (Egypt)

    2010-03-15

    Combustion characteristics of natural gas - hydrogen hybrid fuel were investigated experimentally in a free jet turbulent diffusion flame flowing into a slow co-flowing air stream. Experiments were carried out at a constant jet exit Reynolds number of 4000 and with a wide range of NG-H{sub 2} mixture concentrations, varied from 100%NG to 50%NG-50% H{sub 2} by volume. The effect of hydrogen addition on flame stability, flame length, flame structure, exhaust species concentration and pollutant emissions was conducted. Results showed that, hydrogen addition sustains a progressive improvement in flame stability and reduction in flame length, especially for relatively high hydrogen concentrations. Hydrogen-enriched flames found to have a higher combustion temperatures and reactivity than natural gas flame. Also, it was found that hydrogen addition to natural gas is an ineffective strategy for NO and CO reduction in the studied range, while a significant reduction in the %CO{sub 2} molar concentration by about 30% was achieved. (author)

  9. Fuel decomposition and boundary-layer combustion processes of hybrid rocket motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaverini, Martin J.; Harting, George C.; Lu, Yeu-Cherng; Kuo, Kenneth K.; Serin, Nadir; Johnson, David K.

    1995-01-01

    Using a high-pressure, two-dimensional hybrid motor, an experimental investigation was conducted on fundamental processes involved in hybrid rocket combustion. HTPB (Hydroxyl-terminated Polybutadiene) fuel cross-linked with diisocyanate was burned with GOX under various operating conditions. Large-amplitude pressure oscillations were encountered in earlier test runs. After identifying the source of instability and decoupling the GOX feed-line system and combustion chamber, the pressure oscillations were drastically reduced from +/-20% of the localized mean pressure to an acceptable range of +/-1.5% Embedded fine-wire thermocouples indicated that the surface temperature of the burning fuel was around 1000 K depending upon axial locations and operating conditions. Also, except near the leading-edge region, the subsurface thermal wave profiles in the upstream locations are thicker than those in the downstream locations since the solid-fuel regression rate, in general, increases with distance along the fuel slab. The recovered solid fuel slabs in the laminar portion of the boundary layer exhibited smooth surfaces, indicating the existence of a liquid melt layer on the burning fuel surface in the upstream region. After the transition section, which displayed distinct transverse striations, the surface roughness pattern became quite random and very pronounced in the downstream turbulent boundary-layer region. Both real-time X-ray radiography and ultrasonic pulse-echo techniques were used to determine the instantaneous web thickness burned and instantaneous solid-fuel regression rates over certain portions of the fuel slabs. Globally averaged and axially dependent but time-averaged regression rates were also obtained and presented.

  10. Analysis of an Internal Combustion Engine Using Porous Foams for Thermal Energy Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ali Ehyaei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Homogeneous and complete combustion in internal combustion engines is advantageous. The use of a porous foam in the exhaust gas in an engine cylinder for heat recovery is examined here with the aim of reducing engine emissions. The internal combustion engine with a porous core regenerator is modeled using SOPHT software, which solved the differential equations for the thermal circuit in the engine. The engine thermal efficiency is observed to increase from 43% to 53% when the porous core regenerator is applied. Further, raising the compression ratio causes the peak pressure and thermal efficiency to increase, e.g., increasing the compression ratio from 13 to 15 causes the thermal efficiency and output work to increase from 53% to 55% and from 4.86 to 4.93 kJ, respectively. The regenerator can also be used as a catalytic converter for fine particles and some other emissions. The regenerator oxidizes unburned hydrocarbons. Meanwhile, heat recovered from the exhaust gases can reduce fuel consumption, further reducing pollutant emissions from the internal combustion engine.

  11. Proceedings of the sixth international conference on fluidized bed combustion. Volume II. Technical sessions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-08-01

    The Sixth International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion was held April 9-11, 1980, at the Atlanta Hilton, Atlanta, Georgia. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Electric Power Research Institute, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. The papers covered recent developments in atmospheric and pressurized fluidized-bed combustion, especially the design, operation and control of pilot and demonstration plants. The cleanup of combustion products and the erosion, corrosion and fouling of gas turbines was emphasized also. Fifty-five papers from Volume 2 of the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; five papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  12. Internal combustion engine system having a power turbine with a broad efficiency range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Todd Mathew; Vuk, Carl Thomas

    2010-04-13

    An engine system incorporating an air breathing, reciprocating internal combustion engine having an inlet for air and an exhaust for products of combustion. A centripetal turbine receives products of the combustion and has a housing in which a turbine wheel is rotatable. The housing has first and second passages leading from the inlet to discrete, approximately 180.degree., portions of the circumference of the turbine wheel. The passages have fixed vanes adjacent the periphery of the turbine wheel and the angle of the vanes in one of the passages is different than those in the other so as to accommodate different power levels providing optimum approach angles between the gases passing the vanes and the blades of the turbine wheel. Flow through the passages is controlled by a flapper valve to direct it to one or the other or both passages depending upon the load factor for the engine.

  13. The research and development of in situ non intrusive optical and temperature diagnostics in an internal combustion engine

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, T S

    2002-01-01

    Novel instrumentation has been developed and evaluated in a low-cost, purpose built, single-cylinder internal combustion engine test facility designed to simulate many of the combustion features that are common between an internal combustion engine, a gas turbine combustor and a steel rolling furnace. High bandwidth in-cylinder surface temperature measurements are demonstrated with a new application of platinum thin film resistance thermometers. These gauges are exposed to the combustion gases and are mounted to both the cylinder head and piston. It is shown that calculation of flame speed, determination of heat flux levels and flame structure observation are possible. Fibre optic probes capable of high frequency spectral measurements of the combustion emission are presented. The spectral measurements are shown to complement the temperature measurement by being able to differentiate the flame front from the general combustion emission and hot by-products. Beyond this, other optical techniques have been explor...

  14. CSP-based chemical kinetics mechanisms simplification strategy for non-premixed combustion: An application to hybrid rocket propulsion

    KAUST Repository

    Ciottoli, Pietro P.

    2017-08-14

    A set of simplified chemical kinetics mechanisms for hybrid rocket applications using gaseous oxygen (GOX) and hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) is proposed. The starting point is a 561-species, 2538-reactions, detailed chemical kinetics mechanism for hydrocarbon combustion. This mechanism is used for predictions of the oxidation of butadiene, the primary HTPB pyrolysis product. A Computational Singular Perturbation (CSP) based simplification strategy for non-premixed combustion is proposed. The simplification algorithm is fed with the steady-solutions of classical flamelet equations, these being representative of the non-premixed nature of the combustion processes characterizing a hybrid rocket combustion chamber. The adopted flamelet steady-state solutions are obtained employing pure butadiene and gaseous oxygen as fuel and oxidizer boundary conditions, respectively, for a range of imposed values of strain rate and background pressure. Three simplified chemical mechanisms, each comprising less than 20 species, are obtained for three different pressure values, 3, 17, and 36 bar, selected in accordance with an experimental test campaign of lab-scale hybrid rocket static firings. Finally, a comprehensive strategy is shown to provide simplified mechanisms capable of reproducing the main flame features in the whole pressure range considered.

  15. 40 CFR 60.4242 - What other requirements must I meet if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines or equipment containing stationary SI internal combustion engines or a manufacturer of equipment containing such engines? 60.4242... Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Compliance Requirements for Manufacturers § 60.4242 What other...

  16. Internal combustion engines a detailed introduction to the thermodynamics of spark and compression ignition engines, their design and development

    CERN Document Server

    Benson, Rowland S

    1979-01-01

    Internal Combustion of Engines: A Detailed Introduction to the Thermodynamics of Spark and Compression Ignition Engines, Their Design and Development focuses on the design, development, and operations of spark and compression ignition engines. The book first describes internal combustion engines, including rotary, compression, and indirect or spark ignition engines. The publication then discusses basic thermodynamics and gas dynamics. Topics include first and second laws of thermodynamics; internal energy and enthalpy diagrams; gas mixtures and homocentric flow; and state equation. The text ta

  17. Numerical simulation and validation of SI-CAI hybrid combustion in a CAI/HCCI gasoline engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinyan; Xie, Hui; Xie, Liyan; Zhang, Lianfang; Li, Le; Chen, Tao; Zhao, Hua

    2013-02-01

    SI-CAI hybrid combustion, also known as spark-assisted compression ignition (SACI), is a promising concept to extend the operating range of CAI (Controlled Auto-Ignition) and achieve the smooth transition between spark ignition (SI) and CAI in the gasoline engine. In this study, a SI-CAI hybrid combustion model (HCM) has been constructed on the basis of the 3-Zones Extended Coherent Flame Model (ECFM3Z). An ignition model is included to initiate the ECFM3Z calculation and induce the flame propagation. In order to precisely depict the subsequent auto-ignition process of the unburned fuel and air mixture independently after the initiation of flame propagation, the tabulated chemistry concept is adopted to describe the auto-ignition chemistry. The methodology for extracting tabulated parameters from the chemical kinetics calculations is developed so that both cool flame reactions and main auto-ignition combustion can be well captured under a wider range of thermodynamic conditions. The SI-CAI hybrid combustion model (HCM) is then applied in the three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3-D CFD) engine simulation. The simulation results are compared with the experimental data obtained from a single cylinder VVA engine. The detailed analysis of the simulations demonstrates that the SI-CAI hybrid combustion process is characterised with the early flame propagation and subsequent multi-site auto-ignition around the main flame front, which is consistent with the optical results reported by other researchers. Besides, the systematic study of the in-cylinder condition reveals the influence mechanism of the early flame propagation on the subsequent auto-ignition.

  18. An internal combustion engine with interconnected multicylinder arrangement. Verbrennungsmotor mit Mehrzylinderverbund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosdell, R.

    1990-08-02

    The invention is dedicated to the kinematic characteristics of multicylinder/multichamber internal combustion engine crank mechanisms and intends to reduce internal energy losses due to mass inertia during combustion energy (impulse) transmission to the piston, connecting rod and crankshaft. This reduction is achieved by modifying the gas exchange control of conventional four-cycle or two-cycle diesel engines, four-cycle or two-cycle spark ignition engines or four-cycle Wankel engines. The ususal successive ignition order of individual cylinders according to the number of cylinders on the crankshaft is replaced by an arrangement of several interconnected cylinders which ignite simultaneously or time-delayed, thus increasing the combustion energy (impulse) and reducing the mass inertia of the piston, connecting rod, crankshaft, disk flywheel and drive components by division. Especially the Wankel engine is expected to profit by the invention's design because of the relatively high mass inertia of all its movable transmission elements and because of higher instantaneous combustion impulses due to doubling, which account for an unproportionately high performance increase.

  19. 15th International conference on Hybrid Intelligent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Sang; Al-Sharhan, Salah; Liu, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    This book is devoted to the hybridization of intelligent systems which is a promising research field of modern computational intelligence concerned with the development of the next generation of intelligent systems. This Volume contains the papers presented in the Fifteenth International conference on Hybrid Intelligent Systems (HIS 2015) held in Seoul, South Korea during November 16-18, 2015. The 26 papers presented in this Volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 90 paper submissions. The Volume will be a valuable reference to researchers, students and practitioners in the computational intelligence field.

  20. 7th international symposium on internal combustion diagnostics. Proceedings; 7. Internationales Symposium fuer Verbrennungsdiagnostik. Beitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    At one time combustion pressure indicating was the ''trigger'' for this symposium, and today it still serves as the basis for continued investigation of combustion phenomena. It now finds application throughout the development process, as more sophisticated analysis of conventional signals is possible. Understanding of localized combustion phenomena is substantially simplified by means of optical diagnostic methods, the application of which has reached a certain level of standardization. The presentations will cover specific topics including fuel spray analysis, ignition events and information about gas mixtures. The comparison and combination of results from measurement and simulation shed light on the complex processes in the combustion chamber. What's more, the linkage of two complementary methods offers substantial cost savings through reductions in test hardware and shorter development times. Focused application of all of the available tools allows us better to understand combustion processes, recognize the influential parameters and derive control algorithms. The latter are subsequently to be found in engines that fulfill both regulatory requirements and customer expectations. So it is that the symposium captures the current state of the art in combustion diagnostics through a combination of indicating, optical diagnostics and simulation, and offers both the methodology expert and the engine developer the ideal platform for discussion of today's issues - and to form their own opinions on them. Anyone wanting to keep up to date in this continuously developing and ever more complex area of activity certainly can't afford to miss our symposium. (orig.)

  1. Internal combustion engine for vehicles with automatic gearbox. Brennkraftmaschine fuer Kraftfahrzeuge mit einem automatischen Getriebe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetmann, R.

    1982-04-19

    The invention refers to an internal combustion engine for vehicles with an automatic gearbox, where the internal combustion engine has a first group of cylinders and at least one second group of cylinders, and a device for affecting the fuel supply to the groups of cylinders, depending on the working parameters of the vehicle. The invention is characterised by the fact that the working parameters are the handbrake and footbrake of the vehicle, and that the device for affecting the fuel supply to the groups of cylinders when the footbrake or handbrake is operated makes it possible to supply fuel to only part of the groups of cylinders. The control switches of both braking systems are connected to the fuel supply control via a logic circuit. This arrangement of the system prevents damage when testing the braking speed of the automatic gearbox due to excessive loads.

  2. Cooling system in a rotary piston internal combustion engine. Kuehlsystem einer Rotationskolbenbrennkraftmaschine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiermann, D.; Nuber, R.

    1991-05-23

    Cooling system of a trochoid-type rotary piston internal combustion engine with a liquid-cooled casing. First the coolant is conducted isochronically and in parallel through cooling chambers of the jacket and a side part of the casing from where it is transported by a cooling pump through the cooling chambers of the other side part, on past a thermostat and into a cooler positioned on this other side part. The cooler consists of a parallel connected pipe bundle whose finned pipes follow the radial outer contours of the casing of the machine. From the cooler the coolant is conducted back into the cooling chambers of the first side part and the jacket. A blower fitted on the eccentric shaft of the internal combustion engine inside the cooler takes in fresh air axially and discharges it radially through the finned pipes.

  3. Comparison of an Internal Combustion Engine Derating Operated on Producer Gas from Coal and Biomass Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ade Andriansyah Efendi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gasification is an effective and clean way to convert coal and biomass into useful fuels and chemical feedstocks. Producer gas utilization for internal combustion engine has been studied, not only from biomass gasification but also from coal gasification. This paper compares the research that has done author using coal gasification with other research results using biomass gasification. Coal gasifier performance test conducted with capacity of 20 kg/h coal. The proximate and ultimate analysis of raw coal, ash product and producer gas was conducted and comparised. The result of analysis shows that the efficiency of the coal gasification was 61% while range of gasifier efficiency for biomass is between 50-80%. Meanwhile, the experimental results on the performance of internal combustion engines using gas producer shows that the derating for power generation using coal producer gas was 46% and biomass was 20-50% depend on compression ratio of engine and characteristic of producer gas. 

  4. A new HVAC system based on cogeneration by an internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.M [Instituto di Ingegneria Gestionale, Universita di Padova, Vicenza (Italy); Longo, G.A.; Romagnoni, P.C. [Istituto di Fisica Technica, Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy)

    1997-06-01

    A new HVAC system is proposed and studied. The plant consists of a reciprocating internal combustion gas engine, producing electrical energy with heat recovery from the jacket water heat and the exhaust. The electricity serves lighting, emf for the building and individual room reversible air-water heat pumps that satisfy mainly sensible cooling and a fraction of the winter heating load. An open cycle absorption system which treats the primary air meets the summer latent load and year round ventilation requirements. In winter the system operates as an open cycle heat pump. The regeneration of the sorbent is obtained by the internal combustion engine heat recovery. The proposed system is analyzed comparing its performance with a traditional plant both in summer and winter mode. 8 refs.

  5. Internal combustion engines performance simulation; Simulacao de desempenho de motores de combustao interna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Jose F.C.; Barbosa, Joao R. [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. Tecnologico de Aeronautica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: monteiro@asap.iae.cta.br; barbosa@mec.ita.cta.br

    2000-07-01

    A study of numerical methods for the simulation of internal combustion engines is presented. Functional blocks, representing each component of the engine, can be combined to simulate the engine. A model was selected for each component. The engine simulation is carried out connecting the functional blocks. The inviscid conservation equations coupled with loss models where solved using a C++ computer program. Engine performance simulation is shown and results compared with published data. (author)

  6. Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion. Volume 1. Plenary sessions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-08-01

    The Sixth International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion was held at the Atlanta Hilton, Atlanta, Georgia, April 9-11, 1980. The papers in this volume involved presentation of the research and development programs of the US (US DOE, TVA, EPRI and US EPA), United Kingdom, Federal Republic of Germany and the People's Republic of China. Eight papers from Vol. 1 (Plenary Sessions) of the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  7. Method for operating a spark-ignition, direct-injection internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Koch, Calvin K.; Najt, Paul M.; Szekely, Jr., Gerald A.; Toner, Joel G.

    2015-06-02

    A spark-ignition, direct-injection internal combustion engine is coupled to an exhaust aftertreatment system including a three-way catalytic converter upstream of an NH3-SCR catalyst. A method for operating the engine includes operating the engine in a fuel cutoff mode and coincidentally executing a second fuel injection control scheme upon detecting an engine load that permits operation in the fuel cutoff mode.

  8. Method and systems for power control of internal combustion engines using individual cycle cut-off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorenko, Y.; Korzhov, M.; Filippov, A.; Atamanenko, N.

    1996-09-01

    A new method of controlling power has been developed for improving efficiency and emissions performance of internal combustion engines at partial load. The method involves cutting-off some of the work cycles, as the load decreases, to obtain required power. Theoretical and experimental material is presented to illustrate the underlying principle, the implementation means and the results for the 4- and 8-cylinder piston engine and a twin rotor Wankel engine applications.

  9. Thermodynamic efficiency of present types of internal combustion engines for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucke, Charles E

    1917-01-01

    Report presents requirements of internal combustion engines suitable for aircraft. Topics include: (1) service requirements for aeronautic engines - power versus weight, reliability, and adaptability factors, (2) general characteristics of present aero engines, (3) aero engine processes and functions of parts versus power-weight ratio, reliability, and adaptability factors, and (4) general arrangement, form, proportions, and materials of aero parts - power-weight ratio, reliability, and adaptability.

  10. Mechanical and thermal analysis of the internal combustion engine piston using Ansys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioată, V. G.; Kiss, I.; Alexa, V.; Raţiu, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    The piston is one of the most important components of the internal combustion engine. Piston fail mainly due to mechanical stresses and thermal stresses. In this paper is determined by using the finite element method, stress and displacement distribution due the flue gas pressure and temperature, separately and combined. The FEA is performed by CAD and CAE software. The results are compared with those obtained by the analytical method and conclusions have been drawn.

  11. Conflict between internal combustion engine and thermoelectric generator during waste heat recovery in cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzhuev, M. A.

    2011-02-01

    It is shown that an internal combustion engine and a thermoelectric generator (TEG) arranged on the exhaust pipe of this engine come into the conflict of thermal machines that is related to using the same energy resource. The conflict grows with increasing useful electric power W e of the TEG, which leads to the limitation of both the maximum TEG output power ( W {e/max}) and the possibility of waste heat recovery in cars.

  12. Proceedings of the sixth international conference on fluidized bed combustion. Volume III. Technical sessions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-08-01

    The Sixth International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion was held April 9-11, 1980, at the Atlanta Hilton, Atlanta, Georgia. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Electric Power Research Institute, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. Forty-five papers from Vol. III of the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Two papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  13. Design Analysis and Optimization of Internal Combustion Engine Piston using CAE tool ANSYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Kumar Gupta

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the internal combustion engine there are many reciprocating parts which are responsible for giving the motion to the engine. from them the piston is very important part of the internal combustion engine.. The working condition of the piston is so worst in comparison of other parts of the internal combustion engine. There is very high probability to failure of the piston due to high wear and tear. So there is necessary to inspection the working condition of piston. In before there is no availability of software packages. So there is difficult to check out the failure of the piston, it is also very time taken process. In now days the software packages are used to consume less time and give quality assurance. In this study work there are two steps of analysis of the piston they are Designing and Analysis. Firstly design the model of the piston in giving design specification on the modelling software like INVENTOR . Then giving it the constraints which are act on the working condition of the piston after import the model of the piston into the analysis software ANSYS in IGES format. Then the analysis become completed on the different parameters(temperature, stress, deformation and easily analysis the result. In this work the piston become optimized after the reducing the material of the piston. the mass and volume of the piston become reduced. The deformation also increased after the optimization which is responsible for the stress distribution on the piston head or piston crown.

  14. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  15. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  16. Combustion characteristics of spent catalyst and paper sludge in an internally circulating fluidized-bed combustor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Seon Ah; Jung, Dae Sung; Kim, Sang Done; Guy, Christophe

    2005-09-01

    Combustion of spent vacuum residue hydrodesulfurization catalyst and incineration of paper sludge were carried out in thermo-gravimetric analyzer and an internally circulating fluidized-bed (ICFB) reactor. From the thermo-gravimetric analyzer-differential thermo-gravimetric curves, the pre-exponential factors and activation energies are determined at the divided temperature regions, and the thermo-gravimetric analysis patterns can be predicted by the kinetic equations. The effects of bed temperature, gas velocity in the draft tube and annulus, solid circulation rate, and waste feed rate on combustion efficiency of the wastes have been determined in an ICFB from the experiments and the model studies. The ICFB combustor exhibits uniform temperature distribution along the bed height with high combustion efficiency (>90%). The combustion efficiency increases with increasing reaction temperature, gas velocity in the annulus region, and solid circulation rate and decreases with increasing waste feed rate and gas velocity in the draft tube. The simulated data from the kinetic equation and the hydrodynamic models predict the experimental data reasonably well.

  17. Comparisons between measurement and analysis of fluid motion in internal combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witze, P.O. (ed.)

    1981-10-01

    The Engine Combustion Technology Project was created for the purpose of promoting the development of advanced piston engine concepts by the development of techniques to measure, analyze, and understand the combustion process. The technologies emphasized in the project include laser-based measurement techniques and large-scale computer simulations. Considerable progress has already been achieved by project participants in modeling engine air motion, fuel sprays, and engine combustion phenomena. This milestone report covers one part of that progress, summarizing the current capabilities of multi-dimensional computer codes being developed by the project to predict the behavior of turbulent air motion in an engine environment. Computed results are compared directly with experimental data in six different areas of importance to internal combustion engines: (1) Induction-generated ring-vortex structures; (2) Piston-induced vortex roll-up; (3) Behavior of turbulence during compression; (4) Decay of swirling flow during compression; (5) Decay of swirling flow in a constant volume engine simulator; (6) Exhaust-pipe flow. The computational procedures used include vortex dynamics, rapid distortion theory, and finite difference models employing two-equation and subgrid-scale turbulence models. Although the capability does not yet exist to predict the air motion in an engine from its geometric configuration alone, the results presented show that many flowfield sub-processes can be predicted given well-specified initial and boundary conditions.

  18. Hybrid Approach for Modeling Chemical Kinetics and Turbulence Effects on Combustion-Instability Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Combustion instabilities pose a significant technical risk in the development of liquid and solid rocket motors. Much of the effort in modeling combustion...

  19. Management of internal resorption of central incisor using hybrid technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayathri, Prabakaran; Pandey, Ramesh Kumar; Jain, Eesha

    2014-01-28

    Internal inflammatory root resorption is characterised by progressive destruction of intraradicular dentin and dentinal tubules along the root canal wall. A number of theories have been proposed as a possible cause for internal resorption. It is usually asymptomatic and detected during routine radiographic investigations. Prompt diagnosis and early management of such defects is essential to maintain the integrity of the tooth. Non-surgical and surgical methods are the two main strategies involved in the management of internal resorption. The non-surgical method is usually preferred, but in cases of extensive resorption with external root perforation, surgical intervention has been advocated. The present case illustrates repair of perforating internal resorption by hybrid method, using mineral trioxide aggregate and gutta-percha, following surgical exposure. After a 10-month follow-up, no clinical and radiographic abnormalities were observed. Additionally, there was also marked reduction in periodontal pocket depth.

  20. Reduction gear for a turbo compound drive of a supercharged internal combustion engine. Reduktionsgetriebe fuer einen Turbocompoundantrieb einer aufgeladenen Brennkraftmaschine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, H.; Fischer, G.; Bueschel, W.

    1991-01-24

    The invention concerns a reduction gear within the turbocompound drive of a supercharged internal combustion engine with at least two reduction stages and a one-way clutch. In order to decouple the vibrations of the turbine and the power plant of the internal combustion engine at least one torsion bushing is provided as which acts as a vibration damper. The one-way clutch is located in the hub of the drive of the second reduction stage in order to save space.

  1. 40 CFR 60.4203 - How long must my engines meet the emission standards if I am a stationary CI internal combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... emission standards if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? 60.4203 Section 60.4203... Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Manufacturers § 60.4203 How long must my engines meet the emission standards if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? Engines manufactured by...

  2. Internal combustion engines for alcohol motor fuels: a compilation of background technical information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaser, Richard

    1980-11-01

    This compilation, a draft training manual containing technical background information on internal combustion engines and alcohol motor fuel technologies, is presented in 3 parts. The first is a compilation of facts from the state of the art on internal combustion engine fuels and their characteristics and requisites and provides an overview of fuel sources, fuels technology and future projections for availability and alternatives. Part two compiles facts about alcohol chemistry, alcohol identification, production, and use, examines ethanol as spirit and as fuel, and provides an overview of modern evaluation of alcohols as motor fuels and of the characteristics of alcohol fuels. The final section compiles cross references on the handling and combustion of fuels for I.C. engines, presents basic evaluations of events leading to the use of alcohols as motor fuels, reviews current applications of alcohols as motor fuels, describes the formulation of alcohol fuels for engines and engine and fuel handling hardware modifications for using alcohol fuels, and introduces the multifuel engines concept. (LCL)

  3. Exergetic analysis of cogeneration plants through integration of internal combustion engine and process simulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Leonardo de Oliveira [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: leonardo.carvalho@petrobras.com.br; Leiroz, Albino Kalab; Cruz, Manuel Ernani [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Mecanica], Emails: leiroz@mecanica.ufrj.br, manuel@mecanica.ufrj.br

    2010-07-01

    Internal combustion engines (ICEs) have been used in industry and power generation much before they were massively employed for transportation. Their high reliability, excellent power-to-weight ratio, and thermal efficiency have made them a competitive choice as main energy converters in small to medium sized power plants. Process simulators can model ICE powered energy plants with limited depth, due to the highly simplified ICE models used. Usually a better understanding of the global effects of different engine parameters is desirable, since the combustion process within the ICE is typically the main cause of exergy destruction in systems which utilize them. Dedicated commercial ICE simulators have reached such a degree of maturity, that they can adequately model a wide spectrum of phenomena that occur in ICEs. However, ICE simulators are unable to incorporate the remaining of power plant equipment and processes in their models. This paper presents and exploits the integration of an internal combustion engine simulator with a process simulator, so as to evaluate the construction of a fully coupled simulation platform to analyze the performance of ICE-based power plants. A simulation model of an actual cogeneration plant is used as a vehicle for application of the proposed computational methodology. The results show that by manipulating the engine mapping parameters, the overall efficiency of the plant can be improved. (author)

  4. Control Scheme Formulation for the Production of Hydrogen on Demand to Feed an Internal Combustion Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarniel García Morales

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a control strategy is presented to produce hydrogen on demand to feed an internal combustion (IC engine. For this purpose, the modeling of the IC engine fueled by gasoline blended with 10 % v/v of anhydrous ethanol (E10 and hydrogen as an additive is developed. It is considered that the hydrogen gas is produced according to the IC engine demand, and that the hydrogen gas is obtained by an alkaline electrolyzer. The gasoline–ethanol blend added into the combustion chamber is determined according to the stoichiometric ratio and the production of hydrogen gas is regulated by a proportional and integral controller (P.I.. The controller reference is varying according to the mass flow air induced into the cylinder, in order to ensure an adequate production of hydrogen gas for any operating condition of the IC engine. The main contribution of this work is the control scheme developed, through simulation, in order to produce hydrogen on demand for any operating point of an internal combustion engine fueled by an E10 blend. The simulation results showed that the use of hydrogen gas as an additive in an E10 blend decreases the E10 fuel consumption 23 % on average, and the thermal efficiency is increased approximately 2.13 % , without brake power loss in the IC engine.

  5. International evaluation of the programme on fluid bed combustion and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremer, H. [Ruhr Univ., Bochum (Germany); Magnusson, B.F. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway); Reed, T. [Colorado School of Mines (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This report on the Swedish National Program on Fluid Bed Combustion and Gasification is part of the on-going evaluation process adopted by the funding organization NUTEK. This agency has invited the undersigned to act as members of an international panel responsible for evaluating the progress made in 9 projects initiated between 1993-1996. The output of this evaluation procedure is given in this report. The main aim of the Fluid Bed Combustion and Gasification Program is to develop industrially relevant knowledge and competence in experimental and computational techniques capable of characterizing the flow, heat transfer, combustion, gasification, ash formation and deposition and emissions in fluid bed gasifiers and combustors. To achieve this aim NUTEK is sponsoring research in a number of universities and encourages close cooperation between universities and industry. In the evaluation of the various sponsored research programs, the evaluation committee has considered the following key points: relevance of research to industrial needs; originality of research; program management; adequacy of resources; degree of collaboration between industry and academia; international standing of research. In this report comments and recommendations are made on individual projects as well as on the programme in general and they express the unanimous view of the panel members

  6. Development of pressurized internally circulating fluidized bed combustion technology; Kaatsu naibu junkan ryudosho boiler no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, I. [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Nagato, S.; Toyoda, S. [Ebara Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    The paper introduced support research on element technology needed for the design of hot models of the pressurized internally circulating fluidized bed combustion boiler in fiscal 1995 and specifications for testing facilities of 4MWt hot models after finishing the basic plan. The support research was conduced as follows: (a) In the test for analysis of cold model fluidization, it was confirmed that each characteristic value of hot models is higher than the target value. Further, calculation parameters required for computer simulation were measured and data on the design of air diffusion nozzle for 1 chamber wind box were sampled. (b) In the CWP conveyance characteristic survey, it was confirmed that it is possible to produce CWP having favorable properties. It was also confirmed that favorable conveyability can be maintained even if the piping size was reduced down to 25A. (c) In the gas pressure reducing test, basic data required for the design of gas pressure reducing equipment were sampled. Specifications for the fluidized bed combustion boiler of hot models are as follows: evaporation amount: 3070kg/h, steam pressure: 1.77MPa, fuel supply amount: 600kg-coal/h, boiler body: cylinder shape water tube internally circulating fluidized bed combustion boiler. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Experimental study of hydrogen as a fuel additive in internal combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saanum, Inge

    2008-07-01

    Combustion of hydrocarbons in internal combustion engines results in emissions that can be harmful both to human health and to the environment. Although the engine technology is improving, the emissions of NO{sub x}, PM and UHC are still challenging. Besides, the overall consumption of fossil fuel and hence the emissions of CO{sub 2} are increasing because of the increasing number of vehicles. This has lead to a focus on finding alternative fuels and alternative technologies that may result in lower emissions of harmful gases and lower CO{sub 2} emissions. This thesis treats various topics that are relevant when using blends of fuels in different internal combustion engine technologies, with a particular focus on using hydrogen as a fuel additive. The topics addressed are especially the ones that impact the environment, such as emissions of harmful gases and thermal efficiency (fuel consumption). The thesis is based on experimental work performed at four different test rigs: 1. A dynamic combustion rig with optical access to the combustion chamber where spark ignited premixed combustion could be studied by means of a Schlieren optical setup and a high speed video camera. 2. A spark ignition natural gas engine rig with an optional exhaust gas recycling system. 3. A 1-cylinder diesel engine prepared for homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion. 4. A 6-cylinder standard diesel engine The engine rigs were equipped with cylinder pressure sensors, engine dynamometers, exhaust gas analyzers etc. to enable analyses of the effects of different fuels. The effect of hydrogen blended with methane and natural gas in spark ignited premixed combustion was investigated in the dynamic combustion rig and in a natural gas engine. In the dynamic combustion rig, the effect of hydrogen added to methane on the flame speed and the flame structure was investigated at elevated pressure and temperature. A considerable increase in the flame speed was observed when adding 30 vol

  8. Experimental study of hydrogen as a fuel additive in internal combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saanum, Inge

    2008-07-01

    Combustion of hydrocarbons in internal combustion engines results in emissions that can be harmful both to human health and to the environment. Although the engine technology is improving, the emissions of NO{sub x}, PM and UHC are still challenging. Besides, the overall consumption of fossil fuel and hence the emissions of CO{sub 2} are increasing because of the increasing number of vehicles. This has lead to a focus on finding alternative fuels and alternative technologies that may result in lower emissions of harmful gases and lower CO{sub 2} emissions. This thesis treats various topics that are relevant when using blends of fuels in different internal combustion engine technologies, with a particular focus on using hydrogen as a fuel additive. The topics addressed are especially the ones that impact the environment, such as emissions of harmful gases and thermal efficiency (fuel consumption). The thesis is based on experimental work performed at four different test rigs: 1. A dynamic combustion rig with optical access to the combustion chamber where spark ignited premixed combustion could be studied by means of a Schlieren optical setup and a high speed video camera. 2. A spark ignition natural gas engine rig with an optional exhaust gas recycling system. 3. A 1-cylinder diesel engine prepared for homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion. 4. A 6-cylinder standard diesel engine The engine rigs were equipped with cylinder pressure sensors, engine dynamometers, exhaust gas analyzers etc. to enable analyses of the effects of different fuels. The effect of hydrogen blended with methane and natural gas in spark ignited premixed combustion was investigated in the dynamic combustion rig and in a natural gas engine. In the dynamic combustion rig, the effect of hydrogen added to methane on the flame speed and the flame structure was investigated at elevated pressure and temperature. A considerable increase in the flame speed was observed when adding 30 vol

  9. Engine modeling and control modeling and electronic management of internal combustion engines

    CERN Document Server

    Isermann, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    The increasing demands for internal combustion engines with regard to fuel consumption, emissions and driveability lead to more actuators, sensors and complex control functions. A systematic implementation of the electronic control systems requires mathematical models from basic design through simulation to calibration. The book treats physically-based as well as models based experimentally on test benches for gasoline (spark ignition) and diesel (compression ignition) engines and uses them for the design of the different control functions. The main topics are: - Development steps for engine control - Stationary and dynamic experimental modeling - Physical models of intake, combustion, mechanical system, turbocharger, exhaust, cooling, lubrication, drive train - Engine control structures, hardware, software, actuators, sensors, fuel supply, injection system, camshaft - Engine control methods, static and dynamic feedforward and feedback control, calibration and optimization, HiL, RCP, control software developm...

  10. A Study of the Theoretical Potential of Thermochemical Exhaust Heat Recuperation for Internal Combustion Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakravarthy, Veerathu K [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Pihl, Josh A [ORNL; Conklin, Jim [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    We present a detailed thermodynamic analysis of thermochemical recuperation (TCR) applied to an idealized internal combustion engine with single-stage work extraction. Results for several different fuels are included. For a stoichiometric mixture of methanol and air, TCR can increase the estimated ideal engine Second Law efficiency by about 3% for constant pressure reforming and over 5% for constant volume reforming. For ethanol and isooctane the estimated Second Law efficiency increases for constant volume reforming are 9% and 11%, respectively. The Second Law efficiency improvements from TCR result primarily from the higher intrinsic exergy of the reformed fuel and pressure boost associated with gas mole increase. Reduced combustion irreversibility may also yield benefits for future implementations of combined cycle work extraction.

  11. A Study of the Theoretical Potential of Thermochemical Exhaust Heat Recuperation in Internal Combustion Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Pihl, Josh A [ORNL; Chakravarthy, Veerathu K [ORNL; Conklin, Jim [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    A detailed thermodynamic analysis of thermochemical recuperation (TCR) applied to an idealized internal combustion engine with single-stage work extraction is presented. Results for several different fuels are included. For a stoichiometric mixture of methanol and air, TCR can increase the estimated ideal engine second law efficiency by about 3% for constant pressure reforming and over 5% for constant volume reforming. For ethanol and isooctane, the estimated second law efficiency increases for constant volume reforming are 9 and 11%, respectively. The second law efficiency improvements from TCR result primarily from the higher intrinsic exergy of the reformed fuel and pressure boost associated with the gas mole increase. Reduced combustion irreversibility may also yield benefits for future implementations of combined cycle work extraction.

  12. Concept Defined for the International Space Station's Fluids and Combustion Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsa, Edward A.

    2000-01-01

    The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) will occupy three powered racks and one stowage rack on the International Space Station (ISS). It will be a permanent modular, multiuser facility to accommodate microgravity science experiments onboard the ISS s U.S. Laboratory Module. FCF will support NASA Human Exploration and Development of Space program objectives requiring sustained, systematic research in the disciplines of fluid physics and combustion science. The two disciplines share racks and mutually necessary hardware within FCF to dramatically reduce costs and effectively use ISS resources. Even with the cost of FCF development included, experimentation using FCF on the space station will cost only half of what it did on the space shuttles.

  13. Blind source separation of internal combustion engine piston slap from other measured vibration signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianhua; Randall, R. B.

    2005-11-01

    Internal combustion engines have several vibration sources, such as combustion, fuel injection, piston slap and valve operation. For machine condition monitoring or design improvement purposes, it is necessary to separate the vibration signals caused by different sources and then analyse each of them individually. However, traditional frequency analysis techniques are not very useful due to overlap of the different sources over a wide frequency range. This paper attempts to separate the vibration sources, especially piston slap, by using blind source separation techniques with the intention of revealing the potential of the new technique for solving mechanical vibration problems. The BSS method and the Blind least mean square algorithm using Gray's variable norm as a measure of non-Gaussianity of the sources is briefly described and separation results for both simulated and measured data are presented and discussed.

  14. Internal combustion engine run on biogas is a potential solution to meet Indonesia emission target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarita, Himsar

    2017-09-01

    Indonesia has released two different Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions reduction targets. The first target, released in 2009, is reduction GHG emissions 26% from Business-as-Usual (BAU) level using own budget and up 41% if supported international aids by 2020. The second target is reduction 29% and 41% from BAU by 2030 using own budget and with international support, respectively. In this paper, the BAU emissions and emissions reduction target of these two targets are elaborated. In addition, the characteristics of emissions from transportation sector are discussed. One of the potential mitigation actions is switching fuel in transportation sector. The results the most promising mitigation action in the transportation is switching oil fuel with biofuel. The Government of Indonesia (GoI) focuses on using biodiesel and bioethanol to run internal combustion engine in transportation sector and biogas is aimed to fuel power plant unit. However, there is very limited of success stories on using biogas in the power plant. The barriers and challenges will be discussed here. It is suggested to run internal combustion engine with biogas.

  15. The realization and analysis of a new thermodynamic cycle for internal combustion engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorić Jovan Ž.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents description and thermodynamic analysis of a new thermodynamic cycle. Realization of this new cycle is possible to achieve with valveless internal combustion engine with more complete expansion. The main purpose of this new IC engine is to increase engines’ thermal efficiency. The engine was designed so that the thermodynamic changes of the working fluid are different than in conventional engines. Specific differences are reflected in a more complete expansion of the working fluid (the expansion stroke is larger than compression stroke, valveless gas flowing and complete discharge of residual combustion products from the combustion chamber. In this concept, the movement of the piston is different than in conventional piston mechanisms. The results obtained herein include the efficiency characteristics of irreversible reciprocating new engine cycle which is very similar to Miller cycle. The results show that with this thermodynamic cycle engine has higher efficiency than with the standard Otto cycle. In this article, the patent application material under number 2008/607 at the Intellectual Property Office of the Republic of Serbia was used.

  16. A Completely New Type of Actuator -or- This Ain't Your Grandfather's Internal Combustion Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Brian W.; Hawkins, Gary F.; Hess, Peter A.; Moore, Teresa A.; Fournier, Eric W.

    2010-01-01

    A completely new type of actuator - one that is proposed for use in a variety of environments from sea to land to air to space - has been designed, patented, built, and tested. The actuator is loosely based on the principle of the internal combustion engine, except that it is a completely closed system, only requiring electrical input, and the working fuel is water. This paper outlines the theory behind the electrolysis- and ignition-based cycle upon which the actuator operates and describes the performance capability test apparatus and results for the actuator. A mechanism application that harnessed the unit s power to twist a scaled rotor blade is also highlighted.

  17. Research on Measurements for Temperature and Stress of Pistons in Internal Combustion Engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Xiao-rui; TAN Jian-song

    2008-01-01

    In both numerical simulation and experimental research for the piston of internal combustion engine, the verification foundations are always insufficient. The reason is the measurements for its transient temperature and stress under actual operation conditions are very difficult. A multi-channel measurement-storage technology is used in the engine bench experiment to measure the piston temperature and stress in real time. The temperature and stress changes in the engine operation process are obtained. They provide reliable instructive criteria for numerical analysis and experiment of the piston working state.

  18. Improvement on Performances of Internal Combustion Engine Using the Technology of Ceramic Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林建生; 付晓光; 张建昭

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces a new technology of using ceramic coating on piston rings of an internal combustion engine, and the comparison of mechanical efficiency and performances of an actual engine before and after the application of ceramic coating on the piston rings. The experimental results show that the mechanical efficiency and power output are enhanced by 4% and 2.6%, respectively, with fuel consumption reduced by 2.9%. Further studies on coating processing and coating materials as well as the reliability and durability will be of great significance in the application and popularization of the new technology.

  19. Research and development on transonic compressor of high pressure ratio turbocharger for vehicle internal combustion engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The pressure ratio required for a turbocharger centrifugal compressor increases with internal combustion engine power density. High pressure ratio causes a transonic flow field at the impeller inducer. Transonic flow narrows the stable flow range and de-teriorates stage efficiency. In this work, an advanced high pressure ratio transonic compressor was designed. The experimental results show that the maximum pressure ratio of this turbocharger is about 4.2, the maximum efficiency is above 80% and the stable flow range at the designed rotating speed is up to 34%. A turbocharger with this transonic compressor has been applied to some vehicle research actually, and improved power density by 40%.

  20. Compression-cast light metal piston for internal combustion engines. Pressgegossener Leichtmetallkolben fuer Verbrennungskraftmaschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielke, S.; Henning, W.; Weiss, F.; Goelder, K.

    1991-05-16

    In a compression-cast light metal piston for internal combustion engines, fibre bodies made of short ceramic fibres, which are aligned parallel to a plane, are cast in. To improve the resistance to wear of the piston consisting of a heat-resistant magnesium alloy, the piston shank has a metallic, chemically or galvanically separate layer with a thickness of 10 to 30 m, and a hardness of 740 to 850 HV < 0.01, at least in the area of its friction surfaces.

  1. Simulation and Analyis of a Continuous Variable Cam Phasing Internal Combustion Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Hammarlund, Pär

    2008-01-01

    The development of fuel efficient internal combustion engines (ICE)have resulted in a variety of different solutions. One of those are the variable valve timing and an implemenation of such is the Continuous Variable Cam Phasing (CVCP). This thesis have used a simulation package, psPack, for the simulation of the gas exchange process for an ICE with CVCP. The purpose of the simulations was to investigate what kind of design parameters, e.g. the length of an intake pipe or the duration of comb...

  2. A transient tribodynamic approach for the calculation of internal combustion engine piston slap noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolatabadi, N.; Littlefair, B.; De la Cruz, M.; Theodossiades, S.; Rothberg, S. J.; Rahnejat, H.

    2015-09-01

    An analytical/numerical methodology is presented to calculate the radiated noise due to internal combustion engine piston impacts on the cylinder liner through a film of lubricant. Both quasi-static and transient dynamic analyses coupled with impact elasto-hydrodynamics are reported. The local impact impedance is calculated, as well as the transferred energy onto the cylinder liner. The simulations are verified against experimental results for different engine operating conditions and for noise levels calculated in the vicinity of the engine block. Continuous wavelet signal processing is performed to identify the occurrence of piston slap noise events and their spectral content, showing good conformance between the predictions and experimentally acquired signals.

  3. The railplug: Development of a new ignitor for internal combustion engines. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, R.D.; Nichols, S.P.; Weldon, W.F.

    1994-11-29

    A three year investigation of a new type of ignitor for internal combustion engines has been performed using funds from the Advanced Energy Projects Program of The Basic Energy Sciences Division of the U.S. Department of Energy and with matching funding from Research Applications, Inc. This project was a spin-off of {open_quotes}Star Wars{close_quotes} defense technology, specifically the railgun. The {open_quotes}railplug{close_quotes} is a miniaturized railgun which produces a high velocity plume of plasma that is injected into the combustion chamber of an engine. Unlike other types of alternative ignitors, such as plasma jet ignitors, electromagnetic forces enhance the acceleration of the plasma generated by a railplug. Thus, for a railplug, the combined effects of electromagnetic and thermodynamic forces drive the plasma into the combustion chamber. Several engine operating conditions or configurations can be identified that traditionally present ignition problems, and might benefit from enhanced ignition systems. One of these is ultra-lean combustion in spark ignition (SI) engines. This concept has the potential for lowering emissions of NOx while simultaneously improving thermal efficiency. Unfortunately, current lean burn engines cannot be operated sufficiently lean before ignition related problems are encountered to offer any benefits. High EGR engines have similar potential for emissions improvement, but also experience similar ignition problems, particularly at idle. Other potential applications include diesel cold start, alcohol and dual fuel engines, and high altitude relight of gas turbines. The railplug may find application for any of the above. This project focused on three of these potential applications: lean burn SI engines, high EGR SI engines, and diesel cold start.

  4. The railplug: Development of a new ignitor for internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, R. D.; Nichols, S. P.; Weldon, W. F.

    1994-11-01

    A three year investigation of a new type of ignitor for internal combustion engines has been performed using funds from the Advanced Energy Projects Program of The Basic Energy Sciences Division of the U.S. Department of Energy and with matching funding from Research Applications, Inc. This project was a spin-off of 'Star Wars' defense technology, specifically the railgun. The 'railplug' is a miniaturized railgun which produces a high velocity plume of plasma that is injected into the combustion chamber of an engine. Unlike other types of alternative ignitors, such as plasma jet ignitors, electromagnetic forces enhance the acceleration of the plasma generated by a railplug. Thus, for a railplug, the combined effects of electromagnetic and thermodynamic forces drive the plasma into the combustion chamber. Several engine operating conditions or configurations can be identified that traditionally present ignition problems, and might benefit from enhanced ignition systems. One of these is ultra-lean combustion in spark ignition (SI) engines. This concept has the potential for lowering emissions of NO(x) while simultaneously improving thermal efficiency. Unfortunately, current lean burn engines cannot be operated sufficiently lean before ignition related problems are encountered to offer any benefits. High EGR engines have similar potential for emissions improvement, but also experience similar ignition problems, particularly at idle. Other potential applications include diesel cold start, alcohol and dual fuel engines, and high altitude relight of gas turbines. The railplug may find application for any of the above. This project focused on three of these potential applications: lean burn SI engines, high EGR SI engines, and diesel cold start.

  5. Fundamental phenomena on fuel decomposition and boundary-layer combustion processes with applications to hybrid rocket motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Kenneth K.; Lu, Yeu-Cherng; Chiaverini, Martin J.; Harting, George C.; Johnson, David K.; Serin, Nadir

    1995-01-01

    The experimental study on the fundamental processes involved in fuel decomposition and boundary-layer combustion in hybrid rocket motors is continuously being conducted at the High Pressure Combustion Laboratory of The Pennsylvania State University. This research will provide a useful engineering technology base in the development of hybrid rocket motors as well as a fundamental understanding of the complex processes involved in hybrid propulsion. A high-pressure, 2-D slab motor has been designed, manufactured, and utilized for conducting seven test firings using HTPB fuel processed at PSU. A total of 20 fuel slabs have been received from the Mcdonnell Douglas Aerospace Corporation. Ten of these fuel slabs contain an array of fine-wire thermocouples for measuring solid fuel surface and subsurface temperatures. Diagnostic instrumentation used in the test include high-frequency pressure transducers for measuring static and dynamic motor pressures and fine-wire thermocouples for measuring solid fuel surface and subsurface temperatures. The ultrasonic pulse-echo technique as well as a real-time x-ray radiography system have been used to obtain independent measurements of instantaneous solid fuel regression rates.

  6. Computational hybrid anthropometric paediatric phantom library for internal radiation dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tianwu; Kuster, Niels; Zaidi, Habib

    2017-04-01

    Hybrid computational phantoms combine voxel-based and simplified equation-based modelling approaches to provide unique advantages and more realism for the construction of anthropomorphic models. In this work, a methodology and C++ code are developed to generate hybrid computational phantoms covering statistical distributions of body morphometry in the paediatric population. The paediatric phantoms of the Virtual Population Series (IT’IS Foundation, Switzerland) were modified to match target anthropometric parameters, including body mass, body length, standing height and sitting height/stature ratio, determined from reference databases of the National Centre for Health Statistics and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The phantoms were selected as representative anchor phantoms for the newborn, 1, 2, 5, 10 and 15 years-old children, and were subsequently remodelled to create 1100 female and male phantoms with 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th body morphometries. Evaluation was performed qualitatively using 3D visualization and quantitatively by analysing internal organ masses. Overall, the newly generated phantoms appear very reasonable and representative of the main characteristics of the paediatric population at various ages and for different genders, body sizes and sitting stature ratios. The mass of internal organs increases with height and body mass. The comparison of organ masses of the heart, kidney, liver, lung and spleen with published autopsy and ICRP reference data for children demonstrated that they follow the same trend when correlated with age. The constructed hybrid computational phantom library opens up the prospect of comprehensive radiation dosimetry calculations and risk assessment for the paediatric population of different age groups and diverse anthropometric parameters.

  7. Intelligent Detector of Internal Combustion Engine Cylinder Pressure and Sensitivity Temperature Coefficient Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beirong Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The detecting device based on mechanical mechanism is far from the measurement of internal combustion engine cylinder explosion and compression pressure. This pressure detection is under the environment of pulsed gas (over 500 times per one minute and mechanical impactive vibration. Piezoresistive detection with silicon on insulator (SOI strain gauges to pressure seems to be a good solution to meet such special applications. In this work, separation by implanted oxygen (SIMOX wafer was used to fabricate the high temperature pressure sensor chip. For high accuracy and wide temperature range application, this paper also presents a novel pressure sensitivity temperature coefficient (TCS compensation method, using integrated constant current network. A quantitative compensation formula is introduced in mathematics. During experiments, the absolute value of the compensated TCS is easy to be 10 × 10−6/°C~100 × 10−6/°C by individual adjustment and calibration of each device’s temperature compensation. Therefore, the feasibility and practicability of this technology are tested. Again, the disadvantages are discussed after the research of the experiment data and the improvement methods are also given in the designing period. This technology exhibits the great potential practical value of internal combustion engine cylinder pressure with volume manufacturing.

  8. Wastewater off-gas to electricity: A look at energy recovery using the internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, S.C. [Eckenfelder Inc., Greenville, SC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Historically, publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) have not been regulated for air pollutant emissions. Federal, state, and local regulatory agencies have placed increased scrutiny on POTW volatile organic compound (VOC) and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions. In fact, the USEPA is developing Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards for publicly owned facilities that receive and treat sewage and wastewater from residential, commercial, and industrial generators. Once promulgated, this standard will require POTWs to limit and control HAP emissions. One option available for the control of HAP emissions from wastewater facilities is the use of the internal combustion (IC) engine-generator systems to convert wastewater off-gas to energy. Single or multiple IC engines can be arranged to utilize wastewater off-gas in place of natural gas and diesel fuel to produce electricity. The electricity generated can then be used to power the treatment facility or sold to the local utility. These systems utilize an otherwise wasted energy resource while significantly reducing HAP and VOC emissions from the wastewater treatment process. This paper will discuss the principles of using the internal combustion engine for energy recovery and examine the technical and economic benefits involved with their use at POTW facilities.

  9. Design, calibration and error analysis of instrumentation for heat transfer measurements in internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, C. R.; Tree, D. R.; Dewitt, D. P.; Wahiduzzaman, S. A. H.

    1987-01-01

    The paper reports the methodology and uncertainty analyses of instrumentation for heat transfer measurements in internal combustion engines. Results are presented for determining the local wall heat flux in an internal combustion engine (using a surface thermocouple-type heat flux gage) and the apparent flame-temperature and soot volume fraction path length product in a diesel engine (using two-color pyrometry). It is shown that a surface thermocouple heat transfer gage suitably constructed and calibrated will have an accuracy of 5 to 10 percent. It is also shown that, when applying two-color pyrometry to measure the apparent flame temperature and soot volume fraction-path length, it is important to choose at least one of the two wavelengths to lie in the range of 1.3 to 2.3 micrometers. Carefully calibrated two-color pyrometer can ensure that random errors in the apparent flame temperature and in the soot volume fraction path length will remain small (within about 1 percent and 10-percent, respectively).

  10. Design, calibration and error analysis of instrumentation for heat transfer measurements in internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, C. R.; Tree, D. R.; Dewitt, D. P.; Wahiduzzaman, S. A. H.

    1987-01-01

    The paper reports the methodology and uncertainty analyses of instrumentation for heat transfer measurements in internal combustion engines. Results are presented for determining the local wall heat flux in an internal combustion engine (using a surface thermocouple-type heat flux gage) and the apparent flame-temperature and soot volume fraction path length product in a diesel engine (using two-color pyrometry). It is shown that a surface thermocouple heat transfer gage suitably constructed and calibrated will have an accuracy of 5 to 10 percent. It is also shown that, when applying two-color pyrometry to measure the apparent flame temperature and soot volume fraction-path length, it is important to choose at least one of the two wavelengths to lie in the range of 1.3 to 2.3 micrometers. Carefully calibrated two-color pyrometer can ensure that random errors in the apparent flame temperature and in the soot volume fraction path length will remain small (within about 1 percent and 10-percent, respectively).

  11. Preparation of LiMn2O4 Graphene Hybrid Nanostructure by Combustion Synthesis and Their Electrochemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Rangappa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The LiMn2O4 graphene hybrid cathode material has been synthesized by spray drying combustion process. The spinel structure cubic phase LiMn2O4 graphene hybrid material was prepared by spray drying process at 120 ℃ and subsequent heat treatment at 700 ℃ for 1 hour. The result indicates that the spinel shaped LiMn2O4 particles wrapped with graphene sheets were formed with particle size in the range of 60-70 nm. The charge-discharge measurement indicates that the LiMn2O4 graphene hybrid material shows an improved discharge capacity of 139 mAh/g at 0.1C rate. The pristine LiMn2O4 nano crystals present only about 132 mAh/g discharge capacity. The LiMn2O4 graphene hybrid samples show good cyclic performance with only 13% of capacity fading in 30 cycles when compared to the pristine LiMn2O4 that shows 22% of capacity fading in 30 cycles. The capacity retention of the LiMn2O4 graphene hybrid samples is about 10% higher than the pristine cycle after 30 cycles.

  12. 3-D modeling of parietal liquid films in internal combustion engines; Modelisation tridimensionnelle des films liquides parietaux dans les moteurs a combustion interne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foucart, H.

    1998-12-11

    To simulate the air-fuel mixing in the intake ports and cylinder of an internal combustion engines, a wall fuel liquid film model has been developed for integration in 3D CFD codes. Phenomena taken into account include wall film formation by an impinging spray without splashing effect, film transport such as governed by mass and momentum equations with hot wall effects, and evaporation considering energy equation with an analytical mass transfer formulation developed here. A continuous-fluid method is used to describe the wall film over a three dimensional complex surface. The basic approximation is that of a laminar incompressible boundary layer; the liquid film equations are written in an integral form and solved by a first-order ALE finite volume scheme; the equation system is closed without coefficient fitting requirements. The model has been implemented in a Multi-Block version of KIVA-II (KMB) and tested against problems having theoretical solutions. Then in a first step, it has been compared to the measurements obtained in a cylindrical pipe reproducing the main characteristics of SI engine intake pipe flow and in a second step, it has been compared to the Xiong experiment concerning the film evaporation on a hot wall. The film behaviour is satisfactory reproduced by the computations for a set of operating conditions. Finally, engine calculations were conducted showing the importance of including a liquid film model for the simulations. (author) 54 refs.

  13. 内燃法热处理的卧式应用%The Internal Combustion Heat Treatment Applied in Horizontal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武爱兵

    2015-01-01

    内燃法热处理是以轻质柴油为燃料,以容器壳体为炉膛,通过雾化燃烧释放热量对容器进行热处理的一种工艺.本文对卧式状态进行内燃法热处理的内部导流结构、防变形装置等的要求进行了详细阐述.%The internal combustion heat treatment is a craft, which based on light diesel fuel, vessel as the furnace, through the atomization combustion heat release to heat treatment. This paper details the internal setting diversion structure, prevent deformation, in horizontal state of the internal combustion heat treatment method.

  14. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  15. Large-eddy simulations of turbulent flows in internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaeizadeh, Araz

    The two-phase compressible scalar filtered mass density function (FMDF) model is further developed and employed for large-eddy simulations (LES) of turbulent spray combustion in internal combustion (IC) engines. In this model, the filtered compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved in a generalized curvilinear coordinate system with high-order, multi-block, compact differencing schemes for the turbulent velocity and pressure. However, turbulent mixing and combustion are computed with a new two-phase compressible scalar FMDF model. The spray and droplet dispersion/evaporation are modeled with a Lagrangian method. A new Lagrangian-Eulerian-Lagrangian computational method is employed for solving the flow, spray and scalar equation. The pressure effect in the energy equation, as needed in compressible flows, is included in the FMDF formulation. The performance of the new compressible LES/FMDF model is assessed by simulating the flow field and scalar mixing in a rapid compression machine (RCM), in a shock tube and in a supersonic co-axial jet. Consistency of temperatures predicted by the Eulerian finite-difference (FD) and Lagrangian Monte Carlo (MC) parts of the LES/FMDF model are established by including the pressure on the FMDF. It is shown that the LES/FMDF model is able to correctly capture the scalar mixing in both compressible subsonic and supersonic flows. Using the new two-phase LES/FMDF model, fluid dynamics, heat transfer, spray and combustion in the RCM with flat and crevice piston are studied. It is shown that the temperature distribution in the RCM with crevice piston is more uniform than the RCM with flat piston. The fuel spray characteristics and the spray parameters affecting the fuel mixing inside the RCM in reacting and non-reacting flows are also studied. The predicted liquid penetration and flame lift-off lengths for respectively non-reacting and reacting sprays are found to compare well with the available experimental data. Temperatures and

  16. Construction of combustion models for rapeseed methyl ester bio-diesel fuel for internal combustion engine applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovitchev, Valeri I; Yang, Junfeng

    2009-01-01

    Bio-diesel fuels are non-petroleum-based diesel fuels consisting of long chain alkyl esters produced by the transesterification of vegetable oils, that are intended for use (neat or blended with conventional fuels) in unmodified diesel engines. There have been few reports of studies proposing theoretical models for bio-diesel combustion simulations. In this study, we developed combustion models based on ones developed previously. We compiled the liquid fuel properties, and the existing detailed mechanism of methyl butanoate ester (MB, C(5)H(10)O(2)) oxidation was supplemented by sub-mechanisms for two proposed fuel constituent components, C(7)H(16) and C(7)H(8)O (and then, by mp2d, C(4)H(6)O(2) and propyne, C(3)H(4)) to represent the combustion model for rapeseed methyl ester described by the chemical formula, C(19)H(34)O(2) (or C(19)H(36)O(2)). The main fuel vapor thermal properties were taken as those of methyl palmitate C(19)H(36)O(2) in the NASA polynomial form of the Burcat database. The special global reaction was introduced to "crack" the main fuel into its constituent components. This general reaction included 309 species and 1472 reactions, including soot and NO(x) formation processes. The detailed combustion mechanism was validated using shock-tube ignition-delay data under diesel engine conditions. For constant volume and diesel engine (Volvo D12C) combustion modeling, this mechanism could be reduced to 88 species participating in 363 reactions.

  17. The Hybrid Automobile and the Atkinson Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    The hybrid automobile is a strikingly new automobile technology with a number of new technological features that dramatically improve energy efficiency. This paper will briefly describe how hybrid automobiles work; what are these new technological features; why the Toyota Prius hybrid internal combustion engine operates on the Atkinson cycle…

  18. The Hybrid Automobile and the Atkinson Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    The hybrid automobile is a strikingly new automobile technology with a number of new technological features that dramatically improve energy efficiency. This paper will briefly describe how hybrid automobiles work; what are these new technological features; why the Toyota Prius hybrid internal combustion engine operates on the Atkinson cycle…

  19. For the First Time a Chinese Researcher Gives the Plenary Lecture at the International Symposium on Combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Mr. Qi Fei, a professor from the University of Science and Technology of China, delivered a one-hour plenary lecture at the 34th International Symposium on Combustion held from July 29 to August 3, 2012 in Warsaw, Poland. The lecture was highly appraised and had drawn wide attention in global combustion re- search community. It was the first time that a Chinese expert gave a plenary lecture at this serial symposi- um since 1928 when it was first held. Since it comes to the 21st century, papers with first authors from China published at the symposium have been growing. At the last two symposia, China ranked the third in total number of papers among all the countries, only after the USA and Japan, the two strong countries in combustion research. It indicates that China has made great progress in both reputation and influence in basic research on combustion.

  20. Floating-point coprocessor for fault detection and isolation in electronically controlled internal combustion engines. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, T.L.; Ribbens, W.B.

    1991-09-01

    The report details the design of a floating-point coprocessor intended for real-time fault detection in electronically controlled internal combustion engines. The fault detection strategies are based on dynamic models of various engine subsystems and require the use of state estimators. The coprocessor can be operated at a clock rate of 24 MHz, and is capable of operating up to sixteen state estimators in real time. The design is suitable for application to internal combustion engines used for vehicle propulsion or power generation, whether diesel or spark ignited.

  1. Accelerated Electromechanical Modeling of a Distributed Internal Combustion Engine Generator Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhiy V. Bozhko

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Distributed generation with a combustion engine prime mover is still widely used to supply electric power in a variety of applications. These applications range from backup power supply systems and combined wind-diesel generation to providing power in places where grid connection is either technically impractical or financially uneconomic. Modelling of such systems as a whole is extremely difficult due to the long-time load profiles needed and the computational difficulty of including small time-constant electrical dynamics with large time-constant mechanical dynamics. This paper presents the development of accelerated, reduced-order models of a distributed internal combustions engine generator unit. Overall these models are shown to achieve a massive improvement in the computational time required for long-time simulations while also achieving an extremely high level of dynamic accuracy. It is demonstrated how these models are derived, used and verified against benchmark models created using established techniques. Throughout the paper the modelling set as a whole, including multi level detail, is presented, detailed and finally summarised into a crucial tool for general system investigation and multiple target optimisation.

  2. Brayton cycle for internal combustion engine exhaust gas waste heat recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Galindo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An average passenger car engine effectively uses about one-third of the fuel combustion energy, while the two-thirds are wasted through exhaust gases and engine cooling. It is of great interest to automotive industry to recover some of this wasted energy, thus increasing the engine efficiency and lowering fuel consumption and contamination. Waste heat recovery for internal combustion engine exhaust gases using Brayton cycle machine was investigated. The principle problems of application of such a system in a passenger car were considered: compressor and expander machine selection, machine size for packaging under the hood, efficiency of the cycle, and improvement of engine efficiency. Important parameters of machines design have been determined and analyzed. An average 2-L turbocharged gasoline engine’s New European Driving Cycle points were taken as inlet points for waste heat recovery system. It is theoretically estimated that the recuperated power of 1515 W can be achieved along with 5.7% improvement in engine efficiency, at the point where engine power is 26550 W.

  3. Pneumatic-Combustion Hybrid Engine: A Study of the Effect of the Valvetrain Sophistication on Pneumatic Modes Moteur hybride pneumatique: une étude de l’effet de la complexité de la distribution sur les modes pneumatiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brejaud P.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Although internal combustion engines display high overall maximum global efficiencies, this potential cannot be fully exploited in automotive applications: in real conditions, the average engine load (and thus efficiency is quite low and the kinetic energy during a braking phase is lost. This work presents a hybrid pneumatic-combustion engine and the associated thermodynamic cycles, which is able to store and recover energy in the form of compressed air. The study focuses on the two major pneumatic modes: pneumatic pump mode and pneumatic motor mode. For each of them, three valvetrain technologies are considered: 4-stroke mode, 4-stroke mode with one camshaft disengaged, and 2-stroke fully variable. The concept can be adapted to SI or CI engines. In any case the valvetrain technology is the key to best fuel economy. A kinematic model of the charging valve’s actuator is introduced, and implemented in a quasi dimensional model of the pneumatic-combustion hybrid engine. Simulation results are presented for each pneumatic mode, for each valvetrain technology, in order to determine the best valve train configuration, and to show the impact of the kinematic valve actuator on the performance of the engine The tradeoffs between valvetrain sophistication and fuel economy will be presented for each case. Bien que le rendement total d’un moteur à combustion interne soit élevé, ce potentiel ne peut être pleinement exploité sur une automobile : dans les conditions réelles d’utilisation, la charge moteur moyenne (et donc le rendement est souvent faible. De plus, l’énergie cinétique en phase de freinage est totalement dissipée sous forme de chaleur. Cet article présente un concept de moteur hybride pneumatique, et les cycles thermodynamiques associés, capable de stocker de l’énergie (et de la réutiliser sous forme d’air comprimé. Le concept est adaptable au moteur à allumage commandé aussi bien qu’au moteur à allumage par

  4. Prototype testing and analysis of a novel internal combustion linear generator integrated power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhaoping; Chang, Siqin [School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2010-04-15

    A novel four-stroke free-piston engine equipped with a linear electric generator (namely internal combustion linear generator integrated power system) is proposed in this paper to achieve efficient energy conversion from fuel to electricity. Unique features of the novel power system are presented and their effects on the continuous running are discussed, along with potential advantages and disadvantages compared to conventional engines. A single cylinder, gasoline and spark ignition prototype is fabricated with reference to the geometric and control parameters of an existing conventional four-stroke engine. Stable running of the prototype is realized, and a 2.2 kW average output power with the generating efficiency of 32% has been obtained up to now. The feasibility and performance of the proposed design are verified. Detailed testing results from the continuous running prototype are analyzed in this paper for giving insight into the performance and dynamic behaviors of the novel power system. (author)

  5. HEAT RECOVERY FROM A NATURAL GAS POWERED INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE BY CO2 TRANSCRITICAL POWER CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Farzaneh-Gord

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work provides details of energy accounting of a natural gas powered internal combustion engine and achievable work of a utilized CO2 power cycle. Based on experimental performance analysis of a new designed IKCO (Iran Khodro Company 1.7 litre natural gas powered engine, full energy accounting of the engine were carried out on various engine speeds and loads. Further, various CO2 transcritical power cycle configurations have been appointed to take advantages of exhaust and coolant water heat lost. Based on thermodynamic analysis, the amount of recoverable work obtainable by CO2 transcritical power cycles have been calculated on various engine conditions. The results show that as much as 18 kW power could be generated by the power cycle. This would be considerable amount of power especially if compared with the engine brake power.

  6. Laser-induced fluorescence measurement of the oil film thickness in an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroski, Greg M.; Ghandhi, Jaal B.

    1997-11-01

    The use of a fluorescent dopant molecule to enhance the natural fluorescence of motor oils, and allow quantitative determination of temperature and film thickens in internal combustion engines has been investigated. Measurement of the fluorescence as a function of temperature were made with neat Mobil 1, and solutions of the dopant BTBP in mineral oil and Mobil 1. The fluorescence yield of neat Mobil 1 was found to vary by 30 percent over the temperature range explored, but the spectral characteristics, as measured with bandpass filters, were unaffected by temperature. The BTBP fluorescence was found to increase significantly with temperature, and it was found the narrower regions in the spectrum increased proportionally more than the fluorescence collected over the entire spectrum, allowing a determination of temperature to be made which can then be used to correct for the change in fluorescence yield. Solutions in Mobil 1 showed a smaller increase than that observed in mineral oil.

  7. Research of Data Acquisition and Analysis System for Internal Combustion Engine Based on DSP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Y H [Center of Test Science of Jilin University, Chang chun, 130022 (China); Tian, X L [College of Instrumentation and Electrical Engineering of Jilin University, Jilin (China); Cheng, P [Center of Test Science of Jilin University, Chang chun, 130022 (China); Chang, X [College of Instrumentation and Electrical Engineering of Jilin University, Jilin (China); Dou, W J [College of Instrumentation and Electrical Engineering of Jilin University, Jilin (China)

    2006-10-15

    In the paper, the structure, working principle, functions and characteristics of an data acquisition and analysis system for internal combustion engines (I.C. engine) based on DSP is introduced. The DSP can not only acquire and analyze the data alone, also can work with the PC together to form data acquisition and analysis system with high speed and large memory. The system takes advantages of TMS320F2812's plenty of peripherals on chip, becomes small and easy for installation. USB technique is used to translate data between DSP and PC in high speed, so the system's real time processing is proved very much. It is proved that the designed system can acquire and analyze the steady and transient parameters of the I.C. engine very well.

  8. NREL Showcases Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine Bus, Helps DOE Set Standards for Outreach (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-01

    This fact sheet describes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) accomplishments in showcasing a Ford hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine (H2ICE) bus at The Taste of Colorado festival in Denver. NREL started using its U.S. Department of Energy-funded H2ICE bus in May 2010 as the primary shuttle vehicle for VIP visitors, members of the media, and new employees. In September 2010, NREL featured the bus at The Taste of Colorado. This was the first major outreach event for the bus. NREL's educational brochure, vehicle wrap designs, and outreach efforts serve as a model for other organizations with DOE-funded H2ICE buses. Work was performed by the Hydrogen Education Group and Market Transformation Group in the Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center.

  9. Cooling water pump of a rotary piston internal combustion engine. Kuehlwasserpumpe einer Rotationskolbenbrennkraftmaschine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiermann, D.; Nuber, R.

    1991-05-23

    Spatial arrangement of a cooling pump of a trochoid-type rotary piston internal combustion engine with a liquid-cooled casing. First the coolant is conducted isochronically and in parallel through cooling chambers of the jacket and a side part into a common hollow space from where it is transported by the cooling pump into the other side part, on past a thermostat to a cooler located in the other side part and back into the cooling loop in the casing. The cooling pump is located in the jacket and its impeller is positioned in a cooling chamber of the other side part. Its shaft can be fitted with a speed controller for the fresh air supply and a lubricating pump.

  10. Performance and Emissions of Internal Combustion Engine Fuelled With CNG - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Darade

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of alternative fuels such as natural gases has become very essential because of the continuously decrease in the petroleum reserves and also their contribution for pollutants. In this paper, a survey of research papers on the utilization of Compressed Natural Gas in the Internal Combustion engines along with its effects on the performance and emissions is done. It is revealed that the performance characteristics except thermal efficiency and exhaust temperature, various other performance parameters like brake mean effective pressure, power, torque and brake specific fuel consumption are decreased for CNG fuelled engine while the emission characteristics of unburnt hydrocarbon, Carbon monoxide and Carbon-di-oxide except nitrogen oxides are better for CNG compared to petrol and diesel engines. The improvement in performance is observed with the addition of hydrogen.

  11. Experimental Investigation of Active Noise Controller for Internal Combustion Engine Exhaust System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-Da; Chen, Chih-Keng; Lee, Chun-Ying; Lee, Tian-Hua

    2002-10-01

    Two active noise control (ANC) algorithms for internal combustion engine exhaust systems are developed and their performances are compared in various experiments. The first controller is based on the filtered-x least mean square (FXLMS) algorithm with feedback neutralization, while the second is a fixed controller with a gain-scheduled active control technique for broadband attenuation with thermal effects. Both control algorithms are implemented on a digital signal processing (DSP) platform. Experiments are carried out to evaluate the attenuation performance of the proposed active noise control systems for an engine exhaust system. The results of the experiments indicate that both the adaptive controller and the gain-scheduled controller effectively suppress the noise of engine exhaust systems. The experimental comparison and analysis of the proposed controllers are also described.

  12. System and method for conditioning intake air to an internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellnau, Mark C.

    2015-08-04

    A system for conditioning the intake air to an internal combustion engine includes a means to boost the pressure of the intake air to the engine and a liquid cooled charge air cooler disposed between the output of the boost means and the charge air intake of the engine. Valves in the coolant system can be actuated so as to define a first configuration in which engine cooling is performed by coolant circulating in a first coolant loop at one temperature, and charge air cooling is performed by coolant flowing in a second coolant loop at a lower temperature. The valves can be actuated so as to define a second configuration in which coolant that has flowed through the engine can be routed through the charge air cooler. The temperature of intake air to the engine can be controlled over a wide range of engine operation.

  13. Valve Fault Diagnosis in Internal Combustion Engines Using Acoustic Emission and Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Jafari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the potential of acoustic emission (AE technique to detect valve damage in internal combustion engines. The cylinder head of a spark-ignited engine was used as the experimental setup. The effect of three types of valve damage (clearance, semicrack, and notch on valve leakage was investigated. The experimental results showed that AE is an effective method to detect damage and the type of damage in valves in both of the time and frequency domains. An artificial neural network was trained based on time domain analysis using AE parametric features (AErms, count, absolute AE energy, maximum signal amplitude, and average signal level. The network consisted of five, six, and five nodes in the input, hidden, and output layers, respectively. The results of the trained system showed that the AE technique could be used to identify the type of damage and its location.

  14. Hybrid silencers with micro-perforated panels and internal partitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiang; Cheng, Li; You, Xiangyu

    2015-02-01

    A sub-structuring approach, along with a unit cell treatment, is proposed to model expansion chamber silencers with internal partitions and micro-perforated panels (MPPs) in the absence of internal flow. The side-branch of the silencer is treated as a combination of unit cells connected in series. It is shown that, by connecting multiple unit cells with varying parameters, the noise attenuation bandwidth can be enlarged. With MPPs, the hybrid noise attenuation mechanism of the silencer is revealed. Depending on the size of the perforation hole, noise attenuation can be dominated by dissipative, reactive, or combined effects together. For a broadband sound absorption, the hole size, together with the perforation ratio and other parameters, can be optimized to strike a balance between the dissipative and reactive effect, for ultimately achieving the desired noise attenuation performance within a prescribed frequency region. The modular nature of the proposed formulation allows doing this in a flexible, accurate, and cost effective manner. The accuracy of the proposed approach is validated through comparisons with finite element method and experiments.

  15. Combustion characteristics of paper mill sludge in a lab-scale combustor with internally cycloned circulating fluidized bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, D; Jang, S; Hwang, J

    2005-01-01

    After performing a series of batch type experiments using a lab-scale combustor, consideration was given to the use of an internally cycloned circulating fluidized bed combustor (ICCFBC) for a paper mill sludge. Operation parameters including water content, feeding mass of the sludge, and secondary air injection ratio were varied to understand their effects on combustion performance, which was examined in terms of carbon conversion rate (CCR) and the emission rates of CO, C(x)H(y) and NO(x). The combustion of paper mill sludge in the ICCFBC was compared to the reaction mechanisms of a conventional solid fuel combustion, characterized by kinetics limited reaction zone, diffusion limited reaction zone, and transition zone. The results of the parametric study showed that a 35% water content and 60 g feeding mass generated the best condition for combustion. Meanwhile, areal mass burning rate, which is an important design and operation parameter at an industrial scale plant, was estimated by a conceptual equation. The areal mass burning rate corresponding to the best combustion condition was approximately 400 kg/hm(2) for 35% water content. The secondary air injection generating swirling flow enhanced the mixing between the gas phase components as well as the solid phase components, and improved the combustion efficiency by increasing the carbon conversion rate and reducing pollutant emissions.

  16. Cross-border Intra-group Hybrid Finance and International Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Eberhartinger, Eva; Pummerer, Erich; Göritzer, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    In intra-group finance hybrid instruments allow for tailor-made form of finance. Hence hybrid finance is often used for international tax planning in multinational groups. Due to a lack of international tax harmonization or tax coordination qualification conflict can arise. A specific hybrid instrument is classified as debt in one country, and as equity in the other country. This may lead to double taxation. In the reverse case, double non-taxation can arise. Against this legal background one...

  17. Reducing emissions by using special air filters for internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birtok-Băneasă, C.; Raţiu, S. A.; Alexa, V.; Crăciun, A. L.; Josan, A.; Budiul-Berghian, A.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents the experimental methodology to carry out functional performance tests for an air filter with a particular design of its housing, generically named Super absorbing YXV „Air by Corneliu”, patented and homologated by the Romanian Automotive Registry, to which numerous prizes and medals were awarded at national and international innovations salons. The tests were carried out in the Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory, within the specialization “Road vehicles” belonging to the Faculty of Engineering Hunedoara, component of Politehnica University of Timisoara. The scope of the study is to optimise the air intake into the engine cylinders by reducing the gas-dynamic resistances caused by the air filter and, therefore, to achieve higher energy efficiency, i.e. fuel consumption reduction and engine performance increase. We present some comparative values of various operating parameters of the engine fitted, in the first measuring session, with the original filter, and then with the studied filter. The data collected shows a reduction in fuel consumption by using this type of filter, which leads to lower emissions.

  18. THE HYDROGEN-FUELLED INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES FOR MARINE APPLICATIONS WITH A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim S. Seddiek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern marine power plants have been designed to improve the overall ship’s efficiency. This pushed the designers of marine machinery to search for unconventional fuels for these plants. During the previous years, diesel oil has been extensively used on-board ships. Due to the high price of light diesel oil and the environmental problems resulting from the use of heavy fuel oil, it has become necessary to search for an alternative to traditional fuels. As a result, natural gas fuel has been used on-board some types of ships, especially short-voyage cruise ships. Unfortunately, there are still some technical and logistic problems related to the use of natural gas as a fuel, especially as it is considered a non-renewable energy source. The use of hydrogen fuel on-board ships, particularly in modern power plants may contribute to overcoming the above problems. The present paper considers the possibility of the use of hydrogen fuel for marine applications and discusses different stages of hydrogen gas cycle beginning with hydrogen generation process from clean energy until using it as fuel for internal combustion engines on-board one RO/RO ship, named Taba, operating in the Mediterranean Sea. Compared to the diesel engine, the hydrogen fuelled engine is found to be lower in thermal efficiency and fuel consumption, however, some adjustments are needed.

  19. Development of an Organic Rankine Cycle system for exhaust energy recovery in internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollone, Roberto; Bianchi, Giuseppe; Gualtieri, Angelo; Di Battista, Davide; Mauriello, Marco; Fatigati, Fabio

    2015-11-01

    Road transportation is currently one of the most influencing sectors for global energy consumptions and CO2 emissions. Nevertheless, more than one third of the fuel energy supplied to internal combustion engines is still rejected to the environment as thermal waste at the exhaust. Therefore, a greater fuel economy might be achieved recovering the energy from exhaust gases and converting it into useful power on board. In the current research activity, an ORC-based energy recovery system was developed and coupled with a diesel engine. The innovative feature of the recovery power unit relies upon the usage of sliding vane rotary machines as pump and expander. After a preliminary exhaust gas mapping, which allowed to assess the magnitude of the thermal power to be recovered, a thermodynamic analysis was carried out to design the ORC system and the sliding vane machines using R236fa as working fluid. An experimental campaign was eventually performed at different operating regimes according to the ESC procedure and investigated the recovery potential of the power unit at design and off-design conditions. Mechanical power recovered ranged from 0.7 kW up to 1.9 kW, with an overall cycle efficiency from 3.8% up to 4.8% respectively. These results candidate sliding vane machines as efficient and reliable devices for waste heat recovery applications.

  20. Progress in Finite Time Thermodynamic Studies for Internal Combustion Engine Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanlin Ge

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of introducing the origin and development of finite time thermodynamics (FTT, this paper reviews the progress in FTT optimization for internal combustion engine (ICE cycles from the following four aspects: the studies on the optimum performances of air standard endoreversible (with only the irreversibility of heat resistance and irreversible ICE cycles, including Otto, Diesel, Atkinson, Brayton, Dual, Miller, Porous Medium and Universal cycles with constant specific heats, variable specific heats, and variable specific ratio of the conventional and quantum working fluids (WFs; the studies on the optimum piston motion (OPM trajectories of ICE cycles, including Otto and Diesel cycles with Newtonian and other heat transfer laws; the studies on the performance limits of ICE cycles with non-uniform WF with Newtonian and other heat transfer laws; as well as the studies on the performance simulation of ICE cycles. In the studies, the optimization objectives include work, power, power density, efficiency, entropy generation rate, ecological function, and so on. The further direction for the studies is explored.

  1. Typical off-design analytical performances of internal combustion engine cogeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohong HE; Ruixian CAI

    2009-01-01

    Based on experimental data, typical off-design characteristic curves with corresponding formulas of internal combustion engine (ICE) are summarized and investigated. In combination with analytical solution of single-pressure heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) and influence of ambient pressure on combined heat and power (CHP) system, off-design operation regularities of ICE cogeneration are analyzed. The approach temperature difference Ata , relative steam production and superheated steam temperature decrease with the decrease in engine load. The total energy efficiency, equivalent exergy efficiency and economic exergy efficiency first increase and then decrease. Therefore, there exists an optimum value, corresponding to ICE best efficiency operating condition. It is worth emphasizing that Ata is likely to be negative in low load condition with high design steam parameter and low ICE design exhaust gas temperature. Compared with single shaft gas turbine cogeneration, Ata in ICE cogeneration is more likely to be negative. The main reason for this is that the gas turbine has an increased exhaust gas flow with the decrease in load; while ICE is on the contrary. Moreover, ICE power output and efficiency decrease with the decrease in ambient pressure. Hence, approach temperature difference, relative steam production and superheated steam temperature decrease rapidly while the cogeneration efficiencies decrease slightly. It is necessary to consider the influence of ambient conditions, especially the optimization of ICE performances at different places, on cogeneration performances.

  2. Time-varying Performance Prediction and System Identification of Internal Combustion Engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xiang-hui; DAI Xu-dong; XIE You-bai

    2009-01-01

    Design for life-time performance and proper maintenance measures are usually needed to prolong the mean-time-between-failures of complex equipments such as internal combustion engines. To reach this, it is important to obtain the information of time-varying system performance in design stage and to identify the structural change at each moment. So a multidisciplinary model based method is studied in this paper to unify the time-varying performance(TVP) prediction and system identification(SI) of equipments. The related multi-disciplinary model in this paper should be not only precise to give simulation results but also sensitive to the variation of system parameters. So the varying history of system performance along with the structural change can be obtained from the model. Then the value of system parameters can be identified by seeking roots with given detected responding data and relationship between system responding data and system parameters. A case study on a low power gasoline engine shows that the method presented in this paper can provide useful information for the development and maintenance of complex equipments.

  3. Improved automated diagnosis of misfire in internal combustion engines based on simulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Bond Randall, Robert

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a new advance in the application of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) to the automated diagnosis of misfires in Internal Combustion engines(IC engines) is detailed. The automated diagnostic system comprises three stages: fault detection, fault localization and fault severity identification. Particularly, in the severity identification stage, separate Multi-Layer Perceptron networks (MLPs) with saturating linear transfer functions were designed for individual speed conditions, so they could achieve finer classification. In order to obtain sufficient data for the network training, numerical simulation was used to simulate different ranges of misfires in the engine. The simulation models need to be updated and evaluated using experimental data, so a series of experiments were first carried out on the engine test rig to capture the vibration signals for both normal condition and with a range of misfires. Two methods were used for the misfire diagnosis: one is based on the torsional vibration signals of the crankshaft and the other on the angular acceleration signals (rotational motion) of the engine block. Following the signal processing of the experimental and simulation signals, the best features were selected as the inputs to ANN networks. The ANN systems were trained using only the simulated data and tested using real experimental cases, indicating that the simulation model can be used for a wider range of faults for which it can still be considered valid. The final results have shown that the diagnostic system based on simulation can efficiently diagnose misfire, including location and severity.

  4. Internal combustion engine with thermochemical recuperation fed by ethanol steam reforming products - feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesana, O.; Gutman, M.; Shapiro, M.; Tartakovsky, L.

    2016-08-01

    This research analyses the performance of a spark ignition engine fueled by ethanol steam reforming products. The basic concept involves the use of the internal combustion engine's (ICE) waste heat to promote onboard reforming of ethanol. The reformer and the engine performance were simulated and analyzed using GT-Suite, Chem CAD and Matlab software. The engine performance with different compositions of ethanol reforming products was analyzed, in order to find the optimal working conditions of the ICE - reformer system. The analysis performed demonstrated the capability to sustain the endothermic reactions in the reformer and to reform the liquid ethanol to hydrogen-rich gaseous fuel using the heat of the exhaust gases. However, the required reformer's size is quite large: 39 x 89 x 73 cm, which makes a feasibility of its mounting on board a vehicle questionable. A comparison with ICE fed by gasoline or liquid ethanol doesn't show a potential of efficiency improvement, but can be considered as a tool of additional emissions reduction.

  5. Evaluation and silicon nitride internal combustion engine components. Final report, Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voldrich, W. [Allied-Signal Aerospace Co., Torrance, CA (United States). Garrett Ceramic Components Div.

    1992-04-01

    The feasibility of silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) use in internal combustion engines was studied by testing three different components for wear resistance and lower reciprocating mass. The information obtained from these preliminary spin rig and engine tests indicates several design changes are necessary to survive high-stress engine applications. The three silicon nitride components tested were valve spring retainers, tappet rollers, and fuel pump push rod ends. Garrett Ceramic Components` gas-pressure sinterable Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} (GS-44) was used to fabricate the above components. Components were final machined from densified blanks that had been green formed by isostatic pressing of GS-44 granules. Spin rig testing of the valve spring retainers indicated that these Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} components could survive at high RPM levels (9,500) when teamed with silicon nitride valves and lower spring tension than standard titanium components. Silicon nitride tappet rollers showed no wear on roller O.D. or I.D. surfaces, steel axles and lifters; however, due to the uncrowned design of these particular rollers the cam lobes indicated wear after spin rig testing. Fuel pump push rod ends were successful at reducing wear on the cam lobe and rod end when tested on spin rigs and in real-world race applications.

  6. Mechanical signature analysis using time-frequency signal processing: Application to internal combustion engine knock detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samimy, B. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States). Advanced Vehicle Technology Div.; Rizzoni, G. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Signature analysis consists of the extraction of information from measured signal patterns. The work presented in this paper illustrates the use of time-frequency (TF) analysis methods for the purpose of mechanical signature analysis. Mechanical signature analysis is a mature and developed field; however, TF analysis methods are relatively new to the field of mechanical signal processing, having mostly been developed in the present decade, and have not yet been applied to their full potential i this field of engineering applications. Some of the ongoing efforts are briefly reviewed in this paper. One important application of TF mechanical signature analysis is the diagnosis of faults in mechanical systems. In this paper the authors illustrate how the use of joint TF signal representations can result in tangible benefits when analyzing signatures generated by transient phenomena in mechanical systems, such as might be caused by faults or otherwise abnormal operation. This paper also explores signal detection concepts in the joint TF domain and presents their application to the detection of internal combustion engine knock.

  7. The International Energy Agency's implementing agreement on hybrid and electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thibodeau, C. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Office of Energy Efficiency

    2007-07-01

    This presentation discussed implementing agreements and programs developed by the International Energy Agency (IEA) for hybrid and electric vehicles. The agreement was designed to provide an international platform for the coordination of ideas, themes, and technologies related to hybrid and electric vehicles. Industries, governments, and users must also communicate to ensure the successful deployment of new technologies, laws and incentives. International collaboration programs will lower the cost for implementing new technologies in addition to enhancing information exchange. The IEA's Hybrid Electric Vehicles (IA-HEV) program was designed to promote pre-competitive research projects and provide information on hybrid vehicles and their impacts on energy efficiency and the environment. Annex groups related to the program include: (1) an information exchange on HEV technologies and programs; (2) an annex on hybrid electric vehicles; (3) clean city vehicles; (4) electrochemical systems; (5) electric cycles; (6) heavy-duty hybrid vehicles; (7) fuel cells for vehicles; and (8) deployment of HEVs. The Hybrid and Electric Vehicles Annex Group was established in 1994 to exchange information and prepare a series of reports on subjects related to components for hybrid vehicles, as well as on topics related to plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). A new annex group has been proposed to study advanced battery technologies, policy issues, charging, marketability, and group administration. It was concluded that the group will report on progress and make all its research and findings available. Details of the IEA structure and governing board were provided. 6 figs.

  8. Failure assessment of aluminum liner based filament-wound hybrid riser subjected to internal hydrostatic pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikshit, Vishwesh; Seng, Ong Lin; Maheshwari, Muneesh; Asundi, A.

    2015-03-01

    The present study describes the burst behavior of aluminum liner based prototype filament-wound hybrid riser under internal hydrostatic pressure. The main objective of present study is to developed an internal pressure test rig set-up for filament-wound hybrid riser and investigate the failure modes of filament-wound hybrid riser under internal hydrostatic burst pressure loading. The prototype filament-wound hybrid riser used for burst test consists of an internal aluminum liner and outer composite layer. The carbon-epoxy composites as part of the filament-wound hybrid risers were manufactured with [±55o] lay-up pattern with total composite layer thickness of 1.6 mm using a CNC filament-winding machine. The burst test was monitored by video camera which helps to analyze the failure mechanism of the fractured filament-wound hybrid riser. The Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor was used to monitor and record the strain changes during burst test of prototype filament-wound hybrid riser. This study shows good improvements in burst strength of filament-wound hybrid riser compared to the monolithic metallic riser. Since, strain measurement using FBG sensors has been testified as a reliable method, we aim to further understand in detail using this technique.

  9. COGENERATION OPPORTUNITIES TO IMPROVE THE EFFICIENCY OF MICRO HEAT POWER PLANTS BASED ON AIR COOLED INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Shchinnikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibilities of operation of electric generators based on internal combustion engines with air cooling under conditions of cogeneration, when, along with the electricity, heat release in different embodiments is provided. Such facilities are usually realized on the basis of gasoline internal combustion engines (i.e. gasoline is used as a fuel. They can be used in the household, by professional builders, geologists, the military and rescuers in the area of emergencies and in areas with a lack of infrastructure. The basis of the facility is the gasoline generator Hitachi-2400 with an air-cooled power of 2.4 kW. The basic methodology for the study of microthermal power plants based on an air-cooled internal combustion engine which is based on balance equations is presented. The facility operation ensures the measurement of all temperatures and expenses of operating environments for determining heat flow in accordance with the proposed methodology. The specifications of heat exchangers for utilizing the heat of exhaust flue gases are presented. The energy diagram illustrating the useful effect of the application of various heat exchangers are plotted. Cogeneration possibilities of the facility are provided, firstly, by the release of heat with the air that cools a cylinder of the internal combustion engine, and, secondly, by the release of heat of hot water heated by utilizing the heat of the leaving flue gases, and, thirdly, in the calculated version, by the release of heat with air that is sequentially heated due to the cooling of the cylinder head and then by utilizing the heat of exhaust gases. It is demonstrated that the fuel heat utilization factor can be increased from 0.22 to 0.50–0.60, depending on the adopted technical solutions.

  10. Exhaust heat recovery in internal combustion engine; Netsukokan ni yoru nainen kikan no hainetsu kaishu no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, E.; Kase, S.; Dong, D. [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-04-20

    Discussions were given as measures to solve thermal efficiency and environmental problems on recovery of waste heat from an internal combustion engine by means of heat exchange. Means are used to increase the thermal efficiency and the output without changing any of the compression ratio, maximum temperature and maximum pressure in the internal combustion engine. The means consist of nearly isothermal compression of suction air and simultaneous exchange of heat in the compressed suction air with that in high-temperature exhaust gas to recover the heat. Since the isothermal compression and simultaneous heat exchange with the exhaust gas are carried out in place of adiabatic compression, the thermal efficiency increases by 4% to 11% in the compression ratio ranging from 10 to 20, and the output per working fluid unit flow rate increases by 19% to 37%. If the heat generated in catalytically purifying exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine is recovered by means of heat exchange, the thermal efficiency in an automotive engine may improve by more than 10%, serving for reducing pollutant production and saving the fuel consumption. Such concepts may also be conceivable as recovering vehicle braking energy as air pressure to be re-utilized for accelerating the restarting, and recovering the backpressure of exhaust gas by converting it into mechanical energy through expansion. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Rate-Controlled Constrained-Equilibrium Theory Applied to the Expansion of Combustion Products in the Power Stroke of an Internal Combustion Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hameed Metghalchi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Rate-controlled constrained-equilibrium method, firmly based on the second law of thermodynamics, is applied to the expansion of combustion products of methane during the power stroke of an internal combustion engine. The constraints used in this study are the elemental oxygen, hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen together with other four dynamic constraints of total number of moles, moles of DCO (CO+HCO, moles of free valence and moles of free oxygen. Since at chemical equilibrium, the mixture composition is dominated by H/O, CO/CO2, and a few other carbon-containing species, almost independent of the fuel molecule, the set results in accurate predictions of the kinetic effects observed in all H/O and CO/CO2 compounds and temperature history. It is shown that the constrained-equilibrium predictions of all the species composed of the specified atomic elements can be obtained independent of a kinetic path, provided their Gibbs free energies are known.

  12. The influence of beam energy, mode and focal length on the control of laser ignition in an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullett, J. D.; Dodd, R.; Williams, C. J.; Triantos, G.; Dearden, G.; Shenton, A. T.; Watkins, K. G.; Carroll, S. D.; Scarisbrick, A. D.; Keen, S.

    2007-08-01

    This work involves a study on laser ignition (LI) in an internal combustion (IC) engine and investigates the effects on control of engine combustion performance and stability of varying specific laser parameters (beam energy, beam quality, minimum beam waist size, focal point volume and focal length). A Q-switched Nd : YAG laser operating at the fundamental wavelength 1064 nm was successfully used to ignite homogeneous stoichiometric gasoline and air mixtures in one cylinder of a 1.6 litre IC test engine, where the remaining three cylinders used conventional electrical spark ignition (SI). A direct comparison between LI and conventional SI is presented in terms of changes in coefficient of variability in indicated mean effective pressure (COVIMEP) and the variance in the peak cylinder pressure position (VarPPP). The laser was individually operated in three different modes by changing the diameter of the cavity aperture, where the results show that for specific parameters, LI performed better than SI in terms of combustion performance and stability. Minimum ignition energies for misfire free combustion ranging from 4 to 28 mJ were obtained for various optical and laser configurations and were compared with the equivalent minimum optical breakdown energies in air.

  13. Unit consisting of a rotating cylinder internal combustion engine and a rotating cylinder compressor. Maschinenaggregat bestehend aus einer Rotationskolbenbrennkraftmaschine und einem Rotationskolbenkompressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuber, R.; Schubert, W.; Sohler, W.; Sutter, F.

    1991-03-28

    This is a unit consisting of a rotating cylinder internal combustion engine of trochoid construction to drive the cooling compresor of the same type and an electricity generator via belt drives, which is situated compactly in a vibration-damped pipe frame in a metal housing, where the internal combustion engine drives a fan via a Cardan joint and a drive shaft movable longitudinally. The unit is connected to an air conditioning plant which can be cooled via a cooling system with a compressor whose condenser is in the air flow of the fan, or can be heated by the waste heat of the internal combustion engine. In the first case, the internal combustion engine is cooled via a cooler in the flow of the fan. The unit is intended to be portable for use in disasters or for military purposes.

  14. Achievement of the charge exchange work diminishing of an internal combustion engine in part load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan POSTRZEDNIK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Internal combustion engines, used for driving of different cars, occurs not only at full load, but mostly at the part load. The relative load exchange work at the full (nominal engine load is significantly low. At the part load of the IC engine its energy efficiency ηe is significantly lower than in the optimal (nominal field range of the performance parameters. One of the numerous reasons of this effect is regular growing of the relative load exchange work of the IC engine. It is directly connected with the quantitative regulation method commonly used in the IC engines. From the thermodynamic point of view - the main reason of this effect is the throttling process (causing exergy losses occurring in the inlet and outlet channels. The known proposals for solving of this problem are based on applying of the fully electronic control of the motion of inlet, outlet valves and new reference cycles.The idea presented in the paper leads to diminishing the charge exchange work of the IC engines. The problem can be solved using presented in the paper a new concept of the reference cycle (called as eco-cycle of IC engine. The work of the engine basing on the eco-cycle occurs in two 3-stroke stages; the fresh air is delivered only once for both stages, but in range of each stage a new portion of fuel is burned. Normally the charge exchange occurs once during each engine cycle realized. Elaborated proposition bases on the elimination of chosen charge exchange processes and through this the dropping of the charge exchange work can be achieved.

  15. Numerical Study on the Performance Characteristics of Hydrogen Fueled Port Injection Internal Combustion Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosli A. Bakar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was focused on the engine performance of single cylinder hydrogen fueled port injection internal combustion engine. GT-Power was utilized to develop the model for port injection engine. One dimensional gas dynamics was represented the flow and heat transfer in the components of the engine model. The governing equations were introduced first, followed by the performance parameters and model description. Air-fuel ratio was varied from stoichiometric limit to a lean limit and the rotational speed varied from 2500 to 4500 rpm while the injector location was considered fixed in the midway of the intake port. The effects of air fuel ratio, crank angle and engine speed are presented in this study. From the acquired results show that the air-fuel ratio and engine speed were greatly influence on the performance of hydrogen fueled engine. It was shown that decreases the Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP and brake thermal efficiency with increases of the engine speed and air-fuel ratio however the increase the Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC with increases the speed and air-fuel ratio. The cylinder temperature increases with increases of engine speed however temperature decreases with increases of air-fuel ratio. The pressure fluctuations increased substantially with increases of speed at intake port however rise of pressure at the end of the exhaust stroke lead to reverse flow into the cylinder past exhaust valve. The fluctuation amplitude responded to the engine speed in case of exhaust pressure were given less than the intake pressure. The volumetric efficiency increased with increases of engine speed and equivalent ratio. The volumetric efficiency of the hydrogen engines with port injection is a serious problem and reduces the overall performance of the engine. This emphasized the ability of retrofitting the traditional engines with hydrogen fuel with minor modifications.

  16. On the identification of piston slap events in internal combustion engines using tribodynamic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolatabadi, N.; Theodossiades, S.; Rothberg, S. J.

    2015-06-01

    Piston slap is a major source of vibration and noise in internal combustion engines. Therefore, better understanding of the conditions favouring piston slap can be beneficial for the reduction of engine Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH). Past research has attempted to determine the exact position of piston slap events during the engine cycle and correlate them to the engine block vibration response. Validated numerical/analytical models of the piston assembly can be very useful towards this aim, since extracting the relevant information from experimental measurements can be a tedious and complicated process. In the present work, a coupled simulation of piston dynamics and engine tribology (tribodynamics) has been performed using quasi-static and transient numerical codes. Thus, the inertia and reaction forces developed in the piston are calculated. The occurrence of piston slap events in the engine cycle is monitored by introducing six alternative concepts: (i) the quasi-static lateral force, (ii) the transient lateral force, (iii) the minimum film thickness occurrence, (iv) the maximum energy transfer, (v) the lubricant squeeze velocity and (vi) the piston-impact angular duration. The validation of the proposed methods is achieved using experimental measurements taken from a single cylinder petrol engine in laboratory conditions. The surface acceleration of the engine block is measured at the thrust- and anti-thrust side locations. The correlation between the theoretically predicted events and the measured acceleration signals has been satisfactory in determining piston slap incidents, using the aforementioned concepts. The results also exhibit good repeatability throughout the set of measurements obtained in terms of the number of events occurring and their locations during the engine cycle.

  17. Sizing Stack and Battery of a Fuel Cell Hybrid Distribution Truck Dimensionnement pile et batterie d’un camion hybride à pile à combustible de distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tazelaar E.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An existing fuel cell hybrid distribution truck, built for demonstration purposes, is used as a case study to investigate the effect of stack (kW and battery (kW, kWh sizes on the hydrogen consumption of the vehicle. Three driving cycles, the NEDC for Low Power vehicles, CSC and JE05 cycle, define the driving requirements for the vehicle. The Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS is used for determining the control setpoint for the fuel cell and battery system. It closely approximates the global minimum in fuel consumption, set by Dynamic Programming (DP. Using DP the sizing problem can be solved but ECMS can also be implemented real-time. For the considered vehicle and hardware, all three driving cycles result in optimal sizes for the fuel cell stack of approximately three times the average drive power demand. This demonstrates that sizing the fuel cell stack the average or maximum power demand is not necessarily optimal with respect to a minimum fuel consumption. The battery is sized to deliver the difference between specified stack power and the peak power in the total power demand. The sizing of the battery is dominated by its power handling capabilities. Therefore, a higher maximum C-rate leads to a lower battery weight which in turn leads to a lower hydrogen consumption. The energy storage capacity of the battery only becomes an issue for C-rates over 30. Compared to a Range Extender (RE configuration, where the stack size is comparable to the average power demand and the stack is operated on a constant power level, optimal stack and battery sizes with ECMS as EnergyManagement Strategy significantly reduce the fuel consumption. Compared to a RE strategy, ECMS makes much better use of the combined power available from the fuel cell stack and the battery, resulting in a lower fuel consumption but also enabling a lower battery weight which consequently leads to improved payload capabilities. Un camion hybride, utilisant une pile

  18. Release of alkali salts and coal volatiles affecting internal components in fluidized bed combustion systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arias del Campo, E.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the potential advantages of atmospheric fluidized bed systems, experience has proved that, under certain environments and operating conditions, a given material employed for internal components could lead to catastrophic events. In this study, an attempt is made to establish material selection and operational criteria that optimize performance and availability based on theoretical considerations of the bed hydrodynamics, thermodynamics and combustion process. The theoretical results may indicate that, for high-volatile coals with particle diameters (dc of 1-3 mm and sand particle size (ds of 0.674 mm, a considerable proportion of alkali chlorides may be transferred into the freeboard region of fluidized bed combustors as vapor phase, at bed temperatures (Tb < 840 °C, excess air (XSA ≤ 20 %, static bed height (Hs ≤ 0.2 m and fluidizing velocity (Uo < 1 m/s. Under these operating conditions, a high alkali deposition may be expected to occur in heat exchange tubes located above the bed. Conversely, when the combustors operate at Tb > 890 °C and XSA > 30 %, a high oxidation rate of the in-bed tubes may be present. Nevertheless, for these higher Tb values and XSA < 10 %, corrosion attack of metallic components, via sulfidation, would occur since the excessive gas-phase combustion within the bed induced a local oxygen depletion.

    A pesar de las ventajas potenciales de los sistemas atmosféricos de lecho fluidizado, la experiencia ha demostrado que, bajo ciertas atmósferas y condiciones de operación, un material que se emplea como componente interno podría experimentar una falla y conducir a eventos catastróficos. En este estudio, se intenta establecer un criterio tanto operativo como de selección del material que permita optimizar su disponibilidad y funcionalidad basados en consideraciones teóricas de la hidrodinámica del lecho, la termodin

  19. Hybrid Encapsulated Ionic Liquids for Post-Combustion Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennecke, Joan; Degnan, Thomas; McCready, Mark; Stadtherr, Mark; Stolaroff, Joshuah; Ye, Congwang

    2016-09-30

    Ionic liquids (ILs) and Phase Change Ionic Liquids (PCILs) are excellent materials for selective removal of carbon dioxide from dilute post-combustion streams. However, they are typically characterized as having high viscosities, which impairs their effectiveness due to mass transfer limitations, caused by the high viscosities. In this project, we are examining the benefits of encapsulating ILs and PCILs in thin polymeric shells to produce particles of approximately 100 to 600 μm in diameter that can be used in a fluidized bed absorber. The particles are produced by microencapsulation of the ILs and PCILs in CO2-permeable polymer shells. Here we report on the synthesis of the IL and PCIL materials, measurements of thermophysical properties including CO2 capacity and reprotonation equilibrium and kinetics, encapsulation of the ILs and PCILs, mechanical and thermodynamic testing of the encapsulated materials, development of a rate based model of the absorber, and the design of a laboratory scale unit to test the encapsulated particles for CO2 capture ability and efficiency. We show that the IL/PCIL materials can be successfully encapsulated, that they retain CO2 uptake capacity, and that the uptake rates are increased relative to a stagnant sample of IL liquid or PCIL powder.

  20. One-pot microwave-assisted combustion synthesis of graphene oxide-TiO{sub 2} hybrids for photodegradation of methyl orange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pu, Xipeng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252000 (China); Zhang, Dafeng, E-mail: dafengzh@hotmail.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252000 (China); Gao, Yanyan; Shao, Xin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252000 (China); Ding, Guqiao [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Li, Songsong; Zhao, Shuping [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252000 (China)

    2013-02-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GO-TiO{sub 2} hybrids were synthesized by a microwave-assistant combustion method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reduction of GO, and nitrogen doping of TiO{sub 2} and graphene were one-pot achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GO-TiO{sub 2} hybrids show improved photocatalystic properties and photostability. - Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO)-TiO{sub 2} hybrids (GTHs) were synthesized by a one-pot microwave-assistant combustion method. The structures, morphologies, and photocatalytic properties of samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectra, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and photoluminescence. The effects of microwave irradiation time and GO content on the photocatalystic performances of as-synthesized GTHs for methyl orange were investigated. The experimental results show that reduction of GO, synthesis of TiO{sub 2}, and nitrogen doping of TiO{sub 2} and graphene can be achieved simultaneously during the combustion process. GTHs showed improved photocatalystic properties than neat TiO{sub 2}, due to the effective transfer of photo-generated electron from TiO{sub 2} to GO and improved absorbance performance of GTHs. Moreover, the photostability of GTHs was characterized.

  1. The Influence of Hydrogen Gas on the Measures of Efficiency of Diesel Internal Combustion Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgis Latakas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research paper energy and ecological parameters of diesel engine which works under addition of hydrogen (10, 20, 30 l/ min are presented. A survey of research literature has shown that addition of hydrogen gases improve diesel combustion; increase indicated pressure; decrease concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2, hydrocarbons (HC, particles; decrease fuel consumptions. Results of the experiment revealed that hydrogen gas additive decreased pressure in cylinder in kinetic combustion phase. Concentration of CO2 and nitrous oxides (NOx decreased not significantly, HC – increased. Concentration of particles in engine exhaust gases significantly decreased. In case when hydrogen gas as additive was supplied, the fuel consumptions decreased a little. Using AVL BOOST software combustion process analysis was made. It was determined that in order to optimize engine work process under hydrogen additive usage, it is necessary to adjust diesel injection angle.

  2. An Optical and Computational Investigation on the Effects of Transient Fuel Injections in Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Nicholas

    The effects of transient rate-of-injection profiles on high-pressure fuel jets have been studied in an optically accessible internal combustion engine. High-speed optical imaging measurements were applied over a range of ambient conditions, fuel types, and injection parameters. The optical data demonstrate that during the early part of the injection, while the liquid core of the jet is disintegrating, penetration is functionally linked to the orifice exit velocity up until a downstream distance hypothesized to be the jet breakup length. The jets then transition to a mixing dominated penetration behavior further downstream. Therefore, for cases that exhibit transient rate-of-injection (ROI) profiles, quasi-steady correlations for penetration have poor agreement with the empirical data. The lack of agreement between models using quasi-steady approximations and the high-speed experimental data, and the experimental evidence of liquid core physics impacting the transient jet penetration, motivated the development of a new 1-D model that integrates liquid core penetration physics and eliminates quasi-steady approximations. The new 1-D modeling methodology couples the transport equations for the evolution of the liquid core of the jet and the surrounding sheath of droplets resulting from breakup. The results of the model are validated against the aforementioned optical transient jet measurements. Finally, experimental results for two jet fuels and a diesel fuel are studied with the aid of the model. Differences in fuel properties cause the diesel fuel jet to transition from an incomplete spray to a complete spray later than the jet fuels during the transient injection process. Increasing ambient density causes the transition to happen earlier during the injection transient for all three fuels. The ignition delay and liftoff length appeared to be relatively unaffected by the late transition from incomplete to complete spray at low ambient density and low injection

  3. AN ALGORITHM OF ADAPTIVE TORQUE CONTROL IN INJECTOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Gerasimov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. Internal combustion engine as a plant is a highly nonlinear complex system that works mostly in dynamic regimes in the presence of noise and disturbances. A number of engine characteristics and parameters is not known or known approximately due to the complex structure and multimode operating of the engine. In this regard the problem of torque control is not trivial and motivates the use of modern techniques of control theory that give the possibility to overcome the mentioned problems. As a consequence, a relatively simple algorithm of adaptive torque control of injector engine is proposed in the paper. Method. Proposed method is based on nonlinear dynamic model with parametric and functional uncertainties (static characteristics which are suppressed by means of adaptive control algorithm with single adjustable parameter. The algorithm is presented by proportional control law with adjustable feedback gain and provides the exponential convergence of the control error to the neighborhood of zero equilibrium. It is shown that the radius of the neighborhood can be arbitrary reduced by the change of controller design parameters. Main Results. A dynamical nonlinear model of the engine has been designed for the purpose of control synthesis and simulation of the closed-loop system. The parameters and static functions of the model are identified with the use of data aquired during Federal Test Procedure (USA of Chevrolet Tahoe vehicle with eight cylinders 5,7L engine. The algorithm of adaptive torque control is designed, and the properties of the closed-loop system are analyzed with the use of Lyapunov functions approach. The closed-loop system operating is verified by means of simulation in the MatLab/Simulink environment. Simulation results show that the controller provides the boundedness of all signals and convergence of the control error to the neighborhood of zero equilibrium despite significant variations of engine speed. The

  4. Combustion Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — For more than 30 years The Combustion Research Facility (CRF) has served as a national and international leader in combustion science and technology. The need for a...

  5. Spatially Resolved Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Flow through the Intake Port of an Internal Combustion Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmann Frank

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern spark-ignited internal combustion engines have intake ports designed to introduce high levels of so-called “tumble” charge motion. Correspondingly high shear rates can lead to high fluctuations and turbulence within the combustion chamber. A suitable test case to characterize the intake flow is a steady-state flow bench. Although routinely used in the engine development process to determine the global discharge coefficients, only a few detailed numerical and experimental studies use this test case to analyze the flow in the vicinity of the valve with high spatial and temporal resolution. In this paper, we combined highly resolved two-dimensional, two-component Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV measurements and numerical simulations using a Detached-Eddy Simulation (DES model to characterize engine-relevant flow features on a flow bench. The spatial resolution of numerical simulations on two different grids is assessed and compared to that of the PIV measurement. The results of simulations and experiment are then compared in terms of their mean and fluctuation velocity fields and the jet orientation. A detailed study of the area around the valve seats investigates the validity of wall functions in this region. Finally, we examine structures induced by vortex-shedding at the valve stem and if they are transported into the combustion chamber.

  6. The sixth international congress on toxic combustion byproducts. Technical program and abstract book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Topics of this proceedings volume are: technical approaches - waste treatment; general toxicology of combustion byproducts; reaction mechanisms (e.g. formation and decomposition of hydrocarbons and chlorinated hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides); thermal treatment - reactionas at low temperatures; heterogeneous reactions - heterogeneous systems. (SR)

  7. Design of casting blanks in CAPP system for parts of piston-cylinder assembly of internal combustion engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Todić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of information technology industry provided great possibilities in the area of integration of diff erent CAx systems, such as CAD, CAM, CAE and others. In order to successfully link systems of automated-design (or Computer Aided Design - CAD with automated manufacturing systems (or Computer Aided Manufacturing – CAM, automation of manufacturing process planning is needed, i.e. CAPP (Computer-Aided Process Planning systems can bridge a gap between design and manufacturing. In this paper is shown design of casting blanks in CAPP system for parts of piston-cylinder assembly of internal combustion engines in a manufacturing system.

  8. Global mercury emissions from combustion in light of international fuel trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yilin; Wang, Rong; Shen, Huizhong; Li, Wei; Chen, Han; Huang, Ye; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Yuanchen; Su, Shu; Lin, Nan; Liu, Junfeng; Li, Bengang; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Wenxin; Coveney, Raymond M; Tao, Shu

    2014-01-01

    The spatially resolved emission inventory is essential for understanding the fate of mercury. Previous global mercury emission inventories for fuel combustion sources overlooked the influence of fuel trading on local emission estimates of many countries, mostly developing countries, for which national emission data are not available. This study demonstrates that in many countries, the mercury content of coal and petroleum locally consumed differ significantly from those locally produced. If the mercury content in locally produced fuels were used to estimate emission, then the resulting global mercury emissions from coal and petroleum would be overestimated by 4.7 and 72%, respectively. Even higher misestimations would exist in individual countries, leading to strong spatial bias. On the basis of the available data on fuel trading and an updated global fuel consumption database, a new mercury emission inventory for 64 combustion sources has been developed. The emissions were mapped at 0.1° × 0.1° resolution for 2007 and at country resolution for a period from 1960 to 2006. The estimated global total mercury emission from all combustion sources (fossil fuel, biomass fuel, solid waste, and wildfires) in 2007 was 1454 Mg (1232-1691 Mg as interquartile range from Monte Carlo simulation), among which elementary mercury (Hg(0)), divalent gaseous mercury (Hg(2+)), and particulate mercury (Hg(p)) were 725, 548, and 181 Mg, respectively. The total emission from anthropogenic sources, excluding wildfires, was 1040 Mg (886-1248 Mg), with coal combustion contributing more than half. Globally, total annual anthropogenic mercury emission from combustion sources increased from 285 Mg (263-358 Mg) in 1960 to 1040 Mg (886-1248 Mg) in 2007, owing to an increased fuel consumption in developing countries. However, mercury emissions from developed countries have decreased since 2000.

  9. Tracer-based laser-induced fluorescence measurement technique for quantitative fuel/air-ratio measurements in a hydrogen internal combustion engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blotevogel, Thomas; Hartmann, Matthias; Rottengruber, Hermann; Leipertz, Alfred

    2008-12-10

    A measurement technique for the quantitative investigation of mixture formation processes in hydrogen internal combustion engines (ICEs) has been developed using tracer-based laser-induced fluorescence (TLIF). This technique can be employed to fired and motored engine operation. The quantitative TLIF fuel/air-ratio results have been verified by means of linear Raman scattering measurements. Exemplary results of the simultaneous investigation of mixture formation and combustion obtained at an optical accessible hydrogen ICE are shown.

  10. Evaluation of a hybrid sampling train for measuring trace elements and identifying mercury species in combustion flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S.F.; Wincek, R.T.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1999-07-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated an information collection request (ICR) on January 1, 1999 for coal-fired electric utility steam generating units (>25 MW) to document mercury levels in their fuels and emissions. The issuance of an ICR generally precedes the implementation of regulatory action by the EPA. The EPA has designated the Modified Ontario Hydro Method for stack gas sampling to measure total, elemental and oxidized mercury. This recommendation is based on extensive work by the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC) in evaluating a series of methodologies for determining mercury speciation. EPA has also designed the Method 29 sampling train for the sampling and measurement of the other elements identified as HAP's, i.e. As, Be, Cd, Co, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and Hg. Extensive testing has shown that EPA Method 29 may not speciate mercury correctly; however, it may still be used to measure total mercury. Currently there are no emission restrictions on these elements from power plants, however studies are being conducted as to their health risk and environmental impact. The objective of the study is to evaluate a hybrid train consisting of components of both the Modified Ontario Hydro Method and Method 29 sampling trains. Both sampling procedures are very labor intensive and require time to develop sampling expertise. The various sample trains are being tested in a 20 million Btu/hr demonstration boiler and a 2 million Btu/hr research boiler using a variety of fuels and combustion conditions.

  11. Efficiency of a new internal combustion engine concept with variable piston motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorić Jovan Ž.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents simulation of working process in a new IC engine concept. The main feature of this new IC engine concept is the realization of variable movement of the piston. With this unconventional piston movement it is easy to provide variable compression ratio, variable displacement and combustion during constant volume. These advantages over standard piston mechanism are achieved through synthesis of the two pairs of non-circular gears. Presented mechanism is designed to obtain a specific motion law which provides better fuel consumption of IC engines. For this paper Ricardo/WAVE software was used, which provides a fully integrated treatment of time-dependent fluid dynamics and thermodynamics by means of onedimensional formulation. The results obtained herein include the efficiency characteristic of this new heat engine concept. The results show that combustion during constant volume, variable compression ratio and variable displacement have significant impact on improvement of fuel consumption.

  12. Biomass-based gasifiers for internal combustion (IC) engines—A review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashish Malik; S K Mohapatra

    2013-06-01

    The world is facing severe problems of energy crisis and environmental problem. This situation makes people to focus their attention on sustainable energy resources for their survival. Biomass is recognized to be the major potential source for energy production. There are ranges of biomass utilization technologies that produce useful energy from biomass. Gasification is one of the important techniques out of direct combustion, anaerobic digestion – Biogas, ethanol production. Gasification enables conversion of these materials into combustible gas (producer gas), mechanical and electrical power, synthetic fuels, and chemical. The gasification of biomass into useful fuel enhances its potential as a renewable energy resource. This paper gives a comprehensive review of the techniques used for utilizing biomass, experimental investigation on biomass fuels, characterization, merits, demerits and challenges faced by biomass fuels.

  13. Influence of Valve's Characteristic on Total Performance of Three Cylinders Internal Combustion Water Pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hongxin; ZHANG Tiezhu; WANG Weichao

    2009-01-01

    lntenal combustion pump (ICP) is a new type power device turning the thermal energy from fuel combustion into fluid pressure energy. Three cylinders prototype has just been developed. The study on the influence of valve's characteristic on ICP's total performance will found the base for its optimum design. Based on the theoretical and testing fruits of single cylinder prototype, the performance of the valves and complete appliance of the latest is simulated. When the natural frequency of valves is approximately to the round number times of the working frequency, volumetric efficiency is seriously low. The nominal rotational speed of the prototype is nearly to the speed where the volumetric efficiency is lowest, which is harmful to the normal work of ICP, so further structure optimization of valves should be carried out. The change of volumetric efficiency has great influence on the fuel consumption rate,output flow, effective thermal efficiency, effective power, and so on, but little on output pressure.

  14. Hybrid Membrane/Absorption Process for Post-combustion CO2 Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shiguang; Shou, S.; Pyrzynski, Travis; Makkuni, Ajay; Meyer, Howard

    2013-12-31

    This report summarizes scientific/technical progress made for bench-scale membrane contactor technology for post-combustion CO2 capture from DOE Contract No. DE-FE-0004787. Budget Period 1 (BP1) membrane absorber, Budget Period 2 (BP2) membrane desorber and Budget Period 3 (BP3) integrated system and field testing studies have been completed successfully and met or exceeded the technical targets (≥ 90% CO2 removal and CO2 purity of 97% in one membrane stage). Significant breakthroughs are summarized below: BP1 research: The feasibility of utilizing the poly (ether ether ketone), PEEK, based hollow fiber contractor (HFC) in combination with chemical solvents to separate and capture at least 90% of the CO2 from simulated flue gases has been successfully established. Excellent progress has been made as we have achieved the BP1 goal: ≥ 1,000 membrane intrinsic CO2 permeance, ≥ 90% CO2 removal in one stage, ≤ 2 psi gas side pressure drop, and ≥ 1 (sec)-1 mass transfer coefficient. Initial test results also show that the CO2 capture performance, using activated Methyl Diethanol Amine (aMDEA) solvent, was not affected by flue gas contaminants O2 (~3%), NO2 (66 ppmv), and SO2 (145 ppmv). BP2 research: The feasibility of utilizing the PEEK HFC for CO2-loaded solvent regeneration has been successfully established High CO2 stripping flux, one order of magnitude higher than CO2 absorption flux, have been achieved. Refined economic evaluation based on BP1 membrane absorber and BP2 membrane desorber laboratory test data indicate that the CO2 capture costs are 36% lower than DOE’s benchmark amine absorption technology. BP3 research: A bench-scale system utilizing a membrane absorber and desorber was integrated into a continuous CO2 capture process using contactors containing 10 to 20 ft2 of membrane area. The integrated process operation was stable through a 100-hour laboratory test, utilizing a simulated flue gas stream. Greater than 90% CO2 capture combined with 97

  15. Miniature Internal Combustion Engine-Generator for High Energy Density Portable Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    very effective at maintaining a constant voltage and stroke as the HCCI combustion pressure varies during engine warmup. The current is modulated by the...Comparison of Measured and Predicted Two- Stroke Engine Power Output for Jet-A and Propane 5 The exhaust emissions of the 300 W MICE generator with HCCI ...1 Two-Stroke Engine Double- Helix Spring Linear Alternator Magnet Pole Permanent Magnet Alternator Coil Spring Casing Coil Standoff Double-Helix

  16. On the wall jet from the ring crevice of an internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cloutman, L.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Green, R.M. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Numerical simulations and experiments of the jetting of gases from the ring crevices of a laboratory engine shortly after exhaust valve opening showed an unanticipated radial flow of the crevice gases into the main combustion chamber. We report well-resolved numerical simulations of a wall jet that show that this radial motion is driven by vorticity generation in the wall boundary layer and at the corner of the piston crown.

  17. Small Internal Combustion Engine Testing for a Hybrid-Electric Remotely-Piloted Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    were mounted to the cradle and their engine shafts coupled to the absorber via a belt pulley and gears for testing purposes in this effort. 42...0.02 N·m. Another calibration was done in regard to dynamometer operation. Greiser [11] and Harmon [9] calculated the gear -ratio between the...software based on measured absorber RPM. The number of grooves or gear teeth were counted on the sprockets and compared. The gear -ratio was calculated

  18. Fundamental Phenomena on Fuel Decomposition and Boundary-Layer Combustion Precesses with Applications to Hybrid Rocket Motors. Part 1; Experimental Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Kenneth K.; Lu, Yeu-Cherng; Chiaverini, Martin J.; Johnson, David K.; Serin, Nadir; Risha, Grant A.; Merkle, Charles L.; Venkateswaran, Sankaran

    1996-01-01

    This final report summarizes the major findings on the subject of 'Fundamental Phenomena on Fuel Decomposition and Boundary-Layer Combustion Processes with Applications to Hybrid Rocket Motors', performed from 1 April 1994 to 30 June 1996. Both experimental results from Task 1 and theoretical/numerical results from Task 2 are reported here in two parts. Part 1 covers the experimental work performed and describes the test facility setup, data reduction techniques employed, and results of the test firings, including effects of operating conditions and fuel additives on solid fuel regression rate and thermal profiles of the condensed phase. Part 2 concerns the theoretical/numerical work. It covers physical modeling of the combustion processes including gas/surface coupling, and radiation effect on regression rate. The numerical solution of the flowfield structure and condensed phase regression behavior are presented. Experimental data from the test firings were used for numerical model validation.

  19. International Symposium on Combustion (23rd) Held in Orleans, France on 22-27 July 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Otto - engine , combustion takes place in a 4pA ( (’r - 2a=q (4) highly turbulent flow field whose properties are not - 3Cq + well understood. Due to the...Unthrottled Otto Engine , SAE Paper No. KFCs (Figs. 3 and 4) reveal that at high pres- 810776, 1981. sres the most influencial reaction is: 5. SHER, E...x t1 6 m , P , = 2 b r2 , T , s e t x16 mm, P0 = 2 bar, 5 2, To, see text small variations in temperature are considered to occur in end gas of Otto

  20. Computational hybrid anthropometric paediatric phantom library for internal radiation dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Tianwu; Kuster, Niels; Zaidi, Habib

    2017-01-01

    covering statistical distributions of body morphometry in the paediatric population. The paediatric phantoms of the Virtual Population Series (IT'IS Foundation, Switzerland) were modified to match target anthropometric parameters, including body mass, body length, standing height and sitting height...... to create 1100 female and male phantoms with 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th body morphometries. Evaluation was performed qualitatively using 3D visualization and quantitatively by analysing internal organ masses. Overall, the newly generated phantoms appear very reasonable and representative of the main...

  1. Influence of the cooling degree upon performances of internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grǎdinariu, Andrei Cristian; Mihai, Ioan

    2016-12-01

    Up to present, air cooling systems still raise several unsolved problems due to conditions imposed by the environment in terms of temperature and pollution levels. The present paper investigates the impact of the engine cooling degree upon its performances, as important specific power is desired for as low as possible fuel consumption. A technical solution advanced by the authors[1], consists of constructing a bi-flux compressor, which can enhance the engine's performances. The bi-flux axial compressor accomplishes two major functions, that is it cools down the engine and it also turbocharges it. The present paper investigates the temperature changes corresponding to the fresh load, during the use of a bi-flux axial compressor. This compressor is economically simple, compact, and offers an optimal response at low rotational speeds of the engine, when two compression steps are used. The influence of the relative coefficient of air temperature drop upon working agent temperature at the intercooler exit is also investigated in the present work. The variation of the thermal load coefficient by report to the working agent temperature is also investigated during engine cooling. The variation of the average combustion temperature is analyzed in correlation to the thermal load coefficient and the temperatures of the working fluid at its exit from the cooling system. An exergetic analysis was conducted upon the influence of the cooling degree on the motor fluid and the gases resulted from the combustion process.

  2. Studying the Internal Ballistics of a Combustion Driven Potato Cannon using High-speed Video

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, E D S

    2013-01-01

    A potato cannon was designed to accommodate several different experimental propellants and have a transparent barrel so the movement of the projectile could be recorded on high-speed video (at 2000 frames per second). Both combustion chamber and barrel were made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Five experimental propellants were tested: propane (C3H8), acetylene (C2H2), ethanol (C2H6O), methanol (CH4O), and butane (C4H10). The amount of each experimental propellant was calculated to approximate a stoichometric mixture and considering the Upper Flammability Limit (UFL) and the Lower Flammability Limit (LFL), which in turn were affected by the volume of the combustion chamber. Cylindrical projectiles were cut from raw potatoes so that there was an airtight fit, and each weighed 50 (+/- 0.5) grams. For each trial, position as a function of time was determined via frame by frame analysis. Five trials were taken for each experimental propellant and the results analyzed to compute velocity and acceleration as functions...

  3. Learning effectiveness and satisfaction of international medical students: Introducing a Hybrid-PBL curriculum in biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qiu; Ma, Li; Zhu, Lina; Zhang, Wenli

    2017-07-08

    A biochemistry course is a fundamental but important subject in medical education in China. In recent years, the number of international medical students has increased. Curriculum reform in biochemistry teaching is needed because of the knowledge limitations of students, a close linkage of biochemical content with clinics, the shortcomings of lecture-centered teaching, and the requirements for early clinical practice training and competence. In this study, we analyzed a novel curriculum reform, "Hybrid-PBL," which combined problem-based learning (PBL) with biochemistry lectures and was implemented for biochemical teaching at Dalian Medical University (DMU) in China. The change in curriculum affected 189 international medical students. This study selected two PBL cases concerning the basic biochemical issues of carbohydrate metabolism and liver biochemistry for the analysis, and ten examples of learning issues for each case were reported by the international students. A questionnaire was utilized to evaluate students' perceptions of the Hybrid-PBL, and examination scores were analyzed to assess the curriculum reform in biochemistry teaching. A statistical analysis revealed that the Hybrid-PBL curriculum was well accepted by the international students as an effective supplement to lecture-centered teaching programs. The students obtained more abilities, higher examination scores, and an improved understanding of biomedical information from the Hybrid-PBL program than from conventional teaching methods. Our study was an innovative trial that applied a PBL curriculum to the specific discipline of biochemistry and may provide a potential and promising new teaching method that can be widely utilized. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(4):336-342, 2017. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  4. The influence of drive parameters and technical condition on the vibroactivity of devices with single-cylinder internal combustion engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz FIGLUS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the important issue of the noise emission, generated bysingle-cylinder internal combustion engine constructions. This type of engine is used indrives of different types of machines and devices, including transport machines. In thestudy, the measurements and results analysis were conducted, which aim was to estimatethe influence of the engine capacity, their power and the change of the technicalcondition on the generated noise. The researches of exemplary lawnmowers, equipped inthis type of drive, showed the reduction of the sound level, together with the increase ofthe engines capacity and power decrease, and the increase of the noise (a few decibelscaused by the change of the technical condition during the operation.

  5. CRANK-PISTON MODEL OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE USING CAD/CAM/CAE IN THE MSC ADAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał BIAŁY

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the modeling and simulation of the crank-piston model of internal combustion engine. The object of the research was the engine of the vehicle from the B segment. The individual elements of the gasoline engine were digitizing using the process of reverse engineering. After converting the geometry, assembling was imported to MSC Adams software. The crank-piston system was specified by boundary conditions of piston forces applied on the pistons crowns. This force was obtain from the cylinder pressure recorded during the tests, that were carried out on a chassis dynamometer. The simulation studies allowed t determine the load distribution in a dynamic state for the selected kinematic pairs.

  6. A retrospective survey of the use of laboratory tests to simulate internal combustion engine materials tribology problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, P.J.

    1992-12-31

    Progress in the Field of tribology strongly parallels, and has always been strongly driven by, developments and needs in transportation and related industries. Testing of candidate materials for internal combustion engine applications has historically taken several routes: (1) replacement of parts in actual engines subjected to daily use, (2) testing in special, instrumented test engines, (3) and simulative testing in laboratory tribometers using relatively simple specimens. The advantages and disadvantages of each approach are reviewed using historical examples. A four-decade, retrospective survey of the tribomaterials literature focused on the effectiveness of laboratory simulations for engine materials screening. Guidelines for designing and ducting successful tribology laboratory simulations will be discussed. These concepts were used to design a valve wear simulator at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  7. Application of non-equal interval GM(1,1) model in oil monitoring of internal combustion engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shi-wei; LI Zhu-guo; ZHOU Shou-xi

    2005-01-01

    The basic difference non-equal interval model GM(1,1) in grey theory was used to fit and forecast data series with non-equal lengths and different inertias, acquired from oil monitoring of internal combustion engines. The fitted and forecasted results show that the length or inertia of a sequence affects its precision very much, i.e. the bigger the inertia of a sequence is, or the shorter the length of a series is, the less the errors of fitted and forecasted results are. Based on the research results, it is suggested that short series should be applied to be fitted and forecasted; for longer series, the newer datum should be applied instead of the older datum to be analyzed by non-equal interval GM(1,1) to improve the forecasted and fitted precision, and that data sequence should be verified to satisfy the conditions of grey forecasting.

  8. Working fluid selection for the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) exhaust heat recovery of an internal combustion engine power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douvartzides, S.; Karmalis, I.

    2016-11-01

    Organic Rankine cycle technology is capable to efficiently convert low-grade heat into useful mechanical power. In the present investigation such a cycle is used for the recovery of heat from the exhaust gases of a four stroke V18 MAN 51/60DF internal combustion engine power plant operating with natural gas. Design is focused on the selection of the appropriate working fluid of the Rankine cycle in terms of thermodynamic, environmental and safety criteria. 37 candidate fluids have been considered and all Rankine cycles examined were subcritical. The thermodynamic analysis of all fluids has been comparatively undertaken and the effect of key operation conditions such as the evaporation pressure and the superheating temperature was taken into account. By appropriately selecting the working fluid and the Rankine cycle operation conditions the overall plant efficiency was improved by 5.52% and fuel consumption was reduced by 12.69%.

  9. New, efficient and viable system for ethanol fuel utilization on combined electric/internal combustion engine vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, André G.; Silva, Gabriel C. D.; Paganin, Valdecir A.; Biancolli, Ana L. G.; Ticianelli, Edson A.

    2015-10-01

    Although ethanol can be directly employed as fuel on polymer-electrolyte fuel cells (PEMFC), its low oxidation kinetics in the anode and the crossover to the cathode lead to a substantial reduction of energy conversion efficiency. However, when fuel cell driven vehicles are considered, the system may include an on board steam reformer for converting ethanol into hydrogen, but the hydrogen produced contains carbon monoxide, which limits applications in PEMFCs. Here, we present a system consisting of an ethanol dehydrogenation catalytic reactor for producing hydrogen, which is supplied to a PEMFC to generate electricity for electric motors. A liquid by-product effluent from the reactor can be used as fuel for an integrated internal combustion engine, or catalytically recycled to extract more hydrogen molecules. Power densities comparable to those of a PEMFC operating with pure hydrogen are attained by using the hydrogen rich stream produced by the ethanol dehydrogenation reactor.

  10. FAILURE MECHANISMS OF THERMAL BARRIER COATINGS INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES AND llMPROVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADNAN PARLAK

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available MechanicaJ properties of high performance ceramics have been improved to the point where their use in heat engines is possible. The high temperature strength and low thermal expansion properties of bigh performance ceramics offer an advantage over metals in the development of non-water cooling engine. However, because bard environment in diesel engine combustion chamber, solving the problem of durabiUty of TBC is important. DurabiUty of thermal barrier coatings(TBC is liınited by two main failure mechanisms: Therınal expansion nlİsmatch betwcen bond coat and top coat and bond coat oxidation. Both of these can cause failure of the ceramic top coat. Developments of recent years sholv that bond coats \\Vith higher oxidation resistance tend to have better coating system cyclic lives

  11. Experimental study of CH4/H2 mixtures-LPG-gasoline in internal combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayrak, Mehmet; Albayrak Ceper, Bilge; Kahraman, Nafiz; Orhan Akansu, Selahaddin [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Erciyes University Engineering Faculty (Turkey)], e-mail: akansu@erciyes.edu.tr

    2011-07-01

    With the depletion of fossil fuel and the rising concerns about the environment, there is an urgent need for alternative fuels with low environmental impact. Research has been carried out world-wide to determine the energetic and environmental performance of alternative fuels in existing engines and the aim of this paper is to study the performance of engines using CH4/H2 (90% CH4 and 10% H2), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and gasoline. Experiments were conducted on a Kathana engine running at between 1500 and 3500 rotations per minutes and with spark timing between 10 and 35 BTDC. It was found that the CH4/H2 mix provides the lowest pollutant emission values of the studied fuels and the lowest brake thermal efficiency. This study provided a better understanding of the exhaust emission and combustion performances of CH4/H2 and LPG compared to gasoline.

  12. Optical Engines as Representative Tools in the Development of New Combustion Engine Concepts Moteurs transparents comme outils représentatifs dans le développement de nouveaux concepts des moteurs à combustion interne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashdan J.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Single cylinder optical engines are used for Internal Combustion (IC engine research as they allow for the application of qualitative and quantitative non-intrusive, diagnostic techniques to study in-cylinder flow, mixing, combustion and emissions phenomena. Such experimental data is not only important for the validation of computational models but can also provide a detailed insight into the physical processes occurring in-cylinder which is useful for the further development of new combustion strategies such as gasoline Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI and Diesel Low Temperature Combustion (LTC. In this context, it is therefore important to ensure that the performance of optical engines is comparable to standard all-metal engines. A comparison of optical and all-metal engine combustion and emissions performance was performed within the present study. The objective was to investigate the principal differences between optical and all-metal engines and understand how these differences ultimately affect mixing, combustion and emissions formation processes. Experimental results reveal the significant impact of differences in combustion chamber wall temperatures between optical and standard engine piston bowls on combustion phasing and engine-out emissions. Quantitative measurements of piston wall temperatures using a laser-induced phosphorescence technique were performed which allowed the subsequent definition of appropriate engine operating strategies so as to compensate for differences in heat transfer properties. Furthermore, differences in combustion chamber geometry were also studied. Geometrical differences can arise as a result of dynamic (compressive/tensile and thermal loading of the extended piston-liner assembly on the optical engine, potentially leading to changes in the effective Compression Ratio. In addition, intake charge dilution in optical engines is often achieved via the use of simulated Exhaust Gas Recirculation

  13. Hydrogen powered sports car series (internal combustion engine and fuel cells)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotthold, J.P. [American Hydrogen Association, Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The electric hybrid vehicle can solve the problems which today make the pure electric car limited in its acceptance. The primary limitations are excess weight and short range due to a heavy battery pack of limited energy density. Our basic vehicular design makes use of three power technologies in a balanced way. The chassis is the standard Volkswagen Beetle type which carried many millions of the {open_quotes}beetles{close_quotes} across all the Earth`s continents. The body is a fiberfab replica of a 1970s design sports car which provides three compartments from it`s original mid engine design and a classic aerodynamic shape.

  14. Evaluation of direct combustion chamber information in internal combustion engines using methods of estimation theory; Auswertung direkter Brennrauminformationen am Verbrennungsmotor mit estimationstheoretischen Methoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, M.

    1999-04-16

    The estimation of the air mass in the cylinder of a spark ignition (SI) engine is crucial in order to regulate the exact air fuel (A/F) ratio for the catalyst and thus minimize the emissions. Conventional algorithms for estimating the air mass are based on sensor information measured in front of the throttle or in the manifold. Thus, the determination of cylinder individual sizes, particularly the air mass, is impossible. In this work, new sensors, which provide cylinder individual information are investigated and the air mass in each individual cylinder is calculated with adaptive, model based algorithms. Sensors within the combustion chamber of an SI engine enable a cylinder specific evaluation of the thermodynamic work process. In particular, the combustion pressure sensor or ionisation current sensing are two independent methods of measuring direct combustion information. In a few cases such sensors are used in mass production cars. The combustion pressure sensor exhibits two significant advantages when compared to ionisation current. First, it provides information of the pressure in the cylinder during the complete working cycle of the engine and this pressure information is a measure of the entire combustion chamber. In contrast, the ionisation sensing represents a local measurement during the combustion and part of the expansion phase and this measurement can only be seen as a part of the information contained in the combustion pressure sensor signal. Second, the determination of the air mass in the cylinder, the most significant process information, can only be determined by cylinder pressure measurements and not by ionisation current. Reducing costs by eliminating the mass air flow meter is a requirement for the implementation of combustion pressure sensors in a mass production throttled SI engine. Thus, the cylinder pressure sensor must be able to determine the air mass in the cylinder. However, the cylinder pressure sensors will not be implemented in a

  15. A Technical Review of Compressed Natural Gas as an Alternative Fuel for Internal Combustion Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas is promising alternative fuel to meet strict engine emission regulations in many countries. Compressed natural gas (CNG has long been used in stationary engines, but the application of CNG as a transport engines fuel has been considerably advanced over the last decade by the development of lightweight high-pressure storage cylinders. Engine conversion technology is well established and suitable conversion equipment is readily available. For spark ignition engines there are two options, a bi-fuel conversion and use a dedicated to CNG engine. For compression ignition engines converted to run on natural gas, there are two main options discussed, there are dual-fuel engines and normal ignition can be initiated. Natural gas engines can operate at lean burn and stoichiometric conditions with different combustion and emission characteristics. In this paper, the CNG engines research and development fueled using CNG are highlighted to keep the output power, torque and emissions of natural gas engines comparable to their gasoline or diesel counterparts. The high activities for future CNG engines research and development to meet future CNG engines is recorded in the paper.

  16. Symposium (International) on Combustion, 23rd, Universite d'Orleans, France, July 22-27, 1990, Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The present symposium on combustion discusses reaction kinetics, NO(x) kinetics, premixed, diffusion, and nonsteady flames, turbulent combustion, hazardous waste, fluidized bed combustion, coal boilers and furnaces, engines, heterogeneous kinetics, heterogeneous, droplet, and microgravity combustion, and high-temperature synthesis. Attention is given to reactions of biphenyl, methylnaphthalenes, and phenanthrene with atomic oxygen in the gas phase, the oxidation of ortho-xylene, the effects of water on combustion kinetics at high pressure, and the formation and measurement of N2O in combustion systems. Topics addressed include large ions in premixed benzene-oxygen flames, the structure and kinetics of CH4/N2O flames, the propagation of unsteady hydrogen premixed flames near flammability limits, and the basic structure of lean propane flames. Also considered are OH measurements of piloted diffusion flames of nitrogen-diluted methane near extinction, waste combustion, preferential oxidation of carbon surfaces, and reburning mechanisms in a pulverized coal combustor.

  17. Univalve. A fully variable mechanical valve lift system for future internal combustion engines; Univalve. Ein vollvariables mechanisches Ventiltriebsystem fuer zukuenftige Verbrennungsmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flierl, Rudolf; Schmitt, Stephan [TU Kaiserslautern (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Verbrennungskraftmaschinen; Kleinert, Gerd; Esch, Hans-Joachim; Dismon, Heinrich [Kolbenschmidt Pierburg AG, Neckarsulm (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    In order to optimize the gas exchange and combustion sequences, the performance, emissions, and - above all else - the degree of effectiveness of internal combustion engines have to be fully utilized. The only way to achieve this potential is by using a valve train which enables infinitely variable adjustment of the inlet valve lift duration, thus permitting throttle-free load control. Therefore, the Kolbenschmidt Pierburg AG selected the Univalve system, developed by Entec Consulting GmbH, and recently acquired the rights to the new system. In joint effort, the Univalve system is now undergoing final development prior to full-scale serial production. (orig.)

  18. Stand for Experimental Evaluation of Effects of Hydrogen Use in Internal Combustion Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levente B.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxy gas or the Brown gas or simply HHO, as it is called more often now days, is a highly flammable gas that has been around since the beginning of the XX-th century, when scientist Yull Brown has dedicated his work to study the properties and means of production of HHO by water electrolysis. In the second half of the century, the oil crisis, the simplicity of HHO production and its high combustion temperature and flame propagation have spurred the interest of ”garage inventors” around the world, who started doing practical experiments with HHO injection on personal vehicles and power-generators, in trying to reduce gas mileage, increase the engine performance and lower tailpipe emissions. Today, this technology is being rediscovered, again due to higher fuel prices and this time also due to some increasing concerns over global warming. Many have learned that HHO injection into the IC engine improves the gas mileage and reduces emissions, some reporting fuel savings of up to 40%, while others even claim to have reached the performance of operating their engines on HHO entirely produced onboard of the running vehicle. There are also reports that claim increased life span of the engine and engine lubrication, due to reduction effect of HHO on the solid hydrocarbon depositions onto the engine critical components, like pistons, valves, cylinder walls, etc. In this regard, the University Politehnica Timisoara Department of Mechanical Machines, Equipment and Transportation and Department for Applied Chemistry and Engineering of Inorganic Compounds and Environment, have joined together in a project to study and understand the mechanism that take place during HHO injection to IC engines, quantify the benefits and develop safer, better and more reliable materials for HHO on-demand and on-board production by water electrolysis.

  19. Consumer animosity in the global value chain: The effect of international production shifts on willingness to purchase hybrid products

    OpenAIRE

    Charles A Funk; Jonathan D Arthurs; Len J Treviño; Jeff Joireman

    2010-01-01

    The escalation of international offshoring and outsourcing in recent years has resulted in a proliferation of “hybrid products” for the typical multinational enterprise, with multiple country affiliations for branding, design, manufacture, assembly and parts sourcing. However, little has been written regarding the impact of consumer animosity on such hybrid activities, or the role of universal values in a hybrid production animosity model. In this paper we extend the consumer animosity litera...

  20. A Cultural Hybridization Perspective: Emerging Academic Subculture among International Students from East Asia in U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian

    2016-01-01

    This research examines the emerging academic subculture of international students from East Asia in U.S. academics from the cultural hybridization perspective. In a knowledge-based economy, international education plays a pivotal role in the global educational environment. Advocacy of international student mobility is essential; international…

  1. Path planning during combustion mode switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Ravi, Nikhil

    2015-12-29

    Systems and methods are provided for transitioning between a first combustion mode and a second combustion mode in an internal combustion engine. A current operating point of the engine is identified and a target operating point for the internal combustion engine in the second combustion mode is also determined. A predefined optimized transition operating point is selected from memory. While operating in the first combustion mode, one or more engine actuator settings are adjusted to cause the operating point of the internal combustion engine to approach the selected optimized transition operating point. When the engine is operating at the selected optimized transition operating point, the combustion mode is switched from the first combustion mode to the second combustion mode. While operating in the second combustion mode, one or more engine actuator settings are adjusted to cause the operating point of the internal combustion to approach the target operating point.

  2. Towards Ideal NOx and CO2 Emission Control Technology for Bio-Oils Combustion Energy System Using a Plasma-Chemical Hybrid Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, M.; Fujishima, H.; Yamato, Y.; Kuroki, T.; Tanaka, A.; Otsuka, K.

    2013-03-01

    A pilot-scale low-emission boiler system consisting of a bio-fuel boiler and plasma-chemical hybrid NOx removal system is investigated. This system can achieve carbon neutrality because the bio-fuel boiler uses waste vegetable oil as one of the fuels. The plasma-chemical hybrid NOx removal system has two processes: NO oxidation by ozone produced from plasma ozonizers and NO2 removal using a Na2SO3 chemical scrubber. Test demonstrations of the system are carried out for mixed oils (mixture of A-heavy oil and waste vegetable oil). Stable combustion is achieved for the mixed oil (20 - 50% waste vegetable oil). Properties of flue gas—e.g., O2, CO2 and NOx—when firing mixed oils are nearly the same as those when firing heavy oil for an average flue gas flow rate of 1000 Nm3/h. NOx concentrations at the boiler outlet are 90 - 95 ppm. Furthermore, during a 300-min continuous operation when firing 20% mixed oil, NOx removal efficiency of more than 90% (less than 10 ppm NOx emission) is confirmed. In addition, the CO2 reduction when heavy oil is replaced with waste vegetable oil is estimated. The system comparison is described between the plasma-chemical hybrid NOx removal and the conventional technology.

  3. Thermal study of the structure of an internal combustion engine and assessment of cooling system efficiency by a numerical tridimensional simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagasse, J.P.; Rossi, F.N. (Regie Nationale des Usines Renault 92 - Boulogne (FR))

    1989-01-01

    This paper proposes a calculation tool to evaluate the thermal field of the structure of an internal combustion engine. For this purpose a calculation procedure has been devised to take into account the thermal exchanges with the cooling fluid, the gases taking part to the combustion, the exchanges with the environment under the hood, the lubrificating liquid. The particularity of our study is to model with precision the action of the cooling fluid by solving the tridimensional thermo-hydraulic problem. This enables to evaluate quantitatively the efficiency of the cooling system and the influence of some geometrical modifications. We discuss the case of the housing of a car diesel-engine in using simultaneously an industrial thermo-hydraulic finite elements software (developed by C.E.A.) and a combustion specific one-dimensional software.

  4. Development of a phenomenological cycle simulation for a natural gas-fuelled, compression-ignited, internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yafeng

    Engine cycle simulations have been developed for modeling both diesel and dual fuel combustion in compression ignition engines. The primary objective of this work was to investigate the dual fuel combustion process in an engine and to better understand the processes of ignition, flame propagation, and pollutant formation in the engine. A multizone diesel combustion model was first developed to predict the diesel combustion process and emissions for diesel fueling. A phenomenological combustion model for dual fuel operation was then developed to simulate the combustion process and emissions of a micro-pilot diesel ignition natural gas fueled engine. Coupled with the chemical equilibrium reactions for emission formation (i.e., extended Zeldovich NOx mechanism, soot formation and destruction submodeling, unburned hydrocarbon emissions submodeling), models for diesel droplet evaporation, air entrainment, cylinder heat transfer, piston work, mass flow rates, flame propagation, crevice flow, and flame quenching have been combined with a thermodynamic analysis of the engine to yield instantaneous cylinder conditions, engine performance, and emissions. Parametric and comparison studies of diesel operation, dual fuel combustion, and micro-pilot combustion have been conducted. The major conclusions that can be drawn from this work include (1) diesel evaporation and air entrainment can have significant influence on the ignition and combustion processes, (2) pressure and temperature of inlet air, compression ratio, and the start of fuel injection are important engine operating and design parameters, (3) the combustion process of the mixture of natural gas and air is dominantly premixed-combustion, and (4) the processes of crevice flow and flame quenching can have a substantial impact on the dual fuel/micro-pilot combustion and emission formation processes.

  5. FY2010 Annual Progress Report for Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Gurpreet [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The Advanced Combustion Engine R&D subprogram supports the mission of the Vehicle Technologies Program by removing the critical technical barriers to commercialization of advanced internal combustion engines (ICEs) for passenger and commercial vehicles that meet future Federal emissions regulations. Dramatically improving the efficiency of ICEs and enabling their introduction in conventional as well as hybrid electric vehicles is the most promising and cost-effective approach to increasing vehicle fuel economy over the next 30 years.

  6. Optimal Hybrid Renewable Airport Power System: Empirical Study on Incheon International Airport, South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seoin Baek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In response to global energy problems (e.g., the oil crisis, the Fukushima accident, the Paris Agreement, the South Korean government has executed a strict renewable energy plan to decrease the country’s dependence on fossil fuel. Public facilities, such as international airports, which use substantial amounts of electricity, are the most in need of government regulation. In this study, we attempt to determine the optimal hybrid electricity generation system for South Korea’s largest airport: Incheon International Airport. In the analysis, we use three scenarios: the current load, 120% of the current load, and 140% of the current load, according to the plan to expand Incheon International Airport. According to the COE (cost of electricity and the NPC (net present cost of the result, it is economically feasible to completely cover the potential increase in the electric load with PV power. Government policy implications and limitations are discussed.

  7. Evaluation of heat engine for hybrid vehicle application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, H. W.

    1984-01-01

    The status of ongoing heat-engine developments, including spark-ignition, compression-ignition, internal-combustion, and external-combustion engines is presented. The potential of engine concepts under consideration for hybrid vehicle use is evaluated, using self-imposed criteria for selection. The deficiencies of the engines currently being evaluated in hybrid vehicles are discussed. Focus is on recent research with two-stroke, rotary, and free-piston engines. It is concluded that these engine concepts have the most promising potential for future application in hybrid vehicles. Recommendations are made for analysis and experimentation to evaluate stop-start and transient emission behavior of recommended engine concepts.

  8. Method of evaluating idle speed combustion stability for an internal combustion engine based on CPS signal%基于CPS信号评价内燃机怠速燃烧稳定性方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甄龙信; 安子军

    2013-01-01

    提出利用CPS信号计算曲轴角加速度参数评价内燃机怠速燃烧稳定性方法.识别CPS信号的缺齿位置并对缺齿处零点进行补充;利用CPS信号计算曲轴角速度、角加速度;选择小波阈值去噪方法对角速度、角加速度进行滤波;分析角加速度参数及相应气缸压力参数间线性相关性.角加速度参数及气缸压参数之间为高度正相关,说明用CPS信号计算角加速度参数评价内燃机怠速燃烧稳定性方法是可行的.%The method of evaluating idle speed combustion stability of an internal combustion engine using CPS signal to calculate crankshaft angular acceleration parameters was put forward.The missing teeth position of CPS signal was distinguished and the zero points at the missing teeth were supplemented.The crankshaft angular velocity and acceleration were calculated with CPS signal and then filtered with the wavelet threshold denoising method.The linear correlation between angular acceleration parameters and corresponding cylinder pressure parameters was analyzed.It was shown that the angular acceleration parameters are highly correlated with corresponding cylinder pressure parameters; the method with CPS signal to calculate angular acceleration parameters to evaluate idle speed combustion stability of an internal combustion engine is feasible.

  9. Numerical study with experimental comparison of pressure waves in the air intake system of an internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcao, Carlos E.G.; Vielmo, Horacio A. [Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Mechanical Engineering Dept.], E-mails: vielmoh@mecanica.ufrgs.br; Hanriot, Sergio M. [Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais (PUC-Minas), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Mechanical Engineering Dept.], E-mail: hanriot@pucminas.br

    2010-07-01

    The work investigates the pressure waves behavior in the intake system of an internal combustion engine. For the purpose of examining this problem, it was chosen an experimental study in order to validate the results of the present simulation. At the literature there are several experimental studies, and some numerical simulations, but the most of the numerical studies treat the problem only in one dimension in practical problems, or two dimensions in specific problems. Using a CFD code it is possible to analyze more complex systems, including tridimensional effects. The pulsating phenomenon is originated from the periodic movement of the intake valve, and produces waves that propagate within the system. The intake system studied was composed by a straight pipe connected to a 1000 cc engine with a single operating cylinder. The experiments were carried out in a flow bench. In the present work, the governing equations was discretized by Finite Volumes Method with an explicit formulation, and the time integration was made using the multi-stage Runge-Kutta time stepping scheme. The solution is independent of mesh or time step. The numerical analysis presents a good agreement with the experimental results. (author)

  10. Power generation and gaseous emissions performance of an internal combustion engine fed with blends of soybean and beef tallow biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, Waldir Nagel; Gauer, Mayara Ananda; Tomaz, Edson; Rodrigues, Paulo Rogério Pinto; de Souza, Samuel Nelson Melegari; Chaves, Luiz Inácio; Villetti, Lucas; Olanyk, Luciano Zart; Cabral, Alexandre Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the performance of an internal combustion engine fed with blends of biodiesel produced from soybean and diesel, and blends of biodiesel produced from beef tallow and diesel. Performance was evaluated in terms of power generated at low loading conditions (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kW) and emission of organic and inorganic pollutants. In order to analyse inorganic gases (CO, SO2 and NOx), an automatic analyser was used and the organic emissions (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene - BTEX) were carried out using a gas chromatograph. The results indicate that the introduction of the two biodiesels in the fuel caused a reduction in CO, SO2 and BTEX emissions. In addition, the reduction was proportional to the increase in loading regime. Beef tallow biodiesels presented better results regarding emission than soybean biodiesels. The use of pure biodiesels also presented a net reduction in pollutant gas emissions without hindering the engine generator performance.

  11. Supercharging an internal combustion engine by aid of a dual-rotor bi-flux axial compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grǎdinariu, Andrei Cristian; Mihai, Ioan

    2016-12-01

    Internal combustion engines can be supercharged in order to enhance their performances [1-3]. Engine power is proportional to the quantity of fresh fluid introduced into the cylinder. At present, the general tendency is to try to obtain actual specific powers as high as possible, for as small as possible cylinder capacity, without increasing the generated pollution hazards. The present paper investigates the impact of replacing a centrifugal turbo-compressor with an axial double-rotor bi-flux one [4]. The proposed method allows that for the same number of cylinders, an increase in discharged airflow, accompanied by a decrease in fuel consumption. Using a program developed under the MathCad environment, the present work was aimed at studying the way temperature modifies at the end of isentropic compression under supercharging conditions. Taking into account a variation between extreme limits of the ambient temperature, its influence upon the evolution of thermal load coefficient was analyzed considering the air pressure at the compressor cooling system outlet. This analysis was completed by an exergetical study of the heat evacuated through cylinder walls in supercharged engine conditions. The conducted investigation allows verification of whether significant differences can be observed between an axial, dual-rotor, bi-flux compressor and centrifugal compressors.

  12. Internal Combustion Engines as the Main Source of Ultrafine Particles in Residential Neighborhoods: Field Measurements in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Stolcpartova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafine particles (UFP, diameter < 100 nm exposure has already been associated with adverse effects on human health. Spatial distribution of UFP is non-uniform; they concentrate in the vicinity of the source, e.g. traffic, because of their short lifespan. This work investigates spatial distribution of UFP in three areas in the Czech Republic with different traffic load: High traffic (Prague neighborhood—Sporilov, commuter road vicinity (Libeznice, and a small city with only local traffic (Celakovice. Size-resolved measurements of particles in the 5–500 nm range were taken with a particle classifier mounted, along with batteries, GPS and other accessories, on a handcart and pushed around the areas, making one-minute or longer stops at places of interest. Concentrations along main roads were elevated in comparison with places farther from the road; this pattern was observed in all sites, while particle number distributions both close and away from main roads had similar patterns. The absence of larger particles, the relative absence of higher concentrations of particles away from the main roads, and similar number distributions suggest that high particle number concentrations cannot be readily attributed to sources other than internal combustion engines in vehicles and mobile machinery (i.e., mowers and construction machines.

  13. STUDIES AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH CONCERNING THE PERFORMANCES OF THE INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE, CONTROLLED OVER THE POWERTRAIN CONTROL MODULE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcis URICANU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available the paper present how can be controlled a road vehicle through a powertrain control module, a type of ECU, programmable ECU (Electronic Control Unit, when we want to increase the performances of the engine, compared with the standard performances of the engine. The programmable ECU is a control system which replaces the ECU from the vehicle and is able to manage, better than the standard ECU, the behaviour of the spark ignition engine on increasing the performances. Sports cars need to obtain the best performances from them engine, the specific regimes at which them must function impose certain limits which will be achieved during the competition. Nowadays the vehicles designers and engineering, working for the production cars, have adopted many solutions from the race cars area, due to the advantage offered by these elements (lightweight materials, fasts responses, high speeds and system like programmable ECU. To obtain more power on the engine, we have to find and applied the best solution concerning the internal combustion processes and the consequences concerning the exhaust. This papers present who can be increased the performances of the spark ignition engine through the air-flow ratio, controlled by the programmable ECU and with the sensors help, like water temperature sensor, intake air temperature sensor, throttle position sensor, lambda sensor

  14. Environmental impacts of varying electric vehicle user behaviours and comparisons to internal combustion engine vehicle usage - An Irish case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, Peter; Morrissey, Patrick; O'Mahony, Margaret

    2016-07-01

    Concerns have been expressed regarding the displacement of harmful emissions from internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) tailpipes to the sources of electricity generation used to charge electric vehicles (EV). The degree to which EVs can reduce the environmental impacts of road transportation is dependent on the fuel mix of electricity generation within a country and on the real-time charging behaviours of EV users since the fuel mix of electricity generation frequently changes. This paper analyses the varying environmental impacts of EVs based on contrasting user behaviours and compares them to the environmental impacts of ICEVs. Individual EV user profiles are developed which comprise real data emerging from charge events undertaken in Ireland, and information is gathered on the actual CO2 intensity of the electrical grid in real-time, allowing for the carbon intensity of every individual charge event to be determined using time and date information. The results show that the environmental impacts of EVs are highly influenced by the charging behaviours of individual users, and night-time charging was found to produce the largest environmental impact. EVs are shown to be a more environmentally friendly choice of vehicle than ICEVs under a wide majority of scenarios.

  15. Corrosion protection agents for the inner chambers of internal combustion engines. Schutzmittel zum Korrosionsschutz der Innenraeume von Verbrennungsmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ettig, A.; Ferke, M.; Fueloep, J.; Gal, L.; Gyoengyoessy, L.; Horvath, R.; Keresztessy, Z.; Keresztessy, M.; Papp, I.

    1987-09-17

    Subject of the invention are protective agents for corrosion prevention of the interior of internal combustion engines which contain: (a) 70 to 95 weight-% of a base oil and/or engine oil; (b) 0.1 to 6.0 weight-% of an additive from a detergent with neutralizing effect, (c) 0.05 to 2.0 weight-% of a barium salt, calcium or zink salt of dialkyl dithiophosphoric acids, (d) 1 to 12 weight-% of an anti-corrosion neutralizing inhibitor of a polyethylene glycol sulphonamide, polyethylene glycol - N-(alkyl)-sulphonamide, polyethylene glycol sulphonimide or poyethylene glycol - N-(alkyl)-sulphonimide and (e) 0.1 to 1.0 weight-% of a corrosion inhibitor and also emulsification inhibitor of a monoester, diester or triester of fatty acids with a double bond as well as possibly (f) 0.1 to 6.0 weight-% of an additive of a polyolefine or olefine copolymer and this additive shall increase the viscosity index and the adherence.

  16. Fast spatially resolved exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) distribution measurements in an internal combustion engine using absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jihyung; Prikhodko, Vitaly; Parks, James E; Perfetto, Anthony; Geckler, Sam; Partridge, William P

    2015-09-01

    Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in internal combustion engines is an effective method of reducing NOx emissions while improving efficiency. However, insufficient mixing between fresh air and exhaust gas can lead to cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder non-uniform charge gas mixtures of a multi-cylinder engine, which can in turn reduce engine performance and efficiency. A sensor packaged into a compact probe was designed, built and applied to measure spatiotemporal EGR distributions in the intake manifold of an operating engine. The probe promotes the development of more efficient and higher-performance engines by resolving high-speed in situ CO2 concentration at various locations in the intake manifold. The study employed mid-infrared light sources tuned to an absorption band of CO2 near 4.3 μm, an industry standard species for determining EGR fraction. The calibrated probe was used to map spatial EGR distributions in an intake manifold with high accuracy and monitor cycle-resolved cylinder-specific EGR fluctuations at a rate of up to 1 kHz.

  17. Fuel Economy Opportunities for Internal COmbustion Engines by Means of Oil—Cooling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.F.Ma; J.C.Li; 等

    1997-01-01

    Comparative experiments of oil and water -cooling were performed on a 4-cylinder automotive gasoline engine and a single-cylinder direct injction Diesel engine.Measurements were made to investigate the variation of fuel consumption,combustor wall temperature and engine emissions(HC,CO,NOx and smoke)with two cooling media at steady-state conditions.Significant improvement of fuel econmy was found mainly at partial load conditions with oil-cooling in comparison with the baseline water-cooling both for the two engines.The experimental results also showed general trend of reduction in engine emissions using oil as the coolant,Measurements of wall temperature demonstrated that oil-cooling resulted in considerable increase of the combustor wall temperature and reduce of warm-up period in starting process.For automotive gasoline engine,road tests indicated the same trend of fuel economy improvement with oil-cooling.The performance of the automotive oil-cooled engine was further improved by internal cooling with water or methanol injection.

  18. Fuel economy opportunities for internal combustion engines by means of oil-cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, C. F.; Li, J. C.; Qin, W. X.; Wei, Z. Y.; Chen, J.

    1997-06-01

    Comparative experiments of oil and water-cooling were performed on a 4-cylinder automotive gasoline engine and a single-cylinder direct injection Diesel engine. Measurements were made to investigate the variation of fuel consumption, combustor wall temperature and engine emissions (HC, CO, NOx and smoke) with two cooling media at steady-state conditions. Significant improvement of fuel economy was found mainly at partial load conditions with oil-cooling in comparison with the baseline water-cooling both for the two engines. The experimental results also showed general trend of reduction in engine emissions using oil as the coolant. Measurements of wall temperature demonstrated that oil-cooling resulted in considerable increase of the combustor wall temperature and reduce of warm-up period in starting process. For automotive gasoline engine, road tests indicated the same trend of fuel economy improvement with oil-cooling. The performance of the automotive oil-cooled engine was further improved by internal cooling with water or methanol injection.

  19. Investigations into the effects of the hybrid concepts on the performance of a pressurized fluidized bed combustion system; Untersuchungen zum Einfluss des Hybridkonzeptes auf den Betrieb einer Druckwirbelschichtfeuerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, H.; Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G.

    1998-12-31

    Pressurized fluidized bed combustion has particular advantages as compared to conventional firing systems e.g. in-situ pollutant removal, high thermal efficiencies even in intermediate power ranges, and small reactor sizes. The widespread use of PFBC depends on rising the gasturbine inlet temperature in order to increase efficiencies. In a staged combustion process, which is a kind of a hybrid system, coal is burned substoichometrically in a pressuried fluidized bed producing a low calorific value gas. After hot gas cleanup (<700 C) the gas is afterburned allowing for gasturbine inlet temperatures of more than 1 200 C. At the IVD-PFBC test facility experiments were carried out with regard to composition of the produced gas, carbon-conversion and sulphur capture at various temperatures, pressures and air ratios. The results were compared to chemical equilibrium calculations. Based on experimental data the increase of thermal efficiency through staged combustion was studied using a process simulation program. In comparison with a standard combined cycle with a lignite fired PFBC, staged combustion led to an increase in thermal efficiency of up to 4,5% at equivalent operation conditions (thermal capacity, steam quality). (orig.) [Deutsch] Druckwirbelschichtfeuerungen (DWSF) weisen gegenueber konventionellen Feuerungen einige Vorteile auf wie z.B. in situ Schadstoffminderung, hohe thermische Wirkungsgrade auch im mittleren Leistungsbereich und geringes Bauvolumen. Die weitere Verbreitung der DWSF wird jedoch massgeblich davon abhaengen, inwieweit sich durch Erhoehung der Gasturbinen-Eintrittstemperatur ein weiteres Wirkungsgradpotential erschliessen laesst. Bei der gestuften Verbrennung, einem sog. Hybridprozess, wird Kohle in der Wirbelbrennkammer teiloxidiert. Das entstehende Schwachgas wird anschliessend gereinigt und in einer Nachbrennkammer vollstaendig umgesetzt, so dass Gasturbinen-Eintrittstemperaturen ueber 1 200 C erreicht werden koennen. An der IVD

  20. COMBUSTION SIMULATION IN A SPARK IGNITION ENGINE CYLINDER: EFFECTS OF AIR-FUEL RATIO ON THE COMBUSTION DURATION

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Combustion is an important subject of internal combustion engine studies. To reduce the air pollution from internal combustion engines and to increase the engine performance, it is required to increase combustion efficiency. In this study, effects of air/fuel ratio were investigated numerically. An axisymmetrical internal combustion engine was modeled in order to simulate in-cylinder engine flow and combustion. Two dimensional transient continuity, momentum, turbulence, energy, and combustion...

  1. Hybrid internal model control and proportional control of chaotic dynamical systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐冬莲; 姚良宾

    2004-01-01

    A new chaos control method is proposed to take advantage of chaos or avoid it. The hybrid Internal Model Control and Proportional Control learning scheme are introduced. In order to gain the desired robust performance and ensure the system's stability, Adaptive Momentum Algorithms are also developed. Through properly designing the neural network plant model and neural network controller, the chaotic dynamical systems are controlled while the parameters of the BP neural network are modified. Taking the Lorenz chaotic system as example, the results show that chaotic dynamical systems can be stabilized at the desired orbits by this control strategy.

  2. Hybrid internal model control and proportional control of chaotic dynamical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Dong-lian; Yao, Liang-bin

    2004-01-01

    A new chaos control method is proposed to take advantage of chaos or avoid it. The hybrid Internal Model Control and Proportional Control learning scheme are introduced. In order to gain the desired robust performance and ensure the system's stability, Adaptive Momentum Algorithms are also developed. Through properly designing the neural network plant model and neural network controller, the chaotic dynamical systems are controlled while the parameters of the BP neural network are modified. Taking the Lorenz chaotic system as example, the results show that chaotic dynamical systems can be stabilized at the desired orbits by this control strategy.

  3. OPTIMAL PARAMETERS FOR ELECTRIC-POWER INSTALLATION COMPONENTS OF HYBRID CAR

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    A conception for low-cost reconstruction of cars using hybrid drive was developed. Integrations of internal-combustion engine with electric motor fed from lead-acid storage battery and supercapacitor is the aim of the reconstruction. Such a way for modernization allows fast provide the output of hybrid cars in Ukraine in the framework of the program of energy storage technologies.

  4. Internal stress distribution of X-ring using photoelastic experimental hybrid method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Alunda Ouma [Dedan Kimathi University of Technology, Nyeri (Kenya); Hawong, Jai Sug; Lim, Hyun Seok [Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dong Chul [Koje College, Geoje (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Sealing elements are essential parts of many machines, and are used to prevent the loss of a fluid or gas. When such fluids are not properly sealed, catastrophic failures may result. Many different types of rings have been developed to suit various industrial needs. Considerable research has been done on the O-ring. We analyze the internal stresses developed in an X-ring under a uniform squeeze rate of 20%, which is suitable for static applications, using a photoelastic experimental hybrid method. The internal pressures applied were 0.98, 1.96, 2.94, 3.92, 4.90, and 5.88 MPa. We show that sealing rings with X geometry have considerably higher internal stresses than O-ring seals. In addition, we demonstrate that after extrusion, for an internal pressure of 5.88 MPa, the two lobes on the upper contact surface merge, thereby increasing the contact length of the upper side significantly. Extrusion in the X-ring occurred when the internal pressure was 4.90 MPa.

  5. Gestion de l'énergie d'un système hybride pile à combustible/batterie basée sur la commande optimale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. SID

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ce papier traite de l'optimisation de gestion de l'énergie électrique dans un véhicule hybride (pile à combustible/batterie, afin de minimiser autant que possible la consommation de l'hydrogène avec le maintien de l'état de charge de la batterie. Premièrement, on présente les sources d'énergies utilisées dans cette étude, la modélisation du système hybride, le choix de type des convertisseurs d'électronique de puissance utilisés et le dimensionnement de ces éléments.Deuxièmement on traite le problème d'optimisation sous contraintes basée sur le principe du minimum de Pontriaguine en introduisant la fonction Hamiltonienne de la commande optimale.Cette stratégie a été évaluée dans un environnement de simulation sous Matlab/Simulink utilisant quatre cycles de conduite standards.Une étude comparative en terme de consommation d'hydrogène a été faite avec deux autres stratégies la première dite thermostat qui est une stratégie très simple basée sur les contraintes imposées par les sources, la seconde approche consiste à utiliser un filtre passe-bas à la sortie de la puissance demandée afin de respecter les contraintes en dynamique sur la source principale. La stratégie traitée présente une bonne amélioration de la consommation d'hydrogène en adoptant une bonne stratégie de gestion de l'énergie électrique dans le système hybride.

  6. Diagnostico por vibraciones en motores de combustión interna // Diagnotic by vibrations in motor of internal combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rodríguez Matienzo

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available El diagnóstico técnico de las máquinas es una tarea de primer orden dentro de la Ingeniería Mecánica, y dentro de este, elempleo de técnicas que posibiliten la menor intervención en la estructura y la mayor información representan un aspecto desumo interés. La medición de vibraciones es una herramienta muy útil. Sin embargo su aplicación es amplia en la maquinariarotatoria y no en la alternativa. En el artículo se da una forma de enfocar el diagnóstico vibroacústico en las maquinasalternativas, en particular en los motores de combustión interna, a partir del empleo de las frecuencias naturales de oscilacióndel bloque como frecuencias de diagnóstico. Se explica la forma de determinación de las mismas por el método de loselementos finitos.________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe technical diagnosis of the machines is a task of first order in the Mechanical Engineering, and within this, the employmentof techniques that facilitate the east intervention in the structure and give more information represents an aspect of supremeinterest. The mensuration of vibrations is a very useful tool. However, their application is wide in the rotatory machinery andnot in the alternative. In the article, a form of focusing the vibroacoustical diagnosis is given in alternating machinery, inparticular in the internal combustion engines, taking into account the natural frequencies of oscillation of the block asfrequencies of diagnosis. The form of its determination using the method of the finite elements is explained.

  7. Multi-objective optimization of internal combustion engine by means of 1D fluid-dynamic models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Errico, G.; Cerri, T.; Pertusi, G. [Dipartimento di Energia, Politecnico di Milano, Via Lambruschini 4, 20156 Milan (Italy)

    2011-03-15

    The definition of an efficient optimization methodology for internal combustion engine design using 1D fluid dynamic simulation models is presented. This work aims at discussing the fundamental numerical and fluid dynamic aspects which can lead to the definition of a best practice technique, depending on the complexity of the problem to be dealt with, on the number of design parameters, objective variables and constrains. For these reasons, both single-and multi-objective problems will be addressed, where the former are still of relevant interest (i.e. optimization of engine performances), while the latter have a much wider range of applications and are often characterized by conflicting objectives. The Mesh Adaptive Direct Search (MADS) was chosen among the class of direct search methods and compared with the Genetic Algorithms to solve single-objective problems, and similarly two different algorithms were chosen and compared to solve multi-objective problems: the {epsilon}-constraint method and the NSGA-II (Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm). A single cylinder spark ignition engine, used in a motorbike application, was chosen as test case, to allow reduced computational times, without any loss of generality of the results. The analysis evaluate the convergence and efficiency of each methodology for the different problems which are solved. The achieved goal is not the definition of an ever valid mathematical strategy, but here focus is given on the parallel application of a detailed fluid dynamic analysis and automated optimization techniques to suggest a best practice technique to be employed depending on the characteristic of the optimization problem to be solved. (author)

  8. Hybrid Nano composite Membranes for PEMFC Applications; Conception et elaboration de membranes hybrides nanocomposites pour l'application pile a combustible PEMFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niepceron, F.

    2008-03-15

    This work aims at validating a new concept of hybrid materials for the realization of proton exchange membranes, an essential constituent of PEM fuel cells. The originality of this nano-composite hybrid concept corresponds to a separation of the membrane's properties. We investigated the preparation of composite materials based on an inert, relatively low cost, polymer matrix (PVDF-HFP) providing the mechanical stability embedding inorganic fillers providing the necessary properties o f proton-conduction and water retention. The first step of this work consisted in the modification of fumed silica to obtain a proton-conducting filler. An ionic exchange capacity (CEI) equal to 3 meq/g was obtained by the original grafting of sodium poly(styrene-sulfonate) chains from the surface of particles. Nano-composite hybrid membranes PVDF-HFP/functionalized silica were accomplished by a film casting process. The coupling of the morphological and physicochemical analyses validated the percolation of the inorganic phase for 30 wt.% of particles. Beyond 40 % of loading, measured protonic conductivity is higher than the reference membrane Nafion 112. Finally, these membranes presented high performances, above 0.8 W/cm{sup 2}, in single-cell fuel cell tests. A compromise is necessary according to the rate of loading between performances in fuel cell and mechanical properties of the membrane. 50 % appeared as best choice with, until 90 C, a remarkable thermal stability of the performances. (author)

  9. Estimation of the in-cylinder air/fuel ratio of an internal combustion engine by the use of pressure sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunestaal, Per

    2000-03-01

    This thesis investigates the use of cylinder pressure measurements for estimation of the in-cylinder air/fuel ratio in a spark ignited internal combustion engine. An estimation model which uses the net heat release profile for estimating the cylinder air/fuel ratio of a spark ignition engine is developed. The net heat release profile is computed from the cylinder pressure trace and quantifies the conversion of chemical energy of the reactants in the charge into thermal energy. The net heat release profile does not take heat- or mass transfer into account. Cycle-averaged air/fuel ratio estimates over a range of engine speeds and loads show an RMS error of 4.1% compared to measurements in the exhaust. A thermochemical model of the combustion process in an internal combustion engine is developed. It uses a simple chemical combustion reaction, polynominal fits of internal energy as function of temperature, and the first law of thermodynamics to derive a relationship between measured cylinder pressure and the progress of the combustion process. Simplifying assumptions are made to arrive at an equation which relates the net heat release to the cylinder pressure. Two methods for estimating the sensor offset of a cylinder pressure transducer are developed. Both methods fit the pressure data during the pre-combustion phase of the compression stroke to a polytropic curve. The first method assumes a known polytropic exponent, and the other estimates the polytropic exponent. The first method results in a linear least-squares problem, and the second method results in a nonlinear least-squares problem. The nonlinear least-squares problem is solved by separating out the nonlinear dependence and solving the single-variable minimization problem. For this, a finite difference Newton method is derived. Using this method, the cost of solving the nonlinear least-squares problem is only slightly higher than solving the linear least-squares problem. Both methods show good statistical

  10. Gasoline hybrid pneumatic engine for efficient vehicle powertrain hybridization

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrova, Zlatina; Maréchal, François

    2015-01-01

    The largest applied convertors in passenger cars are the internal combustion engines – gasoline, diesel, adapted also for operating on alternative fuels and hybrid modes. The number of components that are necessary to realize modern future propulsion system is inexorably increasing. The need for efficiency improvement of the vehicle energy system induces the search for an innovative methodology during the design process. In this article the compressed air is investigated as an innovative solu...

  11. Power Split Strategy for Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric System Stratégie de séparation des flux de puissance pour un système électrique hybride à pile à combustible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Domenico D.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The power management of a hybrid system composed of a fuel cell, a battery and a DC/DC power converter is developed. A decoupled control strategy is proposed, aimed at balancing the power flow between the stack and the battery and avoiding electrochemical damage due to low oxygen concentration in the fuel cell cathode. The controller is composed of two components. The first controller regulates the compressor, and as a consequence the oxygen supplied to the cathode, via a classic Proportional-Integral controller. The second controller optimally manages the current demanded by the fuel cell and battery via a linear-quadratic control strategy acting on the converter. An Extended Kalman Filter is also designed in order to estimate the battery State of Charge. The closed-loop performance was tested in simulation using a 310th-order system model. Ce papier illustre une stratégie de gestion de puissance pour un système hybride composé d’une pile à combustible, d’une batterie et d’un convertisseur DC/DC. Dans le but d’équilibrer les flux de puissance entre la pile à combustible et la batterie et d’éviter les dégâts causés par une dépression d’oxygène dans le cathode de la pile, un contrôleur découplé est proposé. Ce contrôleur se compose de deux parties. La première, un régulateur proportionnel-intégral, commande le compresseur et, par conséquent, le flux d’oxygène fourni au cathode. La deuxième, un régulateur linéaire-quadratique, gère le courant demandé par la pile à combustible et la batterie. Pour estimer l’état de charge de la batterie, un filtre de Kalman étendu a aussi été conçu. Les performances de la stratégie ont été analysées en simulation avec un modèle de batterie du 310e ordre.

  12. FY2009 Annual Progress Report for Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-12-01

    Fiscal Year 2009 Annual Progress Report for the Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development (R&D) subprogram. The Advanced Combustion Engine R&D subprogram supports the mission of the VTP program by removing the critical technical barriers to commercialization of advanced internal combustion engines (ICEs) for passenger and commercial vehicles that meet future Federal emissions regulations. Dramatically improving the efficiency of ICEs and enabling their introduction in conventional as well as hybrid electric vehicles is the most promising and cost-effective approach to increasing vehicle fuel economy over the next 30 years.

  13. Sizing Stack and Battery of a Fuel Cell Hybrid Distribution Truck Dimensionnement pile et batterie d’un camion hybride à pile à combustible de distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Tazelaar E.; Shen Y; Veenhuizen P.A.; Hofman T.; van den Bosch P.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    An existing fuel cell hybrid distribution truck, built for demonstration purposes, is used as a case study to investigate the effect of stack (kW) and battery (kW, kWh) sizes on the hydrogen consumption of the vehicle. Three driving cycles, the NEDC for Low Power vehicles, CSC and JE05 cycle, define the driving requirements for the vehicle. The Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS) is used for determining the control setpoint for the fuel cell and battery system. It closely appr...

  14. Performance, Efficiency, and Emissions Characterization of Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines Fueled with Hydrogen/Natural Gas Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby S. Chapman; Amar Patil

    2007-06-30

    Hydrogen is an attractive fuel source not only because it is abundant and renewable but also because it produces almost zero regulated emissions. Internal combustion engines fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) are operated throughout a variety of industries in a number of mobile and stationary applications. While CNG engines offer many advantages over conventional gasoline and diesel combustion engines, CNG engine performance can be substantially improved in the lean operating region. Lean operation has a number of benefits, the most notable of which is reduced emissions. However, the extremely low flame propagation velocities of CNG greatly restrict the lean operating limits of CNG engines. Hydrogen, however, has a high flame speed and a wide operating limit that extends into the lean region. The addition of hydrogen to a CNG engine makes it a viable and economical method to significantly extend the lean operating limit and thereby improve performance and reduce emissions. Drawbacks of hydrogen as a fuel source, however, include lower power density due to a lower heating value per unit volume as compared to CNG, and susceptibility to pre-ignition and engine knock due to wide flammability limits and low minimum ignition energy. Combining hydrogen with CNG, however, overcomes the drawbacks inherent in each fuel type. Objectives of the current study were to evaluate the feasibility of using blends of hydrogen and natural gas as a fuel for conventional natural gas engines. The experiment and data analysis included evaluation of engine performance, efficiency, and emissions along with detailed in-cylinder measurements of key physical parameters. This provided a detailed knowledge base of the impact of using hydrogen/natural gas blends. A four-stroke, 4.2 L, V-6 naturally aspirated natural gas engine coupled to an eddy current dynamometer was used to measure the impact of hydrogen/natural gas blends on performance, thermodynamic efficiency and exhaust gas emissions

  15. Experimental investigation of the fluid dynamic efficiency of a high performance multi-valve internal combustion engine during the intake phase: Influence of valve-valve interference phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algieri Angelo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work is the analysis of the fluid dynamic behavior of a high performance internal combustion engine during the intake phase. In particular, a four-valve spark-ignition engine has been characterized at the steady flow rig. Dimensionless discharge coefficients have been used to define the global fluid dynamic efficiency of the intake system, while the Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA technique has been employed to evaluate the mean flow in the valve curtain area and to characterise the interference phenomena between the two intake valves. The investigation has shown the significant influence of the valve lift on the volumetric efficiency of the intake apparatus. Moreover, the experimental analysis has highlighted that the valve-valve interference phenomena have a relevant impact on the head breathability, on the flow development within the combustion chamber and on the velocity standard deviations.

  16. Modelling of Fluid Dynamics and Combustion in Piston Engines Modélisation de l'aérodynamique interne et de la combustion dans les moteurs à piston

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinchon P.

    2006-11-01

    'importance de mener une démarche qui soit à la fois théorique et expérimentale, pour la validation des algorithmes numériques et des différents sous-modèles physiques constituant le modèle mathématique. Dans la description des caractéristiques générales des codes multidimensionnels appliqués aux moteurs à piston, on met en évidence l'importance fondamentale du rôle joué par la turbulence. Les sous-modèles physiques décrivant les transferts thermiques, la combustion, etc. , jouent un rôle très important dans les modèles multidimensionnels et sont tous très fortement influencés, ou même totalement contrôlés par le modèle de turbulence. Quelques sous-modèles physiques qui sont utilisés pour la modélisation de l'aérodynamique interne et de la combustion dans les moteurs à piston sont présentés et discutés.

  17. Numerical analysis of flow interaction of turbine system in two-stage turbocharger of internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. B.; Zhuge, W. L.; Zhang, Y. J.; Zhang, S. Y.

    2016-05-01

    To reach the goal of energy conservation and emission reduction, high intake pressure is needed to meet the demand of high power density and high EGR rate for internal combustion engine. Present power density of diesel engine has reached 90KW/L and intake pressure ratio needed is over 5. Two-stage turbocharging system is an effective way to realize high compression ratio. Because turbocharging system compression work derives from exhaust gas energy. Efficiency of exhaust gas energy influenced by design and matching of turbine system is important to performance of high supercharging engine. Conventional turbine system is assembled by single-stage turbocharger turbines and turbine matching is based on turbine MAP measured on test rig. Flow between turbine system is assumed uniform and value of outlet physical quantities of turbine are regarded as the same as ambient value. However, there are three-dimension flow field distortion and outlet physical quantities value change which will influence performance of turbine system as were demonstrated by some studies. For engine equipped with two-stage turbocharging system, optimization of turbine system design will increase efficiency of exhaust gas energy and thereby increase engine power density. However flow interaction of turbine system will change flow in turbine and influence turbine performance. To recognize the interaction characteristics between high pressure turbine and low pressure turbine, flow in turbine system is modeled and simulated numerically. The calculation results suggested that static pressure field at inlet to low pressure turbine increases back pressure of high pressure turbine, however efficiency of high pressure turbine changes little; distorted velocity field at outlet to high pressure turbine results in swirl at inlet to low pressure turbine. Clockwise swirl results in large negative angle of attack at inlet to rotor which causes flow loss in turbine impeller passages and decreases turbine

  18. Improving the fuel consumption and the operational behaviour of internal combustion engines with turbocompounding. Verbesserung von Kraftstoffverbrauch und Betriebsverhalten von Verbrennungsmotoren durch Turbocompounding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergbauer, F.

    1989-07-18

    The energy contained in the exhaust fumes of an internal combustion engine is equal to the energy used for performance. It is therefore desirable to recapture and recycle part of this energy. This thesis investigates the utilization of the pressure difference between exhaust gas and ambient air by means of a turbine located in the exhaust gas flow of the engine. The turbine is expected to contribute to an improved fuel consumption and operational behaviour. The effect of combustion chamber insulation and the influence of exhaust gas treatment systems on the turbocompoundmotor are also investigated. Detailed are supplied on: theoretical improvement of consumption, carrying out of the tests, a comparison between calculation and measurements for diesel engines, optimation of diesel engines and their partial load behaviour (medium-speed engine, utility vehicle-diesel engine). Similar comparisons were made with otto-engines whose partial load behaviour was also investigated. The turbocompound engine with insulated combustion chamber and the impact of exhaust gas treatment methods are dealt with. (HWJ).

  19. Investigation of Spark Ignition and Autoignition in Methane and Air Using Computational Fluid Dynamics and Chemical Reaction Kinetics. A numerical Study of Ignition Processes in Internal Combustion Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordrik, R.

    1993-12-01

    The processes in the combustion chamber of internal combustion engines have received increased attention in recent years because their efficiencies are important both economically and environmentally. This doctoral thesis studies the ignition phenomena by means of numerical simulation methods. The fundamental physical relations include flow field conservation equations, thermodynamics, chemical reaction kinetics, transport properties and spark modelling. Special attention is given to the inclusion of chemical kinetics in the flow field equations. Using his No Transport of Radicals Concept method, the author reduces the computational efforts by neglecting the transport of selected intermediate species. The method is validated by comparison with flame propagation data. A computational method is described and used to simulate spark ignition in laminar premixed methane-air mixtures and the autoignition process of a methane bubble surrounded by hot air. The spark ignition simulation agrees well with experimental results from the literature. The autoignition simulation identifies the importance of diffusive and chemical processes acting together. The ignition delay times exceed the experimental values found in the literature for premixed ignition delay, presumably because of the mixing process and lack of information on low temperature reactions in the skeletal kinetic mechanism. Transient turbulent methane jet autoignition is simulated by means of the KIVA-II code. Turbulent combustion is modelled by the Eddy Dissipation Concept. 90 refs., 81 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Mechanical and Combustion Performance of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as an Additive to Paraffin-Based Solid Fuels for Hybrid Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Daniel B.; Boyer, Eric; Wachs, Trevor; Kuo, Kenneth, K.; Koo, Joseph H.; Story, George

    2012-01-01

    Paraffin-based solid fuels for hybrid rocket motor applications are recognized as a fastburning alternative to other fuel binders such as HTPB, but efforts to further improve the burning rate and mechanical properties of paraffin are still necessary. One approach that is considered in this study is to use multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) as an additive to paraffin wax. Carbon nanotubes provide increased electrical and thermal conductivity to the solid-fuel grains to which they are added, which can improve the mass burning rate. Furthermore, the addition of ultra-fine aluminum particles to the paraffin/MWNT fuel grains can enhance regression rate of the solid fuel and the density impulse of the hybrid rocket. The multi-walled carbon nanotubes also present the possibility of greatly improving the mechanical properties (e.g., tensile strength) of the paraffin-based solid-fuel grains. For casting these solid-fuel grains, various percentages of MWNT and aluminum particles will be added to the paraffin wax. Previous work has been published about the dispersion and mixing of carbon nanotubes.1 Another manufacturing method has been used for mixing the MWNT with a phenolic resin for ablative applications, and the manufacturing and mixing processes are well-documented in the literature.2 The cost of MWNT is a small fraction of single-walled nanotubes. This is a scale-up advantage as future applications and projects will require low cost additives to maintain cost effectiveness. Testing of the solid-fuel grains will be conducted in several steps. Dog bone samples will be cast and prepared for tensile testing. The fuel samples will also be analyzed using thermogravimetric analysis and a high-resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM). The SEM will allow for examination of the solid fuel grain for uniformity and consistency. The paraffin-based fuel grains will also be tested using two hybrid rocket test motors located at the Pennsylvania State University s High Pressure

  1. A feasibility study of dynamic stress analysis inside a running internal combustion engine using synchrotron X-ray beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baimpas, Nikolaos; Drakopoulos, Michael; Connolley, Thomas; Song, Xu; Pandazaras, Costas; Korsunsky, Alexander M

    2013-03-01

    The present investigation establishes the feasibility of using synchrotron-generated X-ray beams for time-resolved in situ imaging and diffraction of the interior components of an internal combustion engine during its operation. The demonstration experiment was carried out on beamline I12 (JEEP) at Diamond Light Source, UK. The external hutch of the JEEP instrument is a large-scale engineering test bed for complex in situ processing and simulation experiments. The hutch incorporates a large capacity translation and rotation table and a selection of detectors for monochromatic and white-beam diffraction and imaging. These capabilities were used to record X-ray movies of a motorcycle internal combustion engine running at 1850 r.p.m. and to measure strain inside the connecting rod via stroboscopic X-ray diffraction measurement. The high penetrating ability and high flux of the X-ray beam at JEEP allowed the observation of inlet and outlet valve motion, as well as that of the piston, connecting rod and the timing chain within the engine. Finally, the dynamic internal strain within the moving connecting rod was evaluated with an accuracy of ~50 × 10(-6).

  2. 16th International Conference on Hybrid Intelligent Systems and the 8th World Congress on Nature and Biologically Inspired Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Haqiq, Abdelkrim; Alimi, Adel; Mezzour, Ghita; Rokbani, Nizar; Muda, Azah

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the latest research in hybrid intelligent systems. It includes 57 carefully selected papers from the 16th International Conference on Hybrid Intelligent Systems (HIS 2016) and the 8th World Congress on Nature and Biologically Inspired Computing (NaBIC 2016), held on November 21–23, 2016 in Marrakech, Morocco. HIS - NaBIC 2016 was jointly organized by the Machine Intelligence Research Labs (MIR Labs), USA; Hassan 1st University, Settat, Morocco and University of Sfax, Tunisia. Hybridization of intelligent systems is a promising research field in modern artificial/computational intelligence and is concerned with the development of the next generation of intelligent systems. The conference’s main aim is to inspire further exploration of the intriguing potential of hybrid intelligent systems and bio-inspired computing. As such, the book is a valuable resource for practicing engineers /scientists and researchers working in the field of computational intelligence and artificial intelligence.

  3. Connecting rod for stroke piston internal combustion engines with asymmetrical shank cross-section. Pleuel fuer Hubkolben-Brennkraftmaschinen mit asymmetrischem Schaftquerschnitt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petschick, S.

    1991-08-08

    The invention affects a connecting rod for stroke piston internal combustion engines with a connecting rod eye for incorporation of a piston pin; a connecting rod shank has two head sides which are thickened as compared to the central piece in between along its entire length, and a connecting rod head. The connecting rod is to permit a greater width of the crankshaft counterweight and thus enable the desired mass equilibrium. This becomes possible by having the connecting rod shank flattened on one side at the head side, giving it an assymetrical cross-section.

  4. THE ELECTRIC DRIVE FOR A CONVERSION HYBRID CAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bazhinov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of converting a car with an internal combustion engine and manual transmission in a hybrid is regarded. Is regarded the technique of choosing the parameters of the electric and simple technical solution to achieve the efficient operation of the brushless electric motor in the traction mode and into recovery mode.

  5. The Impact of Hybrid Vehicles on Street Crossings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, William; Naghshineh, Koorosh; Salisbury, Brad; Rozema, Randall

    2006-01-01

    The authors had three purposes: (a) to compare the sound output of a Toyota Corolla, a vehicle powered by an internal combustion engine (ICE) with that of a hybrid vehicle (Prius) under conditions of acceleration and approach in relation to the potential decision of a pedestrian who is visually impaired to begin to cross the street, (b) to…

  6. Assessment of the potential of hybrid vehicles: Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surber, F. T.

    1980-01-01

    The potential of hybrid vehicles as a replacement of the conventional gasoline or diesel fueled internal combustion engine vehicle within the next 20 to 30 years, was assessed. Hybrid vehicle designs and applications which are technically and economically viable were studied to determine if reductions in petroleum usage were large enough to warrant major expenditures of research and development funds. Critical technical areas where research and development can be most usefully concentrated were identified.

  7. Hydrogen hybrid vehicle engine development: Experimental program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Blarigan, P. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A hydrogen fueled engine is being developed specifically for the auxiliary power unit (APU) in a series type hybrid vehicle. Hydrogen is different from other internal combustion (IC) engine fuels, and hybrid vehicle IC engine requirements are different from those of other IC vehicle engines. Together these differences will allow a new engine design based on first principles that will maximize thermal efficiency while minimizing principal emissions. The experimental program is proceeding in four steps: (1) Demonstration of the emissions and the indicated thermal efficiency capability of a standard CLR research engine modified for higher compression ratios and hydrogen fueled operation. (2) Design and test a new combustion chamber geometry for an existing single cylinder research engine, in an attempt to improve on the baseline indicated thermal efficiency of the CLR engine. (3) Design and build, in conjunction with an industrial collaborator, a new full scale research engine designed to maximize brake thermal efficiency. Include a full complement of combustion diagnostics. (4) Incorporate all of the knowledge thus obtained in the design and fabrication, by an industrial collaborator, of the hydrogen fueled engine for the hybrid vehicle power train illustrator. Results of the CLR baseline engine testing are presented, as well as preliminary data from the new combustion chamber engine. The CLR data confirm the low NOx produced by lean operation. The preliminary indicated thermal efficiency data from the new combustion chamber design engine show an improvement relative to the CLR engine. Comparison with previous high compression engine results shows reasonable agreement.

  8. Analysis of Combined Power and Refrigeration Generation Using the Carbon Dioxide Thermodynamic Cycle to Recover the Waste Heat of an Internal Combustion Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsen Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel thermodynamic system is proposed to recover the waste heat of an internal combustion engine (ICE by integrating the transcritical carbon dioxide (CO2 refrigeration cycle with the supercritical CO2 power cycle, and eight kinds of integration schemes are developed. The key parameters of the system are optimized through a genetic algorithm to achieve optimum matching with different variables and schemes, as well as the maximum net power output (Wnet. The results indicate that replacing a single-turbine scheme with a double-turbine scheme can significantly enhance the net power output (Wnet and lower the inlet pressure of the power turbine (P4. With the same exhaust parameters of ICE, the maximum Wnet of the double-turbines scheme is 40%–50% higher than that of the single-turbine scheme. Replacing a single-stage compression scheme with a double-stage compression scheme can also lower the value of P4, while it could not always significantly enhance the value of Wnet. Except for the power consumption of air conditioning, the net power output of this thermodynamic system can reach up to 13%–35% of the engine power when it is used to recover the exhaust heat of internal combustion engines.

  9. Coal Combustion Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardesty, D.R. (ed.); Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

  10. The new wave of hybrid vehicles in Japan; La nouvelle vague de vehicules hybrides au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moille, F.

    2000-05-01

    The Japan Ministry of international trade and industry (MITI) has foreseen a 23% reduction of the consumption of internal combustion engines between 1995 and 2010. The Japanese automotive companies are seriously working on the development of less polluting and more economical vehicles. After the domination of the internal combustion engine with its good performances, and the quasi-exclusive use of electric-powered vehicles in urban areas for autonomy reasons, time has come for the development of hybrid vehicles which combine the advantages of both principles. With a very simple use for the driver, the hybrid vehicle is in fact based on a particularly complex technology which is explained for some prototypes presented in this paper. (J.S.)

  11. Electric and hybrid electric vehicles. Report of the International Evaluation Committee. June 96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahlen, H. [Univ. Kaiserslautern (Germany); Maggetto, G. [Vrije Univ., Brussel (Belgium); Scrosati, B. [Univ. di Roma (Italy); Srinivasan, S. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station (United States)

    1996-11-01

    As requested by NUTEK our task was to evaluate the results and progress achieved in the electric and hybrid electric vehicles programme. This is a multidisciplinary research programme involving 12 projects at four universities and is planned to be extended over two three-year periods, i.e. 1993-1996 and 1997-1999 at a level of 8 MSKR (about USD 1,2M) per year. The programme has been launched to stimulate the development of electric vehicle technology in Sweden and is supporting projects to optimize the material processes, improve battery and engine components and promote of their production by the Swedish industry. In addition, the programme is directed to: 1. improve the knowledge and experience in the field at the academic level; 2. to support long time research on the subject and, 3. promote collaboration nationally and internationally. Our first comment is that the latter aspect appears to be satisfactorily accomplished. Most of the groups we have visited demonstrate an acquired experience in the field and presented their results with competence and enthusiasm. In many cases, we found valid interactions on ongoing projects in Swedish universities and established collaborations with high rank international groups. The programme has provided the material and the motivation for high-quality thesis work and, consequently, the formation of a class of well prepared and professionally competent students. Since electric vehicle technology is fast developing and is expected to have important fall-outs not only in the car industry but also in battery and electric engine manufacturing, the training of competent scientists and engineers in the field is of paramount relevance for Sweden where these types of industries are active and spread out. Therefore, we believe that as far as educational promotion is concerned, the funds distribution was worthwhile in all the projects which we evaluated

  12. Process for regeneration of a soot particle filter situated in the exhaust pipe of an air-compressing internal combustion engine. Verfahren zur Regeneration eines in der Abgasleitung einer luftverdichtenden Brennkraftmaschine angeordneten Russpartikelfilters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abthoff, J.; Schuster, H.D.; Langer, H.J.; Strohmer, E.; Gabler, R.; Schulte, R.

    1991-05-08

    A process for the regenration of a soot particle filter situated in the exhaust pipe of an air-compressing injection internal combustion engine by burning off the soot particles is described. A device to control the suction pipe cross section depending on the load and speed is provided in the suction pipe. To prevent damage to the soot filter when changing to thrust operation of the internal combustion engine, it is proposed to move the device to control the suction air pipe cross section directly after a change to thrust operation of the internal combustion engine to a position reducing the pipe crosss ection to a minimum and then to move it continuously to its open position.

  13. Marginal and internal adaptation of Class II ormocer and hybrid resin composite restorations before and after load cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kournetas, N; Chakmakchi, M; Kakaboura, A; Rahiotis, C; Geis-Gerstorfer, J

    2004-09-01

    To overcome the shortcomings of the conventional composite restorative materials, ormocer materials have been introduced over the past few years. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the marginal and internal adaptation of two ormocer restorative systems (Admira, Voco and Definite, Degussa) compared to a hybrid composite one (TPH Spectrum, Dentsply/ DeTrey), before and after load cycling in Class II restorations. Standardized Class II restorations with cervical margins on enamel were divided into three groups ( n=16). Teeth of each group were filled with one of the restoratives tested and its respective bonding agent. Each group was divided into two equal subgroups. The marginal and internal adaptation of the first subgroup was evaluated after 7-day water storage at room temperature and of the second after cyclic loading in a mastication simulator (1.2x10(6) cycles, 49 N, 1.6 Hz). The occlusal and cervical marginal evaluation was conducted by videomicroscope and ranked as "excellent" and "not excellent". One thin section (150 microm), in mesial-distal direction, of each restoration, was examined under metallographic microscope to determine the quality of internal adaptation. The occlusal and cervical adaptation of both ormocer restorative systems was similar and clearly worse compared with the hybrid composite restorative one before as well as after load cycling. Concerning internal adaptation, no gap-free ormocer restorations were detected, whereas all Spectrum restorations presented perfect adaptation. The bonding agents of the ormocers formed layers with unacceptable features (pores, fractures) whereas that of the hybrid composite achieved perfect bonding layer even after loading. The rheological characteristics of the bonding agents of the ormocer restorative systems are proposed to be responsible for their inferior marginal and internal quality in Class II restorations compared with the hybrid composite one.

  14. Penalty for Fuel Economy - System Level Perspectives on the Reliability of Hybrid Electric Vehicles During Normal and Graceful Degradation Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-27

    the issue of system level reliability in hybrid electric vehicles from a quantitative point of view. It also introduces a quantitative meaning to the...internal combustion engine based vehicle and later transition of those to hybrid electric vehicles . The paper intends to drive the point that in HEV...Generally people tend to think only in terms of fuel economy and additional cost premium on vehicle price while discussing about hybrid electric

  15. Sandwich-like PdO/CeO2 nanosheet@HZSM-5 membrane hybrid composite for methane combustion: self-redispersion, sintering-resistance and oxygen, water-tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Qiguang; Bai, Shuxing; Lou, Yang; Wang, Xingyi; Guo, Yun; Lu, Guanzhong

    2016-05-01

    PdO/CeO2 nanosheets encapsulated by a monolayer of a continuous and dense HZSM-5 zeolite membrane were prepared by a facile in situ hydrothermal growth process and used as a highly efficient and thermally stable catalyst for methane combustion. Uncoated PdO/CeO2 suffered severe sintering at high temperature or high oxygen concentration. However, the encapsulation of HZSM-5 significantly improved sintering resistance by the suppressing effects of the HZSM-5 coating for the agglomeration of PdOx nanoparticles, resulting in the outstanding thermal stability of PdO/CeO2. Furthermore, the synthesized hybrid materials also exhibited good oxygen- and water-tolerance for methane combustion due to the oxygen or water barrier. In addition, a reactivation behavior was observed due to the self-redispersion of PdOx on CeO2 nanosheets in the reaction atmosphere at high temperature.PdO/CeO2 nanosheets encapsulated by a monolayer of a continuous and dense HZSM-5 zeolite membrane were prepared by a facile in situ hydrothermal growth process and used as a highly efficient and thermally stable catalyst for methane combustion. Uncoated PdO/CeO2 suffered severe sintering at high temperature or high oxygen concentration. However, the encapsulation of HZSM-5 significantly improved sintering resistance by the suppressing effects of the HZSM-5 coating for the agglomeration of PdOx nanoparticles, resulting in the outstanding thermal stability of PdO/CeO2. Furthermore, the synthesized hybrid materials also exhibited good oxygen- and water-tolerance for methane combustion due to the oxygen or water barrier. In addition, a reactivation behavior was observed due to the self-redispersion of PdOx on CeO2 nanosheets in the reaction atmosphere at high temperature. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01800a

  16. Evolution des modèles mathématiques directs appliqués aux moteurs à combustion interne Evolution of Direct Mathematical Models Applied to Internal-Combustion Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumiano N.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article rend compte de l'évolution présente et future des modèles mathématiques directs de simulation dans les moteurs. Ceux-ci sont basés sur la résolution des équations de Navier-Stokes, et deviennent peu à peu une nécessité surtout en ce qui concerne la combustion hétérogène. Après un aperçu sur l'état actuel des algorithmes de calcul et des sous-modèles physiques utilisés, on présente une revue des principaux codes de calcul appliqués au moteur, avec quelques-uns de leurs résultats. Après avoir évoqué les obstacles rencontrés lors de leur mise en oeuvre, on aborde l'évolution prévisible lors des prochaines années, tant pour les techniques de calcul que pour les codes eux-mêmes. This article describes the present and future evolution of direct mathematical models used for engine simulation. These models are based on the solving of Navier-Stokes equations and are gradually becoming an absolute necessity, especially with regard to heterogeneous combustion. Alter briefly describing the present state of the computing algorithms and physical submodels used, the leading computing codes applied to engines are reviewed, with some of their results. Then the stumbling blocks encountered during the implementation of these codes are described, followed by the foresable evolution in the next few years, for both computing techniques and the codes themselves.

  17. A control strategy for parallel hybrid electric vehicles based on extremum seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinçmen, Erkin; Aksun Güvenç, Bilin

    2012-02-01

    An energy management control strategy for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle based on the extremum-seeking method for splitting torque between the internal combustion engine and electric motor is proposed in this paper. The control strategy has two levels of operation: the upper and lower levels. The upper level decision-making controller chooses the vehicle operation mode such as the simultaneous use of the internal combustion engine and electric motor, use of only the electric motor, use of only the internal combustion engine, or regenerative braking. In the simultaneous use of the internal combustion engine and electric motor, the optimum energy distribution between these two sources of energy is determined via the extremum-seeking algorithm that searches for maximum drivetrain efficiency. A dynamic programming solution is also obtained and used to form a benchmark for performance evaluation of the proposed method based on extremum seeking. Detailed simulations using a realistic model are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the methodology.

  18. Effect of Engine Speed on In-Cylinder Tumble Flows in a Motored Internal Combustion Engine - An Experimental Investigation Using Particle Image Velocimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Murali Krishna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Now-a-days, the stratified and direct injection spark ignition engines are becoming very popular because of their low fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. But, the challenges to them are the formation and control of the charge which is mainly dependent on the in-cylinder fluid flows. Today, an optical tool like particle image velocimetry (PIV is extensively used for the in-cylinder fluid flow measurements. This paper deals with the experimental investigations of the in-cylinder fluid tumble flows in a motored internal combustion engine with a flat piston at different engine speeds during intake and compression strokes using PIV. The two-dimensional in-cylinder flow measurements and analysis of tumble flows have been carried out in the combustion space on a vertical plane at the cylinder axis. To analyze the fluid flows, ensemble average velocity vectors have been used. To characterize the tumble flow, tumble ratio has been estimated. From the results, it is found that the tumble ratio mainly varies with crank angle positions. At the end of compression stroke, maximum turbulent kinetic energy is more at higher engine speeds. Present study will be very useful in understanding the effect of engine speeds on the in-cylinder fluid tumble flows under real engine conditions.

  19. Assessment of the status of fluidized-bed combustion based on the papers of the Fifth International Conference: methodology and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    This report constitutes a status assessment of fluidized-bed combustion power-generation technology undertaken as part of an ongoing program sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Division of Environmental Control Technology under the Assistant Secretary for Environment. The study, based on the papers presented at the Fifth International Conference on Fluidized-Bed Combustion in 1977, was prepared by the MITRE Corporation, with support from Argonne National Laboratory. Information abstracted from the papers was categorized according to various technical considerations and summarized. Issues and problems associated with the technology were identified from these summaries. These issues and problems, with any associated information gaps, were ranked in terms of their significance, taking into account the needs of potential users of the technology. The resulting data base is presented in a series of matrices showing concentrations of activity, reported information, issues and problems, and relative significance. Areas in which further investigation is required, as indicated using this methodology, include selection, preparation, feeding, and utilization of fuel and sorbent; disposal of solid wastes; heat transfer; emissions control; optimization of operating parameters and control procedures; corrosion and erosion of construction materials, and equipment configuration.

  20. Heterogeneous Combustion Particles with Distinctive Light-Absorbing and Light-Scattering Phases as Mimics of Internally-Mixed Ambient Atmospheric Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conny, J. M.; Ma, X.; Gunn, L. R.

    2011-12-01

    Particles with heterogeneously-distributed light-absorbing and light-scattering phases were generated from incomplete combustion or thermal decomposition to mimic real atmospheric particles with distinctive optical properties. Individual particles and particle populations were characterized microscopically. The purpose was to examine how optical property measurements of internally-mixed ambient air particles might vary based on the properties of laboratory-generated particles produced under controlled conditions. The project is an initial stage in producing reference samples for calibrating instrumentation for monitoring climatically-important atmospheric aerosols. Binary-phase particles containing black carbon (BC) and a metal or a metal oxide phase were generated from the thermal decomposition or partial combustion of liquid fuels at a variety of temperatures from 600 °C to 1100 °C. Fuels included mixtures of toluene or isooctane and iron pentacarbonyl or titanium tetrachloride. Scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy revealed that burning the fuels at different temperatures resulted in distinctive differences in morphology and carbon vs. metal/metal oxide composition. Particles from toluene/Fe(CO)5 thermal decomposition exhibited aggregated morphologies that were classified as dendritic, soot-like, globular, or composited (dendritic-globular). Particles from isooctane/TiCl4 combustion were typically spherical with surface adducts or aggregates. Diameters of the BC/TiO2 particles averaged 0.68 μm to 0.70 μm. Regardless of combustion temperature, the most abundant particles in each BC/TiO2 sample had an aspect ratio of 1.2. However, for the 600 °C and 900 °C samples the distribution of aspect ratios was skewed toward much larger ratios suggesting significant chainlike aggregation. Carbon and titanium compositions (wt.) for the 600 °C sample were 12 % and 53 %, respectively. In contrast, the composition trended in the opposite

  1. MN Center for Renewable Energy: Cellulosic Ethanol, Optimization of Bio-fuels in Internal Combustion Engines, & Course Development for Technicians in These Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Frey

    2009-02-22

    This final report for Grant #DE-FG02-06ER64241, MN Center for Renewable Energy, will address the shared institutional work done by Minnesota State University, Mankato and Minnesota West Community and Technical College during the time period of July 1, 2006 to December 30, 2008. There was a no-cost extension request approved for the purpose of finalizing some of the work. The grant objectives broadly stated were to 1) develop educational curriculum to train technicians in wind and ethanol renewable energy, 2) determine the value of cattails as a biomass crop for production of cellulosic ethanol, and 3) research in Optimization of Bio-Fuels in Internal Combustion Engines. The funding for the MN Center for Renewable Energy was spent on specific projects related to the work of the Center.

  2. A model of turbocharger radial turbines appropriate to be used in zero- and one-dimensional gas dynamics codes for internal combustion engines modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, J.R.; Arnau, F.J.; Dolz, V.; Tiseira, A. [CMT-Motores Termicos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Cervello, C. [Conselleria de Cultura, Educacion y Deporte, Generalitat Valenciana (Spain)

    2008-12-15

    The paper presents a model of fixed and variable geometry turbines. The aim of this model is to provide an efficient boundary condition to model turbocharged internal combustion engines with zero- and one-dimensional gas dynamic codes. The model is based from its very conception on the measured characteristics of the turbine. Nevertheless, it is capable of extrapolating operating conditions that differ from those included in the turbine maps, since the engines usually work within these zones. The presented model has been implemented in a one-dimensional gas dynamic code and has been used to calculate unsteady operating conditions for several turbines. The results obtained have been compared with success against pressure-time histories measured upstream and downstream of the turbine during on-engine operation. (author)

  3. U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCar & Vehicle Technologies Program CARB Executive Order Exemption Process for a Hydrogen-fueled Internal Combustion engine Vehicle -- Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-04-01

    The CARB Executive Order Exemption Process for a Hydrogen-fueled Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle was undertaken to define the requirements to achieve a California Air Resource Board Executive Order for a hydrogenfueled vehicle retrofit kit. A 2005 to 2006 General Motors Company Sierra/Chevrolet Silverado 1500HD pickup was assumed to be the build-from vehicle for the retrofit kit. The emissions demonstration was determined not to pose a significant hurdle due to the non-hydrocarbon-based fuel and lean-burn operation. However, significant work was determined to be necessary for Onboard Diagnostics Level II compliance. Therefore, it is recommended that an Experimental Permit be obtained from the California Air Resource Board to license and operate the vehicles for the durability of the demonstration in support of preparing a fully compliant and certifiable package that can be submitted.

  4. CONCEPTION OF USE VIBROACOUSTIC SIGNALS AND NEURAL NETWORKS FOR DIAGNOSING OF CHOSEN ELEMENTS OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN CAR VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr CZECH

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently used diagnostics systems are not always efficient and do not give straightforward results which allow for the assessment of the technological condition of the engine or for the identification of the possible damages in their early stages of development. Growing requirements concerning durability, reliability, reduction of costs to minimum and decrease of negative influence on the natural environment are the reasons why there is a need to acquire information about the technological condition of each of the elements of a vehicle during its exploitation. One of the possibilities to achieve information about technological condition of a vehicle are vibroacoustic phenomena. Symptoms of defects, achieved as a result of advanced methods of vibroacoustic signals processing can serve as models which can be used during construction of intelligent diagnostic system based on artificial neural networks. The work presents conception of use artificial neural networks in the task of combustion engines diagnosis.

  5. Calculation of Oil Film Thickness from Damping Coefficients for a Piston Ring in an Internal Combustion Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Jens; Klit, Peder; Vølund, Anders

    2007-01-01

    engine. The basic idea is to use the fluid film damping coefficients to estimate the film thickness variation for a piston ring under cyclic varying load. Reynolds Equation is solved for a piston ring and the oil film thickness is determined. In this analysis hydrodynamic lubrication is assumed......In 1966 Jorgen W. Lund published an approach to find the dynamic coefficients of a journal bearing by a first order perturbation of the Reynold's equation. These coefficients made it possible to perform a rotor-bearing stability analysis for a statically loaded bearing. In the mid seventies Jorgen...... W. Lund pointed out in lecture notes that the dynamic damping coefficients of the bearing could be used to find the shaft orbit for dynamically loaded bearings. In the present paper this method is further developed and utilized to determine the dynamic behavior of a piston ring in a combustion...

  6. Computational Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westbrook, C K; Mizobuchi, Y; Poinsot, T J; Smith, P J; Warnatz, J

    2004-08-26

    Progress in the field of computational combustion over the past 50 years is reviewed. Particular attention is given to those classes of models that are common to most system modeling efforts, including fluid dynamics, chemical kinetics, liquid sprays, and turbulent flame models. The developments in combustion modeling are placed into the time-dependent context of the accompanying exponential growth in computer capabilities and Moore's Law. Superimposed on this steady growth, the occasional sudden advances in modeling capabilities are identified and their impacts are discussed. Integration of submodels into system models for spark ignition, diesel and homogeneous charge, compression ignition engines, surface and catalytic combustion, pulse combustion, and detonations are described. Finally, the current state of combustion modeling is illustrated by descriptions of a very large jet lifted 3D turbulent hydrogen flame with direct numerical simulation and 3D large eddy simulations of practical gas burner combustion devices.

  7. Hybrid procedure combining clip on wrapping and stent placement for ruptured supraclinoid blood blister-like aneurysm of the internal carotid artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasaki, Hirokazu; Narikiyo, Michihisa; Nagayama, Gota; Nagao, Seiya; Tsuboi, Yoshifumi; Kambayashi, Chisaku

    2017-03-01

    Blood blister-like aneurysms of the supraclinoid portion of the internal carotid artery are rare, fragile, and thin-walled lesions with a higher rate of rebleeding. Our case underwent a hybrid procedure combining direct surgical and endovascular approach.

  8. Numerical simulations of turbulent jet ignition and combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Validi, Abdoulahad; Irannejad, Abolfazl; Jaberi, Farhad

    2013-11-01

    The ignition and combustion of a homogeneous lean hydrogen-air mixture by a turbulent jet flow of hot combustion products injected into a colder gas mixture are studied by a high fidelity numerical model. Turbulent jet ignition can be considered as an efficient method for starting and controlling the reaction in homogeneously charged combustion systems used in advanced internal combustion and gas turbine engines. In this work, we study in details the physics of turbulent jet ignition in a fundamental flow configuration. The flow and combustion are modeled with the hybrid large eddy simulation/filtered mass density function (LES/FMDF) approach, in which the filtered form the compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved with a high-order finite difference scheme for the turbulent velocity and the FMDF transport equations are solved with a Lagrangian stochastic method to obtain the scalar (temperature and species mass fractions) field. The hydrogen oxidation is described by a detailed reaction mechanism with 37 elementary reactions and 9 species.

  9. Interplay of Internal Structure and Interfaces on the Emitting Properties of Hybrid ZnO Hierarchical Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distaso, Monica; Bertoni, Giovanni; Todisco, Stefano; Marras, Sergio; Gallo, Vito; Manna, Liberato; Peukert, Wolfgang

    2017-05-03

    The design of hybrid organic/inorganic nanostructures with controlled assembly drives the development of materials with new or improved properties and superior performances. In this paper, the surface and internal structure of hybrid ZnO poly-N-vinylpyrrolidone (ZnO/PVP) mesocrystals are investigated in detail and correlated with their emitting properties. A photoluminescence study at room temperature reveals that the as-synthesized particles show a remarkable ultraviolet (UV) emission, whereas an emission from defects in the visible region is not observed. On the other hand, a visible emission is achieved upon calcination of the hybrid ZnO/PVP particles in air, and its intensity is found to increase with the calcination temperature and, in some cases, to overwhelm the UV emission. A molecular description is proposed for the absence of a visible emission from defects in the as-synthesized ZnO/PVP mesocrystals on the basis of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and solid-state (13)C NMR (SSNMR) spectroscopy. An in-depth electron microscopy study sheds light on the internal organization of mesocrystals and reveals the formation of nanoreactors, that is, particles with enclosed porosity, upon thermal treatment.

  10. Three dimensional simulation of nucleate boiling heat and mass transfer in cooling passages of internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdipour, R.; Baniamerian, Z.; Delauré, Y.

    2016-05-01

    An accurate knowledge of heat transfer and temperature distribution in vehicle engines is essential to have a good management of heat transfer performance in combustion engines. This may be achieved by numerical simulation of flow through the engine cooling passages; but the task becomes particularly challenging when boiling occurs. Neglecting two phase flow processes in the simulation would however result in significant inaccuracy in the predictions. In this study a three dimensional numerical model is proposed using Fluent 6.3 to simulate heat transfer of fluid flowing through channels of conventional size. Results of the present theoretical and numerical model are then compared with some empirical results. For high fluid flow velocities, departure between experimental and numerical results is about 9 %, while for lower velocity conditions, the model inaccuracy increases to 18 %. One of the outstanding capabilities of the present model, beside its ability to simulate two phase fluid flow and heat transfer in three dimensions, is the prediction of the location of bubble formation and condensation which can be a key issue in the evaluation of the engine performance and thermal stresses.

  11. Design, implementation, and experimental validation of optimal power split control for hybrid electric trucks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, T. van; Mullem, D. van; Jager, B. van; Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Steinbuch, M.

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles require an algorithm that controls the power split between the internal combustion engine and electric machine(s), and the opening and closing of the clutch. Optimal control theory is applied to derive a methodology for a real-time optimal-control-based power split

  12. STRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT AND SIMULATION OF PLUG-IN HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Marozka; Yu. N. Petrenko

    2013-01-01

    Electric-drive vehicles (EDVs) have gained attention, especially in the context of growing concerns about global warming and energy security aspects associated with road transport. The main characteristic of EDVs is that the torque is supplied to the wheels by an electric motor that is powered either solely by a battery or in combination with an internal combustion engine (ICE). This covers hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), battery electric vehicles (BEVs), and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles...

  13. A comparative study of hybrid electric vehicle fuel consumption over diverse driving cycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Environmental pollution and declining resources of fossil fuels in recent years,have increased demand for better fuel economy and less pollution for ground transportation.Among the alternative solutions provided by researchers in recent decades,hybrid electric vehicles consisted of an internal combustion engine and an electric motor have been considered as a promising solution in the short-term.In the present study,fuel economy characteristics of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle are investigated by using ...

  14. Review of the state-of-the-art of exhaust particulate filter technology in internal combustion engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Bin; Zhan, Reggie; Lin, He; Huang, Zhen

    2015-05-01

    The increasingly stringent emission regulations, such as US 2010, Tier 2 Bin 5 and beyond, off-road Tier 4 final, and Euro V/5 for particulate matter (PM) reduction applications, will mandate the use of the diesel particulate filters (DPFs) technology, which is proven to be the only way that can effectively control the particulate emissions. This paper covers a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art DPF technologies, including the advanced filter substrate materials, the novel catalyst formulations, the highly sophisticated regeneration control strategies, the DPF uncontrolled regenerations and their control methodologies, the DPF soot loading prediction, and the soot sensor for the PM on-board diagnostics (OBD) legislations. Furthermore, the progress of the highly optimized hybrid approaches, which involves the integration of diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) + (DPF, NOx reduction catalyst), the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst coated on DPF, as well as DPF in the high-pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) loop systems, is well discussed. Besides, the impacts of the quality of fuel and lubricant on the DPF performance and the maintenance and retrofit of DPF are fully elaborated. Meanwhile, the high efficiency gasoline particulate filter (GPF) technology is being required to effectively reduce the PM and particulate number (PN) emissions from the gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines to comply with the future increasingly stricter emissions regulations.

  15. Generator voltage stabilisation for series-hybrid electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, P; Gladwin, D; Stewart, J; Cowley, R

    2008-04-01

    This paper presents a controller for use in speed control of an internal combustion engine for series-hybrid electric vehicle applications. Particular reference is made to the stability of the rectified DC link voltage under load disturbance. In the system under consideration, the primary power source is a four-cylinder normally aspirated gasoline internal combustion engine, which is mechanically coupled to a three-phase permanent magnet AC generator. The generated AC voltage is subsequently rectified to supply a lead-acid battery, and permanent magnet traction motors via three-phase full bridge power electronic inverters. Two complementary performance objectives exist. Firstly to maintain the internal combustion engine at its optimal operating point, and secondly to supply a stable 42 V supply to the traction drive inverters. Achievement of these goals minimises the transient energy storage requirements at the DC link, with a consequent reduction in both weight and cost. These objectives imply constant velocity operation of the internal combustion engine under external load disturbances and changes in both operating conditions and vehicle speed set-points. An electronically operated throttle allows closed loop engine velocity control. System time delays and nonlinearities render closed loop control design extremely problematic. A model-based controller is designed and shown to be effective in controlling the DC link voltage, resulting in the well-conditioned operation of the hybrid vehicle.

  16. H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2} filtration of biogas used in internal combustion engines for power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huertas, Jose Ignacio; Izquierdo, Sebastian [Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, (Mexico)]. E-mail: jhuertas@itesm.mx

    2009-09-15

    Currently, there is an increasing interest in connecting thousands of small electrical plants powered by renewable energy sources to national electrical grids. The use of biogas as fuel for internal combustion engines connected to an electric generator is emerging as one of the most attractive alternatives because of its very low cost benefit ratio and very high positive impact on the environment. However, the use of biogas to generate electricity has been limited by its high content of H{sub 2}S ({approx}3500 ppm) and CO{sub 2} ({approx}40%). CO{sub 2} presence reduces the energetic density of the fuel and therefore the power output of the system. The high content of H{sub 2}S corrodes important components of the engine like the combustion chamber, bronze gears and the exhaust system. This work aims to design and manufacture a low-cost industrial filter for this application. Among the different available methodologies, CaO, NaOH and amines where selected as the most appropriate for a typical farm application of 100 kW electric generations. Since there is not reported data for the H{sub 2}S absorbing capacity of these substances, it was proposed to measure it by means of a bubbler. It is an experimental set up where the gas stream passes through a fixed amount of the absorbing substance until it becomes saturated. The absorbing capacity is determined as the amount of substance being trapped divided by the mass of the absorbing substance being used. Results showed an absorbing capacity of 2.8, 41.4 and 124.8 g of H{sub 2}S per Kg of NaOH, CaO and monoethanolamine respectively. A gas absorbing system of amines was designed and manufactured for H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2} biogas filtration. Three different types of amines were evaluated: Monoethanolamine, Diethanolamine, and methyldiethanolamine. Results show that all the amines require a ratio of amines to biogas flow of 0.7 to obtain a 95% of H{sub 2}S filtering efficiency. This data represent only a 30% of H{sub 2}S

  17. Internalization of silica nanoparticles into fluid liposomes: formation of interesting hybrid colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Raphael; Kesselman, Ellina; Plostica, Tobias; Danino, Dganit; Gradzielski, Michael

    2014-11-10

    The formation of hybrid materials consisting of membrane-coated silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) concentrated within small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) is described. They are formed by a simple self-assembly process resulting from invagination of the SiNPs into the SUVs and subsequent vesicle fusion, thereby retaining an almost constant size. This process was followed under conditions where it proceeds slowly and could be analyzed in structural detail. The finally formed well-defined SiNP-filled vesicles are long-time stable hybrid colloids and their structure is conveniently controlled by the initial mixing ratio of SiNPs and vesicles. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Production of hydrogen driven from biomass waste to power Remote areas away from the electric grid utilizing fuel cells and internal combustion engines vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawfik, Hazem [Farmingdale State College, NY (United States)

    2017-03-10

    Recent concerns over the security and reliability of the world’s energy supply has caused a flux towards the research and development of renewable sources. A leading renewable source has been found in the biomass gasification of biological materials derived from organic matters such as wood chips, forest debris, and farm waste that are found in abundance in the USA. Accordingly, there is a very strong interest worldwide in the development of new technologies that provide an in-depth understanding of this economically viable energy source. This work aims to allow the coupling of biomass gasification and fuel cell systems as well as Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) to produce high-energy efficiency, clean environmental performance and near-zero greenhouse gas emissions. Biomass gasification is a process, which produces synthesis gas (syngas) that contains 19% hydrogen and 20% carbon monoxide from inexpensive organic matter waste. This project main goal is to provide cost effective energy to the public utilizing remote farms’ waste and landfill recycling area.

  19. The Application of GT-POWER in the Design of Internal-Combustion Engines%GT-POWER在内燃机设计中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰

    2013-01-01

    The development of computer technology becomes more mature today, using computer aided engineering staff design can greatly improve the efficiency of the work, and this thesis mainly introduces the application of GT-POWER in the internal combustion engine design. It establishes a simulation model of a turbocharged engine in the GT-Power;the simulation model is verified, doing the simple exploration in optimizing the intake manifold and the influence of different compression ratio on en-gine performance.%在计算机技术发展越来成熟的今天,利用计算机辅助工程人员进行设计能大大提高工程人员的工作效率,该文主要对GT-POWER在内燃机设计方面的应用进行介绍。在GT-Power中建立了一台涡轮增压发动机的仿真模型,并对仿真模型进行了校验,以对进气岐管的优化和不同压缩比对发动机性能的影响为例进行了简单探索。

  20. Development of a microwave-assisted digestion method using ICP-OES to measure metals in gum deposits of internal combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Allan N.S.; Costa, Rouse S.; Gouveia, Sandro T.; Lopes, Gisele S. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica e Fisico-Quimica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    The heterogeneous nature of gum samples obtained from the deposits of internal combustion engines is the main difficulty in accurate determination of their metal content. A microwave-assisted digestion method was implemented using factorial experimental design. The optimization of this procedure was carried out by first evaluating the effects of variables on the response (i.e., the residual carbon content or RCC). The variables of maximum heating power, heating time and nitric acid volume were studied. The RCC response was measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The time of maximum heating power was essential to obtain a desired RCC. The surface response was constructed with optimal conditions presented at 6 min and heating power of 700 W. Amounts of aluminum (Al), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) were determined in 26 gum samples by ICP-OES. Ca, Fe, Mg and Zn were found at mg g{sup -1} levels in the samples, while Al, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb were found at mg kg{sup -1} levels. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to establish a correlation between the gum samples and the different metal contents. Three distinct groups were separated according to the characteristics of the collected samples. (author)

  1. Modeling and Experimental Validation of a Volumetric Expander Suitable for Waste Heat Recovery from an Automotive Internal Combustion Engine Using an Organic Rankine Cycle with Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Galindo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Waste heat recovery (WHR in exhaust gas flow of automotive engines has proved to be a useful path to increase the overall efficiency of internal combustion engines (ICE. Recovery potentials of up to 7% are shown in several works in the literature. However, most of them are theoretical estimations. Some present results from prototypes fed by steady flows generated in an auxiliary gas tank and not with actual engine exhaust gases. This paper deals with the modeling and experimental validation of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC with a swash-plate expander integrated in a 2 L turbocharged petrol engine using ethanol as working fluid. A global simulation model of the ORC was developed with a maximum difference of 5%, validated with experimental results. Considering the swash-plate as the main limiting factor, an additional specific submodel was implemented to model the physical phenomena in this element. This model allows simulating the fluid dynamic behavior of the swash-plate expander using a 0D model (Amesim. Differences up to 10.5% between tests and model results were found.

  2. Methods of Assessing the Resource of the Crankshaft Bearing of Internal Combustion Engine Based on the Calculation of Hydro-Mechanical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. Levanov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to develop a tool to assess the theoretical resource crankshaft bearings of internal combustion engine. As a result, two methods for evaluating of the theoretical resource crankshaft bearings have been developed on the basis of the calculation of hydro-mechanical characteristics of bearings: the minimum film thickness and the extent of the zone of boundary friction. Under the theoretical resource of crankshaft bearing it is understood that during his work an increase of the radial clearance in the area of potential exposure (boundary friction is over the limit. The first technique is based on the bearing life dependence on the ratio between the minimum film thickness and its maximum allowable value. The second technique is based on the molecular-mechanical theory of friction and wear fatigue theory. Thus, these techniques may be used to estimate the resource of the crankshaft journal bearings at the design and finishing stage. However, some parameters of mathematical models have to be determined from the experimental test. The use of molecular-mechanical theory of friction and wear fatigue theory takes into account the influence of the physical and mechanical properties of a bearing material on his life.

  3. Combustion physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. R.

    1985-11-01

    Over 90% of our energy comes from combustion. By the year 2000 the figure will still be 80%, even allowing for nuclear and alternative energy sources. There are many familiar examples of combustion use, both domestic and industrial. These range from the Bunsen burner to large flares, from small combustion chambers, such as those in car engines, to industrial furnaces for steel manufacture or the generation of megawatts of electricity. There are also fires and explosions. The bountiful energy release from combustion, however, brings its problems, prominent among which are diminishing fuel resources and pollution. Combustion science is directed towards finding ways of improving efficiency and reducing pollution. One may ask, since combustion is a chemical reaction, why physics is involved: the answer is in three parts. First, chemicals cannot react unless they come together. In most flames the fuel and air are initially separate. The chemical reaction in the gas phase is very fast compared with the rate of mixing. Thus, once the fuel and air are mixed the reaction can be considered to occur instantaneously and fluid mechanics limits the rate of burning. Secondly, thermodynamics and heat transfer determine the thermal properties of the combustion products. Heat transfer also plays a role by preheating the reactants and is essential to extracting useful work. Fluid mechanics is relevant if work is to be performed directly, as in a turbine. Finally, physical methods, including electric probes, acoustics, optics, spectroscopy and pyrometry, are used to examine flames. The article is concerned mainly with how physics is used to improve the efficiency of combustion.

  4. Applied combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    From the title, the reader is led to expect a broad practical treatise on combustion and combustion devices. Remarkably, for a book of modest dimension, the author is able to deliver. The text is organized into 12 Chapters, broadly treating three major areas: combustion fundamentals -- introduction (Ch. 1), thermodynamics (Ch. 2), fluid mechanics (Ch. 7), and kinetics (Ch. 8); fuels -- coal, municipal solid waste, and other solid fuels (Ch. 4), liquid (Ch. 5) and gaseous (Ch. 6) fuels; and combustion devices -- fuel cells (Ch. 3), boilers (Ch. 4), Otto (Ch. 10), diesel (Ch. 11), and Wankel (Ch. 10) engines and gas turbines (Ch. 12). Although each topic could warrant a complete text on its own, the author addresses each of these major themes with reasonable thoroughness. Also, the book is well documented with a bibliography, references, a good index, and many helpful tables and appendices. In short, Applied Combustion does admirably fulfill the author`s goal for a wide engineering science introduction to the general subject of combustion.

  5. Desempeño y emisiones de un motor de combustión interna con combustible dual Diesel – Gas natural ;Performance and emissions study of an internal combustion engine with dual fuel diesel - natural gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Mantilla González

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Muchos de los problemas reportados para los sistemas duales diesel- gas natural ocurren por mala dosificación del gas. Por esta razón se adaptó un sistema de alimentación dual con inyección electrónica de gas natural a un motor de combustión interna encendido por compresión. Se plantea un diseño experimental controlando el dosado de gas natural.Como resultado se obtiene un análisis comparativo entre los valoresde desempeño y emisiones desde la operación Diesel y Diesel-Gas natural. A partir de este análisis es posible observar que el desempeño del motor no se ve afectado por la operación del motor bajo el esquema Dual Diesel-GN, es decir que el motor funcionando bajo modo dual puede sostener las cargas solicitadas al motor. También se observa que la eficiencia volumétrica mejora bajo todas las condiciones de operación dual y las emisiones son mejores sólo cuando el motor trabaja a altas cargas. Many of the problems reported for dual diesel-natural gas systems occur due to poor gas dosage. For this reason a natural gas electronic injection feeding system was adapted to a compression ignitios internal combustion engine. An experimental design controlling the natural gas dosage is considered. As a result a comparative analysis between performance and emissions from the Diesel-and diesel-Natural Gas operation is obtained. From this analysis it is possible to see that engine performance is not affected by operation of the engine under the dual mode, i.e. the motor running under dual mode can support the loads applied to the engine. It is also observed that the volumetric efficiency improves under all conditions of operation and emissions from the dual mode of operation are better only when working at high engine loads.

  6. Flex-flame burner and combustion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soupos, Vasilios; Zelepouga, Serguei; Rue, David M.; Abbasi, Hamid A.

    2010-08-24

    A combustion method and apparatus which produce a hybrid flame for heating metals and metal alloys, which hybrid flame has the characteristic of having an oxidant-lean portion proximate the metal or metal alloy and having an oxidant-rich portion disposed above the oxidant lean portion. This hybrid flame is produced by introducing fuel and primary combustion oxidant into the furnace chamber containing the metal or metal alloy in a substoichiometric ratio to produce a fuel-rich flame and by introducing a secondary combustion oxidant into the furnace chamber above the fuel-rich flame in a manner whereby mixing of the secondary combustion oxidant with the fuel-rich flame is delayed for a portion of the length of the flame.

  7. Experimentally Studied Thermal Piston-head State of the Internal-Combustion Engine with a Thermal Layer Formed by Micro-Arc Oxidation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yu. Dudareva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of experimental study to show the efficiency of reducing thermal tension of internal combustion engine (ICE pistons through forming a thermal barrier coating on the piston-head. During the engine operation the piston is under the most thermal stress. High temperatures in the combustion chamber may lead to the piston-head burnout and destruction and engine failure.Micro-arc oxidation (MAO method was selected as the technology to create a thermal barrier coating. MAO technology allows us to form the ceramic coating with a thickness of 400μm on the surface of aluminum alloy, which have high heat resistance, and have good adhesion to the substrate even under thermal cycling stresses.Deliverables of MAO method used to protect pistons described in the scientific literature are insufficient, as they are either calculated or experimentally obtained at the special plants (units, which do not reproduce piston operation in a real engine. This work aims to fill this gap. The aim of the work is an experimental study of the thermal protective ability of MAO-layer formed on the piston-head with simulation of thermal processes of the real engine.The tests were performed on a specially designed and manufactured stand free of motor, which reproduces operation conditions maximum close to those of the real engine. The piston is heated by a fire source - gas burner with isobutene balloon, cooling is carried out by the water circulation system through the water-cooling jacket.Tests have been conducted to compare the thermal state of the regular engine piston without thermal protection and the piston with a heat layer formed on the piston-head by MAO method. The study findings show that the thermal protective MAO-layer with thickness of 100μm allows us to reduce thermal tension of piston on average by 8,5 %. Thus at high temperatures there is the most pronounced effect that is important for the uprated engines.The obtained findings can

  8. Mission Success for Combustion Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Karen J.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation describes how mission success for combustion experiments has been obtained in previous spaceflight experiments and how it will be obtained for future International Space Station (ISS) experiments. The fluids and combustion facility is a payload planned for the ISS. It is composed of two racks: the fluids Integrated rack and the Combustion INtegrated Rack (CIR). Requirements for the CIR were obtained from a set of combustion basis experiments that served as surrogates for later experiments. The process for experiments that fly on the ISS includes proposal selection, requirements and success criteria definition, science and engineering reviews, mission operations, and postflight operations. By following this process, the microgravity combustion science program has attained success in 41 out of 42 experiments.

  9. Effects of Cylindrical Charge Geometry and Secondary Combustion Reactions on the Internal Blast Loading of Reinforced Concrete Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Matthew A. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

    2005-05-01

    An understanding of the detonation phenomenon and airblast behavior for cylindrical high-explosive charges is essential in developing predictive capabilities for tests and scenarios involving these charge geometries. Internal tests on reinforced concrete structures allowed for the analysis of cylindrical charges and the effect of secondary reactions occurring in confined structures. The pressure profiles that occur close to a cylindrical explosive charge are strongly dependent on the length-to-diameter ratio (L/D) of the charge. This study presents a comparison of finite-element code models (i.e., AUTODYN) to empirical methods for predicting airblast behavior from cylindrical charges. Current finite element analysis (FEA) and blast prediction codes fail to account for the effects of secondary reactions (fireballs) that occur with underoxidized explosives. Theoretical models were developed for TNT and validated against literature. These models were then applied to PBX 9501 for predictions of the spherical fireball diameter and time duration. The following relationships for PBX 9501 were derived from this analysis (units of ft, lb, s). Comparison of centrally located equivalent weight charges using cylindrical and spherical geometries showed that the average impulse on the interior of the structure is ~3%–5% higher for the spherical charge. Circular regions of high impulse that occur along the axial direction of the cylindrical charge must be considered when analyzing structural response.

  10. Fluidized-bed combustion of gasification residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudjoi, A.; Heinolainen, A.; Hippinen, I.; Lu, Y. [Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Energy Economics and Power Plant Engineering

    1998-12-31

    Hybrid combined cycle processes have been presented as possibilities for power generation in the future. In the processes based on partial gasification of coal, the solid materials removed from a gasifier (i.e. fly ash and bed char) contain unburned fuel, which is burned either in an atmospheric or a pressurised fluidised-bed. Pressurised fluidised-bed (PFB) combustion of gasification residues were studied experimentally by Helsinki University of Technology. The gasification residues, i.e. cyclone fines and bed chars, came from pilot scale PFB gasification tests of bituminous coals. The combustion efficiency was high in cyclone fines combustion. The calcium sulphide oxidised effectively to calcium sulphate in the combustion of cyclone fines. In bed char combustion the residual sulphide contents in solids after combustion were still relatively high. In general, sulphur dioxide emissions in residue combustion were low. The recarbonation of calcium oxide was observed in bed char combustion. Fuel-N conversion to NO{sub x} during bed char combustion and in most of the test runs with cyclone fines was higher than in bituminous coal combustion. In bed char combustion the conversion was significantly higher than in cyclone fines combustion. NO{sub x} emissions increased with increasing excess air for both residues, as was expected. In bed char combustion the highest NO{sub x} emissions were measured at higher pressure. Calculated mass reactivity values of equal particle size of all bed chars studied had similar trends with burnout. The biggest particles had the lowest reactivity values throughout the combustion, while reactivity for finer particles was at considerably higher level and sharply increases with burnout. In the constant combustion conditions used in the tests, no significant differences were observed in rate-controlling mechanisms for bed char fractions studied. 25 refs., 13 figs., 15 tab.

  11. Dynamics Simulation Analysis of Crank Connecting Rod Mechanism of Multi-cylinder Internal Combustion Engine based on ADAMS%基于ADAMS的多缸内燃机曲柄连杆机构动力学仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小明; 魏德超; 郭晓杰

    2012-01-01

    引起内燃机振动的一个重要因素是其曲柄连杆机构往复运动产生的惯性力和惯性力矩.应用多体动力学相关理论,基于动力学仿真软件ADAMS和Pro/E,建立了多缸内燃机的虚拟样机参数化实体模型,通过MECHANANISM/Pro接口模块将所建模型导入ADAMS中进行仿真分析,得到了活塞、曲轴、连杆等主要运动部件的运动规律和受力情况,仿真结果与内燃机实际工作情况基本一致,为内燃机曲轴连杆机构的进一步优化设计提供了依据.%The inertial force and moment produced by the crank - rod mechanism is an important factor of the vibration of multi - cylinder internal combustion engine. Based on the dynamics simulation software ADAMS and Pro/E, the virtual prototype model of crank connecting rod of multi - cylinder internal combustion engine is established. The virtual prototyping parametric model is imported into ADAMS software by MECHANANISM/Pro module interface, and the characteristic of movements and force of the main parts such as piston, crank, connecting rod are obtained. The results show that the simulation results are accordant with the true working state of internal combustion engine, the references for the further design of internal combustion engine is offered.

  12. Multivariable speed synchronisation for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle drivetrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, B.; Antritter, F.; Svaricek, F.; Schultalbers, M.

    2013-03-01

    In this article, a new drivetrain configuration of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle is considered and a novel model-based control design strategy is given. In particular, the control design covers the speed synchronisation task during a restart of the internal combustion engine. The proposed multivariable synchronisation strategy is based on feedforward and decoupled feedback controllers. The performance and the robustness properties of the closed-loop system are illustrated by nonlinear simulation results.

  13. Use of a thermophotovoltaic generator in a hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Orion; Seal, Michael; West, Edward; Connelly, William

    1999-03-01

    Viking 29 is the World's first thermophotovoltaic (TPV) powered automobile. The prototype was funded by the Department of Energy and designed and built by students and faculty at the Vehicle Research Institute (VRI) at Western Washington University. Viking 29 is a series hybrid electric vehicle that utilizes TPV generators to charge its battery pack. Acceleration, speed, and handling compare to modern high performance sports cars, while emissions are cleaner than current internal combustion engine vehicles.

  14. Design and construction of a go-kart hybrid PEM fuel cell / rechargeable battery; Diseno y construccion de un go-kart hibrido pila de combustible PEM / bateria recargable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez Alcantara, Karina; Rodriguez Castellanos, Andres; Soloza Feria, Omar [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: k.suarez.alcantara@gmail.com

    2008-11-15

    An hybrid Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell, PEMFC-Rechargeable Battery Go-kart has been designed and manufactured using AutoCAD software for the design and a CNC mechanical machine for the manufacture of components of the fuel cell. The membrane-electrode assemblies, MEAs, were integrated with a Gore-Select membrane and carbon cloth with Pt (20 wt % /C) 0.5 mg/cm{sup 2} anode and cathode electrode catalysts loading. High density graphite collector plates with 5mm thickness were used as collector plates. The estimated weigh of the go-kart with a driver is about 120 kg. The demand of the motor of the go-kart is 20 V and 5 A (100W), supplied by an hybrid system integrated by three 30Watts PEMFC. The commercially available Pb/acid rechargeable battery supplies energy for peripheral equipment. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta el diseno y la construccion de un go-kart hibrido pila de combustible con membrana de conduccion protonica tipo PEM (Proton Exchange Membrane, por sus siglas en ingles) y pila recargable. El diseno de los colectores de corriente de la pila se realizo utilizando el programa AutoCAD y la construccion mediante una fresadora con control numerico, CNC. Los ensambles membrana-electrocatalizador de la pila estan formados por membranas Gore-Select y por electrodos de Pt soportado en tela de carbon al 20 %peso/C con carga de 0.5 mg /cm{sup 2}, en anodo y catodo. Los platos colectores de corriente fueron manufacturados en grafito de alta densidad con espesor de 5 mm. La caracterizacion de la pila de combustible se realizo mediante ensayos de polarizacion potenciostatica. El peso total del go-kart y una persona a bordo es de 120 kg. La potencia del go-kart es generada por un motor de corriente directa de 20 V y 5 A (100 Watts). Para tal efecto, se construyeron tres pilas de combustible de 30 W cada una, con un respaldo de baterias recargables comerciales de Pb/acido para energizar equipos perifericos.

  15. Optimal control of a repowered vehicle: Plug-in fuel cell against plug-in hybrid electric powertrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tribioli, L., E-mail: laura.tribioli@unicusano.it; Cozzolino, R. [Dept. of Industrial Engineering, University of Rome Niccolo’ Cusano (Italy); Barbieri, M. [Engineering Dept., University of Naples Parthenope, Centro Direzionale-Isola C4, 80143 Naples (Italy)

    2015-03-10

    This paper describes two different powertrain configurations for the repowering of a conventional vehicle, equipped with an internal combustion engine (ICE). A model of a mid-sized ICE-vehicle is realized and then modified to model both a parallel plug-in hybrid electric powertrain and a proton electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell (FC) hybrid powertrain. The vehicle behavior under the application of an optimal control algorithm for the energy management is analyzed for the different scenarios and results are compared.

  16. Applicability of heat transfer equations to hydrogen combustion

    OpenAIRE

    Shudo, Toshio; Suzuki, Hiroyuki

    2002-01-01

    Previous research by the authors showed that hydrogen combustion exhibits a higher cooling loss to the combustion chamber wall of an internal combustion engine compared to hydrocarbon combustion because of its higher burning velocity and shorter quenching distance. The high cooling loss means that reduction of the cooling loss is essential to establish a high thermal efficiency in hydrogen combustion engines. This research analyzed the applicability of equations to describe the h...

  17. Biofuels combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Charles K

    2013-01-01

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. Research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  18. Hybrid forum or network? The social and political construction of an international 'technical consultation': male circumcision and HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giami, Alain; Perrey, Christophe; Mendonça, André Luiz de Oliveira; de Camargo, Kenneth Rochel

    2015-01-01

    The technical consultation in Montreux, organised by World Health Organization and UNAIDS in 2007, recommended male circumcision as a method for preventing HIV transmission. This consultation came out of a long process of releasing reports and holding international and regional conferences, a process steered by an informal network. This network's relations with other parties is analysed along with its way of working and the exchanges during the technical consultation that led up to the formal adoption of a recommendation. Conducted in relation to the concepts of a 'hybrid forum' and 'network', this article shows that the decision was based on the formation and consolidation of a network of persons. They were active in all phases of this process, ranging from studies of the recommendation's efficacy, feasibility and acceptability to its adoption and implementation. In this sense, this consultation cannot be described as the constitution of a 'hybrid forum', which is characterised by its openness to a debate as well as a plurality of issues formulated by the actors and of resources used by them. On the contrary, little room was allowed for contradictory discussions, as if the decision had already been made before the Montreux consultation.

  19. Research and design of bidirectional power converter for internal combustion linear power generation system%内燃直线发电系统双向功率变换器研究与设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛莲莲; 张驰; 高艳霞; 赵飞; 孙鹏; 曾德全

    2016-01-01

    The free⁃piston internal combustion linear power generation system is a novel integrated hybrid power system. In the process of system start to stable operation,the power flows between power generation unit and energy storage unit bidirectionally through BDPC,and has the unbalanced characteristics in two directions,which makes the designed inductor in Buck mode have big volume and high cost,and the switching tube have large current stress. Aiming at this problem,it is proposed that the BDPC adopts the single phase structure in Boost mode,and adopts the staggered parallel structure in Buck mode,which can re⁃duce the inductor volume and cost,current stress of the switching tube,and output current ripple. To meet the system transient demand,the fuzzy PI controller is used for the voltage loop of BDPC controller to realize the fast system response,and improve the system robustness.%自由活塞式内燃直线发电系统是一种新型集成混合动力系统,在系统启动到稳定运行过程中,功率流经由BDPC在发电单元与储能单元之间双向流动,且在两个方向具有不平衡特性,使得Buck模式下设计电感体积大,成本高,开关管电流应力大。针对此问题,提出BDPC在Boost模式时采用单相结构,在Buck模式时采用交错并联结构,从而有效减小电感体积和成本,减小开关管电流应力,降低输出电流纹波。此外,为满足系统瞬态需求,在BDPC控制器电压环采用模糊PI控制器,实现了更快的系统响应,提高了系统鲁棒性。

  20. Improved Combustion Products Monitor for the ISS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Compound Specific Analyzer – Combustion Products, used on the International Space Station as a warning monitor of smoldering or combustion events, is being...

  1. Improved Combustion Products Monitor for the ISS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Compound Specific Analyzer - Combustion Products is used on the International Space Station as a warning monitor of smoldering or combustion events and, after...

  2. Decomposition of water into highly combustible hydroxyl gas used in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decomposition of water into highly combustible hydroxyl gas used in internal ... of alternative sources of energy that produce less amounts of carbon dioxide. ... The by-product obtained from combustion of this gas is water vapour and oxygen ...

  3. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2014-10-01

    Alternative transportation fuels, preferably from renewable sources, include alcohols with up to five or even more carbon atoms. They are considered promising because they can be derived from biological matter via established and new processes. In addition, many of their physical-chemical properties are compatible with the requirements of modern engines, which make them attractive either as replacements for fossil fuels or as fuel additives. Indeed, alcohol fuels have been used since the early years of automobile production, particularly in Brazil, where ethanol has a long history of use as an automobile fuel. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the use of non-petroleum-based fuels made from biological sources, including alcohols (predominantly ethanol), as important liquid biofuels. Today, the ethanol fuel that is offered in the market is mainly made from sugar cane or corn. Its production as a first-generation biofuel, especially in North America, has been associated with publicly discussed drawbacks, such as reduction in the food supply, need for fertilization, extensive water usage, and other ecological concerns. More environmentally friendly processes are being considered to produce alcohols from inedible plants or plant parts on wasteland. While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides ethanol, many linear and branched members of the alcohol family, from methanol to hexanols, have been studied, with a particular emphasis on butanols. These fuels and their combustion properties, including their ignition, flame propagation, and extinction characteristics, their pyrolysis and oxidation reactions, and their potential to produce pollutant emissions have been intensively investigated in dedicated experiments on the laboratory and the engine scale

  4. Turbulent combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talbot, L.; Cheng, R.K. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Turbulent combustion is the dominant process in heat and power generating systems. Its most significant aspect is to enhance the burning rate and volumetric power density. Turbulent mixing, however, also influences the chemical rates and has a direct effect on the formation of pollutants, flame ignition and extinction. Therefore, research and development of modern combustion systems for power generation, waste incineration and material synthesis must rely on a fundamental understanding of the physical effect of turbulence on combustion to develop theoretical models that can be used as design tools. The overall objective of this program is to investigate, primarily experimentally, the interaction and coupling between turbulence and combustion. These processes are complex and are characterized by scalar and velocity fluctuations with time and length scales spanning several orders of magnitude. They are also influenced by the so-called {open_quotes}field{close_quotes} effects associated with the characteristics of the flow and burner geometries. The authors` approach is to gain a fundamental understanding by investigating idealized laboratory flames. Laboratory flames are amenable to detailed interrogation by laser diagnostics and their flow geometries are chosen to simplify numerical modeling and simulations and to facilitate comparison between experiments and theory.

  5. Start up of a new annex Electrochemical Power Sources and Energy Storage Systems in the implementing agreement hybrid and electric vehicles of the International Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacker, V.; Fuchs, H.; Kordesch, K. [Technical Univ. Graz, (Austria)

    2000-07-01

    It is understood that continuing research and development in battery and supercapacitor technologies should ensure the future of hybrid and electric vehicles. In order to promote research and development efforts along those lines, it was decided to prolong the work performed by Annex V Advanced Batteries and Supercapacitors for Electric Vehicles during the second phase of the Implementing Agreement on Hybrid and Electric Vehicles of the International Energy Agency. The authors, acting as intermediate Operating Agent, prepared a proposal to be used as framework for the organization and structure, without detailing exploratory research. They were careful not to overlap the work done on Advanced Fuel Cells by creating an interface of Fuel Cells and battery technology for mobile applications that meet the performance requirements of hybrid systems. They also included fuel cell electric vehicles and fuel cell hybrid vehicles in this new annex. The authors concluded with an invitation to former and other participating countries to join the Annex.

  6. Extinction of alpha1-antitrypsin expression in cell hybrids is independent of HNF1alpha and HNF4 and involves both promoter and internal DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, G A

    1999-01-01

    In rat hepatoma x fibroblast somatic cell hybrids, extinction of rat alpha1-antitrypsin (alpha1AT) gene expression is accompanied by the loss of liver-enriched transcription factors hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 (HNF1alpha) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 (HNF4). Previous analysis showed that forced expression of functional HNF1alpha failed to prevent extinction of the rat alpha1AT locus in cell hybrids. Here I show that ectopic co-expression of HNF1alpha plus HNF4 fails to prevent extinction of either rat or human alpha1AT genes in cell hybrids. A 40 kb human alpha1AT minilocus integrated into the rat genome is fully silenced in cell hybrids in the presence of transacting factors. The integrated alpha1AT promoter, but not a viral or ubiquitously active promoter, is repressed 35-fold in the cell hybrids. In addition, position effects also contributed to extinction of many integrated transgenes in a cell type-dependent manner. Finally, internal DNA sequences within the human alpha1AT gene contributed dramatically to the extinction phenotype, resulting in a further 10- to 30-fold reduction in alpha1AT gene expression in cell hybrids. Thus, multiple mechanisms contribute to silencing of tissue-specific gene expression of the alpha1AT gene in cell hybrids. PMID:9927755

  7. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Penetration Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balducci, Patrick J.

    2008-04-03

    This report examines the economic drivers, technology constraints, and market potential for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) in the U.S. A PHEV is a hybrid vehicle with batteries that can be recharged by connecting to the grid and an internal combustion engine that can be activated when batteries need recharging. The report presents and examines a series of PHEV market penetration scenarios. Based on input received from technical experts and industry representative contacted for this report and data obtained through a literature review, annual market penetration rates for PHEVs are presented from 2013 through 2045 for three scenarios. Each scenario is examined and implications for PHEV development are explored.

  8. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Penetration Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balducci, Patrick J.

    2008-04-03

    This report examines the economic drivers, technology constraints, and market potential for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) in the U.S. A PHEV is a hybrid vehicle with batteries that can be recharged by connecting to the grid and an internal combustion engine that can be activated when batteries need recharging. The report presents and examines a series of PHEV market penetration scenarios. Based on input received from technical experts and industry representative contacted for this report and data obtained through a literature review, annual market penetration rates for PHEVs are presented from 2013 through 2045 for three scenarios. Each scenario is examined and implications for PHEV development are explored.

  9. Study proposal for the use of biodiesel from 'pinhao manso' (Jatropha curcas L.) in internal combustion engines; Proposta de estudo para uso do biodiesel de pinhao manso em motores de combustao interna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Robson Leal da [Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (UFGD), MS (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Engenharia de Producao], e-mail: rlealsilva@hotmail.com; Pimentel, Carlos Alberto Rocha [Fundacao Universidade Federal do Tocantins (UFT), Araguaina, TO (Brazil). Dept. de Matematica], e-mail: pimentel@uft.edu.br

    2008-07-01

    In this work, a preliminary study is proposed as a general glimpse looking into the recent motivation in using biodiesel, from 'pinhao manso'. From that initial revision, a research proposal aims to evaluate the performance parameters in an internal combustion engine or turbines working with oil, mainly produced from plants crops in Tocantins state. Both equipment are used as electrical energy generators in regions were it is not easily available or non-existent. Some parameters to be analyzed in the research proposal are the thermal performance and gases emissions resulting from diesel-biodiesel mixture combustion, as CO, NOx , SO{sub 2} and others. At the ending, some points of view with respect to the potential effects of renewable energy sources usage in Brazil are presented and discussed. (author)

  10. Fluorescence detection of KRAS2 mRNA hybridization in lung cancer cells with PNA-peptides containing an internal thiazole orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonar, Mahesh V; Wampole, Matthew E; Jin, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Chang-Po; Thakur, Mathew L; Wickstrom, Eric

    2014-09-17

    We previously developed reporter-peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-peptides for sequence-specific radioimaging and fluorescence imaging of particular mRNAs in cells and tumors. However, a direct test for PNA-peptide hybridization with RNA in the cytoplasm would be desirable. Thiazole orange (TO) dye at the 5' end of a hybridization agent shows a strong increase in fluorescence quantum yield when stacked upon a 5' terminal base pair, in solution and in cells. We hypothesized that hybridization agents with an internal TO could distinguish a single base mutation in RNA. Thus, we designed KRAS2 PNA-IGF1 tetrapeptide agents with an internal TO adjacent to the middle base of the 12th codon, a frequent site of cancer-initiating mutations. Our molecular dynamics calculations predicted a disordered bulge with weaker hybridization resulting from a single RNA mismatch. We observed that single-stranded PNA-IGF1 tetrapeptide agents with an internal TO showed low fluorescence, but fluorescence escalated 5-6-fold upon hybridization with KRAS2 RNA. Circular dichroism melting curves showed ∼10 °C higher Tm for fully complementary vs single base mismatch TO-PNA-peptide agent duplexes with KRAS2 RNA. Fluorescence measurements of treated human lung cancer cells similarly showed elevated cytoplasmic fluorescence intensity with fully complementary vs single base mismatch agents. Sequence-specific elevation of internal TO fluorescence is consistent with our hypothesis of detecting cytoplasmic PNA-peptide:RNA hybridization if a mutant agent encounters the corresponding mutant mRNA.

  11. Estudio del Efecto de la Altitud sobre el Comportamiento de Motores de Combustión Interna. Parte 1: Funcionamiento Study of the Altitude Effect on Internal Combustion Engine Operation. Part 1: Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magín Lapuerta

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudia el efecto de la altitud sobre la potencia en motores de aspiración natural y turbosobrealimentados sin sistemas correctores, en función de la presión ambiental. La altitud sobre el nivel del mar tiene un notable efecto sobre la densidad del aire y su composición. Dado que los motores de combustión interna tienen sistemas de admisión y de inyección de combustible volumétricos, la altitud modifica el ciclo termodinámico de operación, y en consecuencia las prestaciones, así como las condiciones locales de combustión, y por tanto la formación de contaminantes. Se ha obtenido una expresión que permite calcular el incremento de relación de compresión del turbogrupo, necesario para evitar cualquier pérdida de potencia al aumentar la altitud.The present study shows the effect of altitude on the performance of both naturally aspirated and turbocharged internal combustion engines without corrective systems, as a function of pressure in the environment. Altitude above sea level has a notable effect on the density of air and its composition. Given that internal combustion engines have volumetric-based fuel systems, altitude can modify their thermodynamic cycle of operation, and consequently their performance, local combustion conditions, and formation of pollutants. An expression has been obtained which allows calculation of the increase of the compression ratio of the turbogroup required to avoid power loss with increase in altitude.

  12. Language and learning in the international university from English uniformity to diversity and hybridity

    CERN Document Server

    Preisler, Bent; Fabricius, Anne H

    2011-01-01

    This book views the international university as a microcosm of a world where internationalization does not equate with across-the-board use of English, but rather with the practice of linguistic and cultural diversity, even in the face of Anglophone dominance. The globalization-localization continuum manifests itself in every university trying to adopt internationalization strategies. The many cases of language and learning issues presented in this book, from universities representing different parts of the world, are all manifestations of a multidimensional space encompassing local vs. global

  13. A hybrid approach to solving the problem of design of nuclear fuel cells; Un enfoque hibrido para la solucion del problema del diseno de celdas de combustible nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes T, J. L.; Perusquia del C, R.; Ortiz S, J. J.; Castillo, A., E-mail: joseluis.montes@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    An approach to solving the problem of fuel cell design for BWR power reactor is presented. For this purpose the hybridization of a method based in heuristic knowledge rules called S15 and the advantages of a meta-heuristic method is proposed. The synergy of potentialities of both techniques allows finding solutions of more quality. The quality of each solution is obtained through a multi-objective function formed from the main cell parameters that are provided or obtained during the simulation with the CASMO-4 code. To evaluate this alternative of solution nuclear fuel cells of reference of nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde were used. The results show that in a systematic way the results improve when both methods are coupled. As a result of the hybridization process of the mentioned techniques an improvement is achieved in a range of 2% with regard to the achieved results in an independent way by the S15 method. (Author)

  14. The hybrid MPC-MINLP algorithm for optimal operation of coal-fired power plants with solvent based post-combustion CO2 capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhuda Abdul Manaf

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an algorithm that combines model predictive control (MPC with MINLP optimization and demonstrates its application for coal-fired power plants retrofitted with solvent based post-combustion CO2 capture (PCC plant. The objective function of the optimization algorithm works at a primary level to maximize plant economic revenue while considering an optimal carbon capture profile. At a secondary level, the MPC algorithm is used to control the performance of the PCC plant. Two techno-economic scenarios based on fixed (capture rate is constant and flexible (capture rate is variable operation modes are developed using actual electricity prices (2011 with fixed carbon prices ($AUD 5, 25, 50/tonne-CO2 for 24 h periods. Results show that fixed operation mode can bring about a ratio of net operating revenue deficit at an average of 6% against the superior flexible operation mode.

  15. Cálculo de la temperatura en el interior de la cámara de combustión en motores de combustión interna. // Calculation of temperature into combustion chamber of internal combustion engines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Soto Pau

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo aquí presentado tiene como objetivo llegar a expresiones de cálculo de la temperatura en el interior de la cámarade combustión como vía de diagnostico de la combustión en motores térmicos. Este trabajo consiste en un modelo físicomatemático,el cual usa como herramientas fundamentalmente, los valores de presión medidos en el interior de la cámarade combustión, las características geométricas del motor y todos los valores normalmente medidos en el bancodinamométrico. El procesamiento teórico de este modelo consiste fundamentalmente en la determinación de la evoluciónde la combustión a partir de la curva de presión, basada en la Primera Ley de la Termodinámica, adoptando Modelo deGases Perfectos. A partir de la posición angular de cierre de la válvula de admisión es posible calcular la derivada de latemperatura en relación a la posición angular del cigüeñal para los gases quemados T&b y no quemados T&u . Teniendo estosvalores de T&u y T&b calculados, es posible integrar numéricamente las temperaturas utilizando el método de integración deEuler. Conociendo la composición química del combustible, es posible calcular la temperatura adiabática de llama, estesería el valor de temperatura inicial Tb que nos permitiría calcular un valor de entalpía específica de los gases quemados. Deigual forma con el valor de la temperatura inicial para los gases no quemados Tu se tiene el valor de temperatura inicial parael proceso de integración.Palabras claves: Proceso de combustión en motores térmicos, temperatura en el interior de la cámara decombustión, presión en el interior de la cámara de combustión.____________________________________________________________________________Abstract.This paper presents calculation expressions of the temperature inside the combustion chamber in order to diagnose thecombustion in termic engines. This analysis consists in a physical-mathematical model, which uses

  16. Development of a generally valid model for calculating combustion chamber wall temperatures in internal combustion engines. Wall temperature model - final report; Entwicklung eines allgemeingueltigen Modells zur Berechnung der Brennraumwandtemperaturen bei Verbrennungsmotoren. Wandtemperaturmodell - Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manz, P. [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany); Bargende, M.; Sargenti, R. [Stuttgart Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Verbrennungsmotoren und Kraftfahrwesen (IVK)

    2004-07-01

    Starting from the literature research in the FVV-Project 722, the objective of this project was set on the development of a universally valid model for the calculation of wall temperatures in combustion engines. To reach this target, intensive research work was necessary to improve the simple zero-dimensional modeling of the in-cylinder processes. For this reason, a 2.3 l Otto-engine was fitted with thermocouples in a manner to permit accurate measurements of wall temperatures of both cylinder liner wall and cylinder head. To allow for the calculation of the thermodynamic boundary conditions of the gas phase using a pressure history analysis, the engine was indicated in all four cylinders. The parameters cooling liquid temperature and oil temperature were highly varied to examine their influence on the wall temperature. Simultaneous to the test bench measurements, the components for the numerical calculation of the wall temperature were programmed and analyzed. The modular description of the combustion chamber enables modelling of an arbitrary combustion engine. For the calculation of the influence of the gas phase heat, the working process analyses was performed by an external simulation program. The wall temperature model can be used as an independent tool as well as an integrated part of a coupled simulation. In a pressure history analysis the wall temperatures needed for the calculation of the wall heat can be determined precisely. In case of a coupling with a one-dimensional simulation tool, the wall temperature model is used for an iterative calculation of the wall temperatures and the wall heat fluxes. Due to the possibility of an arbitrary discretisation of the cylinder liner, this model can also be applied to a three-dimensional simulation for the initial calculation of the boundary conditions. (orig.)

  17. PROTOTIPE ALAT PENGEKSTRAK PATI SAGU TIPE MIXER ROTARY BLADE BERTENAGA MOTOR BAKAR Prototype of Mixer Rotary Blade of Sago Starch Extractor Powered by Internal Combustion Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darma Darma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Papua and West Papua Province have a large potential of sago. Approximately 994,000 hectares, mostly natural sago forest was existed in this area. Sago starch has long been an important source of nutrition troughout Papua. Product of sago palm is not only starch as source of carbohydrate for food stuff, but also for basic material of industries such as paper, plywood, hardboard, and food indutries. Traditional methods are used for starch extraction in almost all part of Papu, which is not efficient and production capacity is very low. The effort to increase sago starch production could be carry out by introducing mechanical equipment (traditional to mechanized processing. The objective of this research was to design mixer rotary blade of sago starch extraction powered by internal combustion engine. The result was prototype of mechanical sago starch extractor. The prototype has high performance with extraction capacity 160 kg of disintegrated pith per hour or equal to 33 kg of wet starch per hour, extractable starch more than 99 % while starch losses in hampas less lhan 1 %. Hopefully, application of this machine to the sago farmer will transform agricultural system from subsistence to commercial. It means that increasing of economic income. In conclusion, technically and economically this prototype was feasible. ABSTRAK Provinsi Papua dan Papua Barat memiliki potensi sagu yang sangat besar. Sekitar 994.000 hektar yang sebagian besar merupakan hutan sagu alam terdapat di kedua provinsi ini. Pati sagu telah lama digunakan sebagai sumber nutrisi bagi penduduk asli papua. Pati sagu tidak hanya digunakan sebagai sumber karbohidrat, namun juga digunakan seba- gai bahan dasar industri kertas, plywood, hardbord, dan pangan. Pengolahan sagu secara tradisional yang dilakukan oleh masyarakat tidak efisien dan kapasitas produksinya sangat rendah. Peningkatan produksi dapat dilakukan dengan mengintroduksi peralatan pengolahan mekanis untuk merubah metode

  18. 内燃机内甲烷水蒸气重整特性分析%Characteristic analysis of steam methane reforming reaction in internal combustion engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高华光; 龚希武

    2016-01-01

    为了较为系统地认识甲烷水蒸气重整反应对内燃机性能的影响。应用 HSC 5.1软件对甲烷水蒸气重整反应在不同反应温度和水碳比的工况下进行分析,然后应用Chemkin‐pro程序,计算了在相同供热量下甲烷水蒸气重整气在不同物质的量比下比C H4的燃C H4消耗降低率。结果表明,提高反应温度和水碳比可提高C H4的转化率;当温度为700℃、水碳比为3时,发热量提高了13.58%,在供热相同情况下,燃C H4消耗量可减少11.96%,C H4的转化率越高,循环效率越高;重整气效率比纯天然气高,随着物质的量比降低,重整气优势降低。%To obtain a better view on the effect of steam reforming of methane (SRM ) reaction on performance of internal combustion (IC) engine ,by using HSC 5 .1 software ,SRM was analyzed at different temperature and steam/methane molar ratios .Then ,by using Chemkin‐pro software ,fuel consumption reduced rate of methane was calculated in synthesis gas of SRM and methane at different equivalence ratios .The results show that the increase of temperature and steam/methane molar ratios will increase conversion rate of methane .When the temperature is 700 ℃ and steam/methane molar ratio is 3 under the same heating conditions ,heat value will increase 13 .58% ,fuel consumption will decrease 11 .96% ,and cycle efficiency of IC engine will increase with the increase of conversion rate of methane .Efficiency of synthesis gas of SRM is higher than pure methane ,unfortunately ,decreases with the decrease of the equivalent ratio .

  19. Aerosols from biomass combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T.

    2001-07-01

    This report is the proceedings of a seminar on biomass combustion and aerosol production organised jointly by the International Energy Agency's (IEA) Task 32 on bio energy and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). This collection of 16 papers discusses the production of aerosols and fine particles by the burning of biomass and their effects. Expert knowledge on the environmental impact of aerosols, formation mechanisms, measurement technologies, methods of analysis and measures to be taken to reduce such emissions is presented. The seminar, visited by 50 participants from 11 countries, shows, according to the authors, that the reduction of aerosol emissions resulting from biomass combustion will remain a challenge for the future.

  20. Advanced Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, Gordon R. [NETL

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  1. Feasibility of implementation of an autonomous hybrid system for PEM fuel cells to electrify localities in rural Cuba; Factibilidad de implementacion de un sistema hibrido autonomo con celda de combustible PEM para electrificar localidades rurales en Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Torres, Yamir [Centro de Estudios de Tecnologias Energeticas Renovables (CETER), Ciudad de la Habana (Cuba)] e-mail: yamir@ceter.cujae.edu.cu

    2009-09-15

    The use of PEM fuel cells to produce electric energy in autonomous systems is closely linked with the production and storage of hydrogen. Eventually joined with sources of renewable energy, this creates an ecologically clean and sustainable system. In several developing countries, localities exist that do not have electricity but have significant unexploited renewable energy power, where an autonomous hybrid system can be designed to electrify these population centers. This work presents a hybrid electricity scheme with a PEM fuel cell to produce hydrogen and electricity in order to electrify rural zones far from the national power grid in Cuba. The electric demand of the zone and available energy power was calculated using the informatics modeling and simulation programs HOMER, PVSYST and Matlab 1,2,3. Variability in wind and photovoltage power was determined based on daylight hours and seasonal periods throughout the year as well as their effect on the production of hydrogen and electricity. It was shown that the energy demand is met even for the most adverse scenarios. This work offers a detailed description of the behavior of the system and evidence of no effect on the environment, enabling the electrification and wellbeing of residents of the locality. [Spanish] El uso de celdas de combustible PEM para la produccion de energia electrica en sistemas autonomos esta estrechamente ligado a la produccion y almacenamiento de hidrogeno. Esto eventualmente unido a las fuentes renovables de energia forma un sistema ecologicamente limpio y sustentable. En varios paises subdesarrollados existen localidades que no cuentan con electricidad y que tienen importantes potenciales energeticos renovables no explotados actualmente en los cuales se puede disenar un sistema hibrido autonomo para electrificar estas poblaciones. En este trabajo se presenta el esquema de un sistema hibrido autonomo con celda de combustible PEM, para la produccion de hidrogeno y electricidad encaminado

  2. 26. international Vienna engine symposium. Vol. 1. First day; 26. Internationales Wiener Motorensymposium. Bd. 1. Erster Tag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-07-01

    Papers of the above symposium are presented in two volumes. The Vienna Engine Symposium is a forum for discussing current trends in internal combustion engines. Subjects: New gasoline and diesel engines; From conventional to hybrid drives; Electronic key technologies; Emission reduction today; Supercharged DI gasoline engines; DI diesel engines; Exhaust treatment; Simulation; Transmission; Acoustics; The future of mobility. (orig.)

  3. 26. international Vienna engine symposium. Vol. 2. Second day; 26. Internationales Wiener Motorensymposium. Bd. 2. Zweiter Tag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-07-01

    Papers of the above symposium are presented in two volumes. The Vienna Engine Symposium is a forum for discussing current trends in internal combustion engines. Subjects: New gasoline and diesel engines; From conventional to hybrid drives; Electronic key technologies; Emission reduction today; Supercharged DI gasoline engines; DI diesel engines; Exhaust treatment; Simulation; Transmission; Acoustics; The future of mobility. (orig.)

  4. Analysis of the internal temperature of the combustion chamber of a compact system of co-generation; Analise das temperaturas internas da camara de combustao de um sistema compacto de co-geracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Joao B.F. [Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), CE (Brazil)], email: furlan@unifor.br; Couto, Heraldo S. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Cachoeira Paulista, SP (Brazil)], email: heraldo@lcp.inpe.br; Holanda, Carlos A.M. de [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais], email: almir@metalmat.ufc.br

    2008-07-01

    Nowadays, the energy deficit represents one of the biggest governmental challenges, since there is still a great number of communities living in areas without electricity energy; and thus without access to electro-electronic equipment such as television, refrigerators, computers. The main focus of this work is to present the possibility of electricity energy generation in conjunction with the frozen or hot water production in for places without electricity transmission nets or even any type of alternative power plants. The system is based on the standard air cycle called Brayton cycle composed of a turbo-compressor model 4LGZ from BorgWarner, a combustion chamber, a power turbine, a heat exchanger, a water-ammonia chiller, a 5.0 kV A generator, and a command panel for automation and distribution of energy. This system that uses natural gas or LPG, will supply electric energy from the generator, hot water from the heat exchange with the gases of combustion, and water frozen from chiller using as the hot source the gases proceeding from the power system. The prototype is already being tested and the first results obtained are excellent. In this paper, we analyze the internal combustion chamber temperatures. (author)

  5. Internal transport barrier triggered by non-linear lower hybrid wave deposition under condition of beam-driven toroidal rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Q. D.; Budny, R. V.

    2015-03-01

    By using gyro-Landau fluid transport model (GLF23), time-dependent integrated modeling is carried out using TRANSP to explore the dynamic process of internal transport barrier (ITB) formation in the neutral beam heating discharges. When the current profile is controlled by LHCD (lower hybrid current drive), with appropriate neutral beam injection, the nonlinear interplay between the transport determined gradients in the plasma temperature (Ti,e) and toroidal velocity (Vϕ) and the E×B flow shear (including q-profile) produces transport bifurcations, generating spontaneously a stepwise growing ITB. In the discharge, the constraints imposed by the wave propagation condition causes interplay of the LH driven current distribution with the plasma configuration modification, which constitutes non-linearity in the LH wave deposition. The non-linear effects cause bifurcation in LHCD, generating two distinct quasi-stationary reversed magnetic shear configurations. The change of current profile during the transition period between the two quasi-stationary states results in increase of the E×B shearing flow arising from toroidal rotation. The turbulence transport suppression by sheared E×B flow during the ITB development is analysed, and the temporal evolution of some parameters characterized the plasma confinement is examined. Ample evidence shows that onset of the ITB development is correlated with the enhancement of E×B shearing rate caused by the bifurcation in LHCD. It is suggested that the ITB triggering is associated with the non-linear effects of the LH power deposition.

  6. Combustion Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Combustion Research Laboratory facilitates the development of new combustion systems or improves the operation of existing systems to meet the Army's mission for...

  7. High Combustion Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility in Morgantown, WV, researchers can investigate new high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen turbine combustion...

  8. Method of treating emissions of a hybrid vehicle with a hydrocarbon absorber and a catalyst bypass system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Bryan Nathaniel; Gonze, Eugene V; Santoso, Halim G; Spohn, Brian L

    2014-01-14

    A method of treating emissions from an internal combustion engine of a hybrid vehicle includes directing a flow of air created by the internal combustion engine when the internal combustion engine is spinning but not being fueled through a hydrocarbon absorber to collect hydrocarbons within the flow of air. When the hydrocarbon absorber is full and unable to collect additional hydrocarbons, the flow of air is directed through an electrically heated catalyst to treat the flow of air and remove the hydrocarbons. When the hydrocarbon absorber is not full and able to collect additional hydrocarbons, the flow of air is directed through a bypass path that bypasses the electrically heated catalyst to conserve the thermal energy stored within the electrically heated catalyst.

  9. Development and validation of an Eulerian model towards the simulation of fuel injection in internal combustion engines; Developpement et validation d'un modele eulerien en vue de la simulation des jets de carburants dans les moteurs a combustion interne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truchot, B.

    2005-12-15

    The objective of this work is to develop an Eulerian two phase model to improve the prediction of fuel injection in internal combustion engines, particularly the dense liquid zone close to the nozzle. Lagrangian models, usually used in engine simulations, are based on the assumption of dispersed two phase flows with low liquid volume fraction, which is not fulfilled in the case of direct injection engine technology. Different Eulerian approaches are available in the literature. Physical phenomena that occur near the nozzle and characteristics of each model lead to the choice of a two fluids two pressures model. Several open terms appear in the equations of the model: exchange between the two phases and turbulent correlations. Closures of exchange terms are based on the spherical droplets hypothesis while a RANS approach is adopted to close turbulent correlations. This model has been integrated in the IFP CFD code, IFP-C3D. Several numerical tests and analytical validations (for single and two phase flows) have been then carried out in order to check the correct implementation of equations and the predictivity of the model and closures. Modifications in the turbulent model of the gas have required validations in both the gas phase (flow behind a sudden enlargement) and the liquid phase (pure liquid injection). A two phase mixing layer has been then used to validate the whole model. Finally, injection tests have been achieved under realistic conditions (similar to those encountered in automotive engines) in order to check the feasibility of engine computations using the developed Eulerian approach. These tests have also allowed to check the compatibility of this approach with the specificities of engine simulations (especially mesh movement). (author)

  10. Project of multiple controller models for the maintenance of air/fuel ratio in natural gas internal combustion motors; Projeto de controladores multiplos modelos para manutencao da relacao ar/combustivel em motores de combustao interna movidos a gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas Junior, Fernando Sousa e; Fleury, Agenor de Toledo [Sao Paulo Univ. SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mails: ffreitas@usp.br; agfleury@ipt.br

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this work is the study of advanced control techniques for the reduction of pollutant gases generated by internal combustion engines powered by natural gas. In this paper three techniques are applied to control the fuel injection and the ignition timing: the Generalized Predictive Control (GPC), the Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) and H{infinity} Control by Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMI). To each one of those techniques were developed a multiple model structure seeking to include the vast operation region of the engine. The controller's performance is measured by the efficiency in maintaining the fuel/air ratio around 1% of maximum deviation in relation to the stoichiometric value. The results show the possibility of controlling pollutant emission generated by this kind of engine to conform to international emission standards, improving life quality. (author)

  11. Internal transport barrier triggered by non-linear lower hybrid wave deposition under condition of beam-driven toroidal rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Q. D., E-mail: qgao@swip.ac.cn [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Budny, R. V. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    By using gyro-Landau fluid transport model (GLF23), time-dependent integrated modeling is carried out using TRANSP to explore the dynamic process of internal transport barrier (ITB) formation in the neutral beam heating discharges. When the current profile is controlled by LHCD (lower hybrid current drive), with appropriate neutral beam injection, the nonlinear interplay between the transport determined gradients in the plasma temperature (T{sub i,e}) and toroidal velocity (V{sub ϕ}) and the E×B flow shear (including q-profile) produces transport bifurcations, generating spontaneously a stepwise growing ITB. In the discharge, the constraints imposed by the wave propagation condition causes interplay of the LH driven current distribution with the plasma configuration modification, which constitutes non-linearity in the LH wave deposition. The non-linear effects cause bifurcation in LHCD, generating two distinct quasi-stationary reversed magnetic shear configurations. The change of current profile during the transition period between the two quasi-stationary states results in increase of the E×B shearing flow arising from toroidal rotation. The turbulence transport suppression by sheared E×B flow during the ITB development is analysed, and the temporal evolution of some parameters characterized the plasma confinement is examined. Ample evidence shows that onset of the ITB development is correlated with the enhancement of E×B shearing rate caused by the bifurcation in LHCD. It is suggested that the ITB triggering is associated with the non-linear effects of the LH power deposition.

  12. Improving the performance of a hybrid electric vehicle by utilization regenerative braking energy of vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mourad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally friendly vehicles with range and performance capabilities surpassing those of conventional ones require a careful balance among competing goals for fuel efficiency, performance and emissions. It can be recuperated the energy of deceleration case of the vehicle to reuse it to recharge the storage energy of hybrid electric vehicle and increase the state of charge of batteries under the new conditions of vehicle operating in braking phase. Hybrid electric vehicle has energy storage which allows decreasing required peak value of power from prime mover, which is the internal combustion engine. The paper investigates the relationships between the driving cycle phases and the recuperation energy to the batteries system of hybrid electric vehicle. This work describes also a methodology for integrating this type of hybrid electric vehicle in a simulation program. A design optimization framework is then used to find the best position that we can utilize the recuperation energy to recharge the storage batteries of hybrid electric vehicle.

  13. A Pilot Study of Pedestrians with Visual Impairments Detecting Traffic Gaps and Surges Containing Hybrid Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Robert Wall; Naghshineh, Koorosh; Hapeman, Julie; Wiener, William

    2011-03-01

    The increasing number of hybrid and quiet internal combustion engine vehicles may impact the travel abilities of pedestrians who are blind. Pedestrians who rely on auditory cues for structuring their travel may face challenges in making crossing decisions in the presence of quiet vehicles. This article describes results of initial studies looking at the crossing decisions of pedestrians who are blind at an uncontrolled crossing (no traffic control) and a light controlled intersection. The presence of hybrid vehicles was a factor in each situation. At the uncontrolled crossing, Toyota hybrids were most difficult to detect but crossing decisions were made more often in small gaps ended by a Honda hybrid. These effects were seen only at speed under 20 mph. At the light controlled intersection, parallel surges of traffic were most difficult to detect when made up only of a Ford Escape hybrid. Results suggest that more controlled studies of vehicle characteristics impacting crossing decisions of pedestrians who are blind are warranted.

  14. Combustion chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  15. COMBUSTION SIMULATION IN A SPARK IGNITION ENGINE CYLINDER: EFFECTS OF AIR-FUEL RATIO ON THE COMBUSTION DURATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nureddin Dinler

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Combustion is an important subject of internal combustion engine studies. To reduce the air pollution from internal combustion engines and to increase the engine performance, it is required to increase combustion efficiency. In this study, effects of air/fuel ratio were investigated numerically. An axisymmetrical internal combustion engine was modeled in order to simulate in-cylinder engine flow and combustion. Two dimensional transient continuity, momentum, turbulence, energy, and combustion equations were solved. The k-e turbulence model was employed. The fuel mass fraction transport equation was used for modeling of the combustion. For this purpose a computational fluid dynamics code was developed by using the finite volume method with FORTRAN programming code. The moving mesh was utilized to simulate the piston motion. The developed code simulates four strokes of engine continuously. In the case of laminar flow combustion, Arrhenius type combustion equations were employed. In the case of turbulent flow combustion, eddy break-up model was employed. Results were given for rich, stoichiometric, and lean mixtures in contour graphs. Contour graphs showed that lean mixture (l = 1.1 has longer combustion duration.

  16. Sensitivity of the dispatch strategy in designing grid integrated hybrid energy systems

    OpenAIRE

    Perera, Amarasinghage Tharindu Dasun; Mauree, Dasaraden; Scartezzini, Jean-Louis; Nik, Vahid M.

    2016-01-01

    Integrating renewable energy technologies based on solar PV (SPV) and wind energy in the energy system is challenging due to time dependence of the energy potential for these energy sources. Grid integrated hybrid energy systems combining SPV panels, wind turbines, battery bank and internal combustion generators (ICG) can be used in this regard specially for distributed generation. Energy-economic dispatch strategy plays a vital role in managing the energy flow of the system. However, it is d...

  17. Investigations of the causes of hydrocarbon emissions in spark ignition engines with homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). A report of the Institute for Internal Combustion Engines and Automotive Engineering, TU Vienna (IVK); Untersuchung der Ursachen fuer Kohlenwasserstoff-Emissionen beim Ottomotor mit homogener Selbstzuendung (HCCI). Bericht des Instituts fuer Verbrennungskraftmaschinen und Kraftfahrzeugbau derTechnischen Universitaet Wien (IVK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geringer, B. (ed.) [Technische Univ., Vienna (Austria); Loch, A.

    2007-07-01

    The main aim of research and development in the field of internal combustion engine is to create an engine with low fuel consumption and hence low carbon dioxide emissions to meet future emissions regulations as well as providing a good driving experience. Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is an alternative combustion process being currently developed that promises a good fuel consumption rate and low nitrogen oxide emissions for the gasoline engine. The only legally restricted exhaust gas emissions for this combustion process are carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbons (HC). The aim of this research was a better understanding of the causes and sources of hydrocarbon emissions with HCCI using gasoline so as to further reduce hydrocarbon emissions. A description of the HCCI combustion process is followed by a list of the known sources of hydrocarbon emission in conventional gasoline engines and current knowledge of the causes of hydrocarbon emission with HCCI. It is assumed that many of the known causes of hydrocarbon emissions in the conventional gasoline combustion process are the same for HCCI. For this reason, this study focused on combustion and carburation, which is where the combustion processes differ the most. (orig.)

  18. Proceedings of the Zel’Dovich Memorial International Conference on Combustion, Detonation, Shock Waves Held in Moscow, Russia on 12-17 September 1994. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-17

    measurements of burner inlet conditions and cold flow in furnace room. Report for Fase 1 of Project 02259. Department of Combustion Research, IsO National...investigation and practical application of detonations. A number of studies has been dedicated to diffraction of detonation waves. Gibb [1] observed the...from the convex angle. 409 ZEL’DOVICH MEMORIAL, 12-17 September 1994 References [1) Gibb A. W. PB90-221409, 1986. [21 Dick R. D. LA-UR-76-1425, 1976. [3

  19. Oxygen-enhanced combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Baukal, Charles E

    2013-01-01

    Combustion technology has traditionally been dominated by air/fuel combustion. However, two developments have increased the significance of oxygen-enhanced combustion-new technologies that produce oxygen less expensively and the increased importance of environmental regulations. Advantages of oxygen-enhanced combustion include less pollutant emissions as well as increased energy efficiency and productivity. Oxygen-Enhanced Combustion, Second Edition compiles information about using oxygen to enhance industrial heating and melting processes. It integrates fundamental principles, applications, a

  20. Hydrogen utilization international clean energy system (WE-NET). Subtask 8. Development of hydrogen combustion turbines (development of combustion control technology); Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system (WE-NET). Subtask 8. Suiso nensho turbine no kaihatsu nensho seigyo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The paper described the fiscal 1996 developmental results of hydrogen burning turbine combustion technology in the hydrogen utilization international clean energy system (WE-NET) project. A test was conducted on an annular type combustor where oxygen is mixed with steam (inert gas) at burner and fired with hydrogen. Appropriate flame shape and cooling/dilution vapor distribution were attempted, and various data on combustion were measured for improvement. Mixture and flame holding were improved by developing a can type combustor (1) where oxygen is diluted with steam after firing oxygen and hydrogen around burner and by strengthening circulation in the combustor. Improvement such as appropriate steam distribution, etc. is needed. A can type combustor (2) was tested in which the premixed oxygen and hydrogen is supplied from scoop and fired with hydrogen. By supplying part of oxygen from the primary scoop, the residual hydrogen and oxygen concentration around the stoichiometric ratio can be reduced. Concentration of the residual oxygen can be measured by the absorption light method, but it is difficult to adopt the non-contact measuring method to hydrogen. An outlook for the gas temperature measuring method was obtained. 12 refs., 121 figs., 27 tabs.

  1. Comparative Analysis of Torque and Acceleration of Pre- and Post-Transmission Parallel Hybrid Drivetrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkifli Saiful A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parallel hybrid electric vehicles (HEV can be classified according to the location of the electric motor with respect to the transmission unit for the internal combustion engine (ICE: they can be pre-transmission or posttransmission parallel hybrid. A split-axle parallel HEV – in which the ICE and electric motor provide propulsion power to different axles – is a sub-type of the post-transmission hybrid, since addition of torque and power from the two power sources occurs after the vehicle’s transmission. The term ‘through-the-road’ (TTR hybrid is also used for the split-parallel HEV, since power coupling between the ICE and electric motor is not through some mechanical device but through the vehicle itself, its wheels and the road on which it moves. The present work presents torquespeed relationship of the split-parallel hybrid and analyses simulation results of torque profiles and acceleration performance of pre-transmission and post-transmission hybrid configurations, using three different sizes of electric motor. Different operating regions of the pre-trans and post-trans motors are observed, leading to different speed and torque profiles. Although ICE average efficiency in the post-trans hybrid is slightly lower than in the pre-trans hybrid, the post-trans hybrid vehicle has better fuel economy and acceleration performance than the pre-trans hybrid vehicle.

  2. Model-based online optimisation of modern internal combustion engines. Part 2: Limits of the feasible search space; Modellbasierte Online-Optimierung moderner Verbrennungsmotoren. Teil 2: Grenzen des fahrbaren Suchraums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoedler, K.; Poland, J.; Zell, A. [Univ. Tuebingen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Rechnerarchitektur; Fleischhauer, T.; Mitterer, A.; Ullmann, S. [BMW Group (Germany)

    2003-06-01

    The first part of this two-part article introduced the basis of the mbminimize algorithm, which was developed by the University of Tuebingen in cooperation with the BMW Group for the model-based online optimisation of internal combustion engines. This second part describes it extensions regarding the handling of engine limits such as knocking. The main focus is on the construction of special mathematical models for these limits that make it possible to successively and controllably restrict the search space. (orig.) [German] Der erste Teil dieses zweiteiligen Beitrags stellte die Basis des mbminimize-Algorithmus vor, der von der Universitaet Tuebingen in Zusammenarbeit mit der BMW Group zur modellbasierten Online-Optimierung von Verbrennungsmotoren entwickelt wurde. Der vorliegende Artikel beschreibt die Erweiterungen hinsichtlich der Behandlung von Motorlimits wie zum Beispiel Motorklopfen. Den Schwerpunkt stellen Modelle fuer Motorlimits dar, die es erlauben, den Suchraum sukzessive und kontrollierbar einzuschraenken. (orig.)

  3. The impact of the weather conditions on the cooling performance of the heat pump driven by an internal natural gas combustion engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janovcová Martina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Market with sources of heat and cold offers unlimited choice of different power these devices, design technology, efficiency and price categories. New progressive technologies are constantly discovering, about which is still little information, which include heat pumps powered by a combustion engine running on natural gas. A few pieces of these installations are in Slovakia, but no studies about their work and effectiveness under real conditions. This article deals with experimental measurements of gas heat pump efficiency in cooling mode. Since the gas heat pump works only in system air – water, air is the primary low – energy source, it is necessary to monitor the impact of the climate conditions for the gas heat pump performance.

  4. Artificial intelligence for the modeling and control of combustion processes: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soteris A. Kalogirou, [Higher Technical Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2003-07-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) systems are widely accepted as a technology offering an alternative way to tackle complex and ill-defined problems. They can learn from examples, are fault tolerant in the sense that they are able to handle noisy and incomplete data, are able to deal with non-linear problems, and once trained can perform prediction and generalization at high speed. They have been used in diverse applications in control, robotics, pattern recognition, forecasting, medicine, power systems, manufacturing, optimization, signal processing, and social/psychological sciences. They are particularly useful in system modeling such as in implementing complex mappings and system identification. AI systems comprise areas like, expert systems, artificial neural networks, genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic and various hybrid systems, which combine two or more techniques. The major objective of this paper is to illustrate how AI techniques might play an important role in modeling and prediction of the performance and control of combustion process. The paper outlines an understanding of how AI systems operate by way of presenting a number of problems in the different disciplines of combustion engineering. The various applications of AI are presented in a thematic rather than a chronological or any other order. Problems presented include two main areas: combustion systems and internal combustion (IC) engines. Combustion systems include boilers, furnaces and incinerators modeling and emissions prediction, whereas, IC engines include diesel and spark ignition engines and gas engines modeling and control. Results presented in this paper, are testimony to the potential of AI as a design tool in many areas of combustion engineering. 109 refs., 31 figs., 11 tabs.

  5. Artificial intelligence for the modeling and control of combustion processes: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalogirou, S.A. [Higher Technical Inst., Nicosia, Cyprus (Greece). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2003-07-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) systems are widely accepted as a technology offering an alternative way to tackle complex and ill-defined problems. They can learn from examples, are fault tolerant in the sense that they are able to handle noisy and incomplete data, are able to deal with non-linear problems, and once trained can perform prediction and generalization at high speed. They have been used in diverse applications in control, robotics, pattern recognition, forecasting, medicine, power systems, manufacturing, optimization, signal processing, and social/psychological sciences. They are particularly useful in system modeling such as in implementing complex mappings and system identification. Al systems comprise areas like, expert systems, artificial neural networks, genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic and various hybrid systems, which combine two or more techniques. The major objective of this paper is to illustrate how Al techniques might play an important role in modeling and prediction of the performance and control of combustion process. The paper outlines an understanding of how AI systems operate by way of presenting a number of problems in the different disciplines of combustion engineering. The various applications of AI are presented in a thematic rather than a chronological or any other order. Problems presented include two main areas: combustion systems and internal combustion (IC) engines. Combustion systems include boilers, furnaces and incinerators modeling and emissions prediction, whereas, IC engines include diesel and spark ignition engines and gas engines modeling and control. Results presented in this paper, are testimony to the potential of Al as a design tool in many areas of combustion engineering. (author)

  6. Modeling of hybrid vehicle fuel economy and fuel engine efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei

    "Near-CV" (i.e., near-conventional vehicle) hybrid vehicles, with an internal combustion engine, and a supplementary storage with low-weight, low-energy but high-power capacity, are analyzed. This design avoids the shortcoming of the "near-EV" and the "dual-mode" hybrid vehicles that need a large energy storage system (in terms of energy capacity and weight). The small storage is used to optimize engine energy management and can provide power when needed. The energy advantage of the "near-CV" design is to reduce reliance on the engine at low power, to enable regenerative braking, and to provide good performance with a small engine. The fuel consumption of internal combustion engines, which might be applied to hybrid vehicles, is analyzed by building simple analytical models that reflect the engines' energy loss characteristics. Both diesel and gasoline engines are modeled. The simple analytical models describe engine fuel consumption at any speed and load point by describing the engine's indicated efficiency and friction. The engine's indicated efficiency and heat loss are described in terms of several easy-to-obtain engine parameters, e.g., compression ratio, displacement, bore and stroke. Engine friction is described in terms of parameters obtained by fitting available fuel measurements on several diesel and spark-ignition engines. The engine models developed are shown to conform closely to experimental fuel consumption and motored friction data. A model of the energy use of "near-CV" hybrid vehicles with different storage mechanism is created, based on simple algebraic description of the components. With powertrain downsizing and hybridization, a "near-CV" hybrid vehicle can obtain a factor of approximately two in overall fuel efficiency (mpg) improvement, without considering reductions in the vehicle load.

  7. Combustion 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Levasseur; S. Goodstine; J. Ruby; M. Nawaz; C. Senior; F. Robson; S. Lehman; W. Blecher; W. Fugard; A. Rao; A. Sarofim; P. Smith; D. Pershing; E. Eddings; M. Cremer; J. Hurley; G. Weber; M. Jones; M. Collings; D. Hajicek; A. Henderson; P. Klevan; D. Seery; B. Knight; R. Lessard; J. Sangiovanni; A. Dennis; C. Bird; W. Sutton; N. Bornstein; F. Cogswell; C. Randino; S. Gale; Mike Heap

    2001-06-30

    . To achieve these objectives requires a change from complete reliance of coal-fired systems on steam turbines (Rankine cycles) and moving forward to a combined cycle utilizing gas turbines (Brayton cycles) which offer the possibility of significantly greater efficiency. This is because gas turbine cycles operate at temperatures well beyond current steam cycles, allowing the working fluid (air) temperature to more closely approach that of the major energy source, the combustion of coal. In fact, a good figure of merit for a HIPPS design is just how much of the enthalpy from coal combustion is used by the gas turbine. The efficiency of a power cycle varies directly with the temperature of the working fluid and for contemporary gas turbines the optimal turbine inlet temperature is in the range of 2300-2500 F (1260-1371 C). These temperatures are beyond the working range of currently available alloys and are also in the range of the ash fusion temperature of most coals. These two sets of physical properties combine to produce the major engineering challenges for a HIPPS design. The UTRC team developed a design hierarchy to impose more rigor in our approach. Once the size of the plant had been determined by the choice of gas turbine and the matching steam turbine, the design process of the High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) moved ineluctably to a down-fired, slagging configuration. This design was based on two air heaters: one a high temperature slagging Radiative Air Heater (RAH) and a lower temperature, dry ash Convective Air Heater (CAH). The specific details of the air heaters are arrived at by an iterative sequence in the following order:-Starting from the overall Cycle requirements which set the limits for the combustion and heat transfer analysis-The available enthalpy determined the range of materials, ceramics or alloys, which could tolerate the temperatures-Structural Analysis of the designs proved to be the major limitation-Finally the commercialization

  8. Combustion 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Levasseur; S. Goodstine; J. Ruby; M. Nawaz; C. Senior; F. Robson; S. Lehman; W. Blecher; W. Fugard; A. Rao; A. Sarofim; P. Smith; D. Pershing; E. Eddings; M. Cremer; J. Hurley; G. Weber; M. Jones; M. Collings; D. Hajicek; A. Henderson; P. Klevan; D. Seery; B. Knight; R. Lessard; J. Sangiovanni; A. Dennis; C. Bird; W. Sutton; N. Bornstein; F. Cogswell; C. Randino; S. Gale; Mike Heap

    2001-06-30

    . To achieve these objectives requires a change from complete reliance of coal-fired systems on steam turbines (Rankine cycles) and moving forward to a combined cycle utilizing gas turbines (Brayton cycles) which offer the possibility of significantly greater efficiency. This is because gas turbine cycles operate at temperatures well beyond current steam cycles, allowing the working fluid (air) temperature to more closely approach that of the major energy source, the combustion of coal. In fact, a good figure of merit for a HIPPS design is just how much of the enthalpy from coal combustion is used by the gas turbine. The efficiency of a power cycle varies directly with the temperature of the working fluid and for contemporary gas turbines the optimal turbine inlet temperature is in the range of 2300-2500 F (1260-1371 C). These temperatures are beyond the working range of currently available alloys and are also in the range of the ash fusion temperature of most coals. These two sets of physical properties combine to produce the major engineering challenges for a HIPPS design. The UTRC team developed a design hierarchy to impose more rigor in our approach. Once the size of the plant had been determined by the choice of gas turbine and the matching steam turbine, the design process of the High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) moved ineluctably to a down-fired, slagging configuration. This design was based on two air heaters: one a high temperature slagging Radiative Air Heater (RAH) and a lower temperature, dry ash Convective Air Heater (CAH). The specific details of the air heaters are arrived at by an iterative sequence in the following order:-Starting from the overall Cycle requirements which set the limits for the combustion and heat transfer analysis-The available enthalpy determined the range of materials, ceramics or alloys, which could tolerate the temperatures-Structural Analysis of the designs proved to be the major limitation-Finally the commercialization

  9. Coal combustion science. Quarterly progress report, July--September 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardesty, D.R. [ed.; Baxter, L.L.; Davis, K.A.; Hurt, R.H.; Yang, N.Y.C.

    1995-09-01

    This document is a quarterly status report of the Coal Combustion Science Project that is being conducted at the Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California. The information reported is for the period July-September 1994. The objective of this work is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This project consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency (IEA) Coal Combustion Science Project.

  10. Evaluation of Internal Defect of Composite Laminates Using A Novel Hybrid Laser Generation/Air-Coupled Detection Ultrasonic System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joon Hyun; Lee, Seung Joon [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Joon Hyung [KIMM, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-02-15

    Ultrasonic C-scan technique is one of very popular techniques being used for detection of flaws in polymer matrix composite(PMC). However, the application of this technique is very limited for evaluation of defects in PMC fabricated by the automated fiber placement process. The purpose of this study is to develop a novel ultrasonic hybrid system based on nondestructive and non-contact ultrasonic techniques for evaluation of delamination in carbon/epoxy and carbon/PPS composite laminates. It was shown that the newly developed ultrasonic hybrid system based on dual air-coupled pitch-catch technique with ultrasonic scattering reflection concept could provide excellent image with higher resolution of delamination in PMC compared with the conventional pitch-catch method. It is expected that this ultrasonic hybrid technique can be applied for on-line inspection of flaws in PMC during the fabrication process

  11. Energy management of electric and hybrid vehicles dependent on powertrain configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Bogdan

    2012-06-01

    Electric and hybrid vehicles are going to become the most reliable source of transport for future years. The CO2 and NOx targets in Euro 6 normative puts the producers of vehicles in a dilemma, whether to adapt the internal combustion engines further, or to develop hybrid or electric power trains that are going to reach the pollution limit of the future norms or to go below that. Before acting a well-developed strategy in determining the optimum power flow has to be developed by producers; CRUISE software is a tool with the unique and special characteristics to determine the optimum in this highly important area. Whether electric vehicle, electric vehicle with range extender or a hybrid with CVT or planetary gearbox, the complexity of the mathematical modules remains the same, giving the developer the possibility to create complex functions and distinctive characteristics for each component of the vehicle. With such a powerful tool it becomes extremely easy to evaluate the energy flow in all directions, from electric machine to the battery, from electric machine to the power generator, and from the electric machine to the internal combustion engine. Applying to the (Electric Vehicle, Electric Vehicle with Range Extender, Hybrid vehicle with CVT, Hybrid vehicle with planetary gear set) the ECE-15 in a virtual environment (urban driving cycle) the simulation results show a different usage, rate of storage and efficiency concerning the energy, this being dependent of the power train configuration in most part.

  12. Comparison performance of split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle and hybrid electric vehicle using ADVISOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rashid Muhammad Ikram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicle suffers from relatively short range and long charging times and consequently has not become an acceptable solution to the automotive consumer. The addition of an internal combustion engine to extend the range of the electric vehicle is one method of exploiting the high efficiency and lack of emissions of the electric vehicle while retaining the range and convenient refuelling times of a conventional gasoline powered vehicle. The term that describes this type of vehicle is a hybrid electric vehicle. Many configurations of hybrid electric vehicles have been designed and implemented, namely the series, parallel and power-split configurations. This paper discusses the comparison between Split Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle(SPHEV and Hybrid Electric Vehicle(HEV. Modelling methods such as physics-based Resistive Companion Form technique and Bond Graph method are presented with powertrain component and system modelling examples. The modelling and simulation capability of existing tools such as ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR is demonstrated through application examples. Since power electronics is indispensable in hybrid vehicles, the issue of numerical oscillations in dynamic simulations involving power electronics is briefly addressed.

  13. Energy management strategy for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle equipped with a battery/ultra-capacitor hybrid energy storage system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-yi LIANG; Jian-long ZHANG; Xi ZHANG; Shi-fei YUAN; Cheng-liang YIN

    2013-01-01

    To solve the low power density issue of hybrid electric vehicular batteries,a combination of batteries and ultracapacitors(UCs)could be a solution.The high power density feature of UCs can improve the performance of battery/UC hybrid energy storage systems(HESSs).This paper presents a parallel hybrid electric vehicle(HEV)equipped with an internal combustion engine and an HESS.An advanced energy management strategy(EMS),mainly based on fuzzy logic,is proposed to improve the fuel economy of the HEV and the endurance of the HESS.The EMS is capable of determining the ideal distribution of output power among the internal combustion engine,battery,and UC according to the propelling power or regenerative braking power of the vehicle.To validate the effectiveness of the EMS,numerical simulation and experimental validations are carried out.The results indicate that EMS can effectively control the power sources to work within their respective efficient areas.The battery load can be mitigated and prolonged battery life can be expected.The electrical energy consumption in the HESS is reduced by 3.91%compared with that in the battery only system.Fuel consumption of the HEV is reduced by 24.3% compared with that of the same class conventional vehicles under Economic Commission of Europe driving cycle.

  14. On supersonic combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁生学

    1999-01-01

    Some basic concepts and features of supersonic combustion are explained from the view point of macroscopic aerodynamics. Two kinds of interpretations of supersonic combustion are proposed. The difference between supersonic combustion and subsonic combustion is discussed, and the mechanism of supersonic combustion propagation and the limitation of heat addition in supersonic flow are pointed out. The results of the calculation of deflagration in supersonic flow show that the entropy increment and the total pressure loss of the combustion products may decrease with the increase of combustion velocity. It is also demonstrated that the oblique detonation wave angle may not be controlled by the wedge angle under weak underdriven solution conditions and be determined only by combustion velocity. Therefore, the weak underdriven solution may become self-sustaining oblique detonation waves with a constant wave angle.

  15. Contact behavior analysis of elastomeric x-ring under uniform squeeze rate and internal pressure before and after forcing-out using the photoelastic experimental hybrid method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Alunda Ouma [Dedan Kimathi University of Technology, Nyeri (Kenya); Hawong, Jai Sug; Dong, Bai [Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dong Chul [Koje College, Geoje (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Many different types of elastomeric rings have been developed to suit various needs in industry. The X-ring was introduced as a result of the limitations of O-rings that twist, especially during dynamic application. A better understanding of the behavior and the stress distribution of the X-ring under a uniform squeeze rate and internal pressure is needed. We analyzed the contact stresses and internal stresses developed in an X-ring before and after forcing-out by using the photoelastic experimental hybrid method, ascertained the packing ability of an X-ring, and studied the failure criterion of an X-ring under uniform squeeze rate and internal pressure. Forcing-out in the X-ring occurred when the internal pressure was 3.92 MPa. After forcing-out, at an internal pressure of 5.88 MPa, the two lobes on the upper contact surface merged one contact side of the upper side immensely. Even after extrusion of the X-ring, the X-ring can be used to effectively contain the fluid. This is because the effects of extrusion on the X-ring affected the stress distribution of only two lobes close to the assembly gap and the two lobes are merge into one lobe. In addition, our experimental results show that the maximum shear failure criterion is suitable for the prediction of failure in X-ring seals.

  16. Progress on the Combustion Integrated Rack Component of the Fluids and Combustion Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Karen J.; Urban, Dave (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is a facility-class payload planned for the International Space Station. It is designed to accommodate a wide variety of investigations encompassing most of the range of microgravity fluid physics and combustion science. The Combustion Integrated Rack component of the FCF is currently scheduled to be launched in 2003 and will operate independently until additional racks of the FCF are launched. The FCF is intended to complete between five and fifteen combustion experiments per year over its planned ten-year lifetime. Combustion arm that may be studied include laminar flames, reaction kinetics, droplet and spray combustion, flame spread, fire and fire suppressants, condensed phase organic fuel combustion, turbulent combustion, soot and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and flame-synthesized materials. Three different chamber inserts, one each for investigations of droplet, solid fuel, and gaseous fuel combustion, that can accommodate multiple experiments will be used initially so as to maximize the reuse of hardware. The current flight and flight-definition investigations are briefly described.

  17. Near Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle Development Program. Phase I, Final report. Appendix C: preliminary design data package. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piccolo, R.

    1979-07-31

    The assumptions made, analysis methods used, and preliminary results of research to determine the design specifications for a hybrid electric-powered and internal combustion engine-powered vehicle that would optimize the fuel economy of passenger automobiles are described. Information is included on body and component design, selection of spark-ignition engine and Ni-Zn batteries, life-cycle costs and life-cycle fuel consumption. (LCL)

  18. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix A: Mission analysis and performance specification studies report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Results of a study leading to the preliminary design of a five passenger hybrid vehicle utilizing two energy sources (electricity and gasoline/diesel fuel) to minimize petroleum usage on a fleet basis are presented. The study methodology is described. Vehicle characterizations, the mission description, characterization, and impact on potential sales, and the rationale for the selection of the reference internal combustion engine vehicle are presented. Conclusions and recommendations of the mission analysis and performance specification report are included.

  19. A New Method for Simultaneous Determination of the TDC Offset and the Pressure Offset in Fired Cylinders of an Internal Combustion Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urban Žvar Baškovič

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An innovative computationally efficient method for the simultaneous determination of top dead centre (TDC offset and pressure offset is presented. It is based on characteristic deviations of the rate of heat release (ROHR that are specific for both offsets in compression phase and expansion phase after the end of combustion. These characteristic deviations of the ROHR are derived from first principles and they were also confirmed through manual shifts of the pressure trace. The ROHR is calculated based on the first law of thermodynamics using an in-cylinder pressure trace, engine geometrical parameters and operating point specific parameters. The method can be applied in off-line analyses using an averaged pressure trace or in on-line analyses using a single pressure trace. In both application areas the method simultaneously determines the TDC position and the pressure offset within a single processing of the pressure trace, whereas a second refinement step can be performed for obtaining more accurate results as correction factors are determined more accurately using nearly converged input data. Innovative analytic basis of the method allows for significant reduction of the computational times compared to the existing methods for the simultaneous determination of TDC offset and pressure offset in fired conditions. The method was validated on a heavy-duty and a light-duty diesel engine.

  20. A Matlab—Based Simulation for Hybrid Electric Motorcycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵定国; 李永斌; 汪信尧; 江建中

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation and modeling package based on Matlab for a parallel hybrid electric motorcycle (HEM).The package consists of several main detailed models: internal combustion engine (ICE), motor, continuously variable transmission(CVT), battery, energy management system (EMS) etc. Each component is built as a library, and can be connected together accord-ing to the parallel HEM's topology. Simulation results, such as ICE power demand, motor power demand, battery instantaneous state-of-charge (SOC), pollution emissions etc. Are given and discussed. Lastly experimental data verify our simulation results.

  1. Development of Premacy Hydrogen RE Hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakayama, N. [Mazda Motor Corporation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    Hydrogen powered ICE (internal combustion engine) vehicles can play an important role as an automotive power source in the future, because of its higher reliability and cost performance than those of fuel cell vehicles. Combined with hydrogen, Mazda's unique rotary engine (RE) has merits such as a prevention of hydrogen pre-ignition. Mazda has been developing hydrogen vehicles with the hydrogen RE from the early 1990s. Premacy (Mazda5) Hydrogen RE Hybrid was developed and launched in 2009, following RX-8 Hydrogen RE delivered in 2006. A series hybrid system was adopted in Premacy Hydrogen RE Hybrid. A traction motor switches its windings while the vehicle is moving. This switching technology allows the motor to be small and high-efficient. The lithium-ion high voltage battery, which has excellent input-output characteristics, was installed. These features extend the hydrogen fuel driving range to 200 km and obtain excellent acceleration performance. The hydrogen RE can be also operated by gasoline (Dual Fuel System). The additional gasoline operation makes hydrogen vehicles possible to drive in non-hydrogen station area. With approval from the Japanese Ministry of Land Infrastructure and Transport, Mazda Premacy Hydrogen RE Hybrid was delivered successfully to the Japanese market in the form of leasing. (orig.)

  2. Kinetic investigation for slow combustion of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S. [Istanbul Technical Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    The renewed interest in biomass as a renewable, clean, and inexpensive fuel was discussed. Many different mechanisms take place simultaneously during biomass combustion and also during other thermal processes such as gasification, pyrolysis or carbonization. These mechanisms have a pronounced influence on the design and operation of thermal conversion processes. In addition, product yields and product distributions from the thermal processes are sensitive to the kinetic properties of biomass. In order to evaluate the combustion mechanisms and the combustion kinetics of biomass, the behavior of these constituents under combustion conditions were properly evaluated. In this study, combustion of biomass samples was carried out in a thermogravimetric analyzer by heating them from ambient to 1173 K with heating rates of 5 K/min and 10 K/min under dynamic dry air atmosphere of 40 mL/min. The biomass samples included olive refuse, sunflower seed shell, rapeseed, grape seed, and hybrid poplar. The purpose of the study was to examine the kinetic properties of biomass during slow combustion for the overall combustion process as well as for some definite temperature intervals at which different combustion mechanisms are present according to the type and complexity of biomass used. Derivative thermogravimetric analysis (DTG) curves were derived, and data obtained from these curves were used to compute the kinetic parameters such as activation energy, pre-exponential factor, and governing mechanisms for the combustion processes. The governing mechanisms for individual temperature intervals were examined along with the overall combustion process. The study showed that at lower temperature intervals, the combustion process was controlled primarily by the chemical reaction. At least 3 sequential mechanisms may occur at different temperature intervals during combustion of biomass. Activation energy and pre-exponential factors were determined for each temperature interval

  3. Performance evaluation of small scale internal combustion engine with mixtures for diesel oil-palm oil; Avaliacao do desempenho do motor de combustao interna de pequeno porte com misturas oleo diesel - oleo de dende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seye, Omar; Souza, Rubem Cesar Rodrigues [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (CDEAM/UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Centro de Desenvolvimento Energetico Amazonico], Emails: Seye62omar@yahoo.com, rcsouza@internext.com.br

    2006-07-01

    This work aims at the performance evaluation of the Cummins 4B -3.9, an internal combustion engine of maximum power 75 hp (56.6 kW) for small scale power generation, burning different mixtures of diesel fuel and palm oil. The palm oil in nature is mixed manually, what unfortunately will influence the engine performance as it hinders the combustion. The test protocol will include the biodiesel, later on. The emissions were assessed for several proportions of mixture diesel/palm oil covering the strip from 0 to 20% and the results were compared to the engine performance when it operates with diesel only. The motor is coupled to a dynamometer, whose operation consists of the acceleration and deceleration of water in order to simulate the effect of a load being applied to the motor. The system is controlled by the software LT commander that allows the start up and the shutdown of the engine from the screen of the computer that also monitors the following parameters as speed of rotation of the motor (RPM), applied torque (N-m), potency (hp), temperature of the lubricating oil, temperature of the water in the entrance and exit of the motor, and temperature of the environment (deg C), pressures of the lubricating oil and of opening of the injector (mBar). While a flow meter coupled to the piping measures the consumption of fuel, the gas analyzer ECHO Line 6000 it monitors the concentration and temperature of carbon monoxide (CO) (ppm), nitric oxide (NO) (ppm), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), (ppm), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) (ppm) and Oxygen (O{sub 2}) (%) in the exhaust gases. This equipment also determines the combustion parameters as excess of air and the efficiency. The technical results present the efficiency variation, the pressure of the fuel, monoxide carbon, NOx emissions, Oxygen content in the exhaust gases, for the different mixture proportions. Furthermore, the results of economic viability show generation cost values of US$ 135,66/MWh for the motor operating

  4. 卧式内燃煤粉锅炉预燃室的鼓包变形分析%Analysis of Bulging Deformation in Prechamber of Horizontal Type Internal-combustion Coal Boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇; 刘恒

    2016-01-01

    针对一起卧式内燃煤粉锅炉的预燃室顶部鼓包变形的案例,本文从预燃室钢板材质和锅炉运行状况进行了综合分析,并采用Fluent软件对预燃室内煤粉的燃烧工况进行了数值模拟。结果表明:造成鼓包变形的原因是燃烧器燃料喷管弯曲变形,燃烧器火焰偏离预燃室轴向方向,预燃室局部长期超温运行,钢板过热,材料劣化,导致材料的室温强度、高温强度、持久强度及硬度大幅下降,在外压作用下,钢板屈服变形,形成鼓包。%This paper analyzes the reasons of a bulging deformation case in prechamber of horizontal type internal-combustion coal boiler. The steel plate material and boiler operation conditions are discussed. FLUENT is used to simulate the combustion condition in prechamber. The results show that the reason of bulging deformation is bending deformation of fuel burner nozzle, which makes burner lfame deviating from axial direction of precombustion. The deviating leads to long-term overheating operation in precombustion, overheat and degradation of steel plate, that results in sharp declines in room temperature strength, high temperature strength, endurance strength and hardness of the material. Under external pressure, steel plate is yield deformation and bulging deformation takes shape.

  5. Development of a rank detector for knock detection in cylinder pressure or loose part noise in internal combustion engines and of assessment methods for knock detectors. Entwicklung eines Rangdetektors zur Klopfdetektion im Zylinderdruck bzw. Koerperschall von Ottomotoren und von Bewertungsverfahren fuer Klopfdetektoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Xiangyang.

    1990-01-01

    The operational status of an internal combustion engine (efficiency) can be controlled by a knock detector and a corresponding sparking angle regulation up to knock limit. A knock regulating system of this kind has to be highly sensitive, robust, fast and adaptable. This is a report on the principles of a knock detector of this kind (cause, effect, combustion chamber model, frequency shift compensation, engine signal spectrum) and on the development of a nonparametric adaptive knock detector (adaptation algorithm, design concept to a rank detector). In conclusion, the results of simulations with the rank detector are presented assessed (comparative experimental results, confidence intervals). (HWJ).

  6. Combining fluorescent in situ hybridization data with ISS staging improves risk assessment in myeloma: an International Myeloma Working Group collaborative project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avet-Loiseau, H; Durie, B G M; Cavo, M; Attal, M; Gutierrez, N; Haessler, J; Goldschmidt, H; Hajek, R; Lee, J H; Sezer, O; Barlogie, B; Crowley, J; Fonseca, R; Testoni, N; Ross, F; Rajkumar, S V; Sonneveld, P; Lahuerta, J; Moreau, P; Morgan, G

    2013-03-01

    The combination of serum β2-microglobulin and albumin levels has been shown to be highly prognostic in myeloma as the International Staging System (ISS). The aim of this study was to assess the independent contributions of ISS stage and cytogenetic abnormalities in predicting outcomes. A retrospective analysis of international studies looking at both ISS and cytogenetic abnormalities was performed in order to assess the potential role of combining ISS stage and cytogenetics to predict survival. This international effort used the International Myeloma Working Group database of 12 137 patients treated worldwide for myeloma at diagnosis, of whom 2309 had cytogenetic studies and 5387 had analyses by fluorescent in situ hybridization (iFISH). Comprehensive analyses used 2642 patients with sufficient iFISH data available. Using the comprehensive iFISH data, combining both t(4;14) and deletion (17p), along with ISS stage, significantly improved the prognostic assessment in terms of progression-free survival and overall survival. The additional impact of patient age and use of high-dose therapy was also demonstrated. In conclusion, the combination of iFISH data with ISS staging significantly improves risk assessment in myeloma.

  7. Combining fluorescent in situ hybridization data with ISS staging improves risk assessment in myeloma: an International Myeloma Working Group collaborative project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avet-Loiseau, H; Durie, BGM; Cavo, M; Attal, M; Gutierrez, N; Haessler, J; Goldschmidt, H; Hajek, R; Lee, JH; Sezer, O; Barlogie, B; Crowley, J; Fonseca, R; Testoni, N; Ross, F; Rajkumar, SV; Sonneveld, P; Lahuerta, J; Moreau, P; Morgan, G

    2014-01-01

    The combination of serum β2-microglobulin and albumin levels has been shown to be highly prognostic in myeloma as the International Staging System (ISS). The aim of this study was to assess the independent contributions of ISS stage and cytogenetic abnormalities in predicting outcomes. A retrospective analysis of international studies looking at both ISS and cytogenetic abnormalities was performed in order to assess the potential role of combining ISS stage and cytogenetics to predict survival. This international effort used the International Myeloma Working Group database of 12 137 patients treated worldwide for myeloma at diagnosis, of whom 2309 had cytogenetic studies and 5387 had analyses by fluorescent in situ hybridization (iFISH). Comprehensive analyses used 2642 patients with sufficient iFISH data available. Using the comprehensive iFISH data, combining both t(4;14) and deletion (17p), along with ISS stage, significantly improved the prognostic assessment in terms of progression-free survival and overall survival. The additional impact of patient age and use of high-dose therapy was also demonstrated. In conclusion, the combination of iFISH data with ISS staging significantly improves risk assessment in myeloma. PMID:23032723

  8. 40 CFR 60.4231 - What emission standards must I meet if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SI engines in 40 CFR part 90 or 1054, as follows: If engine replacement is . . . and manufacturing... part 90. (4) at or above 225 cc January 1, 2011 or later 40 CFR part 1054. (b) Stationary SI internal... standards and other requirements for new nonroad SI engines in 40 CFR part 1048. Stationary SI...

  9. Operating strategies on HCCI combustion; Betriebsstrategien fuer die Benzinselbstzuendung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babic, Goran; Bargende, Michael [Stuttgart Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Verbrennungsmotoren und Kraftfahrzeuge (IVK)

    2010-09-15

    The gasoline self-ignition represents an alternative part load combustion strategy, which radically reduces the nitrogen-oxide emissions in combination with improved process efficiency. At the request of the Research Association for Combustion Engines (FVV) the Institute for Internal Combustion Engines and Automotive Engineering (IVK) of the University of Stuttgart investigated different operating strategies on gasoline self-ignition and developed methods for mode switches under close-to-production conditions. (orig.)

  10. [A feasibility research of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) using hybrid internal fixation for recurrent lumbar disc herniation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ke-ya; Wang, Yan; Xiao, Song-hua; Zhang, Yong-gang; Liu, Bao-wei; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Xi-Feng; Cui, Geng; Zhang, Xue-song; Li, Peng; Mao, Ke-zheng

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the feasibility of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) using hybrid internal fixation of pedicle screws and a translaminar facet screw for recurrent lumbar disc herniation. From January 2010 to December 2011, 16 recurrent lumbar disc herniation patients, 10 male and 6 female patients with an average age of 45 years (35-68 years) were treated with unilateral incision MIS-TLIF through working channel. After decompression, interbody fusion and fixation using unilateral pedicle screws, a translaminar facet screw was inserted from the same incision through spinous process and laminar to the other side facet joint. The results of perioperative parameters, radiographic images and clinical outcomes were assessed. The repeated measure analysis of variance was applied in the scores of visual analogue scale (VAS) and Oswestry disablity index (ODI). All patients MIS-TLIF were accomplished under working channel including decompression, interbody fusion and hybrid fixation without any neural complication. The average operative time was (148 ± 75) minutes, the average operative blood loss was (186 ± 226) ml, the average postoperative ambulation time was (32 ± 15) hours, and the average hospitalization time was (6 ± 4) days. The average length of incision was (29 ± 4) mm, and the average length of translaminar facets screw was (52 ± 6) mm. The mean follow-up was 16.5 months with a range of 12-24 months. The postoperative X-ray and CT images showed good position of the hybrid internal fixation, and all facets screws penetrate through facets joint. The significant improvement could be found in back pain VAS, leg pain VAS and ODI scores between preoperative 1 day and postoperative follow-up at all time-points (back pain VAS:F = 52.845, P = 0.000;leg pain VAS:F = 113.480, P = 0.000;ODI:F = 36.665, P = 0.000). Recurrent lumbar disc herniation could be treated with MIS-TLIF using hybrid fixation through unilateral incision, and the

  11. Combustive management of oil spills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Extensive experiments with in situ incineration were performed on a desert site at the University of Arizona with very striking results. The largest incinerator, 6 feet in diameter with a 30 foot chimney, developed combustion temperatures of 3000, F, and attendant soot production approximately 1000 times less than that produced by conventional in situ burning. This soot production, in fact, is approximately 30 times less than current allowable EPA standards for incinerators and internal combustion engines. Furthermore, as a consequence of the high temperature combustion, the bum rate was established at a very high 3400 gallons per hour for this particular 6 foot diameter structure. The rudimentary design studies we have carried out relative to a seagoing 8 foot diameter incinerator have predicted that a continuous burn rate of 7000 gallons per hour is realistic. This structure was taken as a basis for operational design because it is compatible with C130 flyability, and will be inexpensive enough ($120,000 per copy) to be stored at those seaside depots throughout the US coast line in which the requisite ancillary equipments (booms, service tugs, etc.) are already deployed. The LOX experiments verified our expectations with respect to combustion of debris and various highly weathered or emulsified oils. We have concluded, however, that the use of liquid oxygen in actual beach clean up is not promising because the very high temperatures associated with this combustion are almost certain to produce environmentally deleterious effects on the beach surface and its immediately sublying structures. However, the use of liquid oxygen augmentation for shore based and flyable incinerators may still play an important role in handing the problem of accumulated debris.

  12. Investigations on the effect of chlorine in lubricating oil and the presence of a diesel oxidation catalyst on PCDD/F releases from an internal combustion engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, Patrick H; Sutton, Mike; Wood, David; Marshall, Jonathan

    2007-04-01

    chlorine in the lubricant and that emissions did not change in response to a much greater step change in the total chlorine entering the combustion chamber due to a change in the level of chlorine in the fuel. Emissions when the engine was configured with a diesel oxidation catalyst showed a consistent pattern that appears to be unique in the experience of the authors.

  13. Indirect combustion noise of auxiliary power units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Parrish, Sarah A.; Xu, Jun; Schuster, Bill

    2013-08-01

    Recent advances in noise suppression technology have significantly reduced jet and fan noise from commercial jet engines. This leads many investigators in the aeroacoustics community to suggest that core noise could well be the next aircraft noise barrier. Core noise consists of turbine noise and combustion noise. There is direct combustion noise generated by the combustion processes, and there is indirect combustion noise generated by the passage of combustion hot spots, or entropy waves, through constrictions in an engine. The present work focuses on indirect combustion noise. Indirect combustion noise has now been found in laboratory experiments. The primary objective of this work is to investigate whether indirect combustion noise is also generated in jet and other engines. In a jet engine, there are numerous noise sources. This makes the identification of indirect combustion noise a formidable task. Here, our effort concentrates exclusively on auxiliary power units (APUs). This choice is motivated by the fact that APUs are relatively simple engines with only a few noise sources. It is, therefore, expected that the chance of success is higher. Accordingly, a theoretical model study of the generation of indirect combustion noise in an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) is carried out. The cross-sectional areas of an APU from the combustor to the turbine exit are scaled off to form an equivalent nozzle. A principal function of a turbine in an APU is to extract mechanical energy from the flow stream through the exertion of a resistive force. Therefore, the turbine is modeled by adding a negative body force to the momentum equation. This model is used to predict the ranges of frequencies over which there is a high probability for indirect combustion noise generation. Experimental spectra of internal pressure fluctuations and far-field noise of an RE220 APU are examined to identify anomalous peaks. These peaks are possible indirection combustion noise. In the case of the

  14. Filtration Combustion in Smoldering and SHS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matkowsky, Bernard J.

    2001-01-01

    Smolder waves and SHS (self-propagating high-temperature synthesis) waves are both examples of filtration combustion waves propagating in porous media. Smoldering combustion is important for the study of fire safety. Smoldering itself can cause damage, its products are toxic and it can also lead to the more dangerous gas phase combustion which corresponds to faster propagation at higher temperatures. In SHS , a porous solid sample, consisting of a finely ground powder mixture of reactants, is ignited at one end. A high temperature thermal wave, having a frontal structure, then propagates through the sample converting reactants to products. The SHS technology appears to enjoy a number of advantages over the conventional technology, in which the sample is placed in a furnace and "baked" until it is "well done". The advantages include shorter synthesis times, greater economy, in that the internal energy of the reactions is employed rather than the costly external energy of the furnace, purer products, simpler equipment and no intrinsic limitation on the size of the sample to be synthesized as exists in the conventional technology. When delivery of reactants through the pores to the reaction site is an important aspect of the combustion process, it is referred to as filtration combustion. The two types of filtration combustion have a similar mathematical formulation, describing the ignition, propagation and extinction of combustion waves in porous media. The goal in each case, however, is different. In smoldering the desired goal is to prevent propagation, whereas in SHS the goal is to ensure propagation of the combustion wave, leading to the synthesis of desired products. In addition, the scales in the two areas of application differ. Smoldering generally occurs at lower temperatures and propagation velocities than in SHS nevertheless, the two applications have much in common so that what is learned fit make application can be used to advantage in the other. In porous

  15. 考虑内燃机系统耦合振动的活塞拍击研究%Piston slap reduction considering coupled vibration of an internal combustion engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑光泽

    2013-01-01

    为研究内燃机中主要机械噪声源-活塞拍击,考虑活塞、连杆、曲轴及缸体的耦合振动对活塞拍击影响,建立活塞拍击动力学分析模型,研究某型柴油机活塞拍击及缸体振动响应.探讨活塞裙部轮廓形状、偏置活塞销对活塞拍击及缸体辐射噪声影响,计算结果及实验数据表明,活塞轮廓形状对活塞拍击频率成分分布及噪声品质有重要影响,活塞销向主推力面适当偏置有助于降低活塞拍击及辐射噪声水平.%Piston slap is a major noise source of an internal combustion engine.Reducing piston slap is one of the most important measures to improve noise and vibration of an internal combustion engine.The influence of the coupled vibration of piston,connecting rod,crankshaft and engine block on piston slap was taken into consideration,and a dynamic analytsis model of piston slap was developed here.The piston slap and the vibration response of the engine block of a certain type of Diesel engine were investigated based on the proposed model.The effect of piston skirt profile and piston pin offset on piston slap and radiated noise of engine block was discussed.The calculation results and test data showed that the profile of piston skirt has a significant influence on higher frequency components of piston slap and engine noise quality,the piston pin offset toward major thrust side can decrease the maximum value of piston slap and sound pressure level of radiated noise.

  16. Boiler using combustible fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.

    1974-07-03

    A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

  17. FY 2007 Progress Report for Advanced Combustion Engine Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-12-01

    Advanced combustion engines have great potential for achieving dramatic energy efficiency improvements in light-duty vehicle applications, where it is suited to both conventional and hybrid- electric powertrain configurations. Light-duty vehicles with advanced combustion engines can compete directly with gasoline engine hybrid vehicles in terms of fuel economy and consumer-friendly driving characteristics; also, they are projected to have energy efficiencies that are competitive with hydrogen fuel cell vehicles when used in hybrid applications.Advanced engine technologies being researched and developed by the Advanced Combustion Engine R&D Sub-Program will also allow the use of hydrogen as a fuel in ICEs and will provide an energy-efficient interim hydrogen-based powertrain technology during the transition to hydrogen/fuelcell-powered transportation vehicles.

  18. Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojeda, William de

    2010-07-31

    The project which extended from November 2005 to May of 2010 demonstrated the application of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) with engine out NOx levels of 0.2 g/bhp-hr throughout the program target load of 12.6bar BMEP. The project showed that the range of loads could be extended to 16.5bar BMEP, therefore matching the reference lug line of the base 2007 MY Navistar 6.4L V8 engine. Results showed that the application of LTC provided a dramatic improvement over engine out emissions when compared to the base engine. Furthermore LTC improved thermal efficiency by over 5% from the base production engine when using the steady state 13 mode composite test as a benchmark. The key enablers included improvements in the air, fuel injection, and cooling systems made in Phases I and II. The outcome was the product of a careful integration of each component under an intelligent control system. The engine hardware provided the conditions to support LTC and the controller provided the necessary robustness for a stable combustion. Phase III provided a detailed account on the injection strategy used to meet the high load requirements. During this phase, the control strategy was implemented in a production automotive grade ECU to perform cycle-by-cycle combustion feedback on each of the engine cylinders. The control interacted on a cycle base with the injection system and with the Turbo-EGR systems according to their respective time constants. The result was a unique system that could, first, help optimize the combustion system and maintain high efficiency, and secondly, extend the steady state results to the transient mode of operation. The engine was upgraded in Phase IV with a Variable Valve Actuation system and a hybrid EGR loop. The impact of the more versatile EGR loop did not provide significant advantages, however the application of VVA proved to be an enabler to further extend the operation of LTC and gain considerable benefits in fuel economy and soot reduction. Finally

  19. FY2014 Advanced Combustion Engine Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-03-01

    The Advanced Combustion Engine research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies under development. Research focuses on addressing critical barriers to commercializing higher efficiency, very low emissions advanced internal combustion engines for passenger and commercial vehicles.

  20. FY2015 Advanced Combustion Engine Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Gurpreet [Vehicle Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States); Gravel, Roland M. [Vehicle Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States); Howden, Kenneth C. [Vehicle Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States); Breton, Leo [Vehicle Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-03-25

    The Advanced Combustion Engine research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies under development. Research focuses on addressing critical barriers to commercializing higher efficiency, very low emissions advanced internal combustion engines for passenger and commercial vehicles.

  1. Advanced Combustion and Emission Control Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    The Advanced Combustion and Emission Control (ACEC) Technical Team is focused on removing technical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high-efficiency, emission-compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light-duty vehicle powertrains (i.e., passenger car, minivan, SUV, and pickup trucks).

  2. Coal combustion products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyoncu, R.S.; Olson, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    Coal-burning powerplants, which supply more than half of U.S. electricity, also generate coal combustion products, which can be both a resource and a disposal problem. The U.S. Geological Survey collaborates with the American Coal Ash Association in preparing its annual report on coal combustion products. This Fact Sheet answers questions about present and potential uses of coal combustion products.

  3. Characterization of diesel oil mixtures with soy oil used for activation of engines of internal combustion; Caracterizacao de misturas de oleo diesel com oleo de soja reutilizado para acionamento de motores de combustao interna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Wagner da Cunha; Fernandes, Haroldo Carlos; Teixiera, Mauri Martins; Abrahao, Selma Alves; Leite, Daniel Mariano [Universidade de Vicosa, (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], Emails: wagner.siqueira@ufv.br, haroldo@ufv.br, mauri@ufv.br, selma.abrahao@ufv.br, daniel.mariano@ufv.br

    2011-07-01

    Alternative energy sources have been studied in several countries, with emphasis on ways of obtaining and using more efficient. The objective of this work to evaluate and characterize mixtures of diesel oil (DO) with soybean oil reused (OSR), the ratios of 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of OSR in relation to specific gravity index viscosity and calorific value. To determine the specific gravity was used beaker, thermometer and a balance for each mixture was adjusted a regression model to estimate the bulk density as a function of temperature (25 to 90 deg C). We analyzed the viscosity of the mixtures using an orifice-type viscometer Saybolt, through regression analysis models were fit to estimate the viscosity as a function of temperature, heating the OSR 100% from 40 to 90 deg C decreased by up 90.4% to its viscosity. The tests were performed calorimetric using a bomb calorimeter determines the calorific value , the variation in calorific value followed a descending order with respect to OD with the increasing content of OSR. The OSR is efficient for use in internal combustion engines in small proportions. (author)

  4. The Research on a Novel Numerical Method for Gas Exchange Process of Internal Combustion Engine%内燃机换气过程数值模拟新方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴玉姣; 许俊峰; 纪天宝

    2012-01-01

    时-空守恒元解元方法作为近年来兴起的一种全新的高精度的计算方法,具有对控制方程的离散方法简单、计算精度高和通用性好等优点,是一种有广阔发展前景的数值方法。本论文应用时空守恒元和解元CE/SE方法思想,对进排气系统中的偏微分方程组的离散方程进行详细推导,并进行了实例计算,为内燃机进排气过程的数值模拟提供理论依据。%As a novel high - resolution computational method for equations of conservation law, the space- time Conservation Element and Solution Element method (CE/SE method) is a simple discrete method with these features of high accuracy and the simple construction. Based on the principles of CE/SE method, this paper deduces the discrete equations of the partial differential equation in the intake and exhaust systems and provides a theoretical basis for the numerical simulation of gas exchanging process of the internal combustion engine.

  5. Utilización de la zeolita para disminuir los gases tóxicos de los motores de combustión interna. // The utilization of Cuban zeolites in the decrease of toxic gases emissions of internal combustion engines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Reyes González

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se presentan los resultados obtenidos al utilizar la zeolita natural cubana para la disminución de los gasestóxicos que los motores de combustión interna MCI. envían a la atmósfera. Los experimentos fueron realizados en bancosde pruebas de MCI. tanto para motores de carburación como para motores diesel. Obteniéndose eficiencias de disminucióndel CO del 80 %, del CnHm del 50% y el humo negro en un 90%. Se demuestra la importancia de la granulometría de lazeolita para esta eliminación y para mantener la potencia del motor dentro de rangos aceptables.Palabras claves: Toxicidad, zeolita, medio ambiente, filtros, gases de escape._______________________________________________________________________________Abstract.In this paper are presented the results of the utilization of Cuban zeolites in the decrease of toxic gas emissions toatmosphere of internal combustion engines, (MCI. The experiments were carried out in test bank for gasoline and dieselengines. The efficiency in the decrement of CO was of 80%, CnHm in 50%, and 90 % in soot. The size of the zeolitesparticle importance in the efficiency is demonstrated.Key words: Toxicity, zeolite, enviroment, filters, gas emissions.

  6. Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL) develops aerospace propulsion technology by performing tests on propulsion components and materials. Altitudes up to 137,000...

  7. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Ashlines: To promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing.

  8. Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL) develops aerospace propulsion technology by performing tests on propulsion components and materials. Altitudes up to 137,000...

  9. Toyota hybrid synergy drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautschi, H.

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Hannes Gautschi, director of service and training at the Toyota company in Switzerland, takes a look at Toyota's hybrid drive vehicles. The construction of the vehicles and their combined combustion engines and electric generators and drives is presented and the combined operation of these components is described. Braking and energy recovery are discussed. Figures on the performance, fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} output of the hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles.

  10. Toyota hybrid synergy drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautschi, H.

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Hannes Gautschi, director of service and training at the Toyota company in Switzerland, takes a look at Toyota's hybrid drive vehicles. The construction of the vehicles and their combined combustion engines and electric generators and drives is presented and the combined operation of these components is described. Braking and energy recovery are discussed. Figures on the performance, fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} output of the hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles.

  11. Internal nitrogen removal from sediments by the hybrid system of microbial fuel cells and submerged aquatic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Xiao, En-Rong; Xu, Dan; Zhou, Yin; He, Feng; Liu, Bi-Yun; Zeng, Lei; Wu, Zhen-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Sediment internal nitrogen release is a significant pollution source in the overlying water of aquatic ecosystems. This study aims to remove internal nitrogen in sediment-water microcosms by coupling sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) with submerged aquatic plants. Twelve tanks including four treatments in triplicates were designed: open-circuit (SMFC-o), closed-circuit (SMFC-c), aquatic plants with open-circuit (P-SMFC-o) and aquatic plants with closed-circuit (P-SMFC-c). The changes in the bio-electrochemical characteristics of the nitrogen levels in overlying water, pore water, sediments, and aquatic plants were documented to explain the migration and transformation pathways of internal nitrogen. The results showed that both electrogenesis and aquatic plants could facilitate the mineralization of organic nitrogen in sediments. In SMFC, electrogenesis promoted the release of ammonium from the pore water, followed by the accumulation of ammonium and nitrate in the overlying water. The increased redox potential of sediments due to electrogenesis also contributed to higher levels of nitrate in overlying water when nitrification in pore water was facilitated and denitrification at the sediment-water interface was inhibited. When the aquatic plants were introduced into the closed-circuit SMFC, the internal ammonium assimilation by aquatic plants was advanced by electrogenesis; nitrification in pore water and denitrification in sediments were also promoted. These processes might result in the maximum decrease of internal nitrogen with low nitrogen levels in the overlying water despite the lower power production. The P-SMFC-c reduced 8.1%, 16.2%, 24.7%, and 25.3% of internal total nitrogen compared to SMFC-o on the 55th, 82th, 136th, and 190th days, respectively. The smaller number of Nitrospira and the larger number of Bacillus and Pseudomonas on the anodes via high throughput sequencing may account for strong mineralization and denitrification in the sediments

  12. Internal nitrogen removal from sediments by the hybrid system of microbial fuel cells and submerged aquatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Xiao, En-Rong; Xu, Dan; Zhou, Yin; He, Feng; Liu, Bi-Yun; Zeng, Lei; Wu, Zhen-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Sediment internal nitrogen release is a significant pollution source in the overlying water of aquatic ecosystems. This study aims to remove internal nitrogen in sediment-water microcosms by coupling sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) with submerged aquatic plants. Twelve tanks including four treatments in triplicates were designed: open-circuit (SMFC-o), closed-circuit (SMFC-c), aquatic plants with open-circuit (P-SMFC-o) and aquatic plants with closed-circuit (P-SMFC-c). The changes in the bio-electrochemical characteristics of the nitrogen levels in overlying water, pore water, sediments, and aquatic plants were documented to explain the migration and transformation pathways of internal nitrogen. The results showed that both electrogenesis and aquatic plants could facilitate the mineralization of organic nitrogen in sediments. In SMFC, electrogenesis promoted the release of ammonium from the pore water, followed by the accumulation of ammonium and nitrate in the overlying water. The increased redox potential of sediments due to electrogenesis also contributed to higher levels of nitrate in overlying water when nitrification in pore water was facilitated and denitrification at the sediment-water interface was inhibited. When the aquatic plants were introduced into the closed-circuit SMFC, the internal ammonium assimilation by aquatic plants was advanced by electrogenesis; nitrification in pore water and denitrification in sediments were also promoted. These processes might result in the maximum decrease of internal nitrogen with low nitrogen levels in the overlying water despite the lower power production. The P-SMFC-c reduced 8.1%, 16.2%, 24.7%, and 25.3% of internal total nitrogen compared to SMFC-o on the 55th, 82th, 136th, and 190th days, respectively. The smaller number of Nitrospira and the larger number of Bacillus and Pseudomonas on the anodes via high throughput sequencing may account for strong mineralization and denitrification in the sediments

  13. Compact Hybrid Automotive Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.

    1986-01-01

    Power train proposed for experimental vehicle powered by internal combustion engine and electric motor. Intended for front-wheel drive automobile, power train mass produced using existing technology. System includes internal-combustion engine, electric motor, continuously variable transmission, torque converter, differential, and control and adjustment systems for electric motor and transmission. Continuously variable transmission integrated into hydraulic system that also handles power steering and power brakes. Batteries for electric motor mounted elsewhere in vehicle.

  14. Experimental Study of the Swirling Oxidizer Flow in HTPB/N2O Hybrid Rocket Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahdi Heydari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of swirling oxidizer flow on the performance of a HTPB/N2O Hybrid rocket motor were studied. A hybrid propulsion laboratory has been developed, to characterize internal ballistics characteristics of swirl flow hybrid motors and to define the operating parameters, like fuel regression rate, specific impulse, and characteristics velocity and combustion efficiency. Primitive variables, like pressure, thrust, temperature, and the oxidizer mass flow rate, were logged. A modular motor with 70 mm outer diameter and variable chamber length is designed for experimental analysis. The injector module has four tangential injectors and one axial injector. Liquid nitrous oxide (N2O as an oxidizer is injected at the head of combustion chamber into the motor. The feed system uses pressurized air as the pressurant. Two sets of tests have been performed. Some tests with axial and tangential oxidizer injection and a test with axial oxidizer injection were done. The test results show that the fuel grain regression rate has been improved by applying tangential oxidizer injection at the head of the motor. Besides, it was seen that combustion efficiency of motors with the swirl flow was about 10 percent more than motors with axial flow.

  15. Impact of the Surface Morphology on the Combustion of Simulated Solid Rocket Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkarim M. Hegab

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An advanced and intensive computational solution development is integrated with an asymptotic technique, to examine the impact of the combustion surface morphology on the generated rotational flow field in a solid rocket chamber with wide ranges of forcing frequencies. The simulated rectangular chamber is closed at one end and is open at the aft end. The upper and lower walls are permeable to allow steady and unsteady injected air to generate internal flow mimicking the flow field of the combustion gases in real rocket chamber. The frequencies of the unsteady injected flow are chosen to be very close or away from the resonance frequencies of the adapted chamber. The current study accounts for a wide range of wave numbers that reflect the complexity of real burning processes. Detailed derivation for Navier-Stokes equations at the four boundaries of the chamber is introduced in the current study. Qualitative comparison is performed with recent experimental work carried out on a two-inch hybrid rocket motor using a mixture of polyethylene and aluminum powder. The higher the percentage of aluminum powder in the mixture, the more the corrugations of the combustion surface. This trend is almost similar to the computational and analytical results of a simulated solid rocket chamber.

  16. The effect of charge motion on mixture preparation and ignition for spark ignition engines with homogeneous combustion processes. A report of the Institute forInternal Combustion Engines and Automotive Engineering, TU Vienna; Einfluss der Ladungsbewegung auf Gemischbildung und Entzuendung bei Otto-Motoren mit homogenen Brennverfahren. Bericht des Instituts fuer Verbrennungskraftmaschinen und Kraftfahrzeugbau der Technischen Universitaet Wien (IVK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geringer, B. (ed.); Lauer, T.

    2007-07-01

    The wish to go easy on global oil-resources and the compatibility of environment and traffic are subject of public interest. Therefore, measures must be taken for gasoline engines regarding fuel consumption and CO{sub 2}-emissions. The dethrottling of the intake system by means of residual gas recirculation is a well known measure to reduce the fuel consumption. However, high residual gas concentrations cause a delayed combustion and increased cyclic variations. The specific initiation of charge motion and turbulence in the combustion chamber accelerates and stabilizes the combustion and thus compensates the effects caused by high residual gas concentrations. Because of these complex interactions it is desirable to have the possibility to evaluate the residual gas tolerance of the combustion process at low-load engine operation already during the concept phase. Therefore, it was the aim of this study to develop a method based on numerical simulation that allows a prediction of the combustion stability margin for SI engines with homogeneous combustion for arbitrary in-cylinder flow. Investigations that were carried out with the CFD-method confirmed the acceleration of the combustion with increased turbulence. Further the supporting effect of charge motion on mixture preparation could be pointed out. However, combustion processes with highest swirl-numbers caused a vertical mixture stratification in the combustion chamber with lean mixture at the spark plug resulting in a lower residual gas tolerance. A threshold for a stable combustion could be determined by analyzing the properties of the cylinder charge by means of the flame theory method what further enabled the prediction of the residual gas tolerance of the combustion process and the potential to reduce the fuel consumption. A good correlation between the predicted values of the external residual gas recirculation rate and measurements at the engine test bench could be found. Although improvements of the

  17. Quantitative analysis of schlieren photographs for internal combustion engine diagnostics. 2nd Report. ; Smoothing of background distortion and analytical results of transient wall-impinging jet. Nainen kikan ni okeru schlieren shashin no teiryoka gazo shoriho ni kansuru kenkyu. 2. ; Background no yugami jokyo, narabini hiteijo hekimen shototsu funryu no kaiseki kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouchi, H.; Chikahisa, T.; Murayama, T. (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1991-02-25

    It was previously reported, for the research on the internal combustion engine, that the quantitative analysis of Schlieren photographs, one of simple visualization technologies, is effective on the heightening in accuracy of the analysis by Schlieren photographs and however, insufficient in countermeasures against the background distortion, causing errors. Then, by removing background distortion and analyzing Schlieren photographs, taken of transient wall-impinging jet, evaluation was made of the present quantitative analysis. As a result, a method could be shown to effectively correct the background distortion. Further, upon analyzing transient wall-impinging jet by that method, result could be obtained to be sufficiently accurate to grasp its structural characteristics. The resent quantitative analysis is advantageous in capability of, among others, monentarily quantify the two-dimensional phenomenon by a simple unit, and support the quantitative information for the Schlieren measurerment, widely used in the research on the internal combustion engine. 8 refs., 8 figs.

  18. Hybrid Combined Cycles with Biomass and Waste Fired Bottoming Cycle - a Literature Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, Miroslav P.

    2002-02-01

    Biomass is one of the main natural resources in Sweden. The present low-CO{sub 2} emission characteristics of the Swedish electricity production system (hydro and nuclear) can be retained only by expansion of biofuel applications for energy purposes. Domestic Swedish biomass resources are vast and renewable, but not infinite. They must be utilized as efficiently as possible, in order to make sure that they meet the conditions for sustainability in the future. Application of efficient power generation cycles at low costs is essential for meeting this challenge. This applies also to municipal solid waste incineration with energy extraction, which should be preferred to its dumping in landfills. Hybrid dual-fuel combined cycle units are a simple and affordable way to increase the electric efficiency of biofuel energy utilization, without big investments, uncertainties or loss of reliability arising from complicated technologies. Configurations of such power cycles are very flexible and reliable. Their potential for high electric efficiency in condensing mode, high total efficiency in combined heat and power mode and unrivalled load flexibility is explored in this project. The present report is a literature study that concentrates on certain biomass utilization technologies, in particular the design and performance of hybrid combined cycle power units of various configurations, with gas turbines and internal combustion engines as topping cycles. An overview of published literature and general development trends on the relevant topic is presented. The study is extended to encompass a short overview of biomass utilization as an energy source (focusing on Sweden), history of combined cycles development with reference especially to combined cycles with supplementary firing and coal-fired hybrid combined cycles, repowering of old steam units into hybrid ones and combined cycles for internal combustion engines. The hybrid combined cycle concept for municipal solid waste

  19. Strobes: An oscillatory combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbel, J.M.L.; Lingen, J.N.J. van; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Gijzeman, O.L.J.; Meijerink, A.

    2012-01-01

    Strobe compositions belong to the class of solid combustions. They are mixtures of powdered ingredients. When ignited, the combustion front evolves in an oscillatory fashion, and flashes of light are produced by intermittence. They have fascinated many scientists since their discovery at the beginni

  20. Strobes: An Oscillatory Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbel, J.M.L.; van Lingen, J.N.J.; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Gijzeman, O.L.J.; Meijerink, A.

    2012-01-01

    Strobe compositions belong to the class of solid combustions. They are mixtures of powdered ingredients. When ignited, the combustion front evolves in an oscillatory fashion, and flashes of light are produced by intermittence. They have fascinated many scientists since their discovery at the beginni

  1. Lectures on combustion theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burstein, S.Z.; Lax, P.D.; Sod, G.A. (eds.)

    1978-09-01

    Eleven lectures are presented on mathematical aspects of combustion: fluid dynamics, deflagrations and detonations, chemical kinetics, gas flows, combustion instability, flame spread above solids, spark ignition engines, burning rate of coal particles and hydrocarbon oxidation. Separate abstracts were prepared for three of the lectures. (DLC)

  2. Fifteenth combustion research conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-06-01

    The BES research efforts cover chemical reaction theory, experimental dynamics and spectroscopy, thermodynamics of combustion intermediates, chemical kinetics, reaction mechanisms, combustion diagnostics, and fluid dynamics and chemically reacting flows. 98 papers and abstracts are included. Separate abstracts were prepared for the papers.

  3. Combustion of coffee husks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saenger, M.; Hartge, E.-U.; Werther, J. [Technical Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Chemical Engineering 1, Hamburg (Germany); Ogada, T.; Siagi, Z. [Moi Univ., Dept. of Production Engineering, Eldoret (Kenya)

    2001-05-01

    Combustion mechanisms of two types of coffee husks have been studied using single particle combustion techniques as well as combustion in a pilot-scale fluidized bed facility (FBC), 150 mm in diameter and 9 m high. Through measurements of weight-loss and particle temperatures, the processes of drying, devolatilization and combustion of coffee husks were studied. Axial temperature profiles in the FBC were also measured during stationary combustion conditions to analyse the location of volatile release and combustion as a function of fuel feeding mode. Finally the problems of ash sintering were analysed. The results showed that devolatilization of coffee husks (65-72% volatile matter, raw mass) starts at a low temperature range of 170-200degC and takes place rapidly. During fuel feeding using a non water-cooled system, pyrolysis of the husks took place in the feeder tube leading to blockage and non-uniform fuel flow. Measurements of axial temperature profiles showed that during under-bed feeding, the bed and freeboard temperatures were more or less the same, whereas for over-bed feeding, freeboard temperatures were much higher, indicating significant combustion of the volatiles in the freeboard. A major problem observed during the combustion of coffee husks was ash sintering and bed agglomeration. This is due to the low melting temperature of the ash, which is attributed to the high contents of K{sub 2}O (36-38%) of the coffee husks. (Author)

  4. An extended multi-zone combustion model for PCI simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodavasal, Janardhan; Keum, SeungHwan; Babajimopoulos, Aristotelis

    2011-12-01

    Novel combustion modes are becoming an important area of research with emission regulations more stringent than ever before, and with fuel economy being assigned greater importance every day. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) and Premixed Compression Ignition (PCI) modes in particular promise better fuel economy and lower emissions in internal combustion engines. Multi-zone combustion models have been popular in modelling HCCI combustion. In this work, an improved multi-zone model is suggested for PCI combustion modelling. A new zoning scheme is suggested based on incorporating the internal energy of formation into an earlier conventional HCCI multi-zone approach, which considers a two-dimensional reaction space defined by equivalence ratio and temperature. It is shown that the added dimension improves zoning by creating more representative zones, and thus reducing errors compared to the conventional zoning approach, when applied to PCI simulation.

  5. Investigation of wood combustion in the high-enthalpy oxidizer flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetnikov, S. M.; Zyryanov, I. A.; Budin, A. G.; Pozolotin, A. P.

    2017-01-01

    The experimental data of wood combustion in the high-enthalpy oxidizer flowresearch is presented. Combustion laws of two wood species (pine and birch) in a hybrid rocket engine (HRE) are obtained. Heat flows from the flame to the condensed phase surface are defined. The prospects of the wood use in the HRE (based on thrust characteristics) are shown.

  6. Fuels and Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Johansson, Bengt

    2016-08-17

    This chapter discusses the combustion processes and the link to the fuel properties that are suitable for them. It describes the basic three concepts, including spark ignition (SI) and compression ignition (CI), and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). The fuel used in a CI engine is vastly different from that in an SI engine. In an SI engine, the fuel should sustain high pressure and temperature without autoignition. Apart from the dominating SI and CI engines, it is also possible to operate with a type of combustion: autoignition. With HCCI, the fuel and air are fully premixed before combustion as in the SI engine, but combustion is started by the increased pressure and temperature during the compression stroke. Apart from the three combustion processes, there are also a few combined or intermediate concepts, such as Spark-Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI). Those concepts are discussed in terms of the requirements of fuel properties.

  7. Coal combustion science. Quarterly progress report, April 1993--June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardesty, D.R. [ed.

    1994-05-01

    This document is a quarterly status report of the Coal Combustion Science Project that is being conducted at the Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories. The information reported is for Apr-Jun 1993. The objective of this work is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This project consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the PETC Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. The objective of the kinetics and mechanisms of pulverized coal char combustion task is to characterize the combustion behavior of selected US coals under conditions relevant to industrial pulverized coal-fired furnaces. Work is being done in four areas: kinetics of heterogeneous fuel particle populations; char combustion kinetics at high carbon conversion; the role of particle structure and the char formation process in combustion and; unification of the Sandia char combustion data base. This data base on the high temperature reactivities of chars from strategic US coals will permit identification of important fuel-specific trends and development of predictive capabilities for advanced coal combustion systems. The objective of the fate of inorganic material during coal combustion task is the establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of inorganic material during coal combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of inorganic species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition. In addition, optical diagnostic capabilities are being developed for in situ, real-time detection of inorganic vapor species and surface species during ash deposition. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  8. Predictive control strategy for power management in parallel hybrid-electric vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nodeh, Mohammad Taqi; Gholizade, Hossein; Hajizadeh, Amin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a hybrid model-based nonlinear optimal control method is used to compute the optimal power distribution and power management in parallel hybrid electric vehicles. In the power management strategy, for optimal power distribution between the internal combustion engine, electrical...... system and the other subsystems, nonlinear predictive control is applied. In order to achieve this goal, a hierarchical control structure is utilized. This type of control structure consists of three levels of monitoring, coordinating and local controllers. Nonlinear modeling and performance index...... in the proposed method should be formulated at the regulatory level of the controller. Discrete dynamic mode of operation (motor-generator) in hybrid electric vehicle requires to use a dual-mode switch model and to define an alternative expression of performance index for the optimal control problem...

  9. Energy management strategy based on fuzzy logic for a fuel cell hybrid bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dawei; Jin, Zhenhua; Lu, Qingchun

    Fuel cell vehicles, as a substitute for internal-combustion-engine vehicles, have become a research hotspot for most automobile manufacturers all over the world. Fuel cell systems have disadvantages, such as high cost, slow response and no regenerative energy recovery during braking; hybridization can be a solution to these drawbacks. This paper presents a fuel cell hybrid bus which is equipped with a fuel cell system and two energy storage devices, i.e., a battery and an ultracapacitor. An energy management strategy based on fuzzy logic, which is employed to control the power flow of the vehicular power train, is described. This strategy is capable of determining the desired output power of the fuel cell system, battery and ultracapacitor according to the propulsion power and recuperated braking power. Some tests to verify the strategy were developed, and the results of the tests show the effectiveness of the proposed energy management strategy and the good performance of the fuel cell hybrid bus.

  10. Agent-based power sharing scheme for active hybrid power sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Zhenhua [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33146 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    The active hybridization technique provides an effective approach to combining the best properties of a heterogeneous set of power sources to achieve higher energy density, power density and fuel efficiency. Active hybrid power sources can be used to power hybrid electric vehicles with selected combinations of internal combustion engines, fuel cells, batteries, and/or supercapacitors. They can be deployed in all-electric ships to build a distributed electric power system. They can also be used in a bulk power system to construct an autonomous distributed energy system. An important aspect in designing an active hybrid power source is to find a suitable control strategy that can manage the active power sharing and take advantage of the inherent scalability and robustness benefits of the hybrid system. This paper presents an agent-based power sharing scheme for active hybrid power sources. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed agent-based power sharing scheme, simulation studies are performed for a hybrid power source that can be used in a solar car as the main propulsion power module. Simulation results clearly indicate that the agent-based control framework is effective to coordinate the various energy sources and manage the power/voltage profiles. (author)

  11. Agent-based power sharing scheme for active hybrid power sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhenhua

    The active hybridization technique provides an effective approach to combining the best properties of a heterogeneous set of power sources to achieve higher energy density, power density and fuel efficiency. Active hybrid power sources can be used to power hybrid electric vehicles with selected combinations of internal combustion engines, fuel cells, batteries, and/or supercapacitors. They can be deployed in all-electric ships to build a distributed electric power system. They can also be used in a bulk power system to construct an autonomous distributed energy system. An important aspect in designing an active hybrid power source is to find a suitable control strategy that can manage the active power sharing and take advantage of the inherent scalability and robustness benefits of the hybrid system. This paper presents an agent-based power sharing scheme for active hybrid power sources. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed agent-based power sharing scheme, simulation studies are performed for a hybrid power source that can be used in a solar car as the main propulsion power module. Simulation results clearly indicate that the agent-based control framework is effective to coordinate the various energy sources and manage the power/voltage profiles.

  12. Laser-diagnostic and plasma-technological fundamentals for reduction of emissions and fuel consumption of DI internal combustion engines. Sub-project: 2D light scattering and fluorescence techniques for analysis of charge stratification and combustion characteristics of DI internal combustion engines. Final report; Laserdiagnostische und plasmatechnologische Grundlagen zur Verminderung von Emissionen und Kraftstoffverbrauch von DI-Verbrennungsmotoren. Teilvorhaben: 2D-Streulicht- und Fluoreszenztechniken zur Analyse von Ladungsschichtung und Durchbrennverhalten bei der Benzindirekteinspritzung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leipertz, A.; Egermann, J.; Ipp, W.; Wagner, V.

    2001-03-01

    The application of direct injection combustion concepts, which are based on inhomogeneous charge distribution, depend on the technical controllability of the charge over an entire range of speed and load. Especially the mixture condition at the ignition is important for the efficiency and the pollutant formation of the subsequent combustion process. In the frame of this research work laser based measurement techniques should be used and improved to investigate the interacting chain of injection, mixture formation, stratification and inflammation. Beside the already established Mie-scattering technique for the imagination of the liquid fuel distribution, the laser induced fluorescence was able to visualize the fuel vapor phase inside the engine. With this technique it was possible to show the interrelationship between worse engine running behavior and the qualitative fuel/air distribution (LIF-signal). In the frame of this project a two dimensional quantification of the relative air/fuel-ratio inside a fired transparent engine by LIF allows an improved judgement of the mixture formation process and a precise imagination of the stratification. The obtained information's are of importance to comprehend the combustion process and the causal connection of the pollutant formation. Only a few modifications had to be done at the experimental setup, compared to qualitative measurements. For a wide-spread acceptance of this concept the adoption of the model for using a multi-component fuel is required and will be one focal point of future research in this field of application. The Raman-technique became an important tool for the characterization of the mixture formation process during this project and has been used for a simultaneous verification of the LIF-results. This technique probably will be used only for research activities in the future because of its complex setup. (orig.) [German] Die Einsatzfaehigkeit direkteinspritzender ottomotorischer Brennverfahren, die

  13. Hybrid Automotive Engine Using Ethanol-Burning Miller Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Leonard

    2004-01-01

    A proposed hybrid (internal-combustion/ electric) automotive engine system would include as its internal-combustion subsystem, a modified Miller-cycle engine with regenerative air preheating and with autoignition like that of a Diesel engine. The fuel would be ethanol and would be burned lean to ensure complete combustion. Although the proposed engine would have a relatively low power-to-weight ratio compared to most present engines, this would not be the problem encountered if this engine were used in a non-hybrid system since hybrid systems require significantly lower power and thus smaller engines than purely internal-combustion-engine-driven vehicles. The disadvantage would be offset by the advantages of high fuel efficiency, low emission of nitrogen oxides and particulate pollutants, and the fact that ethanol is a renewable fuel. The original Miller-cycle engine, named after its inventor, was patented in the 1940s and is the basis of engines used in some modern automobiles, but is not widely known. In somewhat oversimplified terms, the main difference between a Miller-cycle engine and a common (Otto-cycle) automobile engine is that the Miller-cycle engine has a longer expansion stroke while retaining the shorter compression stroke. This is accomplished by leaving the intake valve open for part of the compression stroke, whereas in the Otto cycle engine, the intake valve is kept closed during the entire compression stroke. This greater expansion ratio makes it possible to extract more energy from the combustion process without expending more energy for compression. The net result is greater efficiency. In the proposed engine, the regenerative preheating would be effected by running the intake air through a heat exchanger connected to the engine block. The regenerative preheating would offer two advantages: It would ensure reliable autoignition during operation at low ambient temperature and would help to cool the engine, thereby reducing the remainder of the

  14. Evaluation and Analysis on the Corporation Innovation Capacity in Product Design and Development for Internal Combustion Engine%内燃机行业产品设计与技术创新能力评价分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马雪芬; 戴旭东

    2011-01-01

    当前我国内燃机制造企业已越来越重视产品的自主开发.产品的自主开发对企业的产品设计与技术创新能力提出了更高的要求.企业的产品设计与技术创新能力主要体现在企业的研发积累、研发投入、研发产出与价值实现的活动过程中.基于AIOV( Accumulate - Investment - Output - Value)制造业企业产品设计与技术创新能力评价体系,以内燃机行业为对象,系统地进行了内燃机行业上市公司的产品设计与技术创新能力评价与分析.AIOV以产品现代设计理论与技术创新理论为理论基础,评价方法采用AHP方法计算.定量指标通过比较评分法计算,定性指标通过专家评判法打分.一个公司的技术创新能力综合得分反映了该内燃机制造企业的产品设计与技术创新能力.通过评价结果分析,从技术层面反映了不同企业在技术创新方面的差异与发展潜力.%The independent development of internal combustion engine is very important for the manufacturing corporation, which requires more powerful innovation capacity of the corporations in product design and technology development. The innovation capacity of the corporation in product design and technology development is defined to be quatified through four aspects; the technology accumulation, the product development devotion, the product and technology output and the market value. Based on the evaluation system AIOV (Accumulate - Investment - Output - Value), the innovation capacity of the corporations is systemically evaluated and analyzed for internal combustion engine. The product modern design theory provides the foundation for AIOV. The AHP method is applied to evaluate the innovation capacity in the evaluation system AIOV. The scores of the quantitative indexes are computed by comparison. The scores of the qualitative indexes are graded by experts. The composition score of the corporation denotes the innovation capacity of the

  15. Study of the Advantages of Internal Permanent Magnet Drive Motor with Selectable Windings for Hybrid-Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otaduy, P.J.; Hsu, J.S.; Adams, D.J.

    2007-11-30

    This report describes research performed on the viability of changing the effectively active number of turns in the stator windings of an internal permanent magnet (IPM) electric motor to strengthen or weaken the magnetic fields in order to optimize the motor's performance at specific operating speeds and loads. Analytical and simulation studies have been complemented with research on switching mechanisms to accomplish the task. The simulation studies conducted examine the power and energy demands on a vehicle following a series of standard driving cycles and the impact on the efficiency and battery size of an electrically propelled vehicle when it uses an IPM motor with turn-switching capabilities. Both full driving cycle electric propulsion and propulsion limited starting from zero to a set speed have been investigated.

  16. Preparation of hybrid thiol-acrylate emulsion-templated porous polymers by interfacial copolymerization of high internal phase emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Caitlin R; Johnson, David W; Cameron, Neil R

    2015-05-01

    Emulsion-templated highly porous polymers (polyHIPEs), containing distinct regions differing in composition, morphology, and/or properties, are prepared by the simultaneous polymerization of two high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) contained within the same mould. The HIPEs are placed together in the mould and subjected to thiol-acrylate photopolymerization. The resulting polyHIPE material is found to contain two distinct semicircular regions, reflecting the composition of each HIPE. The original interface between the two emulsions becomes a copolymerized band between 100 and 300 μm wide, which is found to be mechanically robust. The separate polyHIPE layers are distinguished from one another by their differing average void diameter, chemical composition, and extent of contraction upon drying.

  17. 燃气内燃机分布式能源系统的热力学分析%Thermodynamic Analysis of Distributed Energy System for Gas-Fired Internal-combustion Engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰; 张丹; 徐振华; 郭甲生; 沈丹丹

    2015-01-01

    针对上海某厂新建燃气内燃发电机组分布式能源系统,基于热力学第一定律和热力学第二定律分析了该系统在不同季节、不同运行模式下的能源综合利用率和㶲效率,结果表明:本能源系统在采暖工况下具有更高的能源利用率和㶲效率;与分产系统(市电+燃气锅炉+电制冷)相比,分布式能源系统能源利用率提高14%-19%,㶲效率提高12%-15%。%Aiming at some new-built factory in Shanghai with gas-fired internal-combustion generator units distributed energy system, based on the first law of thermodynamics and the second law of thermodynamics the article analyzes comprehensive energy utilization rate and exergy efficiency under different seasons and different operation modes. The results show that:under the heating condition this energy system has higher energy utilization ratio and exergy efficiency;compared with distributed system (city electric power and gas-fired boiler plus electric refrigeration) , the distributed energy system energy utilization rate increases 14%-19%and exergy efficiency increases 12%-15%.

  18. 基于计算流体动力学的内燃机进气空滤器消声量计算%Calculation of noise reduction of an internal-combustion engine air-cleaner based on CFD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘联鋆; 郝志勇; 郑旭

    2013-01-01

    A CFD approach was proposed to calculate noise reduction of an air-cleaner of an internal-combustion engine without mean flow. With the approach, a correction pipe was modeled to represent the real inlet boundary of the air-cleaner regarding the duct acoustic characteristics. The model and the approach were validated by comparing the calculated noise reduction with test data. Further, the noise reduction with mean flow was calculated. It was suggested that the mean flow with Mach number of 0. 08 has no significant effect on noise reduction compared with the condition without mean flow. In addition, a filter was modeled as a porous zone, and the noise reduction of the cleaner with the filter was calculated in conditions with and without mean flow. The features of the CFD model of the filter were investigated.%分析管道末端声反射特性,用等效延长管模拟进气口声学边界,基于计算流体动力学计算无流条件下某内燃机空滤器消声量.将计算值与实验测量值对比,验证模型与计算流体动力学方法的有效性.通过计算平均流条件下空滤器消声量发现,进气口马赫数为0.08时空滤器消声量与无流条件下差别不大.并用多孔区域模拟滤芯,用CFD法计算无流与有流时带滤芯空滤器消声量,研究CFD法中滤芯模拟特点.

  19. Identification Of Damages Of Tribological Associations In Crankshaft And Piston Systems Of Two-Stroke Internal Combustion Engines Used As Main Propulsion In Sea-Going Vessels And Proposal Of Probabilistic Description Of Loads As Causes Of These Damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girtler Jerzy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses damages of essential tribological associations in crankshaft and piston systems of large power two-stroke engines used as main engines, which take place during transport tasks performed by those ships. Difficulties are named which make preventing those damages impossible, despite the fact that the technical state of engines of this type is identified with the aid of complex diagnostic systems making use of advanced computer technology. It is demonstrated that one of causes of the damages is the lack of research activities oriented on recognising random properties of the loads leading to those damages. A proposal is made for the loads acting at a given time t on tribological associations in crankshaft and piston systems of internal combustion engines used as main engines to be considered as random variables Qt. At the same time the loads examined within a given time interval tr ≤ t ≤ tz would be considered stochastic processes {Q(t: t ≥ 0}. Essential properties of the loads of the abovementioned tribological associations are named and explained by formulating hypotheses which need empirical verification. Interval estimation is proposed for estimating the expected value E(Qt of the load Qt acting at time t. A relation is indicated between the mechanical load and the thermal load acting on tribological associations in the ship main engine crankshaft and piston system. A suggestion is formulated that a stochastic form of the relation between these types of load is to be searched for, rather than statistic relation, and a proposal is made to measure the intensity (strength of the stochastic relation using the Czuprow’s convergence coefficient.

  20. Coal Combustion Science. Quarterly progress report, October--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardesty, D.R. [ed.; Baxter, L.L.; Davis, K.A.; Hurt, R.H.; Yang, N.Y.C.

    1996-02-01

    The objective of this work is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This project consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency (IEA) Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks include: Task 1--Kinetics and mechanisms of pulverized coal char combustion; and Task 2--deposit growth and property development in coal-fired furnaces. The objective of task 1 is to characterize the combustion behavior of selected US coals under conditions relevant to industrial pulverized coal-fired furnaces. Work is being done in four areas: (a) kinetics of heterogeneous fuel particle populations; (b) char combustion kinetics at high carbon conversion; (c) the role of particle structure and the char formation process in combustion and; (d) unification of the Sandia char combustion data base. The objectives of Task 2 are to provide a self-consistent database of simultaneously measured, time-resolved, ash deposit properties in well-controlled and well-defined environments and to provide analytical expressions that relate deposit composition and structure to deposit properties of immediate relevance to PETC`s Combustion 2000 program. The task include the development and use of diagnostics to monitor, in situ and in real time, deposit properties, including information on both the structure and composition of the deposits.