WorldWideScience

Sample records for hybrid imaging devices

  1. Multicentre multi-device hybrid imaging study of coronary artery disease: results from the EValuation of INtegrated Cardiac Imaging for the Detection and Characterization of Ischaemic Heart Disease (EVINCI) hybrid imaging population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liga, Riccardo; Vontobel, Jan; Rovai, Daniele; Marinelli, Martina; Caselli, Chiara; Pietila, Mikko; Teresinska, Anna; Aguadé-Bruix, Santiago; Pizzi, Maria Nazarena; Todiere, Giancarlo; Gimelli, Alessia; Chiappino, Dante; Marraccini, Paolo; Schroeder, Stephen; Drosch, Tanja; Poddighe, Rosa; Casolo, Giancarlo; Anagnostopoulos, Constantinos; Pugliese, Francesca; Rouzet, Francois; Le Guludec, Dominique; Cappelli, Francesco; Valente, Serafina; Gensini, Gian Franco; Zawaideh, Camilla; Capitanio, Selene; Sambuceti, Gianmario; Marsico, Fabio; Filardi, Pasquale Perrone; Fernández-Golfín, Covadonga; Rincón, Luis M; Graner, Frank P; de Graaf, Michiel A; Stehli, Julia; Reyes, Eliana; Nkomo, Sandy; Mäki, Maija; Lorenzoni, Valentina; Turchetti, Giuseppe; Carpeggiani, Clara; Puzzuoli, Stefano; Mangione, Maurizio; Marcheschi, Paolo; Giannessi, Daniela; Nekolla, Stephan; Lombardi, Massimo; Sicari, Rosa; Scholte, Arthur J H A; Zamorano, José L; Underwood, S Richard; Knuuti, Juhani; Kaufmann, Philipp A; Neglia, Danilo; Gaemperli, Oliver

    2016-09-01

    Hybrid imaging provides a non-invasive assessment of coronary anatomy and myocardial perfusion. We sought to evaluate the added clinical value of hybrid imaging in a multi-centre multi-vendor setting. Fourteen centres enrolled 252 patients with stable angina and intermediate (20-90%) pre-test likelihood of coronary artery disease (CAD) who underwent myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS), CT coronary angiography (CTCA), and quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) with fractional flow reserve (FFR). Hybrid MPS/CTCA images were obtained by 3D image fusion. Blinded core-lab analyses were performed for CTCA, MPS, QCA and hybrid datasets. Hemodynamically significant CAD was ruled-in non-invasively in the presence of a matched finding (myocardial perfusion defect co-localized with stenosed coronary artery) and ruled-out with normal findings (both CTCA and MPS normal). Overall prevalence of significant CAD on QCA (>70% stenosis or 30-70% with FFR≤0.80) was 37%. Of 1004 pathological myocardial segments on MPS, 246 (25%) were reclassified from their standard coronary distribution to another territory by hybrid imaging. In this respect, in 45/252 (18%) patients, hybrid imaging reassigned an entire perfusion defect to another coronary territory, changing the final diagnosis in 42% of the cases. Hybrid imaging allowed non-invasive CAD rule-out in 41%, and rule-in in 24% of patients, with a negative and positive predictive value of 88% and 87%, respectively. In patients at intermediate risk of CAD, hybrid imaging allows non-invasive co-localization of myocardial perfusion defects and subtending coronary arteries, impacting clinical decision-making in almost one every five subjects. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Portable Hybrid Powered Water Filtration Device

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maria Lourdes V. Balansay; Mary Rose Q. Añonuevo; Rexzel M. Cuenca; Ricmart V. Garbin

    2015-01-01

    .... The design of the portable hybrid powered water filtration device shows that the project has more advanced features such as portability and the power supply used such as photovoltaic module solar...

  3. Approaches to hybrid synthetic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vivek

    All living creatures are made up of cells that have the ability to replicate themselves in a repetitive process called cell division. As these cells mature and divide into two there is an extensive movement of cellular components. In order to perform this essential task that sustains life, cells have evolved machines composed of proteins. Biological motors, such as kinesin, transport intracellular cargo and position organelles in eukaryotic cells via unidirectional movement on cytoskeletal tracts called microtubules. Biomolecular motor proteins have the potential to be used as 'nano-engines' for switchable devices, directed self assembly, controlled bioseparations and powering nano- and microelectromechanical systems. However, engineering such systems requires fabrication processes that are compatible with biological materials such as kinesin motor proteins and microtubules. The first objective of the research was to establish biocompatibility between protein systems and nanofabrication. The second objective was to use current micro- and nanofabrication techniques for patterning proteins at specific locations and to study role of casein in supporting the operation of surface bound kinesin. The third objective was to link kinesin and microtubule system to cellulose nanowhiskers. The effects of micro- and nanofabrication processing chemicals and resists on the functionality of casein, kinesin, and microtubule proteins are systematically examined to address the important missing link of the biocompatibility of micro- and nanofabrication processes needed to realize hybrid system fabrication. It was found that both casein, which is used to prevent motor denaturation on surfaces, and kinesin motors are surprisingly tolerant of most of the processing chemicals examined. Microtubules, however, are much more sensitive. Exposure to the processing chemicals leads to depolymerization, which is partially attributed to the pH of the solutions examined. When the chemicals were

  4. Hybrid ultrasound imaging techniques (fusion imaging).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandulescu, Daniela Larisa; Dumitrescu, Daniela; Rogoveanu, Ion; Saftoiu, Adrian

    2011-01-07

    Visualization of tumor angiogenesis can facilitate non-invasive evaluation of tumor vascular characteristics to supplement the conventional diagnostic imaging goals of depicting tumor location, size, and morphology. Hybrid imaging techniques combine anatomic [ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)] and molecular (single photon emission CT and positron emission tomography) imaging modalities. One example is real-time virtual sonography, which combines ultrasound (grayscale, colour Doppler, or dynamic contrast harmonic imaging) with contrast-enhanced CT/MRI. The benefits of fusion imaging include an increased diagnostic confidence, direct comparison of the lesions using different imaging modalities, more precise monitoring of interventional procedures, and reduced radiation exposure.

  5. Handheld ultrasound array imaging device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Juin-Jet; Quistgaard, Jens

    1999-06-01

    A handheld ultrasound imaging device, one that weighs less than five pounds, has been developed for diagnosing trauma in the combat battlefield as well as a variety of commercial mobile diagnostic applications. This handheld device consists of four component ASICs, each is designed using the state of the art microelectronics technologies. These ASICs are integrated with a convex array transducer to allow high quality imaging of soft tissues and blood flow in real time. The device is designed to be battery driven or ac powered with built-in image storage and cineloop playback capability. Design methodologies of a handheld device are fundamentally different to those of a cart-based system. As system architecture, signal and image processing algorithm as well as image control circuit and software in this device is deigned suitably for large-scale integration, the image performance of this device is designed to be adequate to the intent applications. To elongate the battery life, low power design rules and power management circuits are incorporated in the design of each component ASIC. The performance of the prototype device is currently being evaluated for various applications such as a primary image screening tool, fetal imaging in Obstetrics, foreign object detection and wound assessment for emergency care, etc.

  6. Hybrid imaging labels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buckle, Tessa; Wal, Der Steffen Van; Malderen, Van Stijn J.M.; Müller, Larissa; Kuil, Joeri; Unen, Vincent Van; Peters, Ruud J.B.; Bemmel, van Greet; McDonnell, Liam A.; Velders, Aldrik H.; Koning, Frits; Vanhaeke, Frank; Leeuwen, Van Fijs W.B.

    2017-01-01

    Development of theranostic concepts that include inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) imaging can be hindered by the lack of a direct comparison to more standardly used methods for in vitro and in vivo evaluation; e.g. fluorescence or nuclear

  7. First-Generation Hybrid Compact Compton Imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, M; Burks, M; Chivers, D; Cork, C; Fabris, L; Gunter, D; Krings, T; Lange, D; Hull, E; Mihailescu, L; Nelson, K; Niedermayr, T; Protic, D; Valentine, J; Vetter, K; Wright, D

    2005-11-07

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we are pursuing the development of a gamma-ray imaging system using the Compton effect. We have built our first generation hybrid Compton imaging system, and we have conducted initial calibration and image measurements using this system. In this paper, we present the details of the hybrid Compton imaging system and initial calibration and image measurements.

  8. Current-mode CMOS hybrid image sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyhesan, Mohammad Kassim

    Digital imaging is growing rapidly making Complimentary Metal-Oxide-Semi conductor (CMOS) image sensor-based cameras indispensable in many modern life devices like cell phones, surveillance devices, personal computers, and tablets. For various purposes wireless portable image systems are widely deployed in many indoor and outdoor places such as hospitals, urban areas, streets, highways, forests, mountains, and towers. However, the increased demand on high-resolution image sensors and improved processing features is expected to increase the power consumption of the CMOS sensor-based camera systems. Increased power consumption translates into a reduced battery life-time. The increased power consumption might not be a problem if there is access to a nearby charging station. On the other hand, the problem arises if the image sensor is located in widely spread areas, unfavorable to human intervention, and difficult to reach. Given the limitation of energy sources available for wireless CMOS image sensor, an energy harvesting technique presents a viable solution to extend the sensor life-time. Energy can be harvested from the sun light or the artificial light surrounding the sensor itself. In this thesis, we propose a current-mode CMOS hybrid image sensor capable of energy harvesting and image capture. The proposed sensor is based on a hybrid pixel that can be programmed to perform the task of an image sensor and the task of a solar cell to harvest energy. The basic idea is to design a pixel that can be configured to exploit its internal photodiode to perform two functions: image sensing and energy harvesting. As a proof of concept a 40 x 40 array of hybrid pixels has been designed and fabricated in a standard 0.5 microm CMOS process. Measurement results show that up to 39 microW of power can be harvested from the array under 130 Klux condition with an energy efficiency of 220 nJ /pixel /frame. The proposed image sensor is a current-mode image sensor which has several

  9. Multimode imaging device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihailescu, Lucian; Vetter, Kai M

    2013-08-27

    Apparatus for detecting and locating a source of gamma rays of energies ranging from 10-20 keV to several MeV's includes plural gamma ray detectors arranged in a generally closed extended array so as to provide Compton scattering imaging and coded aperture imaging simultaneously. First detectors are arranged in a spaced manner about a surface defining the closed extended array which may be in the form a circle, a sphere, a square, a pentagon or higher order polygon. Some of the gamma rays are absorbed by the first detectors closest to the gamma source in Compton scattering, while the photons that go unabsorbed by passing through gaps disposed between adjacent first detectors are incident upon second detectors disposed on the side farthest from the gamma ray source, where the first spaced detectors form a coded aperture array for two or three dimensional gamma ray source detection.

  10. A Multimodality Hybrid Gamma-Optical Camera for Intraoperative Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, John E.; Bugby, Sarah L.; Alqahtani, Mohammed S.; Jambi, Layal K.; Dawood, Numan S.; McKnight, William R.; Ng, Aik H.; Perkins, Alan C.

    2017-01-01

    The development of low profile gamma-ray detectors has encouraged the production of small field of view (SFOV) hand-held imaging devices for use at the patient bedside and in operating theatres. Early development of these SFOV cameras was focussed on a single modality—gamma ray imaging. Recently, a hybrid system—gamma plus optical imaging—has been developed. This combination of optical and gamma cameras enables high spatial resolution multi-modal imaging, giving a superimposed scintigraphic and optical image. Hybrid imaging offers new possibilities for assisting clinicians and surgeons in localising the site of uptake in procedures such as sentinel node detection. The hybrid camera concept can be extended to a multimodal detector design which can offer stereoscopic images, depth estimation of gamma-emitting sources, and simultaneous gamma and fluorescence imaging. Recent improvements to the hybrid camera have been used to produce dual-modality images in both laboratory simulations and in the clinic. Hybrid imaging of a patient who underwent thyroid scintigraphy is reported. In addition, we present data which shows that the hybrid camera concept can be extended to estimate the position and depth of radionuclide distribution within an object and also report the first combined gamma and Near-Infrared (NIR) fluorescence images. PMID:28282957

  11. Portable Hybrid Powered Water Filtration Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lourdes V. Balansay

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The existing water filtration device has features that can be developed to be more useful and functional during emergency situations. The project’s development has been aided by following provisions in PEC, NEC, NEMA and Philippine National Standard for Safe Drinking Water provide standards for the construction of the project. These standards protect both the prototype and the user. These also served as guide for the maintenance of every component. The design of the portable hybrid powered water filtration device shows that the project has more advanced features such as portability and the power supply used such as photovoltaic module solar cells and manually operated generator. This also shows its effectiveness and reliability based on the results of discharging test, water quality test and water production test. Based on analysis of the overall financial aspects, the machine can be profitable and the amount of revenue and operating cost will increase as years pass. Using the proper machine/ tools and methods of fabrication helps in easy assembly of the project. The materials and components used are cost effective and efficient. The best time for charging the battery using solar panel is 9:00 am onwards while the hand crank generator is too slow because the generated current is little. The water filtration device is very efficient regarding the operating hours and water production. The machine may have a great effect to society and economy in generation of clean available water at less cost.

  12. Hybrid radical energy storage device and method of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennett, Thomas; Ginley, David S; Braunecker, Wade; Ban, Chunmei; Owczarczyk, Zbyslaw

    2015-01-27

    Hybrid radical energy storage devices, such as batteries or electrochemical devices, and methods of use and making are disclosed. Also described herein are electrodes and electrolytes useful in energy storage devices, for example, radical polymer cathode materials and electrolytes for use in organic radical batteries.

  13. Microscopy imaging device with advanced imaging properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Kunal; Burns, Laurie; El Gamal, Abbas; Schnitzer, Mark J.; Cocker, Eric; Ho, Tatt Wei

    2015-11-24

    Systems, methods and devices are implemented for microscope imaging solutions. One embodiment of the present disclosure is directed toward an epifluorescence microscope. The microscope includes an image capture circuit including an array of optical sensor. An optical arrangement is configured to direct excitation light of less than about 1 mW to a target object in a field of view of that is at least 0.5 mm.sup.2 and to direct epi-fluorescence emission caused by the excitation light to the array of optical sensors. The optical arrangement and array of optical sensors are each sufficiently close to the target object to provide at least 2.5 .mu.m resolution for an image of the field of view.

  14. Microscopy imaging device with advanced imaging properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Kunal; Burns, Laurie; El Gamal, Abbas; Schnitzer, Mark J.; Cocker, Eric; Ho, Tatt Wei

    2017-04-25

    Systems, methods and devices are implemented for microscope imaging solutions. One embodiment of the present disclosure is directed toward an epifluorescence microscope. The microscope includes an image capture circuit including an array of optical sensor. An optical arrangement is configured to direct excitation light of less than about 1 mW to a target object in a field of view of that is at least 0.5 mm.sup.2 and to direct epi-fluorescence emission caused by the excitation light to the array of optical sensors. The optical arrangement and array of optical sensors are each sufficiently close to the target object to provide at least 2.5 .mu.m resolution for an image of the field of view.

  15. Microscopy imaging device with advanced imaging properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Kunal; Burns, Laurie; El Gamal, Abbas; Schnitzer, Mark J.; Cocker, Eric; Ho, Tatt Wei

    2016-10-25

    Systems, methods and devices are implemented for microscope imaging solutions. One embodiment of the present disclosure is directed toward an epifluorescence microscope. The microscope includes an image capture circuit including an array of optical sensor. An optical arrangement is configured to direct excitation light of less than about 1 mW to a target object in a field of view of that is at least 0.5 mm.sup.2 and to direct epi-fluorescence emission caused by the excitation light to the array of optical sensors. The optical arrangement and array of optical sensors are each sufficiently close to the target object to provide at least 2.5 .mu.m resolution for an image of the field of view.

  16. Microscopy imaging device with advanced imaging properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Kunal; Burns, Laurie; El Gamal, Abbas; Schnitzer, Mark J.; Cocker, Eric; Ho, Tatt Wei

    2016-11-22

    Systems, methods and devices are implemented for microscope imaging solutions. One embodiment of the present disclosure is directed toward an epifluorescence microscope. The microscope includes an image capture circuit including an array of optical sensor. An optical arrangement is configured to direct excitation light of less than about 1 mW to a target object in a field of view of that is at least 0.5 mm.sup.2 and to direct epi-fluorescence emission caused by the excitation light to the array of optical sensors. The optical arrangement and array of optical sensors are each sufficiently close to the target object to provide at least 2.5 .mu.m resolution for an image of the field of view.

  17. Hybrid perovskites: Approaches towards light-emitting devices

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal

    2016-10-06

    The high optical gain and absorption of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have attracted extensive research for photonic device applications. Using the bromide halide as an example, we present key approaches of our work towards realizing efficient perovskites based light-emitters. The approaches involved determination of optical constants for the hybrid perovskites thin films, fabrication of photonic nanostructures in the form of subwavelength grating reflector patterned directly on the hybrid perovskites as light manipulation layer, and enhancing the emission property of the hybrid perovskites by using microcavity structure. Our results provide a platform for realization of hybrid perovskites based light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting and display applications. © 2016 IEEE.

  18. Hybrid Recentering Energy Dissipative Device for Seismic Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenke Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid recentering energy dissipative device that has both recentering and energy dissipation capabilities is proposed and studied in this paper. The proposed hybrid device, referred to as the hybrid shape memory alloy (SMA recentering viscous fluid (RCVF energy dissipation device, connects the apex of a chevron brace to an adjoining beam using two sets of SMA wires arranged in series on either side of the brace and a viscous fluid damper arranged in parallel with the SMA wires. The viscous damper is used because being a velocity-dependent device it does not exert any force that counteracts the recentering force from the SMA wires after the vibration of the frame ceases. In the numerical study, the Wilde’s SMA constitutive model is used to model the SMA wires, and the Maxwell model is used to simulate the viscous fluid damper. To demonstrate the viability and effectiveness of the proposed hybrid device, comparative studies are performed on several single-story shear frames and a series of four-story steel frames. The results show that the frames equipped with the hybrid device have noticeably smaller peak top story displacements and residual story drifts when subjected to ground motions at three different intensity levels.

  19. [Electronic Device for Retinal and Iris Imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drahanský, M; Kolář, R; Mňuk, T

    This paper describes design and construction of a new device for automatic capturing of eye retina and iris. This device has two possible ways of utilization - either for biometric purposes (persons recognition on the base of their eye characteristics) or for medical purposes as supporting diagnostic device. eye retina, eye iris, device, acquisition, image.

  20. Hot electron effect in terahertz hybrid devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leone, B; Gao, [No Value; Klapwijk, TM; Jackson, BD; Laauwen, WM; de Lange, G

    We analyse both the direct current and submillimeter pumped cut-rent-voltage characteristics of a hybrid superconductor-insulator-superconductor terahertz, mixer consisting of a Nb tunnel junction integrated with NbTiN tuning striplines. We And that the presence of the Nb/NbTiN interface gives rise

  1. Hybrid system calibration for multidimensional magnetic particle imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Gladiss, A.; Graeser, M.; Szwargulski, P.; Knopp, T.; Buzug, T. M.

    2017-05-01

    Magnetic particle imaging visualizes the spatial distribution of superparamagnetic nanoparticles. Because of its key features of excellent sensitivity, high temporal and spatial resolution and biocompatibility of the tracer material it can be used in multiple medical imaging applications. The common reconstruction technique for Lissajous-type trajectories uses a system matrix that has to be previously acquired in a time-consuming calibration scan, leading to long downtimes of the scanning device. In this work, the system matrix is determined by a hybrid approach. Using the hybrid system matrix for reconstruction, the calibration downtime of the scanning device can be neglected. Furthermore, the signal to noise ratio of the hybrid system matrix is much higher, since the size of the required nanoparticle sample can be chosen independently of the desired voxel size. As the signal to noise ratio influences the reconstruction process, the resulting images have better resolution and are less affected by artefacts. Additionally, a new approach is introduced to address the background signal in image reconstruction. The common technique of subtraction of the background signal is replaced by extending the system matrix with an entry that represents the background. It is shown that this approach reduces artefacts in the reconstructed images.

  2. Photonic Integration on the Hybrid Silicon Evanescent Device Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyundai Park

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the recent progress of hybrid silicon evanescent devices. The hybrid silicon evanescent device structure consists of III-V epitaxial layers transferred to silicon waveguides through a low-temperature wafer bonding process to achieve optical gain, absorption, and modulation efficiently on a silicon photonics platform. The low-temperature wafer bonding process enables fusion of two different material systems without degradation of material quality and is scalable to wafer-level bonding. Lasers, amplifiers, photodetectors, and modulators have been demonstrated with this hybrid structure and integration of these individual components for improved optical functionality is also presented. This approach provides a unique way to build photonic active devices on silicon and should allow application of silicon photonic integrated circuits to optical telecommunication and optical interconnects.

  3. Hybrid optoelectronic device with multiple bistable outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costazo-Caso, Pablo A.; Jin, Yiye; Gelh, Michael; Granieri, Sergio; Siahmakoun, Azad

    2011-01-01

    Optoelectronic circuits which exhibit optical and electrical bistability with hysteresis behavior are proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The systems are based on semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA), bipolar junction transistors (BJT), PIN photodiodes (PD) and laser diodes externally modulated with integrated electro-absorption modulators (LD-EAM). The device operates based on two independent phenomena leading to both electrical bistability and optical bistability. The electrical bistability is due to the series connection of two p-i-n structures (SOA, BJT, PD or LD) in reverse bias. The optical bistability is consequence of the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) in the multi-quantum well (MQW) structure in the intrinsic region of the device. This effect produces the optical modulation of the transmitted light through the SOA (or reflected from the PD). Finally, because the optical transmission of the SOA (in reverse bias) and the reflected light from the PD are so small, a LD-EAM modulated by the voltage across these devices are employed to obtain a higher output optical power. Experiments show that the maximum switching frequency is in MHz range and the rise/fall times lower than 1 us. The temporal response is mainly limited by the electrical capacitance of the devices and the parasitic inductances of the connecting wires. The effects of these components can be reduced in current integration technologies.

  4. Portable Hybrid Powered Water Filtration Device

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Lourdes V. Balansay; Mary Rose Q. Añonuevo; Rexzel M. Cuenca; Ricmart V. Garbin

    2015-01-01

    The existing water filtration device has features that can be developed to be more useful and functional during emergency situations. The project’s development has been aided by following provisions in PEC, NEC, NEMA and Philippine National Standard for Safe Drinking Water provide standards for the construction of the project. These standards protect both the prototype and the user. These also served as guide for the maintenance of every component. The design of the portable hybri...

  5. Towards integration of PET/MR hybrid imaging into radiation therapy treatment planning

    OpenAIRE

    Paulus, Daniel H.; Thorwath, Daniela; Schmidt, Holger; Quick, Harald H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Multimodality imaging has become an important adjunct of state-of-the-art radiation therapy (RT) treatment planning. Recently, simultaneous PET/MR hybrid imaging has become clinically available and may also contribute to target volume delineation and biological individualization in RT planning. For integration of PET/MR hybrid imaging into RT treatment planning, compatible dedicated RT devices are required for accurate patient positioning. In this study, prototype RT positioning d...

  6. Hybrid optical waveguide devices based on polymers and silica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diemeer, Mart; Driessen, A; Baets, R.G.; Mclerney, J.G.; Suhir, E

    2002-01-01

    The hybrid integration of polymer and silica in optical waveguides can yield devices that combine the excellent thermo-optic properties of polymers and the superior passive waveguiding properties of silica. The large difference and opposite sign of the thermo-optic coefficients of both classes of

  7. Hybrid scintillators for x-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Clifford; Rairden, Richard L.; Betz, Robert A.

    1996-04-01

    The objective of this effort is to improve x-ray absorption and light production while maintaining high spatial resolution in x-ray imaging phosphor screens. Our current target is to improve screen absorption efficiency and screen brightness by factors of 2 or greater over existing screens that have 10-1p/mm resolution. In this program, commercial phosphor screens are combined with highly absorbing, high-resolution scintillating fiber-optic (SFO) face plates to provide a hybrid sensor that exhibits superior spatial resolution, x-ray absorption, and brightness values over the phosphor material alone. These characteristics of hybrid scintillators can be adjusted to meet specific x-ray imaging requirements over a wide range of x-ray energy. This paper discusses the design, fabrication, and testing of a new series of hybrid scintillators.

  8. A Hybrid Technique for Medical Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamgir Nyma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical image segmentation is an essential and challenging aspect in computer-aided diagnosis and also in pattern recognition research. This paper proposes a hybrid method for magnetic resonance (MR image segmentation. We first remove impulsive noise inherent in MR images by utilizing a vector median filter. Subsequently, Otsu thresholding is used as an initial coarse segmentation method that finds the homogeneous regions of the input image. Finally, an enhanced suppressed fuzzy c-means is used to partition brain MR images into multiple segments, which employs an optimal suppression factor for the perfect clustering in the given data set. To evaluate the robustness of the proposed approach in noisy environment, we add different types of noise and different amount of noise to T1-weighted brain MR images. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms other FCM based algorithms in terms of segmentation accuracy for both noise-free and noise-inserted MR images.

  9. Nanoscale semiconductor hybrids: fundamental physics and advanced devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Binh-Minh [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-04-09

    Key summary: Low dimensional hybrids: more flexibility and better controllability of materials properties. Type-II Antimonide-based superlattice: system of interacting quantum wells, for infrared detection and imaging. Hetero-designs in core/multi-shell nanowires: promising candidate for high performance electronic and sensing applications. An interdisciplinary research plan could trigger interest and collaboration within RIT.

  10. Hybrid superconducting-magnetic memory device using competing order parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Burm; Rippard, William H.; Benz, Samuel P.; Russek, Stephen E.; Dresselhaus, Paul D.

    2014-05-01

    In a hybrid superconducting-magnetic device, two order parameters compete, with one type of order suppressing the other. Recent interest in ultra-low-power, high-density cryogenic memories has spurred new efforts to simultaneously exploit superconducting and magnetic properties so as to create novel switching elements having these two competing orders. Here we describe a reconfigurable two-layer magnetic spin valve integrated within a Josephson junction. Our measurements separate the suppression in the superconducting coupling due to the exchange field in the magnetic layers, which causes depairing of the supercurrent, from the suppression due to the stray magnetic field. The exchange field suppression of the superconducting order parameter is a tunable and switchable behaviour that is also scalable to nanometer device dimensions. These devices demonstrate non-volatile, size-independent switching of Josephson coupling, in magnitude as well as phase, and they may enable practical nanoscale superconducting memory devices.

  11. Fabrication of Hybrid Organic Photovoltaic Devices Using Electrostatic Spray Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe-Wei Chiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid organic photovoltaic devices (OPVDs are fabricated using the electrostatic spray (e-spray method and their optical and electrical properties are investigated. E-spray is used to deposit a hybrid film (P3HT: PCBM/nanodiamond with morphology and optical characteristics onto OPVDs. The root-mean-square roughness and optical absorption increase with increasing nanodiamond content. The performance of e-spray is comparable to that of the spin-coating method under uniform conditions. The device takes advantage of the high current density, power conversion efficiency, and low cost. Nanodiamond improves the short-circuit current density and power conversion efficiency. The best performance was obtained with 1.5 wt% nanodiamond content, with a current density of 7.28 mA/cm2 and a power conversion efficiency of 2.25%.

  12. HyPR Device: Mobile Support for Hybrid Patient Records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houben, Steven; Frost, Mads; Bardram, Jakob E

    2014-01-01

    introduce the HyPR Device, a device that merges the paper and electronic patient record into one system. We provide results from a clinical simulation with eight clinicians and discuss the functional, design and infrastructural requirements of such hybrid patient records. Our study suggests that the Hy......The patient record is one of the central artifacts in medical work that is used to organize, communicate and coordinate important information related to patient care. In many hospitals a double record consisting of an electronic and paper part is maintained. This practice introduces a number...... of configuration problems related to finding, using and aligning the paper and electronic patient record. In this paper, we describe the exploration into the Hybrid Patient Record (HyPR) concept. Based on design requirements derived from a field study, followed by a design study using a technology probe, we...

  13. Image display device in digital TV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung Jong

    2006-07-18

    Disclosed is an image display device in a digital TV that is capable of carrying out the conversion into various kinds of resolution by using single bit map data in the digital TV. The image display device includes: a data processing part for executing bit map conversion, compression, restoration and format-conversion for text data; a memory for storing the bit map data obtained according to the bit map conversion and compression in the data processing part and image data inputted from an arbitrary receiving part, the receiving part receiving one of digital image data and analog image data; an image outputting part for reading the image data from the memory; and a display processing part for mixing the image data read from the image outputting part and the bit map data converted in format from the a data processing part. Therefore, the image display device according to the present invention can convert text data in such a manner as to correspond with various resolution, carry out the compression for bit map data, thereby reducing the memory space, and support text data of an HTML format, thereby providing the image with the text data of various shapes.

  14. Hybrid quantum-classical modeling of quantum dot devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantner, Markus; Mittnenzweig, Markus; Koprucki, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    The design of electrically driven quantum dot devices for quantum optical applications asks for modeling approaches combining classical device physics with quantum mechanics. We connect the well-established fields of semiclassical semiconductor transport theory and the theory of open quantum systems to meet this requirement. By coupling the van Roosbroeck system with a quantum master equation in Lindblad form, we introduce a new hybrid quantum-classical modeling approach, which provides a comprehensive description of quantum dot devices on multiple scales: it enables the calculation of quantum optical figures of merit and the spatially resolved simulation of the current flow in realistic semiconductor device geometries in a unified way. We construct the interface between both theories in such a way, that the resulting hybrid system obeys the fundamental axioms of (non)equilibrium thermodynamics. We show that our approach guarantees the conservation of charge, consistency with the thermodynamic equilibrium and the second law of thermodynamics. The feasibility of the approach is demonstrated by numerical simulations of an electrically driven single-photon source based on a single quantum dot in the stationary and transient operation regime.

  15. Interactive image processing for mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Rodney

    2009-01-01

    As the number of consumer digital images escalates by tens of billions each year, an increasing proportion of these images are being acquired using the latest generations of sophisticated mobile devices. The characteristics of the cameras embedded in these devices now yield image-quality outcomes that approach those of the parallel generations of conventional digital cameras, and all aspects of the management and optimization of these vast new image-populations become of utmost importance in providing ultimate consumer satisfaction. However this satisfaction is still limited by the fact that a substantial proportion of all images are perceived to have inadequate image quality, and a lesser proportion of these to be completely unacceptable (for sharing, archiving, printing, etc). In past years at this same conference, the author has described various aspects of a consumer digital-image interface based entirely on an intuitive image-choice-only operation. Demonstrations have been given of this facility in operation, essentially allowing criticalpath navigation through approximately a million possible image-quality states within a matter of seconds. This was made possible by the definition of a set of orthogonal image vectors, and defining all excursions in terms of a fixed linear visual-pixel model, independent of the image attribute. During recent months this methodology has been extended to yield specific user-interactive image-quality solutions in the form of custom software, which at less than 100kb is readily embedded in the latest generations of unlocked portable devices. This has also necessitated the design of new user-interfaces and controls, as well as streamlined and more intuitive versions of the user quality-choice hierarchy. The technical challenges and details will be described for these modified versions of the enhancement methodology, and initial practical experience with typical images will be described.

  16. Images Protection Sent to Mobile Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz, Ukrania; Alarcos Alcázar, Bernardo; Hoz de la Hoz, Enrique de la; Marsá Maestre, Iván

    2006-01-01

    With the increasing use of multimedia technologies and mobile devices, also increases the applications which purpose is to offer information or to do advertising by means of the sending of images or videos. In this paper, we approached a digital tourist guide scene in which mobile devices with limited resources need to receive multimedia information across a wireless connection. Also we approached that this information is visible only authorized users. We centre the article ...

  17. Optical conversion of pure spin currents in hybrid molecular devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, May C; Ma'Mari, Fatma Al; Rogers, Matthew; Gonçalves, Francisco J; Moorsom, Timothy; Brataas, Arne; Stamps, Robert; Ali, Mannan; Burnell, Gavin; Hickey, B J; Cespedes, Oscar

    2017-10-13

    Carbon-based molecules offer unparalleled potential for THz and optical devices controlled by pure spin currents: a low-dissipation flow of electronic spins with no net charge displacement. However, the research so far has been focused on the electrical conversion of the spin imbalance, where molecular materials are used to mimic their crystalline counterparts. Here, we use spin currents to access the molecular dynamics and optical properties of a fullerene layer. The spin mixing conductance across Py/C60 interfaces is increased by 10% (5 × 1018 m-2) under optical irradiation. Measurements show up to a 30% higher light absorbance and a factor of 2 larger photoemission during spin pumping. We also observe a 0.15 THz slowdown and a narrowing of the vibrational peaks. The effects are attributed to changes in the non-radiative damping and energy transfer. This opens new research paths in hybrid magneto-molecular optoelectronics, and the optical detection of spin physics in these materials.Carbon-based molecules could prove useful in terahertz and optical devices controlled by pure spin currents. Here, conversely, the authors use spin currents to probe molecular dynamics and enhance the optical response of a fullerene layer, enabling hybrid magneto-molecular optoelectronic devices.

  18. Super-resolution near field imaging device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Super-resolution imaging device comprising at least a first and a second elongated coupling element, each having a first transverse dimension at a first end and a second transverse dimension at a second end and being adapted for guiding light between their respective first and second ends, each...... of the matrix and the second ends of the coupling elements are located at or in a vicinity of the second side of the matrix. The second transverse dimension is larger than the first transverse dimension. A microscope objective system and a microscope comprising the super-resolution imaging device are also...

  19. Electromagnetic Compatibility of Devices on Hybrid Electromagnetic Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konesev, S. G.; Khazieva, R. T.; Kirillov, R. V.; Gainutdinov, I. Z.; Kondratyev, E. Y.

    2018-01-01

    There is a general tendency to reduce the weight and dimensions, the consumption of conductive and electrical insulating materials, increase the reliability and energy efficiency of electrical devices. In recent years, designers have been actively developing devices based on hybrid electromagnetic components (HEMC) such as inductive-capacitive converters (ICC), voltages pulse generators (VPG), secondary power supplies (SPS), capacitive storage devices (CSD), induction heating systems (IHS). Sources of power supplies of similar electrical devices contain, as a rule, links of increased frequency and function in key (pulse) modes, which leads to an increase in electromagnetic interference (EMI). Nonlinear and periodic (impulse) loads, non-sinusoidal (pulsation) of the electromotive force and nonlinearity of the internal parameters of the source and input circuits of consumers distort the shape of the input voltage lead to an increase in thermal losses from the higher harmonic currents, aging of the insulation, increase in the weight of the power supply filter units, resonance at higher harmonics. The most important task is to analyze the operation of electrotechnical devices based on HEMC from the point of view of creating EMIs and assessing their electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) with power supply systems (PSS). The article presents the results of research on the operation of an IHS, the operation principle of a secondary power supply source of which is based on the operation of a half-bridge autonomous inverter, the switching circuit of which is made in the form of a HEMC, called the «multifunctional integrated electromagnetic component»" (MIEC).

  20. Role of Hybrid Brain Imaging in Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burhan, Amer M; Marlatt, Nicole M; Palaniyappan, Lena; Anazodo, Udunna C; Prato, Frank S

    2015-12-04

    This is a focused review of imaging literature to scope the utility of hybrid brain imaging in neuropsychiatric disorders. The review focuses on brain imaging modalities that utilize hybrid (fusion) techniques to characterize abnormal brain molecular signals in combination with structural and functional changes that have been observed in neuropsychiatric disorders. An overview of clinical hybrid brain imaging technologies for human use is followed by a selective review of the literature that conceptualizes the use of these technologies in understanding basic mechanisms of major neuropsychiatric disorders and their therapeutics. Neuronal network abnormalities are highlighted throughout this review to scope the utility of hybrid imaging as a potential biomarker for each disorder.

  1. Graphene-on-dielectric micromembrane for optoelectromechanical hybrid devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Silvan; Bagci, Tolga; Zeuthen, Emil

    2013-01-01

    Due to their exceptional mechanical and optical properties, dielectric silicon nitride (SiN) micromembranes have become the centerpiece of many optomechanical experiments. Efficient capacitive coupling of the membrane to an electrical system would facilitate exciting hybrid optoelectromechanical...... devices. However, capacitive coupling of such SiN membranes is rather weak. Here we add a single layer of graphene on SiN micromembranes (SiN-G) and compare the electromechanical coupling and mechanical properties to bare SiN membranes and to membranes coated with an aluminium layer (Si...

  2. 21 CFR 892.2010 - Medical image storage device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical image storage device. 892.2010 Section 892.2010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2010 Medical image storage device. (a...

  3. Battery-Supercapacitor Hybrid Devices: Recent Progress and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Wenhua; Li, Ruizhi; Zhou, Cheng; Li, Yuanyuan; Xia, Jianlong; Liu, Jinping

    2017-07-01

    Design and fabrication of electrochemical energy storage systems with both high energy and power densities as well as long cycling life is of great importance. As one of these systems, Battery-supercapacitor hybrid device (BSH) is typically constructed with a high-capacity battery-type electrode and a high-rate capacitive electrode, which has attracted enormous attention due to its potential applications in future electric vehicles, smart electric grids, and even miniaturized electronic/optoelectronic devices, etc. With proper design, BSH will provide unique advantages such as high performance, cheapness, safety, and environmental friendliness. This review first addresses the fundamental scientific principle, structure, and possible classification of BSHs, and then reviews the recent advances on various existing and emerging BSHs such as Li-/Na-ion BSHs, acidic/alkaline BSHs, BSH with redox electrolytes, and BSH with pseudocapacitive electrode, with the focus on materials and electrochemical performances. Furthermore, recent progresses in BSH devices with specific functionalities of flexibility and transparency, etc. will be highlighted. Finally, the future developing trends and directions as well as the challenges will also be discussed; especially, two conceptual BSHs with aqueous high voltage window and integrated 3D electrode/electrolyte architecture will be proposed.

  4. Hybrid materials and polymer electrolytes for electrochromic device applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Vijay Kumar; Ding, Guoqiang; Ma, Jan; Lee, Pooi See; Lu, Xuehong

    2012-08-08

    Electrochromic (EC) materials and polymer electrolytes are the most imperative and active components in an electrochromic device (ECD). EC materials are able to reversibly change their light absorption properties in a certain wavelength range via redox reactions stimulated by low direct current (dc) potentials of the order of a fraction of volts to a few volts. The redox switching may result in a change in color of the EC materials owing to the generation of new or changes in absorption band in visible region, infrared or even microwave region. In ECDs the electrochromic layers need to be incorporated with supportive components such as electrical contacts and ion conducting electrolytes. The electrolytes play an indispensable role as the prime ionic conduction medium between the electrodes of the EC materials. The expected applications of the electrochromism in numerous fields such as reflective-type display and smart windows/mirrors make these materials of prime importance. In this article we have reviewed several examples from our research work as well as from other researchers' work, describing the recent advancements on the materials that exhibit visible electrochromism and polymer electrolytes for electrochromic devices. The first part of the review is centered on nanostructured inorganic and conjugated polymer-based organic-inorganic hybrid EC materials. The emphasis has been to correlate the structures, morphologies and interfacial interactions of the EC materials to their electronic and ionic properties that influence the EC properties with unique advantages. The second part illustrates the perspectives of polymer electrolytes in electrochromic applications with emphasis on poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO), poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) based polymer electrolytes. The requirements and approaches to optimize the formulation of electrolytes for feasible electrochromic devices have been delineated. Copyright © 2012 WILEY

  5. [Key technologies in image analysis of comparative genomic hybridization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, J; Ji, L; Wang, M

    2001-12-01

    Comparative genomic hybridization has become a new technique in molecular-cytogenetics, and it has found significant applications in tumor pathology. Image analysis is an important part of comparative genomic hybridization. It analyzes the fluorescent images by many steps and finally determines whether there is any abnormality in the copy number of the test tumor tissue. This paper expatiates on the key steps in the image analysis of comparative genomic hybridization, including background correction, chromosome segmentation, chromosome axis determination, karyotyping and determining ratio profile. The future trend is also discussed.

  6. Towards integration of PET/MR hybrid imaging into radiation therapy treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulus, Daniel H., E-mail: daniel.paulus@imp.uni-erlangen.de [Institute of Medical Physics, Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen 91052 (Germany); Thorwath, Daniela [Section for Biomedical Physics, University Hospital for Radiation Oncology, Eberhard Karls University Tübingen, Tübingen 72076 (Germany); Schmidt, Holger [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Eberhard Karls University Tübingen, Tübingen 72076 (Germany); Laboratory for Preclinical Imaging and Imaging Technology of the Werner Siemens-Foundation, Department of Preclinical Imaging and Radiopharmacy, Eberhard Karls University Tübingen, Tübingen 72076 (Germany); Quick, Harald H. [Institute of Medical Physics, Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen 91052 (Germany); Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen 45141 (Germany); High Field and Hybrid MR-Imaging, University Hospital Essen, Essen 45147 (Germany)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Multimodality imaging has become an important adjunct of state-of-the-art radiation therapy (RT) treatment planning. Recently, simultaneous PET/MR hybrid imaging has become clinically available and may also contribute to target volume delineation and biological individualization in RT planning. For integration of PET/MR hybrid imaging into RT treatment planning, compatible dedicated RT devices are required for accurate patient positioning. In this study, prototype RT positioning devices intended for PET/MR hybrid imaging are introduced and tested toward PET/MR compatibility and image quality. Methods: A prototype flat RT table overlay and two radiofrequency (RF) coil holders that each fix one flexible body matrix RF coil for RT head/neck imaging have been evaluated within this study. MR image quality with the RT head setup was compared to the actual PET/MR setup with a dedicated head RF coil. PET photon attenuation and CT-based attenuation correction (AC) of the hardware components has been quantitatively evaluated by phantom scans. Clinical application of the new RT setup in PET/MR imaging was evaluated in anin vivo study. Results: The RT table overlay and RF coil holders are fully PET/MR compatible. MR phantom and volunteer imaging with the RT head setup revealed high image quality, comparable to images acquired with the dedicated PET/MR head RF coil, albeit with 25% reduced SNR. Repositioning accuracy of the RF coil holders was below 1 mm. PET photon attenuation of the RT table overlay was calculated to be 3.8% and 13.8% for the RF coil holders. With CT-based AC of the devices, the underestimation error was reduced to 0.6% and 0.8%, respectively. Comparable results were found within the patient study. Conclusions: The newly designed RT devices for hybrid PET/MR imaging are PET and MR compatible. The mechanically rigid design and the reproducible positioning allow for straightforward CT-based AC. The systematic evaluation within this study provides the

  7. Towards integration of PET/MR hybrid imaging into radiation therapy treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Daniel H; Thorwath, Daniela; Schmidt, Holger; Quick, Harald H

    2014-07-01

    Multimodality imaging has become an important adjunct of state-of-the-art radiation therapy (RT) treatment planning. Recently, simultaneous PET/MR hybrid imaging has become clinically available and may also contribute to target volume delineation and biological individualization in RT planning. For integration of PET/MR hybrid imaging into RT treatment planning, compatible dedicated RT devices are required for accurate patient positioning. In this study, prototype RT positioning devices intended for PET/MR hybrid imaging are introduced and tested toward PET/MR compatibility and image quality. A prototype flat RT table overlay and two radiofrequency (RF) coil holders that each fix one flexible body matrix RF coil for RT head/neck imaging have been evaluated within this study. MR image quality with the RT head setup was compared to the actual PET/MR setup with a dedicated head RF coil. PET photon attenuation and CT-based attenuation correction (AC) of the hardware components has been quantitatively evaluated by phantom scans. Clinical application of the new RT setup in PET/MR imaging was evaluated in anin vivo study. The RT table overlay and RF coil holders are fully PET/MR compatible. MR phantom and volunteer imaging with the RT head setup revealed high image quality, comparable to images acquired with the dedicated PET/MR head RF coil, albeit with 25% reduced SNR. Repositioning accuracy of the RF coil holders was below 1 mm. PET photon attenuation of the RT table overlay was calculated to be 3.8% and 13.8% for the RF coil holders. With CT-based AC of the devices, the underestimation error was reduced to 0.6% and 0.8%, respectively. Comparable results were found within the patient study. The newly designed RT devices for hybrid PET/MR imaging are PET and MR compatible. The mechanically rigid design and the reproducible positioning allow for straightforward CT-based AC. The systematic evaluation within this study provides the technical basis for the clinical

  8. Hybrid electroluminescent device based on MEH-PPV and ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewidy, Dina; Gadallah, A.-S.; Fattah, G. Abdel

    2017-02-15

    Hybrid organic/inorganic electroluminescent device based on the structure of glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/MEH-PPV/ZnO/ZnO submicrorods/Al has been manufactured. Spin coating has been used to deposit both PEDOT:PSS and MEH-PPV. Two-step process has been used to synthesis ZnO submicrorods, namely, spin coating and chemical bath deposition. Changing the dimensions of the ZnO submicrorods in this layer structure has been investigated to improve the performance of the organic/inorganic electroluminescence device. Such layer structure provides electroluminescence with narrow emission bands due to a high gain with this structure. X-ray diffraction patterns and scanning electron microscope images show that ZnO submicrorods have hexagon structure. Current-voltage curve for the structure has been reported. Electroluminescence curves (electroluminescence intensity versus wavelength) at different bias voltages have been presented and these results show narrowing in full width at half maximum in the spectra at high current density compared to photoluminescence excitation. The narrowing in the spectrum has been explained. - Highlights: • Manufacturing of MEH-PPV and ZnO electroluminescent device has been reported. • Spin coating and chemical bath deposition have been used for preparation of ZnO. • SEM images and X-ray diffraction of ZnO have been presented. • Current-voltage curves and electroluminescent measurements have been reported.

  9. Portable digital device UHDTV panoramic image formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinov, I. S.; Lazarev, S. A.; Rubcov, K. A.; Maslakov, Y. N.

    2017-02-01

    Systems of panoramic photography and video are developed, as a rule, on the basis of an array of light-sensitive sensors, with different ways of positioning in space. The authors developed a high-quality portable system panoramic photo and video using a 12 light-sensitive sensors and the formation of the video standard Ultra HD 4K. According to the simulation results, it was found that the optimal arrangement of 12 the light-sensitive sensors in conjunction with lenses is their location in the center of the dodecahedron faces. In this case, part of the image formed on each photosensitive lens sensor is unique (not repeating other sensors) as part of the panorama of a regular pentagon. This design allows you to create a panorama of 360-degrees. The developed system is a panoramic photo and video, using PLD (programmable logic devices) and includes modules removal of distortions, masking, calibration, image formation on the sphere describing the dodecahedron and obtaining equidistant projection, modules and compression encoding an image. The article presents the basic elements of the developed system of panoramic photography and video.

  10. A uniform format for ocular imaging devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, H; Liebmann, J M; Uji, Y; Ritch, R

    1999-01-01

    To develop a uniform file format of ocular imaging data, including, but not limited to, ultrasound biomicroscopy, optical coherence tomography, and nerve fiber analyzer, capable of being transmitted via Internet or intranet for collaborative research and telemedicine use. File filters were developed as dynamic link libraries (DLLs). These can read the original raw data format of each ocular imaging device. A data file format was also designed to describe these raw data uniformly in three different types of compression: noncompressed, run length compression, and differential pulse code modulation (DPCM). These three file formats were then tested in the following aspects: file size, speed of reading, and speed of writing. Run length compression failed to compress raw data, while DPCM compressed raw data successfully (< or =35.5%). The speed of reading and writing files was slowest in DPCM. However, the actual time of reading and writing was fast enough (<0.6 s) for daily work regardless of file compression methods. The format designed has robust potential to be the standard file format for transmission of any ocular imaging raw data.

  11. Self-assembling hybrid diamond-biological quantum devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, A.; Koplovitz, G.; Retzker, A.; Jelezko, F.; Yochelis, S.; Porath, D.; Nevo, Y.; Shoseyov, O.; Paltiel, Y.; Plenio, M. B.

    2014-09-01

    The realization of scalable arrangements of nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in diamond remains a key challenge on the way towards efficient quantum information processing, quantum simulation and quantum sensing applications. Although technologies based on implanting NV-centers in bulk diamond crystals or hybrid device approaches have been developed, they are limited by the achievable spatial resolution and by the intricate technological complexities involved in achieving scalability. We propose and demonstrate a novel approach for creating an arrangement of NV-centers, based on the self-assembling capabilities of biological systems and their beneficial nanometer spatial resolution. Here, a self-assembled protein structure serves as a structural scaffold for surface functionalized nanodiamonds, in this way allowing for the controlled creation of NV-structures on the nanoscale and providing a new avenue towards bridging the bio-nano interface. One-, two- as well as three-dimensional structures are within the scope of biological structural assembling techniques. We realized experimentally the formation of regular structures by interconnecting nanodiamonds using biological protein scaffolds. Based on the achievable NV-center distances of 11 nm, we evaluate the expected dipolar coupling interaction with neighboring NV-centers as well as the expected decoherence time. Moreover, by exploiting these couplings, we provide a detailed theoretical analysis on the viability of multiqubit quantum operations, suggest the possibility of individual addressing based on the random distribution of the NV intrinsic symmetry axes and address the challenges posed by decoherence and imperfect couplings. We then demonstrate in the last part that our scheme allows for the high-fidelity creation of entanglement, cluster states and quantum simulation applications.

  12. Development of hybrid materials based on sponge supported reduced graphene oxide and transition metal hydroxides for hybrid energy storage devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubal, Deepak P; Holze, Rudolf; Gomez-Romero, Pedro

    2014-12-08

    Earnest efforts have been taken to design hybrid energy storage devices using hybrid electrodes based on capacitive (rGO) and pseudocapacitive (Ni(OH)2 and Co(OH)2) materials deposited on the skeleton of 3D macroporous (indicate sponge material) sponge support. Conducting framework was formed by coating rGO on macroporous sponge on which subsequent deposition of Ni(OH)2 and Co(OH)2 was carried out. The synergetic combination of rGO and Ni(OH)2 or Co(OH)2) provides dual charge-storing mechanisms whereas 3D framework of sponge allows excellent accessibility of electrolyte to hybrid electrodes. Moreover, to further increase the energy density, hybrid devices have been fabricated with SP@rGO@Ni or SP@rGO@Co and SP@rGO as positive and negative electrodes, respectively. These hybrid devices operate with extended operating voltage windows and achieve remarkable electrochemical supercapacitive properties which make them truly promising energy storage devices for commercial production.

  13. Hybrid Optical Devices: The Case of the Unification of the Electrochromic Device and the Organic Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre F. S. Guedes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of Hybrid Optical Devices, using some flexible optically transparent substrate material and organic semiconductor materials, has been widely utilized by the organic electronic industry, when manufacturing new technological products. The Hybrid Optical Device is constituted by the union of the electrochromic device and the organic solar cell. The flexible organic photovoltaic solar cells, in this hybrid optical device, have been the Poly base (3-hexyl thiophene, P3HT, Phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester, PCBM and Polyaniline, PANI, all being deposited in Indium Tin Oxide, ITO. In addition, the thin film, obtained by the deposition of PANI, and prepared in perchloric acid solution, has been identified through PANI-X1. In the flexible electrochromic device, the Poly base (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene, PEDOT, has been prepared in Propylene Carbonate, PC, being deposited in Indium Tin Oxide, ITO. Also, both devices have been united by an electrolyte solution prepared with Vanadium Pentoxide, V2O5, Lithium Perchlorate, LiClO4, and Polymethylmethacrylate, PMMA. This device has been characterized through Electrical Measurements, such as UV-Vis Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Thus, the result obtained through electrical measurements has demonstrated that the flexible organic photovoltaic solar cell presented the characteristic curve of standard solar cell after spin-coating and electrodeposition. Accordingly, the results obtained with optical and electrical characterization have revealed that the electrochromic device demonstrated some change in optical absorption, when subjected to some voltage difference. Moreover, the inclusion of the V2O5/PANI-X1 layer reduced the effects of degradation that this hybrid organic device caused, that is, solar irradiation. Studies on Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM have found out that the surface of V2O5/PANI-X1 layers can be strongly conditioned by the surface morphology of the

  14. One-step synthesis of chitosan-silica hybrid microspheres in a microfluidic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Wenjie; Li, Shaowei; Xu, Jianhong; Luo, Guangsheng

    2010-12-01

    This article describes a simple microfluidic method to fabricate chitosan-silica hybrid microspheres in one step. We dissolved tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) into a chitosan/acetic acid aqueous solution to form a chitosan-silica sol, and then emulsified it in an organic phase mainly containing n-octanol and an organic base triotylamine (TOA) via a co-axial microfluidic device. The formed aqueous droplets were solidified because of the extraction of acetic acid and water to the organic phase. The simple method presented has the advantages of controllable sphere diameter, narrow size distribution and good sphericity. The porous structures of the microspheres were displayed by SEM images. It is found that the inner and surface structures can be controlled by adjusting the solidification reagent component. Furthermore, we chemically grafted bovine serum albumin (BSA) on the microspheres. The existence of silica in the chitosan spheres can enhance both of mechanical intensity and protein loading capacity of the microspheres.

  15. Wide Temperature Range Hybrid Energy Storage Device Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal concerns the fabrication of a hybrid battery capacitor (HBC) using Eltron's knowledge gained in battery and capacitor research. Energy storage systems...

  16. Photo-thermal hybrid module with photovoltaic cells and thermoelectric devices for space application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukamoto, Moriaki; Hayashibara, Mitsuo

    1988-11-30

    Based upon the assumption that higher efficeint thermoelectric device will come in practice, a feasibility study was carried out to investigate the performance of photo-thermal hybrid module for space application. The photo-thermal hybrid modules consist of laminate of photovoltaic cells, thermoelectric devices and radiators. Solar energies collected are converted to the power generation by the photovoltaic cells and to heat them to the moderate temperature level, and then the thermoelectric devices generate the electric power, utilizing the temperature difference of thermoelectric devices between the junction surface with the photovoltaic cells (high temperature side) and one with the radiators (low temperature side). As an experimental result on the photo-thermal hybrid module which was constituted of the combination of a GaAs photovoltaic cell and a BiTe thermoelectric device, the hybrid module was able to have higher efficiency than a concentration type GaAs system. The photo-thermal arrays for space application with higher efficiency and lower specific weight might be realized, when a high performance thermoelectric device, such as a FeSi thermoelectric device, the performance of which is able to expect to be one digit higher than a BiTe thermoelectric device, is developed. 4 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

  17. Gamma spectroscopy and optoelectronic imaging with hybrid photon detector

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ambrosio, C; Piedigrossi, D; Rosso, E; Cenceelli, V; De Notaristefani, F; Masini, Gérald; Puertolas, D; Cindolo, F; Mares, J A; Nikl, M; Abreu, M; Rato-Mendes, P; Sousa, P

    2003-01-01

    Hybrid Photon Detectors (HPD) detect light via photocathodes and accelerate the emitted photoelectrons by an electric field towards silicon PIN-anodes, where they are absorbed and generate electronic signals. We have developed two specific types of HPDs: (1) Hybrid photomultiplier tubes for photon counting and gamma spectroscopy; (2) Imaging silicon pixel array tubes for optoelectronic cameras. This paper will illustrate the main achievements, which we obtained in the last years, and will describe and discuss our present main R&D efforts, in particular, in the biomedical imaging field. (27 refs).

  18. Characteristics of CoPc/CdS hybrid diode device

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ag contact metal deposited on CoPc by e-beam evaporation and glass/ITO/CdS/ CoPc/Ag structures were fabricated. Rectification ratio, ideality factor, barrier height and junction parameters of the devices were determined. It is shown that device has diode characteristics with the ideality factor (n) of 4.8, rectification ratio of ...

  19. Development of hybrid materials based on sponge supported reduced graphene oxide and transition metal hydroxides for hybrid energy storage devices

    OpenAIRE

    Dubal, Deepak P.; Rudolf Holze; Pedro Gomez-Romero

    2014-01-01

    Earnest efforts have been taken to design hybrid energy storage devices using hybrid electrodes based on capacitive (rGO) and pseudocapacitive (Ni(OH)2 and Co(OH)2) materials deposited on the skeleton of 3D macroporous (indicate sponge material) sponge support. Conducting framework was formed by coating rGO on macroporous sponge on which subsequent deposition of Ni(OH)2 and Co(OH)2 was carried out. The synergetic combination of rGO and Ni(OH)2 or Co(OH)2) provides dual charge-storing mechanis...

  20. Energy storage devices for future hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karden, Eckhard; Ploumen, Servé; Fricke, Birger; Miller, Ted; Snyder, Kent

    Powertrain hybridization as well as electrical energy management are imposing new requirements on electrical storage systems in vehicles. This paper characterizes the associated vehicle attributes and, in particular, the various levels of hybrids. New requirements for the electrical storage system are derived, including: shallow-cycle life, high dynamic charge acceptance particularly for regenerative braking and robust service life in sustained partial-state-of-charge usage. Lead/acid, either with liquid or absorptive glass-fibre mat electrolyte, is expected to remain the predominant battery technology for 14 V systems, including micro-hybrids, and with a cost-effective battery monitoring system for demanding applications. Advanced AGM batteries may be considered for mild or even medium hybrids once they have proven robustness under real-world conditions, particularly with respect to cycle life at partial-states-of-charge and dynamic charge acceptance. For the foreseeable future, NiMH and Li-ion are the dominating current and potential battery technologies for higher-functionality HEVs. Li-ion, currently at development and demonstration stages, offers attractive opportunities for improvements in performance and cost. Supercapacitors may be considered for pulse power applications. Aside from cell technologies, attention to the issue of system integration of the battery into the powertrain and vehicle is growing. Opportunities and challenges for potential "battery pack" system suppliers are discussed.

  1. Quantum transport in superconducting hybrids : Molecular devices and layered materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Island, J.O.; van der Zant, H.S.J.

    In this thesis we investigate superconducting hybrids made from two material systems, namely, molecules and layered materials. For studies of superconducting phenomena in molecular junctions we develop two platforms which rely on the superconducting proximity effect to preserve pre-existing nano-gap

  2. Quantum transport in superconducting hybrids : Molecular devices and layered materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Island, J.O.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate superconducting hybrids made from two material systems, namely, molecules and layered materials. For studies of superconducting phenomena in molecular junctions we develop two platforms which rely on the superconducting proximity effect to preserve pre-existing nano-gap

  3. High Temperature Superconductor/Semiconductor Hybrid Microwave Devices and Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanofsky, Robert R.; Miranda, Felix A.

    1999-01-01

    Contents include following: film deposition technique; laser ablation; magnetron sputtering; sequential evaporation; microwave substrates; film characterization at microwave frequencies; complex conductivity; magnetic penetration depth; surface impedance; planar single-mode filters; small antennas; antenna arrays phase noise; tunable oscillations; hybrid superconductor/semiconductor receiver front ends; and noise modeling.

  4. Hybrid Pixel Detectors for gamma/X-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzistratis, D.; Theodoratos, G.; Zografos, V.; Kazas, I.; Loukas, D.; Lambropoulos, C. P.

    2015-09-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors are made by direct converting high-Z semi-insulating single crystalline material coupled to complementary-metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) readout electronics. They are attractive because direct conversion exterminates all the problems of spatial localization related to light diffusion, energy resolution, is far superior from the combination of scintillation crystals and photomultipliers and lithography can be used to pattern electrodes with very fine pitch. We are developing 2-D pixel CMOS ASICs, connect them to pixilated CdTe crystals with the flip chip and bump bonding method and characterize the hybrids. We have designed a series of circuits, whose latest member consists of a 50×25 pixel array with 400um pitch and an embedded controller. In every pixel a full spectroscopic channel with time tagging information has been implemented. The detectors are targeting Compton scatter imaging and they can be used for coded aperture imaging too. Hybridization using CMOS can overcome the limit put on pixel circuit complexity by the use of thin film transistors (TFT) in large flat panels. Hybrid active pixel sensors are used in dental imaging and other applications (e.g. industrial CT etc.). Thus X-ray imaging can benefit from the work done on dynamic range enhancement methods developed initially for visible and infrared CMOS pixel sensors. A 2-D CMOS ASIC with 100um pixel pitch to demonstrate the feasibility of such methods in the context of X-ray imaging has been designed.

  5. Hybrid micro-/nanogels for optical sensing and intracellular imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuiqin Zhou

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid micro-/nanogels are playing an increasing important part in a diverse range of applications, due to their tunable dimensions, large surface area, stable interior network structure, and a very short response time. We review recent advances and challenges in the developments of hybrid micro-/nanogels toward applications for optical sensing of pH, temperature, glucose, ions, and other species as well as for intracellular imaging. Due to their unique advantages, hybrid micro-/nanogels as optical probes are attracting substantial interests for continuous monitoring of chemical parameters in complex samples such as blood and bioreactor fluids, in chemical research and industry, and in food quality control. In particular, their intracellular probing ability enables the monitoring of the biochemistry and biophysics of live cells over time and space, thus contributing to the explanation of intricate biological processes and the development of novel diagnoses. Unlike most other probes, hybrid micro-/nanogels could also combine other multiple functions into a single probe. The rational design of hybrid micro-/nanogels will not only improve the probing applications as desirable, but also implement their applications in new arenas. With ongoing rapid advances in bionanotechnology, the well-designed hybrid micro-/nanogel probes will be able to provide simultaneous sensing, imaging diagnosis, and therapy toward clinical applications.

  6. Fast neutron imaging device and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Vladimir; Degtiarenko, Pavel; Musatov, Igor V.

    2014-02-11

    A fast neutron imaging apparatus and method of constructing fast neutron radiography images, the apparatus including a neutron source and a detector that provides event-by-event acquisition of position and energy deposition, and optionally timing and pulse shape for each individual neutron event detected by the detector. The method for constructing fast neutron radiography images utilizes the apparatus of the invention.

  7. Recombinant azurin-CdSe/ZnS hybrid structures for nanoscale resistive random access memory device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagati, Ajay Kumar; Kim, Sang-Uk; Lee, Taek; Min, Junhong; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2017-04-15

    In the present study, we developed a biohybrid material composed of recombinant azurin and CdSe-ZnS quantum dot to perform as a resistive random access memory (ReRAM) device. Site specific amino acid sequences were introduced in azurin to bind with the surface of CdSe-ZnS nanoparticle allowing the formation of a hybrid and voltage-driven switching enabled to develop a resistive random access memory (ReRAM) device. The analytical measurements confirmed that the azurin and CdSe-ZnS nanoparticles were well conjugated and formed into a single hybrid. Further, reversible, bistable switching along with repeatable writing-reading-erasing processes on individual azurin/CdSe-ZnS hybrid at nanoscale was achieved on the hybrid device. The device was programmed tested for 50 cycles with an ON/OFF ratio and measured to be of three orders of magnitude. The developed device shown good stability and repeatability and operates at low voltages thus makes it promising candidate for future memory device applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Hybrid image potential states in molecular overlayers on graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wella, Sasfan Arman; Sawada, Hiroyuki; Kawaguchi, Nana; Muttaqien, Fahdzi; Inagaki, Kouji; Hamada, Ikutaro; Morikawa, Yoshitada; Hamamoto, Yuji

    2017-11-01

    The structural and electronic properties of naphthalene adsorbed on graphene are studied from first principles using the van der Waals density functional method. It is shown that naphthalene molecules are stabilized by forming a superstructure with the periodicity of (2 √{3 }×2 √{3 }) and a tilted molecular adsorption geometry on graphene, in good agreement with the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. Our results predict that image potential states (IPSs) are induced by intermolecular interaction on the naphthalene overlayer, hybridizing with the IPSs derived from graphene. The resultant hybrid IPSs are characterized by anisotropic effective mass reflecting the molecular structure of naphthalene. By means of STM simulations, we reveal that one of the hybrid IPSs manifests itself as an oval protrusion distinguishable from naphthalene molecular orbitals, which identifies the origin of an experimental STM image previously attributed to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of naphthalene.

  9. Hybrid Superconducting Magnetic Bearing (HSMB) for high load devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmichael, C. K.; Ma, K. B.; Lamb, M. A.; Lin, M. W.; Chow, L.; Meng, R. L.; Hor, P. H.; Chu, W. K.

    1992-01-01

    Lifting capacities greater than 41 N/cm(exp 2) (60 psi) at 77 K have been achieved with a new type of levitation (hybrid) using a combination of permanent magnets and high quality melt-mixtured YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) (YBCO). The key concept of the hybrid superconducting magnetic bearing (HSMB) is the use of strong magnetic repulsion and attraction from permanent magnets for high levitation or suspension forces in conjunction with a superconductor's flux pinning characteristics to counteract the inherent instabilities in a system consisting of magnets only. To illustrate this concept, radial and axial forces between magnet/superconductor, magnet/magnet, and magnet/superconductor/magnet, were measured and compared for the thrust bearing configuration

  10. Hybrid Quantum Device Based on N V Centers in Diamond Nanomechanical Resonators Plus Superconducting Waveguide Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng-Bo; Liu, Yong-Chun; Gao, S.-Y.; Xiang, Ze-Liang; Rabl, Peter; Xiao, Yun-Feng; Li, Fu-Li

    2015-10-01

    We propose and analyze a hybrid device by integrating a microscale diamond beam with a single built-in nitrogen-vacancy (N V ) center spin to a superconducting coplanar waveguide (CPW) cavity. We find that under an ac electric field the quantized motion of the diamond beam can strongly couple to the single cavity photons via a dielectric interaction. Together with the strong spin-motion interaction via a large magnetic-field gradient, it provides a hybrid quantum device where the diamond resonator can strongly couple both to the single microwave-cavity photons and to the single N V center spin. This enables coherent information transfer and effective coupling between the N V spin and the CPW cavity via mechanically dark polaritons. This hybrid spin-electromechanical device, with tunable couplings by external fields, offers a realistic platform for implementing quantum information with single N V spins, diamond mechanical resonators, and single microwave photons.

  11. Imaging Prostate Cancer Microenvironment by Collagen Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    higher tumor uptake was apparent in all of the mice except the mouse injected with still-caged (inactive) CMP (Fig. 3). CMP distribution within the...sensitivity and specificity of FIAU-PET in detecting orthopedic infection. Aim #2: To extend the FIAU imaging technique to pulmonary infection. Aim #3...specificity of FIAU-PET in detecting orthopedic infection. Aim #2: To extend the FIAU imaging technique to pulmonary infection. Aim #3: To transition from

  12. Imaging Prostate Cancer Microenvironment by Collagen Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    of using non- cellular solid state compartment as a source for therapeutic targets and for selective imaging of micro-metastasis2-5. In particular...for 1 hr in sodium acetate ( pH 5). After cooling room temperature, the polymer was treated with EDTA (0.05 M) to capture free 111In ions and further...Brooks, P.C. Impact of the non- cellular tumor microenvironment on metastasis: potential therapeutic and imaging opportunities. Journal of Cellular

  13. Hyperspectral Image Recovery via Hybrid Regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arablouei, Reza; de Hoog, Frank

    2016-09-27

    Natural images tend to mostly consist of smooth regions with individual pixels having highly correlated spectra. This information can be exploited to recover hyperspectral images of natural scenes from their incomplete and noisy measurements. To perform the recovery while taking full advantage of the prior knowledge, we formulate a composite cost function containing a square-error data-fitting term and two distinct regularization terms pertaining to spatial and spectral domains. The regularization for the spatial domain is the sum of total-variation of the image frames corresponding to all spectral bands. The regularization for the spectral domain is the ��������-norm of the coefficient matrix obtained by applying a suitable sparsifying transform to the spectra of the pixels. We use an accelerated proximal-subgradient method to minimize the formulated cost function. We analyse the performance of the proposed algorithm and prove its convergence. Numerical simulations using real hyperspectral images exhibit that the proposed algorithm offers an excellent recovery performance with a number of measurements that is only a small fraction of the hyperspectral image data size. Simulation results also show that the proposed algorithm significantly outperforms an accelerated proximal-gradient algorithm that solves the classical basis-pursuit denoising problem to recover the hyperspectral image.

  14. Chemically Integrated Inorganic-Graphene Two-Dimensional Hybrid Materials for Flexible Energy Storage Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lele; Zhu, Yue; Li, Hongsen; Yu, Guihua

    2016-12-01

    State-of-the-art energy storage devices are capable of delivering reasonably high energy density (lithium ion batteries) or high power density (supercapacitors). There is an increasing need for these power sources with not only superior electrochemical performance, but also exceptional flexibility. Graphene has come on to the scene and advancements are being made in integration of various electrochemically active compounds onto graphene or its derivatives so as to utilize their flexibility. Many innovative synthesis techniques have led to novel graphene-based hybrid two-dimensional nanostructures. Here, the chemically integrated inorganic-graphene hybrid two-dimensional materials and their applications for energy storage devices are examined. First, the synthesis and characterization of different kinds of inorganic-graphene hybrid nanostructures are summarized, and then the most relevant applications of inorganic-graphene hybrid materials in flexible energy storage devices are reviewed. The general design rules of using graphene-based hybrid 2D materials for energy storage devices and their current limitations and future potential to advance energy storage technologies are also discussed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Real-time device-scale imaging of conducting filament dynamics in resistive switching materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keundong; Tchoe, Youngbin; Yoon, Hosang; Baek, Hyeonjun; Chung, Kunook; Lee, Sangik; Yoon, Chansoo; Park, Bae Ho; Yi, Gyu-Chul

    2016-06-01

    ReRAM is a compelling candidate for next-generation non-volatile memory owing to its various advantages. However, fluctuation of operation parameters are critical weakness occurring failures in ‘reading’ and ‘writing’ operations. To enhance the stability, it is important to understand the mechanism of the devices. Although numerous studies have been conducted using AFM or TEM, the understanding of the device operation is still limited due to the destructive nature and/or limited imaging range of the previous methods. Here, we propose a new hybrid device composed of ReRAM and LED enabling us to monitor the conducting filament (CF) configuration on the device scale during resistive switching. We directly observe the change in CF configuration across the whole device area through light emission from our hybrid device. In contrast to former studies, we found that minor CFs were formed earlier than major CF contributing to the resistive switching. Moreover, we investigated the substitution of a stressed major CF with a fresh minor CF when large fluctuation of operation voltage appeared after more than 50 times of resistive switching in atmospheric condition. Our results present an advancement in the understanding of ReRAM operation mechanism, and a step toward stabilizing the fluctuations in ReRAM switching parameters.

  16. Investigation of over-moulded hybrid metal/polymer devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tang, Peter Torben

    2006-01-01

    principles, in-process manufacturing technologies, as well as testing methodologies have to be established in order to be able to develop such integrated devices. In this paper an investigation of the bonding between miniaturized metal insert and a polymer matrix is presented. A special demonstrator......Miniaturized devices with increased functionality can be obtained by means of incorporation of metal micro parts in a polymer matrix. They allow achieving both conductive circuits and mechanical functions in the same device, enabling design of MIDs with enhanced characteristics. New design...... thickness, metal surface roughness and texture topography, surface treatment and coating, i.e. metal insert designs to improve polymer/metal interlocking and tensile test speed. Results show a strong influence of the surface properties and of the employed material on the bonding strength. The proposed...

  17. Characteristics of CoPc/CdS hybrid diode device

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Leybold electron beam system was used for metal deposition. 2.3 Preparation of the device. Commercially available glass/transparent conductive oxide. (TCO) substrates first cleaned by methanol and then by ultrasonic bath. Clean substrates were washed by distilled water and dried in oven at 80°C. CdS films of thickness.

  18. Nano-images as hybrid monsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruivenkamp, Martin; Rip, Arie; Coopmans, Catelijne; Vertesi, Janet; Lynch, Michael E.; Woolgar, Steve

    2014-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role of images in nanotechnology. Nanotechnology includes an array of scientific and engineering fields in which researchers observe and manipulate materials at or near the nanometer scale (one billionth of a meter). The very idea of visualizing nanoscale phenomena is

  19. Performance evaluation of hybrid VLC using device cost and power over data throughput criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. C.; Tan, C. S.; Wong, H. Y.; Yahya, M. B.

    2013-09-01

    Visible light communication (VLC) technology has attained its attention in both academic and industry lately. It is determined by the development of light emitting diode (LED) technology for solid-state lighting (SSL).It has great potential to gradually replace radio frequency (RF) wireless technology because it offers unregulated and unlicensed bandwidth to withstand future demand of indoor wireless access to real-time bandwidth-demanding applications. However, it was found to provide intrusive uplink channel that give rise to unpleasant irradiance from the user device which could interfere with the downlink channel of VLC and hence limit mobility to users as a result of small coverage (field of view of VLC).To address this potential problem, a Hybrid VLC system which integrates VLC (for downlink) and RF (for uplink) technology is proposed. It offers a non-intrusive RF back channel that provides high throughput VLC and maintains durability with conventional RF devices. To deploy Hybrid VLC system in the market, it must be energy and cost saving to attain its equivalent economical advantage by comparing to existing architecture that employs fluorescent or LED lights with RF technology. In this paper, performance evaluation on the proposed hybrid system was carried out in terms of device cost and power consumption against data throughput. Based on our simulation, Hybrid VLC system was found to reduce device cost by 3% and power consumption by 68% when compares to fluorescent lights with RF technology. Nevertheless, when it is compared to LED lights with RF technology, our proposed hybrid system is found to achieve device cost saving as high as 47% and reduced power consumption by 49%. Such promising results have demonstrated that Hybrid VLC system is a feasible solution and has paved the way for greater cost saving and energy efficient compares with the current RF architecture even with the increasing requirement of indoor area coverage.

  20. Multimodal iron oxide nanoparticles for hybrid biomedical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidt, Timo; Nahrendorf, Matthias

    2013-07-01

    Iron oxide core nanoparticles are attractive imaging agents because their material properties allow the tuning of pharmacokinetics as well as the attachment of multiple moieties to their surface. In addition to affinity ligands, these include fluorochromes and radioisotopes for detection with optical and nuclear imaging. As the iron oxide core can be detected by MRI, options for combining imaging modalities are manifold. Already, preclinical imaging strategies have combined noninvasive imaging with higher resolution techniques, such as intravital microscopy, to gain unprecedented insight into steady-state biology and disease. Going forward, hybrid iron oxide nanoparticles will help to merge modalities, creating a synergy that will enable imaging in basic research and, potentially, also in the clinic. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. What does the future hold for novel intravascular imaging devices: a focus on morphological and physiological assessment of plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Yuki; Tenekecioglu, Erhan; Serruys, Patrick W; Collet, Carlos; Katsikis, Athanasios; Asano, Taku; Miyazaki, Yosuke; Piek, Jan J; Wykrzykowska, Joanna J; Bourantas, Christos; Onuma, Yoshinobu

    2017-12-01

    It is well recognized that a lesion that does not cause a hemodynamically significant stenosis can trigger a sudden cardiac event through plaque rupture. As a diagnostic tool, intravascular imaging was developed to circumvent limitations of coronary angiography; however, none of the intravascular imaging devices are individually able to provide complete assessment of the plaque morphology, geometry, physiology and biology. Therefore, over the past few years an effort was made to develop hybrid intravascular imaging catheters to provide more complete evaluation of coronary plaque pathobiology. Areas covered: This paper aims to give an overview of the recent developments on 1) single-modality intravascular imaging devices; 2) hybrid intravascular imaging devices and 3) the hemodynamic analysis in models reconstructed from the fusion of intravascular imaging and angiographic data. Expert commentary: Within five years, most of the hybrid imaging techniques which are now in pre-clinical phase will be utilized in the clinical arena, as NIRS-IVUS. Software for online blood simulation is likely to be developed that will enable ESS calculation while the patient is in the catheterization laboratory.

  2. Imaging Prostate Cancer Microenvironment by Collagen Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    transconjugated dye-labeled serum proteins . 13   Future Plans The PCa imaging in animal model was mainly conducted in the lab of Dr. Pomper at the Johns...the dye can transfer from CMP onto serum proteins (e.g. albumin) resulting in an unexpected drop in signal during serum stability assays and off...specifically target digested collagens with unfolded and partially denatured collagen triple helices. 2. Demonstration of ex vivo and in vivo targeting

  3. Observation of giant magnetoresistances in hybrid semiconductor/ferromagnetic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overend, N.; Nogaret, A.; Gallagher, B. L.; Main, P. C.; Henini, M.; Wirtz, R.; Newbury, R.; Marrows, C. H.; Howson, M. A.; Beaumont, S. P.

    1998-01-01

    We have investigated the magnetoresistance (MR) of heterostructures containing near-surface two-dimensional electron systems subject to periodic, sign-alternating magnetic fields produced by arrays of sub-micron ferromagnetic stripes fabricated on the device surface. We observe giant magnetoresistances (GMR) with up to a ˜ 1000% increase in resistance on application of external fields of only ˜ 100 mT at a temperature of 4 K and ˜ 1% at 300 K. The MR is strongly dependent upon the angle between the external field and the stripes and it can also be strongly hysteretic. This MR arises from the electrons propagating in open 'snake' orbits along the lines of zero magnetic field. Such devices may have possible applications as magnetic memories and sensors.

  4. Generation of hybrid sinograms for the recovery of kV-CT images with metal artifacts for helical tomotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hosang; Park, Dahl; Youn, Hanbean; Nam, Jiho; Lee, Jayoung; Kim, Wontaek; Ki, Yongkan; Kim, Yong Ho; Lee, Ju Hye; Kim, Dongwon; Kim, Ho Kyung

    2015-08-01

    The overall goal of this study is to restore kilovoltage computed tomography (kV-CT) images which are disfigured by patients' metal prostheses. By generating a hybrid sinogram that is a combination of kV and megavoltage (MV) projection data, the authors suggest a novel metal artifact-reduction (MAR) method that retains the image quality to match that of kV-CT and simultaneously restores the information of metal prostheses lost due to photon starvation. CT projection data contain information about attenuation coefficients and the total length of the attenuation. By normalizing raw kV projections with their own total lengths of attenuation, mean attenuation projections were obtained. In the same manner, mean density projections of MV-CT were obtained by the normalization of MV projections resulting from the forward projection of density-calibrated MV-CT images with the geometric parameters of the kV-CT device. To generate the hybrid sinogram, metal-affected signals of the kV sinogram were identified and replaced by the corresponding signals of the MV sinogram following a density calibration step with kV data. Filtered backprojection was implemented to reconstruct the hybrid CT image. To validate the authors' approach, they simulated four different scenarios for three heads and one pelvis using metallic rod inserts within a cylindrical phantom. Five inserts describing human body elements were also included in the phantom. The authors compared the image qualities among the kV, MV, and hybrid CT images by measuring the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the densities of all inserts, and the spatial resolution. In addition, the MAR performance was compared among three existing MAR methods and the authors' hybrid method. Finally, for clinical trials, the authors produced hybrid images of three patients having dental metal prostheses to compare their MAR performances with those of the kV, MV, and three existing MAR methods. The authors compared

  5. Generation of hybrid sinograms for the recovery of kV-CT images with metal artifacts for helical tomotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Hosang [Department of Radiation Oncology and Research Institute for Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Dahl; Kim, Wontaek; Ki, Yongkan; Kim, Yong Ho; Lee, Ju Hye; Kim, Dongwon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of); Youn, Hanbean [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Jiho; Lee, Jayoung [Department of Radiation Oncology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ho Kyung, E-mail: hokyung@pusan.ac.kr [School of Mechanical Engineering and the Center for Advanced Medical Engineering Research, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: The overall goal of this study is to restore kilovoltage computed tomography (kV-CT) images which are disfigured by patients’ metal prostheses. By generating a hybrid sinogram that is a combination of kV and megavoltage (MV) projection data, the authors suggest a novel metal artifact-reduction (MAR) method that retains the image quality to match that of kV-CT and simultaneously restores the information of metal prostheses lost due to photon starvation. Methods: CT projection data contain information about attenuation coefficients and the total length of the attenuation. By normalizing raw kV projections with their own total lengths of attenuation, mean attenuation projections were obtained. In the same manner, mean density projections of MV-CT were obtained by the normalization of MV projections resulting from the forward projection of density-calibrated MV-CT images with the geometric parameters of the kV-CT device. To generate the hybrid sinogram, metal-affected signals of the kV sinogram were identified and replaced by the corresponding signals of the MV sinogram following a density calibration step with kV data. Filtered backprojection was implemented to reconstruct the hybrid CT image. To validate the authors’ approach, they simulated four different scenarios for three heads and one pelvis using metallic rod inserts within a cylindrical phantom. Five inserts describing human body elements were also included in the phantom. The authors compared the image qualities among the kV, MV, and hybrid CT images by measuring the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the densities of all inserts, and the spatial resolution. In addition, the MAR performance was compared among three existing MAR methods and the authors’ hybrid method. Finally, for clinical trials, the authors produced hybrid images of three patients having dental metal prostheses to compare their MAR performances with those of the kV, MV, and three existing MAR

  6. Photonic devices based on black phosphorus and related hybrid materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, M. S.; Viti, L.

    2016-08-01

    Artificial semiconductor heterostructures played a pivotal role in modern electronic and photonic technologies, providing a highly effective means for the manipulation and control of carriers, from the visible to the far-infrared, leading to the development of highly efficient devices like sources, detectors and modulators. The discovery of graphene and the related fascinating capabilities have triggered an unprecedented interest in devices based on inorganic two-dimensional (2D) materials. Amongst them, black phosphorus (BP) recently showed an extraordinary potential in a variety of applications across micro-electronics and photonics. With an energy gap between the gapless graphene and the larger gap transition metal dichalcogenides, BP can form the basis for a new generation of high-performance photonic devices that could be specifically engineered to comply with different applications, like transparent saturable absorbers, fast photocounductive switches and low noise photodetectors, exploiting its peculiar electrical, thermal and optical anisotropy. This paper will review the latest achievements in black-phosphorus-based THz photonics and discuss future perspectives of this rapidly developing research field.

  7. Synergistic tungsten oxide/organic framework hybrid nanofibers for electrochromic device application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulgerbaki, Cigdem; Komur, Ali Ihsan; Nohut Maslakci, Neslihan; Kuralay, Filiz; Uygun Oksuz, Aysegul

    2017-08-01

    We report the first successful applications of tungsten oxide/conducting polymer hybrid nanofiber assemblies in electrochromic devices. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/tungsten oxide (PEDOT/WO3) and polypyrrole/tungsten oxide (PPy/WO3) composites were prepared by an in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of monomers in different ionic liquids; 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIMBF4), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIMPF6), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide (BMIMTFSI) and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide (BMPTFSI). Electrospinning process was used to form hybrid nanofibers from chemically synthesized nanostructures. The electrospun hybrid samples were compared from both morphological and electrochemical perspectives. Importantly, deposition of nanofibers from chemically synthesized hybrids can be achieved homogenously, on nanoscale dimensions. The morphologies of these assemblies were evaluated by SEM, whereas their electroactivity was characterized by cyclic voltammetry. Electrochromic devices made from hybrid nanofiber electrodes exhibited highest chromatic contrast of 37.66% for PEDOT/WO3/BMIMPF6, 40.42% for PPy/WO3/BMIMBF4 and show a strong electrochromic color change from transparent to light brown. Furthermore, the nanofiber devices exhibit outstanding stability when color switching proceeds, which may ensure a versatile platform for color displays, rear-view mirrors and smart windows.

  8. 21 CFR 892.2040 - Medical image hardcopy device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical image hardcopy device. 892.2040 Section 892.2040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... image and associated identification information. Examples include multiformat cameras and laser printers...

  9. Faster imaging with a portable unilateral NMR device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Asaf; Bergman, Elad; Sarda, Yifat; Nevo, Uri

    2013-06-01

    Unilateral NMR devices are important tools in various applications such as non-destructive testing and well logging, but are not applied routinely for imaging, primarily because B0 inhomogeneity in these scanners leads to a relatively low signal and requires use of the slow single point imaging scan scheme. Enabling high quality, fast imaging could make this affordable and portable technology practical for various imaging applications as well as for new applications that are not yet feasible with MRI technology. The goal of this work was to improve imaging times in a portable unilateral NMR scanner. Both Compressed Sensing and Fast Spin Echo were modified and applied to fit the unique characteristics of a unilateral device. Two printed phantoms, allowing high resolution images, were scanned with both methods and compared to a standard scan and to a low pass scan to evaluate performance. Both methods were found to be feasible with a unilateral device, proving ways to accelerate single point imaging in such scanners. This outcome encourages us to explore how to further accelerate imaging times in unilateral NMR devices so that this technology might become clinically applicable in the future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Organic and Hybrid Organic Solid-State Photovoltaic Materials and Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-06

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2014-0083 ORGANIC AND HYBRID ORGANIC SOLID-STATE PHOTOVOLTAIC MATERIALS AND DEVICES Ronald Ziolo CENTRO DE INVESTIGACION EN MATERIALES... INVESTIGACION EN QUI MICA APLICADA Simulation of Oye Sensitized So~r Cells by 1 QH~rse Gr~ln Approach. Hua l u. Mi o Cakmak, Eduardo Ari1s, Ivana Moulo, M

  11. Development of FOP-HARP imaging device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, Kazunori; Ohkawa, Yuji; Matsubara, Tomoki; Kikuchi, Kenji; Suzuki, Siro; Tanioka, Kenkichi; Kubota, Misao; Egami, Norifumi; Atsumi, Takuji; Matsushita, Shonosuke; Konishi, Taisuke; Sakakibara, Yuzuru; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Katori, Yoshimasa; Okamoto, Yoshiaki

    2010-01-01

    The high-gain avalanche rushing amorphous photoconductor (HARP) camera tube achieves ultrahigh-sensitivity by using the avalanche multiplication. The applications of this tube extend beyond broadcasting into other fields. It is attracting a great deal of attention especially for radiation diagnosis, such as synchrotron radiation microangiography, because it can obtain high-resolution and high-contrast images with a low dose of radiation. However, in the present system, a fluorescent screen and the photoconductive film of the HARP tube are connected optically by a lens-coupling method, and low light throughput remains a big problem. To improve the light throughput by using a fiber-coupling method, we applied a fiber-optic plate (FOP) to the substrate of a HARP tube. The FOP consists of three types of glass that have differing hardnesses and elastic coefficients that make it difficult to flatten the FOP surface enough to form the HARP film. We thus introduced a new mechanical polishing method and succeeded in realizing avalanche multiplication in the FOP-HARP tube. The results of shooting experiments by applying the FOP-HARP to the microangiography showed that a spatial resolution of over 20 line pairs/mm was obtained. Moreover, rat femoral arteries of 150-200 μm in diameter could be visualized as motion pictures with a one-fourth lower concentration of contrast material than that needed for ordinary microangiography. Another potential application of the FOP-HARP is an ultrahigh-sensitivity nearinfrared (NIR) image sensor made by fiber-coupling with an image intensifier (I.I.). The image sensor provides highquality images and should be a powerful tool for NIR imaging.

  12. Hybrid simulation using mixed reality for interventional ultrasound imaging training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freschi, C; Parrini, S; Dinelli, N; Ferrari, M; Ferrari, V

    2015-07-01

    Ultrasound (US) imaging offers advantages over other imaging modalities and has become the most widespread modality for many diagnostic and interventional procedures. However, traditional 2D US requires a long training period, especially to learn how to manipulate the probe. A hybrid interactive system based on mixed reality was designed, implemented and tested for hand-eye coordination training in diagnostic and interventional US. A hybrid simulator was developed integrating a physical US phantom and a software application with a 3D virtual scene. In this scene, a 3D model of the probe with its relative scan plane is coherently displayed with a 3D representation of the phantom internal structures. An evaluation study of the diagnostic module was performed by recruiting thirty-six novices and four experts. The performances of the hybrid (HG) versus physical (PG) simulator were compared. After the training session, each novice was required to visualize a particular target structure. The four experts completed a 5-point Likert scale questionnaire. Seventy-eight percentage of the HG novices successfully visualized the target structure, whereas only 45% of the PG reached this goal. The mean scores from the questionnaires were 5.00 for usefulness, 4.25 for ease of use, 4.75 for 3D perception, and 3.25 for phantom realism. The hybrid US training simulator provides ease of use and is effective as a hand-eye coordination teaching tool. Mixed reality can improve US probe manipulation training.

  13. Near-infrared sensitive photorefractive device using polymer dispersed liquid crystal and BSO:Ru hybrid structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren Chung; Marinova, Vera; Lin, Shiuan Huei; Chen, Ming-Syuan; Lin, Yi-Hsin; Hsu, Ken Yuh

    2014-06-01

    A near-infrared sensitive hybrid device, based on a Ru-doped BSO photorefractive substrate and polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) layer, is reported. It is found that the photoexcited charge carriers generated in the BSO:Ru substrate create an optically induced space charge field, sufficient to penetrate into the PDLC layer and to re-orient the LC molecules inside the droplets. Beam-coupling measurements at the Bragg regime are performed showing prospective amplification values and high spatial resolution. The proposed structure does not require indium tin oxide (ITO) contacts and alignment layers. Such a device allows all the processes to be controlled by light, thus opening further potential for real-time image processing at the near-infrared range.

  14. Superlocalization of single molecules and nanoparticles in high-fidelity optical imaging microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yong; Sun, Wei; Liu, Chang; Wang, Gufeng; Fang, Ning

    2011-07-01

    Superlocalization of single molecules and nanoparticles with a precision of subnanometer to a few tens of nanometers is crucial for elucidating nanoscale structures and movements in biological and chemical systems. A novel design of ultraflat and ultrathin glass/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) hybrid microdevices is introduced to provide almost uncompromised optical imaging quality for on-chip superlocalization and super-resolution imaging of single molecules and nanoparticles under a variety of microscopy modes. The performance of the high-fidelity (Hi-Fi) optical imaging microfluidic device was validated by precisely mapping micronecklaces made of fluorescent microtubules and 40 nm gold nanoparticles and by demonstrating the activation and excitation cycles of single Alexa Fluor 647 dyes for direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy in PDMS-based microchannels for the first time. Furthermore, the microdevice's feasibility for multimodality microscopy imaging was demonstrated by a vertical scan of live cells in epi-fluorescence and differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy modes simultaneously.

  15. Fabrication of hybrid molecular devices using multi-layer graphene break junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Island, J O; Holovchenko, A; Koole, M; Alkemade, P F A; Menelaou, M; Aliaga-Alcalde, N; Burzurí, E; van der Zant, H S J

    2014-11-26

    We report on the fabrication of hybrid molecular devices employing multi-layer graphene (MLG) flakes which are patterned with a constriction using a helium ion microscope or an oxygen plasma etch. The patterning step allows for the localization of a few-nanometer gap, created by electroburning, that can host single molecules or molecular ensembles. By controlling the width of the sculpted constriction, we regulate the critical power at which the electroburning process begins. We estimate the flake temperature given the critical power and find that at low powers it is possible to electroburn MLG with superconducting contacts in close proximity. Finally, we demonstrate the fabrication of hybrid devices with superconducting contacts and anthracene-functionalized copper curcuminoid molecules. This method is extendable to spintronic devices with ferromagnetic contacts and a first step towards molecular integrated circuits.

  16. Imaging Hybrid Photon Detectors with a Reflective Photocathode

    CERN Document Server

    Ferenc, D

    2000-01-01

    Modern epitaxially grown photocathodes, like GaAsP, bring a very high inherent quantum efficiency, but are rather expensive due to the complicated manufacturing and mounting process. We argue that such photocathodes could be used in reflective mode, in order to avoid the risky and expensive removal of the epitaxial growth substrate. Besides that the quantum efficiency should increase considerably. In this paper we present results of the development of large imaging Hybrid Photon Detectors (HPDs), particularly designed for such reflective photocathodes.

  17. [Digital thoracic radiology: devices, image processing, limits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frija, J; de Géry, S; Lallouet, F; Guermazi, A; Zagdanski, A M; De Kerviler, E

    2001-09-01

    In a first part, the different techniques of digital thoracic radiography are described. Since computed radiography with phosphore plates are the most commercialized it is more emphasized. But the other detectors are also described, as the drum coated with selenium and the direct digital radiography with selenium detectors. The other detectors are also studied in particular indirect flat panels detectors and the system with four high resolution CCD cameras. In a second step the most important image processing are discussed: the gradation curves, the unsharp mask processing, the system MUSICA, the dynamic range compression or reduction, the soustraction with dual energy. In the last part the advantages and the drawbacks of computed thoracic radiography are emphasized. The most important are the almost constant good quality of the pictures and the possibilities of image processing.

  18. Evaluation of semiconductor devices for Electric and Hybrid Vehicle (EHV) ac-drive applications, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, F. C.; Chen, D. Y.; Jovanovic, M.; Hopkins, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    The results of evaluation of power semiconductor devices for electric hybrid vehicle ac drive applications are summarized. Three types of power devices are evaluated in the effort: high power bipolar or Darlington transistors, power MOSFETs, and asymmetric silicon control rectifiers (ASCR). The Bipolar transistors, including discrete device and Darlington devices, range from 100 A to 400 A and from 400 V to 900 V. These devices are currently used as key switching elements inverters for ac motor drive applications. Power MOSFETs, on the other hand, are much smaller in current rating. For the 400 V device, the current rating is limited to 25 A. For the main drive of an electric vehicle, device paralleling is normally needed to achieve practical power level. For other electric vehicle (EV) related applications such as battery charger circuit, however, MOSFET is advantageous to other devices because of drive circuit simplicity and high frequency capability. Asymmetrical SCR is basically a SCR device and needs commutation circuit for turn off. However, the device poses several advantages, i.e., low conduction drop and low cost.

  19. Concrete Crack Identification Using a UAV Incorporating Hybrid Image Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunjun; Lee, Junhwa; Ahn, Eunjong; Cho, Soojin; Shin, Myoungsu; Sim, Sung-Han

    2017-09-07

    Crack assessment is an essential process in the maintenance of concrete structures. In general, concrete cracks are inspected by manual visual observation of the surface, which is intrinsically subjective as it depends on the experience of inspectors. Further, it is time-consuming, expensive, and often unsafe when inaccessible structural members are to be assessed. Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technologies combined with digital image processing have recently been applied to crack assessment to overcome the drawbacks of manual visual inspection. However, identification of crack information in terms of width and length has not been fully explored in the UAV-based applications, because of the absence of distance measurement and tailored image processing. This paper presents a crack identification strategy that combines hybrid image processing with UAV technology. Equipped with a camera, an ultrasonic displacement sensor, and a WiFi module, the system provides the image of cracks and the associated working distance from a target structure on demand. The obtained information is subsequently processed by hybrid image binarization to estimate the crack width accurately while minimizing the loss of the crack length information. The proposed system has shown to successfully measure cracks thicker than 0.1 mm with the maximum length estimation error of 7.3%.

  20. Concrete Crack Identification Using a UAV Incorporating Hybrid Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunjun Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Crack assessment is an essential process in the maintenance of concrete structures. In general, concrete cracks are inspected by manual visual observation of the surface, which is intrinsically subjective as it depends on the experience of inspectors. Further, it is time-consuming, expensive, and often unsafe when inaccessible structural members are to be assessed. Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV technologies combined with digital image processing have recently been applied to crack assessment to overcome the drawbacks of manual visual inspection. However, identification of crack information in terms of width and length has not been fully explored in the UAV-based applications, because of the absence of distance measurement and tailored image processing. This paper presents a crack identification strategy that combines hybrid image processing with UAV technology. Equipped with a camera, an ultrasonic displacement sensor, and a WiFi module, the system provides the image of cracks and the associated working distance from a target structure on demand. The obtained information is subsequently processed by hybrid image binarization to estimate the crack width accurately while minimizing the loss of the crack length information. The proposed system has shown to successfully measure cracks thicker than 0.1 mm with the maximum length estimation error of 7.3%.

  1. Rational design of multifunctional devices based on molybdenum disulfide and graphene hybrid nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Yi Rang; Lee, Young Bum; Kim, Seong Ku; Kim, Seong Jun [Thin Film Materials Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Yuseong, Post Office Box 107, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yooseok; Jeon, Cheolho [Nano-Surface Research Group, Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon, 302-333 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Wooseok, E-mail: wssong@krict.re.kr [Thin Film Materials Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Yuseong, Post Office Box 107, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Myung, Sung; Lee, Sun Sook; An, Ki-Seok [Thin Film Materials Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Yuseong, Post Office Box 107, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Jongsun, E-mail: jslim@krict.re.kr [Thin Film Materials Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Yuseong, Post Office Box 107, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • We fabricated MoS{sub 2}-graphene hybrid thin films for multifunctional applications. • Large-area, uniform multilayer MoS{sub 2} was synthesized on TCVD-grown graphene. • The mobility and photocurrent of the hybrid devices were improved significantly. - Abstract: We rationally designed a new type of hybrid materials, molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) synthesized by Mo pre-deposition followed by subsequent sulfurization process directly on thermal chemical vapor deposition (TCVD)-grown graphene, for applications in a multifunctional device. The synthesis of stoichiometric and uniform multilayer MoS{sub 2} and high-crystalline monolayer graphene was evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. To examine the electrical transport and photoelectrical properties of MoS{sub 2}-graphene hybrid films, field effect transistors (FETs) and visible-light photodetectors based on MoS{sub 2}-graphene were both fabricated. As a result, the extracted mobility for MoS{sub 2}-graphene hybrid FETs was two times higher than that of MoS{sub 2} FETs. In addition, the MoS{sub 2}-graphene photodetectors revealed a significant photocurrent with abrupt switching behavior under periodic illumination.

  2. Hybrid fluorescence and electron cryo-microscopy for simultaneous electron and photon imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Hirofumi; Fukuda, Yoshiyuki; Arai, Yoshihiro; Terakawa, Susumu; Yamamoto, Naoki; Nagayama, Kuniaki

    2014-01-01

    Integration of fluorescence light and transmission electron microscopy into the same device would represent an important advance in correlative microscopy, which traditionally involves two separate microscopes for imaging. To achieve such integration, the primary technical challenge that must be solved regards how to arrange two objective lenses used for light and electron microscopy in such a manner that they can properly focus on a single specimen. To address this issue, both lateral displacement of the specimen between two lenses and specimen rotation have been proposed. Such movement of the specimen allows sequential collection of two kinds of microscopic images of a single target, but prevents simultaneous imaging. This shortcoming has been made up by using a simple optical device, a reflection mirror. Here, we present an approach toward the versatile integration of fluorescence and electron microscopy for simultaneous imaging. The potential of simultaneous hybrid microscopy was demonstrated by fluorescence and electron sequential imaging of a fluorescent protein expressed in cells and cathodoluminescence imaging of fluorescent beads. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Informatics in radiology: Efficiency metrics for imaging device productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mengqi; Pavlicek, William; Liu, Patrick T; Zhang, Muhong; Langer, Steve G; Wang, Shanshan; Place, Vicki; Miranda, Rafael; Wu, Teresa Tong

    2011-01-01

    Acute awareness of the costs associated with medical imaging equipment is an ever-present aspect of the current healthcare debate. However, the monitoring of productivity associated with expensive imaging devices is likely to be labor intensive, relies on summary statistics, and lacks accepted and standardized benchmarks of efficiency. In the context of the general Six Sigma DMAIC (design, measure, analyze, improve, and control) process, a World Wide Web-based productivity tool called the Imaging Exam Time Monitor was developed to accurately and remotely monitor imaging efficiency with use of Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) combined with a picture archiving and communication system. Five device efficiency metrics-examination duration, table utilization, interpatient time, appointment interval time, and interseries time-were derived from DICOM values. These metrics allow the standardized measurement of productivity, to facilitate the comparative evaluation of imaging equipment use and ongoing efforts to improve efficiency. A relational database was constructed to store patient imaging data, along with device- and examination-related data. The database provides full access to ad hoc queries and can automatically generate detailed reports for administrative and business use, thereby allowing staff to monitor data for trends and to better identify possible changes that could lead to improved productivity and reduced costs in association with imaging services. © RSNA, 2011.

  4. Image-Capture Devices Extend Medicine's Reach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Johnson Space Center, Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit, and Houston-based Wyle Laboratories collaborated on NASA's Advanced Diagnostic Ultrasound in Microgravity (ADUM) experiment, which developed revolutionary medical ultrasound diagnostic techniques for long-distance use. Mediphan, a Canadian company with U.S. operations in Springfield, New Jersey drew on NASA expertise to create frame-grabber and data archiving technology that enables ultrasound users with minimal training to send diagnostic-quality ultrasound images and video to medical professionals via the Internet in near real time allowing patients as varied as professional athletes, Olympians, and mountain climbers to receive medical attention as soon as it is needed.

  5. The Image Transceiver Device: Studies of Improved Physical Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzi Efron

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The Image Transceiver Device (ITD design is based on combining LCOS micro-display, image processing tools and back illuminated APS imager in single CMOS chip [1]. The device is under development for Head-Mounted Display applications in augmented and virtual reality systems. The main issues with the present design are a high crosstalk of the backside imager and the need to shield the pixel circuitry from the photocharges generated in the silicon substrate. In this publication we present a modified, “deep p-well” ITD pixel design, which provides a significantly reduced crosstalk level, as well as an effective shielding of photo-charges for the pixel circuitry. The simulation performed using Silvaco software [ATLAS Silicon Device Simulator, Ray Trace and Light Absorption programs, Silvaco International, 1998] shows that the new approach provides high photo response and allows increasing the optimal thickness of the die over and above the 10-15 micrometers commonly used for back illuminated imaging devices, thereby improving its mechanical ruggedness following the thinning process and also providing a more efficient absorption of the long wavelength photons. The proposed deep p-well pixel structure is also a technology solution for the fabrication of high performance back illuminated CMOS image sensors.

  6. The Image Transceiver Device: Studies of Improved Physical Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Yitzhak; Efron, Uzi

    2008-07-25

    The Image Transceiver Device (ITD) design is based on combining LCOS micro-display, image processing tools and back illuminated APS imager in single CMOS chip [1]. The device is under development for Head-Mounted Display applications in augmented and virtual reality systems. The main issues with the present design are a high crosstalk of the backside imager and the need to shield the pixel circuitry from the photocharges generated in the silicon substrate. In this publication we present a modified, "deep p-well" ITD pixel design, which provides a significantly reduced crosstalk level, as well as an effective shielding of photo-charges for the pixel circuitry. The simulation performed using Silvaco software [ATLAS Silicon Device Simulator, Ray Trace and Light Absorption programs, Silvaco International, 1998] shows that the new approach provides high photo response and allows increasing the optimal thickness of the die over and above the 10-15 micrometers commonly used for back illuminated imaging devices, thereby improving its mechanical ruggedness following the thinning process and also providing a more efficient absorption of the long wavelength photons. The proposed deep p-well pixel structure is also a technology solution for the fabrication of high performance back illuminated CMOS image sensors.

  7. Development of scintillation imaging device for cold neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Gorin, A; Manuilov, I V; Morimoto, K; Oku, T; Ryazantsev, A; Shimizu, H M; Suzuki, J I; Tokanai, F

    2002-01-01

    As an application of the wavelength-shifting (WLS) fiber technique recently developed in the field of high-energy physics, a novel type of imaging device for neutrons has been successfully investigated; a space resolution of 1 mm FWHM with detection efficiency of 55% for 10 A neutrons has been experimentally confirmed with a prototype made of a 0.5-mm-thick ZnS(Ag)+ sup 6 LiF scintillator plate optically coupled to WLS fiber arrays. In addition to promising results obtained in this study, its simple structure and reliable operation allow us to foresee a new generation of imaging devices to meet the increasing demand for large-area and high space-resolution imaging devices for several new projects on spallation neutron sources in the world.

  8. Development of scintillation imaging device for cold neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorin, Alexander; Kuroda, Kei-ichi; Manuilov, Igor; Morimoto, Kouji; Oku, Takayuki; Ryazantsev, Andrei; Shimizu, Hirohiko M. E-mail: shimizu@riken.go.jp; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Tokanai, Fuyuki

    2002-03-01

    As an application of the wavelength-shifting (WLS) fiber technique recently developed in the field of high-energy physics, a novel type of imaging device for neutrons has been successfully investigated; a space resolution of 1 mm FWHM with detection efficiency of 55% for 10 A neutrons has been experimentally confirmed with a prototype made of a 0.5-mm-thick ZnS(Ag)+{sup 6}LiF scintillator plate optically coupled to WLS fiber arrays. In addition to promising results obtained in this study, its simple structure and reliable operation allow us to foresee a new generation of imaging devices to meet the increasing demand for large-area and high space-resolution imaging devices for several new projects on spallation neutron sources in the world.

  9. Development of scintillation imaging device for cold neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorin, Alexander; Kuroda, Kei-ichi; Manuilov, Igor; Morimoto, Kouji; Oku, Takayuki; Ryazantsev, Andrei; Shimizu, Hirohiko M.; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Tokanai, Fuyuki

    2002-03-01

    As an application of the wavelength-shifting (WLS) fiber technique recently developed in the field of high-energy physics, a novel type of imaging device for neutrons has been successfully investigated; a space resolution of 1 mm FWHM with detection efficiency of 55% for 10 Å neutrons has been experimentally confirmed with a prototype made of a 0.5-mm-thick ZnS(Ag)+ 6LiF scintillator plate optically coupled to WLS fiber arrays. In addition to promising results obtained in this study, its simple structure and reliable operation allow us to foresee a new generation of imaging devices to meet the increasing demand for large-area and high space-resolution imaging devices for several new projects on spallation neutron sources in the world.

  10. Hybrid µCT-FMT imaging and image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremse, Felix; Doleschel, Dennis; Zafarnia, Sara; Babler, Anne; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi; Lammers, Twan; Lederle, Wiltrud; Kiessling, Fabian

    2015-06-04

    Fluorescence-mediated tomography (FMT) enables longitudinal and quantitative determination of the fluorescence distribution in vivo and can be used to assess the biodistribution of novel probes and to assess disease progression using established molecular probes or reporter genes. The combination with an anatomical modality, e.g., micro computed tomography (µCT), is beneficial for image analysis and for fluorescence reconstruction. We describe a protocol for multimodal µCT-FMT imaging including the image processing steps necessary to extract quantitative measurements. After preparing the mice and performing the imaging, the multimodal data sets are registered. Subsequently, an improved fluorescence reconstruction is performed, which takes into account the shape of the mouse. For quantitative analysis, organ segmentations are generated based on the anatomical data using our interactive segmentation tool. Finally, the biodistribution curves are generated using a batch-processing feature. We show the applicability of the method by assessing the biodistribution of a well-known probe that binds to bones and joints.

  11. Hybrid ZnO/phthalocyanine photovoltaic device with highly resistive ZnO intermediate layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izaki, Masanobu; Chizaki, Ryo; Saito, Takamasa; Murata, Kazufumi; Sasano, Junji; Shinagawa, Tsutomu

    2013-10-09

    We report a hybrid photovoltaic device composed of a 3.3 eV bandgap zinc oxide (ZnO) semiconductor and metal-free phthalocyanine layers and the effects of the insertion of the highly resistive ZnO buffer layer on the electrical characteristics of the rectification feature and photovoltaic performance. The hybrid photovoltaic devices have been constructed by electrodeposition of the 300 nm thick ZnO layer in a simple zinc nitrate aqueous solution followed by vacuum evaporation of 50-400 nm thick-phthalocyanine layers. The ZnO layers with the resistivity of 1.8 × 10(3) and 1 × 10(8) Ω cm were prepared by adjusting the cathodic current density and were installed into the hybrid photovoltaic devices as the n-type and buffer layer, respectively. The phthalocyanine layers with the characteristic monoclinic lattice showed a characteristic optical absorption feature regardless of the thickness, but the preferred orientation changed depending on the thickness. The ZnO buffer-free hybrid 50 nm thick phthalocyanine/n-ZnO photovoltaic device showed a rectification feature but possessed a poor photovoltaic performance with a conversion efficiency of 7.5 × 10(-7) %, open circuit voltage of 0.041 V, and short circuit current density of 8.0 × 10(-5) mA cm(-2). The insertion of the ZnO buffer layer between the n-ZnO and phthalocyanine layers induced improvements in both the rectification feature and photovoltaic performance. The excellent rectification feature with a rectification ratio of 3188 and ideally factor of 1.29 was obtained for the hybrid 200 nm thick phthalocyanine/ZnO buffer/n-ZnO photovoltaic device, and the hybrid photovoltaic device possessed an improved photovoltaic performance with the conversion efficiency of 0.0016%, open circuit voltage of 0.31 V, and short circuit current density of 0.015 mA cm(-2).

  12. Image quality assessment for teledermatology: from consumer devices to a dedicated medical device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amouroux, Marine; Le Cunff, Sébastien; Haudrechy, Alexandre; Blondel, Walter

    2017-03-01

    Aging population as well as growing incidence of type 2 diabetes induce a growing incidence of chronic skin disorders. In the meantime, chronic shortage of dermatologists leaves some areas underserved. Remote triage and assistance to homecare nurses (known as "teledermatology") appear to be promising solutions to provide dermatological valuation in a decent time to patients wherever they live. Nowadays, teledermatology is often based on consumer devices (digital tablets, smartphones, webcams) whose photobiological and electrical safety levels do not match with medical devices' levels. The American Telemedicine Association (ATA) has published recommendations on quality standards for teledermatology. This "quick guide" does not address the issue of image quality which is critical in domestic environments where lighting is rarely reproducible. Standardized approaches of image quality would allow clinical trial comparison, calibration, manufacturing quality control and quality insurance during clinical use. Therefore, we defined several critical metrics using calibration charts (color and resolution charts) in order to assess image quality such as resolution, lighting uniformity, color repeatability and discrimination of key couples of colors. Using such metrics, we compared quality of images produced by several medical devices (handheld and video-dermoscopes) as well as by consumer devices (digital tablet and cameras) widely spread among dermatologists practice. Since diagnosis accuracy may be impaired by "low quality-images", this study highlights that, from an optical point of view, teledermatology should only be performed using medical devices. Furthermore, a dedicated medical device should probably be developed for the time follow-up of skin lesions often managed in teledermatology such as chronic wounds that require i) noncontact imaging of ii) large areas of skin surfaces, both criteria that cannot be matched using dermoscopes.

  13. Quantum transport in nanowire-based hybrid devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenel, Haci Yusuf

    2013-05-08

    the Andreev reflection of quasiparticles at single interface, by suppressing the superconductivity of Al with small magnetic fields, as well as at double interface for zero magnetic field. The junction geometry was further changed by replacing the InAs nanowire with the InAs tube. In this case the GaAs/InAs core/shell tubular nanowires were contacted by two superconducting Nb electrodes. For this junction geometry we have demonstrated the interference of phase conjugated electron-hole pairs in the presence of coaxial magnetic. The effect of temperature, constant dc bias current and gate voltage on the magnetoresistance oscillations were examined. In the last part of this thesis, we have fabricated and characterized the single crystal Au nanowire-based proximity superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID).

  14. Hybrid PET/MR Imaging and Brain Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Marco; Cavaliere, Carlo; Salvatore, Marco

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, brain connectivity is gaining ever-increasing interest from the interdisciplinary research community. The study of brain connectivity is characterized by a multifaceted approach providing both structural and functional evidence of the relationship between cerebral regions at different scales. Although magnetic resonance (MR) is the most established imaging modality for investigating connectivity in vivo, the recent advent of hybrid positron emission tomography (PET)/MR scanners paved the way for more comprehensive investigation of brain organization and physiology. Due to the high sensitivity and biochemical specificity of radiotracers, combining MR with PET imaging may enrich our ability to investigate connectivity by introducing the concept of metabolic connectivity and cometomics and promoting new insights on the physiological and molecular bases underlying high-level neural organization. This review aims to describe and summarize the main methods of analysis of brain connectivity employed in MR imaging and nuclear medicine. Moreover, it will discuss practical aspects and state-of-the-art techniques for exploiting hybrid PET/MR imaging to investigate the relationship of physiological processes and brain connectivity.

  15. Hybrid PET/MR Imaging and Brain Connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eAiello

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, brain connectivity is gaining ever-increasing interest from the interdisciplinary research community. The study of brain connectivity is characterized by a multifaceted approach providing both structural and functional evidence of the relationship between cerebral regions at different scales. Although magnetic resonance (MR is the most established imaging modality for investigating connectivity in vivo, the recent advent of hybrid positron emission tomography (PET/MR scanners paved the way for more comprehensive investigation of brain organization and physiology. Due to the high sensitivity and biochemical specificity of radiotracers, combining MR with PET imaging may enrich our ability to investigate connectivity by introducing the concept of metabolic connectivity and cometomics and promoting new insights on the physiological and molecular bases underlying high-level neural organization. This review aims to describe and summarize the main methods of analysis of brain connectivity employed in MR imaging and nuclear medicine. Moreover, it will discuss practical aspects and state-of-the-art techniques for exploiting hybrid PET/MR imaging to investigate the relationship of physiological processes and brain connectivity.

  16. Reversible energy storage on a fuel cell-supercapacitor hybrid device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerpa Unda, Jesus Enrique

    2011-02-18

    A new concept of energy storage based on hydrogen which operates reversibly near ambient conditions and without important energy losses is investigated. This concept involves the hybridization between a proton exchange membrane fuel cell and a supercapacitor. The main idea consists in the electrochemical splitting of hydrogen at a PEM fuel cell-type electrode into protons and electrons and then in the storage of these two species separately in the electrical double layer of a supercapacitor-type electrode which is made of electrically conductive large-surface area carbon materials. The investigation of this concept was performed first using a two-electrode fuel cell-supercapacitor hybrid device. A three-electrode hybrid cell was used to explore the application of this concept as a hydrogen buffer integrated inside a PEM fuel cell to be used in case of peak power demand. (orig.)

  17. Rational design of multifunctional devices based on molybdenum disulfide and graphene hybrid nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yi Rang; Lee, Young Bum; Kim, Seong Ku; Kim, Seong Jun; Kim, Yooseok; Jeon, Cheolho; Song, Wooseok; Myung, Sung; Lee, Sun Sook; An, Ki-Seok; Lim, Jongsun

    2017-01-01

    We rationally designed a new type of hybrid materials, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) synthesized by Mo pre-deposition followed by subsequent sulfurization process directly on thermal chemical vapor deposition (TCVD)-grown graphene, for applications in a multifunctional device. The synthesis of stoichiometric and uniform multilayer MoS2 and high-crystalline monolayer graphene was evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. To examine the electrical transport and photoelectrical properties of MoS2-graphene hybrid films, field effect transistors (FETs) and visible-light photodetectors based on MoS2-graphene were both fabricated. As a result, the extracted mobility for MoS2-graphene hybrid FETs was two times higher than that of MoS2 FETs. In addition, the MoS2-graphene photodetectors revealed a significant photocurrent with abrupt switching behavior under periodic illumination.

  18. Fabrication of graphene and ZnO nanocones hybrid structure for transparent field emission device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zulkifli, Zurita [Department of Frontier Materials, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology (Japan); Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Mara (Malaysia); Shinde, Sachin M.; Suguira, Takatoshi [Department of Frontier Materials, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology (Japan); Kalita, Golap, E-mail: kalita.golap@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Frontier Materials, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology (Japan); Center for Fostering Young and Innovative Researchers, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Tanemura, Masaki [Department of Frontier Materials, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology (Japan)

    2015-11-30

    Graphical abstract: Fabrication of a transparent field emission device with chemical vapor deposited graphene and zinc oxide nanocones showing low turn-on field due to locally enhance electric field. - Highlights: • Demonstrated transparent field emission device with CVD graphene and ZnO nanocones. • Graphene film was coated on carbon doped ZnO nanocone prepared by ion irradiation. • Low turn-on field for the graphene/C:ZnO nanocones hybrid structure is achieved. • Graphene/C:ZnO heterostructure is promising for transparent field emission devices. - Abstract: Fabrication of a transparent and high performance electron emission device is the key challenge for suitable display applications. Here, we demonstrate fabrication of a transparent and efficient field emission device integrating large-area chemical vapor deposited graphene and carbon doped zinc oxide (C:ZnO) nanocones. The ZnO nanocones were obtained with ion irradiation process at room temperature, over which the graphene film was transferred without destroying nanocone tips. Significant enhancement in field emission properties were observed with the transferred graphene film on C:ZnO nanocones. The threshold field for hybrid and pristine C:ZnO nanocones film at current density of 1 μA/cm{sup 2} was obtained as 4.3 V/μm and 6.5 V/μm, respectively. The enhanced field emission properties with low turn-on field for the graphene/C:ZnO nanocones can be attributed to locally enhance electric field. Our finding shows that a graphene/C:ZnO hybridized structure is very promising to fabricate field emission devices without compromising with high transparency.

  19. Service and multimedia data transmission in IoT networks using hybrid communication devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saveliev Anton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Employment of various protocols and technologies in IoT networks leads to the lack of module unification and increase in incompatible technical solutions. Modern IoT networks are not designed for streaming audio/video data, so their application field is limited. Also, modern IoT networks should have connection areas for devices transferring data to the Internet, and consider hardware and software specific characteristics of these devices. We offer one-size-fits-all solution for organization of IoT network, using hybrid modules. These devices provide flexibility, scalability, energy efficiency and multi-use of network for the transfer of various types of data. This approach takes into account software and hardware features of the devices used for data transmission in IoT networks, which helps to automate connecting the modules chosen by user.

  20. Making Image More Energy Efficient for OLED Smart Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deguang Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Now, more and more mobile smart devices are emerging massively; energy consumption of these devices has become an important consideration due to the limitation of battery capacity. Displays are the dominant energy consuming component of battery-operated devices, giving rise to organic light-emitting diode (OLED as a new promising display technology, which consumes different power when displaying different content due to their emissive nature. Based on this property, we propose an approach to improve image energy efficiency on OLED displays by perceiving image content. The key idea of our approach is to eliminate undesired details while preserving the region of interest of the image by leveraging the color and spatial information. First, we use edge detection algorithm to extract region of interest (ROI of an image. Next, we gradually change luminance and saturation of region of noninterest (NON-ROI of the image. Then we perform detailed experiment and case study to validate our approach; experiment results show that our approach can save 22.5% energy on average while preserving high quality of the image.

  1. Efficient fluorescent deep-blue and hybrid white emitting devices based on carbazole/benzimidazole compound

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xiaohui

    2011-07-28

    We report the synthesis, photophysics, and electrochemical characterization of carbazole/benzimidazole-based compound (Cz-2pbb) and efficient fluorescent deep-blue light emitting devices based on Cz-2pbb with the peak external quantum efficiency of 4.1% and Commission Internationale dÉnclairage coordinates of (0.16, 0.05). Efficient deep-blue emission as well as high triplet state energy of Cz-2pbb enables fabrication of hybrid white organic light emitting diodes with a single emissive layer. Hybrid white emitting devices based on Cz-2pbb show the peak external quantum efficiency exceeding 10% and power efficiency of 14.8 lm/W at a luminance of 500 cd/m2. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  2. Porous graphene sheets as positive electrode material for supercapacitor - battery hybrid energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanapriya, K.; Jha, Neetu

    2017-05-01

    Porous graphene (PG) based positive supercapacitor electrode for hybrid supercapacitor - battery energy storage device has been fabricated successfully and studied in 1M AlCl3 electrolyte for the first time. PG was prepared by simple and easy reduction and activation process by focusing solar light on acid treated graphene oxide (a-GO) film. This material exhibits electric double layer capacitance (EDLC) performance and high specific capacitance of 270.1 F/g at 2 A/g current density as well as high rate capability. This porous graphene based positive supercapacitor electrode in Al3+ based electrolyte can be commercialised in near future for high energy and power densities hybrid energy storage device.

  3. Imaging Performance of the Si/Ge Hybrid Compton Imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burks, M; Chivers, D; Cork, C; Cunningham, M; Fabris, L; Gunter, D; Hull, E; Lange, D; Manini, H; Mihailescu, L; Nelson, K; Niedermayr, T; Valentine, J; Vetter, K; Wright, D

    2005-11-10

    The point spread function (PSF) of a fully-instrumented silicon/germanium Compton telescope has been measured as a function of energy and angle. Overall, the resolution ranged from 3{sup o} to 4{sup o} FWHM over most of the energy range and field of view. The various contributions to the resolution have been quantified. These contributions include the energy uncertainty and position uncertainty of the detector; source energy; Doppler broadening; and the 1/r broadening characteristic of Compton back-projection. Furthermore, a distortion of the PSF is observed for sources imaged off-axis from the detector. These contributions are discussed and compared to theory and simulations.

  4. Numerical Simulation of Carbon Nanotubes/GaAs Hybrid PV Devices with AMPS-1D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi Xosrovashvili

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance and characteristics of a hybrid heterojunction single-walled carbon nanotube and GaAs solar cell are modelled and numerically simulated using AMPS-1D device simulation tool. The device physics and performance with different junction parameters are analysed. The results suggest that the open-circuit voltage changes very slightly by changing the electron affinity, acceptor and donor density while the other electrical parameters reach an optimum value. Increasing the concentration of a discrete defect density in the absorber layer decreases the electrical parameters. The current-voltage characteristics, quantum efficiency, band gap, and thickness variation of the photovoltaic response will be quantitatively considered.

  5. Light-induced magnetoresistance in solution-processed planar hybrid devices measured under ambient conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreetama Banerjee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We report light-induced negative organic magnetoresistance (OMAR measured in ambient atmosphere in solution-processed 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynylpentacene (TIPS-pentacene planar hybrid devices with two different device architectures. Hybrid electronic devices with trench-isolated electrodes (HED-TIE having a channel length of ca. 100 nm fabricated in this work and, for comparison, commercially available pre-structured organic field-effect transistor (OFET substrates with a channel length of 20 µm were used. The magnitude of the photocurrent as well as the magnetoresistance was found to be higher for the HED-TIE devices because of the much smaller channel length of these devices compared to the OFETs. We attribute the observed light-induced negative magnetoresistance in TIPS-pentacene to the presence of electron–hole pairs under illumination as the magnetoresistive effect scales with the photocurrent. The magnetoresistance effect was found to diminish over time under ambient conditions compared to a freshly prepared sample. We propose that the much faster degradation of the magnetoresistance effect as compared to the photocurrent was due to the incorporation of water molecules in the TIPS-pentacene film.

  6. Stretchable living materials and devices with hydrogel-elastomer hybrids hosting programmed cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyue; Tang, Tzu-Chieh; Tham, Eléonore; Yuk, Hyunwoo; Lin, Shaoting; Lu, Timothy K; Zhao, Xuanhe

    2017-02-28

    Living systems, such as bacteria, yeasts, and mammalian cells, can be genetically programmed with synthetic circuits that execute sensing, computing, memory, and response functions. Integrating these functional living components into materials and devices will provide powerful tools for scientific research and enable new technological applications. However, it has been a grand challenge to maintain the viability, functionality, and safety of living components in freestanding materials and devices, which frequently undergo deformations during applications. Here, we report the design of a set of living materials and devices based on stretchable, robust, and biocompatible hydrogel-elastomer hybrids that host various types of genetically engineered bacterial cells. The hydrogel provides sustainable supplies of water and nutrients, and the elastomer is air-permeable, maintaining long-term viability and functionality of the encapsulated cells. Communication between different bacterial strains and with the environment is achieved via diffusion of molecules in the hydrogel. The high stretchability and robustness of the hydrogel-elastomer hybrids prevent leakage of cells from the living materials and devices, even under large deformations. We show functions and applications of stretchable living sensors that are responsive to multiple chemicals in a variety of form factors, including skin patches and gloves-based sensors. We further develop a quantitative model that couples transportation of signaling molecules and cellular response to aid the design of future living materials and devices.

  7. Hybrid Si nanowire/amorphous silicon FETs for large-area image sensor arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, William S; Raychaudhuri, Sourobh; Lujan, René; Sambandan, Sanjiv; Street, Robert A

    2011-06-08

    Silicon nanowire (SiNW) field-effect transistors (FETs) were fabricated from nanowire mats mechanically transferred from a donor growth wafer. Top- and bottom-gate FET structures were fabricated using a doped a-Si:H thin film as the source/drain (s/d) contact. With a graded doping profile for the a-Si:H s/d contacts, the off-current for the hybrid nanowire/thin-film devices was found to decrease by 3 orders of magnitude. Devices with the graded contacts had on/off ratios of ∼10(5), field-effect mobility of ∼50 cm(2)/(V s), and subthreshold swing of 2.5 V/decade. A 2 in. diagonal 160 × 180 pixel image sensor array was fabricated by integrating the SiNW backplane with an a-Si:H p-i-n photodiode.

  8. Input Device with Three-Dimensional Image Display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to an input device (2), such as a keyboard, comprising plurality of activation parts (4) for depression, at least one registration part (6) for individual registration of depression of activation parts, and at least one image displaying part (8), where depression...

  9. 77 FR 38829 - Certain Electronic Imaging Devices; Institution of Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Electronic Imaging Devices; Institution of Investigation AGENCY: U.S. International Trade.... International Trade Commission on May 23, 2012, under section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, 19 U.S...

  10. Fabricating electrodes for amperometric detection in hybrid paper/polymer lab-on-a-chip devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godino, Neus; Gorkin, Robert; Bourke, Ken; Ducrée, Jens

    2012-09-21

    We present a novel, low-resource fabrication and assembly method for creating disposable amperometric detectors in hybrid paper-polymer devices. Currently, mere paper-based microfluidics is far from being able to achieve the same level of process control and integration as state-of-the-art microfluidic devices made of polymers. To overcome this limitation, in this work both substrate types are synergistically combined through a hybrid, multi-component/multi-material system assembly. Using established inkjet wax printing, we transform the paper into a profoundly hydrophobic substrate in order to create carbon electrodes which are simply patterned from carbon inks via custom made adhesive stencils. By virtue of the compressibility of the paper substrate, the resulting electrode-on-paper hybrids can be directly embedded in conventional, 3D polymeric devices by bonding through an adhesive layer. This manufacturing scheme can be easily recreated with readily available off-the-shelf equipment, and is extremely cost-efficient and rapid with turn-around times of only a few hours.

  11. Integrated ion sensor device applications based on printed hybrid material systems (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    List-Kratochvil, Emil J. W.

    2016-09-01

    Comfortable, wearable sensors and computers will enhance every person's awareness of his or her health condition, environment, chemical pollutants, potential hazards, and information of interest. In agriculture and in the food industry there is a need for a constant control of the condition and needs of plants, animals, and farm products. Yet many of these applications depend upon the development of novel, cheap devices and sensors that are easy to implement and to integrate. Organic semiconductors as well as several inorganic materials and hybrid material systems have proven to combine a number of intriguing optical and electronic properties with simple processing methods. As it will be reviewed in this contribution, these materials are believed to find their application in printed electronic devices allowing for the development of smart disposable devices in food-, health-, and environmental monitoring, diagnostics and control, possibly integrated into arrays of sensor elements for multi-parameter detection. In this contribution we review past and recent achievements in the field. Followed by a brief introduction, we will focus on two topics being on the agenda recently: a) the use of electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistor (EGOFET) and ion-selective membrane based sensors for in-situ sensing of ions and biological substances and b) the development of hybrid material based resistive switches and their integration into fully functional, printed hybrid crossbar sensor array structures.

  12. Hybrid detection of lung nodules on CT scan images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Lin; Tan, Yongqiang; Schwartz, Lawrence H.; Zhao, Binsheng, E-mail: bz2166@columbia.edu [Department of Radiology, Columbia University Medical Center, 630 West 168th Street, New York, New York 10032 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: The diversity of lung nodules poses difficulty for the current computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) schemes for lung nodule detection on computed tomography (CT) scan images, especially in large-scale CT screening studies. We proposed a novel CAD scheme based on a hybrid method to address the challenges of detection in diverse lung nodules. Methods: The hybrid method proposed in this paper integrates several existing and widely used algorithms in the field of nodule detection, including morphological operation, dot-enhancement based on Hessian matrix, fuzzy connectedness segmentation, local density maximum algorithm, geodesic distance map, and regression tree classification. All of the adopted algorithms were organized into tree structures with multi-nodes. Each node in the tree structure aimed to deal with one type of lung nodule. Results: The method has been evaluated on 294 CT scans from the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) dataset. The CT scans were randomly divided into two independent subsets: a training set (196 scans) and a test set (98 scans). In total, the 294 CT scans contained 631 lung nodules, which were annotated by at least two radiologists participating in the LIDC project. The sensitivity and false positive per scan for the training set were 87% and 2.61%. The sensitivity and false positive per scan for the testing set were 85.2% and 3.13%. Conclusions: The proposed hybrid method yielded high performance on the evaluation dataset and exhibits advantages over existing CAD schemes. We believe that the present method would be useful for a wide variety of CT imaging protocols used in both routine diagnosis and screening studies.

  13. The MEH-PPV/YAG:Ce Hybrid Nanocomposite Material for Solution Processing Fabrication of Optoelectronic Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau Dinh Van

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication and the property investigation of the hybrid nanocomposite material made of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2′-ethyl-hexyloxy-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV polymer and Y3Al5O12:Ce (YAG:Ce with the relative weight ratio of 1 : 1 in order to apply for optoelectronic devices are reported. Thermal analysis showed the hybrid material’s deterioration or decomposition when the temperature exceeded 200°C under inert gas atmosphere. Rheological measurement concluded that the material solution can be used for spinning or soft moulding lithography making large- or flexible substrate surface. Optical properties of the hybrid material are investigated. The effect of thermal treatment on the optical properties showed that, at 180°C under inert gas environment, the optical properties were enhanced. An MEH-PPV/YAG:Ce hybrid nanocomposite converted LED lamp was fabricated showing that the hybrid material is suitable as conversion material for white LED fabrication.

  14. STEM image simulation with hybrid CPU/GPU programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Y; Ge, B H; Shen, X; Wang, Y G; Yu, R C

    2016-07-01

    STEM image simulation is achieved via hybrid CPU/GPU programming under parallel algorithm architecture to speed up calculation on a personal computer (PC). To utilize the calculation power of a PC fully, the simulation is performed using the GPU core and multi-CPU cores at the same time to significantly improve efficiency. GaSb and an artificial GaSb/InAs interface with atom diffusion have been used to verify the computation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Enabling customer self service through image processing on mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliche, Ingmar; Hellmann, Sascha; Kreutel, Jörn

    2013-03-01

    Our paper will outline the results of a research project that employs image processing for the automatic diagnosis of technical devices whose internal state is communicated through visual displays. In particular, we developed a method for detecting exceptional states of retail wireless routers, analysing the state and blinking behaviour of the LEDs that make up most routers' user interface. The method was made configurable by means of abstracting away from a particular device's display properties, thus being able to analyse a whole range of different devices whose displays are covered by our abstraction. The method of analysis and its configuration mechanism were implemented as a native mobile application for the Android Platform. It employs the local camera of mobile devices for capturing a router's state, and uses overlaid visual hints for guiding the user toward that perspective from where an analysis is possible.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging safety of deep brain stimulator devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluigbo, Chima O; Rezai, Ali R

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become the standard of care for the evaluation of different neurological disorders of the brain and spinal cord due to its multiplanar capabilities and excellent soft tissue resolution. With the large and increasing population of patients with implanted deep brain stimulation (DBS) devices, a significant proportion of these patients with chronic neurological diseases require evaluation of their primary neurological disease processes by MRI. The presence of an implanted DBS device in a magnetic resonance environment presents potential hazards. These include the potential for induction of electrical currents or heating in DBS devices, which can result in neurological tissue injury, magnetic field-induced device migration, or disruption of the operational aspects of the devices. In this chapter, we review the basic physics of potential interactions of the MRI environment with implanted DBS devices, summarize results from phantom studies and clinical series, and discuss present recommendations for safe MRI in patients with implanted DBS devices. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Therapeutic efficacy of a hybrid mandibular advancement device in the management of obstructive sleep apnea assessed with acoustic reflection technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Agarwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is one of the most common forms of sleep-disordered breathing. Various treatment modalities include behavior modification therapy, nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP, oral appliance therapy, and various surgical modalities. Oral appliances are noninvasive and recommended treatment modality for snoring, mild to moderate OSA cases and severe OSA cases when patient is not compliant to CPAP therapy and unwilling for surgery. Acoustic reflection technique (ART is a relatively new modality for three-dimensional assessment of airway caliber in various clinical situations. The accuracy and reproducibility of acoustic rhinometry and acoustic pharyngometry assessment are comparable to computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. This case report highlights the therapeutic efficacy of an innovative customized acrylic hybrid mandibular advancement device in the management of polysomnography diagnosed OSA cases, and the treatment results were assessed by ART.

  18. Single axis controlled hybrid magnetic bearing for left ventricular assist device: hybrid core and closed magnetic circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Isaias; Horikawa, Oswaldo; Cardoso, Jose R; Camargo, Fernando A; Andrade, Aron J P; Bock, Eduardo G P

    2011-05-01

    In previous studies, we presented main strategies for suspending the rotor of a mixed-flow type (centrifugal and axial) ventricular assist device (VAD), originally presented by the Institute Dante Pazzanese of Cardiology (IDPC), Brazil. Magnetic suspension is achieved by the use of a magnetic bearing architecture in which the active control is executed in only one degree of freedom, in the axial direction of the rotor. Remaining degrees of freedom, excepting the rotation, are restricted only by the attraction force between pairs of permanent magnets. This study is part of a joint project in development by IDPC and Escola Politecnica of São Paulo University, Brazil. This article shows advances in that project, presenting two promising solutions for magnetic bearings. One solution uses hybrid cores as electromagnetic actuators, that is, cores that combine iron and permanent magnets. The other solution uses actuators, also of hybrid type, but with the magnetic circuit closed by an iron core. After preliminary analysis, a pump prototype has been developed for each solution and has been tested. For each prototype, a brushless DC motor has been developed as the rotor driver. Each solution was evaluated by in vitro experiments and guidelines are extracted for future improvements. Tests have shown good results and demonstrated that one solution is not isolated from the other. One complements the other for the development of a single-axis-controlled, hybrid-type magnetic bearing for a mixed-flow type VAD. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2011, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Fluorescent deep-blue and hybrid white emitting devices based on a naphthalene-benzofuran compound

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xiaohui

    2013-08-01

    We report the synthesis, photophysics and electrochemical properties of naphthalene-benzofuran compound 1 and its application in organic light emitting devices. Fluorescent deep-blue emitting devices employing 1 as the emitting dopant embedded in 4-4′-bis(9-carbazolyl)-2,2′-biphenyl (CBP) host show the peak external quantum efficiency of 4.5% and Commission Internationale d\\'Énclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.15, 0.07). Hybrid white devices using fluorescent blue emitting layer with 1 and a phosphorescent orange emitting layer based on an iridium-complex show the peak external quantum efficiency above 10% and CIE coordinates of (0.31, 0.37). © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Hybrid-array-based optoacoustic and ultrasound (OPUS) imaging of biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deán-Ben, X. L.; Merčep, E.; Razansky, D.

    2017-05-01

    Hybrid optoacoustic and pulse-echo ultrasound imaging is an attractive multi-modal combination owing to the highly complementary contrast of the two techniques. Efficient hybridization is often hampered by significant dissimilarities between their optimal data acquisition and image formation strategies. Herein, we introduce an approach for combined optoacoustic and ultrasound imaging based on a plano-concave detector array design with a non-uniform pitch distribution. The hybrid design optimized for both modalities allows for maintaining an extended field of view for efficient ultrasound navigation while simultaneously providing broad tomographic coverage for optimal optoacoustic imaging performance. Imaging sessions performed in tissue-mimicking phantoms and healthy volunteers demonstrate that the suggested approach renders an enhanced imaging performance as compared with the previously reported hybrid optoacoustic and ultrasound imaging approaches. Thus, it can greatly facilitate clinical translation of the optoacoustic imaging technology by means of its efficient combination with ultrasonography, a well-established clinical imaging modality.

  1. NEMA image quality phantom measurements and attenuation correction in integrated PET/MR hybrid imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Susanne; Jakoby, Bjoern W; Braun, Harald; Paulus, Daniel H; Quick, Harald H

    2015-12-01

    In integrated PET/MR hybrid imaging the evaluation of PET performance characteristics according to the NEMA standard NU 2-2007 is challenging because of incomplete MR-based attenuation correction (AC) for phantom imaging. In this study, a strategy for CT-based AC of the NEMA image quality (IQ) phantom is assessed. The method is systematically evaluated in NEMA IQ phantom measurements on an integrated PET/MR system. NEMA IQ measurements were performed on the integrated 3.0 Tesla PET/MR hybrid system (Biograph mMR, Siemens Healthcare). AC of the NEMA IQ phantom was realized by an MR-based and by a CT-based method. The suggested CT-based AC uses a template μ-map of the NEMA IQ phantom and a phantom holder for exact repositioning of the phantom on the systems patient table. The PET image quality parameters contrast recovery, background variability, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were determined and compared for both phantom AC methods. Reconstruction parameters of an iterative 3D OP-OSEM reconstruction were optimized for highest lesion SNR in NEMA IQ phantom imaging. Using a CT-based NEMA IQ phantom μ-map on the PET/MR system is straightforward and allowed performing accurate NEMA IQ measurements on the hybrid system. MR-based AC was determined to be insufficient for PET quantification in the tested NEMA IQ phantom because only photon attenuation caused by the MR-visible phantom filling but not the phantom housing is considered. Using the suggested CT-based AC, the highest SNR in this phantom experiment for small lesions (PET/MR hybrid system. The superiority of CT-based AC for this phantom is demonstrated by comparison to measurements using MR-based AC. Furthermore, optimized PET image reconstruction parameters are provided for the highest lesion SNR in NEMA IQ phantom measurements.

  2. NEMA image quality phantom measurements and attenuation correction in integrated PET/MR hybrid imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Ziegler, Susanne; Jakoby, Bjoern W.; Braun, Harald; Paulus, Daniel H.; Quick, Harald H.

    2015-01-01

    Background In integrated PET/MR hybrid imaging the evaluation of PET performance characteristics according to the NEMA standard NU 2?2007 is challenging because of incomplete MR-based attenuation correction (AC) for phantom imaging. In this study, a strategy for CT-based AC of the NEMA image quality (IQ) phantom is assessed. The method is systematically evaluated in NEMA IQ phantom measurements on an integrated PET/MR system. Methods NEMA IQ measurements were performed on the integrated 3.0 T...

  3. A Charge Coupled Device Imaging System For Ophthalmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, R. Wanda; Packer, Samuel; Rosen, James; Bizais, Yves

    1984-06-01

    A digital camera system has been constructed for obtaining reflectance images of the fundus of the eye with monochromatic light. Images at wavelengths in the visible and near infrared regions of the spectrum are recorded by a charge-coupled device array and transferred to a computer. A variety of image processing operations are performed to restore the pictures, correct for distortions in the image formation process, and extract new and diagnostically useful information. The steps involved in calibrating the system to permit quantitative measurement of fundus reflectance are discussed. Three clinically important applications of such a quantitative system are addressed: the characterization of changes in the optic nerve arising from glaucoma, the diagnosis of choroidal melanoma through spectral signatures, and the early detection and improved management of diabetic retinopathy by measurement of retinal tissue oxygen saturation.

  4. Optical Tomography System: Charge-coupled Device Linear Image Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Idroas

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discussed an optical tomography system based on charge-coupled device (CCD linear image sensors. The developed system consists of a lighting system, a measurement section and a data acquisition system. Four CCD linear image sensors are configured around a flow pipe with an octagonal-shaped measurement section, for a four projections system. The four CCD linear image sensors consisting of 2048 pixels with a pixel size of 14 micron by 14 micron are used to produce a high-resolution system. A simple optical model is mapped into the system’s sensitivity matrix to relate the optical attenuation due to variations of optical density within the measurement section. A reconstructed tomographic image is produced based on the model using MATLAB software. The designed instrumentation system is calibrated and tested through different particle size measurements from different projections.

  5. Hybrid Synthetic Receptors on MOSFET Devices for Detection of Prostate Specific Antigen in Human Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamboli, Vibha K; Bhalla, Nikhil; Jolly, Pawan; Bowen, Chris R; Taylor, John T; Bowen, Jenna L; Allender, Chris J; Estrela, Pedro

    2016-12-06

    The study reports the use of extended gate field-effect transistors (FET) for the label-free and sensitive detection of prostate cancer (PCa) biomarkers in human plasma. The approach integrates for the first time hybrid synthetic receptors comprising of highly selective aptamer-lined pockets (apta-MIP) with FETs for sensitive detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA) at clinically relevant concentrations. The hybrid synthetic receptors were constructed by immobilizing an aptamer-PSA complex on gold and subjecting it to 13 cycles of dopamine electropolymerization. The polymerization resulted in the creation of highly selective polymeric cavities that retained the ability to recognize PSA post removal of the protein. The hybrid synthetic receptors were subsequently used in an extended gate FET setup for electrochemical detection of PSA. The sensor was reported to have a limit of detection of 0.1 pg/mL with a linear detection range from 0.1 pg/mL to 1 ng/mL PSA. Detection of 1-10 pg/mL PSA was also achieved in diluted human plasma. The present apta-MIP sensor developed in conjunction with FET devices demonstrates the potential for clinical application of synthetic hybrid receptors for the detection of clinically relevant biomarkers in complex samples.

  6. Device and Method of Scintillating Quantum Dots for Radiation Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Eric R. (Inventor); DeHaven, Stanton L. (Inventor); Williams, Phillip A. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A radiation imaging device includes a radiation source and a micro structured detector comprising a material defining a surface that faces the radiation source. The material includes a plurality of discreet cavities having openings in the surface. The detector also includes a plurality of quantum dots disclosed in the cavities. The quantum dots are configured to interact with radiation from the radiation source, and to emit visible photons that indicate the presence of radiation. A digital camera and optics may be used to capture images formed by the detector in response to exposure to radiation.

  7. Imaging of patients with implanted devices and arrhythmia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Ju Lee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Expanding implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD indications and significant morbidity and mortality reduction benefits have resulted in a large number of routine ICD implants with appropriate ICD shocks for ventricular arrhythmias. The side-effects and lack of long-term efficacy of antiarrhythmics have made ventricular tachycardia (VT ablation an increasingly attractive treatment option. Although cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR is considered the gold standard technique for imaging of myocardial fibrosis to diagnose and guide VT ablation targets in patients with cardiac arrhythmia, safety concerns and significant artifacts from the devices significantly limit the application of CMR. We discuss how to decrease artifact from cardiac devices and the role of a modified inversion pulse late gadolinium enhancement (LGE CMR sequence as a useful tool in this setting, and we review techniques, safety protocols and limitations from the perspective of our institution’s experience.

  8. Research Update: The electronic structure of hybrid perovskite layers and their energetic alignment in devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selina Olthof

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the interest in hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites has increased at a rapid pace due to their tremendous success in the field of thin film solar cells. This area closely ties together fundamental solid state research and device application, as it is necessary to understand the basic material properties to optimize the performances and open up new areas of application. In this regard, the energy levels and their respective alignment with adjacent charge transport layers play a crucial role. Currently, we are lacking a detailed understanding about the electronic structure and are struggling to understand what influences the alignment, how it varies, or how it can be intentionally modified. This research update aims at giving an overview over recent results regarding measurements of the electronic structure of hybrid perovskites using photoelectron spectroscopy to summarize the present status.

  9. Hierarchical and hybrid energy storage devices in data centers: Architecture, control and provisioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yuankun; Bogdan, Paul; Tang, Jian; Wang, Yanzhi; Lin, Xue

    2018-01-01

    Recently, a new approach has been introduced that leverages and over-provisions energy storage devices (ESDs) in data centers for performing power capping and facilitating capex/opex reductions, without performance overhead. To fully realize the potential benefits of the hierarchical ESD structure, we propose a comprehensive design, control, and provisioning framework including (i) designing power delivery architecture supporting hierarchical ESD structure and hybrid ESDs for some levels, as well as (ii) control and provisioning of the hierarchical ESD structure including run-time ESD charging/discharging control and design-time determination of ESD types, homogeneous/hybrid options, ESD provisioning at each level. Experiments have been conducted using real Google data center workloads based on realistic data center specifications. PMID:29351553

  10. Hierarchical and hybrid energy storage devices in data centers: Architecture, control and provisioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mengshu; Xue, Yuankun; Bogdan, Paul; Tang, Jian; Wang, Yanzhi; Lin, Xue

    2018-01-01

    Recently, a new approach has been introduced that leverages and over-provisions energy storage devices (ESDs) in data centers for performing power capping and facilitating capex/opex reductions, without performance overhead. To fully realize the potential benefits of the hierarchical ESD structure, we propose a comprehensive design, control, and provisioning framework including (i) designing power delivery architecture supporting hierarchical ESD structure and hybrid ESDs for some levels, as well as (ii) control and provisioning of the hierarchical ESD structure including run-time ESD charging/discharging control and design-time determination of ESD types, homogeneous/hybrid options, ESD provisioning at each level. Experiments have been conducted using real Google data center workloads based on realistic data center specifications.

  11. Electronic Structure Modulation of Metal–Organic Frameworks for Hybrid Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The study of metal–organic frameworks has largely been motivated by their structural and chemical diversity; however, these materials also possess rich physics, including optical, electronic, and magnetic activity. If these materials are to be employed in devices, it is necessary to develop an understanding of their solid-state behavior. We report an approach to calculate the effect of strain on the band structure of porous frameworks. The origin of the bidirectional absolute deformation potentials can be described from perturbations of the organic and inorganic building blocks. The unified approach allows us to propose several uses for hybrid materials, beyond their traditionally posited applications, including gas sensing, photoelectrochemistry, and as hybrid transistors. PMID:25436990

  12. Hybrid photosynthesis-powering biocatalysts with solar energy captured by inorganic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tian; Tremblay, Pier-Luc

    2017-01-01

    The biological reduction of CO2 driven by sunlight via photosynthesis is a crucial process for life on earth. However, the conversion efficiency of solar energy to biomass by natural photosynthesis is low. This translates in bioproduction processes relying on natural photosynthesis that are inefficient energetically. Recently, hybrid photosynthetic technologies with the potential of significantly increasing the efficiency of solar energy conversion to products have been developed. In these systems, the reduction of CO2 into biofuels or other chemicals of interest by biocatalysts is driven by solar energy captured with inorganic devices such as photovoltaic cells or photoelectrodes. Here, we explore hybrid photosynthesis and examine the strategies being deployed to improve this biotechnology.

  13. Analysis and Modelling towards Hybrid Piezo-Electromagnetic Vibrating Energy Harvesting Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuschel, Torsten; Salehian, Armaghan

    2011-11-01

    The efficiency of mobile electrical devices increased over the last years. Self-supply by harvesting ambient energy became a possibility of reducing operational costs by ruling out the need of battery replacement. Many energy harvesting devices employ cantilever configurations with base excitation to increase the effective displacement. The proposed design extends this design with an electromagnetic harvesting device (EMH) placed at its tip. It features an alternating stack of magnets with opposing poles and discs of highly permeable material. The composite cylinder is encircled by coils. This EMH design has successfully been employed for ocean wave harvesting and vehicle suspension systems. Its efficiency with respect to mass and energy output is compared to a previously published design using a single magnet placed at the tip moving within a coil. There exists proof that combining readily available technologies into a so-called coupled or hybrid design can increase the efficiency in comparison to respective stand-alone designs. Once the model for the proposed design is derived and evaluated, it is extended by a cantilevered excitation. Piezoelectric layers for hybrid harvesting may be included in future research.

  14. Energy-Efficient Scheduling for Hybrid Tasks in Control Devices for the Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojun Dai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In control devices for the Internet of Things (IoT, energy is one of the critical restriction factors. Dynamic voltage scaling (DVS has been proved to be an effective method for reducing the energy consumption of processors. This paper proposes an energy-efficient scheduling algorithm for IoT control devices with hard real-time control tasks (HRCTs and soft real-time tasks (SRTs. The main contribution of this paper includes two parts. First, it builds the Hybrid tasks with multi-subtasks of different function Weight (HoW task model for IoT control devices. HoW describes the structure of HRCTs and SRTs, and their properties, e.g., deadlines, execution time, preemption properties, and energy-saving goals, etc. Second, it presents the Hybrid Tasks’ Dynamic Voltage Scaling (HTDVS algorithm. HTDVS first sets the slowdown factors of subtasks while meeting the different real-time requirements of HRCTs and SRTs, and then dynamically reclaims, reserves, and reuses the slack time of the subtasks to meet their ideal energy-saving goals. Experimental results show HTDVS can reduce energy consumption about 10%–80% while meeting the real-time requirements of HRCTs, HRCTs help to reduce the deadline miss ratio (DMR of systems, and HTDVS has comparable performance with the greedy algorithm and is more favorable to keep the subtasks’ ideal speeds.

  15. Metaphase FISH on a chip: miniaturized microfluidic device for fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Shah, Pranjul; Dimaki, Maria; Tumer, Zeynep; Tommerup, Niels; Svendsen, Winnie E

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) is a major cytogenetic technique for clinical genetic diagnosis of both inherited and acquired chromosomal abnormalities. Although FISH techniques have evolved and are often used together with other cytogenetic methods like CGH, PRINS and PNA-FISH, the process continues to be a manual, labour intensive, expensive and time consuming technique, often taking over 3 5 days, even in dedicated labs. We have developed a novel microFISH device to perform metaphase FISH on a chip which overcomes many shortcomings of the current laboratory protocols. This work also introduces a novel splashing device for preparing metaphase spreads on a microscope glass slide, followed by a rapid adhesive tape-based bonding protocol leading to rapid fabrication of the microFISH device. The microFISH device allows for an optimized metaphase FISH protocol on a chip with over a 20-fold reduction in the reagent volume. This is the first demonstration of metaphase FISH on a microfluidic device and offers a possibility of automation and significant cost reduction of many routine diagnostic tests of genetic anomalies.

  16. Metaphase FISH on a Chip: Miniaturized Microfluidic Device for Fluorescence in situ Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Tommerup

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH is a major cytogenetic technique for clinical genetic diagnosis of both inherited and acquired chromosomal abnormalities. Although FISH techniques have evolved and are often used together with other cytogenetic methods like CGH, PRINS and PNA-FISH, the process continues to be a manual, labour intensive, expensive and time consuming technique, often taking over 3–5 days, even in dedicated labs. We have developed a novel microFISH device to perform metaphase FISH on a chip which overcomes many shortcomings of the current laboratory protocols. This work also introduces a novel splashing device for preparing metaphase spreads on a microscope glass slide, followed by a rapid adhesive tape-based bonding protocol leading to rapid fabrication of the microFISH device. The microFISH device allows for an optimized metaphase FISH protocol on a chip with over a 20-fold reduction in the reagent volume. This is the first demonstration of metaphase FISH on a microfluidic device and offers a possibility of automation and significant cost reduction of many routine diagnostic tests of genetic anomalies.

  17. Hybrid Lead Halide Perovskites for Ultrasensitive Photoactive Switching in Terahertz Metamaterial Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjappa, Manukumara; Srivastava, Yogesh Kumar; Solanki, Ankur; Kumar, Abhishek; Sum, Tze Chien; Singh, Ranjan

    2017-08-01

    The recent meteoric rise in the field of photovoltaics with the discovery of highly efficient solar-cell devices is inspired by solution-processed organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites that exhibit unprecedented light-to-electricity conversion efficiencies. The stunning performance of perovskites is attributed to their strong photoresponsive properties that are thoroughly utilized in designing excellent perovskite solar cells, light-emitting diodes, infrared lasers, and ultrafast photodetectors. However, optoelectronic application of halide perovskites in realizing highly efficient subwavelength photonic devices has remained a challenge. Here, the remarkable photoconductivity of organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites is exploited to demonstrate a hybrid perovskite-metamaterial device that shows extremely low power photoswitching of the metamaterial resonances in the terahertz part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Furthermore, a signature of a coupled phonon-metamaterial resonance is observed at higher pump powers, where the Fano resonance amplitude is extremely weak. In addition, a low threshold, dynamic control of the highly confined electric field intensity is also observed in the system, which could tremendously benefit the new generation of subwavelength photonic devices as active sensors, low threshold optically controlled lasers, and active nonlinear devices with enhanced functionalities in the infrared, optical, and the terahertz parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Medical Devices; General Hospital and Personal Use Devices; Classification of the Image Processing Device for Estimation of External Blood Loss. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-20

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is classifying the image processing device for estimation of external blood loss into class II (special controls). The special controls that apply to the device type are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the image processing device for estimation of external blood loss' classification. We are taking this action because we have determined that classifying the device into class II (special controls) will provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. We believe this action will also enhance patients' access to beneficial innovative devices, in part by reducing regulatory burdens.

  19. A hybrid axisymmetric flow-focusing device for monodisperse picoliter droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Yuya; Kuribayashi-Shigetomi, Kaori; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2011-05-01

    A combination of photolithography and stereolithography was successfully used to fabricate a hybrid axisymmetric flow-focusing device (h-AFFD) that produces monodisperse picoliter droplets. The h-AFFD achieved the same level of hydrodynamic performance as a monolithic AFFD produced by only stereolithography from acrylic resin. Since the h-AFFD had a narrower orifice (50 or 100 µm in diameter), created in an SU-8 sheet by photolithography, than the monolithic AFFD, we were able to produce picoliter droplets. We also succeeded in producing monodisperse droplets encapsulating a single cell without any surface modification.

  20. Bioenergy conversion and storage systems: from conventional electrochemical cells to hybrid bioelectronic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pankratov, Dmitrii; Chi, Qijin

    2017-01-01

    machinery for direct conversion of solar energy into electric power, is one of the most promising prospects for green and selfsustainablev energy harvesting. In addition, utilizing the inherent capacitance of electrodes as an activecharge-storing element enables to enhance the efficiency of electron...... transfer processes proceeding in the system and further miniaturization and simplification of a full-function device by elimination of internal capacitors in the electronic circuit. Remarkably, some pioneering attempts to design and create hybrid bioelectrochemical cells have already shown the positive...

  1. 76 FR 55944 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices With Image Processing Systems, Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices With Image Processing Systems, Components Thereof, and... importation of certain electronic devices with image processing systems, components thereof, and associated... having graphics processing units (``GPUs'') supplied by NVIDIA Corporation (``NVIDIA'') infringe any...

  2. Effect of Photon Recycling in Pixelless Imaging Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Naoaki; Khmyrova, Irina; Ryzhii, Victor; Ikegami, Tetsuhiko

    2000-09-01

    We present an analytical model for the photon recycling effect associated with the reabsorption of generated photons in a light-emitting diode (LED) driven by nonuniform current injected from a quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP). The model is applied to the evaluation of the modulation transfer function and the external quantum efficiency in pixelless imaging devices based on the integration of a QWIP with a LED@. The modulation transfer function and the signal external quantum efficiency of a QWIP-LED pixelless imager are calculated as functions of the structural physical and geometrical parameters. It is shown that photon recycling is a significant factor that limits the spatial resolution of images and increases the external quantum efficiency.

  3. Hybrid yttrium iron garnet-ferromagnet structures for spin-wave devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, A., E-mail: apapp@nd.edu [Center for Nano Science and Technology and Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Pázmány Péter Catholic University, Faculty of Information Technology, Budapest 1088 (Hungary); Porod, W., E-mail: porod@nd.edu; Csaba, G., E-mail: gcsaba@nd.edu [Center for Nano Science and Technology and Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    We study coupled ferromagnetic layers, which could facilitate low loss, sub 100 nm wavelength spin-wave propagation and manipulation. One of the layers is a low-loss garnet film (such as yttrium iron garnet (YIG)) that enables long-distance, coherent spin-wave propagation. The other layer is made of metal-based (Permalloy, Co, and CoFe) magnetoelectronic structures that can be used to generate, manipulate, and detect the spin waves. Using micromagnetic simulations, we analyze the interactions between the spin waves in the YIG and the metallic nanomagnet structures and demonstrate the components of a scalable spin-wave based signal processing device. We argue that such hybrid-metallic ferromagnet structures can be the basis of potentially high-performance, ultra low-power computing devices.

  4. J* optimization of small aspect ratio stellarator/tokamak hybrid devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spong, D.A.; Hirshman, S.P.; Whitson, J.C. [and others

    1997-12-31

    A new class of low aspect ratio toroidal hybrid stellarators is found using more general plasma confinement optimization criterion than quasi-symmetrization. The plasma current profile and shape of the outer magnetic flux surface are used as control variables to achieve near constancy of the longitudinal invariant J* on internal flux surfaces (quasi-omnigeneity), in addition to a number of other desirable physics target properties. We find that a range of compact (small aspect ratio A), high {beta} (ratio of thermal energy to magnetic field energy), low plasma current devices exist which have significantly improved confinement both for thermal as well as energetic (collisionless) particle components. With reasonable increases in magnetic field and geometric size, such devices can also be scaled to confine 3.5 MeV alpha particle orbits.

  5. Hybrid intraoperative imaging techniques in radioguided surgery: present clinical applications and future outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugby, S L; Lees, J E; Perkins, A C

    2017-01-01

    This review aims to summarise the hybrid modality radioguidance techniques currently in clinical use and development, and to discuss possible future avenues of research. Due to the novelty of these approaches, evidence of their clinical relevance does not yet exist. The purpose of this review is to inform nuclear medicine practitioners of current cutting edge research in radioguided surgery which may enter standard clinical practice within the next 5-10 years. Hybrid imaging is of growing importance to nuclear medicine diagnostics, but it is only with recent advances in technology that hybrid modalities are being investigated for use during radioguided surgery. These modalities aim to overcome some of the difficulties of surgical imaging while maintaining many benefits, or providing entirely new information unavailable to surgeons with traditional radioguidance. A literature review was carried out using online reference databases (Scopus, PubMed). Review articles obtained using this technique were citation mined to obtain further references. In total, 2367 papers were returned, with 425 suitable for further assessment. 60 papers directly related to hybrid intraoperative imaging in radioguided surgery are reported on. Of these papers, 25 described the clinical use of hybrid imaging, 22 described the development of new hybrid probes and tracers, and 13 described the development of hybrid technologies for future clinical use. Hybrid gamma-NIR fluorescence was found to be the most common clinical technique, with 35 papers associated with these modalities. Other hybrid combinations include gamma-bright field imaging, gamma-ultrasound imaging, gamma-β imaging and β-OCT imaging. The combination of preoperative and intraoperative images is also discussed. Hybrid imaging offers new possibilities for assisting clinicians and surgeons in localising the site of uptake in procedures such as in sentinel node detection.

  6. Evaluation of laser prostatectomy devices by thermal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, David G.; van Vliet, Remco J.; van Swol, Christiaan F. P.; Boon, Tom A.; Verdaasdonck, Rudolf M.

    1994-12-01

    The treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) using Nd:YAG laser light has become an accepted alternative to TURP. However, there is no consensus to the dosimetry using the various laser devices. In our study, we evaluate the optical and thermal characteristics of 7 commercially available side firing laser probes. For the thermal analysis, an optical method was used based on `Schlieren' techniques producing color images of the temperature distribution around the laser probe in water. Absolute temperatures were obtained after calibration measurements with thermocouples. Laser probes using metal mirrors for beam deflection heated up entirely. The local temperature rose up to 100 degrees centigrade, thus inducing vapor bubble formation that interfered with the emitted beam. Laser devices, using total internal reflection for deflection, showed far less heating primarily at the exit window, though Fresnel reflections and secondary beams indirectly heated up the (metal) housing of the tip. After clinical application, the absorption at the probe surface and hence temperature increased due to probe deterioration. Color Schlieren imaging is a powerful method for the thermal evaluation of laser devices. The thermal behavior of laser probes can be used as a guidance for the method of application and as an indication of the lifetime of the probes.

  7. 75 FR 77662 - Certain Printing and Imaging Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of Commission Determination...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... COMMISSION Certain Printing and Imaging Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of Commission Determination To... importation of certain printing and imaging devices and components thereof by reason of infringement of U.S... the sale within the United States after importation of certain printing and imaging devices and...

  8. 75 FR 73128 - Certain Printing and Imaging Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of Commission Determination...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... COMMISSION Certain Printing and Imaging Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of Commission Determination To... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain printing and imaging devices... certain printing and imaging devices and components thereof by reason of infringement of several claims in...

  9. 75 FR 38118 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices With Image Processing Systems, Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices With Image Processing Systems, Components Thereof, and... certain electronic devices with image processing systems, components thereof, and associated software that... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain electronic devices with image...

  10. Synthesis and assessment methods for an edge-alignment-free hybrid image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripian, Peeraya; Yamaguchi, Yasushi

    2017-07-01

    A hybrid image allows multiple image interpretations to be modulated by the viewing distance. It can be constructed on the basis of the multiscale perceptual mechanisms of the human visual system by combining the low and high spatial frequencies of two different images. The hybrid image was introduced as an experimental tool for visual recognition study in terms of spatial frequency perception. To produce a compelling hybrid image, the original hybrid image synthesis method could only use similar shapes of source images that were aligned in the edges. If any two different images can be hybrid, it would be beneficial as a new experimental tool. In addition, there is no measure for the actual perception of spatial frequency, whether a single spatial frequency or both spatial frequencies are perceived from the hybrid stimulus. This paper describes two methods for synthesizing a hybrid image from dissimilar shape images or unaligned images; this hybrid image is known as an "edge-alignment-free hybrid image." A noise-inserted method can be done by intentionally inserting and enhancing noises into the high-frequency image. With this method, the low-frequency blobs are covered with high-frequency noises when viewed up close. A color-inserted method uses complementary color gratings in the background of the high-frequency image to emphasize the high-frequency image when viewed up close, whereas the gratings disappear when viewed from far away. To ascertain that our approach successfully separates the spatial frequency at each viewing distance, we measured this property using our proposed assessment method. Our proposed method allows the experimenter to quantify the probability of perceiving both spatial frequencies and a single spatial frequency in a hybrid image. The experimental results confirmed that our proposed synthesis methods successfully hid the low-frequency image and emphasized the high-frequency image at a close viewing distance. At the same time, the

  11. Tunable high-refractive index hybrid for solution-processed light management devices (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachevillier, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    After the use of highly efficient but expensive inorganic optical materials, solution-processable polymers and hybrids have drawn more and more interest. Our group have recently developed a novel polymer-based hybrid optical material from titanium oxide hydrate exhibiting an outstanding set of optical and material properties. Firstly, their low cost, processability and cross-linked states are particularly attractive for many applications. Moreover, a high refractive index can be repeatedly achieved while optical losses stays considerably low over the entire visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. Indeed, the formation of inorganic nanoparticles, usually present in nanocomposites, is avoided by a specific formulation process. Even more remarkably, the refractive index can be tuned by either changing the inorganic content, using different titanium precursors or via a low-temperature curing process. A part of our work is focused on the reliable optical characterization of these properties, in particular a microscope-based setup allowing in-situ measurement and sample mapping has been developed. Our efforts are also concentrated on various applications of these exceptional properties. This hybrid material is tailored for photonic devices, with a specific emphasis on the production of highly efficient solution processable Distributed Bragg Reflectors (DBR) and anti-reflection coatings. Furthermore, waveguides can be fabricated from thin films along with in-coupling and out-coupling structures. These light managements structures are particularly adapted to organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) and light emitting diodes (OLEDs).

  12. A light-stimulated synaptic device based on graphene hybrid phototransistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shuchao; Wang, Fengqiu; Liu, Yujie; Wan, Qing; Wang, Xinran; Xu, Yongbing; Shi, Yi; Wang, Xiaomu; Zhang, Rong

    2017-09-01

    Neuromorphic chips refer to an unconventional computing architecture that is modelled on biological brains. They are increasingly employed for processing sensory data for machine vision, context cognition, and decision making. Despite rapid advances, neuromorphic computing has remained largely an electronic technology, making it a challenge to access the superior computing features provided by photons, or to directly process vision data that has increasing importance to artificial intelligence. Here we report a novel light-stimulated synaptic device based on a graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid phototransistor. Significantly, the device can respond to optical stimuli in a highly neuron-like fashion and exhibits flexible tuning of both short- and long-term plasticity. These features combined with the spatiotemporal processability make our device a capable counterpart to today’s electrically-driven artificial synapses, with superior reconfigurable capabilities. In addition, our device allows for generic optical spike processing, which provides a foundation for more sophisticated computing. The silicon-compatible, multifunctional photosensitive synapse opens up a new opportunity for neural networks enabled by photonics and extends current neuromorphic systems in terms of system complexities and functionalities.

  13. Inspection of surface-mount device images using wavelet processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carillo, Gerardo; Cabrera, Sergio D.; Portillo, Angel

    1997-02-01

    In this paper, the wavelet transform is used on surface mount device (SMD) images to devise a system used to inspect the presence of SMDs in printed circuit boards. The complete system involves preprocessing, feature extraction, and classification. The images correspond to three cases: SMD present (SMD), SMD not present with a speck of glue (GLUE), and SMD not present (noSMD). For each case, two images are collected using top and side illuminations but these are first combined into one image before proceeding to do further processing. Preprocessing is done by applying the wavelet transform to the images to expose details. Using 500 images for each of the three cases, various features are considered from different wavelet subbands, using one or several transform levels, to find four good discriminating parameters. Classification is performed sequentially using a two-level binary decision-tree. Two features are combined into a two-component feature vector and are fed into the first level that compares the SMD vs noSMD cases. The second level uses another feature vector produced by combining two other features and then compares the SMD and GLUE cases. The features used give no cluster overlap on the training set and simple parallelpiped classifier is devised at each level of the tree producing no errors on this set. Results give 99.6% correct classification when applied to a separate testing set consisting of 500 images for each case. All the errors are made to level 2 classifying six SMD images erroneously as GLUE.

  14. Microtesla magnetic resonance imaging with a superconducting quantum interference device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDermott, Robert; Lee, SeungKyun; ten Haken, Bennie; Trabesinger, Andreas H.; Pines, Alexander; Clarke, John

    2004-03-15

    We have constructed a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner based on a dc Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) configured as a second-derivative gradiometer. The magnetic field sensitivity of the detector is independent of frequency; it is therefore possible to obtain high-resolution images by prepolarizing the nuclear spins in a field of 300 mT and detecting the signal at 132 fYT, corresponding to a proton Larmor frequency of 5.6 kHz. The reduction in the measurement field by a factor of 10,000 compared with conventional scanners eliminates inhomogeneous broadening of the nuclear magnetic resonance lines, even in fields with relatively poor homogeneity. The narrow linewidths result in enhanced signal-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution for a fixed strength of the magnetic field gradients used to encode the image. We present two-dimensional images of phantoms and pepper slices, obtained in typical magnetic field gradients of 100 fYT/m, with a spatial resolution of about 1mm. We further demonstrate a slice-selected image of an intact pepper. By varying the time delay between removal of the polarizing field and initiation of the spin echo sequence we acquire T1-weighted contrast images of water phantoms, some of which are doped with a paramagnetic salt; here, T1 is the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time. The techniques presented here could readily be adapted to existing multichannel SQUID systems used for magnetic source imaging of brain signals. Further potential applications include low-cost systems for tumor screening and imaging peripheral regions of the body.

  15. Graphene-Based Hybrid Composites for Efficient Thermal Management of Electronic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtein, Michael; Nadiv, Roey; Buzaglo, Matat; Regev, Oren

    2015-10-28

    Thermal management has become a critical aspect in next-generation miniaturized electronic devices. Efficient heat dissipation reduces their operating temperatures and insures optimal performance, service life, and efficacy. Shielding against shocks, vibrations, and moisture is also imperative when the electronic circuits are located outdoors. Potting (or encapsulating) them in polymer-based composites with enhanced thermal conductivity (TC) may provide a solution for both thermal management and shielding challenges. In the current study, graphene is employed as a filler to fabricate composites with isotropic ultrahigh TC (>12 W m(-1) K(-1)) and good mechanical properties (>30 MPa flexural and compressive strength). To avoid short-circuiting the electronic assemblies, a dispersion of secondary ceramic-based filler reduces the electrical conductivity and synergistically enhances the TC of composites. When utilized as potting materials, these novel hybrid composites effectively dissipate the heat from electronic devices; their operating temperatures decrease from 110 to 37 °C, and their effective thermal resistances are drastically reduced, by up to 90%. The simple filler dispersion method and the precise manipulation of the composite transport properties via hybrid filling offer a universal approach to the large-scale production of novel materials for thermal management and other applications.

  16. Numerical Research on Hybrid Fuel Locking Device for Upward Flow Core-Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Hyung; Cho, Yeong-Garp; Yoo, Yeon-Sik; Ryu, Jeong-Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The assembly must be held firmly against these forces, but cannot be permanently attached to the support stand because periodic refueling of the reactor requires removal or relocation of each assembly. There are so many kinds of fuel locking device, but they are operated manually. As a part of a new project, we have investigated a hybrid fuel locking device (HFLD) for research reactor which is operated automatically. Prior method of holding down the fuel assembly includes a hybrid zero electromagnet consisting of an electromagnet and a permanent magnet. The role of an electromagnet is converged to zero power for overcoming the lifting power of a permanent magnet by controlling the coil current. At this time, a HFLD is an unlocking state. On the contrary, it is locking state that only a permanent magnet works when the power of an electromagnet is off. The results of a FEM in this work lead to the following conclusions: (1) It is possible that an electromagnet is converged to zero power for overcoming the lifting power of a permanent magnet by remote controlling the coil current. (2) At this time, it is able to detect remotely using proximity sensor whether a HFLD is latched or not.

  17. An Efficient Image Compressor for Charge Coupled Devices Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the discrete wavelet transforms- (DWT- based compressor, such as JPEG2000 and CCSDS-IDC, is widely seen as the state of the art compression scheme for charge coupled devices (CCD camera. However, CCD images project on the DWT basis to produce a large number of large amplitude high-frequency coefficients because these images have a large number of complex texture and contour information, which are disadvantage for the later coding. In this paper, we proposed a low-complexity posttransform coupled with compressing sensing (PT-CS compression approach for remote sensing image. First, the DWT is applied to the remote sensing image. Then, a pair base posttransform is applied to the DWT coefficients. The pair base are DCT base and Hadamard base, which can be used on the high and low bit-rate, respectively. The best posttransform is selected by the lp-norm-based approach. The posttransform is considered as the sparse representation stage of CS. The posttransform coefficients are resampled by sensing measurement matrix. Experimental results on on-board CCD camera images show that the proposed approach significantly outperforms the CCSDS-IDC-based coder, and its performance is comparable to that of the JPEG2000 at low bit rate and it does not have the high excessive implementation complexity of JPEG2000.

  18. Simultaneous acquisition of storage phosphor and asymmetric screen-film chest images using a hybrid cassette

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Brent K.; Kimme-Smith, Carolyn; Johnson, Sandra L.; Johnson, Timothy; Aberle, Denise R.

    1994-05-01

    A hybrid cassette has been developed for simultaneous acquisition of storage phosphor and asymmetric screen-film chest images. This is important for the collection of images for Receiver Operating Characteristic studies comparing conventional radiography and computed radiography, without either increased exposure or non-identical imaging conditions. This hybrid radiographic cassette consists of a computed radiography imaging plate (in front) and an intact, high contrast variant of a commercially available asymmetric screen-film system (in the rear) with a speed of approximately 425. The high contrast, speed and efficiency of this screen-film system allow for positioning of the storage phosphor plate in the front of the cassette. As the imaging plate absorption is approximately 35%, the fast screen-film system provides high quality diagnostic images. There is minimal beam hardening, which is ameliorated by the high contrast of the asymmetric front screen. There is minimal differences in the Plexiglas step wedge phantom gray level values for CR and CR-hybrid images and in optical density values for InSightTM and InSightTM-hybrid films. The signal to noise ratio of either hybrid image, while fractionally less than their standard counterparts, is negligibly so. Only a slight modification in radiographic technique is required (10%) for use of this hybrid cassette, providing images that are virtually the same as those obtained through the standard CR and InSightTM ITC imaging methods.

  19. [The modern body image as ethical device for biomedical enhancement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitsameter, C

    2013-01-01

    Ovid's "De medicamine faciei feminae" contains the astonishing sentence "Culta placent - all that is artificial is beautiful". In his "Éloge du maquillage" Baudelaire, buidling on Ovid's argument, states that first culture as picture and construction of beauty brings forth the truth of Nature and claims that cosmetics that allow errors of beauty to disappear artificially produce the true fulfillment of human nature. The present article looks into the historical roots of the body images that have emerged in modern times and attempts to derive structural devices for an ethical assessment of the potential we have to enhance human nature. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Fast, cheap and in control: spectral imaging with handheld devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Edward A.; Deutsch, Erik R.; Huehnerhoff, Joseph; Hajian, Arsen R.

    2017-05-01

    Remote sensing has moved out of the laboratory and into the real world. Instruments using reflection or Raman imaging modalities become faster, cheaper and more powerful annually. Enabling technologies include virtual slit spectrometer design, high power multimode diode lasers, fast open-loop scanning systems, low-noise IR-sensitive array detectors and low-cost computers with touchscreen interfaces. High-volume manufacturing assembles these components into inexpensive portable or handheld devices that make possible sophisticated decision-making based on robust data analytics. Examples include threat, hazmat and narcotics detection; remote gas sensing; biophotonic screening; environmental remediation and a host of other applications.

  1. Biochip functionalization using electrowetting-on-dielectric digital microfluidics for surface plasmon resonance imaging detection of DNA hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malic, Lidija; Veres, Teodor; Tabrizian, Maryam

    2009-03-15

    This work reports on a dynamically configurable micro-array surface plasmon resonance biochip platform. The platform comprises a digital electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) microfluidic device tailored to surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi). We demonstrate its application for simultaneous immobilization of different DNA probes at the designated detection sites on-chip from sub-microL volume solutions in combination with multichannel label-free real-time detection of subsequent hybridization reactions. Successful on-chip DNA probe dilution and immobilization is also demonstrated using SPRi hybridization detection. Furthermore, active control of the immobilized probe density and orientation is achieved under an applied potential using the electric interface of the EWOD device. For low probe densities, under negative applied potential, the DNA hybridization efficiency is enhanced compared to passive probe immobilization, yielding a two-fold SPR signal increase within only 8min of hybridization. EWOD microfluidic platform coupled with SPRi promises to dramatically increase the speed of detection and quantification of biomolecular interactions while reducing reagent consumption. The proposed system would enable the development of high-throughput, rapid and ultrasensitive detection of biomolecules beyond DNA microarray applications.

  2. HistoFlex-a microfluidic device providing uniform flow conditions enabling highly sensitive, reproducible and quantitative in situ hybridizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Martin Jensen; Okkels, Fridolin; Sabourin, David

    2011-01-01

    were not visually damaged during assaying, which enabled adapting a complete ISH assay for detection of microRNAs (miRNA). The effects of flow based incubations on hybridization, antibody incubation and Tyramide Signal Amplification (TSA) steps were investigated upon adapting the ISH assay...... for performing in the HistoFlex. The hybridization step was significantly enhanced using flow based incubations due to improved hybridization efficiency. The HistoFlex device enabled a fast miRNA ISH assay (3 hours) which provided higher hybridization signal intensity compared to using conventional techniques (5......A microfluidic device (the HistoFlex) designed to perform and monitor molecular biological assays under dynamic flow conditions on microscope slide-substrates, with special emphasis on analyzing histological tissue sections, is presented. Microscope slides were reversibly sealed onto a cast...

  3. Omnidirectional Harvesting of Weak Light Using a Graphene Quantum Dot-Modified Organic/Silicon Hybrid Device

    KAUST Repository

    Tsai, Meng-Lin

    2017-04-21

    Despite great improvements in traditional inorganic photodetectors and photovoltaics, more progress is needed in the detection/collection of light at low-level conditions. Traditional photodetectors tend to suffer from high noise when operated at room temperature; therefore, these devices require additional cooling systems to detect weak or dim light. Conventional solar cells also face the challenge of poor light-harvesting capabilities in hazy or cloudy weather. The real world features such varying levels of light, which makes it important to develop strategies that allow optical devices to function when conditions are less than optimal. In this work, we report an organic/inorganic hybrid device that consists of graphene quantum dot-modified poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrenesulfonate spin-coated on Si for the detection/harvest of weak light. The hybrid configuration provides the device with high responsivity and detectability, omnidirectional light trapping, and fast operation speed. To demonstrate the potential of this hybrid device in real world applications, we measured near-infrared light scattered through human tissue to demonstrate noninvasive oximetric photodetection as well as characterized the device\\'s photovoltaic properties in outdoor (i.e., weather-dependent) and indoor weak light conditions. This organic/inorganic device configuration demonstrates a promising strategy for developing future high-performance low-light compatible photodetectors and photovoltaics.

  4. APPLICATION OF HYBRID WAVELET-FRACTAL COMPRESSION ALGORITHM FOR RADIOGRAPHIC IMAGES OF WELD DEFECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Faiza Mekhalfa; Daoud Berkani

    2011-01-01

    Based on the standard fractal transformation in spatial domain, simple relations may be found relating coefficients in detail subbands in the wavelet domain. In this work we evaluate a hybrid wavelet-fractal image coder, and we test its ability to compress radiographic images of weld defects. A comparative study between the hybrid coder and standard fractal compression technique have been made in order to investigate the compression ratio and corresponding quality of the image using peak sign...

  5. Gold nanoparticle-embedded silk protein-ZnO nanorod hybrids for flexible bio-photonic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogurla, Narendar; Kundu, Subhas C.; Ray, Samit K.

    2017-04-01

    Silk protein has been used as a biopolymer substrate for flexible photonic devices. Here, we demonstrate ZnO nanorod array hybrid photodetectors on Au nanoparticle-embedded silk protein for flexible optoelectronics. Hybrid samples exhibit optical absorption at the band edge of ZnO as well as plasmonic energy due to Au nanoparticles, making them attractive for selective UV and visible wavelength detection. The device prepared on Au-silk protein shows a much lower dark current and a higher photo to dark-current ratio of ∼105 as compared to the control sample without Au nanoparticles. The hybrid device also exhibits a higher specific detectivity due to higher responsivity arising from the photo-generated hole trapping by Au nanoparticles. Sharp pulses in the transient photocurrent have been observed in devices prepared on glass and Au-silk protein substrates due to the light induced pyroelectric effect of ZnO, enabling the demonstration of self-powered photodetectors at zero bias. Flexible hybrid detectors have been demonstrated on Au-silk/polyethylene terephthalate substrates, exhibiting characteristics similar to those fabricated on rigid glass substrates. A study of the performance of photodetectors with different bending angles indicates very good mechanical stability of silk protein based flexible devices. This novel concept of ZnO nanorod array photodetectors on a natural silk protein platform provides an opportunity to realize integrated flexible and self-powered bio-photonic devices for medical applications in near future.

  6. Tungsten oxides as interfacial layers for improved performance in hybrid optoelectronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilopoulou, M., E-mail: mariva@imel.demokritos.gr [Institute of Microelectronics, NCSR Demokritos, Terma Patriarchou Grigoriou, 15310 Aghia Paraskevi (Greece); Palilis, L.C.; Georgiadou, D.G.; Argitis, P. [Institute of Microelectronics, NCSR Demokritos, Terma Patriarchou Grigoriou, 15310 Aghia Paraskevi (Greece); Kennou, S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, 26500, Patras (Greece); Kostis, I. [Department of Electronics, Technological and Educational Institute of Pireaus, 12244 Aegaleo (Greece); Department of Information and Communication Systems Engineering, University of the Aegean, 83200 Karlovassi (Greece); Papadimitropoulos, G. [Institute of Microelectronics, NCSR Demokritos, Terma Patriarchou Grigoriou, 15310 Aghia Paraskevi (Greece); Stathopoulos, N.A. [Department of Electronics, Technological and Educational Institute of Pireaus, 12244 Aegaleo (Greece); Iliadis, A.A. [Department of Information and Communication Systems Engineering, University of the Aegean, 83200 Karlovassi (Greece); Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of Maryland, College Park (United States); Konofaos, N. [Department of Information and Communication Systems Engineering, University of the Aegean, 83200 Karlovassi (Greece); Davazoglou, D. [Institute of Microelectronics, NCSR Demokritos, Terma Patriarchou Grigoriou, 15310 Aghia Paraskevi (Greece); Sygellou, L. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, 26500, Patras (Greece)

    2011-06-30

    Tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) films with thicknesses ranging from 30 to 100 nm were grown by Hot Filament Vapor Deposition (HFVD). Films were studied by X-Ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS) and were found to be stoichiometric. The surface morphology of the films was characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Samples had a granular form with grains in the order of 100 nm. The surface roughness was found to increase with film thickness. HFVD WO{sub 3} films were used as conducting interfacial layers in advanced hybrid organic-inorganic optoelectronic devices. Hybrid-Organic Light Emitting Diodes (Hy-OLEDs) and Organic Photovoltaics (Hy-OPVs) were fabricated with these films as anode and/or as cathode interfacial conducting layers. The Hy-OLEDs showed significantly higher current density and a lower turn-on voltage when a thin WO{sub 3} layer was inserted at the anode/polymer interface, while when inserted at the cathode/polymer interface the device performance was found to deteriorate. The improvement was attributed to a more efficient hole injection and transport from the Fermi level of the anode to the Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO) of a yellow emitting copolymer (YEP). On the other hand, the insertion of a thin WO{sub 3} layer at the cathode/polymer interface of Hy-OPV devices based on a polythiophene-fullerene bulk-heterojunction blend photoactive layer resulted in an increase of the produced photogenerated current, more likely due to improved electron extraction at the Al cathode.

  7. Hybrid magnetic field gradient, rotating wall device for enhanced colloidal magnetic affinity separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghebremeskel, Alazar Negusse

    A 2.0 cm internal diameter 1 m long, axially-rotating horizontal glass tube, with four axially located repeating hybrid magnetic units, is used as part of a flow-through, colloidal magnetic affinity separation device. Each magnetic unit consists of an alternating current solenoid surrounding the chamber followed by four azimuthally distributed permanent magnets that rotate with the chamber. The separation is demonstrated on a model feed system consisting of a mixture of 1.0 μm diameter biotinylated latex beads (targets) and 9.7 μm diameter non-functionalized latex beads (non-targets) at a 1:1 number ratio. Two feed flow rates of 12 ml/min and 35 ml/min were used until a total of 600 ml of sample were processed for each. At the low rate we achieved capture efficiency 60%, a separation factor of 18.2 with 95% purity. For the higher flow rate, the capture efficiency was 40%, the separation factor 18.6 with 87% purity. The same device also was used for removal of cadmium ions from a cadmium sulfate solution. Two arrangements for the magnetic units were used. In the first configuration, four hybrid pairs were distributed axially-each pair consisted of an alternating current carrying solenoid, followed by four azimuthally distributed permanent magnets that rotate with the chamber. In the second configuration, all four solenoids were placed first, followed by the four sets of four azimuthally distributed permanent magnets. 1-10 μm diameter magnetic particles with iron oxide nanoparticles embedded within a quaternary ammonium cellulose matrix (MagaCell- Q, Cortex Biochem) at a starting concentration of 0.5 mg particles/mL were used as the mobile solid support. The feed consisted of a 10.0 mg/L cadmium sulfate solution, at a flow rate of 35 mL/min. For the arrangement, the cadmium concentration at the exit of the third stage dropped to 0.97 mg/L. The second configuration produced a final cadmium concentration of 0.68 mg/L. For the first arrangement, three stage

  8. Hybrid Positron Emission Tomography/Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Challenges, Methods, and State of the Art of Hardware Component Attenuation Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Daniel H; Quick, Harald H

    2016-10-01

    Attenuation correction (AC) is an essential step in the positron emission tomography (PET) data reconstruction process to provide accurate and quantitative PET images. The introduction of PET/magnetic resonance (MR) hybrid systems has raised new challenges but also possibilities regarding PET AC. While in PET/computed tomography (CT) imaging, CT images can be converted to attenuation maps, MR images in PET/MR do not provide a direct relation to attenuation. For the AC of patient tissues, new methods have been suggested, for example, based on image segmentation, atlas registration, or ultrashort echo time MR sequences. Another challenge in PET/MR hybrid imaging is AC of hardware components that are placed in the PET/MR field of view, such as the patient table or various radiofrequency (RF) coils covering the body of the patient for MR signal detection. Hardware components can be categorized into 4 different groups: (1) patient table, (2) RF receiver coils, (3) radiation therapy equipment, and (4) PET and MR imaging phantoms. For rigid and stationary objects, such as the patient table and some RF coils like the head/neck coil, predefined CT-based attenuation maps stored on the system can be used for automatic AC. Flexible RF coils are not included into the AC process till now because they can vary in position as well as in shape and are not accurately detectable with the PET/MR system.This work summarizes challenges, established methods, new concepts, and the state of art in hardware component AC in the context of PET/MR hybrid imaging. The work also gives an overview of PET/MR hardware devices, their attenuation properties, and their effect on PET quantification.

  9. Electrical Characteristics of Hybrid-Organic Memory Devices Based on Au Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejm, Razan R.; Ayesh, Ahmad I.; Zeze, Dagou A.; Sleiman, Adam; Mabrook, Mohammed F.; Al-Ghaferi, Amal; Hussein, Mousa

    2015-08-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of hybrid-organic memory devices based on gold (Au) nanoparticles that utilize metal-insulator-semiconductor structure. Au nanoparticles were produced by sputtering and inert-gas condensation inside an ultrahigh-vacuum compatible system. The nanoparticles were self-assembled on a silicon dioxide (SiO2)/silicon (Si) substrate, then coated with a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) insulating layer. Aluminum (Al) electrodes were deposited by thermal evaporation on the Si substrate and the PMMA layer to create a capacitor. The nanoparticles worked as charge storage elements, while the PMMA is the capacitor insulator. The capacitance-voltage ( C- V) characteristics of the fabricated devices showed a clockwise hysteresis with a memory window of 3.4 V, indicative of electron injection from the top Al electrode through the PMMA layer into Au nanoparticles. Charge retention was measured at the stress voltage, demonstrating that the devices retain 94% of the charge stored after 3 h of continuous testing.

  10. Yeasts identification in microfluidic devices using peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, André M; Cruz-Moreira, Daniela; Cerqueira, Laura; Miranda, João M; Azevedo, Nuno F

    2017-03-01

    Peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH) is a highly specific molecular method widely used for microbial identification. Nonetheless, and due to the detection limit of this technique, a time-consuming pre-enrichment step is typically required before identification. In here we have developed a lab-on-a-chip device to concentrate cell suspensions and speed up the identification process in yeasts. The PNA-FISH protocol was optimized to target Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a common yeast that is very relevant for several types of food industries. Then, several coin-sized microfluidic devices with different geometries were developed. Using Computational fluid dynamics (CFD), we modeled the hydrodynamics inside the microchannels and selected the most promising options. SU-8 structures were fabricated based on the selected designs and used to produce polydimethylsiloxane-based microchips by soft lithography. As a result, an integrated approach combining microfluidics and PNA-FISH for the rapid identification of S. cerevisiae was achieved. To improve fluid flow inside microchannels and the PNA-FISH labeling, oxygen plasma treatment was applied to the microfluidic devices and a new methodology to introduce the cell suspension and solutions into the microchannels was devised. A strong PNA-FISH signal was observed in cells trapped inside the microchannels, proving that the proposed methodology works as intended. The microfluidic designs and PNA-FISH procedure described in here should be easily adaptable for detection of other microorganisms of similar size.

  11. Technology ready use of single layer graphene as a transparent electrode for hybrid photovoltaic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhibing; Puls, Conor P.; Staley, Neal E.; Zhang, Yu; Todd, Aaron; Xu, Jian; Howsare, Casey A.; Hollander, Matthew J.; Robinson, Joshua A.; Liu, Ying

    2011-11-01

    Graphene has been used recently as a replacement for indium tin oxide (ITO) for the transparent electrode of an organic photovoltaic device. Due to its limited supply, ITO is considered as a limiting factor for the commercialization of organic solar cells. We explored the use of large-area graphene grown on copper by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and then transferred to a glass substrate as an alternative transparent electrode. The transferred film was shown by scanning Raman spectroscopy measurements to consist of >90% single layer graphene. Optical spectroscopy measurements showed that the layer-transferred graphene has an optical absorbance of 1.23% at a wavelength of 532 nm. We fabricated organic hybrid solar cells utilizing this material as an electrode and compared their performance with those of ITO devices fabricated using the same procedure. We demonstrated power conversion efficiency up to 3.98%, higher than that of the ITO device (3.86%), showing that layer-transferred graphene promises to be a high quality, low-cost, flexible material for transparent electrodes in solar cell technology.

  12. Monitoring biofilm attachment on medical devices surfaces using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Hanh N. D.; Hitchins, Victoria M.; Ilev, Ilko K.; Kim, Do-Hyun

    2014-02-01

    Microbial biofilm is a colony of single bacteria cells (planktonic) that attached to surfaces, attract other microorganisms to attach and grow, and together they build an extracellular matrix composed of polysaccharides, protein, and DNA. Eventually, some cells will detach and spread to other surface. Biofilm on medical devices can cause severe infection to all age ranges from infant to adult. Therefore, it is important to detect biofilm in a fast and efficient manner. Hyperspectral imaging was utilized for distinguishing wide area of biofilm coverage on various materials and on different textures of stainless steeltest coupons. Not only is the coverage of biofilm important, but also the shear stress of biofilm on the attached surfaces is significant. This study investigates the effects of shear stress on the adhesion of biofilms on common medical device surfaces such as glass, polycarbonate, polytetrafluoroethylene, and stainless steel with different textures. Biofilm was grown using Ps. aeruginosa and growth was monitored after 24 and 48 hours at 37° C. The coupons covered with biofilm were tilted at 45 degrees and 90 degrees for 30 seconds to induce shear stress and Hyperspectral images were taken. We hypothesize that stronger attachment on rough surface would be able to withstand greater shear stress compared to smooth surface.

  13. Review on usefulness of EPID (Electronic Portal Imaging Device)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Choong Won; Park, Do Keun; Choi, A Hyun; Ahn, Jong Ho; Song, Ki Weon [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Replacing the film which used to be used for checking the set-up of the patient and dosimetry during radiation therapy, more and more EPID equipped devices are in use at present. Accordingly, this article tried to evaluated the accuracy of the position check-up and the usefulness of dosimetry during the use of an electronic portal imaging device. On 50 materials acquired with the search of Korea Society Radiotherapeutic Technology, The Korean Society for Radiation Oncology, and Pubmed using 'EPID', 'Portal dosimetry', 'Portal image', 'Dose verification', 'Quality control', 'Cine mode', 'Quality - assurance', and 'In vivo dosimetry' as indexes, the usefulness of EPID was analyzed by classifying them as history of EPID and dosimetry, set-up verification and characteristics of EPID. EPID is developed from the first generation of Liquid-filled ionization chamber, through the second generation of Camera-based fluoroscopy, and to the third generation of Amorphous-silicon EPID imaging modes can be divided into EPID mode, Cine mode and Integrated mode. When evaluating absolute dose accuracy of films and EPID, it was found that EPID showed within 1% and EDR2 film showed within 3% errors. It was confirmed that EPID is better in error measurement accuracy than film. When gamma analyzing the dose distribution of the base exposure plane which was calculated from therapy planning system, and planes calculated by EDR2 film and EPID, both film and EPID showed less than 2% of pixels which exceeded 1 at gamma values (r%>1) with in the thresholds such as 3%/3 mm and 2%/2 mm respectively. For the time needed for full course QA in IMRT to compare loads, EDR2 film recorded approximately 110 minutes, and EPID recorded approximately 55 minutes. EPID could easily replace conventional complicated and troublesome film and ionization chamber which used to be used for dosimetry and set-up verification, and it was

  14. 75 FR 875 - Guidance for Industry on New Contrast Imaging Indication Considerations for Devices and Approved...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    .../biological products that provide image contrast enhancement. The final guidance announced in this document... specific medical imaging indications (e.g., myocardial perfusion or breast cancer imaging) and offered... developers of medical imaging devices and imaging drug/ biological products that provide image contrast...

  15. Electron imaging with Medipix2 hybrid pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    McMullan, G; Chen, S; Henderson, R; Llopart, X; Summerfield, C; Tlustos, L; Faruqi, A R

    2007-01-01

    The electron imaging performance of Medipix2 is described. Medipix2 is a hybrid pixel detector composed of two layers. It has a sensor layer and a layer of readout electronics, in which each 55 μm×55 μm pixel has upper and lower energy discrimination and MHz rate counting. The sensor layer consists of a 300 μm slab of pixellated monolithic silicon and this is bonded to the readout chip. Experimental measurement of the detective quantum efficiency, DQE(0) at 120 keV shows that it can reach 85% independent of electron exposure, since the detector has zero noise, and the DQE(Nyquist) can reach 35% of that expected for a perfect detector (4/π2). Experimental measurement of the modulation transfer function (MTF) at Nyquist resolution for 120 keV electrons using a 60 keV lower energy threshold, yields a value that is 50% of that expected for a perfect detector (2/π). Finally, Monte Carlo simulations of electron tracks and energy deposited in adjacent pixels have been performed and used to calculate expected v...

  16. Hybrid simulation of a parallel collisionless shock in the Large Plasma Device

    CERN Document Server

    Weidl, M S; Jenko, F; Niemann, C

    2016-01-01

    We present two-dimensional hybrid kinetic/magnetohydrodynamic simulations of planned laser-ablation experiments in the Large Plasma Device (LAPD). Our results, based on parameters which have been validated in previous experiments, show that a parallel collisionless shock can begin forming within the available space. Carbon-debris ions that stream along the magnetic-field direction with a blow-off speed of four times the Alfven velocity excite strong magnetic fluctuations, eventually transfering part of their kinetic energy to the surrounding hydrogen ions. This acceleration and compression of the background plasma creates a shock front, which satisfies the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions and can therefore propagate on its own. Furthermore, we analyze the upstream turbulence and show that it is dominated by the right-hand resonant instability.

  17. Electrochromic device of PEDOT-PANI hybrid system for fast response and high optical contrast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Joo-Hee; Oh, Yeon-Ji; Hwang, Seong-Ju; Choy, Jin-Ho [Center for Intelligent Nano-Bio Materials (CINBM), Department of Chemistry and Nano Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea); Paek, Seung-Min [Center for Intelligent Nano-Bio Materials (CINBM), Department of Chemistry and Nano Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea); Beamline Research Division, Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang 790-784 (Korea)

    2009-12-15

    An organic-organic hybrid system composed of the polyaniline (PANI) and poly-(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) with controlled thickness was developed successfully in order to realize synergetic effects in electrochromic (EC) properties such as optical contrast and color-switching rate. From the UV transmittance spectra, we found that the optical contrast ({delta}%T) was enhanced up to 6-72% at the wavelength of 580 nm compared with the previous PANI-PEDOT ECDs. Furthermore, the optimized ECD showed an extremely fast response time of less than 160 ms. It is therefore concluded that such a complementary full.cell system of PEDOT-PANI ECD is applicable as an optical device. (author)

  18. Image guided placement of temporary anchorage devices for tooth movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahl-Palomo, L.; Bissada, N. [Case Western Reserve Univ. School of Dental Medicine, Dept. of Periodontics, Cleveland, OH (United States); Palomo, J.M.; Hans, M.G. [Case Western Reserve Univ. School of Dental Medicine, Dept. of Orthodontics, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2007-06-15

    The aim of this project is to develop an image guided protocol for placement of a temporary anchorage device without surgically reflecting a mucoperiosteal flap. Eighteen orthodontic cases were selected for skeletal anchorage from the department of orthodontics at Case University. CBCT images of the subjects were taken using the Hitachi CB MercuRay system set at 15 mA, 120 kVp. CBCT images evaluated the ideal location for TAD placement in three dimensions. Horizontal and vertical linear measurements were taken from fixed dental landmarks to clearly define the location for placement. Transverse slices were used to evaluate the thickness of the buccal plate. Using the transverse view, the angle of insertion was determined such that the maximum buccal plate surface area would contact the screw. TADs were placed in the optimum location, with the most appropriate angle of insertion using a closed approach and with minimal local anesthesia and without flap elevation. Results: All TADs were placed without anatomic encroachment and enabled fixed orthodontic anchorage. (orig.)

  19. Super-resolution imaging of bacteria in a microfluidics device.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego I Cattoni

    Full Text Available Bacteria have evolved complex, highly-coordinated, multi-component cellular engines to achieve high degrees of efficiency, accuracy, adaptability, and redundancy. Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy methods are ideally suited to investigate the internal composition, architecture, and dynamics of molecular machines and large cellular complexes. These techniques require the long-term stability of samples, high signal-to-noise-ratios, low chromatic aberrations and surface flatness, conditions difficult to meet with traditional immobilization methods. We present a method in which cells are functionalized to a microfluidics device and fluorophores are injected and imaged sequentially. This method has several advantages, as it permits the long-term immobilization of cells and proper correction of drift, avoids chromatic aberrations caused by the use of different filter sets, and allows for the flat immobilization of cells on the surface. In addition, we show that different surface chemistries can be used to image bacteria at different time-scales, and we introduce an automated cell detection and image analysis procedure that can be used to obtain cell-to-cell, single-molecule localization and dynamic heterogeneity as well as average properties at the super-resolution level.

  20. Hybrid Optimization for Ultrasound and Multimodal Image Registration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wachowiak, Mark

    2001-01-01

    ... intra- and multimodal ultrasound registration, Stochastic and direct techniques are compared for mutual information and correlation ratio functions, A new direct/stochastic hybrid approach based...

  1. Hybrid lightweight X-ray optics for half arcsecond imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Paul

    This proposal is for the development of grazing incidence optics suitable to meet the 0.5 arcsec imaging and 2.3 square meter effective area requirements of the X-ray Surveyor mission concept, currently under study by NASA. Our approach is to combine two promising technologies, as yet individually unproven at the 0.5 arcsec level, into a hybrid mirror approach. The two technologies are thin piezoelectric film adjustable optics under development at SAO and PSU, and differential deposition under development at NASA MSFC. These technologies are complementary: adjustable optics are best suited to fixing low spatial frequency errors due to piezoelectric cell size limitations, and differential deposition is best suited for fixing mid-spatial frequency errors so as to limit the amount of material that must be deposited. Thus, the combination of the two techniques extends the bandwidth of figure errors that can be corrected beyond what it was for either individual technique. Both technologies will be applied to fabricate Wolter-I mirror segment from single thermally formed glass substrates. This work is directed at mirror segments only (not full shells), as we believe segments are the most appropriate for developing the 3 m diameter X-ray Surveyor high resolution mirror. In this program we will extend differential deposition to segment surfaces (from line profiles), investigate the most realistic error bandwidths for each technology, and determine the impacts of one technologys processing steps on the other to find if there is an optimal order to combining the technologies. In addition, we will also conduct a conical/cylindrical mirror metrology "round-robin," to cross-calibrate the different cylindrical metrology to one another as a means of minimizing systematic errors. Finally, we will examine the balancing and compensating of mirror stress due to the various thin films employed (piezoelectric layer, differential deposition, X-ray reflecting layer(s)) with an eye to

  2. QUANTITATIVE IMAGING AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF FLUORESCENCE IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION (FISH) OF AUREOBASIDIUM PULLULANS. (R823845)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractImage and multifactorial statistical analyses were used to evaluate the intensity of fluorescence signal from cells of three strains of A. pullulans and one strain of Rhodosporidium toruloides, as an outgroup, hybridized with either a universal o...

  3. Whole-body hybrid imaging concept for the integration of PET/MR into radiation therapy treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Daniel H.; Oehmigen, Mark; Grueneisen, Johannes; Umutlu, Lale; Quick, Harald H.

    2016-05-01

    Modern radiation therapy (RT) treatment planning is based on multimodality imaging. With the recent availability of whole-body PET/MR hybrid imaging new opportunities arise to improve target volume delineation in RT treatment planning. This, however, requires dedicated RT equipment for reproducible patient positioning on the PET/MR system, which has to be compatible with MR and PET imaging. A prototype flat RT table overlay, radiofrequency (RF) coil holders for head imaging, and RF body bridges for body imaging were developed and tested towards PET/MR system integration. Attenuation correction (AC) of all individual RT components was performed by generating 3D CT-based template models. A custom-built program for μ-map generation assembles all AC templates depending on the presence and position of each RT component. All RT devices were evaluated in phantom experiments with regards to MR and PET imaging compatibility, attenuation correction, PET quantification, and position accuracy. The entire RT setup was then evaluated in a first PET/MR patient study on five patients at different body regions. All tested devices are PET/MR compatible and do not produce visible artifacts or disturb image quality. The RT components showed a repositioning accuracy of better than 2 mm. Photon attenuation of  -11.8% in the top part of the phantom was observable, which was reduced to  -1.7% with AC using the μ-map generator. Active lesions of 3 subjects were evaluated in terms of SUVmean and an underestimation of  -10.0% and  -2.4% was calculated without and with AC of the RF body bridges, respectively. The new dedicated RT equipment for hybrid PET/MR imaging enables acquisitions in all body regions. It is compatible with PET/MR imaging and all hardware components can be corrected in hardware AC by using the suggested μ-map generator. These developments provide the technical and methodological basis for integration of PET/MR hybrid imaging into RT planning.

  4. FMT-PCCT: hybrid fluorescence molecular tomography-x-ray phase-contrast CT imaging of mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajerani, Pouyan; Hipp, Alexander; Willner, Marian; Marschner, Mathias; Trajkovic-Arsic, Marija; Ma, Xiaopeng; Burton, Neal C; Klemm, Uwe; Radrich, Karin; Ermolayev, Vladimir; Tzoumas, Stratis; Siveke, Jens T; Bech, Martin; Pfeiffer, Franz; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2014-07-01

    The implementation of hybrid fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) and X-ray computed tomography (CT) has been shown to be a necessary development, not only for combining anatomical with functional and molecular contrast, but also for generating optical images of high accuracy. FMT affords highly sensitive 3-D imaging of fluorescence bio-distribution, but in stand-alone form it offers images of low resolution. It was shown that FMT accuracy significantly improves by considering anatomical priors from CT. Conversely, CT generally suffers from low soft tissue contrast. Therefore utilization of CT data as prior information in FMT inversion is challenging when different internal organs are not clearly differentiated. Instead, we combined herein FMT with emerging X-ray phase-contrast CT (PCCT). PCCT relies on phase shift differences in tissue to achieve soft tissue contrast superior to conventional CT. We demonstrate for the first time FMT-PCCT imaging of different animal models, where FMT and PCCT scans were performed in vivo and ex vivo, respectively. The results show that FMT-PCCT expands the potential of FMT in imaging lesions with otherwise low or no CT contrast, while retaining the cost benefits of CT and simplicity of hybrid device realizations. The results point to the most accurate FMT performance to date.

  5. Neutron Imaging Device Using Wave Length Shifting Fibre Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Gorin, A; Kiyanagi, Y

    2002-01-01

    A high resolution imaging device for cold neutrons detection has been constructed for the neutron optics (nop) Group in RIKEN, and tested with thermal neutrons at the Laue-Langevin Institute in Grenoble. It consists of a thin plate of ZnS(Ag)+6LiF scintillator optically coupled with Y11(400) wave-length shifting (WLS) fibres. The space resolution was found to be ~ 0.45 mm in FWHM as expected from the pitch of WLS fibres with a crossection of 0.4 ´ 0.4 mm2. The detection efficiency for thermal neutrons (l = 2.5 ) was estimated with respect to 3He monitor, and found to be ~ 10 %, which ensured a reasonable efficiency for cold neutrons (l = 10 ).

  6. Broadband modulation of terahertz waves through electrically driven hybrid bowtie antenna-VO2 devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chunrui; Parrott, Edward P J; Humbert, Georges; Crunteanu, Aurelian; Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma

    2017-10-05

    Broadband modulation of terahertz (THz) light is experimentally realized through the electrically driven metal-insulator phase transition of vanadium dioxide (VO2) in hybrid metal antenna-VO2 devices. The devices consist of VO2 active layers and bowtie antenna arrays, such that the electrically driven phase transition can be realized by applying an external voltage between adjacent metal wires extended to a large area array. The modulation depth of the terahertz light can be initially enhanced by the metal wires on top of VO2 and then improved through the addition of specific bowties in between the wires. As a result, a terahertz wave with a large beam size (~10 mm) can be modulated within the measurable spectral range (0.3-2.5 THz) with a frequency independent modulation depth as high as 0.9, and the minimum amplitude transmission down to 0.06. Moreover, the electrical switch on/off phase transition depends very much on the size of the VO2 area, indicating that smaller VO2 regions lead to higher modulation speeds and lower phase transition voltages. With the capabilities in actively tuning the beam size, modulation depth, modulation bandwidth as well as the modulation speed of THz waves, our study paves the way in implementing multifunctional components for terahertz applications.

  7. sBCI-Headset—Wearable and Modular Device for Hybrid Brain-Computer Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsiana Malechka

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Severely disabled people, like completely paralyzed persons either with tetraplegia or similar disabilities who cannot use their arms and hands, are often considered as a user group of Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI. In order to achieve high acceptance of the BCI by this user group and their supporters, the BCI system has to be integrated into their support infrastructure. Critical disadvantages of a BCI are the time consuming preparation of the user for the electroencephalography (EEG measurements and the low information transfer rate of EEG based BCI. These disadvantages become apparent if a BCI is used to control complex devices. In this paper, a hybrid BCI is described that enables research for a Human Machine Interface (HMI that is optimally adapted to requirements of the user and the tasks to be carried out. The solution is based on the integration of a Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP-BCI, an Event-related (de-synchronization (ERD/ERS-BCI, an eye tracker, an environmental observation camera, and a new EEG head cap for wearing comfort and easy preparation. The design of the new fast multimodal BCI (called sBCI system is described and first test results, obtained in experiments with six healthy subjects, are presented. The sBCI concept may also become useful for healthy people in cases where a “hands-free” handling of devices is necessary.

  8. Securing E-mail Communication Using Hybrid Cryptosystem on Android-based Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri Zakariya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most popular internet services is electronic mail (e-mail. By using mobile devices with internet connection, e-mail can be widely used by anyone to exchange information anywhere and anytime whether public or confidential. Unfortunately, there are some security issues with email communication; e-mail is sent in over open networks and e-mail is stored on potentially insecure mail servers. Moreover, e-mail has no integrity protection so the body can be undectected altered in transit or on the e-mail server. E-mail also has no data origin authentication, so people cannot be sure that the emails they receive are from the e-mail address owner. In order to solve this problem, this study proposes a secure method of e-mail communication on Android-based mobile devices using a hybrid cryptosystem which combines symmetric encryption, asymmetric encryption and hash function. The experimental results show that the proposed method succeeded in meeting those aspects of information security including confidentiality, data integrity, authentication, and non-repudiation.

  9. Latest results and developments from the Hybrid Illinois Device for Research and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizkallah, Rabel; Andruczyk, Daniel; Jeckell, Zachary Jon; Shone, Andrew John; Johnson, Daniel Scott; Allain, Jean Paul; Curreli, Davide; Ruzic, David N.; The Hidra Team

    2017-10-01

    The Hybrid Illinois Device for Research and Applications (HIDRA) is a five-period, l = 2, m = 5, toroidal fusion device operated at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC). It has a major radius R0 = 0.72 m and minor radius a = 0.19 m. Initial heating is achieved with 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) at an on-axis magnetic field of B0 = 0.087 T which can go as high as B0 = 0.5 T. HIDRA will mainly be used as a classical stellarator, but can also run as a tokamak. This allows for both steady-state and transient regime operations. Experiments on HIDRA will primarily tackle the issue of plasma-material interactions (PMI) in fusion, and focus on developing innovative plasma facing component (PFC) technologies. Currently, research on flowing liquid lithium PFCs meant to be tested inside the machine in real-time operation, is being carried on. The first experiments run on HIDRA started in early 2016 in the low field region. Now, HIDRA is also capable of running in the high field zone, allowing for more interesting experiments and meaningful outcomes. Here, we present some of the initial results coming from the machine.

  10. Traffic sounds and cycling safety : the use of electronic devices by cyclists and the quietness of hybrid and electric cars.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelling-Konczak, A. Hagenzieker, M.P. & Wee, B. van

    2015-01-01

    The growing popularity of electric devices and the increasing number of hybrid and electric cars have recently raised concerns about the use of auditory signals by vulnerable road users. This paper consolidates current knowledge about the two trends in relation to cycling safety. Both a literature

  11. Fabrication, Metrology, and Transport Characteristics of Single Polymeric Nanopores in Three-Dimensional Hybrid Microfluidic/Nanofluidic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Travis L.

    2009-01-01

    The incorporation of nanofluidic elements between microfluidic channels to form hybrid microfluidic/nanofluidic architectures allows the extension of microfluidic systems into the third dimension, thus removing the constraints imposed by planarity. Measuring and understanding the behavior of these devices creates new analytical challenges due to…

  12. A Fast Enhanced Secure Image Chaotic Cryptosystem Based on Hybrid Chaotic Magic Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Koppu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An enhanced secure image chaotic cryptosystem has been proposed based on hybrid CMT-Lanczos algorithm. We have achieved fast encryption and decryption along with privacy of images. The pseudorandom generator has been used along with Lanczos algorithm to generate root characteristics and eigenvectors. Using hybrid CMT image, pixels are shuffled to accomplish excellent randomness. Compared with existing methods, the proposed method had more robustness to various attacks: brute-force attack, known cipher plaintext, chosen-plaintext, security key space, key sensitivity, correlation analysis and information entropy, and differential attacks. Simulation results show that the proposed methods give better result in protecting images with low-time complexity.

  13. An oxygen-independent and membrane-less glucose biobattery/supercapacitor hybrid device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xinxin; Conghaile, Peter Ó; Leech, Dónal; Ludwig, Roland; Magner, Edmond

    2017-12-15

    Enzymatic biofuel cells can generate electricity directly from the chemical energy of biofuels in physiological fluids, but their power density is significantly limited by the performance of the cathode which is based on oxygen reduction for in vivo applications. An oxygen-independent and membrane-less glucose biobattery was prepared that consists of a dealloyed nanoporous gold (NPG) supported glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) bioanode, immobilised with the assistance of conductive polymer/Os redox polymer composites, and a solid-state NPG/MnO2 cathode. In a solution containing 10mM glucose, a maximum power density of 2.3µWcm-2 at 0.21V and an open circuit voltage (OCV) of 0.49V were registered as a biobattery. The potential of the discharged MnO2 could be recovered, enabling a proof-of-concept biobattery/supercapacitor hybrid device. The resulting device exhibited a stable performance for 50 cycles of self-recovery and galvanostatic discharge as a supercapacitor at 0.1mAcm-2 over a period of 25h. The device could be discharged at current densities up to 2mAcm-2 supplying a maximum instantaneous power density of 676 μW cm-2, which is 294 times higher than that from the biobattery alone. A mechanism for the recovery of the potential of the cathode, analogous to that of RuO2 (Electrochim. Acta 42(23), 3541-3552) is described. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The evaluation of MiL-Lx and Hybrid III Leg using Hybrid III and EUROSID2-re Anthropomorphic Test Devices

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pandelani, T

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available the HIII and MiL-Lx instrumented lower legs as loaded by the Modified Lower Limb Impactor (MLLI). Keywords? MiL-Lx;STANAG 4569;AEP 55 Volume 3;EuroSID 2- re;Hybrid III INTRODUCTION Most military research and procurement organizations utilize standard... test methodologies for evaluating the protection level of military vehicles against kinetic energy, artillery, grenade, IED and mine blast threats. These methodologies standardize test conditions, define threat levels, describe measuring devices...

  15. A symmetric supercapacitor/biofuel cell hybrid device based on enzyme-modified nanoporous gold: An autonomous pulse generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xinxin; Conghaile, Peter Ó; Leech, Dónal; Ludwig, Roland; Magner, Edmond

    2017-04-15

    The integration of supercapacitors with enzymatic biofuel cells (BFCs) can be used to prepare hybrid devices in order to harvest significantly higher power output. In this study, a supercapacitor/biofuel cell hybrid device was prepared by the immobilisation of redox enzymes with electrodeposited poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and the redox polymer [Os(2,2'-bipyridine)2(polyvinylimidazole)10Cl]+/2+(Os(bpy)2PVI) on dealloyed nanoporous gold. The thickness of the deposition layer can be easily controlled by tuning the deposition conditions. Once charged by the internal BFC, the device can be discharged as a supercapacitor at a current density of 2mAcm-2 providing a maximum power density of 608.8μWcm-2, an increase of a factor of 468 when compared to the power output from the BFC itself. The hybrid device exhibited good operational stability for 50 charge/discharge cycles and ca. 7h at a discharge current density of 0.2mAcm-2. The device could be used as a pulse generator, mimicking a cardiac pacemaker delivering pulses of 10μA for 0.5ms at a frequency of 0.2Hz. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhanced UV photoresponse of KrF-laser-synthesized single-wall carbon nanotubes/n-silicon hybrid photovoltaic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Borgne, V; Gautier, L A; Castrucci, P; Del Gobbo, S; De Crescenzi, M; El Khakani, M A

    2012-06-01

    We report on the KrF-laser ablation synthesis, purification and photocurrent generation properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The thermally purified SWCNTs are integrated into hybrid photovoltaic (PV) devices by spin-coating them onto n-Si substrates. These novel SWCNTs/n-Si hybrid devices are shown to generate significant photocurrent (PC) over the entire 250-1050 nm light spectrum with external quantum efficiencies (EQE) reaching up to ~23%. Our SWCNTs/n-Si hybrid devices are not only photoactive in the traditional spectral range of Si solar cells, but generate also significant PC in the UV domain (below 400 nm). This wider spectral response is believed to be the result of PC generation from both the SWCNTs themselves and the tremendous number of local p-n junctions created at the nanotubes/Si interface. To assess the prevalence of these two contributions, the EQE spectra and J-V characteristics of these hybrid devices were investigated in both planar and top-down configurations, as a function of SWCNTs' film thickness. A sizable increase in EQE in the near UV with respect to the silicon is observed in both configurations, with a more pronounced UV photoresponse in the planar mode, confirming thereby the role of SWCNTs in the photogeneration process. The PC generation is found to reach its maximum for an optimal the SWCNT film thickness, which is shown to correspond to the best trade-off between lowest electrical resistance and highest optical transparency. Finally, by analyzing the J-V characteristics of our SWCNTs/n-Si devices with an equivalent circuit model, we were able to point out the contribution of the various electrical components involved in the photogeneration process. The SWCNTs-based devices demonstrated here open up the prospect for their use in highly effective photovoltaics and/or UV-light sensors.

  17. [{sup 18}F]FDG imaging of head and neck tumours: comparison of hybrid PET and morphological methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, S.; Grammerstorff, J.; Brinkbaeumer, K.; Schmid, R.; Hahn, K. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Ziemssenstrasse 1, 80336, Muenchen (Germany); Schwenzer, K. [Klinik fuer Mund-Kiefer-Gesichtschirurgie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Muenchen (Germany); Pfluger, T. [Institut fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Muenchen (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ([{sup 18}F]FDG) imaging of head and neck tumours using a second- or third-generation hybrid PET device. Results were compared with the findings of spiral computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and, as regards lymph node metastasis, the ultrasound findings. A total of 116 patients with head and neck tumours (83 males and 33 females aged 27-88 years) were examined using a hybrid PET scanner after injection of 185-350 MBq of [{sup 18}F]FDG (Picker Prism 2000 XP-PCD, Marconi Axis {gamma}-PET{sup 2} AZ). Hybrid PET examinations were performed in list mode using an axial filter. Reconstruction of data was performed iteratively. Ninety-six patients underwent CT using a multislice technique (Siemens Somatom Plus 4, Marconi MX 8000), 18 patients underwent MRI and 100 patients were examined by ultrasound. All findings were verified by histology, which was considered the gold standard, or, in the event of negative histology, by follow-up. Correct diagnosis of the primary or recurrent lesion was made in 73 of 85 patients using the hybrid PET scanner, in 50 of 76 patients on CT and in 7 of 10 patients on MRI. Hybrid PET successfully visualised metastatic disease in cervical lymph nodes in 28 of 34 patients, while 23 of 31 were correctly diagnosed with CT, 3 of 4 with MRI and 30 of 33 with ultrasound. False positive results regarding lymph node metastasis were seen in three patients with hybrid PET, in 14 patients with CT and in 13 patients with ultrasound. MRI yielded no false positive results concerning lymph node metastasis. In one patient, unrecognised metastatic lesions were seen on hybrid PET elsewhere in the body (lung: n=1; bone: n=1). Additional malignant lesions at sites other than the head and neck tumour were found in three patients (one patient with lung cancer, one patient with pelvic metastasis due to a carcinoma of the prostate and one patient with pulmonary metastasis

  18. A Hybrid Task Graph Scheduler for High Performance Image Processing Workflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blattner, Timothy; Keyrouz, Walid; Bhattacharyya, Shuvra S; Halem, Milton; Brady, Mary

    2017-12-01

    Designing applications for scalability is key to improving their performance in hybrid and cluster computing. Scheduling code to utilize parallelism is difficult, particularly when dealing with data dependencies, memory management, data motion, and processor occupancy. The Hybrid Task Graph Scheduler (HTGS) improves programmer productivity when implementing hybrid workflows for multi-core and multi-GPU systems. The Hybrid Task Graph Scheduler (HTGS) is an abstract execution model, framework, and API that increases programmer productivity when implementing hybrid workflows for such systems. HTGS manages dependencies between tasks, represents CPU and GPU memories independently, overlaps computations with disk I/O and memory transfers, keeps multiple GPUs occupied, and uses all available compute resources. Through these abstractions, data motion and memory are explicit; this makes data locality decisions more accessible. To demonstrate the HTGS application program interface (API), we present implementations of two example algorithms: (1) a matrix multiplication that shows how easily task graphs can be used; and (2) a hybrid implementation of microscopy image stitching that reduces code size by ≈ 43% compared to a manually coded hybrid workflow implementation and showcases the minimal overhead of task graphs in HTGS. Both of the HTGS-based implementations show good performance. In image stitching the HTGS implementation achieves similar performance to the hybrid workflow implementation. Matrix multiplication with HTGS achieves 1.3× and 1.8× speedup over the multi-threaded OpenBLAS library for 16k × 16k and 32k × 32k size matrices, respectively.

  19. Fiber bundle probes for interconnecting miniaturized medical imaging devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Vanessa; Hofmann, Jens; Marx, Sebastian; Herter, Jonas; Nguyen, Dennis; Arndt-Staufenbiel, Norbert; Schröder, Henning

    2017-02-01

    Miniaturization of medical imaging devices will significantly improve the workflow of physicians in hospitals. Photonic integrated circuit (PIC) technologies offer a high level of miniaturization. However, they need fiber optic interconnection solutions for their functional integration. As part of European funded project (InSPECT) we investigate fiber bundle probes (FBPs) to be used as multi-mode (MM) to single-mode (SM) interconnections for PIC modules. The FBP consists of a set of four or seven SM fibers hexagonally distributed and assembled into a holder that defines a multicore connection. Such a connection can be used to connect MM fibers, while each SM fiber is attached to the PIC module. The manufacturing of these probes is explored by using well-established fiber fusion, epoxy adhesive, innovative adhesive and polishing techniques in order to achieve reliable, low-cost and reproducible samples. An innovative hydrofluoric acid-free fiber etching technology has been recently investigated. The preliminary results show that the reduction of the fiber diameter shows a linear behavior as a function of etching time. Different etch rate values from 0.55 μm/min to 2.3 μm/min were found. Several FBPs with three different type of fibers have been optically interrogated at wavelengths of 630nm and 1550nm. Optical losses are found of approx. 35dB at 1550nm for FBPs composed by 80μm fibers. Although FBPs present moderate optical losses, they might be integrated using different optical fibers, covering a broad spectral range required for imaging applications. Finally, we show the use of FBPs as promising MM-to-SM interconnects for real-world interfacing to PIC's.

  20. Metal artifact reduction strategies for improved attenuation correction in hybrid PET/CT imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdoli, Mehrsima; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Zaidi, Habib

    Metallic implants are known to generate bright and dark streaking artifacts in x-ray computed tomography (CT) images, which in turn propagate to corresponding functional positron emission tomography (PET) images during the CT-based attenuation correction procedure commonly used on hybrid clinical

  1. Architecture, development and implementation of a SWIR to visible integrated up-conversion imaging device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarusi, Gabby; Templeman, Tzvi; Hechster, Elad; Nissim, Nimrod; Vitenberg, Vladimir; Maman, Nitzan; Tal, Amir; Solodar, Assi; Makov, Guy; Abdulhalim, Ibrahim; Visoly-Fisher, Iris; Golan, Yuval

    2016-04-01

    A new concept of short wavelength infrared (SWIR) to visible upconversion integrated imaging device is proposed, modeled and some initial measured results are presented. The device is a hybrid inorganic-organic device that comprises six nano-metric scale sub-layers grown on n-type GaAs substrates. The first layer is a ~300nm thick PbSe nano-columnar absorber layer grown in (111) orientation to the substrate plan (100), with a diameter of 8- 10nm and therefore exhibit quantum confinement effects parallel to the substrate and bulk properties perpendicular to it. The advantage of this structure is the high oscillator strength and hence absorption to incoming SWIR photons while maintaining the high bulk mobility of photo-excited charges along the columns. The top of the PbSe absorber layer is coated with 20nm thick metal layer that serves as a dual sided mirror, as well as a potentially surface plasmon enhanced absorption in the PbSe nano-columns layer. The photo-excited charges (holes and electrons in opposite directions) are drifted under an external applied field to the OLED section (that is composed of a hole transport layer, an emission layer and an electron transport layer) where they recombine with injected electron from the transparent cathode and emit visible light through this cathode. Due to the high absorption and enhanced transport properties this architecture has the potential of high quantum efficiency, low cost and easy implementation in any optical system. As a bench-mark, alternative concept where InGaAs/InP heterojunction couple to liquid crystal optical spatial light modulator (OSLM) structure was built that shows a full upconversion to visible of 1550nm laser light.

  2. Towards hybrid quantum devices combining superconducting qubits to a spin-ensemble multi-qubit register

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grezes, Cecile

    2015-03-01

    Processing quantum information requires quantum-mechanical systems with long coherence times and that can be easily coupled together to perform logic operations. We report progress on hybrid quantum devices, in which an ensemble of spins provides a long-lived multi-qubit register for superconducting qubits. We design a memory protocol able to store and retrieve on demand the state of a large number of qubits in the spin ensemble. Qubit states are written by resonant absorption of a microwave photon in the spin ensemble and read out of the memory by applying Hahn echo refocusing techniques to the spins. In a first experiment, we demonstrate the write step of the protocol by integrating on the same chip a superconducting qubit, a resonator with tunable frequency, and an ensemble of NV center spins in diamond. In a second experiment, we demonstrate an important building block of the read step, which consists in retrieving multiple classical microwave pulses at the few photon level using Hahn echo refocusing techniques. First experimental results will be presented in the direction of combining these two building blocks for retrieving a field in the quantum regime.

  3. Evaluating a hybrid three-dimensional metrology system: merging data from optical and touch probe devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerde, Janice R.; Christens-Barry, William A.

    2011-08-01

    In a project to meet requirements for CBP Laboratory analysis of footwear under the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTSUS), a hybrid metrology system comprising both optical and touch probe devices has been assembled. A unique requirement must be met: To identify the interface-typically obscured in samples of concern-of the "external surface area upper" (ESAU) and the sole without physically destroying the sample. The sample outer surface is determined by discrete point cloud coordinates obtained using laser scanner optical measurements. Measurements from the optically inaccessible insole region are obtained using a coordinate measuring machine (CMM). That surface similarly is defined by point cloud data. Mathematically, the individual CMM and scanner data sets are transformed into a single, common reference frame. Custom software then fits a polynomial surface to the insole data and extends it to intersect the mesh fitted to the outer surface point cloud. This line of intersection defines the required ESAU boundary, thus permitting further fractional area calculations to determine the percentage of materials present. With a draft method in place, and first-level method validation underway, we examine the transformation of the two dissimilar data sets into the single, common reference frame. We also will consider the six previously-identified potential error factors versus the method process. This paper reports our on-going work and discusses our findings to date.

  4. Magnetic Nanoparticle/Block Copolymer Hybrid Materials for the Fabrication of Electromagnetic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinyu; Mesguich, David; Watkins, James

    2012-02-01

    Significant efforts have been directed towards incorporating inorganic nanoscopic materials into well-defined, phase-separated block copolymer systems to create hybrid materials with intriguing optical, electrical or magnetic properties. Lin et al. recently reported the use of strong interactions between NPs and one segment of weakly segregated BCP systems to drive the assembly of well-ordered morphologies while confining the NPs specifically in the desired spherical, cylindrical or lamellar domains. Here we use this approach to assemble magnetic nanoparticles of high permeability into well ordered systems. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesized and subsequent surface functionalization and/or ligand exchange reactions were carried out to decorate the NP surfaces with hydrogen-bonding donating groups and good particle dispersibility in polar solvents. The ligand attachment was confirmed by TGA and FTIR. The morphology evolution of BCP/MNPs composites was examined by SAXS. Such ferromagnetic structures with precise geometric control in nanoscale would enable the cost-effective fabrication of more advanced devices for AC electromagnetic applications such as miniaturized antennas with extended bandwidth, integrated microwave electronics and efficient power transformers.

  5. Novel non-local effects in three-terminal hybrid devices with quantum dot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michałek, G; Domański, T; Bułka, B R; Wysokiński, K I

    2015-09-29

    We predict non-local effect in the three-terminal hybrid device consisting of the quantum dot (QD) tunnel coupled to two normal and one superconducting reservoirs. It manifests itself as the negative non-local resistance and results from the competition between the ballistic electron transfer (ET) and the crossed Andreev scattering (CAR). The effect is robust both in the linear and non-linear regimes. In the latter case the screening of charges and the long-range interactions play significant role. We show that sign change of the non-local conductance depends on the subgap Shiba/Andreev states, and it takes place even in absence of the Coulomb interactions. The effect is large and can be experimentally verified using the four probe setup. Since the induced non-local voltage changes sign and magnitude upon varying the gate potential and/or coupling of the quantum dot to the superconducting lead, such measurement could hence provide a controlled and precise method to determine the positions of the Shiba/Andreev states. Our predictions ought to be contrasted with non-local effects observed hitherto in the three-terminal planar junctions where the residual negative non-local conductance has been observed at large voltages, related to the Thouless energy of quasiparticles tunneling through the superconducting slab.

  6. Integrated Multi-Color Light Emitting Device Made with Hybrid Crystal Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Choi, Sang Hyouk (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An integrated hybrid crystal Light Emitting Diode ("LED") display device that may emit red, green, and blue colors on a single wafer. The various embodiments may provide double-sided hetero crystal growth with hexagonal wurtzite III-Nitride compound semiconductor on one side of (0001) c-plane sapphire media and cubic zinc-blended III-V or II-VI compound semiconductor on the opposite side of c-plane sapphire media. The c-plane sapphire media may be a bulk single crystalline c-plane sapphire wafer, a thin free standing c-plane sapphire layer, or crack-and-bonded c-plane sapphire layer on any substrate. The bandgap energies and lattice constants of the compound semiconductor alloys may be changed by mixing different amounts of ingredients of the same group into the compound semiconductor. The bandgap energy and lattice constant may be engineered by changing the alloy composition within the cubic group IV, group III-V, and group II-VI semiconductors and within the hexagonal III-Nitrides.

  7. A proton imaging device: Design and status of realization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipala, V., E-mail: valeria.sipala@ct.infn.i [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Bruzzi, M. [INFN, Sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Finland) (Italy); Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via S. Marta 3, I-50139 Firenze (Italy); Bucciolini, M. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, v.le Morgagni 85, I-50134 Firenze (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Candiano, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN, via S. Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Capineri, L. [Dipartimento di Elettronica e Telecomunicazioni, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via S. Marta 3, I-50139 Firenze (Italy); Cirrone, G.A.P. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN, via S. Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Civinini, C. [INFN, Sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Cuttone, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN, via S. Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Lo Presti, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Marrazzo, L. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, v.le Morgagni 85, I-50134 Firenze (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Mazzaglia, E. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN, via S. Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Menichelli, D. [Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via S. Marta 3, I-50139 Firenze (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Randazzo, N. [INFN, Sezione di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy)

    2010-01-11

    Proton radiation therapy is a precise form of cancer therapy, which requires verification of the patient position and the accurate knowledge of the dose delivered to the patient. At present in the proton treatment centre, patients are positioned with X-ray radiography and dose calculations rely on the patient's morphology and electron densities obtained by X-ray computed tomography [U. Schneider, E. Pedroni, Med. Phys. 22 (1995) 353]. A proton imaging device can improve the accuracy of proton radiation therapy treatment planning and the alignment of the patient with the proton beam. Our collaboration has developed a pCR prototype consisting of a silicon microstrip tracker and a calorimeter to detect the residual energy [R. Shulte, et al., IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 51 (2004) 866-872]. In this contribution we will show some results obtained testing the front-end board of the tracker and measurements performed at LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud) and in LLUMC (Loma Linda University Medical Centre) using 60 and 200 MeV proton beams to test the calorimeter.

  8. System and Device with Three-Dimensional Image Display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a binocular device (44) and a system (40) including a binocular device (44) configured for displaying one or more labels for an input device (2), such as a keyboard or a control panel, comprising a plurality of parts (4, 6) configured for activation and registration...... by depression. The binocular device (44) is configured for displaying a label of an activation part (4) as a three-dimensional label at the activation part (4)....

  9. 77 FR 74220 - Certain Digital Photo Frames and Image Display Devices and Components Thereof; Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... COMMISSION Certain Digital Photo Frames and Image Display Devices and Components Thereof; Commission... importation of certain digital photo frames and image display devices and components thereof by reason of....S. economy, (3) U.S. production of articles that are like or directly competitive with those that...

  10. Hybrid statistics-simulations based method for atom-counting from ADF STEM images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De wael, Annelies, E-mail: annelies.dewael@uantwerpen.be [Electron Microscopy for Materials Science (EMAT), University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); De Backer, Annick [Electron Microscopy for Materials Science (EMAT), University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Jones, Lewys; Nellist, Peter D. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, OX1 3PH Oxford (United Kingdom); Van Aert, Sandra, E-mail: sandra.vanaert@uantwerpen.be [Electron Microscopy for Materials Science (EMAT), University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2017-06-15

    A hybrid statistics-simulations based method for atom-counting from annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (ADF STEM) images of monotype crystalline nanostructures is presented. Different atom-counting methods already exist for model-like systems. However, the increasing relevance of radiation damage in the study of nanostructures demands a method that allows atom-counting from low dose images with a low signal-to-noise ratio. Therefore, the hybrid method directly includes prior knowledge from image simulations into the existing statistics-based method for atom-counting, and accounts in this manner for possible discrepancies between actual and simulated experimental conditions. It is shown by means of simulations and experiments that this hybrid method outperforms the statistics-based method, especially for low electron doses and small nanoparticles. The analysis of a simulated low dose image of a small nanoparticle suggests that this method allows for far more reliable quantitative analysis of beam-sensitive materials. - Highlights: • A hybrid method for atom-counting from ADF STEM images is introduced. • Image simulations are incorporated into a statistical framework in a reliable manner. • Limits of the existing methods for atom-counting are far exceeded. • Reliable counting results from an experimental low dose image are obtained. • Progress towards reliable quantitative analysis of beam-sensitive materials is made.

  11. Hybrid Compton camera/coded aperture imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailescu, Lucian [Livermore, CA; Vetter, Kai M [Alameda, CA

    2012-04-10

    A system in one embodiment includes an array of radiation detectors; and an array of imagers positioned behind the array of detectors relative to an expected trajectory of incoming radiation. A method in another embodiment includes detecting incoming radiation with an array of radiation detectors; detecting the incoming radiation with an array of imagers positioned behind the array of detectors relative to a trajectory of the incoming radiation; and performing at least one of Compton imaging using at least the imagers and coded aperture imaging using at least the imagers. A method in yet another embodiment includes detecting incoming radiation with an array of imagers positioned behind an array of detectors relative to a trajectory of the incoming radiation; and performing Compton imaging using at least the imagers.

  12. iMAGE cloud: medical image processing as a service for regional healthcare in a hybrid cloud environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Chen, Weiping; Nie, Min; Zhang, Fengjuan; Wang, Yu; He, Ailing; Wang, Xiaonan; Yan, Gen

    2016-11-01

    To handle the emergence of the regional healthcare ecosystem, physicians and surgeons in various departments and healthcare institutions must process medical images securely, conveniently, and efficiently, and must integrate them with electronic medical records (EMRs). In this manuscript, we propose a software as a service (SaaS) cloud called the iMAGE cloud. A three-layer hybrid cloud was created to provide medical image processing services in the smart city of Wuxi, China, in April 2015. In the first step, medical images and EMR data were received and integrated via the hybrid regional healthcare network. Then, traditional and advanced image processing functions were proposed and computed in a unified manner in the high-performance cloud units. Finally, the image processing results were delivered to regional users using the virtual desktop infrastructure (VDI) technology. Security infrastructure was also taken into consideration. Integrated information query and many advanced medical image processing functions-such as coronary extraction, pulmonary reconstruction, vascular extraction, intelligent detection of pulmonary nodules, image fusion, and 3D printing-were available to local physicians and surgeons in various departments and healthcare institutions. Implementation results indicate that the iMAGE cloud can provide convenient, efficient, compatible, and secure medical image processing services in regional healthcare networks. The iMAGE cloud has been proven to be valuable in applications in the regional healthcare system, and it could have a promising future in the healthcare system worldwide.

  13. Highly efficient hybrid energy generator: coupled organic photovoltaic device and randomly oriented electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanofiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Boongik; Lee, Kihwan; Park, Jongjin; Kim, Jongmin; Kim, Ohyun

    2013-03-01

    A hybrid architecture consisting of an inverted organic photovoltaic device and a randomly-oriented electrospun PVDF piezoelectric device was fabricated as a highly-efficient energy generator. It uses the inverted photovoltaic device with coupled electrospun PVDF nanofibers as tandem structure to convert solar and mechanical vibrations energy to electricity simultaneously or individually. The power conversion efficiency of the photovoltaic device was also significantly improved up to 4.72% by optimized processes such as intrinsic ZnO, MoO3 and active layer. A simple electrospinning method with the two electrode technique was adopted to achieve a high voltage of - 300 mV in PVDF piezoelectric fibers. Highly-efficient HEG using voltage adder circuit provides the conceptual possibility of realizing multi-functional energy generator whenever and wherever various energy sources are available.

  14. Nonlinear spatial mode imaging of hybrid photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Laurila, Marko

    2013-01-01

    Degenerate spontaneous four wave mixing is studied for the rst time in a large mode area hybrid photonic crystal ber, where light con nement is achieved by combined index- and bandgap guiding. Four wave mixing products are generated on the edges of the bandgaps, which is veri ed by numerical...

  15. Post-operative orbital imaging: a focus on implants and prosthetic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Ashok [Royal London Hospital, Diagnostic Neuroradiology, Barts Health NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Mankad, Kshitij [Great Ormond Street Hospital, Diagnostic Neuroradiology, London (United Kingdom); Poitelea, Cornelia; Verity, David H. [Moorfields Eye Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Davagnanam, Indran [National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-15

    Accurate interpretation of orbital imaging in the presence of either orbital implants requires a sound knowledge of both the surgical approach used and the imaging characteristics of the implanted devices themselves. In this article, the radiological appearance of the various devices used in ophthalmology, and their relationship to other orbital structures, is reviewed. In addition, the intended anatomical location, function of these devices, and clinical indications for their use are provided. (orig.)

  16. A Hybrid Soft-computing Method for Image Analysis of Digital Plantar Scanners

    OpenAIRE

    Razjouyan, Javad; Khayat, Omid; Siahi, Mehdi; Mansouri, Ali Alizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Digital foot scanners have been developed in recent years to yield anthropometrists digital image of insole with pressure distribution and anthropometric information. In this paper, a hybrid algorithm containing gray level spatial correlation (GLSC) histogram and Shanbag entropy is presented for analysis of scanned foot images. An evolutionary algorithm is also employed to find the optimum parameters of GLSC and transform function of the membership values. Resulting binary images as the thres...

  17. Pixel hybrid photon detectors for the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Somerville, L

    2005-01-01

    A Pixel Hybrid Photon Detector (pixel HPD) has been developed for the LHCb Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors. The pixel HPD is a vacuum tube with a multi-alkali photocathode, high-voltage cross- focused electron optics and an anode consisting of a silicon pixel detector bump-bonded to a CMOS readout chip; the readout chip is thus fully encapsulated in the device. The pixel HPD fulfils the stringent requirements for the RICH detectors of LHCb, combining single photon sensitivity, high signal-to-noise ratio and fast readout with an ~8cm diameter active area and an effective pixel size of 2.5mm 2.5mm at the photocathode. The performance and characteristics of two prototype pixel HPDs have been studied in laboratory measurements and in recent beam tests. The results of all measurements agree with expectations and fulfil the LHCb RICH requirements. In readiness for production of the ~500pixel HPDs for the RICH detectors, a test programme was designed and implemented to ensure component quality control at eac...

  18. Hybrid supercapacitor devices based on MnCo2O4 as the positive electrode and FeMn2O4 as the negative electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamuthu, Sadayappan; Vijayakumar, Subbukalai; Lee, Seong-Hun; Ryu, Kwang-Sun

    2016-12-01

    MnCo2O4 nanosheets and FeMn2O4 nanospheres were synthesized using a hydrothermal method. Choline chloride was used as the capping agent during the preparation of the nanoparticles. XRD patterns confirmed the spinel structure of MnCo2O4 and FeMn2O4. XPS measurements were used to determine the oxidation state of the prepared spinel metal oxides. HRTEM images revealed the formation of hexagonal nanosheets of MnCo2O4 and nanospheres of FeMn2O4. Electrochemical measurements were made for both positive and negative electrodes using three electrode systems. MnCo2O4 Exhibits 282C g-1 and FeMn2O4 yields 110C g-1 at a specific current of 1 A g-1. Hybrid supercapacitor device was fabricated using MnCo2O4 as the positive and FeMn2O4 as the negative electrode material. The hybrid supercapacitor device was delivered a maximum power of 37.57 kW kg-1.

  19. Design of a Simple and Modular 2-DOF Ankle Physiotherapy Device Relying on a Hybrid Serial-Parallel Robotic Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos E. Syrseloudis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to propose a new 2-DOF robotic platform with hybrid parallel-serial structure and to undertake its parametric design so that it can follow the whole range of ankle related foot movements. This robot can serve as a human ankle rehabilitation device. The existing ankle rehabilitation devices present typically one or more of the following shortcomings: redundancy, large size, or high cost, hence the need for a device that could offer simplicity, modularity, and low cost of construction and maintenance. In addition, our targeted device must be safe during operation, disallow undesirable movements of the foot, while adaptable to any human foot. Our detailed study of foot kinematics has led us to a new hybrid architecture, which strikes a balance among all aforementioned goals. It consists of a passive serial kinematics chain with two adjustable screws so that the axes of the chain match the two main ankle-axes of typical feet. An active parallel chain, which consists of two prismatic actuators, provides the movement of the platform. Thus, the platform can follow the foot movements, thanks to the passive chain, and also possesses the advantages of parallel robots, including rigidity, high stiffness and force capabilities. The lack of redundancy yields a simpler device with lower size and cost. The paper describes the kinematics modelling of the platform and analyses the force and velocity transmission. The parametric design of the platform is carried out; our simulations confirm the platform's suitability for ankle rehabilitation.

  20. Ultrasonography Fused with PET-CT Hybrid Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udesen, Jesper; Ewertsen, Caroline; Gran, Fredrik

    2011-01-01

    We present a method with fusion of images of three modalities 18F-FDG PET, CT, and 3-D ultrasound (US) applied to imaging of the anal canal and the rectum. To obtain comparable geometries in the three imaging modalities, a plexiglas rod, with the same dimensions as the US transducer, is placed in...

  1. Hybrid electroluminescent device based on MEH-PPV and ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewidy, Dina.; Gadallah, A.-S.; Fattah, G. Abdel

    2017-02-01

    Hybird organic/inorganic electroluminescent device based on the structure of glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/MEH-PPV/ZnO/ZnO submicrorods/Al has been manufactured. Spin coating has been used to deposit both PEDOT:PSS and MEH-PPV. Two-step process has been used to synthesis ZnO submicrorods, namely, spin coating and chemical bath deposition. Changing the dimensions of the ZnO submicrorods in this layer structure has been investigated to improve the performance of the organic/inorganic electroluminescence device. Such layer structure provides electroluminescence with narrow emission bands due to a high gain with this structure. X-ray diffraction patterns and scanning electron microscope images show that ZnO submicrorods have hexagon structure. Current-voltage curve for the structure has been reported. Electroluminescence curves (electroluminescence intensity versus wavelength) at different bias voltages have been presented and these results show narrowing in full width at half maximum in the spectra at high current density compared to photoluminescence excitation. The narrowing in the spectrum has been explained.

  2. Hot-electron injection in Au nanorod-ZnO nanowire hybrid device for near-infrared photodetection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescaglini, Andrea; Martín, Alfonso; Cammi, Davide; Juska, Gediminas; Ronning, Carsten; Pelucchi, Emanuele; Iacopino, Daniela

    2014-11-12

    In this Letter, we present a new class of near-infrared photodetectors comprising Au nanorods-ZnO nanowire hybrid systems. Fabricated hybrid FET devices showed a large photoresponse under radiation wavelengths between 650 and 850 nm, accompanied by an "ultrafast" transient with a time scale of 250 ms, more than 1 order of magnitude faster than the ZnO response under radiation above band gap. The generated photocurrent is ascribed to plasmonic-mediated generation of hot electrons at the metal-semiconductor Schottky barrier. In the presented architecture, Au-nanorod-localized surface plasmons were used as active elements for generating and injecting hot electrons into the wide band gap ZnO nanowire, functioning as a passive component for charge collection. A detailed investigation of the hot electron generation and injection processes is discussed to explain the improved and extended performance of the hybrid device. The quantum efficiency measured at 650 nm was calculated to be approximately 3%, more than 30 times larger than values reported for equivalent metal/semiconductor planar photodetectors. The presented work is extremely promising for further development of novel miniaturized, tunable photodetectors and for highly efficient plasmonic energy conversion devices.

  3. Enhancement of Satellite Image Compression Using a Hybrid (DWT-DCT) Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihab, Halah Saadoon; Shafie, Suhaidi; Ramli, Abdul Rahman; Ahmad, Fauzan

    2017-12-01

    Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) image compression techniques have been utilized in most of the earth observation satellites launched during the last few decades. However, these techniques have some issues that should be addressed. The DWT method has proven to be more efficient than DCT for several reasons. Nevertheless, the DCT can be exploited to improve the high-resolution satellite image compression when combined with the DWT technique. Hence, a proposed hybrid (DWT-DCT) method was developed and implemented in the current work, simulating an image compression system on-board on a small remote sensing satellite, with the aim of achieving a higher compression ratio to decrease the onboard data storage and the downlink bandwidth, while avoiding further complex levels of DWT. This method also succeeded in maintaining the reconstructed satellite image quality through replacing the standard forward DWT thresholding and quantization processes with an alternative process that employed the zero-padding technique, which also helped to reduce the processing time of DWT compression. The DCT, DWT and the proposed hybrid methods were implemented individually, for comparison, on three LANDSAT 8 images, using the MATLAB software package. A comparison was also made between the proposed method and three other previously published hybrid methods. The evaluation of all the objective and subjective results indicated the feasibility of using the proposed hybrid (DWT-DCT) method to enhance the image compression process on-board satellites.

  4. Fluorescence Image Analyzer - FLIMA: software for quantitative analysis of fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, H C M; Martins-Júnior, M M C; Ribeiro, L B; Matoso, D A

    2017-03-30

    The Fluorescence Image Analyzer (FLIMA) software was developed for the quantitative analysis of images generated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Currently, the images of FISH are examined without a coefficient that enables a comparison between them. Through GD Graphics Library, the FLIMA software calculates the amount of pixels on image and recognizes each present color. The coefficient generated by the algorithm shows the percentage of marks (probes) hybridized on the chromosomes. This software can be used for any type of image generated by a fluorescence microscope and is able to quantify digoxigenin probes exhibiting a red color, biotin probes exhibiting a green color, and double-FISH probes (digoxigenin and biotin used together), where the white color is displayed.

  5. Reversible transient hydrogen storage in a fuel cell-supercapacitor hybrid device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unda, Jesus E Zerpa; Roduner, Emil

    2012-03-21

    A new concept is investigated for hydrogen storage in a supercapacitor based on large-surface-area carbon material (Black Pearls 2000). Protons and electrons of hydrogen are separated on a fuel cell-type electrode and then stored separately in the electrical double layer, the electrons on the carbon and the protons in the aqueous electrolyte of the supercapacitor electrode. The merit of this concept is that it works spontaneously and reversibly near ambient pressure and temperature. This is in pronounced contrast to what has been known as electrochemical hydrogen storage, which does not involve hydrogen gas and where electrical work has to be spent in the loading process. With the present hybrid device, a H(2) storage capacity of 0.13 wt% was obtained, one order of magnitude more than what can be stored by conventional physisorption on large-surface-area carbons at the same pressure and temperature. Raising the pressure from 1.5 to 3.5 bar increased the capacity by less than 20%, indicating saturation. A capacitance of 11 μF cm(-2), comparable with that of a commercial double layer supercapacitor, was found using H(2)SO(4) as electrolyte. The chemical energy of the stored H(2) is almost a factor of 3 larger than the electrical energy stored in the supercapacitor. Further developments of this concept relate to a hydrogen buffer integrated inside a proton exchange membrane fuel cell to be used in case of peak power demand. This serial setup takes advantage of the suggested novel concept of hydrogen storage. It is fundamentally different from previous ways of operating a conventional supercapacitor hooked up in parallel to a fuel cell.

  6. Hybrid material as contrast agent in magnetic resonance images

    OpenAIRE

    Botella Asunción, Pablo; Cabrera García, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to a contrast agent of magnetic resonance based on a hybrid material formed by an organo-metallic core derived from Prussian blue and a silica cover, and optionally, molecules of a poly(ethylene glycol), a fluorescent agent, a radio nucleus and/or a substance that directs to specific receptors, cells or tissues, joined by covalent bonding to the surface of the inorganic cover.

  7. NOTE: A method for controlling image acquisition in electronic portal imaging devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendinning, A. G.; Hunt, S. G.; Bonnett, D. E.

    2001-02-01

    Certain types of camera-based electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) which initiate image acquisition based on sensing a change in video level have been observed to trigger unreliably at the beginning of dynamic multileaf collimation sequences. A simple, novel means of controlling image acquisition with an Elekta linear accelerator (Elekta Oncology Systems, Crawley, UK) is proposed which is based on illumination of a photodetector (ORP-12, Silonex Inc., Plattsburgh, NY, USA) by the electron gun of the accelerator. By incorporating a simple trigger circuit it is possible to derive a beam on/off status signal which changes at least 100 ms before any dose is measured by the accelerator. The status signal does not return to the beam-off state until all dose has been delivered and is suitable for accelerator pulse repetition frequencies of 50-400 Hz. The status signal is thus a reliable means of indicating the initiation and termination of radiation exposure, and thus controlling image acquisition of such EPIDs for this application.

  8. Device architecture engineering in polymer/ZnO quantum dots/ZnO array ternary hybrid solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fan; Zhao, Yu; Zhang, Hui; Tong, Yanhua

    2015-09-01

    Hybrid solar cells (HSCs) based on pristine ZnO nanorod array (ZnO-NRA) and conjugated polymer with ordinary inverted device architecture normally perform low open-circuit voltage ( V oc) and short-circuit current density ( J sc). This paper compares three improved device architectures for preparation of efficient polymer/ZnO-NRA HSCs by incorporating ZnO quantum dots (ZnO-QDs) into device with different engineering. It is found that when growth of ZnO-QDs on ZnO nanorod surface to formation of homostructured ZnO core-shell array (ZnO-CSA) instead of pristine ZnO-NRA can significantly increase the device V oc, while blending ZnO-QDs into MEH-PPV between nanorods can significantly increase the device J sc. The best photovoltaic performance is realized in the architecture consisting of ZnO-CSA as well as blends of MEH-PPV and ZnO-QDs, in which the V oc and J sc can be significant enhanced simultaneously. The present study reports the architecture-related device performances in polymer/ZnO-NRA solar cells, which will help to guide the design of HSCs or related optoelectronic devices.

  9. New 3D Stereoconfigurated cis Tris (Fluorenylphenylamino) Benzene with Large Steric Hindrance to Minimize Stacking in Hybrid Light Emitting Devices (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-31

    STACKING IN HYBRID LIGHT -EMITTING DEVICES (PREPRINT) Chang-Lyoul Lee Gwangju Institute Nam-Goo Kang, Ken Min Wang, Lawrence Wolf, and Long...HINDRANCE TO MINIMIZE Π–Π STACKING IN HYBRID LIGHT -EMITTING DEVICES (PREPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-15-D-5405-0002 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...contact of light -harvesting fluorene moieties from each other that should minimize the self-quenching effect. By the fact of close matching

  10. Global Hybrid HRSC+OMEGA Image Mosaics of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, P. C.; Walter, S. H. G.; van Gasselt, S.; Dunke, A.; Dunker, T.; Gross, C.; Michael, G.; Wendt, L.; Audouard, J.; Ody, A.; Poulet, F.

    2014-04-01

    The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) on the Mars Express (MEx) orbiter has acquired 3640 images (with 'preliminary level 4' processing as described in [1]) of the Martian surface since arriving in orbit in 2003, covering over 90% of the planet [2]. At resolutions that can reach 10 meters/pixel, these MEx/HRSC images [3-4] are constructed in a pushbroom manner from 9 different CCD line sensors, including a panchromatic nadir-looking (Pan) channel, 4 color channels (R, G, B, IR), and 4 other panchromatic channels for stereo imaging or photometric imaging. In [5], we discussed our approach towards automatically mosaicking hundreds of the MEx/HRSC Pan or RGB images together. Herein, we present our latest results using this approach (Fig. 1; PDF is zoomable). Currently, our best results consist of adding a high-pass-filtered version of the HRSC mosaic to a low-pass-filtered version of the MEx/OMEGA [6] global mosaic.

  11. Microbial detection in microfluidic devices through dual staining of quantum dots-labeled immunoassay and RNA hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Qing [Division of Environmental Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Blk E1A, 07-03, Engineering Drive 2, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Zhu Liang [Division of Environmental Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Blk E1A, 07-03, Engineering Drive 2, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Feng Hanhua [Institute of Microelectronics (Singapore); Ang, Simon [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville (United States); Chau, F.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Liu, W.-T. [Division of Environmental Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Blk E1A, 07-03, Engineering Drive 2, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)]. E-mail: cveliuwt@nus.edu.sg

    2006-01-18

    This paper reported the development of a microfludic device for the rapid detection of viable and nonviable microbial cells through dual labeling by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and quantum dots (QDs)-labeled immunofluorescent assay (IFA). The coin sized device consists of a microchannel and filtering pillars (gap = 1-2 {mu}m) and was demonstrated to effectively trap and concentrate microbial cells (i.e. Giardia lamblia). After sample injection, FISH probe solution and QDs-labeled antibody solution were sequentially pumped into the device to accelerate the fluorescent labeling reactions at optimized flow rates (i.e. 1 and 20 {mu}L/min, respectively). After 2 min washing for each assay, the whole process could be finished within 30 min, with minimum consumption of labeling reagents and superior fluorescent signal intensity. The choice of QDs 525 for IFA resulted in bright and stable fluorescent signal, with minimum interference with the Cy3 signal from FISH detection.

  12. Ultra-Compact 100 × 100 μm² Footprint Hybrid Device with Spin-Valve Nanosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitao, Diana C; Coelho, Paulo; Borme, Jerome; Knudde, Simon; Cardoso, Susana; Freitas, Paulo P

    2015-12-04

    Magnetic field mapping with micrometric spatial resolution and high sensitivity is a challenging application, and the technological solutions are usually based on large area devices integrating discrete magnetic flux guide elements. In this work we demonstrate a high performance hybrid device with improved field sensitivity levels and small footprint, consisting of a ultra-compact 2D design where nanometric spin valve sensors are inserted within the gap of thin-film magnetic flux concentrators. Pole-sensor distances down to 400 nm are demonstrated using nanofabrication techniques combined with an optimized liftoff process. These 100 × 100 μm2 pixel sensors can be integrated in modular devices for surface mapping without moving parts.

  13. Ultra-Compact 100 × 100 μm2 Footprint Hybrid Device with Spin-Valve Nanosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana C. Leitao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic field mapping with micrometric spatial resolution and high sensitivity is a challenging application, and the technological solutions are usually based on large area devices integrating discrete magnetic flux guide elements. In this work we demonstrate a high performance hybrid device with improved field sensitivity levels and small footprint, consisting of a ultra-compact 2D design where nanometric spin valve sensors are inserted within the gap of thin-film magnetic flux concentrators. Pole-sensor distances down to 400 nm are demonstrated using nanofabrication techniques combined with an optimized liftoff process. These 100 × 100 μm 2 pixel sensors can be integrated in modular devices for surface mapping without moving parts.

  14. Development of a hybrid magnetic resonance and ultrasound imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Victoria; Civale, John; Rivens, Ian; Collins, David J; Leach, Martin O; ter Haar, Gail R

    2014-01-01

    A system which allows magnetic resonance (MR) and ultrasound (US) image data to be acquired simultaneously has been developed. B-mode and Doppler US were performed inside the bore of a clinical 1.5 T MRI scanner using a clinical 1-4 MHz US transducer with an 8-metre cable. Susceptibility artefacts and RF noise were introduced into MR images by the US imaging system. RF noise was minimised by using aluminium foil to shield the transducer. A study of MR and B-mode US image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as a function of transducer-phantom separation was performed using a gel phantom. This revealed that a 4 cm separation between the phantom surface and the transducer was sufficient to minimise the effect of the susceptibility artefact in MR images. MR-US imaging was demonstrated in vivo with the aid of a 2 mm VeroWhite 3D-printed spherical target placed over the thigh muscle of a rat. The target allowed single-point registration of MR and US images in the axial plane to be performed. The system was subsequently demonstrated as a tool for the targeting and visualisation of high intensity focused ultrasound exposure in the rat thigh muscle.

  15. Development of a Hybrid Magnetic Resonance and Ultrasound Imaging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Sherwood

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A system which allows magnetic resonance (MR and ultrasound (US image data to be acquired simultaneously has been developed. B-mode and Doppler US were performed inside the bore of a clinical 1.5 T MRI scanner using a clinical 1–4 MHz US transducer with an 8-metre cable. Susceptibility artefacts and RF noise were introduced into MR images by the US imaging system. RF noise was minimised by using aluminium foil to shield the transducer. A study of MR and B-mode US image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR as a function of transducer-phantom separation was performed using a gel phantom. This revealed that a 4 cm separation between the phantom surface and the transducer was sufficient to minimise the effect of the susceptibility artefact in MR images. MR-US imaging was demonstrated in vivo with the aid of a 2 mm VeroWhite 3D-printed spherical target placed over the thigh muscle of a rat. The target allowed single-point registration of MR and US images in the axial plane to be performed. The system was subsequently demonstrated as a tool for the targeting and visualisation of high intensity focused ultrasound exposure in the rat thigh muscle.

  16. 2D dose distribution images of a hybrid low field MRI-γ detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abril, A., E-mail: ajabrilf@unal.edu.co; Agulles-Pedrós, L., E-mail: lagullesp@unal.edu.co [Medical Physics Group, Physics department, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá (Colombia)

    2016-07-07

    The proposed hybrid system is a combination of a low field MRI and dosimetric gel as a γ detector. The readout system is based on the polymerization process induced by the gel radiation. A gel dose map is obtained which represents the functional part of hybrid image alongside with the anatomical MRI one. Both images should be taken while the patient with a radiopharmaceutical is located inside the MRI system with a gel detector matrix. A relevant aspect of this proposal is that the dosimetric gel has never been used to acquire medical images. The results presented show the interaction of the {sup 99m}Tc source with the dosimetric gel simulated in Geant4. The purpose was to obtain the planar γ 2D-image. The different source configurations are studied to explore the ability of the gel as radiation detector through the following parameters; resolution, shape definition and radio-pharmaceutical concentration.

  17. Hybridizing Differential Evolution with a Genetic Algorithm for Color Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. V. Krishna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a hybrid of differential evolution and genetic algorithms to solve the color image segmentation problem. Clustering based color image segmentation algorithms segment an image by clustering the features of color and texture, thereby obtaining accurate prototype cluster centers. In the proposed algorithm, the color features are obtained using the homogeneity model. A new texture feature named Power Law Descriptor (PLD which is a modification of Weber Local Descriptor (WLD is proposed and further used as a texture feature for clustering. Genetic algorithms are competent in handling binary variables, while differential evolution on the other hand is more efficient in handling real parameters. The obtained texture feature is binary in nature and the color feature is a real value, which suits very well the hybrid cluster center optimization problem in image segmentation. Thus in the proposed algorithm, the optimum texture feature centers are evolved using genetic algorithms, whereas the optimum color feature centers are evolved using differential evolution.

  18. [Senses and meanings of health socialized by cultural devices: readings of the warning images on cigarettes packs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renovato, Rogério Dias; Bagnato, Maria Helena Salgado; Missio, Lourdes; Murback, Silvana Elisa Sauaia Lopes; da Cruz, Lúcia Pedroso; Bassinello, Greicelene Aparecida Hespanhol

    2009-10-01

    This article analyzes the images publicized on cigarettes packs that are part of the strategies from the Ministry of Health to combat the tabagism and available from the Cancer National Institute. These images bring the official speech of specialists and build narratives, understood such as truths, based on scientific knowledge. We have supported our thesis on theoretical referential of Cultural Studies, since its reflections help to understand that the subjectiveness is social and culturally built by different speeches and devices. We do not deny what is represented, but we establish dialogues with other possibilities of readings that can be present at these devices.We understand the propagated images as cultural pedagogies that behave as texts to be read, building up representations that can be assumed as true effect, and attributes to the citizen the necessity of constant control of its action. Reassuring the biomedicine and the health institutions, an onedimensional vision is propagated disregarding the complexity of this problem. We understand that the cultural pedagogies are part of competition territories, where the directions and meanings can be re-prepared producing hybrid identities that build up its own identity origins over this tangle of power relations.

  19. A Hybrid Fuzzy Neural Networks for the Detection of Tumors in Medical Images

    OpenAIRE

    N. Benamrane; A. Freville; R. Nekkache

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we propose an approach to detect suspect zones or tumors in medical images. The idea is to define with precision the existence of different kinds of lesions using a hybrid system, which combines Fuzzy Neural Networks and Expert System. After applying a method of image segmentation to extract regions (by region growing algorithm or by mathematical morphology algorithm), the fuzzy neural networks detect the suspect regions, which are validated by an expert system to determine the...

  20. Hybrid FMT-MRI applied to in vivo atherosclerosis imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baoqiang; Maafi, Foued; Berti, Romain; Pouliot, Philippe; Rhéaume, Eric; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Lesage, Frederic

    2014-05-01

    Combining Fluorescent Molecular Tomography (FMT) with anatomical imaging, e.g. MRI facilitates interpreting functional information. Furthermore, using a heterogeneous model for light propagation has been shown in simulations to be superior to homogeneous modeling to quantify fluorescence. Here, we present a combined FMT-MRI system and apply it to heart and aorta molecular imaging, a challenging area due to strong tissue heterogeneity and the presence of air-voids due to lungs. First investigating performance in a phantom and mouse corpse, the MRI-enabled heterogeneous models resulted in an improved quantification of fluorescence reconstructions. The system was then used in mice for in vivo atherosclerosis molecular imaging. Results show that, when using the heterogeneous model, reconstructions were in agreement with the ex vivo measurements. Therefore, the proposed system might serve as a powerful imaging tool for atherosclerosis in mice.

  1. Primary gamma ray selection in a hybrid timing/imaging Cherenkov array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Postnikov E.B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is a methodical study on hybrid reconstruction techniques for hybrid imaging/timing Cherenkov observations. This type of hybrid array is to be realized at the gamma-observatory TAIGA intended for very high energy gamma-ray astronomy (> 30 TeV. It aims at combining the cost-effective timing-array technique with imaging telescopes. Hybrid operation of both of these techniques can lead to a relatively cheap way of development of a large area array. The joint approach of gamma event selection was investigated on both types of simulated data: the image parameters from the telescopes, and the shower parameters reconstructed from the timing array. The optimal set of imaging parameters and shower parameters to be combined is revealed. The cosmic ray background suppression factor depending on distance and energy is calculated. The optimal selection technique leads to cosmic ray background suppression of about 2 orders of magnitude on distances up to 450 m for energies greater than 50 TeV.

  2. The Verification of Hybrid Image Deformation algorithm for PIV

    OpenAIRE

    Novotný Jan; Nováková Ludmila

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to test a newly designed algorithm for more accurate calculation of the image displacement of seeding particles when taking measurement using the Particle Image Velocimetry method. The proposed algorithm is based on modification of a classical iterative approach using a three-point subpixel interpolation and method using relative deformation of individual areas for accurate detection of signal peak position. The first part briefly describes the tested algorithm toget...

  3. Optimization of SPECT-CT Hybrid Imaging Using Iterative Image Reconstruction for Low-Dose CT: A Phantom Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver S Grosser

    Full Text Available Hybrid imaging combines nuclear medicine imaging such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT or positron emission tomography (PET with computed tomography (CT. Through this hybrid design, scanned patients accumulate radiation exposure from both applications. Imaging modalities have been the subject of long-term optimization efforts, focusing on diagnostic applications. It was the aim of this study to investigate the influence of an iterative CT image reconstruction algorithm (ASIR on the image quality of the low-dose CT images.Examinations were performed with a SPECT-CT scanner with standardized CT and SPECT-phantom geometries and CT protocols with systematically reduced X-ray tube currents. Analyses included image quality with respect to photon flux. Results were compared to the standard FBP reconstructed images. The general impact of the CT-based attenuation maps used during SPECT reconstruction was examined for two SPECT phantoms. Using ASIR for image reconstructions, image noise was reduced compared to FBP reconstructions for the same X-ray tube current. The Hounsfield unit (HU values reconstructed by ASIR were correlated to the FBP HU values(R2 ≥ 0.88 and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR was improved by ASIR. However, for a phantom with increased attenuation, the HU values shifted for low X-ray tube currents I ≤ 60 mA (p ≤ 0.04. In addition, the shift of the HU values was observed within the attenuation corrected SPECT images for very low X-ray tube currents (I ≤ 20 mA, p ≤ 0.001.In general, the decrease in X-ray tube current up to 30 mA in combination with ASIR led to a reduction of CT-related radiation exposure without a significant decrease in image quality.

  4. Optimization of SPECT-CT Hybrid Imaging Using Iterative Image Reconstruction for Low-Dose CT: A Phantom Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosser, Oliver S.; Kupitz, Dennis; Ruf, Juri; Czuczwara, Damian; Steffen, Ingo G.; Furth, Christian; Thormann, Markus; Loewenthal, David; Ricke, Jens; Amthauer, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Background Hybrid imaging combines nuclear medicine imaging such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or positron emission tomography (PET) with computed tomography (CT). Through this hybrid design, scanned patients accumulate radiation exposure from both applications. Imaging modalities have been the subject of long-term optimization efforts, focusing on diagnostic applications. It was the aim of this study to investigate the influence of an iterative CT image reconstruction algorithm (ASIR) on the image quality of the low-dose CT images. Methodology/Principal Findings Examinations were performed with a SPECT-CT scanner with standardized CT and SPECT-phantom geometries and CT protocols with systematically reduced X-ray tube currents. Analyses included image quality with respect to photon flux. Results were compared to the standard FBP reconstructed images. The general impact of the CT-based attenuation maps used during SPECT reconstruction was examined for two SPECT phantoms. Using ASIR for image reconstructions, image noise was reduced compared to FBP reconstructions for the same X-ray tube current. The Hounsfield unit (HU) values reconstructed by ASIR were correlated to the FBP HU values(R2 ≥ 0.88) and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was improved by ASIR. However, for a phantom with increased attenuation, the HU values shifted for low X-ray tube currents I ≤ 60 mA (p ≤ 0.04). In addition, the shift of the HU values was observed within the attenuation corrected SPECT images for very low X-ray tube currents (I ≤ 20 mA, p ≤ 0.001). Conclusion/Significance In general, the decrease in X-ray tube current up to 30 mA in combination with ASIR led to a reduction of CT-related radiation exposure without a significant decrease in image quality. PMID:26390216

  5. Study of lower hybrid current drive system in tokamak fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maebara, Sunao [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-01-01

    This report describes R and D of a high-power klystron, RF vacuum window, low-outgassing antenna and a front module for a plasma-facing antenna aiming the 5 GHz Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) system for the next Tokamak Fusion Device. 5 GHz klystron with a low-perveances of 0.7 {mu}P is designed for a high-power and a high-efficiency, the output-power of 715 kW and the efficiency of 63%, which are beyond the conventional design scaling of 450 kW-45%, are performed using the prototype klystron which operates at the pulse duration of 15 {mu}sec. A new pillbox window, which has an oversized length in both the axial and the radial direction, are designed to reduce the RF power density and the electric field strength at the ceramics. It is evaluated that the power capability by cooling edge of ceramics is 1 MW with continuous-wave operation. The antenna module using Dispersion Strengthened Copper which combines high mechanical property up to 500degC with high thermal conductivity, are developed for a low-outgassing antenna in a steady state operation. It is found that the outgassing rate is in the lower range of 4x10{sup -6} Pam{sup 3}/sm{sup 2} at the module temperature of 300degC, which requires no active vacuum pumping of the LHCD antenna. A front module using Carbon Fiber Composite (CFC) are fabricated and tested for a plasma facing antenna which has a high heat-resistive. Stationary operation of the CFC module with water cooling is performed at the RF power of 46 MWm{sup -2} (about 2 times higher than the design value) during 1000 sec, it is found that the outgassing rate is less than 10{sup -5} Pam{sup 3}/sm{sup 2} which is low enough for an antenna material. (author)

  6. Design, development, and testing of a hybrid in situ testing device for building joint sealant

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. White; N. Embree; C. Buch; R.S. Williams

    2005-01-01

    The testing of sealant samples has been restricted to devices that either focus on fatiguing multiple samples or quantifying the mechanical properties of a single sample. This manuscript describes a device that combines these two instrumental designs: the ability to both fatigue and characterize multiple sealant samples at the same time. This device employs precise...

  7. Hybridization State Detection of DNA-Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles Using Hyperspectral Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Murdock

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral imaging has the unique ability of capturing spectral data for multiple wavelengths at each pixel in an image. This gives the ability to distinguish, with certainty, different nanomaterials and/or distinguish nanomaterials from biological materials. In this study, 4 nm and 13 nm gold nanoparticles (Au NPs were synthesized, functionalized with complimentary oligonucleotides, and hybridized to form large networks of NPs. Scattering spectra were collected from each sample (unfunctionalized, functionalized, and hybridized and evaluated. The spectra showed unique peaks for each size of Au NP sample and also exhibited narrowing and intensifying of the spectra as the NPs were functionalized and then subsequently hybridized. These spectra are different from normal aggregation effects where the LSPR and reflected spectrum broaden and are red-shifted. Rather, this appears to be dependent on the ability to control the interparticle distance through oligonucleotide length, which is also investigated through the incorporation of a poly-A spacer. Also, hybridized Au NPs were exposed to cells with no adverse effects and retained their unique spectral signatures. With the ability to distinguish between hybridization states at nearly individual NP levels, this could provide a new method of tracking the intracellular actions of nanomaterials as well as extracellular biosensing applications.

  8. Discrete Event Simulation Model of the Polaris 2.1 Gamma Ray Imaging Radiation Detection Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Polaris given that the Polaris continues to make improvements not just in GPS and WIFI capabilities but in capture rates for different radiation ...release; distribution is unlimited DISCRETE EVENT SIMULATION MODEL OF THE POLARIS 2.1 GAMMA RAY IMAGING RADIATION DETECTION DEVICE by Andres T...OF THE POLARIS 2.1 GAMMA RAY IMAGING RADIATION DETECTION DEVICE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Andres T. Juarez III 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION

  9. Improved DMD configurations for image correlation. [deformable mirror devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florence, James M.; Lin, Tsen-Hwang; Wu, Wen-Rong; Juday, Richard D.

    1990-01-01

    Two novel deformable mirror structures have been developed for spatial light modulators: an 'AM torsion beam' and a 'phase-mostly single-quadrant cantilever' beam. Both devices are well-suited to optical correlator input and filtering functions. Which the optical modulation characteristic of the torsion-beam modulator is essential amplitude only, which is well suited for use as the input modulator of the optical correlator, the characteristic of the one-quadrant modulator is a phase-mostly modulation whose amplitude changes are coupled to the phase changes; this renders it operable in the Fourier plane of the optical correlator as the filtering device.

  10. 76 FR 73677 - Investigations: Terminations, Modifications and Rulings: Certain Electronic Devices With Image...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... COMMISSION Investigations: Terminations, Modifications and Rulings: Certain Electronic Devices With Image... this investigation may be viewed on the Commission's electronic docket (EDIS) at http://edis.usitc.gov... entirety. On September 15, 2011, non-parties Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. (``AMD'') and its subsidiaries...

  11. 78 FR 16531 - Certain Electronic Devices for Capturing and Transmitting Images, and Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... COMMISSION Certain Electronic Devices for Capturing and Transmitting Images, and Components Thereof...,084; 7,453,605; 7,936,391; and 6,292,218 by certain electronic devices for capturing and transmitting....usitc.gov . The public record for this investigation may be viewed on the Commission's electronic docket...

  12. [The imaging principles and the structure of the low-dose digital radiographic device].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Q Z; Yu, H L; Zhang, H; Zhang, D S; Cao, H D

    2001-03-01

    This article introduced A new type of X-ray radiographic device, which uses MWPC as the low-dose detector with the machinery and computer to reconstruct the X-ray digital images. In this paper, the advantages and the disadvantages of the device are analysed, thus much improvement has been made to make it better and more efficient.

  13. Development of fluorescence based handheld imaging devices for food safety inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hoyoung; Kim, Moon S.; Chao, Kuanglin; Lefcourt, Alan M.; Chan, Diane E.

    2013-05-01

    For sanitation inspection in food processing environment, fluorescence imaging can be a very useful method because many organic materials reveal unique fluorescence emissions when excited by UV or violet radiation. Although some fluorescence-based automated inspection instrumentation has been developed for food products, there remains a need for devices that can assist on-site inspectors performing visual sanitation inspection of the surfaces of food processing/handling equipment. This paper reports the development of an inexpensive handheld imaging device designed to visualize fluorescence emissions and intended to help detect the presence of fecal contaminants, organic residues, and bacterial biofilms at multispectral fluorescence emission bands. The device consists of a miniature camera, multispectral (interference) filters, and high power LED illumination. With WiFi communication, live inspection images from the device can be displayed on smartphone or tablet devices. This imaging device could be a useful tool for assessing the effectiveness of sanitation procedures and for helping processors to minimize food safety risks or determine potential problem areas. This paper presents the design and development including evaluation and optimization of the hardware components of the imaging devices.

  14. A Development of Hybrid Drug Information System Using Image Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HwaMin Lee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to prevent drug abuse or misuse cases and avoid over-prescriptions, it is necessary for medicine taker to be provided with detailed information about the medicine. In this paper, we propose a drug information system and develop an application to provide information through drug image recognition using a smartphone. We designed a contents-based drug image search algorithm using the color, shape and imprint of drug. Our convenient application can provide users with detailed information about drugs and prevent drug misuse.

  15. Flexible nonvolatile memory devices based on Au/PMMA nanocomposites deposited on PEDOT:PSS/Ag nanowire hybrid electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Sihyun; Kim, Tae Whan

    2017-07-01

    Flexible nonvolatile memory (NVM) devices fabricated utilizing Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) embedded in a poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) layer were fabricated on a silver nanowire (AgNW) or a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/AgNW coated on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates. The transmittance and the sheet resistance of the PEDOT:PSS/AgNW hybrid layer were approximately 89% and 50 Ω/sq, respectively, which were comparable to the values for commercial indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrodes. Current-voltage curves for the Al/PMMA:AuNP/PEDOT:PSS/AgNW/PET devices at 300 K showed clockwise current hysteresis behaviors due to the existence of the AuNPs. The endurance number of ON/OFF switching for the NVM devices was above 30 cycles. An ON/OFF ratio of 1 × 103 was maintained for retention times longer than 1 × 104 s. The maximum memory margins of the NVM devices before and after bending were approximately 3.4 × 103 and 1.4 × 103, respectively. The retention times of the devices before and after bending remained same 1 × 104 s. The memory margin and the stability of flexible NVMs fabricated on AgNW electrodes were enhanced due to the embedded PEDOT:PSS buffer layer.

  16. Clinical perspectives of hybrid proton-fluorine magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Martijn; Mohades, Seyede G; Hackeng, Tilman M; Post, Mark J; Kooi, Marianne E; Backes, Walter H

    2013-05-01

    The number of applications of fluorine 19 (19F) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and spectroscopy in biomedical and clinical research is steadily growing. The 100% natural abundance of fluorine and its relatively high sensitivity for MR (83% to that of protons) make it an interesting nucleus for a wide range of MR applications. Fluorinated contrast media have a number of advantages over the conventionally used gadolinium-based or iron-based contrast agents. The absence of an endogenous fluorine background intensity in the human body facilitates reliable quantification of fluorinated contrast medium or drugs. Anatomy can be visualized separately with proton MR imaging, creating the application of hybrid hydrogen 1 (1H)/19F MR imaging. The availability of 2 channels (ie, the 1H and 19F channels) enables dual-targeted molecular imaging. Recently, novel developments have emerged on fluorine-based contrast media in preclinical studies and imaging techniques. The developments in fluorine MR seem promising for clinical applications, with contributions in therapy monitoring, assessment of lung function, angiography, and molecular imaging. This review outlines the translation from recent advances in preclinical MR imaging and spectroscopy to future perspectives of clinical hybrid 1H/19/F MR imaging applications.

  17. A Nonlinear Hybrid Filter for Salt & Pepper Noise Removal from Color Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isma Irum

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Impulse noise reduction or removal is a very active research area of image processing. A nonlinear hybrid filter for removing fixed impulse noise (salt & pepper noise from color images has been proposed in this study. Technique is based on mathematical morphology and trimmed standard median filter. Proposed filter is composed of a sequence of morphological standard and well known operations erosion-dilation and trimmed standard median filter. It removes the fixed impulse noise (salt & pepper very well without distorting the image features, color components and edges. It does not introduce blurring and moving effects even in high noise densities (up to 90%. The standard similarity measure peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR and computation time have been used to evaluate the performance of proposed hybrid filter.

  18. Hybrid multispectral optoacoustic and ultrasound tomography for morphological and physiological brain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olefir, Ivan; Merčep, Elena; Burton, Neal C.; Ovsepian, Saak V.; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2016-08-01

    Expanding usage of small animal models in biomedical research necessitates development of technologies for structural, functional, or molecular imaging that can be readily integrated in the biological laboratory. Herein, we consider dual multispectral optoacoustic (OA) and ultrasound tomography based on curved ultrasound detector arrays and describe the performance achieved for hybrid morphological and physiological brain imaging of mice in vivo. We showcase coregistered hemodynamic parameters resolved by OA tomography under baseline conditions and during alterations of blood oxygen saturation. As an internal reference, we provide imaging of abdominal organs. We illustrate the performance advantages of hybrid curved detector ultrasound and OA tomography and discuss immediate and long-term implications of our findings in the context of animal and human studies.

  19. A versatile nanotechnology to connect individual nano-objects for the fabrication of hybrid single-electron devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernand-Mantel, A.; Bouzehouane, K.; Seneor, P.; Fusil, S.; Deranlot, C.; Brenac, A.; Notin, L.; Morel, R.; Petroff, F.; Fert, A.

    2010-11-01

    We report on the high yield connection of single nano-objects as small as a few nanometres in diameter to separately elaborated metallic electrodes, using a 'table-top' nanotechnology. Single-electron transport measurements validate that transport occurs through a single nano-object. The vertical geometry of the device natively allows an independent choice of materials for each electrode and the nano-object. In addition ferromagnetic materials can be used without encountering oxidation problems. The possibility of elaborating such hybrid nanodevices opens new routes for the democratization of spintronic studies in low dimensions.

  20. A versatile nanotechnology to connect individual nano-objects for the fabrication of hybrid single-electron devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernand-Mantel, A; Bouzehouane, K; Seneor, P; Fusil, S; Deranlot, C; Petroff, F; Fert, A [Unite Mixte de Physique CNRS/Thales and Universite Paris-Sud, 1, Avenue Auguste Fresnel, F-91767 Palaiseau (France); Brenac, A; Notin, L; Morel, R, E-mail: anne.bernand-mantel@grenoble.cnrs.fr, E-mail: karim.bouzehouane@thalesgroup.fr [INAC/SP2M CEA Grenoble, 17 rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2010-11-05

    We report on the high yield connection of single nano-objects as small as a few nanometres in diameter to separately elaborated metallic electrodes, using a 'table-top' nanotechnology. Single-electron transport measurements validate that transport occurs through a single nano-object. The vertical geometry of the device natively allows an independent choice of materials for each electrode and the nano-object. In addition ferromagnetic materials can be used without encountering oxidation problems. The possibility of elaborating such hybrid nanodevices opens new routes for the democratization of spintronic studies in low dimensions.

  1. Development of gamma-photon/Cerenkov-light hybrid system for simultaneous imaging of I-131 radionuclide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Suzuki, Mayumi; Kato, Katsuhiko [Radiological and Medical Laboratory Sciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Watabe, Tadashi; Ikeda, Hayato; Kanai, Yasukazu [Department of Molecular Imaging in Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Ogata, Yoshimune [Radiological and Medical Laboratory Sciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Hatazawa, Jun [Department of Molecular Imaging in Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan)

    2016-09-11

    Although iodine 131 (I-131) is used for radionuclide therapy, high resolution images are difficult to obtain with conventional gamma cameras because of the high energy of I-131 gamma photons (364 keV). Cerenkov-light imaging is a possible method for beta emitting radionuclides, and I-131 (606 MeV maximum beta energy) is a candidate to obtain high resolution images. We developed a high energy gamma camera system for I-131 radionuclide and combined it with a Cerenkov-light imaging system to form a gamma-photon/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system to compare the simultaneously measured images of these two modalities. The high energy gamma imaging detector used 0.85-mm×0.85-mm×10-mm thick GAGG scintillator pixels arranged in a 44×44 matrix with a 0.1-mm thick reflector and optical coupled to a Hamamatsu 2 in. square position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT: H12700 MOD). The gamma imaging detector was encased in a 2 cm thick tungsten shield, and a pinhole collimator was mounted on its top to form a gamma camera system. The Cerenkov-light imaging system was made of a high sensitivity cooled CCD camera. The Cerenkov-light imaging system was combined with the gamma camera using optical mirrors to image the same area of the subject. With this configuration, we simultaneously imaged the gamma photons and the Cerenkov-light from I-131 in the subjects. The spatial resolution and sensitivity of the gamma camera system for I-131 were respectively ~3 mm FWHM and ~10 cps/MBq for the high sensitivity collimator at 10 cm from the collimator surface. The spatial resolution of the Cerenkov-light imaging system was 0.64 mm FWHM at 10 cm from the system surface. Thyroid phantom and rat images were successfully obtained with the developed gamma-photon/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system, allowing direct comparison of these two modalities. Our developed gamma-photon/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system will be useful to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of these two

  2. Monitoring of biofilm formation on different material surfaces of medical devices using hyperspectral imaging method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Hyun; Kim, Moon S.; Hwang, Jeeseong

    2012-03-01

    Contamination of the inner surface of indwelling (implanted) medical devices by microbial biofilm is a serious problem. Some microbial bacteria such as Escherichia coli form biofilms that lead to potentially lifethreatening infections. Other types of medical devices such as bronchoscopes and duodenoscopes account for the highest number of reported endoscopic infections where microbial biofilm is one of the major causes for these infections. We applied a hyperspectral imaging method to detect biofilm contamination on the surface of several common materials used for medical devices. Such materials include stainless steel, titanium, and stainless-steeltitanium alloy. Potential uses of hyperspectral imaging technique to monitor biofilm attachment to different material surfaces are discussed.

  3. The Verification of Hybrid Image Deformation algorithm for PIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novotný Jan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to test a newly designed algorithm for more accurate calculation of the image displacement of seeding particles when taking measurement using the Particle Image Velocimetry method. The proposed algorithm is based on modification of a classical iterative approach using a three-point subpixel interpolation and method using relative deformation of individual areas for accurate detection of signal peak position. The first part briefly describes the tested algorithm together with the results of the performed synthetic tests. The other part describes the measurement setup and the overall layout of the experiment. Subsequently, a comparison of results of the classical iterative scheme and our designed algorithm is carried out. The conclusion discusses the benefits of the tested algorithm, its advantages and disadvantages.

  4. Hybrid Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube TiO2 Electrode Material for Next Generation Energy Storage Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Marler, Sydney

    2016-01-01

    Current supercapacitors present several distinct limitations that severely inhibit the efficiency, power, and electrical capacitance of energy storage devices. Supercapacitors present an exciting prospect that has countless applications in renewable energy storage and modern day electronic devices. In recent years the exciting development of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has presented an advantage in electrode development. CNTs, however beneficial for their increased electrode surface area, have severe limitations regarding conductivity and electrode density. Creating a nanocomposite hybrid out of a transition metal-oxide and carbon nanotube array would help the current limitations of the modern supercapacitor. TiO2 was chosen for its common occurrence in everyday materials and promising capacitance levels. A multi-walled carbon nanotube array was grown on a SiO2 precursor via CCVD. The transition metal oxide was then deposited via RF Sputtering methods to a MWCNT array. Recharge tests and characterization were con...

  5. Optimizing the performance of neural interface devices with hybrid poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) (PEDOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chin-chen

    This thesis describes methods for improving the performance of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) as a direct neural interfacing material. The chronic foreign body response is always a challenge for implanted bionic devices. After long-term implantation (typically 2-4 weeks), insulating glial scars form around the devices, inhibiting signal transmission, which ultimately leads to device failure. The mechanical mismatch at the device-tissue interface is one of the issues that has been associated with chronic foreign body response. Another challenge for using PEDOT as a neural interface material is its mechanical failure after implantation. We observed cracking and delamination of PEDOT coatings on devices after extended implantations. In the first part of this thesis, we present a novel method for directly measuring the mechanical properties of a PEDOT thin film. Before investigating methods to improve the mechanical behavior of PEDOT, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanical properties of PEDOT thin film is required. A PEDOT thin film was machined into a dog-bone shape specimen with a dual beam FIB-SEM. With an OmniProbe, this PEDOT specimen could be attached onto a force sensor, while the other side was attached to OmniProbe. By moving the OmniProbe, the specimen could be deformed in tension, and a force sensor recorded the applied load on the sample simultaneously. Mechanical tensile tests were conducted in the FIB-SEM chamber along with in situ observation. With precise force measurement from the force sensor and the corresponding high resolution SEM images, we were able to convert the data to a stress-strain curve for further analysis. By analyzing these stress-strain curves, we were able to obtain information about PEDOT including the Young's modulus, strength of failure, strain to failure, and toughness (energy to failure). This information should be useful for future material selection and molecular design for specific applications. The second

  6. Hybrid magnet devices for molecule manipulation and small scale high gradient-field applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, David E [El Cerrito, CA; Hong, Seok-Cheol [Seoul, KR; Cozzarelli, legal representative, Linda A.; Pollard, Martin J [El Cerrito, CA; Cozzarelli, Nicholas R [Berkeley, CA

    2009-01-06

    The present disclosure provides a high performance hybrid magnetic structure made from a combination of permanent magnets and ferromagnetic pole materials which are assembled in a predetermined array. The hybrid magnetic structure provides means for separation and other biotechnology applications involving holding, manipulation, or separation of magnetizable molecular structures and targets. Also disclosed are hybrid magnetic tweezers able to exert approximately 1 nN of force to 4.5 .mu.m magnetic bead. The maximum force was experimentally measured to be .about.900 pN which is in good agreement with theoretical estimations and other measurements. In addition, a new analysis scheme that permits fast real-time position measurement in typical geometry of magnetic tweezers has been developed and described in detail.

  7. [Image-guided radiotherapy: Overview of devices and practice in France in 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpon, G; Chiavassa, S; Supiot, S; Boutry, C; Darréon, J; Desrousseaux, J; Lafay, F; Leysalle, A; de Crevoisier, R

    2015-10-01

    Image-guided radiation therapy consists in acquiring in-room images to improve patient and mainly tumour set up accuracy. Many devices based on ionising or non-ionising radiations were designed in recent years. The use of such devices is of major importance in the management of patient radiotherapy courses. Those imaging sessions require to clearly define procedures in each radiotherapy department (image modality, acquisition frequency, corrective action, staff training and tasks). A quick review of the different existing image-guided radiation therapy devices is presented. In addition, the results of a French national survey about image-guided radiation therapy are presented: the survey is about both equipment and procedures. A total of 57 radiotherapy departments have participated, representing more than 160 treatment devices. About three linear accelerators out of four are equipped with an image-guiding device. The most common equipment is the CBCT system. Most centres have set up training sessions for the technicians to allow them to analyse online daily images. The management of in-room imaging dose is still under investigation, but many centres use an accounting scheme. While the devices are used to adjust the positioning of patients, in more than half of the centres, the practice had an impact on the choice of clinical and planning target volume margins. This survey led to an inventory in 2015, and could be renewed in some years. Copyright © 2015 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. A new real-time non-coherent to coherent light image converter - The hybrid field effect liquid crystal light valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinberg, J.; Jacobson, A.; Bleha, W.; Miller, L.; Fraas, L.; Boswell, D.; Myer, G.

    1975-01-01

    A new, high-performance device has been developed for application to real-time coherent optical data processing. The new device embodies a CdS photoconductor, a CdTe light-absorbing layer, a dielectric mirror, and a liquid crystal layer sandwiched between indium-tin-oxide transparent electrodes deposited on optical quality glass flats. The noncoherent image is directed onto the photoconductor; this reduces the impedance of the photoconductor, thereby switching the ac voltage that is impressed across the electrodes onto the liquid crystal to activate the device. The liquid crystal is operated in a hybrid field effect mode. It utilizes the twisted nematic effect to create a dark off-state and the optical birefringence effect to create the bright on-state. The liquid crystal modulates the polarization of the coherent read-out light so an analyzer must be used to create an intensity modulated output beam.

  9. Hybrid statistics-simulations based method for atom-counting from ADF STEM images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wael, Annelies; De Backer, Annick; Jones, Lewys; Nellist, Peter D; Van Aert, Sandra

    2017-06-01

    A hybrid statistics-simulations based method for atom-counting from annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (ADF STEM) images of monotype crystalline nanostructures is presented. Different atom-counting methods already exist for model-like systems. However, the increasing relevance of radiation damage in the study of nanostructures demands a method that allows atom-counting from low dose images with a low signal-to-noise ratio. Therefore, the hybrid method directly includes prior knowledge from image simulations into the existing statistics-based method for atom-counting, and accounts in this manner for possible discrepancies between actual and simulated experimental conditions. It is shown by means of simulations and experiments that this hybrid method outperforms the statistics-based method, especially for low electron doses and small nanoparticles. The analysis of a simulated low dose image of a small nanoparticle suggests that this method allows for far more reliable quantitative analysis of beam-sensitive materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Method and apparatus for imaging a sample on a device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trulson, Mark; Stern, David; Fiekowsky, Peter; Rava, Richard; Walton, Ian; Fodor, Stephen P. A.

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for imaging a sample are provided. An electromagnetic radiation source generates excitation radiation which is sized by excitation optics to a line. The line is directed at a sample resting on a support and excites a plurality of regions on the sample. Collection optics collect response radiation reflected from the sample I and image the reflected radiation. A detector senses the reflected radiation and is positioned to permit discrimination between radiation reflected from a certain focal plane in the sample and certain other planes within the sample.

  11. Flexible hybrid circuit fully inkjet-printed: Surface mount devices assembled by silver nanoparticles-based inkjet ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrese, J.; Vescio, G.; Xuriguera, E.; Medina-Rodriguez, B.; Cornet, A.; Cirera, A.

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays, inkjet-printed devices such as transistors are still unstable in air and have poor performances. Moreover, the present electronics applications require a high degree of reliability and quality of their properties. In order to accomplish these application requirements, hybrid electronics is fulfilled by combining the advantages of the printing technologies with the surface-mount technology. In this work, silver nanoparticle-based inkjet ink (AgNP ink) is used as a novel approach to connect surface-mount devices (SMDs) onto inkjet-printed pads, conducted by inkjet printing technology. Excellent quality AgNP ink-junctions are ensured with high resolution picoliter drop jetting at low temperature (˜150 °C). Electrical, mechanical, and morphological characterizations are carried out to assess the performance of the AgNP ink junction. Moreover, AgNP ink is compared with common benchmark materials (i.e., silver epoxy and solder). Electrical contact resistance characterization shows a similar performance between the AgNP ink and the usual ones. Mechanical characterization shows comparable shear strength for AgNP ink and silver epoxy, and both present higher adhesion than solder. Morphological inspections by field-emission scanning electron microscopy confirm a high quality interface of the silver nanoparticle interconnection. Finally, a flexible hybrid circuit on paper controlled by an Arduino board is manufactured, demonstrating the viability and scalability of the AgNP ink assembling technique.

  12. An integrated hybrid interference and absorption filter for fluorescence detection in lab-on-a-chip devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Charles; Renaudin, Alan; Aimez, Vincent; Charette, Paul G

    2009-05-21

    We present a hybrid optical filter design that combines interference and absorbing components for enhanced fluorescence detection in miniaturized highly-integrated lab-on-a-chip devices. The filter is designed in such a way that the advantages of each technology are used to offset the disadvantages of the other. The filter is fabricated with microfabrication compatible processes and materials for monolithic integration with microelectronics and microfluidics devices. The particular embodiment of the filter described herein is designed to discriminate fluorescence emission at 650 nm from excitation at 532 nm. The 9-layer interference filter component is fabricated with alternating TiO(2) and SiO(2) thin-film layers and has an attenuation of -12.6 dB at 532 nm and -0.76 dB at 650 nm. The absorbing filter component is fabricated using a dyed photopolymer (KMPR + Orasol Red) having an attenuation of -32.6 dB at 532 nm and -1.28 dB at 650 nm. The total rejection ratio of the hybrid filter is 43 dB. The filter exhibits very low autofluorescence and performs equally well at off-axis incidence angles.

  13. HED-TIE: A wafer-scale approach for fabricating hybrid electronic devices with trench isolated electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sreetama; Bülz, Daniel; Solonenko, Dmytro; Reuter, Danny; Deibel, Carsten; Hiller, Karla; Zahn, Dietrich R. T.; Salvan, Georgeta

    2017-05-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid electronic devices (HEDs) offer opportunities for functionalities that are not easily obtainable with either organic or inorganic materials individually. In the strive for down-scaling the channel length in planar geometry HEDs, the best results were achieved with electron beam lithography or nanoimprint lithography. Their application on the wafer level is, however, cost intensive and time consuming. Here, we propose trench isolated electrode (TIE) technology as a fast, cost effective, wafer-level approach for the fabrication of planar HEDs with electrode gaps in the range of 100 nm. We demonstrate that the formation of the organic channel can be realized by deposition from solution as well as by the thermal evaporation of organic molecules. To underline one key feature of planar HED-TIEs, namely full accessibility of the active area of the devices by external stimuli such as light, 6,13-bis (triisopropylsilylethynyl) (TIPS)-pentacene/Au HED-TIEs are successfully tested for possible application as hybrid photodetectors in the visible spectral range.

  14. Analysis of Methanol in the Presence of Ethanol, Using a Hybrid Capillary Electrophoresis Device with Electrochemical Derivatization and Conductivity Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Mauro Sérgio Ferreira; da Costa, Eric Tavares; Gutz, Ivano Gebhardt Rolf; Garcia, Carlos D

    2017-01-17

    Concurrently with ethanol, many other compounds can be formed during the fermentation of grains and fruits. Among those, methanol is particularly important (because of its toxicity) and is typically formed at concentrations much lower than ethanol, presenting a particular challenge that demands the implementation of separation techniques. Aiming to provide an alternative to traditional chromatographic approaches, a hybrid electrophoresis device with electrochemical preprocessing and contactless conductivity detection (hybrid EC-CE-C(4)D) is herein described. The device was applied to perform the electro-oxidation of primary alcohols, followed by the separation and detection of the respective carboxylates. According to the presented results, the optimum conditions were obtained when the sample was diluted with 2 mmol L(-1) HNO3 and then electro-oxidized by applying a potential of 1.4 V for 60 s. The oxidation products were then electrokinetically injected by applying a potential of 3 kV for 4 s and separated using a potential of 3 kV and a background running electrolyte (BGE) consisting of 10 mmol L(-1) N-cyclohexyl-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid (CHES) and 5 mmol L(-1) sodium hydroxide (NaOH). n-Propanol was used as an internal standard and the three carboxylate peaks were resolved with baseline separation within moonshine) was used. Aliquots collected along the beginning of the fractional distillation presented a decreasing methanol ratio (from 4% to <0.5%) and a growing ethanol ratio (from 80% to 100%) in the collected volume.

  15. THz Waveguides, Devices and Hybrid Polymer-chalcogenidePhotonic Crystal Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bao, Hualong; Markos, Christos; Nielsen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution, we review our recent activities in the design, fabrication and characterization of polymer THz waveguides. Besides the THz waveguides, we Ønally will also brie∞y show some of our initial results on a novel hybrid polymer photonic crystal Øber with integrated chalcogenide glass...

  16. VALVE TURBO-ALTERNATOR AS ADDITIONAL HYBRID CAR DEVICE FOR THE HIGH-VOLTAGE BATTERY CHARGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kolesnikov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The description of the hybrid car, its drive components and method of the solution of the problem with moving period of the car on electric pulling by means of valve turbo-alternator is given in this article.

  17. THz waveguides, devices and hybrid polymer-chalcogenide photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bao, Hualong; Markos, Christos; Nielsen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution, we review our recent activities in the design, fabrication and characterization of polymer THz waveguides. Besides the THz waveguides, we finally will also briefly show some of our initial results on a novel hybrid polymer photonic crystal fiber with integrated chalcogenide ...

  18. Metaphase FISH on a Chip: Miniaturized Microfluidic Device for Fluorescence in situ Hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Shah, Pranjul Jaykumar; Dimaki, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) is a major cytogenetic technique for clinical genetic diagnosis of both inherited and acquired chromosomal abnormalities. Although FISH techniques have evolved and are often used together with other cytogenetic methods like CGH, PRINS and PNA-FISH, the pr...

  19. OPTIMIZATION BALANCING DEVICES LI-ION BATTERIES FOR HYBRID AND ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Sharkovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses and proves the feasibility of using the proposed system balancing Li-ion battery consisting of a plurality of series-connected cells, applied to hybrid and electric transportation. The main objective of the system is to increase the performance and operating time of Li-ion batteries.

  20. Optimal Planning and Operation of Hybrid Energy System Supplemented by Storage Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Mohammad Sadegh; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a two-stage model for optimal planning and operation of a distribution network. Optimal siting and sizing of renewable energy sources (RES) as well as electrical energy storage (EES) systems are considered in the proposed hybrid energy system. In this context, the planning...

  1. ClearPEM: prototype PET device dedicated to breast imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Joao Varela

    2009-01-01

    Clinical trials have begun in Portugal on a new breast imaging system (ClearPEM) using positron emission tomography (PET). The system, developed by a Portuguese consortium in collaboration with CERN and laboratories participating in the Crystal Clear collaboration, will detect even the smallest tumours and thus help avoid unnecessary biopsies.

  2. Organic semiconductor devices for X-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakesley, J. C.; Keivanidis, P. E.; Campoy-Quiles, M.; Newman, C. R.; Jin, Y.; Speller, R.; Sirringhaus, H.; Greenham, N. C.; Nelson, J.; Stavrinou, P.

    2007-09-01

    We investigate the potential for replacing inorganic semiconductors with polymeric semiconductors in medical X-ray imaging applications. Polymeric semiconductors are soft and can be fabricated using techniques such as spin coating and jet printing, leading to reductions in fabrication costs for large-area arrays, easy integration of heterostructures and composite materials and the possibility of using flexible substrates. By using a combined cascaded linear systems and Monte-Carlo model to simulate the imaging system, we establish a set of semiconductor requirements for a feasible flat-panel imager (FPI). We have fabricated photodiodes and thin-film transistors (TFTs) out of a variety of polymer materials. Polymer photodiodes coupled to phosphor screens have shown a response to X-ray radiation with a good efficiency. Both transistors and photodiodes were sufficiently radiation hard for use in clinical imaging conditions. A composite phosphor-polymer material has been fabricated and has been found to be compatible with polymeric photodiodes. The composite material can be fabricated within a structure as part of the semiconductor fabrication process.

  3. Compressive Optical Imaging Systems - Theory, Devices and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Radon projections of the object distribution. However, more complex coding strategies have long been applied in imaging [5] and spectroscopy [6, 7...34Compressive sampling," in Proc. International Congress of Mathematicians, vol. 3, (Madrid, Spain ), pp. 1433-1452, 2006. [131 D. Donoho

  4. Raspberry Pi: a 35-dollar device for viewing DICOM images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Omir Antunes; Moreira, Renata de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Raspberry Pi is a low-cost computer created with educational purposes. It uses Linux and, most of times, freeware applications, particularly a software for viewing DICOM images. With an external monitor, the supported resolution (1920 × 1200 pixels) allows for the set up of simple viewing workstations at a reduced cost.

  5. Raspberry Pi: a 35-dollar device for viewing DICOM images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omir Antunes Paiva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Raspberry Pi is a low-cost computer created with educational purposes. It uses Linux and, most of times, freeware applications, particularly a software for viewing DICOM images. With an external monitor, the supported resolution (1920 × 1200 pixels allows for the set up of simple viewing workstations at a reduced cost.

  6. Hybrid Imaging Labels: Providing the Link Between Mass Spectrometry-Based Molecular Pathology and Theranostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, Tessa; van der Wal, Steffen; van Malderen, Stijn J M; Müller, Larissa; Kuil, Joeri; van Unen, Vincent; Peters, Ruud J B; van Bemmel, Margaretha E M; McDonnell, Liam A; Velders, Aldrik H; Koning, Frits; Vanhaeke, Frank; van Leeuwen, Fijs W B

    2017-01-01

    Development of theranostic concepts that include inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) imaging can be hindered by the lack of a direct comparison to more standardly used methods for in vitro and in vivo evaluation; e.g. fluorescence or nuclear medicine. In this study a bimodal (or rather, hybrid) tracer that contains both a fluorescent dye and a chelate was used to evaluate the existence of a direct link between mass spectrometry (MS) and in vitro and in vivo molecular imaging findings using fluorescence and radioisotopes. At the same time, the hybrid label was used to determine whether the use of a single isotope label would allow for MS-based diagnostics. A hybrid label that contained both a DTPA chelate (that was coordinated with either 165Ho or 111In) and a Cy5 fluorescent dye was coupled to the chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) targeting peptide Ac-TZ14011 (hybrid-Cy5-Ac-TZ4011). This receptor targeting tracer was used to 1) validate the efficacy of (165Ho-based) mass-cytometry in determining the receptor affinity via comparison with fluorescence-based flow cytometry (Cy5), 2) evaluate the microscopic binding pattern of the tracer in tumor cells using both fluorescence confocal imaging (Cy5) and LA-ICP-MS-imaging (165Ho), 3) compare in vivo biodistribution patterns obtained with ICP-MS (165Ho) and radiodetection (111In) after intravenous administration of hybrid-Cy5-Ac-TZ4011 in tumor-bearing mice. Finally, LA-ICP-MS-imaging (165Ho) was linked to fluorescence-based analysis of excised tissue samples (Cy5). Analysis with both mass-cytometry and flow cytometry revealed a similar receptor affinity, respectively 352 ± 141 nM and 245 ± 65 nM (p = 0.08), but with a much lower detection sensitivity for the first modality. In vitro LA-ICP-MS imaging (165Ho) enabled clear discrimination between CXCR4 positive and negative cells, but fluorescence microscopy was required to determine the intracellular distribution. In

  7. Design of hybrid multimodal poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) polymer nanoparticles for neutrophil labeling, imaging and tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yuan; Palankar, Raghavendra; Echeverría, María; Medvedev, Nikolay; Moya, Sergio E.; Delcea, Mihaela

    2013-11-01

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) incorporating quantum dots (QDs), superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and gold (Au) NPs for neutrophil labeling were fabricated via the w/o/w double emulsion method. QDs and SPIONs were entrapped in the PLGA core during emulsification while Au NPs were assembled on top of the PLGA NPs via electrostatic interactions. Transmission Electron Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy (CLSM) were applied to characterize the hybrid PLGA NPs. The uptake of the hybrid PLGA NPs by human neutrophils was studied by Flow Cytometry and confocal microscopy. In addition, the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in neutrophils after incubation with the hybrid PLGA NPs was assessed. Magnetophoresis experiments showed that neutrophils with internalized hybrid PLGA NPs can be effectively laterally displaced towards the magnetic field. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the hybrid PLGA NPs resulted in images with a contrast enhancement linearly dependent on the concentration of the hybrid PLGA NPs. Research reported in this work is relevant for imaging, tracking and manipulating neutrophils and has potential for in vivo applications, e.g., tumor visualization and localized photothermal treatment.Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) incorporating quantum dots (QDs), superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and gold (Au) NPs for neutrophil labeling were fabricated via the w/o/w double emulsion method. QDs and SPIONs were entrapped in the PLGA core during emulsification while Au NPs were assembled on top of the PLGA NPs via electrostatic interactions. Transmission Electron Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy (CLSM) were applied to characterize the hybrid PLGA NPs. The uptake of the hybrid PLGA NPs by human neutrophils was studied by Flow Cytometry and confocal microscopy. In addition, the induction of

  8. Medical imaging education in biomedical engineering curriculum: courseware development and application through a hybrid teaching model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weizhao; Li, Xiping; Chen, Hairong; Manns, Fabrice

    2012-01-01

    Medical Imaging is a key training component in Biomedical Engineering programs. Medical imaging education is interdisciplinary training, involving physics, mathematics, chemistry, electrical engineering, computer engineering, and applications in biology and medicine. Seeking an efficient teaching method for instructors and an effective learning environment for students has long been a goal for medical imaging education. By the support of NSF grants, we developed the medical imaging teaching software (MITS) and associated dynamic assessment tracking system (DATS). The MITS/DATS system has been applied to junior and senior medical imaging classes through a hybrid teaching model. The results show that student's learning gain improved, particularly in concept understanding and simulation project completion. The results also indicate disparities in subjective perception between junior and senior classes. Three institutions are collaborating to expand the courseware system and plan to apply it to different class settings.

  9. Recent Progress in Delivery of Therapeutic and Imaging Agents Utilizing Organic-inorganic Hybrid Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzina, Haque Sheikh; Chowdhury, Ezharul

    2017-11-19

    Delivery of conventional small molecule drugs and currently evolving nucleic acid-based therapeutics, such as small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and genes, and contrast agents for high resolution imaging, to the target site of action is highly demanding to increase the therapeutic and imaging efficacy while minimizing the off-target effects of the delivered molecules, as well as develop novel therapeutic and imaging approaches. Organic-inorganic hybrid nanoparticles offer a number of advantages by combining the unique properties of the organic and inorganic counterparts, thus improving the pharmacokinetic behavior and targetability of drugs and contrast agents, and conferring the exclusive optical and magnetic properties for both therapeutic and imaging purposes. Different polymers, lipids, dendrimers, peptides, cell membranes, and small organic molecules were attached via covalent or non-covalent interactions with diverse inorganic nanoparticles of gold, mesoporous silica, magnetic iron oxide, carbon nanotubes and quantum dots for efficient drug delivery and imaging purposes. In this review, we highlight the progress made so far in utilizing different organic-inorganic hybrid nanoparticles for in vivo delivery of anti-cancer drugs, siRNA, genes and imaging agents. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Multi-wave and hybrid imaging techniques: a new direction for nondestructive testing and structural health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuhua; Deng, Yiming; Cao, Jing; Xiong, Xin; Bai, Libing; Li, Zhaojun

    2013-11-27

    In this article, the state-of-the-art multi-wave and hybrid imaging techniques in the field of nondestructive evaluation and structural health monitoring were comprehensively reviewed. A new direction for assessment and health monitoring of various structures by capitalizing the advantages of those imaging methods was discussed. Although sharing similar system configurations, the imaging physics and principles of multi-wave phenomena and hybrid imaging methods are inherently different. After a brief introduction of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) , structure health monitoring (SHM) and their related challenges, several recent advances that have significantly extended imaging methods from laboratory development into practical applications were summarized, followed by conclusions and discussion on future directions.

  11. Flexible nonvolatile memory devices based on Au/PMMA nanocomposites deposited on PEDOT:PSS/Ag nanowire hybrid electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Sihyun; Kim, Tae Whan, E-mail: twk@hanyang.ac.kr

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • Flexible nonvolatile memory (NVM) devices fabricated utilizing Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) embedded in a PMMA layer were fabricated. • The insertion of the PEDOT:PSS layer enhanced the surface uniformity of the AgNW bottom electrode, resulting in improved device performances. • Current-voltage curves for the Al/PMMA:AuNP/PEDOT:PSS/AgNW/PET devices showed clockwise current hysteresis behaviors. • ON/OFF ratio of 1 × 10{sup 3} was maintained for retention times longer than 1 × 10{sup 4} s. • Memory characteristics of the NVM devices before and after bending were similar. - Abstract: Flexible nonvolatile memory (NVM) devices fabricated utilizing Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) embedded in a poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) layer were fabricated on a silver nanowire (AgNW) or a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/AgNW coated on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates. The transmittance and the sheet resistance of the PEDOT:PSS/AgNW hybrid layer were approximately 89% and 50 Ω/sq, respectively, which were comparable to the values for commercial indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrodes. Current-voltage curves for the Al/PMMA:AuNP/PEDOT:PSS/AgNW/PET devices at 300 K showed clockwise current hysteresis behaviors due to the existence of the AuNPs. The endurance number of ON/OFF switching for the NVM devices was above 30 cycles. An ON/OFF ratio of 1 × 10{sup 3} was maintained for retention times longer than 1 × 10{sup 4} s. The maximum memory margins of the NVM devices before and after bending were approximately 3.4 × 10{sup 3} and 1.4 × 10{sup 3}, respectively. The retention times of the devices before and after bending remained same 1 × 10{sup 4} s. The memory margin and the stability of flexible NVMs fabricated on AgNW electrodes were enhanced due to the embedded PEDOT:PSS buffer layer.

  12. Low-noise phase imaging by hybrid uniform and structured illumination transport of intensity equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yunhui; Shanker, Aamod; Tian, Lei; Waller, Laura; Barbastathis, George

    2014-11-03

    We demonstrate a new approach to the transport of intensity equation (TIE) phase retrieval method which uses structured illumination to improve low-frequency noise performance. In the hybrid scheme, two phase images are acquired: one with uniform and one with sinusoidal grating illumination intensity. The former preserves the high spatial frequency features of the phase best, whereas the latter dramatically increase the response at low spatial frequencies (where traditional TIE notoriously suffers). We then theoretically prove the design of a spectral filter that optimally combines the two phase results while suppressing noise. The combination of uniformly and structured illuminated TIE (hybrid TIE) phase imaging is experimentally demonstrated optically with a calibrated pure phase object.

  13. Lessons learned: from dye-sensitized solar cells to all-solid-state hybrid devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docampo, Pablo; Guldin, Stefan; Leijtens, Tomas; Noel, Nakita K; Steiner, Ullrich; Snaith, Henry J

    2014-06-25

    The field of solution-processed photovoltaic cells is currently in its second spring. The dye-sensitized solar cell is a widely studied and longstanding candidate for future energy generation. Recently, inorganic absorber-based devices have reached new record efficiencies, with the benefits of all-solid-state devices. In this rapidly changing environment, this review sheds light on recent developments in all-solid-state solar cells in terms of electrode architecture, alternative sensitizers, and hole-transporting materials. These concepts are of general applicability to many next-generation device platforms. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Validation of a new imaging device for telemedical ulcer monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Benjamin Schnack; Frøkjær, Johnny; Bisgaard Jørgensen, Line

    2015-01-01

    between the new portable camera and the iPhone images vs. clinical assessment as the 'gold standard'. The study included 36 foot ulcers. Four specialists rated the ulcers and filled out a questionnaire, which formed the basis of the evaluation. RESULTS: We found fair to very good intra-rater agreement...... for the new PID and iPhone, respectively. The gold standard was evaluated by assessing the ulcer twice by two different specialists. Kappa values were moderate to very good with respect to inter-rater agreement except for two variables. The agreement between standard and new equipment compared to the gold...... standard showed highest agreement with the new PID. CONCLUSION: The new PID is more in accordance with the clinical assessment compared to standard images. It opens for the possibility of using more advanced techniques in a telemedical approach to ulcer treatment and care, including volume measurements....

  15. Imaging of patients with implanted devices and arrhythmia

    OpenAIRE

    Nam Ju Lee; Harold I. Litt

    2016-01-01

    Expanding implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) indications and significant morbidity and mortality reduction benefits have resulted in a large number of routine ICD implants with appropriate ICD shocks for ventricular arrhythmias. The side-effects and lack of long-term efficacy of antiarrhythmics have made ventricular tachycardia (VT) ablation an increasingly attractive treatment option. Although cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) is considered the gold standard technique for im...

  16. Combined analysis of cervical smears. Cytopathology, image cytometry and in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Multhaupt, H; Bruder, E; Elit, L

    1993-01-01

    This study was an attempt to correlate the Bethesda System of Papanicolaou smear classification with DNA content by image analysis and the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) as determined by in situ hybridization. DNA histograms were classified as normal diploid, diploid proliferative....... HPV infection correlated with DNA polyploidy but was seen in 15 of 29 smears classified as cytologically normal. Morphologically abnormal Papanicolaou smears correlated with aneuploid DNA content. Smears classified as intraepithelial neoplasia correlated with aneuploid DNA content in all 12 cases...

  17. Live level set: A hybrid method of livewire and level set for medical image segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Jianhua; Chen, David

    2008-01-01

    Livewire and level set are popular methods for medical image segmentation. In this article, the authors propose a hybrid method of livewire and level set, termed the live level set (LLS). The LLS replaces the one graph update iteration in the classic livewire with two iterations of graph updates. The first iteration generates an initial contour for a level set computation. The level set distance is then factored back into the cost function in the second iteration of graph update. The authors ...

  18. Service and multimedia data transmission in IoT networks using hybrid communication devices

    OpenAIRE

    Saveliev Anton; Malov Dmitry; Tamashakin Michael; Budkov Victor

    2017-01-01

    Employment of various protocols and technologies in IoT networks leads to the lack of module unification and increase in incompatible technical solutions. Modern IoT networks are not designed for streaming audio/video data, so their application field is limited. Also, modern IoT networks should have connection areas for devices transferring data to the Internet, and consider hardware and software specific characteristics of these devices. We offer one-size-fits-all solution for organization o...

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of the inner ear by using a hybrid radiofrequency coil at 7 T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Heo, Phil; Kim, Young-Bo; Han, Gyu-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Visualization of the membranous structures of the inner ear has been limited to the detection of the normal fluid signal intensity within the bony labyrinth by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipped with a 1.5 Tesla (T) magnet. High-field (HF) MRI has been available for more than a decade, and numerous studies have documented its significant advantages over conventional MRI with regards to its use in basic scientific research and routine clinical assessments. No previous studies of the inner ear by using HF MRI have been reported, in part because high-quality resolution of mastoid pneumatization is challenging due to artifacts generated in the HF environment and insufficient performance of radiofrequency (RF) coils. Therefore, a hybrid RF coil with integrated circuitry was developed at 7 T and was targeted for anatomical imaging to achieve a high resolution image of the structure of the human inner ear, excluding the bony portion. The inner-ear's structure is composed of soft tissues containing hydrogen ions and includes the membranous labyrinth, endolymphatic space, perilymphatic space, and cochlear-vestibular nerves. Visualization of the inner-ear's anatomy was performed in-vivo with a custom-designed hybrid RF coil and a specific imaging protocol based on an interpolated breath-held examination sequence. The comparative signal intensity value at 30-mm away from the phantom side was 88% higher for the hybrid RF coil and 24% higher for the 8-channel transmit/receive (Tx/Rx) coil than for the commercial birdcage coil. The optimized MRI protocol employed a hybrid RF coil because it enabled high-resolution imaging of the inner-ear's anatomy and accurate mapping of structures including the cochlea and the semicircular canals. These results indicate that 7 T MRI achieves high spatial resolution visualization of the inner-ear's anatomy. Therefore, MRI imaging using a hybrid RF coil at 7 T could provide a powerful tool for clinical investigations of petrous

  20. A low cost X-ray imaging device based on BPW-34 Si-PIN photodiode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emirhan, E.; Bayrak, A.; Yücel, E. Barlas; Yücel, M.; Ozben, C.S., E-mail: ozben@itu.edu.tr

    2016-05-21

    A low cost X-ray imaging device based on BPW-34 silicon PIN photodiode was designed and produced. X-rays were produced from a CEI OX/70-P dental tube using a custom made ±30 kV power supply. A charge sensitive preamplifier and a shaping amplifier were built for the amplification of small signals produced by photons in the depletion layer of Si-PIN photodiode. A two dimensional position control unit was used for moving the detector in small steps to measure the intensity of X-rays absorbed in the object to be imaged. An Aessent AES220B FPGA module was used for transferring the image data to a computer via USB. Images of various samples were obtained with acceptable image quality despite of the low cost of the device.

  1. Evaluation of efficacy of a new hybrid fusion device: a randomized, two-centre controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Siewe, Jan; Bredow, Jan; Oppermann, Johannes; Koy, Timmo; Delank, Stefan; Knoell, Peter; Eysel, Peer; Sobottke, Rolf, 1968-; Zarghooni, Kourosh; Röllinghoff, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Background The 360° fusion of lumbar segments is a common and well-researched therapy to treat various diseases of the spine. But it changes the biomechanics of the spine and may cause adjacent segment disease (ASD). Among the many techniques developed to avoid this complication, one appears promising. It combines a rigid fusion with a flexible pedicle screw system (hybrid instrumentation, “topping off”). However, its clinical significance is still uncertain due to the lack of conclusive data...

  2. Doppler-scanning tunneling microscopy current imaging in superconductor-ferromagnet hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, S. A.; Plummer, G.; Fedor, J.; Pearson, J. E.; Novosad, V.; Karapetrov, G.; Iavarone, M.

    2016-01-25

    Mapping the distribution of currents inside a superconductor is usually performed indirectly through imaging of the stray magnetic fields above the surface. Here, we show that by direct imaging of the Doppler shift contribution to the quasiparticle excitation spectrum in the superconductor using low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy, we obtain directly the distribution of supercurrents inside the superconductor. We demonstrate the technique at the example of superconductor/ferromagnet hybrid structure that produces intricate current pattern consisting of combination Meissner shielding currents and Abrikosov vortex currents.

  3. RF Device for Acquiring Images of the Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaier, Todd C.; McGrath, William R.

    2010-01-01

    A safe, non-invasive method for forming images through clothing of large groups of people, in order to search for concealed weapons either made of metal or not, has been developed. A millimeter wavelength scanner designed in a unique, ring-shaped configuration can obtain a full 360 image of the body with a resolution of less than a millimeter in only a few seconds. Millimeter waves readily penetrate normal clothing, but are highly reflected by the human body and concealed objects. Millimeter wave signals are nonionizing and are harmless to human tissues when used at low power levels. The imager (see figure) consists of a thin base that supports a small-diameter vertical post about 7 ft (=2.13 m) tall. Attached to the post is a square-shaped ring 2 in. (=5 cm) wide and 3 ft (=91 cm) on a side. The ring is oriented horizontally, and is supported halfway along one side by a connection to a linear bearing on the vertical post. A planar RF circuit board is mounted to the inside of each side of the ring. Each circuit board contains an array of 30 receivers, one transmitter, and digitization electronics. Each array element has a printed-circuit patch antenna coupled to a pair of mixers by a 90 coupler. The mixers receive a reference local oscillator signal to a subharmonic of the transmitter frequency. A single local oscillator line feeds all 30 receivers on the board. The resulting MHz IF signals are amplified and carried to the edge of the board where they are demodulated and digitized. The transmitted signal is derived from the local oscillator at a frequency offset determined by a crystal oscillator. One antenna centrally located on each side of the square ring provides the source illumination power. The total transmitted power is less than 100 mW, resulting in an exposure level that is completely safe to humans. The output signals from all four circuit boards are fed via serial connection to a data processing computer. The computer processes the approximately 1-MB

  4. A polydimethylsiloxane-polycarbonate hybrid microfluidic device capable of generating perpendicular chemical and oxygen gradients for cell culture studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Wen; Cheng, Yung-Ju; Tu, Melissa; Chen, Ying-Hua; Peng, Chien-Chung; Liao, Wei-Hao; Tung, Yi-Chung

    2014-10-07

    This paper reports a polydimethylsiloxane-polycarbonate (PDMS-PC) hybrid microfluidic device capable of performing cell culture under combinations of chemical and oxygen gradients. The microfluidic device is constructed of two PDMS layers with microfluidic channel patterns separated by a thin PDMS membrane. The top layer contains an embedded PC film and a serpentine channel for a spatially confined oxygen scavenging chemical reaction to generate an oxygen gradient in the bottom layer for cell culture. Using the chemical reaction method, the device can be operated with a small amount of chemicals, without bulky gas cylinders and sophisticated flow control schemes. Furthermore, it can be directly used in conventional incubators with syringe pumps to simplify the system setup. The bottom layer contains arrangements of serpentine channels for chemical gradient generation and a cell culture chamber in the downstream. The generated chemical and oxygen gradients are experimentally characterized using a fluorescein solution and an oxygen-sensitive fluorescent dye, respectively. For demonstration, a 48 hour cell-based drug test and a cell migration assay using human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells (A549) are conducted under various combinations of the chemical and oxygen gradients in the experiments. The drug testing results show an increase in A549 cell apoptosis due to the hypoxia-activated cytotoxicity of tirapazamine (TPZ) and also suggest great cell compatibility and gradient controllability of the device. In addition, the A549 cell migration assay results demonstrate an aerotactic behavior of the A549 cells and suggest that the oxygen gradient plays an essential role in guiding cell migration. The migration results, under combinations of chemokine and oxygen gradients, cannot be simply superposed with single gradient results. The device is promising to advance the control of in vitro microenvironments, to better study cellular responses under various

  5. Hybrid iterative reconstruction algorithm improves image quality in craniocervical CT angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löve, Askell; Siemund, Roger; Höglund, Peter; Ramgren, Birgitta; Undrén, Per; Björkman-Burtscher, Isabella M

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of a hybrid iterative reconstruction algorithm for improving image quality in craniocervical CT angiography (CTA) and to assess observer performance. Thirty patients (mean age, 58 years; range 16-80 years) underwent standard craniocervical CTA (volume CT dose index, 6.8 mGy, 2.8 mSv). Images were reconstructed using both filtered back projection (FBP) and a hybrid iterative reconstruction algorithm. Five neuroradiologists assessed general image quality and delineation of the vessel lumen in seven arterial segments using a 4-grade scale. Interobserver and intraobserver variability were determined. Mean attenuation and noise were measured and signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios calculated. Descriptive statistics are presented and data analyzed using linear mixed-effects models. In pooled data, image quality in iterative reconstruction was graded superior to FBP regarding all five quality criteria (p Iterative reconstruction resulted in elimination of arterial segments graded poor. Interobserver percentage agreement was significantly better (p = 0.024) for iterative reconstruction (69%) than for FBP (66%) but worse than intraobserver percentage agreement (mean, 79%). Noise levels, signal-to-noise ratio, and contrast-to-noise ratio were significantly (p iterative reconstruction at all measured levels. The iterative reconstruction algorithm significantly improves image quality in craniocervical CT, especially at the thoracic inlet. Despite careful study design, considerable interobserver and intraobserver variability was noted.

  6. The Italian project for a proton imaging device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirrone, G.A.P. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - National Institute for Nuclear Physics, Catania (Italy)]. E-mail: cirrone@lns.infn.it; Candiano, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - National Institute for Nuclear Physics, Catania (Italy); Cuttone, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - National Institute for Nuclear Physics, Catania (Italy); Lo Nigro, S. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Lo Presti, D. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Randazzo, N. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Sipala, V. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Russo, M. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Aiello, S. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Bruzzi, M. [Energetic Department, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Menichelli, D. [Energetic Department, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Scaringella, M. [Energetic Department, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Miglio, S. [Energetic Department, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Bucciolini, M. [University of Florence and INFN, Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Florence (Italy); Talamonti, C. [University of Florence and INFN, Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Florence (Italy); Pallotta, S. [University of Florence and INFN, Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Florence (Italy)

    2007-06-11

    Proton Computed Tomography (or pCT) is a new imaging technique based on the use of high energy proton beams (200-250 MeV) replacing of the commonly adopted X-rays CT. pCT that was firstly proposed in the 1960s but only nowadays, with the continued establishing of new proton therapy centers around the world, the interest in it is growing. The use of protons for tomographic images can represent, in fact, a big enhancement in the quality of a proton therapy treatment either in the patient positioning as well as in the accuracy of the dose calculation for the treatment planning phase. In this paper, after a brief introduction on pCT principles, the main hardware and software characteristics of a first pCT prototype in development by our group (the Italian PRIMA collaboration) will be presented. The role of Monte Carlo simulation in developing will be also emphasized, using the GEANT4 simulation toolkit.

  7. Tuning the Seebeck effect in C60-based hybrid thermoelectric devices through temperature-dependent surface polarization and thermally-modulated interface dipoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuchun; Xu, Ling; Zhao, Chen; Shao, Ming; Hu, Bin

    2017-06-07

    Fullerene (C60) is an important n-type organic semiconductor with high electron mobility and low thermal conductivity. In this work, we report the experimental results on the tunable Seebeck effect of C60 hybrid thin-film devices by adopting different oxide layers. After inserting n-type high-dielectric constant titanium oxide (TiOx) and zinc oxide (ZnO) layers, we observed a significantly enhanced n-type Seebeck effect in oxide/C60 hybrid devices with Seebeck coefficients of -5.8 mV K-1 for TiOx/C60 and -2.08 mV K-1 for ZnO/C60 devices at 100 °C, compared with the value of -400 μV K-1 for the pristine C60 device. However, when a p-type nickel oxide (NiO) layer is inserted, the C60 hybrid devices show a p-type to n-type Seebeck effect transition when the temperature increases. The remarkable Seebeck effect and change in Seebeck coefficient in different oxide/C60 hybrid devices can be attributed to two reasons: the temperature-dependent surface polarization difference and thermally-dependent interface dipoles. Firstly, the surface polarization difference due to temperature-dependent electron-phonon coupling can be enhanced by inserting an oxide layer and functions as an additional driving force for the Seebeck effect development. Secondly, thermally-dependent interface dipoles formed at the electrode/oxide interface play an important role in modifying the density of interface states and affecting the charge diffusion in hybrid devices. The surface polarization difference and interface dipoles function in the same direction in hybrid devices with TiOx and ZnO dielectric layers, leading to enhanced n-type Seebeck effect, while the surface polarization difference and interface dipoles generate the opposite impact on electron diffusion in ITO/NiO/C60/Al, leading to a p-type to n-type transition in the Seebeck effect. Therefore, inserting different oxide layers could effectively modulate the Seebeck effect of C60-based hybrid devices through the surface polarization

  8. Integration of PET/MR Hybrid Imaging into Radiation Therapy Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tong; Das, Shiva; Wong, Terence Z

    2017-05-01

    Hybrid PET/MR imaging is in early development for treatment planning. This article briefly reviews research and clinical applications of PET/MR imaging in radiation oncology. With improvements in workflow, more specific tracers, and fast and robust acquisition protocols, PET/MR imaging will play an increasingly important role in better target delineation for treatment planning and have clear advantages in the evaluation of tumor response and in a better understanding of tumor heterogeneity. With advances in treatment delivery and the potential of integrating PET/MR imaging with research on radiomics for radiation oncology, quantitative and physiologic information could lead to more precise and personalized RT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluating Imaging and Computer-aided Detection and Diagnosis Devices at the FDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallas, Brandon D.; Chan, Heang-Ping; D’Orsi, Carl J.; Dodd, Lori E.; Giger, Maryellen L.; Gur, David; Krupinski, Elizabeth A.; Metz, Charles E.; Myers, Kyle J.; Obuchowski, Nancy A.; Sahiner, Berkman; Toledano, Alicia Y.; Zuley, Margarita L.

    2017-01-01

    This report summarizes the Joint FDA-MIPS Workshop on Methods for the Evaluation of Imaging and Computer-Assist Devices. The purpose of the workshop was to gather information on the current state of the science and facilitate consensus development on statistical methods and study designs for the evaluation of imaging devices to support US Food and Drug Administration submissions. Additionally, participants expected to identify gaps in knowledge and unmet needs that should be addressed in future research. This summary is intended to document the topics that were discussed at the meeting and disseminate the lessons that have been learned through past studies of imaging and computer-aided detection and diagnosis device performance. PMID:22306064

  10. Mutual interferences and design principles for mechatronic devices in magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ningbo; Gassert, Roger; Riener, Robert

    2011-07-01

    Robotic and mechatronic devices that work compatibly with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are applied in diagnostic MRI, image-guided surgery, neurorehabilitation and neuroscience. MRI-compatible mechatronic systems must address the challenges imposed by the scanner's electromagnetic fields. We have developed objective quantitative evaluation criteria for device characteristics needed to formulate design guidelines that ensure MRI-compatibility based on safety, device functionality and image quality. The mutual interferences between an MRI system and mechatronic devices working in its vicinity are modeled and tested. For each interference, the involved components are listed, and a numerical measure for "MRI-compatibility" is proposed. These interferences are categorized into an MRI-compatibility matrix, with each element representing possible interactions between one part of the mechatronic system and one component of the electromagnetic fields. Based on this formulation, design principles for MRI-compatible mechatronic systems are proposed. Furthermore, test methods are developed to examine whether a mechatronic device indeed works without interferences within an MRI system. Finally, the proposed MRI-compatibility criteria and design guidelines have been applied to an actual design process that has been validated by the test procedures. Objective and quantitative MRI-compatibility measures for mechatronic and robotic devices have been established. Applying the proposed design principles, potential problems in safety, device functionality and image quality can be considered in the design phase to ensure that the mechatronic system will fulfill the MRI-compatibility criteria. New guidelines and test procedures for MRI instrument compatibility provide a rational basis for design and evaluation of mechatronic devices in various MRI applications. Designers can apply these criteria and use the tests, so that MRI-compatibility results can accrue to build an experiential

  11. Fat-constrained 18F-FDG PET reconstruction in hybrid PET/MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevrhal, Sven; Heinzer, Susanne; Wülker, Christian; Renisch, Steffen; Ratib, Osman; Börnert, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Fusion of information from PET and MR imaging can increase the diagnostic value of both modalities. This work sought to improve (18)F FDG PET image quality by using MR Dixon fat-constrained images to constrain PET image reconstruction to low-fat regions, with the working hypothesis that fatty tissue metabolism is low in glucose consumption. A novel constrained PET reconstruction algorithm was implemented via a modification of the system matrix in list-mode time-of-flight ordered-subsets expectation maximization reconstruction, similar to the way time-of-flight weighting is incorporated. To demonstrate its use in PET/MR imaging, we modeled a constraint based on fat/water-separating Dixon MR images that shift activity away from regions of fat tissue during PET image reconstruction. PET and MR imaging scans of a modified National Electrical Manufacturers Association/International Electrotechnical Commission body phantom simulating body fat/water composition and in vivo experiments on 2 oncology patients were performed on a commercial time-of-flight PET/MR imaging system. Fat-constrained PET reconstruction visibly and quantitatively increased resolution and contrast between high-uptake and fatty-tissue regions without significantly affecting the images in nonfat regions. The incorporation of MR tissue information, such as fat, in image reconstruction can improve the quality of PET images. The combination of a variety of potential other MR tissue characteristics with PET represents a further justification for merging MR data with PET data in hybrid systems. © 2014 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  12. New approaches to image processing based failure analysis of nano-scale ULSI devices

    CERN Document Server

    Zalevsky, Zeev; Gur, Eran

    2013-01-01

    New Approaches to Image Processing Based Failure Analysis of Nano-Scale ULSI Devices introduces the reader to transmission and scanning microscope image processing for metal and non-metallic microstructures. Engineers and scientists face the pressing problem in ULSI development and quality assurance: microscopy methods can't keep pace with the continuous shrinking of feature size in microelectronics. Nanometer scale sizes are below the resolution of light, and imaging these features is nearly impossible even with electron microscopes, due to image noise. This book presents novel ""smart"

  13. Sub-Rayleigh ghost imaging via sparsity constraints based on a digital micro-mirror device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jie; Gong, Wenlin, E-mail: gongwl@siom.ac.cn; Han, Shensheng, E-mail: sshan@mail.shcnc.ac.cn

    2013-10-30

    In a diffraction-limited system, the imaging resolution limit is given by Rayleigh criterion. When both the image's sparsity and the point spread function determined by the optical system's Rayleigh diffraction limit are taken as popular a priori, sub-Rayleigh ghost imaging, which is backed up by numerical simulation and experiments, is achieved by modulating the thermal light with a digital micro-mirror device (DMD). The differences between this approach and former ghost imaging without considering the optical system's point spread function are also discussed.

  14. Hybrid microneedles devices for diagnostic and therapeutic applications: fabrication and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardano, P.; Caliò, A.; Politi, J.; Di Palma, V.; Bevilacqua, M. F.; Rea, I.; Casalino, M.; Di Matteo, A.; Rendina, I.; De Stefano, L.

    2015-06-01

    Microneedles are newly developed biomedical devices, whose advantages are mainly in the non-invasiveness, discretion and versatility of use both as diagnostics and as therapeutics tool. In fact, they can be used both for drugs delivery in the interstitial fluids and for the analysis of the interstitial fluid. In this work we present the preliminary results for two devices based on micro needles in PolyEthylene (Glycol). The first for the drugs delivery includes a membrane whose optical reflected wavelength is related to the concentration of drug. Here, we present our preliminary result in diffusion of drugs between the membrane and the microneedles. The second device is gold coated and it works as electrode for the electrochemical detection of species in the interstitial fluid. A preliminary result in detection of glucose will be shown.

  15. Medical Devices; Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Classification of the Automated Image Assessment System for Microbial Colonies on Solid Culture Media. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-16

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is classifying the automated image assessment system for microbial colonies on solid culture media into class II (special controls). The special controls that apply to the device type are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the automated image assessment system for microbial colonies on solid culture media's classification. We are taking this action because we have determined that classifying the device into class II (special controls) will provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. We believe this action will also enhance patients' access to beneficial innovative devices, in part by reducing regulatory burdens.

  16. Imaging Atherosclerosis with Hybrid Positron Emission Tomography/Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ripa, Rasmus Sejersten; Kjær, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive imaging of atherosclerosis could potentially move patient management towards individualized triage, treatment, and followup. The newly introduced combined positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system could emerge as a key player in this context. Both ...

  17. Current state of the regulatory trajectory for whole slide imaging devices in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Abels

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The regulatory field for digital pathology (DP has advanced significantly. A major milestone was accomplished when the FDA allowed the first vendor to market their device for primary diagnostic use in the USA and published in the classification order that this device, and substantially equivalent devices of this generic type, should be classified into class II instead of class III as previously proposed. The Digital Pathology Association (DPA regulatory task force had a major role in the accomplishment of getting the application request for Whole Slide Imaging (WSI Systems recommended for a de novo. This article reviews the past and emerging regulatory environment of WSI for clinical use in the USA. A WSI system with integrated subsystems is defined in the context of medical device regulations. The FDA technical performance assessment guideline is also discussed as well as parameters involved in analytical testing and clinical studies to demonstrate that WSI devices are safe and effective for clinical use.

  18. Temperature dependence of large positive magnetoresistance in hybrid ferromagnetic/semiconductor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overend, N.; Nogaret, A.; Gallagher, B. L.; Main, P. C.; Henini, M.; Marrows, C. H.; Howson, M. A.; Beaumont, S. P.

    1998-04-01

    We investigate a new type of magnetoresistance (MR) in which the resistivity of a near-surface two-dimensional electron gas is controlled by the magnetization of a submicron ferromagnetic grating defined on the surface of the device. We observe an increase in resistance of up to ˜1500% at a temperature of 4 K and ˜1% at 300 K. The magnitude and temperature dependence of the MR are well accounted for by a semiclassical theory. Optimization of device parameters is expected to increase considerably the magnitude of the room temperature MR.

  19. MLAA-based attenuation correction of flexible hardware components in hybrid PET/MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heußer, Thorsten; Rank, Christopher M; Berker, Yannick; Freitag, Martin T; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2017-12-01

    Accurate PET quantification demands attenuation correction (AC) for both patient and hardware attenuation of the 511 keV annihilation photons. In hybrid PET/MR imaging, AC for stationary hardware components such as patient table and MR head coil is straightforward, employing CT-derived attenuation templates. AC for flexible hardware components such as MR-safe headphones and MR radiofrequency (RF) surface coils is more challenging. Registration-based approaches, aligning CT-based attenuation templates with the current patient position, have been proposed but are not used in clinical routine. Ignoring headphone or RF coil attenuation has been shown to result in regional activity underestimation values of up to 18%. We propose to employ the maximum-likelihood reconstruction of attenuation and activity (MLAA) algorithm to estimate the attenuation of flexible hardware components. Starting with an initial attenuation map not including flexible hardware components, the attenuation update of MLAA is applied outside the body outline only, allowing to estimate hardware attenuation without modifying the patient attenuation map. Appropriate prior expectations on the attenuation coefficients are incorporated into MLAA. The proposed method is investigated for non-TOF PET phantom and 18F-FDG patient data acquired with a clinical PET/MR device, using headphones or RF surface coils as flexible hardware components. Although MLAA cannot recover the exact physical shape of the hardware attenuation maps, the overall attenuation of the hardware components is accurately estimated. Therefore, the proposed algorithm significantly improves PET quantification. Using the phantom data, local activity underestimation when neglecting hardware attenuation was reduced from up to 25% to less than 3% under- or overestimation as compared to reference scans without hardware present or to CT-derived AC. For the patient data, we found an average activity underestimation of 7.9% evaluated in the full

  20. A hybrid approach to simulate multiple photon scattering in X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freud, N. [CNDRI, Laboratory of Nondestructive Testing using Ionizing Radiations, INSA-Lyon Scientific and Technical University, Bat. Antoine de Saint-Exupery, 20, avenue Albert Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)]. E-mail: nicolas.freud@insa-lyon.fr; Letang, J.-M. [CNDRI, Laboratory of Nondestructive Testing using Ionizing Radiations, INSA-Lyon Scientific and Technical University, Bat. Antoine de Saint-Exupery, 20, avenue Albert Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Babot, D. [CNDRI, Laboratory of Nondestructive Testing using Ionizing Radiations, INSA-Lyon Scientific and Technical University, Bat. Antoine de Saint-Exupery, 20, avenue Albert Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2005-01-01

    A hybrid simulation approach is proposed to compute the contribution of scattered radiation in X- or {gamma}-ray imaging. This approach takes advantage of the complementarity between the deterministic and probabilistic simulation methods. The proposed hybrid method consists of two stages. Firstly, a set of scattering events occurring in the inspected object is determined by means of classical Monte Carlo simulation. Secondly, this set of scattering events is used as a starting point to compute the energy imparted to the detector, with a deterministic algorithm based on a 'forced detection' scheme. For each scattering event, the probability for the scattered photon to reach each pixel of the detector is calculated using well-known physical models (form factor and incoherent scattering function approximations, in the case of Rayleigh and Compton scattering respectively). The results of the proposed hybrid approach are compared to those obtained with the Monte Carlo method alone (Geant4 code) and found to be in excellent agreement. The convergence of the results when the number of scattering events increases is studied. The proposed hybrid approach makes it possible to simulate the contribution of each type (Compton or Rayleigh) and order of scattering, separately or together, with a single PC, within reasonable computation times (from minutes to hours, depending on the number of pixels of the detector). This constitutes a substantial benefit, compared to classical simulation methods (Monte Carlo or deterministic approaches), which usually requires a parallel computing architecture to obtain comparable results.

  1. Monolithic integration of hybrid perovskite single crystals with heterogenous substrate for highly sensitive X-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Zhang, Yang; Xu, Qiang; Wei, Haotong; Fang, Yanjun; Wang, Qi; Deng, Yehao; Li, Tao; Gruverman, Alexei; Cao, Lei; Huang, Jinsong

    2017-04-01

    The monolithic integration of new optoelectronic materials with well-established inexpensive silicon circuitry is leading to new applications, functionality and simple readouts. Here, we show that single crystals of hybrid perovskites can be integrated onto virtually any substrates, including silicon wafers, through facile, low-temperature, solution-processed molecular bonding. The brominated (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane molecule binds the native oxide of silicon and participates in the perovskite crystal with its ammonium bromide group, yielding a solid mechanical and electrical connection. The dipole of the bonding molecule reduces device noise while retaining signal intensity. The reduction of dark current enables the detectors to be operated at increased bias, resulting in a sensitivity of 2.1 × 104 µC Gyair-1 cm-2 under 8 keV X-ray radiation, which is over a thousand times higher than the sensitivity of amorphous selenium detectors. X-ray imaging with both perovskite pixel detectors and linear array detectors reduces the total dose by 15-120-fold compared with state-of-the-art X-ray imaging systems.

  2. Image acquisition device of inspection robot based on adaptive rotation regulation of polarizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Maoqi; Wang, Xingguang; Liang, Tao; Yang, Guoqing; Zhang, Chuangyou; Gao, Faqin

    2017-12-01

    An image processing device of inspection robot with adaptive polarization adjustment is proposed, that the device includes the inspection robot body, the image collecting mechanism, the polarizer and the polarizer automatic actuating device. Where, the image acquisition mechanism is arranged at the front of the inspection robot body for collecting equipment image data in the substation. Polarizer is fixed on the automatic actuating device of polarizer, and installed in front of the image acquisition mechanism, and that the optical axis of the camera vertically goes through the polarizer and the polarizer rotates with the optical axis of the visible camera as the central axis. The simulation results show that the system solves the fuzzy problems of the equipment that are caused by glare, reflection of light and shadow, and the robot can observe details of the running status of electrical equipment. And the full coverage of the substation equipment inspection robot observation target is achieved, which ensures the safe operation of the substation equipment.

  3. A SU-8/PDMS hybrid microfluidic device with integrated optical fibers for online monitoring of lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min-Hsien; Cai, Haoyuan; Xu, Xia; Urban, Jill P G; Cui, Zhan-Feng; Cui, Zheng

    2005-12-01

    A microfluidic device with integrated optical fibres was developed for online monitoring of lactate. The device consists of a SU-8 waveguide, microfluidic channels and grooves for the insertion of optic fibres. It was fabricated by one-step photolithography of SU-8 polymer resist. Different channel widths (50-300 microm) were tested in terms of detection sensitivity. A wide range of flow rates were applied to investigate the influence of flow rate on signal fluctuations. The separation between optical fibre sensor and microfluidic channel and the width of fluidic channel have been optimized to maximize the detection sensitivity. It was revealed that 250 microm of channel width is the optimum light path length for a compromise between detection sensitivity and interference of ambient light. The independence of detection signals on flow rates was demonstrated within the range of flow rate (0.5-5 ml/hr) tested. Compared with conventional lactate detection, the device is proved to have high accuracy, relatively low limit of detection (50 mg/L) and reasonably fast response time (100 sec). The fabrication of device is simple and low cost. The present work has provided some fundamental data for further system optimization to meet specific detection requirements.

  4. Performance-oriented Analysis of a Hybrid magnetic Assembly for a Heat-pump Magnetocaloric Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Insinga, Andrea Roberto; Smith, Anders; Bahl, Christian R.H.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional active-regenerator magnetocaloric devices include moving parts, with the purpose of generating an oscillating magnetic field in the magneto-caloric material, placed inside the regenerator. In this work a different design is analyzed, for application in a magnetocaloric heat pump...

  5. Room-temperature spintronic effects in Alq3-based hybrid devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dediu, V.; Hueso, L.E.; Bergenti, I; Riminucci, A.; Borgatti, F.; Graziosi, P.; Newby, C.; Casoli, F.; de Jong, Machiel Pieter; Taliani, C.; Zhan, Y.

    2008-01-01

    We report on efficient spin polarized injection and transport in long 102 nm channels of Alq3 organic semiconductor. We employ vertical spin valve devices with a direct interface between the bottom manganite electrode and Alq3, while the top-electrode geometry consists of an insulating tunnel

  6. Hybrid vapor phase-solution phase growth techniques for improved CZT(S,Se) photovoltaic device performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Liang-Yi; Gershon, Talia S.; Haight, Richard A.; Lee, Yun Seog

    2016-12-27

    A hybrid vapor phase-solution phase CZT(S,Se) growth technique is provided. In one aspect, a method of forming a kesterite absorber material on a substrate includes the steps of: depositing a layer of a first kesterite material on the substrate using a vapor phase deposition process, wherein the first kesterite material includes Cu, Zn, Sn, and at least one of S and Se; annealing the first kesterite material to crystallize the first kesterite material; and depositing a layer of a second kesterite material on a side of the first kesterite material opposite the substrate using a solution phase deposition process, wherein the second kesterite material includes Cu, Zn, Sn, and at least one of S and Se, wherein the first kesterite material and the second kesterite material form a multi-layer stack of the absorber material on the substrate. A photovoltaic device and method of formation thereof are also provided.

  7. Control design for robust tracking and smooth transition in power systems with battery/supercapacitor hybrid energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hoeguk; Wang, Haifeng; Hu, Tingshu

    2014-12-01

    This paper considers some control design problems in a power system driven by battery/supercapacitor hybrid energy storage devices. The currents in the battery and the supercapacitor are actively controlled by two bidirectional buck-boost converters. Two control objectives are addressed in this paper: one is to achieve robust tracking of two reference variables, the battery current and the load voltage, the other is to achieve smooth transition of these variables during load switch. Based on the state-space averaged model we newly developed, the control design problems are converted into numerically efficient optimization problems with linear matrix inequality (LMI) constraints. An experimental system is constructed to validate the control design methods.

  8. Validation of the 5th and 95th Percentile Hybrid III Anthropomorphic Test Device Finite Element Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, C.; Somers, J. T.; Baldwin, M. A.; Wells, J. A.; Newby, N.; Currie, N. J.

    2014-01-01

    NASA spacecraft design requirements for occupant protection are a combination of the Brinkley criteria and injury metrics extracted from anthropomorphic test devices (ATD's). For the ATD injury metrics, the requirements specify the use of the 5th percentile female Hybrid III and the 95th percentile male Hybrid III. Furthermore, each of these ATD's is required to be fitted with an articulating pelvis and a straight spine. The articulating pelvis is necessary for the ATD to fit into spacecraft seats, while the straight spine is required as injury metrics for vertical accelerations are better defined for this configuration. The requirements require that physical testing be performed with both ATD's to demonstrate compliance. Before compliance testing can be conducted, extensive modeling and simulation are required to determine appropriate test conditions, simulate conditions not feasible for testing, and assess design features to better ensure compliance testing is successful. While finite element (FE) models are currently available for many of the physical ATD's, currently there are no complete models for either the 5th percentile female or the 95th percentile male Hybrid III with a straight spine and articulating pelvis. The purpose of this work is to assess the accuracy of the existing Livermore Software Technology Corporation's FE models of the 5th and 95th percentile ATD's. To perform this assessment, a series of tests will be performed at Wright Patterson Air Force Research Lab using their horizontal impact accelerator sled test facility. The ATD's will be placed in the Orion seat with a modified-advanced-crew-escape-system (MACES) pressure suit and helmet, and driven with loadings similar to what is expected for the actual Orion vehicle during landing, launch abort, and chute deployment. Test data will be compared to analytical predictions and modelling uncertainty factors will be determined for each injury metric. Additionally, the test data will be used to

  9. Hybrid protein-inorganic nanoparticles: From tumor-targeted drug delivery to cancer imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzoghby, Ahmed O; Hemasa, Ayman L; Freag, May S

    2016-12-10

    Recently, a great interest has been paid to the development of hybrid protein-inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) for drug delivery and cancer diagnostics in order to combine the merits of both inorganic and protein nanocarriers. This review primarily discusses the most outstanding advances in the applications of the hybrids of naturally-occurring proteins with iron oxide, gadolinium, gold, silica, calcium phosphate NPs, carbon nanotubes, and quantum dots in drug delivery and cancer imaging. Various strategies that have been utilized for the preparation of protein-functionalized inorganic NPs and the mechanisms involved in the drug loading process are discussed. How can the protein functionalization overcome the limitations of colloidal stability, poor dispersibility and toxicity associated with inorganic NPs is also investigated. Moreover, issues relating to the influence of protein hybridization on the cellular uptake, tumor targeting efficiency, systemic circulation, mucosal penetration and skin permeation of inorganic NPs are highlighted. A special emphasis is devoted to the novel approaches utilizing the protein-inorganic nanohybrids in combined cancer therapy, tumor imaging, and theranostic applications as well as stimuli-responsive drug release from the nanohybrids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Multi-Radio Mobile Device in Role of Hybrid Node Between WiFi and LTE networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Masek

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available With the ubiquitous wireless network coverage, Machine-Type Communications (MTC is emerging to enable data transfers using devices/sensors without need for human interaction. In this paper we, we introduce a comprehensive simulation scenario for modeling and analysis for heterogeneous MTC. We demonstrate the most expected scenario of MTC communication using the IEEE 802.11 standard for direct communication between sensors and for transmitting data between individual sensor and Machine-Type Communication Gateway (MTCG. The MTCG represents the hybrid node serving as bridge between two heterogeneous networks (WiFi and LTE. Following the idea of hybrid node, two active interfaces must be implemented on this node together with mechanism for handling the incoming traffic (from WiFi network to LTE network. As a simulation tool, the Network Simulator 3 (NS-3 with implemented LTE/EPC Network Simulator (LENA framework was used. The major contribution of this paper therefore lies in the implementation of logic for interconnection of two heterogeneous networks in simulation environment NS-3.

  11. Whole-field fluorescence microscope with digital micromirror device: imaging of biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukano, Takashi; Miyawaki, Atsushi

    2003-07-01

    We have developed a whole-field fluorescence microscope equipped with a Digital Micromirror Device to acquire optically sectioned images by using the fringe-projection technique and the phase-shift method. This system allows free control of optical sectioning strength through computer-controlled alteration of the fringe period projected onto a sample. We have employed this system to image viable cells expressing fluorescent proteins and discussed its biological applications.

  12. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) signal analysis using automated generated projection images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingwei; Chen, Xiaodong; Li, Yuhua; Liu, Hong; Li, Shibo; Zhang, Roy R; Zheng, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) tests provide promising molecular imaging biomarkers to more accurately and reliably detect and diagnose cancers and genetic disorders. Since current manual FISH signal analysis is low-efficient and inconsistent, which limits its clinical utility, developing automated FISH image scanning systems and computer-aided detection (CAD) schemes has been attracting research interests. To acquire high-resolution FISH images in a multi-spectral scanning mode, a huge amount of image data with the stack of the multiple three-dimensional (3-D) image slices is generated from a single specimen. Automated preprocessing these scanned images to eliminate the non-useful and redundant data is important to make the automated FISH tests acceptable in clinical applications. In this study, a dual-detector fluorescence image scanning system was applied to scan four specimen slides with FISH-probed chromosome X. A CAD scheme was developed to detect analyzable interphase cells and map the multiple imaging slices recorded FISH-probed signals into the 2-D projection images. CAD scheme was then applied to each projection image to detect analyzable interphase cells using an adaptive multiple-threshold algorithm, identify FISH-probed signals using a top-hat transform, and compute the ratios between the normal and abnormal cells. To assess CAD performance, the FISH-probed signals were also independently visually detected by an observer. The Kappa coefficients for agreement between CAD and observer ranged from 0.69 to 1.0 in detecting/counting FISH signal spots in four testing samples. The study demonstrated the feasibility of automated FISH signal analysis that applying a CAD scheme to the automated generated 2-D projection images.

  13. Implementation of a multi-spectral color imaging device without color filter array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langfelder, G.; Longoni, A. F.; Zaraga, F.

    2011-01-01

    In this work the use of the Transverse Field Detector (TFD) as a device for multispectral image acquisition is proposed. The TFD is a color imaging pixel capable of color reconstruction without color filters. Its basic working principle is based on the generation of a suitable electric field configuration inside a Silicon depleted region by means of biasing voltages applied to surface contacts. With respect to previously proposed methods for performing multispectral capture, the TFD has a unique characteristic of electrically tunable spectral responses. This feature allows capturing an image with different sets of spectral responses (RGB, R'G'B', and so on) simply by tuning the device biasing voltages in multiple captures. In this way no hardware complexity (no external filter wheels or varying sources) is added with respect to a colorimetric device. The estimation of the spectral reflectance of the area imaged by a TFD pixel is based in this work on a linear combination of six eigenfunctions. It is shown that a spectral reconstruction can be obtained either (1) using two subsequent image captures that generate six TFD spectral responses or (2) using a new asymmetric biasing scheme, which allows the implementation of five spectral responses for each TFD pixel site in a single configuration, definitely allowing one-shot multispectral imaging.

  14. Microwave assisted synthesis and characterisation of a zinc oxide/tobacco mosaic virus hybrid material. An active hybrid semiconductor in a field-effect transistor device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn Sanctis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV has been employed as a robust functional template for the fabrication of a TMV/zinc oxide field effect transistor (FET. A microwave based approach, under mild conditions was employed to synthesize stable zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles, employing a molecular precursor. Insightful studies of the decomposition of the precursor were done using NMR spectroscopy and material characterization of the hybrid material derived from the decomposition was achieved using dynamic light scattering (DLS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, grazing incidence X-ray diffractometry (GI-XRD and atomic force microscopy (AFM. TEM and DLS data confirm the formation of crystalline ZnO nanoparticles tethered on top of the virus template. GI-XRD investigations exhibit an orientated nature of the deposited ZnO film along the c-axis. FET devices fabricated using the zinc oxide mineralized virus template material demonstrates an operational transistor performance which was achieved without any high-temperature post-processing steps. Moreover, a further improvement in FET performance was observed by adjusting an optimal layer thickness of the deposited ZnO on top of the TMV. Such a bio-inorganic nanocomposite semiconductor material accessible using a mild and straightforward microwave processing technique could open up new future avenues within the field of bio-electronics.

  15. Microwave assisted synthesis and characterisation of a zinc oxide/tobacco mosaic virus hybrid material. An active hybrid semiconductor in a field-effect transistor device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanctis, Shawn; Hoffmann, Rudolf C; Eiben, Sabine; Schneider, Jörg J

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) has been employed as a robust functional template for the fabrication of a TMV/zinc oxide field effect transistor (FET). A microwave based approach, under mild conditions was employed to synthesize stable zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles, employing a molecular precursor. Insightful studies of the decomposition of the precursor were done using NMR spectroscopy and material characterization of the hybrid material derived from the decomposition was achieved using dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), grazing incidence X-ray diffractometry (GI-XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). TEM and DLS data confirm the formation of crystalline ZnO nanoparticles tethered on top of the virus template. GI-XRD investigations exhibit an orientated nature of the deposited ZnO film along the c-axis. FET devices fabricated using the zinc oxide mineralized virus template material demonstrates an operational transistor performance which was achieved without any high-temperature post-processing steps. Moreover, a further improvement in FET performance was observed by adjusting an optimal layer thickness of the deposited ZnO on top of the TMV. Such a bio-inorganic nanocomposite semiconductor material accessible using a mild and straightforward microwave processing technique could open up new future avenues within the field of bio-electronics.

  16. Cervical external immobilization devices: evaluation of magnetic resonance imaging issues at 3.0 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Francis L; Tweardy, Lisa; Shellock, Frank G

    2010-02-15

    Laboratory investigation, ex vivo. Currently, no studies have addressed the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) issues for cervical external immobilization devices at 3-Tesla. Under certain conditions significant heating may occur, resulting in patient burns. Furthermore, artifacts can be substantial and prevent the diagnostic use of MRI. Therefore, the objective of this investigation was to evaluate MRI issues for 4 different cervical external immobilization devices at 3-Tesla. Excessive heating and substantial artifacts are 2 potential complications associated with performing MRI at 3-Tesla in patients with cervical external immobilization devices. Using ex vivo testing techniques, MRI-related heating and artifacts were evaluated for 4 different cervical devices during MRI at 3-Tesla. Four cervical external immobilization devices (Generation 80, Resolve Ring and Superstructure, Resolve Ring and Jerome Vest/Jerome Superstructure, and the V1 Halo System; Ossur Americas, Aliso Viejo, CA) underwent MRI testing at 3-Tesla. All devices were made from nonmetallic or nonmagnetic materials. Heating was determined using a gelled-saline-filled skull phantom with fluoroptic thermometry probes attached to the skull pins. MRI was performed at 3-Tesla, using a high level of RF energy. Artifacts were assessed at 3-Tesla, using standard cervical imaging techniques. The Generation 80 and V1 Halo devices exhibited substantial temperature rises (11.6 degrees C and 8.5 degrees C, respectively), with "sparking" evident for the Generation 80 during the MRI procedure. Artifacts were problematic for these devices, as well. By comparison, the 2 Resolve Ring-based cervical external immobilization devices showed little or no heating (Tesla.

  17. Hybrid nanostructured coating for increased resistance of prosthetic devices to staphylococcal colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghel, Ion; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai

    2013-01-01

    Prosthetic medical device-associated infections are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality rates. Novel improved materials and surfaces exhibiting inappropriate conditions for microbial development are urgently required in the medical environment. This study reveals the benefit of using natural Mentha piperita essential oil, combined with a 5 nm core/shell nanosystem-improved surface exhibiting anti-adherence and antibiofilm properties. This strategy reveals a dual role of the nano-oil system; on one hand, inhibiting bacterial adherence and, on the other hand, exhibiting bactericidal effect, the core/shell nanosystem is acting as a controlled releasing machine for the essential oil. Our results demonstrate that this dual nanobiosystem is very efficient also for inhibiting biofilm formation, being a good candidate for the design of novel material surfaces used for prosthetic devices.

  18. System design for 3D wound imaging using low-cost mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirazitdinova, Ekaterina; Deserno, Thomas M.

    2017-03-01

    The state-of-the art method of wound assessment is a manual, imprecise and time-consuming procedure. Per- formed by clinicians, it has limited reproducibility and accuracy, large time consumption and high costs. Novel technologies such as laser scanning microscopy, multi-photon microscopy, optical coherence tomography and hyper-spectral imaging, as well as devices relying on the structured light sensors, make accurate wound assessment possible. However, such methods have limitations due to high costs and may lack portability and availability. In this paper, we present a low-cost wound assessment system and architecture for fast and accurate cutaneous wound assessment using inexpensive consumer smartphone devices. Computer vision techniques are applied either on the device or the server to reconstruct wounds in 3D as dense models, which are generated from images taken with a built-in single camera of a smartphone device. The system architecture includes imaging (smartphone), processing (smartphone or PACS) and storage (PACS) devices. It supports tracking over time by alignment of 3D models, color correction using a reference color card placed into the scene and automatic segmentation of wound regions. Using our system, we are able to detect and document quantitative characteristics of chronic wounds, including size, depth, volume, rate of healing, as well as qualitative characteristics as color, presence of necrosis and type of involved tissue.

  19. Impact of Point-Spread Function Modeling on PET Image Quality in Integrated PET/MR Hybrid Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aklan, Bassim; Oehmigen, Mark; Beiderwellen, Karsten; Ruhlmann, Marcus; Paulus, Daniel H; Jakoby, Bjoern W; Ritt, Philipp; Quick, Harald H

    2016-01-01

    with PSF were substantially increased in the range of 6%-75%, 5%-131%, and 5%-148% for SUVmean, SUVpeak, and SUVmax, respectively. A regression analysis showed that the relative increase in SUVmean/peak/max decreases with increasing lesion size, whereas it increases with the distance from the center of the PET field of view. In whole-body PET/MR hybrid imaging, PSF-based PET reconstructions can improve activity recovery and image noise, especially at lateral positions of the PET field of view. This has been demonstrated quantitatively in phantom experiments as well as in patient imaging, for which additionally an improvement of image quality could be observed. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  20. Technology ready use of single layer graphene as a transparent electrode for hybrid photovoltaic devices

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhibing; Puls, Conor P.; Staley, Neal E.; Zhang, Yu; Todd, Aaron; Xu, Jian; Howsare, Casey A.; Hollander, Matthew J.; Robinson, Joshua A.; Liu, Ying

    2011-01-01

    Graphene has been used recently as a replacement for indium tin oxide (ITO) for the transparent electrode of an organic photovoltaic device. Due to its limited supply, ITO is considered as a limiting factor for the commercialization of organic solar cells. We explored the use of large-area graphene grown on copper by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and then transferred to a glass substrate as an alternative transparent electrode. The transferred film was shown by scanning Raman spectroscopy m...

  1. Using consumer-grade devices for multi-imager non-contact imaging photoplethysmography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackford, Ethan B.; Estepp, Justin R.

    2017-02-01

    Imaging photoplethysmography is a technique through which the morphology of the blood volume pulse can be obtained through non-contact video recordings of exposed skin with superficial vasculature. The acceptance of such a convenient modality for use in everyday applications may well depend upon the availability of consumer-grade imagers that facilitate ease-of-adoption. Multiple imagers have been used previously in concept demonstrations, showing improvements in quality of the extracted blood volume pulse signal. However, the use of multi-imager sensors requires synchronization of the frame exposures between the individual imagers, a capability that has only recently been available without creating custom solutions. In this work, we consider the use of multiple, commercially-available, synchronous imagers for use in imaging photoplethysmography. A commercially-available solution for adopting multi-imager synchronization was analyzed for 21 stationary, seated participants while ground-truth physiological signals were simultaneously measured. A total of three imagers were used, facilitating a comparison between fused data from all three imagers versus data from the single, central imager in the array. The within-subjects design included analyses of pulse rate and pulse signal-to-noise ratio. Using the fused data from the triple-imager array, mean absolute error in pulse rate measurement was reduced to 3.8 as compared to 7.4 beats per minute with the single imager. While this represents an overall improvement in the multi-imager case, it is also noted that these errors are substantially higher than those obtained in comparable studies. We further discuss these results and their implications for using readily-available commercial imaging solutions for imaging photoplethysmography applications.

  2. Hybrid Spintronic-CMOS Spiking Neural Network with On-Chip Learning: Devices, Circuits, and Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Abhronil; Banerjee, Aparajita; Roy, Kaushik

    2016-12-01

    Over the past decade, spiking neural networks (SNNs) have emerged as one of the popular architectures to emulate the brain. In SNNs, information is temporally encoded and communication between neurons is accomplished by means of spikes. In such networks, spike-timing-dependent plasticity mechanisms require the online programing of synapses based on the temporal information of spikes transmitted by spiking neurons. In this work, we propose a spintronic synapse with decoupled spike-transmission and programing-current paths. The spintronic synapse consists of a ferromagnet-heavy-metal heterostructure where the programing current through the heavy metal generates spin-orbit torque to modulate the device conductance. Low programing energy and fast programing times demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed device as a nanoelectronic synapse. We perform a simulation study based on an experimentally benchmarked device-simulation framework to demonstrate the interfacing of such spintronic synapses with CMOS neurons and learning circuits operating in the transistor subthreshold region to form a network of spiking neurons that can be utilized for pattern-recognition problems.

  3. Luminescence from Zinc Oxide Nanostructures and Polymers and their Hybrid Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willander, Magnus; Nur, Omer; Sadaf, Jamil Rana; Qadir, Muhammad Israr; Zaman, Saima; Zainelabdin, Ahmed; Bano, Nargis; Hussain, Ijaz

    2010-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a strong luminescent material, as are several polymers. These two materials have distinct drawbacks and advantages, and they can be combined to form nanostructures with many important applications, e.g., large-area white lighting. This paper discusses the origin of visible emission centers in ZnO nanorods grown with different approaches. White light emitting diodes (LEDs) were fabricated by combining n-ZnO nanorods and hollow nanotubes with different p-type materials to form heterojunctions. The p-type component of the hybrids includes p-SiC, p-GaN, and polymers. We conclude by analyzing the electroluminescence of the different light emitting diodes we fabricated. The observed optical, electrical, and electro-optical characteristics of these LEDs are discussed with an emphasis on the deep level centers that cause the emission.

  4. Luminescence from Zinc Oxide Nanostructures and Polymers and their Hybrid Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Willander

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO is a strong luminescent material, as are several polymers. These two materials have distinct drawbacks and advantages, and they can be combined to form nanostructures with many important applications, e.g., large-area white lighting. This paper discusses the origin of visible emission centers in ZnO nanorods grown with different approaches. White light emitting diodes (LEDs were fabricated by combining n-ZnO nanorods and hollow nanotubes with different p-type materials to form heterojunctions. The p-type component of the hybrids includes p-SiC, p-GaN, and polymers. We conclude by analyzing the electroluminescence of the different light emitting diodes we fabricated. The observed optical, electrical, and electro-optical characteristics of these LEDs are discussed with an emphasis on the deep level centers that cause the emission.

  5. The stability of liquid-filled matrix ionization chamber electronic portal imaging devices for dosimetry purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwe, R. J. W.; Tielenburg, R.; van Ingen, K. M.; Mijnheer, B. J.; van Herk, M. B.

    2004-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the stability of liquid-filled matrix ionization chamber (LiFi-type) electronic portal imaging devices (EPID) for dosimetric purposes. The short- and long-term stability of the response was investigated, as well as the importance of factors influencing the

  6. Development of a new visual stimulation device for functional MRI using image guides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishida, Yasuhiro; Hayashi, Osamu; Iwami, Tatsuya; Kani, Kazutaka; Ito, Ryuta [Shiga Univ. of Medical Science, Otsu (Japan)

    1999-12-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) makes it possible to detect the center of the neuronal activity in the brain without any damages to the human body. Although fMRI is also popularly employed in ophthalmology, it is sometimes impossible to give the subject optimal visual stimulation. The space inside MRI equipment is small and has a high magnetic field, so it is very difficult to put a visual stimulation device inside. To resolve these problems, we developed a new visual stimulation device for fMRI. This device consists of two sets of image guides, liquid crystal projectors, C mounted cameras, and an eyepiece. The image guides and the eyepiece are diamagnetic, so they can be installed on the surface or head coil of the MRI equipment without any magnetic influence on the fMRI. The images in each eyepiece are separated, so it becomes possible to easily give a binocular parallax stimulation. This device will be very useful for the fMRI investigations concerning the visual center in the brain. (author)

  7. Implementation of synthetic aperture imaging on a hand-held device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Kjeldsen, Thomas; Larsen, Lee

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents several implementations of Syn- thetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) on commer- cially available hand-held devices. The implementations include real-time wireless reception of ultrasound radio frequency sig- nals and GPU processing for B-mode imaging. The proposed imp...

  8. Reliability of measuring pelvic floor elevation with a diagnostic ultrasonic imaging device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubukata, Hitomi; Maruyama, Hitoshi; Huo, Ming

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of measuring the amount of pelvic floor elevation during pelvic and abdominal muscle contraction with a diagnostic ultrasonic imaging device. [Subjects] The study group comprised 11 healthy women without urinary incontinence or previous birth experience. [Methods] We measured the displacement elevation of the bladder base during contraction of the abdominal and pelvic floor muscles was measured using a diagnostic ultrasonic imaging device. The exercise was a four-part operation undertaken with the subjects in the lateral position. The reliability analysis included use of the interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess the reliability. [Results] ICC (1.1) values for the pelvic floor elevation measurement with a diagnostic ultrasonic imaging device were 0.98 [contraction of the transversus abdominis (TrA) muscle], 0.99 [contraction of pelvic floor muscles (PFMs)], 0.98 (co-contraction of the TrA and PFMs), and 0.98 (resistance of the TrA and PFMs). This study proved the reliability of the method because the coefficient of reliability was 0.97 or more for all of the measurements, even for those during exercise. [Conclusion] The diagnostic ultrasonic imaging device measures pelvic floor elevation with high reliability.

  9. 78 FR 69440 - Certain Electronic Imaging Devices; Notice of Request for Statements on the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... COMMISSION Certain Electronic Imaging Devices; Notice of Request for Statements on the Public Interest AGENCY... Commission's electronic docket (EDIS) at http://edis.usitc.gov , and will be available for inspection during... public record for this investigation may be viewed on the Commission's electronic docket (EDIS) at http...

  10. 75 FR 39971 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Imaging Devices; Notice of Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Electronic Imaging Devices; Notice of Investigation AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of investigation pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 1337. SUMMARY: Notice...

  11. 77 FR 4059 - Certain Electronic Devices for Capturing and Transmitting Images, and Components Thereof; Receipt...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Electronic Devices for Capturing and Transmitting Images, and Components Thereof; Receipt... Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the U.S. International Trade...

  12. 77 FR 11588 - Certain Electronic Devices for Capturing and Transmitting Images, and Components Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Electronic Devices for Capturing and Transmitting Images, and Components Thereof AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that a complaint...

  13. 77 FR 27463 - Device Improvements for Pediatric X-Ray Imaging; Public Meeting; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... instructions for pediatric digital radiography (Ref. 8) and fluoroscopy (ongoing project). These materials will... follows: ``Manufacturers seeking marketing clearance for a new x-ray imaging device with a pediatric.... Manufacturers who seek marketing clearance only for general indications or do not submit adequate data to the...

  14. Micro-device combining electrophysiology and optical imaging for functional brain monitoring in freely moving animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Peng; Wang, Qihong; Zhang, Lingke; Li, Miao; Thakor, Nitish V.

    2017-02-01

    Monitoring brain activities in awake and freely moving status is very important in physiological and pathological studies of brain functions. In this study, we developed a new standalone micro-device combining electrophysiology and optical imaging for monitoring the cerebral blood flow and neural activities with more feasibility for freely moving animals.

  15. A service protocol for post-processing of medical images on the mobile device

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Longjun; Ming, Xing; Xu, Lang; Liu, Qian

    2014-03-01

    With computing capability and display size growing, the mobile device has been used as a tool to help clinicians view patient information and medical images anywhere and anytime. It is uneasy and time-consuming for transferring medical images with large data size from picture archiving and communication system to mobile client, since the wireless network is unstable and limited by bandwidth. Besides, limited by computing capability, memory and power endurance, it is hard to provide a satisfactory quality of experience for radiologists to handle some complex post-processing of medical images on the mobile device, such as real-time direct interactive three-dimensional visualization. In this work, remote rendering technology is employed to implement the post-processing of medical images instead of local rendering, and a service protocol is developed to standardize the communication between the render server and mobile client. In order to make mobile devices with different platforms be able to access post-processing of medical images, the Extensible Markup Language is taken to describe this protocol, which contains four main parts: user authentication, medical image query/ retrieval, 2D post-processing (e.g. window leveling, pixel values obtained) and 3D post-processing (e.g. maximum intensity projection, multi-planar reconstruction, curved planar reformation and direct volume rendering). And then an instance is implemented to verify the protocol. This instance can support the mobile device access post-processing of medical image services on the render server via a client application or on the web page.

  16. Numerical analysis of the interaction between a GTEM-cell and a device under test using a hybrid method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zellerhoff

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing importance of EMC problems through the last years there is a great interest in measurement devices such as GTEM-cells (Giga(Hz- TEM cells. They promise to allow compact and low-cost emission- as well as susceptibility tests up to very high frequencies. Expensive measurement procedures in open-area test sites or within semi-anechoic chambers would become obsolete in many cases. To estimate the quality and reliability of GTEM-cell measurements it is necessary to have detailed knowledge about the processes within the cell and, in particular, about the interactions between the cell and the DUT (device under test. Due to the high frequency and the cell’s dimensions a purely numerical simulation while using standard techniques such as Finite Element Method, Method of Moments (MoM or the Finite-Differ-Time-Domain (FDTD method is inefficient and unnecessary since the GTEM-cell is a mostly empty homogeneous TEM-waveguide. Analytical models allow only the investigation of empty cells. As will be outlined in the following, a suitable way to reduce the numerical complexity of the general problem is the use of a hybrid method, such as the combination of a modal analysis with the MoM.

  17. A Novel Hybrid Intelligent Indoor Location Method for Mobile Devices by Zones Using Wi-Fi Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Castañón–Puga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of mobile devices in indoor spaces brings challenges to location methods. This work presents a hybrid intelligent method based on data mining and Type-2 fuzzy logic to locate mobile devices in an indoor space by zones using Wi-Fi signals from selected access points (APs. This approach takes advantage of wireless local area networks (WLANs over other types of architectures and implements the complete method in a mobile application using the developed tools. Besides, the proposed approach is validated by experimental data obtained from case studies and the cross-validation technique. For the purpose of generating the fuzzy rules that conform to the Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy system structure, a semi-supervised data mining technique called subtractive clustering is used. This algorithm finds centers of clusters from the radius map given by the collected signals from APs. Measurements of Wi-Fi signals can be noisy due to several factors mentioned in this work, so this method proposed the use of Type-2 fuzzy logic for modeling and dealing with such uncertain information.

  18. Satellite Image Pansharpening Using a Hybrid Approach for Object-Based Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thanh Hoan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Intensity-Hue-Saturation (IHS, Brovey Transform (BT, and Smoothing-Filter-Based-Intensity Modulation (SFIM algorithms were used to pansharpen GeoEye-1 imagery. The pansharpened images were then segmented in Berkeley Image Seg using a wide range of segmentation parameters, and the spatial and spectral accuracy of image segments was measured. We found that pansharpening algorithms that preserve more of the spatial information of the higher resolution panchromatic image band (i.e., IHS and BT led to more spatially-accurate segmentations, while pansharpening algorithms that minimize the distortion of spectral information of the lower resolution multispectral image bands (i.e., SFIM led to more spectrally-accurate image segments. Based on these findings, we developed a new IHS-SFIM combination approach, specifically for object-based image analysis (OBIA, which combined the better spatial information of IHS and the more accurate spectral information of SFIM to produce image segments with very high spatial and spectral accuracy.

  19. In-situ spectroscopy and nanoscale electronics in superconductor-topological insulator hybrid devices: a combined thin film growth and quantum transport study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngabonziza, Prosper

    2016-01-01

    In this dissertation, we presented a combined thin film growth and quantum transport study on superconductor topological insulator hybrid devices. Understanding of the electronic properties of topological insulators (TIs), their preparation in high quality thin film form and their interaction with

  20. Fabrication of three-dimensional hybrid nanostructure-embedded ITO and its application as a transparent electrode for high-efficiency solution processable organic photovoltaic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Won; Jeon, Hwan-Jin; Lee, Chang-Lyoul; Ahn, Chi Won

    2017-03-02

    Well-aligned, high-resolution (10 nm), three-dimensional (3D) hybrid nanostructures consisting of patterned cylinders and Au islands were fabricated on ITO substrates using an ion bombardment process and a tilted deposition process. The fabricated 3D hybrid nanostructure-embedded ITO maintained its excellent electrical and optical properties after applying a surface-structuring process. The solution processable organic photovoltaic device (SP-OPV) employing a 3D hybrid nanostructure-embedded ITO as the anode displayed a 10% enhancement in the photovoltaic performance compared to the photovoltaic device prepared using a flat ITO electrode, due to the improved charge collection (extraction and transport) efficiency as well as light absorbance by the photo-active layer.

  1. An efficient image processing method based on web services for mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, K.; Vivek, N. K.; Vijayan, E.

    2017-11-01

    The traditional image processing system which is based on a centralized computing model has a disadvantage of limiting resources. This can cause troubles in the smooth execution of system in mobile devices. We propose a new system which unlike traditional system uses a distributed model. It can be achieved by adopting web service based image processing system. Our system has the advantages of being component oriented and has low coupling and high encapsulation. Thus our system can solve the main problem of traditional image processing system and avoid the resource bottleneck situation.

  2. X-ray Imaging Using a Hybrid Photon Counting GaAs Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, C; Göppert, R; Heijne, Erik H M; Ludwig, J; Meddeler, G; Mikulec, B; Pernigotti, E; Rogalla, M; Runge, K; Smith, K M; Snoeys, W; Söldner-Rembold, S; Watt, J

    1999-01-01

    The performance of hybrid GaAs pixel detectors as X-ray imaging sensors were investigated at room temperature. These hybrids consist of 300 mu-m thick GaAs pixel detectors, flip-chip bonded to a CMOS Single Photon Counting Chip (PCC). This chip consists of a matrix of 64 x 64 identical square pixels (170 mu-m x 170 mu-m) and covers a total area of 1.2 cm**2. The electronics in each cell comprises a preamplifier, a discriminator with a 3-bit threshold adjust and a 15-bit counter. The detector is realized by an array of Schottky diodes processed on semi-insulating LEC-GaAs bulk material. An IV-charcteristic and a detector bias voltage scan showed that the detector can be operated with voltages around 200 V. Images of various objects were taken by using a standard X-ray tube for dental diagnostics. The signal to noise ratio (SNR) was also determined. The applications of these imaging systems range from medical applications like digital mammography or dental X-ray diagnostics to non destructive material testing (...

  3. Parallel and Efficient Sensitivity Analysis of Microscopy Image Segmentation Workflows in Hybrid Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiros, Willian; Teodoro, George; Kurc, Tahsin; Kong, Jun; Melo, Alba C M A; Saltz, Joel

    2017-09-01

    We investigate efficient sensitivity analysis (SA) of algorithms that segment and classify image features in a large dataset of high-resolution images. Algorithm SA is the process of evaluating variations of methods and parameter values to quantify differences in the output. A SA can be very compute demanding because it requires re-processing the input dataset several times with different parameters to assess variations in output. In this work, we introduce strategies to efficiently speed up SA via runtime optimizations targeting distributed hybrid systems and reuse of computations from runs with different parameters. We evaluate our approach using a cancer image analysis workflow on a hybrid cluster with 256 nodes, each with an Intel Phi and a dual socket CPU. The SA attained a parallel efficiency of over 90% on 256 nodes. The cooperative execution using the CPUs and the Phi available in each node with smart task assignment strategies resulted in an additional speedup of about 2×. Finally, multi-level computation reuse lead to an additional speedup of up to 2.46× on the parallel version. The level of performance attained with the proposed optimizations will allow the use of SA in large-scale studies.

  4. Predictive modeling for corrective maintenance of imaging devices from machine logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Ravindra B; Patil, Meru A; Ravi, Vidya; Naik, Sarif

    2017-07-01

    In the cost sensitive healthcare industry, an unplanned downtime of diagnostic and therapy imaging devices can be a burden on the financials of both the hospitals as well as the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). In the current era of connectivity, it is easier to get these devices connected to a standard monitoring station. Once the system is connected, OEMs can monitor the health of these devices remotely and take corrective actions by providing preventive maintenance thereby avoiding major unplanned downtime. In this article, we present an overall methodology of predicting failure of these devices well before customer experiences it. We use data-driven approach based on machine learning to predict failures in turn resulting in reduced machine downtime, improved customer satisfaction and cost savings for the OEMs. One of the use-case of predicting component failure of PHILIPS iXR system is explained in this article.

  5. Retina Image Vessel Segmentation Using a Hybrid CGLI Level Set Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guannan Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As a nonintrusive method, the retina imaging provides us with a better way for the diagnosis of ophthalmologic diseases. Extracting the vessel profile automatically from the retina image is an important step in analyzing retina images. A novel hybrid active contour model is proposed to segment the fundus image automatically in this paper. It combines the signed pressure force function introduced by the Selective Binary and Gaussian Filtering Regularized Level Set (SBGFRLS model with the local intensity property introduced by the Local Binary fitting (LBF model to overcome the difficulty of the low contrast in segmentation process. It is more robust to the initial condition than the traditional methods and is easily implemented compared to the supervised vessel extraction methods. Proposed segmentation method was evaluated on two public datasets, DRIVE (Digital Retinal Images for Vessel Extraction and STARE (Structured Analysis of the Retina (the average accuracy of 0.9390 with 0.7358 sensitivity and 0.9680 specificity on DRIVE datasets and average accuracy of 0.9409 with 0.7449 sensitivity and 0.9690 specificity on STARE datasets. The experimental results show that our method is effective and our method is also robust to some kinds of pathology images compared with the traditional level set methods.

  6. Hybrid Data Hiding Scheme Using Right-Most Digit Replacement and Adaptive Least Significant Bit for Digital Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hussain

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of image steganographic methods considers three main key issues: high embedding capacity, good visual symmetry/quality, and security. In this paper, a hybrid data hiding method combining the right-most digit replacement (RMDR with an adaptive least significant bit (ALSB is proposed to provide not only high embedding capacity but also maintain a good visual symmetry. The cover-image is divided into lower texture (symmetry patterns and higher texture (asymmetry patterns areas and these textures determine the selection of RMDR and ALSB methods, respectively, according to pixel symmetry. This paper has three major contributions. First, the proposed hybrid method enhanced the embedding capacity due to efficient ALSB utilization in the higher texture areas of cover images. Second, the proposed hybrid method maintains the high visual quality because RMDR has the closest selection process to generate the symmetry between stego and cover pixels. Finally, the proposed hybrid method is secure against statistical regular or singular (RS steganalysis and pixel difference histogram steganalysis because RMDR is capable of evading the risk of RS detection attacks due to pixel digits replacement instead of bits. Extensive experimental tests (over 1500+ cover images are conducted with recent least significant bit (LSB-based hybrid methods and it is demonstrated that the proposed hybrid method has a high embedding capacity (800,019 bits while maintaining good visual symmetry (39.00% peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR.

  7. OC ToGo: bed site image integration into OpenClinica with mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, Daniel; Gehlen, Johan; Jonas, Stephan; Deserno, Thomas M.

    2014-03-01

    Imaging and image-based measurements nowadays play an essential role in controlled clinical trials, but electronic data capture (EDC) systems insufficiently support integration of captured images by mobile devices (e.g. smartphones and tablets). The web application OpenClinica has established as one of the world's leading EDC systems and is used to collect, manage and store data of clinical trials in electronic case report forms (eCRFs). In this paper, we present a mobile application for instantaneous integration of images into OpenClinica directly during examination on patient's bed site. The communication between the Android application and OpenClinica is based on the simple object access protocol (SOAP) and representational state transfer (REST) web services for metadata, and secure file transfer protocol (SFTP) for image transfer, respectively. OpenClinica's web services are used to query context information (e.g. existing studies, events and subjects) and to import data into the eCRF, as well as export of eCRF metadata and structural information. A stable image transfer is ensured and progress information (e.g. remaining time) visualized to the user. The workflow is demonstrated for a European multi-center registry, where patients with calciphylaxis disease are included. Our approach improves the EDC workflow, saves time, and reduces costs. Furthermore, data privacy is enhanced, since storage of private health data on the imaging devices becomes obsolete.

  8. Glass/PDMS hybrid microfluidic device integrating vertically aligned SWCNTs to ultrasensitive electrochemical determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Fernando Cruz; Lima, Renato Sousa; Segato, Thiago Pinotti; Cesarino, Ivana; Cetino, Jhanisus Leonel Melendez; Machado, Sergio Antonio Spinola; Gomez, Frank; Carrilho, Emanuel

    2012-05-08

    This communication reports a promising platform for rapid, simple, direct, and ultrasensitive determination of serotonin. The method is related to integration of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in electrochemical microfluidic devices. The required microfabrication protocol is simple and fast. In addition, the nanomaterial influenced remarkably the obtained limit-of-detection (LOD) values. Our system achieved a LOD of 0.2 nmol L(-1) for serotonin, to the best of our knowledge one of the lowest values reported in the literature.

  9. Stochastic Primal-Dual Hybrid Gradient Algorithm with Arbitrary Sampling and Imaging Application

    KAUST Repository

    Chambolle, Antonin

    2017-06-15

    We propose a stochastic extension of the primal-dual hybrid gradient algorithm studied by Chambolle and Pock in 2011 to solve saddle point problems that are separable in the dual variable. The analysis is carried out for general convex-concave saddle point problems and problems that are either partially smooth / strongly convex or fully smooth / strongly convex. We perform the analysis for arbitrary samplings of dual variables, and obtain known deterministic results as a special case. Several variants of our stochastic method significantly outperform the deterministic variant on a variety of imaging tasks.

  10. Quality Assurance of Pixel Hybrid Photon Detectors for the LHCb Ring Imaging Cherenkov Counters

    CERN Document Server

    Carson, Laurence

    Pion/kaon discrimination in the LHCb experiment will be provided by two Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) counters. These use arrays of 484 Hybrid Photon Detectors (HPDs) to detect the Cherenkov photons emitted by charged particles traversing the RICH. The results from comprehensive quality assurance tests on the 550 HPDs manufactured for LHCb are described. Leakage currents, dead channel probabilities, dark count rates and ion feedback rates are reported. Furthermore, measurements carried out on a sample of tubes to determine the efficiency of the HPD pixel chip by measuring the summed analogue response from the backplane of the silicon sensor are described.

  11. Multifunctional hybrid nanoparticles for two-photon fluorescence imaging and photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldeck, Patrice L.; Maurin, Mathieu; Philipot, Cecile; Zaiba, Soraya; Gallavardin, Thibault; Maury, Olivier; Andraud, Chantal; Dubois, Fabien; Ibanez, Alain; Lerouge, Frédéric; Parola, Stéphane; Stephan, Olivier; van Der Sanden, Baudwin

    2011-02-01

    We review our work on several strategies to elaborate multifunctional nanoparticules for two-photon imaging or/and photodynamic therapy. Our first strategy is based on the incorporation of two-photon hydrophobic fluorophors in bio-compatible pluronic micelles using the mini-emulsion technique. Our second strategy is based on fluorescent organic nanocrystal grown in silicate spheres. These core-shell hybrid nanoparticles are obtained by a spray-drying process from sol-gel solutions. Our third strategy consists in the encapsulation of hydrophilic molecules in the water core of gold nanospheres. They are obtained by a stabilized emulsion in biphasic liquid-liquid medium without surfactant.

  12. Towards improved hardware component attenuation correction in PET/MR hybrid imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, D. H.; Tellmann, L.; Quick, H. H.

    2013-11-01

    In positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) hybrid imaging attenuation correction (AC) of the patient tissue and patient table is performed by converting the CT-based Hounsfield units (HU) to linear attenuation coefficients (LAC) of PET. When applied to the new field of hardware component AC in PET/magnetic resonance (MR) hybrid imaging, this conversion method may result in local overcorrection of PET activity values. The aim of this study thus was to optimize the conversion parameters for CT-based AC of hardware components in PET/MR. Systematic evaluation and optimization of the HU to LAC conversion parameters has been performed for the hardware component attenuation map (µ-map) of a flexible radiofrequency (RF) coil used in PET/MR imaging. Furthermore, spatial misregistration of this RF coil to its µ-map was simulated by shifting the µ-map in different directions and the effect on PET quantification was evaluated. Measurements of a PET NEMA standard emission phantom were performed on an integrated hybrid PET/MR system. Various CT parameters were used to calculate different µ-maps for the flexible RF coil and to evaluate the impact on the PET activity concentration. A 511 keV transmission scan of the local RF coil was used as standard of reference to adapt the slope of the conversion from HUs to LACs at 511 keV. The average underestimation of the PET activity concentration due to the non-attenuation corrected RF coil in place was calculated to be 5.0% in the overall phantom. When considering attenuation only in the upper volume of the phantom, the average difference to the reference scan without RF coil is 11.0%. When the PET/CT conversion is applied, an average overestimation of 3.1% (without extended CT scale) and 4.2% (with extended CT scale) is observed in the top volume of the NEMA phantom. Using the adapted conversion resulting from this study, the deviation in the top volume of the phantom is reduced to -0.5% and shows the lowest

  13. Evaluation of efficacy of a new hybrid fusion device: a randomized, two-centre controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewe, Jan; Bredow, Jan; Oppermann, Johannes; Koy, Timmo; Delank, Stefan; Knoell, Peter; Eysel, Peer; Sobottke, Rolf; Zarghooni, Kourosh; Röllinghoff, Marc

    2014-09-05

    The 360° fusion of lumbar segments is a common and well-researched therapy to treat various diseases of the spine. But it changes the biomechanics of the spine and may cause adjacent segment disease (ASD). Among the many techniques developed to avoid this complication, one appears promising. It combines a rigid fusion with a flexible pedicle screw system (hybrid instrumentation, "topping off"). However, its clinical significance is still uncertain due to the lack of conclusive data. The study is a randomized, therapy-controlled, two-centre trial conducted in a clinical setting at two university hospitals. If they meet the criteria, outpatients presenting with degenerative disc disease, facet joint arthrosis or spondylolisthesis will be included in the study and randomized into two groups: a control group undergoing conventional fusion surgery (PLIF - posterior lumbar intervertebral fusion), and an intervention group undergoing fusion surgery using a new flexible pedicle screw system (PLIF + "topping off"), which was brought on the market in 2013. Follow-up examination will take place immediately after surgery, after 6 weeks and after 6, 12, 24 and 36 months. An ongoing assessment will be performed every year.Outcome measurements will include quality of life and pain assessments using validated questionnaires (ODI - Ostwestry Disability Index, SF-36™ - Short Form Health Survey 36, COMI - Core Outcome Measure Index). In addition, clinical and radiologic ASD, sagittal balance parameters and duration of work disability will be assessed. Inpatient and 6-month mortality, surgery-related data (e.g., intraoperative complications, blood loss, length of incision, surgical duration), postoperative complications (e.g. implant failure), adverse events, and serious adverse events will be monitored and documented throughout the study. New hybrid "topping off" systems might improve the outcome of lumbar spine fusion. But to date, there is a serious lack of and a great need

  14. Surface modification with MK-2 organic dye in a ZnO/P3HT hybrid solar cell: Impact on device performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jin Kim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The photovoltaic performance of a hybrid ZnO/P3HT heterojunction was improved by modifying the device surface with the MK-2 dye. This organic dye enhanced the compatibility between the polymer and the metal oxide, increased the exciton separation efficiency, and improved the molecular ordering in the charge transport network. The resulting device displayed a substantial enhancement in the photocurrent, open circuit voltage, and fill factor, leading to a 12-fold increase in the power conversion efficiency relative to the unmodified device, from 0.13% to 1.53%.

  15. 75 FR 8115 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices Having Image Capture or Display Functionality and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices Having Image Capture or Display Functionality and... sale within the United States after importation of certain electronic devices having image capture or... public record for this investigation may be viewed on the Commission's electronic docket (EDIS) at http...

  16. 77 FR 21994 - Certain Digital Photo Frames and Image Display Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... COMMISSION Certain Digital Photo Frames and Image Display Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of Request... importation of certain digital photo frames and image display devices and components thereof by reason of... health and welfare, (2) competitive conditions in the U.S. economy, (3) U.S. production of articles that...

  17. A newly developed removable dental device for fused 3-D MRI/Meg imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuboki, Takuo [Okayama Univ. (Japan). Dental School; Clark, G.T.; Akhtari, M.; Sutherling, W.W.

    1999-06-01

    Recently 3-D imaging techniques have been used to shed light on the role of abnormal brain functions in such conditions as nocturnal bruxism and orofacial pain. In order to achieve precise 3-D image fusion between magnetic resonance images (MRI) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) data, we developed a removable dental device which attaches rigidly to the teeth. Using this device, correlation of MEG and MRI data points was achieved by the co-registration of 3 or more fiducial points. Using a Polhemus 3-space digitizer the locations of the points were registered on MEG and then a small amount of high-water-content material was placed at each point for registering these same points on MRI. The mean reproducibility of interpoint distances, determined for 2 subjects, was between 0.59 and 0.82 mm. Using a Monte Carlo statistical analysis we determined that the accuracy of a posterior projection from the fiducial points to any point within the strata of the brain is {+-}3.3 mm. The value of this device is that it permits reasonably precise and repeatable co-registration of these points and yet it is easily removed and replaced by the patient. Obviously such a device could also be adapted for use in diagnosis and analysis of brain functions related with other various sensory and motor functions (e.g., taste, pain, clenching) in maxillofacial region using MRI and MEG. (author)

  18. Controlled Fabrication and High-Resolution Imaging of Molecular-Scale Three-Terminal Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, Douglas R.; Johnston, Danvers E.; Guiton, Beth S.; Park, T.-H.; Therien, M. J.; Davies, Peter K.; Bonnell, Dawn A.; Johnson, A. T. Charlie

    2007-03-01

    One of the biggest challenges to developing molecular-scale three terminal devices is to precisely fabricate and monitor the formation of the nanometer-scale electrodes (nanogaps). Recently, electromigrated nanogaps have been developed which provide sufficient gate-coupling to produce such devices. We have developed a technique for forming electromigrated nanogaps in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) in order to monitor their formation with high-resolution imaging in real time. The technique relies on computer-controlled electromigration using feedback to produce the nanogaps at room temperature. This TEM imaging allows us to monitor the dynamics of the device evolution, where the gaps remain ordered and clear of residue during the process. Using this technique, we find clear visual evidence for the importance of joule heating in the formation of electromigrated nanogaps. These electrodes can also be directly used in the construction of three terminal nanometer-scale devices. Our results have implications on the development of a wide range of novel molecular-scale devices. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation (NIRT Grant No. 0304531 and MRSEC award DMR05-20020).

  19. Hybrid integration of laser source on silicon photonic integrated circuit for low-cost interferometry medical device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duperron, Matthieu; Carroll, Lee; Rensing, Marc; Collins, Sean; Zhao, Yan; Li, Yanlu; Baets, Roel; O'Brien, Peter

    2017-02-01

    The cost-effective integration of laser sources on Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuits (Si-PICs) is a key challenge to realizing the full potential of on-chip photonic solutions for telecommunication and medical applications. Hybrid integration can offer a route to high-yield solutions, using only known-good laser-chips, and simple freespace micro-optics to transport light from a discrete laser-diode to a grating-coupler on the Si-PIC. In this work, we describe a passively assembled micro-optical bench (MOB) for the hybrid integration of a 1550nm 20MHz linewidth laser-diode on a Si-PIC, developed for an on-chip interferometer based medical device. A dual-lens MOB design minimizes aberrations in the laser spot transported to the standard grating-coupler (15 μm x 12 μm) on the Si-PIC, and facilitates the inclusion of a sub-millimeter latched-garnet optical-isolator. The 20dB suppression from the isolator helps ensure the high-frequency stability of the laser-diode, while the high thermal conductivity of the AlN submount (300/W=m.°C), and the close integration of a micro-bead thermistor, ensure the stable and efficient thermo-electric cooling of the laser-diode, which helps minimise low-frequency drift during the approximately 15s of operation needed for the point-of-care measurement. The dual-lens MOB is compatible with cost-effective passively-aligned mass-production, and can be optimised for alternative PIC-based applications.

  20. Control of a Pediatric Pulsatile Ventricular Assist Device: A Hybrid Cardiovascular Model Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Gianfranco; Di Molfetta, Arianna; Zieliński, Krzysztof; Fresiello, Libera; Górczyńska, Krystyna; Pałko, Krzysztof Jakub; Darowski, Marek; Amodeo, Antonio; Kozarski, Maciej

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this work is to study pediatric pneumatic ventricle (PVAD) performance, versus VAD rate (VADR) and native heart rate (HR) ratio Rr (VADR/HR). The study uses a hybrid model of the cardiovascular system (HCS). HCS consists of a computational part (a lumped parameter model including left and right ventricles, systemic and pulmonary arterial and venous circulation) interfaced to a physical part. This permits the connection of a VAD (15 mL PVAD). Echocardiographic and hemodynamic data of a pediatric patient (average weight 14.3 kg, HR 100 bpm, systemic pressure 75/44 mm Hg, CO 1.5 L/min) assisted apically with asynchronous PVAD were used to set up a basal condition in the model. After model tuning, the assistance was started, setting VAD parameters (ejection and filling pressures, systole duration) to completely fill and empty the PVAD. The study was conducted with constant HR and variable VADR (50-120, step 10, bpm). Experiments were repeated for two additional patients' HRs, 90 and 110 bpm and for two values of systemic arterial resistance (Ras ) and Emax . Experimental data were collected and stored on disk. Analyzed data include average left and right ventricular volumes (LVV, RVV), left ventricular flow (LVF), VAD flow (VADF), and total cardiac output (COt). Data were analyzed versus Rr. LVV and RVV are sensitive to Rr and a left ventricular unloading corresponds in general to a right ventricular loading. In the case of asynchronous assistance, frequency beats are always present and the beat rate is equal to the difference between HR and VADR. In the case of pulsatile asynchronous LVAD assistance, VADR should be chosen to minimize frequency beat effects and right ventricular loading and to maximize left ventricular unloading. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Optical Correlation of Images With Signal-Dependent Noise Using Constrained-Modulation Filter Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, John D.

    1995-01-01

    Images with signal-dependent noise present challenges beyond those of images with additive white or colored signal-independent noise in terms of designing the optimal 4-f correlation filter that maximizes correlation-peak signal-to-noise ratio, or combinations of correlation-peak metrics. Determining the proper design becomes more difficult when the filter is to be implemented on a constrained-modulation spatial light modulator device. The design issues involved for updatable optical filters for images with signal-dependent film-grain noise and speckle noise are examined. It is shown that although design of the optimal linear filter in the Fourier domain is impossible for images with signal-dependent noise, proper nonlinear preprocessing of the images allows the application of previously developed design rules for optimal filters to be implemented on constrained-modulation devices. Thus the nonlinear preprocessing becomes necessary for correlation in optical systems with current spatial light modulator technology. These results are illustrated with computer simulations of images with signal-dependent noise correlated with binary-phase-only filters and ternary-phase-amplitude filters.

  2. In situ calibration of an infrared imaging video bolometer in the Large Helical Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukai, K., E-mail: mukai.kiyofumi@LHD.nifs.ac.jp; Peterson, B. J. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Pandya, S. N.; Sano, R. [The Graduate University for Advance Studies, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    The InfraRed imaging Video Bolometer (IRVB) is a powerful diagnostic to measure multi-dimensional radiation profiles in plasma fusion devices. In the Large Helical Device (LHD), four IRVBs have been installed with different fields of view to reconstruct three-dimensional profiles using a tomography technique. For the application of the measurement to plasma experiments using deuterium gas in LHD in the near future, the long-term effect of the neutron irradiation on the heat characteristics of an IRVB foil should be taken into account by regular in situ calibration measurements. Therefore, in this study, an in situ calibration system was designed.

  3. Characterization of Organic Solar Cell Devices and their Interfaces under Degradation: Imaging, Electrical and Mechanical Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corazza, Michael

    the natural ecosystem and maybe even the destiny of Earth. Human evolution does not mean only advanced technological development, but also deeper consciousness and responsibility for the next generations to come. Everything on Earth exists because of the Sun: heat, wind, life... everything. Therefore, solar...... techniques were also employed in order to study the effect of degradation on the device structure and its interfaces. This was done by exploiting different techniques that measured different properties of the device: mechanical, imaging, and electrical. Mechanical characterization of roll-to-roll processed...

  4. An X-ray imaging device based on a GEM detector with delay-line readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Li, Cheng; Sun, Yong-Jie; Shao, Ming

    2010-01-01

    An X-ray imaging device based on a triple-GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) detector, a fast delay-line circuit with 700 MHz cut-off frequency and two dimensional readout strips with 150 μm width on the top and 250 μm width on the bottom, is designed and tested. The localization information is derived from the propagation time of the induced signals on the readout strips. This device has a good spatial resolution of 150 μm and works stably at an intensity of 105 Hz/mm2 with 8 keV X-rays.

  5. TSV last for hybrid pixel detectors: Application to particle physics and imaging experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Henry, D; Berthelot, A; Cuchet, R; Chantre, C; Campbell, M

    Hybrid pixel detectors are now widely used in particle physics experiments and at synchrotron light sources. They have also stimulated growing interest in other fields and, in particular, in medical imaging. Through the continuous pursuit of miniaturization in CMOS it has been possible to increase the functionality per pixel while maintaining or even shrinking pixel dimensions. The main constraint on the more extensive use of the technology in all fields is the cost of module building and the difficulty of covering large areas seamlessly [1]. On another hand, in the field of electronic component integration, a new approach has been developed in the last years, called 3D Integration. This concept, based on using the vertical axis for component integration, allows improving the global performance of complex systems. Thanks to this technology, the cost and the form factor of components could be decreased and the performance of the global system could be enhanced. In the field of radiation imaging detectors the a...

  6. Research on installation quality inspection system of high voltage customer metering device based on image recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bei; Yang, Fu-li; Tao, Xue-dan; Chang, Shi-liang; Wu, Kang

    2017-11-01

    With the rapid development of the scale of the power grid, the site construction and the operations environment is more widespread and more complex. The installation work of the high-voltage customer metering device is heavy, which is not standardized. In addition, managers supervise the site construction progress only through the person in charge of each work phrase. It is inefficient and difficult to control the multi-team and multi-unit cross work. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a scientific system to detect the quality of installation and management practices to standardize installation work of the metering device. Based on the research of image recognition and target detection system, this paper presents a high-voltage customer metering device installation quality inspection system based on digital image processing, image feature extraction and SVM classification decision. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme is feasible. And it can be used to accurately extract the metering components in the image, which can be also accurately and quickly classified. Our method is of great significance for the implementation and monitoring of the power system in installation and specification

  7. Efficient light emitting diodes by photon recycling and their application in pixelless infrared imaging devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, E.; Chiu, S.

    2000-02-01

    The success of the pixelless imaging concept using a quantum well infrared photodetector integrated with a light emitting diode (QWIP-LED) depends critically on the extent of spatial lateral spreading of both photocurrent generated in the QWIP and near infrared (NIR) photons emitted by the LED as they escape from the device layers. According to the photon recycling model proposed by Schnitzer et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 131 (1993)] there appears to be a trade-off between a high LED external quantum efficiency and a small photon lateral spread, the former being a necessary condition for achieving high detector sensitivity. This lateral spreading due to multireflections and reincarnations of the NIR photons could potentially degrade the image quality or resolution of the device. By adapting Schnitzer's model to the QWIP-LED structure, we have identified device parameters that could potentially influence the NIR photon lateral spread and the LED external efficiency. In addition, we have developed a simple sequential model to estimate the crosstalk between the incoming far infrared image and the up-converted NIR image. We have found that the thickness of the LED is an important parameter that needs to be optimized in order to maximize the external efficiency and to minimize the crosstalk. A 6000-Å-thick LED active layer should give a resolution of ˜30 μm and an external efficiency of ˜10%.

  8. The "Juggler" algorithm: a hybrid deformable image registration algorithm for adaptive radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Junyi; Chen, Yunmei; Samant, Sanjiv S.

    2007-03-01

    Fast deformable registration can potentially facilitate the clinical implementation of adaptive radiation therapy (ART), which allows for daily organ deformations not accounted for in radiotherapy treatment planning, which typically utilizes a static organ model, to be incorporated into the fractionated treatment. Existing deformable registration algorithms typically utilize a specific diffusion model, and require a large number of iterations to achieve convergence. This limits the online applications of deformable image registration for clinical radiotherapy, such as daily patient setup variations involving organ deformation, where high registration precision is required. We propose a hybrid algorithm, the "Juggler", based on a multi-diffusion model to achieve fast convergence. The Juggler achieves fast convergence by applying two different diffusion models: i) one being optimized quickly for matching high gradient features, i.e. bony anatomies; and ii) the other being optimized for further matching low gradient features, i.e. soft tissue. The regulation of these 2 competing criteria is achieved using a threshold of a similarity measure, such as cross correlation or mutual information. A multi-resolution scheme was applied for faster convergence involving large deformations. Comparisons of the Juggler algorithm were carried out with demons method, accelerated demons method, and free-form deformable registration using 4D CT lung imaging from 5 patients. Based on comparisons of difference images and similarity measure computations, the Juggler produced a superior registration result. It achieved the desired convergence within 30 iterations, and typically required <90sec to register two 3D image sets of size 256×256×40 using a 3.2 GHz PC. This hybrid registration strategy successfully incorporates the benefits of different diffusion models into a single unified model.

  9. Color-coded Live Imaging of Heterokaryon Formation and Nuclear Fusion of Hybridizing Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetsugu, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Takuro; Hasegawa, Kosuke; Nakamura, Miki; Kunisada, Takahiro; Shimizu, Masahito; Saji, Shigetoyo; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Bouvet, Michael; Hoffman, Robert M

    2016-08-01

    Fusion of cancer cells has been studied for over half a century. However, the steps involved after initial fusion between cells, such as heterokaryon formation and nuclear fusion, have been difficult to observe in real time. In order to be able to visualize these steps, we have established cancer-cell sublines from the human HT-1080 fibrosarcoma, one expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) linked to histone H2B in the nucleus and a red fluorescent protein (RFP) in the cytoplasm and the other subline expressing RFP in the nucleus (mCherry) linked to histone H2B and GFP in the cytoplasm. The two reciprocal color-coded sublines of HT-1080 cells were fused using the Sendai virus. The fused cells were cultured on plastic and observed using an Olympus FV1000 confocal microscope. Multi-nucleate (heterokaryotic) cancer cells, in addition to hybrid cancer cells with single-or multiple-fused nuclei, including fused mitotic nuclei, were observed among the fused cells. Heterokaryons with red, green, orange and yellow nuclei were observed by confocal imaging, even in single hybrid cells. The orange and yellow nuclei indicate nuclear fusion. Red and green nuclei remained unfused. Cell fusion with heterokaryon formation and subsequent nuclear fusion resulting in hybridization may be an important natural phenomenon between cancer cells that may make them more malignant. The ability to image the complex processes following cell fusion using reciprocal color-coded cancer cells will allow greater understanding of the genetic basis of malignancy. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  10. GENIE: A HYBRID GENETIC ALGORITHM FOR FEATURE CLASSIFICATION IN MULTI-SPECTRAL IMAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. PERKINS; ET AL

    2000-12-01

    We consider the problem of pixel-by-pixel classification of a multi-spectral image using supervised learning. Conventional supervised classification techniques such as maximum likelihood classification and less conventional ones such as neural networks, typically base such classifications solely on the spectral components of each pixel. It is easy to see why the color of a pixel provides a nice, bounded, fixed dimensional space in which these classifiers work well. It is often the case however, that spectral information alone is not sufficient to correctly classify a pixel. Maybe spatial neighborhood information is required as well. Or may be the raw spectral components do not themselves make for easy classification, but some arithmetic combination of them would. In either of these cases we have the problem of selecting suitable spatial, spectral or spatio-spectral features that allow the classifier to do its job well. The number of all possible such features is extremely large. How can we select a suitable subset? We have developed GENIE, a hybrid learning system that combines a genetic algorithm that searches a space of image processing operations for a set that can produce suitable feature planes, and a more conventional classifier which uses those feature planes to output a final classification. In this paper we show that the use of a hybrid GA provides significant advantages over using either a GA alone or more conventional classification methods alone. We present results using high-resolution IKONOS data, looking for regions of burned forest and for roads.

  11. Traceable working standards with SI units of radiance for characterizing the measurement performance of investigational clinical NIRF imaging devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Banghe; Rasmussen, John C.; Litorja, Maritoni; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2017-03-01

    All medical devices for Food and Drug market approval require specifications of performance based upon International System of Units (SI) or units derived from SI for reasons of traceability. Recently, near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging devices of a variety of designs have emerged on the market and in investigational clinical studies. Yet the design of devices used in the clinical studies vary widely, suggesting variable device performance. Device performance depends upon optimal excitation of NIRF imaging agents, rejection of backscattered excitation and ambient light, and selective collection of fluorescence emanating from the fluorophore. There remains no traceable working standards with SI units of radiance to enable prediction that a given molecular imaging agent can be detected in humans by a given NIRF imaging device. Furthermore, as technologies evolve and as NIRF imaging device components change, there remains no standardized means to track device improvements over time and establish clinical performance without involving clinical trials, often costly. In this study, we deployed a methodology to calibrate luminescent radiance of a stable, solid phantom in SI units of mW/cm2/sr for characterizing the measurement performance of ICCD and IsCMOS camera based NIRF imaging devices, such as signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast. The methodology allowed determination of superior SNR of the ICCD over the IsCMOS system; comparable contrast of ICCD and IsCMOS depending upon binning strategies.

  12. Hemato-oncological imaging. Importance of hybrid procedures; Haematoonkologische Bildgebung. Stellenwert der Hybridverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayerhoefer, M.E. [Univ.-Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Abteilung fuer Allgemeine und Kinderradiologie, Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Wien (Austria); Haug, A. [Univ.-Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Abteilung fuer Nuklearmedizin, Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Wien (Austria)

    2016-07-15

    Biomedical imaging procedures play a major role in hemato-oncological diseases with respect to pre-therapeutic staging and assessment of treatment response. Originally, the therapeutic management was the domain of computed tomography (CT) and whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Over the last decade these purely morphological techniques have gradually been replaced by hybrid imaging techniques, such as positron emission tomography-CT (PET/CT) and PET/MRI, which also provide metabolic and functional information. For lymphomas, the PET tracer 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18 F-FDG) is meanwhile so well-established that its use is a cornerstone of the Lugano classification; however, for multiple myeloma the search for an optimal PET tracer that can also detect early disease stages is still ongoing. Functional MRI techniques, such as diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), perfusion-weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging have shown promising results for both lymphomas and multiple myelomas. The PET/MRI technique can combine the different types of information due to its truly multiparametric approach. In the future PET/MRI could possibly become the hybrid imaging technique of choice for hemato-oncological diseases. (orig.) [German] Bildgebende Verfahren spielen bei haematoonkologischen Erkrankungen eine wesentliche Rolle fuer das Staging vor der Therapie und die Beurteilung des Therapieansprechens. Urspruenglich waren es v. a. die CT und die Ganzkoerper-MRT, welche die fuer das therapeutische Management relevanten Informationen lieferten. Im letzten Jahrzehnt erfolgte bei dieser Gruppe von Tumorerkrankungen jedoch eine Abkehr von den rein morphologischen Verfahren hin zu den Hybridverfahren Positronenemissionstomographie(PET)-CT und PET-MRT, welche auch metabolische und funktionelle Informationen liefern. Bei Lymphomen steht der PET-Tracer {sup 18}F-Fluordesoxyglukose ({sup 18}F-FDG) mittlerweile im Zentrum der Diagnostik und ist auch fest in der aktuellen

  13. Ultra-fast quantitative imaging using ptychographic iterative engine based digital micro-mirror device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Aihui; Tian, Xiaolin; Kong, Yan; Jiang, Zhilong; Liu, Fei; Xue, Liang; Wang, Shouyu; Liu, Cheng

    2018-01-01

    As a lensfree imaging technique, ptychographic iterative engine (PIE) method can provide both quantitative sample amplitude and phase distributions avoiding aberration. However, it requires field of view (FoV) scanning often relying on mechanical translation, which not only slows down measuring speed, but also introduces mechanical errors decreasing both resolution and accuracy in retrieved information. In order to achieve high-accurate quantitative imaging with fast speed, digital micromirror device (DMD) is adopted in PIE for large FoV scanning controlled by on/off state coding by DMD. Measurements were implemented using biological samples as well as USAF resolution target, proving high resolution in quantitative imaging using the proposed system. Considering its fast and accurate imaging capability, it is believed the DMD based PIE technique provides a potential solution for medical observation and measurements.

  14. Imaging Voltage in Genetically Defined Neuronal Subpopulations with a Cre Recombinase-Targeted Hybrid Voltage Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayguinov, Peter O; Ma, Yihe; Gao, Yu; Zhao, Xinyu; Jackson, Meyer B

    2017-09-20

    Genetically encoded voltage indicators create an opportunity to monitor electrical activity in defined sets of neurons as they participate in the complex patterns of coordinated electrical activity that underlie nervous system function. Taking full advantage of genetically encoded voltage indicators requires a generalized strategy for targeting the probe to genetically defined populations of cells. To this end, we have generated a mouse line with an optimized hybrid voltage sensor (hVOS) probe within a locus designed for efficient Cre recombinase-dependent expression. Crossing this mouse with Cre drivers generated double transgenics expressing hVOS probe in GABAergic, parvalbumin, and calretinin interneurons, as well as hilar mossy cells, new adult-born neurons, and recently active neurons. In each case, imaging in brain slices from male or female animals revealed electrically evoked optical signals from multiple individual neurons in single trials. These imaging experiments revealed action potentials, dynamic aspects of dendritic integration, and trial-to-trial fluctuations in response latency. The rapid time response of hVOS imaging revealed action potentials with high temporal fidelity, and enabled accurate measurements of spike half-widths characteristic of each cell type. Simultaneous recording of rapid voltage changes in multiple neurons with a common genetic signature offers a powerful approach to the study of neural circuit function and the investigation of how neural networks encode, process, and store information. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Genetically encoded voltage indicators hold great promise in the study of neural circuitry, but realizing their full potential depends on targeting the sensor to distinct cell types. Here we present a new mouse line that expresses a hybrid optical voltage sensor under the control of Cre recombinase. Crossing this line with Cre drivers generated double-transgenic mice, which express this sensor in targeted cell types. In

  15. Preparation of hybrid devices containing nylon/M(II)Pc-TTF (M=Cu, Zn) films with potential optical and electrical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Vergara, María Elena; López-Romero, Diana Monserrat; Vidal-García, Pablo; Jiménez-Jarquín, Christian; Hernandez-García, Aline; Jiménez-Sandoval, Omar

    2017-05-01

    Hybrid devices consisting of metallophthalocyanines, MPcs (M=Zn, Cu), doped with a Tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) derivative and dispersed in nylon 11 have been prepared by using a thermal evaporation technique. The effects of thermal relaxation on the structure and morphology of the samples were studied by FT-IR spectroscopy, SEM and X-ray diffraction. The thermal relaxation in nylon 11 produced a crystalline arrangement in the α- and β-form MPc molecules. Changes in conductivity of the devices suggest the formation of alternative paths for carrier conduction. It was found that the temperature-dependent electric current in Zn devices showed a semiconductor behavior. Finally, the optical direct and indirect band gap of these hybrid devices was evaluated from optical absorption measurements. The band gap values were found to decrease from 3.7 to 1.38 eV (for the ZnPc device), and from 1.9 to 1.1 eV (for the CuPc device), with the addition of TTF in the polymeric matrix. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. Physics and engineering aspects of cell and tissue imaging systems: microscopic devices and computer assisted diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaodong; Ren, Liqiang; Zheng, Bin; Liu, Hong

    2013-01-01

    The conventional optical microscopes have been used widely in scientific research and in clinical practice. The modern digital microscopic devices combine the power of optical imaging and computerized analysis, archiving and communication techniques. It has a great potential in pathological examinations for improving the efficiency and accuracy of clinical diagnosis. This chapter reviews the basic optical principles of conventional microscopes, fluorescence microscopes and electron microscopes. The recent developments and future clinical applications of advanced digital microscopic imaging methods and computer assisted diagnosis schemes are also discussed.

  17. Study on 3D printer production of auxiliary device for upper limb for medical imaging test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyeong Gyun [Dept. of Radiological Science, Far East University, Eumsung (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jae Ho [Jukwang Precision Co., Ltd., Gumi (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seong Dae [Dept. of Mechanical system engineering, Kumoh Institute of Technology, Gumi (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    There is a progressive development in the medical imaging technology, especially of descriptive capability for anatomical structure of human body thanks to advancement of information technology and medical devices. But however maintenance of correct posture is essential for the medical imaging checkup on the shoulder joint requiring rotation of the upper limb due to the complexity of human body. In the cases of MRI examination, long duration and fixed posture are critical, as failure to comply with them leads to minimal possibility of reproducibility only with the efforts of the examiner and will of the patient. Thus, this study aimed to develop an auxiliary device that enables rotation of the upper limb as well as fixing it at quantitative angles for medical imaging examination capable of providing diagnostic values. An auxiliary device has been developed based on the results of precedent studies, by designing a 3D model with the CATIA software, an engineering application, and producing it with the 3D printer. The printer is Objet350 Connex from Stratasys, and acrylonitrile- butadiene-styrene(ABS) is used as the material of the device. Dimensions are 120 X 150 X 190 mm, with the inner diameter of the handle being 125.9 mm. The auxiliary device has 4 components including the body (outside), handle (inside), fixture terminal and the connection part. The body and handle have the gap of 2.1 mm for smooth rotation, while the 360 degree of scales have been etched on the handle so that the angle required for observation may be recorded per patient for traceability and dual examination.

  18. Resistive Switching in All-Printed, Flexible and Hybrid MoS2-PVA Nanocomposite based Memristive Device Fabricated by Reverse Offset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Muhammad Muqeet; Siddiqui, Ghayas Uddin; Gul, Jahan Zeb; Kim, Soo-Wan; Lim, Jong Hwan; Choi, Kyung Hyun

    2016-11-01

    Owing to the increasing interest in the nonvolatile memory devices, resistive switching based on hybrid nanocomposite of a 2D material, molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is explored in this work. As a proof of concept, we have demonstrated the fabrication of a memory device with the configuration of PET/Ag/MoS2-PVA/Ag via an all printed, hybrid, and state of the art fabrication approach. Bottom Ag electrodes, active layer of hybrid MoS2-PVA nanocomposite and top Ag electrode are deposited by reverse offset, electrohydrodynamic (EHD) atomization and electrohydrodynamic (EHD) patterning respectively. The fabricated device displayed characteristic bistable, nonvolatile and rewritable resistive switching behavior at a low operating voltage. A decent off/on ratio, high retention time, and large endurance of 1.28 × 102, 105 sec and 1000 voltage sweeps were recorded respectively. Double logarithmic curve satisfy the trap controlled space charge limited current (TCSCLC) model in high resistance state (HRS) and ohmic model in low resistance state (LRS). Bendability test at various bending diameters (50-2 mm) for 1500 cycles was carried out to show the mechanical robustness of fabricated device.

  19. Sulfur and Nitrogen co-doped graphene quantum dot decorated ZnO nanorod/polymer hybrid flexible device for photosensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hmar, Jehova Jire L.; Majumder, Tanmoy; Dhar, Saurab; Mondal, Suvra Prakash, E-mail: suvraphy@gmail.com

    2016-08-01

    S and N co-doped graphene quantum dots (S,N-GQDs) have been synthesized by a hydrothermal process. S,N-GQDs are made up of 1–5 monolayer of graphene with average diameter 13.3 nm. The absorption peaks at 336 and 621 nm, are attributed to n → Π{sup ⁎} transitions of electrons in C=O and S=O bonds, respectively. S,N-GQDs are highly luminescent and showed excitation dependent emission behaviors. Hybrid photosensing device has been fabricated with S,N-GQD sensitized ZnO nanorods and a conjugated polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). S,N-GQD decorated ZnO nanorod demonstrated higher photoresponse compared to pristine ZnO nanorod based device. S,N-GQD/ZnO nanorod hybrid device showed superior incident photon to electron conversion efficiency (IPCE), photoresponsivity and detectivity compared to the control samples. The flexibility study of the samples has been monitored by measuring current-voltage characteristics at different bending angles. - Highlights: • S and N co-doped graphene quantum dots (S,N-GQDs) were synthesized. • ZnO nanorods were grown on ITO coated flexible PET substrates. • S,N-GQDs were attached with ZnO nanorods and used as a green sensitizer. • Photosensing properties of S,N-GQD/ZnO and P3HT polymer hybrid device was studied.

  20. Design and development of high bioluminescent resonance energy transfer efficiency hybrid-imaging constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Kovalski, Letícia; Broyles, David; Hunt, Eric A; Daftarian, Pirouz; Dikici, Emre; Daunert, Sylvia; Deo, Sapna K

    2016-04-01

    Here we describe the design and construction of an imaging construct with high bioluminescent resonance energy transfer (BRET) efficiency that is composed of multiple quantum dots (QDs; λem = 655 nm) self-assembled onto a bioluminescent protein, Renilla luciferase (Rluc). This is facilitated by the streptavidin-biotin interaction, allowing the facile formation of a hybrid-imaging construct (HIC) comprising up to six QDs (acceptor) grafted onto a light-emitting Rluc (donor) core. The resulting assembly of multiple acceptors surrounding a donor permits this construct to exhibit high resonance energy transfer efficiency (∼64.8%). The HIC was characterized using fluorescence excitation anisotropy measurements and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. To demonstrate the application of our construct, a generation-5 (G5) polyamidoamine dendrimer (PAMAM) nanocarrier was loaded with our HIC for in vitro and in vivo imaging. We envision that this design of multiple acceptors and bioluminescent donor will lead to the development of new BRET-based systems useful in sensing, imaging, and other bioanalytical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Activatable Hybrid Nanotheranostics for Tetramodal Imaging and Synergistic Photothermal/Photodynamic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Shreya; Ferreira, Carolina A; Chen, Feng; Ellison, Paul A; Siamof, Cerise M; Barnhart, Todd E; Cai, Weibo

    2017-12-21

    A multifunctional core-satellite nanoconstruct is designed by assembling copper sulfide (CuS) nanoparticles on the surface of [89 Zr]-labeled hollow mesoporous silica nanoshells filled with porphyrin molecules, for effective cancer imaging and therapy. The hybrid nanotheranostic demonstrates three significant features: (1) simple and robust construction from biocompatible building blocks, demonstrating prolonged blood retention, enhanced tumor accumulation, and minimal long-term systemic toxicity, (2) rationally selected functional moieties that interact together to enable simultaneous tetramodal (positron emission tomography/fluorescence/Cerenkov luminescence/Cerenkov radiation energy transfer) imaging for rapid and accurate delineation of tumors and multimodal image-guided therapy in vivo, and (3) synergistic interaction between CuS-mediated photothermal therapy and porphyrin-mediated photodynamic therapy which results in complete tumor elimination within a day of treatment with no visible recurrence or side effects. Overall, this proof-of-concept study illustrates an efficient, generalized approach to design high-performance core-satellite nanohybrids that can be easily tailored to combine a wide variety of imaging and therapeutic modalities for improved and personalized cancer theranostics in the future. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. A Hybrid Vehicle Detection Method Based on Viola-Jones and HOG + SVM from UAV Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongzheng; Yu, Guizhen; Wang, Yunpeng; Wu, Xinkai; Ma, Yalong

    2016-08-19

    A new hybrid vehicle detection scheme which integrates the Viola-Jones (V-J) and linear SVM classifier with HOG feature (HOG + SVM) methods is proposed for vehicle detection from low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images. As both V-J and HOG + SVM are sensitive to on-road vehicles' in-plane rotation, the proposed scheme first adopts a roadway orientation adjustment method, which rotates each UAV image to align the roads with the horizontal direction so the original V-J or HOG + SVM method can be directly applied to achieve fast detection and high accuracy. To address the issue of descending detection speed for V-J and HOG + SVM, the proposed scheme further develops an adaptive switching strategy which sophistically integrates V-J and HOG + SVM methods based on their different descending trends of detection speed to improve detection efficiency. A comprehensive evaluation shows that the switching strategy, combined with the road orientation adjustment method, can significantly improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the vehicle detection from UAV images. The results also show that the proposed vehicle detection method is competitive compared with other existing vehicle detection methods. Furthermore, since the proposed vehicle detection method can be performed on videos captured from moving UAV platforms without the need of image registration or additional road database, it has great potentials of field applications. Future research will be focusing on expanding the current method for detecting other transportation modes such as buses, trucks, motors, bicycles, and pedestrians.

  3. Multi-Wave and Hybrid Imaging Techniques: A New Direction for Nondestructive Testing and Structural Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhua Cheng

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the state-of-the-art multi-wave and hybrid imaging techniques in the field of nondestructive evaluation and structural health monitoring were comprehensively reviewed. A new direction for assessment and health monitoring of various structures by capitalizing the advantages of those imaging methods was discussed. Although sharing similar system configurations, the imaging physics and principles of multi-wave phenomena and hybrid imaging methods are inherently different. After a brief introduction of nondestructive evaluation (NDE , structure health monitoring (SHM and their related challenges, several recent advances that have significantly extended imaging methods from laboratory development into practical applications were summarized, followed by conclusions and discussion on future directions.

  4. Electronic Image Readout Devices Used In Conjunction With Picosecond Streak Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavailler, C.; Genoud, M.; Fleurot, N.; Launspach, J.; Mazataud, D.; Mens, A.

    1985-02-01

    Understanding the laser-matter interaction experiments require a dynamic recording of the phenomena as well as a good knowledge of the laser pulse occuring during the irradiation of the target ; those measurements are made with streak cameras the increasing number of which leads to processing problems when the results are recorded on films. Furthermore, since physicists wish to have those temporal information immediatly, we unfolded automatic image readout devices fitted specially to streak cameras. The first one used an ISOCON tube operating with a slow sweep (0.5 s frame)1-2. The sensitivity of the tube was very good but its dynamic range was too limited when seeing pulsed images at low light level. So we developped two electronic readout chains with solid state devices which behave better for that kind of light. The first one was designed to get the most information along the temporal axis of the camera sweep (1024 points) in one or two spatial channels ; this device operates a linear 1024 photodiodes array the signal of which is digitized on 12 bits. We have obtained a temporal resolution better than 15 ps and a dynamic range over 500 ; this system is mainly useful to study laser pulses (rise time, temporal profile...)3. For applications requiring two dimension images, we studied and realized a device operating a CCD array and a fiber optics reducer (40-18 mm) adapting the image of the streak camera screen to the dimensions of the input fiber optics of the CCD. A comparison has been made on different CCD cameras on a test setup which simulates the experimental conditions, in order to choose the CCD which would fit the best for that purpose ; we present these results here, as well as those of the associated readout chains.

  5. Towards Automated Classification of Firmware Images and Identification of Embedded Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Costin, Andrei; Zarras, Apostolis; Francillon, Aurélien

    2017-01-01

    Part 4: Operating System and Firmware Security; International audience; Embedded systems, as opposed to traditional computers, bring an incredible diversity. The number of devices manufactured is constantly increasing and each has a dedicated software, commonly known as firmware. Full firmware images are often delivered as multiple releases, correcting bugs and vulnerabilities, or adding new features. Unfortunately, there is no centralized or standardized firmware distribution mechanism. It i...

  6. Reliability of measuring pelvic floor elevation with a diagnostic ultrasonic imaging device

    OpenAIRE

    Ubukata, Hitomi; Maruyama, Hitoshi; Huo, Ming

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of measuring the amount of pelvic floor elevation during pelvic and abdominal muscle contraction with a diagnostic ultrasonic imaging device. [Subjects] The study group comprised 11 healthy women without urinary incontinence or previous birth experience. [Methods] We measured the displacement elevation of the bladder base during contraction of the abdominal and pelvic floor muscles was measured using a diagnostic ultrasoni...

  7. Tunable Ultrafast Photon Source and Imaging System for Studying Carrier Dynamics in Graphene Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-23

    and phonons in graphene through a combination of two optical techniques – tunable wavelength ultrafast optical spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy ...Fig 2. The set up for Raman spectroscopy showing the NIR CCD camera (BaySpec) in the bottom left corner. purchased from BaySpec using... Tunable ultrafast photon source and imaging system for studying carrier dynamics in graphene devices This project enabled the acquisition of a

  8. MR_CHIROD v.2: magnetic resonance compatible smart hand rehabilitation device for brain imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanicheh, Azadeh; Mintzopoulos, Dionyssios; Weinberg, Brian; Tzika, A Aria; Mavroidis, Constantinos

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication, and testing of a novel, one degree-of-freedom, magnetic resonance compatible smart hand interfaced rehabilitation device (MR_CHIROD v.2), which may be used in brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging during handgrip rehabilitation. A key feature of the device is the use of electrorheological fluids (ERFs) to achieve computer controlled, variable, and tunable resistive force generation. The device consists of three major subsystems: 1) an ERF based resistive element, 2) handles, and c) two sensors, one optical encoder and one force sensor, to measure the patient induced motion and force. MR_CHIROD v.2 is designed to resist up to 50% of the maximum level of gripping force of a human hand and be controlled in real time. Our results demonstrate that the MR environment does not interfere with the performance of the MR_CHIROD v.2, and, reciprocally, its use does not cause fMR image artifacts. The results are encouraging in jointly using MR_CHIROD v.2 and brain MR imaging to study motor performance and assess rehabilitation after neurological injuries such as stroke.

  9. Multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roblyer, Darren; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Sokolov, Konstantin; El-Naggar, Adel K; Williams, Michelle D; Kurachi, Cristina; Gillenwater, Ann M

    2008-01-01

    A multispectral digital microscope (MDM) is designed and constructed as a tool to improve detection of oral neoplasia. The MDM acquires in vivo images of oral tissue in fluorescence, narrow-band (NB) reflectance, and orthogonal polarized reflectance (OPR) modes, to enable evaluation of lesions that may not exhibit high contrast under standard white light illumination. The device rapidly captures image sequences so that the diagnostic value of each modality can be qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated alone and in combination. As part of a pilot clinical trial, images are acquired from normal volunteers and patients with precancerous and cancerous lesions. In normal subjects, the visibility of vasculature can be enhanced by tuning the reflectance illumination wavelength and polarization. In patients with histologically confirmed neoplasia, we observe decreased blue/green autofluorescence and increased red autofluorescence in lesions, and increased visibility of vasculature using NB and OPR imaging. The perceived lesion borders change with imaging modality, suggesting that multimodal imaging has the potential to provide additional diagnostic information not available using standard white light illumination or by using a single imaging mode alone.

  10. Hybrid approach of ventricular assist device and autologous bone marrow stem cells implantation in end-stage ischemic heart failure enhances myocardial reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khayat Andre

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We challenge the hypothesis of enhanced myocardial reperfusion after implanting a left ventricular assist device together with bone marrow mononuclear stem cells in patients with end-stage ischemic cardiomyopathy. Irreversible myocardial loss observed in ischemic cardiomyopathy leads to progressive cardiac remodelling and dysfunction through a complex neurohormonal cascade. New generation assist devices promote myocardial recovery only in patients with dilated or peripartum cardiomyopathy. In the setting of diffuse myocardial ischemia not amenable to revascularization, native myocardial recovery has not been observed after implantation of an assist device as destination therapy. The hybrid approach of implanting autologous bone marrow stem cells during assist device implantation may eventually improve native cardiac function, which may be associated with a better prognosis eventually ameliorating the need for subsequent heart transplantation. The aforementioned hypothesis has to be tested with well-designed prospective multicentre studies.

  11. Synthetic-Molecule/Protein Hybrid Probe with Fluorogenic Switch for Live-Cell Imaging of DNA Methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Yuichiro; Otomura, Norimichi; Nishida, Ayuko; Nishiura, Miyako; Umeno, Maho; Suetake, Isao; Kikuchi, Kazuya

    2018-02-07

    Hybrid probes consisting of synthetic molecules and proteins are powerful tools for detecting biological molecules and signals in living cells. To date, most targets of the hybrid probes have been limited to pH and small analytes. Although biomacromolecules are essential to the physiological function of cells, the hybrid-probe-based approach has been scarcely employed for live-cell detection of biomacromolecules. Here, we developed a hybrid probe with a chemical switch for live-cell imaging of methylated DNA, an important macromolecule in the repression of gene expression. Using a protein labeling technique, we created a hybrid probe containing a DNA-binding fluorogen and a methylated-DNA-binding domain. The hybrid probe enhanced fluorescence intensity upon binding to methylated DNA and successfully monitored methylated DNA during mitosis. The hybrid probe offers notable advantages absent from probes based on small molecules or fluorescent proteins and is useful for live-cell analyses of epigenetic phenomena and diseases related to DNA methylation.

  12. Objective assessment of biomagnetic devices and alternative clinical therapies using infrared thermal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockley, Graham J.

    2001-03-01

    The overwhelming introduction of magnetic devices and other alternative therapies into the health care market prompts the need for objective evaluation of these techniques through the use of infrared thermal imaging. Many of these therapies are reported to promote the stimulation of blood flow or the relief of pain conditions. Infrared imaging is an efficient tool to assess such changes in the physiological state. Therefore, a thermal imager can help document and substantiate whether these therapies are in fact providing an effective change to the local circulation. Thermal images may also indicate whether the change is temporary or sustained. As a specific case example, preliminary findings will be presented concerning the use of magnets and the effect they have on peripheral circulation. This will include a discussion of the recommended protocols for this type of infrared testing. This test model can be applied to the evaluation of other devices and therapeutic procedures which are reputed to affect circulation such as electro acupuncture, orthopedic footwear and topical ointments designed to relieve pain or inflammation.

  13. A Novel Restraining Device for Small Animal Imaging Exams: Validation in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Barbosa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To develop, validate, and patent a Restraining Device for Small Animal Imaging Exams (RDSAIE that allows exams to be comfortably conducted without risks to animals and professionals. Methods. A RDSAIE with a mobile cover and shelf was built with transparent acrylic material. A total of six anesthetized rabbits were used to perform the following imaging exams of the skull: Cone Beam Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Scintigraphy. Results. The device showed great functionality and full visibility of the animal behavior, which remained fully stabilized and immobilized in either the horizontal or vertical position without the need for a person to remain in the test room to assist them. The procedures were performed without difficulty, and images of good resolution and without artifacts were obtained. Conclusion. The RDSAIE is comfortable, safe, efficient, and ergonomic. It allows the easy placement of animals in different body positions, including the vertical, the maintenance of postural stability, and full visibility. It may be constructed for animals heavier than 4 kg and it is adaptable for translational studies in anima nobile.

  14. A Novel Restraining Device for Small Animal Imaging Exams: Validation in Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Carlos Henrique; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos; de Souza, Sérgio; Machado, Fernanda; Guedes, Fábio; Monteiro, André; Schanaider, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    To develop, validate, and patent a Restraining Device for Small Animal Imaging Exams (RDSAIE) that allows exams to be comfortably conducted without risks to animals and professionals. A RDSAIE with a mobile cover and shelf was built with transparent acrylic material. A total of six anesthetized rabbits were used to perform the following imaging exams of the skull: Cone Beam Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Scintigraphy. The device showed great functionality and full visibility of the animal behavior, which remained fully stabilized and immobilized in either the horizontal or vertical position without the need for a person to remain in the test room to assist them. The procedures were performed without difficulty, and images of good resolution and without artifacts were obtained. The RDSAIE is comfortable, safe, efficient, and ergonomic. It allows the easy placement of animals in different body positions, including the vertical, the maintenance of postural stability, and full visibility. It may be constructed for animals heavier than 4 kg and it is adaptable for translational studies in anima nobile.

  15. Preliminary test of an imaging probe for nuclear medicine using hybrid pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolucci, Ennio; Mettivier, G; Montesi, M C; Russo, P

    2002-01-01

    We are investigating the feasibility of an intraoperative imaging probe for lymphoscintigraphy with Tc-99m tracer, for sentinel node radioguided surgery, using the Medipix series of hybrid detectors coupled to a collimator. These detectors are pixelated semiconductor detectors bump-bonded to the Medipix1 photon counting read-out chip (64x64 pixel, 170 mu m pitch) or to the Medipix2 chip (256x256 pixel, 55 mu m pitch), developed by the European Medipix collaboration. The pixel detector we plan to use in the final version of the probe is a semi-insulating GaAs detector or a 1-2 mm thick CdZnTe detector. For the preliminary tests presented here, we used 300-mu m thick silicon detectors, hybridized via bump-bonding to the Medipix1 chip. We used a tungsten parallel-hole collimator (7 mm thick, matrix array of 64x64 100 mu m circular holes with 170 mu m pitch), and a 22, 60 and 122 keV point-like (1 mm diameter) radioactive sources, placed at various distances from the detector. These tests were conducted in order ...

  16. PRESBYOPIA OPTOMETRY METHOD BASED ON DIOPTER REGULATION AND CHARGE COUPLE DEVICE IMAGING TECHNOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Q; Wu, X X; Zhou, J; Wang, X; Liu, R F; Gao, J

    2015-01-01

    With the development of photoelectric technology and single-chip microcomputer technology, objective optometry, also known as automatic optometry, is becoming precise. This paper proposed a presbyopia optometry method based on diopter regulation and Charge Couple Device (CCD) imaging technology and, in the meantime, designed a light path that could measure the system. This method projects a test figure to the eye ground and then the reflected image from the eye ground is detected by CCD. The image is then automatically identified by computer and the far point and near point diopters are determined to calculate lens parameter. This is a fully automatic objective optometry method which eliminates subjective factors of the tested subject. Furthermore, it can acquire the lens parameter of presbyopia accurately and quickly and can be used to measure the lens parameter of hyperopia, myopia and astigmatism.

  17. Hybrid Artificial Root Foraging Optimizer Based Multilevel Threshold for Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new plant-inspired optimization algorithm for multilevel threshold image segmentation, namely, hybrid artificial root foraging optimizer (HARFO, which essentially mimics the iterative root foraging behaviors. In this algorithm the new growth operators of branching, regrowing, and shrinkage are initially designed to optimize continuous space search by combining root-to-root communication and coevolution mechanism. With the auxin-regulated scheme, various root growth operators are guided systematically. With root-to-root communication, individuals exchange information in different efficient topologies, which essentially improve the exploration ability. With coevolution mechanism, the hierarchical spatial population driven by evolutionary pressure of multiple subpopulations is structured, which ensure that the diversity of root population is well maintained. The comparative results on a suit of benchmarks show the superiority of the proposed algorithm. Finally, the proposed HARFO algorithm is applied to handle the complex image segmentation problem based on multilevel threshold. Computational results of this approach on a set of tested images show the outperformance of the proposed algorithm in terms of optimization accuracy computation efficiency.

  18. Intravenous urography supplemented with computerised tomography urogram: A pragmatic hybrid imaging approach to hydronephrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Raju A; Mohimen, Aneesh; Debnath, Jyotindu; Satija, Lovleen; Joshi, Piyush; Godara, Subhash C

    2012-10-01

    Image quality in an Intravenous Urogram (IVU) can occasionally be compromised by variables like bowel preparation, renal function and radiographic factors, posing a challenge to all Uroradiologists. The Computerised Tomography Urogram (CTU) yields better diagnostic information than an IVU, due to its inherent superior anatomic delineation and contrast sensitivity, against a trade-off involving radiation dose and cost. Our study was conducted to assess the utility and timing of performing a single-phase CTU, as a problem-solving tool, to clear the diagnostic dilemma in a selected subset of patients, in whom an ongoing IVU could potentially be inconclusive. Five hundred and twelve patients who underwent IVU studies for urologic referrals at a tertiary care hospital, during the period of January to December 2009, formed the subject of the study, of whom 33 patients with inconclusive IVU findings after the first three radiographs underwent a single-phase CTU, to reach definitive imaging diagnoses. The percentage of inconclusive IVU studies amounted to only 33 / 512 (6.4%), in whom a CTU study revealed definitive diagnoses in 30 patients and no abnormality in three patients, thus conclusively clearing the ambiguities raised on the IVU in all the selected patients. The concept of a CTU limited to a single-phase study to supplement an inconclusive IVU optimizes the contrast and radiation dose to the affected patients. It is a cost-effective, timely, and definitive 'imaging intervention' and should be considered a viable hybrid technique to be utilized selectively and judiciously.

  19. Laser speckle imaging of rat retinal blood flow with hybrid temporal and spatial analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Haiying; Yan, Yumei; Duong, Timothy Q.

    2009-02-01

    Noninvasive monitoring of blood flow in retinal circulation will reveal the progression and treatment of ocular disorders, such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma. A non-invasive and direct BF measurement technique with high spatial-temporal resolution is needed for retinal imaging. Laser speckle imaging (LSI) is such a method. Currently, there are two analysis methods for LSI: spatial statistics LSI (SS-LSI) and temporal statistical LSI (TS-LSI). Comparing these two analysis methods, SS-LSI has higher signal to noise ratio (SNR) and TSLSI is less susceptible to artifacts from stationary speckle. We proposed a hybrid temporal and spatial analysis method (HTS-LSI) to measure the retinal blood flow. Gas challenge experiment was performed and images were analyzed by HTS-LSI. Results showed that HTS-LSI can not only remove the stationary speckle but also increase the SNR. Under 100% O2, retinal BF decreased by 20-30%. This was consistent with the results observed with laser Doppler technique. As retinal blood flow is a critical physiological parameter and its perturbation has been implicated in the early stages of many retinal diseases, HTS-LSI will be an efficient method in early detection of retina diseases.

  20. Fiscal 1997 R and D project on industrial science and technology under a consignment from NEDO. R and D of the superconducting material and device (technical development of the Josephson device hybrid system); 1997 nendo sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo Shin energy Sangyo Gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku. Chodendo zairyo chodendo soshi no kenkyu kaihatsu (Josephson soshi hybrid system no gijutsu kaihatsu) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In order to establish basic technology for hybrid systems of superconducting and semiconducting devices, study was made on ultrahigh speed and low energy consumption properties of Josephson devices. As Josephson IC technology, a logical circuit, ring network, memory circuit, and oxide superconductor logical circuit were studied. As superconducting hybrid system technology, a Josephson device- semiconductor device interface, formation technology of signal transmission lines, and Josephson-MOS IC technology were developed. In fiscal 1997, as Josephson IC technology, switch motion of 4GHz in clock frequency was achieved by new high-density wiring process. Integration of some semiconducting processor elements, junction of surface- stabilized superconducting thin films, and motion of combination structure of some SQUIDs were also confirmed. On the hybrid system, voltage conversion operation of all interfaces was confirmed. Proper logical operation of the Josephson device hybrid circuit was also confirmed. 95 refs., 90 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Optofluidic bioimaging platform for quantitative phase imaging of lab on a chip devices using digital holographic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandiyan, Vimal Prabhu; John, Renu

    2016-01-20

    We propose a versatile 3D phase-imaging microscope platform for real-time imaging of optomicrofluidic devices based on the principle of digital holographic microscopy (DHM). Lab-on-chip microfluidic devices fabricated on transparent polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and glass substrates have attained wide popularity in biological sensing applications. However, monitoring, visualization, and characterization of microfluidic devices, microfluidic flows, and the biochemical kinetics happening in these devices is difficult due to the lack of proper techniques for real-time imaging and analysis. The traditional bright-field microscopic techniques fail in imaging applications, as the microfluidic channels and the fluids carrying biological samples are transparent and not visible in bright light. Phase-based microscopy techniques that can image the phase of the microfluidic channel and changes in refractive indices due to the fluids and biological samples present in the channel are ideal for imaging the fluid flow dynamics in a microfluidic channel at high resolutions. This paper demonstrates three-dimensional imaging of a microfluidic device with nanometric depth precisions and high SNR. We demonstrate imaging of microelectrodes of nanometric thickness patterned on glass substrate and the microfluidic channel. Three-dimensional imaging of a transparent PDMS optomicrofluidic channel, fluid flow, and live yeast cell flow in this channel has been demonstrated using DHM. We also quantify the average velocity of fluid flow through the channel. In comparison to any conventional bright-field microscope, the 3D depth information in the images illustrated in this work carry much information about the biological system under observation. The results demonstrated in this paper prove the high potential of DHM in imaging optofluidic devices; detection of pathogens, cells, and bioanalytes on lab-on-chip devices; and in studying microfluidic dynamics in real time based on phase changes.

  2. Towards improved hardware component attenuation correction in PET/MR hybrid imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, D H; Tellmann, L; Quick, H H

    2013-11-21

    In positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) hybrid imaging attenuation correction (AC) of the patient tissue and patient table is performed by converting the CT-based Hounsfield units (HU) to linear attenuation coefficients (LAC) of PET. When applied to the new field of hardware component AC in PET/magnetic resonance (MR) hybrid imaging, this conversion method may result in local overcorrection of PET activity values. The aim of this study thus was to optimize the conversion parameters for CT-based AC of hardware components in PET/MR. Systematic evaluation and optimization of the HU to LAC conversion parameters has been performed for the hardware component attenuation map (µ-map) of a flexible radiofrequency (RF) coil used in PET/MR imaging. Furthermore, spatial misregistration of this RF coil to its µ-map was simulated by shifting the µ-map in different directions and the effect on PET quantification was evaluated. Measurements of a PET NEMA standard emission phantom were performed on an integrated hybrid PET/MR system. Various CT parameters were used to calculate different µ-maps for the flexible RF coil and to evaluate the impact on the PET activity concentration. A 511 keV transmission scan of the local RF coil was used as standard of reference to adapt the slope of the conversion from HUs to LACs at 511 keV. The average underestimation of the PET activity concentration due to the non-attenuation corrected RF coil in place was calculated to be 5.0% in the overall phantom. When considering attenuation only in the upper volume of the phantom, the average difference to the reference scan without RF coil is 11.0%. When the PET/CT conversion is applied, an average overestimation of 3.1% (without extended CT scale) and 4.2% (with extended CT scale) is observed in the top volume of the NEMA phantom. Using the adapted conversion resulting from this study, the deviation in the top volume of the phantom is reduced to -0.5% and shows the lowest

  3. Phase imaging for absorptive phase objects using hybrid uniform and structured illumination transport of intensity equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yunhui; Zhang, Zhengyun; Barbastathis, George

    2014-11-17

    Transport of intensity equation (TIE) has been a popular and convenient phase imaging method that retrieves phase profile from the measurement of intensity differentials. Conventional 2-shot uniform illumination TIE can give reliable inversion of the phase from intensity in many situations of practical interest; however, it has a null space consisting of fields with non-zero circulation of the Poynting vector. Here, we propose the hybrid illumination TIE method to disambiguate such objects. By comparing the diffraction signals using uniform and structured (sinusoidal) illumination patterns, we obtain a modulation-induced signal that depends solely on the phase gradient. In this way, we also increase signal sensitivity in the low spatial frequency region.

  4. Programmable spectral engine design of hyperspectral image projectors based on digital micro-mirror device (DMD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xicheng; Gao, Jiaobo; Wu, Jianghui; Li, Jianjun; Cheng, Hongliang

    2017-02-01

    Recently, hyperspectral image projectors (HIP) have been developed in the field of remote sensing. For the advanced performance of system-level validation, target detection and hyperspectral image calibration, HIP has great possibility of development in military, medicine, commercial and so on. HIP is based on the digital micro-mirror device (DMD) and projection technology, which is capable to project arbitrary programmable spectra (controlled by PC) into the each pixel of the IUT1 (instrument under test), such that the projected image could simulate realistic scenes that hyperspectral image could be measured during its use and enable system-level performance testing and validation. In this paper, we built a visible hyperspectral image projector also called the visible target simulator with double DMDs, which the first DMD is used to product the selected monochromatic light from the wavelength of 410 to 720 um, and the light come to the other one. Then we use computer to load image of realistic scenes to the second DMD, so that the target condition and background could be project by the second DMD with the selected monochromatic light. The target condition can be simulated and the experiment could be controlled and repeated in the lab, making the detector instrument could be tested in the lab. For the moment, we make the focus on the spectral engine design include the optical system, research of DMD programmable spectrum and the spectral resolution of the selected spectrum. The detail is shown.

  5. Hybrid Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Positron Emission Tomography With Fluorodeoxyglucose to Diagnose Active Cardiac Sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dweck, Marc R; Abgral, Ronan; Trivieri, Maria Giovanna; Robson, Philip M; Karakatsanis, Nicolas; Mani, Venkatesh; Palmisano, Anna; Miller, Marc A; Lala, Anuradha; Chang, Helena L; Sanz, Javier; Contreras, Johanna; Narula, Jagat; Fuster, Valentin; Padilla, Maria; Fayad, Zahi A; Kovacic, Jason C

    2017-06-09

    The purpose of this study was to explore the diagnostic usefulness of hybrid cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and positron emission tomography (PET) using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) for active cardiac sarcoidosis. Active cardiac sarcoidosis (aCS) is underdiagnosed and has a high mortality. Patients with clinical suspicion of aCS underwent hybrid CMR/PET with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and FDG to assess the pattern of injury and disease activity, respectively. Patients were categorized visually as magnetic resonance (MR)+PET+ (characteristic LGE aligning exactly with increased FDG uptake), MR+PET- (characteristic LGE but no increased FDG), MR-PET- (neither characteristic LGE nor increased FDG), and MR-PET+ (increased FDG uptake in absence of characteristic LGE) and further characterized as aCS+ (MR+PET+) or aCS- (MR+PET-, MR-PET-, MR-PET+). FDG uptake was quantified using maximum target-to-normal-myocardium ratio and the net uptake rate (Ki) from dynamic Patlak analysis. Receiver operating characteristic methods were used to identify imaging biomarkers for aCS. FDG PET was assessed using computed tomography/PET in 19 control subjects with healthy myocardium. A total of 25 patients (12 males; 54.9 ± 9.8 years of age) were recruited prospectively; 8 were MR+PET+, suggestive of aCS; 1 was MR+PET-, consistent with inactive cardiac sarcoidosis; and 8 were MR-PET-, with no imaging evidence of cardiac sarcoidosis. Eight patients were MR-PET+ (6 with global myocardial FDG uptake, 2 with focal-on-diffuse uptake); they demonstrated distinct Ki values and hyperintense maximum standardized uptake value compared with MR+PET+ patients. Similar hyperintense patterns of global (n = 9) and focal-on-diffuse (n = 2) FDG uptake were also observed in control patients, suggesting physiological myocardial uptake. Maximum target-to-normal-myocardium ratio values were higher in the aCS+ group (p < 0.001), demonstrating an area under the curve of 0.98 on receiver operating

  6. Integration of optically active Neodymium ions in Niobium devices (Nd:Nb): quantum memory for hybrid quantum entangled systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, O. M.; Chao, D.; Djapic, N.; Sims, P.; Liu, B.; Sharma, S.; Lerum, L.; Fahem, M.; Dinh, V.; Zlatanovic, S.; Lynn, B.; Torres, C.; Higa, B.; Moore, J.; Upchurch, A.; Cothern, J.; Tukeman, M.; Barua, R.; Davidson, B.; Ramirez, A. D.; Rees, C. D.; Anant, V.; Kanter, G. S.

    2017-08-01

    Optically active rare-earth Neodymium (Nd) ions are integrated in Niobium (Nb) thin films forming a new quantum memory device (Nd:Nb) targeting long-lived coherence times and multi-functionality enabled by both spin and photon storage properties. Nb is implanted with Nd spanning 10-60 keV energy and 1013-1014 cm-2 dose producing a 1- 3% Nd:Nb concentration as confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Scanning confocal photoluminescence (PL) at 785 nm excitation are made and sharp emission peaks from the 4F3/2 -< 4I11/2 Nd3+ transition at 1064-1070 nm are examined. In contrast, un-implanted Nb is void of any peaks. Line-shapes at room temperature are fit with Lorentzian profiles with line-widths of 4-5 nm and 1.3 THz bandwidth and the impacts of hyperfine splitting via the metallic crystal potential are apparent and the co-contribution of implant induced defects. With increasing Nd from 1% to 3%, there is a 0.3 nm red shift and increased broadening to a 4.8 nm linewidth. Nd:Nb is photoconductive and responds strongly to applied fields. Furthermore, optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) measurements are presented spanning near-infrared telecom band. The modulation of the emission intensity with magnetic field and microwave power by integration of these magnetic Kramer type Nd ions is quantified along with spin echoes under pulsed microwave π-π/2 excitation. A hybrid system architecture is proposed using spin and photon quantum information storage with the nuclear and electron states of the Nd3+ and neighboring Nb atoms that can couple qubit states to hyperfine 7/2 spin states of Nd:Nb and onto NIR optical levels excitable with entangled single photons, thus enabling implementation of computing and networking/internet protocols in a single platform.

  7. In situ KPFM imaging of local photovoltaic characteristics of structured organic photovoltaic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Satoshi; Fukuchi, Yasumasa; Fukasawa, Masako; Sassa, Takafumi; Kimoto, Atsushi; Tajima, Yusuke; Uchiyama, Masanobu; Yamashita, Takashi; Matsumoto, Mutsuyoshi; Aoyama, Tetsuya

    2014-02-12

    Here, we discuss the local photovoltaic characteristics of a structured bulk heterojunction, organic photovoltaic devices fabricated with a liquid carbazole, and a fullerene derivative based on analysis by scanning kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). Periodic photopolymerization induced by an interference pattern from two laser beams formed surface relief gratings (SRG) in the structured films. The surface potential distribution in the SRGs indicates the formation of donor and acceptor spatial distribution. Under illumination, the surface potential reversibly changed because of the generation of fullerene anions and hole transport from the films to substrates, which indicates that we successfully imaged the local photovoltaic characteristics of the structured photovoltaic devices. Using atomic force microscopy, we confirmed the formation of the SRG because of the material migration to the photopolymerized region of the films, which was induced by light exposure through photomasks. The structuring technique allows for the direct fabrication and the control of donor and acceptor spatial distribution in organic photonic and electronic devices with minimized material consumption. This in situ KPFM technique is indispensable to the fabrication of nanoscale electron donor and electron acceptor spatial distribution in the devices.

  8. In vivo performance of a matrix-based quantitative ultrasound imaging device dedicated to calcaneus investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, M A; Defontaine, M; Giraudeau, B; Camus, E; Colin, L; Laugier, P; Patat, F

    2002-10-01

    We developed a prototype of an ultrasound (US) bone matrix densitometer, the BEAM scanner, in the context of a European Space Agency research program. This device, which is a contact imaging device, was designed to overcome the limitations of immersion devices in space. Broadband US attenuation (BUA) and speed of sound (SOS) parameters were calculated from the radiofrequency (RF) signal. The principle aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo performance in direct comparison with a currently available device (UBIS 3000, DMS, France). The short-term precision of the BEAM scanner for BUA was estimated at 2.8%, whereas it was 2.3% with UBIS 3000. The short-term precision for SOS was 0.3%, and this was the same as the coefficient of variation (CV) of the UBIS 3000. CVs of 3.4% and 0.6% for midterm precision were found for BUA and SOS, respectively, and UBIS 3000 scores were 3% and 0.4%, respectively. This preliminary study demonstrates the high performance of the BEAM scanner and its new concept offers a wide range of improvements and new applications.

  9. Descriptions of a linear device developed for research on advanced plasma imaging and dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, J; Lee, K D; Seo, D C; Nam, Y U; Ko, W H; Lee, J H; Choi, M C

    2009-10-01

    The research on advanced plasma imaging and dynamics (RAPID) device is a newly developed linear electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma device. It has a variety of axial magnetic field profiles provided by eight water-cooled magnetic coils and two dc power supplies. The positions of the magnetic coils are freely adjustable along the axial direction and the power supplies can be operated with many combinations of electrical wiring to the coils. A 6 kW 2.45 GHz magnetron is used to produce steady-state ECR plasmas with central magnetic fields of 875 and/or 437.5 G (second harmonic). The cylindrical stainless steel vacuum chamber is 300 mm in diameter and 750 mm in length and has eight radial and ten axial ports including 6-in. and 8-in. viewing windows for heating and diagnostics. Experimental observation of ECR plasma heating has been recently carried out during the initial plasma operation. The main diagnostic systems including a 94 GHz heterodyne interferometer, a high-resolution 25 channel one-dimensional array spectrometer, a single channel survey spectrometer, and an electric probe have been also prepared. The RAPID device is a flexible simulator for the understanding of tokamak edge plasma physics and new diagnostic system development. In this work, we describe the RAPID device and initial operation results.

  10. Health risk assessment of occupational exposure to a magnetic field from magnetic resonance imaging devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpowicz, Jolanta; Gryz, Krzysztof

    2006-01-01

    Health care staff who operate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) devices are exposed to a static magnetic field of significant spatial heterogenity always produced by MRI magnets during the whole shift. They can also be exposed to pulses of a time-varying magnetic field (gradient field) present only during patients' examinations. The level of the workers' exposure depends both on the type of the magnet and on the ergonomic design of each MRI device. The paper presents methods used for measuring and assessing workers' exposure. It also discusses the results of inspection measurements carried out next to approximately 20 MRI devices of approximately 0.2-2.0 T. The presented characteristic and overview of the variability of workers' exposure to a variety of MRI devices supports the need for data on monitoring occupational exposure to MRI. International exposure assessment standards and guidelines (International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection [ICNIRP], Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers [IEEE], American Conference of Governmental and Industrial Hygienists [ACGIH], European Commission directive), and those established in Poland are also compared.

  11. A Hybrid Vehicle Detection Method Based on Viola-Jones and HOG + SVM from UAV Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzheng Xu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A new hybrid vehicle detection scheme which integrates the Viola-Jones (V-J and linear SVM classifier with HOG feature (HOG + SVM methods is proposed for vehicle detection from low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV images. As both V-J and HOG + SVM are sensitive to on-road vehicles’ in-plane rotation, the proposed scheme first adopts a roadway orientation adjustment method, which rotates each UAV image to align the roads with the horizontal direction so the original V-J or HOG + SVM method can be directly applied to achieve fast detection and high accuracy. To address the issue of descending detection speed for V-J and HOG + SVM, the proposed scheme further develops an adaptive switching strategy which sophistically integrates V-J and HOG + SVM methods based on their different descending trends of detection speed to improve detection efficiency. A comprehensive evaluation shows that the switching strategy, combined with the road orientation adjustment method, can significantly improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the vehicle detection from UAV images. The results also show that the proposed vehicle detection method is competitive compared with other existing vehicle detection methods. Furthermore, since the proposed vehicle detection method can be performed on videos captured from moving UAV platforms without the need of image registration or additional road database, it has great potentials of field applications. Future research will be focusing on expanding the current method for detecting other transportation modes such as buses, trucks, motors, bicycles, and pedestrians.

  12. Hybrid Photoacoustic/Ultrasound Tomograph for Real-Time Finger Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeri, Milan; Bost, Wolfgang; Sénégond, Nicolas; Tretbar, Steffen; Fournelle, Marc

    2017-10-01

    We report a target-enclosing, hybrid tomograph with a total of 768 elements based on capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducer technology and providing fast, high-resolution 2-D/3-D photoacoustic and ultrasound tomography tailored to finger imaging. A freely programmable ultrasound beamforming platform sampling data at 80 MHz was developed to realize plane wave transmission under multiple angles. A multiplexing unit enables the connection and control of a large number of elements. Fast image reconstruction is provided by GPU processing. The tomograph is composed of four independent and fully automated movable arc-shaped transducers, allowing imaging of all three finger joints. The system benefits from photoacoustics, yielding high optical contrast and enabling visualization of finger vascularization, and ultrasound provides morphologic information on joints and surrounding tissue. A diode-pumped, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and an optical parametric oscillator are used to broaden the spectrum of emitted wavelengths to provide multispectral imaging. Custom-made optical fiber bundles enable illumination of the region of interest in the plane of acoustic detection. Precision in positioning of the probe in motion is ensured by use of a motor-driven guide slide. The current position of the probe is encoded by the stage and used to relate ultrasound and photoacoustic signals to the corresponding region of interest of the suspicious finger joint. The system is characterized in phantoms and a healthy human finger in vivo. The results obtained promise to provide new opportunities in finger diagnostics and establish photoacoustic/ultrasound-tomography in medical routine. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Potential Applications of Microtesla Magnetic Resonance ImagingDetected Using a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Whittier Ryan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation describes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of protons performed in a precession field of 132 μT. In order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), a pulsed 40-300 mT magnetic field prepolarizes the sample spins and an untuned second-order superconducting gradiometer coupled to a low transition temperature superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) detects the subsequent 5.6-kHz spin precession. Imaging sequences including multiple echoes and partial Fourier reconstruction are developed. Calculating the SNR of prepolarized SQUID-detected MRI shows that three-dimensional Fourier imaging yields higher SNR than slice-selection imaging. An experimentally demonstrated field-cycling pulse sequence and post-processing algorithm mitigate image artifacts caused by concomitant gradients in low-field MRI. The magnetic field noise of SQUID untuned detection is compared to the noise of SQUID tuned detection, conventional Faraday detection, and the Nyquist noise generated by conducting biological samples. A second-generation microtesla MRI system employing a low-noise SQUID is constructed to increase SNR. A 2.4-m cubic, eddy-current shield with 6-mm thick aluminum walls encloses the experiment to attenuate external noise. The measured noise is 0.75 fT Hz-1/2 referred to the bottom gradiometer loop. Solenoids wound from 30-strand braided wire to decrease Nyquist noise and cooled by either liquid nitrogen or water polarize the spins. Copper wire coils wound on wooden supports produce the imaging magnetic fields and field gradients. Water phantom images with 0.8 x 0.8 x 10 mm3 resolution have a SNR of 6. Three-dimensional 1.6 x 1.9 x 14 mm3 images of bell peppers and 3 x 3 x 26 mm3 in vivo images of the human arm are presented. Since contrast based on the transverse spin relaxation rate (T1) is enhanced at low magnetic fields, microtesla MRI could potentially be used for tumor imaging. The

  14. The Rosetta phone: a hand-held device for automatic translation of signs in natural images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafri, Syed Ali Raza; Mikkilineni, Aravind K.; Boutin, Mireille; Delp, Edward J.

    2008-02-01

    When traveling in a region where the local language is not written using the Roman alphabet, translating written text (e.g., documents, road signs, or placards) is a particularly difficult problem since the text cannot be easily entered into a translation device or searched using a dictionary. To address this problem, we are developing the "Rosetta Phone," a handheld device (e.g., PDA or mobile telephone) capable of acquiring a picture of the text, identifying the text within the image, and producing both an audible and a visual English interpretation of the text. We started with English, as a developement language, for which we achieved close to 100% accuracy in identifying and reading text. We then modified the system to be able to read and translate words written using the Arabic character set. We currently achieve approximately 95% accuracy in reading words from a small directory of town names.

  15. Effect of hybrid iterative reconstruction technique on quantitative and qualitative image analysis at 256-slice prospective gating cardiac CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Weigold, Wm Guy; Weissman, Gaby; Taylor, Allen J

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of hybrid iterative reconstruction on qualitative and quantitative parameters at 256-slice cardiac CT. Prospective cardiac CT images from 20 patients were analysed. Paired image sets were created using 3 reconstructions, i.e. filtered back projection (FBP) and moderate- and high-level iterative reconstructions. Quantitative parameters including CT-attenuation, noise, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were determined in both proximal- and distal coronary segments. Image quality was graded on a 4-point scale. Coronary CT attenuation values were similar for FBP, moderate- and high-level iterative reconstruction at 293 ± 74-, 290 ± 75-, and 283 ± 78 Hounsfield units (HU), respectively. CNR was significantly higher with moderate- and high-level iterative reconstructions (10.9 ± 3.5 and 18.4 ± 6.2, respectively) than FBP (8.2 ± 2.5) as was the visual grading of proximal vessels. Visualisation of distal vessels was better with high-level iterative reconstruction than FBP. The mean number of assessable segments among 289 segments was 245, 260, and 267 for FBP, moderate- and high-level iterative reconstruction, respectively; the difference between FBP and high-level iterative reconstruction was significant. Interobserver agreement was significantly higher for moderate- and high-level iterative reconstruction than FBP. Cardiac CT using hybrid iterative reconstruction yields higher CNR and better image quality than FBP. • Cardiac CT helps clinicians to assess patients with coronary artery disease • Hybrid iterative reconstruction provides improved cardiac CT image quality • Hybrid iterative reconstruction improves the number of assessable coronary segments • Hybrid iterative reconstruction improves interobserver agreement on cardiac CT.

  16. Assessment of foot disease in the home environment of diabetic patients using a new photographic foot imaging device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, S. A.; Hazenberg, C. E. V. B.; Klein, M.; van Baal, J. G.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare live and photographic assessments of clinical signs of diabetic foot disease using a new photographic foot imaging device. High quality colour photographs of the plantar foot surface were collected in 20 diabetic feet using a prototype device and in 19

  17. Controlled power delivery for super-resolution imaging of biological samples using digital micromirror device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiya Peedikakkal, Liyana; Cadby, Ashley

    2017-02-01

    Localization based super resolution images of a biological sample is generally achieved by using high power laser illumination with long exposure time which unfortunately increases photo-toxicity of a sample, making super resolution microscopy, in general, incompatible with live cell imaging. Furthermore, the limitation of photobleaching reduces the ability to acquire time lapse images of live biological cells using fluorescence microscopy. Digital Light Processing (DLP) technology can deliver light at grey scale levels by flickering digital micromirrors at around 290 Hz enabling highly controlled power delivery to samples. In this work, Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) is implemented in an inverse Schiefspiegler telescope setup to control the power and pattern of illumination for super resolution microscopy. We can achieve spatial and temporal patterning of illumination by controlling the DMD pixel by pixel. The DMD allows us to control the power and spatial extent of the laser illumination. We have used this to show that we can reduce the power delivered to the sample to allow for longer time imaging in one area while achieving sub-diffraction STORM imaging in another using higher power densities.

  18. Recent Results with a segmented Hybrid Photon Detector for a novel parallax-free PET Scanner for Brain Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Braem, André; Joram, Christian; Mathot, Serge; Séguinot, Jacques; Weilhammer, Peter; Ciocia, F; De Leo, R; Nappi, E; Vilardi, I; Argentieri, A; Corsi, F; Dragone, A; Pasqua, D

    2007-01-01

    We describe the design, fabrication and test results of a segmented Hybrid Photon Detector with integrated auto-triggering front-end electronics. Both the photodetector and its VLSI readout electronics are custom designed and have been tailored to the requirements of a recently proposed novel geometrical concept of a Positron Emission Tomograph. Emphasis is laid on the PET specific features of the device. The detector has been fabricated in the photocathode facility at CERN.

  19. Four-dimensional dose reconstruction through in vivo phase matching of cine images of electronic portal imaging device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jihyung; Jung, Jae Won; Kim, Jong Oh; Yi, Byong Yong; Yeo, Inhwan

    2016-07-01

    A method is proposed to reconstruct a four-dimensional (4D) dose distribution using phase matching of measured cine images to precalculated images of electronic portal imaging device (EPID). (1) A phantom, designed to simulate a tumor in lung (a polystyrene block with a 3 cm diameter embedded in cork), was placed on a sinusoidally moving platform with an amplitude of 1 cm and a period of 4 s. Ten-phase 4D computed tomography (CT) images of the phantom were acquired. A planning target volume (PTV) was created by adding a margin of 1 cm around the internal target volume of the tumor. (2) Three beams were designed, which included a static beam, a theoretical dynamic beam, and a planning-optimized dynamic beam (PODB). While the theoretical beam was made by manually programming a simplistic sliding leaf motion, the planning-optimized beam was obtained from treatment planning. From the three beams, three-dimensional (3D) doses on the phantom were calculated; 4D dose was calculated by means of the ten phase images (integrated over phases afterward); serving as "reference" images, phase-specific EPID dose images under the lung phantom were also calculated for each of the ten phases. (3) Cine EPID images were acquired while the beams were irradiated to the moving phantom. (4) Each cine image was phase-matched to a phase-specific CT image at which common irradiation occurred by intercomparing the cine image with the reference images. (5) Each cine image was used to reconstruct dose in the phase-matched CT image, and the reconstructed doses were summed over all phases. (6) The summation was compared with forwardly calculated 4D and 3D dose distributions. Accounting for realistic situations, intratreatment breathing irregularity was simulated by assuming an amplitude of 0.5 cm for the phantom during a portion of breathing trace in which the phase matching could not be performed. Intertreatment breathing irregularity between the time of treatment and the time of planning CT was

  20. Latex imaging by environmental STEM: application to the study of the surfactant outcome in hybrid alkyd/acrylate systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucheu, Jenny; Chazeau, Laurent; Gauthier, Catherine; Cavaillé, Jean-Yves; Goikoetxea, Monika; Minari, Roque; Asua, José M

    2009-09-01

    Among other uses, latexes are a successful alternative to solvent-borne binders for coatings. Efforts are made to produce hybrid nanostructured latexes containing an acrylic phase and an alkyd phase. However, after the film-forming process, the surfactant used to stabilize these latexes remains in the film, and its location can have a drastic effect on the application properties. Among the processing parameters, the alkyd hydrophobicity can strongly influence this location. This article aims at the imaging of these surfactant molecules in two hybrid latexes with different hydrophobicity level of the alkyd resin. A first part of this paper is dedicated to the understanding of the contrast provided by the surfactant in environmental STEM imaging of latexes. Then, the influence of surfactant-polymer affinity on the surfactant location after film-forming of those hybrid alkyd/acrylate latexes is studied by this technique. It is shown that in the hybrid latex with an alkyd shell (obtained with the most hydrophilic resin), the surfactant molecules tend to remain buried in the alkyd phase. Conversely, in the hybrid latex with an acrylate shell (in the case of the most hydrophobic resin), the surfactant molecules tend to gather into islands like in pure acrylate latex films.

  1. Branched Hybridization Chain Reaction Circuit for Ultrasensitive Localizable Imaging of mRNA in Living Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lan; Liu, Jin-Wen; Wu, Han; Wang, Xiang-Nan; Yu, Ru-Qin; Jiang, Jian-Hui

    2018-02-06

    Hybridization chain reaction (HCR) circuits are valuable approaches to monitor low-abundance mRNA, and current HCR is still subjected to issues such as limited amplification efficiency, compromised localization resolution, or complicated designs. We report a novel branched HCR (bHCR) circuit for efficient signal-amplified imaging of mRNA in living cells. The bHCR can be realized using a simplified design by hierarchically coupling two HCR circuits with two split initiator fragments of the secondary HCR circuit incorporated in the probes for the primary HCR circuit. The bHCR circuit enables one to generate a hyperbranched assembly seeded from a single target initiator, affording the potential for localizing single target molecules in live cells. In vitro assays show that bHCR offers very high amplification efficiency and specificity in single mismatch discrimination with a detection limit of 500 fM. Live cell studies reveal that bHCR displays intense fluorescence spots indicating mRNA localization in living cells with improved contrast. The bHCR method can provide a useful platform for low-abundance biomarker detection and imaging for cell biology and diagnostics.

  2. Global optimal hybrid geometric active contour for automated lung segmentation on CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weihang; Wang, Xue; Zhang, Pengbo; Chen, Junfeng

    2017-12-01

    Lung segmentation on thoracic CT images plays an important role in early detection, diagnosis and 3D visualization of lung cancer. The segmentation accuracy, stability, and efficiency of serial CT scans have a significant impact on the performance of computer-aided detection. This paper proposes a global optimal hybrid geometric active contour model for automated lung segmentation on CT images. Firstly, the combination of global region and edge information leads to high segmentation accuracy in lung regions with weak boundaries or narrow bands. Secondly, due to the global optimality of energy functional, the proposed model is robust to the initial position of level set function and requires fewer iterations. Thus, the stability and efficiency of lung segmentation on serial CT slices can be greatly improved by taking advantage of the information between adjacent slices. In addition, to achieve the whole process of automated segmentation for lung cancer, two assistant algorithms based on prior shape and anatomical knowledge are proposed. The algorithms not only automatically separate the left and right lungs, but also include juxta-pleural tumors into the segmentation result. The proposed method was quantitatively validated on subjects from the publicly available LIDC-IDRI and our own data sets. Exhaustive experimental results demonstrate the superiority and competency of our method, especially compared with the typical edge-based geometric active contour model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Hybrid Method for Segmentation and Visualization of Teeth in Multi-Slice CT scan Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hosntalab

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Various computer assisted medical procedures such as dental implant, orthodontic planning, face, jaw and cosmetic surgeries require automatic quantification and volumetric visualization of teeth. In this regard, segmentation is a major step. Material and Methods: In this paper, inspired by our previous experiences and considering the anatomical knowledge of teeth and jaws, we propose a hybrid technique for teeth segmentation and visualization in CT volumetric data. The major steps of the proposed techniques are as follows: (1 Separation of teeth in CT dataset; (2 Initial segmentation of teeth in panoramic projection; (3 Final segmentation of teeth in CT dataset; (4 3D visualization of teeth. Results: The proposed algorithm was evaluated in 30 multi-slice CT datasets. Segmented images were compared with manually outlined contours. In order to evaluate the proposed method, we utilized several common performance measures such as sensitivity, specificity, precision, accuracy and mean error rate. The experimental results reveal the effectiveness of the proposed method. Discussion and Conclusion: In the proposed algorithm, the variationallevel set technique was utilized to trace the contour of the teeth. In view of the fact that this technique is based on the characteristics of the overall region of the tooth image, it is possible to extract a very smooth and accurate tooth contour using this technique. For the available datasets, the proposed technique was more successful in teeth segmentation compared to previous techniques.

  4. WIDE-FIELD WIDE-BAND INTERFEROMETRIC IMAGING: THE WB A-PROJECTION AND HYBRID ALGORITHMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatnagar, S.; Rau, U.; Golap, K., E-mail: sbhatnag@nrao.edu, E-mail: rurvashi@nrao.edu, E-mail: kgolap@nrao.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    Variations of the antenna primary beam (PB) pattern as a function of time, frequency, and polarization form one of the dominant direction-dependent effects at most radio frequency bands. These gains may also vary from antenna to antenna. The A-Projection algorithm, published earlier, accounts for the effects of the narrow-band antenna PB in full polarization. In this paper, we present the wide-band A-Projection algorithm (WB A-Projection) to include the effects of wide bandwidth in the A-term itself and show that the resulting algorithm simultaneously corrects for the time, frequency, and polarization dependence of the PB. We discuss the combination of the WB A-Projection and the multi-term multi-frequency synthesis (MT-MFS) algorithm for simultaneous mapping of the sky brightness distribution and the spectral index distribution across a wide field of view. We also discuss the use of the narrow-band A-Projection algorithm in hybrid imaging schemes that account for the frequency dependence of the PB in the image domain.

  5. 76 FR 31860 - Anthropomorphic Test Devices; Hybrid III Test Dummy, ES-2re Side Impact Crash Test Dummy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ...; Hybrid III Test Dummy, ES-2re Side Impact Crash Test Dummy AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... rule published on June 16, 2008, concerning a 50th percentile adult male side crash test dummy called... qualification tests of several of the crash test dummies, including the Hybrid III and ES-2re test dummies...

  6. Detection of Tumor Cells in Bone Marrow, Peripheral Blood and Lymph Nodes by Automated Imaging Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma E. Mesker

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of tumor cells in bone marrow, peripheral blood and lymph nodes has proven its clinical and prognostic value. Since the frequency of these cells in bone marrow and blood is sometimes as low as 1 per million and due to the fact that for the analysis of lymph nodes many sectioning levels have to be analyzed, automated imaging devices have been suggested as an useful alternative to conventional manual screening of specimens. The aim of this paper is to review the performance of current equipment that is commercially available, based on literature published so far. Requirements for introducing this equipment for routine clinical practice are discussed.

  7. Systematic evaluation of phantom fluids for simultaneous PET/MR hybrid imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Susanne; Braun, Harald; Ritt, Philipp; Hocke, Carsten; Kuwert, Torsten; Quick, Harald H

    2013-08-01

    With the recent advent of integrated PET/MR hybrid systems, the need for simultaneous PET and MR phantom measurements arises. Phantom fluids that are used in stand-alone MR systems, especially in larger phantoms and at a high magnetic field strength, are not necessarily applicable in PET imaging and vice versa. In this study, different approaches to fluid selection were considered and systematically evaluated with respect to their usability for simultaneous PET/MR phantom imaging. Demineralized water, water with increased electrical conductivity, a water-oil emulsion, and monoethylene and triethylene glycol were investigated in MR and PET measurements using the most common PET tracer (18)F-FDG. As an alternative to (18)F-FDG, a modified PET tracer ((18)F-fluoride Kryptofix 222 complex) was investigated toward its ability to dissolve in pure oil, which provides good signal homogeneity in MR imaging. Measurements were performed on a 3.0 T integrated PET/MR whole-body system using a National Electrical Manufacturers Association quality-standard phantom. All tested fluids dissolved the radiotracer (18)F-FDG homogeneously. Regarding their suitability for MR at 3.0 T, all fluids significantly improved the homogeneity compared to pure water (increase of excitation flip angle within the tested phantom by a factor of 2.0). When the use of (18)F-FDG was preferred, triethylene glycol provided the best compromise (flip angle increase by a factor of 1.13). The potential alternative tracer, (18)F-fluoride Kryptofix 222 complex, dissolved in pure oil; however, it is not optimal in its tested composition because it accumulates at the bottom of the phantom during the time of measurement. This study provides a systematic approach toward phantom fluid selection for imaging a given quality-standard body phantom--and phantoms of comparable size--at 3.0 T. For simultaneous PET/MR scans using the standard tracer (18)F-FDG, an alternative fluid to water and oil is proposed that serves as

  8. Hybrid imaging (SPECT/CT, PET/CT) in differentiated thyroid cancer; Imagerie hybride (TEMP/TDM, TEP/TDM) et cancer differencie de la thyroide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardet, S.; Ciappuccini, R.; Aide, N. [Unite de concertation pluridisciplinaire thyroide, service de medecine nucleaire, centre Francois-Baclesse, 14 - Caen (France); Barraux, V. [Unite de radiophysique, centre Francois-Baclesse, 14 - Caen (France); Rame, J.P. [Chirurgie ORL, centre Francois-Baclesse, 14 - Caen (France)

    2010-08-15

    Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is generally associated with a good prognosis. Local recurrences, mainly lymph-node involvement, account for 15-20% of cases and are surgically treated. Distant metastases, mostly in lungs and more rarely in bones, are present in 5% of patients. When iodine uptake is sufficient (in approximately 60% of patients), distant metastases can be destroyed by iterative activities of iodine 131. Serum thyroglobulin (Tg), which can be assessed either on hormonal treatment or on TSH stimulation is considered as the tumour marker in DTC. Functional (iodine 131 scintigraphy, FDG PET, bone scintigraphy) or anatomical (neck ultrasound, thoracic CT, bone MRI) imaging methods can be performed when Tg increases in order to show residual/recurrent disease. In recent years, new hybrid equipments integrating both a gamma camera and CT scan (SPECT/CT) have been commercialized while positron emission tomography cameras associated with CT (PET/CT) have been installed on the whole French territory. These equipments, which allow us to directly correlate functional and anatomical images, greatly improve the interpretation of planar scintigraphy or that of PET alone. Hybrid imaging enables us to precisely localize scintigraphic foci and most often, to immediately verify whether they correspond to tumour lesions. The aim of this article is to review the role of SPECT/CT and PET/CT in the management of patients with DTC in 2010. (authors)

  9. Three-dimensional tomographic imaging for dynamic radiation behavior study using infrared imaging video bolometers in large helical device plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, Ryuichi; Iwama, Naofumi [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Peterson, Byron J.; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Mukai, Kiyofumi [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Teranishi, Masaru [Hiroshima Institute of Technology, 2-1-1, Miyake, Saeki-ku, Hiroshima 731-5193 (Japan); Pandya, Shwetang N. [Institute of Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat Village, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)

    2016-05-15

    A three-dimensional (3D) tomography system using four InfraRed imaging Video Bolometers (IRVBs) has been designed with a helical periodicity assumption for the purpose of plasma radiation measurement in the large helical device. For the spatial inversion of large sized arrays, the system has been numerically and experimentally examined using the Tikhonov regularization with the criterion of minimum generalized cross validation, which is the standard solver of inverse problems. The 3D transport code EMC3-EIRENE for impurity behavior and related radiation has been used to produce phantoms for numerical tests, and the relative calibration of the IRVB images has been carried out with a simple function model of the decaying plasma in a radiation collapse. The tomography system can respond to temporal changes in the plasma profile and identify the 3D dynamic behavior of radiation, such as the radiation enhancement that starts from the inboard side of the torus, during the radiation collapse. The reconstruction results are also consistent with the output signals of a resistive bolometer. These results indicate that the designed 3D tomography system is available for the 3D imaging of radiation. The first 3D direct tomographic measurement of a magnetically confined plasma has been achieved.

  10. Fabrication of ZnO and its enhancement of charge injection and transport in hybrid organic/inorganic light emitting devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J.P. [Key Laboratory of Semiconductor Materials Science, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Qu, S.C. [Key Laboratory of Semiconductor Materials Science, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)]. E-mail: qsc@red.semi.ac.cn; Zeng, X.B. [Key Laboratory of Semiconductor Materials Science, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Xu, Y. [Beijing Solar Energy Research Institute, Beijing 100083 (China); Gou, X.F. [Beijing Solar Energy Research Institute, Beijing 100083 (China); Wang, Z.J. [Key Laboratory of Semiconductor Materials Science, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhou, H.Y. [Key Laboratory of Semiconductor Materials Science, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Wang, Z.G. [Key Laboratory of Semiconductor Materials Science, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2007-07-15

    ZnO nanocrystals were synthesized by hydrolysis in methanol. X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence spectra confirm that good crystallized ZnO nanoparticles were formed. Utilizing those ZnO nanoparticles and poly[2-methoxy-5-(3',7'-dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MDMO-PPV), light emitting devices with indium tin oxide (ITO)/poly(3,4-oxyethyleneoxy-thiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/ZnO:MDMO-PPV/Al and ITO/PEDOT:PSS/MDMO-PPV/Al structures were fabricated. Electroluminescence (EL) spectra reveal that EL yield of hybrid MDMO-PPV and ZnO nanocrystals devices increased greatly as compared with pristine MDMO-PPV devices. The current-voltage characteristics indicate that addition of ZnO nanocrystals can facilitate electrical injection and charge transport. The decreased energy barrier to electron injection is responsible for the increased efficiency of electron injection.

  11. Hybrid DWT-DCT-Hash function based digital image watermarking for copyright protection and content authentication of DubaiSat-2 images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mansoori, Saeed; Kunhu, Alavi

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a new technique for copyright protection and content authentication of satellite images. The novelty in the presented approach consists in designing a hybrid Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and hash function based digital image watermarking. In this study, two watermarks are embedded in the cover image called robust copyright watermark and fragile authentication watermark. The robust watermark is embedded in hybrid frequency and wavelet domain by applying DWT and DCT respectively. Such two steps embedding allows the proposed approach to provide better imperceptibility in harmony with the human visual system and offers higher robustness against signal processing attacks. Subsequently, the fragile watermark is embedded in a spatial domain using the hash function approach. The proposed hybrid watermarking technique has been tested on DubaiSat-2 images with 1 meter resolution. The experimental results show that the proposed method is robust against JPEG compression, rotation and resizing attacks. In addition, the multi-watermarked image has a good transparency and the fragile watermark is sensitive to any tampering.

  12. An overview of the European patent system with particular emphasis on IP issues for imaging devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boero, M.; Cabrita, A.

    2012-03-01

    In this article we give a comprehensive review of the European Patent System with focus on the procedure, its typical duration, the requirements that must be met at the various stages in order to obtain an European Patent and its related costs. All the options available to the applicant are discussed in detail, potential pitfalls are highlighted, and the differences between the European and US Patent Systems are analysed. Furthermore, an in-depth and very informative analysis of applications and granted patents in the field of imaging devices is presented including a study of their evolution during the last 10 years together with an analysis of the countries and companies that are most active in the field of imagers.

  13. Potential of hybrid {sup 18}F-fluorocholine PET/MRI for prostate cancer imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrot, Thomas de; Scheffler, Max; Vallee, Jean-Paul [Geneva University Hospitals and University of Geneva, Division of Radiology, Geneve 14 (Switzerland); Rager, Olivier; Ratib, Osman [Geneva University Hospitals, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Geneva (Switzerland); Lord, Martin [University of Montreal Hospital Center, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Montreal (Canada); Pusztaszeri, Marc [Geneva University Hospitals, Division of Clinical Pathology, Geneva (Switzerland); Iselin, Christophe [Geneva University Hospitals, Division of Urologic Surgery, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-09-15

    To report the first results of hybrid {sup 18}F-fluorocholine PET/MRI imaging for the detection of prostate cancer. This analysis included 26 consecutive patients scheduled for prostate PET/MRI before radical prostatectomy. The examinations were performed on a hybrid whole-body PET/MRI scanner. The MR acquisitions which included T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced sequences were followed during the same session by whole-body PET scans. Parametric maps were constructed to measure normalized T2-weighted intensity (nT2), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), volume transfer constant (K {sup trans}), extravascular extracellular volume fraction (v{sub e}) and standardized uptake values (SUV). With pathology as the gold standard, ROC curves were calculated using logistic regression for each parameter and for the best combination with and without PET to obtain a MR model versus a PETMR model. Of the 26 patients initially selected, 3 were excluded due to absence of an endorectal coil (2 patients) or prosthesis artefacts (1 patient). In the whole prostate, the area under the curve (AUC) for SUV{sub max}, ADC, nT2, K {sup trans} and v{sub e} were 0.762, 0.756, 0.685, 0.611 and 0.529 with a best threshold at 3.044 for SUV{sub max} and 1.075 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s for ADC. The anatomical distinction between the transition zone and the peripheral zone showed the potential of the adjunctive use of PET. In the peripheral zone, the AUC of 0.893 for the PETMR model was significantly greater (p = 0.0402) than the AUC of 0.84 for the MR model only. In the whole prostate, no relevant correlation was observed between ADC and SUV{sub max}. The SUV{sub max} was not affected by the Gleason score. The performance of a hybrid whole-body {sup 18}F-fluorocholine PET/MRI scan in the same session combined with a prostatic MR examination did not interfere with the diagnostic accuracy of the MR sequences. The registration of the PET data and the T2 anatomical MR

  14. Intravenous urography supplemented with computerised tomography urogram: A pragmatic hybrid imaging approach to hydronephrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju A George

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Image quality in an Intravenous Urogram (IVU can occasionally be compromised by variables like bowel preparation, renal function and radiographic factors, posing a challenge to all Uroradiologists. The Computerised Tomography Urogram (CTU yields better diagnostic information than an IVU, due to its inherent superior anatomic delineation and contrast sensitivity, against a trade-off involving radiation dose and cost. Our study was conducted to assess the utility and timing of performing a single-phase CTU, as a problem-solving tool, to clear the diagnostic dilemma in a selected subset of patients, in whom an ongoing IVU could potentially be inconclusive. Material and Methods: Five hundred and twelve patients who underwent IVU studies for urologic referrals at a tertiary care hospital, during the period of January to December 2009, formed the subject of the study, of whom 33 patients with inconclusive IVU findings after the first three radiographs underwent a single-phase CTU, to reach definitive imaging diagnoses. Results: The percentage of inconclusive IVU studies amounted to only 33 / 512 (6.4%, in whom a CTU study revealed definitive diagnoses in 30 patients and no abnormality in three patients, thus conclusively clearing the ambiguities raised on the IVU in all the selected patients. Conclusions: The concept of a CTU limited to a single-phase study to supplement an inconclusive IVU optimizes the contrast and radiation dose to the affected patients. It is a cost-effective, timely, and definitive ′imaging intervention′ and should be considered a viable hybrid technique to be utilized selectively and judiciously.

  15. Museum as an integrated imaging device: visualization of ancient Kyoto cityscape from folding screen artifact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Kimiyoshi; Oyabu, Umi; Kojima, Michihiro

    2012-03-01

    Museums hold cultural resources such as artworks, historical artifacts, and folklore materials. The National Museum of Japanese History holds over 200,000 of the cultural resources. A role of museum is to exhibit the cultural resources, therefore a museum could be referred to as a visualization device for the information society. In this research, visualization of a history image from cultural resources with interactive user interface will be mentioned. The material focused on is the oldest extant version of a genre of folding screen paintings that depict the thriving city of Kyoto in the four seasons, named Rekihaku's "Scenes In and Around Kyoto" designated as a nationally important cultural property in Japan. Over 1,400 people and a lot of residences, temples, and houses are drawn, and those are also information resource telling us about city scenes and people's life in Kyoto at that time. Historical researches were done by using a high resolution digital image obtained by a large scaled scanner, and scanned images are used for computer programs to visualize a history image of ancient Kyoto. Combinations between real materials and information provided by using the computer programs are also described in this research.

  16. Assessment of dosimetrical performance in 11 Varian a-Si500 electronic portal imaging devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavuma, Awusi; Glegg, Martin; Currie, Garry; Elliott, Alex

    2008-12-01

    Dosimetrical characteristics of 11 Varian a-Si-500 electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) in clinical use for periods ranging between 10 and 86 months were investigated for consistency of performance and portal dosimetry implications. Properties studied include short-term reproducibility, signal linearity with monitor units, response to reference beam, signal uniformity across the detector panel, signal dependence on field size, dose-rate influence, memory effects and image profiles as a function of monitor units. The EPID measurements were also compared with those of the ionization chambers' to ensure stability of the linear accelerators. Depending on their clinical installation date, the EPIDs were interfaced with one of the two different acquisition control software packages, IAS2/IDU-II or IAS3/IDU-20. Both the EPID age and image acquisition system influenced the dosimetric characteristics with the newer version (IAS3 with IDU-20) giving better data reproducibility and linearity fit than the older version (IAS2 with IDU-II). The relative signal response (uniformity) after 50 MU was better than 95% of the central value and independent of detector. Sensitivity for all EPIDs reduced continuously with increasing dose rates for the newer image acquisition software. In the dose-rate range 100-600 MU min-1, the maximum variation in sensitivity ranged between 1 and 1.8% for different EPIDs. For memory effects, the increase in the measured signal at the centre of the irradiated field for successive images was within 1.8% and 1.0% for the older and newer acquisition systems, respectively. Image profiles acquired at a lower MU in the radial plane (gun-target) had gradients in measured pixel values of up to 25% for the older system. Detectors with software/hardware versions IAS3/IDU-20 have a high degree of accuracy and are more suitable for routine quantitative IMRT dosimetrical verification.

  17. Assessment of dosimetrical performance in 11 Varian a-Si-500 electronic portal imaging devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavuma, Awusi; Glegg, Martin; Currie, Garry; Elliott, Alex

    2008-12-07

    Dosimetrical characteristics of 11 Varian a-Si-500 electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) in clinical use for periods ranging between 10 and 86 months were investigated for consistency of performance and portal dosimetry implications. Properties studied include short-term reproducibility, signal linearity with monitor units, response to reference beam, signal uniformity across the detector panel, signal dependence on field size, dose-rate influence, memory effects and image profiles as a function of monitor units. The EPID measurements were also compared with those of the ionization chambers' to ensure stability of the linear accelerators. Depending on their clinical installation date, the EPIDs were interfaced with one of the two different acquisition control software packages, IAS2/IDU-II or IAS3/IDU-20. Both the EPID age and image acquisition system influenced the dosimetric characteristics with the newer version (IAS3 with IDU-20) giving better data reproducibility and linearity fit than the older version (IAS2 with IDU-II). The relative signal response (uniformity) after 50 MU was better than 95% of the central value and independent of detector. Sensitivity for all EPIDs reduced continuously with increasing dose rates for the newer image acquisition software. In the dose-rate range 100-600 MU min(-1), the maximum variation in sensitivity ranged between 1 and 1.8% for different EPIDs. For memory effects, the increase in the measured signal at the centre of the irradiated field for successive images was within 1.8% and 1.0% for the older and newer acquisition systems, respectively. Image profiles acquired at a lower MU in the radial plane (gun-target) had gradients in measured pixel values of up to 25% for the older system. Detectors with software/hardware versions IAS3/IDU-20 have a high degree of accuracy and are more suitable for routine quantitative IMRT dosimetrical verification.

  18. A device for long-term perfusion, imaging, and electrical interfacing of brain tissue in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel J Killian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Distributed microelectrode array (MEA recordings from consistent, viable, ≥ 500 µm thick tissue preparations over time periods from days to weeks may aid in studying a wide range of problems in neurobiology that require in vivo-like organotypic morphology. Existing tools for electrically interfacing with organotypic slices do not address necrosis that inevitably occurs within thick slices with limited diffusion of nutrients and gas, and limited removal of waste. We developed an integrated device that enables long-term maintenance of thick, functionally active, brain tissue models using interstitial perfusion and distributed recordings from thick sections of explanted tissue on a perforated multi-electrode array. This novel device allows for automated culturing, in situ imaging, and extracellular multi-electrode interfacing with brain slices, 3 D cell cultures, and potentially other tissue culture models. The device is economical, easy to assemble, and integrable with standard electrophysiology tools. We found that convective perfusion through the culture thickness provided a functional benefit to the preparations as firing rates were generally higher in perfused cultures compared to their respective unperfused controls. This work is a step towards the development of integrated tools for days-long experiments with more consistent, healthier, thicker, and functionally more active tissue cultures with built-in distributed electrophysiological recording and stimulation functionality. The results may be useful for the study of normal processes, pathological conditions, and drug screening strategies currently hindered by the limitations of acute (a few hours long brain slice preparations.

  19. Augmented reality with image registration, vision correction and sunlight readability via liquid crystal devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Jen; Chen, Po-Ju; Liang, Xiao; Lin, Yi-Hsin

    2017-03-27

    Augmented reality (AR), which use computer-aided projected information to augment our sense, has important impact on human life, especially for the elder people. However, there are three major challenges regarding the optical system in the AR system, which are registration, vision correction, and readability under strong ambient light. Here, we solve three challenges simultaneously for the first time using two liquid crystal (LC) lenses and polarizer-free attenuator integrated in optical-see-through AR system. One of the LC lens is used to electrically adjust the position of the projected virtual image which is so-called registration. The other LC lens with larger aperture and polarization independent characteristic is in charge of vision correction, such as myopia and presbyopia. The linearity of lens powers of two LC lenses is also discussed. The readability of virtual images under strong ambient light is solved by electrically switchable transmittance of the LC attenuator originating from light scattering and light absorption. The concept demonstrated in this paper could be further extended to other electro-optical devices as long as the devices exhibit the capability of phase modulations and amplitude modulations.

  20. [A study of the necessity of cooling of charge-coupled devices in x-ray imaging systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgun, O N; Nemchenko, K E; Rogov, Iu V

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this work was to study one of the widely used X-ray imaging systems: luminescent screen-optical system-matrix of photosensitive charge-coupled device (CCD)-amplifier-analog-to-digital converter. Experimental and theoretical studies were performed to substantiate the necessity of cooling of charge-coupled devices for improvement of X-ray image characteristics. The obtained results reveal the necessity of cooling of CCD-matrix crystals in the X-ray imaging system under consideration.

  1. Device-correlated metrology for overlay measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Charlie; Huang, George K. C.; Pai, Yuan Chi; Wu, Jimmy C. H.; Cheng, Yu Wei; Hsu, Simon C. C.; Yu, Chun Chi; Amir, Nuriel; Choi, Dongsub; Itzkovich, Tal; Tarshish-Shapir, Inna; Tien, David C.; Huang, Eros; Kuo, Kelly T. L.; Kato, Takeshi; Inoue, Osamu; Kawada, Hiroki; Okagawa, Yutaka; Huang, Luis; Hsu, Matthew; Su, Amei

    2014-10-01

    One of the main issues with accuracy is the bias between the overlay (OVL) target and actual device OVL. In this study, we introduce the concept of device-correlated metrology (DCM), which is a systematic approach to quantify and overcome the bias between target-based OVL results and device OVL values. In order to systematically quantify the bias components between target and device, we introduce a new hybrid target integrating an optical OVL target with a device mimicking critical dimension scanning electron microscope (CD-SEM) target. The hybrid OVL target is designed to accurately represent the process influence on the actual device. In the general case, the CD-SEM can measure the bias between the target and device on the same layer after etch inspection (AEI) for all layers, the OVL between layers at AEI for most cases and after develop inspection for limited cases such as double-patterning layers. The results have shown that for the innovative process compatible hybrid targets the bias between the target and device is small, within the order of CD-SEM noise. Direct OVL measurements by CD-SEM show excellent correlation between CD-SEM and optical OVL measurements at certain conditions. This correlation helps verify the accuracy of the optical measurement results and is applicable for the imaging base OVL method using several target types advance imaging metrology, advance imaging metrology in die OVL, and the scatterometrybase OVL method. Future plans include broadening the hybrid target design to better mimic each layer process conditions such as pattern density. Additionally, for memory devices we are developing hybrid targets which enable other methods of accuracy verification.

  2. Toward accurate tooth segmentation from computed tomography images using a hybrid level set model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Yangzhou; Zhao, Qunfei [Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, and Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China, Shanghai 200240 (China); Xia, Zeyang, E-mail: zy.xia@siat.ac.cn, E-mail: jing.xiong@siat.ac.cn; Hu, Ying [Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Xiong, Jing, E-mail: zy.xia@siat.ac.cn, E-mail: jing.xiong@siat.ac.cn [Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 510855 (China); Zhang, Jianwei [TAMS, Department of Informatics, University of Hamburg, Hamburg 22527 (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: A three-dimensional (3D) model of the teeth provides important information for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. Tooth segmentation is an essential step in generating the 3D digital model from computed tomography (CT) images. The aim of this study is to develop an accurate and efficient tooth segmentation method from CT images. Methods: The 3D dental CT volumetric images are segmented slice by slice in a two-dimensional (2D) transverse plane. The 2D segmentation is composed of a manual initialization step and an automatic slice by slice segmentation step. In the manual initialization step, the user manually picks a starting slice and selects a seed point for each tooth in this slice. In the automatic slice segmentation step, a developed hybrid level set model is applied to segment tooth contours from each slice. Tooth contour propagation strategy is employed to initialize the level set function automatically. Cone beam CT (CBCT) images of two subjects were used to tune the parameters. Images of 16 additional subjects were used to validate the performance of the method. Volume overlap metrics and surface distance metrics were adopted to assess the segmentation accuracy quantitatively. The volume overlap metrics were volume difference (VD, mm{sup 3}) and Dice similarity coefficient (DSC, %). The surface distance metrics were average symmetric surface distance (ASSD, mm), RMS (root mean square) symmetric surface distance (RMSSSD, mm), and maximum symmetric surface distance (MSSD, mm). Computation time was recorded to assess the efficiency. The performance of the proposed method has been compared with two state-of-the-art methods. Results: For the tested CBCT images, the VD, DSC, ASSD, RMSSSD, and MSSD for the incisor were 38.16 ± 12.94 mm{sup 3}, 88.82 ± 2.14%, 0.29 ± 0.03 mm, 0.32 ± 0.08 mm, and 1.25 ± 0.58 mm, respectively; the VD, DSC, ASSD, RMSSSD, and MSSD for the canine were 49.12 ± 9.33 mm{sup 3}, 91.57 ± 0.82%, 0.27 ± 0.02 mm, 0

  3. Toward accurate tooth segmentation from computed tomography images using a hybrid level set model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Yangzhou; Xia, Zeyang; Xiong, Jing; Zhao, Qunfei; Hu, Ying; Zhang, Jianwei

    2015-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) model of the teeth provides important information for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. Tooth segmentation is an essential step in generating the 3D digital model from computed tomography (CT) images. The aim of this study is to develop an accurate and efficient tooth segmentation method from CT images. The 3D dental CT volumetric images are segmented slice by slice in a two-dimensional (2D) transverse plane. The 2D segmentation is composed of a manual initialization step and an automatic slice by slice segmentation step. In the manual initialization step, the user manually picks a starting slice and selects a seed point for each tooth in this slice. In the automatic slice segmentation step, a developed hybrid level set model is applied to segment tooth contours from each slice. Tooth contour propagation strategy is employed to initialize the level set function automatically. Cone beam CT (CBCT) images of two subjects were used to tune the parameters. Images of 16 additional subjects were used to validate the performance of the method. Volume overlap metrics and surface distance metrics were adopted to assess the segmentation accuracy quantitatively. The volume overlap metrics were volume difference (VD, mm(3)) and Dice similarity coefficient (DSC, %). The surface distance metrics were average symmetric surface distance (ASSD, mm), RMS (root mean square) symmetric surface distance (RMSSSD, mm), and maximum symmetric surface distance (MSSD, mm). Computation time was recorded to assess the efficiency. The performance of the proposed method has been compared with two state-of-the-art methods. For the tested CBCT images, the VD, DSC, ASSD, RMSSSD, and MSSD for the incisor were 38.16 ± 12.94 mm(3), 88.82 ± 2.14%, 0.29 ± 0.03 mm, 0.32 ± 0.08 mm, and 1.25 ± 0.58 mm, respectively; the VD, DSC, ASSD, RMSSSD, and MSSD for the canine were 49.12 ± 9.33 mm(3), 91.57 ± 0.82%, 0.27 ± 0.02 mm, 0.28 ± 0.03 mm, and 1.06 ± 0.40 mm

  4. TU-G-BRA-08: BEST IN PHYSICS (JOINT IMAGING-THERAPY): Hybrid PET-MRI Imaging of Acute Radiation Induced Cardiac Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sherif, O; Xhaferllari, I; Gaede, S [Western Univeristy, London, ON (United Kingdom); London Regional Cancer Program, London, ON (United Kingdom); Sykes, J; Butler, J [Lawson Health Research Institute, London, ON (United Kingdom); Wisenberg, G; Prato, F [Western Univeristy, London, ON (United Kingdom); Lawson Health Research Institute, London, ON (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To identify the presence of low-dose radiation induced cardiac toxicity in a canine model using hybrid positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: Research ethics board approval was obtained for a longitudinal imaging study of 5 canines after cardiac irradiation. Animals were imaged at baseline, 1 week post cardiac irradiation, and 1 month post cardiac irradiation using a hybrid PET- MRI system (Biograph mMR, Siemens Healthcare). The imaging protocol was designed to assess acute changes in myocardial perfusion and inflammation. Myocardial perfusion imaging was performed using N13-ammonia tracer followed by a dynamic PET acquisition scan. A compartmental tracer kinetic model was used for absolute perfusion quantification. Myocardial inflammation imaging was performed using F18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) tracer. The standard uptake value (SUV) over a region encompassing the whole heart was used to compare FDG scans. All animals received a simulation CT scan (GE Medical Systems) for radiation treatment planning. Radiation treatment plans were created using the Pinncale3 treatment planning system (Philips Radiation Oncology Systems) and designed to resemble the typical cardiac exposure during left-sided breast cancer radiotherapy. Cardiac irradiations were performed in a single fraction using a TrueBeam linear accelerator (Varian Medical Systems). Results: The delivered dose (mean ± standard deviation) to heart was 1.8±0.2 Gy. Reductions in myocardial stress perfusion relative to baseline were observed in 2 of the 5 animals 1 month post radiation. A global inflammatory response 1 month post radiation was observed in 4 of the 5 animals. The calculated SUV at 1 month post radiation was significantly higher (p=0.05) than the baseline SUV. Conclusion: Low doses of cardiac irradiation (< 2 Gy) may lead to myocardial perfusion defects and a global inflammatory response that can be detectable as early as 1 month post irradiation

  5. The stability of liquid-filled matrix ionization chamber electronic portal imaging devices for dosimetry purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwe, R J W; Tielenburg, R; van Ingen, K M; Mijnheer, B J; van Herk, M B

    2004-04-01

    This study was performed to determine the stability of liquid-filled matrix ionization chamber (LiFi-type) electronic portal imaging devices (EPID) for dosimetric purposes. The short- and long-term stability of the response was investigated, as well as the importance of factors influencing the response (e.g., temperature fluctuations, radiation damage, and the performance of the electronic hardware). It was shown that testing the performance of the electronic hardware as well as the short-term stability of the imagers may reveal the cause of a poor long-term stability of the imager response. In addition, the short-term stability was measured to verify the validity of the fitted dose-response curve immediately after beam startup. The long-term stability of these imagers could be considerably improved by correcting for room temperature fluctuations and gradual changes in response due to radiation damage. As a result, the reproducibility was better than 1% (1 SD) over a period of two years. The results of this study were used to formulate recommendations for a quality control program for portal dosimetry. The effect of such a program was assessed by comparing the results of portal dosimetry and in vivo dosimetry using diodes during the treatment of 31 prostate patients. The improvement of the results for portal dosimetry was consistent with the deviations observed with the reproducibility tests in that particular period. After a correction for the variation in response of the imager, the average difference between the measured and prescribed dose during the treatment of prostate patients was -0.7%+/-1.5% (1 SD), and -0.6%+/-1.1% (1 SD) for EPID and diode in vivo dosimetry, respectively. It can be concluded that a high stability of the response can be achieved for this type of EPID by applying a rigorous quality control program.

  6. Real time hybridization studies by resonant waveguide gratings using nanopattern imaging for Single Nucleotide Polymorphism detection

    KAUST Repository

    Bougot-Robin, Kristelle

    2013-12-20

    2D imaging of biochips is particularly interesting for multiplex biosensing. Resonant properties allow label-free detection using the change of refractive index at the chip surface. We demonstrate a new principle of Scanning Of Resonance on Chip by Imaging (SORCI) based on spatial profiles of nanopatterns of resonant waveguide gratings (RWGs) and its embodiment in a fluidic chip for real-time biological studies. This scheme allows multiplexing of the resonance itself by providing nanopattern sensing areas in a bioarray format. Through several chip designs we discuss resonance spatial profiles, dispersion and electric field distribution for optimal light-matter interaction with biological species of different sizes. Fluidic integration is carried out with a black anodized aluminum chamber, advantageous in term of mechanical stability, multiple uses of the chip, temperature control and low optical background. Real-time hybridization experiments are illustrated by SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) detection in gyrase A of E. coli K12, observed in evolution studies of resistance to the antibiotic ciprofloxacin. We choose a 100 base pairs (bp) DNA target (∼30 kDa) including the codon of interest and demonstrate the high specificity of our technique for probes and targets with close affinity constants. This work validates the safe applicability of our unique combination of RWGs and simple instrumentation for real-time biosensing with sensitivity in buffer solution of ∼10 pg/mm2. Paralleling the success of RWGs sensing for cells sensing, our work opens new avenues for a large number of biological studies. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media.

  7. A novel hybrid reconstruction algorithm for first generation incoherent scatter CT (ISCT) of large objects with potential medical imaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpuche Aviles, Jorge E; Pistorius, Stephen; Gordon, Richard; Elbakri, Idris A

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a first generation incoherent scatter CT (ISCT) hybrid (analytic-iterative) reconstruction algorithm for accurate ρ{e}imaging of objects with clinically relevant sizes. The algorithm reconstructs quantitative images of ρ{e} within a few iterations, avoiding the challenges of optimization based reconstruction algorithms while addressing the limitations of current analytical algorithms. A 4π detector is conceptualized in order to address the issue of directional dependency and is then replaced with a ring of detectors which detect a constant fraction of the scattered photons. The ISCT algorithm corrects for the attenuation of photons using a limited number of iterations and filtered back projection (FBP) for image reconstruction. This results in a hybrid reconstruction algorithm that was tested with sinograms generated by Monte Carlo (MC) and analytical (AN) simulations. Results show that the ISCT algorithm is weakly dependent on the ρ{e} initial estimate. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm reconstruct ρ{e} images with a mean error of -1% ± 3% for the AN model and from -6% to -8% for the MC model. Finally, the algorithm is capable of reconstructing qualitatively good images even in the presence of multiple scatter. The proposed algorithm would be suitable for in-vivo medical imaging as long as practical limitations can be addressed. © 2011 – IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved

  8. A HYBRID METHOD IN VEGETATION HEIGHT ESTIMATION USING POLINSAR IMAGES OF CAMPAIGN BIOSAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dehnavi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there have been plenty of researches on the retrieval of forest height by PolInSAR data. This paper aims at the evaluation of a hybrid method in vegetation height estimation based on L-band multi-polarized air-borne SAR images. The SAR data used in this paper were collected by the airborne E-SAR system. The objective of this research is firstly to describe each interferometry cross correlation as a sum of contributions corresponding to single bounce, double bounce and volume scattering processes. Then, an ESPIRIT (Estimation of Signal Parameters via Rotational Invariance Techniques algorithm is implemented, to determine the interferometric phase of each local scatterer (ground and canopy. Secondly, the canopy height is estimated by phase differencing method, according to the RVOG (Random Volume Over Ground concept. The applied model-based decomposition method is unrivaled, as it is not limited to specific type of vegetation, unlike the previous decomposition techniques. In fact, the usage of generalized probability density function based on the nth power of a cosine-squared function, which is characterized by two parameters, makes this method useful for different vegetation types. Experimental results show the efficiency of the approach for vegetation height estimation in the test site.

  9. Development of large area hybrid photodiodes for the LHCb ring imaging Cherenkov detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Braem, André; Dulinski, W; Filthaut, Frank; Go, A; Joram, C; Lion, G; Séguinot, Jacques; Weilhammer, Peter; Wicht, P; Ypsilantis, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    We report on the development of large area hybrid photodiodes (HPD) which are one of the proposed photodetectors for the RICH counters of the LHCb experiment. The HPD's consist of a cylindrical vacuum envelope of 127 mm diameter capped with a spherical borosilicate UV- glass entrance window. Focusing electrodes demagnify the image on a silicon detector of 50 mm diameter comprising 2048 pads with a surface of 1 mm/sup 2/ each. The analogue readout electronics is integrated in the vacuum tube. As an intermediate step a HPD with a UV sensitive CsI photocathode has been produced which allowed to verify the electron optics of the HPD. A large UHV evaporation plant for the production of HPD's with visible light transmissive bialkali photocathodes (K/sub 2/CsSb) has been built and successfully operated. The evaporation process is optimized for maximum quantum efficiency and life time of the photocathodes. A cold indium sealing technique developed for a minimum thermal load of the photocathode and the silicon sensor ...

  10. Development of large area hybrid photodiodes for the LHCb ring imaging Cherenkov detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Chesi, Enrico Guido; Go, A; Joram, C; Séguinot, Jacques; Ypsilantis, Thomas; Ypsilantis, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    98-037 We report on the development of large area hybrid photo diodes (HPD) which are one of the proposed photodetectors for the RICH counters of the LHCb experiment. The HPD's consist of a cylindrical vacuum envelope of 127 mm diameter capped with a spherical borosilicate UV-glass entrance window. Focusing electrodes demagnify the image on a silicon detector of 50~mm diameter comprising 2048 pads with a surface of 1~mm$^2$ each. The analogue readout electronics is integrated in the vacuum tube. As an intermediate step a HPD with a UV sensitive CsI photocathode has been produced which allowed to verify the electron optics of the HPD. A large UHV evaporation plant for the production of HPD's with visible light transmittive bialkali photocathodes (K$_2$CsSb) has been built and successfully operated. The evaporation process is optimized for maximum quantum efficiency and life time of the photocathodes. A cold Indium sealing technique developed for a minimum thermal load of the photocathode and the silicon sensor...

  11. Minimization of temperature ranges between the top and bottom of an air flow controlling device through hybrid control in a plant factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Seung-Mi; Kwon, Sook-Youn; Lim, Jae-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    To maintain the production timing, productivity, and product quality of plant factories, it is necessary to keep the growth environment uniform. A vertical multistage type of plant factory involves different levels of growing trays, which results in the problem of difference in temperature among vertically different locations. To address it, it is necessary to install air flow devices such as air flow fan and cooling/heating device at the proper locations in order to facilitate air circulation in the facility as well as develop a controlling technology for efficient operation. Accordingly, this study compares the temperature and air distribution within the space of a vertical multistage closed-type plant factory by controlling cooling/heating devices and air flow fans harmoniously by means of the specially designed testbed. The experiment results indicate that in the hybrid control of cooling and heating devices and air flow fans, the difference in temperature decreased by as much as 78.9% compared to that when only cooling and heating devices were operated; the air distribution was improved by as much as 63.4%.

  12. Minimization of Temperature Ranges between the Top and Bottom of an Air Flow Controlling Device through Hybrid Control in a Plant Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Mi Moon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To maintain the production timing, productivity, and product quality of plant factories, it is necessary to keep the growth environment uniform. A vertical multistage type of plant factory involves different levels of growing trays, which results in the problem of difference in temperature among vertically different locations. To address it, it is necessary to install air flow devices such as air flow fan and cooling/heating device at the proper locations in order to facilitate air circulation in the facility as well as develop a controlling technology for efficient operation. Accordingly, this study compares the temperature and air distribution within the space of a vertical multistage closed-type plant factory by controlling cooling/heating devices and air flow fans harmoniously by means of the specially designed testbed. The experiment results indicate that in the hybrid control of cooling and heating devices and air flow fans, the difference in temperature decreased by as much as 78.9% compared to that when only cooling and heating devices were operated; the air distribution was improved by as much as 63.4%.

  13. Scalable fabrication of a hybrid field-effect and acousto-electric device by direct growth of monolayer MoS2/LiNbO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preciado, Edwin; Schülein, Florian J. R.; Nguyen, Ariana E.; Barroso, David; Isarraraz, Miguel; von Son, Gretel; Lu, I.-Hsi; Michailow, Wladislaw; Möller, Benjamin; Klee, Velveth; Mann, John; Wixforth, Achim; Bartels, Ludwig; Krenner, Hubert J.

    2015-10-01

    Lithium niobate is the archetypical ferroelectric material and the substrate of choice for numerous applications including surface acoustic wave radio frequencies devices and integrated optics. It offers a unique combination of substantial piezoelectric and birefringent properties, yet its lack of optical activity and semiconducting transport hamper application in optoelectronics. Here we fabricate and characterize a hybrid MoS2/LiNbO3 acousto-electric device via a scalable route that uses millimetre-scale direct chemical vapour deposition of MoS2 followed by lithographic definition of a field-effect transistor structure on top. The prototypical device exhibits electrical characteristics competitive with MoS2 devices on silicon. Surface acoustic waves excited on the substrate can manipulate and probe the electrical transport in the monolayer device in a contact-free manner. We realize both a sound-driven battery and an acoustic photodetector. Our findings open directions to non-invasive investigation of electrical properties of monolayer films.

  14. Image analysis of single event transient effects on charge coupled devices irradiated by protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zujun, E-mail: wangzujun@nint.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Irradiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-10, Xi’an (China); Xue, Yuanyuan [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Irradiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-10, Xi’an (China); Liu, Jing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan (China); He, Baoping; Yao, Zhibin; Ma, Wuying [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Irradiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-10, Xi’an (China)

    2016-10-21

    The experiments of single event transient (SET) effects on charge coupled devices (CCDs) irradiated by protons are presented. The radiation experiments have been carried out at the accelerator protons with the energy of 200 MeV and 60 MeV.The incident angles of the protons are at 30°and 90° to the plane of the CCDs to obtain the images induced by the perpendicularity and incline incident angles. The experimental results show that the typical characteristics of the SET effects on a CCD induced by protons are the generation of a large number of dark signal spikes (hot pixels) which are randomly distributed in the “pepper” images. The characteristics of SET effects are investigated by observing the same imaging area at different time during proton radiation to verify the transient effects. The experiment results also show that the number of dark signal spikes increases with increasing integration time during proton radiation. The CCDs were tested at on-line and off-line to distinguish the radiation damage induced by the SET effects or DD effects. The mechanisms of the dark signal spike generation induced by the SET effects and the DD effects are demonstrated respectively.

  15. Two-wavelength Raman imaging for non-intrusive monitoring of transient temperature in microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, Reiko; Sato, Yohei

    2014-09-01

    The present study proposes a non-intrusive visualization technique based on two-wavelength Raman imaging for in-situ monitoring of the unsteady temperature field in microfluidic systems. The measurement principle relies on the contrasting temperature dependencies of hydrogen-bonded and non-hydrogen-bonded OH stretching modes of the water Raman band, whose intensities were simultaneously captured by two cameras equipped with corresponding bandpass filters. The temperature distributions were then determined from the intensity ratio of the simultaneously-obtained Raman images, which enables compensation for temporal fluctuation and spatial inhomogeneity of the excitation laser intensity. A calibration experiment exhibited a linear relationship between the temperature and the intensity ratio in the range 293-343 K and least-regression analysis gave an uncertainty of 1.43 K at 95% confidence level. By applying the calibration data, time series temperature distributions were quantitatively visualized in a Y-shaped milli-channel at a spatial resolution of 6.0  ×  6.0 µm2 with an acquisition time of 16.5 s. The measurement result clearly exhibited the temporal evolution of the temperature field and was compared with the values obtained by thermocouples. This paper therefore demonstrates the viability of employing the two-wavelength Raman imaging technique for temperature measurements in microfluidic devices.

  16. Classification of ETM+ Remote Sensing Image Based on Hybrid Algorithm of Genetic Algorithm and Back Propagation Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haisheng Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The back propagation neural network (BPNN algorithm can be used as a supervised classification in the processing of remote sensing image classification. But its defects are obvious: falling into the local minimum value easily, slow convergence speed, and being difficult to determine intermediate hidden layer nodes. Genetic algorithm (GA has the advantages of global optimization and being not easy to fall into local minimum value, but it has the disadvantage of poor local searching capability. This paper uses GA to generate the initial structure of BPNN. Then, the stable, efficient, and fast BP classification network is gotten through making fine adjustments on the improved BP algorithm. Finally, we use the hybrid algorithm to execute classification on remote sensing image and compare it with the improved BP algorithm and traditional maximum likelihood classification (MLC algorithm. Results of experiments show that the hybrid algorithm outperforms improved BP algorithm and MLC algorithm.

  17. Advanced devices for photoacoustic imaging to improve cancer and cerebrovascular medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montilla Marien, Leonardo Gabriel

    Recent clinical studies have demonstrated that photoacoustic imaging (PAI) provides important diagnostic information for breast cancer staging. Despite these promising studies, PAI remains an unfeasible option for clinics due to the cost to implement, the required large modification in user conduct and the inflexibility of the hardware to accommodate other applications for the incremental enhancement in diagnostic information. The research described in this dissertation addresses these issues by designing attachments to clinical ultrasound probes and incorporating custom detectors into commercial ultrasound scanners. The ultimate benefit of these handheld devices is to expand the capability of current ultrasound systems and facilitate the translation of PAI to enhance cancer diagnostics and neurosurgical outcomes. Photoacoustic enabling devices (PEDs) were designed as attachments to two clinical ultrasound probes optimized for breast cancer diagnostics. PAI uses pulsed laser excitation to create transient heating (aneurysms. Aneurysms are often treated by placing a clip to prevent blood flow into the aneurysm. However, this procedure has risks associated with damaging nearby vessels. One of the developed PEDs demonstrated the feasibility to three-dimensionally image tiny microvasculature (blood occlusions (>2.4mm) in a phantom model. The capability to use this during surgery would suggest decreasing the risks associated with these treatments. However, clinical ultrasound arrays are not clinically feasible for microsurgical applications due to their bulky size and linear scanning requirements for 3D. Therefore, capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducer (CMUT) two-dimensional arrays compatible with standard ultrasound scanners were used to generate real-time 3D photoacoustic images. Future probes, designed incorporating CMUT arrays, would be relatively simple to fabricate and a convenient upgrade to existing clinical ultrasound equipment. Eventually, a handheld

  18. Short hybrid polymer/sol-gel silica waveguide switches with high in-device electro-optic coefficient based on photostable chromophore

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Enami; Luo, J.; A. K-Y. Jen

    2011-01-01

    The highest electro-optic (EO) coefficient to date is achieved in short polymeric directional coupler switches based on hybrid EO polymer/sol-gel silica waveguides. Optimized poling conditions in such waveguides give a highest in-device EO coefficient of 160 pm/V at 1550 nm using highly efficient and photostable guest–host EO polymer SEO100. Adiabatic waveguide transitions from the passive sol-gel core to active EO polymer cores surrounding the sol-gel core are shown using EO polymer cores wi...

  19. A simple protocol for attenuating the auto-fluorescence of cyanobacteria for optimized fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Perrine; Ploux, Olivier; Méjean, Annick

    2016-03-01

    Cyanobacteria contain pigments, which generate auto-fluorescence that interferes with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) imaging of cyanobacteria. We describe simple chemical treatments using CuSO4 or H2O2 that significantly reduce the auto-fluorescence of Microcystis strains. These protocols were successfully applied in FISH experiments using 16S rRNA specific probes and filamentous cyanobacteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of cancer stem cell migration using compartmentalizing microfluidic devices and live cell imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Agrawal, Basheal; Clark, Paul A; Williams, Justin C; Kuo, John S

    2011-12-23

    receiving chamber. This migration simulates cancer cellular spread through the interstitial spaces of the brain. The phase live images of cell morphology during migration are recorded over several days. Highly migratory BTSC can therefore be isolated, recultured, and analyzed further. Compartmentalizing microfluidics can be a versatile platform to study the migratory behavior of BTSCs and other cancer stem cells. By combining gradient generators, fluid handling, micro-electrodes and other microfluidic modules, these devices can also be used for drug screening and disease diagnosis. Isolation of an aggressive subpopulation of migratory cells will enable studies of underlying molecular mechanisms.