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Sample records for hybrid imaging device

  1. Image dipoles approach to the local field enhancement in nanostructured Ag-Au hybrid devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Christin; Richter, Marten; Knorr, Andreas; Weidinger, Inez M; Hildebrandt, Peter

    2010-01-14

    We have investigated the plasmonic enhancement in the radiation field at various nanostructured multilayer devices that may be applied in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. We apply an image dipole method to describe the effect of surface morphology on the field enhancement in a quasistatic limit. In particular, we compare the performance of a nanostructured silver surface and a layered silver-gold hybrid device. It is found that localized surface plasmon states provide a high field enhancement in silver-gold hybrid devices, where symmetry breaking due to surface defects is a supporting factor. These results are compared to those obtained for multishell nanoparticles of spherical symmetry. Calculated enhancement factors are discussed on the background of recent experimental data.

  2. Hybrid silicon evanescent devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander W. Fang

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Si photonics as an integration platform has recently been a focus of optoelectronics research because of the promise of low-cost manufacturing based on the ubiquitous electronics fabrication infrastructure. The key challenge for Si photonic systems is the realization of compact, electrically driven optical gain elements. We review our recent developments in hybrid Si evanescent devices. We have demonstrated electrically pumped lasers, amplifiers, and photodetectors that can provide a low-cost, scalable solution for hybrid integration on a Si platform by using a novel hybrid waveguide architecture, consisting of III-V quantum wells bonded to Si waveguides.

  3. Hybrid electroluminescent devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiang, Joseph John; Duggal, Anil Raj; Michael, Joseph Darryl

    2010-08-03

    A hybrid electroluminescent (EL) device comprises at least one inorganic diode element and at least one organic EL element that are electrically connected in series. The absolute value of the breakdown voltage of the inorganic diode element is greater than the absolute value of the maximum reverse bias voltage across the series. The inorganic diode element can be a power diode, a Schottky barrier diode, or a light-emitting diode.

  4. Cardiac hybrid imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaemperli, Oliver [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Nuclear Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Kaufmann, Philipp A. [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Alkadhi, Hatem [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-05-15

    Hybrid cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT imaging allows combined assessment of anatomical and functional aspects of cardiac disease. In coronary artery disease (CAD), hybrid SPECT/CT imaging allows detection of coronary artery stenosis and myocardial perfusion abnormalities. The clinical value of hybrid imaging has been documented in several subsets of patients. In selected groups of patients, hybrid imaging improves the diagnostic accuracy to detect CAD compared to the single imaging techniques. Additionally, this approach facilitates functional interrogation of coronary stenoses and guidance with regard to revascularization procedures. Moreover, the anatomical information obtained from CT coronary angiography or coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) adds prognostic information over perfusion data from SPECT. The use of cardiac hybrid imaging has been favoured by the dissemination of dedicated hybrid systems and the release of dedicated image fusion software, which allow simple patient throughput for hybrid SPECT/CT studies. Further technological improvements such as more efficient detector technology to allow for low-radiation protocols, ultra-fast image acquisition and improved low-noise image reconstruction algorithms will be instrumental to further promote hybrid SPECT/CT in research and clinical practice. (orig.)

  5. Field errors in hybrid insertion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlueter, R.D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Hybrid magnet theory as applied to the error analyses used in the design of Advanced Light Source (ALS) insertion devices is reviewed. Sources of field errors in hybrid insertion devices are discussed.

  6. Nanofabrication of Hybrid Optoelectronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibos, Alan Michael

    The material requirements for optoelectronic devices can vary dramatically depending on the application. Often disparate material systems need to be combined to allow for full device functionality. At the nanometer scale, this can often be challenging because of the inherent chemical and structural incompatibilities of nanofabrication. This dissertation concerns the integration of seemingly dissimilar materials into hybrid optoelectronic devices for photovoltaic, plasmonic, and photonic applications. First, we show that combining a single strip of conjugated polymer and inorganic nanowire can yield a nanoscale solar cell, and modeling of optical absorption and exciton diffusion in this device can provide insight into the efficiency of charge separation. Second, we use an on-chip nanowire light emitting diode to pump a colloidal quantum dot coupled to a silver waveguide. The resulting device is an electro-optic single plasmon source. Finally, we transfer diamond waveguides onto near-field avalanche photodiodes fabricated from GaAs. Embedded in the diamond waveguides are nitrogen vacancy color centers, and the mapping of emission from these single-photon sources is demonstrated using our on-chip detectors, eliminating the need for external photodetectors on an optical table. These studies show the promise of hybrid optoelectronic devices at the nanoscale with applications in alternative energy, optical communication, and quantum optics.

  7. Downstream resource utilization following hybrid cardiac imaging with an integrated cadmium-zinc-telluride/64-slice CT device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiechter, Michael; Kaufmann, Philipp A. [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiology, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Zurich Center for Integrative Human Physiology (ZIHP), Zurich (Switzerland); Ghadri, Jelena R.; Wolfrum, Mathias; Kuest, Silke M.; Pazhenkottil, Aju P.; Nkoulou, Rene N.; Herzog, Bernhard A.; Gebhard, Catherine; Fuchs, Tobias A.; Gaemperli, Oliver [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiology, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2012-03-15

    Low yield of invasive coronary angiography and unnecessary coronary interventions have been identified as key cost drivers in cardiology for evaluation of coronary artery disease (CAD). This has fuelled the search for noninvasive techniques providing comprehensive functional and anatomical information on coronary lesions. We have evaluated the impact of implementation of a novel hybrid cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT)/64-slice CT camera into the daily clinical routine on downstream resource utilization. Sixty-two patients with known or suspected CAD were referred for same-day single-session hybrid evaluation with CZT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and coronary CT angiography (CCTA). Hybrid MPI/CCTA images from the integrated CZT/CT camera served for decision-making towards conservative versus invasive management. Based on the hybrid images patients were classified into those with and those without matched findings. Matched findings were defined as the combination of MPI defect with a stenosis by CCTA in the coronary artery subtending the respective territory. All patients with normal MPI and CCTA as well as those with isolated MPI or CCTA finding or combined but unmatched findings were categorized as ''no match''. All 23 patients with a matched finding underwent invasive coronary angiography and 21 (91%) were revascularized. Of the 39 patients with no match, 5 (13%, p < 0.001 vs matched) underwent catheterization and 3 (8%, p < 0.001 vs matched) were revascularized. Cardiac hybrid imaging in CAD evaluation has a profound impact on patient management and may contribute to optimal downstream resource utilization. (orig.)

  8. Lossless hybridization between photovoltaic and thermoelectric devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwang-Tae; Shin, Sun-Mi; Tazebay, Abdullah S; Um, Han-Don; Jung, Jin-Young; Jee, Sang-Won; Oh, Min-Wook; Park, Su-Dong; Yoo, Bongyoung; Yu, Choongho; Lee, Jung-Ho

    2013-01-01

    The optimal hybridization of photovoltaic (PV) and thermoelectric (TE) devices has long been considered ideal for the efficient harnessing solar energy. Our hybrid approach uses full spectrum solar energy via lossless coupling between PV and TE devices while collecting waste energy from thermalization and transmission losses from PV devices. Achieving lossless coupling makes the power output from the hybrid device equal to the sum of the maximum power outputs produced separately from individual PV and TE devices. TE devices need to have low internal resistances enough to convey photo-generated currents without sacrificing the PV fill factor. Concomitantly, a large number of p-n legs are preferred to drive a high Seebeck voltage in TE. Our simple method of attaching a TE device to a PV device has greatly improved the conversion efficiency and power output of the PV device (~30% at a 15°C temperature gradient across a TE device).

  9. Approaches to hybrid synthetic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vivek

    All living creatures are made up of cells that have the ability to replicate themselves in a repetitive process called cell division. As these cells mature and divide into two there is an extensive movement of cellular components. In order to perform this essential task that sustains life, cells have evolved machines composed of proteins. Biological motors, such as kinesin, transport intracellular cargo and position organelles in eukaryotic cells via unidirectional movement on cytoskeletal tracts called microtubules. Biomolecular motor proteins have the potential to be used as 'nano-engines' for switchable devices, directed self assembly, controlled bioseparations and powering nano- and microelectromechanical systems. However, engineering such systems requires fabrication processes that are compatible with biological materials such as kinesin motor proteins and microtubules. The first objective of the research was to establish biocompatibility between protein systems and nanofabrication. The second objective was to use current micro- and nanofabrication techniques for patterning proteins at specific locations and to study role of casein in supporting the operation of surface bound kinesin. The third objective was to link kinesin and microtubule system to cellulose nanowhiskers. The effects of micro- and nanofabrication processing chemicals and resists on the functionality of casein, kinesin, and microtubule proteins are systematically examined to address the important missing link of the biocompatibility of micro- and nanofabrication processes needed to realize hybrid system fabrication. It was found that both casein, which is used to prevent motor denaturation on surfaces, and kinesin motors are surprisingly tolerant of most of the processing chemicals examined. Microtubules, however, are much more sensitive. Exposure to the processing chemicals leads to depolymerization, which is partially attributed to the pH of the solutions examined. When the chemicals were

  10. Hybrid ultrasound imaging techniques (fusion imaging).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandulescu, Daniela Larisa; Dumitrescu, Daniela; Rogoveanu, Ion; Saftoiu, Adrian

    2011-01-07

    Visualization of tumor angiogenesis can facilitate non-invasive evaluation of tumor vascular characteristics to supplement the conventional diagnostic imaging goals of depicting tumor location, size, and morphology. Hybrid imaging techniques combine anatomic [ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)] and molecular (single photon emission CT and positron emission tomography) imaging modalities. One example is real-time virtual sonography, which combines ultrasound (grayscale, colour Doppler, or dynamic contrast harmonic imaging) with contrast-enhanced CT/MRI. The benefits of fusion imaging include an increased diagnostic confidence, direct comparison of the lesions using different imaging modalities, more precise monitoring of interventional procedures, and reduced radiation exposure.

  11. Clinical Role of Hybrid Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Edward M; Ali, Bilal; Dorbala, Sharmila

    2010-10-01

    Recent technological advances have fueled the growth in hybrid radionuclide and CT imaging of the heart. Noninvasive imaging studies are reliable means to diagnose coronary artery disease (CAD), stratify risk, and guide clinical management. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy is a robust, widely available noninvasive modality for the evaluation of ischemia from known or suspected CAD. Cardiac CT (coronary artery calcium score and coronary CT angiography) has emerged as a clinically robust noninvasive anatomic imaging test, capable of rapidly diagnosing or excluding obstructive CAD. Both anatomic and functional modalities have strengths and weaknesses, and can complement each other by offering integrated structural and physiologic information. As we discuss below, in selected patients, hybrid imaging may facilitate more accurate diagnosis, risk stratification, and management in a "one-stop shop" setting.

  12. Hybrid ultrasound imaging techniques(fusion imaging)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniela Larisa Sandulescu; Daniela Dumitrescu; Ion Rogoveanu; Adrian Saftoiu

    2011-01-01

    Visualization of tumor angiogenesis can facilitate noninvasive evaluation of tumor vascular characteristics to supplement the conventional diagnostic imaging goals of depicting tumor location,size,and morphology.Hybrid imaging techniques combine anatomic [ultrasound,computed tomography(CT),and/or magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)] and molecular(single photon emission CT and positron emission tomography)imaging modalities.One example is real-time virtual sonography,which combines ultrasound(grayscale,colour Doppler,or dynamic contrast harmonic imaging)with contrast-enhanced CT/MRI.The benefits of fusion imaging include an increased diagnostic confidence,direct comparison of the lesions using different imaging modalities,more precise monitoring of interventional procedures,and reduced radiation exposure.

  13. Hybrid imaging labels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buckle, Tessa; Wal, Der Steffen Van; Malderen, Van Stijn J.M.; Müller, Larissa; Kuil, Joeri; Unen, Vincent Van; Peters, Ruud J.B.; Bemmel, van Greet; McDonnell, Liam A.; Velders, Aldrik H.; Koning, Frits; Vanhaeke, Frank; Leeuwen, Van Fijs W.B.

    2017-01-01

    Development of theranostic concepts that include inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) imaging can be hindered by the lack of a direct comparison to more standardly used methods for in vitro and in vivo evaluation; e.g. fluorescence or nuclear me

  14. Hybrid imaging labels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buckle, Tessa; Wal, Der Steffen Van; Malderen, Van Stijn J.M.; Müller, Larissa; Kuil, Joeri; Unen, Vincent Van; Peters, Ruud J.B.; Bemmel, van Greet; McDonnell, Liam A.; Velders, Aldrik H.; Koning, Frits; Vanhaeke, Frank; Leeuwen, Van Fijs W.B.

    2017-01-01

    Development of theranostic concepts that include inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) imaging can be hindered by the lack of a direct comparison to more standardly used methods for in vitro and in vivo evaluation; e.g. fluorescence or nuclear

  15. Images, signals and devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    This volume highlights medical imaging and monitoring and covers topics such as interactive video, diagnostic digital angiography, computerized management of intensive care patients, ambulatory ECG monitoring and magnetic resonance. Contents include: general guidelines; reveiws/surveys; office practice management guidelines; and clinical computing.

  16. Portable Hybrid Powered Water Filtration Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lourdes V. Balansay

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The existing water filtration device has features that can be developed to be more useful and functional during emergency situations. The project’s development has been aided by following provisions in PEC, NEC, NEMA and Philippine National Standard for Safe Drinking Water provide standards for the construction of the project. These standards protect both the prototype and the user. These also served as guide for the maintenance of every component. The design of the portable hybrid powered water filtration device shows that the project has more advanced features such as portability and the power supply used such as photovoltaic module solar cells and manually operated generator. This also shows its effectiveness and reliability based on the results of discharging test, water quality test and water production test. Based on analysis of the overall financial aspects, the machine can be profitable and the amount of revenue and operating cost will increase as years pass. Using the proper machine/ tools and methods of fabrication helps in easy assembly of the project. The materials and components used are cost effective and efficient. The best time for charging the battery using solar panel is 9:00 am onwards while the hand crank generator is too slow because the generated current is little. The water filtration device is very efficient regarding the operating hours and water production. The machine may have a great effect to society and economy in generation of clean available water at less cost.

  17. Natural hybrid organic-inorganic photovoltaic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Padova, Paola; Lucci, Massimiliano; Olivieri, Bruno; Quaresima, Claudio; Priori, Sandro; Francini, Roberto; Grilli, Antonio; Hricovini, Karol; Davoli, Ivan

    2009-06-01

    Natural hybrid organic-inorganic photovoltaic devices based on TiO 2 have been realized. Chlorophyll A (from anacystis nidulans algae), chlorophyll B (from spinach), carmic acid (from insect Coccus cacti L.), synthetic trans- β-carotene, natural fresh picked Morus nigra, and their mixtures have been used as an organic photo active layer to fabricate photovoltaic prototypes. In order to reduce the charge's interfacial recombination, different thicknesses (5-45 nm) of Si layers, subsequently oxidized in air, were inserted between the TiO 2 and chlorophyll B. Scanning electron microscopy of TiO 2 and Si/TiO 2 systems shows the coexistence at least of four classes of nanoparticles of 60, 100, 150 and 250 nm in size. Auger electron spectroscopy of the Si L 2,3V V transition demonstrates the presence of silica and SiO x suboxides. Photocurrent measurements versus radiation wavelength in the range 300-800 nm exhibit different peaks according to the absorption spectra of the organic molecules. All realized photovoltaic devices are suitable for solar light electric energy conversion. Those made of a blend of all organic molecules achieved higher current and voltage output. The Si/TiO 2-based devices containing chlorophyll B exhibited an enhanced photocurrent response with respect to those with TiO 2 only.

  18. Dedicated optoelectronic stochastic parallel processor for real-time image processing: motion-detection demonstration and design of a hybrid complementary-metal-oxide semiconductor- self-electro-optic-device-based prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassinelli, A; Chavel, P; Desmulliez, M P

    2001-12-10

    We report experimental results and performance analysis of a dedicated optoelectronic processor that implements stochastic optimization-based image-processing tasks in real time. We first show experimental results using a proof-of-principle-prototype demonstrator based on standard silicon-complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology and liquid-crystal spatial light modulators. We then elaborate on the advantages of using a hybrid CMOS-self-electro-optic-device-based smart-pixel array to monolithically integrate photodetectors and modulators on the same chip, providing compact, high-bandwidth intrachip optoelectronic interconnects. We have modeled the operation of the monolithic processor, clearly showing system-performance improvement.

  19. A Multimodality Hybrid Gamma-Optical Camera for Intraoperative Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Lees

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of low profile gamma-ray detectors has encouraged the production of small field of view (SFOV hand-held imaging devices for use at the patient bedside and in operating theatres. Early development of these SFOV cameras was focussed on a single modality—gamma ray imaging. Recently, a hybrid system—gamma plus optical imaging—has been developed. This combination of optical and gamma cameras enables high spatial resolution multi-modal imaging, giving a superimposed scintigraphic and optical image. Hybrid imaging offers new possibilities for assisting clinicians and surgeons in localising the site of uptake in procedures such as sentinel node detection. The hybrid camera concept can be extended to a multimodal detector design which can offer stereoscopic images, depth estimation of gamma-emitting sources, and simultaneous gamma and fluorescence imaging. Recent improvements to the hybrid camera have been used to produce dual-modality images in both laboratory simulations and in the clinic. Hybrid imaging of a patient who underwent thyroid scintigraphy is reported. In addition, we present data which shows that the hybrid camera concept can be extended to estimate the position and depth of radionuclide distribution within an object and also report the first combined gamma and Near-Infrared (NIR fluorescence images.

  20. Three-Dimensional Printing Based Hybrid Manufacturing of Microfluidic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alapan, Yunus; Hasan, Muhammad Noman; Shen, Richang; Gurkan, Umut A

    2015-05-01

    Microfluidic platforms offer revolutionary and practical solutions to challenging problems in biology and medicine. Even though traditional micro/nanofabrication technologies expedited the emergence of the microfluidics field, recent advances in advanced additive manufacturing hold significant potential for single-step, stand-alone microfluidic device fabrication. One such technology, which holds a significant promise for next generation microsystem fabrication is three-dimensional (3D) printing. Presently, building 3D printed stand-alone microfluidic devices with fully embedded microchannels for applications in biology and medicine has the following challenges: (i) limitations in achievable design complexity, (ii) need for a wider variety of transparent materials, (iii) limited z-resolution, (iv) absence of extremely smooth surface finish, and (v) limitations in precision fabrication of hollow and void sections with extremely high surface area to volume ratio. We developed a new way to fabricate stand-alone microfluidic devices with integrated manifolds and embedded microchannels by utilizing a 3D printing and laser micromachined lamination based hybrid manufacturing approach. In this new fabrication method, we exploit the minimized fabrication steps enabled by 3D printing, and reduced assembly complexities facilitated by laser micromachined lamination method. The new hybrid fabrication method enables key features for advanced microfluidic system architecture: (i) increased design complexity in 3D, (ii) improved control over microflow behavior in all three directions and in multiple layers, (iii) transverse multilayer flow and precisely integrated flow distribution, and (iv) enhanced transparency for high resolution imaging and analysis. Hybrid manufacturing approaches hold great potential in advancing microfluidic device fabrication in terms of standardization, fast production, and user-independent manufacturing.

  1. Device for wavelength-selective imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangioni, John V.

    2010-09-14

    An imaging device captures both a visible light image and a diagnostic image, the diagnostic image corresponding to emissions from an imaging medium within the object. The visible light image (which may be color or grayscale) and the diagnostic image may be superimposed to display regions of diagnostic significance within a visible light image. A number of imaging media may be used according to an intended application for the imaging device, and an imaging medium may have wavelengths above, below, or within the visible light spectrum. The devices described herein may be advantageously packaged within a single integrated device or other solid state device, and/or employed in an integrated, single-camera medical imaging system, as well as many non-medical imaging systems that would benefit from simultaneous capture of visible-light wavelength images along with images at other wavelengths.

  2. InAsSb Hybrid Imager Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, J. P.

    1980-05-01

    Current research on infrared hybrid focal planes is directed toward devices in which detection occurs in a p-n junction formed in an intrinsic narrow energy bandgap semiconductor, and signal processing is accomplished in a Si CCD multiplexer which is electrically interfaced to the detector array. A hybrid array such as this, where the detector format is a 32 x 32 matrix, has been fabricated. The active material is backside-illuminated InAsSb which has been planar processed and fully passivated. The cutoff wavelength is 4.0 μm at the operating temperature of 77K. The CCD is four phase with a two level polysilicon gate structure. The signal input is via direct injection with an option for dc suppression. Operation of the focal plane in a staring mode that uses dc suppression is discussed. Data derived from the video output is presented; this includes responsivity and detectivity. Off focal plane non-uniformity compensation is also discussed. Displays of thermal images utilizing processed data from the hybrid focal plane array will be shown.

  3. Hybrid radical energy storage device and method of making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gennett, Thomas; Ginley, David S.; Braunecker, Wade; Ban, Chunmei; Owczarczyk, Zbyslaw

    2016-04-26

    Hybrid radical energy storage devices, such as batteries or electrochemical devices, and methods of use and making are disclosed. Also described herein are electrodes and electrolytes useful in energy storage devices, for example, radical polymer cathode materials and electrolytes for use in organic radical batteries.

  4. Microscopy imaging device with advanced imaging properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Kunal; Burns, Laurie; El Gamal, Abbas; Schnitzer, Mark J.; Cocker, Eric; Ho, Tatt Wei

    2017-04-25

    Systems, methods and devices are implemented for microscope imaging solutions. One embodiment of the present disclosure is directed toward an epifluorescence microscope. The microscope includes an image capture circuit including an array of optical sensor. An optical arrangement is configured to direct excitation light of less than about 1 mW to a target object in a field of view of that is at least 0.5 mm.sup.2 and to direct epi-fluorescence emission caused by the excitation light to the array of optical sensors. The optical arrangement and array of optical sensors are each sufficiently close to the target object to provide at least 2.5 .mu.m resolution for an image of the field of view.

  5. Microscopy imaging device with advanced imaging properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Kunal; Burns, Laurie; El Gamal, Abbas; Schnitzer, Mark J.; Cocker, Eric; Ho, Tatt Wei

    2016-11-22

    Systems, methods and devices are implemented for microscope imaging solutions. One embodiment of the present disclosure is directed toward an epifluorescence microscope. The microscope includes an image capture circuit including an array of optical sensor. An optical arrangement is configured to direct excitation light of less than about 1 mW to a target object in a field of view of that is at least 0.5 mm.sup.2 and to direct epi-fluorescence emission caused by the excitation light to the array of optical sensors. The optical arrangement and array of optical sensors are each sufficiently close to the target object to provide at least 2.5 .mu.m resolution for an image of the field of view.

  6. Microscopy imaging device with advanced imaging properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Kunal; Burns, Laurie; El Gamal, Abbas; Schnitzer, Mark J.; Cocker, Eric; Ho, Tatt Wei

    2015-11-24

    Systems, methods and devices are implemented for microscope imaging solutions. One embodiment of the present disclosure is directed toward an epifluorescence microscope. The microscope includes an image capture circuit including an array of optical sensor. An optical arrangement is configured to direct excitation light of less than about 1 mW to a target object in a field of view of that is at least 0.5 mm.sup.2 and to direct epi-fluorescence emission caused by the excitation light to the array of optical sensors. The optical arrangement and array of optical sensors are each sufficiently close to the target object to provide at least 2.5 .mu.m resolution for an image of the field of view.

  7. Microscopy imaging device with advanced imaging properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Kunal; Burns, Laurie; El Gamal, Abbas; Schnitzer, Mark J.; Cocker, Eric; Ho, Tatt Wei

    2016-10-25

    Systems, methods and devices are implemented for microscope imaging solutions. One embodiment of the present disclosure is directed toward an epifluorescence microscope. The microscope includes an image capture circuit including an array of optical sensor. An optical arrangement is configured to direct excitation light of less than about 1 mW to a target object in a field of view of that is at least 0.5 mm.sup.2 and to direct epi-fluorescence emission caused by the excitation light to the array of optical sensors. The optical arrangement and array of optical sensors are each sufficiently close to the target object to provide at least 2.5 .mu.m resolution for an image of the field of view.

  8. Coherent hybrid electromagnetic field imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Bradly J.; Guenther, David C.

    2008-08-26

    An apparatus and corresponding method for coherent hybrid electromagnetic field imaging of a target, where an energy source is used to generate a propagating electromagnetic beam, an electromagnetic beam splitting means to split the beam into two or more coherently matched beams of about equal amplitude, and where the spatial and temporal self-coherence between each two or more coherently matched beams is preserved. Two or more differential modulation means are employed to modulate each two or more coherently matched beams with a time-varying polarization, frequency, phase, and amplitude signal. An electromagnetic beam combining means is used to coherently combine said two or more coherently matched beams into a coherent electromagnetic beam. One or more electromagnetic beam controlling means are used for collimating, guiding, or focusing the coherent electromagnetic beam. One or more apertures are used for transmitting and receiving the coherent electromagnetic beam to and from the target. A receiver is used that is capable of square-law detection of the coherent electromagnetic beam. A waveform generator is used that is capable of generation and control of time-varying polarization, frequency, phase, or amplitude modulation waveforms and sequences. A means of synchronizing time varying waveform is used between the energy source and the receiver. Finally, a means of displaying the images created by the interaction of the coherent electromagnetic beam with target is employed.

  9. Hybrid perovskites: Approaches towards light-emitting devices

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal

    2016-10-06

    The high optical gain and absorption of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have attracted extensive research for photonic device applications. Using the bromide halide as an example, we present key approaches of our work towards realizing efficient perovskites based light-emitters. The approaches involved determination of optical constants for the hybrid perovskites thin films, fabrication of photonic nanostructures in the form of subwavelength grating reflector patterned directly on the hybrid perovskites as light manipulation layer, and enhancing the emission property of the hybrid perovskites by using microcavity structure. Our results provide a platform for realization of hybrid perovskites based light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting and display applications. © 2016 IEEE.

  10. Hybrid Recentering Energy Dissipative Device for Seismic Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenke Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid recentering energy dissipative device that has both recentering and energy dissipation capabilities is proposed and studied in this paper. The proposed hybrid device, referred to as the hybrid shape memory alloy (SMA recentering viscous fluid (RCVF energy dissipation device, connects the apex of a chevron brace to an adjoining beam using two sets of SMA wires arranged in series on either side of the brace and a viscous fluid damper arranged in parallel with the SMA wires. The viscous damper is used because being a velocity-dependent device it does not exert any force that counteracts the recentering force from the SMA wires after the vibration of the frame ceases. In the numerical study, the Wilde’s SMA constitutive model is used to model the SMA wires, and the Maxwell model is used to simulate the viscous fluid damper. To demonstrate the viability and effectiveness of the proposed hybrid device, comparative studies are performed on several single-story shear frames and a series of four-story steel frames. The results show that the frames equipped with the hybrid device have noticeably smaller peak top story displacements and residual story drifts when subjected to ground motions at three different intensity levels.

  11. Hybrid graphene nematic liquid crystal light scattering device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasim, M. M.; Khan, A. A.; Kostanyan, A.; Kidambi, P. R.; Cabrero-Vilatela, A.; Braeuninger-Weimer, P.; Gardiner, D. J.; Hofmann, S.; Wilkinson, T. D.

    2015-08-01

    A hybrid graphene nematic liquid crystal (LC) light scattering device is presented. This device exploits the inherent poly-crystallinity of chemical vapour deposited (CVD) graphene films to induce directional anchoring and formation of LC multi-domains. This thereby enables efficient light scattering without the need for crossed polarisers or separate alignment layers/additives. The hybrid LC device exhibits switching thresholds at very low electric fields (crossed polarisers or separate alignment layers/additives. The hybrid LC device exhibits switching thresholds at very low electric fields (< 1 V μm-1) and repeatable, hysteresis free characteristics. This exploitation of LC alignment effects on CVD graphene films enables a new generation of highly efficient nematic LC scattering displays as well as many other possible applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04094a

  12. A hybrid approach to device integration on a genetic analysis platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Des; Jary, Dorothee; Kurg, Ants; Berik, Evgeny; Justice, John; Aherne, Margaret; Macek, Milan; Galvin, Paul

    2012-10-01

    Point-of-care (POC) systems require significant component integration to implement biochemical protocols associated with molecular diagnostic assays. Hybrid platforms where discrete components are combined in a single platform are a suitable approach to integration, where combining multiple device fabrication steps on a single substrate is not possible due to incompatible or costly fabrication steps. We integrate three devices each with a specific system functionality: (i) a silicon electro-wetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) device to move and mix sample and reagent droplets in an oil phase, (ii) a polymer microfluidic chip containing channels and reservoirs and (iii) an aqueous phase glass microarray for fluorescence microarray hybridization detection. The EWOD device offers the possibility of fully integrating on-chip sample preparation using nanolitre sample and reagent volumes. A key challenge is sample transfer from the oil phase EWOD device to the aqueous phase microarray for hybridization detection. The EWOD device, waveguide performance and functionality are maintained during the integration process. An on-chip biochemical protocol for arrayed primer extension (APEX) was implemented for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNiP) analysis. The prepared sample is aspirated from the EWOD oil phase to the aqueous phase microarray for hybridization. A bench-top instrumentation system was also developed around the integrated platform to drive the EWOD electrodes, implement APEX sample heating and image the microarray after hybridization.

  13. Vertical hybrid inorganic-organic nanoelectronic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilbers, Janine Gabriele Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of organic building blocks into nanoelectronics devices is finding increased interest due to the huge potential for low-cost, large-area, flexible electronics. However, contacting molecules for investigating their properties is not straightforward. In this thesis, several device s

  14. Calibration of imaging luminance measuring devices (ILMD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liying; Zheng, Feng; Zhu, Lingxi; Li, Ye; Huan, Kewei; Shi, Xiaoguang

    2015-11-01

    A method of calibration of imaging luminance measuring devices has been studied. By the device-independent color space transformation, the color image by digital camera could be converted to the CIE's absolute color space lab. Then, the calibration model is fitted between ln(L/t) and luminance. At last, luminance image is obtained and the dynamic range of luminance image could be adjusted by shutter speed.

  15. Photonic Integration on the Hybrid Silicon Evanescent Device Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyundai Park

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the recent progress of hybrid silicon evanescent devices. The hybrid silicon evanescent device structure consists of III-V epitaxial layers transferred to silicon waveguides through a low-temperature wafer bonding process to achieve optical gain, absorption, and modulation efficiently on a silicon photonics platform. The low-temperature wafer bonding process enables fusion of two different material systems without degradation of material quality and is scalable to wafer-level bonding. Lasers, amplifiers, photodetectors, and modulators have been demonstrated with this hybrid structure and integration of these individual components for improved optical functionality is also presented. This approach provides a unique way to build photonic active devices on silicon and should allow application of silicon photonic integrated circuits to optical telecommunication and optical interconnects.

  16. Multidimensional materials and device architectures for future hybrid energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukatskaya, Maria R.; Dunn, Bruce; Gogotsi, Yury

    2016-09-01

    Electrical energy storage plays a vital role in daily life due to our dependence on numerous portable electronic devices. Moreover, with the continued miniaturization of electronics, integration of wireless devices into our homes and clothes and the widely anticipated `Internet of Things', there are intensive efforts to develop miniature yet powerful electrical energy storage devices. This review addresses the cutting edge of electrical energy storage technology, outlining approaches to overcome current limitations and providing future research directions towards the next generation of electrical energy storage devices whose characteristics represent a true hybridization of batteries and electrochemical capacitors.

  17. Hybrid optoelectronic device with multiple bistable outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costazo-Caso, Pablo A.; Jin, Yiye; Gelh, Michael; Granieri, Sergio; Siahmakoun, Azad

    2011-01-01

    Optoelectronic circuits which exhibit optical and electrical bistability with hysteresis behavior are proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The systems are based on semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA), bipolar junction transistors (BJT), PIN photodiodes (PD) and laser diodes externally modulated with integrated electro-absorption modulators (LD-EAM). The device operates based on two independent phenomena leading to both electrical bistability and optical bistability. The electrical bistability is due to the series connection of two p-i-n structures (SOA, BJT, PD or LD) in reverse bias. The optical bistability is consequence of the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) in the multi-quantum well (MQW) structure in the intrinsic region of the device. This effect produces the optical modulation of the transmitted light through the SOA (or reflected from the PD). Finally, because the optical transmission of the SOA (in reverse bias) and the reflected light from the PD are so small, a LD-EAM modulated by the voltage across these devices are employed to obtain a higher output optical power. Experiments show that the maximum switching frequency is in MHz range and the rise/fall times lower than 1 us. The temporal response is mainly limited by the electrical capacitance of the devices and the parasitic inductances of the connecting wires. The effects of these components can be reduced in current integration technologies.

  18. Long-term high-resolution imaging and culture of C. elegans in chip-gel hybrid microfluidic device for developmental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajniak, Jan; Lu, Hang

    2010-07-21

    Developmental studies in multicellular model organisms such as Caernohabditis elegans rely extensively on the ability to cultivate and image animals repeatedly at the cell or subcellular level. However, standard high-resolution imaging techniques require the use of anaesthetics for immobilization, and may have undesirable side effects on development. Thus such techniques are not ideal in allowing the same animals to grow and be imaged throughout development to observe specific developmental processes. In this paper, we present a microfluidic system designed to overcome these difficulties. The system allows for long-term culture of C. elegans starting at L1 larval stage and repeated high-resolution imaging at physiological temperatures without using anaesthetics. We use a commercially available biocompatible polymer, Pluronic F127 for immobilization; this polymer is capable of a reversible thermo-sensitive sol-gel transition within approximately 2 degrees C, which is well-controlled in the microfluidic chip. The gel phase is sufficient to immobilize the animals. While animals are not imaged, they are cultured in individual chambers in media containing nutrients required for development. We show here that this method facilitates time-lapse studies of single animals at high-resolution and lends itself to live imaging experiments on developmental processes and dynamic events.

  19. Use of mobile devices for medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschorn, David S; Choudhri, Asim F; Shih, George; Kim, Woojin

    2014-12-01

    Mobile devices have fundamentally changed personal computing, with many people forgoing the desktop and even laptop computer altogether in favor of a smaller, lighter, and cheaper device with a touch screen. Doctors and patients are beginning to expect medical images to be available on these devices for consultative viewing, if not actual diagnosis. However, this raises serious concerns with regard to the ability of existing mobile devices and networks to quickly and securely move these images. Medical images often come in large sets, which can bog down a network if not conveyed in an intelligent manner, and downloaded data on a mobile device are highly vulnerable to a breach of patient confidentiality should that device become lost or stolen. Some degree of regulation is needed to ensure that the software used to view these images allows all relevant medical information to be visible and manipulated in a clinically acceptable manner. There also needs to be a quality control mechanism to ensure that a device's display accurately conveys the image content without loss of contrast detail. Furthermore, not all mobile displays are appropriate for all types of images. The smaller displays of smart phones, for example, are not well suited for viewing entire chest radiographs, no matter how small and numerous the pixels of the display may be. All of these factors should be taken into account when deciding where, when, and how to use mobile devices for the display of medical images.

  20. Development of a PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi, E-mail: s-yama@met.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Hamamura, Fuka; Kato, Katsuhiko; Ogata, Yoshimune [Radiological and Medical Laboratory Sciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Aichi 461-8673 (Japan); Watabe, Tadashi; Ikeda, Hayato; Kanai, Yasukazu; Hatazawa, Jun [Department of Molecular Imaging in Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Watabe, Hiroshi [CYRIC, Tohoku University, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: Cerenkov-light imaging is a new molecular imaging technology that detects visible photons from high-speed electrons using a high sensitivity optical camera. However, the merit of Cerenkov-light imaging remains unclear. If a PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system were developed, the merit of Cerenkov-light imaging would be clarified by directly comparing these two imaging modalities. Methods: The authors developed and tested a PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system that consists of a dual-head PET system, a reflection mirror located above the subject, and a high sensitivity charge coupled device (CCD) camera. The authors installed these systems inside a black box for imaging the Cerenkov-light. The dual-head PET system employed a 1.2 × 1.2 × 10 mm{sup 3} GSO arranged in a 33 × 33 matrix that was optically coupled to a position sensitive photomultiplier tube to form a GSO block detector. The authors arranged two GSO block detectors 10 cm apart and positioned the subject between them. The Cerenkov-light above the subject is reflected by the mirror and changes its direction to the side of the PET system and is imaged by the high sensitivity CCD camera. Results: The dual-head PET system had a spatial resolution of ∼1.2 mm FWHM and sensitivity of ∼0.31% at the center of the FOV. The Cerenkov-light imaging system's spatial resolution was ∼275μm for a {sup 22}Na point source. Using the combined PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system, the authors successfully obtained fused images from simultaneously acquired images. The image distributions are sometimes different due to the light transmission and absorption in the body of the subject in the Cerenkov-light images. In simultaneous imaging of rat, the authors found that {sup 18}F-FDG accumulation was observed mainly in the Harderian gland on the PET image, while the distribution of Cerenkov-light was observed in the eyes. Conclusions: The authors conclude that their developed PET

  1. 21 CFR 892.2040 - Medical image hardcopy device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical image hardcopy device. 892.2040 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2040 Medical image hardcopy device. (a) Identification. A medical image hardcopy device is a device that produces a visible printed record of a medical...

  2. Energy efficient hybrid computing systems using spin devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharad, Mrigank

    Emerging spin-devices like magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ's), spin-valves and domain wall magnets (DWM) have opened new avenues for spin-based logic design. This work explored potential computing applications which can exploit such devices for higher energy-efficiency and performance. The proposed applications involve hybrid design schemes, where charge-based devices supplement the spin-devices, to gain large benefits at the system level. As an example, lateral spin valves (LSV) involve switching of nanomagnets using spin-polarized current injection through a metallic channel such as Cu. Such spin-torque based devices possess several interesting properties that can be exploited for ultra-low power computation. Analog characteristic of spin current facilitate non-Boolean computation like majority evaluation that can be used to model a neuron. The magneto-metallic neurons can operate at ultra-low terminal voltage of ˜20mV, thereby resulting in small computation power. Moreover, since nano-magnets inherently act as memory elements, these devices can facilitate integration of logic and memory in interesting ways. The spin based neurons can be integrated with CMOS and other emerging devices leading to different classes of neuromorphic/non-Von-Neumann architectures. The spin-based designs involve `mixed-mode' processing and hence can provide very compact and ultra-low energy solutions for complex computation blocks, both digital as well as analog. Such low-power, hybrid designs can be suitable for various data processing applications like cognitive computing, associative memory, and currentmode on-chip global interconnects. Simulation results for these applications based on device-circuit co-simulation framework predict more than ˜100x improvement in computation energy as compared to state of the art CMOS design, for optimal spin-device parameters.

  3. Polymer/metal hybrid multilayers modified Schottky devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrisi, V.; Isgrò, G.; Li Destri, G.; Marletta, G. [Laboratory for Molecular Surfaces and Nanotechnology (LAMSUN), Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Catania and CSGI, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Ruffino, F.; Grimaldi, M. G. [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia-Università di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); MATIS IMM-CNR, via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Crupi, I. [MATIS IMM-CNR, via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2013-11-04

    Insulating, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), and semiconducting, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), nanometer thick polymers/Au nanoparticles based hybrid multilayers (HyMLs) were fabricated on p-Si single-crystal substrate. An iterative method, which involves, respectively, spin-coating (PMMA and P3HT deposition) and sputtering (Au nanoparticles deposition) techniques to prepare Au/HyMLs/p-Si Schottky device, was used. The barrier height and the ideality factor of the Au/HyMLs/p-Si Schottky devices were investigated by current-voltage measurements in the thickness range of 1–5 bilayers. It was observed that the barrier height of such hybrid layered systems can be tuned as a function of bilayers number and its evolution was quantified and analyzed.

  4. Fabrication of Hybrid Organic Photovoltaic Devices Using Electrostatic Spray Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe-Wei Chiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid organic photovoltaic devices (OPVDs are fabricated using the electrostatic spray (e-spray method and their optical and electrical properties are investigated. E-spray is used to deposit a hybrid film (P3HT: PCBM/nanodiamond with morphology and optical characteristics onto OPVDs. The root-mean-square roughness and optical absorption increase with increasing nanodiamond content. The performance of e-spray is comparable to that of the spin-coating method under uniform conditions. The device takes advantage of the high current density, power conversion efficiency, and low cost. Nanodiamond improves the short-circuit current density and power conversion efficiency. The best performance was obtained with 1.5 wt% nanodiamond content, with a current density of 7.28 mA/cm2 and a power conversion efficiency of 2.25%.

  5. A New Kind of Blue Hybrid Electroluminescent Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junling; Li, Zhuan; Liu, Chunmei

    2016-04-01

    Bright blue Electroluminescence come from a ITO/BBOT doped silica (6 x 10(-3) M) made by a sol-gel method/Al driven by AC with 500 Hz at different voltages and Gaussian analysis under 55 V showed that blue emission coincidenced with typical triple emission from BBOT. This kind of device take advantage of organics (BBOT) and inorganics (silica). Electroluminescence from a single-layered sandwiched device consisting of blue fluorescent dye 2,5-bis (5-tert-butyl-2-benzoxazolyl) thiophene (BBOT) doped silica made by sol-gel method was investigated. A number of concentrations of hybrid devices were prepared and the maxium concentration was 6 x 10(-3) M. Blue electroluminescent (EL) always occurred above a threshold field 8.57 x 10(5) V/cm (30 V) at alternating voltage at 500 HZ. The luminance of the devices increased with the concentration of doped BBOT, but electroluminescence characteristics were different from a single molecule's photoluminescence properties of triple peaks. When analyzing in detail direct-current electroluminescence devices of pure BBOT, a single peak centered at 2.82 eV appeared with the driven voltage increase, which is similar to the hybrid devices. Comparing Gaussian decomposition date between two kinds of devices, the triple peak characteristic of BBOT was consistent. It is inferred that BBOT contributed EL of the hybrid devices mainly and silica may account for a very small part. Meanwhile the thermal stability of matrix silica was measured by Thermal Gravity-Mass Spectroscopy (TG-MS). There is 12 percent weight loss from room temperature to 1000 °C and silica has about 95% transmittance. So the matric silica played an important role in thermal stability and optical stability for BBOT. In addition, this kind of blue electroluminescence device can take advantages of organic materials BBOT and inorganic materials silica. This is a promising way to enrich EL devices, especially enriching inorganic EL color at a low cost.

  6. Hybrid tenso-vectorial compressive sensing for hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qun; Bernal, Edgar A.

    2016-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging has a wide range of applications relying on remote material identification, including astronomy, mineralogy, and agriculture; however, due to the large volume of data involved, the complexity and cost of hyperspectral imagers can be prohibitive. The exploitation of redundancies along the spatial and spectral dimensions of a hyperspectral image of a scene has created new paradigms that overcome the limitations of traditional imaging systems. While compressive sensing (CS) approaches have been proposed and simulated with success on already acquired hyperspectral imagery, most of the existing work relies on the capability to simultaneously measure the spatial and spectral dimensions of the hyperspectral cube. Most real-life devices, however, are limited to sampling one or two dimensions at a time, which renders a significant portion of the existing work unfeasible. We propose a new variant of the recently proposed serial hybrid vectorial and tensorial compressive sensing (HCS-S) algorithm that, like its predecessor, is compatible with real-life devices both in terms of the acquisition and reconstruction requirements. The newly introduced approach is parallelizable, and we abbreviate it as HCS-P. Together, HCS-S and HCS-P comprise a generalized framework for hybrid tenso-vectorial compressive sensing, or HCS for short. We perform a detailed analysis that demonstrates the uniqueness of the signal reconstructed by both the original HCS-S and the proposed HCS-P algorithms. Last, we analyze the behavior of the HCS reconstruction algorithms in the presence of measurement noise, both theoretically and experimentally.

  7. Hybrid Information Retrieval Model For Web Images

    CERN Document Server

    Bassil, Youssef

    2012-01-01

    The Bing Bang of the Internet in the early 90's increased dramatically the number of images being distributed and shared over the web. As a result, image information retrieval systems were developed to index and retrieve image files spread over the Internet. Most of these systems are keyword-based which search for images based on their textual metadata; and thus, they are imprecise as it is vague to describe an image with a human language. Besides, there exist the content-based image retrieval systems which search for images based on their visual information. However, content-based type systems are still immature and not that effective as they suffer from low retrieval recall/precision rate. This paper proposes a new hybrid image information retrieval model for indexing and retrieving web images published in HTML documents. The distinguishing mark of the proposed model is that it is based on both graphical content and textual metadata. The graphical content is denoted by color features and color histogram of ...

  8. Binarizing Business Card Images for Mobile Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Mollah, Ayatullah Faruk; Das, Nibaran; Sarkar, Ram; Nasipuri, Mita; Kundu, Mahantapas

    2010-01-01

    Business card images are of multiple natures as these often contain graphics, pictures and texts of various fonts and sizes both in background and foreground. So, the conventional binarization techniques designed for document images can not be directly applied on mobile devices. In this paper, we have presented a fast binarization technique for camera captured business card images. A card image is split into small blocks. Some of these blocks are classified as part of the background based on intensity variance. Then the non-text regions are eliminated and the text ones are skew corrected and binarized using a simple yet adaptive technique. Experiment shows that the technique is fast, efficient and applicable for the mobile devices.

  9. Graphene-on-dielectric micromembrane for optoelectromechanical hybrid devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Silvan; Bagci, Tolga; Zeuthen, Emil;

    2013-01-01

    Due to their exceptional mechanical and optical properties, dielectric silicon nitride (SiN) micromembranes have become the centerpiece of many optomechanical experiments. Efficient capacitive coupling of the membrane to an electrical system would facilitate exciting hybrid optoelectromechanical ...... devices. However, capacitive coupling of such SiN membranes is rather weak. Here we add a single layer of graphene on SiN micromembranes (SiN-G) and compare the electromechanical coupling and mechanical properties to bare SiN membranes and to membranes coated with an aluminium layer (Si...

  10. Super-resolution near field imaging device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Super-resolution imaging device comprising at least a first and a second elongated coupling element, each having a first transverse dimension at a first end and a second transverse dimension at a second end and being adapted for guiding light between their respective first and second ends, each...

  11. Characteristics of CoPc/CdS hybrid diode device

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Murat Çalişkan; Serço Serkis Yeşilkaya; Mevlüde Canlica

    2015-09-01

    CdS/CoPc hybrid heterojunctions were fabricated and characterized. CdS films were deposited by the spray pyrolysis technique on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrates and CoPc films coated on CdS by chemical precipitation. Ag contact metal deposited on CoPc by e-beam evaporation and glass/ITO/CdS/ CoPc/Ag structures were fabricated. Rectification ratio, ideality factor, barrier height and junction parameters of the devices were determined. It is shown that device has diode characteristics with the ideality factor (n) of 4.8, rectification ratio of 4.5 and the built-in voltage (b) of 0.48 V. Absorption energy for CoPc was found as 1.57 eV. The results encourage utilizing CoPc as absorber organic material for solar cells.

  12. HOPIS: hybrid omnidirectional and perspective imaging system for mobile robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huei-Yung; Wang, Min-Liang

    2014-09-04

    In this paper, we present a framework for the hybrid omnidirectional and perspective robot vision system. Based on the hybrid imaging geometry, a generalized stereo approach is developed via the construction of virtual cameras. It is then used to rectify the hybrid image pair using the perspective projection model. The proposed method not only simplifies the computation of epipolar geometry for the hybrid imaging system, but also facilitates the stereo matching between the heterogeneous image formation. Experimental results for both the synthetic data and real scene images have demonstrated the feasibility of our approach.

  13. Sparsely-Bonded CMOS Hybrid Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor); Hancock, Bruce R. (Inventor); Sun, Chao (Inventor); Jones, Todd J. (Inventor); Dickie, Matthew R. (Inventor); Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor); Hoenk, Michael E. (Inventor); Wrigley, Christopher J. (Inventor); Newton, Kenneth W. (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A method and device for imaging or detecting electromagnetic radiation is provided. A device structure includes a first chip interconnected with a second chip. The first chip includes a detector array, wherein the detector array comprises a plurality of light sensors and one or more transistors. The second chip includes a Read Out Integrated Circuit (ROIC) that reads out, via the transistors, a signal produced by the light sensors. A number of interconnects between the ROIC and the detector array can be less than one per light sensor or pixel.

  14. Hybrid Prediction and Fractal Hyperspectral Image Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiping Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The data size of hyperspectral image is too large for storage and transmission, and it has become a bottleneck restricting its applications. So it is necessary to study a high efficiency compression method for hyperspectral image. Prediction encoding is easy to realize and has been studied widely in the hyperspectral image compression field. Fractal coding has the advantages of high compression ratio, resolution independence, and a fast decoding speed, but its application in the hyperspectral image compression field is not popular. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for hyperspectral image compression based on hybrid prediction and fractal. Intraband prediction is implemented to the first band and all the remaining bands are encoded by modified fractal coding algorithm. The proposed algorithm can effectively exploit the spectral correlation in hyperspectral image, since each range block is approximated by the domain block in the adjacent band, which is of the same size as the range block. Experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm provides very promising performance at low bitrate. Compared to other algorithms, the encoding complexity is lower, the decoding quality has a great enhancement, and the PSNR can be increased by about 5 dB to 10 dB.

  15. Recognition of Cuneiform Inscription Signs by use of a Hybrid-Optoelectronic Correlator Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoli, Nazif; Kamps, Jörn; Krüger, Sven; Gruber, Hartmut; Wernicke, Günther

    2002-08-01

    A hybrid-optoelectronic correlator device and an algorithm are proposed for recognizing cuneiform inscription signs. The device is based on the extended correlator architecture with three liquid-crystal display(s) (LCD)s and three light detectors: one CCD camera for capturing the input image, one LCD for displaying the input image, two LCDs for the complex correlation filter (amplitude and phase parts), and two detectors for measuring the total and peak intensities of the output correlation information. The recognition algorithm is designed to allow automatic as well as real-time processing. The recognition results are given for the cuneiform signs impressed on an original clay tablet. The investigated tablet (VAT 12890 of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin, Germany) was found in Bogazk öy (Hattusha) and dates from the 14th century B.C. It is a fragment of the Epic of Gilgamesh in the Akkadian language with a large number of the sign samples.

  16. Hybrid nano-structure for enhanced energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuvo, Mohammad Arif Ishtiaque

    The goal of this research is to develop electrode materials using various nano-structure hybrids for improved energy storage devices. Enhancing the performance of energy storage device has been gaining tremendous attention since it holds the key solution to advance renewable energy usage thus reduce the consumption of fossil fuels. The application of energy storage devices such as super-capacitor and Li-ion-battery has seen significant growth; however, it is still limited mainly by charge/discharge rate and energy density. One of the solutions is to use nano-structure materials, which offer higher power at high energy density and improved stability during the charge discharge cycling of ions in and out of the storage electrode material. In this research, carbon-based materials (e.g. porous carbon, graphene) in conjunction with metal oxides such as CeO2 nanoparticles/TiO2 nanowires are synthesized utilizing low temperature hydrothermal method for the fabrication of advanced electrode materials. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier Transformation Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) were used for materials characterization. Poentio-galvanostat, battery analyzer, and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) were used for evaluating the electrochemical performance. The testing results have shown that a maximum 500% higher specific capacitance could be obtained using porous carbon/CeO2 instead of porous carbon for super-capacitor application and microwave exfoliated graphene oxide/TiO2 nanowire hybrid provides up to 80% increment of specific capacity compared to porous carbon anode for Li-ion-battery application.

  17. Molecular detection via hybrid peptide-semiconductor photonic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estephan, E.; Saab, M.-b.; Martin, M.; Cloitre, T.; Larroque, C.; Cuisinier, F. J. G.; Malvezzi, A. M.; Gergely, C.

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the possibilities to support device functionality that includes strongly confined and localized light emission and detection processes within nano/micro-structured semiconductors for biosensing applications. The interface between biological molecules and semiconductor surfaces, yet still under-explored is a key issue for improving biomolecular recognition in devices. We report on the use of adhesion peptides, elaborated via combinatorial phage-display libraries for controlled placement of biomolecules, leading to user-tailored hybrid photonic systems for molecular detection. An M13 bacteriophage library has been used to screen 1010 different peptides against various semiconductors to finally isolate specific peptides presenting a high binding capacity for the target surfaces. When used to functionalize porous silicon microcavities (PSiM) and GaAs/AlGaAs photonic crystals, we observe the formation of extremely thin (detection was monitored via both linear and nonlinear optical measurements. Our linear reflectance spectra demonstrate an enhanced detection resolution via PSiM devices, when functionalized with the Si-specific peptide. Molecular capture at even lower concentrations (femtomols) is possible via the second harmonic generation of GaAs/AlGaAs photonic crystals when functionalized with GaAs-specific peptides. Our work demonstrates the outstanding value of adhesion peptides as interface linkers between semiconductors and biological molecules. They assure an enhanced molecular detection via both linear and nonlinear answers of photonic crystals.

  18. Battery-Supercapacitor Hybrid Devices: Recent Progress and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Wenhua; Li, Ruizhi; Zhou, Cheng; Li, Yuanyuan; Xia, Jianlong; Liu, Jinping

    2017-07-01

    Design and fabrication of electrochemical energy storage systems with both high energy and power densities as well as long cycling life is of great importance. As one of these systems, Battery-supercapacitor hybrid device (BSH) is typically constructed with a high-capacity battery-type electrode and a high-rate capacitive electrode, which has attracted enormous attention due to its potential applications in future electric vehicles, smart electric grids, and even miniaturized electronic/optoelectronic devices, etc. With proper design, BSH will provide unique advantages such as high performance, cheapness, safety, and environmental friendliness. This review first addresses the fundamental scientific principle, structure, and possible classification of BSHs, and then reviews the recent advances on various existing and emerging BSHs such as Li-/Na-ion BSHs, acidic/alkaline BSHs, BSH with redox electrolytes, and BSH with pseudocapacitive electrode, with the focus on materials and electrochemical performances. Furthermore, recent progresses in BSH devices with specific functionalities of flexibility and transparency, etc. will be highlighted. Finally, the future developing trends and directions as well as the challenges will also be discussed; especially, two conceptual BSHs with aqueous high voltage window and integrated 3D electrode/electrolyte architecture will be proposed.

  19. Majorana fermions in hybrid superconductor-semiconductor nanowire devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourik, V.; Zuo, K.; van Woerkom, D. J.; de Vries, F. R.; Gul, O.; Zhang, H.; de Moor, M. A. W.; Car, D.; Bakkers, E. P. A. M.; Kouwenhoven, L. P.

    2015-03-01

    Our experiment carried out in hybrid superconductor-semiconductor nanowire devices gave the first experimental indications for the existence of Majorana fermions, but many open questions need to be answered. Majorana fermions have to come in pairs, before we were only capable of probing one Majorana fermion. Majorana fermions should be fully gate controllable, which could not be demonstrated convincingly. Upon bringing Majorana fermions closer together, an energy splitting between the two is expected, giving rise to a pair of split peaks instead of a single zero bias peak (ZBP). We are performing new experiments in similar but improved three terminal normal-superconductor-normal InSb nanowire devices. This enables the possibility to probe Majorana fermions occurring at the ends of the superconducting contact by using tunneling spectroscopy. Furthermore, the devices have an improved gate design enabling more efficient gating under the superconducting contact and they have improved contact interfaces resulting in less undesired resonant states. We have observed ZBP's in a large magnetic field range, an oscillatory behavior from ZBP to split peak and back, and tunability of ZBP's by gates underneath the superconducting contact.

  20. Electronic heat current rectification in hybrid superconducting devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornieri, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.fornieri@sns.it; Giazotto, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.giazotto@sns.it [NEST, Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR and Scuola Normale Superiore, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Martínez-Pérez, María José [Physikalisches Institut - Experimentalphysik II Universität Tübingen, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany)

    2015-05-15

    In this work, we review and expand recent theoretical proposals for the realization of electronic thermal diodes based on tunnel-junctions of normal metal and superconducting thin films. Starting from the basic rectifying properties of a single hybrid tunnel junction, we will show how the rectification efficiency can be largely increased by combining multiple junctions in an asymmetric chain of tunnel-coupled islands. We propose three different designs, analyzing their performance and their potential advantages. Besides being relevant from a fundamental physics point of view, this kind of devices might find important technological application as fundamental building blocks in solid-state thermal nanocircuits and in general-purpose cryogenic electronic applications requiring energy management.

  1. Multilayer crack-free hybrid coatings for functional devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Shumaila; Bidin, Noriah; Riaz, Saira; Naseem, Shahzad; Marsin Sanagi, Mohd.; Imran, M.

    2016-04-01

    Porous acid catalyzed TiO2 single, SiO2-TiO2 hybrid, and TiO2/SiO2-TiO2/SiO2 multilayer coatings are synthesized and characterized for optical and electro-optical applications. The reflection value is reasonably reduced from the surface of the glass by integrating sol-gel based spin-coated single and multilayer thin films. Structurally, the films show uniform, crack-free, and porous nanofilms with good surface roughness of below 10 nm, which has potential for optical applications. Wide range tunability of refractive index (2.83 to 1.59) with more than 78% optical transparency is observed. The multilayered reflection profile is observed around 0.18%, so these coatings are desirable for optochemical functional devices.

  2. HistoFlex--a microfluidic device providing uniform flow conditions enabling highly sensitive, reproducible and quantitative in situ hybridizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søe, Martin Jensen; Okkels, Fridolin; Sabourin, David; Alberti, Massimo; Holmstrøm, Kim; Dufva, Martin

    2011-11-21

    A microfluidic device (the HistoFlex) designed to perform and monitor molecular biological assays under dynamic flow conditions on microscope slide-substrates, with special emphasis on analyzing histological tissue sections, is presented. Microscope slides were reversibly sealed onto a cast polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) insert, patterned with distribution channels and reaction chambers. Topology optimization was used to design reaction chambers with uniform flow conditions. The HistoFlex provided uniform hybridization conditions, across the reaction chamber, as determined by hybridization to microscope slides of spotted DNA microarrays when applying probe concentrations generally used in in situ hybridization (ISH) assays. The HistoFlex's novel ability in online monitoring of an in situ hybridization assay was demonstrated using direct fluorescent detection of hybridization to 18S rRNA. Tissue sections were not visually damaged during assaying, which enabled adapting a complete ISH assay for detection of microRNAs (miRNA). The effects of flow based incubations on hybridization, antibody incubation and Tyramide Signal Amplification (TSA) steps were investigated upon adapting the ISH assay for performing in the HistoFlex. The hybridization step was significantly enhanced using flow based incubations due to improved hybridization efficiency. The HistoFlex device enabled a fast miRNA ISH assay (3 hours) which provided higher hybridization signal intensity compared to using conventional techniques (5 h 40 min). We further demonstrate that the improved hybridization efficiency using the HistoFlex permits more complex assays e.g. those comprising sequential hybridization and detection of two miRNAs to be performed with significantly increased sensitivity. The HistoFlex provides a new histological analysis platform that will allow multiple and sequential assays to be performed under their individual optimum assay conditions. Images can subsequently be recorded either in

  3. 21 CFR 892.2010 - Medical image storage device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....2010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2010 Medical image storage device. (a..., and digital memory. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the...

  4. High accuracy FIONA-AFM hybrid imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronczek, D N; Quammen, C; Wang, H; Kisker, C; Superfine, R; Taylor, R; Erie, D A; Tessmer, I

    2011-04-01

    Multi-protein complexes are ubiquitous and play essential roles in many biological mechanisms. Single molecule imaging techniques such as electron microscopy (EM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) are powerful methods for characterizing the structural properties of multi-protein and multi-protein-DNA complexes. However, a significant limitation to these techniques is the ability to distinguish different proteins from one another. Here, we combine high resolution fluorescence microscopy and AFM (FIONA-AFM) to allow the identification of different proteins in such complexes. Using quantum dots as fiducial markers in addition to fluorescently labeled proteins, we are able to align fluorescence and AFM information to ≥8nm accuracy. This accuracy is sufficient to identify individual fluorescently labeled proteins in most multi-protein complexes. We investigate the limitations of localization precision and accuracy in fluorescence and AFM images separately and their effects on the overall registration accuracy of FIONA-AFM hybrid images. This combination of the two orthogonal techniques (FIONA and AFM) opens a wide spectrum of possible applications to the study of protein interactions, because AFM can yield high resolution (5-10nm) information about the conformational properties of multi-protein complexes and the fluorescence can indicate spatial relationships of the proteins in the complexes.

  5. Hybrid materials and polymer electrolytes for electrochromic device applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Vijay Kumar; Ding, Guoqiang; Ma, Jan; Lee, Pooi See; Lu, Xuehong

    2012-08-08

    Electrochromic (EC) materials and polymer electrolytes are the most imperative and active components in an electrochromic device (ECD). EC materials are able to reversibly change their light absorption properties in a certain wavelength range via redox reactions stimulated by low direct current (dc) potentials of the order of a fraction of volts to a few volts. The redox switching may result in a change in color of the EC materials owing to the generation of new or changes in absorption band in visible region, infrared or even microwave region. In ECDs the electrochromic layers need to be incorporated with supportive components such as electrical contacts and ion conducting electrolytes. The electrolytes play an indispensable role as the prime ionic conduction medium between the electrodes of the EC materials. The expected applications of the electrochromism in numerous fields such as reflective-type display and smart windows/mirrors make these materials of prime importance. In this article we have reviewed several examples from our research work as well as from other researchers' work, describing the recent advancements on the materials that exhibit visible electrochromism and polymer electrolytes for electrochromic devices. The first part of the review is centered on nanostructured inorganic and conjugated polymer-based organic-inorganic hybrid EC materials. The emphasis has been to correlate the structures, morphologies and interfacial interactions of the EC materials to their electronic and ionic properties that influence the EC properties with unique advantages. The second part illustrates the perspectives of polymer electrolytes in electrochromic applications with emphasis on poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO), poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) based polymer electrolytes. The requirements and approaches to optimize the formulation of electrolytes for feasible electrochromic devices have been delineated. Copyright © 2012 WILEY

  6. A hybrid continuous-wave terahertz imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolganova, Irina N., E-mail: in.dolganova@gmail.com; Zaytsev, Kirill I., E-mail: kirzay@gmail.ru; Metelkina, Anna A.; Karasik, Valeriy E.; Yurchenko, Stanislav O., E-mail: st.yurchenko@mail.ru [Bauman Moscow State Technical University, 2nd Baumanskaya str. 5, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-15

    A hybrid (active-passive mode) terahertz (THz) imaging system and an algorithm for imaging synthesis are proposed to enhance the THz image quality. The concept of image contrast is used to compare active and passive THz imaging. Combining the measurement of the self-emitted radiation of the object with the back-scattered source radiation measurement, it becomes possible to use the THz image to retrieve maximum information about the object. The experimental results confirm the advantages of hybrid THz imaging systems, which can be generalized for a wide range of applications in the material sciences, chemical physics, bio-systems, etc.

  7. Microwave impedance imaging on semiconductor memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundhikanjana, Worasom; Lai, Keji; Yang, Yongliang; Kelly, Michael; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2011-03-01

    Microwave impedance microscopy (MIM) maps out the real and imaginary components of the tip-sample impedance, from which the local conductivity and dielectric constant distribution can be derived. The stray field contribution is minimized in our shielded cantilever design, enabling quantitative analysis of nano-materials and device structures. We demonstrate here that the MIM can spatially resolve the conductivity variation in a dynamic random access memory (DRAM) sample. With DC or low-frequency AC bias applied to the tip, contrast between n-doped and p-doped regions in the dC/dV images is observed, and p-n junctions are highlighted in the dR/dV images. The results can be directly compared with data taken by scanning capacitance microscope (SCM), which uses unshielded cantilevers and resonant electronics, and the MIM reveals more information of the local dopant concentration than SCM.

  8. New hybrid encapsulation for flexible organic light-emitting devices on plastic substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Song; ZHANG DeQiang; LI Yang; DUAN Lian; DONG GuiFang; WANG LiDuo; QIU Yong

    2008-01-01

    The hybrid encapsulation for flexible organic light-emitting devices on plastic substrate was investi-gated. The hybrid encapsulation consisted of four periods of Alq3/LiF layers as the pre-encapsulation layer and a flexible aluminum foil coated with getter as the encapsulation cap. We measured the device lifetime at a continuous constant current of 20 mA/cm2, which corresponded to an initial luminance of 2000 cd/m2, The half-luminance decay time of the encapsulated device was about 458 h. More over, the hybrid encapsulation is ultrathin and flexible, ensuring device bendability.

  9. Image pixel device using integrated organic electronic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swathi, K.; Narayan, K. S.

    2016-11-01

    We report a solution processed, monolithically integrated device similar to an imaging pixel element used in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) based cameras. This integrated pixel essentially consists of a pair of organic photodiode (OPD) and organic field effect transistor (OFET). The signal generated by the light responsive OPD drives the OFET to different output states to quantify the light intensity. The prerequisite of a low operating voltage OFET (polymer semiconductor and a self-assembled hybrid dielectric layer. A bulk heterojunction blend was used as the photo-active layer in the OPD along with suitable buffer layers for charge extraction. The material parameters were optimized to realize a suitable structure which clearly demonstrated the interplay of the OPD and OFET operations, thereby forming a roadmap for all-organic CMOS arrays.

  10. High process yield rates of thermoplastic nanofluidic devices using a hybrid thermal assembly technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uba, Franklin I; Hu, Bo; Weerakoon-Ratnayake, Kumuditha; Oliver-Calixte, Nyote; Soper, Steven A

    2015-02-21

    Over the past decade, thermoplastics have been used as alternative substrates to glass and Si for microfluidic devices because of the diverse and robust fabrication protocols available for thermoplastics that can generate high production rates of the desired structures at low cost and with high replication fidelity, the extensive array of physiochemical properties they possess, and the simple surface activation strategies that can be employed to tune their surface chemistry appropriate for the intended application. While the advantages of polymer microfluidics are currently being realized, the evolution of thermoplastic-based nanofluidic devices is fraught with challenges. One challenge is assembly of the device, which consists of sealing a cover plate to the patterned fluidic substrate. Typically, channel collapse or substrate dissolution occurs during assembly making the device inoperable resulting in low process yield rates. In this work, we report a low temperature hybrid assembly approach for the generation of functional thermoplastic nanofluidic devices with high process yield rates (>90%) and with a short total assembly time (16 min). The approach involves thermally sealing a high T(g) (glass transition temperature) substrate containing the nanofluidic structures to a cover plate possessing a lower T(g). Nanofluidic devices with critical feature sizes ranging between 25-250 nm were fabricated in a thermoplastic substrate (T(g) = 104 °C) and sealed with a cover plate (T(g) = 75 °C) at a temperature significantly below the T(g) of the substrate. Results obtained from sealing tests revealed that the integrity of the nanochannels remained intact after assembly and devices were useful for fluorescence imaging at high signal-to-noise ratios. The functionality of the assembled devices was demonstrated by studying the stretching and translocation dynamics of dsDNA in the enclosed thermoplastic nanofluidic channels.

  11. GPU-based Image Analysis on Mobile Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Ensor, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid advances in mobile technology many mobile devices are capable of capturing high quality images and video with their embedded camera. This paper investigates techniques for real-time processing of the resulting images, particularly on-device utilizing a graphical processing unit. Issues and limitations of image processing on mobile devices are discussed, and the performance of graphical processing units on a range of devices measured through a programmable shader implementation of Canny edge detection.

  12. Elastomeric actuator devices for magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowsky, Steven (Inventor); Hafez, Moustapha (Inventor); Jolesz, Ferenc A. (Inventor); Kacher, Daniel F. (Inventor); Lichter, Matthew (Inventor); Weiss, Peter (Inventor); Wingert, Andreas (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention is directed to devices and systems used in magnetic imaging environments that include an actuator device having an elastomeric dielectric film with at least two electrodes, and a frame attached to the actuator device. The frame can have a plurality of configurations including, such as, for example, at least two members that can be, but not limited to, curved beams, rods, plates, or parallel beams. These rigid members can be coupled to flexible members such as, for example, links wherein the frame provides an elastic restoring force. The frame preferably provides a linear actuation force characteristic over a displacement range. The linear actuation force characteristic is defined as .+-.20% and preferably 10% over a displacement range. The actuator further includes a passive element disposed between the flexible members to tune a stiffness characteristic of the actuator. The passive element can be a bi-stable element. The preferred embodiment actuator includes one or more layers of the elastomeric film integrated into the frame. The elastomeric film can be made of many elastomeric materials such as, for example, but not limited to, acrylic, silicone and latex.

  13. Hybrid energy harvesting/transmission system for embedded devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehr, Adam; Park, Gyuhae; Farinholt, Kevin

    2012-04-01

    In most energy harvesting applications the need for a reliable long-term energy supply is essential in powering embedded sensing and control electronics. The goal of many harvesters is to extract energy from the ambient environment to power hardware; however in some applications there may be conditions in which the harvester's performance cannot meet all of the demands of the embedded electronics. One method for addressing this shortfall is to supplement harvested power through the transmission of wireless energy, a concept that has successfully been demonstrated by the authors in previous studies. In this paper we present our findings on the use of a single electromagnetic coil to harvest kinetic energy in a solenoid configuration, as well as background and directed wireless energy in the 2.4 GHz radio frequency (RF) bands commonly used in WiFi and cellular phone applications. The motivation for this study is to develop a compact energy harvester / receiver that conserves physical volume, while providing multi-modal energy harvesting capabilities. As with most hybrid systems there are performance trade-offs that must be considered when capturing energy from different physical sources. As part of this paper, many of the issues related to power transmission, physical design, and potential applications are addressed for this device.

  14. Voltage biased Varistor-Transistor Hybrid Devices: Properties and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghvendra K Pandey

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the properties and potential applications of a novel hybrid varistor device originating from biased voltage induced modified nonlinear current-voltage (I-V characteristics. Single crystal of an oxide semiconductor in the family of iron-titanates with the chemical formula of Fe2TiO5 (pseudobrookite has been used as substrate for the varistor. The modifications of the varistor characteristics are achieved by superimposition of a bias voltage in the current path of the varistor. These altered I-V characteristics, when analyzed, reveal the existence of embedded transistors coexisting with the varistor. These transistors exhibit mutual conductance, signal amplification and electronic switching which are the defining signatures of a typical transistor. The tuned varistors also acquire the properties of signal amplification and mutual conductance which expand the range of applications for a varistor beyond its traditional use as circuit protector. Both tuned varistors and the embedded transistors have attributes which make them suitable for many applications in electronics including at high temperatures and for radiation dominated environments such as space.

  15. Hybrid electroluminescent device based on MEH-PPV and ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewidy, Dina; Gadallah, A.-S.; Fattah, G. Abdel

    2017-02-15

    Hybrid organic/inorganic electroluminescent device based on the structure of glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/MEH-PPV/ZnO/ZnO submicrorods/Al has been manufactured. Spin coating has been used to deposit both PEDOT:PSS and MEH-PPV. Two-step process has been used to synthesis ZnO submicrorods, namely, spin coating and chemical bath deposition. Changing the dimensions of the ZnO submicrorods in this layer structure has been investigated to improve the performance of the organic/inorganic electroluminescence device. Such layer structure provides electroluminescence with narrow emission bands due to a high gain with this structure. X-ray diffraction patterns and scanning electron microscope images show that ZnO submicrorods have hexagon structure. Current-voltage curve for the structure has been reported. Electroluminescence curves (electroluminescence intensity versus wavelength) at different bias voltages have been presented and these results show narrowing in full width at half maximum in the spectra at high current density compared to photoluminescence excitation. The narrowing in the spectrum has been explained. - Highlights: • Manufacturing of MEH-PPV and ZnO electroluminescent device has been reported. • Spin coating and chemical bath deposition have been used for preparation of ZnO. • SEM images and X-ray diffraction of ZnO have been presented. • Current-voltage curves and electroluminescent measurements have been reported.

  16. Tiny Devices Project Sharp, Colorful Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Displaytech Inc., based in Longmont, Colorado and recently acquired by Micron Technology Inc. of Boise, Idaho, first received a Small Business Innovation Research contract in 1993 from Johnson Space Center to develop tiny, electronic, color displays, called microdisplays. Displaytech has since sold over 20 million microdisplays and was ranked one of the fastest growing technology companies by Deloitte and Touche in 2005. Customers currently incorporate the microdisplays in tiny pico-projectors, which weigh only a few ounces and attach to media players, cell phones, and other devices. The projectors can convert a digital image from the typical postage stamp size into a bright, clear, four-foot projection. The company believes sales of this type of pico-projector may exceed $1.1 billion within 5 years.

  17. Hybrid approach for Image Encryption Using SCAN Patterns and Carrier Images

    CERN Document Server

    T, Panduranga H

    2010-01-01

    We propose a hybrid technique for image encryption which employs the concept of carrier image and SCAN patterns generated by SCAN methodology. Although it involves existing method like SCAN methodology, the novelty of the work lies in hybridizing and carrier image creation for encryption. Here the carrier image is created with the help of alphanumeric keyword. Each alphanumeric key will be having a unique 8bit value generated by 4 out of 8-code. This newly generated carrier image is added with original image to obtain encrypted image. The scan methodology is applied to either original image or carrier image, after the addition of original image and carrier image to obtain highly distorted encrypted image. The resulting image is found to be more distorted in hybrid technique. By applying the reverse process we get the decrypted image.

  18. Hybrid stent device of flow-diverting effect and stent-assisted coil embolization formed by fractal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Masahiro; Irie, Keiko; Masunaga, Kouhei; Sakai, Yasuhiko; Nakajima, Masahiro; Takeuchi, Masaru; Fukuda, Toshio; Arai, Fumihito; Negoro, Makoto

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a novel hybrid medical stent device. This hybrid stent device formed by fractal mesh structures provides a flow-diverting effect and stent-assisted coil embolization. Flow-diverter stents decrease blood flow into an aneurysm to prevent its rupture. In general, the mesh size of a flow-diverter stent needs to be small enough to prevent blood flow into the aneurysm. Conventional flow-diverter stents are not available for stent-assisted coil embolization, which is an effective method for aneurysm occlusion, because the mesh size is too small to insert a micro-catheter for coil embolization. The proposed hybrid stent device is capable of stent-assisted coil embolization while simultaneously providing a flow-diverting effect. The fractal stent device is composed of mesh structures with fine and rough mesh areas. The rough mesh area can be used to insert a micro-catheter for stent-assisted coil embolization. Flow-diverting effects of two fractal stent designs were composed to three commercially available stent designs. Flow-diverting effects were analyzed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis and particle image velocimetry (PIV) experiment. Based on the CFD and PIV results, the fractal stent devices reduce the flow velocity inside an aneurism just as much as the commercially available flow-diverting stents while allowing stent-assisted coil embolization.

  19. Image Steganography using Hybrid Edge Detector and Ridgelet Transform

    OpenAIRE

    S.UMA MAHESWARI; D. Jude Hemanth

    2015-01-01

    Steganography is the art of hiding high sensitive information in digital image, text, video, and audio. In this paper, authors have proposed a frequency domain steganography method operating in the Ridgelet transform. Authors engage the advantage of ridgelet transform, which represents the digital image with straight edges. In the embedding phase, the proposed hybrid edge detector acts as a preprocessing step to obtain the edge image from the cover image, then the edge image is partitioned in...

  20. Self-assembling hybrid diamond-biological quantum devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, A.; Koplovitz, G.; Retzker, A.; Jelezko, F.; Yochelis, S.; Porath, D.; Nevo, Y.; Shoseyov, O.; Paltiel, Y.; Plenio, M. B.

    2014-09-01

    The realization of scalable arrangements of nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in diamond remains a key challenge on the way towards efficient quantum information processing, quantum simulation and quantum sensing applications. Although technologies based on implanting NV-centers in bulk diamond crystals or hybrid device approaches have been developed, they are limited by the achievable spatial resolution and by the intricate technological complexities involved in achieving scalability. We propose and demonstrate a novel approach for creating an arrangement of NV-centers, based on the self-assembling capabilities of biological systems and their beneficial nanometer spatial resolution. Here, a self-assembled protein structure serves as a structural scaffold for surface functionalized nanodiamonds, in this way allowing for the controlled creation of NV-structures on the nanoscale and providing a new avenue towards bridging the bio-nano interface. One-, two- as well as three-dimensional structures are within the scope of biological structural assembling techniques. We realized experimentally the formation of regular structures by interconnecting nanodiamonds using biological protein scaffolds. Based on the achievable NV-center distances of 11 nm, we evaluate the expected dipolar coupling interaction with neighboring NV-centers as well as the expected decoherence time. Moreover, by exploiting these couplings, we provide a detailed theoretical analysis on the viability of multiqubit quantum operations, suggest the possibility of individual addressing based on the random distribution of the NV intrinsic symmetry axes and address the challenges posed by decoherence and imperfect couplings. We then demonstrate in the last part that our scheme allows for the high-fidelity creation of entanglement, cluster states and quantum simulation applications.

  1. Research Update: Hybrid energy devices combining nanogenerators and energy storage systems for self-charging capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeonghun; Lee, Ju-Hyuck; Lee, Jaewoo; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Choi, Chang Ho; Kim, Jung Ho

    2017-07-01

    The past decade has been especially creative for nanogenerators as energy harvesting devices utilizing both piezoelectric and triboelectric properties. Most recently, self-charging power units using both nanogenerators and energy storage systems have begun to be investigated for portable and wearable electronics to be used in our daily lives. This review focuses on these hybrid devices with self-charging combined with energy harvesting storage systems based on the most recent reports. In this research update, we will describe the materials, device structures, integration, applications, and research progress up to the present on hybrid devices.

  2. Hybrid Optical Devices: The Case of the Unification of the Electrochromic Device and the Organic Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre F. S. Guedes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of Hybrid Optical Devices, using some flexible optically transparent substrate material and organic semiconductor materials, has been widely utilized by the organic electronic industry, when manufacturing new technological products. The Hybrid Optical Device is constituted by the union of the electrochromic device and the organic solar cell. The flexible organic photovoltaic solar cells, in this hybrid optical device, have been the Poly base (3-hexyl thiophene, P3HT, Phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester, PCBM and Polyaniline, PANI, all being deposited in Indium Tin Oxide, ITO. In addition, the thin film, obtained by the deposition of PANI, and prepared in perchloric acid solution, has been identified through PANI-X1. In the flexible electrochromic device, the Poly base (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene, PEDOT, has been prepared in Propylene Carbonate, PC, being deposited in Indium Tin Oxide, ITO. Also, both devices have been united by an electrolyte solution prepared with Vanadium Pentoxide, V2O5, Lithium Perchlorate, LiClO4, and Polymethylmethacrylate, PMMA. This device has been characterized through Electrical Measurements, such as UV-Vis Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Thus, the result obtained through electrical measurements has demonstrated that the flexible organic photovoltaic solar cell presented the characteristic curve of standard solar cell after spin-coating and electrodeposition. Accordingly, the results obtained with optical and electrical characterization have revealed that the electrochromic device demonstrated some change in optical absorption, when subjected to some voltage difference. Moreover, the inclusion of the V2O5/PANI-X1 layer reduced the effects of degradation that this hybrid organic device caused, that is, solar irradiation. Studies on Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM have found out that the surface of V2O5/PANI-X1 layers can be strongly conditioned by the surface morphology of the

  3. Efficient hybrid method for time reversal superresolution imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohua Wang,Wei Gao,; Bingzhong Wang

    2015-01-01

    An efficient hybrid time reversal (TR) imaging method based on signal subspace and noise subspace is proposed for electromagnetic superresolution detecting and imaging. First, the locations of targets are estimated by the transmitting-mode decom-position of the TR operator (DORT) method employing the signal subspace. Then, the TR multiple signal classification (TR-MUSIC) method employing the noise subspace is used in the estimated target area to get the superresolution imaging of targets. Two examples with homogeneous and inhomogeneous background mediums are considered, respectively. The results show that the proposed hybrid method has advantages in CPU time and memory cost because of the combination of rough and fine imaging.

  4. A hybrid algorithm for speckle noise reduction of ultrasound images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Karamjeet; Ranade, Sukhjeet Kaur; Singh, Chandan

    2017-09-01

    Medical images are contaminated by multiplicative speckle noise which significantly reduce the contrast of ultrasound images and creates a negative effect on various image interpretation tasks. In this paper, we proposed a hybrid denoising approach which collaborate the both local and nonlocal information in an efficient manner. The proposed hybrid algorithm consist of three stages in which at first stage the use of local statistics in the form of guided filter is used to reduce the effect of speckle noise initially. Then, an improved speckle reducing bilateral filter (SRBF) is developed to further reduce the speckle noise from the medical images. Finally, to reconstruct the diffused edges we have used the efficient post-processing technique which jointly considered the advantages of both bilateral and nonlocal mean (NLM) filter for the attenuation of speckle noise efficiently. The performance of proposed hybrid algorithm is evaluated on synthetic, simulated and real ultrasound images. The experiments conducted on various test images demonstrate that our proposed hybrid approach outperforms the various traditional speckle reduction approaches included recently proposed NLM and optimized Bayesian-based NLM. The results of various quantitative, qualitative measures and by visual inspection of denoise synthetic and real ultrasound images demonstrate that the proposed hybrid algorithm have strong denoising capability and able to preserve the fine image details such as edge of a lesion better than previously developed methods for speckle noise reduction. The denoising and edge preserving capability of hybrid algorithm is far better than existing traditional and recently proposed speckle reduction (SR) filters. The success of proposed algorithm would help in building the lay foundation for inventing the hybrid algorithms for denoising of ultrasound images. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Lossless compression of hyperspectral images using hybrid context prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuan; Li, Jianping; Guo, Ke

    2012-03-26

    In this letter a new algorithm for lossless compression of hyperspectral images using hybrid context prediction is proposed. Lossless compression algorithms are typically divided into two stages, a decorrelation stage and a coding stage. The decorrelation stage supports both intraband and interband predictions. The intraband (spatial) prediction uses the median prediction model, since the median predictor is fast and efficient. The interband prediction uses hybrid context prediction. The hybrid context prediction is the combination of a linear prediction (LP) and a context prediction. Finally, the residual image of hybrid context prediction is coded by the arithmetic coding. We compare the proposed lossless compression algorithm with some of the existing algorithms for hyperspectral images such as 3D-CALIC, M-CALIC, LUT, LAIS-LUT, LUT-NN, DPCM (C-DPCM), JPEG-LS. The performance of the proposed lossless compression algorithm is evaluated. Simulation results show that our algorithm achieves high compression ratios with low complexity and computational cost.

  6. Wide Temperature Range Hybrid Energy Storage Device Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal concerns the fabrication of a hybrid battery capacitor (HBC) using Eltron's knowledge gained in battery and capacitor research. Energy storage systems...

  7. Biperiodic nanostructured waveguides for wavelength-selectivity of hybrid photonic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talneau, A; Pommarède, X; Itawi, A; Pantzas, K; Lupu, A; Benisty, H

    2015-11-15

    A biperiodic nanostructuration consisting of a super-periodicity added to a nanohole lattice of subwavelength pitch is demonstrated to provide both modal confinement and wavelength selectivity within a hybrid III-V on a silicon waveguide. The wavelength-selective behavior stems from finely tuned larger holes. Such biperiodic hybrid waveguides have been fabricated by oxide-free bonding III-V material on silicon and display well-defined stop bands. Such nanostructured waveguides offer the versatility for designing advanced optical functions within hybrid devices. Moreover, keeping the silicon waveguide surface planar, such nanostructured waveguides are compatible with electrical operation across the oxide-free hybrid interface.

  8. Synthesis of a hybrid model of the VSC FACTS devices and HVDC technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovikov, Yu S.; Gusev, A. S.; Sulaymanov, A. O.; Ufa, R. A.

    2014-10-01

    The motivation of the presented research is based on the need for development of new methods and tools for adequate simulation of FACTS devices and HVDC systems as part of real electric power systems (EPS). The Research object: An alternative hybrid approach for synthesizing VSC-FACTS and -HVDC hybrid model is proposed. The results: the VSC- FACTS and -HVDC hybrid model is designed in accordance with the presented concepts of hybrid simulation. The developed model allows us to carry out adequate simulation in real time of all the processes in HVDC, FACTS devices and EPS as a whole without any decomposition and limitation on their duration, and also use the developed tool for effective solution of a design, operational and research tasks of EPS containing such devices.

  9. First observation of Cherenkov ring images using hybrid photon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, E.; Wilkinson, G. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Div. Particle Physics Experiments; Barber, G.; Duane, A.; John, M.; Miller, D.G.; Websdale, D. [Imperial College of Science Technology and Medicine, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Bibby, J.H.; Giles, R.; Harnew, N.; Smale, N. [University of Oxford, Department of Nuclear Physics, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Brook, N.H.; Halley, A.W.; O`Shea, V. [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); French, M. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Gibson, V.; Wotton, S.A. [University of Cambridge, Cavendish Laboratory, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Schomaker, R. [Delft Electronic Products BV, 9300 AB Roden (Netherlands)

    1998-07-11

    A ring-imaging Cherenkov detector, equipped with hybrid photon detectors, has been operated in a charged-particle beam. Focussed ring images from various particle types were detected using silica aerogel, air and C{sub 4}F{sub 10} gas radiators. The detector, a prototype for the CERN LHC-B experiment, is described and first observations are reported. (orig.)

  10. Medical devices; gastroenterology-urology devices; classification of the colon capsule imaging system. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-16

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the colon capsule imaging system into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the colon capsule imaging system's classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device.

  11. Applications of HTSC films in hybrid optoelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavuna, Davor

    1992-03-01

    An overview is given of potential applications of high-Tc superconductors (HTSC) in the context of hybrid optoelectronic technology. The main requirements are described for the in situ growth of epitaxial YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) (YBCO) films on SrTiO3 and discuss the properties of YBCO layers grown on Si and GaAs substrates with intermediate, conducting indium-tin-oxide buffer layers. The performances of the microbridge and the meander type of HTSC bolometer are compared, and several concepts are discussed that may become relevant for future hybrid optoelectronic technology.

  12. Fast neutron imaging device and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Vladimir; Degtiarenko, Pavel; Musatov, Igor V.

    2014-02-11

    A fast neutron imaging apparatus and method of constructing fast neutron radiography images, the apparatus including a neutron source and a detector that provides event-by-event acquisition of position and energy deposition, and optionally timing and pulse shape for each individual neutron event detected by the detector. The method for constructing fast neutron radiography images utilizes the apparatus of the invention.

  13. Optical image encryption using Kronecker product and hybrid phase masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ravi; Bhaduri, Basanta

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a new technique for security enhancement in optical image encryption system. In this technique we have used the Kronecker product of two random matrices along with the double random phase encoding (DRPE) scheme in the Fresnel domain for optical image encryption. The phase masks used here are different than the random masks used in conventional DRPE scheme. These hybrid phase masks are generated by using the combination of random phase masks and a secondary image. For encryption, the input image is first randomized and then the DRPE in the Fresnel domain is performed using the hybrid phase masks. Secondly, the Kronecker product of two random matrices is multiplied with the DRPE output to get the final encoded image for transmission. The proposed technique consists of more unknown keys for enhanced security and robust against various attacks. The simulation results along with effects under various attacks are presented in support of the proposed technique.

  14. Imaging performance of the hybrid pixel detectors XPAD3-S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, F Cassol; Clemens, J C; Hemmer, C; Morel, C

    2009-03-21

    Hybrid pixel detectors, originally developed for tracking particles in high-energy physics experiments, have recently been used in material sciences and macromolecular crystallography. Their capability to count single photons and to apply a threshold on the photon energy suggests that they could be optimal digital x-ray detectors in low energy beams such as for small animal computed tomography (CT). To investigate this issue, we have studied the imaging performance of photon counting hybrid pixel detectors based on the XPAD3-S chip. Two detectors are considered, connected either to a Si or to a CdTe sensor, the latter being of interest for its higher efficiency. Both a standard 'International Electrotechnical Commission' (IEC) mammography beam and a beam used for mouse CT results published in the literature are employed. The detector stability, linearity and noise are investigated as a function of the dose for several imaging exposures ( approximately 0.1-400 microGy). The perfect linearity of both detectors is confirmed, but an increase in internal noise for counting statistics higher than approximately 5000 photons has been found, corresponding to exposures above approximately 110 microGy and approximately 50 microGy for the Si and CdTe sensors, respectively. The noise power spectrum (NPS), the modulation transfer function (MTF) and the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) are then measured for two energy threshold configurations (5 keV and 18 keV) and three doses ( approximately 3, 30 and 300 microGy), in order to obtain a complete estimation of the detector performances. In general, the CdTe sensor shows a clear superiority with a maximal DQE(0) of approximately 1, thanks to its high efficiency ( approximately 100%). The DQE of the Si sensor is more dependent on the radiation quality, due to the energy dependence of its efficiency its maximum is approximately 0.4 with respect to the softer radiation. Finally, we compare the XPAD3-S DQE with published curves of

  15. Utilizing wind and solar energy as power sources for a hybrid building ventilation device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shun, Simon; Ahmed, Noor A. [School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)

    2008-06-15

    Wind and solar energy are currently used to power many building ventilation devices. Such devices rely exclusively on either solar or wind energy, which limits their usefulness. A low-cost hybrid ventilation device that utilizes both wind and solar energy as power sources was designed to overcome some of the shortcomings of these devices. Wind tunnel testing conducted at the aerodynamics laboratory of the University of New South Wales revealed that the hybrid device had improved operational and performance benefits compared with conventional commercial roof top ventilators, particularly at zero to low wind speeds. This represents a significant step forward and will have an immediate impact in promoting the use of clean energy for the purposes of building ventilation. (author)

  16. Optical-digital hybrid image search system in cloud environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Kanami; Kodate, Kashiko; Watanabe, Eriko

    2016-09-01

    To improve the versatility and usability of optical correlators, we developed an optical-digital hybrid image search system consisting of digital servers and an optical correlator that can be used to perform image searches in the cloud environment via a web browser. This hybrid system employs a simple method to obtain correlation signals and has a distributed network design. The correlation signals are acquired by using an encoder timing signal generated by a rotating disk, and the distributed network design facilitates the replacement and combination of the digital correlation server and the optical correlator.

  17. Interactive display system having a digital micromirror imaging device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, James T.; DeSanto, Leonard; Kaull, Lisa; Brewster, Calvin

    2006-04-11

    A display system includes a waveguide optical panel having an inlet face and an opposite outlet face. A projector cooperates with a digital imaging device, e.g. a digital micromirror imaging device, for projecting an image through the panel for display on the outlet face. The imaging device includes an array of mirrors tiltable between opposite display and divert positions. The display positions reflect an image light beam from the projector through the panel for display on the outlet face. The divert positions divert the image light beam away from the panel, and are additionally used for reflecting a probe light beam through the panel toward the outlet face. Covering a spot on the panel, e.g. with a finger, reflects the probe light beam back through the panel toward the inlet face for detection thereat and providing interactive capability.

  18. Hybrid Superconducting Magnetic Bearing (HSMB) for high load devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, C. K.; Ma, K. B.; Lamb, M. A.; Lin, M. W.; Chow, L.; Meng, R. L.; Hor, P. H.; Chu, W. K.

    1992-05-01

    Lifting capacities greater than 41 N/cm(exp 2) (60 psi) at 77 K have been achieved with a new type of levitation (hybrid) using a combination of permanent magnets and high quality melt-mixtured YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) (YBCO). The key concept of the hybrid superconducting magnetic bearing (HSMB) is the use of strong magnetic repulsion and attraction from permanent magnets for high levitation or suspension forces in conjunction with a superconductor's flux pinning characteristics to counteract the inherent instabilities in a system consisting of magnets only. To illustrate this concept, radial and axial forces between magnet/superconductor, magnet/magnet, and magnet/superconductor/magnet, were measured and compared for the thrust bearing configuration

  19. Hybrid Pixel Detectors for gamma/X-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzistratis, D.; Theodoratos, G.; Zografos, V.; Kazas, I.; Loukas, D.; Lambropoulos, C. P.

    2015-09-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors are made by direct converting high-Z semi-insulating single crystalline material coupled to complementary-metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) readout electronics. They are attractive because direct conversion exterminates all the problems of spatial localization related to light diffusion, energy resolution, is far superior from the combination of scintillation crystals and photomultipliers and lithography can be used to pattern electrodes with very fine pitch. We are developing 2-D pixel CMOS ASICs, connect them to pixilated CdTe crystals with the flip chip and bump bonding method and characterize the hybrids. We have designed a series of circuits, whose latest member consists of a 50×25 pixel array with 400um pitch and an embedded controller. In every pixel a full spectroscopic channel with time tagging information has been implemented. The detectors are targeting Compton scatter imaging and they can be used for coded aperture imaging too. Hybridization using CMOS can overcome the limit put on pixel circuit complexity by the use of thin film transistors (TFT) in large flat panels. Hybrid active pixel sensors are used in dental imaging and other applications (e.g. industrial CT etc.). Thus X-ray imaging can benefit from the work done on dynamic range enhancement methods developed initially for visible and infrared CMOS pixel sensors. A 2-D CMOS ASIC with 100um pixel pitch to demonstrate the feasibility of such methods in the context of X-ray imaging has been designed.

  20. Hybrid Nonlinear Optical Materials for Applications in Power Limiting and Photorefractive Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 04/01/2007 to 11/30/2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9550-07-1-0307 Hybrid Nonlinear Optical Materials for...Hybrid  Nonlinear   Optical   Materials  for Applications in Power  Limiting and Photorefractive devices      Prime Contract: FA95500710307

  1. Hybrid micro-/nanogels for optical sensing and intracellular imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuiqin Zhou

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid micro-/nanogels are playing an increasing important part in a diverse range of applications, due to their tunable dimensions, large surface area, stable interior network structure, and a very short response time. We review recent advances and challenges in the developments of hybrid micro-/nanogels toward applications for optical sensing of pH, temperature, glucose, ions, and other species as well as for intracellular imaging. Due to their unique advantages, hybrid micro-/nanogels as optical probes are attracting substantial interests for continuous monitoring of chemical parameters in complex samples such as blood and bioreactor fluids, in chemical research and industry, and in food quality control. In particular, their intracellular probing ability enables the monitoring of the biochemistry and biophysics of live cells over time and space, thus contributing to the explanation of intricate biological processes and the development of novel diagnoses. Unlike most other probes, hybrid micro-/nanogels could also combine other multiple functions into a single probe. The rational design of hybrid micro-/nanogels will not only improve the probing applications as desirable, but also implement their applications in new arenas. With ongoing rapid advances in bionanotechnology, the well-designed hybrid micro-/nanogel probes will be able to provide simultaneous sensing, imaging diagnosis, and therapy toward clinical applications.

  2. Chemically Integrated Inorganic-Graphene Two-Dimensional Hybrid Materials for Flexible Energy Storage Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lele; Zhu, Yue; Li, Hongsen; Yu, Guihua

    2016-12-01

    State-of-the-art energy storage devices are capable of delivering reasonably high energy density (lithium ion batteries) or high power density (supercapacitors). There is an increasing need for these power sources with not only superior electrochemical performance, but also exceptional flexibility. Graphene has come on to the scene and advancements are being made in integration of various electrochemically active compounds onto graphene or its derivatives so as to utilize their flexibility. Many innovative synthesis techniques have led to novel graphene-based hybrid two-dimensional nanostructures. Here, the chemically integrated inorganic-graphene hybrid two-dimensional materials and their applications for energy storage devices are examined. First, the synthesis and characterization of different kinds of inorganic-graphene hybrid nanostructures are summarized, and then the most relevant applications of inorganic-graphene hybrid materials in flexible energy storage devices are reviewed. The general design rules of using graphene-based hybrid 2D materials for energy storage devices and their current limitations and future potential to advance energy storage technologies are also discussed.

  3. Hybrid superconductor-ferromagnet transistor-like device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevirkovets, I P [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Belogolovskii, M A [Donetsk Institute for Physics and Engineering, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 72 R. Luxemburg Street, Donetsk 83114 (Ukraine)

    2011-02-15

    We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that a ferromagnetic layer as thin as a few nanometres, which is almost transparent for non-superconducting charge transport, can be used as a cut-off filter to block transport of charge-carrier superconducting correlations. This property may be exploited in some applications, as is exemplified by the case of double-barrier S{sub 1}IS{sub 2}FIS{sub 3} multi-terminal devices (with S, I, and F denoting a superconductor, an insulator, and a ferromagnetic metal, respectively), whose principle of operation is based on a nonequilibrium superconducting state driven by tunnel injection of quasiparticles. Using the F layer makes the device asymmetric and considerably improves input-output isolation in comparison with the formerly investigated symmetric S{sub 1}IS{sub 2}IS{sub 3} devices.

  4. Hybrid Back Surface Reflector GaInAsSb Thermophotovoltaic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Robin K.; Wang, Christine A.; Connors, Michael K.; Turner, George W.; Dashiell, Michael

    2004-11-01

    Back surface reflectors have the potential to improve thermophotovoltaic (TPV) device performance though the recirculation of infrared photons. The "hybrid" back-surface reflector (BSR) TPV cell approach allows one to construct BSRs for TPV devices using conventional, high efficiency, GaInAsSb-based TPV material. The design, fabrication, and measurements of hybrid BSR-TPV cells are described. The BSR was shown to provide a 4 mV improvement in open-circuit voltage under a constant short-circuit current, which is comparable to the 5 mV improvement theoretically predicted. Larger improvements in open-circuit voltage are expected in the future with materials improvements.

  5. Hybrid Quantum Device with Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers in Diamond Coupled to Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng-Bo; Xiang, Ze-Liang; Rabl, Peter; Nori, Franco

    2016-07-01

    We show that nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond interfaced with a suspended carbon nanotube carrying a dc current can facilitate a spin-nanomechanical hybrid device. We demonstrate that strong magnetomechanical interactions between a single NV spin and the vibrational mode of the suspended nanotube can be engineered and dynamically tuned by external control over the system parameters. This spin-nanomechanical setup with strong, intrinsic, and tunable magnetomechanical couplings allows for the construction of hybrid quantum devices with NV centers and carbon-based nanostructures, as well as phonon-mediated quantum information processing with spin qubits.

  6. Measurement of Device Parameters Using Image Recovery Techniques in Large-Scale IC Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheick, Leif; Edmonds, Larry

    2004-01-01

    Devices that respond to radiation on a cell level will produce histograms showing the relative frequency of cell damage as a function of damage. The measured distribution is the convolution of distributions from radiation responses, measurement noise, and manufacturing parameters. A method of extracting device characteristics and parameters from measured distributions via mathematical and image subtraction techniques is described.

  7. A New Efficient Hybrid Coding For Progressive Transmission Of Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akansu, Ali N.; Haddad, Richard A.

    1988-10-01

    The hybrid coding technique developed here involves a function of two concepts: progressive interactive image transmission coupled with transform differential coding. There are two notable features in this approach. First, a local average of an mxm (typically 5 x 5) pixel array is formed, quantized and transmitted to the receiver for a preliminary display. This initial pass provides a crude but recognizable image before any further processing or encoding. Upon request from the receiver, the technique then switches to an iterative transform differential encoding scheme. Each iteration progressively provides more image detail at the receiver as requested. Secondly, this hybrid coding technique uses a computationally efficient, real, orthogonal transform, called the Modified Hermite Transform(MHT) [1], to encode the difference image. This MHT is then compared with the Discrete Cosine Transform(DCT) [2] for the same hybrid algorithm. For the standard images tested, we found that the progressive differential coding method per-forms comparably to the well-known direct transform coding methods. The DCT was used as the standard in this traditional approach. This hybrid technique was within 5% of SNR peak-to-peak for the "LENA" image. Comparisons between MHT and DCT as the transform vehicle for the hybrid technique were also conducted. For a transform block size N=8, the DCT requires 50% more multiplications than the MHT. The price paid for this efficiency is modest. For the example tested ("LENA"), the DCT performance gain was 4.2 dB while the MHT was 3.8 dB.

  8. Hybrid Expert Systems In Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mark J.; Gregory, Paul J.

    1987-04-01

    Vision systems capable of inspecting industrial components and assemblies have a large potential market if they can be easily programmed and produced quickly. Currently, vision application software written in conventional high-level languages such as C or Pascal are produced by experts in program design, image analysis, and process control. Applications written this way are difficult to maintain and modify. Unless other similar inspection problems can be found, the final program is essentially one-off redundant code. A general-purpose vision system targeted for the Visual Machines Ltd. C-VAS 3000 image processing workstation, is described which will make writing image analysis software accessible to the non-expert both in programming computers and image analysis. A significant reduction in the effort required to produce vision systems, will be gained through a graphically-driven interactive application generator. Finally, an Expert System will be layered on top to guide the naive user through the process of generating an application.

  9. Hybrid Coding of Image Sequences by Using Wavelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Surin

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new method of hybrid coding of image sequences byusing wavelet transform is proposed. The basic MPEG scheme with DCT hasbeen modificated in sense of replacement DCT by wavelet transform. Inthe proposed method, the motion estimation and compensation are usedfor motion vectors calculation and different frame between currentframe and compensated frame is coded by using wavelet transform. Someexperimental results of image sequences coding by using a new methodare presented.

  10. A New Hybrid Watermarking Algorithm for Images in Frequency Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AhmadReza Naghsh-Nilchi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, digital watermarking has become a popular technique for digital images by hiding secret information which can protect the copyright. The goal of this paper is to develop a hybrid watermarking algorithm. This algorithm used DCT coefficient and DWT coefficient to embedding watermark, and the extracting procedure is blind. The proposed approach is robust to a variety of signal distortions, such as JPEG, image cropping and scaling.

  11. Hyperspectral Image Recovery via Hybrid Regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arablouei, Reza; de Hoog, Frank

    2016-12-01

    Natural images tend to mostly consist of smooth regions with individual pixels having highly correlated spectra. This information can be exploited to recover hyperspectral images of natural scenes from their incomplete and noisy measurements. To perform the recovery while taking full advantage of the prior knowledge, we formulate a composite cost function containing a square-error data-fitting term and two distinct regularization terms pertaining to spatial and spectral domains. The regularization for the spatial domain is the sum of total-variation of the image frames corresponding to all spectral bands. The regularization for the spectral domain is the l1-norm of the coefficient matrix obtained by applying a suitable sparsifying transform to the spectra of the pixels. We use an accelerated proximal-subgradient method to minimize the formulated cost function. We analyze the performance of the proposed algorithm and prove its convergence. Numerical simulations using real hyperspectral images exhibit that the proposed algorithm offers an excellent recovery performance with a number of measurements that is only a small fraction of the hyperspectral image data size. Simulation results also show that the proposed algorithm significantly outperforms an accelerated proximal-gradient algorithm that solves the classical basis-pursuit denoising problem to recover the hyperspectral image.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging safety of deep brain stimulator devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluigbo, Chima O; Rezai, Ali R

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become the standard of care for the evaluation of different neurological disorders of the brain and spinal cord due to its multiplanar capabilities and excellent soft tissue resolution. With the large and increasing population of patients with implanted deep brain stimulation (DBS) devices, a significant proportion of these patients with chronic neurological diseases require evaluation of their primary neurological disease processes by MRI. The presence of an implanted DBS device in a magnetic resonance environment presents potential hazards. These include the potential for induction of electrical currents or heating in DBS devices, which can result in neurological tissue injury, magnetic field-induced device migration, or disruption of the operational aspects of the devices. In this chapter, we review the basic physics of potential interactions of the MRI environment with implanted DBS devices, summarize results from phantom studies and clinical series, and discuss present recommendations for safe MRI in patients with implanted DBS devices.

  13. Imaging of RNA in situ hybridization by atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalle, W.H.J.; Macville, M.V.E.; van de Corput, M.P.C.; de Grooth, B.G.; Tanke, H.J.; Raap, A.K.

    In this study we investigated the possibility of imaging internal cellular molecules after cytochemical detection with atomic force microscopy (AFM). To this end, rat 9G and HeLa cells were hybridized with haptenized probes for 28S ribosomal RNA, human elongation factor mRNA and cytomegalovirus

  14. Image Steganography using Hybrid Edge Detector and Ridgelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Uma Maheswari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Steganography is the art of hiding high sensitive information in digital image, text, video, and audio. In this paper, authors have proposed a frequency domain steganography method operating in the Ridgelet transform. Authors engage the advantage of ridgelet transform, which represents the digital image with straight edges. In the embedding phase, the proposed hybrid edge detector acts as a preprocessing step to obtain the edge image from the cover image, then the edge image is partitioned into several blocks to operate with straight edges and Ridgelet transform is applied to each block. Then, the most significant gradient vectors (or significant edges are selected to embed the secret data. The proposed method has shown the advantages of imperceptibility of the stego image is increased because the secret data is hidden in the significant gradient vector. Authors employed the hybrid edge detector to obtain the edge image, which increases the embedding capacity. Experimental results demonstrates that peak signal-to-noise (PSNR ratio of stego image generated by this method versus the cover image is guaranteed to be above 49 dB. PSNR is much higher than that of all data hiding techniques reported in the literature.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 65, No. 3, May 2015, pp.214-219, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.65.7871

  15. Performance evaluation of hybrid VLC using device cost and power over data throughput criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. C.; Tan, C. S.; Wong, H. Y.; Yahya, M. B.

    2013-09-01

    Visible light communication (VLC) technology has attained its attention in both academic and industry lately. It is determined by the development of light emitting diode (LED) technology for solid-state lighting (SSL).It has great potential to gradually replace radio frequency (RF) wireless technology because it offers unregulated and unlicensed bandwidth to withstand future demand of indoor wireless access to real-time bandwidth-demanding applications. However, it was found to provide intrusive uplink channel that give rise to unpleasant irradiance from the user device which could interfere with the downlink channel of VLC and hence limit mobility to users as a result of small coverage (field of view of VLC).To address this potential problem, a Hybrid VLC system which integrates VLC (for downlink) and RF (for uplink) technology is proposed. It offers a non-intrusive RF back channel that provides high throughput VLC and maintains durability with conventional RF devices. To deploy Hybrid VLC system in the market, it must be energy and cost saving to attain its equivalent economical advantage by comparing to existing architecture that employs fluorescent or LED lights with RF technology. In this paper, performance evaluation on the proposed hybrid system was carried out in terms of device cost and power consumption against data throughput. Based on our simulation, Hybrid VLC system was found to reduce device cost by 3% and power consumption by 68% when compares to fluorescent lights with RF technology. Nevertheless, when it is compared to LED lights with RF technology, our proposed hybrid system is found to achieve device cost saving as high as 47% and reduced power consumption by 49%. Such promising results have demonstrated that Hybrid VLC system is a feasible solution and has paved the way for greater cost saving and energy efficient compares with the current RF architecture even with the increasing requirement of indoor area coverage.

  16. GaAs nanowires: from doping to plasmonic hybrid devices

    OpenAIRE

    Casadei, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Semiconductor nanowires (NWs) are filamentary crystals with the diameter ranging from few tens up to few hundreds of nanometers. In the last 20 years, they have been intensively studied for the prospects that their unique quasi-one dimensional shape offers to both fundamental and applied science. More recently particular attention has been dedicated to use NWs as building blocks for nano-electronic devices. In this thesis we investigate the electro-optical properties of NWs in order to put so...

  17. Faster imaging with a portable unilateral NMR device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Asaf; Bergman, Elad; Sarda, Yifat; Nevo, Uri

    2013-06-01

    Unilateral NMR devices are important tools in various applications such as non-destructive testing and well logging, but are not applied routinely for imaging, primarily because B0 inhomogeneity in these scanners leads to a relatively low signal and requires use of the slow single point imaging scan scheme. Enabling high quality, fast imaging could make this affordable and portable technology practical for various imaging applications as well as for new applications that are not yet feasible with MRI technology. The goal of this work was to improve imaging times in a portable unilateral NMR scanner. Both Compressed Sensing and Fast Spin Echo were modified and applied to fit the unique characteristics of a unilateral device. Two printed phantoms, allowing high resolution images, were scanned with both methods and compared to a standard scan and to a low pass scan to evaluate performance. Both methods were found to be feasible with a unilateral device, proving ways to accelerate single point imaging in such scanners. This outcome encourages us to explore how to further accelerate imaging times in unilateral NMR devices so that this technology might become clinically applicable in the future.

  18. Dosimetry with a fluoroscopic electronic portal imaging device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.L. Pasma (Kasper)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractechniques for dosimetric verification of radiotherapy treatments using a CCD camera based fluoroscopic electronic portal imaging device (EPID) are described. The dosimetric characteristics of the EPID were investigated and a method was developed to derive portal dose images (PDIs) from m

  19. Photonic devices based on black phosphorus and related hybrid materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, M. S.; Viti, L.

    2016-08-01

    Artificial semiconductor heterostructures played a pivotal role in modern electronic and photonic technologies, providing a highly effective means for the manipulation and control of carriers, from the visible to the far-infrared, leading to the development of highly efficient devices like sources, detectors and modulators. The discovery of graphene and the related fascinating capabilities have triggered an unprecedented interest in devices based on inorganic two-dimensional (2D) materials. Amongst them, black phosphorus (BP) recently showed an extraordinary potential in a variety of applications across micro-electronics and photonics. With an energy gap between the gapless graphene and the larger gap transition metal dichalcogenides, BP can form the basis for a new generation of high-performance photonic devices that could be specifically engineered to comply with different applications, like transparent saturable absorbers, fast photocounductive switches and low noise photodetectors, exploiting its peculiar electrical, thermal and optical anisotropy. This paper will review the latest achievements in black-phosphorus-based THz photonics and discuss future perspectives of this rapidly developing research field.

  20. Imaging Prostate Cancer Microenvironment by Collagen Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    collagen (type I) films ; (2) Validation of dual-labeled CMPs that display high affinity and specificity for stromal collagens in frozen PCa xenografts...signal with histopathology at prostatectomy for PSMA expression, Gleason score and other markers Aim 2: Synthesis of select PSMA-targeted imaging

  1. Imaging Prostate Cancer Microenvironment by Collagen Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    were acquired at designated times using a LI-COR Pearl Impulse Imager at both 710 nm (MMPSense) and 800 nm (CMP). The unfixed tissue sections were...554. 42 B. P. Harris, J. K. Kutty, E. W. Fritz , C. K. Webb, K. J. L. Burg and A. T. Metters, Langmuir, 2006, 22, 4467–4471. 43 J. A. Burdick, A

  2. Nano-images as hybrid monsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruivenkamp, Martin; Rip, Arie; Coopmans, Catelijne; Vertesi, Janet; Lynch, Michael E.; Woolgar, Steve

    2014-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role of images in nanotechnology. Nanotechnology includes an array of scientific and engineering fields in which researchers observe and manipulate materials at or near the nanometer scale (one billionth of a meter). The very idea of visualizing nanoscale phenomena is cont

  3. Synergistic tungsten oxide/organic framework hybrid nanofibers for electrochromic device application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulgerbaki, Cigdem; Komur, Ali Ihsan; Nohut Maslakci, Neslihan; Kuralay, Filiz; Uygun Oksuz, Aysegul

    2017-08-01

    We report the first successful applications of tungsten oxide/conducting polymer hybrid nanofiber assemblies in electrochromic devices. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/tungsten oxide (PEDOT/WO3) and polypyrrole/tungsten oxide (PPy/WO3) composites were prepared by an in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of monomers in different ionic liquids; 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIMBF4), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIMPF6), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide (BMIMTFSI) and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide (BMPTFSI). Electrospinning process was used to form hybrid nanofibers from chemically synthesized nanostructures. The electrospun hybrid samples were compared from both morphological and electrochemical perspectives. Importantly, deposition of nanofibers from chemically synthesized hybrids can be achieved homogenously, on nanoscale dimensions. The morphologies of these assemblies were evaluated by SEM, whereas their electroactivity was characterized by cyclic voltammetry. Electrochromic devices made from hybrid nanofiber electrodes exhibited highest chromatic contrast of 37.66% for PEDOT/WO3/BMIMPF6, 40.42% for PPy/WO3/BMIMBF4 and show a strong electrochromic color change from transparent to light brown. Furthermore, the nanofiber devices exhibit outstanding stability when color switching proceeds, which may ensure a versatile platform for color displays, rear-view mirrors and smart windows.

  4. Marketing image categorization using hybrid human-machine combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanasambandam, Nathan; Madhu, Himanshu

    2012-03-01

    Marketing instruments with nested, short-form, symbol loaded content need to be studied differently. Image classification in the Web2.0 world can dynamically use a configurable amount of internal and external data as well as varying levels of crowd-sourcing. Our work is one such examination of how to construct a hybrid technique involving learning and crowd-sourcing. Through a parameter called turkmix and a multitude of crowd-sourcing techniques available we show that we can control the trend of metrics such as precision and recall on the hybrid categorizer.

  5. Hybrid lidar radar receiver for underwater imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seetamraju, Madhavi; Gurjar, Rajan; Squillante, Michael; Derderian, Jeffrey P.

    2009-05-01

    In this work, we present research performed to improve the receiver characteristics for underwater imaging applications using the hybrid lidar-radar detection technique. We report the development of the next-generation coherent heterodyne receiver using modulation of the optical receiver's amplifier gain. Significant advantages in the receiver specifications are achieved using a large-area, high gain, low-noise silicon avalanche photodiode (APD) as the photodetector cum frequency mixer-demodulator. We demonstrate that heterodyne detection by gain modulation of APD can be used to increase the signal-to-noise ratio, detection sensitivity and bandwidth for the hybrid receiver system.

  6. Hybrid coded aperture and Compton imaging using an active mask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, L.J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)], E-mail: schultz@lanl.gov; Wallace, M.S.; Galassi, M.C.; Hoover, A.S.; Mocko, M.; Palmer, D.M.; Tornga, S.R.; Kippen, R.M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hynes, M.V.; Toolin, M.J.; Harris, B.; McElroy, J.E. [Raytheon Integrated Defense Systems, Tewksbury, MA (United States); Wakeford, D. [Bubble Technology Industries, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Lanza, R.C.; Horn, B.K.P. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Wehe, D.K. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2009-09-11

    The trimodal imager (TMI) images gamma-ray sources from a mobile platform using both coded aperture (CA) and Compton imaging (CI) modalities. In this paper we will discuss development and performance of image reconstruction algorithms for the TMI. In order to develop algorithms in parallel with detector hardware we are using a GEANT4 [J. Allison, K. Amako, J. Apostolakis, H. Araujo, P.A. Dubois, M. Asai, G. Barrand, R. Capra, S. Chauvie, R. Chytracek, G. Cirrone, G. Cooperman, G. Cosmo, G. Cuttone, G. Daquino, et al., IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-53 (1) (2006) 270] based simulation package to produce realistic data sets for code development. The simulation code incorporates detailed detector modeling, contributions from natural background radiation, and validation of simulation results against measured data. Maximum likelihood algorithms for both imaging methods are discussed, as well as a hybrid imaging algorithm wherein CA and CI information is fused to generate a higher fidelity reconstruction.

  7. Hybrid device based on GaN nanoneedles and MEH-PPV/PEDOT:PSS polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Min Jeong; Gwon, Dong-Oh; Lee, Chan-Mi; Lee, Gang Seok [Department of Applied Science, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, In-Jun [Department of Nano-semiconductor Engineering, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Hyung Soo [Department of Applied Science, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano-semiconductor Engineering, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Sam Nyung, E-mail: snyi@kmou.ac.kr [Department of Applied Science, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano-semiconductor Engineering, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Dong Han [Division of Convergence Technology, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • A hybrid device was demonstrated by using MEH-PPV, PEDOT:PSS, and GaN nanoneedles. • I–V curve of the hybrid device showed its rectification behaviour, similar to a diode. • EL peak originated by the different potential barriers at MEH-PPV and GaN interface. - Abstract: A hybrid device that combines the properties of organic and inorganic semiconductors was fabricated and studied. It incorporated poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)- 1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as organic polymers and GaN nanoneedles as an inorganic semiconductor. Layers of the two polymers were spin coated on to the GaN nanoneedles. The one peak in the electroluminescence spectrum originated from the MEH-PPV layer owing to the different potential barriers of electrons and holes at its interface with the GaN nanoneedles. However, the photoluminescence spectrum showed peaks due to both GaN nanoneedles and MEH-PPV. Such hybrid structures, suitably developed, might be able to improve the efficiency of optoelectronic devices.

  8. Residual images in charged-coupled device detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rest, Armin; Mündermann, Lars; Widenhorn, Ralf; Bodegom, Erik; McGlinn, T. C.

    2002-05-01

    We present results of a systematic study of persistent, or residual, images that occur in charged-coupled device (CCD) detectors. A phenomenological model for these residual images, also known as "ghosting," is introduced. This model relates the excess dark current in a CCD after exposure to the number of filled impurity sites which is tested for various temperatures and exposure times. We experimentally derive values for the cross section, density, and characteristic energy of the impurity sites responsible for the residual images.

  9. Image Segmentation for Improvised Explosive Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Soltani and Wong in 1988 [23]. Also, Sezgin and Sankur 2004 and Shapiro 2001 12 Figure 2.3: Comparing the usefulness of histograms to define the threshold...S. Soltani , and A. K. Wong. A survey of thresholding techniques. Computer Vision, Graphics, and Image Processing, 41(2):233–260, 1988. [24] M

  10. Elimination of artifacts in interline charge-coupled device imagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turko, B. T.; Yates, G. J.

    1991-10-01

    Charge-coupled devices (CCDs) of interline transfer design are especially useful in imaging at high frame rates. However, their sensitivity to ionization radiation and the reduced effective opacity for vertical charge transfer registers cause undesired image artifacts. Random white spots from the radiation and "ghost" images (or smear) generated in the registers may severely impair the image quality. An electronic method of eliminating these artificats is described. Special sequences of pulses clock the CCD, quickly dumping the unwanted charge. The fast readout of images, cleared of artifacts, follows immediately.

  11. Characterization of 4 K CMOS devices and circuits for hybrid Josephson-CMOS systems

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki; Tomida, T.; Tokuda, A.; Liu, Q.; Meng, X.(Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing, China); Whiteley, SR.; VanDuzer, T.

    2005-01-01

    Characterization and modeling of CMOS devices at 4.2 K are carried out in order to simulate low-temperature operation of CMOS circuits for Josephson-CMOS hybrid systems. CMOS devices examined in this study have been fabricated by using 0.18 mu m, 0.25 mu m, and 0.35 mu m commercial CMOS processes. Their static IN characteristics and capacitances are measured at 4.2 K to establish the low-temperature device model based on the BSIM3 SPICE model. The propagation delays of CMOS inverters measured...

  12. Chromatic visualization of reflectivity variance within hybridized directional OCT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhijani, Vikram S.; Roorda, Austin; Bayabo, Jan Kristine; Tong, Kevin K.; Rivera-Carpio, Carlos A.; Lujan, Brandon J.

    2013-03-01

    This study presents a new method of visualizing hybridized images of retinal spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) data comprised of varied directional reflectivity. Due to the varying reflectivity of certain retinal structures relative to angle of incident light, SDOCT images obtained with differing entry positions result in nonequivalent images of corresponding cellular and extracellular structures, especially within layers containing photoreceptor components. Harnessing this property, cross-sectional pathologic and non-pathologic macular images were obtained from multiple pupil entry positions using commercially-available OCT systems, and custom segmentation, alignment, and hybridization algorithms were developed to chromatically visualize the composite variance of reflectivity effects. In these images, strong relative reflectivity from any given direction visualizes as relative intensity of its corresponding color channel. Evident in non-pathologic images was marked enhancement of Henle's fiber layer (HFL) visualization and varying reflectivity patterns of the inner limiting membrane (ILM) and photoreceptor inner/outer segment junctions (IS/OS). Pathologic images displayed similar and additional patterns. Such visualization may allow a more intuitive understanding of structural and physiologic processes in retinal pathologies.

  13. [Digital thoracic radiology: devices, image processing, limits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frija, J; de Géry, S; Lallouet, F; Guermazi, A; Zagdanski, A M; De Kerviler, E

    2001-09-01

    In a first part, the different techniques of digital thoracic radiography are described. Since computed radiography with phosphore plates are the most commercialized it is more emphasized. But the other detectors are also described, as the drum coated with selenium and the direct digital radiography with selenium detectors. The other detectors are also studied in particular indirect flat panels detectors and the system with four high resolution CCD cameras. In a second step the most important image processing are discussed: the gradation curves, the unsharp mask processing, the system MUSICA, the dynamic range compression or reduction, the soustraction with dual energy. In the last part the advantages and the drawbacks of computed thoracic radiography are emphasized. The most important are the almost constant good quality of the pictures and the possibilities of image processing.

  14. 0 -π phase transition in hybrid superconductor-InSb nanowire quantum dot devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sen; Kang, N.; Caroff, P.; Xu, H. Q.

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid superconductor-semiconducting nanowire devices provide an ideal platform to investigating interesting intragap bound states, such as the Andreev bound states (ABSs), Yu-Shiba-Rusinov (YSR) states, and the Majorana bound states. The competition between Kondo correlations and superconductivity in Josephson quantum dot (QD) devices results in two different ground states and the occurrence of a 0 -π quantum phase transition. Here we report on transport measurements on hybrid superconductor-InSb nanowire QD devices with different device geometries. We demonstrate a realization of continuous gate-tunable ABSs with both 0-type levels and π -type levels. This allow us to manipulate the transition between the 0 and π junction and explore charge transport and spectrum in the vicinity of the quantum phase transition regime. Furthermore, we find a coexistence of 0-type ABS and π -type ABS in the same charge state. By measuring temperature and magnetic field evolution of the ABSs, the different natures of the two sets of ABSs are verified, being consistent with the scenario of phase transition between the singlet and doublet ground state. Our study provides insight into Andreev transport properties of hybrid superconductor-QD devices and sheds light on the crossover behavior of the subgap spectrum in the vicinity of the 0 -π transition.

  15. Deep Learning for Intelligent Substation Device Infrared Fault Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Ying

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As an important kind of data for device status evaluation, the increasing infrared image data in electrical system puts forward a new challenge to traditional manually processing mode. To overcome this problem, this paper proposes a feasible way to automatically process massive infrared fault images. We take advantage of the imaging characteristics of infrared fault images and detect fault regions together with its belonging device part by our proposed algorithm, which first segment images into superpixels, and then adopt the state-of-the-art convolutional and recursive neural network for intelligent object recognition. In the experiment, we compare several unsupervised pre-training methods considering the importance of a pre-train procedure, and discuss the proper parameters for the proposed network. The experimental results show the good performance of our algorithm, and its efficiency for infrared analysis.

  16. Informatics in radiology: Efficiency metrics for imaging device productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mengqi; Pavlicek, William; Liu, Patrick T; Zhang, Muhong; Langer, Steve G; Wang, Shanshan; Place, Vicki; Miranda, Rafael; Wu, Teresa Tong

    2011-01-01

    Acute awareness of the costs associated with medical imaging equipment is an ever-present aspect of the current healthcare debate. However, the monitoring of productivity associated with expensive imaging devices is likely to be labor intensive, relies on summary statistics, and lacks accepted and standardized benchmarks of efficiency. In the context of the general Six Sigma DMAIC (design, measure, analyze, improve, and control) process, a World Wide Web-based productivity tool called the Imaging Exam Time Monitor was developed to accurately and remotely monitor imaging efficiency with use of Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) combined with a picture archiving and communication system. Five device efficiency metrics-examination duration, table utilization, interpatient time, appointment interval time, and interseries time-were derived from DICOM values. These metrics allow the standardized measurement of productivity, to facilitate the comparative evaluation of imaging equipment use and ongoing efforts to improve efficiency. A relational database was constructed to store patient imaging data, along with device- and examination-related data. The database provides full access to ad hoc queries and can automatically generate detailed reports for administrative and business use, thereby allowing staff to monitor data for trends and to better identify possible changes that could lead to improved productivity and reduced costs in association with imaging services. © RSNA, 2011.

  17. Evaluation of semiconductor devices for Electric and Hybrid Vehicle (EHV) ac-drive applications, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, F. C.; Chen, D. Y.; Jovanovic, M.; Hopkins, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    The results of evaluation of power semiconductor devices for electric hybrid vehicle ac drive applications are summarized. Three types of power devices are evaluated in the effort: high power bipolar or Darlington transistors, power MOSFETs, and asymmetric silicon control rectifiers (ASCR). The Bipolar transistors, including discrete device and Darlington devices, range from 100 A to 400 A and from 400 V to 900 V. These devices are currently used as key switching elements inverters for ac motor drive applications. Power MOSFETs, on the other hand, are much smaller in current rating. For the 400 V device, the current rating is limited to 25 A. For the main drive of an electric vehicle, device paralleling is normally needed to achieve practical power level. For other electric vehicle (EV) related applications such as battery charger circuit, however, MOSFET is advantageous to other devices because of drive circuit simplicity and high frequency capability. Asymmetrical SCR is basically a SCR device and needs commutation circuit for turn off. However, the device poses several advantages, i.e., low conduction drop and low cost.

  18. The Image Transceiver Device: Studies of Improved Physical Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzi Efron

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The Image Transceiver Device (ITD design is based on combining LCOS micro-display, image processing tools and back illuminated APS imager in single CMOS chip [1]. The device is under development for Head-Mounted Display applications in augmented and virtual reality systems. The main issues with the present design are a high crosstalk of the backside imager and the need to shield the pixel circuitry from the photocharges generated in the silicon substrate. In this publication we present a modified, “deep p-well” ITD pixel design, which provides a significantly reduced crosstalk level, as well as an effective shielding of photo-charges for the pixel circuitry. The simulation performed using Silvaco software [ATLAS Silicon Device Simulator, Ray Trace and Light Absorption programs, Silvaco International, 1998] shows that the new approach provides high photo response and allows increasing the optimal thickness of the die over and above the 10-15 micrometers commonly used for back illuminated imaging devices, thereby improving its mechanical ruggedness following the thinning process and also providing a more efficient absorption of the long wavelength photons. The proposed deep p-well pixel structure is also a technology solution for the fabrication of high performance back illuminated CMOS image sensors.

  19. A fast and efficient hybrid fractal-wavelet image coder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iano, Yuzo; da Silva, Fernando Silvestre; Cruz, Ana Lúcia Mendes

    2006-01-01

    The excellent visual quality and compression rate of fractal image coding have limited applications due to exhaustive inherent encoding time. This paper presents a new fast and efficient image coder that applies the speed of the wavelet transform to the image quality of the fractal compression. Fast fractal encoding using Fisher's domain classification is applied to the lowpass subband of wavelet transformed image and a modified set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) coding, on the remaining coefficients. Furthermore, image details and wavelet progressive transmission characteristics are maintained, no blocking effects from fractal techniques are introduced, and the encoding fidelity problem common in fractal-wavelet hybrid coders is solved. The proposed scheme promotes an average of 94% reduction in encoding-decoding time comparing to the pure accelerated Fractal coding results. The simulations also compare the results to the SPIHT wavelet coding. In both cases, the new scheme improves the subjective quality of pictures for high-medium-low bitrates.

  20. Image-Capture Devices Extend Medicine's Reach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Johnson Space Center, Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit, and Houston-based Wyle Laboratories collaborated on NASA's Advanced Diagnostic Ultrasound in Microgravity (ADUM) experiment, which developed revolutionary medical ultrasound diagnostic techniques for long-distance use. Mediphan, a Canadian company with U.S. operations in Springfield, New Jersey drew on NASA expertise to create frame-grabber and data archiving technology that enables ultrasound users with minimal training to send diagnostic-quality ultrasound images and video to medical professionals via the Internet in near real time allowing patients as varied as professional athletes, Olympians, and mountain climbers to receive medical attention as soon as it is needed.

  1. First order devices, hybrid memristors, and the frontiers of nonlinear circuit theory

    CERN Document Server

    Riaza, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Several devices exhibiting memory effects have shown up in nonlinear circuit theory in recent years. Among others, these circuit elements include Chua's memristors, as well as memcapacitors and meminductors. These and other related devices seem to be beyond the, say, classical scope of circuit theory, which is formulated in terms of resistors, capacitors, inductors, and voltage and current sources. We explore in this paper the potential extent of nonlinear circuit theory by classifying such mem-devices in terms of the variables involved in their constitutive relations and the notions of the differential- and the state-order of a device. Within this framework, the frontier of first order circuit theory is defined by so-called hybrid memristors, which are proposed here to accommodate a characteristic relating all four fundamental circuit variables. Devices with differential order two and mem-systems are discussed in less detail. We allow for fully nonlinear characteristics in all circuit elements, arriving at a...

  2. Development of scintillation imaging device for cold neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Gorin, A; Manuilov, I V; Morimoto, K; Oku, T; Ryazantsev, A; Shimizu, H M; Suzuki, J I; Tokanai, F

    2002-01-01

    As an application of the wavelength-shifting (WLS) fiber technique recently developed in the field of high-energy physics, a novel type of imaging device for neutrons has been successfully investigated; a space resolution of 1 mm FWHM with detection efficiency of 55% for 10 A neutrons has been experimentally confirmed with a prototype made of a 0.5-mm-thick ZnS(Ag)+ sup 6 LiF scintillator plate optically coupled to WLS fiber arrays. In addition to promising results obtained in this study, its simple structure and reliable operation allow us to foresee a new generation of imaging devices to meet the increasing demand for large-area and high space-resolution imaging devices for several new projects on spallation neutron sources in the world.

  3. Hybrid Image Fusion for Sharpness Enhancement of Multi-Spectral Lunar Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awumah, Anna; Mahanti, Prasun; Robinson, Mark

    2016-10-01

    Image fusion enhances the sharpness of a multi-spectral (MS) image by incorporating spatial details from a higher-resolution panchromatic (Pan) image [1,2]. Known applications of image fusion for planetary images are rare, although image fusion is well-known for its applications to Earth-based remote sensing. In a recent work [3], six different image fusion algorithms were implemented and their performances were verified with images from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Camera. The image fusion procedure obtained a high-resolution multi-spectral (HRMS) product from the LRO Narrow Angle Camera (used as Pan) and LRO Wide Angle Camera (used as MS) images. The results showed that the Intensity-Hue-Saturation (IHS) algorithm results in a high-spatial quality product while the Wavelet-based image fusion algorithm best preserves spectral quality among all the algorithms. In this work we show the results of a hybrid IHS-Wavelet image fusion algorithm when applied to LROC MS images. The hybrid method provides the best HRMS product - both in terms of spatial resolution and preservation of spectral details. Results from hybrid image fusion can enable new science and increase the science return from existing LROC images.[1] Pohl, Cle, and John L. Van Genderen. "Review article multisensor image fusion in remote sensing: concepts, methods and applications." International journal of remote sensing 19.5 (1998): 823-854.[2] Zhang, Yun. "Understanding image fusion." Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens 70.6 (2004): 657-661.[3] Mahanti, Prasun et al. "Enhancement of spatial resolution of the LROC Wide Angle Camera images." Archives, XXIII ISPRS Congress Archives (2016).

  4. Colorimetric characterization of imaging device by total color difference minimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MOU Tong-sheng; SHEN Hui-liang

    2006-01-01

    Colorimetric characterization is to transform the device-dependent responses to device-independent colorimetric values, and is usually conducted in CIEXYZ space. However, the optimal solution in CIEXYZ space does not mean the minimization of perceptual error. A novel method for colorimetric characterization of imaging device based on the minimization of total color difference is proposed. The method builds the transform between RGB space and CIELAB space directly using the downhill simplex algorithm. Experimental results showed that the proposed method performs better than traditional least-square (LS) and total-least-square (TLS) methods, especially for colors with low luminance values.

  5. Imaging Hybrid Photon Detectors with a Reflective Photocathode

    CERN Document Server

    Ferenc, D

    2000-01-01

    Modern epitaxially grown photocathodes, like GaAsP, bring a very high inherent quantum efficiency, but are rather expensive due to the complicated manufacturing and mounting process. We argue that such photocathodes could be used in reflective mode, in order to avoid the risky and expensive removal of the epitaxial growth substrate. Besides that the quantum efficiency should increase considerably. In this paper we present results of the development of large imaging Hybrid Photon Detectors (HPDs), particularly designed for such reflective photocathodes.

  6. A hybrid CMOS-imager with a solution-processable polymer as photoactive layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baierl, Daniela; Pancheri, Lucio; Schmidt, Morten; Stoppa, David; Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Scarpa, Giuseppe; Lugli, Paolo

    2012-11-01

    The solution-processability of organic photodetectors allows a straightforward combination with other materials, including inorganic ones, without increasing cost and process complexity significantly compared with conventional crystalline semiconductors. Although the optoelectronic performance of these organic devices does not outmatch their inorganic counterparts, there are certain applications exploiting the benefit of the solution-processability. Here we demonstrate that the small pixel fill factor of present complementary metal oxide semiconductor-imagers, decreasing the light sensitivity, can be increased up to 100% by replacing silicon photodiodes with an organic photoactive layer deposited with a simple low-cost spray-coating process. By performing a full optoelectronic characterization on this first solution-processable hybrid complementary metal oxide semiconductor-imager, including the first reported observation of different noise types in organic photodiodes, we demonstrate the suitability of this novel device for imaging. Furthermore, by integrating monolithically different organic materials to the chip, we show the cost-effective portability of the hybrid concept to different wavelength regions.

  7. Nanostructured copper/porous silicon hybrid systems as efficient sound-emitting devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio-Sánchez, Gonzalo; Namura, Kyoko; Suzuki, Motofumi; Martín-Palma, Raúl J

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, the photo-acoustic emission from nanostructured copper/porous silicon hybrid systems was studied. Copper nanoparticles were grown by photo-assisted electroless deposition on crystalline silicon and nanostructured porous silicon (nanoPS). Both the optical and photo-acoustic responses from these systems were determined. The experimental results show a remarkable increase in the photo-acoustic intensity when copper nanoparticles are incorporated to the porous structure. The results thus suggest that the Cu/nanoPS hybrid systems are suitable candidates for several applications in the field of thermoplasmonics, including the development of sound-emitting devices of great efficiency.

  8. Hybrid fluorescence and electron cryo-microscopy for simultaneous electron and photon imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Hirofumi; Fukuda, Yoshiyuki; Arai, Yoshihiro; Terakawa, Susumu; Yamamoto, Naoki; Nagayama, Kuniaki

    2014-01-01

    Integration of fluorescence light and transmission electron microscopy into the same device would represent an important advance in correlative microscopy, which traditionally involves two separate microscopes for imaging. To achieve such integration, the primary technical challenge that must be solved regards how to arrange two objective lenses used for light and electron microscopy in such a manner that they can properly focus on a single specimen. To address this issue, both lateral displacement of the specimen between two lenses and specimen rotation have been proposed. Such movement of the specimen allows sequential collection of two kinds of microscopic images of a single target, but prevents simultaneous imaging. This shortcoming has been made up by using a simple optical device, a reflection mirror. Here, we present an approach toward the versatile integration of fluorescence and electron microscopy for simultaneous imaging. The potential of simultaneous hybrid microscopy was demonstrated by fluorescence and electron sequential imaging of a fluorescent protein expressed in cells and cathodoluminescence imaging of fluorescent beads. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A study of image reconstruction algorithms for hybrid intensity interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, Peter N.; Murray-Krezan, Jeremy; Picard, Richard H.

    2011-09-01

    Phase retrieval is explored for image reconstruction using outputs from both a simulated intensity interferometer (II) and a hybrid system that combines the II outputs with partially resolved imagery from a traditional imaging telescope. Partially resolved imagery provides an additional constraint for the iterative phase retrieval process, as well as an improved starting point. The benefits of this additional a priori information are explored and include lower residual phase error for SNR values above 0.01, increased sensitivity, and improved image quality. Results are also presented for image reconstruction from II measurements alone, via current state-of-the-art phase retrieval techniques. These results are based on the standard hybrid input-output (HIO) algorithm, as well as a recent enhancement to HIO that optimizes step lengths in addition to step directions. The additional step length optimization yields a reduction in residual phase error, but only for SNR values greater than about 10. Image quality for all algorithms studied is quite good for SNR>=10, but it should be noted that the studied phase-recovery techniques yield useful information even for SNRs that are much lower.

  10. Concrete Crack Identification Using a UAV Incorporating Hybrid Image Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunjun; Lee, Junhwa; Ahn, Eunjong; Cho, Soojin; Shin, Myoungsu; Sim, Sung-Han

    2017-09-07

    Crack assessment is an essential process in the maintenance of concrete structures. In general, concrete cracks are inspected by manual visual observation of the surface, which is intrinsically subjective as it depends on the experience of inspectors. Further, it is time-consuming, expensive, and often unsafe when inaccessible structural members are to be assessed. Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technologies combined with digital image processing have recently been applied to crack assessment to overcome the drawbacks of manual visual inspection. However, identification of crack information in terms of width and length has not been fully explored in the UAV-based applications, because of the absence of distance measurement and tailored image processing. This paper presents a crack identification strategy that combines hybrid image processing with UAV technology. Equipped with a camera, an ultrasonic displacement sensor, and a WiFi module, the system provides the image of cracks and the associated working distance from a target structure on demand. The obtained information is subsequently processed by hybrid image binarization to estimate the crack width accurately while minimizing the loss of the crack length information. The proposed system has shown to successfully measure cracks thicker than 0.1 mm with the maximum length estimation error of 7.3%.

  11. Concrete Crack Identification Using a UAV Incorporating Hybrid Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunjun Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Crack assessment is an essential process in the maintenance of concrete structures. In general, concrete cracks are inspected by manual visual observation of the surface, which is intrinsically subjective as it depends on the experience of inspectors. Further, it is time-consuming, expensive, and often unsafe when inaccessible structural members are to be assessed. Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV technologies combined with digital image processing have recently been applied to crack assessment to overcome the drawbacks of manual visual inspection. However, identification of crack information in terms of width and length has not been fully explored in the UAV-based applications, because of the absence of distance measurement and tailored image processing. This paper presents a crack identification strategy that combines hybrid image processing with UAV technology. Equipped with a camera, an ultrasonic displacement sensor, and a WiFi module, the system provides the image of cracks and the associated working distance from a target structure on demand. The obtained information is subsequently processed by hybrid image binarization to estimate the crack width accurately while minimizing the loss of the crack length information. The proposed system has shown to successfully measure cracks thicker than 0.1 mm with the maximum length estimation error of 7.3%.

  12. Quantum transport in nanowire-based hybrid devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenel, Haci Yusuf

    2013-05-08

    the Andreev reflection of quasiparticles at single interface, by suppressing the superconductivity of Al with small magnetic fields, as well as at double interface for zero magnetic field. The junction geometry was further changed by replacing the InAs nanowire with the InAs tube. In this case the GaAs/InAs core/shell tubular nanowires were contacted by two superconducting Nb electrodes. For this junction geometry we have demonstrated the interference of phase conjugated electron-hole pairs in the presence of coaxial magnetic. The effect of temperature, constant dc bias current and gate voltage on the magnetoresistance oscillations were examined. In the last part of this thesis, we have fabricated and characterized the single crystal Au nanowire-based proximity superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID).

  13. Making Image More Energy Efficient for OLED Smart Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deguang Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Now, more and more mobile smart devices are emerging massively; energy consumption of these devices has become an important consideration due to the limitation of battery capacity. Displays are the dominant energy consuming component of battery-operated devices, giving rise to organic light-emitting diode (OLED as a new promising display technology, which consumes different power when displaying different content due to their emissive nature. Based on this property, we propose an approach to improve image energy efficiency on OLED displays by perceiving image content. The key idea of our approach is to eliminate undesired details while preserving the region of interest of the image by leveraging the color and spatial information. First, we use edge detection algorithm to extract region of interest (ROI of an image. Next, we gradually change luminance and saturation of region of noninterest (NON-ROI of the image. Then we perform detailed experiment and case study to validate our approach; experiment results show that our approach can save 22.5% energy on average while preserving high quality of the image.

  14. Single axis controlled hybrid magnetic bearing for left ventricular assist device: hybrid core and closed magnetic circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Isaias; Horikawa, Oswaldo; Cardoso, Jose R; Camargo, Fernando A; Andrade, Aron J P; Bock, Eduardo G P

    2011-05-01

    In previous studies, we presented main strategies for suspending the rotor of a mixed-flow type (centrifugal and axial) ventricular assist device (VAD), originally presented by the Institute Dante Pazzanese of Cardiology (IDPC), Brazil. Magnetic suspension is achieved by the use of a magnetic bearing architecture in which the active control is executed in only one degree of freedom, in the axial direction of the rotor. Remaining degrees of freedom, excepting the rotation, are restricted only by the attraction force between pairs of permanent magnets. This study is part of a joint project in development by IDPC and Escola Politecnica of São Paulo University, Brazil. This article shows advances in that project, presenting two promising solutions for magnetic bearings. One solution uses hybrid cores as electromagnetic actuators, that is, cores that combine iron and permanent magnets. The other solution uses actuators, also of hybrid type, but with the magnetic circuit closed by an iron core. After preliminary analysis, a pump prototype has been developed for each solution and has been tested. For each prototype, a brushless DC motor has been developed as the rotor driver. Each solution was evaluated by in vitro experiments and guidelines are extracted for future improvements. Tests have shown good results and demonstrated that one solution is not isolated from the other. One complements the other for the development of a single-axis-controlled, hybrid-type magnetic bearing for a mixed-flow type VAD.

  15. Service and multimedia data transmission in IoT networks using hybrid communication devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saveliev Anton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Employment of various protocols and technologies in IoT networks leads to the lack of module unification and increase in incompatible technical solutions. Modern IoT networks are not designed for streaming audio/video data, so their application field is limited. Also, modern IoT networks should have connection areas for devices transferring data to the Internet, and consider hardware and software specific characteristics of these devices. We offer one-size-fits-all solution for organization of IoT network, using hybrid modules. These devices provide flexibility, scalability, energy efficiency and multi-use of network for the transfer of various types of data. This approach takes into account software and hardware features of the devices used for data transmission in IoT networks, which helps to automate connecting the modules chosen by user.

  16. Prospects for the application of GaN power devices in hybrid electric vehicle drive systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ming; Chen, Chingchi; Rajan, Siddharth

    2013-07-01

    GaN, a wide bandgap semiconductor successfully implemented in optical and high-speed electronic devices, has gained momentum in recent years for power electronics applications. Along with rapid progress in material and device processing technologies, high-voltage transistors over 600 V have been reported by a number of teams worldwide. These advances make GaN highly attractive for the growing market of electrified vehicles, which currently employ bipolar silicon devices in the 600-1200 V class for the traction inverter. However, to capture this billion-dollar power market, GaN has to compete with existing IGBT products and deliver higher performance at comparable or lower cost. This paper reviews key achievements made by the GaN semiconductor industry, requirements of the automotive electric drive system and remaining challenges for GaN power devices to fit in the inverter application of hybrid vehicles.

  17. A Refined Hybrid Image Retrieval System using Text and Color

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Goel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Image retrieval (IR continues to be most exciting and fastest growing research areas due to significant progress in data storage and image acquisition techniques. Broadly, Image Retrieval can be Text based or Content based. Text-based Image Retrieval (TBIR is proficient in 'named-entity queries (e.g. searching images of 'TajMahal. Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR shows its proficiency in querying by visual content. Both the techniques having their own advantages and disadvantages and still have not been very successful in uncovering the hidden meanings/semantics of the image. In this paper, we propose a hybrid approach that improves the quality of image retrieval and overcomes the limitations of individual approaches. For text retrieval, matching term frequency-inverse document frequency (tf-idf weightings and cosine similarity are used, whereas for content matching the search space is narrowed down using color moments and then the two results obtained are combined to show better results than the individual approaches. Further refinement using color histogram technique improves the performance of the system significantly.

  18. Enhancement of Hyperspectral Real World Images Using Hybrid Domain Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Lal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents enhancement of hyperspectral real world images using hybrid domain approach. The proposed method consists of three phases: In first phase the discrete wavelet transform is applied and approximation coefficient is selected. In second phase approximation coefficient of discrete wavelet transform of image is process by automatic contrast adjustment technique and in third phase it takes logarithmic of output of second phase and after that adaptive filtering is applied for image enhancement in frequency domain. To judge the superiority of proposed method the image quality parameters such as measure of enhancement (EME and measure of enhancement factor (EMF is evaluated. Therefore, a better value of EME and EMF implies that the visual quality of the enhanced image is good. Simulation results indicates that proposed method provides better results as compared to other state-of-art contrast enhancement algorithms for hyperspectral real world images. The proposed method is efficient and very effective method for contrast enhancement of hyperspectral real world images. This method can also be used in different applications where images are suffering from different contrast problems.

  19. 76 FR 77834 - Scientific Information Request on Intravascular Diagnostic and Imaging Medical Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... Intravascular Diagnostic and Imaging Medical Devices AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ... intravascular diagnostic and imaging medical devices, including: Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR), Coronary Flow... Resonance Imaging (MRI), Elastrography, and Thermography. Scientific information is being solicited to...

  20. Solid-State Imaging Device With Carbon Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    Performance of solid-state imaging device enhanced by coating surface through which photons enter with thin film of carbon or diamondlike carbon. Film beneficial in two ways: acts as antireflection coat, and helps to dissipate undesired static electric charges that otherwise accumulate on surface.

  1. Input Device with Three-Dimensional Image Display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to an input device (2), such as a keyboard, comprising plurality of activation parts (4) for depression, at least one registration part (6) for individual registration of depression of activation parts, and at least one image displaying part (8), where depression...

  2. Tailored single-walled carbon nanotube--CdS nanoparticle hybrids for tunable optoelectronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianglong; Jia, Yi; Cao, Anyuan

    2010-01-26

    The integration of organic and inorganic building blocks into novel nanohybrids is an important tool to exploit innovative materials with desirable functionalities. For this purpose, carbon nanotube--nanoparticle nanoarchitectures are intensively studied. We report here an efficient noncovalent chemical route to density-controllably and uniformly assemble single-walled carbon nanotubes with CdS nanoparticles. The methodology not only promises the resulting hybrids will be solution-processable but also endows the hybrids with distinct optoelectronic properties including tunable photoresponse mediated by amine molecules. On the basis of these merits, reliable thin-film photoswitches and light-driven chemical sensors are demonstrated, which highlights the potential of tailored hybrids in the development of new tunable optoelectronic devices and sensors.

  3. Rational design of multifunctional devices based on molybdenum disulfide and graphene hybrid nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yi Rang; Lee, Young Bum; Kim, Seong Ku; Kim, Seong Jun; Kim, Yooseok; Jeon, Cheolho; Song, Wooseok; Myung, Sung; Lee, Sun Sook; An, Ki-Seok; Lim, Jongsun

    2017-01-01

    We rationally designed a new type of hybrid materials, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) synthesized by Mo pre-deposition followed by subsequent sulfurization process directly on thermal chemical vapor deposition (TCVD)-grown graphene, for applications in a multifunctional device. The synthesis of stoichiometric and uniform multilayer MoS2 and high-crystalline monolayer graphene was evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. To examine the electrical transport and photoelectrical properties of MoS2-graphene hybrid films, field effect transistors (FETs) and visible-light photodetectors based on MoS2-graphene were both fabricated. As a result, the extracted mobility for MoS2-graphene hybrid FETs was two times higher than that of MoS2 FETs. In addition, the MoS2-graphene photodetectors revealed a significant photocurrent with abrupt switching behavior under periodic illumination.

  4. Carbon nanotube-ZnO nanowire hybrid architectures as multifunctional devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. T. Singh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We report on multifunctional devices based on CNT arrays-ZnO nanowires hybrid architectures. The hybrid structure exhibit excellent high current Schottky like behavior with ZnO as p-type and an ideality factor close to the ideal value. Further the CNT-ZnO hybrid structures can be used as high current p-type field effect transistors that can deliver currents of the order of milliamperes and also can be used as ultraviolet detectors with controllable current on-off ratio and response time. The p-type nature of ZnO and possible mechanism for the rectifying characteristics of CNT-ZnO has been presented.

  5. Reversible energy storage on a fuel cell-supercapacitor hybrid device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerpa Unda, Jesus Enrique

    2011-02-18

    A new concept of energy storage based on hydrogen which operates reversibly near ambient conditions and without important energy losses is investigated. This concept involves the hybridization between a proton exchange membrane fuel cell and a supercapacitor. The main idea consists in the electrochemical splitting of hydrogen at a PEM fuel cell-type electrode into protons and electrons and then in the storage of these two species separately in the electrical double layer of a supercapacitor-type electrode which is made of electrically conductive large-surface area carbon materials. The investigation of this concept was performed first using a two-electrode fuel cell-supercapacitor hybrid device. A three-electrode hybrid cell was used to explore the application of this concept as a hydrogen buffer integrated inside a PEM fuel cell to be used in case of peak power demand. (orig.)

  6. Hybrid Back Surface Reflector GaInAsSb Thermophotovoltaic Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RK Huang; CA Wang; MK Connors; GW Turner; M Dashiell

    2004-05-11

    Back surface reflectors have the potential to improve thermophotovoltaic (TPV) device performance though the recirculation of infrared photons. The ''hybrid'' back-surface reflector (BSR) TPV cell approach allows one to construct BSRs for TPV devices using conventional, high efficiency, GaInAsSb-based TPV material. The design, fabrication, and measurements of hybrid BSR-TPV cells are described. The BSR was shown to provide a 4 mV improvement in open-circuit voltage under a constant shortcircuit current, which is comparable to the 5 mV improvement theoretically predicted. Larger improvements in open-circuit voltage are expected in the future with materials improvements.

  7. Efficient fluorescent deep-blue and hybrid white emitting devices based on carbazole/benzimidazole compound

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xiaohui

    2011-07-28

    We report the synthesis, photophysics, and electrochemical characterization of carbazole/benzimidazole-based compound (Cz-2pbb) and efficient fluorescent deep-blue light emitting devices based on Cz-2pbb with the peak external quantum efficiency of 4.1% and Commission Internationale dÉnclairage coordinates of (0.16, 0.05). Efficient deep-blue emission as well as high triplet state energy of Cz-2pbb enables fabrication of hybrid white organic light emitting diodes with a single emissive layer. Hybrid white emitting devices based on Cz-2pbb show the peak external quantum efficiency exceeding 10% and power efficiency of 14.8 lm/W at a luminance of 500 cd/m2. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  8. Numerical Simulation of Carbon Nanotubes/GaAs Hybrid PV Devices with AMPS-1D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi Xosrovashvili

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance and characteristics of a hybrid heterojunction single-walled carbon nanotube and GaAs solar cell are modelled and numerically simulated using AMPS-1D device simulation tool. The device physics and performance with different junction parameters are analysed. The results suggest that the open-circuit voltage changes very slightly by changing the electron affinity, acceptor and donor density while the other electrical parameters reach an optimum value. Increasing the concentration of a discrete defect density in the absorber layer decreases the electrical parameters. The current-voltage characteristics, quantum efficiency, band gap, and thickness variation of the photovoltaic response will be quantitatively considered.

  9. Stretchable living materials and devices with hydrogel-elastomer hybrids hosting programmed cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyue; Tang, Tzu-Chieh; Tham, Eléonore; Yuk, Hyunwoo; Lin, Shaoting; Lu, Timothy K; Zhao, Xuanhe

    2017-02-28

    Living systems, such as bacteria, yeasts, and mammalian cells, can be genetically programmed with synthetic circuits that execute sensing, computing, memory, and response functions. Integrating these functional living components into materials and devices will provide powerful tools for scientific research and enable new technological applications. However, it has been a grand challenge to maintain the viability, functionality, and safety of living components in freestanding materials and devices, which frequently undergo deformations during applications. Here, we report the design of a set of living materials and devices based on stretchable, robust, and biocompatible hydrogel-elastomer hybrids that host various types of genetically engineered bacterial cells. The hydrogel provides sustainable supplies of water and nutrients, and the elastomer is air-permeable, maintaining long-term viability and functionality of the encapsulated cells. Communication between different bacterial strains and with the environment is achieved via diffusion of molecules in the hydrogel. The high stretchability and robustness of the hydrogel-elastomer hybrids prevent leakage of cells from the living materials and devices, even under large deformations. We show functions and applications of stretchable living sensors that are responsive to multiple chemicals in a variety of form factors, including skin patches and gloves-based sensors. We further develop a quantitative model that couples transportation of signaling molecules and cellular response to aid the design of future living materials and devices.

  10. Stretchable living materials and devices with hydrogel–elastomer hybrids hosting programmed cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyue; Tang, Tzu-Chieh; Tham, Eléonore; Yuk, Hyunwoo; Lin, Shaoting; Lu, Timothy K.; Zhao, Xuanhe

    2017-01-01

    Living systems, such as bacteria, yeasts, and mammalian cells, can be genetically programmed with synthetic circuits that execute sensing, computing, memory, and response functions. Integrating these functional living components into materials and devices will provide powerful tools for scientific research and enable new technological applications. However, it has been a grand challenge to maintain the viability, functionality, and safety of living components in freestanding materials and devices, which frequently undergo deformations during applications. Here, we report the design of a set of living materials and devices based on stretchable, robust, and biocompatible hydrogel–elastomer hybrids that host various types of genetically engineered bacterial cells. The hydrogel provides sustainable supplies of water and nutrients, and the elastomer is air-permeable, maintaining long-term viability and functionality of the encapsulated cells. Communication between different bacterial strains and with the environment is achieved via diffusion of molecules in the hydrogel. The high stretchability and robustness of the hydrogel–elastomer hybrids prevent leakage of cells from the living materials and devices, even under large deformations. We show functions and applications of stretchable living sensors that are responsive to multiple chemicals in a variety of form factors, including skin patches and gloves-based sensors. We further develop a quantitative model that couples transportation of signaling molecules and cellular response to aid the design of future living materials and devices. PMID:28202725

  11. Hybrid Method for 3D Segmentation of Magnetic Resonance Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGXiang; ZHANGDazhi; TIANJinwen; LIUJian

    2003-01-01

    Segmentation of some complex images, especially in magnetic resonance brain images, is often difficult to perform satisfactory results using only single approach of image segmentation. An approach towards the integration of several techniques seems to be the best solution. In this paper a new hybrid method for 3-dimension segmentation of the whole brain is introduced, based on fuzzy region growing, edge detection and mathematical morphology, The gray-level threshold, controlling the process of region growing, is determined by fuzzy technique. The image gradient feature is obtained by the 3-dimension sobel operator considering a 3×3×3 data block with the voxel to be evaluated at the center, while the gradient magnitude threshold is defined by the gradient magnitude histogram of brain magnetic resonance volume. By the combined methods of edge detection and region growing, the white matter volume of human brain is segmented perfectly. By the post-processing using mathematical morphological techniques, the whole brain region is obtained. In order to investigate the validity of the hybrid method, two comparative experiments, the region growing method using only gray-level feature and the thresholding method by combining gray-level and gradient features, are carried out. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method provides much better results than the traditional method using a single technique in the 3-dimension segmentation of human brain magnetic resonance data sets.

  12. Organic and Hybrid Organic Solid-State Photovoltaic Materials and Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-06

    conductive polyarylene ethynylene polymers for photovoltaic applications. The structure at the molecular scale was characterized using X-ray scattering...Processing of Thin Film Flexible Solar Cells” who exchanged knowledge about device-level questions and capabilities of simulations. The Ohio Department of...Indianapolis, IN, May, 2011. (2) “Hybrid Photovoltaic Materials: Characterization of Polymer -Nanoparticle composites” Lama, B.; Espe, M. P.; Central Regional

  13. Light matter interaction in WS{sub 2} nanotube-graphene hybrid devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, John P.; Jegannathan, Gobinath; Grover, Sameer; Dongare, Pratiksha D.; Bapat, Rudheer D.; Chalke, Bhagyashree A.; Purandare, S. C.; Deshmukh, Mandar M., E-mail: deshmukh@tifr.res.in [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2014-12-01

    We study the light matter interaction in WS{sub 2} nanotube-graphene hybrid devices. Using scanning photocurrent microscopy, we find that by engineering graphene electrodes for WS{sub 2} nanotubes we can improve the collection of photogenerated carriers. We observe inhomogeneous spatial photocurrent response with an external quantum efficiency of ∼1% at 0 V bias. We show that defects play an important role and can be utilized to enhance and tune photocarrier generation.

  14. Hybrid silicon nanocrystal-organic light-emitting devices for infrared electroluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kai-Yuan; Anthony, Rebecca; Kortshagen, Uwe R; Holmes, Russell J

    2010-04-14

    We demonstrate hybrid inorganic-organic light-emitting devices with peak electroluminescence (EL) at a wavelength of 868 nm using silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs). An external quantum efficiency of 0.6% is realized in the forward-emitted direction, with emission originating primarily from the SiNCs. Microscopic characterization indicates that complete coverage of the SiNCs on the conjugated polymer hole-transporting layer is required to observe efficient EL.

  15. Integrated ion sensor device applications based on printed hybrid material systems (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    List-Kratochvil, Emil J. W.

    2016-09-01

    Comfortable, wearable sensors and computers will enhance every person's awareness of his or her health condition, environment, chemical pollutants, potential hazards, and information of interest. In agriculture and in the food industry there is a need for a constant control of the condition and needs of plants, animals, and farm products. Yet many of these applications depend upon the development of novel, cheap devices and sensors that are easy to implement and to integrate. Organic semiconductors as well as several inorganic materials and hybrid material systems have proven to combine a number of intriguing optical and electronic properties with simple processing methods. As it will be reviewed in this contribution, these materials are believed to find their application in printed electronic devices allowing for the development of smart disposable devices in food-, health-, and environmental monitoring, diagnostics and control, possibly integrated into arrays of sensor elements for multi-parameter detection. In this contribution we review past and recent achievements in the field. Followed by a brief introduction, we will focus on two topics being on the agenda recently: a) the use of electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistor (EGOFET) and ion-selective membrane based sensors for in-situ sensing of ions and biological substances and b) the development of hybrid material based resistive switches and their integration into fully functional, printed hybrid crossbar sensor array structures.

  16. RIR-MAPLE deposition of conjugated polymers and hybrid nanocomposites for application to optoelectronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne D.; Pate, Ryan; McCormick, Ryan; Lantz, Kevin R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University Box 90291, Durham, NC 27708-0291, 919-660-5560 (United States)

    2012-07-30

    Resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) is a variation of pulsed laser deposition that is useful for organic-based thin films because it reduces material degradation by selective absorption of infrared radiation in the host matrix. A unique emulsion-based RIR-MAPLE approach has been developed that reduces substrate exposure to solvents and provides controlled and repeatable organic thin film deposition. In order to establish emulsion-based RIR-MAPLE as a preferred deposition technique for conjugated polymer or hybrid nanocomposite optoelectronic devices, studies have been conducted to demonstrate the value added by the approach in comparison to traditional solution-based deposition techniques, and this work will be reviewed. The control of hybrid nanocomposite thin film deposition, and the photoconductivity in such materials deposited using emulsion-based RIR-MAPLE, will also be reviewed. The overall result of these studies is the demonstration of emulsion-based RIR-MAPLE as a viable option for the fabrication of conjugated polymer and hybrid nanocomposite optoelectronic devices that could yield improved device performance.

  17. Real-time computer treatment of THz passive device images with the high image quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.

    2012-06-01

    We demonstrate real-time computer code improving significantly the quality of images captured by the passive THz imaging system. The code is not only designed for a THz passive device: it can be applied to any kind of such devices and active THz imaging systems as well. We applied our code for computer processing of images captured by four passive THz imaging devices manufactured by different companies. It should be stressed that computer processing of images produced by different companies requires using the different spatial filters usually. The performance of current version of the computer code is greater than one image per second for a THz image having more than 5000 pixels and 24 bit number representation. Processing of THz single image produces about 20 images simultaneously corresponding to various spatial filters. The computer code allows increasing the number of pixels for processed images without noticeable reduction of image quality. The performance of the computer code can be increased many times using parallel algorithms for processing the image. We develop original spatial filters which allow one to see objects with sizes less than 2 cm. The imagery is produced by passive THz imaging devices which captured the images of objects hidden under opaque clothes. For images with high noise we develop an approach which results in suppression of the noise after using the computer processing and we obtain the good quality image. With the aim of illustrating the efficiency of the developed approach we demonstrate the detection of the liquid explosive, ordinary explosive, knife, pistol, metal plate, CD, ceramics, chocolate and other objects hidden under opaque clothes. The results demonstrate the high efficiency of our approach for the detection of hidden objects and they are a very promising solution for the security problem.

  18. Hybrid Generative/Discriminative Learning for Automatic Image Annotation

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Shuang Hong; Zha, Hongyuan

    2012-01-01

    Automatic image annotation (AIA) raises tremendous challenges to machine learning as it requires modeling of data that are both ambiguous in input and output, e.g., images containing multiple objects and labeled with multiple semantic tags. Even more challenging is that the number of candidate tags is usually huge (as large as the vocabulary size) yet each image is only related to a few of them. This paper presents a hybrid generative-discriminative classifier to simultaneously address the extreme data-ambiguity and overfitting-vulnerability issues in tasks such as AIA. Particularly: (1) an Exponential-Multinomial Mixture (EMM) model is established to capture both the input and output ambiguity and in the meanwhile to encourage prediction sparsity; and (2) the prediction ability of the EMM model is explicitly maximized through discriminative learning that integrates variational inference of graphical models and the pairwise formulation of ordinal regression. Experiments show that our approach achieves both su...

  19. Control concept for a hybrid engine test device composed of a water vortex brake and an asynchronous machine; Regelungskonzept fuer einen Hybrid-Motorenpruefstand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeenpaeae, A. [ABB Automation Products, Mannheim (Germany); Fischer, G. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    New environmental laws require lower exhaust limits of motor vehicles all over the world. To test these limits, drive-cycle tests are performed on engine test devices. Future laws will require the simulation od downhill driving, which requires extensive changes to the engine test devices. Hybrid test devices with a water vortex brake and an asynchronous machine could be advantageous. A new control concept for those hybrid test devices is described here. (orig.) [German] Neue Umweltgesetze druecken weltweit die Abgasgrenzwerte von Automobilen nach unten. Zur Ueberpruefung dieser Grenzwerte dienen Fahrzyklus-Testreihen auf Motorenpruefstaenden. Kuenftige Vorschriften erfordern dabei bald die Simulation des 'Schiebebetriebs' (wie bei Bergabfahrten). Das erfordert aufwendige Umruestungen bei den Motorenpruefstaenden. Eine preisguenstige Loesung stellen Hybrid-Pruefstaende aus einer Wasserwirbelbremse und einer Asynchron-Maschine dar. Ein neues Regelkonzept dafuer wird hier beschrieben. (orig.)

  20. Integrated hybrid polystyrene-polydimethylsiloxane device for monitoring cellular release with microchip electrophoresis and electrochemical detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alicia S.; Mehl, Benjamin T.; Martin, R. Scott

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a polystyrene (PS)-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) hybrid device was developed to enable the integration of cell culture with analysis by microchip electrophoresis and electrochemical detection. It is shown that this approach combines the fundamental advantages of PDMS devices (the ability to integrate pumps and valves) and PS devices (the ability to permanently embed fluidic tubing and electrodes). The embedded fused-silica capillary enables high temporal resolution measurements from off-chip cell culture dishes and the embedded electrodes provide close to real-time analysis of small molecule neurotransmitters. A novel surface treatment for improved (reversible) adhesion between PS and PDMS is described using a chlorotrimethylsilane stamping method. It is demonstrated that a Pd decoupler is efficient at handling the high current (and cathodic hydrogen production) resulting from use of high ionic strength buffers needed for cellular analysis; thus allowing an electrophoretic separation and in-channel detection. The separation of norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) in highly conductive biological buffers was optimized using a mixed surfactant system. This PS-PDMS hybrid device integrates multiple processes including continuous sampling from a cell culture dish, on-chip pump and valving technologies, microchip electrophoresis, and electrochemical detection to monitor neurotransmitter release from PC 12 cells. PMID:25663849

  1. Transcap: A new integrated hybrid supercapacitor and electrolyte-gated transistor device (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santato, Clara

    2015-10-01

    The boom in multifunctional, flexible, and portable electronics and the increasing need of low-energy cost and autonomy for applications ranging from wireless sensor networks for smart environments to biomedical applications are triggering research efforts towards the development of self-powered sustainable electronic devices. Within this context, the coupling of electronic devices (e.g. sensors, transistors) with small size energy storage systems (e.g. micro-batteries or micro-supercapacitors) is actively pursued. Micro-electrochemical supercapacitors are attracting much attention in electronics for their capability of delivering short power pulses with high stability over repeated charge/discharge cycling. For their high specific pseudocapacitance, electronically conducting polymers are well known as positive materials for hybrid supercapacitors featuring high surface carbon negative electrodes. The processability of both polymer and carbon is of great relevance for the development of flexible miniaturised devices. Electronically conducting polymers are even well known to feature an electronic conductivity that depends on their oxidation (p-doped state) and that it is modulated by the polymer potential. This property and the related pseudocapacitive response make polymer very attracting channel materials for electrolyte-gated (EG) transistors. Here, we propose a novel concept of "Trans-capacitor", an integrated device that exhibits the storage properties of a polymer/carbon hybrid supercapacitor and the low-voltage operation of an electrolyte-gated transistor.

  2. Carbon-Based Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries, Electrochemical Capacitors, and Their Hybrid Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Fei; Pham, Duy Tho; Lee, Young Hee

    2015-07-20

    A rapidly developing market for portable electronic devices and hybrid electrical vehicles requires an urgent supply of mature energy-storage systems. As a result, lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors have lately attracted broad attention. Nevertheless, it is well known that both devices have their own drawbacks. With the fast development of nanoscience and nanotechnology, various structures and materials have been proposed to overcome the deficiencies of both devices to improve their electrochemical performance further. In this Review, electrochemical storage mechanisms based on carbon materials for both lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors are introduced. Non-faradic processes (electric double-layer capacitance) and faradic reactions (pseudocapacitance and intercalation) are generally explained. Electrochemical performance based on different types of electrolytes is briefly reviewed. Furthermore, impedance behavior based on Nyquist plots is discussed. We demonstrate the influence of cell conductivity, electrode/electrolyte interface, and ion diffusion on impedance performance. We illustrate that relaxation time, which is closely related to ion diffusion, can be extracted from Nyquist plots and compared between lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors. Finally, recent progress in the design of anodes for lithium-ion batteries, electrochemical capacitors, and their hybrid devices based on carbonaceous materials are reviewed. Challenges and future perspectives are further discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. The Sensitivity of Hybrid Differential Stereoscopy for Spectral Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    DeForest, Craig E

    2007-01-01

    Stereoscopic spectral imaging is an observing technique that affords rapid acquisition of limited spectral information over an entire image plane simultaneously. Light from a telescope is dispersed into multiple spectral orders, which are imaged separately, and two or more of the dispersed images are combined using an analogy between the (x,y,\\lambda) spectral data space and conventional (x,y,z) three-space. Because no photons are deliberately destroyed during image acquisition, the technique is much more photon-efficient in some observing regimes than existing techniques such as scanned-filtergraph or scanned-slit spectral imaging. Hybrid differential stereoscopy, which uses a combination of conventional cross-correlation stereoscopy and linear approximation theory to extract the central wavelength of a spectral line, has been used to produce solar Stokes-V (line-of-sight) magnetograms in the 617.34 nm Fe I line, and more sophisticated inversion techniques are currently being used to derive Doppler and line ...

  4. Hybrid detection of lung nodules on CT scan images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Lin; Tan, Yongqiang; Schwartz, Lawrence H.; Zhao, Binsheng, E-mail: bz2166@columbia.edu [Department of Radiology, Columbia University Medical Center, 630 West 168th Street, New York, New York 10032 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: The diversity of lung nodules poses difficulty for the current computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) schemes for lung nodule detection on computed tomography (CT) scan images, especially in large-scale CT screening studies. We proposed a novel CAD scheme based on a hybrid method to address the challenges of detection in diverse lung nodules. Methods: The hybrid method proposed in this paper integrates several existing and widely used algorithms in the field of nodule detection, including morphological operation, dot-enhancement based on Hessian matrix, fuzzy connectedness segmentation, local density maximum algorithm, geodesic distance map, and regression tree classification. All of the adopted algorithms were organized into tree structures with multi-nodes. Each node in the tree structure aimed to deal with one type of lung nodule. Results: The method has been evaluated on 294 CT scans from the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) dataset. The CT scans were randomly divided into two independent subsets: a training set (196 scans) and a test set (98 scans). In total, the 294 CT scans contained 631 lung nodules, which were annotated by at least two radiologists participating in the LIDC project. The sensitivity and false positive per scan for the training set were 87% and 2.61%. The sensitivity and false positive per scan for the testing set were 85.2% and 3.13%. Conclusions: The proposed hybrid method yielded high performance on the evaluation dataset and exhibits advantages over existing CAD schemes. We believe that the present method would be useful for a wide variety of CT imaging protocols used in both routine diagnosis and screening studies.

  5. Image compression with a hybrid wavelet-fractal coder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Kuo, C J

    1999-01-01

    A hybrid wavelet-fractal coder (WFC) for image compression is proposed. The WFC uses the fractal contractive mapping to predict the wavelet coefficients of the higher resolution from those of the lower resolution and then encode the prediction residue with a bitplane wavelet coder. The fractal prediction is adaptively applied only to regions where the rate saving offered by fractal prediction justifies its overhead. A rate-distortion criterion is derived to evaluate the fractal rate saving and used to select the optimal fractal parameter set for WFC. The superior performance of the WFC is demonstrated with extensive experimental results.

  6. STEM image simulation with hybrid CPU/GPU programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Y; Ge, B H; Shen, X; Wang, Y G; Yu, R C

    2016-07-01

    STEM image simulation is achieved via hybrid CPU/GPU programming under parallel algorithm architecture to speed up calculation on a personal computer (PC). To utilize the calculation power of a PC fully, the simulation is performed using the GPU core and multi-CPU cores at the same time to significantly improve efficiency. GaSb and an artificial GaSb/InAs interface with atom diffusion have been used to verify the computation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Fluorescent deep-blue and hybrid white emitting devices based on a naphthalene-benzofuran compound

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xiaohui

    2013-08-01

    We report the synthesis, photophysics and electrochemical properties of naphthalene-benzofuran compound 1 and its application in organic light emitting devices. Fluorescent deep-blue emitting devices employing 1 as the emitting dopant embedded in 4-4′-bis(9-carbazolyl)-2,2′-biphenyl (CBP) host show the peak external quantum efficiency of 4.5% and Commission Internationale d\\'Énclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.15, 0.07). Hybrid white devices using fluorescent blue emitting layer with 1 and a phosphorescent orange emitting layer based on an iridium-complex show the peak external quantum efficiency above 10% and CIE coordinates of (0.31, 0.37). © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Therapeutic efficacy of a hybrid mandibular advancement device in the management of obstructive sleep apnea assessed with acoustic reflection technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Agarwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is one of the most common forms of sleep-disordered breathing. Various treatment modalities include behavior modification therapy, nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP, oral appliance therapy, and various surgical modalities. Oral appliances are noninvasive and recommended treatment modality for snoring, mild to moderate OSA cases and severe OSA cases when patient is not compliant to CPAP therapy and unwilling for surgery. Acoustic reflection technique (ART is a relatively new modality for three-dimensional assessment of airway caliber in various clinical situations. The accuracy and reproducibility of acoustic rhinometry and acoustic pharyngometry assessment are comparable to computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. This case report highlights the therapeutic efficacy of an innovative customized acrylic hybrid mandibular advancement device in the management of polysomnography diagnosed OSA cases, and the treatment results were assessed by ART.

  9. Spectrally resolved single-photon imaging with hybrid superconducting - nanophotonic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Kahl, O; Kovalyuk, V; Vetter, A; Lewes-Malandrakis, G; Nebel, C; Korneev, A; Goltsman, G; Pernice, W

    2016-01-01

    The detection of individual photons is an inherently binary mechanism, revealing either their absence or presence while concealing their spectral information. For multi-color imaging techniques, such as single photon spectroscopy, fluorescence resonance energy transfer microscopy and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, wavelength discrimination is essential and mandates spectral separation prior to detection. Here, we adopt an approach borrowed from quantum photonic integration to realize a compact and scalable waveguide-integrated single-photon spectrometer capable of parallel detection on multiple wavelength channels, with temporal resolution below 50 ps and dark count rates below 10 Hz. We demonstrate multi-detector devices for telecommunication and visible wavelengths and showcase their performance by imaging silicon vacancy color centers in diamond nanoclusters. The fully integrated hybrid superconducting-nanophotonic circuits enable simultaneous spectroscopy and lifetime mapping for correlative imagi...

  10. Imaging diffusion in a microfluidic device by third harmonic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Uwe; Büchel, Andreas; Hardt, Steffen; Halfmann, Thomas

    2012-09-01

    We monitor and characterize near-surface diffusion of miscible, transparent liquids in a microfluidic device by third harmonic microscopy. The technique enables observations even of transparent or index-matched media without perturbation of the sample. In particular, we image concentrations of ethanol diffusing in water and estimate the diffusion coefficient from the third harmonic images. We obtain a diffusion coefficient D = (460 ± 30) μm2/s, which is consistent with theoretical predictions. The investigations clearly demonstrate the potential of harmonic microscopy also under the challenging conditions of transparent fluids.

  11. Device and Method of Scintillating Quantum Dots for Radiation Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Eric R. (Inventor); DeHaven, Stanton L. (Inventor); Williams, Phillip A. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A radiation imaging device includes a radiation source and a micro structured detector comprising a material defining a surface that faces the radiation source. The material includes a plurality of discreet cavities having openings in the surface. The detector also includes a plurality of quantum dots disclosed in the cavities. The quantum dots are configured to interact with radiation from the radiation source, and to emit visible photons that indicate the presence of radiation. A digital camera and optics may be used to capture images formed by the detector in response to exposure to radiation.

  12. The Role of Nanocrystal Size in Solution Processable CdSe:P3HT Hybrid Photovoltaic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Susnata; Ray, Samit K

    2016-05-01

    Hybrid photovoltaic devices were fabricated using different sizes of CdSe quantum dots with different loading concentrations in P3HT matrix. CdSe quantum dots were synthesized chemically using olive oil as the capping agent, instead of toxic phosphine. The efficiency of hybrid poly-(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) P3HT:CdSe photovoltaic device was found to depend on the size as well as the loading of the nanocrystals. A maximum power conversion efficiency of -0.8% was achieved under AM1.5G solar illumination for the device with -5.3 nm CdSe nanocrystals. A hybrid photovoltaic device was demonstrated on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates paving the way to achieve flexible,transparent and printable devices.

  13. A Flexible and Thin Graphene/Silver Nanowires/Polymer Hybrid Transparent Electrode for Optoelectronic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hua; Wu, Zhaoxin; Jiang, Yaqiu; Liu, Weihua; Li, Xin; Jiao, Bo; Abbas, Waseem; Hou, Xun

    2016-11-16

    A typical thin and fully flexible hybrid electrode was developed by integrating the encapsulation of silver nanowires (AgNWs) network between a monolayer graphene and polymer film as a sandwich structure. Compared with the reported flexible electrodes based on PET or PEN substrate, this unique electrode exhibits the superior optoelectronic characteristics (sheet resistance of 8.06 Ω/□ at 88.3% light transmittance). Meanwhile, the specific up-to-bottom fabrication process could achieve the superflat surface (RMS = 2.58 nm), superthin thickness (∼8 μm thickness), high mechanical robustness, and lightweight. In addition, the strong corrosion resistance and stability for the hybrid electrode were proved. With these advantages, we employ this electrode to fabricate the simple flexible organic light-emitting device (OLED) and perovskite solar cell device (PSC), which exhibit the considerable performance (best PCE of OLED = 2.11 cd/A(2); best PCE of PSC = 10.419%). All the characteristics of the unique hybrid electrode demonstrate its potential as a high-performance transparent electrode candidate for flexible optoelectronics.

  14. Concepts leading to the IMAGE-100 hybrid interactive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackin, T. F.; Sulester, J. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    As LACIE Procedure 1 evolved from the Classification and Mensuration Subsystem smallfields procedures, it became evident that two computational systems would have merit-the LACIE/Earth Resources Interactive Processing System based on a large IBM-360 computer oriented for operational use with high computational throughput, and a smaller, highly interactive system based on a PDP 11-45 minicomputer and its display system, the IMAGE-100. The latter had advantages for certain phases; notably, interactive spectral aids could be implemented quite rapidly. This would allow testing and development of Procedure 1 before its implementation on the LACIE/Earth Resources Interactive Processing System. The resulting minicomputer system, called the Classification and Mensuration Subsystem IMAGE-100 Hybrid System, allowed Procedure-1 operations to be performed interactively, except for clustering, classification, and automatic selection of best acquisitions, which were offloaded to the LACIE/Earth Resources Interactive Processing System.

  15. Lumiproxy: A Hybrid Representation of Image-Based Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Sheng; Jian Zhu; En-Hua; Yan-Ci Zhang

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a hybrid representation of image-based models combining the textured planes and the hierarchical points. Taking a set of depth images as input, our method starts from classifying input pixels into two categories, indicating the planar and non-planar surfaces respectively. For the planar surfaces, the geometric coefficients are reconstructed to form the uniformly sampled textures. For nearly planar surfaces, some textured planes, called lumiproxies,are constructed to represent the equivalent visual appearance. The Hough transform is used to find the positions of these textured planes, and optic flow measures are used to determine their textures. For remaining pixels corresponding to the non-planar geometries, the point primitive is applied, reorganized as the OBB-tree structure. Then, texture mapping and point splatting are employed together to render the novel views, with the hardware acceleration.

  16. Development of a Hybrid Nanoprobe for Triple-Modality MR/SPECT/Optical Fluorescence Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madru, Renata; Svenmarker, Pontus; Ingvar, Christian; Ståhlberg, Freddy; Engels, Stefan-Andersson; Knutsson, Linda; Strand, Sven-Erik

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid clinical imaging is an emerging technology, which improves disease diagnosis by combining already existing technologies. With the combination of high-resolution morphological imaging, i.e., MRI/CT, and high-sensitive molecular detection offered by SPECT/PET/Optical, physicians can detect disease progression at an early stage and design patient-specific treatments. To fully exploit the possibilities of hybrid imaging a hybrid probe compatible with each imaging technology is required. Here, we present a hybrid nanoprobe for triple modality MR/SPECT/Fluorescence imaging. Our imaging agent is comprised of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), labeled with 99mTc and an Alexa fluorophore (AF), together forming 99mTc-AF-SPIONs. The agent was stable in human serum, and, after subcutaneous injection in the hind paw of Wistar rats, showed to be highly specific by accumulating in the sentinel lymph node. All three modalities clearly visualized the imaging agent. Our results show that a single imaging agent can be used for hybrid imaging. The use of a single hybrid contrast agent permits simultaneous hybrid imaging and, more conventionally, allow for single modality imaging at different time points. For example, a hybrid contrast agent enables pre-operative planning, intra-operative guidance, and post-operative evaluation with the same contrast agent. PMID:26852675

  17. Text Region Extraction from Business Card Images for Mobile Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Mollah, Ayatullah Faruk; Das, Nibaran; Sarkar, Ram; Nasipuri, Mita; Kundu, Mahantapas

    2010-01-01

    Designing a Business Card Reader (BCR) for mobile devices is a challenge to the researchers because of huge deformation in acquired images, multiplicity in nature of the business cards and most importantly the computational constraints of the mobile devices. This paper presents a text extraction method designed in our work towards developing a BCR for mobile devices. At first, the background of a camera captured image is eliminated at a coarse level. Then, various rule based techniques are applied on the Connected Components (CC) to filter out the noises and picture regions. The CCs identified as text are then binarized using an adaptive but light-weight binarization technique. Experiments show that the text extraction accuracy is around 98% for a wide range of resolutions with varying computation time and memory requirements. The optimum performance is achieved for the images of resolution 1024x768 pixels with text extraction accuracy of 98.54% and, space and time requirements as 1.1 MB and 0.16 seconds resp...

  18. Carbon nano-strings as reporters in lateral flow devices for DNA sensing by hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogianni, Despina P; Boutsika, Lemonia M; Kouremenou, Panagiota G; Christopoulos, Theodore K; Ioannou, Penelope C

    2011-05-01

    Presently, there is a growing interest in the development of lateral flow devices for nucleic acid analysis that enable visual detection of the target sequence (analyte) while eliminating several steps required for pipetting, incubation, and washing out the excess of reactants. In this paper, we present, for the first time, lateral flow tests exploiting oligonucleotide-functionalized and antibody-functionalized carbon nanoparticles (carbon nano-strings, CBNS) as reporters that enable confirmation of the target DNA sequence by hybridization. The CBNS reporters were applied to (a) the detection of PCR products and (b) visual genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms in human genomic DNA. Biotinylated PCR product was hybridized with a dA-tailed probe. In one assay configuration, the hybrid is captured at the test zone of the strip by immobilized streptavidin and detected by (dT)(30)-CBNS. In a second configuration, the hybrids are captured from immobilized (dA) strands and detected by antibiotin-CBNS. As low as 2.5 fmol of amplified DNA can be detected. For visual genotyping, allele-specific primers with a 5' oligo(dA) segment are extended by DNA polymerase with a concomitant incorporation of biotin moieties. Extension products are detected either by (dT)(30)-CBNS or by antibiotin-CBNS. Only three cycles of extension reaction are sufficient for detection. No purification of the PCR products or the extension product is required.

  19. RNA Imaging with Multiplexed Error Robust Fluorescence in situ Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Jeffrey R.; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative measurements of both the copy number and spatial distribution of large fractions of the transcriptome in single-cells could revolutionize our understanding of a variety of cellular and tissue behaviors in both healthy and diseased states. Single-molecule Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (smFISH)—an approach where individual RNAs are labeled with fluorescent probes and imaged in their native cellular and tissue context—provides both the copy number and spatial context of RNAs but has been limited in the number of RNA species that can be measured simultaneously. Here we describe Multiplexed Error Robust Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (MERFISH), a massively parallelized form of smFISH that can image and identify hundreds to thousands of different RNA species simultaneously with high accuracy in individual cells in their native spatial context. We provide detailed protocols on all aspects of MERFISH, including probe design, data collection, and data analysis to allow interested laboratories to perform MERFISH measurements themselves. PMID:27241748

  20. THz near-field Faraday imaging in hybrid metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nishant; Strikwerda, Andrew C; Fan, Kebin; Zhang, Xin; Averitt, Richard D; Planken, Paul C M; Adam, Aurèle J L

    2012-05-07

    We report on direct measurements of the magnetic near-field of metamaterial split ring resonators at terahertz frequencies using a magnetic field sensitive material. Specifically, planar split ring resonators are fabricated on a single magneto-optically active terbium gallium garnet crystal. Normally incident terahertz radiation couples to the resonator inducing a magnetic dipole oscillating perpendicular to the crystal surface. Faraday rotation of the polarisation of a near-infrared probe beam directly measures the magnetic near-field with 100 femtosecond temporal resolution and (λ/200) spatial resolution. Numerical simulations suggest that the magnetic field can be enhanced in the plane of the resonator by as much as a factor of 200 compared to the incident field strength. Our results provide a route towards hybrid devices for dynamic magneto-active control of light such as isolators, and highlight the utility of split ring resonators as compact probes of magnetic phenomena in condensed matter.

  1. Energy-Efficient Scheduling for Hybrid Tasks in Control Devices for the Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojun Dai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In control devices for the Internet of Things (IoT, energy is one of the critical restriction factors. Dynamic voltage scaling (DVS has been proved to be an effective method for reducing the energy consumption of processors. This paper proposes an energy-efficient scheduling algorithm for IoT control devices with hard real-time control tasks (HRCTs and soft real-time tasks (SRTs. The main contribution of this paper includes two parts. First, it builds the Hybrid tasks with multi-subtasks of different function Weight (HoW task model for IoT control devices. HoW describes the structure of HRCTs and SRTs, and their properties, e.g., deadlines, execution time, preemption properties, and energy-saving goals, etc. Second, it presents the Hybrid Tasks’ Dynamic Voltage Scaling (HTDVS algorithm. HTDVS first sets the slowdown factors of subtasks while meeting the different real-time requirements of HRCTs and SRTs, and then dynamically reclaims, reserves, and reuses the slack time of the subtasks to meet their ideal energy-saving goals. Experimental results show HTDVS can reduce energy consumption about 10%–80% while meeting the real-time requirements of HRCTs, HRCTs help to reduce the deadline miss ratio (DMR of systems, and HTDVS has comparable performance with the greedy algorithm and is more favorable to keep the subtasks’ ideal speeds.

  2. Energy-efficient scheduling for hybrid tasks in control devices for the Internet of Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhigang; Wu, Yifan; Dai, Guojun; Xia, Haixia

    2012-01-01

    In control devices for the Internet of Things (IoT), energy is one of the critical restriction factors. Dynamic voltage scaling (DVS) has been proved to be an effective method for reducing the energy consumption of processors. This paper proposes an energy-efficient scheduling algorithm for IoT control devices with hard real-time control tasks (HRCTs) and soft real-time tasks (SRTs). The main contribution of this paper includes two parts. First, it builds the Hybrid tasks with multi-subtasks of different function Weight (HoW) task model for IoT control devices. HoW describes the structure of HRCTs and SRTs, and their properties, e.g., deadlines, execution time, preemption properties, and energy-saving goals, etc. Second, it presents the Hybrid Tasks' Dynamic Voltage Scaling (HTDVS) algorithm. HTDVS first sets the slowdown factors of subtasks while meeting the different real-time requirements of HRCTs and SRTs, and then dynamically reclaims, reserves, and reuses the slack time of the subtasks to meet their ideal energy-saving goals. Experimental results show HTDVS can reduce energy consumption about 10%-80% while meeting the real-time requirements of HRCTs, HRCTs help to reduce the deadline miss ratio (DMR) of systems, and HTDVS has comparable performance with the greedy algorithm and is more favorable to keep the subtasks' ideal speeds.

  3. Hybrid optical-thermal devices and materials for light manipulation and radiative cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Boriskina, Svetlana V; Hsu, Wei-Chun; Weinstein, Lee; Huang, Xiaopeng; Loomis, James; Xu, Yanfei; Chen, Gang

    2015-01-01

    We report on optical design and applications of hybrid meso-scale devices and materials that combine optical and thermal management functionalities owing to their tailored resonant interaction with light in visible and infrared frequency bands. We outline a general approach to designing such materials, and discuss two specific applications in detail. One example is a hybrid optical-thermal antenna with sub-wavelength light focusing, which simultaneously enables intensity enhancement at the operating wavelength in the visible and reduction of the operating temperature. The enhancement is achieved via light recycling in the form of whispering-gallery modes trapped in an optical microcavity, while cooling functionality is realized via a combination of reduced optical absorption and radiative cooling. The other example is a fabric that is opaque in the visible range yet highly transparent in the infrared, which allows the human body to efficiently shed energy in the form of thermal emission. Such fabrics can find...

  4. Research Update: The electronic structure of hybrid perovskite layers and their energetic alignment in devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selina Olthof

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the interest in hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites has increased at a rapid pace due to their tremendous success in the field of thin film solar cells. This area closely ties together fundamental solid state research and device application, as it is necessary to understand the basic material properties to optimize the performances and open up new areas of application. In this regard, the energy levels and their respective alignment with adjacent charge transport layers play a crucial role. Currently, we are lacking a detailed understanding about the electronic structure and are struggling to understand what influences the alignment, how it varies, or how it can be intentionally modified. This research update aims at giving an overview over recent results regarding measurements of the electronic structure of hybrid perovskites using photoelectron spectroscopy to summarize the present status.

  5. Diagnostic support for glaucoma using retinal images: a hybrid image analysis and data mining approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jin; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza; Artes, Paul; McIntyre, Andy; Heywood, Malcolm

    2005-01-01

    The availability of modern imaging techniques such as Confocal Scanning Laser Tomography (CSLT) for capturing high-quality optic nerve images offer the potential for developing automatic and objective methods for diagnosing glaucoma. We present a hybrid approach that features the analysis of CSLT images using moment methods to derive abstract image defining features. The features are then used to train classifers for automatically distinguishing CSLT images of normal and glaucoma patient. As a first, in this paper, we present investigations in feature subset selction methods for reducing the relatively large input space produced by the moment methods. We use neural networks and support vector machines to determine a sub-set of moments that offer high classification accuracy. We demonstratee the efficacy of our methods to discriminate between healthy and glaucomatous optic disks based on shape information automatically derived from optic disk topography and reflectance images.

  6. Metaphase FISH on a Chip: Miniaturized Microfluidic Device for Fluorescence in situ Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Tommerup

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH is a major cytogenetic technique for clinical genetic diagnosis of both inherited and acquired chromosomal abnormalities. Although FISH techniques have evolved and are often used together with other cytogenetic methods like CGH, PRINS and PNA-FISH, the process continues to be a manual, labour intensive, expensive and time consuming technique, often taking over 3–5 days, even in dedicated labs. We have developed a novel microFISH device to perform metaphase FISH on a chip which overcomes many shortcomings of the current laboratory protocols. This work also introduces a novel splashing device for preparing metaphase spreads on a microscope glass slide, followed by a rapid adhesive tape-based bonding protocol leading to rapid fabrication of the microFISH device. The microFISH device allows for an optimized metaphase FISH protocol on a chip with over a 20-fold reduction in the reagent volume. This is the first demonstration of metaphase FISH on a microfluidic device and offers a possibility of automation and significant cost reduction of many routine diagnostic tests of genetic anomalies.

  7. Hybrid Lead Halide Perovskites for Ultrasensitive Photoactive Switching in Terahertz Metamaterial Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjappa, Manukumara; Srivastava, Yogesh Kumar; Solanki, Ankur; Kumar, Abhishek; Sum, Tze Chien; Singh, Ranjan

    2017-08-01

    The recent meteoric rise in the field of photovoltaics with the discovery of highly efficient solar-cell devices is inspired by solution-processed organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites that exhibit unprecedented light-to-electricity conversion efficiencies. The stunning performance of perovskites is attributed to their strong photoresponsive properties that are thoroughly utilized in designing excellent perovskite solar cells, light-emitting diodes, infrared lasers, and ultrafast photodetectors. However, optoelectronic application of halide perovskites in realizing highly efficient subwavelength photonic devices has remained a challenge. Here, the remarkable photoconductivity of organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites is exploited to demonstrate a hybrid perovskite-metamaterial device that shows extremely low power photoswitching of the metamaterial resonances in the terahertz part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Furthermore, a signature of a coupled phonon-metamaterial resonance is observed at higher pump powers, where the Fano resonance amplitude is extremely weak. In addition, a low threshold, dynamic control of the highly confined electric field intensity is also observed in the system, which could tremendously benefit the new generation of subwavelength photonic devices as active sensors, low threshold optically controlled lasers, and active nonlinear devices with enhanced functionalities in the infrared, optical, and the terahertz parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Segmentation of Camera Captured Business Card Images for Mobile Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Mollah, Ayatullah Faruk; Nasipuri, Mita

    2011-01-01

    Due to huge deformation in the camera captured images, variety in nature of the business cards and the computational constraints of the mobile devices, design of an efficient Business Card Reader (BCR) is challenging to the researchers. Extraction of text regions and segmenting them into characters is one of such challenges. In this paper, we have presented an efficient character segmentation technique for business card images captured by a cell-phone camera, designed in our present work towards developing an efficient BCR. At first, text regions are extracted from the card images and then the skewed ones are corrected using a computationally efficient skew correction technique. At last, these skew corrected text regions are segmented into lines and characters based on horizontal and vertical histogram. Experiments show that the present technique is efficient and applicable for mobile devices, and the mean segmentation accuracy of 97.48% is achieved with 3 mega-pixel (500-600 dpi) images. It takes only 1.1 se...

  9. Digital micromirror devices: principles and applications in imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Vivek; Saggau, Peter

    2013-05-01

    A digital micromirror device (DMD) is an array of individually switchable mirrors that can be used in many advanced optical systems as a rapid spatial light modulator. With a DMD, several implementations of confocal microscopy, hyperspectral imaging, and fluorescence lifetime imaging can be realized. The DMD can also be used as a real-time optical processor for applications such as the programmable array microscope and compressive sensing. Advantages and disadvantages of the DMD for these applications as well as methods to overcome some of the limitations will be discussed in this article. Practical considerations when designing with the DMD and sample optical layouts of a completely DMD-based imaging system and one in which acousto-optic deflectors (AODs) are used in the illumination pathway are also provided.

  10. Medical devices; obstetrical and gynecological devices; classification of the assisted reproduction embryo image assessment system. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-26

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the Assisted Reproduction Embryo Image Assessment System into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order, and will be part of the codified language for the Assisted Reproduction Embryo Image Assessment System classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device.

  11. 78 FR 68091 - Certain Marine Sonar Imaging Devices, Products Containing the Same, and Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... COMMISSION Certain Marine Sonar Imaging Devices, Products Containing the Same, and Components Thereof... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain marine sonar imaging devices... sale within the United States after importation of certain marine sonar imaging devices,...

  12. White organic light emitting devices with hybrid emissive layers combining phosphorescence and fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei Gangtie; Chen Xiaolan; Wang Lei; Zhu Meixiang; Zhu Weiguo [Key Lab of Environmental-friendly Chemistry and Application of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Wang Liduo; Qiu Yong [Key Lab of Organic-Optoelectronics and Molecular Sciences of Ministry of Education, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)], E-mail: lgt@xtu.edu.cn

    2008-05-21

    We fabricated a white organic light-emitting diode (WOLED) by hybrid emissive layers which combined phosphorescence with fluorescence. In this device, the thin layer of 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-(t-butyl)-6-(1, 1, 7, 7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl)-4H-pyran played the role of undoped red emissive layer which was inserted between two blue phosphorescence emissive layers. The blue phosphorescent dye was bis[(4, 6-difluorophenyl)-pyridinato-N, C{sup 2}] (picolinato) Ir(III), which was doped in the host material, N, N'-dicarbazolyl-1, 4-dimethene-benzene. The WOLED showed stable Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage coordinates and a high efficency of 9.6 cd A{sup -1} when the current density was 1.8 A m{sup -2}. The maximum luminance of the device achieved was 17 400 cd m{sup -2} when the current density was 3000 A m{sup -2}.

  13. Designing artificial photosynthetic devices using hybrid organic-inorganic modules based on polyoxometalates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symes, Mark D; Cogdell, Richard J; Cronin, Leroy

    2013-08-13

    Artificial photosynthesis aims at capturing solar energy and using it to produce storable fuels. However, while there is reason to be optimistic that such approaches can deliver higher energy conversion efficiencies than natural photosynthetic systems, many serious challenges remain to be addressed. Perhaps chief among these is the issue of device stability. Almost all approaches to artificial photosynthesis employ easily oxidized organic molecules as light harvesters or in catalytic centres, frequently in solution with highly oxidizing species. The 'elephant in the room' in this regard is that oxidation of these organic moieties is likely to occur at least as rapidly as oxidation of water, meaning that current device performance is severely curtailed. Herein, we discuss one possible solution to this problem: using self-assembling organic-polyoxometalate hybrid structures to produce compartments inside which the individual component reactions of photosynthesis can occur without such a high incidence of deleterious side reactions.

  14. Hybrid yttrium iron garnet-ferromagnet structures for spin-wave devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, A., E-mail: apapp@nd.edu [Center for Nano Science and Technology and Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Pázmány Péter Catholic University, Faculty of Information Technology, Budapest 1088 (Hungary); Porod, W., E-mail: porod@nd.edu; Csaba, G., E-mail: gcsaba@nd.edu [Center for Nano Science and Technology and Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    We study coupled ferromagnetic layers, which could facilitate low loss, sub 100 nm wavelength spin-wave propagation and manipulation. One of the layers is a low-loss garnet film (such as yttrium iron garnet (YIG)) that enables long-distance, coherent spin-wave propagation. The other layer is made of metal-based (Permalloy, Co, and CoFe) magnetoelectronic structures that can be used to generate, manipulate, and detect the spin waves. Using micromagnetic simulations, we analyze the interactions between the spin waves in the YIG and the metallic nanomagnet structures and demonstrate the components of a scalable spin-wave based signal processing device. We argue that such hybrid-metallic ferromagnet structures can be the basis of potentially high-performance, ultra low-power computing devices.

  15. Low-loss, high performance hybrid photonics devices enabled by ion-exchanged glass waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araci, Ismail Emre

    Robust ion-exchanged glass waveguides exhibit low optical losses in a broad spectral range and they allow integration of several devices on the same chip due to their planar structure. Consequently, they can be a low cost alternative to semiconductors for fabricating various integrated optical devices. Two high performance photonic devices were designed and realized, demonstrating the potential of glass waveguides. The well-controlled silver-film ion-exchange process allowed the fabrication of: i) a highly sensitive biosensor based on optical absorption and, ii) a low loss hybrid electro-optic (EO) polymer modulator with a narrow coplanar electrode gap. The single-mode, channel integrated optical ion-exchange waveguide on borosilicate glass (Corning 0211) is described for broad spectral band (400-650 nm) detection and analysis of heme-containing protein films at a glass/water interface. The evanescent wave interaction is improved significantly by fabricating ion-exchange waveguides with a step-like index profile. Silver nano-particle formation is reduced in order to achieve low loss in the Soret-band (˜400 nm). Unlike other surface-specific techniques (e.g. SPR, interferometry) that probe local refractive-index changes and therefore are susceptible to temperature fluctuations, the integrated optical waveguide absorption technique probes molecular-specific transition bands and is expected to be less vulnerable to environmental perturbations. The hybrid integration of phosphate glass (IOG-1) and EO polymer is realized for the first time. The critical alignment steps which are typically required for hybrid optoelectronic devices are eliminated with a simple alignment-free fabrication technique. The low loss adiabatic transition from glass to EO polymer waveguide is enabled by gray scale patterning of the novel EO polymer, AJLY. Total insertion loss of 5 dB and electrode gap of 8 mum is obtained for an optimized device design. EO polymer poling at 135 °C and 75 V

  16. Solution processed integrated pixel element for an imaging device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swathi, K.; Narayan, K. S.

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate the implementation of a solid state circuit/structure comprising of a high performing polymer field effect transistor (PFET) utilizing an oxide layer in conjunction with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) as the dielectric and a bulk-heterostructure based organic photodiode as a CMOS-like pixel element for an imaging sensor. Practical usage of functional organic photon detectors requires on chip components for image capture and signal transfer as in the CMOS/CCD architecture rather than simple photodiode arrays in order to increase speed and sensitivity of the sensor. The availability of high performing PFETs with low operating voltage and photodiodes with high sensitivity provides the necessary prerequisite to implement a CMOS type image sensing device structure based on organic electronic devices. Solution processing routes in organic electronics offers relatively facile procedures to integrate these components, combined with unique features of large-area, form factor and multiple optical attributes. We utilize the inherent property of a binary mixture in a blend to phase-separate vertically and create a graded junction for effective photocurrent response. The implemented design enables photocharge generation along with on chip charge to voltage conversion with performance parameters comparable to traditional counterparts. Charge integration analysis for the passive pixel element using 2D TCAD simulations is also presented to evaluate the different processes that take place in the monolithic structure.

  17. Image Cytometry Data From Breast Lesions Analyzed using Hybrid Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Sakim, H A; Mat Isa, N A; G Naguib, Raouf; Sherbet, Gajanan

    2005-01-01

    The treatment and therapy to be administered on breast cancer patients are dependent on the stage of the disease at time of diagnosis. It is therefore crucial to determine the stage at the earliest time possible. Tumor dissemination to axillary lymph nodes has been regarded as an indication of tumor aggression, thus the stage of the disease. Neural networks have been employed in many applications including breast cancer prognosis. The performance of the networks have often been quoted based on accuracy and mean squared error. In this paper, the performance of hybrid networks based on Multilayer Perceptron and Radial Basis Function networks to predict axillary lymph node involvement have been investigated. A measurement of how confident the networks are with respect to the results produced is also proposed. The input layer of the networks include four image cytometry features extracted from fine needle aspiration of breast lesions. The highest accuracy achieved by the hybrid networks was 69% only. However, most of the correctly predicted cases had a high confidence level.

  18. Fabrication of fine imaging devices using an external proton microbeam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, T., E-mail: sakai.takuro@jaea.go.jp [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Yasuda, R.; Iikura, H.; Nojima, T. [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Koka, M.; Satoh, T.; Ishii, Y. [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Oshima, A. [Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2014-08-01

    We have successfully fabricated novel microscopic imaging devices made from UV/EB curable resin using an external scanning proton microbeam. The devices are micro-structured fluorescent plates that consist of an array of micro-pillars that align periodically. The base material used in the pillars is UV/EB curable resin and each pillar contains phosphor grains. The pattern exposures were performed using a proton beam writing technique. The height of the pillars depends on the range of the proton beam. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy have been used to characterize the samples. The results show that the fabricated fluorescent plates are expected to be compatible with both spatial resolution and detection efficiency.

  19. A light-stimulated synaptic device based on graphene hybrid phototransistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shuchao; Wang, Fengqiu; Liu, Yujie; Wan, Qing; Wang, Xinran; Xu, Yongbing; Shi, Yi; Wang, Xiaomu; Zhang, Rong

    2017-09-01

    Neuromorphic chips refer to an unconventional computing architecture that is modelled on biological brains. They are increasingly employed for processing sensory data for machine vision, context cognition, and decision making. Despite rapid advances, neuromorphic computing has remained largely an electronic technology, making it a challenge to access the superior computing features provided by photons, or to directly process vision data that has increasing importance to artificial intelligence. Here we report a novel light-stimulated synaptic device based on a graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid phototransistor. Significantly, the device can respond to optical stimuli in a highly neuron-like fashion and exhibits flexible tuning of both short- and long-term plasticity. These features combined with the spatiotemporal processability make our device a capable counterpart to today’s electrically-driven artificial synapses, with superior reconfigurable capabilities. In addition, our device allows for generic optical spike processing, which provides a foundation for more sophisticated computing. The silicon-compatible, multifunctional photosensitive synapse opens up a new opportunity for neural networks enabled by photonics and extends current neuromorphic systems in terms of system complexities and functionalities.

  20. An integrated hybrid microfluidic device for oviposition-based chemical screening of adult Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Jacob C K; Hilliker, Arthur J; Rezai, Pouya

    2016-02-21

    Chemical screening using Drosophila melanogaster (the fruit fly) is vital in drug discovery, agricultural, and toxicological applications. Oviposition (egg laying) on chemically-doped agar plates is an important read-out metric used to quantitatively assess the biological fitness and behavioral responses of Drosophila. Current oviposition-based chemical screening studies are inaccurate, labor-intensive, time-consuming, and inflexible due to the manual chemical doping of agar. In this paper, we have developed a novel hybrid agar-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device for single- and multi-concentration chemical dosing and on-chip oviposition screening of free-flying adult stage Drosophila. To achieve this, we have devised a novel technique to integrate agar with PDMS channels using ice as a sacrificial layer. Subsequently, we have conducted single-chemical toxicity and multiple choice chemical preference assays on adult Drosophila melanogaster using zinc and acetic acid at various concentrations. Our device has enabled us to 1) demonstrate that Drosophila is capable of sensing the concentration of different chemicals on a PDMS-agar microfluidic device, which plays significant roles in determining oviposition site selection and 2) investigate whether oviposition preference differs between single- and multi-concentration chemical environments. This device may be used to study fundamental and applied biological questions in Drosophila and other egg laying insects. It can also be extended in design to develop sophisticated and dynamic chemical dosing and high-throughput screening platforms in the future that are not easily achievable with the existing oviposition screening techniques.

  1. Micropolarizing device for long wavelength infrared polarization imaging.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Joel Robert; Carter, Tony Ray; Samora, Sally; Cruz-Cabrera, Alvaro Augusto; Vawter, Gregory Allen; Kemme, Shanalyn A.; Alford, Charles Fred; Boye, Robert R.; Smith, Jody Lynn

    2006-11-01

    The goal of this project is to fabricate a four-state pixelated subwavelength optical device that enables mid-wave infrared (MWIR) or long-wave infrared (LWIR) snapshot polarimetric imaging. The polarization information can help to classify imaged materials and identify objects of interest for numerous remote sensing and military applications. While traditional, sequential polarimetric imaging produces scenes with polarization information through a series of assembled images, snapshot polarimetric imaging collects the spatial distribution of all four Stokes parameters simultaneously. In this way any noise due to scene movement from one frame to the next is eliminated. We fabricated several arrays of subwavelength components for MWIR polarization imaging applications. Each pixel unit of the array consists of four elements. These elements are micropolarizers with three or four different polarizing axis orientations. The fourth element sometimes has a micro birefringent waveplate on the top of one of the micropolarizers. The linear micropolarizers were fabricated by patterning nano-scale metallic grids on a transparent substrate. A large area birefringent waveplate was fabricated by deeply etching a subwavelength structure into a dielectric substrate. The principle of making linear micropolarizers for long wavelengths is based upon strong anisotropic absorption of light in the nano-metallic grid structures. The nano-metallic grid structures are patterned with different orientations; therefore, the micropolarizers have different polarization axes. The birefringent waveplate is a deeply etched dielectric one-dimensional subwavelength grating; therefore two orthogonally polarized waves have different phase delays. Finally, in this project, we investigated the near field and diffractive effects of the subwavelength element apertures upon detection. The fabricated pixelated polarizers had a measured extinction ratios larger than 100:1 for pixel sizes in the order of 15

  2. An Asymmetric Image Encryption Based on Phase Truncated Hybrid Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Mehak; Singh, Hukum

    2017-09-01

    To enhance the security of the system and to protect it from the attacker, this paper proposes a new asymmetric cryptosystem based on hybrid approach of Phase Truncated Fourier and Discrete Cosine Transform (PTFDCT) which adds non linearity by including cube and cube root operation in the encryption and decryption path respectively. In this cryptosystem random phase masks are used as encryption keys and phase masks generated after the cube operation in encryption process are reserved as decryption keys and cube root operation is required to decrypt image in decryption process. The cube and cube root operation introduced in the encryption and decryption path makes system resistant against standard attacks. The robustness of the proposed cryptosystem has been analysed and verified on the basis of various parameters by simulating on MATLAB 7.9.0 (R2008a). The experimental results are provided to highlight the effectiveness and suitability of the proposed cryptosystem and prove the system is secure.

  3. An Efficient Image Compressor for Charge Coupled Devices Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the discrete wavelet transforms- (DWT- based compressor, such as JPEG2000 and CCSDS-IDC, is widely seen as the state of the art compression scheme for charge coupled devices (CCD camera. However, CCD images project on the DWT basis to produce a large number of large amplitude high-frequency coefficients because these images have a large number of complex texture and contour information, which are disadvantage for the later coding. In this paper, we proposed a low-complexity posttransform coupled with compressing sensing (PT-CS compression approach for remote sensing image. First, the DWT is applied to the remote sensing image. Then, a pair base posttransform is applied to the DWT coefficients. The pair base are DCT base and Hadamard base, which can be used on the high and low bit-rate, respectively. The best posttransform is selected by the lp-norm-based approach. The posttransform is considered as the sparse representation stage of CS. The posttransform coefficients are resampled by sensing measurement matrix. Experimental results on on-board CCD camera images show that the proposed approach significantly outperforms the CCSDS-IDC-based coder, and its performance is comparable to that of the JPEG2000 at low bit rate and it does not have the high excessive implementation complexity of JPEG2000.

  4. Tunable high-refractive index hybrid for solution-processed light management devices (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachevillier, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    After the use of highly efficient but expensive inorganic optical materials, solution-processable polymers and hybrids have drawn more and more interest. Our group have recently developed a novel polymer-based hybrid optical material from titanium oxide hydrate exhibiting an outstanding set of optical and material properties. Firstly, their low cost, processability and cross-linked states are particularly attractive for many applications. Moreover, a high refractive index can be repeatedly achieved while optical losses stays considerably low over the entire visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. Indeed, the formation of inorganic nanoparticles, usually present in nanocomposites, is avoided by a specific formulation process. Even more remarkably, the refractive index can be tuned by either changing the inorganic content, using different titanium precursors or via a low-temperature curing process. A part of our work is focused on the reliable optical characterization of these properties, in particular a microscope-based setup allowing in-situ measurement and sample mapping has been developed. Our efforts are also concentrated on various applications of these exceptional properties. This hybrid material is tailored for photonic devices, with a specific emphasis on the production of highly efficient solution processable Distributed Bragg Reflectors (DBR) and anti-reflection coatings. Furthermore, waveguides can be fabricated from thin films along with in-coupling and out-coupling structures. These light managements structures are particularly adapted to organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) and light emitting diodes (OLEDs).

  5. Numerical Research on Hybrid Fuel Locking Device for Upward Flow Core-Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Hyung; Cho, Yeong-Garp; Yoo, Yeon-Sik; Ryu, Jeong-Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The assembly must be held firmly against these forces, but cannot be permanently attached to the support stand because periodic refueling of the reactor requires removal or relocation of each assembly. There are so many kinds of fuel locking device, but they are operated manually. As a part of a new project, we have investigated a hybrid fuel locking device (HFLD) for research reactor which is operated automatically. Prior method of holding down the fuel assembly includes a hybrid zero electromagnet consisting of an electromagnet and a permanent magnet. The role of an electromagnet is converged to zero power for overcoming the lifting power of a permanent magnet by controlling the coil current. At this time, a HFLD is an unlocking state. On the contrary, it is locking state that only a permanent magnet works when the power of an electromagnet is off. The results of a FEM in this work lead to the following conclusions: (1) It is possible that an electromagnet is converged to zero power for overcoming the lifting power of a permanent magnet by remote controlling the coil current. (2) At this time, it is able to detect remotely using proximity sensor whether a HFLD is latched or not.

  6. [The modern body image as ethical device for biomedical enhancement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitsameter, C

    2013-01-01

    Ovid's "De medicamine faciei feminae" contains the astonishing sentence "Culta placent - all that is artificial is beautiful". In his "Éloge du maquillage" Baudelaire, buidling on Ovid's argument, states that first culture as picture and construction of beauty brings forth the truth of Nature and claims that cosmetics that allow errors of beauty to disappear artificially produce the true fulfillment of human nature. The present article looks into the historical roots of the body images that have emerged in modern times and attempts to derive structural devices for an ethical assessment of the potential we have to enhance human nature.

  7. Fast, cheap and in control: spectral imaging with handheld devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Edward A.; Deutsch, Erik R.; Huehnerhoff, Joseph; Hajian, Arsen R.

    2017-05-01

    Remote sensing has moved out of the laboratory and into the real world. Instruments using reflection or Raman imaging modalities become faster, cheaper and more powerful annually. Enabling technologies include virtual slit spectrometer design, high power multimode diode lasers, fast open-loop scanning systems, low-noise IR-sensitive array detectors and low-cost computers with touchscreen interfaces. High-volume manufacturing assembles these components into inexpensive portable or handheld devices that make possible sophisticated decision-making based on robust data analytics. Examples include threat, hazmat and narcotics detection; remote gas sensing; biophotonic screening; environmental remediation and a host of other applications.

  8. Silver nanowire embedded in P3HT:PCBM for high-efficiency hybrid photovoltaic device applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chul-Hyun; Cha, Sang-Ho; Kim, Sung Chul; Song, Myungkwan; Lee, Jaebeom; Shin, Won Suk; Moon, Sang-Jin; Bahng, Joong Hwan; Kotov, Nicholas A; Jin, Sung-Ho

    2011-04-26

    A systematic approach has been followed in the development of a high-efficiency hybrid photovoltaic device that has a combination of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), and silver nanowires (Ag NWs) in the active layer using the bulk heterojunction concept. The active layer is modified by utilizing a binary solvent system for blending. In addition, the solvent evaporation process after spin-coating is changed and an Ag NWs is incorporated to improve the performance of the hybrid photovoltaic device. Hybrid photovoltaic devices were fabricated by using a 1:0.7 weight ratio of P3HT to PCBM in a 1:1 weight ratio of o-dichlorobenzene and chloroform solvent mixture, in the presence and absence of 20 wt % of Ag NWs. We also compared the photovoltaic performance of Ag NWs embedded in P3HT:PCBM to that of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). Atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmittance electron microscopy, UV-visible absorption, incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency, and time-of-flight measurements are performed in order to characterize the hybrid photovoltaic devices. The optimal hybrid photovoltaic device composed of Ag NWs generated in this effort exhibits a power conversion efficiency of 3.91%, measured by using an AM 1.5G solar simulator at 100 mW/cm(2) light illumination intensity.

  9. Bipolar resistive switching properties of Ti-CuO/(hexafluoro-hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene)-Cu hybrid interface device: Influence of electronic nature of organic layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Bharti; Mehta, B. R.; Varandani, Deepak [Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India); Govind [Surface Physics Group, National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), New Delhi-110012 (India); Narita, A.; Feng, X.; Muellen, K. [Max-Planck Institute for Polymer Research, D-55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2013-05-28

    This study reports the change in the structural and junction properties of Ti-CuO-Cu structure on incorporation of a 2-dimensional (2D) organic layer comprising of n-type hexafluoro-hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene (6F-HBC). A bipolar resistive switching is observed in the device having interface between sputter deposited copper oxide (CuO) and vacuum sublimated 6F-HBC hybrid interface. The CuO/6F-HBC hybrid interface exhibits rectifying I-V characteristics in complete contrast to the ohmic and rectifying characteristics of junctions based on individual 6F-HBC and CuO layers. Large change in resistive switching property from unipolar resistive switching in CuO/HBC to bipolar resistive switching in CuO/6F-HBC interface was observed. At the CuO/6F-HBC interface, C1s peak corresponding to fluorinated carbon is shifted by 0.68 eV towards higher binding energy (BE) side and O1s peak due to non-lattice oxygen is shifted by 0.6 eV towards lower BE, confirming the interaction of O{sup 2-} ion in CuO with fluorinated carbon atoms in 6F-HBC at the hybrid interface. Correlation between conductive atomic force microscopy images and atomic force microscopy topography images, I-V characteristics in conducting, non-conducting, and pristine regions along with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results establishes the important role of hybrid interface to determining the resistive switching properties. This study demonstrates that the resistive switching and interface properties of a hybrid device based on inorganic and organic 2D materials can be modified by changing the electronic properties of organic layer by attaching suitable functional groups.

  10. Micro and nano devices in passive millimetre wave imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, R.

    2013-06-01

    The impact of micro and nano technology on millimetre wave imaging from the post war years to the present day is reviewed. In the 1950s whisker contacted diodes in mixers and vacuum tubes were used to realise both radiometers and radars but required considerable skill to realise the performance needed. Development of planar semiconductor devices such as Gunn and Schottky diodes revolutionised mixer performance and provided considerable improvement. The next major breakthrough was high frequency transistors based on gallium arsenide which were initially used at intermediate frequencies but later after further development at millimeter wave frequencies. More recently Monolithic Microwave Integrated circuits(MMICs) offer exceptional performance and the opportunity for innovative design in passive imaging systems. In the future the use of micro and nano technology will continue to drive system performance and we can expect to see integration of antennae, millimetre wave and sub millimetre wave circuits and signal processing.

  11. Hybrid Imaging for Extended Depth of Field Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahreddine, Ramzi Nicholas

    An inverse relationship exists in optical systems between the depth of field (DOF) and the minimum resolvable feature size. This trade-off is especially detrimental in high numerical aperture microscopy systems where resolution is pushed to the diffraction limit resulting in a DOF on the order of 500 nm. Many biological structures and processes of interest span over micron scales resulting in significant blurring during imaging. This thesis explores a two-step computational imaging technique known as hybrid imaging to create extended DOF (EDF) microscopy systems with minimal sacrifice in resolution. In the first step a mask is inserted at the pupil plane of the microscope to create a focus invariant system over 10 times the traditional DOF, albeit with reduced contrast. In the second step the contrast is restored via deconvolution. Several EDF pupil masks from the literature are quantitatively compared in the context of biological microscopy. From this analysis a new mask is proposed, the incoherently partitioned pupil with binary phase modulation (IPP-BPM), that combines the most advantageous properties from the literature. Total variation regularized deconvolution models are derived for the various noise conditions and detectors commonly used in biological microscopy. State of the art algorithms for efficiently solving the deconvolution problem are analyzed for speed, accuracy, and ease of use. The IPP-BPM mask is compared with the literature and shown to have the highest signal-to-noise ratio and lowest mean square error post-processing. A prototype of the IPP-BPM mask is fabricated using a combination of 3D femtosecond glass etching and standard lithography techniques. The mask is compared against theory and demonstrated in biological imaging applications.

  12. Omnidirectional Harvesting of Weak Light Using a Graphene Quantum Dot-Modified Organic/Silicon Hybrid Device

    KAUST Repository

    Tsai, Meng-Lin

    2017-04-21

    Despite great improvements in traditional inorganic photodetectors and photovoltaics, more progress is needed in the detection/collection of light at low-level conditions. Traditional photodetectors tend to suffer from high noise when operated at room temperature; therefore, these devices require additional cooling systems to detect weak or dim light. Conventional solar cells also face the challenge of poor light-harvesting capabilities in hazy or cloudy weather. The real world features such varying levels of light, which makes it important to develop strategies that allow optical devices to function when conditions are less than optimal. In this work, we report an organic/inorganic hybrid device that consists of graphene quantum dot-modified poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrenesulfonate spin-coated on Si for the detection/harvest of weak light. The hybrid configuration provides the device with high responsivity and detectability, omnidirectional light trapping, and fast operation speed. To demonstrate the potential of this hybrid device in real world applications, we measured near-infrared light scattered through human tissue to demonstrate noninvasive oximetric photodetection as well as characterized the device\\'s photovoltaic properties in outdoor (i.e., weather-dependent) and indoor weak light conditions. This organic/inorganic device configuration demonstrates a promising strategy for developing future high-performance low-light compatible photodetectors and photovoltaics.

  13. Gold nanoparticle-embedded silk protein-ZnO nanorod hybrids for flexible bio-photonic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogurla, Narendar; Kundu, Subhas C.; Ray, Samit K.

    2017-04-01

    Silk protein has been used as a biopolymer substrate for flexible photonic devices. Here, we demonstrate ZnO nanorod array hybrid photodetectors on Au nanoparticle-embedded silk protein for flexible optoelectronics. Hybrid samples exhibit optical absorption at the band edge of ZnO as well as plasmonic energy due to Au nanoparticles, making them attractive for selective UV and visible wavelength detection. The device prepared on Au-silk protein shows a much lower dark current and a higher photo to dark-current ratio of ∼105 as compared to the control sample without Au nanoparticles. The hybrid device also exhibits a higher specific detectivity due to higher responsivity arising from the photo-generated hole trapping by Au nanoparticles. Sharp pulses in the transient photocurrent have been observed in devices prepared on glass and Au-silk protein substrates due to the light induced pyroelectric effect of ZnO, enabling the demonstration of self-powered photodetectors at zero bias. Flexible hybrid detectors have been demonstrated on Au-silk/polyethylene terephthalate substrates, exhibiting characteristics similar to those fabricated on rigid glass substrates. A study of the performance of photodetectors with different bending angles indicates very good mechanical stability of silk protein based flexible devices. This novel concept of ZnO nanorod array photodetectors on a natural silk protein platform provides an opportunity to realize integrated flexible and self-powered bio-photonic devices for medical applications in near future.

  14. First-in-human clinical trials of imaging devices: an example from optical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs-Strauss, Summer L; Rosenberg, Mireille; Clough, Barbara L; Troyan, Susan L; Frangioni, John V

    2009-01-01

    Clinical translation of scientific discoveries is often the long-term goal of academic medical research. However, this goal is not always realized due to the complicated path between bench research and clinical use. In this review, we outline the fundamental steps required for first-in-human testing of a new imaging device, and use the FLARE() (Fluorescence-Assisted Resection and Exploration) near-infrared fluorescence optical imaging platform as an example.

  15. Optimal setting of FACTS devices for voltage stability improvement using PSO adaptive GSA hybrid algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Ram Inkollu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel technique for optimizing the FACTS devices, so as to maintain the voltage stability in the power transmission systems. Here, the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO and the adaptive gravitational search algorithm (GSA technique are proposed for improving the voltage stability of the power transmission systems. In the proposed approach, the PSO algorithm is used for optimizing the gravitational constant and to improve the searching performance of the GSA. Using the proposed technique, the optimal settings of the FACTS devices are determined. The proposed algorithm is an effective method for finding out the optimal location and the sizing of the FACTS controllers. The optimal locations and the power ratings of the FACTS devices are determined based on the voltage collapse rating as well as the power loss of the system. Here, two FACTS devices are used to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, namely, the unified power flow controller (UPFC and the interline power flow controller (IPFC. The Newton–Raphson load flow study is used for analyzing the power flow in the transmission system. From the power flow analysis, bus voltages, active power, reactive power, and power loss of the transmission systems are determined. Then, the voltage stability is enhanced while satisfying a given set of operating and physical constraints. The proposed technique is implemented in the MATLAB platform and consequently, its performance is evaluated and compared with the existing GA based GSA hybrid technique. The performance of the proposed technique is tested with the benchmark system of IEEE 30 bus using two FACTS devices such as, the UPFC and the IPFC.

  16. Au Nanocluster assisted PCE improvement in PEDOT: PSS - Si Hybrid Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manisha; Pudasaini, Pushpa Raj; Ayon, Arturo A.

    2015-03-01

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), a P-type organic polymer is frequently employed in the fabrication of heterojunction p-n solar cell devices due to its proper HOMO-LUMO band gap as well as its tunable conductivity. In this report we describe the incorporation of gold (Au) nanoclusters in the PEDOT:PSS blend and its influence on the power-conversion-efficiency (PCE) on planar silicon (Si) hybrid heterojunction solar cell devices. Specifically, the reference samples without the aforementioned nanoclusters, were measured to exhibit a 6.10% PCE, value that increased to 7.55% upon the addition of the Au nanoclusters. The observed increase in the PCE is attributed to the enhanced electrical conductivity of the PEDOT:PSS films due to the incorporation of the nanoclusters, which is directly reflected in their improved fill factor. It is further theorized that the presence of Au nanoclusters in the insulating PSS layer in the PEDOT:PSS blend have a positive influence in the charge collection effectiveness of the devices produced. Considering that the Au nanoparticles involved in this research exercise had an average size of only 4 nm, it is considered that plasmonic effects did not play a relevant role in the observed PCE improvement.

  17. Nanocomposite Based Organic-Inorganic Cu3BiS3 High Sensitive Hybrid Photonic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, Banavoth; Krupanidhi, S B

    2015-04-01

    We report the synthesis and application Cu3BiS3 nanorods in infrared photodectection. Cu3BiS3 nano rods were characterized structurally, optically and electrically. The detailed IR photodectection properties in terms of photo response were demonstrated with IR lamp and 1064 nm laser illuminations. The rapid photocurrent time constants followed by the slower components, resulting due to the defect states. The photo detecting properties for different concentrations of nanorods blended with the conjugate polymer devices were demonstrated. Further the photocurrent was enhanced to threefold increase from 3.47 x 10(-7) A to 2.37 x 10(-3) A at 1 V for 10 mg nanorods embedded in the polymer device. Responsivity of hybrid device was enhanced from 0.0158 A/W to 102 A/W. The detailed trap assisted space charge transport properties were studied considering the different regimes. Hence Cu3BiS3 can be a promising candidate in the nano switchable near IR photodetectors.

  18. Hybrid Medical Image Classification Using Association Rule Mining with Decision Tree Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Rajendran, P.; M.Madheswaran

    2010-01-01

    The main focus of image mining in the proposed method is concerned with the classification of brain tumor in the CT scan brain images. The major steps involved in the system are: pre-processing, feature extraction, association rule mining and hybrid classifier. The pre-processing step has been done using the median filtering process and edge features have been extracted using canny edge detection technique. The two image mining approaches with a hybrid manner have been proposed in this paper....

  19. 75 FR 38118 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices With Image Processing Systems, Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices With Image Processing Systems, Components Thereof, and... certain electronic devices with image processing systems, components thereof, and associated software that... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain electronic devices with...

  20. 77 FR 74220 - Certain Digital Photo Frames and Image Display Devices and Components Thereof; Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... COMMISSION Certain Digital Photo Frames and Image Display Devices and Components Thereof; Commission... importation of certain digital photo frames and image display devices and components thereof by reason of... likely to do so. For background, see In the Matter of Certain Devices for Connecting Computers via...

  1. A microelectronic portal imaging device for image guided conformal microirradiation of murine cancer models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Samantha G; Silvius, Alexander A; Izaguirre, Enrique W

    2014-01-01

    Image guided conformal small animal orthovoltage microirradiators are currently under development to perform radiobiological experiments with preclinical cancer models. An important component of these instruments is the treatment delivery image guidance system, a microelectronic portal imaging device (μEPID). Here, we present the design and implementation of a μEPID, specifically designed and constructed for small animal orthovoltage microirradiators. The μEPID can acquire images in the range of 60 kVp to 320 kVp x-ray photon energies and can endure high doses from orthovoltage beams without radiation damage. The μEPID can acquire 200 μm resolution images at a rate of 17 frames per second for online in vivo co-registration between irradiation beams and small animal anatomy. An exposure with less than 1% of a 2 Gy treatment field is required for imaging, which is an adequate ratio between imaging dose and treatment dose to avoid undesired irradiation of healthy tissue or alteration of the preclinical cancer model. The μEPID was calibrated for microdosimetry with a precision of 4.1% with respect to an ion chamber, used as a gold standard. To validate the in vivo device performance, irradiations of lung, brain, and xenograft breast cancer preclinical models were performed and analyzed.

  2. Image guided placement of temporary anchorage devices for tooth movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahl-Palomo, L.; Bissada, N. [Case Western Reserve Univ. School of Dental Medicine, Dept. of Periodontics, Cleveland, OH (United States); Palomo, J.M.; Hans, M.G. [Case Western Reserve Univ. School of Dental Medicine, Dept. of Orthodontics, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2007-06-15

    The aim of this project is to develop an image guided protocol for placement of a temporary anchorage device without surgically reflecting a mucoperiosteal flap. Eighteen orthodontic cases were selected for skeletal anchorage from the department of orthodontics at Case University. CBCT images of the subjects were taken using the Hitachi CB MercuRay system set at 15 mA, 120 kVp. CBCT images evaluated the ideal location for TAD placement in three dimensions. Horizontal and vertical linear measurements were taken from fixed dental landmarks to clearly define the location for placement. Transverse slices were used to evaluate the thickness of the buccal plate. Using the transverse view, the angle of insertion was determined such that the maximum buccal plate surface area would contact the screw. TADs were placed in the optimum location, with the most appropriate angle of insertion using a closed approach and with minimal local anesthesia and without flap elevation. Results: All TADs were placed without anatomic encroachment and enabled fixed orthodontic anchorage. (orig.)

  3. Hybrid Positron Emission Tomography/Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Challenges, Methods, and State of the Art of Hardware Component Attenuation Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Daniel H; Quick, Harald H

    2016-10-01

    Attenuation correction (AC) is an essential step in the positron emission tomography (PET) data reconstruction process to provide accurate and quantitative PET images. The introduction of PET/magnetic resonance (MR) hybrid systems has raised new challenges but also possibilities regarding PET AC. While in PET/computed tomography (CT) imaging, CT images can be converted to attenuation maps, MR images in PET/MR do not provide a direct relation to attenuation. For the AC of patient tissues, new methods have been suggested, for example, based on image segmentation, atlas registration, or ultrashort echo time MR sequences. Another challenge in PET/MR hybrid imaging is AC of hardware components that are placed in the PET/MR field of view, such as the patient table or various radiofrequency (RF) coils covering the body of the patient for MR signal detection. Hardware components can be categorized into 4 different groups: (1) patient table, (2) RF receiver coils, (3) radiation therapy equipment, and (4) PET and MR imaging phantoms. For rigid and stationary objects, such as the patient table and some RF coils like the head/neck coil, predefined CT-based attenuation maps stored on the system can be used for automatic AC. Flexible RF coils are not included into the AC process till now because they can vary in position as well as in shape and are not accurately detectable with the PET/MR system.This work summarizes challenges, established methods, new concepts, and the state of art in hardware component AC in the context of PET/MR hybrid imaging. The work also gives an overview of PET/MR hardware devices, their attenuation properties, and their effect on PET quantification.

  4. Design and control of a dual unidirectional brake hybrid actuation system for haptic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossa, Carlos; Lozada, José; Micaelli, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid actuators combining brakes and motors have emerged as an efficient solution to achieve high performance in haptic devices. In this paper, an actuation approach using two unidirectional brakes and a DC motor is proposed. The brakes are coupled to overrunning clutches and can apply a torque in only one rotational direction. The associated control laws, that are independent of the virtual environment model, calculate the control gains in real time in order limit the energy and the stiffness delivered by the motor to ensure stability. The reference torque is respected using the combination of the motor and the brake. Finally, an user experiment has been performed to evaluate the influence of passive and active torque differences in the perception of elasticity. The proposed actuator has a torque range of 0.03 Nm to 5.5 Nm with a 17.75 kNm (-2) torque density.

  5. Hybrid simulation of a parallel collisionless shock in the Large Plasma Device

    CERN Document Server

    Weidl, M S; Jenko, F; Niemann, C

    2016-01-01

    We present two-dimensional hybrid kinetic/magnetohydrodynamic simulations of planned laser-ablation experiments in the Large Plasma Device (LAPD). Our results, based on parameters which have been validated in previous experiments, show that a parallel collisionless shock can begin forming within the available space. Carbon-debris ions that stream along the magnetic-field direction with a blow-off speed of four times the Alfven velocity excite strong magnetic fluctuations, eventually transfering part of their kinetic energy to the surrounding hydrogen ions. This acceleration and compression of the background plasma creates a shock front, which satisfies the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions and can therefore propagate on its own. Furthermore, we analyze the upstream turbulence and show that it is dominated by the right-hand resonant instability.

  6. Hybrid Quantum Point Contact-Superconductor Devices Using InSb Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Stephen; Damasco, John Jeffrey; Car, Diana; Bakkers, Erik; Mason, Nadya

    Recent experiments using hybrid nanowire (NW)-superconductor (SC) devices have provided evidence for Majorana quasiparticles in tunneling experiments. However, these tunneling experiments are marked by a soft superconducting gap, which likely originates from disorder at the NW-SC interface. Hence, clean NW-SC interfaces are important for future Majorana studies. By carefully processing the NW-SC interface, we have realized quantized conductance steps in quantum point contacts fabricated from InSb NWs and superconducting contacts. We study the length dependence of ballistic behavior and the induced superconductivity in InSb NWs by quantum point contact spectroscopy. Additionally, we discuss how the transport in InSb NW-SC quantum point contacts evolves in magnetic field.

  7. Conducting polymer-coated Physarum polycephalum towards the synthesis of bio-hybrid electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lacy Costello, B. J. P.; Mayne, R.; Adamatzky, A.

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a generic method for the production of functionalized coatings on biological substrates. The specific method described involves the functionalization of the living plasmodial stage of Physarum polycephalum with the conducting organic polymer polypyrrole. The simple method involves localized treatment of tube sections with a solution of ferric chloride, followed by exposure to the vapour or a liquid solution of the pyrrole monomer. This technique enables the production of surface-coated conducting plasmodial tubes of certain lengths to be formed at specific points. Measurement of the electrical resistance of a 1 cm functionalized tube gave a value of 100 k? . The use of this selective functionalization technique means that the majority of the growing plasmodium remains unfunctionalized and living; thus, a true hybrid device is formed. It can be seen how a range of functionalized polymers and materials whereby a chemical activator, for the formation of the product (or the pre-cursor) can be added to P. polycephalum (or other organisms) followed by reaction to form a hybrid material.

  8. Self-regenerating and hybrid irreversible/reversible PDMS microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiroma, Letícia S.; Piazzetta, Maria H. O.; Duarte-Junior, Gerson F.; Coltro, Wendell K. T.; Carrilho, Emanuel; Gobbi, Angelo L.; Lima, Renato S.

    2016-05-01

    This paper outlines a straightforward, fast, and low-cost method to fabricate polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chips. Termed sandwich bonding (SWB), this method requires only a laboratory oven. Initially, SWB relies on the reversible bonding of a coverslip over PDMS channels. The coverslip is smaller than the substrate, leaving a border around the substrate exposed. Subsequently, a liquid composed of PDMS monomers and a curing agent is poured onto the structure. Finally, the cover is cured. We focused on PDMS/glass chips because of their key advantages in microfluidics. Despite its simplicity, this method created high-performance microfluidic channels. Such structures featured self-regeneration after leakages and hybrid irreversible/reversible behavior. The reversible nature was achieved by removing the cover of PDMS with acetone. Thus, the PDMS substrate and glass coverslip could be detached for reuse. These abilities are essential in the stages of research and development. Additionally, SWB avoids the use of surface oxidation, half-cured PDMS as an adhesive, and surface chemical modification. As a consequence, SWB allows surface modifications before the bonding, a long time for alignment, the enclosure of sub-micron channels, and the prototyping of hybrid devices. Here, the technique was successfully applied to bond PDMS to Au and Al.

  9. Imaging charge-coupled devices for deep-space surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streuber, D. W., Jr.; Bailis, E. I.

    1980-01-01

    The Ground-Based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance (GEODSS) system will employ a SIT vidicon camera to detect satellites. Imaging charge-coupled devices (CCDs) are being evaluated as a means to improve GEODSS capability. This paper presents performance models and uses them to evaluate currently available CCDs and to determine the characteristics of the ideal CCD array for GEODSS. The analysis includes an approach for determining the CCD pixel size which maximizes signal-to-noise ratio; this approach can be used in many applications. The impact of response nonuniformity and a simple compensation method are also discussed. The combination of a suitable CCD array, response nonuniformity compensation, and moving target indicator (MTI) processing is expected to substantially increase the detection and search rate capability of the GEODSS system.

  10. Assessment of image quality in x-ray radiography imaging using a small plasma focus device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanani, A.; Shirani, B.; Jabbari, I.; Mokhtari, J.

    2014-08-01

    This paper offers a comprehensive investigation of image quality parameters for a small plasma focus as a pulsed hard x-ray source for radiography applications. A set of images were captured from some metal objects and electronic circuits using a low energy plasma focus at different voltages of capacitor bank and different pressures of argon gas. The x-ray source focal spot of this device was obtained to be about 0.6 mm using the penumbra imaging method. The image quality was studied by several parameters such as image contrast, line spread function (LSF) and modulation transfer function (MTF). Results showed that the contrast changes by variations in gas pressure. The best contrast was obtained at a pressure of 0.5 mbar and 3.75 kJ stored energy. The results of x-ray dose from the device showed that about 0.6 mGy is sufficient to obtain acceptable images on the film. The measurements of LSF and MTF parameters were carried out by means of a thin stainless steel wire 0.8 mm in diameter and the cut-off frequency was obtained to be about 1.5 cycles/mm.

  11. Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar Image Classification by a Hybrid Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kamran Ullah Khan; YANG Jian

    2007-01-01

    Different methods proposed so far for accurate classification of land cover types in polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image are data specific and no general method is available. A novel hybrid framework for this classification was developed in this work. A set of effective features derived from the coherence matrix of polarimetric SARdata was proposed.Constituents of the feature set are wavelet,texture,and nonlinear features.The proposed feature set has a strong discrimination power. A neural network was used as the classification engine in a unique way. By exploiting the speed of the conjugate gradient method and the convergence rate of the Levenberg-Marquardt method (near the optimal point), an overall speed up of the classification procedure was achieved. Principal component analysis(PCA)was used to shrink the dimension of the feature vector without sacrificing much of the classification accuracy. The proposed approach is compared with the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE)based on the complex Wishart distribution and the results show the superiority of the proposed method,with the average classification accuracy by the proposed method(95.4%)higher than that of the MLE(93.77%). Use of PCA to reduce the dimensionality of the feature vector helps reduce the memory requirements and computational cost, thereby enhancing the speed of the process.

  12. Electron imaging with Medipix2 hybrid pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    McMullan, G; Chen, S; Henderson, R; Llopart, X; Summerfield, C; Tlustos, L; Faruqi, A R

    2007-01-01

    The electron imaging performance of Medipix2 is described. Medipix2 is a hybrid pixel detector composed of two layers. It has a sensor layer and a layer of readout electronics, in which each 55 μm×55 μm pixel has upper and lower energy discrimination and MHz rate counting. The sensor layer consists of a 300 μm slab of pixellated monolithic silicon and this is bonded to the readout chip. Experimental measurement of the detective quantum efficiency, DQE(0) at 120 keV shows that it can reach 85% independent of electron exposure, since the detector has zero noise, and the DQE(Nyquist) can reach 35% of that expected for a perfect detector (4/π2). Experimental measurement of the modulation transfer function (MTF) at Nyquist resolution for 120 keV electrons using a 60 keV lower energy threshold, yields a value that is 50% of that expected for a perfect detector (2/π). Finally, Monte Carlo simulations of electron tracks and energy deposited in adjacent pixels have been performed and used to calculate expected v...

  13. sBCI-Headset—Wearable and Modular Device for Hybrid Brain-Computer Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsiana Malechka

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Severely disabled people, like completely paralyzed persons either with tetraplegia or similar disabilities who cannot use their arms and hands, are often considered as a user group of Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI. In order to achieve high acceptance of the BCI by this user group and their supporters, the BCI system has to be integrated into their support infrastructure. Critical disadvantages of a BCI are the time consuming preparation of the user for the electroencephalography (EEG measurements and the low information transfer rate of EEG based BCI. These disadvantages become apparent if a BCI is used to control complex devices. In this paper, a hybrid BCI is described that enables research for a Human Machine Interface (HMI that is optimally adapted to requirements of the user and the tasks to be carried out. The solution is based on the integration of a Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP-BCI, an Event-related (de-synchronization (ERD/ERS-BCI, an eye tracker, an environmental observation camera, and a new EEG head cap for wearing comfort and easy preparation. The design of the new fast multimodal BCI (called sBCI system is described and first test results, obtained in experiments with six healthy subjects, are presented. The sBCI concept may also become useful for healthy people in cases where a “hands-free” handling of devices is necessary.

  14. Securing E-mail Communication Using Hybrid Cryptosystem on Android-based Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri Zakariya

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most popular internet services is electronic mail (e-mail. By using mobile devices with internet connection, e-mail can be widely used by anyone to exchange information anywhere and anytime whether public or confidential. Unfortunately, there are some security issues with email communication; e-mail is sent in over open networks and e-mail is stored on potentially insecure mail servers. Moreover, e-mail has no integrity protection so the body can be undectected altered in transit or on the e-mail server. E-mail also has no data origin authentication, so people cannot be sure that the emails they receive are from the e-mail address owner. In order to solve this problem, this study proposes a secure method of e-mail communication on Android-based mobile devices using a hybrid cryptosystem which combines symmetric encryption, asymmetric encryption and hash function. The experimental results show that the proposed method succeeded in meeting those aspects of information security including confidentiality, data integrity, authentication, and non-repudiation.

  15. Securing E-mail Communication Using Hybrid Cryptosystem on Android-based Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri Zakariya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most popular internet services is electronic mail (e-mail. By using mobile devices with internet connection, e-mail can be widely used by anyone to exchange information anywhere and anytime whether public or confidential. Unfortunately, there are some security issues with email communication; e-mail is sent in over open networks and e-mail is stored on potentially insecure mail servers. Moreover, e-mail has no integrity protection so the body can be undectected altered in transit or on the e-mail server. E-mail also has no data origin authentication, so people cannot be sure that the emails they receive are from the e-mail address owner. In order to solve this problem, this study proposes a secure method of e-mail communication on Android-based mobile devices using a hybrid cryptosystem which combines symmetric encryption, asymmetric encryption and hash function. The experimental results show that the proposed method succeeded in meeting those aspects of information security including confidentiality, data integrity, authentication, and non-repudiation.

  16. Traffic sounds and cycling safety : the use of electronic devices by cyclists and the quietness of hybrid and electric cars.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelling-Konczak, A. Hagenzieker, M.P. & Wee, B. van

    2015-01-01

    The growing popularity of electric devices and the increasing number of hybrid and electric cars have recently raised concerns about the use of auditory signals by vulnerable road users. This paper consolidates current knowledge about the two trends in relation to cycling safety. Both a literature r

  17. Fabrication, Metrology, and Transport Characteristics of Single Polymeric Nanopores in Three-Dimensional Hybrid Microfluidic/Nanofluidic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Travis L.

    2009-01-01

    The incorporation of nanofluidic elements between microfluidic channels to form hybrid microfluidic/nanofluidic architectures allows the extension of microfluidic systems into the third dimension, thus removing the constraints imposed by planarity. Measuring and understanding the behavior of these devices creates new analytical challenges due to…

  18. Traffic sounds and cycling safety : the use of electronic devices by cyclists and the quietness of hybrid and electric cars.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelling-Konczak, A. Hagenzieker, M.P. & Wee, B. van

    2015-01-01

    The growing popularity of electric devices and the increasing number of hybrid and electric cars have recently raised concerns about the use of auditory signals by vulnerable road users. This paper consolidates current knowledge about the two trends in relation to cycling safety. Both a literature

  19. Performance of a malaria microscopy image analysis slide reading device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prescott William R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viewing Plasmodium in Romanovsky-stained blood has long been considered the gold standard for diagnosis and a cornerstone in management of the disease. This method however, requires a subjective evaluation by trained, experienced diagnosticians and establishing proficiency of diagnosis is fraught with many challenges. Reported here is an evaluation of a diagnostic system (a “device” consisting of a microscope, a scanner, and a computer algorithm that evaluates scanned images of standard Giemsa-stained slides and reports species and parasitaemia. Methods The device was challenged with two independent tests: a 55 slide, expert slide reading test the composition of which has been published by the World Health Organization (“WHO55” test, and a second test in which slides were made from a sample of consenting subjects participating in a malaria incidence survey conducted in Equatorial Guinea (EGMIS test. These subjects’ blood was tested by malaria RDT as well as having the blood smear diagnosis unequivocally determined by a worldwide panel of a minimum of six reference microscopists. Only slides with unequivocal microscopic diagnoses were used for the device challenge, n = 119. Results On the WHO55 test, the device scored a “Level 4” using the WHO published grading scheme. Broken down by more traditional analysis parameters this result was translated to 89% and 70% sensitivity and specificity, respectively. Species were correctly identified in 61% of the slides and the quantification of parasites fell within acceptable range of the validated parasitaemia in 10% of the cases. On the EGMIS test it scored 100% and 94% sensitivity/specificity, with 64% of the species correct and 45% of the parasitaemia within an acceptable range. A pooled analysis of the 174 slides used for both tests resulted in an overall 92% sensitivity and 90% specificity with 61% species and 19% quantifications correct. Conclusions In its

  20. A New Hybrid Fuzzy Intelligent Filter for Medical Image Noise Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Somaye Aliakbari Dehkordi; Mohammad Ghasemzadeh; Vali Derhami

    2014-01-01

    Medical imaging comprises different imaging modalities and processes to image human body for diagnostic and treatment purposes and, therefore has an important role in the improvement of public health in all population groups. In this paper, we present an intelligent hybrid noise reduction filter which is based on Neuro-Fuzzy systems. It is especially beneficial in medical image noise reduction. First stage we feed the input image into four general noise reduction filters in parallel. These ge...

  1. Quantum dot-block copolymer hybrids with improved properties and their application to quantum dot light-emitting devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorn, Matthias; Bae, Wan Ki; Kwak, Jeonghun; Lee, Hyemin; Lee, Changhee; Zentel, Rudolf; Char, Kookheon

    2009-05-26

    To combine the optical properties of CdSe@ZnS quantum dots (QDs) with the electrical properties of semiconducting polymers, we prepared QD/polymer hybrids by grafting a block copolymer (BCP) containing thiol-anchoring moieties (poly(para-methyl triphenylamine-b-cysteamine acrylamide)) onto the surfaces of QDs through the ligand exchange procedure. The prepared QD/polymer hybrids possess improved processability such as enhanced solubility in various organic solvents as well as the film formation properties along with the improved colloidal stability derived from the grafted polymer shells. We also demonstrated light-emitting diodes based on QD/polymer hybrids, exhibiting the improved device performance (i.e., 3-fold increase in the external quantum efficiency) compared with the devices prepared by pristine (unmodified) QDs.

  2. Comprehensive model for predicting perceptual image quality of smart mobile devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Rui; Xu, Haisong; Luo, M R; Li, Haifeng

    2015-01-01

    An image quality model for smart mobile devices was proposed based on visual assessments of several image quality attributes. A series of psychophysical experiments were carried out on two kinds of smart mobile devices, i.e., smart phones and tablet computers, in which naturalness, colorfulness, brightness, contrast, sharpness, clearness, and overall image quality were visually evaluated under three lighting environments via categorical judgment method for various application types of test images. On the basis of Pearson correlation coefficients and factor analysis, the overall image quality could first be predicted by its two constituent attributes with multiple linear regression functions for different types of images, respectively, and then the mathematical expressions were built to link the constituent image quality attributes with the physical parameters of smart mobile devices and image appearance factors. The procedure and algorithms were applicable to various smart mobile devices, different lighting conditions, and multiple types of images, and performance was verified by the visual data.

  3. Whole-body hybrid imaging concept for the integration of PET/MR into radiation therapy treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Daniel H.; Oehmigen, Mark; Grueneisen, Johannes; Umutlu, Lale; Quick, Harald H.

    2016-05-01

    Modern radiation therapy (RT) treatment planning is based on multimodality imaging. With the recent availability of whole-body PET/MR hybrid imaging new opportunities arise to improve target volume delineation in RT treatment planning. This, however, requires dedicated RT equipment for reproducible patient positioning on the PET/MR system, which has to be compatible with MR and PET imaging. A prototype flat RT table overlay, radiofrequency (RF) coil holders for head imaging, and RF body bridges for body imaging were developed and tested towards PET/MR system integration. Attenuation correction (AC) of all individual RT components was performed by generating 3D CT-based template models. A custom-built program for μ-map generation assembles all AC templates depending on the presence and position of each RT component. All RT devices were evaluated in phantom experiments with regards to MR and PET imaging compatibility, attenuation correction, PET quantification, and position accuracy. The entire RT setup was then evaluated in a first PET/MR patient study on five patients at different body regions. All tested devices are PET/MR compatible and do not produce visible artifacts or disturb image quality. The RT components showed a repositioning accuracy of better than 2 mm. Photon attenuation of  -11.8% in the top part of the phantom was observable, which was reduced to  -1.7% with AC using the μ-map generator. Active lesions of 3 subjects were evaluated in terms of SUVmean and an underestimation of  -10.0% and  -2.4% was calculated without and with AC of the RF body bridges, respectively. The new dedicated RT equipment for hybrid PET/MR imaging enables acquisitions in all body regions. It is compatible with PET/MR imaging and all hardware components can be corrected in hardware AC by using the suggested μ-map generator. These developments provide the technical and methodological basis for integration of PET/MR hybrid imaging into RT planning.

  4. Carrier transport mechanisms of bistable memory devices fabricated utilizing core-shell CdSe/ZnSe quantum-dot/multi-walled carbon nanotube hybrid nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fushan; Ick Son, Dong; Kim, Tae Whan; Ryu, Euidock; Kim, Sang Wook

    2009-02-01

    Transmission electron microscopy images showed that conjugation between single core-shell CdSe/ZnSe quantum dots (QDs) and oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was achieved through the complexation reaction. Current-voltage (I-V) measurements on Al/CdSe:MWCNT conjugated nanocomposite/indium-tin-oxide devices at 300 K showed that the on/off ratio of the current bistability was as large as about 104, which was significantly increased due to an enhancement of the carrier transfer efficiency between the CdSe/ZnSe QDs and the MWCNTs. Carrier transport mechanisms of the bistable memory devices fabricated utilizing CdSe/ZnSe QD/MWCNT hybrid nanocomposite are described on the basis of the I-V results.

  5. Effects of buffer layer and thermal annealing on the performance of hybrid Cu2S/PVK electrically bistable devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu; Lu, Yue; Guan, Li; Li, Jiantao; Wang, Yichao; Dong, Guoyi; Tang, Aiwei; Teng, Feng

    2016-09-01

    Hybrid organic/inorganic electrically bistable devices (EBDs) based on Cu2S/PVK nanocomposites have been fabricated by using a simple spin-coating method. An obvious electrical bistability is observed in the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the devices, and the presence of the buffer layer and the annealing process have an important effect on the enhancement of the ON/OFF current ratios. Different electrical conduction mechanisms are responsible for the charge switching of the devices in the presence and absence of the buffer layer.

  6. Optical Image Classification Using Optical/digital Hybrid Image Processing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyang

    1990-01-01

    Offering parallel and real-time operations, optical image classification is becoming a general technique in the solution of real-life image classification problems. This thesis investigates several algorithms for optical realization. Compared to other statistical pattern recognition algorithms, the Kittler-Young transform can provide more discriminative feature spaces for image classification. We shall apply the Kittler-Young transform to image classification and implement it on optical systems. A feature selection criterion is designed for the application of the Kittler -Young transform to image classification. The realizations of the Kittler-Young transform on both a joint transform correlator and a matrix multiplier are successively conducted. Experiments of applying this technique to two-category and three-category problems are demonstrated. To combine the advantages of the statistical pattern recognition algorithms and the neural network models, processes using the two methods are studied. The Karhunen-Loeve Hopfield model is developed for image classification. This model has significant improvement in the system capacity and the capability of using image structures for more discriminative classification processes. As another such hybrid process, we propose the feature extraction perceptron. The application of feature extraction techniques to the perceptron shortens its learning time. An improved activation function of neurons (dynamic activation function), its design and updating rule for fast learning process and high space-bandwidth product image classification are also proposed. We have shortened by two-thirds the learning time on the feature extraction perceptron as compared with the original perceptron. By using this architecture, we have shown that the classification performs better than both the Kittler-Young transform and the original perceptron.

  7. A light-stimulated neuromorphic device based on graphene hybrid phototransistor

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Shuchao; Liu, Yujie; Wan, Qing; Wang, Xinran; Xu, Yongbing; Shi, Yi; Wang, Xiaomu; Zhang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Neuromorphic chip refers to an unconventional computing architecture that is modelled on biological brains. It is ideally suited for processing sensory data for intelligence computing, decision-making or context cognition. Despite rapid development, conventional artificial synapses exhibit poor connection flexibility and require separate data acquisition circuitry, resulting in limited functionalities and significant hardware redundancy. Here we report a novel light-stimulated artificial synapse based on a graphene-nanotube hybrid phototransistor that can directly convert optical stimuli into a "neural image" for further neuronal analysis. Our optically-driven synapses involve multiple steps of plasticity mechanisms and importantly exhibit flexible tuning of both short- and long-term plasticity. Furthermore, our neuromorphic phototransistor can take multiple pre-synaptic light stimuli via wavelength-division multiplexing and allows advanced optical processing through charge-trap-mediated optical coupling. The...

  8. Enhanced UV photoresponse of KrF-laser-synthesized single-wall carbon nanotubes/n-silicon hybrid photovoltaic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Borgne, V; Gautier, L A; Castrucci, P; Del Gobbo, S; De Crescenzi, M; El Khakani, M A

    2012-06-01

    We report on the KrF-laser ablation synthesis, purification and photocurrent generation properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The thermally purified SWCNTs are integrated into hybrid photovoltaic (PV) devices by spin-coating them onto n-Si substrates. These novel SWCNTs/n-Si hybrid devices are shown to generate significant photocurrent (PC) over the entire 250-1050 nm light spectrum with external quantum efficiencies (EQE) reaching up to ~23%. Our SWCNTs/n-Si hybrid devices are not only photoactive in the traditional spectral range of Si solar cells, but generate also significant PC in the UV domain (below 400 nm). This wider spectral response is believed to be the result of PC generation from both the SWCNTs themselves and the tremendous number of local p-n junctions created at the nanotubes/Si interface. To assess the prevalence of these two contributions, the EQE spectra and J-V characteristics of these hybrid devices were investigated in both planar and top-down configurations, as a function of SWCNTs' film thickness. A sizable increase in EQE in the near UV with respect to the silicon is observed in both configurations, with a more pronounced UV photoresponse in the planar mode, confirming thereby the role of SWCNTs in the photogeneration process. The PC generation is found to reach its maximum for an optimal the SWCNT film thickness, which is shown to correspond to the best trade-off between lowest electrical resistance and highest optical transparency. Finally, by analyzing the J-V characteristics of our SWCNTs/n-Si devices with an equivalent circuit model, we were able to point out the contribution of the various electrical components involved in the photogeneration process. The SWCNTs-based devices demonstrated here open up the prospect for their use in highly effective photovoltaics and/or UV-light sensors.

  9. A Fast Enhanced Secure Image Chaotic Cryptosystem Based on Hybrid Chaotic Magic Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Koppu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An enhanced secure image chaotic cryptosystem has been proposed based on hybrid CMT-Lanczos algorithm. We have achieved fast encryption and decryption along with privacy of images. The pseudorandom generator has been used along with Lanczos algorithm to generate root characteristics and eigenvectors. Using hybrid CMT image, pixels are shuffled to accomplish excellent randomness. Compared with existing methods, the proposed method had more robustness to various attacks: brute-force attack, known cipher plaintext, chosen-plaintext, security key space, key sensitivity, correlation analysis and information entropy, and differential attacks. Simulation results show that the proposed methods give better result in protecting images with low-time complexity.

  10. A hybrid microfluidic-vacuum device for direct interfacing with conventional cell culture methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Bong Geun; Park, Jeong Won; Hu, Jia Sheng; Huang, Carlos; Monuki, Edwin S; Jeon, Noo Li

    2007-09-20

    Microfluidics is an enabling technology with a number of advantages over traditional tissue culture methods when precise control of cellular microenvironment is required. However, there are a number of practical and technical limitations that impede wider implementation in routine biomedical research. Specialized equipment and protocols required for fabrication and setting up microfluidic experiments present hurdles for routine use by most biology laboratories. We have developed and validated a novel microfluidic device that can directly interface with conventional tissue culture methods to generate and maintain controlled soluble environments in a Petri dish. It incorporates separate sets of fluidic channels and vacuum networks on a single device that allows reversible application of microfluidic gradients onto wet cell culture surfaces. Stable, precise concentration gradients of soluble factors were generated using simple microfluidic channels that were attached to a perfusion system. We successfully demonstrated real-time optical live/dead cell imaging of neural stem cells exposed to a hydrogen peroxide gradient and chemotaxis of metastatic breast cancer cells in a growth factor gradient. This paper describes the design and application of a versatile microfluidic device that can directly interface with conventional cell culture methods. This platform provides a simple yet versatile tool for incorporating the advantages of a microfluidic approach to biological assays without changing established tissue culture protocols.

  11. A hybrid microfluidic-vacuum device for direct interfacing with conventional cell culture methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monuki Edwin S

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microfluidics is an enabling technology with a number of advantages over traditional tissue culture methods when precise control of cellular microenvironment is required. However, there are a number of practical and technical limitations that impede wider implementation in routine biomedical research. Specialized equipment and protocols required for fabrication and setting up microfluidic experiments present hurdles for routine use by most biology laboratories. Results We have developed and validated a novel microfluidic device that can directly interface with conventional tissue culture methods to generate and maintain controlled soluble environments in a Petri dish. It incorporates separate sets of fluidic channels and vacuum networks on a single device that allows reversible application of microfluidic gradients onto wet cell culture surfaces. Stable, precise concentration gradients of soluble factors were generated using simple microfluidic channels that were attached to a perfusion system. We successfully demonstrated real-time optical live/dead cell imaging of neural stem cells exposed to a hydrogen peroxide gradient and chemotaxis of metastatic breast cancer cells in a growth factor gradient. Conclusion This paper describes the design and application of a versatile microfluidic device that can directly interface with conventional cell culture methods. This platform provides a simple yet versatile tool for incorporating the advantages of a microfluidic approach to biological assays without changing established tissue culture protocols.

  12. Distributed read-out imaging devices for x-ray imaging spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hartog, Roland H.; Martin, Didier D.; Kozorezov, A. G.; Verhoeve, Peter; Rando, Nicola; Peacock, Anthony J.; Brammertz, G.; Krumrey, Michael K.; Goldie, D. J.; Venn, R.

    2000-07-01

    We present an experimental study of the performance of Distributed Read-Out Imaging Devices (DROIDs), 1- and 2-D photon-counting imaging spectrometers, based on Ta/Al-based STJs placed on a Ta absorber. Results obtained with highly collimated illumination with 10 keV X-ray photons clearly demonstrate the imaging capabilities of 2-D DROIDs. The derived spatial FWHM resolution is 7 micrometers for a 200 X 200 micrometers 2 absorber. With a 1-D DROID we have measured an intrinsic energy resolution of 15 eV FWHM for 6 keV photons. At high energies (E > 6 keV) the resolution is limited by spatial fluctuations in the qp recombination rate.

  13. Chemical detection with nano/bio hybrid devices based on carbon nanotubes and graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Mitchell Bryant

    Carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (NT-FETs) and graphene field effect transistors (GFETs) provide a unique transduction platform for chemical and biomolecular detection. The work presented in this thesis describes the fabrication, characterization, and investigation of operational mechanisms of carbon-based biosensors. In the first set of experiments, we used carbon nanotubes as fast, all-electronic readout elements in novel vapor sensors, suitable for applications in environmental monitoring and medicine. Molecules bound to the hybrid alter the electrical properties of the NT-FET via several mechanisms, allowing direct detection as a change in the transistor conduction properties. Vapor sensors suitable for more complex system architectures characteristic of mammalian olfaction were demonstrated using NT-FETs functionalized with mouse olfactory receptor (mOR) proteins or single stranded DNA (ssDNA). Substitution of graphene as the channel material enabled production of hundreds of electronically similar devices with high yield. Etching large scale chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown graphene into small channels is itself a challenging problem, and we have developed novel fabrication methods to this end without sacrificing the inherent electrical quality that makes graphene such an attractive material. Large arrays of such devices have potential utility for understanding the physics of ligand-receptor interactions and contributing to the development of a new generation of devices for electronic olfaction. Tailored and specific detection was accomplished by chemically functionalizing the NT-FET or GFET with biomolecules, such as proteins or small molecules, to create a hybrid nanostructures. Targets for detection were widely varied, indicating the utility of these techniques, such as 1) live Salmonella cells in nutrient broth, 2) a biomarker protein indicative of prostate cancer, 3) antigen protein from the bacterium that causes Lyme disease, and 4) glucose

  14. Architecture, development and implementation of a SWIR to visible integrated up-conversion imaging device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarusi, Gabby; Templeman, Tzvi; Hechster, Elad; Nissim, Nimrod; Vitenberg, Vladimir; Maman, Nitzan; Tal, Amir; Solodar, Assi; Makov, Guy; Abdulhalim, Ibrahim; Visoly-Fisher, Iris; Golan, Yuval

    2016-04-01

    A new concept of short wavelength infrared (SWIR) to visible upconversion integrated imaging device is proposed, modeled and some initial measured results are presented. The device is a hybrid inorganic-organic device that comprises six nano-metric scale sub-layers grown on n-type GaAs substrates. The first layer is a ~300nm thick PbSe nano-columnar absorber layer grown in (111) orientation to the substrate plan (100), with a diameter of 8- 10nm and therefore exhibit quantum confinement effects parallel to the substrate and bulk properties perpendicular to it. The advantage of this structure is the high oscillator strength and hence absorption to incoming SWIR photons while maintaining the high bulk mobility of photo-excited charges along the columns. The top of the PbSe absorber layer is coated with 20nm thick metal layer that serves as a dual sided mirror, as well as a potentially surface plasmon enhanced absorption in the PbSe nano-columns layer. The photo-excited charges (holes and electrons in opposite directions) are drifted under an external applied field to the OLED section (that is composed of a hole transport layer, an emission layer and an electron transport layer) where they recombine with injected electron from the transparent cathode and emit visible light through this cathode. Due to the high absorption and enhanced transport properties this architecture has the potential of high quantum efficiency, low cost and easy implementation in any optical system. As a bench-mark, alternative concept where InGaAs/InP heterojunction couple to liquid crystal optical spatial light modulator (OSLM) structure was built that shows a full upconversion to visible of 1550nm laser light.

  15. A proton imaging device: Design and status of realization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipala, V., E-mail: valeria.sipala@ct.infn.i [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Bruzzi, M. [INFN, Sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Finland) (Italy); Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via S. Marta 3, I-50139 Firenze (Italy); Bucciolini, M. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, v.le Morgagni 85, I-50134 Firenze (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Candiano, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN, via S. Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Capineri, L. [Dipartimento di Elettronica e Telecomunicazioni, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via S. Marta 3, I-50139 Firenze (Italy); Cirrone, G.A.P. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN, via S. Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Civinini, C. [INFN, Sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Cuttone, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN, via S. Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Lo Presti, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Marrazzo, L. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, v.le Morgagni 85, I-50134 Firenze (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Mazzaglia, E. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN, via S. Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Menichelli, D. [Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via S. Marta 3, I-50139 Firenze (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Randazzo, N. [INFN, Sezione di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy)

    2010-01-11

    Proton radiation therapy is a precise form of cancer therapy, which requires verification of the patient position and the accurate knowledge of the dose delivered to the patient. At present in the proton treatment centre, patients are positioned with X-ray radiography and dose calculations rely on the patient's morphology and electron densities obtained by X-ray computed tomography [U. Schneider, E. Pedroni, Med. Phys. 22 (1995) 353]. A proton imaging device can improve the accuracy of proton radiation therapy treatment planning and the alignment of the patient with the proton beam. Our collaboration has developed a pCR prototype consisting of a silicon microstrip tracker and a calorimeter to detect the residual energy [R. Shulte, et al., IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 51 (2004) 866-872]. In this contribution we will show some results obtained testing the front-end board of the tracker and measurements performed at LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud) and in LLUMC (Loma Linda University Medical Centre) using 60 and 200 MeV proton beams to test the calorimeter.

  16. System and Device with Three-Dimensional Image Display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a binocular device (44) and a system (40) including a binocular device (44) configured for displaying one or more labels for an input device (2), such as a keyboard or a control panel, comprising a plurality of parts (4, 6) configured for activation and registration...

  17. Integrated Multi-Color Light Emitting Device Made with Hybrid Crystal Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Choi, Sang Hyouk (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An integrated hybrid crystal Light Emitting Diode ("LED") display device that may emit red, green, and blue colors on a single wafer. The various embodiments may provide double-sided hetero crystal growth with hexagonal wurtzite III-Nitride compound semiconductor on one side of (0001) c-plane sapphire media and cubic zinc-blended III-V or II-VI compound semiconductor on the opposite side of c-plane sapphire media. The c-plane sapphire media may be a bulk single crystalline c-plane sapphire wafer, a thin free standing c-plane sapphire layer, or crack-and-bonded c-plane sapphire layer on any substrate. The bandgap energies and lattice constants of the compound semiconductor alloys may be changed by mixing different amounts of ingredients of the same group into the compound semiconductor. The bandgap energy and lattice constant may be engineered by changing the alloy composition within the cubic group IV, group III-V, and group II-VI semiconductors and within the hexagonal III-Nitrides.

  18. Integrated Multi-Color Light Emitting Device Made with Hybrid Crystal Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Choi, Sang Hyouk (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An integrated hybrid crystal Light Emitting Diode ("LED") display device that may emit red, green, and blue colors on a single wafer. The various embodiments may provide double-sided hetero crystal growth with hexagonal wurtzite III-Nitride compound semiconductor on one side of (0001) c-plane sapphire media and cubic zinc-blended III-V or II-VI compound semiconductor on the opposite side of c-plane sapphire media. The c-plane sapphire media may be a bulk single crystalline c-plane sapphire wafer, a thin free standing c-plane sapphire layer, or crack-and-bonded c-plane sapphire layer on any substrate. The bandgap energies and lattice constants of the compound semiconductor alloys may be changed by mixing different amounts of ingredients of the same group into the compound semiconductor. The bandgap energy and lattice constant may be engineered by changing the alloy composition within the cubic group IV, group III-V, and group II-VI semiconductors and within the hexagonal III-Nitrides.

  19. Evaluating a hybrid three-dimensional metrology system: merging data from optical and touch probe devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerde, Janice R.; Christens-Barry, William A.

    2011-08-01

    In a project to meet requirements for CBP Laboratory analysis of footwear under the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTSUS), a hybrid metrology system comprising both optical and touch probe devices has been assembled. A unique requirement must be met: To identify the interface-typically obscured in samples of concern-of the "external surface area upper" (ESAU) and the sole without physically destroying the sample. The sample outer surface is determined by discrete point cloud coordinates obtained using laser scanner optical measurements. Measurements from the optically inaccessible insole region are obtained using a coordinate measuring machine (CMM). That surface similarly is defined by point cloud data. Mathematically, the individual CMM and scanner data sets are transformed into a single, common reference frame. Custom software then fits a polynomial surface to the insole data and extends it to intersect the mesh fitted to the outer surface point cloud. This line of intersection defines the required ESAU boundary, thus permitting further fractional area calculations to determine the percentage of materials present. With a draft method in place, and first-level method validation underway, we examine the transformation of the two dissimilar data sets into the single, common reference frame. We also will consider the six previously-identified potential error factors versus the method process. This paper reports our on-going work and discusses our findings to date.

  20. Hybrid bronchoscope tracking using a magnetic tracking sensor and image registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kensaku; Deguchi, Daisuke; Akiyama, Kenta; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Maurer, Calvin R; Suenaga, Yasuhito; Takabatake, Hirotsugu; Mori, Masaki; Natori, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a hybrid method for tracking a bronchoscope that uses a combination of magnetic sensor tracking and image registration. The position of a magnetic sensor placed in the working channel of the bronchoscope is provided by a magnetic tracking system. Because of respiratory motion, the magnetic sensor provides only the approximate position and orientation of the bronchoscope in the coordinate system of a CT image acquired before the examination. The sensor position and orientation is used as the starting point for an intensity-based registration between real bronchoscopic video images and virtual bronchoscopic images generated from the CT image. The output transformation of the image registration process is the position and orientation of the bronchoscope in the CT image. We tested the proposed method using a bronchial phantom model. Virtual breathing motion was generated to simulate respiratory motion. The proposed hybrid method successfully tracked the bronchoscope at a rate of approximately 1 Hz.

  1. Evaluation of image quality for various electronic portal imaging devices in radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Soon Yong; Choi, Kwan Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Min [Dept. of College of Health Science, Radiologic Science, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2015-12-15

    In megavoltage (MV) radiotherapy, delivering the dose to the target volume is important while protecting the surrounding normal tissue. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the modulation transfer function (MTF), the noise power spectrum (NPS), and the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) using an edge block in megavoltage X-ray imaging (MVI). We used an edge block, which consists of tungsten with dimensions of 19 (thickness) × 10 (length) × 1 (width) cm3 and measured the pre-sampling MTF at 6 MV energy. Various radiation therapy (RT) devices such as TrueBeamTM (Varian), BEAMVIEWPLUS (Siemens), iViewGT (Elekta) and Clinac®iX (Varian) were used. As for MTF results, TrueBeamTM(Varian) flattening filter free(FFF) showed the highest values of 0.46 mm-1and1.40mm-1for MTF 0.5 and 0.1. In NPS, iViewGT (Elekta) showed the lowest noise distribution. In DQE, iViewGT (Elekta) showed the best efficiency at a peak DQE and 1 mm-1DQE of 0.0026 and 0.00014, respectively. This study could be used not only for traditional QA imaging but also for quantitative MTF, NPS, and DQE measurement for development of an electronic portal imaging device (EPID)

  2. Post-operative orbital imaging: a focus on implants and prosthetic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Ashok [Royal London Hospital, Diagnostic Neuroradiology, Barts Health NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Mankad, Kshitij [Great Ormond Street Hospital, Diagnostic Neuroradiology, London (United Kingdom); Poitelea, Cornelia; Verity, David H. [Moorfields Eye Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Davagnanam, Indran [National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-15

    Accurate interpretation of orbital imaging in the presence of either orbital implants requires a sound knowledge of both the surgical approach used and the imaging characteristics of the implanted devices themselves. In this article, the radiological appearance of the various devices used in ophthalmology, and their relationship to other orbital structures, is reviewed. In addition, the intended anatomical location, function of these devices, and clinical indications for their use are provided. (orig.)

  3. Tunable Ultrafast Photon Source and Imaging System for Studying Carrier Dynamics in Graphene Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-23

    Tunable ultrafast photon source and imaging system for studying carrier dynamics in graphene devices This project enabled the acquisition of a...and imaging system for studying carrier dynamics in graphene devices Report Title This project enabled the acquisition of a optical parametric...carrier dynamics in graphene devices As discussed below the focus of this DURIP project was on understanding the interaction between electrons, holes

  4. Highly efficient hybrid energy generator: coupled organic photovoltaic device and randomly oriented electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanofiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Boongik; Lee, Kihwan; Park, Jongjin; Kim, Jongmin; Kim, Ohyun

    2013-03-01

    A hybrid architecture consisting of an inverted organic photovoltaic device and a randomly-oriented electrospun PVDF piezoelectric device was fabricated as a highly-efficient energy generator. It uses the inverted photovoltaic device with coupled electrospun PVDF nanofibers as tandem structure to convert solar and mechanical vibrations energy to electricity simultaneously or individually. The power conversion efficiency of the photovoltaic device was also significantly improved up to 4.72% by optimized processes such as intrinsic ZnO, MoO3 and active layer. A simple electrospinning method with the two electrode technique was adopted to achieve a high voltage of - 300 mV in PVDF piezoelectric fibers. Highly-efficient HEG using voltage adder circuit provides the conceptual possibility of realizing multi-functional energy generator whenever and wherever various energy sources are available.

  5. Hybrid statistics-simulations based method for atom-counting from ADF STEM images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wael, Annelies; De Backer, Annick; Jones, Lewys; Nellist, Peter D; Van Aert, Sandra

    2017-01-25

    A hybrid statistics-simulations based method for atom-counting from annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (ADF STEM) images of monotype crystalline nanostructures is presented. Different atom-counting methods already exist for model-like systems. However, the increasing relevance of radiation damage in the study of nanostructures demands a method that allows atom-counting from low dose images with a low signal-to-noise ratio. Therefore, the hybrid method directly includes prior knowledge from image simulations into the existing statistics-based method for atom-counting, and accounts in this manner for possible discrepancies between actual and simulated experimental conditions. It is shown by means of simulations and experiments that this hybrid method outperforms the statistics-based method, especially for low electron doses and small nanoparticles. The analysis of a simulated low dose image of a small nanoparticle suggests that this method allows for far more reliable quantitative analysis of beam-sensitive materials.

  6. Juxtarenal Inflammatory Aneurysm Treated with Bilateral Iliac-Renal Bypass Using the Gore Hybrid Device and Total Sealing of the Aneurysmal Sac with a Nellix Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Ombretta; Malaj, Alban; Gattuso, Roberto; Irace, Luigi; Gossetti, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present the treatment of a juxtarenal inflammatory aneurysm using a Nellix device (Endologix, Inc., Irvine, CA) to seal the entire aneurysmatic aorta combined with bilateral iliac-renal bypass using the Gore hybrid vascular graft (W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc., Flagstaff, AZ). A 63-year-old man was diagnosed with a 6-cm juxtarenal inflammatory aneurysm. It was initially decided to treat him with an aorto-aortic bypass and to revascularize the 2 renal arteries with "graft to renal artery bypass" using Gore hybrid vascular grafts. Due to the high intraoperative bleeding preparing the proximal neck and the tight adhesion of the aorta to the adjacent structures, we decided to change our plans and to treat the patient using the Nellix system combined with bilateral iliac-renal bypass using the Gore hybrid vascular grafts. Contrast computed tomography control at 1 month showed complete sealing of the aneurysm sac and patent iliac renal bypasses. The reported case demonstrated that the Nellix Endovascular Aneurysm Sealing system combined with Gore hybrid vascular grafts for bilateral iliac-renal bypass showed that it can be an effective modality for the treatment of juxtarenal, inflammatory aortic aneurysm and revascularization of the renal arteries from the distal iliac arteries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Reproduction of continuous flow left ventricular assist device experimental data by means of a hybrid cardiovascular model with baroreflex control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresiello, Libera; Zieliński, Krzysztof; Jacobs, Steven; Di Molfetta, Arianna; Pałko, Krzysztof Jakub; Bernini, Fabio; Martin, Michael; Claus, Piet; Ferrari, Gianfranco; Trivella, Maria Giovanna; Górczyńska, Krystyna; Darowski, Marek; Meyns, Bart; Kozarski, Maciej

    2014-06-01

    Long-term mechanical circulatory assistance opened new problems in ventricular assist device-patient interaction, especially in relation to autonomic controls. Modeling studies, based on adequate models, could be a feasible approach of investigation. The aim of this work is the exploitation of a hybrid (hydronumerical) cardiovascular simulator to reproduce and analyze in vivo experimental data acquired during a continuous flow left ventricular assistance. The hybrid cardiovascular simulator embeds three submodels: a computational cardiovascular submodel, a computational baroreflex submodel, and a hydronumerical interface submodel. The last one comprises two impedance transformers playing the role of physical interfaces able to provide a hydraulic connection with specific cardiovascular sites (in this article, the left atrium and the ascending/descending aorta). The impedance transformers are used to connect a continuous flow pump for partial left ventricular support (Synergy Micropump, CircuLite, Inc., Saddlebrooke, NJ, USA) to the hybrid cardiovascular simulator. Data collected from five animals in physiological, pathological, and assisted conditions were reproduced using the hybrid cardiovascular simulator. All parameters useful to characterize and tune the hybrid cardiovascular simulator to a specific hemodynamic condition were extracted from experimental data. Results show that the simulator is able to reproduce animal-specific hemodynamic status both in physiological and pathological conditions, to reproduce cardiovascular left ventricular assist device (LVAD) interaction and the progressive unloading of the left ventricle for different pump speeds, and to investigate the effects of the LVAD on baroreflex activity. Results in chronic heart failure conditions show that an increment of LVAD speed from 20 000 to 22 000 rpm provokes a decrement of left ventricular flow of 35% (from 2 to 1.3 L/min). Thanks to its flexibility and modular structure, the

  8. Design of a Simple and Modular 2-DOF Ankle Physiotherapy Device Relying on a Hybrid Serial-Parallel Robotic Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos E. Syrseloudis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to propose a new 2-DOF robotic platform with hybrid parallel-serial structure and to undertake its parametric design so that it can follow the whole range of ankle related foot movements. This robot can serve as a human ankle rehabilitation device. The existing ankle rehabilitation devices present typically one or more of the following shortcomings: redundancy, large size, or high cost, hence the need for a device that could offer simplicity, modularity, and low cost of construction and maintenance. In addition, our targeted device must be safe during operation, disallow undesirable movements of the foot, while adaptable to any human foot. Our detailed study of foot kinematics has led us to a new hybrid architecture, which strikes a balance among all aforementioned goals. It consists of a passive serial kinematics chain with two adjustable screws so that the axes of the chain match the two main ankle-axes of typical feet. An active parallel chain, which consists of two prismatic actuators, provides the movement of the platform. Thus, the platform can follow the foot movements, thanks to the passive chain, and also possesses the advantages of parallel robots, including rigidity, high stiffness and force capabilities. The lack of redundancy yields a simpler device with lower size and cost. The paper describes the kinematics modelling of the platform and analyses the force and velocity transmission. The parametric design of the platform is carried out; our simulations confirm the platform's suitability for ankle rehabilitation.

  9. Hybrid supercapacitor devices based on MnCo2O4 as the positive electrode and FeMn2O4 as the negative electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamuthu, Sadayappan; Vijayakumar, Subbukalai; Lee, Seong-Hun; Ryu, Kwang-Sun

    2016-12-01

    MnCo2O4 nanosheets and FeMn2O4 nanospheres were synthesized using a hydrothermal method. Choline chloride was used as the capping agent during the preparation of the nanoparticles. XRD patterns confirmed the spinel structure of MnCo2O4 and FeMn2O4. XPS measurements were used to determine the oxidation state of the prepared spinel metal oxides. HRTEM images revealed the formation of hexagonal nanosheets of MnCo2O4 and nanospheres of FeMn2O4. Electrochemical measurements were made for both positive and negative electrodes using three electrode systems. MnCo2O4 Exhibits 282C g-1 and FeMn2O4 yields 110C g-1 at a specific current of 1 A g-1. Hybrid supercapacitor device was fabricated using MnCo2O4 as the positive and FeMn2O4 as the negative electrode material. The hybrid supercapacitor device was delivered a maximum power of 37.57 kW kg-1.

  10. Hybrid electroluminescent device based on MEH-PPV and ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewidy, Dina.; Gadallah, A.-S.; Fattah, G. Abdel

    2017-02-01

    Hybird organic/inorganic electroluminescent device based on the structure of glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/MEH-PPV/ZnO/ZnO submicrorods/Al has been manufactured. Spin coating has been used to deposit both PEDOT:PSS and MEH-PPV. Two-step process has been used to synthesis ZnO submicrorods, namely, spin coating and chemical bath deposition. Changing the dimensions of the ZnO submicrorods in this layer structure has been investigated to improve the performance of the organic/inorganic electroluminescence device. Such layer structure provides electroluminescence with narrow emission bands due to a high gain with this structure. X-ray diffraction patterns and scanning electron microscope images show that ZnO submicrorods have hexagon structure. Current-voltage curve for the structure has been reported. Electroluminescence curves (electroluminescence intensity versus wavelength) at different bias voltages have been presented and these results show narrowing in full width at half maximum in the spectra at high current density compared to photoluminescence excitation. The narrowing in the spectrum has been explained.

  11. Hybrid Compton camera/coded aperture imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailescu, Lucian [Livermore, CA; Vetter, Kai M [Alameda, CA

    2012-04-10

    A system in one embodiment includes an array of radiation detectors; and an array of imagers positioned behind the array of detectors relative to an expected trajectory of incoming radiation. A method in another embodiment includes detecting incoming radiation with an array of radiation detectors; detecting the incoming radiation with an array of imagers positioned behind the array of detectors relative to a trajectory of the incoming radiation; and performing at least one of Compton imaging using at least the imagers and coded aperture imaging using at least the imagers. A method in yet another embodiment includes detecting incoming radiation with an array of imagers positioned behind an array of detectors relative to a trajectory of the incoming radiation; and performing Compton imaging using at least the imagers.

  12. Silica nanoparticle-based dual imaging colloidal hybrids: cancer cell imaging and biodistribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee H

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Haisung Lee,1 Dongkyung Sung,2 Jinhoon Kim,3 Byung-Tae Kim,3 Tuntun Wang,4 Seong Soo A An,5 Soo-Won Seo,6 Dong Kee Yi4 1Molecular Diagnostics, In Vitro Diagnostics Unit, New Business Division, SK Telecom, 2Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Korea University, 3Interdisciplinary Graduate Program of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan University, Samsung Medical Center, 4Department of Chemistry, Myongji University, Seoul, 5Department of Bionanotechnology, Gachon Medical Research Institute, Gachon University, Seongnam, 6Medical Device Development Center, Daegu-Gyeongbuk Medical Innovation Foundation, Daegu, Republic of Korea Abstract: In this study, fluorescent dye-conjugated magnetic resonance (MR imaging agents were investigated in T mode. Gadolinium-conjugated silica nanoparticles were successfully synthesized for both MR imaging and fluorescence diagnostics. Polyamine and polycarboxyl functional groups were modified chemically on the surface of the silica nanoparticles for efficient conjugation of gadolinium ions. The derived gadolinium-conjugated silica nanoparticles were investigated by zeta potential analysis, transmission electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. MR equipment was used to investigate their use as contrast-enhancing agents in T1 mode under a 9.4 T magnetic field. In addition, we tracked the distribution of the gadolinium-conjugated nanoparticles in both lung cancer cells and organs in mice. Keywords: dual bioimaging, MR imaging, silica colloid, T1 contrast imaging, nanohybrid

  13. Machine Vision Analysis of Characteristics and Image Information Base Construction for Hybrid Rice Seed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Incompletely closed glumes, germination on panicle and disease ara thrae important factors causing poor seed quality of hybrid rice. To determine how many and which categories should be classified to meet the demand for seed in rice production, the effects of various degrees of incompletely closed glumes, germination on panicle and disease on germination percentage at the harvest and after storage for six months were studied by standard germination percentage test. Six categories of seeds with germ (germinated seeds), severe disease, incompletely closed glumes, spot disease, fine fissure and normal seeds were inspected and then treated separately. Images of the five hybrid rice seed (Jinyou 402, Shanyou 10, Zhongyou 27, Jiayou 99 and Ⅱ you 3207) were acquired with a self-developed machine vision system. Each image could be processed to get the feature values of seed region such as length, width, ratio of length to width, araa, solidity and hue. Then all the images of normal seeds were calculated to draw the feature value ranges of each hybrid rice variety. Finally, an image information base that stores typical images and related feature values of each variety was established. This image information base can help us to identify the classification limit of characteristics, and provide the reference of the threshold selection. The management of large numbers of pictures and the addition of new varieties have been supported. The research laid a foundation for extracting image features of hybrid rice seed, which is a key approach to futura quality inspection with machine vision.

  14. iMAGE cloud: medical image processing as a service for regional healthcare in a hybrid cloud environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Chen, Weiping; Nie, Min; Zhang, Fengjuan; Wang, Yu; He, Ailing; Wang, Xiaonan; Yan, Gen

    2016-11-01

    To handle the emergence of the regional healthcare ecosystem, physicians and surgeons in various departments and healthcare institutions must process medical images securely, conveniently, and efficiently, and must integrate them with electronic medical records (EMRs). In this manuscript, we propose a software as a service (SaaS) cloud called the iMAGE cloud. A three-layer hybrid cloud was created to provide medical image processing services in the smart city of Wuxi, China, in April 2015. In the first step, medical images and EMR data were received and integrated via the hybrid regional healthcare network. Then, traditional and advanced image processing functions were proposed and computed in a unified manner in the high-performance cloud units. Finally, the image processing results were delivered to regional users using the virtual desktop infrastructure (VDI) technology. Security infrastructure was also taken into consideration. Integrated information query and many advanced medical image processing functions-such as coronary extraction, pulmonary reconstruction, vascular extraction, intelligent detection of pulmonary nodules, image fusion, and 3D printing-were available to local physicians and surgeons in various departments and healthcare institutions. Implementation results indicate that the iMAGE cloud can provide convenient, efficient, compatible, and secure medical image processing services in regional healthcare networks. The iMAGE cloud has been proven to be valuable in applications in the regional healthcare system, and it could have a promising future in the healthcare system worldwide.

  15. Pixel hybrid photon detectors for the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Somerville, L

    2005-01-01

    A Pixel Hybrid Photon Detector (pixel HPD) has been developed for the LHCb Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors. The pixel HPD is a vacuum tube with a multi-alkali photocathode, high-voltage cross- focused electron optics and an anode consisting of a silicon pixel detector bump-bonded to a CMOS readout chip; the readout chip is thus fully encapsulated in the device. The pixel HPD fulfils the stringent requirements for the RICH detectors of LHCb, combining single photon sensitivity, high signal-to-noise ratio and fast readout with an ~8cm diameter active area and an effective pixel size of 2.5mm 2.5mm at the photocathode. The performance and characteristics of two prototype pixel HPDs have been studied in laboratory measurements and in recent beam tests. The results of all measurements agree with expectations and fulfil the LHCb RICH requirements. In readiness for production of the ~500pixel HPDs for the RICH detectors, a test programme was designed and implemented to ensure component quality control at eac...

  16. Nonlinear spatial mode imaging of hybrid photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Laurila, Marko;

    2013-01-01

    Degenerate spontaneous four wave mixing is studied for the rst time in a large mode area hybrid photonic crystal ber, where light con nement is achieved by combined index- and bandgap guiding. Four wave mixing products are generated on the edges of the bandgaps, which is veri ed by numerical...

  17. A HYBRID METHOD FOR AUTOMATIC COUNTING OF MICROORGANISMS IN MICROSCOPIC IMAGES

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Microscopic image analysis is an essential process to enable the automatic enumeration and quantitative analysis of microbial images. There are several system are available for numerating microbial growth. Some of the existing method may be inefficient to accurately count the overlapped microorganisms. Therefore, in this paper we proposed an efficient method for automatic segmentation and counting of microorganisms in microscopic images. This method uses a hybrid approach based on...

  18. Combined analysis of cervical smears. Cytopathology, image cytometry and in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Multhaupt, H; Bruder, E; Elit, L

    1993-01-01

    This study was an attempt to correlate the Bethesda System of Papanicolaou smear classification with DNA content by image analysis and the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) as determined by in situ hybridization. DNA histograms were classified as normal diploid, diploid proliferative......, polyploid and aneuploid. HPV in situ hybridization was performed with a cocktail of probes specific to HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18. There was a good correlation between normal cytology and normal DNA histograms. Cytologically normal smears with bacterial or fungal infections showed a high proliferation index....... Four of five cases cytologically suspicious for HPV infection had HPV by in situ hybridization....

  19. Reversible transient hydrogen storage in a fuel cell-supercapacitor hybrid device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unda, Jesus E Zerpa; Roduner, Emil

    2012-03-21

    A new concept is investigated for hydrogen storage in a supercapacitor based on large-surface-area carbon material (Black Pearls 2000). Protons and electrons of hydrogen are separated on a fuel cell-type electrode and then stored separately in the electrical double layer, the electrons on the carbon and the protons in the aqueous electrolyte of the supercapacitor electrode. The merit of this concept is that it works spontaneously and reversibly near ambient pressure and temperature. This is in pronounced contrast to what has been known as electrochemical hydrogen storage, which does not involve hydrogen gas and where electrical work has to be spent in the loading process. With the present hybrid device, a H(2) storage capacity of 0.13 wt% was obtained, one order of magnitude more than what can be stored by conventional physisorption on large-surface-area carbons at the same pressure and temperature. Raising the pressure from 1.5 to 3.5 bar increased the capacity by less than 20%, indicating saturation. A capacitance of 11 μF cm(-2), comparable with that of a commercial double layer supercapacitor, was found using H(2)SO(4) as electrolyte. The chemical energy of the stored H(2) is almost a factor of 3 larger than the electrical energy stored in the supercapacitor. Further developments of this concept relate to a hydrogen buffer integrated inside a proton exchange membrane fuel cell to be used in case of peak power demand. This serial setup takes advantage of the suggested novel concept of hydrogen storage. It is fundamentally different from previous ways of operating a conventional supercapacitor hooked up in parallel to a fuel cell.

  20. Swarm Intelligence for Optimizing Hybridized Smoothing Filter in Image Edge Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, B. Tirumala; Dehuri, S.; Dileep, M.; Vindhya, A.

    In this modern era, image transmission and processing plays a major role. It would be impossible to retrieve information from satellite and medical images without the help of image processing techniques. Edge enhancement is an image processing step that enhances the edge contrast of an image or video in an attempt to improve its acutance. Edges are the representations of the discontinuities of image intensity functions. For processing these discontinuities in an image, a good edge enhancement technique is essential. The proposed work uses a new idea for edge enhancement using hybridized smoothening filters and we introduce a promising technique of obtaining best hybrid filter using swarm algorithms (Artificial Bee Colony (ABC), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO)) to search for an optimal sequence of filters from among a set of rather simple, representative image processing filters. This paper deals with the analysis of the swarm intelligence techniques through the combination of hybrid filters generated by these algorithms for image edge enhancement.

  1. Highly stable and flexible silver nanowire-graphene hybrid transparent conducting electrodes for emerging optoelectronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghwa; Lee, Hyungjin; Ahn, Yumi; Jeong, Youngjun; Lee, Dae-Young; Lee, Youngu

    2013-09-07

    A new AgNW-graphene hybrid transparent conducting electrode (TCE) was prepared by dry-transferring a chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown monolayer graphene onto a pristine AgNW TCE. The AgNW-graphene hybrid TCE exhibited excellent optical and electrical properties as well as mechanical flexibility. The AgNW-graphene hybrid TCE showed highly enhanced thermal oxidation and chemical stabilities because of the superior gas-barrier property of the graphene protection layer. Furthermore, the organic solar cells with the AgNW-graphene hybrid TCE showed excellent photovoltaic performance as well as superior long-term stability under ambient conditions.

  2. Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Nanomaterials for Therapeutic and Diagnostic Imaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivero-Escoto, Juan L.; Huang, Yu-Tzu

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology offers outstanding potential for future biomedical applications. In particular, due to their unique characteristics, hybrid nanomaterials have recently been investigated as promising platforms for imaging and therapeutic applications. This class of nanoparticles can not only retain valuable features of both inorganic and organic moieties, but also provides the ability to systematically modify the properties of the hybrid material through the combination of functional elements. Moreover, the conjugation of targeting moieties on the surface of these nanomaterials gives them specific targeted imaging and therapeutic properties. In this review, we summarize the recent reports in the synthesis of hybrid nanomaterials and their applications in biomedical areas. Their applications as imaging and therapeutic agents in vivo will be highlighted. PMID:21747714

  3. Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Nanomaterials for Therapeutic and Diagnostic Imaging Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan L. Vivero-Escoto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology offers outstanding potential for future biomedical applications. In particular, due to their unique characteristics, hybrid nanomaterials have recently been investigated as promising platforms for imaging and therapeutic applications. This class of nanoparticles can not only retain valuable features of both inorganic and organic moieties, but also provides the ability to systematically modify the properties of the hybrid material through the combination of functional elements. Moreover, the conjugation of targeting moieties on the surface of these nanomaterials gives them specific targeted imaging and therapeutic properties. In this review, we summarize the recent reports in the synthesis of hybrid nanomaterials and their applications in biomedical areas. Their applications as imaging and therapeutic agents in vivo will be highlighted.

  4. Floating volumetric image formation using a dihedral corner reflector array device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Daisuke; Hirano, Noboru; Maeda, Yuki; Yamamoto, Siori; Mukai, Takaaki; Maekawa, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    A volumetric display system using an optical imaging device consisting of numerous dihedral corner reflectors placed perpendicular to the surface of a metal plate is proposed. Image formation by the dihedral corner reflector array (DCRA) is free from distortion and focal length. In the proposed volumetric display system, a two-dimensional real image is moved by a mirror scanner to scan a three-dimensional (3D) space. Cross-sectional images of a 3D object are displayed in accordance with the position of the image plane. A volumetric image is observed as a stack of the cross-sectional images. The use of the DCRA brings compact system configuration and volumetric real image generation with very low distortion. An experimental volumetric display system including a DCRA, a galvanometer mirror, and a digital micro-mirror device was constructed to verify the proposed method. A volumetric image consisting of 1024×768×400 voxels was formed by the experimental system.

  5. Adaptive hybrid subband image coding with DWT, DCT, and modified DPCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae W.; Choe, Howard C.; Griswold, Norman C.

    1997-04-01

    Image coding based on subband decomposition with DPCM and PCM has received much attention in the areas of image compression research and industry. In this paper we present a new adaptive image subband coding with discrete wavelet transform, discrete cosine transform, and a modified DPCM. The main contribution of this work is the development of a simple, yet effective image compression and transmission algorithm. An important feature of this algorithm is the hybrid modified DPCM coding scheme which produces both simple, but significant, image compression and transmission coding.

  6. Ultrasonography Fused with PET-CT Hybrid Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udesen, Jesper; Ewertsen, Caroline; Gran, Fredrik

    2011-01-01

    We present a method with fusion of images of three modalities 18F-FDG PET, CT, and 3-D ultrasound (US) applied to imaging of the anal canal and the rectum. To obtain comparable geometries in the three imaging modalities, a plexiglas rod, with the same dimensions as the US transducer, is placed...... in the anal canal prior to the PET-CT examination. The method is based on manual co-registration of PET-CT images and 3-D US images. The three-modality imaging of the rectum-anal canal may become useful as a supplement to conventional imaging in the external radiation therapy in the treatment of anal cancer......, where the precise delineation of a tumor is crucial to avoid damage from radiation therapy to the healthy tissue surrounding it. The technique is still in a phase of development, and the demands for integration different company software systems are significant before commercial application. Three...

  7. Hybrid Denoising Method for Removal of Mixed Noise in Medical Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J UMAMAHESWARI, Dr.G.RADHAMANI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Digital image acquisition and processing techniques plays a very important role in current day medical diagnosis. During the acquisition process, there could be distortions in the images, which will negatively affect the diagnosis images. In this paper a new technique based on the hybridization of wavelet filter and center weighted median filters is proposed for denoising multiple noise (Gaussian and Impulse images. The model is experimented on standard Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM images and the performances are evaluated in terms of peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR, Mean Absolute Error (MAE, Universal Image Quality Index (UQI and Evaluation Time (ET. Results prove that utilization of center weighted median filters in combination with wavelet thresholding filters on DICOM images deteriorates the performance. The proposed filter gives suitable results on the basis of PSNR, MSE, UQI and ET. In addition, the proposed filter gives nearly uniform and consistent results on all the test images.

  8. Multilevel Wavelet Feature Statistics for Efficient Retrieval, Transmission, and Display of Medical Images by Hybrid Encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuyu; Mitra, Sunanda; Corona, Enrique; Nutter, Brian; Lee, DJ

    2003-12-01

    Many common modalities of medical images acquire high-resolution and multispectral images, which are subsequently processed, visualized, and transmitted by subsampling. These subsampled images compromise resolution for processing ability, thus risking loss of significant diagnostic information. A hybrid multiresolution vector quantizer (HMVQ) has been developed exploiting the statistical characteristics of the features in a multiresolution wavelet-transformed domain. The global codebook generated by HMVQ, using a combination of multiresolution vector quantization and residual scalar encoding, retains edge information better and avoids significant blurring observed in reconstructed medical images by other well-known encoding schemes at low bit rates. Two specific image modalities, namely, X-ray radiographic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), have been considered as examples. The ability of HMVQ in reconstructing high-fidelity images at low bit rates makes it particularly desirable for medical image encoding and fast transmission of 3D medical images generated from multiview stereo pairs for visual communications.

  9. Fluorescence Image Analyzer - FLIMA: software for quantitative analysis of fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, H C M; Martins-Júnior, M M C; Ribeiro, L B; Matoso, D A

    2017-03-30

    The Fluorescence Image Analyzer (FLIMA) software was developed for the quantitative analysis of images generated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Currently, the images of FISH are examined without a coefficient that enables a comparison between them. Through GD Graphics Library, the FLIMA software calculates the amount of pixels on image and recognizes each present color. The coefficient generated by the algorithm shows the percentage of marks (probes) hybridized on the chromosomes. This software can be used for any type of image generated by a fluorescence microscope and is able to quantify digoxigenin probes exhibiting a red color, biotin probes exhibiting a green color, and double-FISH probes (digoxigenin and biotin used together), where the white color is displayed.

  10. A novel image compression-encryption hybrid algorithm based on the analysis sparse representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Xu, Biao; Zhou, Nanrun

    2017-06-01

    Recent advances on the compressive sensing theory were invoked for image compression-encryption based on the synthesis sparse model. In this paper we concentrate on an alternative sparse representation model, i.e., the analysis sparse model, to propose a novel image compression-encryption hybrid algorithm. The analysis sparse representation of the original image is obtained with an overcomplete fixed dictionary that the order of the dictionary atoms is scrambled, and the sparse representation can be considered as an encrypted version of the image. Moreover, the sparse representation is compressed to reduce its dimension and re-encrypted by the compressive sensing simultaneously. To enhance the security of the algorithm, a pixel-scrambling method is employed to re-encrypt the measurements of the compressive sensing. Various simulation results verify that the proposed image compression-encryption hybrid algorithm could provide a considerable compression performance with a good security.

  11. Hybrid material as contrast agent in magnetic resonance images

    OpenAIRE

    Botella Asunción, Pablo; Cabrera García, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to a contrast agent of magnetic resonance based on a hybrid material formed by an organo-metallic core derived from Prussian blue and a silica cover, and optionally, molecules of a poly(ethylene glycol), a fluorescent agent, a radio nucleus and/or a substance that directs to specific receptors, cells or tissues, joined by covalent bonding to the surface of the inorganic cover.

  12. Hybrid material as contrast agent in magnetic resonance images

    OpenAIRE

    Botella Asunción, Pablo; Cabrera García, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to a contrast agent of magnetic resonance based on a hybrid material formed by an organo-metallic core derived from Prussian blue and a silica cover, and optionally, molecules of a poly(ethylene glycol), a fluorescent agent, a radio nucleus and/or a substance that directs to specific receptors, cells or tissues, joined by covalent bonding to the surface of the inorganic cover.

  13. Microbial detection in microfluidic devices through dual staining of quantum dots-labeled immunoassay and RNA hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Qing [Division of Environmental Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Blk E1A, 07-03, Engineering Drive 2, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Zhu Liang [Division of Environmental Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Blk E1A, 07-03, Engineering Drive 2, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Feng Hanhua [Institute of Microelectronics (Singapore); Ang, Simon [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville (United States); Chau, F.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Liu, W.-T. [Division of Environmental Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Blk E1A, 07-03, Engineering Drive 2, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)]. E-mail: cveliuwt@nus.edu.sg

    2006-01-18

    This paper reported the development of a microfludic device for the rapid detection of viable and nonviable microbial cells through dual labeling by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and quantum dots (QDs)-labeled immunofluorescent assay (IFA). The coin sized device consists of a microchannel and filtering pillars (gap = 1-2 {mu}m) and was demonstrated to effectively trap and concentrate microbial cells (i.e. Giardia lamblia). After sample injection, FISH probe solution and QDs-labeled antibody solution were sequentially pumped into the device to accelerate the fluorescent labeling reactions at optimized flow rates (i.e. 1 and 20 {mu}L/min, respectively). After 2 min washing for each assay, the whole process could be finished within 30 min, with minimum consumption of labeling reagents and superior fluorescent signal intensity. The choice of QDs 525 for IFA resulted in bright and stable fluorescent signal, with minimum interference with the Cy3 signal from FISH detection.

  14. High-dynamic-range hybrid analog-digital control broadband optical spectral processor using micromirror and acousto-optic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riza, Nabeel A; Reza, Syed Azer

    2008-06-01

    For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the design and demonstration of a programmable spectral filtering processor is presented that simultaneously engages the power of an analog-mode optical device such as an acousto-optic tunable filter and a digital-mode optical device such as the digital micromirror device. The demonstrated processor allows a high 50 dB attenuation dynamic range across the chosen 1530-1565 nm (~C band). The hybrid analog-digital spectral control mechanism enables the processor to operate with greater versatility when compared to analog- or digital-only processor designs. Such a processor can be useful both as a test instrument in biomedical applications and as an equalizer in fiber communication networks.

  15. Ultra-Compact 100 × 100 μm2 Footprint Hybrid Device with Spin-Valve Nanosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana C. Leitao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic field mapping with micrometric spatial resolution and high sensitivity is a challenging application, and the technological solutions are usually based on large area devices integrating discrete magnetic flux guide elements. In this work we demonstrate a high performance hybrid device with improved field sensitivity levels and small footprint, consisting of a ultra-compact 2D design where nanometric spin valve sensors are inserted within the gap of thin-film magnetic flux concentrators. Pole-sensor distances down to 400 nm are demonstrated using nanofabrication techniques combined with an optimized liftoff process. These 100 × 100 μm 2 pixel sensors can be integrated in modular devices for surface mapping without moving parts.

  16. Alkali Metal Halide Salts as Interface Additives to Fabricate Hysteresis-Free Hybrid Perovskite-Based Photovoltaic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Moghe, Dhanashree; Hafezian, Soroush; Chen, Pei; Young, Margaret; Elinski, Mark; Martinu, Ludvik; Kéna-Cohen, Stéphane; Lunt, Richard R

    2016-09-07

    A new method was developed for doping and fabricating hysteresis-free hybrid perovskite-based photovoltaic devices by using alkali metal halide salts as interface layer additives. Such salt layers introduced at the perovskite interface can provide excessive halide ions to fill vacancies formed during the deposition and annealing process. A range of solution-processed halide salts were investigated. The highest performance of methylammonium lead mixed-halide perovskite device was achieved with a NaI interlayer and showed a power conversion efficiency of 12.6% and a hysteresis of less than 2%. This represents a 90% improvement compared to control devices without this salt layer. Through depth-resolved mass spectrometry, optical modeling, and photoluminescence spectroscopy, this enhancement is attributed to the reduction of iodide vacancies, passivation of grain boundaries, and improved hole extraction. Our approach ultimately provides an alternative and facile route to high-performance and hysteresis-free perovskite solar cells.

  17. Improvement of uniformity in cultivation environment and crop growth rate by hybrid control of air flow devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAEK Min-Seon; KWON Sook-Youn; LIM Jae-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    A complete control type plant factory has high efficiency in terms of cultivation area by constructing vertical multiple layered cultivation beds. However, it has a problem of irregular crop growth due to temperature deviation at upper and lower beds and increases in energy consumption by a prolonged cultivation period. In this work, air flow rate inside a facility was improved by a hybrid control of air flow devices like air conditioning and air circulation fan with an established wireless sensor network to minimize temperature deviations between upper and lower beds and to promote crop growth. The performance of proposed system was verified with an experimental environment or Case A wherein air conditioning device was operated without a control algorithm and Case B wherein air conditioning and circulation fans were alternatively operated based on the hybrid control algorithm. After planting leafy vegetables under each experimental condition, crops were cultivated for 21 days. As a result, Case B wherein AC (air conditioning) and ACF (air-circulation fan) were alternatively operated based on the hybrid control algorithm showed that fresh mass, number of leaves, and leaf length for the crops grown were increased by 40.6%, 41.1%, and 11.1%, respectively, compared to Case A.

  18. Application of microwave imaging system for density fluctuation measurements on Large Helical Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlichenko, R.; Nagayama, Y.; Kawahata, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS), Toki (Japan); Ignatenko, M.; Kogi, Y.; Mase, A. [Kyushu Univ., KASTEC, Kasuga (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    This short paper describes the microwave imaging reflectometry system that has been installed on the Large Helical Device as a plasma diagnostic system for spatially resolved plasma density fluctuations.

  19. 77 FR 32995 - Certain Electronic Imaging Devices Corrected: Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Electronic Imaging Devices Corrected: Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION:...

  20. 77 FR 31875 - Certain Electronic Imaging Devices; Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Electronic Imaging Devices; Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice....

  1. Study of lower hybrid current drive system in tokamak fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maebara, Sunao [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-01-01

    This report describes R and D of a high-power klystron, RF vacuum window, low-outgassing antenna and a front module for a plasma-facing antenna aiming the 5 GHz Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) system for the next Tokamak Fusion Device. 5 GHz klystron with a low-perveances of 0.7 {mu}P is designed for a high-power and a high-efficiency, the output-power of 715 kW and the efficiency of 63%, which are beyond the conventional design scaling of 450 kW-45%, are performed using the prototype klystron which operates at the pulse duration of 15 {mu}sec. A new pillbox window, which has an oversized length in both the axial and the radial direction, are designed to reduce the RF power density and the electric field strength at the ceramics. It is evaluated that the power capability by cooling edge of ceramics is 1 MW with continuous-wave operation. The antenna module using Dispersion Strengthened Copper which combines high mechanical property up to 500degC with high thermal conductivity, are developed for a low-outgassing antenna in a steady state operation. It is found that the outgassing rate is in the lower range of 4x10{sup -6} Pam{sup 3}/sm{sup 2} at the module temperature of 300degC, which requires no active vacuum pumping of the LHCD antenna. A front module using Carbon Fiber Composite (CFC) are fabricated and tested for a plasma facing antenna which has a high heat-resistive. Stationary operation of the CFC module with water cooling is performed at the RF power of 46 MWm{sup -2} (about 2 times higher than the design value) during 1000 sec, it is found that the outgassing rate is less than 10{sup -5} Pam{sup 3}/sm{sup 2} which is low enough for an antenna material. (author)

  2. Hybrid integration of III-V and silicon materials and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhongsheng

    Laser liftoff (LLO) based hybrid integration techniques including the double-transfer process and the pixel-to-point transfer process have been developed to integrate III-V photonics with silicon materials and circuitry. No degradation in the device performance has been observed using the LLO based transfer techniques. On the contrary, performance improvements in both electrical characteristics and electroluminescence (EL) output have been found for the (In,Ga)N light emitting diodes (LEDs) transferred onto Si substrate. Based on computer simulation, it is found that as much as 70% enhancement in EL output could be expected by optimizing the metal layering on the backside of the transferred LEDs. In order to understand the existing experimental data and improve controllability and damage-free transfer yield of the LLO process, a novel, comprehensive LLO model based on thermal-mechanical analysis has been proposed and developed. The LLO model has been validated in the well-studied GaN/sapphire system. By employing the LLO based transfer technique, two optoelectronic systems have been designed and demonstrated. The first one is an integrated fluorescence microsystem, which involved the integration of Cd(S,Se) bandgap filters, (In,Ga)N LEDs, Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic channels with a pre-fabricated Si PIN photodiode chip. Prototypes with both one color (blue LED) excitation and two-color (blue and green LED) excitation have consistently demonstrated a detection capability of as low as 1 nM fluosphere beads using Molecular Probes FluoSpheresRTM dye. Furthermore, the feasibility of multi-wavelength design has been verified using the bi-wavelength prototype. To optimize signal-to-noise ratio and detection sensitivity of the microsystem via system design, an in-depth mathematic analysis has also been performed. The second application is a zero-footprint optical metrology wafer, which relies on the reflection at the optical detection window, through which

  3. Development of a Hybrid Magnetic Resonance and Ultrasound Imaging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Sherwood

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A system which allows magnetic resonance (MR and ultrasound (US image data to be acquired simultaneously has been developed. B-mode and Doppler US were performed inside the bore of a clinical 1.5 T MRI scanner using a clinical 1–4 MHz US transducer with an 8-metre cable. Susceptibility artefacts and RF noise were introduced into MR images by the US imaging system. RF noise was minimised by using aluminium foil to shield the transducer. A study of MR and B-mode US image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR as a function of transducer-phantom separation was performed using a gel phantom. This revealed that a 4 cm separation between the phantom surface and the transducer was sufficient to minimise the effect of the susceptibility artefact in MR images. MR-US imaging was demonstrated in vivo with the aid of a 2 mm VeroWhite 3D-printed spherical target placed over the thigh muscle of a rat. The target allowed single-point registration of MR and US images in the axial plane to be performed. The system was subsequently demonstrated as a tool for the targeting and visualisation of high intensity focused ultrasound exposure in the rat thigh muscle.

  4. A hybrid genetic algorithm for multi-modal image registration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a new method for three-dimensional medical image registration. In the interactive image-guided HIFU (High Intensity Focused Ultrasound) therapy system, a fast and precise localization of the tumor is very important. An automatic system is developed for registering pre-operative MR images with intra-operative ultrasound images based on the vessels visible in both of the modalities. When the MR and the ultrasound images are aligned, the centerline points of the vessels in the MR image will align with bright intensities in the ultrasound image. The method applies an optimization strategy combining the genetic algorithm with the conjugated gradients algorithm to minimize the objective function. It provides a feasible way of determining the global solution and makes the method robust to local maximum and insensitive to initial position. Two experiments were designed to evaluate the method, and the results show that our method has better registration accuracy and convergence rate than the other two classic algorithms.

  5. Hybrid image and signal processing III; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 23, 24, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casasent, D.P.; Tescher, A.G.

    1992-01-01

    The present conference discusses the optical Gabor and wavelet transforms for image analysis, image segmentation via optical wavelets, semidifferential invariants, object labeling via convolution, tactile pattern recognition with complex linear morphology, a hybrid six-degree-of-freedom tracking system, and a hazard detection/avoidance sensor for NASA planetary landers. Also discussed are layered optical processing architectures, optoelectronic wide-world personality ROMs for high-speed control, a GaAs-based photorefractive time-integrating correlator, multispectral lossy data compression using vector quantization, broad vector quantization for transform image coding, and a mixed vendor computer architecture for precision image analysis.

  6. Hybridizing Differential Evolution with a Genetic Algorithm for Color Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. V. Krishna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a hybrid of differential evolution and genetic algorithms to solve the color image segmentation problem. Clustering based color image segmentation algorithms segment an image by clustering the features of color and texture, thereby obtaining accurate prototype cluster centers. In the proposed algorithm, the color features are obtained using the homogeneity model. A new texture feature named Power Law Descriptor (PLD which is a modification of Weber Local Descriptor (WLD is proposed and further used as a texture feature for clustering. Genetic algorithms are competent in handling binary variables, while differential evolution on the other hand is more efficient in handling real parameters. The obtained texture feature is binary in nature and the color feature is a real value, which suits very well the hybrid cluster center optimization problem in image segmentation. Thus in the proposed algorithm, the optimum texture feature centers are evolved using genetic algorithms, whereas the optimum color feature centers are evolved using differential evolution.

  7. 2D dose distribution images of a hybrid low field MRI-γ detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abril, A.; Agulles-Pedrós, L.

    2016-07-01

    The proposed hybrid system is a combination of a low field MRI and dosimetric gel as a γ detector. The readout system is based on the polymerization process induced by the gel radiation. A gel dose map is obtained which represents the functional part of hybrid image alongside with the anatomical MRI one. Both images should be taken while the patient with a radiopharmaceutical is located inside the MRI system with a gel detector matrix. A relevant aspect of this proposal is that the dosimetric gel has never been used to acquire medical images. The results presented show the interaction of the 99mTc source with the dosimetric gel simulated in Geant4. The purpose was to obtain the planar γ 2D-image. The different source configurations are studied to explore the ability of the gel as radiation detector through the following parameters; resolution, shape definition and radio-pharmaceutical concentration.

  8. Radiation-induced noise in Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) and Charge-Injection Device (CID) imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, George J.; Turko, Bojan T.

    1990-08-01

    Measurements of radiation sensitivity for interline transfer charge-coupled devices (CCDs) and charge-injection devices (CIDs) from irradiation with high-energy photons (CO-60 gammas and 3-to 5-MeV end-point Bremsstrahlung) and 14-MeV neutrons are presented to establish imager susceptibility in such environments. Results from electric clearing techniques designed for quick (approximately 300 microseconds for the CCDs and approximately 10 microseconds for CIDs) removal (or dumping) of radiation-induced charge from prompt sources are discussed. Application of the techniques coupled with long (microsecond to millisecond) persistence radiation-to-light converters for image retention is described. Typical data illustrating the effectiveness of charge clearing in removal of radiation noise are included for nanosecond duration pulsed x ray/gamma-ray doses (50 millirad to 5-rad range) and microsecond duration neutron fluences approaching 10(exp 8) n/sq cm.

  9. Energy and Propulsion Optimization of Solid-Propellant Grain of a Hybrid Power Device

    OpenAIRE

    Bondarchuk Sergey S.; Bondarchuk Iliya S.; Borisov Boris V.; Zhukov Alexandr S.

    2016-01-01

    A method of distribution of an additional solid-phase component (oxidizer) providing uniformity of grain burning for the purpose of evaluation and optimization of energy and propulsion parameters of hybrid solid-propellant motor is proposed in the paper.

  10. Energy and Propulsion Optimization of Solid-Propellant Grain of a Hybrid Power Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarchuk, Sergey S.; Bondarchuk, Iliya S.; Borisov, Boris V.; Zhukov, Alexandr S.

    2016-02-01

    A method of distribution of an additional solid-phase component (oxidizer) providing uniformity of grain burning for the purpose of evaluation and optimization of energy and propulsion parameters of hybrid solid-propellant motor is proposed in the paper.

  11. Capacitance of Fe3O4/rGO nanocomposites in an aqueous hybrid electrochemical storage device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasiński, Krzysztof; Walkowiak, Mariusz; Półrolniczak, Paulina; Lota, Grzegorz

    2015-10-01

    Hybrid electrochemical storage devices comprising a capacitor-type positive electrode and a battery-type negative electrode are regarded as a promising concept combining high power density with high energy density. In this work Fe3O4/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposite has been synthesized and applied as negative electrode in an electrochemical energy storage device being a serial internal hybrid of an alkaline battery and an electrochemical double layer capacitor (EDLC). Beneficial effect of graphene on the performance of magnetite electrode has been evidenced by means of cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. Unlike in a vast majority of reports, magnetite capacitances have been determined in real electrochemical devices, against activated carbon as positive electrode. In three-electrode cells with activated carbon as the positive electrode magnetite has been found to exhibit from 65 to 83 F g-1 for the rGO content from 9.7 to 27.8 %. The maximum voltage of a capacitor with Fe3O4/rGO negative electrode has been established as 1.0 V, which is higher than typical value of 0.8 V known for the symmetrical carbon-based capacitors.

  12. Prototype hybrid systems for neonatal warming: in vitro comparisons to standard of care devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Terrence L; Lindemann, Rolf; Wu, Jichuan; Agnew, Catherine; Shaffer, Thomas H; Wolfson, Marla R

    2010-01-01

    Preterm infants lack necessary thermoregulation. An ideal incubator should maintain a uniform and constant thermal environment. We compared the effectiveness of a supplemental heating blanket to improve the heating characteristics of two different incubator warming devices using assessment of their respective function alone as controls. Device A and device B, with and without a heating blanket (Harvard Apparatus), were instrumented with a distribution matrix of multiple temperature (n = 11) and humidity probes. These data were serially measured during warm up to 37.5 °C and through a series of open-door perturbations. The time constant, temperature variation, and change in air temperature were calculated. Data were analyzed for significance by 2-factor ANOVA for each respective incubator either turned on or off with either the heating blanket turned on or off. Device A warms faster (33.87% ; p < 0.05) than device B, but has a greater (37.27% ; p < 0.05) temperature variation during warmup. The heating blanket enhances the thermal response of device A during warmup, but does not alter those of device B. With the side door open, device A shows a smaller (-16.5% ; p < 0.05) temperature variation than device B; the heating blanket attenuates the temperature change in both devices. These results demonstrate that the use of a supplemental heating blanket, as well as device-related differences, may impact clinical control of a thermal environment.

  13. Horizontally-connected ZnO-graphene hybrid films for multifunctional devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Yi Rang [Thin Film Materials Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Yuseong Post Office Box 107, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); School of Semiconductor and Chemical Engineering, Semiconductor Physics Research Center (SPRC), Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Wooseok; Lee, Young Bum; Kim, Seong Ku; Han, Jin Kyu; Myung, Sung; Lee, Sun Sook; An, Ki-Seok [Thin Film Materials Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Yuseong Post Office Box 107, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Chel-Jong [School of Semiconductor and Chemical Engineering, Semiconductor Physics Research Center (SPRC), Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Jongsun, E-mail: jslim@krict.re.kr [Thin Film Materials Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Yuseong Post Office Box 107, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • We designed horizontally-connected ZnO and graphene hybrid nanofilms with improved flexibility for multifunctional nanodevices including high performance TFTs. • The photocurrent on-off ratio, response time, and recovery time of the hybrid photodetectors were estimated to be 10{sup 2}, 34 s, and 27 s, respectively. The photocurrent from the hybrid photodetector decreased only by two-fold, whereas a significant decrease in photocurrent by two orders of magnitude was observed from the ZnO thin film based photodetectors after 10{sup 5} cycles of 5-mm radius bending. • The hybrid thin film transistors exhibited unipolar n-channel transistor behavior with electron mobility of 68.7 cm{sup 2}/V s and on-off ratio of 10{sup 7}. - Abstract: Here we designed horizontally-connected ZnO thin films and graphene in order to combine advantages of ZnO thin films, which are high on/off ratio and photo responsivity, and the superior mobility and sensitivity of graphene for applications in thin film transistors (TFTs) and flexible photodetectors. To synthesize the ZnO/graphene hybrid films, a 70-nm-thick ZnO thin film with a uniformly flat surface deposited by the atomic layer deposition process was horizontally connected with highly crystalline monolayer graphene grown by thermal chemical vapor deposition. The photocurrent on-off ratio, response time, and recovery time of the hybrid photodetectors were estimated to be 10{sup 2}, 34 s, and 27 s, respectively. The photocurrent from the hybrid photodetector decreased only by two-fold, whereas a significant decrease in photocurrent by two orders of magnitude was observed from the ZnO thin film based photodetectors after 10{sup 5} cycles of 5-mm radius bending. The hybrid TFT exhibited unipolar n-channel transistor behavior with electron mobility of 68.7 cm{sup 2}/V s and on-off ratio of 10{sup 7}.

  14. A test device for isotopic γ-ray imaging with CdZnTe detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A test device for isotopic γ-ray imaging, which consists of an isotope γ-ray source, a CdZnTe γ-ray spectrometer and other auxiliary equipment, is studied here. Compared with the conventional X-ray, the isotope γ-ray,which is utilized in this project, has its own advantages in imaging. Furthermore, with a room-temperature high-energy-resolution CdZnTe detector and a modern imaging processing technique, this device is capable of effectively suppressing the background and gaining more information, thus it can obtain a better image than conventional X-ray devices. In the experiment of PCB imaging, all soldered points and chip components are sharply demonstrated.

  15. Digital processing of in situ hybridization images: identification and spatial allocation of specific labels

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    In situ hybridization (ISH) method allows to reveal specific genes expression, identify specific cell types and detect areas or tissues, displaying differential gene expression. This work describes a standardized procedure of digital image processing that allows detailed analyses of ISH preparations. We have developed a software that allows through a graphical interface (a) to reliably identify and quantify ISH labels, (b) to locate each label within the image reference system (c) to assemble...

  16. Differential optical spectropolarimetric imaging system assisted by liquid crystal devices for skin imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharon, Ofir; Abdulhalim, Ibrahim; Arnon, Ofer; Rosenberg, Lior; Dyomin, Victor; Silberstein, Eldad

    2011-08-01

    Skin cancer diagnosis depends not only on histopathological examination but also on visual inspection before and after the excision of suspected lesion. Neoplasm is accompanied with changes in birefringence of collagen, pleomorphicity, and hyperchromatic state of epithelial nuclei. These phenomena can be measured by spectral and polarization changes of light backscattered by the examined tissue. A new differential spectropolarimetric system is proposed using liquid crystal devices, one as a tunable filter and the other as a polarization rotator, both operating at wide spectral ranges from the visible to the near-infrared. Since collagen's fibrils texture orientation depends on its location in the skin and since it is not well organized, our system scans the bipolarization states by continuously rotating the linearly polarized light incident on a skin lesion, and collecting differential contrasts between sequenced images when simultaneously averaging the statistical readout of a video camera. This noninvasive method emphasizes areas on skin where the neoplasm, or tumor, minimizes the statistical polarization change of the scattered light from the lesion. The module can be considered as an assistant tool for epiluminescence microscopy. Images of skin tumors were captured in vivo before the patients having their surgery and compared to histopathological results.

  17. Large-format distributed read-out imaging devices for X-ray imaging spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hartog, Roland; Kozorezov, A.; Martin, D.; Brammertz, G.; Verhoeve, P.; Peacock, A.; Scholze, F.; Goldie, D. J.

    2002-02-01

    We present an experimental study of the performance of Distributed Read-Out Imaging Devices (DROIDs), based on two Ta/Al-based superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs) placed on either side of a Ta absorber strip. We focus our discussion on the prospects of building large-format photon-counting imaging spectrometers for applications at optical, UV and soft X-ray energies. Tunnel-limited spectroscopic resolutions have already been demonstrated for optical photons. With a 20×100 μm2 absorber we have measured an intrinsic energy resolution of 2 eV FWHM for 500 eV photons. This demonstrates that at soft X-ray energies resolutions close to the tunnel limit are also feasible for this type of detectors. A detailed analysis of pulse-shapes with numerical models allows us to assess the main parameters that determine the performance of these detectors. Extrapolation of these models indicates that it is possible to extend the length of the absorber to 1.5 mm, without a serious degradation of the detector's performance. .

  18. Large-format distributed readout imaging devices for x-ray imaging spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hartog, Roland H.; Kozorezov, Alex G.; Martin, Didier D.; Brammertz, G.; Verhoeve, Peter; Peacock, Anthony J.; Scholze, Frank; Goldie, D. J.

    2002-01-01

    We present an experimental study of the performance of one-dimensional Distributed Read-Out Imaging Devices (DROIDs), based on two Ta/Al-based STJs placed on either side of a Ta absorber strip. We focus our discussion on the prospects of building large-format photon-counting imaging spectrometers for applications at soft X-ray energies. Tunnel-limited spectroscopical resolutions have already been demonstrated for optical photons. With a 20 x 100 micrometers 2 absorber we have measured an intrinsic energy resolution of 2.1 eV FWHM for 500 eV photons. This demonstrates that at soft X-ray energies resolutions close to the tunnel limit are also feasible for these type of detectors. A detailed analysis of pulse-shapes with analytical models allows us to assess the main parameters that determine the performance of these detectors. In particular, we discuss the dependence of the quasiparticle diffusion constant on the temperature of the absorber. Extrapolation of these models indicates that it is possible to extend the length of the absorber to 1.5 mm, without a serious degradation of the detector's performance.

  19. Maritime Detection of Radiological/Nuclear Threats with Hybrid Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Maritime Detection of Radiological/Nuclear Threats with Hybrid Imaging System Anthony L. Hutcheson, Bernard F. Phlips, Eric A. Wulf , Lee J...REFERENCES [1] E. A. Wulf , A. L. Hutcheson, B. F. Phlips, L. J. Mitchell and B. E. Leas, “Stand-off detection with an active interrogation photon

  20. A Novel Image Encryption Scheme Based on Multi-orbit Hybrid of Discrete Dynamical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruisong Ye

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A multi-orbit hybrid image encryption scheme based on discrete chaotic dynamical systems is proposed. One generalized Arnold map is adopted to generate three orbits for three initial conditions. Another chaotic dynamical system, tent map, is applied to generate one pseudo-random sequence to determine the hybrid orbit points from which one of the three orbits of generalized Arnold map. The hybrid orbit sequence is then utilized to shuffle the pixels' positions of plain-image so as to get one permuted image. To enhance the encryption security, two rounds of pixel gray values' diffusion is employed as well. The proposed encryption scheme is simple and easy to manipulate. The security and performance of the proposed image encryption have been analyzed, including histograms, correlation coefficients, information entropy, key sensitivity analysis, key space analysis, differential analysis, etc. All the experimental results suggest that the proposed image encryption scheme is robust and secure and can be used for secure image and video communication applications.

  1. Hybrid Collision Detection Algorithm based on Image Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XueLi Shen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Collision detection is an important application in the field of virtual reality, and efficiently completing collision detection has become the research focus. For the poorly real-time defect of collision detection, this paper has presented an algorithm based on the hybrid collision detection, detecting the potential collision object sets quickly with the mixed bounding volume hierarchy tree, and then using the streaming pattern collision detection algorithm to make an accurate detection. With the above methods, it can achieve the purpose of balancing load of the CPU and GPU and speeding up the detection rate. The experimental results show that compared with the classic Rapid algorithm, this algorithm can effectively improve the efficiency of collision detection.

  2. Hybrid edge and feature-based single-image superresolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Moinul; Islam, Mohammed Nazrul; Asari, Vijayan K.; Karim, Mohammad A.

    2016-07-01

    A neighborhood-dependent component feature learning method for regression analysis in single-image superresolution is presented. Given a low-resolution input, the method uses a directional Fourier phase feature component to adaptively learn the regression kernel based on local covariance to estimate the high-resolution image. The unique feature of the proposed method is that it uses image features to learn about the local covariance from geometric similarity between the low-resolution image and its high-resolution counterpart. For each patch in the neighborhood, we estimate four directional variances to adapt the interpolated pixels. This gives us edge information and Fourier phase gives features, which are combined to interpolate using kernel regression. In order to compare quantitatively with other state-of-the-art techniques, root-mean-square error and measure mean-square similarity are computed for the example images, and experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms similar techniques available in the literature, especially at higher resolution scales.

  3. A scanning probe-based pick-and-place procedure for assembly of integrated quantum optical hybrid devices

    CERN Document Server

    Schell, Andreas W; Schröder, Tim; Wolters, Janik; Aichele, Thomas; Benson, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Integrated quantum optical hybrid devices consist of fundamental constituents such as single emitters and tailored photonic nanostructures. A reliable fabrication method requires the controlled deposition of active nanoparticles on arbitrary nanostructures with highest precision. Here, we describe an easily adaptable technique that employs picking and placing of nanoparticles with an atomic force microscope combined with a confocal setup. In this way, both the topography and the optical response can be monitored simultaneously before and after the assembly. The technique can be applied to arbitrary particles. Here, we focus on nanodiamonds containing single nitrogen vacancy centers, which are particularly interesting for quantum optical experiments on the single photon and single emitter level.

  4. SAR Image Segmentation Based On Hybrid PSOGSA Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandeep Kaur

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Image segmentation is useful in many applications. It can identify the regions of interest in a scene or annotate the data. It categorizes the existing segmentation algorithm into region-based segmentation, data clustering, and edge-base segmentation. Region-based segmentation includes the seeded and unseeded region growing algorithms, the JSEG, and the fast scanning algorithm. Due to the presence of speckle noise, segmentation of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images is still a challenging problem. We proposed a fast SAR image segmentation method based on Particle Swarm Optimization-Gravitational Search Algorithm (PSO-GSA. In this method, threshold estimation is regarded as a search procedure that examinations for an appropriate value in a continuous grayscale interval. Hence, PSO-GSA algorithm is familiarized to search for the optimal threshold. Experimental results indicate that our method is superior to GA based, AFS based and ABC based methods in terms of segmentation accuracy, segmentation time, and Thresholding.

  5. A Development of Hybrid Drug Information System Using Image Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HwaMin Lee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to prevent drug abuse or misuse cases and avoid over-prescriptions, it is necessary for medicine taker to be provided with detailed information about the medicine. In this paper, we propose a drug information system and develop an application to provide information through drug image recognition using a smartphone. We designed a contents-based drug image search algorithm using the color, shape and imprint of drug. Our convenient application can provide users with detailed information about drugs and prevent drug misuse.

  6. Novel fabrication technique of hybrid structure lens array for 3D images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junsik; Kim, Junoh; Kim, Cheoljoong; Shin, Dooseub; Koo, Gyohyun; Won, Yong Hyub

    2016-03-01

    Tunable liquid lens arrays can produce three dimensional images by using electrowetting principle that alters surface tensions by applying voltage. This method has advantages of fast response time and low power consumption. However, it is challenging to fabricate a high fill factor liquid lens array and operate three dimensional images which demand high diopter. This study describes a hybrid structure lens array which has not only a liquid lens array but a solid lens array. A concave-shape lens array is unavoidable when using only the liquid lens array and some voltages are needed to make the lens flat. By placing the solid lens array on the liquid lens array, initial diopter can be positive. To fabricate the hybrid structure lens array, a conventional lithographic process in semiconductor manufacturing is needed. A negative photoresist SU-8 was used as chamber master molds. PDMS and UV adhesive replica molding are done sequentially. Two immiscible liquids, DI water and dodecane, are injected in the fabricated chamber, followed by sealing. The fabricated structure has a 20 by 20 pattern of cylindrical shaped circle array and the aperture size of each lens is 1mm. The thickness of the overall hybrid structure is about 2.8mm. Hybrid structure lens array has many advantages. Solid lens array has almost 100% fill factor and allow high efficiency. Diopter can be increased by more than 200 and negative diopter can be shifted to the positive region. This experiment showed several properties of the hybrid structure and demonstrated its superiority.

  7. Hybridization State Detection of DNA-Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles Using Hyperspectral Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Murdock

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral imaging has the unique ability of capturing spectral data for multiple wavelengths at each pixel in an image. This gives the ability to distinguish, with certainty, different nanomaterials and/or distinguish nanomaterials from biological materials. In this study, 4 nm and 13 nm gold nanoparticles (Au NPs were synthesized, functionalized with complimentary oligonucleotides, and hybridized to form large networks of NPs. Scattering spectra were collected from each sample (unfunctionalized, functionalized, and hybridized and evaluated. The spectra showed unique peaks for each size of Au NP sample and also exhibited narrowing and intensifying of the spectra as the NPs were functionalized and then subsequently hybridized. These spectra are different from normal aggregation effects where the LSPR and reflected spectrum broaden and are red-shifted. Rather, this appears to be dependent on the ability to control the interparticle distance through oligonucleotide length, which is also investigated through the incorporation of a poly-A spacer. Also, hybridized Au NPs were exposed to cells with no adverse effects and retained their unique spectral signatures. With the ability to distinguish between hybridization states at nearly individual NP levels, this could provide a new method of tracking the intracellular actions of nanomaterials as well as extracellular biosensing applications.

  8. Optimizing the performance of neural interface devices with hybrid poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) (PEDOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chin-chen

    This thesis describes methods for improving the performance of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) as a direct neural interfacing material. The chronic foreign body response is always a challenge for implanted bionic devices. After long-term implantation (typically 2-4 weeks), insulating glial scars form around the devices, inhibiting signal transmission, which ultimately leads to device failure. The mechanical mismatch at the device-tissue interface is one of the issues that has been associated with chronic foreign body response. Another challenge for using PEDOT as a neural interface material is its mechanical failure after implantation. We observed cracking and delamination of PEDOT coatings on devices after extended implantations. In the first part of this thesis, we present a novel method for directly measuring the mechanical properties of a PEDOT thin film. Before investigating methods to improve the mechanical behavior of PEDOT, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanical properties of PEDOT thin film is required. A PEDOT thin film was machined into a dog-bone shape specimen with a dual beam FIB-SEM. With an OmniProbe, this PEDOT specimen could be attached onto a force sensor, while the other side was attached to OmniProbe. By moving the OmniProbe, the specimen could be deformed in tension, and a force sensor recorded the applied load on the sample simultaneously. Mechanical tensile tests were conducted in the FIB-SEM chamber along with in situ observation. With precise force measurement from the force sensor and the corresponding high resolution SEM images, we were able to convert the data to a stress-strain curve for further analysis. By analyzing these stress-strain curves, we were able to obtain information about PEDOT including the Young's modulus, strength of failure, strain to failure, and toughness (energy to failure). This information should be useful for future material selection and molecular design for specific applications. The second

  9. Optimization of a carbon-based hybrid energy storage device with cerium (III) sulfate as redox electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Patricia; González, Zoraida; Santamaría, Ricardo; Granda, Marcos; Menéndez, Rosa; Blanco, Clara

    2016-03-01

    The electrochemical performance of a carbon-based hybrid energy storage system, with Ce2(SO4)3/H2SO4 as inorganic redox electrolyte, was enhanced by optimizing several parameters of the device. A mass balance of the two electrodes forming the system together with the selection of a suitable activated carbon as negative electrode allowed the cell voltage to be increased up to 1.9 V. In addition, the use of a cation-exchange membrane significantly enhanced the electrochemical performance of the system by minimizing secondary reactions of cerium ions on the negative electrode. The optimized device reached energy and power density values up to ∼20 W h kg-1 and 524 W kg-1 respectively. Moreover, the system showed a good long-term electrochemical performance over 20,000 cycles.

  10. Hybrid Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube TiO2 Electrode Material for Next Generation Energy Storage Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Marler, Sydney

    2016-01-01

    Current supercapacitors present several distinct limitations that severely inhibit the efficiency, power, and electrical capacitance of energy storage devices. Supercapacitors present an exciting prospect that has countless applications in renewable energy storage and modern day electronic devices. In recent years the exciting development of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has presented an advantage in electrode development. CNTs, however beneficial for their increased electrode surface area, have severe limitations regarding conductivity and electrode density. Creating a nanocomposite hybrid out of a transition metal-oxide and carbon nanotube array would help the current limitations of the modern supercapacitor. TiO2 was chosen for its common occurrence in everyday materials and promising capacitance levels. A multi-walled carbon nanotube array was grown on a SiO2 precursor via CCVD. The transition metal oxide was then deposited via RF Sputtering methods to a MWCNT array. Recharge tests and characterization were con...

  11. A microfluidic-based hybrid SPR/molecular imaging biosensor for the multiplexed detection of foodborne pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zordan, Michael D.; Grafton, Meggie M. G.; Acharya, Ghanashyam; Reece, Lisa M.; Aronson, Arthur I.; Park, Kinam; Leary, James F.

    2009-02-01

    It is important to screen our food supply for pathogen contaminations. Current methods to screen for bacterial contamination involve using costly reagents such as antibodies or PCR reagents or time-costly growth in cultures. There is need for portable, real-time, multiplex pathogen detection technology that can predict the safety of food where it is produced or distributed. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging is a sensitive, label-free method that can detect the binding of an analyte to a surface due to changes in refractive index that occur upon binding. It can be used for label-free detection of the presence of potential pathogens. Simultaneous fluorescence molecular imaging on the other side of the biochip can be used to ascertain pathogen status or functional state which may affect its potential danger to humans or animals. We are designing and testing hybrid microfluidic biochips to detect multiple pathogens using a combination of SPRI and fluorescence imaging. The device consists of an array of gold spots, each functionalized with a peptide targeting a specific pathogen. This peptide biosensor array is enclosed by a PDMS microfluidic flow chamber that delivers a magnetically concentrated sample to be tested. An SPR image is taken from the bottom of the biochip. Image analysis is used to quantify the amount of pathogen (both live and dead) bound to each spot. Since PDMS is very transmissive to visible light, an epi-fluorescence image is taken from the top of the biochip. Fluorescence imaging determines the live:dead ratio of each pathogen using an inexpensive SYTO 9(R)-Propidium Iodide assay. The volume of sample that the biochip can analyze is small, so possible pathogens are pre-concentrated using immunomagnetic separation. Functionalized magnetic particles are bound to pathogens present in the sample, and a magnet is used to separate them from the bulk fluid.

  12. On the accuracy of localization achievable in fiducial-based stereoscopic image registration system using an electronic portal imaging device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ung, N M; Wee, L

    2012-06-01

    Portal imaging using electronic portal imaging device (EPID) is a well-established image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) technique for external beam radiation therapy. The aims of this study are threefold; (i) to assess the accuracy of isocentre localization in the fiducial-based stereoscopic image registration, (ii) to investigate the impact of errors in the beam collimation device on stereoscopic registration, and (iii) to evaluate the intra- and inter-observer variability in stereoscopic registration. Portal images of a ball bearing phantom were acquired and stereoscopic image registrations were performed based on a point centred in the ball bearing as the surrogate for registration. Experiments were replicated by applying intentional offsets in the beam collimation device to simulate collimation errors. The accuracy of fiducial markers localization was performed by repeating the experiment using three spherical lead shots implanted in a pelvic phantom. Portal images of pelvis phantom were given to four expert users to assess the inter-observer variability in performing registration. The isocentre localization accuracy tested using ball bearing phantom was within 0.3 mm. Gravity-induced systematic errors of beam collimation device by 2 mm resulted in positioning offsets of the order of 2 mm opposing the simulated errors. Relatively large inter-portal pair projection errors ranges from 1.3 mm to 1.8 mm were observed with simulated errors in the beam collimation device. The intra-user and inter-user variabilities were observed to be 0.8 and 0.4 mm respectively. Fiducial-based stereoscopic image registration using EPID is robust for IGRT procedure.

  13. Evaluation of usefulness of portal image using Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID) in the patients who received pelvic radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woo Chul; Kim, Heon Jong; Park, Seong Young; Cho, Young Kap; Loh, John J. K. [College of Medicine, Inha Univ., Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Won; Suh, Chang Ok; Kim, Gwi Eon [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of electronic portal imaging device through objective compare of the images acquired using an EPID and a conventional port film. From Apr. to Oct. 1997, a total of 150 sets of images from 20 patients who received radiation therapy in the pelvis area were evaluated in the Inha University Hospital and Severance Hospital. A dual image recording technique was devised to obtain both electronic portal images and port film images simultaneously with one treatment course. We did not perform double exposure. Five to ten images were acquired from each patient. All images were acquired from posteroanterior (PA) view except images from two patients. A dose rate of 100-300 MU/min and a 10-MV X-ray beam were used and 2-10 MUs were required to produce a verification image during treatment. Kodak diagnostic film with metal/film imaging cassette which was located on the top of the EPID detector was used for the port film. The source to detector distance was 140 cm. Eight anatomical landmarks (pelvic brim, sacrum, acetabulum, iliopectineal line, symphysis, ischium, obturator foramen, sacroiliac joint) were assessed. Four radiation oncologist joined to evaluate each image. The individual landmarks in the port film or in the EPID were rated-very clear (1), clear (2), visible (3), notclear (4), not visible (5). Using an video camera based EPID system, there was no difference of image quality between no enhanced EPID images and port film images. However, when we provided some change with window level for the portal image, the visibility of the sacrum and obturator foramen was improved in the portal images than in the port film images. All anatomical landmarks were more visible in the portal images than in the port film when we applied the CLAHE mode enhancement. The images acquired using an matrix ion chamber type EPID were also improved image quality after window level adjustment. The quality of image acquired using an electronic portal imaging device was

  14. Present status of development of NMR imaging devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatta, Junichi; Yazaki, Takehito; Abe, Yuzo; Komoike, Mitsutaka (Sanyo Electric Co. Ltd., Moriguchi, Osaka (Japan))

    1981-12-01

    The NMR spectrum of the protons in a graded magnetic field contains information on the distribution of water within the specimen. A system to process such information was made on trial, and examples of the cross-sections of a champignon, okra, lotus root and green onion are given. These proton density distribution images, i.e., the density distribution images of water have the highest resolution among those obtained to date in Japan. Studies are reported to be underway to improve the precision of this instrument and to enlarge its scale. The technical problems in obtaining an image of the relaxation time distribution, which has been proposed to be helpful in diagnosing cancer, are discussed. The present state of research in this field is reviewed.

  15. Myocardial first-pass perfusion imaging with hybrid-EPI: frequency-offsets and potential artefacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Pedro F

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background First-pass myocardial perfusion is often imaged with a tailored hybrid centric interleaved echo-planar-imaging sequence, providing rapid image acquisition with good contrast enhancement. The centric interleaved phase-encode order minimises the effective time-of-echo but it is sensitive to frequency-offsets. This short article aims to show possible artefacts that might originate with this sequence, in the context of first-pass perfusion imaging, when frequency-offsets are present. Non-uniform magnitude modulation effects were also analysed. Methods Numerical and phantom simulations were used to illustrate the effects of frequency-offsets and non-uniform magnitude modulation with this sequence in a typical perfusion protocol. In vivo data was post-processed to analyse the h-EPI’s sensitivity to the frequency-offsets. Results The centric phase-order was shown to be highly sensitive to frequency-offsets due to its symmetrical phase slope. Resulting artefacts include blurring, and splitting of the image into two identical copies along the phase-encode direction. It was also shown that frequency-offsets can introduce signal loss and ghosting of the right ventricle signal into the myocardium. The in vivo results were confirmed by numerical and phantom simulations. Magnitude modulation effects were found to be small. Conclusions Imaging first-pass myocardial perfusion with an hybrid centric echo-planar-imaging sequence can be corrupted with ghosting and splitting of the image due to frequency-offsets.

  16. Charge-Injection Device (CID) Infrared Staring Imaging Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W. D.; Wilson, S. H.; Missman, R. A.; Nuttall, D. E.; Ting, R. N.

    1981-07-01

    A laboratory version of an infrared staring imaging sensor, based on a 32 x 32 indium antimonide CID detector array, has been developed. That sensor serves both as a test bed for array evaluation and as a tool for investigating concepts such as non-uniformity compensation. The system is microprocessor based to provide for flexible array operation as well as for the collection and logging of array operating conditions and data. Design features of the sensor, including the focal plane and the supporting electronics, are described. Operation of the sensor is discussed and some of the imaging data collected with this system is presented.

  17. Hybrid magnet devices for molecule manipulation and small scale high gradient-field applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, David E.; Hong, Seok-Cheol; Cozzarelli, legal representative, Linda A.; Pollard, Martin J.; Cozzarelli, Nicholas R.

    2009-01-06

    The present disclosure provides a high performance hybrid magnetic structure made from a combination of permanent magnets and ferromagnetic pole materials which are assembled in a predetermined array. The hybrid magnetic structure provides means for separation and other biotechnology applications involving holding, manipulation, or separation of magnetizable molecular structures and targets. Also disclosed are hybrid magnetic tweezers able to exert approximately 1 nN of force to 4.5 .mu.m magnetic bead. The maximum force was experimentally measured to be .about.900 pN which is in good agreement with theoretical estimations and other measurements. In addition, a new analysis scheme that permits fast real-time position measurement in typical geometry of magnetic tweezers has been developed and described in detail.

  18. Targeted lipid-polyaniline hybrid nanoparticles for photoacoustic imaging guided photothermal therapy of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinping; Yan, Ran; Guo, Fang; Yu, Meng; Tan, Fengping; Li, Nan

    2016-07-01

    Designing a targeted and versatile photothermal agent for the integration of precise diagnosis and effective photothermal treatment of tumors is desirable but remains a great challenge. In this study, folic acid ligand conjugated lipid-coated polyaniline hybrid nanoparticles (FA-Lipid-PANI NPs) were successfully fabricated by a distinctive technology. The obtained hybrid FA-Lipid-PANI NPs with small size exhibited not only significant photoacoustic (PA) imaging signals, but also a remarkable photothermal effect for tumor treatment. With PA imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT), the tumor could be accurately positioned and thoroughly eradicated in vivo after intravenous injection of FA-Lipid-PANI NPs. These multifunctional nanoparticles could play an important role in simultaneously facilitating imaging and PTT to achieve better therapeutic efficacy.

  19. Hybrid multispectral optoacoustic and ultrasound tomography for morphological and physiological brain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olefir, Ivan; Merčep, Elena; Burton, Neal C.; Ovsepian, Saak V.; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2016-08-01

    Expanding usage of small animal models in biomedical research necessitates development of technologies for structural, functional, or molecular imaging that can be readily integrated in the biological laboratory. Herein, we consider dual multispectral optoacoustic (OA) and ultrasound tomography based on curved ultrasound detector arrays and describe the performance achieved for hybrid morphological and physiological brain imaging of mice in vivo. We showcase coregistered hemodynamic parameters resolved by OA tomography under baseline conditions and during alterations of blood oxygen saturation. As an internal reference, we provide imaging of abdominal organs. We illustrate the performance advantages of hybrid curved detector ultrasound and OA tomography and discuss immediate and long-term implications of our findings in the context of animal and human studies.

  20. Hybrid discrete cosine transform-discrete wavelet transform for progressive image compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukaache, Abdennour; Doghmane, Noureddine

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an image compression algorithm that uses a hybrid transform and an improved modified set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) coding algorithm. The proposed transform uses the subband discrete cosine transform to decompose the image into multiresolution subbands where the discrete wavelet transform is then used to code the low frequencies. Then, we use the SPIHT coding method to code the transformed coefficients. For the SPIHT algorithm, we have proposed a method to reduce the distortion introduced by the SPIHT technique between the original and reconstructed images. The obtained results show the efficiency of the proposed hybrid method in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio and visual quality.

  1. Development of gamma-photon/Cerenkov-light hybrid system for simultaneous imaging of I-131 radionuclide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Suzuki, Mayumi; Kato, Katsuhiko [Radiological and Medical Laboratory Sciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Watabe, Tadashi; Ikeda, Hayato; Kanai, Yasukazu [Department of Molecular Imaging in Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Ogata, Yoshimune [Radiological and Medical Laboratory Sciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Hatazawa, Jun [Department of Molecular Imaging in Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan)

    2016-09-11

    Although iodine 131 (I-131) is used for radionuclide therapy, high resolution images are difficult to obtain with conventional gamma cameras because of the high energy of I-131 gamma photons (364 keV). Cerenkov-light imaging is a possible method for beta emitting radionuclides, and I-131 (606 MeV maximum beta energy) is a candidate to obtain high resolution images. We developed a high energy gamma camera system for I-131 radionuclide and combined it with a Cerenkov-light imaging system to form a gamma-photon/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system to compare the simultaneously measured images of these two modalities. The high energy gamma imaging detector used 0.85-mm×0.85-mm×10-mm thick GAGG scintillator pixels arranged in a 44×44 matrix with a 0.1-mm thick reflector and optical coupled to a Hamamatsu 2 in. square position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT: H12700 MOD). The gamma imaging detector was encased in a 2 cm thick tungsten shield, and a pinhole collimator was mounted on its top to form a gamma camera system. The Cerenkov-light imaging system was made of a high sensitivity cooled CCD camera. The Cerenkov-light imaging system was combined with the gamma camera using optical mirrors to image the same area of the subject. With this configuration, we simultaneously imaged the gamma photons and the Cerenkov-light from I-131 in the subjects. The spatial resolution and sensitivity of the gamma camera system for I-131 were respectively ~3 mm FWHM and ~10 cps/MBq for the high sensitivity collimator at 10 cm from the collimator surface. The spatial resolution of the Cerenkov-light imaging system was 0.64 mm FWHM at 10 cm from the system surface. Thyroid phantom and rat images were successfully obtained with the developed gamma-photon/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system, allowing direct comparison of these two modalities. Our developed gamma-photon/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system will be useful to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of these two

  2. Development of gamma-photon/Cerenkov-light hybrid system for simultaneous imaging of I-131 radionuclide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Suzuki, Mayumi; Kato, Katsuhiko; Watabe, Tadashi; Ikeda, Hayato; Kanai, Yasukazu; Ogata, Yoshimune; Hatazawa, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Although iodine 131 (I-131) is used for radionuclide therapy, high resolution images are difficult to obtain with conventional gamma cameras because of the high energy of I-131 gamma photons (364 keV). Cerenkov-light imaging is a possible method for beta emitting radionuclides, and I-131 (606 MeV maximum beta energy) is a candidate to obtain high resolution images. We developed a high energy gamma camera system for I-131 radionuclide and combined it with a Cerenkov-light imaging system to form a gamma-photon/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system to compare the simultaneously measured images of these two modalities. The high energy gamma imaging detector used 0.85-mm×0.85-mm×10-mm thick GAGG scintillator pixels arranged in a 44×44 matrix with a 0.1-mm thick reflector and optical coupled to a Hamamatsu 2 in. square position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT: H12700 MOD). The gamma imaging detector was encased in a 2 cm thick tungsten shield, and a pinhole collimator was mounted on its top to form a gamma camera system. The Cerenkov-light imaging system was made of a high sensitivity cooled CCD camera. The Cerenkov-light imaging system was combined with the gamma camera using optical mirrors to image the same area of the subject. With this configuration, we simultaneously imaged the gamma photons and the Cerenkov-light from I-131 in the subjects. The spatial resolution and sensitivity of the gamma camera system for I-131 were respectively ~3 mm FWHM and ~10 cps/MBq for the high sensitivity collimator at 10 cm from the collimator surface. The spatial resolution of the Cerenkov-light imaging system was 0.64 mm FWHM at 10 cm from the system surface. Thyroid phantom and rat images were successfully obtained with the developed gamma-photon/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system, allowing direct comparison of these two modalities. Our developed gamma-photon/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system will be useful to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of these two

  3. Metaphase FISH on a Chip: Miniaturized Microfluidic Device for Fluorescence in situ Hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Shah, Pranjul Jaykumar; Dimaki, Maria;

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) is a major cytogenetic technique for clinical genetic diagnosis of both inherited and acquired chromosomal abnormalities. Although FISH techniques have evolved and are often used together with other cytogenetic methods like CGH, PRINS and PNA-FISH, the pr......Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) is a major cytogenetic technique for clinical genetic diagnosis of both inherited and acquired chromosomal abnormalities. Although FISH techniques have evolved and are often used together with other cytogenetic methods like CGH, PRINS and PNA...

  4. A hybrid ECT image reconstruction based on Tikhonov regularization theory and SIRT algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Wang; Xiaotong, Du; Xiaoyin, Shao

    2007-07-01

    Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT) image reconstruction is a key problem that is not well solved due to the influence of soft-field in the ECT system. In this paper, a new hybrid ECT image reconstruction algorithm is proposed by combining Tikhonov regularization theory and Simultaneous Reconstruction Technique (SIRT) algorithm. Tikhonov regularization theory is used to solve ill-posed image reconstruction problem to obtain a stable original reconstructed image in the region of the optimized solution aggregate. Then, SIRT algorithm is used to improve the quality of the final reconstructed image. In order to satisfy the industrial requirement of real-time computation, the proposed algorithm is further been modified to improve the calculation speed. Test results show that the quality of reconstructed image is better than that of the well-known Filter Linear Back Projection (FLBP) algorithm and the time consumption of the new algorithm is less than 0.1 second that satisfies the online requirements.

  5. A hybrid ECT image reconstruction based on Tikhonov regularization theory and SIRT algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Lei [School of Control Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 250061, Jinan (China); Du Xiaotong [School of Control Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 250061, Jinan (China); Shao Xiaoyin [Department of Manufacture Engineering and Engineering Management, City University of Hong Kong (China)

    2007-07-15

    Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT) image reconstruction is a key problem that is not well solved due to the influence of soft-field in the ECT system. In this paper, a new hybrid ECT image reconstruction algorithm is proposed by combining Tikhonov regularization theory and Simultaneous Reconstruction Technique (SIRT) algorithm. Tikhonov regularization theory is used to solve ill-posed image reconstruction problem to obtain a stable original reconstructed image in the region of the optimized solution aggregate. Then, SIRT algorithm is used to improve the quality of the final reconstructed image. In order to satisfy the industrial requirement of real-time computation, the proposed algorithm is further been modified to improve the calculation speed. Test results show that the quality of reconstructed image is better than that of the well-known Filter Linear Back Projection (FLBP) algorithm and the time consumption of the new algorithm is less than 0.1 second that satisfies the online requirements.

  6. Hybrid wide-field and scanning microscopy for high-speed 3D imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yubo; Chen, Nanguang

    2015-11-15

    Wide-field optical microscopy is efficient and robust in biological imaging, but it lacks depth sectioning. In contrast, scanning microscopic techniques, such as confocal microscopy and multiphoton microscopy, have been successfully used for three-dimensional (3D) imaging with optical sectioning capability. However, these microscopic techniques are not very suitable for dynamic real-time imaging because they usually take a long time for temporal and spatial scanning. Here, a hybrid imaging technique combining wide-field microscopy and scanning microscopy is proposed to accelerate the image acquisition process while maintaining the 3D optical sectioning capability. The performance was demonstrated by proof-of-concept imaging experiments with fluorescent beads and zebrafish liver.

  7. Charge-Transfer CMOS Image Sensors: Device and Radiation Aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramachandra Rao, P.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was twofold: investigating the effect of ionizing radiation on 4-T CMOS image sensors and the possibility of realizing a CCD like sensor in standard 0.18-μm CMOS technology (for medical applications). Both the aims are complementary; borrowing and lending many aspects of radia

  8. Raspberry Pi: a 35-dollar device for viewing DICOM images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Omir Antunes; Moreira, Renata de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Raspberry Pi is a low-cost computer created with educational purposes. It uses Linux and, most of times, freeware applications, particularly a software for viewing DICOM images. With an external monitor, the supported resolution (1920 × 1200 pixels) allows for the set up of simple viewing workstations at a reduced cost.

  9. Raspberry Pi: a 35-dollar device for viewing DICOM images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omir Antunes Paiva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Raspberry Pi is a low-cost computer created with educational purposes. It uses Linux and, most of times, freeware applications, particularly a software for viewing DICOM images. With an external monitor, the supported resolution (1920 × 1200 pixels allows for the set up of simple viewing workstations at a reduced cost.

  10. ClearPEM: prototype PET device dedicated to breast imaging

    CERN Multimedia

    Joao Varela

    2009-01-01

    Clinical trials have begun in Portugal on a new breast imaging system (ClearPEM) using positron emission tomography (PET). The system, developed by a Portuguese consortium in collaboration with CERN and laboratories participating in the Crystal Clear collaboration, will detect even the smallest tumours and thus help avoid unnecessary biopsies.

  11. A HYBRID METHOD FOR AUTOMATIC COUNTING OF MICROORGANISMS IN MICROSCOPIC IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Kalavathi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Microscopic image analysis is an essential process to enable the automatic enumeration and quantitative analysis of microbial images. There are several system are available for numerating microbial growth. Some of the existing method may be inefficient to accurately count the overlapped microorganisms. Therefore, in this paper we proposed an efficient method for automatic segmentation and counting of microorganisms in microscopic images. This method uses a hybrid approach based on morphological operation, active contour model and counting by region labelling process. The colony count value obtained by this proposed method is compared with the manual count and the count value obtained from the existing method

  12. Design and fabrication of Si-HDPE hybrid Fresnel lenses for infrared imaging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaf, Ahmad Rosli Abdul; Sugiyama, Tsunetoshi; Yan, Jiwang

    2017-01-23

    In this work, novel hybrid Fresnel lenses for infrared (IR) optical applications were designed and fabricated. The Fresnel structures were replicated from an ultraprecision diamond-turned aluminum mold to an extremely thin layer (tens of microns) of high-density polyethylene polymer, which was directly bonded onto a flat single-crystal silicon wafer by press molding without using adhesives. Night mode imaging results showed that the fabricated lenses were able to visualize objects in dark fields with acceptable image quality. The capability of the lenses for thermography imaging was also demonstrated. This research provides a cost-effective method for fabricating ultrathin IR optical components.

  13. The Verification of Hybrid Image Deformation algorithm for PIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novotný Jan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to test a newly designed algorithm for more accurate calculation of the image displacement of seeding particles when taking measurement using the Particle Image Velocimetry method. The proposed algorithm is based on modification of a classical iterative approach using a three-point subpixel interpolation and method using relative deformation of individual areas for accurate detection of signal peak position. The first part briefly describes the tested algorithm together with the results of the performed synthetic tests. The other part describes the measurement setup and the overall layout of the experiment. Subsequently, a comparison of results of the classical iterative scheme and our designed algorithm is carried out. The conclusion discusses the benefits of the tested algorithm, its advantages and disadvantages.

  14. Hybrid bright-field and hologram imaging of cell dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Hyeokjun; Lee, Jaehyun; Doh, Junsang; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-09-01

    Volumetric observation is essential for understanding the details of complex biological phenomena. In this study, a bright-field microscope, which provides information on a specific 2D plane, and a holographic microscope, which provides information spread over 3D volumes, are integrated to acquire two complementary images simultaneously. The developed system was successfully applied to capture distinct T-cell adhesion dynamics on inflamed endothelial layers, including capture, rolling, crawling, transendothelial migration, and subendothelial migration.

  15. Hybrid coding for split gray values in radiological image compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shih-Chung B.; Krasner, Brian; Mun, Seong K.; Horii, Steven C.

    1992-05-01

    Digital techniques are used more often than ever in a variety of fields. Medical information management is one of the largest digital technology applications. It is desirable to have both a large data storage resource and extremely fast data transmission channels for communication. On the other hand, it is also essential to compress these data into an efficient form for storage and transmission. A variety of data compression techniques have been developed to tackle a diversity of situations. A digital value decomposition method using a splitting and remapping method has recently been proposed for image data compression. This method attempts to employ an error-free compression for one part of the digital value containing highly significant value and uses another method for the second part of the digital value. We have reported that the effect of this method is substantial for the vector quantization and other spatial encoding techniques. In conjunction with DCT type coding, however, the splitting method only showed a limited improvement when compared to the nonsplitting method. With the latter approach, we used a nonoptimized method for the images possessing only the top three-most-significant- bit value (3MSBV) and produced a compression ratio of approximately 10:1. Since the 3MSB images are highly correlated and the same values tend to aggregate together, the use of area or contour coding was investigated. In our experiment, we obtained an average error-free compression ratio of 30:1 and 12:1 for 3MSB and 4MSB images, respectively, with the alternate value contour coding. With this technique, we clearly verified that the splitting method is superior to the nonsplitting method for finely digitized radiographs.

  16. Fusion of PET and MRI for Hybrid Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Zang-Hee; Son, Young-Don; Kim, Young-Bo; Yoo, Seung-Schik

    Recently, the development of the fusion PET-MRI system has been actively studied to meet the increasing demand for integrated molecular and anatomical imaging. MRI can provide detailed anatomical information on the brain, such as the locations of gray and white matter, blood vessels, axonal tracts with high resolution, while PET can measure molecular and genetic information, such as glucose metabolism, neurotransmitter-neuroreceptor binding and affinity, protein-protein interactions, and gene trafficking among biological tissues. State-of-the-art MRI systems, such as the 7.0 T whole-body MRI, now can visualize super-fine structures including neuronal bundles in the pons, fine blood vessels (such as lenticulostriate arteries) without invasive contrast agents, in vivo hippocampal substructures, and substantia nigra with excellent image contrast. High-resolution PET, known as High-Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT), is a brain-dedicated system capable of imaging minute changes of chemicals, such as neurotransmitters and -receptors, with high spatial resolution and sensitivity. The synergistic power of the two, i.e., ultra high-resolution anatomical information offered by a 7.0 T MRI system combined with the high-sensitivity molecular information offered by HRRT-PET, will significantly elevate the level of our current understanding of the human brain, one of the most delicate, complex, and mysterious biological organs. This chapter introduces MRI, PET, and PET-MRI fusion system, and its algorithms are discussed in detail.

  17. A new transcutaneous energy transmission system with hybrid energy coils for driving an implantable biventricular assist device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Eiji; Yamamoto, Yoshiro; Akasaka, Yuhta; Motomura, Tadashi; Mitamura, Yoshinori; Nosé, Yukihiko

    2009-08-01

    We have developed a new transcutaneous energy transmission (TET) system for a totally implantable biventricular assist device (BVAD) system in the New Energy and Industrial Development Organization (NEDO) artificial heart project. The TET system mainly consists of an energy transmitter, a hybrid energy coil unit, an energy receiver, an internal battery system, and an optical telemetry system. The hybrid energy coil unit consists of an air-core energy transmission coil and an energy-receiving coil having a ferrite core. Internal units of the TET system are encapsulated in a titanium alloy casing, which has a size of 111 mm in width, 73 mm in length, and 25 mm in height. In in vitro experiments, the TET system can transmit a maximum electric energy of 60 Watts, and it has a maximum transmission efficiency of 87.3%. A maximum surface temperature of 46.1 degrees C was measured at the ferrite core of the energy-receiving coil during an energy transmission of 20 Watts in air. The long-term performance test shows that the TET system has been able to operate stably for over 4 years with a decrease of energy-transmission efficiency from 85% to 80%. In conclusion, the TET system with the hybrid energy coil can overcome the drawback of previously reported TET systems, and it promises to be the highest performance TET system in the world.

  18. Flexible hybrid circuit fully inkjet-printed: Surface mount devices assembled by silver nanoparticles-based inkjet ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrese, J.; Vescio, G.; Xuriguera, E.; Medina-Rodriguez, B.; Cornet, A.; Cirera, A.

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays, inkjet-printed devices such as transistors are still unstable in air and have poor performances. Moreover, the present electronics applications require a high degree of reliability and quality of their properties. In order to accomplish these application requirements, hybrid electronics is fulfilled by combining the advantages of the printing technologies with the surface-mount technology. In this work, silver nanoparticle-based inkjet ink (AgNP ink) is used as a novel approach to connect surface-mount devices (SMDs) onto inkjet-printed pads, conducted by inkjet printing technology. Excellent quality AgNP ink-junctions are ensured with high resolution picoliter drop jetting at low temperature (˜150 °C). Electrical, mechanical, and morphological characterizations are carried out to assess the performance of the AgNP ink junction. Moreover, AgNP ink is compared with common benchmark materials (i.e., silver epoxy and solder). Electrical contact resistance characterization shows a similar performance between the AgNP ink and the usual ones. Mechanical characterization shows comparable shear strength for AgNP ink and silver epoxy, and both present higher adhesion than solder. Morphological inspections by field-emission scanning electron microscopy confirm a high quality interface of the silver nanoparticle interconnection. Finally, a flexible hybrid circuit on paper controlled by an Arduino board is manufactured, demonstrating the viability and scalability of the AgNP ink assembling technique.

  19. Parity independence of the zero-bias conductance peak in a nanowire based topological superconductor-quantum dot hybrid device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, M. T.; Yu, C. L.; Huang, G. Y.; Larsson, M.; Caroff, P.; Xu, H. Q.

    2014-01-01

    We explore the signatures of Majorana fermions in a nanowire based topological superconductor-quantum dot-topological superconductor hybrid device by charge transport measurements. At zero magnetic field, well-defined Coulomb diamonds and the Kondo effect are observed. Under the application of a finite, sufficiently strong magnetic field, a zero-bias conductance peak structure is observed. It is found that the zero-bias conductance peak is present in many consecutive Coulomb diamonds, irrespective of the even-odd parity of the quasi-particle occupation number in the quantum dot. In addition, we find that the zero-bias conductance peak is in most cases accompanied by two differential conductance peaks, forming a triple-peak structure, and the separation between the two side peaks in bias voltage shows oscillations closely correlated to the background Coulomb conductance oscillations of the device. The observed zero-bias conductance peak and the associated triple-peak structure are in line with Majorana fermion physics in such a hybrid topological system. PMID:25434375

  20. Parity independence of the zero-bias conductance peak in a nanowire based topological superconductor-quantum dot hybrid device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, M T; Yu, C L; Huang, G Y; Larsson, M; Caroff, P; Xu, H Q

    2014-01-01

    We explore the signatures of Majorana fermions in a nanowire based topological superconductor-quantum dot-topological superconductor hybrid device by charge transport measurements. At zero magnetic field, well-defined Coulomb diamonds and the Kondo effect are observed. Under the application of a finite, sufficiently strong magnetic field, a zero-bias conductance peak structure is observed. It is found that the zero-bias conductance peak is present in many consecutive Coulomb diamonds, irrespective of the even-odd parity of the quasi-particle occupation number in the quantum dot. In addition, we find that the zero-bias conductance peak is in most cases accompanied by two differential conductance peaks, forming a triple-peak structure, and the separation between the two side peaks in bias voltage shows oscillations closely correlated to the background Coulomb conductance oscillations of the device. The observed zero-bias conductance peak and the associated triple-peak structure are in line with Majorana fermion physics in such a hybrid topological system.

  1. 77 FR 21994 - Certain Digital Photo Frames and Image Display Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... COMMISSION Certain Digital Photo Frames and Image Display Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of Request... importation of certain digital photo frames and image display devices and components thereof by reason of... of Certain Devices for Connecting Computers via Telephone Lines, Inv. No. 337-TA-360, USITC Pub. No...

  2. A new real-time non-coherent to coherent light image converter - The hybrid field effect liquid crystal light valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinberg, J.; Jacobson, A.; Bleha, W.; Miller, L.; Fraas, L.; Boswell, D.; Myer, G.

    1975-01-01

    A new, high-performance device has been developed for application to real-time coherent optical data processing. The new device embodies a CdS photoconductor, a CdTe light-absorbing layer, a dielectric mirror, and a liquid crystal layer sandwiched between indium-tin-oxide transparent electrodes deposited on optical quality glass flats. The noncoherent image is directed onto the photoconductor; this reduces the impedance of the photoconductor, thereby switching the ac voltage that is impressed across the electrodes onto the liquid crystal to activate the device. The liquid crystal is operated in a hybrid field effect mode. It utilizes the twisted nematic effect to create a dark off-state and the optical birefringence effect to create the bright on-state. The liquid crystal modulates the polarization of the coherent read-out light so an analyzer must be used to create an intensity modulated output beam.

  3. A new real-time non-coherent to coherent light image converter - The hybrid field effect liquid crystal light valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinberg, J.; Jacobson, A.; Bleha, W.; Miller, L.; Fraas, L.; Boswell, D.; Myer, G.

    1975-01-01

    A new, high-performance device has been developed for application to real-time coherent optical data processing. The new device embodies a CdS photoconductor, a CdTe light-absorbing layer, a dielectric mirror, and a liquid crystal layer sandwiched between indium-tin-oxide transparent electrodes deposited on optical quality glass flats. The noncoherent image is directed onto the photoconductor; this reduces the impedance of the photoconductor, thereby switching the ac voltage that is impressed across the electrodes onto the liquid crystal to activate the device. The liquid crystal is operated in a hybrid field effect mode. It utilizes the twisted nematic effect to create a dark off-state and the optical birefringence effect to create the bright on-state. The liquid crystal modulates the polarization of the coherent read-out light so an analyzer must be used to create an intensity modulated output beam.

  4. THz waveguides, devices and hybrid polymer-chalcogenide photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bao, Hualong; Markos, Christos; Nielsen, Kristian;

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution, we review our recent activities in the design, fabrication and characterization of polymer THz waveguides. Besides the THz waveguides, we finally will also briefly show some of our initial results on a novel hybrid polymer photonic crystal fiber with integrated chalcogenide...

  5. VALVE TURBO-ALTERNATOR AS ADDITIONAL HYBRID CAR DEVICE FOR THE HIGH-VOLTAGE BATTERY CHARGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kolesnikov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The description of the hybrid car, its drive components and method of the solution of the problem with moving period of the car on electric pulling by means of valve turbo-alternator is given in this article.

  6. Energy and Propulsion Optimization of Solid-Propellant Grain of a Hybrid Power Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarchuk Sergey S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of distribution of an additional solid-phase component (oxidizer providing uniformity of grain burning for the purpose of evaluation and optimization of energy and propulsion parameters of hybrid solid-propellant motor is proposed in the paper.

  7. OPTIMIZATION BALANCING DEVICES LI-ION BATTERIES FOR HYBRID AND ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Sharkovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses and proves the feasibility of using the proposed system balancing Li-ion battery consisting of a plurality of series-connected cells, applied to hybrid and electric transportation. The main objective of the system is to increase the performance and operating time of Li-ion batteries.

  8. Ensemble classification of colon biopsy images based on information rich hybrid features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Saima; Hussain, Mutawarra; Aksam Iftikhar, Muhammad; Jalil, Abdul

    2014-04-01

    In recent years, classification of colon biopsy images has become an active research area. Traditionally, colon cancer is diagnosed using microscopic analysis. However, the process is subjective and leads to considerable inter/intra observer variation. Therefore, reliable computer-aided colon cancer detection techniques are in high demand. In this paper, we propose a colon biopsy image classification system, called CBIC, which benefits from discriminatory capabilities of information rich hybrid feature spaces, and performance enhancement based on ensemble classification methodology. Normal and malignant colon biopsy images differ with each other in terms of the color distribution of different biological constituents. The colors of different constituents are sharp in normal images, whereas the colors diffuse with each other in malignant images. In order to exploit this variation, two feature types, namely color components based statistical moments (CCSM) and Haralick features have been proposed, which are color components based variants of their traditional counterparts. Moreover, in normal colon biopsy images, epithelial cells possess sharp and well-defined edges. Histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) based features have been employed to exploit this information. Different combinations of hybrid features have been constructed from HOG, CCSM, and Haralick features. The minimum Redundancy Maximum Relevance (mRMR) feature selection method has been employed to select meaningful features from individual and hybrid feature sets. Finally, an ensemble classifier based on majority voting has been proposed, which classifies colon biopsy images using the selected features. Linear, RBF, and sigmoid SVM have been employed as base classifiers. The proposed system has been tested on 174 colon biopsy images, and improved performance (=98.85%) has been observed compared to previously reported studies. Additionally, the use of mRMR method has been justified by comparing the

  9. Validation of a new imaging device for telemedical ulcer monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Benjamin Schnack; Frøkjær, Johnny; Bisgaard Jørgensen, Line;

    2015-01-01

    between the new portable camera and the iPhone images vs. clinical assessment as the 'gold standard'. The study included 36 foot ulcers. Four specialists rated the ulcers and filled out a questionnaire, which formed the basis of the evaluation. RESULTS: We found fair to very good intra-rater agreement...... for the new PID and iPhone, respectively. The gold standard was evaluated by assessing the ulcer twice by two different specialists. Kappa values were moderate to very good with respect to inter-rater agreement except for two variables. The agreement between standard and new equipment compared to the gold...... standard showed highest agreement with the new PID. CONCLUSION: The new PID is more in accordance with the clinical assessment compared to standard images. It opens for the possibility of using more advanced techniques in a telemedical approach to ulcer treatment and care, including volume measurements....

  10. Lessons learned: from dye-sensitized solar cells to all-solid-state hybrid devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docampo, Pablo; Guldin, Stefan; Leijtens, Tomas; Noel, Nakita K; Steiner, Ullrich; Snaith, Henry J

    2014-06-25

    The field of solution-processed photovoltaic cells is currently in its second spring. The dye-sensitized solar cell is a widely studied and longstanding candidate for future energy generation. Recently, inorganic absorber-based devices have reached new record efficiencies, with the benefits of all-solid-state devices. In this rapidly changing environment, this review sheds light on recent developments in all-solid-state solar cells in terms of electrode architecture, alternative sensitizers, and hole-transporting materials. These concepts are of general applicability to many next-generation device platforms.

  11. Motion reference image JPEG 2000: road surveillance application with wireless device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totozafiny, Théodore; Patrouix, Olivier; Luthon, Franck; Coutellier, Jean-Marc

    2005-07-01

    This paper deals with a new codec based on the JPEG 2000 standard that will use a maket hardware codec in order to build a road surveillance device. The developed codr consists in 4 processing steps, namely construction of a reference image, foreground extraction (ROI mask), encoding with JPEG 2000 and transmission through a wireless device. A first order recursive filter is used to build a reference image that corresponds to the background image and the updated reference image is computed according to a mixture of Gaussians model. The system builds a reference images and transmits it towards a decoder through the GSM network. After the initialization phase, the reference image is updated automatically according to a Gaussian mixture model, and when the ROI can be considered as null, a piece of the updated background image is sent. We perform motion detection in order to extract a binary mask. The motion mask gives the region of interest for the system. The current image and the motion mask are coded using the ROI option of JPEG 2000 codec with a very low bit rate and transmitted towards the decoder. The complete scheme is implemented and it reaches the expecte performances. We also showed how the localbackground image is built and updated at each frame. We presented the strategy in order to update smoothly the remote background image. The implementation runs at 5-8 frames per second on a 1.8 GHz AMD processor for 320x240 color images.

  12. Optofluidic devices and applications in photonics, sensing and imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Lin; Chen, H Matthew; Freeman, Lindsay M; Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    2012-10-07

    Optofluidics integrates the fields of photonics and microfluidics, providing new freedom to both fields and permitting the realization of optical and fluidic property manipulations at the chip scale. Optofluidics was formed only after many breakthroughs in microfluidics, as understanding of fluid behaviour at the micron level enabled researchers to combine the advantages of optics and fluids. This review describes the progress of optofluidics from a photonics perspective, highlighting various optofluidic aspects ranging from the device's property manipulation to an interactive integration between optics and fluids. First, we describe photonic elements based on the functionalities that enable fluid manipulation. We then discuss the applications of optofluidic biodetection with an emphasis on nanosensing. Next, we discuss the progress of optofluidic lenses with an emphasis on its various architectures, and finally we conceptualize on where the field may lead.

  13. Photoelectron imaging of small aluminum clusters: quantifying s-p hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melko, Joshua J; Castleman, A W

    2013-03-07

    Photoelectron imaging experiments and detailed calculations are conducted on Al(n)(-) clusters (n = 3-6) and a calibration method is developed for connecting experimental observations of photoelectron angular distributions to theoretical predictions. It is shown that this method can be used to quantify the degree to which the molecular orbitals are built from s- or p-like atomic orbitals. The highest occupied molecular orbitals of these small aluminum clusters are found to contain varying degrees of s-p mixing, with Al(3)(-) containing the "most hybridized" orbital and Al(4)(-) containing the "least hybridized" orbital. It is shown experimentally that s-p hybridization is already present for the trimer species and, similar to other properties of small metal clusters, oscillates with cluster size.

  14. Combined analysis of cervical smears. Cytopathology, image cytometry and in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multhaupt, H; Bruder, E; Elit, L; Rothblat, I; Warhol, M

    1993-01-01

    This study was an attempt to correlate the Bethesda System of Papanicolaou smear classification with DNA content by image analysis and the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) as determined by in situ hybridization. DNA histograms were classified as normal diploid, diploid proliferative, polyploid and aneuploid. HPV in situ hybridization was performed with a cocktail of probes specific to HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18. There was a good correlation between normal cytology and normal DNA histograms. Cytologically normal smears with bacterial or fungal infections showed a high proliferation index. HPV infection correlated with DNA polyploidy but was seen in 15 of 29 smears classified as cytologically normal. Morphologically abnormal Papanicolaou smears correlated with aneuploid DNA content. Smears classified as intraepithelial neoplasia correlated with aneuploid DNA content in all 12 cases. Four of five cases cytologically suspicious for HPV infection had HPV by in situ hybridization.

  15. Orientation and morphology of self-assembled oligothiophene semiconductors and development of hybrid nanostructures for photovoltaic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevis, Ian David

    This dissertation examines the self-assembly of electronically active small molecules for heterojunction photovoltaic devices and the synthesis of nanoscale hybrid materials with a focus on orientation and morphology. A hairpin-shaped self-assembling molecule featuring two semiconducting sexithiophene arms connected through a diamidocyclohexane linker was found to form p-type semiconducting nanowires through H-aggregation as well as J-aggregated bundles. This molecule was incorporated into heterojunction photovoltaics with phenyl-(C61/C71)-butyric acid methyl ester through spin-coating. The sexithiophene assembled during drying to form a percolating network of nanowires and fullerenes. Thermal annealing enhanced efficiencies by increasing domain sizes and organizing the fullerenes into the groves of the nanofibers to produce 0.48% efficient devices. A p-type quarterthiophene derivative was designed and synthesized to assemble through pi-pi stacking and hydrogen bonding and its assembly was explored. Solutions of the quarterthiophene drop-cast on poly(tetrafluoroethylene) dried quickly to form bundled fibers parallel to the substrate. Slower drying and higher concentrations led to the formation of rhombohedra and randomly oriented hexagonal prisms, respectively. Liquid-liquid interfacial precipitation was used with a porous aluminum oxide membrane between a solution of quarterthiophene and toluene to orient the hexagonal prisms perpendicular to the membrane. Depositing the molecule from solution onto a UV/Ozone treated transparent conducting oxide subtrated affored prisms and sheets with perpendicular pi-pi stacking was anisotropy observed by 2D-GISAXS. This perpendicular pi-pi stacking orientation and sheet formation on a planar electrode shortens charge transport distances and minimizes film defects, which could lead to improved photovoltaic devices. Interpenetrating donor and acceptor hybrid materials with perpendicular orientation for enhanced morphological

  16. A portable image overlay projection device for computer-aided open liver surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavaghan, Kate A; Peterhans, Matthias; Oliveira-Santos, Thiago; Weber, Stefan

    2011-06-01

    Image overlay projection is a form of augmented reality that allows surgeons to view underlying anatomical structures directly on the patient surface. It improves intuitiveness of computer-aided surgery by removing the need for sight diversion between the patient and a display screen and has been reported to assist in 3-D understanding of anatomical structures and the identification of target and critical structures. Challenges in the development of image overlay technologies for surgery remain in the projection setup. Calibration, patient registration, view direction, and projection obstruction remain unsolved limitations to image overlay techniques. In this paper, we propose a novel, portable, and handheld-navigated image overlay device based on miniature laser projection technology that allows images of 3-D patient-specific models to be projected directly onto the organ surface intraoperatively without the need for intrusive hardware around the surgical site. The device can be integrated into a navigation system, thereby exploiting existing patient registration and model generation solutions. The position of the device is tracked by the navigation system's position sensor and used to project geometrically correct images from any position within the workspace of the navigation system. The projector was calibrated using modified camera calibration techniques and images for projection are rendered using a virtual camera defined by the projectors extrinsic parameters. Verification of the device's projection accuracy concluded a mean projection error of 1.3 mm. Visibility testing of the projection performed on pig liver tissue found the device suitable for the display of anatomical structures on the organ surface. The feasibility of use within the surgical workflow was assessed during open liver surgery. We show that the device could be quickly and unobtrusively deployed within the sterile environment.

  17. A low cost X-ray imaging device based on BPW-34 Si-PIN photodiode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emirhan, E.; Bayrak, A.; Yücel, E. Barlas; Yücel, M.; Ozben, C.S., E-mail: ozben@itu.edu.tr

    2016-05-21

    A low cost X-ray imaging device based on BPW-34 silicon PIN photodiode was designed and produced. X-rays were produced from a CEI OX/70-P dental tube using a custom made ±30 kV power supply. A charge sensitive preamplifier and a shaping amplifier were built for the amplification of small signals produced by photons in the depletion layer of Si-PIN photodiode. A two dimensional position control unit was used for moving the detector in small steps to measure the intensity of X-rays absorbed in the object to be imaged. An Aessent AES220B FPGA module was used for transferring the image data to a computer via USB. Images of various samples were obtained with acceptable image quality despite of the low cost of the device.

  18. PECASE: Nanostructure Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Materials for Active Opto-Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    intergration and active device development: (1) the directed structuring of materials at the nanoscale through pattening and material growth methods, (2) the...electroluminescence (EL) that can be of use in fields as diverse as optical communications , spectroscopy, and environmental and industrial sensing. The RC structure...TFEL) devices already occupy a segment of the large-area, high-resolution, flat-panel-display market . The AC-TFEL displays, which consist of a

  19. Characterization of Organic Solar Cell Devices and their Interfaces under Degradation: Imaging, Electrical and Mechanical Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corazza, Michael

    techniques were also employed in order to study the effect of degradation on the device structure and its interfaces. This was done by exploiting different techniques that measured different properties of the device: mechanical, imaging, and electrical. Mechanical characterization of roll-to-roll processed....... Finally, imaging of cross sections of an ITO-free roll-to-roll processed device was performed successfully using transmission electron microscopy. The cross sections were prepared both with focused-ion-beam and ultramicrotomy, which gave the possibility for effectively comparing these two techniques...... energy is one of the answers for renewable energy. In this thesis, the research has been conducted on polymer solar cells. In particular, the thesis deals with the extensive study of device lifetime, characterized with several methods: from bare benchmarking of the lifetimes, to more advanced...

  20. RF Device for Acquiring Images of the Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaier, Todd C.; McGrath, William R.

    2010-01-01

    A safe, non-invasive method for forming images through clothing of large groups of people, in order to search for concealed weapons either made of metal or not, has been developed. A millimeter wavelength scanner designed in a unique, ring-shaped configuration can obtain a full 360 image of the body with a resolution of less than a millimeter in only a few seconds. Millimeter waves readily penetrate normal clothing, but are highly reflected by the human body and concealed objects. Millimeter wave signals are nonionizing and are harmless to human tissues when used at low power levels. The imager (see figure) consists of a thin base that supports a small-diameter vertical post about 7 ft (=2.13 m) tall. Attached to the post is a square-shaped ring 2 in. (=5 cm) wide and 3 ft (=91 cm) on a side. The ring is oriented horizontally, and is supported halfway along one side by a connection to a linear bearing on the vertical post. A planar RF circuit board is mounted to the inside of each side of the ring. Each circuit board contains an array of 30 receivers, one transmitter, and digitization electronics. Each array element has a printed-circuit patch antenna coupled to a pair of mixers by a 90 coupler. The mixers receive a reference local oscillator signal to a subharmonic of the transmitter frequency. A single local oscillator line feeds all 30 receivers on the board. The resulting MHz IF signals are amplified and carried to the edge of the board where they are demodulated and digitized. The transmitted signal is derived from the local oscillator at a frequency offset determined by a crystal oscillator. One antenna centrally located on each side of the square ring provides the source illumination power. The total transmitted power is less than 100 mW, resulting in an exposure level that is completely safe to humans. The output signals from all four circuit boards are fed via serial connection to a data processing computer. The computer processes the approximately 1-MB

  1. Hybrid Imaging Labels: Providing the Link Between Mass Spectrometry-Based Molecular Pathology and Theranostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, Tessa; van der Wal, Steffen; van Malderen, Stijn J.M.; Müller, Larissa; Kuil, Joeri; van Unen, Vincent; Peters, Ruud J.B.; van Bemmel, Margaretha E.M.; McDonnell, Liam A.; Velders, Aldrik H.; Koning, Frits; Vanhaeke, Frank; van Leeuwen, Fijs W. B.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Development of theranostic concepts that include inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) imaging can be hindered by the lack of a direct comparison to more standardly used methods for in vitro and in vivo evaluation; e.g. fluorescence or nuclear medicine. In this study a bimodal (or rather, hybrid) tracer that contains both a fluorescent dye and a chelate was used to evaluate the existence of a direct link between mass spectrometry (MS) and in vitro and in vivo molecular imaging findings using fluorescence and radioisotopes. At the same time, the hybrid label was used to determine whether the use of a single isotope label would allow for MS-based diagnostics. Methods: A hybrid label that contained both a DTPA chelate (that was coordinated with either 165Ho or 111In) and a Cy5 fluorescent dye was coupled to the chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) targeting peptide Ac-TZ14011 (hybrid-Cy5-Ac-TZ4011). This receptor targeting tracer was used to 1) validate the efficacy of (165Ho-based) mass-cytometry in determining the receptor affinity via comparison with fluorescence-based flow cytometry (Cy5), 2) evaluate the microscopic binding pattern of the tracer in tumor cells using both fluorescence confocal imaging (Cy5) and LA-ICP-MS-imaging (165Ho), 3) compare in vivo biodistribution patterns obtained with ICP-MS (165Ho) and radiodetection (111In) after intravenous administration of hybrid-Cy5-Ac-TZ4011 in tumor-bearing mice. Finally, LA-ICP-MS-imaging (165Ho) was linked to fluorescence-based analysis of excised tissue samples (Cy5). Results: Analysis with both mass-cytometry and flow cytometry revealed a similar receptor affinity, respectively 352 ± 141 nM and 245 ± 65 nM (p = 0.08), but with a much lower detection sensitivity for the first modality. In vitro LA-ICP-MS imaging (165Ho) enabled clear discrimination between CXCR4 positive and negative cells, but fluorescence microscopy was required to determine the

  2. Medical imaging education in biomedical engineering curriculum: courseware development and application through a hybrid teaching model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weizhao; Li, Xiping; Chen, Hairong; Manns, Fabrice

    2012-01-01

    Medical Imaging is a key training component in Biomedical Engineering programs. Medical imaging education is interdisciplinary training, involving physics, mathematics, chemistry, electrical engineering, computer engineering, and applications in biology and medicine. Seeking an efficient teaching method for instructors and an effective learning environment for students has long been a goal for medical imaging education. By the support of NSF grants, we developed the medical imaging teaching software (MITS) and associated dynamic assessment tracking system (DATS). The MITS/DATS system has been applied to junior and senior medical imaging classes through a hybrid teaching model. The results show that student's learning gain improved, particularly in concept understanding and simulation project completion. The results also indicate disparities in subjective perception between junior and senior classes. Three institutions are collaborating to expand the courseware system and plan to apply it to different class settings.

  3. The Italian project for a proton imaging device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Candiano, G.; Cuttone, G.; Lo Nigro, S.; Lo Presti, D.; Randazzo, N.; Sipala, V.; Russo, M.; Aiello, S.; Bruzzi, M.; Menichelli, D.; Scaringella, M.; Miglio, S.; Bucciolini, M.; Talamonti, C.; Pallotta, S.

    2007-06-01

    Proton Computed Tomography (or pCT) is a new imaging technique based on the use of high energy proton beams (200-250 MeV) replacing of the commonly adopted X-rays CT. pCT that was firstly proposed in the 1960s but only nowadays, with the continued establishing of new proton therapy centers around the world, the interest in it is growing. The use of protons for tomographic images can represent, in fact, a big enhancement in the quality of a proton therapy treatment either in the patient positioning as well as in the accuracy of the dose calculation for the treatment planning phase. In this paper, after a brief introduction on pCT principles, the main hardware and software characteristics of a first pCT prototype in development by our group (the Italian PRIMA collaboration) will be presented. The role of Monte Carlo simulation in developing will be also emphasized, using the GEANT4 simulation toolkit.

  4. The Italian project for a proton imaging device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirrone, G.A.P. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - National Institute for Nuclear Physics, Catania (Italy)]. E-mail: cirrone@lns.infn.it; Candiano, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - National Institute for Nuclear Physics, Catania (Italy); Cuttone, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - National Institute for Nuclear Physics, Catania (Italy); Lo Nigro, S. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Lo Presti, D. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Randazzo, N. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Sipala, V. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Russo, M. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Aiello, S. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Bruzzi, M. [Energetic Department, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Menichelli, D. [Energetic Department, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Scaringella, M. [Energetic Department, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Miglio, S. [Energetic Department, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Bucciolini, M. [University of Florence and INFN, Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Florence (Italy); Talamonti, C. [University of Florence and INFN, Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Florence (Italy); Pallotta, S. [University of Florence and INFN, Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Florence (Italy)

    2007-06-11

    Proton Computed Tomography (or pCT) is a new imaging technique based on the use of high energy proton beams (200-250 MeV) replacing of the commonly adopted X-rays CT. pCT that was firstly proposed in the 1960s but only nowadays, with the continued establishing of new proton therapy centers around the world, the interest in it is growing. The use of protons for tomographic images can represent, in fact, a big enhancement in the quality of a proton therapy treatment either in the patient positioning as well as in the accuracy of the dose calculation for the treatment planning phase. In this paper, after a brief introduction on pCT principles, the main hardware and software characteristics of a first pCT prototype in development by our group (the Italian PRIMA collaboration) will be presented. The role of Monte Carlo simulation in developing will be also emphasized, using the GEANT4 simulation toolkit.

  5. Detection and analysis system for hybridization images of lab-in-a-tube microarray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Quanjun; ZHOU Qin; BAI Yunfei; GE Qinyu; LU Zuhong

    2005-01-01

    A lab-in-a-tube microarray system is developed for sample inspection and signal detection by fabricating a flat transparent window cap of the Eppendorf tube. The oli- gonucleotide microarray is immobilized on the inner surface of the cap. A small vessel is placed in an Eppendorf tube for storing hybridization solutions. With the microarray system, the full biochemical processes, including gene fragment amplification, fluorescence labeling, hybridization, and fluorescence detection, have been performed in the sealed tube without opening the cap. The images are obtained from a fluorescence microscope and captured by a CCD, and the data are transported to a computer through the universal serial bus (USB). After noise reduction, signal intensity is determined from hybridization image and the presence of gene fragments is identified. The final data output includes sample information, process steps, and hybridization results. A lab-in- a-tube microarray system for detecting ten respiratory viruses at a single detection is designed. High detection throug- hput and accuracy have been demonstrated with the system.

  6. Hybrid resonant organic-inorganic nanostructures for novel light emitting devices and solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agranovich, Vladimir M. [Institute of Spectroscopy, Russian Academy of Science, Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation); Chemistry Department, University of Texas at Dallas, Texas (United States); Rupasov, Valery I. [ANTEOS, Inc., Shrewsbury, Massachusetts 01545 (United States); Silvestri, Leonardo [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    The energy transfer from an inorganic layer to an organic component of resonant hybrid organic/inorganic nanos-tructures can be used for creation of new type of LED. We mentioned the problem of electrical pumping which has to be solved. As was first suggested in 1979 by Dexter the transfer energy in opposite direction from organic part of nanostructure to semiconductor layer can be used for the creation of new type of solar cells. In this note we stress the importance of the idea by Dexter for photovoltaics and solar cells. We argue that the organic part in such hybrid structures can play a role of an effective organic collector of the light energy (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Enhancing the plasma illumination behaviour of microplasma devices using microcrystalline/ultra-nanocrystalline hybrid diamond materials as cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tinghsun; Lou, Shiucheng; Chen, Huangchin; Chen, Chulung; Lee, Chiyoung; Tai, Nyanhwa; Lin, Inan

    2013-08-21

    The properties of capacity-type microplasma devices were significantly enhanced due to the utilisation of hybrid diamond films as cathodes. The performance of the microplasma devices was closely correlated with the electron field emission (EFE) properties of the diamond cathode materials. The nanoemitters, which were prepared by growing duplex-structured diamond films [microcrystalline diamond (MCD)/ultra-nanocrystalline diamond (UNCD)] on Si-pyramid templates via a two-step microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (MPE-CVD) process, exhibited improved EFE properties (E0 = 5.99 V μm(-1), J(e) = 1.10 mA cm(-2) at 8.50 V μm(-1) applied field), resulting in superior microplasma device performance (with a lower threshold field of 200 V mm(-1) and a higher plasma current density of 7.80 mA cm(-2)) in comparison with UNCD film devices prepared using a single-step MPE-CVD process. The superior EFE properties of the duplex-structured MCD-UNCD films relative to those of the UNCD films can be attributed to the unique granular structure of the diamond films. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals that the MCD-UNCD films consisted of abundant graphitic phases located at the periphery of large diamond aggregates and at the boundaries between the ultra-small diamond grains. The presence of the graphite phase is presumed to be the prime factor that renders these films more conductive and causes these films to exhibit higher EFE properties, thus resulting in the improved plasma illumination properties of the microplasma devices.

  8. Nanostructured copper/porous silicon hybrid systems as efficient sound-emitting devices.

    OpenAIRE

    Recio-Sánchez, Gonzalo; Namura, Kyoko; Suzuki, Motofumi; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, the photo-acoustic emission from nanostructured copper/porous silicon hybrid systems was studied. Copper nanoparticles were grown by photo-assisted electroless deposition on crystalline silicon and nanostructured porous silicon (nanoPS). Both the optical and photo-acoustic responses from these systems were determined. The experimental results show a remarkable increase in the photo-acoustic intensity when copper nanoparticles are incorporated to the porous structure. The ...

  9. Image-Directed Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid with Safety-Engineered Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibbitt, Randy R.; Palmer, Dennis J.; Sibbitt, Wilmer L.; Bankhurst, Arthur D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present study was to integrate safety-engineered devices into outpatient fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy of the thyroid in an interventional radiology practice. Materials and Methods The practice center is a tertiary referral center for image directed FNA thyroid biopsies in difficult patients referred by the primary care physician, endocrinologist, or otolaryngologist. As a departmental quality of care and safety improvement program, we instituted integration of safety devices into our thyroid biopsy procedures, and determined the effect on outcome (procedural pain, diagnostic biopsies, inadequate samples, complications, needlesticks to operator, and physician satisfaction) before institution of safety devices (54 patients) and after institution of safety device implementation (56 patients). Safety devices included 1) a patient safety technology - the mechanical aspirating syringe (reciprocating procedure device), and 2) a healthcare worker safety technology (anti-needlestick safety needle). Results FNA of thyroid could be readily performed with the safety devices. Safety-engineered devices resulted in a 49% reduction in procedural pain scores (p<0.0001), a 56% reduction in significant pain (p<0.002), a 21% increase in operator satisfaction (p<0.0001), and a 5% increase in diagnostic specimens (p=0.5). No needlesticks to healthcare workers or patient injuries occurred during the study. Conclusions Safety-engineered devices to improve both patient and healthcare worker safety can be successfully integrated into diagnostic FNA of the thyroid while maintaining outcomes and improving safety. PMID:21057794

  10. A hybrid method for image Denoising based on Wavelet Thresholding and RBF network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Dubey

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital image denoising is crucial part of image pre-processing. The application of denoising process in satellite image data and also in television broadcasting. Image data sets collected by image sensors are generally contaminated by noise. Imperfect instruments, problems with the data acquisition process, and interfering natural phenomena can all degrade the data of interest. Furthermore, noise can be introduced by transmission errors and compression. Thus, denoising is often a necessary and the first step to be taken before the images data is analyzed. In this paper we proposed a novel methodology for image denoising. Image denoising method based on wavelet transform and radial basis neural network and also used concept of soft thresholding. Wavelet transform decomposed image in to different layers, the decomposed layer differentiate by horizontal, vertical and diagonal. For the test of our hybrid method, we used noise image dataset. This data provided by UCI machine learning website. Our proposed method compare with traditional method and our base paper method and getting better comparative result.

  11. Sub-Rayleigh ghost imaging via sparsity constraints based on a digital micro-mirror device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jie; Gong, Wenlin, E-mail: gongwl@siom.ac.cn; Han, Shensheng, E-mail: sshan@mail.shcnc.ac.cn

    2013-10-30

    In a diffraction-limited system, the imaging resolution limit is given by Rayleigh criterion. When both the image's sparsity and the point spread function determined by the optical system's Rayleigh diffraction limit are taken as popular a priori, sub-Rayleigh ghost imaging, which is backed up by numerical simulation and experiments, is achieved by modulating the thermal light with a digital micro-mirror device (DMD). The differences between this approach and former ghost imaging without considering the optical system's point spread function are also discussed.

  12. Imaging Nano- and Micrometer-sized Magnetic Insulator Devices in the Presence of Spin-Torque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Aaron; Jermain, Colin; Nowack, Katja; Kirtley, John; Paik, Hanjong; Aradhya, Sriharsha; Wang, Hailong; Heron, John; Schlom, Darrell; Yang, Fengyuan; Ralph, Dan; Moler, Kathryn

    2015-03-01

    Recent results demonstrate that a giant spin-hall effect in Tantalum can produce large spin torques. We intend to employ this large spin torque to manipulate the magnetic moment in electrically insulating ferrimagnetic Lu3Fe5O12(LuIG)andY3Fe5O12 (YIG) devices. Using a scanning SQUID microscope, we can study the possibility of performing reversible switching between magnetic states of nano- and micrometer-sized iron garnet devices induced by current pulses applied to a Tantalum layer in contact with the devices by directly imaging the magnetic state of the device before and after a current pulse. Successful manipulation of magnetic insulators by electrical pulses can be a platform for magnetic memory devices and spintronics.

  13. Microfluidic Devices for Behavioral Analysis, Microscopy, and Neuronal Imaging in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagoy, Ross C; Albrecht, Dirk R

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidic devices offer several advantages for C. elegans research, particularly for presenting precise physical and chemical environments, immobilizing animals during imaging, quantifying behavior, and automating screens. However, challenges to their widespread adoption in the field include increased complexity over conventional methods, operational problems (such as clogging, leaks, and bubbles), difficulty in obtaining or fabricating devices, and the need to characterize biological results obtained from new assay formats. Here we describe the preparation and operation of simple, reusable microfluidic devices for quantifying behavioral responses to chemical patterns, and single-use devices to arrange animals for time-lapse microscopy and to measure neuronal activity. We focus on details that eliminate or reduce the frustrations commonly experienced by new users of microfluidic devices.

  14. Development and clinical translation of OTIS: a wide-field OCT imaging device for ex-vivo tissue characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Elizabeth A.; Rempel, David; Danner, Christine; Atchia, Yaaseen; Valic, Michael S.; Berkeley, Andrew; Davoudi, Bahar; Magnin, Paul A.; Akens, Margarete; Done, Susan J.; Kulkarni, Supriya; Leong, Wey-Liang; Wilson, Brian C.

    2016-03-01

    We have developed an automated, wide-field optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based imaging device (OTISTM Perimeter Medical Imaging) for peri-operative, ex-vivo tissue imaging. This device features automated image acquisition, enabling rapid capture of high-resolution (15 μm) OCT images from samples up to 10 cm in diameter. We report on the iterative progression of device development from phantom and pre-clinical (tumor xenograft) models through to initial clinical results. We discuss the challenges associated with proving a novel imaging technology against the clinical "gold standard" of conventional post-operative pathology.

  15. Implementation of synthetic aperture imaging on a hand-held device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Kjeldsen, Thomas; Larsen, Lee;

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents several implementations of Syn- thetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) on commer- cially available hand-held devices. The implementations include real-time wireless reception of ultrasound radio frequency sig- nals and GPU processing for B-mode imaging. The proposed...... implementation demonstrates that SASB can be executed in-time for real-time ultrasound imaging. The wireless communication between probe and processing device satisfies the required bandwidth for real-time data transfer with current 802.11ac technology. The implementation is evaluated using four different hand-held...

  16. Viola-Jones based hybrid framework for real-time object detection in multispectral images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, E.; Shvets, E.; Nikolaev, D.

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes a method for real-time object detection based on a hybrid of a Viola-Jones cascade with a convolutional neural network. This scheme allows flexible trade-offs between detection quality and computational performance. We also propose a generalization of this method to multispectral images that effectively and efficiently utilizes information from each spectral channel. The new scheme is experimentally compared to traditional Viola-Jones, showing improved detection quality with adjustable performance.

  17. Outdoor Stand-Off Interrogation of Fissionable Material with a Hybrid Coded Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    OUTDOOR STAND-OFF INTERROGATION OF FISSIONABLE MATERIAL WITH A HYBRID CODED IMAGING SYSTEM  A.L. Hutcheson  , B.F. Phlips, E.A. Wulf ...of the Hermes-III gamma ray simulator,” in Pulsed Power Conference, 1989. 7 th , 1898, p. 26. [5] E.A. Wulf , A.L. Hutcheson, B.F. Phlips, L.J

  18. Rapid hybrid encoding for high-resolution whole-brain fluid-attenuated imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hoonjae; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Park, Jaeseok

    2013-12-01

    Single-slab three-dimensional (3D) turbo spin-echo (TSE) imaging combined with inversion recovery (IR), which employs short, spatially non-selective refocusing pulses and signal prescription based variable refocusing flip angles (VFA) to increase imaging efficiency, was recently introduced to produce fluid-attenuated brain images for lesion detection. Despite the advantages, the imaging efficiency in this approach still remains limited because a substantially long time of inversion is needed to selectively suppress the signal intensity of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) while fully recovering that of brain tissues. The purpose of this work is to develop a novel, rapid hybrid encoding method for highly efficient whole-brain fluid-attenuated imaging. In each time of repetition, volumetric data are continuously encoded using the hybrid modular acquisition in a sequential fashion even during IR signal transition, wherein reversed fast imaging with steady-state free precession (PSIF) is employed to encode intermediate-to-high spatial frequency signals prior to CSF nulling, while VFA-TSE is used to collect low-to-intermediate spatial frequency signals afterwards. Gradient-induced spin de-phasing between a pair of neighboring radio-frequency (RF) pulses in both PSIF and TSE modules is kept identical to avoid the occurrence of multiple echoes in a single acquisition window. Additionally, a two-step, alternate RF phase-cycling scheme is employed in the low spatial frequency region to eliminate free induction decay induced edge artifacts. Numerical simulations of the Bloch equations were performed to evaluate signal evolution of brain tissues along the echo train while optimizing imaging parameters. In vivo studies demonstrate that the proposed technique produces high-resolution isotropic fluid-attenuated whole-brain images in a clinically acceptable imaging time with substantially high signal-to-noise ratio for white matter while retaining lesion conspicuity.

  19. A hybrid quantum encoding algorithm of vector quantization for image compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pang Chao-Yang; Zhou Zheng-Wei; Guo Guang-Can

    2006-01-01

    Many classical encoding algorithms of vector quantization (VQ) of image compression that can obtain global optimal solution have computational complexity O(N). A pure quantum VQ encoding algorithm with probability of success near 100% has been proposed, that performs operations 45√N times approximately. In this paper, a hybrid quantum VQ encoding algorithm between the classical method and the quantum algorithm is presented. The number of its operations is less than √N for most images, and it is more efficient than the pure quantum algorithm.

  20. A novel chaotic based image encryption using a hybrid model of deoxyribonucleic acid and cellular automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enayatifar, Rasul; Sadaei, Hossein Javedani; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Lee, Malrey; Isnin, Ismail Fauzi

    2015-08-01

    Currently, there are many studies have conducted on developing security of the digital image in order to protect such data while they are sending on the internet. This work aims to propose a new approach based on a hybrid model of the Tinkerbell chaotic map, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and cellular automata (CA). DNA rules, DNA sequence XOR operator and CA rules are used simultaneously to encrypt the plain-image pixels. To determine rule number in DNA sequence and also CA, a 2-dimension Tinkerbell chaotic map is employed. Experimental results and computer simulations, both confirm that the proposed scheme not only demonstrates outstanding encryption, but also resists various typical attacks.

  1. Two-band hybrid FIR-IIR filters for image compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jianyu; Smith, Mark J T

    2011-11-01

    Two-band analysis-synthesis filters or wavelet filters are used pervasively for compressing natural images. Both FIR and IIR filters have been studied in this context, the former being the most popular. In this paper, we examine the compression performance of these two-band filters in a dyadic wavelet decomposition and attempt to isolate features that contribute most directly to the performance gain. Then, employing the general exact reconstruction condition, hybrid FIR-IIR analysis-synthesis filters are designed to maximize compression performance for natural images. Experimental results are presented that compare performance with the popular biorthogonal filters in terms of peak SNR, subjective quality, and computational complexity.

  2. Axonal diameter and density estimated with 7-Tesla hybrid diffusion imaging in transgenic Alzheimer rats

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) is a powerful tool to study brain tissue microstructure. DWI is sensitive to subtle changes in the white matter (WM), and can provide insight into abnormal brain changes in diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In this study, we used 7-Tesla hybrid diffusion imaging (HYDI) to scan 3 transgenic rats (line TgF344-AD; that model the full clinico-pathological spectrum of the human disease) ex vivo at 10, 15 and 24 months. We acquired 300 DWI volumes across...

  3. A hybrid system for the semantic annotation of sulco-gyral anatomy in MRI images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechouche, Ammar; Morandi, Xavier; Golbreich, Christine; Gibaud, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an interactive system for the annotation of brain anatomical structures in Magnetic Resonance Images. The system is based on hybrid knowledge and techniques. First, it exploits both numerical knowledge from atlases and symbolic knowledge from a rule-extended ontology represented in OWL, the Web ontology language, and combines them with graphical data about cortical sulci, automatically extracted from the images. Second, the annotations of the parts of gyri and of sulci located in a region of interest are obtained with different reasoning techniques: Constraint Satisfaction Solving and Description Logics techniques. Preliminary experiments have been achieved on normal and also pathological data. The results obtained so far are very promising.

  4. Method for Ultrasonic Imaging and Device for Performing the Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madaras, Eric I. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A method for ultrasonic imaging of interior structures and flaws in a test specimen with a smooth or irregular contact surfaces, in which an ultrasonic transducer is coupled acoustically to the contact surface via a plurality of ultrasonic wave guides with equal delay times. The wave guides are thin and bendable, so they adapt to variations in the distance between the transducer and different parts of the contact surface by bending more or less. All parts of the irregular contact surface accordingly receive sound waves that are in phase, even when the contact surface is irregular, so a coherent sound wave is infused in the test specimen. The wave guides can be arranged in the form of an ultrasonic brush, with a flat head for coupling to a flat transducer, and free bristles that can be pressed against the test specimen. By bevelling the bristle ends at a suitable angle, shear mode waves can be infused into the test specimen from a longitudinal mode transducer.

  5. Lossloss encoding of medical images: hybrid modification of statistical modelling-based conception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przelaskowski, Artur

    2001-10-01

    Methods of lossless compression of medical image data are considered. Selected class of efficient algorithms have been constructed, examined, and optimized to conclude the most useful tools for medical image archiving and transmission. Image data scanning, 2D context-based prediction and interpolation, and statistical models of entropy coder have been optimized to compress effectively ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance (MR), and computed tomography (CT) images. The SSM technique of suitable data decomposing scanning method followed by probabilistic modeling of the context in arithmetic encoding have occurred the most useful in our experiments. Context order, shape, and alphabet have been fitted to local data characteristics to decrease image data correlation and dilution of statistical model. Average bit rate value over test images is equal to 2.53 bpp for SSM coder and significantly overcomes 2.92 bpp of CALIC bit rate. Moreover, optimization of lossless wavelet coder by thinking of efficient subband decomposition schemes, and integer-to-integer transforms is reported. Efficient hybrid coding method (SHEC) as a complete tool for medical image archiving and transmission is proposed. SHEC develops SSM by including CALIC-like coder to compress the highest quality images and JPEG2000 wavelet coder for progressive delivering of high and middle quality images in telemedicine systems.

  6. Optimal Planning and Operation of Hybrid Energy System Supplemented by Storage Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Mohammad Sadegh; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a two-stage model for optimal planning and operation of a distribution network. Optimal siting and sizing of renewable energy sources (RES) as well as electrical energy storage (EES) systems are considered in the proposed hybrid energy system. In this context, the planning...... problem is considered as a master problem, while there are different sub-problems associated with the short-term operational problem. To properly handle the uncertainties of forecasted load as well as renewable power generations, fair stochastic models are involved in the sub-problems based on historical...

  7. Hybrid superconductor-quantum point contact devices using InSb nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, S. T.; Damasco, J.; Car, D.; Bakkers, E. P. A. M.; Mason, N.

    2016-12-01

    Proposals for studying topological superconductivity and Majorana bound states in a nanowire proximity coupled to superconductors require that transport in the nanowire is ballistic. Previous works on hybrid nanowire-superconductor systems have shown evidence for Majorana bound states, but these experiments were also marked by disorder, which disrupts ballistic transport. In this paper, we demonstrate ballistic transport in the InSb nanowires interfaced directly with superconducting Al by observing quantized conductance at zero-magnetic field. Additionally, we demonstrate that the nanowire is proximity coupled to the superconducting contacts by observing Andreev reflection. These results are important steps for robustly establishing topological superconductivity in the InSb nanowires.

  8. Development of electron cyclotron emission imaging system on Large Helical Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwahara, D.; Tsuji-Iio, S. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Nagayama, Y.; Yoshinaga, T.; Tsuchiya, H.; Sugito, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Yamaguchi, S. [Kansai University, 3-3-35 Yamate-cho, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan); Kogi, Y. [Fukuoka Institute of Technology, 3-30-1 Wajiro-Higashi, Fukuoka 811-0295 (Japan); Akaki, K.; Mase, A. [KASTEC, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-Koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    A combined system of microwave imaging reflectometry and electron cyclotron emission (ECE) imaging has been developed for the Large Helical Device. This system includes a wide-band two-dimensional horn-antenna mixer array (HMA). The HMA consists of horn antennas, waveguides, mixers, and intermediate frequency circuits. The frequency response of the HMA is between 50 and 110 GHz. The ECE signal is selected using a 95 GHz local oscillator and a 93 GHz high-pass filter.

  9. Highly entangled photons from hybrid piezoelectric-semiconductor quantum dot devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotta, Rinaldo; Wildmann, Johannes S; Zallo, Eugenio; Schmidt, Oliver G; Rastelli, Armando

    2014-06-11

    Entanglement resources are key ingredients of future quantum technologies. If they could be efficiently integrated into a semiconductor platform, a new generation of devices could be envisioned, whose quantum-mechanical functionalities are controlled via the mature semiconductor technology. Epitaxial quantum dots (QDs) embedded in diodes would embody such ideal quantum devices, but a fine-structure splitting (FSS) between the bright exciton states lowers dramatically the degree of entanglement of the sources and hampers severely their real exploitation in the foreseen applications. In this work, we overcome this hurdle using strain-tunable optoelectronic devices, where any QD can be tuned for the emission of photon pairs featuring the highest degree of entanglement ever reported for QDs, with concurrence as high as 0.75 ± 0.02. Furthermore, we study the evolution of Bell's parameters as a function of FSS and demonstrate for the first time that filtering-free violation of Bell's inequalities requires the FSS to be smaller than 1 μeV. This upper limit for the FSS also sets the tuning range of exciton energies (∼1 meV) over which our device operates as an energy-tunable source of highly entangled photons. A moderate temporal filtering further increases the concurrence and the tunability of exciton energies up to 0.82 and 2 meV, respectively, though at the expense of 60% reduction of count rate.

  10. Performance-oriented Analysis of a Hybrid magnetic Assembly for a Heat-pump Magnetocaloric Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Insinga, Andrea Roberto; Smith, Anders; Bahl, Christian R.H.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional active-regenerator magnetocaloric devices include moving parts, with the purpose of generating an oscillating magnetic field in the magneto-caloric material, placed inside the regenerator. In this work a different design is analyzed, for application in a magnetocaloric heat pump...

  11. Optimization of hybrid organic-inorganic interdigitated photovoltaic device structure using a 2D diffusion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krali, Emiljana; Curry, Richard J

    2011-04-26

    To improve the efficiency of organic photovoltaic devices the inclusion of semiconducting nanoparticles such as PbS has been used to enhance near-infrared absorption. Additionally the use of interdigitated heterojunctions has been explored as a means of improving charge extraction. In this paper we provide a two-dimensional model taking into account these approaches with the aim of predicting an optimized device geometry to maximize the efficiency. The steady-state exciton population has been calculated in each of the active regions taking into account the full optical response based on using a finite difference approach to obtain approximate numerical solutions to the 2D exciton diffusion equation. On the basis of this we calculate the contribution of each active material to the device short circuit current and power conversion efficiency. We show that optimized structures can lead to power conversions efficiencies of ∼50% compared to a maximum of ∼17% for planar heterojunction devices. To achieve this the interdigitated region thickness should be ∼800 nm with PbS and C(60) widths of ∼60 and 20 nm, respectively. Even modest nanopatterning using much thinner active regions provides improvements in efficiency and may be approached using a variety of methods including nanoimprinting lithography, nanotemplating, or the incorporation of presynthesized nanorod structures.

  12. The evaluation of MiL-Lx and Hybrid III Leg using Hybrid III and EUROSID2-re Anthropomorphic Test Devices

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pandelani, T

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available the standard in automotive testing until the Hybrid III family of ATDs was introduced in 1987. The Hybrid III addressed deficiencies of the Hybrid II, mainly in the area of the neck performance and provided improved bio-fidelity. The Hybrid III ATD also... used a curved spine which better represented the occupant in a sitting position, as opposed to the original Hybrid II straight spine. The Hybrid III is still the standard in automotive crash testing; however, newer specialized ATDs...

  13. Control design for robust tracking and smooth transition in power systems with battery/supercapacitor hybrid energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hoeguk; Wang, Haifeng; Hu, Tingshu

    2014-12-01

    This paper considers some control design problems in a power system driven by battery/supercapacitor hybrid energy storage devices. The currents in the battery and the supercapacitor are actively controlled by two bidirectional buck-boost converters. Two control objectives are addressed in this paper: one is to achieve robust tracking of two reference variables, the battery current and the load voltage, the other is to achieve smooth transition of these variables during load switch. Based on the state-space averaged model we newly developed, the control design problems are converted into numerically efficient optimization problems with linear matrix inequality (LMI) constraints. An experimental system is constructed to validate the control design methods.

  14. Hybrid vapor phase-solution phase growth techniques for improved CZT(S,Se) photovoltaic device performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Liang-Yi; Gershon, Talia S.; Haight, Richard A.; Lee, Yun Seog

    2016-12-27

    A hybrid vapor phase-solution phase CZT(S,Se) growth technique is provided. In one aspect, a method of forming a kesterite absorber material on a substrate includes the steps of: depositing a layer of a first kesterite material on the substrate using a vapor phase deposition process, wherein the first kesterite material includes Cu, Zn, Sn, and at least one of S and Se; annealing the first kesterite material to crystallize the first kesterite material; and depositing a layer of a second kesterite material on a side of the first kesterite material opposite the substrate using a solution phase deposition process, wherein the second kesterite material includes Cu, Zn, Sn, and at least one of S and Se, wherein the first kesterite material and the second kesterite material form a multi-layer stack of the absorber material on the substrate. A photovoltaic device and method of formation thereof are also provided.

  15. A Six Degree-Of-Freedom Haptic Device Based On The Orthoglide And A Hybrid Agile Eye

    CERN Document Server

    Chablat, Damien

    2007-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the kinematic design of a new six degree-of-freedom haptic device using two parallel mechanisms. The first one, called orthoglide, provides the translation motions and the second one, called agile eye, produces the rotational motions. These two motions are decoupled to simplify the direct and inverse kinematics, as it is needed for real-time control. To reduce the inertial load, the motors are fixed on the base and a transmission with two universal joints is used to transmit the rotational motions from the base to the end-effector. Two alternative wrists are proposed (i), the agile eye with three degrees of freedom or (ii) a hybrid wrist made by the assembly of a two-dof agile eye with a rotary motor. The last one is optimized to increase its stiffness and to decrease the number of moving parts.

  16. Hybrid vapor phase-solution phase growth techniques for improved CZT(S,Se) photovoltaic device performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Liang-Yi; Gershon, Talia S.; Haight, Richard A.; Lee, Yun Seog

    2016-12-27

    A hybrid vapor phase-solution phase CZT(S,Se) growth technique is provided. In one aspect, a method of forming a kesterite absorber material on a substrate includes the steps of: depositing a layer of a first kesterite material on the substrate using a vapor phase deposition process, wherein the first kesterite material includes Cu, Zn, Sn, and at least one of S and Se; annealing the first kesterite material to crystallize the first kesterite material; and depositing a layer of a second kesterite material on a side of the first kesterite material opposite the substrate using a solution phase deposition process, wherein the second kesterite material includes Cu, Zn, Sn, and at least one of S and Se, wherein the first kesterite material and the second kesterite material form a multi-layer stack of the absorber material on the substrate. A photovoltaic device and method of formation thereof are also provided.

  17. Motion-free hybrid design laser beam propagation analyzer using a digital micromirror device and a variable focus liquid lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Mumtaz; Riza, Nabeel A

    2010-06-01

    To the best of our knowledge, we propose the first motion-free laser beam propagation analyzer with a hybrid design using a digital micromirror device (DMD) and a liquid electronically controlled variable focus lens (ECVFL). Unlike prior analyzers that require profiling the beam at multiple locations along the light propagation axis, the proposed analyzer profiles the beam at the same plane for multiple values of the ECVFL focal length, thus eliminating beam profiler assembly motion. In addition to measuring standard Gaussian beam parameters, the analyzer can also be used to measure the M(2) beam propagation parameter of a multimode beam. Proof-of-concept beam parameter measurements with the proposed analyzer are successfully conducted for a 633 nm laser beam. Given the all-digital nature of the DMD-based profiling and all-analog motion-free nature of the ECVFL beam focus control, the proposed analyzer versus prior art promises better repeatability, speed, and reliability.

  18. Sticker-type ECG/PPG concurrent monitoring system hybrid integration of CMOS SoC and organic sensor device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yongsu; Lee, Hyeonwoo; Yoo, Seunghyup; Yoo, Hoi-Jun; Yongsu Lee; Hyeonwoo Lee; Seunghyup Yoo; Hoi-Jun Yoo; Yoo, Seunghyup; Lee, Yongsu; Yoo, Hoi-Jun; Lee, Hyeonwoo

    2016-08-01

    The sticker-type sensor system is proposed targeting ECG/PPG concurrent monitoring for cardiovascular diseases. The stickers are composed of two types: Hub and Sensor-node (SN) sticker. Low-power CMOS SoC for measuring ECG and PPG signal is hybrid integrated with organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic photo detector (OPD). The sticker has only 2g weight and only consumes 141μW. The optical calibration loop is adopted for maintaining SNR of PPG signal higher than 30dB. The pulse arrival time (PAT) and SpO2 value can be extracted from various body parts and verified comparing with the reference device from 20 people in-vivo experiments.

  19. Effect of the preparation procedure on the morphology of thin TiO₂ films and their device performance in small-molecule bilayer hybrid solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Eva L; Spadavecchia, Francesca; Nonomura, Kazuteru; Palmgren, Pål; Cappelletti, Giuseppe; Hagfeldt, Anders; Johansson, Erik M J; Boschloo, Gerrit

    2012-11-01

    Flat titanium dioxide films, to be used as the acceptor layer in bilayer hybrid solar cell devices, were prepared by spray-pyrolysis and by spin-casting. Both preparation methods resulted in anatase titania films with similar optical and electronic properties but considerably different film morphologies. Spray pyrolysis resulted in dense TiO₂ films grown onto and affected by the surface roughness of the underlying conducting glass substrates. The spin-casting preparation procedure resulted in nanoporous titania films. Hybrid solar cell devices with varying layer thickness of the small-molecule semiconducting dye TDCV-TPA were investigated. Devices built with spray-pyrolyzed titania substrates yielded conversion efficiencies up to 0.47%. Spin-cast titania substrates exhibited short circuits for thin dye layer thickness. For thicker dye layers the performance of these devices was up to 0.6% due to the higher interfacial area for charge separation of these nanoporous TiO₂ substrates.

  20. Cervical external immobilization devices: evaluation of magnetic resonance imaging issues at 3.0 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Francis L; Tweardy, Lisa; Shellock, Frank G

    2010-02-15

    Laboratory investigation, ex vivo. Currently, no studies have addressed the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) issues for cervical external immobilization devices at 3-Tesla. Under certain conditions significant heating may occur, resulting in patient burns. Furthermore, artifacts can be substantial and prevent the diagnostic use of MRI. Therefore, the objective of this investigation was to evaluate MRI issues for 4 different cervical external immobilization devices at 3-Tesla. Excessive heating and substantial artifacts are 2 potential complications associated with performing MRI at 3-Tesla in patients with cervical external immobilization devices. Using ex vivo testing techniques, MRI-related heating and artifacts were evaluated for 4 different cervical devices during MRI at 3-Tesla. Four cervical external immobilization devices (Generation 80, Resolve Ring and Superstructure, Resolve Ring and Jerome Vest/Jerome Superstructure, and the V1 Halo System; Ossur Americas, Aliso Viejo, CA) underwent MRI testing at 3-Tesla. All devices were made from nonmetallic or nonmagnetic materials. Heating was determined using a gelled-saline-filled skull phantom with fluoroptic thermometry probes attached to the skull pins. MRI was performed at 3-Tesla, using a high level of RF energy. Artifacts were assessed at 3-Tesla, using standard cervical imaging techniques. The Generation 80 and V1 Halo devices exhibited substantial temperature rises (11.6 degrees C and 8.5 degrees C, respectively), with "sparking" evident for the Generation 80 during the MRI procedure. Artifacts were problematic for these devices, as well. By comparison, the 2 Resolve Ring-based cervical external immobilization devices showed little or no heating (Tesla.

  1. Rashba and Dresselhaus Effects in Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites: From Basics to Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepenekian, Mikaël; Robles, Roberto; Katan, Claudine; Sapori, Daniel; Pedesseau, Laurent; Even, Jacky

    2015-12-22

    We use symmetry analysis, density functional theory calculations, and k·p modeling to scrutinize Rashba and Dresselhaus effects in hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskites. These perovskites are at the center of a recent revolution in the field of photovoltaics but have also demonstrated potential for optoelectronic applications such as transistors and light emitters. Due to a large spin-orbit coupling of the most frequently used metals, they are also predicted to offer a promising avenue for spin-based applications. With an in-depth inspection of the electronic structures and bulk lattice symmetries of a variety of systems, we analyze the origin of the spin splitting in two- and three-dimensional hybrid perovskites. It is shown that low-dimensional nanostructures made of CH3NH3PbX3 (X = I, Br) lead to spin splittings that can be controlled by an applied electric field. These findings further open the door for a perovskite-based spintronics.

  2. Hybrid white organic light-emitting devices based on phosphorescent iridium-benzotriazole orange-red and fluorescent blue emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Zhen-Yuan, E-mail: xiazhenyuan@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials and Institute of Fine Chemicals, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Su, Jian-Hua [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials and Institute of Fine Chemicals, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Chang, Chi-Sheng; Chen, Chin H. [Display Institute, Microelectronics and Information Systems Research Center, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 300 (China)

    2013-03-15

    We demonstrate that high color purity or efficiency hybrid white organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) can be generated by integrating a phosphorescent orange-red emitter, bis[4-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-N,N-diphenyl-aniline-N{sup 1},C{sup 3}] iridium acetylacetonate, Ir(TBT){sub 2}(acac) with fluorescent blue emitters in two different emissive layers. The device based on deep blue fluorescent material diphenyl-[4-(2-[1,1 Prime ;4 Prime ,1 Double-Prime ]terphenyl-4-yl-vinyl)-phenyl]-amine BpSAB and Ir(TBT){sub 2}(acac) shows pure white color with the Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.33,0.30). When using sky-blue fluorescent dopant N,N Prime -(4,4 Prime -(1E,1 Prime E)-2,2 Prime -(1,4-phenylene)bis(ethene-2,1-diyl) bis(4,1-phenylene))bis(2-ethyl-6-methyl-N-phenylaniline) (BUBD-1) and orange-red phosphor with a color-tuning phosphorescent material fac-tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium (Ir(ppy){sub 3} ), it exhibits peak luminance yield and power efficiency of 17.4 cd/A and 10.7 lm/W, respectively with yellow-white color and CIE color rendering index (CRI) value of 73. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An iridium-based orange-red phosphor Ir(TBT){sub 2}(acac) was applied in hybrid white OLEDs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Duel- and tri-emitter WOLEDs were achieved with either high color purity or efficiency performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Peak luminance yield of tri-emitter WOLEDs was 17.4 cd/A with yellow-white color and color rendering index (CRI) value of 73.

  3. Multi-Radio Mobile Device in Role of Hybrid Node Between WiFi and LTE networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Masek

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available With the ubiquitous wireless network coverage, Machine-Type Communications (MTC is emerging to enable data transfers using devices/sensors without need for human interaction. In this paper we, we introduce a comprehensive simulation scenario for modeling and analysis for heterogeneous MTC. We demonstrate the most expected scenario of MTC communication using the IEEE 802.11 standard for direct communication between sensors and for transmitting data between individual sensor and Machine-Type Communication Gateway (MTCG. The MTCG represents the hybrid node serving as bridge between two heterogeneous networks (WiFi and LTE. Following the idea of hybrid node, two active interfaces must be implemented on this node together with mechanism for handling the incoming traffic (from WiFi network to LTE network. As a simulation tool, the Network Simulator 3 (NS-3 with implemented LTE/EPC Network Simulator (LENA framework was used. The major contribution of this paper therefore lies in the implementation of logic for interconnection of two heterogeneous networks in simulation environment NS-3.

  4. X-ray imaging with photon counting hybrid semiconductor pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Manolopoulos, S; Campbell, M; Snoeys, W; Heijne, Erik H M; Pernigotti, E; Raine, C; Smith, K; Watt, J; O'Shea, V; Ludwig, J; Schwarz, C

    1999-01-01

    Semiconductor pixel detectors, originally developed for particle physics experiments, have been studied as X-ray imaging devices. The performance of devices using the OMEGA 3 read-out chip bump-bonded to pixellated silicon semiconductor detectors is characterised in terms of their signal-to-noise ratio when exposed to 60 kVp X-rays. Although parts of the devices achieve values of this ratio compatible with the noise being photon statistics limited, this is not found to hold for the whole pixel matrix, resulting in the global signal-to-noise ratio being compromised. First results are presented of X-ray images taken with a gallium arsenide pixel detector bump-bonded to a new read-out chip, (MEDIPIX), which is a single photon counting read-out chip incorporating a 15-bit counter in every pixel. (author)

  5. X-ray imaging with photon counting hybrid semiconductor pixel detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manolopoulos, S.; Bates, R.; Campbell, M.; Snoeys, W.; Heijne, E.; Pernigotti, E.; Raine, C.; Smith, K. E-mail: k.smith@physics.gla.ac.uk; Watt, J.; O' Shea, V.; Ludwig, J.; Schwarz, C

    1999-09-11

    Semiconductor pixel detectors, originally developed for particle physics experiments, have been studied as X-ray imaging devices. The performance of devices using the {omega}3 read-out chip bump-bonded to pixellated silicon semiconductor detectors is characterised in terms of their signal-to-noise ratio when exposed to 60 kVp X-rays. Although parts of the devices achieve values of this ratio compatible with the noise being photon statistics limited, this is not found to hold for the whole pixel matrix, resulting in the global signal-to-noise ratio being compromised. First results are presented of X-ray images taken with a gallium arsenide pixel detector bump-bonded to a new read-out chip, (MEDIPIX), which is a single photon counting read-out chip incorporating a 15-bit counter in every pixel. (author)

  6. System design for 3D wound imaging using low-cost mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirazitdinova, Ekaterina; Deserno, Thomas M.

    2017-03-01

    The state-of-the art method of wound assessment is a manual, imprecise and time-consuming procedure. Per- formed by clinicians, it has limited reproducibility and accuracy, large time consumption and high costs. Novel technologies such as laser scanning microscopy, multi-photon microscopy, optical coherence tomography and hyper-spectral imaging, as well as devices relying on the structured light sensors, make accurate wound assessment possible. However, such methods have limitations due to high costs and may lack portability and availability. In this paper, we present a low-cost wound assessment system and architecture for fast and accurate cutaneous wound assessment using inexpensive consumer smartphone devices. Computer vision techniques are applied either on the device or the server to reconstruct wounds in 3D as dense models, which are generated from images taken with a built-in single camera of a smartphone device. The system architecture includes imaging (smartphone), processing (smartphone or PACS) and storage (PACS) devices. It supports tracking over time by alignment of 3D models, color correction using a reference color card placed into the scene and automatic segmentation of wound regions. Using our system, we are able to detect and document quantitative characteristics of chronic wounds, including size, depth, volume, rate of healing, as well as qualitative characteristics as color, presence of necrosis and type of involved tissue.

  7. MLAA-based attenuation correction of flexible hardware components in hybrid PET/MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heußer, Thorsten; Rank, Christopher M; Berker, Yannick; Freitag, Martin T; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2017-12-01

    Accurate PET quantification demands attenuation correction (AC) for both patient and hardware attenuation of the 511 keV annihilation photons. In hybrid PET/MR imaging, AC for stationary hardware components such as patient table and MR head coil is straightforward, employing CT-derived attenuation templates. AC for flexible hardware components such as MR-safe headphones and MR radiofrequency (RF) surface coils is more challenging. Registration-based approaches, aligning CT-based attenuation templates with the current patient position, have been proposed but are not used in clinical routine. Ignoring headphone or RF coil attenuation has been shown to result in regional activity underestimation values of up to 18%. We propose to employ the maximum-likelihood reconstruction of attenuation and activity (MLAA) algorithm to estimate the attenuation of flexible hardware components. Starting with an initial attenuation map not including flexible hardware components, the attenuation update of MLAA is applied outside the body outline only, allowing to estimate hardware attenuation without modifying the patient attenuation map. Appropriate prior expectations on the attenuation coefficients are incorporated into MLAA. The proposed method is investigated for non-TOF PET phantom and (18)F-FDG patient data acquired with a clinical PET/MR device, using headphones or RF surface coils as flexible hardware components. Although MLAA cannot recover the exact physical shape of the hardware attenuation maps, the overall attenuation of the hardware components is accurately estimated. Therefore, the proposed algorithm significantly improves PET quantification. Using the phantom data, local activity underestimation when neglecting hardware attenuation was reduced from up to 25% to less than 3% under- or overestimation as compared to reference scans without hardware present or to CT-derived AC. For the patient data, we found an average activity underestimation of 7.9% evaluated in the full

  8. Study of a prototype high quantum efficiency thick scintillation crystal video-electronic portal imaging device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samant, Sanjiv S; Gopal, Arun

    2006-08-01

    Image quality in portal imaging suffers significantly from the loss in contrast and spatial resolution that results from the excessive Compton scatter associated with megavoltage x rays. In addition, portal image quality is further reduced due to the poor quantum efficiency (QE) of current electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs). Commercial video-camera-based EPIDs or VEPIDs that utilize a thin phosphor screen in conjunction with a metal buildup plate to convert the incident x rays to light suffer from reduced light production due to low QE (quantum efficiency (DQE). A theoretical expression of DQE(0) was developed to be used as a predictive model to propose improvements in the optics associated with the light detection. The prototype TSC provides DQE(0)=0.02 with its current imaging geometry, which is an order of magnitude greater than that for commercial VEPID systems and comparable to flat-panel imaging systems. Following optimization in the imaging geometry and the use of a high-end, cooled charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera system, the performance of the TSC is expected to improve even further. Based on our theoretical model, the expected DQE(0)=0.12 for the TSC system with the proposed improvements, which exceeds the performance of current flat-panel EPIDs. The prototype TSC provides high quality imaging even at subMU exposures (typical imaging dose is 0.2 MU per image), which offers the potential for daily patient localization imaging without increasing the weekly dose to the patient. Currently, the TSC is capable of limited frame-rate fluoroscopy for intratreatment visualization of patient motion at approximately 3 frames/second, since the achievable frame rate is significantly reduced by the limitations of the camera-control processor. With optimized processor control, the TSC is expected to be capable of intratreatment imaging exceeding 10 frames/second to monitor patient motion.

  9. Detection of fecal contamination on beef meat surfaces using handheld fluorescence imaging device (HFID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current meat inspection in slaughter plants, for food safety and quality attributes including potential fecal contamination, is conducted through by visual examination human inspectors. A handheld fluorescence-based imaging device (HFID) was developed to be an assistive tool for human inspectors by ...

  10. Detection of fecal contamination on beef meat surfaces using handheld fluorescence imaging device (HFID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Mirae; Lee, Hoonsoo; Cho, Hyunjeong; Moon, Sang-Ho; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Moon S.

    2016-05-01

    Current meat inspection in slaughter plants, for food safety and quality attributes including potential fecal contamination, is conducted through by visual examination human inspectors. A handheld fluorescence-based imaging device (HFID) was developed to be an assistive tool for human inspectors by highlighting contaminated food and food contact surfaces on a display monitor. It can be used under ambient lighting conditions in food processing plants. Critical components of the imaging device includes four 405-nm 10-W LEDs for fluorescence excitation, a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, optical filter (670 nm used for this study), and Wi-Fi transmitter for broadcasting real-time video/images to monitoring devices such as smartphone and tablet. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of HFID in enhancing visual detection of fecal contamination on red meat, fat, and bone surfaces of beef under varying ambient luminous intensities (0, 10, 30, 50 and 70 foot-candles). Overall, diluted feces on fat, red meat and bone areas of beef surfaces were detectable in the 670-nm single-band fluorescence images when using the HFID under 0 to 50 foot-candle ambient lighting.

  11. Introduction: feature issue on phantoms for the performance evaluation and validation of optical medical imaging devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jeeseong; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C; Nordstrom, Robert

    2012-06-01

    The editors introduce the Biomedical Optics Express feature issue on "Phantoms for the Performance Evaluation and Validation of Optical Medical Imaging Devices." This topic was the focus of a technical workshop that was held on November 7-8, 2011, in Washington, D.C. The feature issue includes 13 contributions from workshop attendees.

  12. Implementation of adaptive coded aperture imaging using a digital micro-mirror device for defocus deblurring

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chiranjan, Ashill

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available between aperture shapes with a traditional camera quickly and efficiently is impractical. This paper aims towards developing an adaptive coded aperture imaging system utilizing a digital micro-mirror device (DMD) as a programmable aperture that is able...

  13. Endovascular Device Testing with Particle Image Velocimetry Enhances Undergraduate Biomedical Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Priya; Ankeny, Casey J.; Ryan, Justin; Okcay, Murat; Frakes, David H.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the use of a new system, HemoFlow™, which utilizes state of the art technologies such as particle image velocimetry to test endovascular devices as part of an undergraduate biomedical engineering curriculum. Students deployed an endovascular stent into an anatomical model of a cerebral aneurysm and measured intra-aneurysmal flow…

  14. 78 FR 69440 - Certain Electronic Imaging Devices; Notice of Request for Statements on the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... COMMISSION Certain Electronic Imaging Devices; Notice of Request for Statements on the Public Interest AGENCY...'') recommended by the ALJ. This notice is soliciting public interest comments from the public only. Parties are to file public interest submissions pursuant to 19 CFR 210.50(a)(4). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  15. 77 FR 27463 - Device Improvements for Pediatric X-Ray Imaging; Public Meeting; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... instructions for pediatric digital radiography (Ref. 8) and fluoroscopy (ongoing project). These materials will... follows: ``Manufacturers seeking marketing clearance for a new x-ray imaging device with a pediatric.... Manufacturers who seek marketing clearance only for general indications or do not submit adequate data to...

  16. 75 FR 39971 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Imaging Devices; Notice of Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Electronic Imaging Devices; Notice of Investigation AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of investigation pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 1337. SUMMARY:...

  17. On the use of mobile imaging devices for the validation of first- and second-line security features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Tony; Weaver, Matthew

    2006-02-01

    The proliferation of mobile imaging devices combined with Moore's law has yielded a class of devices that are capable of imaging and/or validating many First- and Second-Line security features. Availability of these devices at little or no cost due to economic models and commoditization of constituent technologies will result in a broad infrastructure of devices capable of identifying fraud and counterfeiting. The presence of these devices has the potential to influence aspects of design, production, and usage models for value documents as both a validation tool and as a mechanism for attack. To maximize usability as a validation tool, a better understanding is needed about the imaging capabilities of these devices and which security features and design approaches favor them. As a first step in this direction, the authors investigated using a specific imaging-equipped cell phone as an inspection and validation tool for identity documents. The goal of the investigation was to assess the viability of the device to identify photo swapping, image alteration, data alteration, and counterfeiting of identity documents. To do so security printing techniques such as digital watermarking, microprinting and a Diffractive Optically Variable Image Device were used. Based on analysis of a representative imaging-equipped cell phone (Fujitsu 900i), the authors confirmed that within some geographies, deployed devices are capable of imaging value documents at sufficiently high resolution to enable inspection and validation usage models across a limited set of security features.

  18. Hybrid nanostructured coating for increased resistance of prosthetic devices to staphylococcal colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghel, Ion; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai

    2013-01-01

    Prosthetic medical device-associated infections are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality rates. Novel improved materials and surfaces exhibiting inappropriate conditions for microbial development are urgently required in the medical environment. This study reveals the benefit of using natural Mentha piperita essential oil, combined with a 5 nm core/shell nanosystem-improved surface exhibiting anti-adherence and antibiofilm properties. This strategy reveals a dual role of the nano-oil system; on one hand, inhibiting bacterial adherence and, on the other hand, exhibiting bactericidal effect, the core/shell nanosystem is acting as a controlled releasing machine for the essential oil. Our results demonstrate that this dual nanobiosystem is very efficient also for inhibiting biofilm formation, being a good candidate for the design of novel material surfaces used for prosthetic devices.

  19. Hybrid nanostructured coating for increased resistance of prosthetic devices to staphylococcal colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghel, Ion; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai

    2013-01-02

    Prosthetic medical device-associated infections are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality rates. Novel improved materials and surfaces exhibiting inappropriate conditions for microbial development are urgently required in the medical environment. This study reveals the benefit of using natural Mentha piperita essential oil, combined with a 5 nm core/shell nanosystem-improved surface exhibiting anti-adherence and antibiofilm properties. This strategy reveals a dual role of the nano-oil system; on one hand, inhibiting bacterial adherence and, on the other hand, exhibiting bactericidal effect, the core/shell nanosystem is acting as a controlled releasing machine for the essential oil. Our results demonstrate that this dual nanobiosystem is very efficient also for inhibiting biofilm formation, being a good candidate for the design of novel material surfaces used for prosthetic devices.

  20. A hybrid approach to simulate multiple photon scattering in X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freud, N. [CNDRI, Laboratory of Nondestructive Testing using Ionizing Radiations, INSA-Lyon Scientific and Technical University, Bat. Antoine de Saint-Exupery, 20, avenue Albert Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)]. E-mail: nicolas.freud@insa-lyon.fr; Letang, J.-M. [CNDRI, Laboratory of Nondestructive Testing using Ionizing Radiations, INSA-Lyon Scientific and Technical University, Bat. Antoine de Saint-Exupery, 20, avenue Albert Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Babot, D. [CNDRI, Laboratory of Nondestructive Testing using Ionizing Radiations, INSA-Lyon Scientific and Technical University, Bat. Antoine de Saint-Exupery, 20, avenue Albert Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2005-01-01

    A hybrid simulation approach is proposed to compute the contribution of scattered radiation in X- or {gamma}-ray imaging. This approach takes advantage of the complementarity between the deterministic and probabilistic simulation methods. The proposed hybrid method consists of two stages. Firstly, a set of scattering events occurring in the inspected object is determined by means of classical Monte Carlo simulation. Secondly, this set of scattering events is used as a starting point to compute the energy imparted to the detector, with a deterministic algorithm based on a 'forced detection' scheme. For each scattering event, the probability for the scattered photon to reach each pixel of the detector is calculated using well-known physical models (form factor and incoherent scattering function approximations, in the case of Rayleigh and Compton scattering respectively). The results of the proposed hybrid approach are compared to those obtained with the Monte Carlo method alone (Geant4 code) and found to be in excellent agreement. The convergence of the results when the number of scattering events increases is studied. The proposed hybrid approach makes it possible to simulate the contribution of each type (Compton or Rayleigh) and order of scattering, separately or together, with a single PC, within reasonable computation times (from minutes to hours, depending on the number of pixels of the detector). This constitutes a substantial benefit, compared to classical simulation methods (Monte Carlo or deterministic approaches), which usually requires a parallel computing architecture to obtain comparable results.

  1. High efficiency, hybrid electrochromic device on polycarbonate substrates with neon sputtered WO3-x thin films

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Electrochromic materials change color reversibly by applying an external DC voltage. One among the many emerging application of electro-chromics is the smart windows. The coloration efficiency, the optical colour modulation and the cyclability are the factors that bench mark the device. Tungsten oxide (WO3-x) is versatile material and reactive DC magnetron sputtering (with argon as sputter gas) technique is common for electro-chromics. In the present communication we have prepared tungsten ox...

  2. Microwave assisted synthesis and characterisation of a zinc oxide/tobacco mosaic virus hybrid material. An active hybrid semiconductor in a field-effect transistor device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanctis, Shawn; Hoffmann, Rudolf C; Eiben, Sabine; Schneider, Jörg J

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) has been employed as a robust functional template for the fabrication of a TMV/zinc oxide field effect transistor (FET). A microwave based approach, under mild conditions was employed to synthesize stable zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles, employing a molecular precursor. Insightful studies of the decomposition of the precursor were done using NMR spectroscopy and material characterization of the hybrid material derived from the decomposition was achieved using dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), grazing incidence X-ray diffractometry (GI-XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). TEM and DLS data confirm the formation of crystalline ZnO nanoparticles tethered on top of the virus template. GI-XRD investigations exhibit an orientated nature of the deposited ZnO film along the c-axis. FET devices fabricated using the zinc oxide mineralized virus template material demonstrates an operational transistor performance which was achieved without any high-temperature post-processing steps. Moreover, a further improvement in FET performance was observed by adjusting an optimal layer thickness of the deposited ZnO on top of the TMV. Such a bio-inorganic nanocomposite semiconductor material accessible using a mild and straightforward microwave processing technique could open up new future avenues within the field of bio-electronics.

  3. Microwave assisted synthesis and characterisation of a zinc oxide/tobacco mosaic virus hybrid material. An active hybrid semiconductor in a field-effect transistor device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn Sanctis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV has been employed as a robust functional template for the fabrication of a TMV/zinc oxide field effect transistor (FET. A microwave based approach, under mild conditions was employed to synthesize stable zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles, employing a molecular precursor. Insightful studies of the decomposition of the precursor were done using NMR spectroscopy and material characterization of the hybrid material derived from the decomposition was achieved using dynamic light scattering (DLS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, grazing incidence X-ray diffractometry (GI-XRD and atomic force microscopy (AFM. TEM and DLS data confirm the formation of crystalline ZnO nanoparticles tethered on top of the virus template. GI-XRD investigations exhibit an orientated nature of the deposited ZnO film along the c-axis. FET devices fabricated using the zinc oxide mineralized virus template material demonstrates an operational transistor performance which was achieved without any high-temperature post-processing steps. Moreover, a further improvement in FET performance was observed by adjusting an optimal layer thickness of the deposited ZnO on top of the TMV. Such a bio-inorganic nanocomposite semiconductor material accessible using a mild and straightforward microwave processing technique could open up new future avenues within the field of bio-electronics.

  4. Hybrid Spintronic-CMOS Spiking Neural Network with On-Chip Learning: Devices, Circuits, and Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Abhronil; Banerjee, Aparajita; Roy, Kaushik

    2016-12-01

    Over the past decade, spiking neural networks (SNNs) have emerged as one of the popular architectures to emulate the brain. In SNNs, information is temporally encoded and communication between neurons is accomplished by means of spikes. In such networks, spike-timing-dependent plasticity mechanisms require the online programing of synapses based on the temporal information of spikes transmitted by spiking neurons. In this work, we propose a spintronic synapse with decoupled spike-transmission and programing-current paths. The spintronic synapse consists of a ferromagnet-heavy-metal heterostructure where the programing current through the heavy metal generates spin-orbit torque to modulate the device conductance. Low programing energy and fast programing times demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed device as a nanoelectronic synapse. We perform a simulation study based on an experimentally benchmarked device-simulation framework to demonstrate the interfacing of such spintronic synapses with CMOS neurons and learning circuits operating in the transistor subthreshold region to form a network of spiking neurons that can be utilized for pattern-recognition problems.

  5. Spatial and Spectral Hybrid Image Classification for Rice Lodging Assessment through UAV Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Der Yang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice lodging identification relies on manual in situ assessment and often leads to a compensation dispute in agricultural disaster assessment. Therefore, this study proposes a comprehensive and efficient classification technique for agricultural lands that entails using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV imagery. In addition to spectral information, digital surface model (DSM and texture information of the images was obtained through image-based modeling and texture analysis. Moreover, single feature probability (SFP values were computed to evaluate the contribution of spectral and spatial hybrid image information to classification accuracy. The SFP results revealed that texture information was beneficial for the classification of rice and water, DSM information was valuable for lodging and tree classification, and the combination of texture and DSM information was helpful in distinguishing between artificial surface and bare land. Furthermore, a decision tree classification model incorporating SFP values yielded optimal results, with an accuracy of 96.17% and a Kappa value of 0.941, compared with that of a maximum likelihood classification model (90.76%. The rice lodging ratio in paddies at the study site was successfully identified, with three paddies being eligible for disaster relief. The study demonstrated that the proposed spatial and spectral hybrid image classification technology is a promising tool for rice lodging assessment.

  6. Hybrid Microscopy: Enabling Inexpensive High-Performance Imaging through Combined Physical and Optical Magnifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu Shrike; Chang, Jae-Byum; Alvarez, Mario Moisés; Trujillo-de Santiago, Grissel; Aleman, Julio; Batzaya, Byambaa; Krishnadoss, Vaishali; Ramanujam, Aishwarya Aravamudhan; Kazemzadeh-Narbat, Mehdi; Chen, Fei; Tillberg, Paul W.; Dokmeci, Mehmet Remzi; Boyden, Edward S.; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-03-01

    To date, much effort has been expended on making high-performance microscopes through better instrumentation. Recently, it was discovered that physical magnification of specimens was possible, through a technique called expansion microscopy (ExM), raising the question of whether physical magnification, coupled to inexpensive optics, could together match the performance of high-end optical equipment, at a tiny fraction of the price. Here we show that such “hybrid microscopy” methods—combining physical and optical magnifications—can indeed achieve high performance at low cost. By physically magnifying objects, then imaging them on cheap miniature fluorescence microscopes (“mini-microscopes”), it is possible to image at a resolution comparable to that previously attainable only with benchtop microscopes that present costs orders of magnitude higher. We believe that this unprecedented hybrid technology that combines expansion microscopy, based on physical magnification, and mini-microscopy, relying on conventional optics—a process we refer to as Expansion Mini-Microscopy (ExMM)—is a highly promising alternative method for performing cost-effective, high-resolution imaging of biological samples. With further advancement of the technology, we believe that ExMM will find widespread applications for high-resolution imaging particularly in research and healthcare scenarios in undeveloped countries or remote places.

  7. Hybrid Microscopy: Enabling Inexpensive High-Performance Imaging through Combined Physical and Optical Magnifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu Shrike; Chang, Jae-Byum; Alvarez, Mario Moisés; Trujillo-de Santiago, Grissel; Aleman, Julio; Batzaya, Byambaa; Krishnadoss, Vaishali; Ramanujam, Aishwarya Aravamudhan; Kazemzadeh-Narbat, Mehdi; Chen, Fei; Tillberg, Paul W; Dokmeci, Mehmet Remzi; Boyden, Edward S; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-03-15

    To date, much effort has been expended on making high-performance microscopes through better instrumentation. Recently, it was discovered that physical magnification of specimens was possible, through a technique called expansion microscopy (ExM), raising the question of whether physical magnification, coupled to inexpensive optics, could together match the performance of high-end optical equipment, at a tiny fraction of the price. Here we show that such "hybrid microscopy" methods--combining physical and optical magnifications--can indeed achieve high performance at low cost. By physically magnifying objects, then imaging them on cheap miniature fluorescence microscopes ("mini-microscopes"), it is possible to image at a resolution comparable to that previously attainable only with benchtop microscopes that present costs orders of magnitude higher. We believe that this unprecedented hybrid technology that combines expansion microscopy, based on physical magnification, and mini-microscopy, relying on conventional optics--a process we refer to as Expansion Mini-Microscopy (ExMM)--is a highly promising alternative method for performing cost-effective, high-resolution imaging of biological samples. With further advancement of the technology, we believe that ExMM will find widespread applications for high-resolution imaging particularly in research and healthcare scenarios in undeveloped countries or remote places.

  8. Fluorescent Nanodiamond-Gold Hybrid Particles for Multimodal Optical and Electron Microscopy Cellular Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weina; Naydenov, Boris; Chakrabortty, Sabyasachi; Wuensch, Bettina; Hübner, Kristina; Ritz, Sandra; Cölfen, Helmut; Barth, Holger; Koynov, Kaloian; Qi, Haoyuan; Leiter, Robert; Reuter, Rolf; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Boldt, Felix; Scheuer, Jonas; Kaiser, Ute; Sison, Miguel; Lasser, Theo; Tinnefeld, Philip; Jelezko, Fedor; Walther, Paul; Wu, Yuzhou; Weil, Tanja

    2016-10-12

    There is a continuous demand for imaging probes offering excellent performance in various microscopy techniques for comprehensive investigations of cellular processes by more than one technique. Fluorescent nanodiamond-gold nanoparticles (FND-Au) constitute a new class of "all-in-one" hybrid particles providing unique features for multimodal cellular imaging including optical imaging, electron microscopy, and, and potentially even quantum sensing. Confocal and optical coherence microscopy of the FND-Au allow fast investigations inside living cells via emission, scattering, and photothermal imaging techniques because the FND emission is not quenched by AuNPs. In electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) analysis of FND-Au reveals greatly enhanced contrast due to the gold particles as well as an extraordinary flickering behavior in three-dimensional cellular environments originating from the nanodiamonds. The unique multimodal imaging characteristics of FND-Au enable detailed studies inside cells ranging from statistical distributions at the entire cellular level (micrometers) down to the tracking of individual particles in subcellular organelles (nanometers). Herein, the processes of endosomal membrane uptake and release of FNDs were elucidated for the first time by the imaging of individual FND-Au hybrid nanoparticles with single-particle resolution. Their convenient preparation, the availability of various surface groups, their flexible detection modalities, and their single-particle contrast in combination with the capability for endosomal penetration and low cytotoxicity make FND-Au unique candidates for multimodal optical-electronic imaging applications with great potential for emerging techniques, such as quantum sensing inside living cells.

  9. Particle image velocimetry for an automatic cooling device using temperature-sensitive magnetic fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    An automatic cooling device has been developed by using a temperature-sensitive magnetic fluid as the coolant. A particle image velocimetry (PIV) system was used to measure the flow velocity of the fluid inside the loop. The efficiency of the device under varying conditions such as the heat load and the power of cooling were ex- perimentally investigated. The effect of cooperation between external magnetic field and thermal field on the performance of the device was studied. As expected, a continuous flow induced by the thermal and magnetic field was observed in the loop, where heat was transferred by the circulating magnetic fluid. The synergic effect between the magnetic field and the temperature gradient has impact on the performance of the device.

  10. Particle image velocimetry for an automatic cooling device using temperature-sensitive magnetic fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAN WenLei; LI Qiang; XUAN YiMin

    2008-01-01

    An automatic cooling device has been developed by using a temperature-sensitive magnetic fluid as the coolant. A particle image velocimetry (PIV) system was used to measure the flow velocity of the fluid inside the loop. The efficiency of the device under varying conditions such as the heat load and the power of cooling were ex-perimentally investigated. The effect of cooperation between external magnetic field and thermal field on the performance of the device was studied. As expected, a continuous flow induced by the thermal and magnetic field was observed in the loop, where heat was transferred by the circulating magnetic fluid. The synergic effect between the magnetic field and the temperature gradient has impact on the performance of the device.

  11. Hybrid photovoltaic devices from regioregular polythiophene and ZnO nanoparticles composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Narayan Ch. [Indiana University Cyclotron Facility, 2401 Milo B Sampson Lane, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); Sokol, Paul E. [Indiana University Cyclotron Facility, 2401 Milo B Sampson Lane, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); Department of Physics, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    The nano size zinc oxide (ZnO) was successfully synthesized at low temperature solution method. The structural characterization, size and distribution of synthesized ZnO particles were performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and neutron scattering technique. The hybrid polymer-metal oxide bulk heterojunction solar cell has been fabricated by blending of ZnO and regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) through solution process and flow coating on the flexible substrate. The decrease in the photoluminescence (PL) emission intensity more than 79% for ZnO:P3HT composites film indicates high charge generation efficiency. The cell shows the V{sub oc} and I{sub sc} of 0.33 V and 6.5 mA/cm{sup 2}, respectively. The performance and stability of cell were investigated using UV illumination of white light. (author)

  12. Design and Fabrication of Hybrid Piezomotor Applied in Precision Positioning Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Dong-ming; DUAN Zhi-yong; MA Feng-ying; GONG Qiao-xia

    2007-01-01

    The motor's configuration is designed and the dynamic analysis equations based on its simplified model are deduced. A testing system utilizing grating is set up to test this new motor, and the theoretical movement principle for the motor is proved by experiments. The pulse waveforms are applied to drive the motor to move in steps. The motor has a displacement resolution of 10nm and a maximum velocity of 0.6 mm/s. It can drive a 200 g slider whose range is 20 mm. A one-dimensional precision positioning platform is fabricated by using the new hybrid piezoelectric motor. The prototype is made up of two servomotors and two piezoelectric motors, which are controlled automatically by a computer. The positioning range of the platform is 10 cm.

  13. Towards image guided robotic surgery: multi-arm tracking through hybrid localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwartowitz, David Morgan [Vanderbilt University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Nashville, TN (United States); Mayo Clinic, Biomedical Imaging Resource, Rochester, MN (United States); Miga, Michael I. [Vanderbilt University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Nashville, TN (United States); Herrell, S.D. [Vanderbilt University, Department of Urology, Nashville, TN (United States); Galloway, Robert L. [Vanderbilt University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Nashville, TN (United States); Vanderbilt University, Department of Surgery, Nashville, TN (United States); Vanderbilt University, Department of Neurological Surgery, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2009-05-15

    Use of the robotic assisted surgery has been increasing in recent years, due both the continuous increase in the number of applications and the clinical benefits that surgical robots can provide. Currently robotic assisted surgery relies on endoscopic video for navigation, providing only surface visualization, thus limiting subsurface vision. To be able to visualize and identify subsurface information, techniques in image-guidance can be used. As part of designing an image guidance system, all arms of the robot need to be co-localized in a common coordinate system. In order to track multiple arms in a common coordinate space, intrinsic and extrinsic tracking methods can be used. First, the intrinsic tracking of the daVinci, specifically of the setup joints is analyzed. Because of the inadequacy of the setup joints for co-localization a hybrid tracking method is designed and implemented to mitigate the inaccuracy of the setup joints. Different both optical and magnetic tracking methods are examined for setup joint localization. The hybrid localization method improved the localization accuracy of the setup joints. The inter-arm accuracy in hybrid localization was improved to 3.02 mm. This inter-arm error value was shown to be further reduced when the arms are co-registered, thus reducing common error. (orig.)

  14. A Novel Hybrid Intelligent Indoor Location Method for Mobile Devices by Zones Using Wi-Fi Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Castañón–Puga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of mobile devices in indoor spaces brings challenges to location methods. This work presents a hybrid intelligent method based on data mining and Type-2 fuzzy logic to locate mobile devices in an indoor space by zones using Wi-Fi signals from selected access points (APs. This approach takes advantage of wireless local area networks (WLANs over other types of architectures and implements the complete method in a mobile application using the developed tools. Besides, the proposed approach is validated by experimental data obtained from case studies and the cross-validation technique. For the purpose of generating the fuzzy rules that conform to the Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy system structure, a semi-supervised data mining technique called subtractive clustering is used. This algorithm finds centers of clusters from the radius map given by the collected signals from APs. Measurements of Wi-Fi signals can be noisy due to several factors mentioned in this work, so this method proposed the use of Type-2 fuzzy logic for modeling and dealing with such uncertain information.

  15. A Novel Hybrid Intelligent Indoor Location Method for Mobile Devices by Zones Using Wi-Fi Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañón-Puga, Manuel; Salazar, Abby Stephanie; Aguilar, Leocundo; Gaxiola-Pacheco, Carelia; Licea, Guillermo

    2015-12-02

    The increasing use of mobile devices in indoor spaces brings challenges to location methods. This work presents a hybrid intelligent method based on data mining and Type-2 fuzzy logic to locate mobile devices in an indoor space by zones using Wi-Fi signals from selected access points (APs). This approach takes advantage of wireless local area networks (WLANs) over other types of architectures and implements the complete method in a mobile application using the developed tools. Besides, the proposed approach is validated by experimental data obtained from case studies and the cross-validation technique. For the purpose of generating the fuzzy rules that conform to the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy system structure, a semi-supervised data mining technique called subtractive clustering is used. This algorithm finds centers of clusters from the radius map given by the collected signals from APs. Measurements of Wi-Fi signals can be noisy due to several factors mentioned in this work, so this method proposed the use of Type-2 fuzzy logic for modeling and dealing with such uncertain information.

  16. OC ToGo: bed site image integration into OpenClinica with mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, Daniel; Gehlen, Johan; Jonas, Stephan; Deserno, Thomas M.

    2014-03-01

    Imaging and image-based measurements nowadays play an essential role in controlled clinical trials, but electronic data capture (EDC) systems insufficiently support integration of captured images by mobile devices (e.g. smartphones and tablets). The web application OpenClinica has established as one of the world's leading EDC systems and is used to collect, manage and store data of clinical trials in electronic case report forms (eCRFs). In this paper, we present a mobile application for instantaneous integration of images into OpenClinica directly during examination on patient's bed site. The communication between the Android application and OpenClinica is based on the simple object access protocol (SOAP) and representational state transfer (REST) web services for metadata, and secure file transfer protocol (SFTP) for image transfer, respectively. OpenClinica's web services are used to query context information (e.g. existing studies, events and subjects) and to import data into the eCRF, as well as export of eCRF metadata and structural information. A stable image transfer is ensured and progress information (e.g. remaining time) visualized to the user. The workflow is demonstrated for a European multi-center registry, where patients with calciphylaxis disease are included. Our approach improves the EDC workflow, saves time, and reduces costs. Furthermore, data privacy is enhanced, since storage of private health data on the imaging devices becomes obsolete.

  17. In-situ spectroscopy and nanoscale electronics in superconductor-topological insulator hybrid devices: a combined thin film growth and quantum transport study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngabonziza, Prosper

    2016-01-01

    In this dissertation, we presented a combined thin film growth and quantum transport study on superconductor topological insulator hybrid devices. Understanding of the electronic properties of topological insulators (TIs), their preparation in high quality thin film form and their interaction with o

  18. A New Hybrid Fuzzy Intelligent Filter for Medical Image Noise Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaye Aliakbari Dehkordi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Medical imaging comprises different imaging modalities and processes to image human body for diagnostic and treatment purposes and, therefore has an important role in the improvement of public health in all population groups. In this paper, we present an intelligent hybrid noise reduction filter which is based on Neuro-Fuzzy systems. It is especially beneficial in medical image noise reduction. First stage we feed the input image into four general noise reduction filters in parallel. These general filters are: mean filter, median filter, weighted median filter and the adaptive median filter. At the second stage we give the output of the above filters as input into a Neuro-Fuzzy system. As expected, the ability of Neuro-Fuzzy systems in encoding human knowledge and using non-deterministic knowledge, allow us to achieve much more noise reduction from the input images. We implement the proposed method and use it for reduction of noise from a set of medical images affected with high noise density. Experimental results show that the idea is considerably effective.

  19. Study of asthenopia caused by the viewing of stereoscopic images: measurement by MEG and other devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagura, Hiroyuki; Nakajima, Masayuki

    2006-02-01

    Three-Dimensional (hereafter, 3D) imaging is one of the very powerful tools to help the people to understand the spatial relationship of objects. Various glassless 3D imaging technologies for 3D TV, personal computers, PDA and cellular phones have been developed. These devices are often viewed for long periods. Most of the people who watch 3D images for a long time, experience asthenopia or eye fatigue. This concerns a preliminary study that attempted to find the basic cause of the problem by using MEG and the other devices. Plans call for further neurophysiological study on this subject. The purpose of my study is to design a standard or guidelines for shooting, image processing, and displaying 3D images to create the suitable images with higher quality and less or no asthenopia. Although it is difficult to completely avoid asthenopia when viewing 3D images, it would be useful if guidelines for the production of such images could be established that reduced its severity. The final goal of my research is to formulate such guidelines with an objective basis derived from measurement results from MEG and other devices. In addition to the study I was in charge of the work to install the world largest glasses-free 3D display to Japan Pavilion Nagakute in the 2005 World Exposition, Aichi, Japan during March, 25th to September 25th, 2005. And several types of large screen for 3D movies were available for testing, the result of the test to this report are added.

  20. Uniform, High Efficiency, Hybrid CIGS Process with Application to Novel Device Structures: Annual Technical Report, 15 March 2005 - 14 March 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delahoy, A. E.; Chen, L.; Sang, B.

    2006-06-01

    One of the main Phase I objectives of this subcontract was for EPV to demonstrate 14%-efficient CIGS devices using a hybrid process. The processing was also required to have good control ability. These goals were successfully accomplished. It will be seen that during Phase I, we successfully developed a new, simplified hybrid process. A highlight of intensive work was the achievement of a 14.0% NREL-verified device at a CIGS thickness of 1.13 ..mu..m. The simplified hybrid process considerably reduces CIGS film formation time and offers the promise of being a truly cost-effective and manufacturable one. It is considered to be one of the more attractive CIGS processes in the industry.

  1. Multilevel and Hybrid Architecture for Device Abstraction and Context Information Management in Smart Home Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peláez, Víctor; González, Roberto; San Martín, Luis Ángel; Campos, Antonio; Lobato, Vanesa

    Hardware device management, and context information acquisition and abstraction are key factors to develop the ambient intelligent paradigm in smart homes. This work presents an architecture that addresses these two problems and provides a usable framework to develop applications easily. In contrast to other proposals, this work addresses performance issues specifically. Results show that the execution performance of the developed prototype is suitable for deployment in a real environment. In addition, the modular design of the system allows the user to develop applications using different techniques and different levels of abstraction.

  2. 76 FR 59737 - In the Matter of Certain Digital Photo Frames and Image Display Devices and Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Digital Photo Frames and Image Display Devices and Components Thereof... after importation of certain digital photo frames and image display devices and components thereof that..., the sale for importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain digital...

  3. 75 FR 8115 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices Having Image Capture or Display Functionality and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    .... 5,995,767, 5,774,131, and 6,281,895. 74 FR 14157 (2009). The complainant named Eastman Kodak Company... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices Having Image Capture or Display Functionality and... sale within the United States after importation of certain electronic devices having image capture...

  4. Bright hybrid white light-emitting quantum dot device with direct charge injection into quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jin; Xie, Jing-Wei; Wei, Xiang; Zhou, Jie; Chen, Chao-Ping; Wang, Zi-Xing; Jhun, Chulgyu

    2016-12-01

    A bright white quantum dot light-emitting device (white-QLED) with 4-[4-(1-phenyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)phenyl]-2- [3-(tri-phenylen-2-yl)phen-3-yl]quinazoline deposited on a thin film of mixed green/red-QDs as a bilayer emitter is fabricated. The optimized white-QLED exhibits a turn-on voltage of 3.2 V and a maximum brightness of 3660 cd/m2@8 V with the Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity in the region of white light. The ultra-thin layer of QDs is proved to be critical for the white light generation in the devices. Excitation mechanism in the white-QLEDs is investigated by the detailed analyses of electroluminescence (EL) spectral and the fluorescence lifetime of QDs. The results show that charge injection is a dominant mechanism of excitation in the white-QLED. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 21302122) and the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality, China (Grant No. 13ZR1416600).

  5. Surface modification with MK-2 organic dye in a ZnO/P3HT hybrid solar cell: Impact on device performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jin Kim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The photovoltaic performance of a hybrid ZnO/P3HT heterojunction was improved by modifying the device surface with the MK-2 dye. This organic dye enhanced the compatibility between the polymer and the metal oxide, increased the exciton separation efficiency, and improved the molecular ordering in the charge transport network. The resulting device displayed a substantial enhancement in the photocurrent, open circuit voltage, and fill factor, leading to a 12-fold increase in the power conversion efficiency relative to the unmodified device, from 0.13% to 1.53%.

  6. A newly developed removable dental device for fused 3-D MRI/Meg imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuboki, Takuo [Okayama Univ. (Japan). Dental School; Clark, G.T.; Akhtari, M.; Sutherling, W.W.

    1999-06-01

    Recently 3-D imaging techniques have been used to shed light on the role of abnormal brain functions in such conditions as nocturnal bruxism and orofacial pain. In order to achieve precise 3-D image fusion between magnetic resonance images (MRI) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) data, we developed a removable dental device which attaches rigidly to the teeth. Using this device, correlation of MEG and MRI data points was achieved by the co-registration of 3 or more fiducial points. Using a Polhemus 3-space digitizer the locations of the points were registered on MEG and then a small amount of high-water-content material was placed at each point for registering these same points on MRI. The mean reproducibility of interpoint distances, determined for 2 subjects, was between 0.59 and 0.82 mm. Using a Monte Carlo statistical analysis we determined that the accuracy of a posterior projection from the fiducial points to any point within the strata of the brain is {+-}3.3 mm. The value of this device is that it permits reasonably precise and repeatable co-registration of these points and yet it is easily removed and replaced by the patient. Obviously such a device could also be adapted for use in diagnosis and analysis of brain functions related with other various sensory and motor functions (e.g., taste, pain, clenching) in maxillofacial region using MRI and MEG. (author)

  7. Satellite Image Pansharpening Using a Hybrid Approach for Object-Based Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thanh Hoan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Intensity-Hue-Saturation (IHS, Brovey Transform (BT, and Smoothing-Filter-Based-Intensity Modulation (SFIM algorithms were used to pansharpen GeoEye-1 imagery. The pansharpened images were then segmented in Berkeley Image Seg using a wide range of segmentation parameters, and the spatial and spectral accuracy of image segments was measured. We found that pansharpening algorithms that preserve more of the spatial information of the higher resolution panchromatic image band (i.e., IHS and BT led to more spatially-accurate segmentations, while pansharpening algorithms that minimize the distortion of spectral information of the lower resolution multispectral image bands (i.e., SFIM led to more spectrally-accurate image segments. Based on these findings, we developed a new IHS-SFIM combination approach, specifically for object-based image analysis (OBIA, which combined the better spatial information of IHS and the more accurate spectral information of SFIM to produce image segments with very high spatial and spectral accuracy.

  8. A hybrid strategy of offline adaptive planning and online image guidance for prostate cancer radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yu; Wu, Qiuwen

    2010-04-01

    Offline adaptive radiotherapy (ART) has been used to effectively correct and compensate for prostate motion and reduce the required margin. The efficacy depends on the characteristics of the patient setup error and interfraction motion through the whole treatment; specifically, systematic errors are corrected and random errors are compensated for through the margins. In online image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) of prostate cancer, the translational setup error and inter-fractional prostate motion are corrected through pre-treatment imaging and couch correction at each fraction. However, the rotation and deformation of the target are not corrected and only accounted for with margins in treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the offline ART strategy is necessary for an online IGRT protocol and to evaluate the benefit of the hybrid strategy. First, to investigate the rationale of the hybrid strategy, 592 cone-beam-computed tomography (CBCT) images taken before and after each fraction for an online IGRT protocol from 16 patients were analyzed. Specifically, the characteristics of prostate rotation were analyzed. It was found that there exist systematic inter-fractional prostate rotations, and they are patient specific. These rotations, if not corrected, are persistent through the treatment fraction, and rotations detected in early fractions are representative of those in later fractions. These findings suggest that the offline adaptive replanning strategy is beneficial to the online IGRT protocol with further margin reductions. Second, to quantitatively evaluate the benefit of the hybrid strategy, 412 repeated helical CT scans from 25 patients during the course of treatment were included in the replanning study. Both low-risk patients (LRP, clinical target volume, CTV = prostate) and intermediate-risk patients (IRP, CTV = prostate + seminal vesicles) were included in the simulation. The contours of prostate and seminal vesicles were

  9. A hybrid strategy of offline adaptive planning and online image guidance for prostate cancer radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei Yu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wayne State University, 4100 John R, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Wu Qiuwen [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, 3601 West 13 Mile Rd, Royal Oak, MI 48073 (United States)], E-mail: Qiuwen.Wu@Duke.edu

    2010-04-21

    Offline adaptive radiotherapy (ART) has been used to effectively correct and compensate for prostate motion and reduce the required margin. The efficacy depends on the characteristics of the patient setup error and interfraction motion through the whole treatment; specifically, systematic errors are corrected and random errors are compensated for through the margins. In online image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) of prostate cancer, the translational setup error and inter-fractional prostate motion are corrected through pre-treatment imaging and couch correction at each fraction. However, the rotation and deformation of the target are not corrected and only accounted for with margins in treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the offline ART strategy is necessary for an online IGRT protocol and to evaluate the benefit of the hybrid strategy. First, to investigate the rationale of the hybrid strategy, 592 cone-beam-computed tomography (CBCT) images taken before and after each fraction for an online IGRT protocol from 16 patients were analyzed. Specifically, the characteristics of prostate rotation were analyzed. It was found that there exist systematic inter-fractional prostate rotations, and they are patient specific. These rotations, if not corrected, are persistent through the treatment fraction, and rotations detected in early fractions are representative of those in later fractions. These findings suggest that the offline adaptive replanning strategy is beneficial to the online IGRT protocol with further margin reductions. Second, to quantitatively evaluate the benefit of the hybrid strategy, 412 repeated helical CT scans from 25 patients during the course of treatment were included in the replanning study. Both low-risk patients (LRP, clinical target volume, CTV = prostate) and intermediate-risk patients (IRP, CTV = prostate + seminal vesicles) were included in the simulation. The contours of prostate and seminal vesicles were

  10. An X-ray imaging device based on a GEM detector with delay-line readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Li, Cheng; Sun, Yong-Jie; Shao, Ming

    2010-01-01

    An X-ray imaging device based on a triple-GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) detector, a fast delay-line circuit with 700 MHz cut-off frequency and two dimensional readout strips with 150 μm width on the top and 250 μm width on the bottom, is designed and tested. The localization information is derived from the propagation time of the induced signals on the readout strips. This device has a good spatial resolution of 150 μm and works stably at an intensity of 105 Hz/mm2 with 8 keV X-rays.

  11. X-ray Imaging Using a Hybrid Photon Counting GaAs Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, C; Göppert, R; Heijne, Erik H M; Ludwig, J; Meddeler, G; Mikulec, B; Pernigotti, E; Rogalla, M; Runge, K; Smith, K M; Snoeys, W; Söldner-Rembold, S; Watt, J

    1999-01-01

    The performance of hybrid GaAs pixel detectors as X-ray imaging sensors were investigated at room temperature. These hybrids consist of 300 mu-m thick GaAs pixel detectors, flip-chip bonded to a CMOS Single Photon Counting Chip (PCC). This chip consists of a matrix of 64 x 64 identical square pixels (170 mu-m x 170 mu-m) and covers a total area of 1.2 cm**2. The electronics in each cell comprises a preamplifier, a discriminator with a 3-bit threshold adjust and a 15-bit counter. The detector is realized by an array of Schottky diodes processed on semi-insulating LEC-GaAs bulk material. An IV-charcteristic and a detector bias voltage scan showed that the detector can be operated with voltages around 200 V. Images of various objects were taken by using a standard X-ray tube for dental diagnostics. The signal to noise ratio (SNR) was also determined. The applications of these imaging systems range from medical applications like digital mammography or dental X-ray diagnostics to non destructive material testing (...

  12. Applications of Secondary Electron Composition Contrast Imaging Method in Microstructure Studies on Heterojunction Semiconductor Devices and Multilayer Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The principle, imaging condition and experimental method for obtaining high resolution composition contrast in secondary electron image were described. A new technique of specimen preparation for secondary electron composition contrast observation was introduced and discussed. By using multilayer P+-Si1-xGex/p-Si heterojunction internal photoemission infrared detector as an example, the applications of secondary electron composition contrast imaging in microstructure studies on heterojunction semiconducting materials and devices were stated. The characteristics of the image were compared with the ordinary transmission electron diffraction contrast image. The prospects of applications of the imaging method in heterojunction semiconductor devices and multilayer materials are also discussed.

  13. High Cost Performance Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Material for Electro-optic Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jie; ZHU Gui-Hua; SUN Xiao-Qiang; LI Tong; GAO Wei-Nan; ZHANG Da-Ming; HOU A-lin

    2009-01-01

    We report a low-cost electro-optic (EO) sol-gel material with large EO coefficient and excellent poling stability for EO devices. Disperse red 1 (DR1) chromophore is doped in the three-dimensional silicon dioxide/titanium dioxide network possessing a high γ33 (88pm/V at 1300 nm wavelength and 71 pm/V at 1550nm wavelength). Favourable poled stability (less than 5% relaxed after 2500 hours at 80 ℃) and low absorption are demonstrated. Strip-loaded waveguide Mach-Zehnder (M-Z) modulators are implemented based on this synthesized EO material, showing 7 V half-wave voltage and less than 9dB insertion loss at 1550nm wavelength.

  14. Hermetically sealable package for hybrid solid-state electronic devices and the like

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Wilson N. (Inventor); Gray, Ormal E. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A light-weight, inexpensively fabricated, hermetically sealable, repairable package for small electronic or electromechanical units, having multiple connections, is described. A molded ring frame of polyamide-imide plastic (Torlon) is attached along one edge to a base plate formed of a highly heat conducting material, such as aluminum or copper. Bores are placed through a base plate within the area of the edge surface of ring frame which result in an attachment of the ring frame to the base plate during molding. Electrical leads are molded into the ring frame. The leads are L-shaped gold-plated copper wires imbedded within widened portions of the side wall of the ring frame. Within the plastic ring frame wall the leads are bent (typically, though not necessarily at 90 deg) so that they project into the interior volume of the ring frame for connection to the solid state devices.

  15. Potential of hybrid adaptive filtering in inflammatory lesion detection from capsule endoscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charisis, Vasileios S; Hadjileontiadis, Leontios J

    2016-10-21

    A new feature extraction technique for the detection of lesions created from mucosal inflammations in Crohn's disease, based on wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) images processing is presented here. More specifically, a novel filtering process, namely Hybrid Adaptive Filtering (HAF), was developed for efficient extraction of lesion-related structural/textural characteristics from WCE images, by employing Genetic Algorithms to the Curvelet-based representation of images. Additionally, Differential Lacunarity (DLac) analysis was applied for feature extraction from the HAF-filtered images. The resulted scheme, namely HAF-DLac, incorporates support vector machines for robust lesion recognition performance. For the training and testing of HAF-DLac, an 800-image database was used, acquired from 13 patients who undertook WCE examinations, where the abnormal cases were grouped into mild and severe, according to the severity of the depicted lesion, for a more extensive evaluation of the performance. Experimental results, along with comparison with other related efforts, have shown that the HAF-DLac approach evidently outperforms them in the field of WCE image analysis for automated lesion detection, providing higher classification results, up to 93.8% (accuracy), 95.2% (sensitivity), 92.4% (specificity) and 92.6% (precision). The promising performance of HAF-DLac paves the way for a complete computer-aided diagnosis system that could support physicians' clinical practice.

  16. Traceable working standards with SI units of radiance for characterizing the measurement performance of investigational clinical NIRF imaging devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Banghe; Rasmussen, John C.; Litorja, Maritoni; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2017-03-01

    All medical devices for Food and Drug market approval require specifications of performance based upon International System of Units (SI) or units derived from SI for reasons of traceability. Recently, near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging devices of a variety of designs have emerged on the market and in investigational clinical studies. Yet the design of devices used in the clinical studies vary widely, suggesting variable device performance. Device performance depends upon optimal excitation of NIRF imaging agents, rejection of backscattered excitation and ambient light, and selective collection of fluorescence emanating from the fluorophore. There remains no traceable working standards with SI units of radiance to enable prediction that a given molecular imaging agent can be detected in humans by a given NIRF imaging device. Furthermore, as technologies evolve and as NIRF imaging device components change, there remains no standardized means to track device improvements over time and establish clinical performance without involving clinical trials, often costly. In this study, we deployed a methodology to calibrate luminescent radiance of a stable, solid phantom in SI units of mW/cm2/sr for characterizing the measurement performance of ICCD and IsCMOS camera based NIRF imaging devices, such as signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast. The methodology allowed determination of superior SNR of the ICCD over the IsCMOS system; comparable contrast of ICCD and IsCMOS depending upon binning strategies.

  17. Hybrid Data Hiding Scheme Using Right-Most Digit Replacement and Adaptive Least Significant Bit for Digital Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hussain

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of image steganographic methods considers three main key issues: high embedding capacity, good visual symmetry/quality, and security. In this paper, a hybrid data hiding method combining the right-most digit replacement (RMDR with an adaptive least significant bit (ALSB is proposed to provide not only high embedding capacity but also maintain a good visual symmetry. The cover-image is divided into lower texture (symmetry patterns and higher texture (asymmetry patterns areas and these textures determine the selection of RMDR and ALSB methods, respectively, according to pixel symmetry. This paper has three major contributions. First, the proposed hybrid method enhanced the embedding capacity due to efficient ALSB utilization in the higher texture areas of cover images. Second, the proposed hybrid method maintains the high visual quality because RMDR has the closest selection process to generate the symmetry between stego and cover pixels. Finally, the proposed hybrid method is secure against statistical regular or singular (RS steganalysis and pixel difference histogram steganalysis because RMDR is capable of evading the risk of RS detection attacks due to pixel digits replacement instead of bits. Extensive experimental tests (over 1500+ cover images are conducted with recent least significant bit (LSB-based hybrid methods and it is demonstrated that the proposed hybrid method has a high embedding capacity (800,019 bits while maintaining good visual symmetry (39.00% peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR.

  18. Extraction of handwritten areas from colored image of bank checks by an hybrid method

    CERN Document Server

    Haboubi, Sofiene

    2011-01-01

    One of the first step in the realization of an automatic system of check recognition is the extraction of the handwritten area. We propose in this paper an hybrid method to extract these areas. This method is based on digit recognition by Fourier descriptors and different steps of colored image processing . It requires the bank recognition of its code which is located in the check marking band as well as the handwritten color recognition by the method of difference of histograms. The areas extraction is then carried out by the use of some mathematical morphology tools.

  19. Hybrid phase retrieval approach for reconstruction of in-line digital holograms without twin image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Fucai; Wang, Yunxin

    2011-09-01

    A hybrid phase retrieval approach is proposed to address the twin image problem in the reconstruction of in-line digital holograms. The approach is a variant iterative transform algorithm and exploits two mostly natural constraints of a sample, namely, the finite transmission and the finite support. Here, the initial sample support estimate is first refined by applying the finite transmission constraint with phase flipping. The approach provides better reconstruction than if only the finite transmission constraint is used and improve the convergence rate of Fienup's algorithm owing to a better estimate of support especially for strong samples with complex structures. Both simulation and experimental results are presented.

  20. High-resolution vascular tissue characterization in mice using 55MHz ultrasound hybrid imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Ahmed M; Sandoval, Cesar; Teng, Bunyen; Schnermann, Jurgen B; Martin, Karen H; Mustafa, S Jamal; Mukdadi, Osama M

    2013-03-01

    Ultrasound and Duplex ultrasonography in particular are routinely used to diagnose cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, these techniques may not be able to characterize vascular tissue compositional changes due to CVD. This work describes an ultrasound-based hybrid imaging technique that can be used for vascular tissue characterization and the diagnosis of atherosclerosis. Ultrasound radiofrequency (RF) data were acquired and processed in time, frequency, and wavelet domains to extract six parameters including time integrated backscatter (T(IB)), time variance (T(var)), time entropy (T(E)), frequency integrated backscatter (F(IB)), wavelet root mean square value (W(rms)), and wavelet integrated backscatter (W(IB)). Each parameter was used to reconstruct an image co-registered to morphological B-scan. The combined set of hybrid images were used to characterize vascular tissue in vitro and in vivo using three mouse models including control (C57BL/6), and atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-knockout (APOE-KO) and APOE/A(1) adenosine receptor double knockout (DKO) mice. The technique was tested using high-frequency ultrasound including single-element (center frequency=55 MHz) and commercial array (center frequency=40 MHz) systems providing superior spatial resolutions of 24 μm and 40 μm, respectively. Atherosclerotic vascular lesions in the APOE-KO mouse exhibited the highest values (contrast) of -10.11±1.92 dB, -12.13±2.13 dB, -7.54±1.45 dB, -5.10±1.06 dB, -5.25±0.94 dB, and -10.23±2.12 dB in T(IB), T(var), T(E), F(IB), W(rms), W(IB) hybrid images (n=10, p<0.05), respectively. Control segments of normal vascular tissue showed the lowest values of -20.20±2.71 dB, -22.54±4.54 dB, -14.94±2.05 dB, -9.64±1.34 dB, -10.20±1.27 dB, and -19.36±3.24 dB in same hybrid images (n=6, p<0.05). Results from both histology and optical images showed good agreement with ultrasound findings within a maximum