WorldWideScience

Sample records for hybrid ic structures

  1. Virtual design and qualification of IC backend structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silfhout, van R.B.R.; Sluis, van der O.; Driel, van W.D.; Janssen, J.H.J.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2006-01-01

    For Integrated Circuit (IC) wafer backend development, process developers have to design robust backend structures that guarantee both functionality and reliability during waferfab processes, packaging, qualification tests and lifetime. Figure 1 shows a simplified diagram for the design (and

  2. Computer modeling of magnetic structure for IC-35 cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alenitskij, Yu.G.; Morozov, N.A.

    1998-01-01

    An extensive series of calculations has been carried out in order to design the magnetic structure of the IC-35 cyclotron for radioisotope production. The calculations were carried out by 2-D POISCR code. The average magnetic field and its variation were produced with the help of two different calculation models. The parameters of the cyclotron magnetic system are presented

  3. Lower-hybrid (LH) oscillitons evolved from ion-acoustic (IA)/ion-cyclotron (IC) solitary waves: effect of electron inertia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J. Z. G.; Hirose, A.

    2010-05-01

    Lower-hybrid (LH) oscillitons reveal one aspect of geocomplexities. They have been observed by rockets and satellites in various regions in geospace. They are extraordinary solitary waves the envelop of which has a relatively longer period, while the amplitude is modulated violently by embedded oscillations of much shorter periods. We employ a two-fluid (electron-ion) slab model in a Cartesian geometry to expose the excitation of LH oscillitons. Relying on a set of self-similar equations, we first produce, as a reference, the well-known three shapes (sinusoidal, sawtooth, and spiky or bipolar) of parallel-propagating ion-acoustic (IA) solitary structures in the absence of electron inertia, along with their Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) power spectra. The study is then expanded to illustrate distorted structures of the IA modes by taking into account all the three components of variables. In this case, the ion-cyclotron (IC) mode comes into play. Furthermore, the electron inertia is incorporated in the equations. It is found that the inertia modulates the coupled IA/IC envelops to produce LH oscillitons. The newly excited structures are characterized by a normal low-frequency IC solitary envelop embedded by high-frequency, small-amplitude LH oscillations which are superimposed upon by higher-frequency but smaller-amplitude IA ingredients. The oscillitons are shown to be sensitive to several input parameters (e.g., the Mach number, the electron-ion mass/temperature ratios, and the electron thermal speed). Interestingly, whenever a LH oscilliton is triggered, there occurs a density cavity the depth of which can reach up to 20% of the background density, along with density humps on both sides of the cavity. Unexpectedly, a mode at much lower frequencies is also found beyond the IC band. Future studies are finally highlighted. The appendices give a general dispersion relation and specific ones of linear modes relevant to all the nonlinear modes encountered in the text.

  4. Application of Hybrid IC's to the Automotive Electronics Market in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Eckart von Roda

    1981-01-01

    In the last few years hybrids have been increasingly used in automotive electronics in Europe. With examples from the BOSCH and BLAUPUNKT production range their application in regulators, breakerless ignition modules, electronically-controlled fuel injection systems and car radios is illustrated. The elements and techniques used to assemble the hybrids, and the advantages which can be gained are discussed.

  5. Structural changes and intermolecular interactions of filled ice Ic structure for hydrogen hydrate under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, S; Hirai, H; Kawamura, T; Yamamoto, Y; Yagi, T

    2010-01-01

    High-pressure experiments of hydrogen hydrate were performed using a diamond anvil cell under conditions of 0.1-44.2 GPa and at room temperature. Also, high pressure Raman studies of solid hydrogen were performed in the pressure range of 0.1-43.7 GPa. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) for hydrogen hydrate revealed that a known high-pressure structure, filled ice Ic structure, of hydrogen hydrate transformed to a new high-pressure structure at approximately 35-40 GPa. A comparison of the Raman spectroscopy of a vibron for hydrogen molecules between hydrogen hydrate and solid hydrogen revealed that the extraction of hydrogen molecules from hydrogen hydrate occurred above 20 GPa. Also, the Raman spectra of a roton revealed that the rotation of hydrogen molecules in hydrogen hydrate was suppressed at around 20 GPa and that the rotation recovered under higher pressure. These results indicated that remarkable intermolecular interactions in hydrogen hydrate between neighboring hydrogen molecules and between guest hydrogen molecules and host water molecules might occur. These intermolecular interactions could produce the stability of hydrogen hydrate.

  6. Hybrid Simulation of Composite Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh, Jacob Herold

    experiment. The technique has primarily been used within earthquake engineering but many other fields of engineering have utilized the method with benefit. However, these previous efforts have focused on structures with a simple boundary between the numerical and physical substructure i.e. few degrees...... the transfer system and the control and monitoring techniques in the shared boundary is therefore a key issue in this type of hybrid simulation. During the research, hybrid simulation platforms have been programmed capable of running on different time scales with advanced control and monitoring techniques...

  7. Structural characterization and monitoring of heritage constructions: contributions of IC-LESE-FEUP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arêde, Antonio; Varum, Humberto; Vila-Pouca, Nelson; Guedes, João; Romão, Xavier; Paupério, Esmeralda; Cosa, Anibal

    2016-01-01

    The need for interventions in heritage constructions often calls for deciding whether the structure can be kept in the existing conditions or should it be retrofitted by introducing more or less significant modifications. Still, sustainable interventions in heritage constructions can only be achieved if there is adequate knowledge about their state of conservation. To obtain such knowledge, reliable structural survey and diagnosis procedures need to be employed. In this context, structural monitoring can be particularly helpful in cases where the information obtained from the structural survey or from other stages of the analysis is insufficient to establish a final diagnosis. Over the last 15 years, the Construction Institute (IC) and the Laboratory for Earthquake and Structural Engineering (LESE) of the Faculty of Engineering of the University of Porto (FEUP) were involved in the survey and monitoring activities o f numerous heritage structures for private institutions as well as for governmental stake-holders managing cultural heritage in Portugal. This work describes the structural survey/diagnosis and the monitoring systems supporting the decision about the need for interventions for three heritage constructions .

  8. Identification of Large-Scale Structure Fluctuations in IC Engines using POD-Based Conditional Averaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buhl Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cycle-to-Cycle Variations (CCV in IC engines is a well-known phenomenon and the definition and quantification is well-established for global quantities such as the mean pressure. On the other hand, the definition of CCV for local quantities, e.g. the velocity or the mixture distribution, is less straightforward. This paper proposes a new method to identify and calculate cyclic variations of the flow field in IC engines emphasizing the different contributions from large-scale energetic (coherent structures, identified by a combination of Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD and conditional averaging, and small-scale fluctuations. Suitable subsets required for the conditional averaging are derived from combinations of the the POD coefficients of the second and third mode. Within each subset, the velocity is averaged and these averages are compared to the ensemble-averaged velocity field, which is based on all cycles. The resulting difference of the subset-average and the global-average is identified as a cyclic fluctuation of the coherent structures. Then, within each subset, remaining fluctuations are obtained from the difference between the instantaneous fields and the corresponding subset average. The proposed methodology is tested for two data sets obtained from scale resolving engine simulations. For the first test case, the numerical database consists of 208 independent samples of a simplified engine geometry. For the second case, 120 cycles for the well-established Transparent Combustion Chamber (TCC benchmark engine are considered. For both applications, the suitability of the method to identify the two contributions to CCV is discussed and the results are directly linked to the observed flow field structures.

  9. A Model for the Dynamical and Ionization Structure of Planetary Nebula IC 418

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ghanbari

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available   The interacting two winds model and a spherical density distribution function are introduced to study the dynamical and ionization structure of the planetary nebula IC 418. A fast wind with a mechanical luminousity  2/34×1034erg.s-1 of interacts with a super wind with a mass-loss rate of  2×10-5M(°yr-1 and  a velocity of 10 , and produces a dense and luminous medium.   In this model, the expansion velocities of OI and HI lines are predicted to be 11 and 10.5kms-1 , respectively. The calculated dynamical time-scale 1033yr for the nebula is in good agreement with the evolution time of the central star after the interaction of the two winds. Our calculations give a luminosity  0.05M(°of for the central star

  10. In-situ volumetric topography of IC chips for defect detection using infrared confocal measurement with active structured light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Liang-Chia; Le, Manh-Trung; Phuc, Dao Cong; Lin, Shyh-Tsong

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the development of in-situ integrated circuit (IC) chip defect detection techniques for automated clipping detection by proposing infrared imaging and full-field volumetric topography. IC chip inspection, especially held during or post IC packaging, has become an extremely critical procedure in IC fabrication to assure manufacturing quality and reduce production costs. To address this, in the article, microscopic infrared imaging using an electromagnetic light spectrum that ranges from 0.9 to 1.7 µm is developed to perform volumetric inspection of IC chips, in order to identify important defects such as silicon clipping, cracking or peeling. The main difficulty of infrared (IR) volumetric imaging lies in its poor image contrast, which makes it incapable of achieving reliable inspection, as infrared imaging is sensitive to temperature difference but insensitive to geometric variance of materials, resulting in difficulty detecting and quantifying defects precisely. To overcome this, 3D volumetric topography based on 3D infrared confocal measurement with active structured light, as well as light refractive matching principles, is developed to detect defects the size, shape and position of defects in ICs. The experimental results show that the algorithm is effective and suitable for in-situ defect detection of IC semiconductor packaging. The quality of defect detection, such as measurement repeatability and accuracy, is addressed. Confirmed by the experimental results, the depth measurement resolution can reach up to 0.3 µm, and the depth measurement uncertainty with one standard deviation was verified to be less than 1.0% of the full-scale depth-measuring range. (paper)

  11. Hybridization of powertrain and downsizing of IC engine - A way to reduce fuel consumption and pollutant emissions - Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katrasnik, Tomaz

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this two part paper is to present the results of extensive simulation and analytical analysis of the energy conversion efficiency in parallel hybrid powertrains. The simulation approach is based on an accurate and fast forward facing simulation model of a parallel hybrid powertrain and a conventional internal combustion engine powertrain. The model of the ICE is based on a verified dynamic model that provides sufficiently small time steps to model adequately the dynamics of electric systems during transient test cycles. Models of the electrical devices enable computation of the instantaneous energy consumption, production and storage as well as computation of the instantaneous energy losses and component efficiencies. Moreover, the paper offers an analytical approach based on the energy balance in order to analyze and predict the energy conversion efficiency of hybrid powertrains. The analysis covers a broad range of parallel hybrid powertrain configurations from mild to full hybrids. Combined simulation and analytical analysis enables deep insight into the energy conversion phenomena in hybrid powertrains. The paper reveals the conditions and influences that lead to improved fuel economy of hybrid powertrains with the emphasis on determining the optimum hybridization ratio. The theoretical background, simulation program and brief analysis of one test cycle are presented in Part 1, whereas the extensive analysis and parametric study is presented in the companion paper, Part 2

  12. Novel structural hybrids of pyrazolobenzothiazines with benzimidazoles as cholinesterase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Sana; Zaib, Sumera; Ahmad, Matloob; Gardiner, John M; Ahmad, Aqeel; Hameed, Abdul; Furtmann, Norbert; Gütschow, Michael; Bajorath, Jürgen; Iqbal, Jamshed

    2014-05-06

    Two series of novel pyrazolobenzothiazine-based hybrid compounds were efficiently synthesized starting from saccharin sodium salt. Pyrazolo[4,3-c][1,2]benzothiazine scaffolds were N-arylated by using p-fluorobenzaldehyde, followed by the incorporation of a benzimidazole or similar ring systems by treatment with arylenediamines. These phenylene-connected hybrid compounds were investigated as potential inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). Compounds 12d and 12k were the most potent AChE inhibitors with IC50 values of 11 and 13 nM, respectively, while 6j (IC50 = 17 nM) proved to be the most active inhibitor against BuChE with remarkable selectivity for BuChE over AChE. Molecular docking studies were also performed on human AChE and BuChE to suggest possible binding modes in which the inhibitor's extended structure is accommodated along the active site gorge of both enzymes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. The H I chronicles of little things BCDs II: The origin of IC 10's H I structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, Trisha; Simpson, Caroline E.; Pokhrel, Nau Raj [Department of Physics, Florida International University, 11200 SW 8th Street, CP 204, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Elmegreen, Bruce G. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, PO Box 218, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Johnson, Megan [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 Australia (Australia); Nidever, David L., E-mail: trisha.l.ashley@nasa.gov, E-mail: simpsonc@fiu.edu, E-mail: npokh001@fiu.edu, E-mail: bge@us.ibm.com, E-mail: megan.johnson@csiro.au, E-mail: dnidever@umich.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI, 48109 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we analyze Very Large Array (VLA) telescope and Green Bank Telescope (GBT) atomic hydrogen (H I) data for the LITTLE THINGS (Local Irregulars That Trace Luminosity Extremes, The H I Nearby Galaxy Survey; https://science.nrao.edu/science/surveys/littlethings) blue compact dwarf galaxy IC 10. The VLA data allow us to study the detailed H I kinematics and morphology of IC 10 at high resolution while the GBT data allow us to search the surrounding area at high sensitivity for tenuous H I. IC 10's H I appears highly disturbed in both the VLA and GBT H I maps with a kinematically distinct northern H I extension, a kinematically distinct southern plume, and several spurs in the VLA data that do not follow the general kinematics of the main disk. We discuss three possible origins of its H I structure and kinematics in detail: a current interaction with a nearby companion, an advanced merger, and accretion of intergalactic medium. We find that IC 10 is most likely an advanced merger or a galaxy undergoing accretion.

  14. The H I chronicles of little things BCDs II: The origin of IC 10's H I structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley, Trisha; Simpson, Caroline E.; Pokhrel, Nau Raj; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Johnson, Megan; Nidever, David L.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we analyze Very Large Array (VLA) telescope and Green Bank Telescope (GBT) atomic hydrogen (H I) data for the LITTLE THINGS (Local Irregulars That Trace Luminosity Extremes, The H I Nearby Galaxy Survey; https://science.nrao.edu/science/surveys/littlethings) blue compact dwarf galaxy IC 10. The VLA data allow us to study the detailed H I kinematics and morphology of IC 10 at high resolution while the GBT data allow us to search the surrounding area at high sensitivity for tenuous H I. IC 10's H I appears highly disturbed in both the VLA and GBT H I maps with a kinematically distinct northern H I extension, a kinematically distinct southern plume, and several spurs in the VLA data that do not follow the general kinematics of the main disk. We discuss three possible origins of its H I structure and kinematics in detail: a current interaction with a nearby companion, an advanced merger, and accretion of intergalactic medium. We find that IC 10 is most likely an advanced merger or a galaxy undergoing accretion.

  15. Comparative evaluation of structural integrity for ITER blanket shield block based on SDC-IC and ASME code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Hee-Jin [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahak-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Min-Su, E-mail: msha12@nfri.re.kr [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahak-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sa-Woong; Jung, Hun-Chea [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahak-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Duck-Hoi [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon - CS 90046, 13067 Sant Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The procedure of structural integrity and fatigue assessment was described. • Case studies were performed according to both SDC-IC and ASME Sec. • III codes The conservatism of the ASME code was demonstrated. • The study only covers the specifically comparable case about fatigue usage factor. - Abstract: The ITER blanket Shield Block is a bulk structure to absorb radiation and to provide thermal shielding to vacuum vessel and external vessel components, therefore the most significant load for Shield Block is the thermal load. In the previous study, the thermo-mechanical analysis has been performed under the inductive operation as representative loading condition. And the fatigue evaluations were conducted to assure structural integrity for Shield Block according to Structural Design Criteria for In-vessel Components (SDC-IC) which provided by ITER Organization (IO) based on the code of RCC-MR. Generally, ASME code (especially, B&PV Sec. III) is widely applied for design of nuclear components, and is usually well known as more conservative than other specific codes. For the view point of the fatigue assessment, ASME code is very conservative compared with SDC-IC in terms of the reflected K{sub e} factor, design fatigue curve and other factors. Therefore, an accurate fatigue assessment comparison is needed to measure of conservatism. The purpose of this study is to provide the fatigue usage comparison resulting from the specified operating conditions shall be evaluated for Shield Block based on both SDC-IC and ASME code, and to discuss the conservatism of the results.

  16. Comparative evaluation of structural integrity for ITER blanket shield block based on SDC-IC and ASME code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Hee-Jin; Ha, Min-Su; Kim, Sa-Woong; Jung, Hun-Chea; Kim, Duck-Hoi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The procedure of structural integrity and fatigue assessment was described. • Case studies were performed according to both SDC-IC and ASME Sec. • III codes The conservatism of the ASME code was demonstrated. • The study only covers the specifically comparable case about fatigue usage factor. - Abstract: The ITER blanket Shield Block is a bulk structure to absorb radiation and to provide thermal shielding to vacuum vessel and external vessel components, therefore the most significant load for Shield Block is the thermal load. In the previous study, the thermo-mechanical analysis has been performed under the inductive operation as representative loading condition. And the fatigue evaluations were conducted to assure structural integrity for Shield Block according to Structural Design Criteria for In-vessel Components (SDC-IC) which provided by ITER Organization (IO) based on the code of RCC-MR. Generally, ASME code (especially, B&PV Sec. III) is widely applied for design of nuclear components, and is usually well known as more conservative than other specific codes. For the view point of the fatigue assessment, ASME code is very conservative compared with SDC-IC in terms of the reflected K_e factor, design fatigue curve and other factors. Therefore, an accurate fatigue assessment comparison is needed to measure of conservatism. The purpose of this study is to provide the fatigue usage comparison resulting from the specified operating conditions shall be evaluated for Shield Block based on both SDC-IC and ASME code, and to discuss the conservatism of the results.

  17. Euro hybrid materials and structures. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausmann, Joachim M.; Siebert, Marc (eds.)

    2016-08-01

    In order to use the materials as best as possible, several different materials are usually mixed in one component, especially in the field of lightweight design. If these combinations of materials are joined inherently, they are called multi material design products or hybrid structures. These place special requirements on joining technology, design methods and manufacturing and are challenging in other aspects, too. The eight chapters with manuscripts of the presentations are: Chapter 1- Interface: What happens in the interface between the two materials? Chapter 2 - Corrosion and Residual Stresses: How about galvanic corrosion and thermal residual stresses in the contact zone of different materials? Chapter 3 - Characterization: How to characterize and test hybrid materials? Chapter 4 - Design: What is a suitable design and dimensioning method for hybrid structures? Chapter 5 - Machining and Processing: How to machine and process hybrid structures and materials? Chapter 6 - Component Manufacturing: What is a suitable manufacturing route for hybrid structures? Chapter 7 - Non-Destructive Testing and Quality Assurance: How to assure the quality of material and structures? Chapter 8 - Joining: How to join components of different materials?.

  18. Euro hybrid materials and structures. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausmann, Joachim M.; Siebert, Marc

    2016-01-01

    In order to use the materials as best as possible, several different materials are usually mixed in one component, especially in the field of lightweight design. If these combinations of materials are joined inherently, they are called multi material design products or hybrid structures. These place special requirements on joining technology, design methods and manufacturing and are challenging in other aspects, too. The eight chapters with manuscripts of the presentations are: Chapter 1- Interface: What happens in the interface between the two materials? Chapter 2 - Corrosion and Residual Stresses: How about galvanic corrosion and thermal residual stresses in the contact zone of different materials? Chapter 3 - Characterization: How to characterize and test hybrid materials? Chapter 4 - Design: What is a suitable design and dimensioning method for hybrid structures? Chapter 5 - Machining and Processing: How to machine and process hybrid structures and materials? Chapter 6 - Component Manufacturing: What is a suitable manufacturing route for hybrid structures? Chapter 7 - Non-Destructive Testing and Quality Assurance: How to assure the quality of material and structures? Chapter 8 - Joining: How to join components of different materials?

  19. Hybrid Laser Welding of Large Steel Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrokhi, Farhang

    Manufacturing of large steel structures requires the processing of thick-section steels. Welding is one of the main processes during the manufacturing of such structures and includes a significant part of the production costs. One of the ways to reduce the production costs is to use the hybrid...... laser welding technology instead of the conventional arc welding methods. However, hybrid laser welding is a complicated process that involves several complex physical phenomena that are highly coupled. Understanding of the process is very important for obtaining quality welds in an efficient way....... This thesis investigates two different challenges related to the hybrid laser welding of thick-section steel plates. Employing empirical and analytical approaches, this thesis attempts to provide further knowledge towards obtaining quality welds in the manufacturing of large steel structures....

  20. Hybrid Tower, Designing Soft Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Tamke, Martin; Holden Deleuran, Anders

    2015-01-01

    and constraint solvers and more rigorous Finite Element methods supporting respectively design analysis and form finding and performance evaluation and verification. The second investigation describes the inter-scalar feedback loops between design at the macro scale (overall structural behaviour), meso scale...... (membrane reinforcement strategy) and micro scale (design of bespoke textile membrane). The paper concludes with a post construction analysis. Comparing structural and environmental data, the predicted and the actual performance of tower are evaluated and discussed....

  1. Effects of coupling and asymmetries on load resilience of IC ITER-like structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosia, G.; Bremond, S.; Colas, L.

    2005-01-01

    ITER-like structures feature an intrinsic resilience to load variations, which is related to the symmetry of the currents in the two branches of the structure. It has been suggested that the effects of coupling between the array elements would significantly impair the load resilience of the structure. In this paper the effect of inter strap coupling and of however induced electrical array asymmetries on the structure load resilience are quantitatively examined

  2. Unique structure of iC3b resolved at a resolution of 24 Å by 3D-electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcorlo, Martin; Martínez-Barricarte, Ruben; Fernández, Francisco J; Rodríguez-Gallego, César; Round, Adam; Vega, M Cristina; Harris, Claire L; de Cordoba, Santiago Rodríguez; Llorca, Oscar

    2011-08-09

    Activation of C3, deposition of C3b on the target surface, and subsequent amplification by formation of a C3-cleaving enzyme (C3-convertase; C3bBb) triggers the effector functions of complement that result in inflammation and cell lysis. Concurrently, surface-bound C3b is proteolyzed to iC3b by factor I and appropriate cofactors. iC3b then interacts with the complement receptors (CR) of the Ig superfamily, CR2 (CD21), CR3 (CD11b/CD18), and CR4 (CD11c/CD18) on leukocytes, down-modulating inflammation, enhancing B cell-mediated immunity, and targeting pathogens for clearance by phagocytosis. Using EM and small-angle X-ray scattering, we now present a medium-resolution structure of iC3b (24 Å). iC3b displays a unique conformation with structural features distinct from any other C3 fragment. The macroglobulin ring in iC3b is similar to that in C3b, whereas the TED (thioester-containing domain) domain and the remnants of the CUB (complement protein subcomponents C1r/C1s, urchin embryonic growth factor and bone morphogenetic protein 1) domain have moved to locations more similar to where they were in native C3. A consequence of this large conformational change is the disruption of the factor B binding site, which renders iC3b unable to assemble a C3-convertase. This structural model also justifies the decreased interaction between iC3b and complement regulators and the recognition of iC3b by the CR of the Ig superfamily, CR2, CR3, and CR4. These data further illustrate the extraordinary conformational versatility of C3 to accommodate a great diversity of functional activities.

  3. Hybrid modelling of soil-structure interaction for embedded structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.; Penzien, J.

    1981-01-01

    The basic methods currently being used for the analysis of soil-structure interaction fail to properly model three-dimensional embedded structures with flexible foundations. A hybrid model for the analysis of soil-structure interaction is developed in this investigation which takes advantage of the desirable features of both the finite element and substructure methods and which minimizes their undesirable features. The hybrid model is obtained by partitioning the total soil-structure system into a nearfield and a far-field with a smooth hemispherical interface. The near-field consists of the structure and a finite region of soil immediately surrounding its base. The entire near-field may be modelled in three-dimensional form using the finite element method; thus, taking advantage of its ability to model irregular geometries, and the non-linear soil behavior in the immediate vicinity of the structure. (orig./WL)

  4. FY1995 study of electronic coservice project which used Optical-Smart Hybrid Card; 1995 nendo hikari IC hybrid card wo mochiite katei kara ukeru gyosei denshika service project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    As one of advanced multi media service, We can think about electoronization-network changing of the public coservice. that the official system provides. It can be expected to improve the life environment for a nation by the electronization. The purpose of this research is to clarify the off-line administration of an individual information and the issue on security. We constructed the experimental system using the Internet and Optical-IC hybrid card that an individual information is administrated. The system provides the following services. (1) On-stop moving service (2) Electronic certificate publishing service (3) Electronic ticket publishing service We have mounted client terminals at Fuchu city hall, Yokohama city hall, and Keio University, and made field experimentation. (NEDO)

  5. Tunable Mechanical Metamaterials through Hybrid Kirigami Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Doh-Gyu; Bartlett, Michael D

    2018-02-21

    Inspired by the art of paper cutting, kirigami provides intriguing tools to create materials with unconventional mechanical and morphological responses. This behavior is appealing in multiple applications such as stretchable electronics and soft robotics and presents a tractable platform to study structure-property relationships in material systems. However, mechanical response is typically controlled through a single or fractal cut type patterned across an entire kirigami sheet, limiting deformation modes and tunability. Here we show how hybrid patterns of major and minor cuts creates new opportunities to introduce boundary conditions and non-prismatic beams to enable highly tunable mechanical responses. This hybrid approach reduces stiffness by a factor of ~30 while increasing ultimate strain by a factor of 2 (up to 750% strain) relative to single incision patterns. We present analytical models and generate general design criteria that is in excellent agreement with experimental data from nanoscopic to macroscopic systems. These hybrid kirigami materials create new opportunities for multifunctional materials and structures, which we demonstrate with stretchable kirigami conductors with nearly constant electrical resistance up to >400% strain and magnetoactive actuators with extremely rapid response (>10,000% strain s -1 ) and high, repeatable elongation (>300% strain).

  6. Hybrid Method Simulation of Slender Marine Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Niels Hørbye

    This present thesis consists of an extended summary and five appended papers concerning various aspects of the implementation of a hybrid method which combines classical simulation methods and artificial neural networks. The thesis covers three main topics. Common for all these topics...... only recognize patterns similar to those comprised in the data used to train the network. Fatigue life evaluation of marine structures often considers simulations of more than a hundred different sea states. Hence, in order for this method to be useful, the training data must be arranged so...... that a single neural network can cover all relevant sea states. The applicability and performance of the present hybrid method is demonstrated on a numerical model of a mooring line attached to a floating offshore platform. The second part of the thesis demonstrates how sequential neural networks can be used...

  7. The oiling of ICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, S.

    1993-01-01

    The incident command system (ICS) works for oil spills. It should be the industry standard and some will argue that it already is. But there are a number of temptations to fiddle with it. Fueling these inclinations is the fundamental difference between oil spills and natural disasters: Oil spills make the perpetrator fix the problem - under heavy oversight. Add to this difference the public outcry that attends oil spills and the dual role of government as both helper and prosecutor. From these conditions emerge adaptations of ICS which both weaken and strengthen it. The benefits of ICS are diminished by deputy incident commanders who block unified commanders from access to section chiefs, over-zealous crisis managers who displace command post decisions or its information office, separate press offices with party line slants, government law enforcement activity mixed into spill response, nonstandard operations terminology and structure involving open-quotes containment and clean upclose quotes or open-quotes salvage,close quotes and the commingling of public and private response funds. ICS's application to oil spill response is strengthened by the use of trained unified commanders, deputy incident commanders who operate as staff rather than line, crisis managers who support on-scene objectives, joint information centers, and heavy involvement of skilled, prepared environmental assessment teams in the planning section who generate priorities, strategies, and (operationally coordinated) tactics. Technically, not all these points constitute alterations of ICS, but most do and the others come close. This mixed bag of strengthening and weakening tweaks to oil spill ICS provides an opportunity to take a new look at this faithful friend to the crisis responder

  8. GrowYourIC: A Step Toward a Coherent Model of the Earth's Inner Core Seismic Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasbleis, Marine; Waszek, Lauren; Day, Elizabeth A.

    2017-11-01

    A complex inner core structure has been well established from seismic studies, showing radial and lateral heterogeneities at various length scales. Yet no geodynamic model is able to explain all the features observed. One of the main limits for this is the lack of tools to compare seismic observations and numerical models successfully. We use here a new Python tool called GrowYourIC to compare models of inner core structure. We calculate properties of geodynamic models of the inner core along seismic raypaths, for random or user-specified data sets. We test kinematic models which simulate fast lateral translation, superrotation, and differential growth. We explore first the influence on a real inner core data set, which has a sparse coverage of the inner core boundary. Such a data set is however able to successfully constrain the hemispherical boundaries due to a good sampling of latitudes. Combining translation and rotation could explain some of the features of the boundaries separating the inner core hemispheres. The depth shift of the boundaries, observed by some authors, seems unlikely to be modeled by a fast translation but could be produced by slow translation associated with superrotation.

  9. High performance hybrid magnetic structure for biotechnology applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, David E [El Cerrito, CA; Pollard, Martin J [El Cerrito, CA; Elkin, Christopher J [San Ramon, CA

    2009-02-03

    The present disclosure provides a high performance hybrid magnetic structure made from a combination of permanent magnets and ferromagnetic pole materials which are assembled in a predetermined array. The hybrid magnetic structure provides means for separation and other biotechnology applications involving holding, manipulation, or separation of magnetic or magnetizable molecular structures and targets. Also disclosed are further improvements to aspects of the hybrid magnetic structure, including additional elements and for adapting the use of the hybrid magnetic structure for use in biotechnology and high throughput processes.

  10. Hybrid Testing of Composite Structures with Single-Axis Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldbjørn, Jacob Paamand; Høgh, Jacob Herold; Stang, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Correlation (DIC) is therefore implemented for displacement control of the experimental setup. The hybrid testing setup was verified on a multicomponent structure consisting of a beam loaded in three point bending and a numerical structure of a frame. Furthermore, the stability of the hybrid testing loop......Hybrid testing is a substructuring technique where a structure is emulated by modelling a part of it in a numerical model while testing the remainder experimentally. Previous research in hybrid testing has been performed on multi-component structures e.g. damping fixtures, however in this paper...... a hybrid testing platform is introduced for single-component hybrid testing. In this case, the boundary between the numerical model and experimental setup is defined by multiple Degrees-Of-Freedoms (DOFs) which highly complicate the transferring of response between the two substructures. Digital Image...

  11. Breaking Dense Structures: Proving Stability of Densely Structured Hybrid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eike Möhlmann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstraction and refinement is widely used in software development. Such techniques are valuable since they allow to handle even more complex systems. One key point is the ability to decompose a large system into subsystems, analyze those subsystems and deduce properties of the larger system. As cyber-physical systems tend to become more and more complex, such techniques become more appealing. In 2009, Oehlerking and Theel presented a (de-composition technique for hybrid systems. This technique is graph-based and constructs a Lyapunov function for hybrid systems having a complex discrete state space. The technique consists of (1 decomposing the underlying graph of the hybrid system into subgraphs, (2 computing multiple local Lyapunov functions for the subgraphs, and finally (3 composing the local Lyapunov functions into a piecewise Lyapunov function. A Lyapunov function can serve multiple purposes, e.g., it certifies stability or termination of a system or allows to construct invariant sets, which in turn may be used to certify safety and security. In this paper, we propose an improvement to the decomposing technique, which relaxes the graph structure before applying the decomposition technique. Our relaxation significantly reduces the connectivity of the graph by exploiting super-dense switching. The relaxation makes the decomposition technique more efficient on one hand and on the other allows to decompose a wider range of graph structures.

  12. Influence of thermodynamically unfavorable secondary structures on DNA hybridization kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Hiroaki; Kitajima, Tetsuro

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Nucleic acid secondary structure plays an important role in nucleic acid–nucleic acid recognition/hybridization processes, and is also a vital consideration in DNA nanotechnology. Although the influence of stable secondary structures on hybridization kinetics has been characterized, unstable secondary structures, which show positive ΔG° with self-folding, can also form, and their effects have not been systematically investigated. Such thermodynamically unfavorable secondary structures should not be ignored in DNA hybridization kinetics, especially under isothermal conditions. Here, we report that positive ΔG° secondary structures can change the hybridization rate by two-orders of magnitude, despite the fact that their hybridization obeyed second-order reaction kinetics. The temperature dependence of hybridization rates showed non-Arrhenius behavior; thus, their hybridization is considered to be nucleation limited. We derived a model describing how ΔG° positive secondary structures affect hybridization kinetics in stopped-flow experiments with 47 pairs of oligonucleotides. The calculated hybridization rates, which were based on the model, quantitatively agreed with the experimental rate constant. PMID:29220504

  13. Proximity effect in normal metal-multiband superconductor hybrid structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, Alexander; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch; Kupriyanov, M. Yu

    2004-01-01

    A theory of the proximity effect in normal metal¿multiband superconductor hybrid structures is formulated within the quasiclassical Green's function formalism. The quasiclassical boundary conditions for multiband hybrid structures are derived in the dirty limit. It is shown that the existence of

  14. Structure and properties of hybrid coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogrebnjak, A.D.; Vasilyuk, V.V.; Kravchenko, Yu.A.; Tyurin, Yu.N.; Alontseva, D.L.; Ponaryadov, V.V.; Ruzimov, Sh.M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: This review report presents both the results obtained by the authors and those of other authors concerning investigations of structure and properties of hybrid coatings. Examples of such coatings as Al 2 O 3 /Cr/TiN/steel, TiC; TiN/Ti-V-Al; NiCr/steel; CrNiBSi/steel and others before and after electron beam irradiation had been considered. In these coatings the thickest layer was deposited using the high-velocity pulsed plasma jet, all others being deposited in vacuum by the vacuum-arc source or implanter. Advantages of the high-velocity pulsed plasma jet in comparison with other technologies had been demonstrated. A wide spectrum of analyzing methods had been applied for analyses: TEM, SEM with EDS, RBS, NRA, SIMS, XRD, tests for corrosion, wear, adhesion and hardness. The works had been funded by the Project 2M/03 54-2003 of the Ministry of Science and Education of Ukraine and STCU Project N3078

  15. Men and IC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bowel Syndrome Lupus Pelvic Floor Dysfunction Pudendal Neuralgia Sjogren’s Syndrome Vulvodynia Newly Diagnosed Toolkit IC Awareness Toolkit Know ... Bowel Syndrome Lupus Pelvic Floor Dysfunction Pudendal Neuralgia Sjogren’s Syndrome Vulvodynia Newly Diagnosed Toolkit IC Awareness Toolkit Know ...

  16. IC Treatment: Surgical Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bowel Syndrome Lupus Pelvic Floor Dysfunction Pudendal Neuralgia Sjogren’s Syndrome Vulvodynia Newly Diagnosed Toolkit IC Awareness Toolkit Know ... Bowel Syndrome Lupus Pelvic Floor Dysfunction Pudendal Neuralgia Sjogren’s Syndrome Vulvodynia Newly Diagnosed Toolkit IC Awareness Toolkit Know ...

  17. IC: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bowel Syndrome Lupus Pelvic Floor Dysfunction Pudendal Neuralgia Sjogren’s Syndrome Vulvodynia Newly Diagnosed Toolkit IC Awareness Toolkit Know ... Bowel Syndrome Lupus Pelvic Floor Dysfunction Pudendal Neuralgia Sjogren’s Syndrome Vulvodynia Newly Diagnosed Toolkit IC Awareness Toolkit Know ...

  18. General IC Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bowel Syndrome Lupus Pelvic Floor Dysfunction Pudendal Neuralgia Sjogren’s Syndrome Vulvodynia Newly Diagnosed Toolkit IC Awareness Toolkit Know ... Bowel Syndrome Lupus Pelvic Floor Dysfunction Pudendal Neuralgia Sjogren’s Syndrome Vulvodynia Newly Diagnosed Toolkit IC Awareness Toolkit Know ...

  19. Children and IC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cola, and Orange Crush, for example), Kool-Aid, chocolate, and many fruits, fruit juices and drinks (including ... Guideline IC Treatments IC Diet & Self Management Physical Therapy Antidepressants Antihistamines Pentosan Polysulfate Sodium Bladder Instillations Immunosuppresants ...

  20. Hybrid logic on linear structures: expressivity and complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franceschet, M.; de Rijke, M.; Schlingoff, B.-H.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate expressivity and complexity of hybrid logics on linear structures. Hybrid logics are an enrichment of modal logics with certain first-order features which are algorithmically well behaved. Therefore, they are well suited for the specification of certain properties of computational

  1. On the structure of K/l-hybrid carrageenans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, F. van de; Peppelman, H.A.; Rollema, H.S.; Tromp, R.H.

    2001-01-01

    The coil-to-helix transition and temperature dependence of the viscosity of commercial κ/ι-hybrid carrageenans produced by the red algae Sarcothalia crispata, Mazaella laminarioides, and Chondrus crispus were studied using rheometry and optical rotation. The structure of these κ/ι-hybrid

  2. Hybrid Bridge Structures Made of Frp Composite and Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajchel, Mateusz; Siwowski, Tomasz

    2017-09-01

    Despite many advantages over the conventional construction materials, the contemporary development of FRP composites in bridge engineering is limited due to high initial cost, low stiffness (in case of glass fibers) and sudden composite failure mode. In order to reduce the given limitations, mixed (hybrid) solutions connecting the FRP composites and conventional construction materials, including concrete, have been tested in many countries for 20 years. Shaping the hybrid structures based on the attributes of particular materials, aims to increase stiffness and reduce cost without losing the carrying capacity, lightness and easiness of bridges that includes such hybrid girders, and to avoid the sudden dangerous failure mode. In the following article, the authors described examples of hybrid road bridges made of FRP composite and concrete within the time of 20 years and presented the first Polish hybrid FRP-concrete road bridge. Also, the directions of further research, necessary to spread these innovative, advanced and sustainable bridge structures were indicated.

  3. Exploratory Topology Modelling of Form-Active Hybrid Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holden Deleuran, Anders; Pauly, Mark; Tamke, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The development of novel form-active hybrid structures (FAHS) is impeded by a lack of modelling tools that allow for exploratory topology modelling of shaped assemblies. We present a flexible and real-time computational design modelling pipeline developed for the exploratory modelling of FAHS...... that enables designers and engineers to iteratively construct and manipulate form-active hybrid assembly topology on the fly. The pipeline implements Kangaroo2's projection-based methods for modelling hybrid structures consisting of slender beams and cable networks. A selection of design modelling sketches...

  4. Hybrid carrageenans: isolation, chemical structure, and gel properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliou, Loic

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid carrageenan is a special class of carrageenan with niche application in food industry. This polysaccharide is extracted from specific species of seaweeds belonging to the Gigartinales order. This chapter focuses on hybrid carrageenan showing the ability to form gels in water, which is known in the food industry as weak kappa or kappa-2 carrageenan. After introducing the general chemical structure defining hybrid carrageenan, the isolation of the polysaccharide will be discussed focusing on the interplay between seaweed species, extraction parameters, and the hybrid carrageenan chemistry. Then, the rheological experiments used to determine the small and large deformation behavior of gels will be detailed before reviewing the relationships between gel properties and hybrid carrageenan chemistry. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. PELE-IC test problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, E.Y.; Alexander, E.E.; McMaster, W.H.; Quinones, D.F.

    1979-01-01

    This report provides prospective users of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) fluid-structure interaction computer code, PELE-IC, a variety of test problems for verifying the code on CDC 7600 computer systems at facilities external to the LLL environment. The test problems have been successfully run on CDC 7600 computers at the LLL and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) computer centers

  6. Pregnancy and IC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have not already done so, try to identify foods, beverages, and supplements that are irritating to your bladder ... Other Medicines Over-the-counter Medicines Pain Management Management of IC ... Diet Food Diaries Least and Most Bothersome Foods IC-Friendly ...

  7. Variables and equations in hybrid systems with structural changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van D.A.

    2001-01-01

    In many models of physical systems, structural changes are common. Such structural changes may cause a variable to change from a differential variable to an algebraic variable, or to a variable that is not defined by an equation at all. Most hybrid modelling languages either restrict the kind of

  8. Nafion–clay hybrids with a network structure

    KAUST Repository

    Burgaz, Engin; Lian, Huiqin; Alonso, Rafael Herrera; Estevez, Luis; Kelarakis, Antonios; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2009-01-01

    Nafion-clay hybrid membranes with a unique microstructure were synthesized using a fundamentally new approach. The new approach is based on depletion aggregation of suspended particles - a well-known phenomenon in colloids. For certain concentrations of clay and polymer, addition of Nafion solution to clay suspensions in water leads to a gel. Using Cryo-TEM we show that the clay particles in the hybrid gels form a network structure with an average cell size in the order of 500 nm. The hybrid gels are subsequently cast to produce hybrid Nafion-clay membranes. Compared to pure Nafion the swelling of the hybrid membranes in water and methanol is dramatically reduced while their selectivity (ratio of conductivity over permeability) increases. The small decrease of ionic conductivity for the hybrid membranes is more than compensated by the large decrease in methanol permeability. Lastly the hybrid membranes are much stiffer and can withstand higher temperatures compared to pure Nafion. Both of these characteristics are highly desirable for use in fuel cell applications, since a) they will allow the use of a thinner membrane circumventing problems associated with the membrane resistance and b) enable high temperature applications. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nafion–clay hybrids with a network structure

    KAUST Repository

    Burgaz, Engin

    2009-05-01

    Nafion-clay hybrid membranes with a unique microstructure were synthesized using a fundamentally new approach. The new approach is based on depletion aggregation of suspended particles - a well-known phenomenon in colloids. For certain concentrations of clay and polymer, addition of Nafion solution to clay suspensions in water leads to a gel. Using Cryo-TEM we show that the clay particles in the hybrid gels form a network structure with an average cell size in the order of 500 nm. The hybrid gels are subsequently cast to produce hybrid Nafion-clay membranes. Compared to pure Nafion the swelling of the hybrid membranes in water and methanol is dramatically reduced while their selectivity (ratio of conductivity over permeability) increases. The small decrease of ionic conductivity for the hybrid membranes is more than compensated by the large decrease in methanol permeability. Lastly the hybrid membranes are much stiffer and can withstand higher temperatures compared to pure Nafion. Both of these characteristics are highly desirable for use in fuel cell applications, since a) they will allow the use of a thinner membrane circumventing problems associated with the membrane resistance and b) enable high temperature applications. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Engineering hybrid Co-picene structures with variable spin coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Chunsheng [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Shan, Huan; Li, Bin, E-mail: libin@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: adzhao@ustc.edu.cn; Zhao, Aidi, E-mail: libin@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: adzhao@ustc.edu.cn; Wang, Bing [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2016-04-25

    We report on the in situ engineering of hybrid Co-picene magnetic structures with variable spin coupling using a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope. Single picene molecules adsorbed on Au(111) are manipulated to accommodate individual Co atoms one by one, forming stable artificial hybrid structures with magnetism introduced by the Co atoms. By monitoring the evolution of the Kondo effect at each site of Co atom, we found that the picene molecule plays an important role in tuning the spin coupling between individual Co atoms, which is confirmed by theoretical calculations based on the density-functional theory. Our findings indicate that the hybrid metal-molecule structures with variable spin coupling on surfaces can be artificially constructed in a controlled manner.

  11. Dissecting the hybridization of oligonucleotides to structured complementary sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peracchi, Alessio

    2016-06-01

    When oligonucleotides hybridize to long target molecules, the process is slowed by the secondary structure in the targets. The phenomenon has been analyzed in several previous studies, but many details remain poorly understood. I used a spectrofluorometric strategy, focusing on the formation/breaking of individual base pairs, to study the kinetics of association between a DNA hairpin and >20 complementary oligonucleotides ('antisenses'). Hybridization rates differed by over three orders of magnitude. Association was toehold-mediated, both for antisenses binding to the target's ends and for those designed to interact with the loop. Binding of these latter, besides being consistently slower, was affected to variable, non-uniform extents by the asymmetric loop structure. Divalent metal ions accelerated hybridization, more pronouncedly when nucleation occurred at the loop. Incorporation of locked nucleic acid (LNA) residues in the antisenses substantially improved the kinetics only when LNAs participated to the earliest hybridization steps. The effects of individual LNAs placed along the antisense indicated that the reaction transition state occurred after invading at least the first base pair of the stem. The experimental approach helps dissect hybridization reactions involving structured nucleic acids. Toehold-dependent, nucleation-invasion models appear fully appropriate for describing such reactions. Estimating the stability of nucleation complexes formed at internal toeholds is the major hurdle for the quantitative prediction of hybridization rates. While analyzing the mechanisms of a fundamental biochemical process (hybridization), this work also provides suggestions for the improvement of technologies that rely on such process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. IC Associated Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bowel Syndrome Lupus Pelvic Floor Dysfunction Pudendal Neuralgia Sjogren’s Syndrome Vulvodynia Newly Diagnosed Toolkit IC Awareness Toolkit Know ... Bowel Syndrome Lupus Pelvic Floor Dysfunction Pudendal Neuralgia Sjogren’s Syndrome Vulvodynia Click to learn more about these and ...

  13. Hybridized plasmon in an asymmetric cut-wire-pair structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tung, Nguyen Thanh [Vietnamese Military Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, Joo Yull [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Woo; Lee, Young Pak [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    In this report, we discuss an electromagnetic analog of the molecular-orbital theory for metamaterial structures. We show that the electromagnetic responses of a metamagnetic structure consisting of paired cut-wires can be well understood by using the plasmon-hybridization mechanism. The simulated transmission spectra of the asymmetric cut-wire-pair structure, which were obtained utilizing the transfer-matrix method, strongly support our suggestion.

  14. LD to IC

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2010-01-01

    LC to IC – Publication of posts: Following the publication of new LD to IC posts, we regret that a large number of post descriptions are not available in both CERN official languages, English and French. Consequently, the Staff Association has decided to provide assistance to those who need it with the translation of one or more posts of interest. To do this, please contact the Staff Association secretariat, tel. 72819 or 72761 or 74224.

  15. Structural properties of maize hybrids established by infrared spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radenović Čedomir N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the application of the infrared (IR spectroscopy method for determination of structural properties of maize hybrid grains. The IR spectrum of maize grain has been registered in the following hybrids: ZP 341, ZP 434 and ZP 505. The existence of spectral bands varying in both number and intensity, as well as their shape, frequency and kinetics have been determined. They have been determined by valence oscillations and deformation oscillations of the following organic compounds: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, amides, alcohols, ethers, carboxylic acids, esters and aldehydes and ketones, characteristic for biogenic compounds such as carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. In this way, possible changes in the grain structure of observed maize hybrids could be detected.

  16. Hopping mixed hybrid excitations in multiple composite quantum wire structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Ba An; Tran Thai Hoa

    1995-10-01

    A structure consisting of N pairs of inorganic semiconductor and organic quantum wires is considered theoretically. In such an isolated pair of wires, while the intrawire coupling forms Wannier-Mott exciton in an inorganic semiconductor quantum wire and Frenkel exciton in an organic one, the interwire coupling gives rise to hybrid excitons residing within the pair. When N pairs of wires are packed together 2N new mixed hybrid modes appear that are the true elementary excitations and can hop throughout the whole structure. Energies and wave functions of such hopping mixed hybrid excitations are derived analytically in detail accounting for the global interwire coupling and the different polarization configurations. (author). 19 refs

  17. A hybrid dielectric and iris loaded periodic accelerating structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, P.; Xiao, L.; Sun, X.; Gai, W.

    2001-01-01

    One disadvantage of conventional iris-loaded accelerating structures is the high ratio of the peak surface electric field to the peak axial electric field useful for accelerating a beam. Typically this ratio E s /E a ≥ 2. The high surface electric field relative to the accelerating gradient may prove to be a limitation for realizing technologies for very high gradient accelerators. In this paper, we present a scheme that uses a hybrid dielectric and iris loaded periodic structure to reduce E s /E a to near unity, while the shunt impedance per unit length r and the quality factor Q compare favorably with conventional metallic structures. The analysis based on MAFIA simulations of such structures shows that we can lower the peak surface electric field close to the accelerating gradient while maintaining high acceleration efficiency as measured by r/Q. Numerical examples of X-band hybrid accelerating structures are given

  18. Giant Magnetic Field Enhancement in Hybridized MIM Structures

    KAUST Repository

    Alrasheed, Salma; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2017-01-01

    We propose numerically an approach to narrow the plasmon linewidth and enhance the magnetic near field intensity at a magnetic hot spot in a hybridized metal-insulatormetal (MIM) structure. First we insert in part of the dielectric layer of the MIM

  19. Structural Interplay - Tuning Mechanics in Peptide-Polyurea Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korley, Lashanda

    Utilizing cues from natural materials, we have been inspired to explore the hierarchical arrangement critical to energy absorption and mechanical enhancement in synthetic systems. Of particular interest is the soft domain ordering proposed as a contributing element to the observed toughness in spider silk. Multiblock copolymers, are ideal and dynamic systems in which to explore this approach via variations in secondary structure of nature's building blocks - peptides. We have designed a new class of polyurea hybrids that incorporate peptidic copolymers as the soft segment. The impact of hierarchical ordering on the thermal, mechanical, and morphological behavior of these bio-inspired polyurethanes with a siloxane-based, peptide soft segment was investigated. These peptide-polyurethane/urea hybrids were microphase segregated, and the beta-sheet secondary structure of the soft segment was preserved during polymerization and film casting. Toughness enhancement at low strains was achieved, but the overall extensibility of the peptide-incorporated systems was reduced due to the unique hard domain organization. To decouple the secondary structure influence in the siloxane-peptide soft segment from mechanics dominated by the hard domain, we also developed non-chain extended peptide-polyurea hybrids in which the secondary structure (beta sheet vs. alpha helix) was tuned via choice of peptide and peptide length. It was shown that this structural approach allowed tailoring of extensibility, toughness, and modulus. The sheet-dominant hybrid materials were typically tougher and more elastic due to intermolecular H-bonding facilitating load distribution, while the helical-prevalent systems generally exhibited higher stiffness. Recently, we have explored the impact of a molecular design strategy that overlays a covalent and physically crosslinked architecture in these peptide-polyurea hybrids, demonstrating that physical constraints in the network hybrids influences peptide

  20. Designing CNC Knit for Hybrid Membrane And Bending Active Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Holden Deleuran, Anders; Gengnagel, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    specific properties and detailing. CNC knitting with high tenacity yarn enables this practice and offers an alternative to current woven membranes. The design and fabrication of an 8m high fabric tower through an interdisciplinary team of architects, structural and textile engineers, allowed to investigate...... means to design, specify, make and test CNC knit as material for hybrid structures in architectural scale. This paper shares the developed process, identifies challenges, potentials and future work...

  1. Hybrid isolation of structure-borne sound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, C.A.J.; de Boer, Andries; Gardonio, Paolo; Rafaely, Boaz

    2002-01-01

    Interior noise problems become more important due to the tendency to construct lighter vehicles. An important source for interior noise in a vehicle is the engine. The structural vibrations induced by the engine will transmit through the vehicle and will finally result in interior noise elsewhere in

  2. Photonic structures based on hybrid nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husaini, Saima

    In this thesis, photonic structures embedded with two types of nanomaterials, (i) quantum dots and (ii) metal nanoparticles are studied. Both of these exhibit optical and electronic properties different from their bulk counterpart due to their nanoscale physical structure. By integrating these nanomaterials into photonic structures, in which the electromagnetic field can be confined and controlled via modification of geometry and composition, we can enhance their linear and nonlinear optical properties to realize functional photonic structures. Before embedding quantum dots into photonic structures, we study the effect of various host matrices and fabrication techniques on the optical properties of the colloidal quantum dots. The two host matrices of interest are SU8 and PMMA. It is shown that the emission properties of the quantum dots are significantly altered in these host matrices (especially SU8) and this is attributed to a high rate of nonradiative quenching of the dots. Furthermore, the effects of fabrication techniques on the optical properties of quantum dots are also investigated. Finally a microdisk resonator embedded with quantum dots is fabricated using soft lithography and luminescence from the quantum dots in the disk is observed. We investigate the absorption and effective index properties of silver nanocomposite films. It is shown that by varying the fill factor of the metal nanoparticles and fabrication parameters such as heating time, we can manipulate the optical properties of the metal nanocomposite. Optimizing these parameters, a silver nanocomposite film with a 7% fill factor is prepared. A one-dimensional photonic crystal consisting of alternating layers of the silver nanocomposite and a polymer (Polymethyl methacrylate) is fabricated using spin coating and its linear and nonlinear optical properties are investigated. Using reflectivity measurements we demonstrate that the one-dimensional silver-nanocomposite-dielectric photonic crystal

  3. Calculation of hybrid joints used in modern aerospace structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel STERE

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The state – of - the art of aeronautical structures show that parts are manufactured and subsequently assembled with the use of fasteners and/ or bonding. Adhesive bonding is a key technology to low weight, high fatigue resistance, robustness and an attractive design for cost structures.The paper results resolve significant problems for two groups of end-users:1 for the aerospace design office: a robust procedure for the design of the hybrid joint structural components;2 for the aeronautical repair centres: a useful procedure for structural design and analysis with significant cost savings.

  4. Calibrated and Interactive Modelling of Form-Active Hybrid Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quinn, Gregory; Holden Deleuran, Anders; Piker, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Form-active hybrid structures (FAHS) couple two or more different structural elements of low self weight and low or negligible bending flexural stiffness (such as slender beams, cables and membranes) into one structural assembly of high global stiffness. They offer high load-bearing capacity...... software packages which introduce interruptions and data exchange issues in the modelling pipeline. The mechanical precision, stability and open software architecture of Kangaroo has facilitated the development of proof-of-concept modelling pipelines which tackle this challenge and enable powerful...... materially-informed sketching. Making use of a projection-based dynamic relaxation solver for structural analysis, explorative design has proven to be highly effective....

  5. Trust, Contracting, and Adaptation in Agri-Food Hybrid Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Martino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the relationship between trust and governance structure from a Transaction Cost Economics perspective. The role of trust in the coordinating decisions is variously conceptualized according to the theoretical view adopted by the scholars. The present study adopt the three-level schema introduced by Williamson (1996 and suggest that determinants of trust may operate both at institutional and governance structure level. The analytical framework depicted maintains that trust may determine a reduction of ex post transaction cost in the adaptation of hybrid structure. As a consequence trust appears to be able to extend the range of existence of the hybrids. The empirical part of the study is dedicated to a case study which illustrates the emerging of conditional trust (Fritz et al., 2008 and the role of trust in the adaptation process.

  6. The Tower: Modelling, Analysis and Construction of Bending Active Tensile Membrane Hybrid Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holden Deleuran, Anders; Schmeck, Michel; Charles Quinn, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    The project is the result of an interdisciplinary research collaboration between CITA, KET and Fibrenamics exploring the design of integrated hybrid structures employing bending active elements and tensile membranes with bespoke material properties and detailing. Hybrid structures are defined her...

  7. Preliminary I&C Design for LORELEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotkin, S.; Kaufman, Y.; Guttmann, E. B.; Levy, S.; Amidan, D.; Gdalyho, B.; Cahana, T.; Ellenbogen, A.; Arad, M.; Weiss, Y.; Sasson, A.; Ferry, L.; Bourrelly, F.; Cohen, Y.

    2014-01-01

    This document summarizes the preliminary I&C design for LORELEI experiment The preliminary design deals with considerations regarding appropriate safety and service instrumentation. The determined closed loop control rules for temperature and position will be implemented in the detailed design. The Computer Aided Operator Decisions System (CAODS) will be used for prediction of hot spot temperature and thickness of oxidation layer using Baker-Just correlation. The proposed hybrid simulation system comprising of both virtual and real hardware will be in-cooperated for LORELEI verification. It will perform both integration cold tests for a partial hardware loop and virtual tests for the final I&C design

  8. Ultrafast Dynamic Pressure Sensors Based on Graphene Hybrid Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shanbiao; Wu, Xing; Zhang, Dongdong; Guo, Congwei; Wang, Peng; Hu, Weida; Li, Xinming; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Xu, Hejun; Luo, Chen; Zhang, Jian; Chu, Junhao

    2017-07-19

    Mechanical flexible electronic skin has been focused on sensing various physical parameters, such as pressure and temperature. The studies of material design and array-accessible devices are the building blocks of strain sensors for subtle pressure sensing. Here, we report a new and facile preparation of a graphene hybrid structure with an ultrafast dynamic pressure response. Graphene oxide nanosheets are used as a surfactant to prevent graphene restacking in aqueous solution. This graphene hybrid structure exhibits a frequency-independent pressure resistive sensing property. Exceeding natural skin, such pressure sensors, can provide transient responses from static up to 10 000 Hz dynamic frequencies. Integrated by the controlling system, the array-accessible sensors can manipulate a robot arm and self-rectify the temperature of a heating blanket. This may pave a path toward the future application of graphene-based wearable electronics.

  9. In Situ Production of Graphene-Fiber Hybrid Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akia, Mandana; Cremar, Lee; Chipara, Mircea

    2017-01-01

    We report a scalable method to obtain a new material where large graphene sheets form webs linking carbon fibers. Film-fiber hybrid nonwoven mats are formed during fiber processing and converted to carbon structures after a simple thermal treatment. This contrasts with multistep methods...... that attempt to mix previously prepared graphene and fibers, or require complicated and costly processes for deposition of graphene over carbon fibers. The developed graphene-fiber hybrid structures have seamless connections between graphene and fibers, and in fact the graphene "veils" extend directly from one...... a capillarity effect that promoted the formation of thin veils, which become graphene sheets upon dehydration by sulfuric acid vapor followed by carbonization (at relatively low temperatures, below 800 °C). These veils extend over several micrometers within the pores of the fiber network, and consist...

  10. Hybrid Optimization in the Design of Reciprocal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sassone, Mario

    2012-01-01

    that explore the global domain of solutions as genetic algorithms (GAs). The benchmark tests show that when the control on the topology is required the best result is obtained by a hybrid approach that combines the global search of the GA with the local search of a GB algorithm. The optimization method......The paper presents a method to generate the geometry of reciprocal structures by means of a hybrid optimization procedure. The geometry of reciprocal structures where elements are sitting on the top or in the bottom of each other is extremely difficult to predict because of the non....... In this paper it is shown that the geometrically compatible position of the elements could be determined by local search algorithm gradient-based (GB). However the control on which bar sit on the top or in the bottom at each connection can be regarded as a topological problem and require the use of algorithms...

  11. Hybrid competitive strategies, organizational structure, and firm performance

    OpenAIRE

    Pertusa Ortega, Eva María

    2008-01-01

    Comunicación presentada en SMS 28th Annual International Conference, Cologne, Germany, October 12-15, 2008. This paper analyzes the internal characteristics of organizational structure which have an influence on the development of hybrid competitive strategies and their link to firm performance. The study examines a sample of large Spanish firms belonging to different sectors by means of the Partial Least Squares (PLS) technique, using formative dimensions for competitive strategy and orga...

  12. Development of Hybrid Product Breakdown Structure for NASA Ground Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Mark W.; Henry, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The Product Breakdown Structure is traditionally a method of identification of the products of a project in a tree structure. It is a tool used to assess, plan, document, and display the equipment requirements for a project. It is part of a product based planning technique, and attempts to break down all components of a project in as much detail as possible, so that nothing is overlooked. The PBS for ground systems at the Kennedy Space Center is being developed to encompass the traditional requirements including the alignment of facility, systems, and components to the organizational hierarchy. The Ground Operations Product Breakdown Structure is a hybrid in nature in that some aspects of a work breakdown structure will be incorporated and merged with the Architecture Concept of Operations, Master Subsystem List, customer interface, and assigned management responsibility. The Ground Operations Product Breakdown Structure needs to be able to identify the flexibility of support differing customers (internal and external) usage of ground support equipment within the Kennedy Space Center launch and processing complex. The development of the Product Breakdown Structure is an iterative activity Initially documenting the organization hierarchy structure and relationships. The Product Breakdown Structure identifies the linkage between the customer program requirements, allocation of system resources, development of design goals, and identification logistics products. As the Product Breakdown Structure progresses the incorporation of the results of requirement planning for the customer occurs identifying facility needs and systems. The mature Product Breakdown Structure is baselined with a hierarchical drawing, the Product Breakdown Structure database, and an associated document identifying the verification of the data through the life cycle of the program/product line. This paper will document, demonstrate, and identify key aspects of the life cycle of a Hybrid Product

  13. The Role of Structural Enthalpy in Spherical Nucleic Acid Hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Lam-Kiu; Wang, Ziwei; Schatz, George C; Luijten, Erik; Mirkin, Chad A

    2018-05-23

    DNA hybridization onto DNA-functionalized nanoparticle surfaces (e.g., in the form of a spherical nucleic acid (SNA)) is known to be enhanced relative to hybridization free in solution. Surprisingly, via isothermal titration calorimetry, we reveal that this enhancement is enthalpically, as opposed to entropically, dominated by ∼20 kcal/mol. Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the observed enthalpic enhancement results from structurally confining the DNA on the nanoparticle surface and preventing it from adopting enthalpically unfavorable conformations like those observed in the solution case. The idea that structural confinement leads to the formation of energetically more stable duplexes is evaluated by decreasing the degree of confinement a duplex experiences on the nanoparticle surface. Both experiment and simulation confirm that when the surface-bound duplex is less confined, i.e., at lower DNA surface density or at greater distance from the nanoparticle surface, its enthalpy of formation approaches the less favorable enthalpy of duplex formation for the linear strand in solution. This work provides insight into one of the most important and enabling properties of SNAs and will inform the design of materials that rely on the thermodynamics of hybridization onto DNA-functionalized surfaces, including diagnostic probes and therapeutic agents.

  14. Modular Hybrid Energy Concept Employing a Novel Control Structure Based on a Simple Analog System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETREUS, D.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel control topology which enables the setup of a low cost analog system leading to the implementation of a modular energy conversion system. The modular concept is based on hybrid renewable energy (solar and wind and uses high voltage inverters already available on the market. An important feature of the proposed topology is a permanently active current loop, which assures short circuit protection and simplifies the control loops compensation. The innovative analogue solution of the control structure is based on a dedicated integrated circuit (IC for power factor correction (PFC circuits, used in a new configuration, to assure an efficient inverter start-up. The energy conversion system (control structure and maximum power point tracking algorithm is simulated using a new macromodel-based concept, which reduces the usual computational burden of the simulator and achieves high processing speed. The proposed novel system is presented in this article from concept, through the design and implementation stages, is verified through simulation and is validated by experimental results.

  15. Irregular Dwarf Galaxy IC 1613

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Ultraviolet image (left) and visual image (right) of the irregular dwarf galaxy IC 1613. Low surface brightness galaxies, such as IC 1613, are more easily detected in the ultraviolet because of the low background levels compared to visual wavelengths.

  16. Hybrid transfer-matrix FDTD method for layered periodic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deinega, Alexei; Belousov, Sergei; Valuev, Ilya

    2009-03-15

    A hybrid transfer-matrix finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is proposed for modeling the optical properties of finite-width planar periodic structures. This method can also be applied for calculation of the photonic bands in infinite photonic crystals. We describe the procedure of evaluating the transfer-matrix elements by a special numerical FDTD simulation. The accuracy of the new method is tested by comparing computed transmission spectra of a 32-layered photonic crystal composed of spherical or ellipsoidal scatterers with the results of direct FDTD and layer-multiple-scattering calculations.

  17. Improved hybrid optimization algorithm for 3D protein structure prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Changjun; Hou, Caixia; Wei, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Qiang

    2014-07-01

    A new improved hybrid optimization algorithm - PGATS algorithm, which is based on toy off-lattice model, is presented for dealing with three-dimensional protein structure prediction problems. The algorithm combines the particle swarm optimization (PSO), genetic algorithm (GA), and tabu search (TS) algorithms. Otherwise, we also take some different improved strategies. The factor of stochastic disturbance is joined in the particle swarm optimization to improve the search ability; the operations of crossover and mutation that are in the genetic algorithm are changed to a kind of random liner method; at last tabu search algorithm is improved by appending a mutation operator. Through the combination of a variety of strategies and algorithms, the protein structure prediction (PSP) in a 3D off-lattice model is achieved. The PSP problem is an NP-hard problem, but the problem can be attributed to a global optimization problem of multi-extremum and multi-parameters. This is the theoretical principle of the hybrid optimization algorithm that is proposed in this paper. The algorithm combines local search and global search, which overcomes the shortcoming of a single algorithm, giving full play to the advantage of each algorithm. In the current universal standard sequences, Fibonacci sequences and real protein sequences are certified. Experiments show that the proposed new method outperforms single algorithms on the accuracy of calculating the protein sequence energy value, which is proved to be an effective way to predict the structure of proteins.

  18. Structure of Solvent-Free Nanoparticle−Organic Hybrid Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Hsiu-Yu

    2010-11-16

    We derive the radial distribution function and the static structure factor for the particles in model nanoparticleorganic hybrid materials composed of nanoparticles and attached oligomeric chains in the absence of an intervening solvent. The assumption that the oligomers form an incompressible fluid of bead-chains attached to the particles that is at equilibrium for a given particle configuration allows us to apply a density functional theory for determining the equilibrium configuration of oligomers as well as the distribution function of the particles. A quasi-analytic solution is facilitated by a regular perturbation analysis valid when the oligomer radius of gyration R g is much greater than the particle radius a. The results show that the constraint that each particle carries its own share of the fluid attached to itself yields a static structure factor that approaches zero as the wavenumber approaches zero. This result indicates that each particle excludes exactly one other particle from its neighborhood. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  19. Hybrid solar cells composed of perovskite and polymer photovoltaic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaometvarithorn, Apatsanan; Chuangchote, Surawut; Kumnorkaew, Pisist; Wootthikanokkhan, Jatuphorn

    2018-06-01

    Organic/inorganic lead halide perovskite solar cells have recently attracted much attention in photovoltaic research, due to the devices show promising ways to achieve high efficiencies. The perovskite devices with high efficiencies, however, are typically fabricated in tandem solar cell which is complicated. In this research work, we introduce a solar cell device with the combination of CH3NH3PbI3-xClx perovskite and bulk heterojunction PCDTBT:PC70BM polymer without any tandem structure. The new integrated perovskite/polymer hybrid structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/perovskite/PCDTBT:PC70BM/PC70BM/TiOx/Al provides higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) of devices compared with conventional perovskite cell structure. With the optimized PCDTBT:PC70BM thickness of ∼70 nm, the highest PCE of 11.67% is achieved. Variation of conducting donor polymers in this new structure is also preliminary demonstrated. This study provides an attractively innovative structure and a promising design for further development of the new-generation solar cells.

  20. The Gaia hybrid catalog: a leverage to find Galactic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouesneau, M.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.

    2014-07-01

    of the WISE filters, one can select the Oxygen-rich Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGBs) stars to find spatial substructures with particular interstellar medium properties. Breaking through the distance-extinction degeneracies will also help finding large scale structures in the disk such as streams or spiral arms, especially when combined with age or metallicity selections for instance. Second, we presented one aspect of the hybrid catalogs dedicated to support the analysis of star clusters. Star clusters are not only calibrators of stellar evolution models but also references to study star formation in general. We presented one future outcome of the hybrid catalogs, in which we provide for known star clusters, an assessment of stellar memberships based on a combination of phase-space, and colormagnitude distribution fitting. In this application, the assumption that a cluster is a "simple" population provides a significant advantage when deriving individual star properties. Eventually one can imagine this application can be extended to stellar streams. Hybrid catalogs are meant to be provided along with the Gaia data releases, and will offer a tremendous source of validation for the Gaia Data Processing.

  1. Hybrid optical-fibre/geopolymer sensors for structural health monitoring of concrete structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M.; Saafi, M.; Fusiek, G.; Niewczas, P.

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we demonstrate hybrid optical-fibre/geopolymer sensors for monitoring temperature, uniaxial strain and biaxial strain in concrete structures. The hybrid sensors detect these measurands via changes in geopolymer electrical impedance, and via optical wavelength measurements of embedded fibre Bragg gratings. Electrical and optical measurements were both facilitated by metal-coated optical fibres, which provided the hybrid sensors with a single, shared physical path for both voltage and wavelength signals. The embedded fibre sensors revealed that geopolymer specimens undergo 2.7 mɛ of shrinkage after one week of curing at 42 °C. After curing, an axial 2 mɛ compression of the uniaxial hybrid sensor led to impedance and wavelength shifts of 7 × 10-2 and -2 × 10-4 respectively. The typical strain resolution in the uniaxial sensor was 100 μ \\varepsilon . The biaxial sensor was applied to the side of a concrete cylinder, which was then placed under 0.6 mɛ of axial, compressive strain. Fractional shifts in impedance and wavelength, used to monitor axial and circumferential strain, were 3 × 10-2 and 4 × 10-5 respectively. The biaxial sensor’s strain resolution was approximately 10 μ \\varepsilon in both directions. Due to several design flaws, the uniaxial hybrid sensor was unable to accurately measure ambient temperature changes. The biaxial sensor, however, successfully monitored local temperature changes with 0.5 °C resolution.

  2. Long range energy transfer in graphene hybrid structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonçalves, Hugo; Bernardo, César; Moura, Cacilda; Belsley, Michael; Schellenberg, Peter; Ferreira, R A S; André, P S; Stauber, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    In this work we quantify the distance dependence for the extraction of energy from excited chromophores by a single layer graphene flake over a large separation range. To this end hybrid structures were prepared, consisting of a thin (2 nm) layer of a polymer matrix doped with a well chosen strongly fluorescent organic molecule, followed by an un-doped spacer layer of well-defined thicknesses made of the same polymer material and an underlying single layer of pristine, undoped graphene. The coupling strength is assessed through the variation of the fluorescence decay kinetics as a function of distance between the graphene and the excited chromophore molecules. Non-radiative energy transfer to the graphene was observed at distances of up to 60 nm; a range much greater than typical energy transfer distances observed in molecular systems. (paper)

  3. Giant Magnetic Field Enhancement in Hybridized MIM Structures

    KAUST Repository

    Alrasheed, Salma

    2017-10-23

    We propose numerically an approach to narrow the plasmon linewidth and enhance the magnetic near field intensity at a magnetic hot spot in a hybridized metal-insulatormetal (MIM) structure. First we insert in part of the dielectric layer of the MIM, at its center, another dielectric material of a high refractive index (HRI). This results in an increase in the magnetic near field enhancement of the magnetic plasmon (MP) resonance by 82% compared with the MIM without the HRI material. We then couple this enhanced MP resonance to a propagating surface plasmon polariton (SPP) to achieve a further enhancement of 438%. The strong coupling between the MP and the SPP is demonstrated by the large anti-crossing in the reflection spectra. The resulting maximum magnetic field enhancement at the gap is ~ |H / Hi|² = 3555.

  4. Simplified design of IC amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Lenk, John

    1996-01-01

    Simplified Design of IC Amplifiers has something for everyone involved in electronics. No matter what skill level, this book shows how to design and experiment with IC amplifiers. For experimenters, students, and serious hobbyists, this book provides sufficient information to design and build IC amplifier circuits from 'scratch'. For working engineers who design amplifier circuits or select IC amplifiers, the book provides a variety of circuit configurations to make designing easier.Provides basics for all phases of practical design.Covers the most popular forms for amplif

  5. Novel thermal management structures and their applications in new hybrid technologies and feed-through structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, A.A.; Oliveira, R. de; Gandi, A.

    1999-01-01

    Novel techniques are described for fabricating a new thermal management structure (TMS), in the form of rigid low-mass structures with extremely high in-plane thermal conductivity. The core materials can be forms of thermally anisotropically conducting pyrolytic graphite that are directly encapsulated in a new thin-layering process. The structures can be used in a large variety of applications, including: (a) Efficient interfacing with ceramic materials and metals to provide new thermal management technologies. (b) Providing the source for a new hybrid technology where low-mass custom-designed multilayer thin-film circuits can be directly processed onto such structures. Alternatively, having been prefabricated on an independent substrate, hybrids can be efficiently interfaced to such thermal management structures. (c) Providing electrical connectivity between both sides of a TMS board through a new feedthrough technology that allows the fabrication of both single-sided and double-sided hybrids. These thermal management techniques and their applications are the subject of an international patent application number PCT/GB99/02180, filed in the names of the European Organization for Nuclear Research and Queen Mary and Westfield College, London. (orig.)

  6. Structural, vibrational, and gasochromic properties of porous WO sub 3 films templated with a sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrid

    CERN Document Server

    Opara-Krasovec, U; Orel, B; Grdadolnik, J; Drazic, G

    2002-01-01

    The structure and the gasochromic properties of sol-gel-derived WO sub 3 films with a monoclinic structure (m-WO sub 3) were studied by focusing attention on the size of the monoclinic grains. The size of the m-WO sub 3 grains is modified by the addition of an organic-inorganic hybrid to the initial peroxopolytungstic acid (W-PTA) sols which are based on chemically bonded poly-(propylene glycol) to triethoxysilane end-capping groups (ICS-PPG). The results obtained with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) show that the heat treatment (500 sup o C) of WO sub 3 /ICS- IPG (0.5, 1, 2, 5, and 10 mol%) composite films results in a change of their morphology, and nanodimensional pores are formed between the grains. High-resolution TEM (HRTEM) analysis revealed the presence of an amorphous phase on the outside of the m-WO sub 3 grains, whereas energy-dispersive x-ray spectra (EDXS) showed that this amorphous phase contained W and Si. Impregnation of the WO sub 3 /ICS-PPG film ...

  7. Robustness of Topological Superconductivity in Solid State Hybrid Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitthison, Piyapong

    The non-Abelian statistics of Majorana fermions (MFs) makes them an ideal platform for implementing topological quantum computation. In addition to the fascinating fundamental physics underlying the emergence of MFs, this potential for applications makes the study of these quasiparticles an extremely popular subject in condensed matter physics. The commonly called `Majorana fermions' are zero-energy bound states that emerge near boundaries and defects in topological superconducting phases, which can be engineered, for example, by proximity coupling strong spin-orbit coupling semiconductor nanowires and ordinary s-wave superconductors. The stability of these bound states is determined by the stability of the underlying topological superconducting phase. Hence, understanding their stability (which is critical for quantum computation), involves studying the robustness of the engineered topological superconductors. This work addresses this important problem in the context of two types of hybrid structures that have been proposed for realizing topological superconductivity: topological insulator - superconductor (TI-SC) and semiconductor - superconductor (SM-SC) nanostructures. In both structures, electrostatic effects due to applied external potentials and interface-induced potentials are significant. This work focuses on developing a theoretical framework for understanding these effects, to facilitate the optimization of the nanostructures studied in the laboratory. The approach presented in this thesis is based on describing the low-energy physics of the hybrid structure using effective tight-binding models that explicitly incorporate the proximity effects emerging at interfaces. Generically, as a result of the proximity coupling to the superconductor, an induced gap emerges in the semiconductor (topological insulator) sub-system. The strength of the proximity-induced gap is determined by the transparency of the interface and by the amplitude of the low- energy SM

  8. Hybrid structure in civil engineering construction.; Doboku bun`ya ni okeru fukugo kozo.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, S. [Yokohama National Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-03-30

    The structure of steel-concrete hybrid structure which is recently attracting attention is outlined quoting some examples. The effects of steel-concrete hybrid structure are classified according to the characteristics. The Normandie Bridge completed in January this year near the mouth of the Seine River in France is a cable stayed bridge with the world largest span, and it has a hybrid structure of ingeniously combined steel and concrete. The Dole Bridge in France is a hybrid bridge with 7 continuous spans having steel corrugated sheets in the web. Hybrid structure has come to be applied to many structures other than the superstructure works of bridges. The substructures of bridges are applied to immersed tunnels, and the usefulness has come to be recognized widely. The features of hybrid structure can contribute well to the reinforcement of existing structures. In addition, adoption of hybrid structure has been studied as the best method for repairing and reinforcing structures damaged by earthquakes. 8 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Hybrid CMS methods with model reduction for assembly of structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Charbel

    1991-01-01

    Future on-orbit structures will be designed and built in several stages, each with specific control requirements. Therefore there must be a methodology which can predict the dynamic characteristics of the assembled structure, based on the dynamic characteristics of the subassemblies and their interfaces. The methodology developed by CSC to address this issue is Hybrid Component Mode Synthesis (HCMS). HCMS distinguishes itself from standard component mode synthesis algorithms in the following features: (1) it does not require the subcomponents to have displacement compatible models, which makes it ideal for analyzing the deployment of heterogeneous flexible multibody systems, (2) it incorporates a second-level model reduction scheme at the interface, which makes it much faster than other algorithms and therefore suitable for control purposes, and (3) it does answer specific questions such as 'how does the global fundamental frequency vary if I change the physical parameters of substructure k by a specified amount?'. Because it is based on an energy principle rather than displacement compatibility, this methodology can also help the designer to define an assembly process. Current and future efforts are devoted to applying the HCMS method to design and analyze docking and berthing procedures in orbital construction.

  10. Structural Transformations in Nematic Liquid Crystals with a Hybrid Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delev, V. A.; Krekhov, A. P.

    2017-12-01

    The structural transformations in a nematic liquid crystal (NLC) layer with a hybrid orientation (planar director orientation is created on one substrate and homeotropic director orientation is created on the other) are studied. In the case of a dc voltage applied to the NLC layer, the primary instability is flexoelectric. It causes the appearance of flexoelectric domains oriented along the director on the substrate with a planar orientation. When the voltage increases further, an electroconvective instability in the form of rolls moving almost normal to flexoelectric domains develops along with these domains. Thus, the following spatially periodic structures of different natures coexist in one system: equilibrium static flexoelectric deformation of a director and dissipative moving oblique electroconvection rolls. The primary instability in the case of an ac voltage is represented by electroconvection, which leads to moving oblique or normal rolls depending on the electric field frequency. Above the electroconvection threshold, a transition to moving "abnormal" rolls is detected. The wavevector of the rolls coincides with the initial director orientation on the substrate with a planar orientation, and the projection of the director at the midplane of the NLC layer on the layer plane makes a certain angle with the wavevector. The results of numerical calculations of the threshold characteristics of the primary instabilities agree well with the obtained experimental data.

  11. Optical properties of hybrid semiconductor-metal structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreilkamp, L.E.; Pohl, M.; Akimov, I.A.; Yakovlev, D.R.; Bayer, M. [Experimentelle Physik 2, Technische Universitaet Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Belotelov, V.I.; Zvezdin, A.K. [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation); Karczewski, G.; Wojtowicz, T. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02668 Warsaw (Poland); Rudzinski, A.; Kahl, M. [Raith GmbH, Konrad-Adenauer-Allee 8, 44263 Dortmund (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    We study the optical properties of hybrid nanostructures comprising a semiconductor CdTe quantum well (QW) separated by a thin CdMgTe cap layer of 40 nm from a patterned gold film. The CdTe/CdMgTe QW structure with a well width of 10nm was grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The one-dimensional periodic gold films on top were made using e-beam lithography and lift-off process. The investigated structures can be considered as plasmonic crystals because the metal films attached to the semiconductor are patterned with a period in the range from 475 to 600 nm, which is comparable to the surface plasmon-polariton (SPP) wavelength. Angle dependent reflection spectra at room temperature clearly show plasmonic resonances. PL spectra taken at low temperatures of about 10 K under below- and above-barrier illumination show significant modifications compared to the unstructured QW sample. The number of emission lines and their position shift change depending on the excitation energy. The role of exciton-SPP coupling and Schottky barrier at the semiconductor-metal interface are discussed.

  12. Wetting properties of hybrid structure with hydrophilic ridges and hydrophobic channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Ki; Choi, Su Young; Park, Min Soo; Cho, Young Hak

    2018-02-01

    In the present study, we fabricated a hybrid structure where the upper surface of the ridge is hydrophilic and the inner surface of the channel is hydrophobic. Laser-induced backside wet etching (LIBWE) process was performed to machine the hybrid structure on a Pyrex glass substrate. Wetting properties were evaluated from static contact angles (CAs) measurement in parallel and orthogonal directions. The water droplet on the hybrid structure was in the Cassie-Baxter state and showed anisotropic wetting property along groove lines. Moisture condensation studies under humid condition indicated that water droplets grew and coalesced on the ridge with hydrophilicity. Furthermore, water-oil separation was tested using a microfluidic chip with the developed hybrid structure. In case of hybrid microfluidic chip, the water could not flow into channel but the hexadecane could flow due to the capillary pressure difference.

  13. Tunneling conductance in semiconductor-superconductor hybrid structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, John; Stanescu, Tudor D.

    2017-12-01

    We study the differential conductance for charge tunneling into a semiconductor wire-superconductor hybrid structure, which is actively investigated as a possible scheme for realizing topological superconductivity and Majorana zero modes. The calculations are done based on a tight-binding model of the heterostructure using both a Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk approach and a Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's function method. The dependence of various tunneling conductance features on the coupling strength between the semiconductor and the superconductor, the tunnel barrier height, and temperature is systematically investigated. We find that treating the parent superconductor as an active component of the system, rather than a passive source of Cooper pairs, has qualitative consequences regarding the low-energy behavior of the differential conductance. In particular, the presence of subgap states in the parent superconductor, due to disorder and finite magnetic fields, leads to characteristic particle-hole asymmetric features and to the breakdown of the quantization of the zero-bias peak associated with the presence of Majorana zero modes localized at the ends of the wire. The implications of these findings for the effort toward the realization of Majorana bound states with true non-Abelian properties are discussed.

  14. Hybrid Composites for LH2 Fuel Tank Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsley, Brian W.; Cano, Roberto J.; Johnston, Norman J.; Loos, Alfred C.; McMahon, William M.

    2001-01-01

    The application of lightweight carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) as structure for cryogenic fuel tanks is critical to the success of the next generation of Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV). The recent failure of the X-33 composite fuel tank occurred in part due to microcracking of the polymer matrix, which allowed cryogen to permeate through the inner skin to the honeycomb core. As part of an approach to solve these problems, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) are working to develop and investigate polymer films that will act as a barrier to the permeation of LH2 through the composite laminate. In this study two commercially available films and eleven novel LaRC films were tested in an existing cryogenics laboratory at MSFC to determine the permeance of argon at room temperature. Several of these films were introduced as a layer in the composite to form an interleaved, or hybrid, composite to determine the effects on permeability. In addition, the effects of the interleaved layer thickness, number, and location on the mechanical properties of the composite laminate were investigated. In this initial screening process, several of the films were found to exhibit lower permeability to argon than the composite panels tested.

  15. Hybrid Spintronic Structures With Magnetic Oxides and Heusler Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Y. B.; Hassan, S. S. A.; Wong, P. K. J.

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid spintronic structures, integrating half-metallic magnetic oxides and Heusler alloys with their predicted high spin polarization, are important for the development of second-generation spintronics with high-efficient spin injection. We have synthesized epitaxial magnetic oxide Fe3O4 on Ga......As(100) and the unit cell of the Fe3O4 was found to be rotated by 45 degrees to match the gallium arsenide GaAs. The films were found to have a bulk-like moment down to 3-4 nm and a low coercivity indicating a high-quality magnetic interface. The magnetization hysteresis loops of the ultrathin films...... are controlled by uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. The dynamic response of the sample shows a heavily damped precessional response to the applied field pulses. In the Heusler alloy system of Co-2 MnGa on GaAs, we found that the magnetic moment was reduced for thicknesses down to 10 nm, which may account...

  16. The hybrid thermography approach applied to architectural structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfarra, S.; Ambrosini, D.; Paoletti, D.; Nardi, I.; Pasqualoni, G.

    2017-07-01

    This work contains an overview of infrared thermography (IRT) method and its applications relating to the investigation of architectural structures. In this method, the passive approach is usually used in civil engineering, since it provides a panoramic view of the thermal anomalies to be interpreted also thanks to the use of photographs focused on the region of interest (ROI). The active approach, is more suitable for laboratory or indoor inspections, as well as for objects having a small size. The external stress to be applied is thermal, coming from non-natural apparatus such as lamps or hot / cold air jets. In addition, the latter permits to obtain quantitative information related to defects not detectable to the naked eyes. Very recently, the hybrid thermography (HIRT) approach has been introduced to the attention of the scientific panorama. It can be applied when the radiation coming from the sun, directly arrives (i.e., possibly without the shadow cast effect) on a surface exposed to the air. A large number of thermograms must be collected and a post-processing analysis is subsequently applied via advanced algorithms. Therefore, an appraisal of the defect depth can be obtained passing through the calculation of the combined thermal diffusivity of the materials above the defect. The approach is validated herein by working, in a first stage, on a mosaic sample having known defects while, in a second stage, on a Church built in L'Aquila (Italy) and covered with a particular masonry structure called apparecchio aquilano. The results obtained appear promising.

  17. Bio-medical CMOS ICs

    CERN Document Server

    Yoo, Hoi-Jun

    2011-01-01

    This book is based on a graduate course entitled, Ubiquitous Healthcare Circuits and Systems, that was given by one of the editors. It includes an introduction and overview to biomedical ICs and provides information on the current trends in research.

  18. Hybrid Nanocomposites for Efficient Aerospace Structures, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Advanced Air Vehicles program seeks to improve safety and efficiency through exploration of the value of hybrid composites, guiding utilization of the...

  19. A Structural Model Decomposition Framework for Hybrid Systems Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Matthew; Bregon, Anibal; Roychoudhury, Indranil

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, a large number of practical systems in aerospace and industrial environments are best represented as hybrid systems that consist of discrete modes of behavior, each defined by a set of continuous dynamics. These hybrid dynamics make the on-line fault diagnosis task very challenging. In this work, we present a new modeling and diagnosis framework for hybrid systems. Models are composed from sets of user-defined components using a compositional modeling approach. Submodels for residual generation are then generated for a given mode, and reconfigured efficiently when the mode changes. Efficient reconfiguration is established by exploiting causality information within the hybrid system models. The submodels can then be used for fault diagnosis based on residual generation and analysis. We demonstrate the efficient causality reassignment, submodel reconfiguration, and residual generation for fault diagnosis using an electrical circuit case study.

  20. ON THE STABILIZATION OF THE LINEAR HYBRID SYSTEM STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirillov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The linear control hybrid system, consisting of a fi- nite set of subsystems (modes having different dimensions, is considered. The moments of reset time are determined by some complementary function – evolutionary time. This function satisfies the special complementary ordinary differential equation. The mode stabilization problem is solved for some class of piecewise linear controls. The method of stabilization relies on the set of invariant planes, the existence of which is due to the special form of the hybrid system.

  1. Extraordinary Magnetoresistance Effect in Semiconductor/Metal Hybrid Structure

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jian

    2013-06-27

    In this dissertation, the extraordinary magnetoresistance (EMR) effect in semiconductor/metal hybrid structures is studied to improve the performance in sensing applications. Using two-dimensional finite element simulations, the geometric dependence of the output sensitivity, which is a more relevant parameter for EMR sensors than the magnetoresistance (MR), is studied. The results show that the optimal geometry in this case is different from the geometry reported before, where the MR ratio was optimized. A device consisting of a semiconductor bar with length/width ratio of 5~10 and having only 2 contacts is found to exhibit the highest sensitivity. A newly developed three-dimensional finite element model is employed to investigate parameters that have been neglected with the two dimensional simulations utilized so far, i.e., thickness of metal shunt and arbitrary semiconductor/metal interface. The simulations show the influence of those parameters on the sensitivity is up to 10 %. The model also enables exploring the EMR effect in planar magnetic fields. In case of a bar device, the sensitivity to planar fields is about 15 % to 20 % of the one to perpendicular fields. 5 A “top-contacted” structure is proposed to reduce the complexity of fabrication, where neither patterning of the semiconductor nor precise alignment is required. A comparison of the new structure with a conventionally fabricated device shows that a similar magnetic field resolution of 24 nT/√Hz is obtained. A new 3-contact device is developed improving the poor low-field sensitivity observed in conventional EMR devices, resulting from its parabolic magnetoresistance response. The 3-contact device provides a considerable boost of the low field response by combining the Hall effect with the EMR effect, resulting in an increase of the output sensitivity by 5 times at 0.01 T compared to a 2-contact device. The results of this dissertation provide new insights into the optimization of EMR devices

  2. The Effectiveness of Hybrid Structure in Overcoming Coastal Abration in Trimulyo, Genuk Subdistrict Semarang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnia, Domas; Nugroho, Denny

    2018-02-01

    Trimulyo is one of coastal village in Genuk Subdistrict, Semarang City which now facing serious coastal abrasion. Such a thing has been causing loss of ponds and settlements. One of solution which currently carried is hybrid structure which combining permeable structure to break up the waves and trap sediment. The hybrid structure is designed as agitation dredging, which increase suspended sediment in sea water. The goals of this research were to studying the effectiveness of hybrid structure in handling coastal abration and to counting the volume of sedimentation during 20 months as well as rate of sedimentation. To reach the goals, high resolution satellite imagery year 2015 and 2016, scaled stick and sediment trap were applied to the study. Image processing was conducted by using Arc GIS 10.3 software. The effectiveness of hybrid structured was determined by series of field survey of existing condition. Rate of sedimentation measured during before and after hybrid structure built (20 months). The results showed that hybrid structure was effective to reduce coastal abrasion, it proven by a large amount of sediment was trapped behind the structure and coastline was upward along 170 meter since it was built. The volume of sediment during 20 months is 81.500 m3. If it assumed that the rate of sedimentation constantly, monthly rate of sedimentation is 4.075 m3/month or daily rate is 135,8 m3/day. The sediment that has formed highly recommended to use as mangrove conservation area in Semarang City.

  3. Advanced Ceramic Matrix Composites with Multifunctional and Hybrid Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mrityunjay; Morscher, Gregory N.

    2004-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites are leading candidate materials for a number of applications in aeronautics, space, energy, and nuclear industries. Potential composite applications differ in their requirements for thickness. For example, many space applications such as "nozzle ramps" or "heat exchangers" require very thin (structures whereas turbine blades would require very thick parts (> or = 1 cm). Little is known about the effect of thickness on stress-strain behavior or the elevated temperature tensile properties controlled by oxidation diffusion. In this study, composites consisting of woven Hi-Nicalon (trademark) fibers a carbon interphase and CVI SiC matrix were fabricated with different numbers of plies and thicknesses. The effect of thickness on matrix crack formation, matrix crack growth and diffusion kinetics will be discussed. In another approach, hybrid fiber-lay up concepts have been utilized to "alloy" desirable properties of different fiber types for mechanical properties, thermal stress management, and oxidation resistance. Such an approach has potential for the C(sub I)-SiC and SiC(sub f)-SiC composite systems. CVI SiC matrix composites with different stacking sequences of woven C fiber (T300) layers and woven SiC fiber (Hi-Nicalon (trademark)) layers were fabricated. The results will be compared to standard C fiber reinforced CVI SiC matrix and Hi-Nicalon reinforced CVI SiC matrix composites. In addition, shear properties of these composites at different temperatures will also be presented. Other design and implementation issues will be discussed along with advantages and benefits of using these materials for various components in high temperature applications.

  4. Physical, structural and thermomechanical properties of oil palm nano filler/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saba, N., E-mail: naheedchem@gmail.com [Laboratory of Biocomposite Technology, Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products(INTROP), Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Paridah, M.T. [Laboratory of Biocomposite Technology, Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products(INTROP), Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Abdan, K. [Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang Selangor (Malaysia); Ibrahim, N.A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-12-01

    The present research study deals with the fabrication of kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites by the incorporation of oil palm nano filler, montmorillonite (MMT) and organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT) at 3% loading, through hand lay-up technique. Effect of adding different nano fillers on the physical (density), structural [X-ray diffraction (XRD)] and thermomechanical analysis (TMA) of kenaf/epoxy composites were carried out. Density results revealed that the incorporation of nano filler in the kenaf/epoxy composites increases the density which in turn increases the hardness of the hybrid nanocomposites. XRD analysis confirmed the presence of nano fillers in the structure of their respective fabricated hybrid nanocomposites. All hybrid nanocomposites displayed lower coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) with respect to kenaf/epoxy composites. Overall results predicted that the properties improvement in nano OPEFB/kenaf/epoxy was quite comparable to MMT/kenaf/epoxy but relatively lesser to OMMT/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites and higher with respect to kenaf/epoxy composites. The improvement ascribed due to improved interfacial bonding or cross linking between kenaf fibers and epoxy matrix by addition of nano filler. - Highlights: • Nano OPEFB/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites were fabricated by hand lay-up. • Effect of nano OPEFB on density & structure of kenaf/epoxy were investigated. • Thermal expansion coefficients of kenaf/epoxy and hybrid nanocomposites evaluated. • Comparative studies were made with MMT and OMMT kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites.

  5. Physical, structural and thermomechanical properties of oil palm nano filler/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saba, N.; Paridah, M.T.; Abdan, K.; Ibrahim, N.A.

    2016-01-01

    The present research study deals with the fabrication of kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites by the incorporation of oil palm nano filler, montmorillonite (MMT) and organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT) at 3% loading, through hand lay-up technique. Effect of adding different nano fillers on the physical (density), structural [X-ray diffraction (XRD)] and thermomechanical analysis (TMA) of kenaf/epoxy composites were carried out. Density results revealed that the incorporation of nano filler in the kenaf/epoxy composites increases the density which in turn increases the hardness of the hybrid nanocomposites. XRD analysis confirmed the presence of nano fillers in the structure of their respective fabricated hybrid nanocomposites. All hybrid nanocomposites displayed lower coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) with respect to kenaf/epoxy composites. Overall results predicted that the properties improvement in nano OPEFB/kenaf/epoxy was quite comparable to MMT/kenaf/epoxy but relatively lesser to OMMT/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites and higher with respect to kenaf/epoxy composites. The improvement ascribed due to improved interfacial bonding or cross linking between kenaf fibers and epoxy matrix by addition of nano filler. - Highlights: • Nano OPEFB/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites were fabricated by hand lay-up. • Effect of nano OPEFB on density & structure of kenaf/epoxy were investigated. • Thermal expansion coefficients of kenaf/epoxy and hybrid nanocomposites evaluated. • Comparative studies were made with MMT and OMMT kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites.

  6. Temperature Histories of Structural Steel Laser and Hybrid Laser-GMA Welds Calculated Using Multiple Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-10

    Laboratory (Ret.), private communication. 33. S. Kou, Welding Metallurgy , 2nd Ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2003. DOI: 10.1002/0471434027. 34. J. K...Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6390--15-9665 Temperature Histories of Structural Steel Laser and Hybrid Laser-GMA Welds ...NUMBER OF PAGES 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Temperature Histories of Structural Steel Laser and Hybrid Laser-GMA Welds Calculated Using Multiple

  7. Optical Fiber/Nanowire Hybrid Structures for Efficient Three-Dimensional Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Weintraub, Benjamin

    2009-11-09

    Wired up: The energy conversion efficiency of three-dimensional dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) in a hybrid structure that integrates optical fibers and nanowire arrays is greater than that of a two-dimensional device. Internal axial illumination enhances the energy conversion efficiency of a rectangular fiber-based hybrid structure (see picture) by a factor of up to six compared to light illumination normal to the fiber axis from outside the device.

  8. CVD growth of graphene under exfoliated hexagonal boron nitride for vertical hybrid structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Min; Jang, Sung Kyu; Song, Young Jae; Lee, Sungjoo

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: We have demonstrated a novel yet simple method for fabricating graphene-based vertical hybrid structures by performing the CVD growth of graphene at an h-BN/Cu interface. Our systematic Raman measurements combined with plasma etching process indicate that a graphene film is grown under exfoliated h-BN rather than on its top surface, and that an h-BN/graphene vertical hybrid structure has been fabricated. Electrical transport measurements of this h-BN/graphene, transferred on SiO2, show the carrier mobility up to approximately 2250 cm 2 V −1 s −1 . The developed method would enable the exploration of the possibility of novel hybrid structure integration with two-dimensional material systems. - Abstract: We have demonstrated a novel yet simple method for fabricating graphene-based vertical hybrid structures by performing the CVD growth of graphene at an h-BN/Cu interface. Our systematic Raman measurements combined with plasma etching process indicate that a graphene film is grown under exfoliated h-BN rather than on its top surface, and that an h-BN/graphene vertical hybrid structure has been fabricated. Electrical transport measurements of this h-BN/graphene, transferred on SiO 2 , show the carrier mobility up to approximately 2250 cm 2 V −1 s −1 . The developed method would enable the exploration of the possibility of novel hybrid structure integration with two-dimensional material systems

  9. Hybrid-hybrid matrix structural refinement of a DNA three-way junction from 3D NOESY-NOESY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiviyanathan, Varatharasa; Luxon, Bruce A.; Leontis, Neocles B.; Illangasekare, Nishantha; Donne, David G.; Gorenstein, David G.

    1999-01-01

    Homonuclear 3D NOESY-NOESY has shown great promise for the structural refinement of large biomolecules. A computationally efficient hybrid-hybrid relaxation matrix refinement methodology, using 3D NOESY-NOESY data, was used to refine the structure of a DNA three-way junction having two unpaired bases at the branch point of the junction. The NMR data and the relaxation matrix refinement confirm that the DNA three-way junction exists in a folded conformation with two of the helical stems stacked upon each other. The third unstacked stem extends away from the junction, forming an acute angle (∼60 deg.) with the stacked stems. The two unpaired bases are stacked upon each other and are exposed to the solvent. Helical parameters for the bases in all three strands show slight deviations from typical values expected for right-handed B-form DNA. Inter-nucleotide imino-imino NOEs between the bases at the branch point of the junction show that the junction region is well defined. The helical stems show mobility (± 20 deg.) indicating dynamic processes around the junction region. The unstacked helical stem adjacent to the unpaired bases shows greater mobility compared to the other two stems. The results from this study indicate that the 3D hybrid-hybrid matrix MORASS refinement methodology, by combining the spectral dispersion of 3D NOESY-NOESY and the computational efficiency of 2D refinement programs, provides an accurate and robust means for structure determination of large biomolecules. Our results also indicate that the 3D MORASS method gives higher quality structures compared to the 2D complete relaxation matrix refinement method

  10. Hybrid structures based on montmorillonite/modified starch intercalate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duchek, P.; Špírková, Milena

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 9 (2010), s. 885 ISSN 0009-2770. [International Conference on Polysaccharides-Glycoscience /6./. 29.09.2010-1.10.2010, Praha] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAAX08240901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : organic/inorganic hybrides * montmorillonite Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials

  11. Storing in carbon nano structures for hybrid systems solar hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marazzi, R.; Zini, G.; Tartarini, P.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a hybrid energy system for converting energy from renewable sources and its storage in the form of hydrogen. The storage uses activated carbon and the methodology was modelled mathematically and simulated in numerical software. The results show that storage compression is cheaper storage for liquefaction. [it

  12. The doubly conditioned frequency spectrum does not distinguish between ancient population structure and hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    Eriksson, Anders

    2014-03-13

    Distinguishing between hybridization and population structure in the ancestral species is a key challenge in our understanding of how permeable species boundaries are to gene flow. The doubly conditioned frequency spectrum (dcfs) has been argued to be a powerful metric to discriminate between these two explanations, and it was used to argue for hybridization between Neandertal and anatomically modern humans. The shape of the observed dcfs for these two species cannot be reproduced by a model that represents ancient population structure in Africa with two populations, while adding hybridization produces realistic shapes. In this letter, we show that this result is a consequence of the spatial coarseness of the demographic model and that a spatially structured stepping stone model can generate realistic dcfs without hybridization. This result highlights how inferences on hybridization between recently diverged species can be strongly affected by the choice of how population structure is represented in the underlying demographic model. We also conclude that the dcfs has limited power in distinguishing between the signals left by hybridization and ancient structure. 2014 The Author.

  13. Tensile properties of a boron/nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube–graphene hybrid structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Xia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Doping is an effective approach that allows for the intrinsic modification of the electrical and chemical properties of nanomaterials. Recently, a graphene and carbon nanotube hybrid structure (GNHS has been reported, which extends the excellent properties of carbon-based materials to three dimensions. In this paper, we carried out a first-time investigation on the tensile properties of the hybrid structures with different dopants. It is found that with the presence of dopants, the hybrid structures usually exhibit lower yield strength, Young’s modulus, and earlier yielding compared to that of a pristine hybrid structure. For dopant concentrations below 2.5% no significant reduction of Young’s modulus or yield strength could be observed. For all considered samples, the failure is found to initiate at the region where the nanotubes and graphene sheets are connected. After failure, monatomic chains are normally observed around the failure region. Dangling graphene layers without the separation of a residual CNT wall are found to adhere to each other after failure with a distance of about 3.4 Å. This study provides a fundamental understanding of the tensile properties of the doped graphene–nanotube hybrid structures, which will benefit the design and also the applications of graphene-based hybrid materials.

  14. The doubly conditioned frequency spectrum does not distinguish between ancient population structure and hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    Eriksson, Anders; Manica, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Distinguishing between hybridization and population structure in the ancestral species is a key challenge in our understanding of how permeable species boundaries are to gene flow. The doubly conditioned frequency spectrum (dcfs) has been argued to be a powerful metric to discriminate between these two explanations, and it was used to argue for hybridization between Neandertal and anatomically modern humans. The shape of the observed dcfs for these two species cannot be reproduced by a model that represents ancient population structure in Africa with two populations, while adding hybridization produces realistic shapes. In this letter, we show that this result is a consequence of the spatial coarseness of the demographic model and that a spatially structured stepping stone model can generate realistic dcfs without hybridization. This result highlights how inferences on hybridization between recently diverged species can be strongly affected by the choice of how population structure is represented in the underlying demographic model. We also conclude that the dcfs has limited power in distinguishing between the signals left by hybridization and ancient structure. 2014 The Author.

  15. A novel structure of permanent-magnet-biased radial hybrid magnetic bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jinji; Fang Jiancheng

    2011-01-01

    The paper proposes a novel structure for a permanent-magnet-biased radial hybrid magnetic bearing. Based on the air gap between the rotor and stator of traditional radial hybrid magnetic bearings, a subsidiary air gap is first constructed between the permanent magnets and the inner magnetic parts. Radial magnetic bearing makes X and Y magnetic fields independent of each other with separate stator poles, and the subsidiary air gap makes control flux to a close loop. As a result, magnetic field coupling of the X and Y channels is decreased significantly by the radial hybrid magnetic bearing and makes it easier to design control systems. Then an external rotor structure is designed into the radial hybrid magnetic bearing. The working principle of the radial hybrid magnetic bearing and its mathematical model is discussed. Finally, a non-linear magnetic network method is proposed to analyze the radial hybrid magnetic bearing. Simulation results indicate that magnetic fields in the two channels of the proposed radial hybrid magnetic bearing decouple well from each other.

  16. A novel structure of permanent-magnet-biased radial hybrid magnetic bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Jinji, E-mail: sunjinji@aspe.buaa.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Fundamental Science for National Defense, Novel Inertial Instrument and Navigation System Technology, School of Instrument Science and Opto-electronics Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 100191 (China); Fang Jiancheng [Key Laboratory of Fundamental Science for National Defense, Novel Inertial Instrument and Navigation System Technology, School of Instrument Science and Opto-electronics Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 100191 (China)

    2011-01-15

    The paper proposes a novel structure for a permanent-magnet-biased radial hybrid magnetic bearing. Based on the air gap between the rotor and stator of traditional radial hybrid magnetic bearings, a subsidiary air gap is first constructed between the permanent magnets and the inner magnetic parts. Radial magnetic bearing makes X and Y magnetic fields independent of each other with separate stator poles, and the subsidiary air gap makes control flux to a close loop. As a result, magnetic field coupling of the X and Y channels is decreased significantly by the radial hybrid magnetic bearing and makes it easier to design control systems. Then an external rotor structure is designed into the radial hybrid magnetic bearing. The working principle of the radial hybrid magnetic bearing and its mathematical model is discussed. Finally, a non-linear magnetic network method is proposed to analyze the radial hybrid magnetic bearing. Simulation results indicate that magnetic fields in the two channels of the proposed radial hybrid magnetic bearing decouple well from each other.

  17. Hybrid functional calculation of electronic and phonon structure of BaSnO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bog G.; Jo, J.Y.; Cheong, S.W.

    2013-01-01

    Barium stannate, BaSnO 3 (BSO), with a cubic perovskite structure, has been highlighted as a promising host material for the next generation transparent oxide electrodes. This study examined theoretically the electronic structure and phonon structure of BSO using hybrid density functional theory based on the HSE06 functional. The electronic structure results of BSO were corrected by extending the phonon calculations based on the hybrid density functional. The fundamental thermal properties were also predicted based on a hybrid functional calculation. Overall, a detailed understanding of the electronic structure, phonon modes and phonon dispersion of BSO will provide a theoretical starting-point for engineering applications of this material. - Graphical Abstract: (a) Crystal structure of BaSnO 3 . The center ball is Ba and small (red) ball on edge is oxygen and SnO 6 octahedrons are plotted as polyhedron. (b) Electronic band structure along the high symmetry point in the Brillouin zone using the HSE06 hybrid functional. (c) The phonon dispersion curve calculated using the HSE06 hybrid functional (d) Zone center lowest energy F 1u phonon mode. Highlights: ► We report the full hybrid functional calculation of not only the electronic structure but also the phonon structure for BaSnO 3 . ► The band gap calculation of HSE06 revealed an indirect gap with 2.48 eV. ► The effective mass at the conduction band minimum and valence band maximum was calculated. ► In addition, the phonon structure of BSO was calculated using the HSE06 functional. ► Finally, the heat capacity was calculated and compared with the recent experimental result.

  18. Trust and Contracting in Agri-Food Hybrid Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Martino, Gaetano

    2007-01-01

    The paper aims at examining the hypothesis that the influence of trust on contract can be thought of as a dynamic factor of organizational choices in supply chains. The relationship between contract and trust is delineated on the basis of institutional environment, contractual incompleteness, safeguards and restrictive provisions. The interaction between individual and system elements in the formation of trust and its influence in hybrid contracting is considered. According to a New Instituti...

  19. Optical fiber-based core-shell coaxially structured hybrid cells for self-powered nanosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Caofeng; Zhu, Guang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Guo, Wenxi [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Dong, Lin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); School of Materials Science and Enginnering, Zhenzhou University, Zhenghou 450001 (China); Wang, Zhong Lin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Beijing Institute of Nanoenergy and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2012-07-03

    An optical fiber-based 3D hybrid cell consisting of a coaxially structured dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and a nanogenerator (NG) for simultaneously or independently harvesting solar and mechanical energy is demonstrated. The current output of the hybrid cell is dominated by the DSSC, and the voltage output is dominated by the NG; these can be utilized complementarily for different applications. The output of the hybrid cell is about 7.65 {mu}A current and 3.3 V voltage, which is strong enough to power nanodevices and even commercial electronic components. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Bloch-Surface-Polariton-Based Hybrid Nanowire Structure for Subwavelength, Low-Loss Waveguiding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijing Kong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs have been thoroughly studied in the past decades for not only sensing but also waveguiding applications. Various plasmonic device structures have been explored due to their ability to confine their optical mode to the subwavelength level. However, with the existence of metal, the large ohmic loss limits the propagation distance of the SPP and thus the scalability of such devices. Therefore, different hybrid waveguides have been proposed to overcome this shortcoming. Through fine tuning of the coupling between the SPP and a conventional waveguide mode, a hybrid mode could be excited with decent mode confinement and extended propagation distance. As an effective alternative of SPP, Bloch surface waves have been re-investigated more recently for their unique advantages. As is supported in all-dielectric structures, the optical loss for the Bloch surface wave is much lower, which stands for a much longer propagating distance. Yet, the confinement of the Bloch surface wave due to the reflections and refractions in the multilayer structure is not as tight as that of the SPP. In this work, by integrating a periodic multilayer structure that supports the Bloch surface wave with a metallic nanowire structure, a hybrid Bloch surface wave polariton could be excited. With the proposed hybrid nanowire structure, a hybrid mode is demonstrated with the deep subwavelength mode confinement and a propagation distance of tens of microns.

  1. Enhanced non-radiative energy transfer in hybrid III-nitride structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R. M.; Athanasiou, M.; Bai, J.; Liu, B.; Wang, T.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of surface states has been investigated in hybrid organic/inorganic white light emitting structures that employ high efficiency, nearfield non-radiative energy transfer (NRET) coupling. The structures utilize blue emitting InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) nanorod arrays to minimize the separation with a yellow emitting F8BT coating. Surface states due to the exposed III-nitride surfaces of the nanostructures are found to reduce the NRET coupling rate. The surface states are passivated by deposition of a silicon nitride layer on the III-nitride nanorod surface leading to reduced surface recombination. A low thickness surface passivation is shown to increase the NRET coupling rate by 4 times compared to an un-passivated hybrid structure. A model is proposed to explain the increased NRET rate for the passivated hybrid structures based on the reduction in surface electron depletion of the passivated InGaN/GaN MQW nanorods surfaces

  2. CMOS Analog IC Design: Fundamentals

    OpenAIRE

    Bruun, Erik

    2018-01-01

    This book is intended for use as the main textbook for an introductory course in CMOS analog integrated circuit design. It is aimed at electronics engineering students who have followed basic courses in mathematics, physics, circuit theory, electronics and signal processing. It takes the students directly from a basic level to a level where they can start working on simple analog IC design projects or continue their studies using more advanced textbooks in the field. A distinct feature of thi...

  3. Cage and linear structured polysiloxane/epoxy hybrids for coatings: Surface property and film permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yanli; He, Ling; Jia, Mengjun; Zhao, Lingru; Zuo, Yanyan; Hu, Pingan

    2017-08-15

    Three polysiloxane/epoxy hybrids obtained by evolving cage- or linear-structured polysiloxane into poly glycidyl methacrylate (PGMA) matrix are compared used as coatings. One is the cage-structured hybrid of P(GMA/MA-POSS) copolymer obtained by GMA and methacrylisobutyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (MA-POSS) via free radical polymerization, the other two are PGMA/NH 2 -POSS and PGMA/NH 2 -PDMS hybrids by cage-structured aminopropyllsobutyl POSS (NH 2 -POSS) or linear-structured diamino terminated poly(dimethylsiloxane) (NH 2 -PDMS) to cure PGMA. The effect of MA-POSS, NH 2 -POSS and NH 2 -PDMS on polysiloxane/epoxy hybrid films is characterized according to their surface morphology, transparency, permeability, adhesive strength and thermo-mechanical properties. Due to caged POSS tending to agglomerate onto the film surface, P(GMA/MA-POSS) and PGMA/NH 2 -POSS films exhibit much more heterogeneous surfaces than PGMA/NH 2 -PDMS film, but the well-compatibility between epoxy matrix and MA-POSS has provided P(GMA/MA-POSS) film with much higher transmittance (98%) than PGMA/NH 2 -POSS film (24%), PGMA/NH 2 -PDMS film (27%) and traditional epoxy resin film (5%). The introduction of polysiloxane into epoxy matrix is confirmed to create hybrids with strong adhesive strength (526-1113N) and high thermos-stability (T g =262-282°C), especially the cage-structured P(GMA/MA-POSS) hybrid (1113N and 282°C), but the flexible PDMS improves PGMA/NH 2 -PDMS hybrid with much higher storage modulus (519MPa) than PGMA/NH 2 -POSS (271MPa), which suggests that PDMS is advantage in improving the film stiffness than POSS cages. However, cage-structured P(GMA/MA-POSS) and PGMA/NH 2 -POSS indicate higher permeability than PGMA/NH 2 -PDMS and traditional epoxy resin. Comparatively, the cage-structured P(GMA/MA-POSS) hybrid is the best coating in transparency, permeability, adhesive strength and thermostability, but linear-structured PGMA/NH 2 -PDMS hybrid behaviors the best coating in

  4. Non-binary Hybrid LDPC Codes: Structure, Decoding and Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Sassatelli, Lucile; Declercq, David

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose to study and optimize a very general class of LDPC codes whose variable nodes belong to finite sets with different orders. We named this class of codes Hybrid LDPC codes. Although efficient optimization techniques exist for binary LDPC codes and more recently for non-binary LDPC codes, they both exhibit drawbacks due to different reasons. Our goal is to capitalize on the advantages of both families by building codes with binary (or small finite set order) and non-bin...

  5. Hybrid organic-inorganic materials based on hydroxyapatite structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moussa, Sana Ben; Bachouâ, Hassen [U.R. Matériaux et synthèse organique UR17ES31, Institut Préparatoire aux Etudes d’Ingénieur de Monastir, Université de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Gruselle, Michel, E-mail: michel.gruselle@upmc.fr [Sorbonne Université, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 8232, Institut Parisien de Chimie Moléculaire, F-75005 Paris (France); Beaunier, Patricia [Sorbonne Université, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 7197, Laboratoire de Réactivité de Surface, F-75005 Paris (France); Flambard, Alexandrine [Sorbonne Université, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 8232, Institut Parisien de Chimie Moléculaire, F-75005 Paris (France); Badraoui, Béchir [U.R. Matériaux et synthèse organique UR17ES31, Institut Préparatoire aux Etudes d’Ingénieur de Monastir, Université de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia)

    2017-04-15

    The present article details the formation of calcium hydroxyapatite synthesized by the hydrothermal way, in presence of glycine or sarcosine. The presence of these amino-acids during the synthetic processes reduces the crystalline growthing through the formation of hybrid organic-inorganic species The crystallite sizes are decreasing and the morphology is modified with the increase of the amino-acid concentration. - Graphical abstract: Formation of Ca carboxylate salt leading to the grafting of glycine and sarcosine on the Ca=Hap surface (R= H, CH3).

  6. Genomic structural variation-mediated allelic suppression causes hybrid male sterility in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Rongxin; Wang, Lan; Liu, Xupeng; Wu, Jiang; Jin, Weiwei; Zhao, Xiucai; Xie, Xianrong; Zhu, Qinlong; Tang, Huiwu; Li, Qing; Chen, Letian; Liu, Yao-Guang

    2017-11-03

    Hybrids between divergent populations commonly show hybrid sterility; this reproductive barrier hinders hybrid breeding of the japonica and indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) subspecies. Here we show that structural changes and copy number variation at the Sc locus confer japonica-indica hybrid male sterility. The japonica allele, Sc-j, contains a pollen-essential gene encoding a DUF1618-domain protein; the indica allele, Sc-i, contains two or three tandem-duplicated ~ 28-kb segments, each carrying an Sc-j-homolog with a distinct promoter. In Sc-j/Sc-i hybrids, the high-expression of Sc-i in sporophytic cells causes suppression of Sc-j expression in pollen and selective abortion of Sc-j-pollen, leading to transmission ratio distortion. Knocking out one or two of the three Sc-i copies by CRISPR/Cas9 rescues Sc-j expression and male fertility. Our results reveal the gene dosage-dependent allelic suppression as a mechanism of hybrid incompatibility, and provide an effective approach to overcome the reproductive barrier for hybrid breeding.

  7. Efficient light emission from inorganic and organic semiconductor hybrid structures by energy-level tuning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, R.; Bianchi, F.; Blumstengel, S.; Christodoulou, C.; Ovsyannikov, R.; Kobin, B.; Moudgil, K.; Barlow, S.; Hecht, S.; Marder, S.R.; Henneberger, F.; Koch, N.

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental limits of inorganic semiconductors for light emitting applications, such as holographic displays, biomedical imaging and ultrafast data processing and communication, might be overcome by hybridization with their organic counterparts, which feature enhanced frequency response and colour range. Innovative hybrid inorganic/organic structures exploit efficient electrical injection and high excitation density of inorganic semiconductors and subsequent energy transfer to the organic semiconductor, provided that the radiative emission yield is high. An inherent obstacle to that end is the unfavourable energy level offset at hybrid inorganic/organic structures, which rather facilitates charge transfer that quenches light emission. Here, we introduce a technologically relevant method to optimize the hybrid structure's energy levels, here comprising ZnO and a tailored ladder-type oligophenylene. The ZnO work function is substantially lowered with an organometallic donor monolayer, aligning the frontier levels of the inorganic and organic semiconductors. This increases the hybrid structure's radiative emission yield sevenfold, validating the relevance of our approach. PMID:25872919

  8. Efficient light emission from inorganic and organic semiconductor hybrid structures by energy-level tuning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, R; Bianchi, F; Blumstengel, S; Christodoulou, C; Ovsyannikov, R; Kobin, B; Moudgil, K; Barlow, S; Hecht, S; Marder, S R; Henneberger, F; Koch, N

    2015-04-15

    The fundamental limits of inorganic semiconductors for light emitting applications, such as holographic displays, biomedical imaging and ultrafast data processing and communication, might be overcome by hybridization with their organic counterparts, which feature enhanced frequency response and colour range. Innovative hybrid inorganic/organic structures exploit efficient electrical injection and high excitation density of inorganic semiconductors and subsequent energy transfer to the organic semiconductor, provided that the radiative emission yield is high. An inherent obstacle to that end is the unfavourable energy level offset at hybrid inorganic/organic structures, which rather facilitates charge transfer that quenches light emission. Here, we introduce a technologically relevant method to optimize the hybrid structure's energy levels, here comprising ZnO and a tailored ladder-type oligophenylene. The ZnO work function is substantially lowered with an organometallic donor monolayer, aligning the frontier levels of the inorganic and organic semiconductors. This increases the hybrid structure's radiative emission yield sevenfold, validating the relevance of our approach.

  9. Quasi-Static Single-Component Hybrid Simulation of a Composite Structure with Multi-Axis Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh, J.; Waldbjørn, J.; Wittrup-Schmidt, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a quasi-static hybrid simulation performed on a single component structure. Hybrid simulation is a substructural technique, where a structure is divided into two sections: a numerical section of the main structure and a physical experiment of the remainder. In previous cases...

  10. CVD growth of graphene under exfoliated hexagonal boron nitride for vertical hybrid structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Min [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT) (Korea, Republic of); Center for Human Interface Nanotechnology (HINT) (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Sung Kyu [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT) (Korea, Republic of); Song, Young Jae [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT) (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sungjoo, E-mail: leesj@skku.edu [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT) (Korea, Republic of); Center for Human Interface Nanotechnology (HINT) (Korea, Republic of); College of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Graphical abstract: We have demonstrated a novel yet simple method for fabricating graphene-based vertical hybrid structures by performing the CVD growth of graphene at an h-BN/Cu interface. Our systematic Raman measurements combined with plasma etching process indicate that a graphene film is grown under exfoliated h-BN rather than on its top surface, and that an h-BN/graphene vertical hybrid structure has been fabricated. Electrical transport measurements of this h-BN/graphene, transferred on SiO2, show the carrier mobility up to approximately 2250 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}. The developed method would enable the exploration of the possibility of novel hybrid structure integration with two-dimensional material systems. - Abstract: We have demonstrated a novel yet simple method for fabricating graphene-based vertical hybrid structures by performing the CVD growth of graphene at an h-BN/Cu interface. Our systematic Raman measurements combined with plasma etching process indicate that a graphene film is grown under exfoliated h-BN rather than on its top surface, and that an h-BN/graphene vertical hybrid structure has been fabricated. Electrical transport measurements of this h-BN/graphene, transferred on SiO{sub 2}, show the carrier mobility up to approximately 2250 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}. The developed method would enable the exploration of the possibility of novel hybrid structure integration with two-dimensional material systems.

  11. Report of Research Cooperation Sub-Committee 46 on research and development of methods for inelastic (EPICC: Elastic-PlastIC-Creep) structural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yoshiaki

    1977-05-01

    This report succeeds the preceding one on ''Verification and Qualification of Nonlinear Structural Analysis Computer Program''. PNC (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation) decided to sponsor an extended research project on inelastic structural analysis for a period spanning September, 1976 to May, 1978. Responding to PNC proposal, RC Sub-Committee 46 was formed in Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers and plunged into the cooperative work from October, 1976. Besides the verification and/or qualification of available general purpose computer programs which were the major objectives of previous contract, the Committee executed the research on the topics categorized into the following three fields of interests: 1. Material data for use in elastic analysis, 2. Inelastic analysis procedure and computer program verification, 3. Design code and processing of computer solutions. This report summarizes the efforts during the first year of the Sub-Committee and consists of three parts each corresponding to the research topics stated above. Part I. Inelastic constitutive equations for materials under high temperature service conditions Part II. EPICC standard benchmark test problem and solutions Part III. Examination of postprocessors and development Although the research is still in the intermediate stage, the features of research being actively under way are 1. Evaluative review and nationwide collection of material data, recommendation of tentative constitutive equations for elastic-plastic and creep analyses of benchmark test problem, 2. Revision and augmentation of EPICC standard benchmark test problem and competitive and/or cooperative execution of solutions, 3. Review of existing prototypical post processors, and development of a processor for piping design. (author)

  12. Sampling Enrichment toward Target Structures Using Hybrid Molecular Dynamics-Monte Carlo Simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kecheng Yang

    Full Text Available Sampling enrichment toward a target state, an analogue of the improvement of sampling efficiency (SE, is critical in both the refinement of protein structures and the generation of near-native structure ensembles for the exploration of structure-function relationships. We developed a hybrid molecular dynamics (MD-Monte Carlo (MC approach to enrich the sampling toward the target structures. In this approach, the higher SE is achieved by perturbing the conventional MD simulations with a MC structure-acceptance judgment, which is based on the coincidence degree of small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS intensity profiles between the simulation structures and the target structure. We found that the hybrid simulations could significantly improve SE by making the top-ranked models much closer to the target structures both in the secondary and tertiary structures. Specifically, for the 20 mono-residue peptides, when the initial structures had the root-mean-squared deviation (RMSD from the target structure smaller than 7 Å, the hybrid MD-MC simulations afforded, on average, 0.83 Å and 1.73 Å in RMSD closer to the target than the parallel MD simulations at 310K and 370K, respectively. Meanwhile, the average SE values are also increased by 13.2% and 15.7%. The enrichment of sampling becomes more significant when the target states are gradually detectable in the MD-MC simulations in comparison with the parallel MD simulations, and provide >200% improvement in SE. We also performed a test of the hybrid MD-MC approach in the real protein system, the results showed that the SE for 3 out of 5 real proteins are improved. Overall, this work presents an efficient way of utilizing solution SAXS to improve protein structure prediction and refinement, as well as the generation of near native structures for function annotation.

  13. Compact hybrid cell based on a convoluted nanowire structure for harvesting solar and mechanical energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Chen; Wang, Zhong Lin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    A fully integrated, solid-state, compact hybrid cell (CHC) that comprises ''convoluted'' ZnO nanowire structures for concurrent harvesting of both solar and mechanical energy is demonstrated. The compact hybrid cell is based on a conjunction design of an organic solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and piezoelectric nanogenerator in one compact structure. The CHC shows a significant increase in output power, clearly demonstrating its potential for simultaneously harvesting multiple types of energy for powering small electronic devices for independent, sustainable, and mobile operation. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Characterizing the physical and genetic structure of the lodgepole pine × jack pine hybrid zone: mosaic structure and differential introgression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullingham, Catherine I; James, Patrick M A; Cooke, Janice E K; Coltman, David W

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the physical and genetic structure of hybrid zones can illuminate factors affecting their formation and stability. In north-central Alberta, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb) form a complex and poorly defined hybrid zone. Better knowledge of this zone is relevant, given the recent host expansion of mountain pine beetle into jack pine. We characterized the zone by genotyping 1998 lodgepole, jack pine, and hybrids from British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Ontario, and Minnesota at 11 microsatellites. Using Bayesian algorithms, we calculated genetic ancestry and used this to model the relationship between species occurrence and environment. In addition, we analyzed the ancestry of hybrids to calculate the genetic contribution of lodgepole and jack pine. Finally, we measured the amount of gene flow between the pure species. We found the distribution of the pine classes is explained by environmental variables, and these distributions differ from classic distribution maps. Hybrid ancestry was biased toward lodgepole pine; however, gene flow between the two species was equal. The results of this study suggest that the hybrid zone is complex and influenced by environmental constraints. As a result of this analysis, range limits should be redefined.

  15. Solution processable inverted structure ZnO-organic hybrid heterojuction white LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bano, N.; Hussain, I.; Soomro, M. Y.; EL-Naggar, A. M.; Albassam, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    Improving luminance efficiency and colour purity are the most important challenges for zinc oxide (ZnO)-organic hybrid heterojunction light emitting diodes (LEDs), affecting their large area applications. If ZnO-organic hybrid heterojunction white LEDs are fabricated by a hydrothermal method, it is difficult to obtain pure and stable blue emission from PFO due to the presence of an undesirable green emission. In this paper, we present an inverted-structure ZnO-organic hybrid heterojunction LED to avoid green emission from PFO, which mainly originates during device processing. With this configuration, each ZnO nanorod (NR) forms a discrete p-n junction; therefore, large-area white LEDs can be designed without compromising the junction area. The configuration used for this novel structure is glass/ZnO NRs/PFO/PEDOT:PSS/L-ITO, which enables the development of efficient, large-area and low-cost hybrid heterojunction LEDs. Inverted-structure ZnO-organic hybrid heterojunction white LEDs offer several improvements in terms of brightness, size, colour, external quantum efficiency and a wider applicability as compared to normal architecture LEDs.

  16. Computing fundamentals IC3 edition

    CERN Document Server

    Wempen, Faithe

    2014-01-01

    Kick start your journey into computing and prepare for your IC3 certification With this essential course book you'll be sending e-mails, surfing the web and understanding the basics of computing in no time. Written by Faithe Wempen, a Microsoft Office Master Instructor and author of more than 120 books, this complete guide to the basics has been tailored to provide comprehensive instruction on the full range of entry-level computing skills. It is a must for students looking to move into almost any profession, as entry-level computing courses have become a compulsory requirement in the modern w

  17. SEM probe of IC radiation sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, M. K.; Stanley, A. G.

    1979-01-01

    Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) used to irradiate single integrated circuit (IC) subcomponent to test for radiation sensitivity can localize area of IC less than .03 by .03 mm for determination of exact location of radiation sensitive section.

  18. Hybrid AC EL structures with thin protective ZnO film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetkova, E; Dikov, H; Kolentsov, K; Yourukova, L; Zhechev, D; Steflekova, V

    2008-01-01

    Alternating current hybrid electroluminescent Al/SnO 2 /ZnS: Cu/ZnO/Al structures with blue emission have been prepared. In these ZnO films are used as protective layers. The optical properties of different RF magnetron sputtered ZnO films have been studied. The voltage - brightness characteristics of AC EL structures with a ZnO protective film and conventional structures with a TiO 2 protective layer are compared. The investigation shows that the brightness of the structures with a ZnO protective film is higher. The improved characteristics of these new hybrid structures could be used in preparing various systems for representation of permanent or variable light information

  19. Mass optimization of a small pressure vessel using metal/FRP (fiber reinforced polymers) hybrid structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisar, J.A.; Abdullah, A.N.; Iqbal, N.

    2004-01-01

    In hybrid pressure vessels, composite (Fiber) is wound over a metallic liner (Steel/Aluminum) in hoop direction. In this concept of hybrid pressure vessel structure, metallic liner takes all the axial loads and fiber reinforced polymers (FRP/sub s/) takes load in circumferential (Hoop) direction. Hybrid structures combine the relatively high shear stiffness and ductility of metal alloy with high specific stiffness, strength and fatigue properties of FRP/sub s/. The relatively simple methods for producing hybrid structures circumvent the need for the complex and expensive equipment that is used for advanced composites processing. This paper presents an efficient way of designing a hybrid pressure vessel where prime concern is weight reduction over an equivalent aluminum structure and investigates various methodologies regarding combinations of metals and FRP/sub s/ for optimization of a given pressure vessel. For this purpose we adopted two different methods of simulation one is computer simulation using ANSYS and other is experimental verification by hydrostatic testing of manufactured pressure vessel. Two different pressure vessels one with aluminum liner and other with steel liner were fabricated. Kevlar 49/epoxy was wrapped around the liners in hoop direction. Both the pressure vessels were put into hydrostatic test. Strains were measured during the test and then converted into corresponding stresses. Results of hydrostatic test were quite in favor of the ANSYS results. In this way we have successfully designed, manufactured and tested the Hybrid pressure vessel saving almost 40% weight in case of aluminum liner and 43.6% in case of steel liner. (author)

  20. Hybrid FDTD Analysis for Periodic On-Chip Terahertz (THZ) Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussein, Yasser A.; Spencer, James E.; /SLAC

    2005-06-07

    We present electromagnetic analysis and radiation efficiency calculations for on-chip terahertz (THz) structures based on a hybrid, finite-difference, time-domain (HFDTD) technique. The method employs the FDTD technique to calculate S-parameters for one cell of a periodic structure. The transmission ABCD matrix is then estimated and multiplied by itself n times to obtain the n-cell periodic structure ABCD parameters that are then converted back to S-parameters. Validation of the method is carried out by comparing the results of the hybrid technique with FDTD calculations of the entire periodic structure as well as with HFSS which all agree quite well. This procedure reduces the CPU-time and allows efficient design and optimization of periodic THz radiation sources. Future research will involve coupling of Maxwell's equations with a more detailed, physics-based transport model for higher-order effects.

  1. A Novel Hybrid Nano Scale MOSFET Structure for Low Leak Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rana

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, novel hybrid MOSFET(HMOS structure has been proposed to reduce the gate leakage current drastically. This novel hybrid MOSFET (HMOS uses source/drain-to-gate non-overlap region in combination with high-K layer/interfacial oxide as gate stack. The extended S/D in the non-overlap region is induced by fringing gate electric field through the high-k dielectric spacer. The gate leakage behaviour of HMOS has been investigated with the help of compact analytical model and Sentaurus Simulation. The results so obtained show good agreement between model and simulation data. It is found that HMOS structure has reduced the gate leakage current to great extent as compared to conventional overlapped MOSFET structure. Further, the proposed structure had demonstrated improved on current, off current, subthreshold slope and DIBL characteristic.

  2. Effect of secondary structure on the thermodynamics and kinetics of PNA hybridization to DNA hairpins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kushon, S A; Jordan, J P; Seifert, J L

    2001-01-01

    The binding of a series of PNA and DNA probes to a group of unusually stable DNA hairpins of the tetraloop motif has been observed using absorbance hypochromicity (ABS), circular dichroism (CD), and a colorimetric assay for PNA/DNA duplex detection. These results indicate that both stable PNA...... structures in both target and probe molecules are shown to depress the melting temperatures and free energies of the probe-target duplexes. Kinetic analysis of hybridization yields reaction rates that are up to 160-fold slower than hybridization between two unstructured strands. The thermodynamic and kinetic...

  3. Spitzer Observations Of IC 2118

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Micron All-Sky Survey ( 2MASS ; Skrutskie et al. 2006) photometric data in an effort to segregate YSOs from background galaxies. While one previously known T...Spectral Typea Other names IRAS 04591−0856 05 01 30.2 −08 52 14 . . . HHL 17, G13 2MASS 05020630−0850467 05 02 06.3 −08 50 47 M2 IV . . . RXJ 0502.4−0744b...05 02 20.8 −07 44 10 . . . 2MASS 05022084−0744099 2MASS 05060574−0646151c 05 06 05.7 −06 46 15 G8: (May not be a member of IC 2118; see Kun et al

  4. Polarization dependence of the metamagnetic resonance of cut-wire-pair structure by using plasmon hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dung, Nguyen Van; Yoo, Young Joon; Lee, Young Pak; Tung, Nguyen Thanh; Tung, Bui Son; Lam, Vu Dinh

    2014-01-01

    The influence of lattice constants on the electromagnetic behavior of a cut-wire-pair (CWP) structure has been elucidated. In this report, we performed both simulations and experiments to determine the influence of polarization on the metamagnetic resonance of the CWP structure. The key finding is the result of an investigation on the plasmon hybridization between the two CWs, which showed that the polarization of the incident wave was affected. Good agreement between numerical simulation and measurement is achieved.

  5. Structure of Solvent-Free Nanoparticle−Organic Hybrid Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Hsiu-Yu; Koch, Donald L.

    2010-01-01

    that the constraint that each particle carries its own share of the fluid attached to itself yields a static structure factor that approaches zero as the wavenumber approaches zero. This result indicates that each particle excludes exactly one other particle from its

  6. Hybrid structures formed by homo- and heteroleptic aliphatic dicarboxylates of lead with 2-D inorganic connectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirumurugan, A.; Rao, C.N.R.

    2008-01-01

    Three-dimensional homoleptic (single type of ligand) lead dicarboxylates with hybrid structures involving Pb-O-Pb linkages of the compositions, Pb(C 5 H 6 O 4 ), I, and Pb(C 6 H 8 O 4 ), II and III, have been synthesized and characterized. Three-dimensional heteroleptic (mixed ligands) lead dicarboxylates of the formulae, Pb 2 (C 2 O 4 )(C 4 H 4 O 4 ), IV and Pb 2 (C 2 O 4 )(C 6 H 8 O 4 ), V, with hybrid structures involving Pb-O-Pb linkages have also been prepared and characterized along with a novel two-dimensional lead nitrate-oxalate of the composition, (OPb 2 ) 2 (C 2 O 4 )(NO 3 ) 2 , VI. In all these dicarboxylates, there is two-dimensional inorganic connectivity and the lead (II) cation has hemi- or holo-directed coordination geometry. Depending upon the torsional angle and the coordination mode of the dicarboxylate anions as well as the geometry of the lead (II) cations, these hybrid compounds exhibit two types of two-dimensional inorganic connectivities. - Graphical abstract: Three homoleptic and two heteroleptic three-dimensional lead aliphatic dicarboxylates along with a novel two-dimensional lead nitrate-oxalate with hybrid structures involving Pb-O-Pb linkages have been synthesized and charecterized. In all these dicarboxylates, there is two-dimensional inorganic connectivity. The lead (II) cation has hemi- or holo-directed coordination geometry

  7. Different proportions of C/KCu7S4 hybrid structure for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shuge; Xi, Yi; Hu, Chenguo; Yue, Xule; Cheng, Lu; Wang, Guo

    2014-10-01

    KCu7S4 has the channel structure and minor resistance. Its double larger channels ensure that the ions can well exchange with other's, at the same time, can shorten the ionic diffusion path and improve the ionic and electronic transport. So KCu7S4 shows good electrochemical property. The paper reports a novel and high performance supercapacitor based on hybrid carbon particles and KCu7S4 (C/KCu7S4) electrode. For the hybrid structure with different proportions of C and KCu7S4, the C/KCu7S4 (1:10) hybrid supercapacitor shows preferable electrochemical performance and large specific capacitance (469 mF cm-2) at high charge-discharge rate (2 mA), still retaining ∼95% of the capacitance over 5000 cycles by charge-discharge process at a fixed current of 10 mA. Three supercapacitor units in series can light 50 light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for 2.5 min, 10 LEDs for 4 min, one LED for 5.5 min. The much-increased capacity, rate capability, and cycling stability may be attributed to the superionic conductive KCu7S4 nanowires and C/KCu7S4 hybrid structure, which improve ionic and electronic transport, enhance the kinetics of redox reactions through the electrode system.

  8. Temperature Dependent Surface Structures and Electronic Properties of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Single Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jao, M.-H.; Teague, M. L.; Huang, J.-S.; Tseng, W.-S.; Yeh, N.-C.

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, arising from research of low-cost high performance photovoltaics, have become promising materials not only for solar cells but also for various optoelectronic and spintronic applications. An interesting aspect of the hybrid perovskites is that their material properties, such as the band gap, can be easily tuned by varying the composition, temperature, and the crystalline phases. Additionally, the surface structure is critically important for their optoelectronic applications. It is speculated that different crystalline facets could show different trap densities, thus resulting in microscopically inhomogeneous performance. Here we report direct studies of the surface structures and electronic properties of hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals by scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM/STS). We found long-range spatially homogeneous tunneling conductance spectra with a well-defined energy gap of (1.55 +/- 0.1) eV at 300 K in the tetragonal phase, suggesting high quality of the single crystals. The energy gap increased to (1.81 +/- 0.1) eV in the orthorhombic phase, below the tetragonal-to-orthorhombic phase transition temperature at 150 K. Detailed studies of the temperature evolution in the spatially resolved surface structures and local density of states will be discussed to elucidate how these properties may influence the optoelectronic performance of the hybrid perovskites. We thank the support from NTU in Taiwan and from NSF in the US.

  9. Novel Damage Detection Techniques for Structural Health Monitoring Using a Hybrid Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengjiang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a technique for detecting fatigue cracks based on a hybrid sensor monitoring system consisting of a combination of intelligent coating monitoring (ICM and piezoelectric transducer (PZT sensors. An experimental procedure using this hybrid sensor system was designed to monitor the cracks generated by fatigue testing in plate structures. A probability of detection (POD model that quantifies the reliability of damage detection for a specific sensor or the nondestructive testing (NDT method was used to evaluate the weight factor for the ICM and PZT sensors. To estimate the uncertainty of model parameters in this study, the Bayesian method was employed. Realistic data from fatigue testing was used to validate the overall method, and the results show that the novel damage detection technique using a hybrid sensor can quantify fatigue cracks more accurately than results obtained by conventional sensor methods.

  10. Hierarchically structured transparent hybrid membranes by in situ growth of mesostructured organosilica in host polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallé, Karine; Belleville, Philippe; Pereira, Franck; Sanchez, Clément

    2006-02-01

    The elaborate performances characterizing natural materials result from functional hierarchical constructions at scales ranging from nanometres to millimetres, each construction allowing the material to fit the physical or chemical demands occurring at these different levels. Hierarchically structured materials start to demonstrate a high input in numerous promising applied domains such as sensors, catalysis, optics, fuel cells, smart biologic and cosmetic vectors. In particular, hierarchical hybrid materials permit the accommodation of a maximum of elementary functions in a small volume, thereby optimizing complementary possibilities and properties between inorganic and organic components. The reported strategies combine sol-gel chemistry, self-assembly routes using templates that tune the material's architecture and texture with the use of larger inorganic, organic or biological templates such as latex, organogelator-derived fibres, nanolithographic techniques or controlled phase separation. We propose an approach to forming transparent hierarchical hybrid functionalized membranes using in situ generation of mesostructured hybrid phases inside a non-porogenic hydrophobic polymeric host matrix. We demonstrate that the control of the multiple affinities existing between organic and inorganic components allows us to design the length-scale partitioning of hybrid nanomaterials with tuned functionalities and desirable size organization from ångström to centimetre. After functionalization of the mesoporous hybrid silica component, the resulting membranes have good ionic conductivity offering interesting perspectives for the design of solid electrolytes, fuel cells and other ion-transport microdevices.

  11. Structural tunability and switchable exciton emission in inorganic-organic hybrids with mixed halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Shahab; Vijaya Prakash, G.; Baumberg, Jeremy J.

    2013-01-01

    Room-temperature tunable excitonic photoluminescence is demonstrated in alloy-tuned layered Inorganic-Organic (IO) hybrids, (C 12 H 25 NH 3 ) 2 PbI 4(1−y) Br 4y (y = 0 to 1). These perovskite IO hybrids adopt structures with alternating stacks of low-dimensional inorganic and organic layers, considered to be naturally self-assembled multiple quantum wells. These systems resemble stacked monolayer 2D semiconductors since no interlayer coupling exists. Thin films of IO hybrids exhibit sharp and strong photoluminescence (PL) at room-temperature due to stable excitons formed within the low-dimensional inorganic layers. Systematic variation in the observed exciton PL from 510 nm to 350 nm as the alloy composition is changed, is attributed to the structural readjustment of crystal packing upon increase of the Br content in the Pb-I inorganic network. The energy separation between exciton absorption and PL is attributed to the modified exciton density of states and diffusion of excitons from relatively higher energy states corresponding to bromine rich sites towards the lower energy iodine sites. Apart from compositional fluctuations, these excitons show remarkable reversible flips at temperature-induced phase transitions. All the results are successfully correlated with thermal and structural studies. Such structural engineering flexibility in these hybrids allows selective tuning of desirable exciton properties within suitable operating temperature ranges. Such wide-range PL tunability and reversible exciton switching in these novel IO hybrids paves the way to potential applications in new generation of optoelectronic devices

  12. Structural tunability and switchable exciton emission in inorganic-organic hybrids with mixed halides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shahab; Baumberg, Jeremy J.; Vijaya Prakash, G.

    2013-12-01

    Room-temperature tunable excitonic photoluminescence is demonstrated in alloy-tuned layered Inorganic-Organic (IO) hybrids, (C12H25NH3)2PbI4(1-y)Br4y (y = 0 to 1). These perovskite IO hybrids adopt structures with alternating stacks of low-dimensional inorganic and organic layers, considered to be naturally self-assembled multiple quantum wells. These systems resemble stacked monolayer 2D semiconductors since no interlayer coupling exists. Thin films of IO hybrids exhibit sharp and strong photoluminescence (PL) at room-temperature due to stable excitons formed within the low-dimensional inorganic layers. Systematic variation in the observed exciton PL from 510 nm to 350 nm as the alloy composition is changed, is attributed to the structural readjustment of crystal packing upon increase of the Br content in the Pb-I inorganic network. The energy separation between exciton absorption and PL is attributed to the modified exciton density of states and diffusion of excitons from relatively higher energy states corresponding to bromine rich sites towards the lower energy iodine sites. Apart from compositional fluctuations, these excitons show remarkable reversible flips at temperature-induced phase transitions. All the results are successfully correlated with thermal and structural studies. Such structural engineering flexibility in these hybrids allows selective tuning of desirable exciton properties within suitable operating temperature ranges. Such wide-range PL tunability and reversible exciton switching in these novel IO hybrids paves the way to potential applications in new generation of optoelectronic devices.

  13. Hybrid structures based on gold nanoparticles and semiconductor quantum dots for biosensor applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurochkina M

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Margarita Kurochkina,1 Elena Konshina,1 Aleksandr Oseev,2 Soeren Hirsch3 1Centre of Information Optical Technologies, ITMO University, Saint Petersburg, Russia; 2Institute of Micro and Sensor Systems, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany; 3Department of Engineering, University of Applied Sciences Brandenburg, Brandenburg an der Havel, Germany Background: The luminescence amplification of semiconductor quantum dots (QD in the presence of self-assembled gold nanoparticles (Au NPs is one of way for creating biosensors with highly efficient transduction. Aims: The objective of this study was to fabricate the hybrid structures based on semiconductor CdSe/ZnS QDs and Au NP arrays and to use them as biosensors of protein. Methods: In this paper, the hybrid structures based on CdSe/ZnS QDs and Au NP arrays were fabricated using spin coating processes. Au NP arrays deposited on a glass wafer were investigated by optical microscopy and absorption spectroscopy depending on numbers of spin coating layers and their baking temperature. Bovine serum albumin (BSA was used as the target protein analyte in a phosphate buffer. A confocal laser scanning microscope was used to study the luminescent properties of Au NP/QD hybrid structures and to test BSA. Results: The dimensions of Au NP aggregates increased and the space between them decreased with increasing processing temperature. At the same time, a blue shift of the plasmon resonance peak in the absorption spectra of Au NP arrays was observed. The deposition of CdSe/ZnS QDs with a core diameter of 5 nm on the surface of the Au NP arrays caused an increase in absorption and a red shift of the plasmon peak in the spectra. The exciton–plasmon enhancement of the QDs’ photoluminescence intensity has been obtained at room temperature for hybrid structures with Au NPs array pretreated at temperatures of 100°C and 150°C. It has been found that an increase in the weight content of BSA

  14. Screened exchange hybrid density functional for accurate and efficient structures and interaction energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg, Jan Gerit; Caldeweyher, Eike; Grimme, Stefan

    2016-06-21

    We extend the recently introduced PBEh-3c global hybrid density functional [S. Grimme et al., J. Chem. Phys., 2015, 143, 054107] by a screened Fock exchange variant based on the Henderson-Janesko-Scuseria exchange hole model. While the excellent performance of the global hybrid is maintained for small covalently bound molecules, its performance for computed condensed phase mass densities is further improved. Most importantly, a speed up of 30 to 50% can be achieved and especially for small orbital energy gap cases, the method is numerically much more robust. The latter point is important for many applications, e.g., for metal-organic frameworks, organic semiconductors, or protein structures. This enables an accurate density functional based electronic structure calculation of a full DNA helix structure on a single core desktop computer which is presented as an example in addition to comprehensive benchmark results.

  15. Enhanced photovoltaic properties of perovskite solar cells by TiO2 homogeneous hybrid structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Pengyu; Fu, Wuyou; Yao, Huizhen; Liu, Li; Ding, Dong; Feng, Fei; Feng, Shuang; Xue, Yebin; Liu, Xizhe; Yang, Haibin

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we fabricated a TiO 2 homogeneous hybrid structure for application in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) under ambient conditions. Under the standard air mass 1.5 global (AM 1.5G) illumination, PSCs based on homogeneous hybrid structure present a maximum power conversion efficiency of 5.39% which is higher than that of pure TiO 2 nanosheets. The enhanced properties can be explained by the better contact of TiO 2 nanosheets/nanoparticles with CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 and fewer pinholes in electron transport materials. The advent of such unique structure opens up new avenues for the future development of high-efficiency photovoltaic cells.

  16. Magneto-transport phenomena in metal/SiO2/n(p)-Si hybrid structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, N. V.; Tarasov, A. S.; Rautskii, M. V.; Lukyanenko, A. V.; Bondarev, I. A.; Varnakov, S. N.; Ovchinnikov, S. G.

    2018-04-01

    Present review touches upon a subject of magnetotransport phenomena in hybrid structures which consist of ferromagnetic or nonmagnetic metal layer, layer of silicon oxide and silicon substrate with n- or p-type conductivity. Main attention will be paid to a number gigantic magnetotransport effects discovered in the devices fabricated on the base of the M/SiO2/n(p)-Si (M is ferromagnetic or paramagnetic metal) hybrid structures. These effects include bias induced dc magnetoresistance, gigantic magnetoimpedance, dc magnetoresistance induced by an optical irradiation and lateral magneto-photo-voltaic effect. The magnetoresistance ratio in ac and dc modes for some of our devices can exceed 106% in a magnetic field below 1 T. For lateral magneto-photo-voltaic effect, the relative change of photo-voltage in magnetic field can reach 103% at low temperature. Two types of mechanisms are responsible for sensitivity of the transport properties of the silicon based hybrid structures to magnetic field. One is related to transformation of the energy structure of the (donor) acceptor states including states near SiO2/n(p)-Si interface in magnetic field. Other mechanism is caused by the Lorentz force action. The features in behaviour of magnetotransport effects in concrete device depend on composition of the used structure, device topology and experimental conditions (bias voltage, optical radiation and others). Obtained results can be base for design of some electronic devices driven by a magnetic field. They can also provide an enhancement of the functionality for existing sensors.

  17. Full-spectrum photon management of solar cell structures for photovoltaic–thermoelectric hybrid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yuanpei; Xuan, Yimin; Yang, Lili

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel photon management method is proposed for hybrid photovoltaic–thermoelectric systems. • Composite structured surfaces enable creditable ultra-broadband anti-reflection property. • Incorporation of anti-reflection and light-trapping brings spectral absorption and transmission. • The efficient photon management of the structured surface is also omnidirectional. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel ultra-broadband photon management structure is proposed for crystalline silicon thin-film solar cells used in the photovoltaic–thermoelectric hybrid system. Nanostructures are employed on both front and back side. Optical behavior of the structure in ultra-broadband (300–2500 nm) are investigated through the Finite Difference Time Domain method. By combing moth-eye and inverted-parabolic surface, a new composite surface structure is proposed for anti-reflection in the ultra-broadband wavelengths. Front metallic nanoparticles, plasmonic back reflector and metallic gratings are studied for light-trapping and the effect of plasmonic back reflector is validated by the experimental data of the external quantum efficiency. The effects of incident angle are discussed for metallic gratings. Numerical computation shows that the incorporation of anti-reflection and light-trapping can obtain high absorption in the solar cell and ensure the rest incident light transmits to the thermoelectric generator efficiently. This work shows potential full-spectrum utilization of solar energy for various photovoltaic devices related with hybrid photovoltaic–thermoelectric systems

  18. A hybrid video compression based on zerotree wavelet structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, Ilker; Yilmaz, Reyat

    2009-01-01

    A video compression algorithm comparable to the standard techniques at low bit rates is presented in this paper. The overlapping block motion compensation (OBMC) is combined with discrete wavelet transform which followed by Lloyd-Max quantization and zerotree wavelet (ZTW) structure. The novel feature of this coding scheme is the combination of hierarchical finite state vector quantization (HFSVQ) with the ZTW to encode the quantized wavelet coefficients. It is seen that the proposed video encoder (ZTW-HFSVQ) performs better than the MPEG-4 and Zerotree Entropy Coding (ZTE). (author)

  19. Mod 1 ICS TI Report: ICS Conversion of a 140% HPGe Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bounds, John Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-05

    This report evaluates the Mod 1 ICS, an electrically cooled 140% HPGe detector. It is a custom version of the ORTEC Integrated Cooling System (ICS) modified to make it more practical for us to use in the field. Performance and operating characteristics of the Mod 1 ICS are documented, noting both pros and cons. The Mod 1 ICS is deemed a success. Recommendations for a Mod 2 ICS, a true field prototype, are provided.

  20. Spatial genetic structure across a hybrid zone between European rabbit subspecies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Alda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Iberian Peninsula is the only region in the world where the two existing subspecies of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus naturally occur and hybridize. In this study we explore the relative roles of historical and contemporary processes in shaping the spatial genetic structure of the rabbit across its native distribution range, and how they differently affect each subspecies and the hybrid zone. For that purpose we obtained multilocus genotypes and mitochondrial DNA data from 771 rabbits across most of the distribution range of the European rabbit in Spain. Based on the nuclear markers we observed a hierarchical genetic structure firstly comprised by two genetic groups, largely congruent with the mitochondrial lineages and subspecies distributions (O. c. algirus and O. c. cuniculus, which were subsequently subdivided into seven genetic groups. Geographic distance alone emerged as an important factor explaining genetic differentiation across the whole range, without the need to invoke for the effect for geographical barriers. Additionally, the significantly positive spatial correlation up to a distance of only 100 km supported the idea that differentiation at a local level is of greater importance when considering the species overall genetic structure. When looking at the subspecies, northern populations of O. c. cuniculus showed more spatial genetic structure and differentiation than O. c. algirus. This could be due to local geographic barriers, limited resources, soil type and/or social behavior limiting dispersal. The hybrid zone showed similar genetic structure to the southern populations but a larger introgression from the northern lineage genome. These differences have been attributed to selection against the hybrids rather than to behavioral differences between subspecies. Ultimately, the genetic structure of the rabbit in its native distribution range is the result of an ensemble of factors, from geographical and ecological

  1. Qualitative Fault Isolation of Hybrid Systems: A Structural Model Decomposition-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregon, Anibal; Daigle, Matthew; Roychoudhury, Indranil

    2016-01-01

    Quick and robust fault diagnosis is critical to ensuring safe operation of complex engineering systems. A large number of techniques are available to provide fault diagnosis in systems with continuous dynamics. However, many systems in aerospace and industrial environments are best represented as hybrid systems that consist of discrete behavioral modes, each with its own continuous dynamics. These hybrid dynamics make the on-line fault diagnosis task computationally more complex due to the large number of possible system modes and the existence of autonomous mode transitions. This paper presents a qualitative fault isolation framework for hybrid systems based on structural model decomposition. The fault isolation is performed by analyzing the qualitative information of the residual deviations. However, in hybrid systems this process becomes complex due to possible existence of observation delays, which can cause observed deviations to be inconsistent with the expected deviations for the current mode in the system. The great advantage of structural model decomposition is that (i) it allows to design residuals that respond to only a subset of the faults, and (ii) every time a mode change occurs, only a subset of the residuals will need to be reconfigured, thus reducing the complexity of the reasoning process for isolation purposes. To demonstrate and test the validity of our approach, we use an electric circuit simulation as the case study.

  2. Evaluation of integration methods for hybrid simulation of complex structural systems through collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Carpio R., Maikol; Hashemi, M. Javad; Mosqueda, Gilberto

    2017-10-01

    This study examines the performance of integration methods for hybrid simulation of large and complex structural systems in the context of structural collapse due to seismic excitations. The target application is not necessarily for real-time testing, but rather for models that involve large-scale physical sub-structures and highly nonlinear numerical models. Four case studies are presented and discussed. In the first case study, the accuracy of integration schemes including two widely used methods, namely, modified version of the implicit Newmark with fixed-number of iteration (iterative) and the operator-splitting (non-iterative) is examined through pure numerical simulations. The second case study presents the results of 10 hybrid simulations repeated with the two aforementioned integration methods considering various time steps and fixed-number of iterations for the iterative integration method. The physical sub-structure in these tests consists of a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) cantilever column with replaceable steel coupons that provides repeatable highlynonlinear behavior including fracture-type strength and stiffness degradations. In case study three, the implicit Newmark with fixed-number of iterations is applied for hybrid simulations of a 1:2 scale steel moment frame that includes a relatively complex nonlinear numerical substructure. Lastly, a more complex numerical substructure is considered by constructing a nonlinear computational model of a moment frame coupled to a hybrid model of a 1:2 scale steel gravity frame. The last two case studies are conducted on the same porotype structure and the selection of time steps and fixed number of iterations are closely examined in pre-test simulations. The generated unbalance forces is used as an index to track the equilibrium error and predict the accuracy and stability of the simulations.

  3. Aida-CMK multi-algorithm optimization kernel applied to analog IC sizing

    CERN Document Server

    Lourenço, Ricardo; Horta, Nuno

    2015-01-01

    This work addresses the research and development of an innovative optimization kernel applied to analog integrated circuit (IC) design. Particularly, this works describes the modifications inside the AIDA Framework, an electronic design automation framework fully developed by at the Integrated Circuits Group-LX of the Instituto de Telecomunicações, Lisbon. It focusses on AIDA-CMK, by enhancing AIDA-C, which is the circuit optimizer component of AIDA, with a new multi-objective multi-constraint optimization module that constructs a base for multiple algorithm implementations. The proposed solution implements three approaches to multi-objective multi-constraint optimization, namely, an evolutionary approach with NSGAII, a swarm intelligence approach with MOPSO and stochastic hill climbing approach with MOSA. Moreover, the implemented structure allows the easy hybridization between kernels transforming the previous simple NSGAII optimization module into a more evolved and versatile module supporting multiple s...

  4. Effect of Different Structural Materials on Neutronic Performance of a Hybrid Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Übeyli, Mustafa; Tel, Eyyüp

    2003-06-01

    Selection of structural material for a fusion-fission (hybrid) reactor is very important by taking into account of neutronic performance of the blanket. Refractory metals and alloys have much higher operating temperatures and neutron wall load (NWL) capabilities than low activation materials (ferritic/martensitic steels, vanadium alloys and SiC/SiC composites) and austenitic stainless steels. In this study, effect of primary candidate refractory alloys, namely, W-5Re, T111, TZM and Nb-1Zr on neutronic performance of the hybrid reactor was investigated. Neutron transport calculations were conducted with the help of SCALE 4.3 System by solving the Boltzmann transport equation with code XSDRNPM. Among the investigated structural materials, tantalum had the worst performance due to the fact that it has higher neutron absorption cross section than others. And W-5Re and TZM having similar results showed the best performance.

  5. Structural origins of broadband emission from layered Pb-Br hybrid perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew D; Jaffe, Adam; Dohner, Emma R; Lindenberg, Aaron M; Karunadasa, Hemamala I

    2017-06-01

    Through structural and optical studies of a series of two-dimensional hybrid perovskites, we show that broadband emission upon near-ultraviolet excitation is common to (001) lead-bromide perovskites. Importantly, we find that the relative intensity of the broad emission correlates with increasing out-of-plane distortion of the Pb-(μ-Br)-Pb angle in the inorganic sheets. Temperature- and power-dependent photoluminescence data obtained on a representative (001) perovskite support an intrinsic origin to the broad emission from the bulk material, where photogenerated carriers cause excited-state lattice distortions mediated through electron-lattice coupling. In contrast, most inorganic phosphors contain extrinsic emissive dopants or emissive surface sites. The design rules established here could allow us to systematically optimize white-light emission from layered hybrid perovskites by fine-tuning the bulk crystal structure.

  6. Research Update: The electronic structure of hybrid perovskite layers and their energetic alignment in devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selina Olthof

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the interest in hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites has increased at a rapid pace due to their tremendous success in the field of thin film solar cells. This area closely ties together fundamental solid state research and device application, as it is necessary to understand the basic material properties to optimize the performances and open up new areas of application. In this regard, the energy levels and their respective alignment with adjacent charge transport layers play a crucial role. Currently, we are lacking a detailed understanding about the electronic structure and are struggling to understand what influences the alignment, how it varies, or how it can be intentionally modified. This research update aims at giving an overview over recent results regarding measurements of the electronic structure of hybrid perovskites using photoelectron spectroscopy to summarize the present status.

  7. Simple structured hybrid WOLEDs based on incomplete energy transfer mechanism: from blue exciplex to orange dopant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianyou; Zhao, Bo; Chu, Bei; Li, Wenlian; Su, Zisheng; Yan, Xingwu; Liu, Chengyuan; Wu, Hairuo; Gao, Yuan; Jin, Fangming; Hou, Fuhua

    2015-05-01

    Exciplex is well known as a charge transfer state formed between electron-donating and electron-accepting molecules. However, exciplex based organic light emitting diodes (OLED) often performed low efficiencies relative to pure phosphorescent OLED and could hardly be used to construct white OLED (WOLED). In this work, a new mechanism is developed to realize efficient WOLED with extremely simple structure by redistributing the energy of triplet exciplex to both singlet exciplex and the orange dopant. The micro process of energy transfer could be directly examined by detailed photoluminescence decay measurement and time resolved photoluminescence analysis. This strategy overcomes the low reverse intersystem crossing efficiency of blue exciplex and complicated device structure of traditional WOLED, enables us to achieve efficient hybrid WOLEDs. Based on this mechanism, we have successfully constructed both exciplex-fluorescence and exciplex-phosphorescence hybrid WOLEDs with remarkable efficiencies.

  8. Orbital hybridization, crystal structure and anomalous resistivity of ultrathin CrZrx alloy films on polymeric substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Drew; Zuber, Kamil; Merkens, Kerstin; Murphy, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The orbital hybridization and crystal structure are experimentally explored for ultrathin chrome zirconium (CrZr x ) alloy films co-sputtered on precoated polymeric substrates. We determine the level of orbital hybridization and crystal structure using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electron diffraction. Body-centred cubic and Ω-hexagonally close-packed phases are observed to coexist in the sputtered Cr-based films. Experiments reveal the orbital hybridization and crystal structure combine to produce anomalous resistivity for these ultrathin films.

  9. A flexible and transparent graphene/ZnO nanorod hybrid structure fabricated by exfoliating a graphite substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Gwang-Hee; Baek, Seong-Ho; Cho, Chang-Hee; Park, Il-Kyu

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of a graphene/ZnO nanorod (NR) hybrid structure by mechanical exfoliation of ZnO NRs grown on a graphite substrate. We confirmed the existence of graphene sheets on the hybrid structure by analyzing the Raman spectra and current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. The Raman spectra of the exfoliated graphene/ZnO NR hybrid structure show G and 2D band peaks that are shifted to lower wavenumbers, indicating that the exfoliated graphene layer exists under a significant amount of strain. The I-V characteristics of the graphene/ZnO NR hybrid structure show current flow through the graphene layer, while no current flow is observed on the ZnO NR/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite without graphene, thereby indicating that the few-layer graphene was successfully transferred onto the hybrid structure. A piezoelectric nanogenerator is demonstrated by using the fabricated graphene/ZnO NR hybrid structure. The nanogenerator exhibits stable output voltage up to 3.04 V with alternating current output characteristics.We demonstrate the fabrication of a graphene/ZnO nanorod (NR) hybrid structure by mechanical exfoliation of ZnO NRs grown on a graphite substrate. We confirmed the existence of graphene sheets on the hybrid structure by analyzing the Raman spectra and current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. The Raman spectra of the exfoliated graphene/ZnO NR hybrid structure show G and 2D band peaks that are shifted to lower wavenumbers, indicating that the exfoliated graphene layer exists under a significant amount of strain. The I-V characteristics of the graphene/ZnO NR hybrid structure show current flow through the graphene layer, while no current flow is observed on the ZnO NR/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite without graphene, thereby indicating that the few-layer graphene was successfully transferred onto the hybrid structure. A piezoelectric nanogenerator is demonstrated by using the fabricated graphene/ZnO NR hybrid structure. The nanogenerator

  10. Multi-locus estimates of population structure and migration in a fence lizard hybrid zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam D Leaché

    Full Text Available A hybrid zone between two species of lizards in the genus Sceloporus (S. cowlesi and S. tristichus on the Mogollon Rim in Arizona provides a unique opportunity to study the processes of lineage divergence and merging. This hybrid zone involves complex interactions between 2 morphologically and ecologically divergent subspecies, 3 chromosomal groups, and 4 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA clades. The spatial patterns of divergence between morphology, chromosomes and mtDNA are discordant, and determining which of these character types (if any reflects the underlying population-level lineages that are of interest has remained impeded by character conflict. The focus of this study is to estimate the number of populations interacting in the hybrid zone using multi-locus nuclear data, and to then estimate the migration rates and divergence time between the inferred populations. Multi-locus estimates of population structure and gene flow were obtained from 12 anonymous nuclear loci sequenced for 93 specimens of Sceloporus. Population structure estimates support two populations, and this result is robust to changes to the prior probability distribution used in the Bayesian analysis and the use of spatially-explicit or non-spatial models. A coalescent analysis of population divergence suggests that gene flow is high between the two populations, and that the timing of divergence is restricted to the Pleistocene. The hybrid zone is more accurately described as involving two populations belonging to S. tristichus, and the presence of S. cowlesi mtDNA haplotypes in the hybrid zone is an anomaly resulting from mitochondrial introgression.

  11. Wafer level 3-D ICs process technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Chuan Seng; Reif, L Rafael

    2009-01-01

    This book focuses on foundry-based process technology that enables the fabrication of 3-D ICs. The core of the book discusses the technology platform for pre-packaging wafer lever 3-D ICs. However, this book does not include a detailed discussion of 3-D ICs design and 3-D packaging. This is an edited book based on chapters contributed by various experts in the field of wafer-level 3-D ICs process technology. They are from academia, research labs and industry.

  12. Interplay of Phonon and Exciton-Mediated Superconductivity in Hybrid Semiconductor-Superconductor Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skopelitis, Petros; Cherotchenko, Evgenia D.; Kavokin, Alexey V.; Posazhennikova, Anna

    2018-03-01

    We predict a strong enhancement of the critical temperature in a conventional Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superconductor in the presence of a bosonic condensate of exciton polaritons. The effect depends strongly on the ratio of the cutoff frequencies for phonon and exciton-polariton mediated BCS superconductivity, respectively. We also discuss a possible design of hybrid semiconductor-superconductor structures suitable for the experimental observation of such an effect.

  13. Optoelectronic Properties of Van Der Waals Hybrid Structures: Fullerenes on Graphene Nanoribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Julián David; Orellana, Pedro Alejandro; Pacheco, Mónica

    2017-03-20

    The search for new optical materials capable of absorbing light in the frequency range from visible to near infrared is of great importance for applications in optoelectronic devices. In this paper, we report a theoretical study of the electronic and optical properties of hybrid structures composed of fullerenes adsorbed on graphene and on graphene nanoribbons. The calculations are performed in the framework of the density functional theory including the van der Waals dispersive interactions. We found that the adsorption of the C 60 fullerenes on a graphene layer does not modify its low energy states, but it has strong consequences for its optical spectrum, introducing new absorption peaks in the visible energy region. The optical absorption of fullerenes and graphene nanoribbon composites shows a strong dependence on photon polarization and geometrical characteristics of the hybrid systems, covering a broad range of energies. We show that an external electric field across the nanoribbon edges can be used to tune different optical transitions coming from nanoribbon-fullerene hybridized states, which yields a very rich electro-absorption spectrum for longitudinally polarized photons. We have carried out a qualitative analysis on the potential of these hybrids as possible donor-acceptor systems in photovoltaic cells.

  14. Optoelectronic Properties of Van Der Waals Hybrid Structures: Fullerenes on Graphene Nanoribbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián David Correa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The search for new optical materials capable of absorbing light in the frequency range from visible to near infrared is of great importance for applications in optoelectronic devices. In this paper, we report a theoretical study of the electronic and optical properties of hybrid structures composed of fullerenes adsorbed on graphene and on graphene nanoribbons. The calculations are performed in the framework of the density functional theory including the van der Waals dispersive interactions. We found that the adsorption of the C 60 fullerenes on a graphene layer does not modify its low energy states, but it has strong consequences for its optical spectrum, introducing new absorption peaks in the visible energy region. The optical absorption of fullerenes and graphene nanoribbon composites shows a strong dependence on photon polarization and geometrical characteristics of the hybrid systems, covering a broad range of energies. We show that an external electric field across the nanoribbon edges can be used to tune different optical transitions coming from nanoribbon–fullerene hybridized states, which yields a very rich electro-absorption spectrum for longitudinally polarized photons. We have carried out a qualitative analysis on the potential of these hybrids as possible donor-acceptor systems in photovoltaic cells.

  15. Nacre-like hybrid films: Structure, properties, and the effect of relative humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abba, Mohammed T; Hunger, Philipp M; Kalidindi, Surya R; Wegst, Ulrike G K

    2015-03-01

    Functional materials often are hybrids composed of biopolymers and mineral constituents. The arrangement and interactions of the constituents frequently lead to hierarchical structures with exceptional mechanical properties and multifunctionality. In this study, hybrid thin films with a nacre-like brick-and-mortar microstructure were fabricated in a straightforward and reproducible manner through manual shear casting using the biopolymer chitosan as the matrix material (mortar) and alumina platelets as the reinforcing particles (bricks). The ratio of inorganic to organic content was varied from 0% to 15% and the relative humidities from 36% to 75% to determine their effects on the mechanical properties. It was found that increasing the volume fraction of alumina from 0% to 15% results in a twofold increase in the modulus of the film, but decreases the tensile strength by up to 30%, when the volume fraction of alumina is higher than 5%. Additionally, this study quantifies and illustrates the critical role of the relative humidity on the mechanical properties of the hybrid film. Increasing the relative humidity from 36% to 75% decreases the modulus and strength by about 45% and triples the strain at failure. These results suggest that complex hybrid materials can be manufactured and tailor made for specific applications or environmental conditions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Equivalent Circuit Analysis of Photovoltaic-Thermoelectric Hybrid Device with Different TE Module Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijun Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining two different types of solar cells with different absorption bands into a hybrid cell is a very useful method to improve the utilization efficiency of solar energy. The experimental data of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs and thermoelectric generators (TEG was simulated by equivalent circuit method, and some parameters of DSSCs were obtained. Then, the equivalent circuit model with the obtained parameters was used to optimize the structure design of photovoltaic- (PV- thermoelectric (TE hybrid devices. The output power (Pout first increases to a maximum and then decreases by increasing the TE prism size, and a smaller spacing between p-type prism and n-type prism of a TE p-n junction causes a higher output power of TEG and hybrid device. When the spacing between TE prisms is 15 μm and the optimal base side length of TE prism is 40 μm, the maximum theoretical efficiency reaches 24.6% according to the equivalent circuit analysis. This work would give some enlightenment for the development of high-performance PV-TE hybrid devices.

  17. Insect damages on structural, morphologic and composition of Bt maize hybrids to silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Balieiro Neto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available It was aimed to evaluate the effect of insect damage on the morphologic and structural characteristics and chemical composition from maize hybrids DKB 390 and AG 8088 with the Cry1Ab trait versus its nonbiotech counterpart. The GMO did not receive insecticide application and the conventional hybrids received one deltametrina (2.8% application at 42 days. The damages caused bySpodoptera frugiperda and Helicoverpa zea in hybrids with Cry1Ab were smaller than its nonbiotech counterpart. After harvest, 95 days after seedling plants were separated in stalks, ears, leafs, dead leafs and floral pennant. The experimental design was randomized block in factorial arrangement 2 x 2. The height of plant and height of ear, percentage and amount of dead leafs from hybrids with the Cry1Ab were higher than its nonbiotech counterpart. There was higher nutrients transfer from stalks to grain filling and smaller rate stalks:ear on transgenic plant. The quality of the transgenic plants can be better when harvest earlier, by increasing no fiber carbohydrates, but when harvest latter, by increasing stalk percentage and stalk lignin content.

  18. Hybrid metal-dielectric, slow wave structure with magnetic coupling and compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, A.V., E-mail: asmirnov@radiabeam.com [RadiaBeam Systems LLC, 1713 Stewart St., Santa Monica, CA 90404 (United States); Savin, E. [RadiaBeam Systems LLC, 1713 Stewart St., Santa Monica, CA 90404 (United States); National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI”, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-01

    A number of electron beam vacuum devices such as small radiofrequency (RF) linear accelerators (linacs) and microwave traveling wave tubes (TWTs) utilize slow wave structures which are usually rather complicated in production and may require multi-step brazing and time consuming tuning. Fabrication of these devices becomes challenging at centimeter wavelengths, at large number of cells, and when a series or mass production of such structures is required. A hybrid, metal-dielectric, periodic structure for low gradient, low beam current applications is introduced here as a modification of Andreev’s disk-and-washer (DaW) structure. Compensated type of coupling between even and odd TE01 modes in the novel structure results in negative group velocity with absolute values as high as 0.1c–0.2c demonstrated in simulations. Sensitivity to material imperfections and electrodynamic parameters of the disk-and-ring (DaR) structure are considered numerically using a single cell model.

  19. Hybrid Structural Reliability Analysis under Multisource Uncertainties Based on Universal Grey Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingfa Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nondeterministic parameters of certain distribution are employed to model structural uncertainties, which are usually assumed as stochastic factors. However, model parameters may not be precisely represented due to some factors in engineering practices, such as lack of sufficient data, data with fuzziness, and unknown-but-bounded conditions. To this end, interval and fuzzy parameters are implemented and an efficient approach to structural reliability analysis with random-interval-fuzzy hybrid parameters is proposed in this study. Fuzzy parameters are first converted to equivalent random ones based on the equal entropy principle. 3σ criterion is then employed to transform the equivalent random and the original random parameters to interval variables. In doing this, the hybrid reliability problem is transformed into the one only with interval variables, in other words, nonprobabilistic reliability analysis problem. Nevertheless, the problem of interval extension existed in interval arithmetic, especially for the nonlinear systems. Therefore, universal grey mathematics, which can tackle the issue of interval extension, is employed to solve the nonprobabilistic reliability analysis problem. The results show that the proposed method can obtain more conservative results of the hybrid structural reliability.

  20. Tuning Structure and Properties of Graded Triblock Terpolymer-Based Mesoporous and Hybrid Films

    KAUST Repository

    Phillip, William A.

    2011-07-13

    Despite considerable efforts toward fabricating ordered, water-permeable, mesoporous films from block copolymers, fine control over pore dimensions, structural characteristics, and mechanical behavior of graded structures remains a major challenge. To this end, we describe the fabrication and performance characteristics of graded mesoporous and hybrid films derived from the newly synthesized triblock terpolymer, poly(isoprene-b-styrene-b-4-vinylpyridine). A unique morphology, unachievable in diblock copolymer systems, with enhanced mechanical integrity is evidenced. The film structure comprises a thin selective layer containing vertically aligned and nearly monodisperse mesopores at a density of more than 1014 per m2 above a graded macroporous layer. Hybridization via homopolymer blending enables tuning of pore size within the range of 16 to 30 nm. Solvent flow and solute separation experiments demonstrate that the terpolymer films have permeabilities comparable to commercial membranes, are stimuli-responsive, and contain pores with a nearly monodisperse diameter. These results suggest that moving to multiblock polymers and their hybrids may open new paths to produce high-performance graded membranes for filtration, separations, nanofluidics, catalysis, and drug delivery. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  1. Contributions of each isotope in structural material on radiation damage in a hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Günay, Mehtap

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the fluids were used in the liquid first-wall, blanket and shield zones of the designed hybrid reactor system. In this study, salt-heavy metal mixtures consisting of 93–85% Li_2_0Sn_8_0 + 5% SFG-PuO_2 and 2-10% UO_2, 93–85% Li_2_0Sn_8_0 + 5% SFG-PuO_2 and 2-10% NpO_2, and 93–85% Li_2_0Sn_8_0 + 5% SFG-PuO_2 and 2-10% UCO were used as fluids. In this study, the effect on the radiation damage of spent fuel-grade (SFG)-PuO_2, UO_2, NpO_2 and UCO contents was investigated in the structural material of a designed fusion–fission hybrid reactor system. In the designed hybrid reactor system were investigated the effect on the radiation damage of the selected fluid according to each isotopes of structural material in the structural material for 30 full power years (FPYs). Three-dimensional analyses were performed using the most recent MCNPX-2.7.0 Monte Carlo radiation transport code and the ENDF/B-VII.0 nuclear data library

  2. High power experimental studies of hybrid photonic band gap accelerator structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JieXi Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the first high power tests of hybrid photonic band gap (PBG accelerator structures. Three hybrid PBG (HPBG structures were designed, built and tested at 17.14 GHz. Each structure had a triangular lattice array with 60 inner sapphire rods and 24 outer copper rods sandwiched between copper disks. The dielectric PBG band gap map allows the unique feature of overmoded operation in a TM_{02} mode, with suppression of both lower order modes, such as the TM_{11} mode, as well as higher order modes. The use of sapphire rods, which have negligible dielectric loss, required inclusion of the dielectric birefringence in the design. The three structures were designed to sequentially reduce the peak surface electric field. Simulations showed relatively high surface fields at the triple point as well as in any gaps between components in the clamped assembly. The third structure used sapphire rods with small pin extensions at each end and obtained the highest gradient of 19  MV/m, corresponding to a surface electric field of 78  MV/m, with a breakdown probability of 5×10^{-1} per pulse per meter for a 100-ns input power pulse. Operation at a gradient above 20  MV/m led to runaway breakdowns with extensive light emission and eventual damage. For all three structures, multipactor light emission was observed at gradients well below the breakdown threshold. This research indicated that multipactor triggered at the triple point limited the operational gradient of the hybrid structure.

  3. Design of hybrid electron linac with standing wave buncher and traveling wave structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutsaev, S.V.; Sobenin, N.P.; Smirnov, A.Yu.; Kamenschikov, D.S.; Gusarova, M.A.; Nikolskiy, K.I.; Zavadtsev, A.A.; Lalayan, M.V.

    2011-01-01

    A disk-loaded waveguide (DLW) is the most common structure for compact linear accelerators working in a traveling wave (TW) regime. Among its advantages are high shunt impedance and manufacturing simplicity. The other popular structure is an on-axis coupled bi-periodical accelerating structure (BAS) that works in standing wave (SW) regime. Both the standing and the traveling wave regimes have their own advantages and disadvantages. The design of the hybrid accelerator with SW buncher and TW accelerating section presented in this paper unites the advantages of both regimes. For example, the buncher in the hybrid accelerator is shorter than in a pure TW accelerator, and it requires no solenoid; this structure is more technologically convenient as it does not require a circulator. The other way to combine the advantages of DLW and BAS is to design a magnetic coupled disk-loaded waveguide (DLW-M). This paper also presents the results of a survey study that analyzed the electrodynamical parameters of such a structure and compared them with those of DLW. The experimental data is also presented. Higher order modes, multipacting discharge and thermal simulations show that DLW-M structure is more preferable to classical DLW.

  4. Accurate Energies and Structures for Large Water Clusters Using the X3LYP Hybrid Density Functional

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Julius T.; Xu, Xin; Goddard, William A., III

    2004-01-01

    We predict structures and energies of water clusters containing up to 19 waters with X3LYP, an extended hybrid density functional designed to describe noncovalently bound systems as accurately as covalent systems. Our work establishes X3LYP as the most practical ab initio method today for calculating accurate water cluster structures and energies. We compare X3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ energies to the most accurate theoretical values available (n = 2−6, 8), MP2 with basis set superposition error (BSSE)...

  5. Large Eddy Simulations of Two-phase Turbulent Reactive Flows in IC Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaeizadeh, Araz; Schock, Harold; Jaberi, Farhad

    2008-11-01

    The two-phase filtered mass density function (FMDF) subgrid-scale (SGS) model is used for large-eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent spray combustion in internal combustion (IC) engines. The LES/FMDF is implemented via an efficient, hybrid numerical method. In this method, the filtered compressible Navier-Stokes equations in curvilinear coordinate systems are solved with a generalized, high-order, multi-block, compact differencing scheme. The spray and the FMDF are implemented with Lagrangian methods. The reliability and the consistency of the numerical methods are established for different IC engines and the complex interactions among mean and turbulent velocity fields, fuel droplets and combustion are shown to be well captured with the LES/FMDF. In both spark-ignition/direct-injection and diesel engines, the droplet size and velocity distributions are found to be modified by the unsteady, vortical motions generated by the incoming air during the intake stroke. In turn, the droplets are found to change the in-cylinder flow structure. In the spark-ignition engine, flame propagation is similar to the experiment. In the diesel engine, the maximum evaporated fuel concentration is near the cylinder wall where the flame starts, which is again consistent with the experiment.

  6. High renewable content sandwich structures based on flax-basalt hybrids and biobased epoxy polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomina, S.; Boronat, T.; Fenollar, O.; Sánchez-Nacher, L.; Balart, R.

    2014-05-01

    In the last years, a growing interest in the development of high environmental efficiency materials has been detected and this situation is more accentuated in the field of polymers and polymer composites. In this work, green composite sandwich structures with high renewable content have been developed with core cork materials. The base resin for composites was a biobased epoxy resin derived from epoxidized vegetable oils. Hybrid basalt-flax fabrics have been used as reinforcements for composites and the influence of the stacking sequence has been evaluated in order to optimize the appropriate laminate structure for the sandwich bases. Core cork materials with different thickness have been used to evaluate performance of sandwich structures thus leading to high renewable content composite sandwich structures. Results show that position of basalt fabrics plays a key role in flexural fracture of sandwich structures due to differences in stiffness between flax and basalt fibers.

  7. Graphene-based hybrid structures combined with functional materials of ferroelectrics and semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Wenjing; Hao, Jianhua

    2014-06-21

    Fundamental studies and applications of 2-dimensional (2D) graphene may be deepened and broadened via combining graphene sheets with various functional materials, which have been extended from the traditional insulator of SiO2 to a versatile range of dielectrics, semiconductors and metals, as well as organic compounds. Among them, ferroelectric materials have received much attention due to their unique ferroelectric polarization. As a result, many attractive characteristics can be shown in graphene/ferroelectric hybrid systems. On the other hand, graphene can be integrated with conventional semiconductors and some newly-discovered 2D layered materials to form distinct Schottky junctions, yielding fascinating behaviours and exhibiting the potential for various applications in future functional devices. This review article is an attempt to illustrate the most recent progress in the fabrication, operation principle, characterization, and promising applications of graphene-based hybrid structures combined with various functional materials, ranging from ferroelectrics to semiconductors. We focus on mechanically exfoliated and chemical-vapor-deposited graphene sheets integrated in numerous advanced devices. Some typical hybrid structures have been highlighted, aiming at potential applications in non-volatile memories, transparent flexible electrodes, solar cells, photodetectors, and so on.

  8. Substructure hybrid testing of reinforced concrete shear wall structure using a domain overlapping technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Pan, Peng; Gong, Runhua; Wang, Tao; Xue, Weichen

    2017-10-01

    An online hybrid test was carried out on a 40-story 120-m high concrete shear wall structure. The structure was divided into two substructures whereby a physical model of the bottom three stories was tested in the laboratory and the upper 37 stories were simulated numerically using ABAQUS. An overlapping domain method was employed for the bottom three stories to ensure the validity of the boundary conditions of the superstructure. Mixed control was adopted in the test. Displacement control was used to apply the horizontal displacement, while two controlled force actuators were applied to simulate the overturning moment, which is very large and cannot be ignored in the substructure hybrid test of high-rise buildings. A series of tests with earthquake sources of sequentially increasing intensities were carried out. The test results indicate that the proposed hybrid test method is a solution to reproduce the seismic response of high-rise concrete shear wall buildings. The seismic performance of the tested precast high-rise building satisfies the requirements of the Chinese seismic design code.

  9. Long-range p-d exchange interaction in a ferromagnet-semiconductor hybrid structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, V. L.; Salewski, M.; Akimov, I. A.; Sapega, V. F.; Langer, L.; Kalitukha, I. V.; Debus, J.; Dzhioev, R. I.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Müller, D.; Schröder, C.; Hövel, H.; Karczewski, G.; Wiater, M.; Wojtowicz, T.; Kusrayev, Yu. G.; Bayer, M.

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid structures synthesized from different materials have attracted considerable attention because they may allow not only combination of the functionalities of the individual constituents but also mutual control of their properties. To obtain such a control an interaction between the components needs to be established. For coupling the magnetic properties, an exchange interaction has to be implemented which typically depends on wavefunction overlap and is therefore short-ranged, so that it may be compromised across the hybrid interface. Here we study a hybrid structure consisting of a ferromagnetic Co layer and a semiconducting CdTe quantum well, separated by a thin (Cd, Mg)Te barrier. In contrast to the expected p-d exchange that decreases exponentially with the wavefunction overlap of quantum well holes and magnetic atoms, we find a long-ranged, robust coupling that does not vary with barrier width up to more than 30 nm. We suggest that the resulting spin polarization of acceptor-bound holes is induced by an effective p-d exchange that is mediated by elliptically polarized phonons.

  10. Structural hybrid reliability index and its convergent solving method based on random–fuzzy–interval reliability model

    OpenAIRE

    Hai An; Ling Zhou; Hui Sun

    2016-01-01

    Aiming to resolve the problems of a variety of uncertainty variables that coexist in the engineering structure reliability analysis, a new hybrid reliability index to evaluate structural hybrid reliability, based on the random–fuzzy–interval model, is proposed in this article. The convergent solving method is also presented. First, the truncated probability reliability model, the fuzzy random reliability model, and the non-probabilistic interval reliability model are introduced. Then, the new...

  11. A novel PM motor with hybrid PM excitation and asymmetric rotor structure for high torque performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaohong Xu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel permanent magnet (PM motor for high torque performance, in which hybrid PM material and asymmetric rotor design are applied. The hybrid PM material is adopted to reduce the consumption of rare-earth PM because ferrite PM is assisted to enhance the torque production. Meanwhile, the rotor structure is designed to be asymmetric by shifting the surface-insert PM (SPM, which is used to improve the torque performance, including average torque and torque ripple. Moreover, the reasons for improvement of the torque performance are explained by evaluation and analysis of the performances of the proposed motor. Compared with SPM motor and V-type motor, the merit of high utilization ratio of rare-earth PM is also confirmed, showing that the proposed motor can offer higher torque density and lower torque ripple simultaneously with less consumption of rare-earth PM.

  12. Polarization modulation based on the hybrid waveguide of graphene sandwiched structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junbo; Chen, Dingbo; Zhang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhaojian; Huang, Jie

    2017-09-01

    Polarization beam splitter (PBS) plays an important role to realize beam control and modulation. A novel hybrid structure of graphene sandwiched waveguide is proposed to fulfill polarization manipulation and selection based on the refractive index engineering techniques. The fundamental mode of TM cannot be supported in this case. However, both TE and TM mode are excited and transmitting in the hybrid waveguide if the design parameters, including the waveguide width and the waveguide height, are changed. The incident wavelength largely affects the effective index, which results in supporting/not supporting the TM mode. The proposed design exhibits high extinction ratio, compact in size, flexible to control, compatible with CMOS process, and easy to be integrated with other optoelectronic devices, allowing it to be used in optical communication and optical information processing.

  13. Interfacial symmetry of Co–Alq_3–Co hybrid structures for effective spin filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Tu-Ngoc; Lai, Yu-Ling; Chen, Chih-Han; Chen, Po-Hung; Wei, Der-Hsin; Lin, Hong-Ji; Chen, C.T.; Sheu, Jeng-Tzong; Hsu, Yao-Jane

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The spin interface at Alq_3/Co and Co/Alq_3 contacts was examined. • An interfacial symmetry was determined at Co–Alq_3–Co interfaces. • Spin-polarized N orbitals are induced within the Co atop Alq_3 hybridized interface. • The spin-filter role at the top contact interface of Alq_3/Co is proved. • Effective spin-filtering at Co–Alq_3–Co contacts was elucidated. - Abstract: Understanding the interfacial behavior at FM-OSC-FM hybrid structures for both the bottom contact (Alq_3 adsorption on Co, Co/Alq_3) and the top contact (Co atop Alq_3, Alq_3/Co) is crucial for efficient spin filtering with transport of spin-polarized charge carriers through these interfaces. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra indicate a symmetry of charge transfer from Co to Alq_3 and the corresponding orbital hybridization to a certain extent at both contacts. The alignment of energy levels at both Alq_3/Co and Co/Alq_3 heterostructures is depicted with ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). Through magnetic images acquired with a X-ray photoemission electron microscope (XPEEM), the strong hybridization of the top contact presents no micromagnetic domain but still shows magnetic coupling, to some extent, to the bottom contact in the Co–Alq_3–Co trilayer structure. Measurements of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) demonstrate the induced spin-polarization of non-magnetic Alq_3 at both contacts, proving Alq_3 a unique and promising organic material for spin filtering in OSV.

  14. Synthesis of palladium nanoparticle modified reduced graphene oxide and multi-walled carbon nanotube hybrid structures for electrochemical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jie, E-mail: hujie@tyut.edu.cn [Micro and Nano System Research Center, Key Lab of Advanced Transducers and Intelligent Control System (Ministry of Education) & College of Information Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan, 030024, Shanxi (China); Zhao, Zhenting; Zhang, Jun; Li, Gang; Li, Pengwei; Zhang, Wendong [Micro and Nano System Research Center, Key Lab of Advanced Transducers and Intelligent Control System (Ministry of Education) & College of Information Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan, 030024, Shanxi (China); Lian, Kun, E-mail: liankun@tyut.edu.cn [Micro and Nano System Research Center, Key Lab of Advanced Transducers and Intelligent Control System (Ministry of Education) & College of Information Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan, 030024, Shanxi (China); School of Nano-Science and Nano-Engineering, Suzhou & Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China); Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices, Louisiana State University, LA, 70806 (United States)

    2017-02-28

    Graphical abstract: A sensitive hydrazine electrochemical sensor was fabricated by using palladium (Pd) nanoparticle functionalized reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNTs) hybrid structures (Pd/rGO-MWCNTs). - Highlights: • rGO-MWCNTs hybrid structures and Pd nanoparticles are prepared using electrochemical methods. • rGO-MWCNTs hybrid films are used as supports and co-catalysts for Pd nanoparticles. • The Pd/rGO-MWCNTs hybrid structure based sensor shows an ultra-high sensitivity of 7.09 μA μM{sup −1} cm{sup −2} and a low detection limit of 0.15 μM. • The proposed electrochemical sensor exhibits excellent selectivity. - Abstract: In this work, palladium (Pd) nanoparticles functionalized reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) hybrid structures (Pd/rGO-MWCNTs) were successfully prepared by a combination of electrochemical reduction with electrodeposition method. The morphology, structure, and composition of the Pd/rGO-MWCNTs hybrid were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The as-synthesized hybrid structures were modified on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and further utilized for hydrazine sensing. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopic, cyclic voltammetry and single-potential amperometry experiments were carried out on Pd/rGO-MWCNTs hybrid structures to investigate the interface properties and sensing performance. The measured results demonstrate that the fabricated Pd/rGO-MWCNTs/GCE sensor show a high sensitivity of 7.09 μA μM{sup −1} cm{sup −2} in a large concentration range of 1.0 to 1100 μM and a low detection limit of 0.15 μM. Moreover, the as-prepared sensor exhibits good selectivity and stability for the determination of hydrazine under interference conditions.

  15. Synthesis of palladium nanoparticle modified reduced graphene oxide and multi-walled carbon nanotube hybrid structures for electrochemical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Jie; Zhao, Zhenting; Zhang, Jun; Li, Gang; Li, Pengwei; Zhang, Wendong; Lian, Kun

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A sensitive hydrazine electrochemical sensor was fabricated by using palladium (Pd) nanoparticle functionalized reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNTs) hybrid structures (Pd/rGO-MWCNTs). - Highlights: • rGO-MWCNTs hybrid structures and Pd nanoparticles are prepared using electrochemical methods. • rGO-MWCNTs hybrid films are used as supports and co-catalysts for Pd nanoparticles. • The Pd/rGO-MWCNTs hybrid structure based sensor shows an ultra-high sensitivity of 7.09 μA μM"−"1 cm"−"2 and a low detection limit of 0.15 μM. • The proposed electrochemical sensor exhibits excellent selectivity. - Abstract: In this work, palladium (Pd) nanoparticles functionalized reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) hybrid structures (Pd/rGO-MWCNTs) were successfully prepared by a combination of electrochemical reduction with electrodeposition method. The morphology, structure, and composition of the Pd/rGO-MWCNTs hybrid were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The as-synthesized hybrid structures were modified on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and further utilized for hydrazine sensing. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopic, cyclic voltammetry and single-potential amperometry experiments were carried out on Pd/rGO-MWCNTs hybrid structures to investigate the interface properties and sensing performance. The measured results demonstrate that the fabricated Pd/rGO-MWCNTs/GCE sensor show a high sensitivity of 7.09 μA μM"−"1 cm"−"2 in a large concentration range of 1.0 to 1100 μM and a low detection limit of 0.15 μM. Moreover, the as-prepared sensor exhibits good selectivity and stability for the determination of hydrazine under interference conditions.

  16. LES of Gas Exchange in IC Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal V.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available As engine technologies become increasingly complex and engines are driven to new operating points, understanding transient phenomena is important to ensure reliable engine operation. Unlike Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS studies that only provide cycle-averaged information, Large Eddy Simulation (LES studies are capable of simulating cycle-to-cycle dynamics. In this work, a finite difference based structured methodology for LES of IC engines is presented. This structured approach allows for an efficient mesh generation process and provides potential for higher order numerical accuracy. An efficient parallel scalable block decomposition is done to overcome the challenges associated with the low ratio of fluid elements to overall mesh elements. The motion of the valves and piston is handled using a dynamic cell blanking approach and the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE method, respectively. Modified three-dimensional Navier-Stokes Characteristic Boundary Conditions (NSCBC are used in the simulation to prescribe conditions in the manifolds. The accuracy of the simulation framework is validated using various canonical configurations. Flow bench simulations of an axisymmetric configuration and an actual engine geometry are done with the LES methodology. Simulations of the gas exchange in an engine under motored conditions are also performed. Overall, good agreement is obtained with experiments for all the cases. Therefore, this framework can be used for LES of engine simulations. In the future, reactive LES simulations will be performed using this framework.

  17. Hemolysin coregulated protein 1 as a molecular gluing unit for the assembly of nanoparticle hybrid structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan Anh Pham

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid nanoparticle (NP structures containing organic building units such as polymers, peptides, DNA and proteins have great potential in biosensor and electronic applications. The nearly free modification of the polymer chain, the variation of the protein and DNA sequence and the implementation of functional moieties provide a great platform to create inorganic structures of different morphology, resulting in different optical and magnetic properties. Nevertheless, the design and modification of a protein structure with functional groups or sequences for the assembly of biohybrid materials is not trivial. This is mainly due to the sensitivity of its secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure to the changes in the interaction (e.g., hydrophobic, hydrophilic, electrostatic, chemical groups between the protein subunits and the inorganic material. Here, we use hemolysin coregulated protein 1 (Hcp1 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a building and gluing unit for the formation of biohybrid structures by implementing cysteine anchoring points at defined positions on the protein rim (Hcp1_cys3. We successfully apply the Hcp1_cys3 gluing unit for the assembly of often linear, hybrid structures of plasmonic gold (Au NP, magnetite (Fe3O4 NP, and cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (CoFe2O4 NP. Furthermore, the assembly of Au NPs into linear structures using Hcp1_cys3 is investigated by UV–vis spectroscopy, TEM and cryo-TEM. One key parameter for the formation of Au NP assembly is the specific ionic strength in the mixture. The resulting network-like structure of Au NPs is characterized by Raman spectroscopy, showing surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS by a factor of 8·104 and a stable secondary structure of the Hcp1_cys3 unit. In order to prove the catalytic performance of the gold hybrid structures, they are used as a catalyst in the reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol showing similar catalytic activity as the pure Au NPs. To further extend the

  18. Disorder Improves Light Absorption in Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells with Hybrid Light Trapping Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanpeng Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a systematic simulation study on the impact of disorder in thin film silicon solar cells with hybrid light trapping structure. For the periodical structures introducing certain randomness in some parameters, the nanophotonic light trapping effect is demonstrated to be superior to their periodic counterparts. The nanophotonic light trapping effect can be associated with the increased modes induced by the structural disorders. Our study is a systematic proof that certain disorder is conceptually an advantage for nanophotonic light trapping concepts in thin film solar cells. The result is relevant to the large field of research on nanophotonic light trapping which currently investigates and prototypes a number of new concepts including disordered periodic and quasiperiodic textures. The random effect on the shape of the pattern (position, height, and radius investigated in this paper could be a good approach to estimate the influence of experimental inaccuracies for periodic or quasi-periodic structures.

  19. Interface engineering in inorganic hybrid structures towards improved photocatalysis (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yujie

    2016-10-01

    Designing new photocatalytic materials for improving photoconversion efficiency is a promising route to alleviate the steadily worsening environmental issues and energy crisis. Despite the invention of a large number of catalytic materials with well-defined structures, their overall efficiency in photocatalysis is still quite limited as the three key steps - light harvesting, charge generation and separation, and charge transfer to surface for redox reactions - have not been substantially improved. To improve each step in the complex process, there is a major trend to develop materials based on inorganic hybrid structures. In this case, interface engineering holds the promise for boosting the overall efficiency, given the key roles of interface structures in charge and energy transfer. In this talk, I will demonstrate several different approaches to designing inorganic hybrid structures with improved photocatalytic performance via interface engineering. The typical demonstrations include semiconductor-plasmonics systems for broad-spectrum light harvesting, metal-semiconductor interfaces for improved charge separation, semiconductor-MOF (metal-organic framework) configurations for activated surface reactions. It is anticipated that this series of works open a new window to rationally designing inorganic hybrid materials for photo-induced applications. References: (1) Bai, S.; Yang, L.; Wang, C.; Lin, Y.; Lu, J.; Jiang, J. and Xiong, Y.*, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 54, 14810-14814 (2015). (2) Bai, S.; Jiang, J.; Zhang, Q. and Xiong, Y.*, Chem. Soc. Rev. 44, 2893-2939 (2015). (3) Bai, S.; Li, X.; Kong, Q.; Long, R.; Wang, C.; Jiang, J. and Xiong, Y.*, Adv. Mater. 27, 3444-3452 (2015). (4) Bai, S.; Ge, J.; Wang, L.; Gong, M.; Deng, M.; Kong, Q.; Song, L.; Jiang, J.;* Zhang, Q.;* Luo, Y.; Xie, Y. and Xiong, Y.*, Adv. Mater. 26, 5689-5695 (2014). (5) Li, R.; Hu, J.; Deng, M.; Wang, H.; Wang, X.; Hu, Y.; Jiang, H. L.; Jiang, J.;* Zhang, Q.;* Xie, Y. and Xiong, Y.*, Adv. Mater

  20. Comparison between hybrid feedforward-feedback, feedforward, and feedback structures for active noise control of fMRI noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Rajiv M; Panahi, Issa M S

    2008-01-01

    The performance of FIR feedforward, IIR feedforward, FIR feedback, hybrid FIR feedforward--FIR feedback, and hybrid IIR feedforward - FIR feedback structures for active noise control (ANC) are compared for an fMRI noise application. The filtered-input normalized least squares (FxNLMS) algorithm is used to update the coefficients of the adaptive filters in all these structures. Realistic primary and secondary paths of an fMRI bore are used by estimating them on a half cylindrical acrylic bore of 0.76 m (D)x1.52 m (L). Detailed results of the performance of the ANC system are presented in the paper for each of these structures. We find that the IIR feedforward structure produces most of the performance improvement in the hybrid IIR feedforward - FIR feedback structure and adding the feedback structure becomes almost redundant in the case of fMRI noise.

  1. Fabrication of Nano-Micro Hybrid Structures by Replication and Surface Treatment of Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonho Jeong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nanowire structures have attracted attention in various fields, since new characteristics could be acquired in minute regions. Especially, Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO is widely used in the fabrication of nanostructures, which has many nanosized pores and well-organized nano pattern. Using AAO as a template for replication, nanowires with a very high aspect ratio can be fabricated. Herein, we propose a facile method to fabricate a nano-micro hybrid structure using nanowires replicated from AAO, and surface treatment. A polymer resin was coated between Polyethylene terephthalate (PET and the AAO filter, roller pressed, and UV-cured. After the removal of aluminum by using NaOH solution, the nanowires aggregated to form a micropattern. The resulting structure was subjected to various surface treatments to investigate the surface behavior and wettability. As opposed to reported data, UV-ozone treatment can enhance surface hydrophobicity because the UV energy affects the nanowire surface, thus altering the shape of the aggregated nanowires. The hydrophobicity of the surface could be further improved by octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS coating immediately after UV-ozone treatment. We thus demonstrated that the nano-micro hybrid structure could be formed in the middle of nanowire replication, and then, the shape and surface characteristics could be controlled by surface treatment.

  2. Development of a Prototype System for Archiving Integrative/Hybrid Structure Models of Biological Macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallat, Brinda; Webb, Benjamin; Westbrook, John D; Sali, Andrej; Berman, Helen M

    2018-04-09

    Essential processes in biology are carried out by large macromolecular assemblies, whose structures are often difficult to determine by traditional methods. Increasingly, researchers combine measured data and computed information from several complementary methods to obtain "hybrid" or "integrative" structural models of macromolecules and their assemblies. These integrative/hybrid (I/H) models are not archived in the PDB because of the absence of standard data representations and processing mechanisms. Here we present the development of data standards and a prototype system for archiving I/H models. The data standards provide the definitions required for representing I/H models that span multiple spatiotemporal scales and conformational states, as well as spatial restraints derived from different experimental techniques. Based on these data definitions, we have built a prototype system called PDB-Dev, which provides the infrastructure necessary to archive I/H structural models. PDB-Dev is now accepting structures and is open to the community for new submissions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hexahedral connection element based on hybrid-stress theory for solid structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, D; Sze, K Y; Lo, S H

    2010-01-01

    For building structures, high-performance hybrid-stress hexahedral solid elements are excellent choices for modelling joints, beams/columns walls and thick slabs if the exact geometrical representation is required. While it is straight-forward to model beam-column structures of uniform member size with solid hexahedral elements, joining up beams and columns of various cross-sections at a common point proves to be a challenge for structural modelling using hexahedral elements with specified dimensions. In general, the joint has to be decomposed into 27 smaller solid elements to cater for the necessary connection requirements. This will inevitably increase the computational cost and introduce element distortions when elements of different sizes have to be used at the joint. Hexahedral connection elements with arbitrary specified connection interfaces will be an ideal setup to connect structural members of different sizes without increasing the number of elements or introducing highly distorted elements. In this paper, based on the hybrid-stress element theory, a general way to construct hexahedral connection element with various interfaces is introduced. Following this way, a 24-node connection element is presented and discussed in detail. Performance of the 24-node connection element equipped with different number of stress modes will be assessed with worked examples.

  4. Self-diagnosis of structures strengthened with hybrid carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z. S.; Yang, C. Q.; Harada, T.; Ye, L. P.

    2005-06-01

    The correlation of mechanical and electrical properties of concrete beams strengthened with hybrid carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (HCFRP) sheets is studied in this paper. Two types of concrete beams, with and without reinforcing bars, are strengthened with externally bonded HCFRP sheets, which have a self-structural health monitoring function due to the electrical conduction and piezoresistivity of carbon fibers. Parameters investigated include the volume fractions and types of carbon fibers. According to the investigation, it is found that the hybridization of uniaxial HCFRP sheets with several different types of carbon fibers is a viable method for enhancing the mechanical properties and obtaining a built-in damage detection function for concrete structures. The changes in electrical resistance during low strain ranges before the rupture of carbon fibers are generally smaller than 1%. Nevertheless, after the gradual ruptures of carbon fibers, the electrical resistance increases remarkably with the strain in a step-wise manner. For the specimens without reinforcing bars, the electrical behaviors are not stable, especially during the low strain ranges. However, the electrical behaviors of the specimens with reinforcing bars are relatively stable, and the whole range of self-sensing function of the HCFRP-strengthened RC structures has realized the conceptual design of the HCFRP sensing models and is confirmed by the experimental investigations. The relationships between the strain/load and the change in electrical resistance show the potential self-monitoring capacity of HCFRP reinforcements used for strengthening concrete structures.

  5. Valence electronic structure of cobalt phthalocyanine from an optimally tuned range-separated hybrid functional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumboiu, Iulia Emilia; Prokopiou, Georgia; Kronik, Leeor; Brena, Barbara

    2017-07-28

    We analyse the valence electronic structure of cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) by means of optimally tuning a range-separated hybrid functional. The tuning is performed by modifying both the amount of short-range exact exchange (α) included in the hybrid functional and the range-separation parameter (γ), with two strategies employed for finding the optimal γ for each α. The influence of these two parameters on the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of CoPc is thoroughly investigated. The electronic structure is found to be very sensitive to the amount and range in which the exact exchange is included. The electronic structure obtained using the optimal parameters is compared to gas-phase photo-electron data and GW calculations, with the unoccupied states additionally compared with inverse photo-electron spectroscopy measurements. The calculated spectrum with tuned γ, determined for the optimal value of α = 0.1, yields a very good agreement with both experimental results and with GW calculations that well-reproduce the experimental data.

  6. Electronic structure modeling of InAs/GaSb superlattices with hybrid density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garwood, Tristan [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for High Technology Materials; Modine, Normand A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Krishna, S. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for High Technology Materials

    2016-12-18

    The application of first-principles calculations holds promise for greatly improving our understanding of semiconductor superlattices. By developing a procedure to accurately predict band gaps using hybrid density functional theory, it lays the groundwork for future studies investigating more nuanced properties of these structures. Our approach allows a priori prediction of the properties of SLS structures using only the band gaps of the constituent materials. Furthermore, it should enable direct investigation of the effects of interface structure, e.g., intermixing or ordering at the interface, on SLS properties. In this paper, we present band gap data for various InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice structures calculated using the generalized Kohn-Sham formulation of density functional theory. A PBE0-type hybrid functional was used, and the portion of the exact exchange was tuned to fit the band gaps of the binary compounds InAs and GaSb with the best agreement to bulk experimental values obtained with 18% of the exact exchange. The heterostructures considered in this study are 6 monolayer (ML) InAs/6 ML GaSb, 8 ML InAs/8 ML GaSb and 10 ML InAs/10 ML GaSb with deviations from the experimental band gaps ranging from 3% to 11%.

  7. Development of brain injury criteria (BrIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takhounts, Erik G; Craig, Matthew J; Moorhouse, Kevin; McFadden, Joe; Hasija, Vikas

    2013-11-01

    Rotational motion of the head as a mechanism for brain injury was proposed back in the 1940s. Since then a multitude of research studies by various institutions were conducted to confirm/reject this hypothesis. Most of the studies were conducted on animals and concluded that rotational kinematics experienced by the animal's head may cause axonal deformations large enough to induce their functional deficit. Other studies utilized physical and mathematical models of human and animal heads to derive brain injury criteria based on deformation/pressure histories computed from their models. This study differs from the previous research in the following ways: first, it uses two different detailed mathematical models of human head (SIMon and GHBMC), each validated against various human brain response datasets; then establishes physical (strain and stress based) injury criteria for various types of brain injury based on scaled animal injury data; and finally, uses Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) (Hybrid III 50th Male, Hybrid III 5th Female, THOR 50th Male, ES-2re, SID-IIs, WorldSID 50th Male, and WorldSID 5th Female) test data (NCAP, pendulum, and frontal offset tests) to establish a kinematically based brain injury criterion (BrIC) for all ATDs. Similar procedures were applied to college football data where thousands of head impacts were recorded using a six degrees of freedom (6 DOF) instrumented helmet system. Since animal injury data used in derivation of BrIC were predominantly for diffuse axonal injury (DAI) type, which is currently an AIS 4+ injury, cumulative strain damage measure (CSDM) and maximum principal strain (MPS) were used to derive risk curves for AIS 4+ anatomic brain injuries. The AIS 1+, 2+, 3+, and 5+ risk curves for CSDM and MPS were then computed using the ratios between corresponding risk curves for head injury criterion (HIC) at a 50% risk. The risk curves for BrIC were then obtained from CSDM and MPS risk curves using the linear relationship

  8. A review of the performance and structural considerations of paraffin wax hybrid rocket fuels with additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Kirsty; Adali, Sarp; Pitot, Jean; Brooks, Michael

    2017-12-01

    Paraffin wax as a hybrid rocket fuel has not been comprehensively characterised, especially regarding the structural feasibility of the material in launch applications. Preliminary structural testing has shown paraffin wax to be a brittle, low strength material, and at risk of failure under launch loading conditions. Structural enhancing additives have been identified, but their effect on motor performance has not always been considered, nor has any standard method of testing been identified between research institutes. A review of existing regression rate measurement techniques on paraffin wax based fuels and the results obtained with various additives are collated and discussed in this paper. The review includes 2D slab motors that enable visualisation of liquefying fuel droplet entrainment and the effect of an increased viscosity on the droplet entrainment mechanism, which can occur with the addition of structural enhancing polymers. An increased viscosity has been shown to reduce the regression rate of liquefying fuels. Viscosity increasing additives that have been tested include EVA and LDPE. Both these additives increase the structural properties of paraffin wax, where the elongation and UTS are improved. Other additives, such as metal hydrides, aluminium and boron generally offer improvements on the regression rate. However, very little consideration has been given to the structural effects these additives have on the wax grain. A 40% aluminised grain, for example, offers a slight increase in the UTS but reduces the elongation of paraffin wax. Geometrically accurate lab-scale motors have also been used to determine the regression rate properties of various additives in paraffin wax. A concise review of all available regression rate testing techniques and results on paraffin wax based hybrid propellants, as well as existing structural testing data, is presented in this paper.

  9. New hybrid lead iodides: From one-dimensional chain to two-dimensional layered perovskite structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Kecai; Liu, Wei; Teat, Simon J.; An, Litao; Wang, Hao; Emge, Thomas J.; Li, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Two new hybrid lead halides (H 2 BDA)[PbI 4 ] (1) (H 2 BDA=1,4-butanediammonium dication) and (HNPEIM)[PbI 3 ] (2) (HNPEIM=N-​phenyl-ethanimidamidine cation) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that compound 1 features a two-dimensional corner-sharing perovskite layer whereas compound 2 contains one-dimensional edge-sharing double chains. The N-​phenyl-ethanimidamidine cation within compound 2 was generated in-situ under solvothermal conditions. The optical absorption spectra collected at room temperature suggest that both compounds are semiconductors having direct band gaps, with estimated values of 2.64 and 2.73 eV for 1 and 2, respectively. Results from the density functional theory (DFT) calculations are consistent with the experimental data. Density of states (DOS) analysis reveals that in both compounds 1 and 2, the energy states in the valence band maximum region are iodine 5p atomic orbitals with a small contribution from lead 6s, while in the region of conduction band minimum, the major contributions are from the inorganic (Pb 6p atomic orbitals) and organic components (C and N 2p atomic orbitals) in compound 1 and 2, respectively. - Graphical abstract: Two new hybrid lead halides built on one-dimensional edge-sharing double chains and two-dimensional corner-sharing perovskite layers are synthesized and their structural and electronic properties are analyzed. - Highlights: • Two new hybrid lead iodides are designed, synthesized, and characterized. • They are closely related to, but different from, perovskite structures. • The electronic properties of both compounds are analyzed by DFT calculations

  10. New hybrid lead iodides: From one-dimensional chain to two-dimensional layered perovskite structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Kecai; Liu, Wei [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rutgers University, 610 Taylor Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Teat, Simon J. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); An, Litao; Wang, Hao; Emge, Thomas J. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rutgers University, 610 Taylor Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Li, Jing, E-mail: jingli@rutgers.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rutgers University, 610 Taylor Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Two new hybrid lead halides (H{sub 2}BDA)[PbI{sub 4}] (1) (H{sub 2}BDA=1,4-butanediammonium dication) and (HNPEIM)[PbI{sub 3}] (2) (HNPEIM=N-​phenyl-ethanimidamidine cation) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that compound 1 features a two-dimensional corner-sharing perovskite layer whereas compound 2 contains one-dimensional edge-sharing double chains. The N-​phenyl-ethanimidamidine cation within compound 2 was generated in-situ under solvothermal conditions. The optical absorption spectra collected at room temperature suggest that both compounds are semiconductors having direct band gaps, with estimated values of 2.64 and 2.73 eV for 1 and 2, respectively. Results from the density functional theory (DFT) calculations are consistent with the experimental data. Density of states (DOS) analysis reveals that in both compounds 1 and 2, the energy states in the valence band maximum region are iodine 5p atomic orbitals with a small contribution from lead 6s, while in the region of conduction band minimum, the major contributions are from the inorganic (Pb 6p atomic orbitals) and organic components (C and N 2p atomic orbitals) in compound 1 and 2, respectively. - Graphical abstract: Two new hybrid lead halides built on one-dimensional edge-sharing double chains and two-dimensional corner-sharing perovskite layers are synthesized and their structural and electronic properties are analyzed. - Highlights: • Two new hybrid lead iodides are designed, synthesized, and characterized. • They are closely related to, but different from, perovskite structures. • The electronic properties of both compounds are analyzed by DFT calculations.

  11. Multispecies genetic structure and hybridization in the Betula genus across Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Yoshiaki; Semerikov, Vladimir; Sebastiani, Federico; Vendramin, Giovanni Giuseppe; Lascoux, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Boreal and cool temperate forests are the major land cover of northern Eurasia, and information about continental-scale genetic structure and past demographic history of forest species is important from an evolutionary perspective and has conservation implications. However, although many population genetic studies of forest tree species have been conducted in Europe or Eastern Asia, continental-scale genetic structure and past demographic history remain poorly known. Here, we focus on the birch genus Betula, which is commonly distributed in boreal and cool temperate forests, and examine 129 populations of two tetraploid and four diploid species collected from Iceland to Japan. All individuals were genotyped at seven to 18 nuclear simple sequence repeats (nSSRs). Pairwise FST' among the six species ranged from 0.285 to 0.903, and genetic differentiation among them was clear. structure analysis suggested that Betula pubescens is an allotetraploid and one of the parental species was Betula pendula. In both species pairs of B. pendula and B. plathyphylla, and B. pubescens and B. ermanii, genetic diversity was highest in central Siberia. A hybrid zone was detected around Lake Baikal for eastern and western species pairs regardless of ploidy level. Approximate Bayesian computation suggested that the divergence of B. pendula and B. platyphylla occurred around the beginning of the last ice age (36 300 years BP, 95% CI: 15 330-92 700) and hybridization between them was inferred to have occurred after the last glacial maximum (1614 years BP, 95% CI: 561-4710), with B. pendula providing a higher contribution to hybrids. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Flexible solid-state supercapacitors based on carbon nanoparticles/MnO2 nanorods hybrid structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Longyan; Lu, Xi-Hong; Xiao, Xu; Zhai, Teng; Dai, Junjie; Zhang, Fengchao; Hu, Bin; Wang, Xue; Gong, Li; Chen, Jian; Hu, Chenguo; Tong, Yexiang; Zhou, Jun; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2012-01-24

    A highly flexible solid-state supercapacitor was fabricated through a simple flame synthesis method and electrochemical deposition process based on a carbon nanoparticles/MnO(2) nanorods hybrid structure using polyvinyl alcohol/H(3)PO(4) electrolyte. Carbon fabric is used as a current collector and electrode (mechanical support), leading to a simplified, highly flexible, and lightweight architecture. The device exhibited good electrochemical performance with an energy density of 4.8 Wh/kg at a power density of 14 kW/kg, and a demonstration of a practical device is also presented, highlighting the path for its enormous potential in energy management. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  13. Quantitative magneto-optical investigation of superconductor/ferromagnet hybrid structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, G; Brisbois, J; Pinheiro, L B G L; Müller, J; Blanco Alvarez, S; Devillers, T; Dempsey, N M; Scheerder, J E; Van de Vondel, J; Melinte, S; Vanderbemden, P; Motta, M; Ortiz, W A; Hasselbach, K; Kramer, R B G; Silhanek, A V

    2018-02-01

    We present a detailed quantitative magneto-optical imaging study of several superconductor/ferromagnet hybrid structures, including Nb deposited on top of thermomagnetically patterned NdFeB and permalloy/niobium with erasable and tailored magnetic landscapes imprinted in the permalloy layer. The magneto-optical imaging data are complemented with and compared to scanning Hall probe microscopy measurements. Comprehensive protocols have been developed for calibrating, testing, and converting Faraday rotation data to magnetic field maps. Applied to the acquired data, they reveal the comparatively weaker magnetic response of the superconductor from the background of larger fields and field gradients generated by the magnetic layer.

  14. Structural, morphological and Raman studies on hybridized PVDF/BaTiO3 nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamanickam, N.; Jayakumar, K.; Ramachandran, K.

    2017-05-01

    Hybridized nanocomposites of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and nano - barium titanate (BaTiO3) were prepared using the solution casting method for different concentrations of nano-BaTiO3 and were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The flower like structure for morphology was observed in SEM. Raman analysis showed that the modified BaTiO3 particles, due to higher specific surfaces, induce, predominantly, the crystallization of the electrically active β-phase of PVDF, while the initial micron size particles induce the formation of the most common but non-polar α-crystal form.

  15. New approaches to the development of hybrid nanocomposites: from structural materials to high-tech applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasin, V A; Antipov, Evgenii M; Karbushev, V V; Kulichikhin, Valerii G; Karpacheva, Galina P; Talroze, Raisa V; Kudryavtsev, Y V

    2013-01-01

    Current challenges in the development of various polymer nanocomposites and in the study of their properties are considered. Results of studying hybrid structural (polymer–layered silicates, polymer–nanodiamonds) and functional (based on conducting or liquid-crystalline polymers) nanomaterials are presented. Methods of modification of nanoparticles and their dispersion in a polymer matrix, and the role of interactions between a polymer matrix and fillers, as well as of nanoparticle morphology realized in the course of processing, are discussed. The bibliography includes 453 references.

  16. Hybrid functional band gap calculation of SnO6 containing perovskites and their derived structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyewon; Cheong, S.W.; Kim, Bog G.

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the properties of SnO 6 octahedra-containing perovskites and their derived structures using ab initio calculations with different density functionals. In order to predict the correct band gap of the materials, we have used B3LYP hybrid density functional, and the results of B3LYP were compared with those obtained using the local density approximation and generalized gradient approximation data. The calculations have been conducted for the orthorhombic ground state of the SnO 6 containing perovskites. We also have expended the hybrid density functional calculation to the ASnO 3 /A'SnO 3 system with different cation orderings. We propose an empirical relationship between the tolerance factor and the band gap of SnO 6 containing oxide materials based on first principles calculation. - Graphical abstract: (a) Structure of ASnO 3 for orthorhombic ground state. The green ball is A (Ba, Sr, Ca) cation and the small (red) ball on edge is oxygen. SnO 6 octahedrons are plotted as polyhedron. (b) Band gap of ASnO 3 as a function of the tolerance factor for different density functionals. The experimental values of the band gap are marked as green pentagons. (c) ASnO 3 /A'SnO 3 superlattices with two types cation arrangement: [001] layered structure and [111] rocksalt structure, respectively. (d) B3LYP hybrid functional band gaps of ASnO 3 , [001] ordered superlattices, and [111] ordered superlattices of ASnO 3 /A'SnO 3 as a function of the effective tolerance factor. Note the empirical linear relationship between the band gap and effective tolerance factor. - Highlights: • We report the hybrid functional band gap calculation of ASnO 3 and ASnO 3 /A'SnO 3 . • The band gap of ASnO 3 using B3LYP functional reproduces the experimental value. • We propose the linear relationship between the tolerance factor and the band gap

  17. Quantitative magneto-optical investigation of superconductor/ferromagnet hybrid structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, G.; Brisbois, J.; Pinheiro, L. B. G. L.; Müller, J.; Blanco Alvarez, S.; Devillers, T.; Dempsey, N. M.; Scheerder, J. E.; Van de Vondel, J.; Melinte, S.; Vanderbemden, P.; Motta, M.; Ortiz, W. A.; Hasselbach, K.; Kramer, R. B. G.; Silhanek, A. V.

    2018-02-01

    We present a detailed quantitative magneto-optical imaging study of several superconductor/ferromagnet hybrid structures, including Nb deposited on top of thermomagnetically patterned NdFeB and permalloy/niobium with erasable and tailored magnetic landscapes imprinted in the permalloy layer. The magneto-optical imaging data are complemented with and compared to scanning Hall probe microscopy measurements. Comprehensive protocols have been developed for calibrating, testing, and converting Faraday rotation data to magnetic field maps. Applied to the acquired data, they reveal the comparatively weaker magnetic response of the superconductor from the background of larger fields and field gradients generated by the magnetic layer.

  18. Tunable thermal rectification in graphene/hexagonal boron nitride hybrid structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xue-Kun; Hu, Ji-Wen; Wu, Xi-Jun; Jia, Peng; Peng, Zhi-Hua; Chen, Ke-Qiu

    2018-02-01

    Using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate thermal rectification (TR) in graphene/hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) hybrid structures. Two different structural models, partially substituting graphene into h-BN (CBN) and partially substituting h-BN into graphene (BNC), are considered. It is found that CBN has a significant TR effect while that of BNC is very weak. The observed TR phenomenon can be attributed to the resonance effect between out-of-plane phonons of graphene and h-BN domains in the low-frequency region under negative temperature bias. In addition, the influences of ambient temperature, system size, defect number and substrate interaction are also studied to obtain the optimum conditions for TR. More importantly, the TR ratio could be effectively tuned through chemical and structural diversity. A moderate C/BN ratio and parallel arrangement are found to enhance the TR ratio. Detailed phonon spectra analyses are conducted to understand the thermal transport behavior. This work extends hybrid engineering to 2D materials for achieving TR.

  19. Detailed Post-Soft Impact Progressive Damage Assessment for Hybrid Structure Jet Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddens, Aaron; Bayandor, Javid; Celestina, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, certification of engine designs for resistance to bird strike is reliant on physical tests. Predictive modeling of engine structural damage has mostly been limited to evaluation of individual forward section components, such as fan blades within a fixed frame of reference, to direct impact with a bird. Such models must be extended to include interactions among engine components under operating conditions to evaluate the full extent of engine damage. This paper presents the results of a study aim to develop a methodology for evaluating bird strike damage in advanced propulsion systems incorporating hybrid composite/metal structures. The initial degradation and failure of individual fan blades struck by a bird were investigated. Subsequent damage to other fan blades and engine components due to resultant violent fan assembly vibrations and fragmentation was further evaluated. Various modeling parameters for the bird and engine components were investigated to determine guidelines for accurately capturing initial damage and progressive failure of engine components. Then, a novel hybrid structure modeling approach was investigated and incorporated into the crashworthiness methodology. Such a tool is invaluable to the process of design, development, and certification of future advanced propulsion systems.

  20. Effect of graphene on photoluminescence properties of graphene/GeSi quantum dot hybrid structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y. L.; Ma, Y. J.; Wang, W. Q.; Ding, K.; Wu, Q.; Fan, Y. L.; Yang, X. J.; Zhong, Z. Y.; Jiang, Z. M.; Chen, D. D.; Xu, F.

    2014-01-01

    Graphene has been discovered to have two effects on the photoluminescence (PL) properties of graphene/GeSi quantum dot (QD) hybrid structures, which were formed by covering monolayer graphene sheet on the multilayer ordered GeSi QDs sample surfaces. At the excitation of 488 nm laser line, the hybrid structure had a reduced PL intensity, while at the excitation of 325 nm, it had an enhanced PL intensity. The attenuation in PL intensity can be attributed to the transferring of electrons from the conducting band of GeSi QDs to the graphene sheet. The electron transfer mechanism was confirmed by the time resolved PL measurements. For the PL enhancement, a mechanism called surface-plasmon-polariton (SPP) enhanced absorption mechanism is proposed, in which the excitation of SPP in the graphene is suggested. Due to the resonant excitation of SPP by incident light, the absorption of incident light is much enhanced at the surface region, thus leading to more exciton generation and a PL enhancement in the region. The results may be helpful to provide us a way to improve optical properties of low dimensional surface structures.

  1. An on-chip polarization splitter based on the radiation loss in the bending hybrid plasmonic waveguide structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chengwei; Rong, Kexiu; Gan, Fengyuan; Chu, Saisai; Gong, Qihuang; Chen, Jianjun

    2017-09-01

    Polarization beam splitters (PBSs) are one of the key components in the integrated photonic circuits. To increase the integration density, various complex hybrid plasmonic structures have been numerically designed to shrink the footprints of the PBSs. Here, to decrease the complexity of the small hybrid structures and the difficulty of the hybrid micro-nano fabrications, the radiation losses are utilized to experimentally demonstrate an ultra-small, broadband, and efficient PBS in a simple bending hybrid plasmonic waveguide structure. The hybrid plasmonic waveguide comprising a dielectric strip on the metal surface supports both the transverse-magnetic (TM) and transverse-electric (TE) waveguide modes. Because of the different field confinements, the TE waveguide mode has larger radiation loss than the TM waveguide mode in the bending hybrid strip waveguide. Based on the different radiation losses, the two incident waveguide modes of orthogonal polarization states are efficiently split in the proposed structure with a footprint of only about 2.2 × 2.2 μm2 on chips. Since there is no resonance or interference in the splitting process, the operation bandwidth is as broad as Δλ = 70 nm. Moreover, the utilization of the strongly confined waveguide modes instead of the bulk free-space light (with the spot size of at least a few wavelengths) as the incident source considerably increases the coupling efficiency, resulting in a low insertion loss of <3 dB.

  2. Tuning the band gap in hybrid tin iodide perovskite semiconductors using structural templating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Jeremy L; Martin, James D; Mitzi, David B

    2005-06-27

    Structural distortions within the extensive family of organic/inorganic hybrid tin iodide perovskite semiconductors are correlated with their experimental exciton energies and calculated band gaps. The extent of the in- and out-of-plane angular distortion of the SnI4(2-) perovskite sheets is largely determined by the relative charge density and steric requirements of the organic cations. Variation of the in-plane Sn-I-Sn bond angle was demonstrated to have the greatest impact on the tuning of the band gap, and the equatorial Sn-I bond distances have a significant secondary influence. Extended Hückel tight-binding band calculations are employed to decipher the crystal orbital origins of the structural effects that fine-tune the band structure. The calculations suggest that it may be possible to tune the band gap by as much as 1 eV using the templating influence of the organic cation.

  3. Argument Structure in Arabic and English: Re-assessing Purity and Redeeming Hybridity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Said Al-Maamari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a contrastive rhetorical analysis of 20 argumentative Arabic and English editorials in argument structure. Samples were selected from two daily newspapers with equally wide distribution, and articles were written by their respective native writers. Both graphical and textual analyses captured the argument structure in terms of macro and micro arguments. A core finding is that the argument structure in the sampled editorials did not conform to the current predominant model of argument structure, which tended to polarize argument structure in terms of through or counter argumentation. The study contributes to the existing literature by defying the polarized traditional purity typology of argument structure frequently cited in the literature, and emphasizes a more dynamic hybrid model to understanding and analyzing arguments in general and in Arabic and English specifically. Additionally, the study of the professional genre of editorails has implications for academic writing and second language writing pedagogy by sensitizing foreign language learners to existing models of argument structure and possible ways to structure their arguments in the target language.

  4. Structure and weights optimisation of a modified Elman network emotion classifier using hybrid computational intelligence algorithms: a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhan, Mansour; Abbasnezhad Arabi, Mahdi; Gharavian, Davood

    2015-10-01

    Artificial neural networks are efficient models in pattern recognition applications, but their performance is dependent on employing suitable structure and connection weights. This study used a hybrid method for obtaining the optimal weight set and architecture of a recurrent neural emotion classifier based on gravitational search algorithm (GSA) and its binary version (BGSA), respectively. By considering the features of speech signal that were related to prosody, voice quality, and spectrum, a rich feature set was constructed. To select more efficient features, a fast feature selection method was employed. The performance of the proposed hybrid GSA-BGSA method was compared with similar hybrid methods based on particle swarm optimisation (PSO) algorithm and its binary version, PSO and discrete firefly algorithm, and hybrid of error back-propagation and genetic algorithm that were used for optimisation. Experimental tests on Berlin emotional database demonstrated the superior performance of the proposed method using a lighter network structure.

  5. Fabrication of graphene and ZnO nanocones hybrid structure for transparent field emission device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zulkifli, Zurita [Department of Frontier Materials, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology (Japan); Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Mara (Malaysia); Shinde, Sachin M.; Suguira, Takatoshi [Department of Frontier Materials, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology (Japan); Kalita, Golap, E-mail: kalita.golap@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Frontier Materials, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology (Japan); Center for Fostering Young and Innovative Researchers, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Tanemura, Masaki [Department of Frontier Materials, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology (Japan)

    2015-11-30

    Graphical abstract: Fabrication of a transparent field emission device with chemical vapor deposited graphene and zinc oxide nanocones showing low turn-on field due to locally enhance electric field. - Highlights: • Demonstrated transparent field emission device with CVD graphene and ZnO nanocones. • Graphene film was coated on carbon doped ZnO nanocone prepared by ion irradiation. • Low turn-on field for the graphene/C:ZnO nanocones hybrid structure is achieved. • Graphene/C:ZnO heterostructure is promising for transparent field emission devices. - Abstract: Fabrication of a transparent and high performance electron emission device is the key challenge for suitable display applications. Here, we demonstrate fabrication of a transparent and efficient field emission device integrating large-area chemical vapor deposited graphene and carbon doped zinc oxide (C:ZnO) nanocones. The ZnO nanocones were obtained with ion irradiation process at room temperature, over which the graphene film was transferred without destroying nanocone tips. Significant enhancement in field emission properties were observed with the transferred graphene film on C:ZnO nanocones. The threshold field for hybrid and pristine C:ZnO nanocones film at current density of 1 μA/cm{sup 2} was obtained as 4.3 V/μm and 6.5 V/μm, respectively. The enhanced field emission properties with low turn-on field for the graphene/C:ZnO nanocones can be attributed to locally enhance electric field. Our finding shows that a graphene/C:ZnO hybridized structure is very promising to fabricate field emission devices without compromising with high transparency.

  6. A hybrid computational-experimental approach for automated crystal structure solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredig, Bryce; Wolverton, C.

    2013-02-01

    Crystal structure solution from diffraction experiments is one of the most fundamental tasks in materials science, chemistry, physics and geology. Unfortunately, numerous factors render this process labour intensive and error prone. Experimental conditions, such as high pressure or structural metastability, often complicate characterization. Furthermore, many materials of great modern interest, such as batteries and hydrogen storage media, contain light elements such as Li and H that only weakly scatter X-rays. Finally, structural refinements generally require significant human input and intuition, as they rely on good initial guesses for the target structure. To address these many challenges, we demonstrate a new hybrid approach, first-principles-assisted structure solution (FPASS), which combines experimental diffraction data, statistical symmetry information and first-principles-based algorithmic optimization to automatically solve crystal structures. We demonstrate the broad utility of FPASS to clarify four important crystal structure debates: the hydrogen storage candidates MgNH and NH3BH3; Li2O2, relevant to Li-air batteries; and high-pressure silane, SiH4.

  7. IC 3475: A stripped dwarf galaxy in the Virgo cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigroux, L.; Thuan, T.X.; Vader, J.P.; Lachieze-Rey, M.

    1986-01-01

    We have obtained B and R CCD and H I observations of the Virgo dwarf galaxy IC 3475. The galaxy is remarkable for its very large diameter (approx.10 kpc for a Virgo distance modulus of 31) and is comparable in size to the large dwarfs discussed by Sandage and Binggeli. Its light profile is best fitted by an exponential law, characteristic of a dwarf Magellanic irregular galaxy. It possesses a central bar with many knots and inclusions concentrated toward the center of the galaxy. These knots and inclusions have the same color (B-Rapprox.1.5) as the rest of the galaxy and are best explained as intermediate-age (1--7 x 10 9 yr) star clusters such as those found in the Magellanic Clouds. Despite possessing the photometric structure of a dwarf Magellanic irregular galaxy, IC 3475 contains less than 5.3 x 10 6 M/sub sun/ of neutral hydrogen. Its hydrogen mass to blue light ratio is less than 0.01, approx.60 times less than the mean value observed for dwarf Magellanic irregulars. It is most likely that IC 3475, which is located near the core of the Virgo cluster, is a stripped dwarf galaxy. The very large size of the galaxy (its diameter is approx.1.8 times larger than that of ''normal'' dwarfs) appears to rule out evolution of IC 3475 from a normal dwarf irregular or to a normal dwarf elliptical

  8. Structured oligonucleotides for target indexing to allow single-vessel PCR amplification and solid support microarray hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Laurie D; Boissinot, Karel; Peytavi, Régis; Boissinot, Maurice; Bergeron, Michel G

    2015-02-07

    The combination of molecular diagnostic technologies is increasingly used to overcome limitations on sensitivity, specificity or multiplexing capabilities, and provide efficient lab-on-chip devices. Two such techniques, PCR amplification and microarray hybridization are used serially to take advantage of the high sensitivity and specificity of the former combined with high multiplexing capacities of the latter. These methods are usually performed in different buffers and reaction chambers. However, these elaborate methods have high complexity and cost related to reagent requirements, liquid storage and the number of reaction chambers to integrate into automated devices. Furthermore, microarray hybridizations have a sequence dependent efficiency not always predictable. In this work, we have developed the concept of a structured oligonucleotide probe which is activated by cleavage from polymerase exonuclease activity. This technology is called SCISSOHR for Structured Cleavage Induced Single-Stranded Oligonucleotide Hybridization Reaction. The SCISSOHR probes enable indexing the target sequence to a tag sequence. The SCISSOHR technology also allows the combination of nucleic acid amplification and microarray hybridization in a single vessel in presence of the PCR buffer only. The SCISSOHR technology uses an amplification probe that is irreversibly modified in presence of the target, releasing a single-stranded DNA tag for microarray hybridization. Each tag is composed of a 3-nucleotide sequence-dependent segment and a unique "target sequence-independent" 14-nucleotide segment allowing for optimal hybridization with minimal cross-hybridization. We evaluated the performance of five (5) PCR buffers to support microarray hybridization, compared to a conventional hybridization buffer. Finally, as a proof of concept, we developed a multiplexed assay for the amplification, detection, and identification of three (3) DNA targets. This new technology will facilitate the design

  9. Electronic Structure Approach to Tunable Electronic Properties of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Garnett; Huhn, William; Mitzi, David B.; Kanai, Yosuke; Blum, Volker

    We present a study of the electronic structure of layered hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (HOIP) materials using all-electron density-functional theory. Varying the nature of the organic and inorganic layers should enable systematically fine-tuning the carrier properties of each component. Using the HSE06 hybrid density functional including spin-orbit coupling (SOC), we validate the principle of tuning subsystem-specific parts of the electron band structures and densities of states in CH3NH3PbX3 (X=Cl, Br, I) compared to a modified organic component in layered (C6H5C2H4NH3) 2PbX4 (X=Cl, Br, I) and C20H22S4N2PbX4 (X=Cl, Br, I). We show that tunable shifts of electronic levels indeed arise by varying Cl, Br, I as the inorganic components, and CH3NH3+ , C6H5C2H4NH3+ , C20H22S4N22 + as the organic components. SOC is found to play an important role in splitting the conduction bands of the HOIP compounds investigated here. The frontier orbitals of the halide shift, increasing the gap, when Cl is substituted for Br and I.

  10. Structure of hybrid organic-inorganic sols for the preparation of hydrothermally stable membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castricum, H.L.; Sah, A; Blank, D.H.A.; Ten Elshof, J.E. [Inorganic Materials Science, MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Geenevasen, J.A.J. [Van ' t Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166, 1018 WV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kreiter, R.; Vente, J.F. [ECN Energy Efficiency in the Industry, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-06-15

    A procedure for the preparation of hybrid sols for the synthesis of organic-inorganic microporous materials and thin film membranes is reported. We describe silane reactivity and sol structure for acid-catalysed colloidal sols from mixtures of either tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and methyltriethoxysilane (MTES), or bis(triethoxysilyl)ethane (BTESE) and MTES. Early-stage hydrolysis and condensation rates of the individual silane precursors were followed with 29Si liquid NMR and structural characteristics of more developed sols were studied with Dynamic Light Scattering. Condensation was found to proceed at more or less similar rates for the different precursors. Homogeneously mixed hybrid colloids can therefore be formed from precursor mixtures. The conditions of preparation under which clear sols with low viscosity could be formed from BTESE/MTES were determined. These sols were synthesised at moderate water/silane and acid/silane ratios and could be applied for the coating of defect-free microporous membranes for molecular separations under hydrothermal conditions.

  11. Unexpected structural complexity of supernumerary marker chromosomes characterized by microarray comparative genomic hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hing Anne V

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Supernumerary marker chromosomes (SMCs are structurally abnormal extra chromosomes that cannot be unambiguously identified by conventional banding techniques. In the past, SMCs have been characterized using a variety of different molecular cytogenetic techniques. Although these techniques can sometimes identify the chromosome of origin of SMCs, they are cumbersome to perform and are not available in many clinical cytogenetic laboratories. Furthermore, they cannot precisely determine the region or breakpoints of the chromosome(s involved. In this study, we describe four patients who possess one or more SMCs (a total of eight SMCs in all four patients that were characterized by microarray comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH. Results In at least one SMC from all four patients, array CGH uncovered unexpected complexity, in the form of complex rearrangements, that could have gone undetected using other molecular cytogenetic techniques. Although array CGH accurately defined the chromosome content of all but two minute SMCs, fluorescence in situ hybridization was necessary to determine the structure of the markers. Conclusion The increasing use of array CGH in clinical cytogenetic laboratories will provide an efficient method for more comprehensive characterization of SMCs. Improved SMC characterization, facilitated by array CGH, will allow for more accurate SMC/phenotype correlation.

  12. Fiscal 1997 R and D project on industrial science and technology under a consignment from NEDO. R and D of the superconducting material and device (technical development of the Josephson device hybrid system); 1997 nendo sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo Shin energy Sangyo Gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku. Chodendo zairyo chodendo soshi no kenkyu kaihatsu (Josephson soshi hybrid system no gijutsu kaihatsu) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In order to establish basic technology for hybrid systems of superconducting and semiconducting devices, study was made on ultrahigh speed and low energy consumption properties of Josephson devices. As Josephson IC technology, a logical circuit, ring network, memory circuit, and oxide superconductor logical circuit were studied. As superconducting hybrid system technology, a Josephson device- semiconductor device interface, formation technology of signal transmission lines, and Josephson-MOS IC technology were developed. In fiscal 1997, as Josephson IC technology, switch motion of 4GHz in clock frequency was achieved by new high-density wiring process. Integration of some semiconducting processor elements, junction of surface- stabilized superconducting thin films, and motion of combination structure of some SQUIDs were also confirmed. On the hybrid system, voltage conversion operation of all interfaces was confirmed. Proper logical operation of the Josephson device hybrid circuit was also confirmed. 95 refs., 90 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Applications of hybrid time-frequency methods in nonlinear structural dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Politopoulos, I.; Piteau, Ph.; Borsoi, L.; Antunes, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a study on methods which may be used to compute the nonlinear response of systems whose linear properties are determined in the frequency or Laplace domain. Typically, this kind of situation may arise in soil-structure and fluid-structure interaction problems. In particular three methods are investigated: (a) the hybrid time-frequency method, (b) the computation of the convolution integral which requires an inverse Fourier or Laplace transform of the system's transfer function, and (c) the identification of an equivalent system defined in the time domain which may be solved with classical time integration methods. These methods are illustrated by their application to some simple, one degree of freedom, non-linear systems and their advantages and drawbacks are highlighted. (authors)

  14. Synthesis and optical properties of novel organic-inorganic hybrid nanolayer structure semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Sanjun; Lanty, Gaetan; Lauret, Jean-Sebastien; Deleporte, Emmanuelle; Audebert, Pierre; Galmiche, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    We report on the synthesis of some novel organic-inorganic hybrid 2D perovskite semiconductors (R-(CH 2 ) n NH 3 ) 2 PbX 4 . These semiconductors are self-assembled intercalation nanolayers and have a multi-quantum-well energy level structure. We systematically vary the characteristic of organic groups (R-(CH 2 ) n NH 3 + ) to study the relationship between their structures and the optical properties of (R-(CH 2 ) n NH 3 ) 2 PbX 4 . From optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy experiments performed on series of samples, we find some trends of choosing the organic groups to improve the optical performance of (R-(CH 2 ) n NH 3 ) 2 PbX 4 . A new organic group, which allows synthesis of nanolayer perovskite semiconductors with quite high photoluminescence efficiency and better long-term stability, has been found.

  15. Design guideline for Si/organic hybrid solar cell with interdigitated back contact structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimo Prakoso, Ari; Rusli; Li, Zeyu; Lu, Chenjin; Jiang, Changyun

    2018-03-01

    We study the design of Si/organic hybrid (SOH) solar cells with interdigitated back contact (IBC) structure. SOH solar cells formed between n-Si and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): polystyrenesulphonate (PEDOT:PSS) is a promising concept that combines the excellent electronic properties of Si with the solution-based processing advantage of an organic polymer. The IBC cell structure is employed to minimize parasitic absorption losses in the organic polymer, eliminate grid shadowing losses, and allow excellent passivation of the front Si surface in one step over a large area. The influence of Si thickness, doping concentration and contact geometry are simulated in this study to optimize the performance of the SOH-IBC solar cell. We found that a high power conversion efficiency of >20% can be achieved for optimized SOH-IBC cell based on a thin c-Si substrate of 40 μm thickness.

  16. Structural acoustic response of a shape memory alloy hybrid composite panel (lessons learned)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Travis L.

    2002-07-01

    This study presents results from an effort to fabricate a shape memory alloy hybrid composite (SMAHC) panel specimen and test the structure for dynamic response and noise transmission characteristics under the action of thermal and random acoustic loads. A method for fabricating a SMAHC laminate with bi-directional SMA reinforcement is described. Glass-epoxy unidirectional prepreg tape and Nitinol ribbon comprise the material system. Thermal activation of the Nitinol actuators was achieved through resistive heating. The experimental hardware required for mechanical support of the panel/actuators and for establishing convenient electrical connectivity to the actuators is presented. Other experimental apparatus necessary for controlling the panel temperature and acquiring structural acoustic data are also described. Deficiency in the thermal control system was discovered in the process of performing the elevated temperature tests. Discussion of the experimental results focuses on determining the causes for the deficiency and establishing means for rectifying the problem.

  17. Influence of Hybrid Perovskite Fabrication Methods on Film Formation, Electronic Structure, and Solar Cell Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnier, Tobias; Emara, Jennifer; Olthof, Selina; Meerholz, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid organic/inorganic halide perovskites have lately been a topic of great interest in the field of solar cell applications, with the potential to achieve device efficiencies exceeding other thin film device technologies. Yet, large variations in device efficiency and basic physical properties are reported. This is due to unintentional variations during film processing, which have not been sufficiently investigated so far. We therefore conducted an extensive study of the morphology and electronic structure of a large number of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite where we show how the preparation method as well as the mixing ratio of educts methylammonium iodide and lead(II) iodide impact properties like film formation, crystal structure, density of states, energy levels, and ultimately the solar cell performance. PMID:28287555

  18. Near-field soil-structure interaction analysis using nonlinear hybrid modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, I.; Chen, C.; Lee, Y.J.; Jean, W.Y.; Penzien, J.

    1989-01-01

    The hybrid modeling method (Gupta and Penzien 1980) and associated analysis procedure for solving a three-dimensional soil-structure interaction problem was developed by Gupta and Penzien (1981) and Gupta et al.(1982). Subsequently, successive modifications have been made to the original modeling method and analysis procedure allowing more general treatment of the SSI problem (Penzien, 1988). Through many correlation studies of field test data obtained under forced-vibration and earthquake-excitation conditions, it has been shown that the HASSI programs can effectively predict the dynamic response of a soil-structure system, if realistic soil parameters are adopted. In the above, the entire structure-foundation system is considered to respond in a linear fashion. Since the reflected three-dimensional waves at the soil-structure interface decays very rapidly with distance away from the structure (Katayama, 1987 (a)), the response of the soil close to the base of the structure may greatly affect its response; therefore, proper modeling of the non-linear soil behavior characteristic is essential. The nonlinear behavior of near-field soil has been taken into consideration in HASSI-7 by the standard equivalent linearization procedures used in programs SHAKE and FLUSH

  19. Feasibility Study of the Electromagnetic Damper for Cable Structures Using Real-Time Hybrid Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ho-Yeon; Kim, In-Ho; Jung, Hyung-Jo

    2017-10-31

    Cable structure is a major component of long-span bridges, such as cable-stayed and suspension bridges, and it transfers the main loads of bridges to the pylons. As these cable structures are exposed to continuous external loads, such as vehicle and wind loads, vibration control and continuous monitoring of the cable are required. In this study, an electromagnetic (EM) damper was designed and fabricated for vibration control and monitoring of the cable structure. EM dampers, also called regenerative dampers, consist of permanent magnets and coils. The electromagnetic force due to the relative motion between the coil and the permanent magnet can be used to control the vibration of the structure. The electrical energy can be used as a power source for the monitoring system. The effects of the design parameters of the damper were numerically analyzed and the damper was fabricated. The characteristics of the damper were analyzed with various external load changes. Finally, the vibration-control and energy-harvesting performances of the cable structure were evaluated through a hybrid simulation. The vibration-control and energy-harvesting performances for various loads were analyzed and the applicability to the cable structure of the EM damper was evaluated.

  20. Feasibility Study of the Electromagnetic Damper for Cable Structures Using Real-Time Hybrid Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Yeon Jung

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cable structure is a major component of long-span bridges, such as cable-stayed and suspension bridges, and it transfers the main loads of bridges to the pylons. As these cable structures are exposed to continuous external loads, such as vehicle and wind loads, vibration control and continuous monitoring of the cable are required. In this study, an electromagnetic (EM damper was designed and fabricated for vibration control and monitoring of the cable structure. EM dampers, also called regenerative dampers, consist of permanent magnets and coils. The electromagnetic force due to the relative motion between the coil and the permanent magnet can be used to control the vibration of the structure. The electrical energy can be used as a power source for the monitoring system. The effects of the design parameters of the damper were numerically analyzed and the damper was fabricated. The characteristics of the damper were analyzed with various external load changes. Finally, the vibration-control and energy-harvesting performances of the cable structure were evaluated through a hybrid simulation. The vibration-control and energy-harvesting performances for various loads were analyzed and the applicability to the cable structure of the EM damper was evaluated.

  1. Auroral ion acceleration from lower hybrid solitary structures: A summary of sounding rocket observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, K. A.; Arnoldy, R. L.; Kintner, P. M.; Schuck, P.; Bonnell, J. W.; Coffey, V.

    In this paper we present a review of sounding rocket observations of the ion acceleration seen in nightside auroral zone lower hybrid solitary structures. Observations from Topaz3, Amicist, and Phaze2 are presented on various spatial scales, including the two-point measurements of the Amicist mission. From this collection of observations we will demonstrate the following characteristics of transverse acceleration of ions (TAI) in lower hybrid solitary structures (LHSS). The ion acceleration process is narrowly confined to 90° pitch angle, in spatially confined regions of up to a few hundred meters across B. The acceleration process does not affect the thermal core of the ambient distribution and does not directly create a measurable effect on the ambient ion population outside the LHSS themselves. This precludes observation with these data of any nonlinear feedback between the ion acceleration and the existence or evolution of the density irregularities on which these LHSS events grow. Within the LHSS region the acceleration process creates a high-energy tail beginning at a few times the thermal ion speed. The ion acceleration events are closely associated with localized wave events. Accelerated ions bursts are also seen without a concurrent observation of a localized wave event, for two possible reasons. In some cases, the pitch angles of the accelerated tail ions are elevated above perpendicular; that is, the acceleration occurred below the observer and the mirror force has begun to act upon the distribution, moving it upward from the source. In other cases, the accelerated ion structure is spatially larger than the wave event structure, and the observation catches only the ion event. The occurrence rate of these ion acceleration events is related to the ambient environment in two ways: its altitude dependence can be modeled with the parameter B2/ne, and it is highest in regions of intense VLF activity. The cumulative ion outflow from these LHSS TAI is

  2. Structural effect of monomer type on properties of copolyimides and copolyimide-silica hybrid materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kizilkaya Canan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effect of two different diamine monomers, containing phosphine oxide, on thermal, mechanical and morphological properties of copolyimides and their hybrid materials was investigated. Gas separation properties of the synthesized copolyimides were also analysed. Two different diamine monomers with phosphine oxide were bis(3-aminophenyl phenylphosphine oxide (BAPPO and bis(3-aminophenoxy-4-phenyl phenylphosphine oxide (m-BAPPO. In the synthesis of copolyimides 3,3’-diamino-diphenyl sulfone (DDS was also used as the diamine, as well as 2,2’-bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenylhexafluoropropane dianhydride (6FDA. Copolyimide films were prepared by thermal imidization. Hybrid materials containing 5 % SiO2 were synthesised further by sol-gel technique. The Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR confirmed the expected structure. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA demonstrated that m-BAPPO based copolyimides had lower glass transition temperatures (Tg than BAPPO based copolyimides. m-BAPPO containing copolyimide without silica shifted the thermal decomposition temperature to a higher value. The moduli and strength values of BAPPO diamine containing copolyimide and its hybrid were higher than those of m-BAPPO containing materials. The contact angle measurements showed the hydrophobicity. Scanning electron microscope (SEM analysis exhibited the silica particles dispersion in the copolyimides. These copolyimides may be used in the coating industry. The CO2 permeability and the permselectivity were the highest among the other values in this study, when m-BAPPO containing copolyimide in the absence of silica was used. The gas permeabilities obtained from this work were in this decreasing order: PCO2 > PO2 > PN2.

  3. Structural hybrid reliability index and its convergent solving method based on random–fuzzy–interval reliability model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai An

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to resolve the problems of a variety of uncertainty variables that coexist in the engineering structure reliability analysis, a new hybrid reliability index to evaluate structural hybrid reliability, based on the random–fuzzy–interval model, is proposed in this article. The convergent solving method is also presented. First, the truncated probability reliability model, the fuzzy random reliability model, and the non-probabilistic interval reliability model are introduced. Then, the new hybrid reliability index definition is presented based on the random–fuzzy–interval model. Furthermore, the calculation flowchart of the hybrid reliability index is presented and it is solved using the modified limit-step length iterative algorithm, which ensures convergence. And the validity of convergent algorithm for the hybrid reliability model is verified through the calculation examples in literature. In the end, a numerical example is demonstrated to show that the hybrid reliability index is applicable for the wear reliability assessment of mechanisms, where truncated random variables, fuzzy random variables, and interval variables coexist. The demonstration also shows the good convergence of the iterative algorithm proposed in this article.

  4. Moving from irrelevant intellectual capital (IC) reporting to value-relevant IC disclosures: key learning points from the Danish experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaper, Stefan; Nielsen, Christian; Roslender, Robin

    2017-01-01

    , largely informed by an accounting perspective, towards IC-related disclosures. Design/methodology/approach – The paper draws on data obtained from 21 semi-structured interviews with respondents in 16 companies. The respondents were contacted following a genealogical exercise carried out on the 102...... with a recognised reporting vehicle such as the annual report, were also encountered. Research limitations/implications – The implications of this study are that timely, value-relevant IC disclosures and compliant reporting, primarily for accountability purposes, have the potential to coexist. In addition...... to the usual limitations of a semi-structured interview research design, respondents’ difficulties in clearly recalling events during the project after some 10-12 years is a further potential limitation. Additionally, the use of internet-based communication channels for disclosure purposes was in its infancy...

  5. Hierarchically structured graphene-carbon nanotube-cobalt hybrid electrocatalyst for seawater battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Dong Hoon; Park, Sul Ki; Nakhanivej, Puritut; Kim, Youngsik; Hwang, Soo Min; Park, Ho Seok

    2017-12-01

    The design of cost-effective and highly active catalysts is a critical challenge. Inspired by the strong points of stability and conductivity of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), high catalytic activity of Co nanoparticles, and rapid ion diffusion and large accessible area of three-dimensional (3D) graphene, we demonstrate a novel strategy to construct a hierarchical hybrid structure consisting of Co/CoOx nanoparticles-incorporated CNT branches onto the 3D reduced graphene oxide (rGO) architecture. The surface-modified 3D rGO by steam activation process has a large surface area and abundant defect sites, which serve as active sites to uniformly grow Co/CoOx nanoparticles. Furthermore, the CNTs preserve their performance stably by encapsulating Co nanoparticles, while the uniformly decorated Co/CoOx nanoparticles exhibit superior electrocatalytic activity toward oxygen evolution/reduction reaction due to highly exposed active sites. Employing the hybrid particle electrocatalyst, the seawater battery operates stably at 0.01 mA cm-2 during 50 cycles, owing to the good electrocatalytic ability.

  6. Denoising GPS-Based Structure Monitoring Data Using Hybrid EMD and Wavelet Packet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Ke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High-frequency components are often discarded for data denoising when applying pure wavelet multiscale or empirical mode decomposition (EMD based approaches. Instead, they may raise the problem of energy leakage in vibration signals. Hybrid EMD and wavelet packet (EMD-WP is proposed to denoise Global Positioning System- (GPS- based structure monitoring data. First, field observables are decomposed into a collection of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs with different characteristics. Second, high-frequency IMFs are denoised using the wavelet packet; then the monitoring data are reconstructed using the denoised IMFs together with the remaining low-frequency IMFs. Our algorithm is demonstrated on a synthetic displacement response of a 3-story frame excited by El Centro earthquake along with a set of Gaussian random white noises on different levels added. We find that the hybrid method can effectively weaken the multipath effect with low frequency and can potentially extract vibration feature. However, false modals may still exist by the rest of the noise contained in the high-frequency IMFs and when the frequency of the noise is located in the same band as that of effective vibration. Finally, real GPS observables are implemented to evaluate the efficiency of EMD-WP method in mitigating low-frequency multipath.

  7. Mismatch and noise in modern IC processes

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Component variability, mismatch, and various noise effects are major contributors to design limitations in most modern IC processes. Mismatch and Noise in Modern IC Processes examines these related effects and how they affect the building block circuits of modern integrated circuits, from the perspective of a circuit designer.Variability usually refers to a large scale variation that can occur on a wafer to wafer and lot to lot basis, and over long distances on a wafer. This phenomenon is well understood and the effects of variability are included in most integrated circuit design with the use

  8. Design Developing of IC- Model Using VHDL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inzar-Anas

    2005-01-01

    In present, the electronic design required to become simple, small and flexible. The physical dimension of IC and number of pin can be significantly reduced while the flexibility and compatibility of IC was not change. Implementation of VHDL(VHSIC Hardware Description Language) seem as a great progress in the design of digital circuit. By using this language designing of model can be more simple, flexible and efficient. This paper was purposed to introduce VHDL and its features. Sample in modeling to illustrate the advantage of VHDL will also be described. (author)

  9. NMR structural refinement of an extrahelical adenosine tridecamer d(CGCAGAATTCGCG)2 via a hybrid relaxation matrix procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikonowicz, E.P.; Meadows, R.P.; Gorenstein, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Until very recently interproton distances from NOESY experiments have been derived solely from the two-spin approximation method. Unfortunately, even at short mixing times, there is a significant error in many of these distances. A complete relaxation matrix approach employing a matrix eigenvalue/eigenvector solution to the Bloch equations avoids the approximation of the two-spin method. The authors calculated the structure of an extrahelical adenosine tridecamer oligodeoxyribonucleotide duplex, d-(CGCAGAATTCGCG) 2 , by an iterative refinement approach using a hybrid relaxation matrix method combined with restrained molecular dynamics calculations. Distances from the 2D NOESY spectra have been calculated from the relaxation rate matrix which has been evaluated from a hybrid NOESY volume matrix comprising elements from the experiment and those calculated from an initial structure. The hybrid matrix derived distances have then been used in a restrained molecular dynamics procedure to obtain a new structure that better approximates the NOESY spectra. The resulting partially refined structure is then used to calculate an improved theoretical NOESY volume matrix which is once again merged with the experimental matrix until refinement is complete. Although the crystal structure of the tridecamer clearly shows the extrahelical adenosine looped out way from the duplex, the NOESY distance restrained hybrid matrix/molecular dynamics structural refinement establishes that the extrahelical adenosine stacks into the duplex

  10. Abundances of Planetary Nebulae IC 418, IC 2165 and NGC 5882

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, [No Value; Bernard-Salas, J; Beintema, DA; Feibelman, WA

    The ISO and IUE spectra of the elliptical nebulae NGC 5882, IC 418 and IC 2165 are presented. These spectra are combined with the spectra in the visual wavelength region to obtain a complete, extinction corrected, spectrum. The chemical composition of the nebulae is then calculated and compared to

  11. Multipurpose Educational Modules to Teach Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    The goal of the overall project is to develop a software simulation for a hydraulic hybrid vehicle. The simulation will enable students to compare various hybrid configurations with conventional IC engine performance.

  12. Mirror structures above and below the linear instability threshold: Cluster observations, fluid model and hybrid simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Génot

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Using 5 years of Cluster data, we present a detailed statistical analysis of magnetic fluctuations associated with mirror structures in the magnetosheath. We especially focus on the shape of these fluctuations which, in addition to quasi-sinusoidal forms, also display deep holes and high peaks. The occurrence frequency and the most probable location of the various types of structures is discussed, together with their relation to local plasma parameters. While these properties have previously been correlated to the β of the plasma, we emphasize here the influence of the distance to the linear mirror instability threshold. This enables us to interpret the observations of mirror structures in a stable plasma in terms of bistability and subcritical bifurcation. The data analysis is supplemented by the prediction of a quasi-static anisotropic MHD model and hybrid numerical simulations in an expanding box aimed at mimicking the magnetosheath plasma. This leads us to suggest a scenario for the formation and evolution of mirror structures.

  13. Liquid-phase synthesis of Ni nanowire/cellulose hybrid structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmah Shamsuri, Siti; Shiomi, Shohei; Matsubara, Eiichiro

    2018-02-01

    One-dimensional (1D) nanomaterials (nanowires or nanofibers) are superior to conventional zero-dimensional (0D) nanomaterials (nanoparticles). 1D nanomaterials offer not only the benefits of 0D nanomaterials, such as a large surface area and numerous active sites, but also the capability to prepare macroscopic free-standing and flexible structures owing to their formability to form a sheet. For practical applications, it is essential to develop a simple and easy method of synthesizing 1D nanomaterials. In the present work, a nickel nanowire/cellulose hybrid structure is successfully fabricated via a single-batch liquid-phase reduction method under a magnetic field. The product is not a simple 1D or two-dimensional (2D) structure, but an intricately entangled and interconnected three-dimensional (3D) structure. Fine nickel nanowires are grown from nickel nanoparticles that are heterogeneously nucleated on the surface of a cellulose fiber by using its chemical properties that attract nickel ions.

  14. A hybrid computation method for determining fluctuations of temperature in branched structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czomber, L.

    1982-01-01

    A hybrid computation method for determining temperature fluctuations at discrete points of slab like geometries is developed on the basis of a new formulation of the finite difference method. For this purpose, a new finite difference method is combined with an exact solution of the heat equation within the range of values of the Laplace transformation. Whereas the exact solution can be applied to arbitraryly large ranges, the finite difference formulation is given for structural ranges which need finer discretization. The boundary conditions of the exact solution are substituted by finite difference terms for the boundary residual flow or an internal heat source, depending on the problem. The resulting system of conditional equations contains only the node parameters of the finite difference method. (orig.) [de

  15. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Perovskite–Polymer Nanocomposites: Toward the Enhancement of Structural and Electrical Properties

    KAUST Repository

    Privitera, Alberto

    2017-11-30

    Hybrid organic/inorganic perovskite nanoparticles (NPs) have garnered remarkable research attention because of their promising photophysical properties. New and interesting properties emerge after combining perovskite NPs with semiconducting materials. Here, we report the synthesis and investigation of a composite material obtained by mixing CH3NH3PbBr3 nanocrystals with the semiconducting polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). By the combination of structural techniques and optical and magnetic spectroscopies we observed multiple effects of the perovskite NPs on the P3HT: (i) an enlargement of P3HT crystalline domains, (ii) a strong p-doping of the P3HT, and (iii) an enhancement of interchain order typical of H-aggregates. These observations open a new avenue toward innovative perovskite NP-based applications.

  16. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Perovskite–Polymer Nanocomposites: Toward the Enhancement of Structural and Electrical Properties

    KAUST Repository

    Privitera, Alberto; Righetto, Marcello; de Bastiani, Michele; Carraro, Francesco; Rancan, Marzio; Armelao, Lidia; Granozzi, Gaetano; Bozio, Renato; Franco, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid organic/inorganic perovskite nanoparticles (NPs) have garnered remarkable research attention because of their promising photophysical properties. New and interesting properties emerge after combining perovskite NPs with semiconducting materials. Here, we report the synthesis and investigation of a composite material obtained by mixing CH3NH3PbBr3 nanocrystals with the semiconducting polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). By the combination of structural techniques and optical and magnetic spectroscopies we observed multiple effects of the perovskite NPs on the P3HT: (i) an enlargement of P3HT crystalline domains, (ii) a strong p-doping of the P3HT, and (iii) an enhancement of interchain order typical of H-aggregates. These observations open a new avenue toward innovative perovskite NP-based applications.

  17. A hybrid design methodology for structuring an Integrated Environmental Management System (IEMS) for shipping business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Metin

    2009-03-01

    The International Safety Management (ISM) Code defines a broad framework for the safe management and operation of merchant ships, maintaining high standards of safety and environmental protection. On the other hand, ISO 14001:2004 provides a generic, worldwide environmental management standard that has been utilized by several industries. Both the ISM Code and ISO 14001:2004 have the practical goal of establishing a sustainable Integrated Environmental Management System (IEMS) for shipping businesses. This paper presents a hybrid design methodology that shows how requirements from both standards can be combined into a single execution scheme. Specifically, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Fuzzy Axiomatic Design (FAD) are used to structure an IEMS for ship management companies. This research provides decision aid to maritime executives in order to enhance the environmental performance in the shipping industry.

  18. The angular structure of jet quenching within a hybrid strong/weak coupling model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Gulhan, Doga Can; Milhano, José Guilherme; Pablos, Daniel; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2017-08-01

    Building upon the hybrid strong/weak coupling model for jet quenching, we incorporate and study the effects of transverse momentum broadening and medium response of the plasma to jets on a variety of observables. For inclusive jet observables, we find little sensitivity to the strength of broadening. To constrain those dynamics, we propose new observables constructed from ratios of differential jet shapes, in which particles are binned in momentum, which are sensitive to the in-medium broadening parameter. We also investigate the effect of the back-reaction of the medium on the angular structure of jets as reconstructed with different cone radii R. Finally we provide results for the so called ;missing-pt;, finding a qualitative agreement between our model calculations and data in many respects, although a quantitative agreement is beyond our simplified treatment of the hadrons originating from the hydrodynamic wake.

  19. A hybrid algorithm for selecting head-related transfer function based on similarity of anthropometric structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiang-Yang; Wang, Shu-Guang; Gao, Li-Ping

    2010-09-01

    As the basic data for virtual auditory technology, head-related transfer function (HRTF) has many applications in the areas of room acoustic modeling, spatial hearing and multimedia. How to individualize HRTF fast and effectively has become an opening problem at present. Based on the similarity and relativity of anthropometric structures, a hybrid HRTF customization algorithm, which has combined the method of principal component analysis (PCA), multiple linear regression (MLR) and database matching (DM), has been presented in this paper. The HRTFs selected by both the best match and the worst match have been applied into obtaining binaurally auralized sounds, which are then used for subjective listening experiments and the results are compared. For the area in the horizontal plane, the localization results have shown that the selection of HRTFs can enhance the localization accuracy and can also abate the problem of front-back confusion.

  20. On integration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles into existing power system structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galus, Matthias D.; Zima, Marek; Andersson, Goeran

    2010-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) represent one option for the electrification of private mobility. In order to efficiently integrate PHEVs into power systems, existing organizational structures need to be considered. Based on procedures of power systems planning and operation, actors are identified whose operational activities will be affected by PHEV integration. Potential changes and challenges in the actors' long- and short term planning activities are discussed. Further, a PHEV operation state description is developed which defines vehicle operation states from the power system point of view integrating uncontrolled, controlled recharging and vehicle to grid (V2G) utilization in one single framework. Future PHEV managing entities, such as aggregators, can use this framework for planning and operation activities including load management and V2G. This operational state description could provide a solution for future short term planning challenges of PHEVs and an aegis for various routes of current research, which to date have been weakly linked to each other.

  1. Experimental investigation of the nature of the magnetoresistance effects in Pd-YIG hybrid structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Tang, Chi; Alyahayaei, Hamad M; Shi, Jing

    2014-07-18

    In bilayers consisting of Pd and yttrium iron garnet (Y(3)Fe(5)O(12) or YIG), we observe vanishingly small room-temperature conventional anisotropic magnetoresistance but large new magnetoresistance that is similar to the spin Hall magnetoresistance previously reported in Pt-YIG bilayers. We report a temperature dependence study of the two magnetoresistance effects in Pt-YIG bilayers. As the temperature is decreased, the new magnetoresistance shows a peak, whereas the anisotropic magnetoresistance effect starts to appear and increases monotonically. We find that the magnetoresistance peak shifts to lower temperatures in thicker Pd samples, a feature characteristic of the spin current effect. The distinct temperature dependence reveals fundamentally different mechanisms responsible for the two effects in such hybrid structures.

  2. Measuring IC following a semi-qualitative approach: An integrated framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Verbano

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Considering the different IC measures adopted in literature, the advantages of adopting semi-qualitative measures, and the lack of an agreed system for IC evaluation, the purpose of the paper is to analyse literature on IC measurement following a semi-qualitative approach, with the final intent to build an IC measurement framework. Design/methodology/approach: A literature review on IC measurement system, following a semi-qualitative approach, has been conducted and analysed, in order to re-organize and synthesize all items used in previous researches. Findings: An integrated framework emerged from this research and it constitutes an IC  measurement system, created gathering and integrating different items previously adopted in literature. Each of these variables has been organized in categories belonging to one of the three main components of IC: human capital, internal structural capital and relational capital. Originality/value: This research provides an integrated tool for IC evaluation, fostering toward a well agreed measurement system that is still lacking in literature. This framework could be interesting  not only for the academic world, which in the last two decades reveals increasing attention to IC, but also for the management of the companies, that with IC measurement can increase awareness of the firm’s value and develop internal auditing system to support the management of these assets. Moreover, it could be a useful instrument for the communication of IC value to the external stakeholders, as customers, suppliers and especially shareholders, and to investors and financial analysts.

  3. Unsaturated Mn complex decorated hybrid thioarsenates: Syntheses, crystal structures and physical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Cheng-Yang [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry in Universities of Shandong, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jining University, Qufu, Shandong 273155 (China); State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Lei, Xiao-Wu, E-mail: xwlei_jnu@163.com [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry in Universities of Shandong, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jining University, Qufu, Shandong 273155 (China); Tian, Ya-Wei; Xu, Jing; Bai, Yi-Qun; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Peng-Fei; Liu, Xiao-Fan [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry in Universities of Shandong, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jining University, Qufu, Shandong 273155 (China); Yi, Fei-Yan, E-mail: yifeiyan@nbu.edu.cn [Faculty of Materials Science & Chemical Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211 (China)

    2016-03-15

    The incorporation of unsaturated [Mn(1,2-dap)]{sup 2+}, [Mn(1,2-dap){sub 2}]{sup 2+}, [Mn(2,2-bipy)]{sup 2+} (1,2-dap=1,2-diaminopropane) complex cations with thioarsenate anions of [As{sup III}S{sub 3}]{sup 3−} and [As{sup V}S{sub 4}]{sup 3−} led to three new hybrid manganese thioarsenates, namely, [Mn(1,2-dap)]{sub 2}MnAs{sub 2}S{sub 6} (1), [Mn(1,2-dap){sub 2}]{[Mn(1,2-dap)]_2As_2S_8} (2) and (NH{sub 4})[Mn(2,2-bipy){sub 2}]AsS{sub 4} (3). In compound 1, the unsaturated [Mn(1,2-dap)]{sup 2+} complexes, [MnS{sub 4}]{sup 6−} tetrahedra and [As{sup III}S{sub 3}]{sup 3−} trigonal-pyramids are condensed to form the 1D [Mn(1,2-dap)]{sub 2}MnAs{sub 2}S{sub 6} chain, whereas compound 2 features 2D layer composed of [Mn(1,2-dap)]{sup 2+} and [Mn(1,2-dap){sub 2}]{sup 2+} complexes as well as [As{sup V}S{sub 4}]{sup 3−} tetrahedral units. For compound 3, two [As{sup V}S{sub 4}]{sup 3−} anions bridge two [Mn(2,2-bipy)]{sup 2+} complex cations into a butterfly like {[Mn(2,2-bipy)]_2As_2S_8}{sup 2−} anionic unit. Magnetic measurements indicate the ferrimagnetic behavior for compound 1 and antiferromagnetic (AF) behaviors for compounds 2–3. The UV–vis diffuse-reflectance measurements and electronic structural calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) revealed the title compounds belong to semiconductors with band gaps of 2.63, 2.21, and 1.97 eV, respectively. The narrow band-gap of compound 3 led to the efficient and stable photocatalytic degradation activity over organic pollutant than N-doped P25 under visible light irradiation. - Highlights: Three new hybrid manganese thioarsenates have been prepared and structurally characterized. These hybrid phases feature interesting magnetic and visible light responding photocatalytic properties.

  4. Mechanical properties and production quality of hand-layup and vacuum infusion processed hybrid composite materials for GFRP marine structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Young; Shim, Chun Sik; Sturtevant, Caleb; Kim, Dave (Dae-Wook); Song, Ha Cheol

    2014-09-01

    Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) structures are primarily manufactured using hand lay-up or vacuum infusion techniques, which are cost-effective for the construction of marine vessels. This paper aims to investigate the mechanical properties and failure mechanisms of the hybrid GFRP composites, formed by applying the hand lay-up processed exterior and the vacuum infusion processed interior layups, providing benefits for structural performance and ease of manufacturing. The hybrid GFRP composites contain one, two, and three vacuum infusion processed layer sets with consistent sets of hand lay-up processed layers. Mechanical properties assessed in this study include tensile, compressive and in-plane shear properties. Hybrid composites with three sets of vacuum infusion layers showed the highest tensile mechanical properties while those with two sets had the highest mechanical properties in compression. The batch homogeneity, for the GFRP fabrication processes, is evaluated using the experimentally obtained mechanical properties

  5. Mechanical properties and production quality of hand-layup and vacuum infusion processed hybrid composite materials for GFRP marine structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sang-Young

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP structures are primarily manufactured using hand lay-up or vacuum infusion techniques, which are cost-effective for the construction of marine vessels. This paper aims to investigate the mechanical properties and failure mechanisms of the hybrid GFRP composites, formed by applying the hand lay-up processed exterior and the vacuum infusion processed interior layups, providing benefits for structural performance and ease of manufacturing. The hybrid GFRP composites contain one, two, and three vacuum infusion processed layer sets with consistent sets of hand lay-up processed layers. Mechanical properties assessed in this study include tensile, compressive and in-plane shear properties. Hybrid composites with three sets of vacuum infusion layers showed the highest tensile mechanical properties while those with two sets had the highest mechanical properties in compression. The batch homogeneity, for the GFRP fabrication processes, is evaluated using the experimentally obtained mechanical properties

  6. Mechanical properties and production quality of hand-layup and vacuum infusion processed hybrid composite materials for GFRP marine structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Young Kim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP structures are primarily manufactured using hand lay-up or vacuum infusion techniques, which are cost-effective for the construction of marine vessels. This paper aims to investigate the mechanical properties and failure mechanisms of the hybrid GFRP composites, formed by applying the hand lay-up processed exterior and the vacuum infusion processed interior layups, providing benefits for structural performance and ease of manufacturing. The hybrid GFRP composites contain one, two, and three vacuum infusion processed layer sets with consistent sets of hand lay-up processed layers. Mechanical properties assessed in this study include tensile, compressive and in-plane shear properties. Hybrid composites with three sets of vacuum infusion layers showed the highest tensile mechanical properties while those with two sets had the highest mechanical properties in compression. The batch homogeneity, for the GFRP fabrication processes, is evaluated using the experimentally obtained mechanical properties.

  7. Structural design aspects of magnetic coils for a linear theta-pinch hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomew, R.J.

    1976-02-01

    The structural design aspects of a linear theta-pinch hybrid reactor (LTPHR) are centered in the solenoidal adiabatic compression coil (ACC) which must support the high magnetic pulse forces that tend to expand the coil and separate the leads. The structural model is represented by the theory of elasticity solution to a thick-walled cylinder. Dynamic amplification (or attenuation) is considered by a shock spectrum technique. A composite material is postulated, where the conductor material for each strand is clad with a high-strength stainless steel with insulation considered. Yield strength (for isolated-pulse operation) and endurance limit (for repetitive-pulse operation) for the high-strength steel impose magnetic field strength constraints on the coil design. These constraints are combined in an overall energy balance calculation that includes neutronic considerations to determine an optimum ACC design. The computer code ENBAL was used to incorporate neutronic, electrical, and structural constraints into the overall energy balance of the LTPHR. The lead separation problem is solved by designing spaced clamps to hold the leads together over great distances

  8. AFM Imaging of Hybridization Chain Reaction Mediated Signal Transmission between Two DNA Origami Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmig, Sarah; Gothelf, Kurt Vesterager

    2017-10-23

    Signal transfer is central to the controlled exchange of information in biology and advanced technologies. Therefore, the development of reliable, long-range signal transfer systems for artificial nanoscale assemblies is of great scientific interest. We have designed such a system for the signal transfer between two connected DNA nanostructures, using the hybridization chain reaction (HCR). Two sets of metastable DNA hairpins, one of which is immobilized at specific points along tracks on DNA origami structures, are polymerized to form a continuous DNA duplex, which is visible using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Upon addition of a designed initiator, the initiation signal is efficiently transferred more than 200 nm from a specific location on one origami structure to an end point on another origami structure. The system shows no significant loss of signal when crossing from one nanostructure to another and, therefore, has the potential to be applied to larger multi-component DNA assemblies. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. A new hybrid meta-heuristic algorithm for optimal design of large-scale dome structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaveh, A.; Ilchi Ghazaan, M.

    2018-02-01

    In this article a hybrid algorithm based on a vibrating particles system (VPS) algorithm, multi-design variable configuration (Multi-DVC) cascade optimization, and an upper bound strategy (UBS) is presented for global optimization of large-scale dome truss structures. The new algorithm is called MDVC-UVPS in which the VPS algorithm acts as the main engine of the algorithm. The VPS algorithm is one of the most recent multi-agent meta-heuristic algorithms mimicking the mechanisms of damped free vibration of single degree of freedom systems. In order to handle a large number of variables, cascade sizing optimization utilizing a series of DVCs is used. Moreover, the UBS is utilized to reduce the computational time. Various dome truss examples are studied to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method, as compared to some existing structural optimization techniques. The results indicate that the MDVC-UVPS technique is a powerful search and optimization method for optimizing structural engineering problems.

  10. 2nd International Conference on Rheology and Modeling of Materials (IC-RMM2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the rheological properties of materials and their rheological behaviors during their manufacturing processes and in their applications in many cases can help to increase the efficiency and competitiveness not only of the finished goods and products but the organizations and societies also. The more scientific supported and prepared organizations develop more competitive products with better thermal, mechanical, physical, chemical and biological properties and the leading companies apply more competitive equipment and technology processes. The aims of the 2 nd International Conference on Rheology and Modeling of Materials (ic-rmm2) and the parallel organized symposiums of the 1 st International Symposium on Powder Injection Molding (is-pim1) and the 1 st International Symposium on Rheology and Fracture of Solids (is-rfs1) are the followings: Promote new methods and results of scientific research in the fields of modeling and measurements of rheological properties and behavior of materials under processing and applications; Change information between the theoretical and applied sciences as well as technical and technological implantations. Promote the communication and collaboration between the scientists, researchers and engineers of different disciplines, different nations, countries and continents. The international conference ic-rmm2 and symposiums of is-pim1 and is-rfs1 provide a platform among the leading international scientists, researchers, PhD students and engineers for discussing recent achievements in measurement, modeling and application of rheology in materials technology and materials science of liquids, melts, solids, crystals and amorphous structures. Among thr major fields of interest are the influence of materials structures, mechanical stresses, temperatures, deformation speeds and shear rates on rheological and physical properties, phase transformation of foams, foods, polymers, plastics and other competitive materials like ceramics

  11. 2nd International Conference on Rheology and Modeling of Materials (IC-RMM2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the rheological properties of materials and their rheological behaviors during their manufacturing processes and in their applications in many cases can help to increase the efficiency and competitiveness not only of the finished goods and products but the organizations and societies also. The more scientific supported and prepared organizations develop more competitive products with better thermal, mechanical, physical, chemical and biological properties and the leading companies apply more competitive equipment and technology processes. The aims of the 2nd International Conference on Rheology and Modeling of Materials (ic-rmm2) and the parallel organized symposiums of the 1st International Symposium on Powder Injection Molding (is-pim1) and the 1st International Symposium on Rheology and Fracture of Solids (is-rfs1) are the followings: Promote new methods and results of scientific research in the fields of modeling and measurements of rheological properties and behavior of materials under processing and applications; Change information between the theoretical and applied sciences as well as technical and technological implantations. Promote the communication and collaboration between the scientists, researchers and engineers of different disciplines, different nations, countries and continents. The international conference ic-rmm2 and symposiums of is-pim1 and is-rfs1 provide a platform among the leading international scientists, researchers, PhD students and engineers for discussing recent achievements in measurement, modeling and application of rheology in materials technology and materials science of liquids, melts, solids, crystals and amorphous structures. Among thr major fields of interest are the influence of materials structures, mechanical stresses, temperatures, deformation speeds and shear rates on rheological and physical properties, phase transformation of foams, foods, polymers, plastics and other competitive materials like ceramics

  12. Influence of natural and synthetic crosslinking reagents on the structural and mechanical properties of chitosan-based hybrid hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnica-Palafox, I M; Sánchez-Arévalo, F M

    2016-10-20

    The objective of this work was to correlate the physical and chemical properties of chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol)/genipin (CS/PVA/GEN) and chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol)/glutaraldehyde (CS/PVA/GA) hydrogels with their structural and mechanical responses. In addition, their molecular structures were determined and confirmed using FTIR spectroscopy. The results indicated that the hybrid hydrogels crosslinked with genipin showed similar crystallinity, thermal properties, elongation ratio and structural parameters as those crosslinked with glutaraldehyde. However, it was found that the elastic moduli of the two hybrid hydrogels were slightly different: 2.82±0.33MPa and 2.08±0.11MPa for GA and GEN, respectively. Although the hybrid hydrogels crosslinked with GEN presented a lower elastic modulus, the main advantage is that GEN is five to ten thousand times less cytotoxic than GA. This means that the structural and mechanical properties of hybrid hydrogels crosslinked with GEN can easily be tuned and could have potential applications in the tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, food, agriculture and environmental industries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hybrid Control of Supply Chains: a Structured Exploration from a Systems Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W. P. J. Grefen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Supply chains are becoming increasingly complex these days, both in the structure of the chains and in the need for fine-grained, real-time control. This development occurs in many industries, such as manufacturing, logistics, and the service industry. The increasing structural complexity is caused by larger numbers of participating companies in supply chains because of increasing complexity of products and services. Increasing requirements to control are caused by developments like mass-customization, pressure on delivery times, and smaller margins for waste. Maintaining well-structured strategic, tactic, and operational control over these complex supply chains is not an easy task – certainly as they are pressured by end-to-end synchronization requirements and just-in-time demands. Things become even more complex when chains need to be flexible to react to changing requirements to the products or services they deliver. To enable design of well-structured control, clear models of control topologies are required. In this paper, we address this need by exploring supply chain control topologies in an organized fashion. The exploration is based on integrating a supply chain model and a control model in two alternative ways to obtain two extreme models for supply chain control. These two models are next combined to obtain a hybrid chain control model in which control parameters can be adapted to accommodate different circumstances, hence facilitating agility in supply chains and networks. We apply the developed model to a number of case studies to show its usability. The contribution of this paper is the structured analysis of the design space for chain-level control models - not the description of individual new models.

  14. Crash simulation of hybrid structures considering the stress and strain rate dependent material behavior of thermoplastic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopmann, Ch.; Schöngart, M.; Weber, M.; Klein, J.

    2015-05-01

    Thermoplastic materials are more and more used as a light weight replacement for metal, especially in the automotive industry. Since these materials do not provide the mechanical properties, which are required to manufacture supporting elements like an auto body or a cross bearer, plastics are combined with metals in so called hybrid structures. Normally, the plastics components are joined to the metal structures using different technologies like welding or screwing. Very often, the hybrid structures are made of flat metal parts, which are stiffened by a reinforcement structure made of thermoplastic materials. The loads on these structures are very often impulsive, for example in the crash situation of an automobile. Due to the large stiffness variation of metal and thermoplastic materials, complex states of stress and very high local strain rates occur in the contact zone under impact conditions. Since the mechanical behavior of thermoplastic materials is highly dependent on these types of load, the crash failure of metal plastic hybrid parts is very complex. The problem is that the normally used strain rate dependent elastic/plastic material models are not capable to simulate the mechanical behavior of thermoplastic materials depended on the state of stress. As part of a research project, a method to simulate the mechanical behavior of hybrid structures under impact conditions is developed at the IKV. For this purpose, a specimen for the measurement of mechanical properties dependet on the state of stress and a method for the strain rate depended characterization of thermoplastic materials were developed. In the second step impact testing is performed. A hybrid structure made from a metal sheet and a reinforcement structure of a Polybutylenterephthalat Polycarbonate blend is tested under impact conditions. The measured stress and strain rate depended material data are used to simulate the mechanical behavior of the hybrid structure under highly dynamic load with

  15. Electronic States of IC60BA and PC71BM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Chun-Qi; Wang Peng; Shen Ying; Li Wen-Jie; Li Hong-Nian; Zhang Wen-Hua; Zhu Jun-Fa; Lai Guo-Qiao

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the electronic states of IC 60 BA and PC 71 BM using first-principles calculations and photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) measurements. The energy level structures for all possible isomers are reported and compared with those of C 60 , C 70 and PC 61 BM. The attachment of the side chains can raise the LUMO energies and decrease the HOMO-LUMO gaps, and thus helps to increase the power-conversion efficiency of bulk heterojunction solar cells. In the PES studies, we prepared IC 60 BA and PC 71 BM films on Si:H(111) substrates to construct adsorbate/substrate interfaces describable with the integer charge-transfer (ICT) model. Successful measurements then revealed that one of the most important material properties for an electron acceptor, the energy of the negative integer charge-transfer state (E ICT− ), is 4.31 eV below the vacuum level for PC 71 BM. The E ICT− of IC 60 BA is smaller than 4.14 eV

  16. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy study on the structural relaxation of phenylmethylsiloxane-modified epoxy hybrids at different aging temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Chia-Wen [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Material and Chemical Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Ma, Chen-Chi M., E-mail: ccma@che.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Tan, Chung-Sung [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Li, Hsun-Tien [Material and Chemical Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2015-07-15

    The cured network conformations and structural relaxation behaviours of the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA)-methylhexahydrophthalic anhydride (MHHPA) modified with phenylmethylsiloxane-modified epoxy (PMSE) at different aging temperatures were studied using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). The DMA results revealed that the cured PMSE network can insert into the cured DGEBA network to form interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs). The structural relaxation behaviours of DGEBA–PMSE-0.4 produced using DGEBA, PMSE, and MHHPA at a ratio of 0.6:0.4:1 by equivalent weight were studied using PALS at 150 °C and 55 °C. The aging-induced free volume relaxation parameters of DGEBA–PMSE-0.4 at 150 °C and 55 °C were investigated using the double additive exponential model and the Kohlrausch–Williams–Watts exponential model. For double additive exponential model, only one relaxation time (ζ) of 584.5 h was found at 150 °C; By contrast, there were two separate relaxation times of 37.4 h (ζ{sub 1}) and 753.6 h (ζ{sub 2}) at 55 °C. The ζ{sub 1} of the IPNs hybrid can be attributed to the network relaxation of PMSE, and the ζ{sub 2} can be attributed to the network relaxation of DGEBA at 55 °C. The results suggested the double additive exponential model can effectively predict DGEBA–PMSE hybrid relaxation behaviours. - Highlights: • The cured network conformations of DGEBA–PMSE hybrids were studied using DMA. • The structural relaxation behaviours of DGEBA–PMSE hybrids were studied using PALS. • The cured DGEBA–PMSE hybrids were interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs). • PALS studies provided a quantitative demonstration of relaxation behaviours. • Double additive exponential model effectively predicted the relaxation times of hybrids.

  17. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy study on the structural relaxation of phenylmethylsiloxane-modified epoxy hybrids at different aging temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Chia-Wen; Ma, Chen-Chi M.; Tan, Chung-Sung; Li, Hsun-Tien

    2015-01-01

    The cured network conformations and structural relaxation behaviours of the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA)-methylhexahydrophthalic anhydride (MHHPA) modified with phenylmethylsiloxane-modified epoxy (PMSE) at different aging temperatures were studied using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). The DMA results revealed that the cured PMSE network can insert into the cured DGEBA network to form interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs). The structural relaxation behaviours of DGEBA–PMSE-0.4 produced using DGEBA, PMSE, and MHHPA at a ratio of 0.6:0.4:1 by equivalent weight were studied using PALS at 150 °C and 55 °C. The aging-induced free volume relaxation parameters of DGEBA–PMSE-0.4 at 150 °C and 55 °C were investigated using the double additive exponential model and the Kohlrausch–Williams–Watts exponential model. For double additive exponential model, only one relaxation time (ζ) of 584.5 h was found at 150 °C; By contrast, there were two separate relaxation times of 37.4 h (ζ 1 ) and 753.6 h (ζ 2 ) at 55 °C. The ζ 1 of the IPNs hybrid can be attributed to the network relaxation of PMSE, and the ζ 2 can be attributed to the network relaxation of DGEBA at 55 °C. The results suggested the double additive exponential model can effectively predict DGEBA–PMSE hybrid relaxation behaviours. - Highlights: • The cured network conformations of DGEBA–PMSE hybrids were studied using DMA. • The structural relaxation behaviours of DGEBA–PMSE hybrids were studied using PALS. • The cured DGEBA–PMSE hybrids were interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs). • PALS studies provided a quantitative demonstration of relaxation behaviours. • Double additive exponential model effectively predicted the relaxation times of hybrids

  18. Numerical Study on the Seismic Performance of a Steel–Concrete Hybrid Supporting Structure in Thermal Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the numerical investigation on the seismic performance of a steel–concrete hybrid structure consisting of reinforced concrete (RC tubular columns and steel braced truss with A-shaped steel frames, which is a novel supporting structural system to house air-cooled condensers (ACC in large-capacity thermal power plants (TPPs. First, the finite element (FE modeling approach for this hybrid structure using the software ABAQUS was validated by a range of pseudo-dynamic tests (PDTs performed on a 1/8-scaled sub-structure. The failure process, lateral displacement responses, changing rules of dynamic characteristic parameters and lateral stiffness with increase of peak ground acceleration (PGA were presented here. Then, nonlinear time-history analysis of the prototype structure was carried out. The dynamic characteristics, base shear force, lateral deformation capacity, stiffness deterioration and damage characteristics were investigated. Despite the structural complexity and irregularity, both experimental and numerical results indicate that the overall seismic performance of this steel–concrete hybrid supporting structure meets the seismic design requirements with respect to the high-intensity earthquakes.

  19. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes and dispersed nanodiamond novel hybrids: Microscopic structure evolution, physical properties, and radiation resilience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.; Farmer, J.

    2011-01-01

    We report the structure and physical properties of novel hybrids of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and ultradispersed diamond (UDD) forming nanocomposite ensemble that were subjected to 50, 100, and 10 3 kGy gamma ray doses and characterized using various analytical tools to investigate hierarchical defects evolution. This work is prompted by recent work on single-walled CNTs and UDD ensemble [Gupta et al., J. Appl. Phys. 107, 104308 (2010)] where radiation-induced microscopic defects seem to be stabilized by UDD. The present experiments show similar effects where these hybrids display only a minimal structural modification under the maximum dose. Quantitative analyses of multiwavelength Raman spectra revealed lattice defects induced by irradiation assessed through the variation in prominent D, G, and 2D bands. A minimal change in the position of D, G, and 2D bands and a marginal increase in intensity of the defect-induced double resonant Raman scattered D and 2D bands are some of the implications suggesting the radiation coupling. The in-plane correlation length (L a ) was also determined following Tunistra-Koenig relation from the ratio of D to G band (I D /I G ) besides microscopic stress. However, we also suggest the following taking into account of intrinsic defects of the constituents: (a) charge transfer arising at the interface due to the difference in electronegativity of MWCNT C sp 2 and UDD core (C sp 3 ) leading to phonon and electron energy renormalization; (b) misorientation of C sp 2 at the interface of MWCNT and UDD shell (C sp 2 ) resulting in structural disorder; (c) softening or violation of the q∼0 selection rule leading to D band broadening and a minimal change in G band intensity; and (d) normalized intensity of D and G bands with 2D band help to distinguish defect-induced double resonance phenomena. The MWCNT when combined with nanodiamond showed a slight decrease in their conductance further affected by irradiation pointing at

  20. Organic-inorganic semiconductor hybrid systems. Structure, morphology, and electronic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Helou, Mira

    2012-08-22

    This dissertation addresses the preparation and characterization of hybrid semiconducting systems combining organic with inorganic materials. Characterization methods used included to determine the structure, morphology, and thermal stability comprised X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). One organic-inorganic semiconducting system was pentacene (C{sub 22}H{sub 14}) and zinc oxide. This interface was investigated in detail for pentacene on an oxygen-terminated zinc oxide surface, i.e. ZnO(000 anti 1). An extended study on the promising p-n junction was carried out for pentacene on ZnO with different orientations which exhibit different chemical and structural characteristics: ZnO(000 anti 1), ZnO(0001), and ZnO(10 anti 10). Moreover, the organic crystal structure of pentacene was selectively tuned by carefully choosing the substrate temperature. This defined interface with a physisorbed pentacene layer on ZnO was characterized by optical absorption which depends on the temperature of the measured system, the pentacene film thickness, and the molecular orientation and packing. The high quality of the pentacene films allowed in one case to characterize the Davydov splitting by linear polarized light focused on a single crystallite. Another subject in the field of organic-inorganic hybrid materials comprised conjugated dithiols used as self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) for immobilizing semiconducting CdS nanoparticles (NPs) on Au substrates. It was demonstrated that an appropriate selection and preparation of the conjugated SAMs is crucial for building up a light-addressable potentiometric sensor with a sufficient efficiency. An optimized electron transfer was achieved with SAMs of long range ordering, high stability, and adequate conductivity. This was examined for different linkers and was best for stilbenedithiol immobilized in solution at higher temperatures. Due

  1. Geographically distributed hybrid testing & collaboration between geotechnical centrifuge and structures laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojaghi, Mobin; Martínez, Ignacio Lamata; Dietz, Matt S.; Williams, Martin S.; Blakeborough, Anthony; Crewe, Adam J.; Taylor, Colin A.; Madabhushi, S. P. Gopal; Haigh, Stuart K.

    2018-01-01

    Distributed Hybrid Testing (DHT) is an experimental technique designed to capitalise on advances in modern networking infrastructure to overcome traditional laboratory capacity limitations. By coupling the heterogeneous test apparatus and computational resources of geographically distributed laboratories, DHT provides the means to take on complex, multi-disciplinary challenges with new forms of communication and collaboration. To introduce the opportunity and practicability afforded by DHT, here an exemplar multi-site test is addressed in which a dedicated fibre network and suite of custom software is used to connect the geotechnical centrifuge at the University of Cambridge with a variety of structural dynamics loading apparatus at the University of Oxford and the University of Bristol. While centrifuge time-scaling prevents real-time rates of loading in this test, such experiments may be used to gain valuable insights into physical phenomena, test procedure and accuracy. These and other related experiments have led to the development of the real-time DHT technique and the creation of a flexible framework that aims to facilitate future distributed tests within the UK and beyond. As a further example, a real-time DHT experiment between structural labs using this framework for testing across the Internet is also presented.

  2. Covercrete with hybrid functions - A novel approach to durable reinforced concrete structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, L.; Zhang, E.Q. [Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Fu, Y. [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Schouenborg, B.; Lindqvist, J.E. [CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute, c/o SP, Box 857, SE-501 15 Boraas (Sweden)

    2012-12-15

    Due to the corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete structures, the concrete with low water-cement ratio (w/c), high cement content, and large cover thickness is conventionally used for prolonging the passivation period of steel. Obviously, this conventional approach to durable concrete structures is at the sacrifice of more CO{sub 2} emission and natural resources through consuming higher amount of cement and more constituent materials, which is against sustainability. By placing an economically affordable conductive mesh made of carbon fiber or conductive polymer fiber in the near surface zone of concrete acting as anode we can build up a cathodic prevention system with intermittent low current density supplied by, e.g., the solar cells. In such a way, the aggressive negative ions such as Cl{sup -}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} can be stopped near the cathodic (steel) zone. Thus the reinforcement steel is prevented from corrosion even in the concrete with relatively high w/c and small cover thickness. This conductive mesh functions not only as electrode, but also as surface reinforcement to prevent concrete surface from cracking. Therefore, this new type of covercrete has hybrid functions. This paper presents the theoretical analysis of feasibility of this approach and discusses the potential durability problems and possible solutions to the potential problems. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Synthesis and optical properties of novel organic-inorganic hybrid nanolayer structure semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Sanjun; Lanty, Gaetan; Lauret, Jean-Sebastien [Laboratoire de Photonique Quantique et Moleculaire de l' Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan, 61 avenue du President Wilson, 94235 Cachan (France); Deleporte, Emmanuelle, E-mail: Emmanuelle.Deleporte@lpqm.ens-cachan.fr [Laboratoire de Photonique Quantique et Moleculaire de l' Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan, 61 avenue du President Wilson, 94235 Cachan (France); Audebert, Pierre; Galmiche, Laurent [Laboratoire de Photophysique et Photochimie Supramoleculaires et Macromoleculaires de l' Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan, 61 avenue du President Wilson, 94235 Cachan (France)

    2009-06-15

    We report on the synthesis of some novel organic-inorganic hybrid 2D perovskite semiconductors (R-(CH{sub 2}){sub n}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}PbX{sub 4}. These semiconductors are self-assembled intercalation nanolayers and have a multi-quantum-well energy level structure. We systematically vary the characteristic of organic groups (R-(CH{sub 2}){sub n}NH{sub 3}{sup +}) to study the relationship between their structures and the optical properties of (R-(CH{sub 2}){sub n}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}PbX{sub 4}. From optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy experiments performed on series of samples, we find some trends of choosing the organic groups to improve the optical performance of (R-(CH{sub 2}){sub n}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}PbX{sub 4}. A new organic group, which allows synthesis of nanolayer perovskite semiconductors with quite high photoluminescence efficiency and better long-term stability, has been found.

  4. Analysis of SMA Hybrid Composite Structures in MSC.Nastran and ABAQUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Travis L.; Patel, Hemant D.

    2005-01-01

    A thermoelastic constitutive model for shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators and SMA hybrid composite (SMAHC) structures was recently implemented in the commercial finite element codes MSC.Nastran and ABAQUS. The model may be easily implemented in any code that has the capability for analysis of laminated composite structures with temperature dependent material properties. The model is also relatively easy to use and requires input of only fundamental engineering properties. A brief description of the model is presented, followed by discussion of implementation and usage in the commercial codes. Results are presented from static and dynamic analysis of SMAHC beams of two types; a beam clamped at each end and a cantilever beam. Nonlinear static (post-buckling) and random response analyses are demonstrated for the first specimen. Static deflection (shape) control is demonstrated for the cantilever beam. Approaches for modeling SMAHC material systems with embedded SMA in ribbon and small round wire product forms are demonstrated and compared. The results from the commercial codes are compared to those from a research code as validation of the commercial implementations; excellent correlation is achieved in all cases.

  5. A hybrid SEA/modal technique for modeling structural-acoustic interior noise in rotorcraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayachandran, V; Bonilha, M W

    2003-03-01

    This paper describes a hybrid technique that combines Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) predictions for structural vibration with acoustic modal summation techniques to predict interior noise levels in rotorcraft. The method was applied for predicting the sound field inside a mock-up of the interior panel system of the Sikorsky S-92 helicopter. The vibration amplitudes of the frame and panel systems were predicted using a detailed SEA model and these were used as inputs to the model of the interior acoustic space. The spatial distribution of the vibration field on individual panels, and their coupling to the acoustic space were modeled using stochastic techniques. Leakage and nonresonant transmission components were accounted for using space-averaged values obtained from a SEA model of the complete structural-acoustic system. Since the cabin geometry was quite simple, the modeling of the interior acoustic space was performed using a standard modal summation technique. Sound pressure levels predicted by this approach at specific microphone locations were compared with measured data. Agreement within 3 dB in one-third octave bands above 40 Hz was observed. A large discrepancy in the one-third octave band in which the first acoustic mode is resonant (31.5 Hz) was observed. Reasons for such a discrepancy are discussed in the paper. The developed technique provides a method for modeling helicopter cabin interior noise in the frequency mid-range where neither FEA nor SEA is individually effective or accurate.

  6. Salinomycin Hydroxamic Acids: Synthesis, Structure, and Biological Activity of Polyether Ionophore Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgström, Björn; Huang, Xiaoli; Chygorin, Eduard; Oredsson, Stina; Strand, Daniel

    2016-06-09

    The polyether ionophore salinomycin has recently gained attention due to its exceptional ability to selectively reduce the proportion of cancer stem cells within a number of cancer cell lines. Efficient single step strategies for the preparation of hydroxamic acid hybrids of this compound varying in N- and O-alkylation are presented. The parent hydroxamic acid, salinomycin-NHOH, forms both inclusion complexes and well-defined electroneutral complexes with potassium and sodium cations via 1,3-coordination by the hydroxamic acid moiety to the metal ion. A crystal structure of an cationic sodium complex with a noncoordinating anion corroborates this finding and, moreover, reveals a novel type of hydrogen bond network that stabilizes the head-to-tail conformation that encapsulates the cation analogously to the native structure. The hydroxamic acid derivatives display down to single digit micromolar activity against cancer cells but unlike salinomycin selective reduction of ALDH(+) cells, a phenotype associated with cancer stem cells was not observed. Mechanistic implications are discussed.

  7. A Hybrid Vector Quantization Combining a Tree Structure and a Voronoi Diagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeou-Jiunn Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia data is a popular communication medium, but requires substantial storage space and network bandwidth. Vector quantization (VQ is suitable for multimedia data applications because of its simple architecture, fast decoding ability, and high compression rate. Full-search VQ can typically be used to determine optimal codewords, but requires considerable computational time and resources. In this study, a hybrid VQ combining a tree structure and a Voronoi diagram is proposed to improve VQ efficiency. To efficiently reduce the search space, a tree structure integrated with principal component analysis is proposed, to rapidly determine an initial codeword in low-dimensional space. To increase accuracy, a Voronoi diagram is applied to precisely enlarge the search space by modeling relations between each codeword. This enables an optimal codeword to be efficiently identified by rippling an optimal neighbor from parts of neighboring Voronoi regions. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed approach improved VQ performance, outperforming other approaches. The proposed approach also satisfies the requirements of handheld device application, namely, the use of limited memory and network bandwidth, when a suitable number of dimensions in principal component analysis is selected.

  8. Numerical model for the analysis of unbounded prestressed structures using the hybrid type finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbieri, R.A.; Gastal, F.P.S.L.; Filho, A.C.

    2005-01-01

    Unbounded prestressed concrete has a growing importance all over the world and may be an useful technique for the structures involved in the construction of nuclear facilities. The absence of bonding means no strain compatibility so that equations developed for reinforced concrete are no longer valid. Practical estimates about the ultimate stress in the unbounded tendons may be obtained with empirical or numerical methods only. In order to contribute to the understanding on the behaviour of unbounded prestressed concrete members, a numerical model has been developed using a hybrid type finite element formulation for planar frame structures. Instead of short elements, as in the conventional finite element formulation, long elements may be used, improving computational efficiency. A further advantage is that the curvature variation within the element is obtained with higher accuracy if compared to the traditional formulation. This feature is important for unbounded tendons since its stresses depend on the whole member deformation. Second order effects in the planar frame are considered with either Updated or Partially Updated Lagrangian approaches. Instantaneous and time dependent behaviour as well as cyclic loads are considered too. Comparison with experimental results for prestressed concrete beams shows the adequacy of the proposed model. (authors)

  9. Electrical investigations of hybrid OLED microcavity structures with novel encapsulation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Stefan; Brückner, Robert; Fröb, Hartmut; Leo, Karl

    2016-04-01

    An electrical driven organic solid state laser is a very challenging goal which is so far well beyond reach. As a step towards realization, we monolithically implemented an Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) into a dielectric, high quality microcavity (MC) consisting of two Distributed Bragg Reectors (DBR). In order to account for an optimal optical operation, the OLED structure has to be adapted. Furthermore, we aim to excite the device not only electrically but optically as well. Different OLED structures with an emission layer consisting of Alq3:DCM (2 wt%) were investigated. The External Quantum Efficiencies (EQE) of this hybrid structures are in the range of 1-2 %, as expected for this material combination. Including metal layers into a MC is complicated and has a huge impact on the device performance. Using Transfer-Matrix-Algorithm (TMA) simulations, the best positions for the metal electrodes are determined. First, the electroluminescence (EL) of the adjusted OLED structure on top of a DBR is measured under nitrogen atmosphere. The modes showed quality factors of Q = 60. After the deposition of the top DBR, the EL is measured again and the quality factors increased up to Q = 600. Considering the two 25-nm-thick-silver contacts a Q-factor of 600 is very high. The realization of a suitable encapsulation method is important. Two approaches were successfully tested. The first method is based on the substitution of a DBR layer with a layer produced via Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD). The second method uses a 0.15-mm-thick cover glass glued on top of the DBR with a 0.23-μm-thick single-component glue layer. Due to the working encapsulation, it is possible to investigate the sample under ambient conditions.

  10. Active structural control of a floating wind turbine with a stroke-limited hybrid mass damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yaqi; He, Erming

    2017-12-01

    Floating wind turbines are subjected to more severe structural loads than fixed-bottom wind turbines due to additional degrees of freedom (DOFs) of their floating foundations. It's a promising way of using active structural control method to improve the structural responses of floating wind turbines. This paper investigates an active vibration control strategy for a barge-type floating wind turbine by setting a stroke-limited hybrid mass damper (HMD) in the turbine's nacelle. Firstly, a contact nonlinear modeling method for the floating wind turbine with clearance between the HMD and the stroke limiters is presented based on Euler-Lagrange's equations and an active control model of the whole system is established. The structural parameters are validated for the active control model and an equivalent load coefficient method is presented for identifying the wind and wave disturbances. Then, a state-feedback linear quadratic regulator (LQR) controller is designed to reduce vibration and loads of the wind turbine, and two optimization methods are combined to optimize the weighting coefficients when considering the stroke of the HMD and the active control power consumption as constraints. Finally, the designed controllers are implemented in high fidelity simulations under five typical wind and wave conditions. The results show that active HMD control strategy is shown to be achievable and the designed controllers could further reduce more vibration and loads of the wind turbine under the constraints of stroke limitation and power consumption. "V"-shaped distribution of the TMD suppression effect is inconsistent with the Weibull distribution in practical offshore floating wind farms, and the active HMD control could overcome this shortcoming of the passive TMD.

  11. Structure of herbivore communities in two oak (Quercus spp.) hybrid zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boecklen, William J; Spellenberg, Richard

    1990-11-01

    We examined patterns of density and species diversity for leaf-mining Lepidopterans and gall-forming Hymenopterans in two oak (Quercus spp.) hybrid zones: Quercus depressipes x Q. rugosa and Q. emoryi x Q. coccolobifolia. In both species complexes, hybrid hosts typically supported significantly lower densities and species diversity of parasites than did parental types. This contradicts the findings of Whitham (1989) that suggested that hybrid hosts may act as parasite sinks both in ecological and evolutionary time. We discuss features of hybrid zones that are likely to influence patterns of herbivory.

  12. Challenges in IC design for hearing aids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    2012-01-01

    Designing modern hearing aids is a formidable challenge. The size of hearing aids is constantly decreasing, making them virtually invisible today. Still, as in all other modern electronics, more and more features are added to these devices driven by the development in modern IC technology....... The demands for performance and features at very low supply voltage and power consumption constantly prove a challenge to the physical design of hearing aids and not at least the design of the ICs for these. As a result of this all large hearing aid manufacturers use fully customized ASICs in their products...... to produce a competitive advantage. This presentation will give a brief insight into the hearing aid market and industry, a brief view of the historic development of hearing aids and an introduction to how a modern hearing is constructed showing the amplifier as the key component in the modern hearing aid...

  13. Multiple-Stage Structure Transformation of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite CH3NH3PbI3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiong; Liu, Henan; Kim, Hui-Seon; Liu, Yucheng; Yang, Mengjin; Yue, Naili; Ren, Gang; Zhu, Kai; Liu, Shengzhong; Park, Nam-Gyu; Zhang, Yong

    2016-07-01

    By performing spatially resolved Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy with varying excitation wavelength, density, and data acquisition parameters, we achieve a unified understanding towards the spectroscopy signatures of the organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite, transforming from the pristine state (CH3NH3PbI3 ) to the fully degraded state (i.e., PbI2 ) for samples with varying crystalline domain size from mesoscopic scale (approximately 100 nm) to macroscopic size (centimeters), synthesized by three different techniques. We show that the hybrid perovskite exhibits multiple stages of structure transformation occurring either spontaneously or under light illumination, with exceptionally high sensitivity to the illumination conditions (e.g., power, illumination time, and interruption pattern). We highlight four transformation stages (stages I-IV, with stage I being the pristine state) along either the spontaneous or photoinduced degradation path exhibiting distinctly different Raman spectroscopy features at each stage, and point out that previously reported Raman spectra in the literature reflect highly degraded structures of either stage III or stage IV. Additional characteristic optical features of partially degraded materials under the joint action of spontaneous and photodegradation are also given. This study offers reliable benchmark results for understanding the intrinsic material properties and structure transformation of this unique category of hybrid materials, and the findings are pertinently important to a wide range of potential applications where the hybrid material is expected to function in greatly different environment and light-matter interaction conditions.

  14. Structure and Optical Properties of Titania-PDMS Hybrid Nanocomposites Prepared by In Situ Non-Aqueous Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine R. M. Dalod

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic hybrid materials are attractive due to the combination of properties from the two distinct types of materials. In this work, transparent titania-polydimethylsiloxane hybrid materials with up to 15.5 vol. % TiO2 content were prepared by an in situ non-aqueous method using titanium (IV isopropoxide and hydroxy-terminated polydimethylsiloxane as precursors. Spectroscopy (Fourier transform infrared, Raman, Ultraviolet-visible, ellipsometry and small-angle X-ray scattering analysis allowed to describe in detail the structure and the optical properties of the nanocomposites. Titanium alkoxide was successfully used as a cross-linker and titania-like nanodomains with an average size of approximately 4 nm were shown to form during the process. The resulting hybrid nanocomposites exhibit high transparency and tunable refractive index from 1.42 up to 1.56, depending on the titania content.

  15. Tug of war between AO-hybridization and aromaticity in dictating structures of Li-doped alkali clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrova, Anastassia N.

    2012-04-01

    Hybridization of atomic orbitals is a widely appreciated phenomenon in organic chemistry. Here, we demonstrate that hybridization also can dramatically impact the shapes of small all-alkali metal clusters, and oppose σ-aromaticity in defining cluster shapes. The valence-iso-electronic LiNa4- and LiK4- clusters adopt different global minimum structures: LiNa4- is a planar C2v (1A1) species distorted from the perfect pentagon, and LiK4- is a planar square D4h (1A1g) species with Li being in the centre. This effect is rooted in the different degrees of the 2s-2p hybridization in Li in response to binding to Na versus K.

  16. Simulation of SEU transients in CMOS ICs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, N.; Bhuva, B.L.; Kerns, S.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that available analytical models of the number of single-event-induced errors (SEU) in combinational logic systems are not easily applicable to real integrated circuits (ICs). An efficient computer simulation algorithm set, SITA, predicts the vulnerability of data stored in and processed by complex combinational logic circuits to SEU. SITA is described in detail to allow researchers to incorporate it into their error analysis packages. Required simulation algorithms are based on approximate closed-form equations modeling individual device behavior in CMOS logic units. Device-level simulation is used to estimate the probability that ion-device interactions produce erroneous signals capable of propagating to a latch (or n output node), and logic-level simulation to predict the spread of such erroneous, latched information through the IC. Simulation results are compared to those from SPICE for several circuit and logic configurations. SITA results are comparable to this established circuit-level code, and SITA can analyze circuits with state-of-the-art device densities (which SPICE cannot). At all IC complexity levels, SITAS offers several factors of 10 savings in simulation time over SPICE

  17. Angular structure of jet quenching within a hybrid strong/weak coupling model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford,1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica & Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICC),Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Gulhan, Doga Can [CERN, EP Department,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Milhano, José Guilherme [CENTRA, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa,Av. Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Laboratório de Instrumentação e Física Experimental de Partículas (LIP),Av. Elias Garcia 14-1, P-1000-149 Lisboa (Portugal); Theoretical Physics Department, CERN,Geneva (Switzerland); Pablos, Daniel [Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica & Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICC),Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rajagopal, Krishna [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2017-03-27

    Within the context of a hybrid strong/weak coupling model of jet quenching, we study the modification of the angular distribution of the energy within jets in heavy ion collisions, as partons within jet showers lose energy and get kicked as they traverse the strongly coupled plasma produced in the collision. To describe the dynamics transverse to the jet axis, we add the effects of transverse momentum broadening into our hybrid construction, introducing a parameter K≡q̂/T{sup 3} that governs its magnitude. We show that, because of the quenching of the energy of partons within a jet, even when K≠0 the jets that survive with some specified energy in the final state are narrower than jets with that energy in proton-proton collisions. For this reason, many standard observables are rather insensitive to K. We propose a new differential jet shape ratio observable in which the effects of transverse momentum broadening are apparent. We also analyze the response of the medium to the passage of the jet through it, noting that the momentum lost by the jet appears as the momentum of a wake in the medium. After freezeout this wake becomes soft particles with a broad angular distribution but with net momentum in the jet direction, meaning that the wake contributes to what is reconstructed as a jet. This effect must therefore be included in any description of the angular structure of the soft component of a jet. We show that the particles coming from the response of the medium to the momentum and energy deposited in it leads to a correlation between the momentum of soft particles well separated from the jet in angle with the direction of the jet momentum, and find qualitative but not quantitative agreement with experimental data on observables designed to extract such a correlation. More generally, by confronting the results that we obtain upon introducing transverse momentum broadening and the response of the medium to the jet with available jet data, we highlight the

  18. Multi-Wave and Hybrid Imaging Techniques: A New Direction for Nondestructive Testing and Structural Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhua Cheng

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the state-of-the-art multi-wave and hybrid imaging techniques in the field of nondestructive evaluation and structural health monitoring were comprehensively reviewed. A new direction for assessment and health monitoring of various structures by capitalizing the advantages of those imaging methods was discussed. Although sharing similar system configurations, the imaging physics and principles of multi-wave phenomena and hybrid imaging methods are inherently different. After a brief introduction of nondestructive evaluation (NDE , structure health monitoring (SHM and their related challenges, several recent advances that have significantly extended imaging methods from laboratory development into practical applications were summarized, followed by conclusions and discussion on future directions.

  19. NMR structural refinement of a tandem G·A mismatched decamer d(CCAAGATTGG)2 via the hybrid matrix procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikonowicz, E.P.; Meadows, R.P.; Fagan, P.; Gorenstein, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    A complete relaxation matrix approach employing a matrix eigenvalue/eigenvector solution to the Bloch equations is used to evaluate the NMR solution structure of a tandemly positioned G·A double mismatch decamer oligodeoxyribonucleotide duplex, d(CCAAGATTGG) 2 . An iterative refinement method using a hybrid relaxation matrix combined with restrained molecular dynamics calculations is shown to provide structures having good agreement with the experimentally derived structures. Distances incorporated into the MD simulations have been calculated from the relaxation rate matrix evaluated from a hybrid NOESY volume matrix whose elements are obtained from the merging of experimental and calculated NOESY intensities. Starting from both A- and B-DNA and mismatch syn and anti models, it is possible to calculate structures that are in good atomic RMS agreement with each other ( 3.6 angstrom). Importantly, the hybrid matrix derived structures are in excellent agreement with the experimental solution conformation as determined by comparison of the 200-ms simulated and experimental NOESY spectra, while the crystallographic data provide spectra that are grossly different

  20. Protein loop modeling using a new hybrid energy function and its application to modeling in inaccurate structural environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hahnbeom Park

    Full Text Available Protein loop modeling is a tool for predicting protein local structures of particular interest, providing opportunities for applications involving protein structure prediction and de novo protein design. Until recently, the majority of loop modeling methods have been developed and tested by reconstructing loops in frameworks of experimentally resolved structures. In many practical applications, however, the protein loops to be modeled are located in inaccurate structural environments. These include loops in model structures, low-resolution experimental structures, or experimental structures of different functional forms. Accordingly, discrepancies in the accuracy of the structural environment assumed in development of the method and that in practical applications present additional challenges to modern loop modeling methods. This study demonstrates a new strategy for employing a hybrid energy function combining physics-based and knowledge-based components to help tackle this challenge. The hybrid energy function is designed to combine the strengths of each energy component, simultaneously maintaining accurate loop structure prediction in a high-resolution framework structure and tolerating minor environmental errors in low-resolution structures. A loop modeling method based on global optimization of this new energy function is tested on loop targets situated in different levels of environmental errors, ranging from experimental structures to structures perturbed in backbone as well as side chains and template-based model structures. The new method performs comparably to force field-based approaches in loop reconstruction in crystal structures and better in loop prediction in inaccurate framework structures. This result suggests that higher-accuracy predictions would be possible for a broader range of applications. The web server for this method is available at http://galaxy.seoklab.org/loop with the PS2 option for the scoring function.

  1. CoS/CNTs hybrid structure for improved performance lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huijun; Ma, Jingjing; Liu, Sheng; Nie, Longying; Chai, Yaqin; Yang, Xia, E-mail: xiayang2@swu.edu.cn; Yuan, Ruo, E-mail: yuanruo@swu.edu.cn

    2016-08-15

    Cobalt sulfide (CoS) has a high theoretical capacity as an anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), however it suffers from poor cyclability and weak retention. Therefore, a lot of efforts have been devoted to overcome these defects. In this work, cobalt sulfide/carbon nanotubes (CoS/CNTs) nanocomposites were prepared by a simple and effective solvothermal method. The nanocomposites were constructed by CoS nanoparticles coated on the carbon nanotubes and the electrochemical performances of the CoS/CNTs nanocomposites were investigated as anode materials for LIBs. The results showed that the materials had superior cycle stability and kept a high discharge capacity of 780 mAh g{sup −1} after 50 cycles at the current density of 100 mA g{sup −1}. The excellent electrochemical performances are due to the good combination of the hybrid structure and better electron transportation originated from CNTs. The CoS/CNTs nanocomposites with excellent rate capabilities and super capabilities could be promising anode material for lithium ion battery. - Highlights: • CoS/CNTs nanocomposites were prepared by a simple and effective solvothermal method. • Compared with pristine CoS, CoS/CNTs nanocomposites had superior cycle stability. • CoS/CNTs nanocomposites kept a high discharge capacity of 780 mAh g{sup −1} after 50 cycles at 100 mA g{sup −1}.

  2. Planar structured perovskite solar cells by hybrid physical chemical vapor deposition with optimized perovskite film thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiangyang; Peng, Yanke; Jing, Gaoshan; Cui, Tianhong

    2018-05-01

    The thickness of perovskite absorber layer is a critical parameter to determine a planar structured perovskite solar cell’s performance. By modifying the spin coating speed and PbI2/N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) solution concentration, the thickness of perovskite absorber layer was optimized to obtain high-performance solar cells. Using a PbI2/DMF solution of 1.3 mol/L, maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of a perovskite solar cell is 15.5% with a perovskite film of 413 nm at 5000 rpm, and PCE of 14.3% was also obtained for a solar cell with a perovskite film of 182 nm thick. It is derived that higher concentration of PbI2/DMF will result in better perovskite solar cells. Additionally, these perovskite solar cells are highly uniform. In 14 sets of solar cells, standard deviations of 11 sets of solar cells were less than 0.50% and the smallest standard deviation was 0.25%, which demonstrates the reliability and effectiveness of hybrid physical chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) method.

  3. Magnetic-field-driven electron transport in ferromagnetic/ insulator/semiconductor hybrid structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, N. V.; Tarasov, A. S.; Rautskii, M. V.; Lukyanenko, A. V.; Varnakov, S. N.; Ovchinnikov, S. G.

    2017-10-01

    Extremely large magnetotransport phenomena were found in the simple devices fabricated on base of the Me/SiO2/p-Si hybrid structures (where Me are Mn and Fe). These effects include gigantic magnetoimpedance (MI), dc magnetoresistance (MR) and the lateral magneto-photo-voltaic effect (LMPE). The MI and MR values exceed 106% in magnetic field about 0.2 T for Mn/SiO2/p-Si Schottky diode. LMPE observed in Fe/SiO2/p-Si lateral device reaches the value of 104% in a field of 1 T. We believe that in case with the Schottky diode MR and MI effects are originate from magnetic field influence on impact ionization process by two different ways. First, the trajectory of the electron is deflected by a magnetic field, which suppresses acquisition of kinetic energy and therefore impact ionization. Second, the magnetic field gives rise to shift of the acceptor energy levels in silicon to a higher energy. As a result, the activation energy for impact ionization significantly increases and consequently threshold voltage rises. Moreover, the second mechanism (acceptor level energy shifting in magnetic field) can be responsible for giant LMPE.

  4. AFM study of excimer laser patterning of block-copolymer: Creation of ordered hierarchical, hybrid, or recessed structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Švanda, Jan; Siegel, Jakub; Švorčík, Vaclav; Lyutakov, Oleksiy

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Combination of bottom-up (BCP separation) and top-down (laser patterning) technologies allows obtaining hierarchical structures. • Surface morphologies were determined by the order of patterning steps (laser modification, annealing, surface reconstruction). • Tuning the order of steps enables the reorientation of BCP domain at large scale, fabrication of hierarchical, hybrid or recessed structures. • The obtained structures can find potential applications in nanotechnology, plasmonics, information storage, sensors and smart surfaces. - Abstract: We report fabrication of the varied range of hierarchical structures by combining bottom-up self-assembly of block copolymer poly(styrene-block-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) with top-down excimer laser patterning method. Different procedures were tested, where laser treatment was applied before phase separation and after phase separation or phase separation and surface reconstruction. Laser treatment was performed using either polarized laser light with the aim to create periodical pattern on polymer surface or non-polarized light for preferential removing of polystyrene (PS) part from PS-b-P4VP. Additionally, dye was introduced into one part of block copolymer (P4VP) with the aim to modify its response to laser light. Resulting structures were analyzed by XPS, UV–vis and AFM techniques. Application of polarized laser light leads to creation of structures with hierarchical, recessed or hybrid geometries. Non-polarized laser beam allows pronouncing the block copolymer phase separated structure. Tuning the order of steps or individual step conditions enables the efficient reorientation of block-copolymer domain at large scale, fabrication of hierarchical, hybrid or recessed structures. The obtained structures can find potential applications in nanotechnology, photonics, plasmonics, information storage, optical devices, sensors and smart surfaces.

  5. AFM Imaging of Hybridization Chain Reaction-Mediated Signal Transmission Between two DNA Origami Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helmig, Sarah Wendelbo; Gothelf, Kurt Vesterager

    2017-01-01

    transfer between two connected DNA nanostructures, using the hybridization chain reaction (HCR). Two sets of metastable DNA hairpins - of which one is immobilized in specific points along tracks on DNA origami structures - are polymerized to form a continuous DNA duplex, which is visible using atomic force...... microscopy (AFM). Upon addition of a designed initiator, the initiation signal is efficiently transferred >200 nm from a specific location on one origami structure to an end point on another origami structure. The system shows no significant loss of signal when crossing from one nanostructure to another...

  6. Synthesis,crystal structure and properties of inorganic-organic hybrid polymers based on 8-hydroxylquinoline-5-sulfonic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Two new inorganic-organic hybrid polymers, Mn(QS)(H2O) (1) and Co(QS)(H2O)2 (2) (H2QS=8-hydroxyl-quinoline-5-sulfonic acid), based on 8-hydroxylquinoline-5-sulfonate ligand, have been synthesized under solvothermal conditions and their structures were solved by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Compound 1 is a three-dimensional open framework with rutile topology structure, and compound 2 is a three-dimensional supramolecular structure. These compounds were characterized by powder XRD, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, fluorescence properties and magnetism properties.

  7. High energy ion implantation for IC processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosterhoff, S.

    1986-01-01

    In this thesis the results of fundamental research on high energy ion implantation in silicon are presented and discussed. The implantations have been carried out with the 500 kV HVEE ion implantation machine, that was acquired in 1981 by the IC technology and Electronics group at Twente University of Technology. The damage and anneal behaviour of 1 MeV boron implantations to a dose of 10 13 /cm 2 have been investigated as a function of anneal temperature by sheet resistance, Hall and noise measurements. (Auth.)

  8. Classification of fMRI independent components using IC-fingerprints and support vector machine classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martino, Federico; Gentile, Francesco; Esposito, Fabrizio; Balsi, Marco; Di Salle, Francesco; Goebel, Rainer; Formisano, Elia

    2007-01-01

    We present a general method for the classification of independent components (ICs) extracted from functional MRI (fMRI) data sets. The method consists of two steps. In the first step, each fMRI-IC is associated with an IC-fingerprint, i.e., a representation of the component in a multidimensional space of parameters. These parameters are post hoc estimates of global properties of the ICs and are largely independent of a specific experimental design and stimulus timing. In the second step a machine learning algorithm automatically separates the IC-fingerprints into six general classes after preliminary training performed on a small subset of expert-labeled components. We illustrate this approach in a multisubject fMRI study employing visual structure-from-motion stimuli encoding faces and control random shapes. We show that: (1) IC-fingerprints are a valuable tool for the inspection, characterization and selection of fMRI-ICs and (2) automatic classifications of fMRI-ICs in new subjects present a high correspondence with those obtained by expert visual inspection of the components. Importantly, our classification procedure highlights several neurophysiologically interesting processes. The most intriguing of which is reflected, with high intra- and inter-subject reproducibility, in one IC exhibiting a transiently task-related activation in the 'face' region of the primary sensorimotor cortex. This suggests that in addition to or as part of the mirror system, somatotopic regions of the sensorimotor cortex are involved in disambiguating the perception of a moving body part. Finally, we show that the same classification algorithm can be successfully applied, without re-training, to fMRI collected using acquisition parameters, stimulation modality and timing considerably different from those used for training.

  9. Electroactive nanoparticle directed assembly of functionalized graphene nanosheets into hierarchical structures with hybrid compositions for flexible supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bong Gill; Huh, Yun Suk; Hong, Won Hi; Erickson, David; Park, Ho Seok

    2013-04-01

    Hierarchical structures of hybrid materials with the controlled compositions have been shown to offer a breakthrough for energy storage and conversion. Here, we report the integrative assembly of chemically modified graphene (CMG) building blocks into hierarchical complex structures with the hybrid composition for high performance flexible pseudocapacitors. The formation mechanism of hierarchical CMG/Nafion/RuO2 (CMGNR) microspheres, which is triggered by the cooperative interplay during the in situ synthesis of RuO2 nanoparticles (NPs), was extensively investigated. In particular, the hierarchical CMGNR microspheres consisting of the aggregates of CMG/Nafion (CMGN) nanosheets and RuO2 NPs provided large surface area and facile ion accessibility to storage sites, while the interconnected nanosheets offered continuous electron pathways and mechanical integrity. The synergistic effect of CMGNR hybrids on the supercapacitor (SC) performance was derived from the hybrid composition of pseudocapacitive RuO2 NPs with the conductive CMGNs as well as from structural features. Consequently, the CMGNR-SCs showed a specific capacitance as high as 160 F g-1, three-fold higher than that of conventional graphene SCs, and a capacitance retention of >95% of the maximum value even after severe bending and 1000 charge-discharge tests due to the structural and compositional features.Hierarchical structures of hybrid materials with the controlled compositions have been shown to offer a breakthrough for energy storage and conversion. Here, we report the integrative assembly of chemically modified graphene (CMG) building blocks into hierarchical complex structures with the hybrid composition for high performance flexible pseudocapacitors. The formation mechanism of hierarchical CMG/Nafion/RuO2 (CMGNR) microspheres, which is triggered by the cooperative interplay during the in situ synthesis of RuO2 nanoparticles (NPs), was extensively investigated. In particular, the hierarchical CMGNR

  10. Single-fluorophore monitoring of DNA hybridization for investigating the effect of secondary structure on the nucleation step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Joon-Jung; Kim, Min-Ji; Son, Jung-Tae; Kim, Jandi; Shin, Jong-Shik

    2009-07-17

    Nucleic acid hybridization is one of the essential biological processes involved in storage and transmission of genetic information. Here we quantitatively determined the effect of secondary structure on the hybridization activation energy using structurally defined oligonucleotides. It turned out that activation energy is linearly proportional to the length of a single-stranded region flanking a nucleation site, generating a 0.18 kcal/mol energy barrier per nucleotide. Based on this result, we propose that the presence of single-stranded segments available for non-productive base pairing with a nucleation counterpart extends the searching process for nucleation sites to find a perfect match. This result may provide insights into rational selection of a target mRNA site for siRNA and antisense gene silencing.

  11. Synthesis, structural, thermal and optical studies of inorganic-organic hybrid semiconductors, R-PbI4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeesh, K.; Nageswara Rao, K.; Vijaya Prakash, G.

    2013-02-01

    Wide varieties of naturally self-assembled two-dimensional inorganic-organic (IO) hybrid semiconductors, (4-ClC6H4NH3)2PbI4, (C6H9C2H4NH3)2PbI4, (CnH2n+1NH3)2PbI4 (where n = 12, 16, 18), (CnH2n-1NH3)2PbI4 (where n = 3, 4, 5), (C6H5C2H4NH3)2PbI4, NH3(CH2)12NH3PbI4, and (C4H3SC2H4NH3)2PbI4, were fabricated by intercalating structurally diverse organic guest moieties into lead iodide perovskite structure. The crystal packing of all these fabricated IO-hybrids comprises of well-ordered organic and inorganic layers, stacked-up alternately along c-axis. Almost all these hybrids are thermally stable upto 200 °C and show strong room-temperature exciton absorption and photoluminescence features. These strongly confined optical excitons are highly influenced by structural deformation of PbI matrix due to the conformation of organic moiety. A systematic correlation of optical exciton behavior of IO-hybrids with the organic/inorganic layer thicknesses, intercalating organic moieties, and various structural disorders were discussed. This systematic study clearly suggests that the PbI layer crumpling is directly responsible for the tunability of optical exciton energy.

  12. Enhancing prospective chemistry teachers cognitive structures in the topics of bonding and hybridization by internet-assisted chemistry applications

    OpenAIRE

    Özge Özyalçın Oskay, Sinem Dinçol

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of internet-assisted chemistry applications on prospective chemistry teachers’ cognitive structures in the topics of bonding and hybridization. The sample of the study consisted of 36 prospective chemistry teachers attending Hacettepe University, Faculty of Education, the Department of Chemistry Education in 2010-2011 academic year and taking Basic Chemistry I lesson. In the study, students were separated into experimental and control gr...

  13. Benefit Analysis of Hybrid CNT/CFRP Composites in Future Aircraft Structures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During Phase I, Aurora Flight Sciences and N12 Technologies propose to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the benefits of hybrid composites in future aircraft...

  14. Applications of a Hybrid Manufacturing Process for Fabrication and Repair of Metallic Structures (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liou, Frank; Slattery, Kevin; Kinsella, Mary; Newkirk, Joseph; Chou, Hsin-Nan; Landers, Robert

    2006-01-01

    .... Coupled between the additive and the subtractive processes into a single workstation, the integrated process, or hybrid process, can produce a metal part with machining accuracy and surface finish...

  15. Tuning Structure and Properties of Graded Triblock Terpolymer-Based Mesoporous and Hybrid Films

    KAUST Repository

    Phillip, William A.; Mika Dorin, Rachel; Werner, Jörg; Hoek, Eric M. V.; Wiesner, Ulrich; Elimelech, Menachem

    2011-01-01

    -responsive, and contain pores with a nearly monodisperse diameter. These results suggest that moving to multiblock polymers and their hybrids may open new paths to produce high-performance graded membranes for filtration, separations, nanofluidics, catalysis, and drug

  16. Optimization of an extraordinary magnetoresistance sensor in the semiconductor-metal hybrid structure

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jian; Kosel, Jü rgen; Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan; Soh, Yeongah

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show by numerical computation how geometric parameters influence the Extraordinary Magnetoresistance (EMR) effect in an InAs-Au hybrid device. Symmetric IVVI and VIIV configurations were considered. The results show

  17. PDC IC WELD FAILURE EVALUATION AND RESOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korinko, P.; Howard, S.; Maxwell, D.; Fiscus, J.

    2012-04-16

    During final preparations for start of the PDCF Inner Can (IC) qualification effort, welding was performed on an automated weld system known as the PICN. During the initial weld, using a pedigree canister and plug, a weld defect was observed. The defect resulted in a hole in the sidewall of the canister, and it was observed that the plug sidewall had not been consumed. This was a new type of failure not seen during development and production of legacy Bagless Transfer Cans (FB-Line/Hanford). Therefore, a team was assembled to determine the root cause and to determine if the process could be improved. After several brain storming sessions (MS and T, R and D Engineering, PDC Project), an evaluation matrix was established to direct this effort. The matrix identified numerous activities that could be taken and then prioritized those activities. This effort was limited by both time and resources (the number of canisters and plugs available for testing was limited). A discovery process was initiated to evaluate the Vendor's IC fabrication process relative to legacy processes. There were no significant findings, however, some information regarding forging/anneal processes could not be obtained. Evaluations were conducted to compare mechanical properties of the PDC canisters relative to the legacy canisters. Some differences were identified, but mechanical properties were determined to be consistent with legacy materials. A number of process changes were also evaluated. A heat treatment procedure was established that could reduce the magnetic characteristics to levels similar to the legacy materials. An in-situ arc annealing process was developed that resulted in improved weld characteristics for test articles. Also several tack welds configurations were addressed, it was found that increasing the number of tack welds (and changing the sequence) resulted in decreased can to plug gaps and a more stable weld for test articles. Incorporating all of the process

  18. Scalable IC Platform for Smart Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Broers

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Smart cameras are among the emerging new fields of electronics. The points of interest are in the application areas, software and IC development. In order to reduce cost, it is worthwhile to invest in a single architecture that can be scaled for the various application areas in performance (and resulting power consumption. In this paper, we show that the combination of an SIMD (single-instruction multiple-data processor and a general-purpose DSP is very advantageous for the image processing tasks encountered in smart cameras. While the SIMD processor gives the very high performance necessary by exploiting the inherent data parallelism found in the pixel crunching part of the algorithms, the DSP offers a friendly approach to the more complex tasks. The paper continues to motivate that SIMD processors have very convenient scaling properties in silicon, making the complete, SIMD-DSP architecture suitable for different application areas without changing the software suite. Analysis of the changes in power consumption due to scaling shows that for typical image processing tasks, it is beneficial to scale the SIMD processor to use the maximum level of parallelism available in the algorithm if the IC supply voltage can be lowered. If silicon cost is of importance, the parallelism of the processor should be scaled to just reach the desired performance given the speed of the silicon.

  19. Studying Radiation Tolerant ICs for LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    Faccio, F; Snoeys, W; Campbell, M; Casas-cubillos, J; Gomes, P

    2002-01-01

    %title\\\\ \\\\In the recent years, intensive work has been carried out on the development of custom ICs for the readout electronics for LHC experiments. As far as radiation hardness is concerned, attention has been focussed on high total dose applications, mainly for the tracker systems. The dose foreseen in this inner region is estimated to be higher than 1~Mrad/year. In the framework of R&D projects (RD-9 and RD-20) and in the ATLAS and CMS experiments, the study of different radiation hard processes has been pursued and good contacts with the manufacturers have been established. The results of these studies have been discussed during the Microelectronics User Group (MUG) rad-hard meetings, and now some HEP groups are working to develop radiation hard ICs for the LHC experiments on some of the available rad-hard processes.\\\\ \\\\In addition, a lot of the standard commercial electronic components and ASICs which are planned to be installed near the LHC machine and in the detectors will receive total doses in ...

  20. Electron Storage Ring Development for ICS Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewen, Roderick [Lyncean Technologies, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    There is an increasing world-wide interest in compact light sources based on Inverse Compton Scattering. Development of these types of light sources includes leveraging the investment in accelerator technology first developed at DOE National Laboratories. Although these types of light sources cannot replace the larger user-supported synchrotron facilities, they offer attractive alternatives for many x-ray science applications. Fundamental research at the SLAC National Laboratory in the 1990’s led to the idea of using laser-electron storage rings as a mechanism to generate x-rays with many properties of the larger synchrotron light facilities. This research led to a commercial spin-off of this technology. The SBIR project goal is to understand and improve the performance of the electron storage ring system of the commercially available Compact Light Source. The knowledge gained from studying a low-energy electron storage ring may also benefit other Inverse Compton Scattering (ICS) source development. Better electron storage ring performance is one of the key technologies necessary to extend the utility and breadth of applications of the CLS or related ICS sources. This grant includes a subcontract with SLAC for technical personnel and resources for modeling, feedback development, and related accelerator physics studies.

  1. Practical silicon Light emitting devices fabricated by standard IC technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aharoni, H.; Monuko du Plessis; Snyman, L.W.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text:Research activities are described with regard to the development of a comprehensive approach for the practical realization of single crystal Silicon Light Emitting Devices (Si-LEDs). Several interesting suggestions for the fabrication of such devices were made in the literature but they were not adopted by the semiconductor industry because they involve non-standard fabrication schemes, requiring special production lines. Our work presents an alternative approach, proposed and realized in practice by us, permitting the fabrication of Si-LEDs using the standard conventional fully industrialized IC technology ''as is'' without any adaptation. It enables their fabrication in the same production lines of the presently existing IC industry. This means that Si-LEDs can now be fabricated simultaneously with other components, such as transistors, on the same silicon chip, using the same masks and processing procedures. The result is that the yield, reliability, and price of the above Si-LEDs are the same as the other Si devices integrated on the same chip. In this work some structural details of several practical Si-LED's designed by us, as well as experimental results describing their performance are presented. These Si-LED's were fabricated to our specifications utilizing standard CMOS/BiCMOS technology, a fact which comprises an achievement by itself. The structure of the Si-LED's, is designed according to specifications such as the required operating voltage, overall light output intensity, its dependence(linear, or non-linear) on the input signal (voltage or current), light generations location (bulk, or near-surface), the emission pattern and uniformity. Such structural design present a problem since the designer can not use any structural parameters (such as doping levels and junction depths for example) but only those which already exist in the production lines. Since the fabrication procedures in these lines are originally designed for processing of

  2. Nano-Structured Bio-Inorganic Hybrid Material for High Performing Oxygen Reduction Catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rongzhong; Tran, Dat T; McClure, Joshua P; Chu, Deryn

    2015-08-26

    In this study, we demonstrate a non-Pt nanostructured bioinorganic hybrid (BIH) catalyst for catalytic oxygen reduction in alkaline media. This catalyst was synthesized through biomaterial hemin, nanostructured Ag-Co alloy, and graphene nano platelets (GNP) by heat-treatment and ultrasonically processing. This hybrid catalyst has the advantages of the combined features of these bio and inorganic materials. A 10-fold improvement in catalytic activity (at 0.8 V vs RHE) is achieved in comparison of pure Ag nanoparticles (20-40 nm). The hybrid catalyst reaches 80% activity (at 0.8 V vs RHE) of the state-of-the-art catalyst (containing 40% Pt and 60% active carbon). Comparable catalytic stability for the hybrid catalyst with the Pt catalyst is observed by chronoamperometric experiment. The hybrid catalyst catalyzes 4-electron oxygen reduction to produce water with fast kinetic rate. The rate constant obtained from the hybrid catalyst (at 0.6 V vs RHE) is 4 times higher than that of pure Ag/GNP catalyst. A catalytic model is proposed to explain the oxygen reduction reaction at the BIH catalyst.

  3. Hybrid intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Cetorelli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    I introduce the concept of hybrid intermediaries: financial conglomerates that control a multiplicity of entity types active in the "assembly line" process of modern financial intermediation, a system that has become known as shadow banking. The complex bank holding companies of today are the best example of hybrid intermediaries, but I argue that financial firms from the "nonbank" space can just as easily evolve into conglomerates with similar organizational structure, thus acquiring the cap...

  4. Conceptualising Intellectual Capital (IC) as Language Game and Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kenneth Mølbjerg

    2006-01-01

    Intellectual Capital (IC) can be viewed as knowledge about knowledge, knowledge creation and how such processes might be leveraged into value. Developing a critical understanding of IC requires a historical and contextual understanding of how IC has emerged and how IC is used. This paper, drawing...... this process of social construction. The paper concludes by proposing some methodological guidelines for conducting critical genealogical research on intellectual capital....

  5. Induced superconductivity in Nb/InAs-hybrid structures in parallel and perpendicular magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohlfing, Franziska

    2007-07-01

    The thesis in hand investigates experimentally Josephson contacts based on Nb/InAs-hybrid structures. The experiments discussed here were done on samples of different width of the Josephson contacts (between 500 nm and 2000 nm). They were realized by means of different methods of the semiconductor technology. The length of the Josephson contacts was about 600 nm and, as superconducting material, niobium was used. Both critical current and characteristics in the resistive regime (excess-current and multiple Andreev reflection) are studied as a function of temperature and external magnetic fields. Measurements in perpendicular and parallel magnetic fields with respect to the plain of the two-dimensional electron gas, are presented. The Andreev reflection amplitude determining the supercurrent is calculated by means of the Greens functions of the two-dimensional electron gas beneath the superconductors which is modified by the proximity effect. From the fit to the data with this model, the transparency of the boundary between the superconductor and the two-dimensional electron gas can be estimated to be about 0.1. The transparency of the point contacts in the two-dimensional electrons gas can be determined independently from the Josephson junction width dependence of the normal resistance (T=10 K). This transparency amounts to about 0.8 in the examined samples. The measurements of the critical current in a magnetic field perpendicular to the two-dimensional electron gas show a Fraunhofer pattern. In order to study the transition from perpendicular orientation into parallel orientation, measurements of the critical current as a function of the magnetic field were done for different angles. In the resistive regime, the excess current measurements in the magnetic field show a very interesting behaviour: In parallel magnetic fields, the excess current becomes zero at about 2.5 T. In perpendicular magnetic field however, the excess current is strongly suppressed below 30 m

  6. In situ corrosion monitoring of PC structures with distributed hybrid carbon fiber reinforced polymer sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C. Q.; Wu, Z. S.

    2007-08-01

    Firstly, the fabrication and sensing properties of hybrid carbon fiber reinforced polymer (HCFRP) composite sensors are addressed. In order to provide a distributed sensing manner, the HCFRP sensors were divided into multi-zones with electrodes, and each zone was regarded as a separate sensor. Secondly, their application is studied to monitor the steel corrosion of prestressed concrete (PC) beams. The HCFRP sensors with different gauge lengths were mounted on a PC tendon, steel bar and embedded in tensile and compressive sides of the PC beam. The experiment was carried out under an electric accelerated corrosion and a constant load of about 54 kN. The results reveal that the corrosion of the PC tendon can be monitored through measuring the electrical resistance (ER) change of the HCFRP sensors. For the sensors embedded in tensile side of the PC beam, their ER increases as the corrosion progresses, whereas for the sensors embedded in compressive side, their ER decreases with corrosion time. Moreover, the strains due to the corrosion can be obtained based on the ER change and calibration curves of HCFRP sensors. The strains measured with traditional strain gauges agree with the strains calculated from the ER changes of HCFRP sensors. The electrical behavior of the zones where the corrosion was performed is much different from those of the other zones. In these zones, either there exist jumps in ER, or the ER increases with a much larger rate than those of the other zones. Distributed corrosion monitoring for PC structures is thus demonstrated with the application of HCFRP sensors through a proper installation of multi-electrodes.

  7. Mapping of coma anisotropies to plasma structures of weak comets: a 3-D hybrid simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Gortsas

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of coma anisotropies on the plasma environment of comets have been studied by means of a 3-D hybrid model which treats electrons as a massless, charge-neutralizing fluid, whereas ion dynamics are covered by a kinetic approach. From Earth-based observations as well as from in-situ spacecraft measurements the shape of the coma of many comets is ascertained to be anisotropic. However, most plasma simulation studies deploy a spherically symmetric activity pattern. In this paper anisotropy is studied by considering three different coma shape models. The first model is derived from the Haser model and is characterised by spherically symmetry. This reference model is then compared with two different neutral gas shape models: the dayside restricted model with no nightside activity and a cone shaped model with opening angle of π/2. In all models the integrated surface activity is kept constant. The simulations have been done for the Rosetta target comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko for two heliocentric distances, 1.30 AU and 3.25 AU. It is found that shock formation processes are modified as a result of increasing spatial confinement. Characteristic plasma structures of comets such as the bow shock, magnetic barrier region and the ion composition boundary exhibit a shift towards the sun. In addition, the cone shaped model leads to a strong increase of the mass-loaded region which in turn leads to a smooth deceleration of the solar wind flow and an increasing degree of mixture between the solar wind and cometary ion species. This creates an additional transport channel of the magnetic field from the magnetic barrier region away which in turn leads to a broadening of this region. In addition, it leads to an ion composition boundary which is only gradually developed.

  8. Effect of nanodimensional polyethylenimine layer on surface potential barriers of hybrid structures based on silicon single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyar, Ivan V.; Gorin, Dmitry A.; Stetsyura, Svetlana V.

    2013-01-01

    In this report we present the analysis of I-V curves for MIS-structures like silicon substrate / nanodimensional polyelectrolyte layer / metal probe (contact) which is promising for biosensors, microfluidic chips, different devices of molecular electronics, such as OLEDs, solar cells, where polyelectrolyte layers can be used to modify semiconductor surface. The research is directed to investigate the contact phenomena which influence the resulting signal of devices mentioned above. The comparison of I-V characteristics of such structures measured by scanning tunnel microscopy (contactless technique) and using contact areas deposited by thermal evaporation onto the organic layer (the contact one) was carried out. The photoassisted I-V measurements and complex analysis based on Simmons and Schottky models allow one to extract the potential barriers and to observe the changes of charge transport in MIS-structures under illumination and after polyelectrolyte adsorption. The direct correlation between the thickness of the deposited polyelectrolyte layer and both equilibrium tunnel barrier and Schottky barrier height was observed for hybrid structures with polyethylenimine. The possibility of control over the I-V curves of hybrid structure and the height of the potential barriers (for different charge transports) by illumination was confirmed. Based on experimental data and complex analysis the band diagrams were plotted which illustrate the changes of potential barriers for MIS-structures due to the polyelectrolyte adsorption and under the illumination.

  9. Hybrid 3D structures of ZnO nanoflowers and PdO nanoparticles as a highly selective methanol sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharyya, D; Huang, K Y; Chattopadhyay, P P; Ho, M S; Fecht, H-J; Bhattacharyya, P

    2016-05-10

    The present study concerns the enhancement of methanol selectivity of three dimensional (3D) nanoflowers (NFs) of ZnO by dispersing nickel oxide (NiO) and palladium oxide (PdO) nanoparticles on the surface of the nanoflowers to form localized hybrid nano-junctions. The nanoflowers were fabricated through a liquid phase deposition technique and the modification was achieved by addition of NiCl and PdCl2 solutions. In addition to the detailed structural (like X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray mapping, XPS) and morphological characterization (by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM)), the existence of different defect states (viz. oxygen vacancy) was also confirmed by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The sensing properties of the pristine and metal oxide nanoparticle (NiO/PdO)-ZnO NF hybrid sensor structures, towards different alcohol vapors (methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol) were investigated in the concentration range of 0.5-700 ppm at 100-350 °C. Methanol selectivity study against other interfering species, viz. ethanol, 2-propanol, acetone, benzene, xylene and toluene was also investigated. It was found that the PdO-ZnO NF hybrid system offered enhanced selectivity towards methanol at low temperature (150 °C) compared to the NiO-ZnO NF and pristine ZnO NF counterparts. The underlying mechanism for such improvement has been discussed with respective energy band diagram and preferential dissociation of target species on such 3D hybrid structures. The corresponding improvement in transient characteristics has also been co-related with the proposed model.

  10. Nano-Sized Structurally Disordered Metal Oxide Composite Aerogels as High-Power Anodes in Hybrid Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haijian; Wang, Xing; Tervoort, Elena; Zeng, Guobo; Liu, Tian; Chen, Xi; Sologubenko, Alla; Niederberger, Markus

    2018-03-27

    A general method for preparing nano-sized metal oxide nanoparticles with highly disordered crystal structure and their processing into stable aqueous dispersions is presented. With these nanoparticles as building blocks, a series of nanoparticles@reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composite aerogels are fabricated and directly used as high-power anodes for lithium-ion hybrid supercapacitors (Li-HSCs). To clarify the effect of the degree of disorder, control samples of crystalline nanoparticles with similar particle size are prepared. The results indicate that the structurally disordered samples show a significantly enhanced electrochemical performance compared to the crystalline counterparts. In particular, structurally disordered Ni x Fe y O z @rGO delivers a capacity of 388 mAh g -1 at 5 A g -1 , which is 6 times that of the crystalline sample. Disordered Ni x Fe y O z @rGO is taken as an example to study the reasons for the enhanced performance. Compared with the crystalline sample, density functional theory calculations reveal a smaller volume expansion during Li + insertion for the structurally disordered Ni x Fe y O z nanoparticles, and they are found to exhibit larger pseudocapacitive effects. Combined with an activated carbon (AC) cathode, full-cell tests of the lithium-ion hybrid supercapacitors are performed, demonstrating that the structurally disordered metal oxide nanoparticles@rGO||AC hybrid systems deliver high energy and power densities within the voltage range of 1.0-4.0 V. These results indicate that structurally disordered nanomaterials might be interesting candidates for exploring high-power anodes for Li-HSCs.

  11. A protected area influences genotype-specific survival and the structure of a Canis hybrid zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, John F; Patterson, Brent R; Mahoney, Peter J

    2014-02-01

    It is widely recognized that protected areas can strongly influence ecological systems and that hybridization is an important conservation issue. However, previous studies have not explicitly considered the influence of protected areas on hybridization dynamics. Eastern wolves are a species of special concern and their distribution is largely restricted to a protected population in Algonquin Provincial Park (APP), Ontario, Canada, where they are the numerically dominant canid. We studied intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing survival and cause-specific mortality of hybrid and parental canids in the three-species hybrid zone between eastern wolves, eastern coyotes, and gray wolves in and adjacent to APP. Mortality risk for eastern wolves in areas adjacent to APP was significantly higher than for other sympatric Canis types outside of APP, and for eastern wolves and other canids within APP. Outside of APP, the annual mortality rate of all canids by harvest (24%) was higher than for other causes of death (4-7%). Furthermore, eastern wolves (hazard ratio = 3.5) and nonresidents (transients and dispersing animals, hazard ratio = 2.7) were more likely to die from harvest relative to other Canis types and residents, respectively. Thus, eastern wolves dispersing from APP were especially vulnerable to harvest mortality. For residents, eastern wolf survival was more negatively influenced by increased road density than for other Canis types, further highlighting the sensitivity of eastern wolves to human disturbance. A cycle of dispersal from APP followed by high rates of mortality and hybridization appears to maintain eastern wolves at low density adjacent to APP, limiting the potential for expansion beyond the protected area. However, high survival and numerical dominance of eastern wolves within APP suggest that protected areas can allow rare hybridizing species to persist even if their demographic performance is compromised and barriers to hybridization are largely

  12. Structural, optical, and improved photocatalytic properties of CdS/SnO_2 hybrid photocatalyst nanostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkata Reddy, Ch.; Ravikumar, R.V.S.S.N.; Srinivas, Ganganagunta; Shim, Jaesool; Cho, Migyung

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • CdS, SnO_2, and a CdS/SnO_2 hybrid photocatalyst were synthesized using a two-step technique. • The dislocation density, strain values are higher for CdS/SnO_2 hybrid photocatalyst. • The CdS/SnO_2 has a higher surface area and smaller crystallite size compared to pristine CdS. • The CdS/SnO_2 catalyst greatly reduced recombination of electron and hole pairs. - Abstract: CdS, SnO_2 and CdS/SnO_2 hybrid photocatalyst nanostructure were synthesized using a two-step (co-precipitation/hydrothermal) method. The as-prepared materials were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), surface analysis (BET), photoluminescence spectra (PL), UV–Vis diffusion reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and photocatalytic activity. The band gap energies calculated from the DRS results are 3.30, 2.15, and 2.99 eV for pristine SnO_2, CdS, and the CdS/SnO_2 hybrid photocatalyst, respectively. The CdS/SnO_2 hybrid photocatalyst showed more efficient charge carrier separation and improved photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO). The highest degradation rate constant was achieved for the CdS/SnO_2 hybrid photocatalyst (0.02434 min"−"1) compared to CdS (0.01381 min"−"1) and SnO_2 (0.00878 min"−"1). The present study provides insights for improving the photocatalytic activity and photo-stability of CdS/SnO_2 hybrid photocatalyst.

  13. Structural, electronic, and optical properties of GaInO{sub 3}: A hybrid density functional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, V., E-mail: wangvei@icloud.com; Ma, D.-M.; Liu, R.-J.; Yang, C.-M. [Department of Applied Physics, Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710054 (China); Xiao, W. [State Key Lab of Nonferrous Metals and Processes, General Research Institute for Nonferrous Metals, Beijing 100088 (China)

    2014-01-28

    The structural, electronic, and optical properties of GaInO{sub 3} have been studied by first-principles calculations based on Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof hybrid functional theory. The optical properties, including the optical reflectivity, refractive index, extinction coefficient, absorption coefficient, and electron energy loss are discussed for radiation up to 60 eV together with the calculated electronic structure. Our results predicted that GaInO{sub 3} displays good transparency over the whole vision region, which is in good agreement with the experimental data available in the literature.

  14. Electron transport in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons/boron nitride hybrid structures: density functional theory combined with the nonequilibrium Green's function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, S F K S; Namiranian, Afshin; Soleimani, Maryam; Jamaati, Maryam

    2018-02-07

    We investigate the electronic transport properties of two types of junction based on single polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAHs embedded in boron nitride (h-BN) nanoribbons, using nonequilibrium Green's functions (NEGF) and density functional theory (DFT). In the PAH junctions, a Fano resonance line shape at the Fermi energy in the transport feature can be clearly seen. In hybrid junctions, structural asymmetries enable interactions between the electronic states, leading to observation of interface-based transport. Our findings reveal that the interface of PAH/h-BN strongly affects the transport properties of the structures.

  15. The structure and control method of hybrid power source for electric vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Maobing; Xu, Hui; Li, Weimin; Liu, Yin; Li, Fade; Hu, Yue; Liu, Li

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an electric vehicle powertrain configuration is presented, which the lithium-ion battery integrated with ultracapacitors is developed as the hybrid power system to improve the transient performance of an electric vehicle, and to decrease the damage to the battery pack. In the proposed system, a bidirectional direct current/direct current converter is used to couple the ultracapacitors bank to the main battery pack. The energy management strategy based on fuzzy logic for hybrid power system has been proposed to promote the performance of energy flow in the electric vehicle. The experiment results in urban driving cycles show remarkable advantages of the proposed hybrid system configuration and energy management strategy. About 30% of the battery capacity energy is saved while using the hybrid power source. Besides, the voltage and current curves of battery become smoother than that with the single power. - Highlights: • A hybrid power source electric vehicle powertrain configuration is presented. • The energy management strategy based on fuzzy logic is proposed. • The experiment results show remarkable advantages of the configuration and method.

  16. Nanometer CMOS ICs from basics to ASICs

    CERN Document Server

    J M Veendrick, Harry

    2017-01-01

    This textbook provides a comprehensive, fully-updated introduction to the essentials of nanometer CMOS integrated circuits. It includes aspects of scaling to even beyond 12nm CMOS technologies and designs. It clearly describes the fundamental CMOS operating principles and presents substantial insight into the various aspects of design implementation and application. Coverage includes all associated disciplines of nanometer CMOS ICs, including physics, lithography, technology, design, memories, VLSI, power consumption, variability, reliability and signal integrity, testing, yield, failure analysis, packaging, scaling trends and road blocks. The text is based upon in-house Philips, NXP Semiconductors, Applied Materials, ASML, IMEC, ST-Ericsson, TSMC, etc., courseware, which, to date, has been completed by more than 4500 engineers working in a large variety of related disciplines: architecture, design, test, fabrication process, packaging, failure analysis and software.

  17. System reduction for nanoscale IC design

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the computational challenges posed by the progression toward nanoscale electronic devices and increasingly short design cycles in the microelectronics industry, and proposes methods of model reduction which facilitate circuit and device simulation for specific tasks in the design cycle. The goal is to develop and compare methods for system reduction in the design of high dimensional nanoelectronic ICs, and to test these methods in the practice of semiconductor development. Six chapters describe the challenges for numerical simulation of nanoelectronic circuits and suggest model reduction methods for constituting equations. These include linear and nonlinear differential equations tailored to circuit equations and drift diffusion equations for semiconductor devices. The performance of these methods is illustrated with numerical experiments using real-world data. Readers will benefit from an up-to-date overview of the latest model reduction methods in computational nanoelectronics.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid micro/nano-structured NiTi surfaces by a combination of etching and anodizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Z.; Fratila-Apachitei, L. E.; Apachitei, I.; Duszczyk, J.

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to generate hybrid micro/nano-structures on biomedical nickel-titanium alloy (NiTi). To achieve this, NiTi surfaces were firstly electrochemically etched and then anodized in fluoride-containing electrolyte. With the etching process, the NiTi surface was micro-roughened through the formation of micropits uniformly distributed over the entire surface. Following the subsequent anodizing process, self-organized nanotube structures enriched in TiO2 could be superimposed on the etched surface under specific conditions. Furthermore, the anodizing treatment significantly reduced water contact angles and increased the surface free energy compared to the surfaces prior to anodizing. The results of this study show for the first time that it is possible to create hybrid micro/nano-structures on biomedical NiTi alloys by combining electrochemical etching and anodizing under controlled conditions. These novel structures are expected to significantly enhance the surface biofunctionality of the material when compared to conventional implant devices with either micro- or nano-structured surfaces.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid micro/nano-structured NiTi surfaces by a combination of etching and anodizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huan, Z; Fratila-Apachitei, L E; Apachitei, I; Duszczyk, J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to generate hybrid micro/nano-structures on biomedical nickel–titanium alloy (NiTi). To achieve this, NiTi surfaces were firstly electrochemically etched and then anodized in fluoride-containing electrolyte. With the etching process, the NiTi surface was micro-roughened through the formation of micropits uniformly distributed over the entire surface. Following the subsequent anodizing process, self-organized nanotube structures enriched in TiO 2 could be superimposed on the etched surface under specific conditions. Furthermore, the anodizing treatment significantly reduced water contact angles and increased the surface free energy compared to the surfaces prior to anodizing. The results of this study show for the first time that it is possible to create hybrid micro/nano-structures on biomedical NiTi alloys by combining electrochemical etching and anodizing under controlled conditions. These novel structures are expected to significantly enhance the surface biofunctionality of the material when compared to conventional implant devices with either micro- or nano-structured surfaces. (paper)

  20. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid micro/nano-structured NiTi surfaces by a combination of etching and anodizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Z; Fratila-Apachitei, L E; Apachitei, I; Duszczyk, J

    2014-02-07

    The purpose of this study was to generate hybrid micro/nano-structures on biomedical nickel-titanium alloy (NiTi). To achieve this, NiTi surfaces were firstly electrochemically etched and then anodized in fluoride-containing electrolyte. With the etching process, the NiTi surface was micro-roughened through the formation of micropits uniformly distributed over the entire surface. Following the subsequent anodizing process, self-organized nanotube structures enriched in TiO2 could be superimposed on the etched surface under specific conditions. Furthermore, the anodizing treatment significantly reduced water contact angles and increased the surface free energy compared to the surfaces prior to anodizing. The results of this study show for the first time that it is possible to create hybrid micro/nano-structures on biomedical NiTi alloys by combining electrochemical etching and anodizing under controlled conditions. These novel structures are expected to significantly enhance the surface biofunctionality of the material when compared to conventional implant devices with either micro- or nano-structured surfaces.

  1. Enhancing prospective chemistry teachers cognitive structures in the topics of bonding and hybridization by internet-assisted chemistry applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge Özyalçın Oskay, Sinem Dinçol

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of internet-assisted chemistry applications on prospective chemistry teachers’ cognitive structures in the topics of bonding and hybridization. The sample of the study consisted of 36 prospective chemistry teachers attending Hacettepe University, Faculty of Education, the Department of Chemistry Education in 2010-2011 academic year and taking Basic Chemistry I lesson. In the study, students were separated into experimental and control groups according to their pre-cognitive structures. Students were requested to answer two open ended questions. Answers by each student were gathered and evaluated by flow map method. “Bonding and hybridization” topics were taught to control group with traditional teaching method and to experimental group besides traditional method internet-assisted applications were conducted. The same open-ended questions were given to both groups and their cognitive structures were examined once more. The differences between control and experimental groups’ cognitive structures were examined. A significant difference was identified in favour of experimental group (p<0, 05. The mean score of the Experimental group was X=19.94, and the mean score of the Control group was X=13.88. In addition, subsequent to internet assisted chemistry applications differences in terms of concepts and descriptions in prospective chemistry teachers’ in experimental and control group cognitive structure have been determined. When post flow maps of prospective chemistry teachers in experimental group, on whom internet assisted chemistry applications were made, are formed, it has been determined that there are more statements about hybridization, hybridization types, molecule geometry and bond angles compared to control grou

  2. An AgI@g-C3N4 hybrid core@shell structure: Stable and enhanced photocatalytic degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Qi, Yuehong; Yang, Jinyi; Cui, Wenquan; Li, Xingang; Zhang, Zisheng

    2015-12-01

    A novel visible-light-active material AgI@g-C3N4 was prepared by ultrasonication/chemisorption method. The core@shell structure AgI@g-C3N4 catalyst showed high efficiency for the degradation of MB under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm). Nearly 96.5% of MB was degraded after 120 min of irradiation in the presence of the AgI@g-C3N4 photocatalyst. Superior stability was also observed in the cyclic runs indicating that the as prepared hybrid composite is highly desirable for the remediation of organic contaminated wastewaters. The improved photocatalytic performance is due to synergistic effects at the interface of AgI and g-C3N4 which can effectively accelerate the charge separation and reinforce the photostability of hybrid composite. The possible mechanism for the photocatalytic activity of AgI@g-C3N4 was tentatively proposed.

  3. Analysis of a hybrid balanced laminate as a structural material for thick composite beams with axial stiffeners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modak, Partha; Hossain, M. Jamil, E-mail: jamil917@gmail.com; Ahmed, S. Reaz [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh)

    2016-07-12

    An accurate stress analysis has been carried out to investigate the suitability of a hybrid balanced laminate as a structural material for thick composite beams with axial stiffeners. Three different balanced laminates composed of dissimilar ply material as well as fiber orientations are considered for a thick beam on simple supports with stiffened lateral ends. A displacement potential based elasticity approach is used to obtain the numerical solution of the corresponding elastic fields. The overall laminate stresses as well as individual ply stresses are analysed mainly in the perspective of laminate hybridization. Both the fiber material and ply angle of individual laminas are found to play dominant roles in defining the design stresses of the present composite beam.

  4. Fabrication of chitosan-silver nanoparticle hybrid 3D porous structure as a SERS substrate for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Gyeong-Bok; Kim, Ji-Hye; Burm, Jin Sik; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2013-05-01

    We propose a simple, low-cost, large-area, and functional surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate for biomedical applications. The SERS substrate with chitosan-silver nanoparticles (chitosan-Ag NPs) hybrid 3D porous structure was fabricated simply by a one-step method. The chitosan was used as a template for the Ag NPs deposition. SERS enhancement by the chitosan-Ag NPs substrate was experimentally verified using rhodamine B as an analyte. Thiolated single stranded DNA was also measured for atopic dermatitis genetic markers (chemokines CCL17) at a low concentration of 5 pM. We successfully designed a novel SERS substrate with silver nanoparticle hybridized 3D porous chitosan that has the potential to become a highly sensitive and selective tool for biomedical applications.

  5. Interfacial symmetry of Co–Alq{sub 3}–Co hybrid structures for effective spin filtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Tu-Ngoc [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lai, Yu-Ling; Chen, Chih-Han [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, 101 Hsin-Ann Road, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Po-Hung [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wei, Der-Hsin; Lin, Hong-Ji; Chen, C.T. [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, 101 Hsin-Ann Road, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan, ROC (China); Sheu, Jeng-Tzong, E-mail: jtsheu@faculty.nctu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan, ROC (China); Hsu, Yao-Jane, E-mail: yjhsu@nsrrc.org.tw [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, 101 Hsin-Ann Road, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan, ROC (China); Institute of Electro-Optical Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2015-11-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The spin interface at Alq{sub 3}/Co and Co/Alq{sub 3} contacts was examined. • An interfacial symmetry was determined at Co–Alq{sub 3}–Co interfaces. • Spin-polarized N orbitals are induced within the Co atop Alq{sub 3} hybridized interface. • The spin-filter role at the top contact interface of Alq{sub 3}/Co is proved. • Effective spin-filtering at Co–Alq{sub 3}–Co contacts was elucidated. - Abstract: Understanding the interfacial behavior at FM-OSC-FM hybrid structures for both the bottom contact (Alq{sub 3} adsorption on Co, Co/Alq{sub 3}) and the top contact (Co atop Alq{sub 3}, Alq{sub 3}/Co) is crucial for efficient spin filtering with transport of spin-polarized charge carriers through these interfaces. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra indicate a symmetry of charge transfer from Co to Alq{sub 3} and the corresponding orbital hybridization to a certain extent at both contacts. The alignment of energy levels at both Alq{sub 3}/Co and Co/Alq{sub 3} heterostructures is depicted with ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). Through magnetic images acquired with a X-ray photoemission electron microscope (XPEEM), the strong hybridization of the top contact presents no micromagnetic domain but still shows magnetic coupling, to some extent, to the bottom contact in the Co–Alq{sub 3}–Co trilayer structure. Measurements of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) demonstrate the induced spin-polarization of non-magnetic Alq{sub 3} at both contacts, proving Alq{sub 3} a unique and promising organic material for spin filtering in OSV.

  6. Quasiparticle band gap of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites: Crystal structure, spin-orbit coupling, and self-energy effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Weiwei; Gao, Xiang; Abtew, Tesfaye A.; Sun, Yi-Yang; Zhang, Shengbai; Zhang, Peihong

    2016-02-01

    The quasiparticle band gap is one of the most important materials properties for photovoltaic applications. Often the band gap of a photovoltaic material is determined (and can be controlled) by various factors, complicating predictive materials optimization. An in-depth understanding of how these factors affect the size of the gap will provide valuable guidance for new materials discovery. Here we report a comprehensive investigation on the band gap formation mechanism in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites by decoupling various contributing factors which ultimately determine their electronic structure and quasiparticle band gap. Major factors, namely, quasiparticle self-energy, spin-orbit coupling, and structural distortions due to the presence of organic molecules, and their influences on the quasiparticle band structure of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites are illustrated. We find that although methylammonium cations do not contribute directly to the electronic states near band edges, they play an important role in defining the band gap by introducing structural distortions and controlling the overall lattice constants. The spin-orbit coupling effects drastically reduce the electron and hole effective masses in these systems, which is beneficial for high carrier mobilities and small exciton binding energies.

  7. An Experimental Study on Hybrid Noncompression CF Bracing and GF Sheet Wrapping Reinforcement Method to Restore Damaged RC Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Seok Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a novel technique for restoration of reinforced concrete (RC structures that have sustained damage during an earthquake. The reinforcement scheme described here is a hybrid seismic retrofitting technique that combines noncompression X-bracing using CF with externally bonded GF sheets to strengthen RC structures that have sustained damage following an earthquake. The GF sheet is used to improve the ductility of columns, and the noncompression CF X-bracing system, which consists of CF bracing and anchors to replace the conventional steel bracing and bolt connections, is used to increase the lateral strength of the framing system. We report seismic restoration capacity, which enables reuse of the damaged RC frames via the hybrid CF X-bracing and GF sheet wrapping system. Cyclic loading tests were carried out to investigate hysteresis of the lateral load-drift relations, as well as the ductility. The GF sheet significantly improved the ductility of columns, resulting in a change in failure mode. The strengthening effect of conventional CF sheets used in columns is not sufficient with respect to lateral strength and stiffness. However, this study results in a significant increase in the strength of the structure due to the use of CF X-bracing and inhibited buckling failure of the bracing. This result can be exploited to develop guidelines for the application of the reinforcement system to restore damaged RC structures.

  8. Rare hybrid swarm of Pilosella polymastix × P. officinarum: cytotype structure and modes of reproduction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krahulec, František; Krahulcová, Anna; Hlaváček, R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 2 (2014), s. 179-192 ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/1363; GA ČR GA206/08/0890 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : chromosome numbers * hybrid swarm composition * reproductive models Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.104, year: 2014

  9. The structural design and the electron optics of a hybrid electron-ion gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bas, E.B.; Gisler, E.; Stucki, F.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes a new kind of a particle gun called the hybrid gun. It is able to deliver a finely focused electron or ion beam simply by reversing the polarity of the acceleration voltage. The detailed design features of the gun are given and the electron-ion optical properties are discussed. (author)

  10. Structure and properties of hybrid poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)/SiO2 monoliths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ji, Xiangling; Jiang, Shichun; Qiu, Xuepeng

    2003-01-01

    Abstract: Hybrid poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA)/SiO2 monoliths were synthesized via a sol-gel process of the precursor tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and the in situ free-radical polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). The weight ratio of the starting chemicals, TEOS...

  11. History rather than hybridization determines population structure and adaptation in Populus balsamifera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meirmans, P.G.; Godbout, J.; Lamothe, M.; Thompson, S.L.; Isabel, N.

    2017-01-01

    Hybridization between species is known to greatly affect their genetic diversity and, therefore, their evolution. Also, within species, there may be genetic clusters between which gene flow is limited, which may impact natural selection. However, few studies have looked simultaneously at the

  12. The H II regions of IC 1613

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, P.; Lee, M.G.; Gurwell, M.

    1990-01-01

    Narrow-band CCD H-alpha imaging of the Local Group irregular galaxy IC 1613 has revealed a total of 77 H II regions, five of which are complexes of several smaller emission regions. Positions, H-alpha luminosities, and sizes of these objects are tabulated. The H-alpha luminosity function has the same shape as that for more luminous galaxies, following a power law with an exponent of -1.6. The faintest H II regions are at the low-luminosity end of the generally observed luminosity function for H II regions in galaxies, with fluxes of only 10 to the 35th erg/sec. The size distribution has an exponential shape, as for other galaxies, with a size scale of 56 pc. The morphologies of different H II regions are discussed and compared to those in other galaxies. Published radio continuum maps compare well with the H-alpha emission distribution. The distribution of H I is also similar in the central areas to the H II with, however, a tendency for the H II regions to lie to one side of H I peaks. 31 refs

  13. Hybrid functional band gap calculation of SnO{sub 6} containing perovskites and their derived structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyewon [Department of Physics, Pusan National University, Pusan 609-735, Republic of South Korea (Korea, Republic of); Cheong, S.W. [Rutgers Center for Emergent Materials and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Kim, Bog G., E-mail: boggikim@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Pusan National University, Pusan 609-735, Republic of South Korea (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    We have studied the properties of SnO{sub 6} octahedra-containing perovskites and their derived structures using ab initio calculations with different density functionals. In order to predict the correct band gap of the materials, we have used B3LYP hybrid density functional, and the results of B3LYP were compared with those obtained using the local density approximation and generalized gradient approximation data. The calculations have been conducted for the orthorhombic ground state of the SnO{sub 6} containing perovskites. We also have expended the hybrid density functional calculation to the ASnO{sub 3}/A'SnO{sub 3} system with different cation orderings. We propose an empirical relationship between the tolerance factor and the band gap of SnO{sub 6} containing oxide materials based on first principles calculation. - Graphical abstract: (a) Structure of ASnO{sub 3} for orthorhombic ground state. The green ball is A (Ba, Sr, Ca) cation and the small (red) ball on edge is oxygen. SnO{sub 6} octahedrons are plotted as polyhedron. (b) Band gap of ASnO{sub 3} as a function of the tolerance factor for different density functionals. The experimental values of the band gap are marked as green pentagons. (c) ASnO{sub 3}/A'SnO{sub 3} superlattices with two types cation arrangement: [001] layered structure and [111] rocksalt structure, respectively. (d) B3LYP hybrid functional band gaps of ASnO{sub 3}, [001] ordered superlattices, and [111] ordered superlattices of ASnO{sub 3}/A'SnO{sub 3} as a function of the effective tolerance factor. Note the empirical linear relationship between the band gap and effective tolerance factor. - Highlights: • We report the hybrid functional band gap calculation of ASnO{sub 3} and ASnO{sub 3}/A'SnO{sub 3}. • The band gap of ASnO{sub 3} using B3LYP functional reproduces the experimental value. • We propose the linear relationship between the tolerance factor and the band gap.

  14. A Hybrid Finite Element-Fourier Spectral Method for Vibration Analysis of Structures with Elastic Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-You Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel hybrid method, which simultaneously possesses the efficiency of Fourier spectral method (FSM and the applicability of the finite element method (FEM, is presented for the vibration analysis of structures with elastic boundary conditions. The FSM, as one type of analytical approaches with excellent convergence and accuracy, is mainly limited to problems with relatively regular geometry. The purpose of the current study is to extend the FSM to problems with irregular geometry via the FEM and attempt to take full advantage of the FSM and the conventional FEM for structural vibration problems. The computational domain of general shape is divided into several subdomains firstly, some of which are represented by the FSM while the rest by the FEM. Then, fictitious springs are introduced for connecting these subdomains. Sufficient details are given to describe the development of such a hybrid method. Numerical examples of a one-dimensional Euler-Bernoulli beam and a two-dimensional rectangular plate show that the present method has good accuracy and efficiency. Further, one irregular-shaped plate which consists of one rectangular plate and one semi-circular plate also demonstrates the capability of the present method applied to irregular structures.

  15. Optimal sensor placement for large structures using the nearest neighbour index and a hybrid swarm intelligence algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian, Jijian; He, Longjun; Ma, Bin; Peng, Wenxiang; Li, Huokun

    2013-01-01

    Research on optimal sensor placement (OSP) has become very important due to the need to obtain effective testing results with limited testing resources in health monitoring. In this study, a new methodology is proposed to select the best sensor locations for large structures. First, a novel fitness function derived from the nearest neighbour index is proposed to overcome the drawbacks of the effective independence method for OSP for large structures. This method maximizes the contribution of each sensor to modal observability and simultaneously avoids the redundancy of information between the selected degrees of freedom. A hybrid algorithm combining the improved discrete particle swarm optimization (DPSO) with the clonal selection algorithm is then implemented to optimize the proposed fitness function effectively. Finally, the proposed method is applied to an arch dam for performance verification. The results show that the proposed hybrid swarm intelligence algorithm outperforms a genetic algorithm with decimal two-dimension array encoding and DPSO in the capability of global optimization. The new fitness function is advantageous in terms of sensor distribution and ensuring a well-conditioned information matrix and orthogonality of modes, indicating that this method may be used to provide guidance for OSP in various large structures. (paper)

  16. Indium–gallium–zinc oxide thin film transistors with a hybrid-channel structure for defect suppression and mobility improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Huang-Kai; Su, Liang-Yu; Hung, Chia-Chin; Huang, JianJang

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we explore an indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin film transistor structure with a vacuum annealed IGZO thin film inserted between the dielectric and typical channel layers. The device demonstrates a better subthreshold swing and field-effect mobility due to the suppression of defects in the channel and the channel/dielectric interface. The hybrid channel structure also exhibits the flexibility of adjusting the threshold voltage. The superior carrier mobility was then verified from the transient response of the inverter circuit constructed by the devices. - Highlights: • Additional in-situ annealed In–Ga–ZnO film was inserted in thin film transistor (TFT). • Traps are suppressed and field effect mobility is improved in the TFT. • An inverter with the device structure has a better transient response

  17. Indium–gallium–zinc oxide thin film transistors with a hybrid-channel structure for defect suppression and mobility improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Huang-Kai; Su, Liang-Yu; Hung, Chia-Chin [Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, National Taiwan University, 1, Roosevelt Road, Sec. 4, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Huang, JianJang, E-mail: jjhuang@cc.ee.ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, National Taiwan University, 1, Roosevelt Road, Sec. 4, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1, Roosevelt Road, Sec. 4, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2013-07-01

    In this work, we explore an indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin film transistor structure with a vacuum annealed IGZO thin film inserted between the dielectric and typical channel layers. The device demonstrates a better subthreshold swing and field-effect mobility due to the suppression of defects in the channel and the channel/dielectric interface. The hybrid channel structure also exhibits the flexibility of adjusting the threshold voltage. The superior carrier mobility was then verified from the transient response of the inverter circuit constructed by the devices. - Highlights: • Additional in-situ annealed In–Ga–ZnO film was inserted in thin film transistor (TFT). • Traps are suppressed and field effect mobility is improved in the TFT. • An inverter with the device structure has a better transient response.

  18. Tyrosinase Inhibitor Activity of Coumarin-Resveratrol Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Delogu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we report on the contribution of the coumarin moiety to tyrosinase inhibition. Coumarin-resveratrol hybrids 1-8 have been resynthesized to investigate the structure-activity relationships and the IC50 values of these compounds were measured. The results showed that these compounds exhibited tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Compound 3-(3’,4’,5’-trihydroxyphenyl-6,8-dihydroxycoumarin (8is the most potentcompound (0.27 mM, more so than umbelliferone (0.42 mM, used as reference compound. The kinetic studies revealed that compound 8 caused non-competitive tyrosinase inhibition.

  19. Tyrosinase inhibitor activity of coumarin-resveratrol hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fais, Antonella; Corda, Marcella; Era, Benedetta; Fadda, M Benedetta; Matos, Maria Joao; Quezada, Elias; Santana, Lourdes; Picciau, Carmen; Podda, Gianni; Delogu, Giovanna

    2009-07-13

    In the present work we report on the contribution of the coumarin moiety to tyrosinase inhibition. Coumarin-resveratrol hybrids 1-8 have been resynthesized to investigate the structure-activity relationships and the IC(50) values of these compounds were measured. The results showed that these compounds exhibited tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Compound 3-(3',4',5'-trihydroxyphenyl)-6,8-dihydroxycoumarin (8)is the most potentcompound (0.27 mM), more so than umbelliferone (0.42 mM), used as reference compound. The kinetic studies revealed that compound 8 caused non-competitive tyrosinase inhibition.

  20. Hybrid ligand-alkylating agents targeting telomeric G-quadruplex structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doria, Filippo; Nadai, Matteo; Folini, Marco; Di Antonio, Marco; Germani, Luca; Percivalle, Claudia; Sissi, Claudia; Zaffaroni, Nadia; Alcaro, Stefano; Artese, Anna; Richter, Sara N; Freccero, Mauro

    2012-04-14

    The synthesis, physico-chemical properties and biological effects of a new class of naphthalene diimides (NDIs) capable of reversibly binding telomeric DNA and alkylate it through an electrophilic quinone methide moiety (QM), are reported. FRET and circular dichroism assays showed a marked stabilization and selectivity towards telomeric G4 DNA folded in a hybrid topology. NDI-QMs' alkylating properties revealed a good reactivity on single nucleosides and selectivity towards telomeric G4. A selected NDI was able to significantly impair the growth of melanoma cells by causing telomere dysfunction and down-regulation of telomerase expression. These findings points to our hybrid ligand-alkylating NDIs as possible tools for the development of novel targeted anticancer therapies. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  1. A Hierarchical Phosphorus Nanobarbed Nanowire Hybrid: Its Structure and Electrochemical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dan; Li, Beibei; Zhang, Jinying; Li, Xin; Xiao, Dingbin; Fu, Chengcheng; Zhang, Lihui; Li, Zhihui; Li, Jun; Cao, Daxian; Niu, Chunming

    2017-06-14

    Nanostructured phosphorus-carbon composites are promising materials for Li-ion and Na-ion battery anodes. A hierarchical phosphorus hybrid, SiC@graphene@P, has been synthesized by the chemical vapor deposition of phosphorus on the surfaces of barbed nanowires, where the barbs are vertically grown graphene nanosheets and the cores are SiC nanowires. A temperature-gradient vaporization-condensation method has been used to remove the unhybridized phosphorus particles formed by homogeneous nucleation. The vertically grown barb shaped graphene nanosheets and a high concentration of edge carbon atoms induced a fibrous red phosphorus (f-RP) growth with its {001} planes in parallel to {002} planes of nanographene sheets and led to a strong interpenetrated interface interaction between phosphorus and the surfaces of graphene nanosheets. This hybridization has been demonstrated to significantly enhance the electrochemical performances of phosphorus.

  2. Dynamic behavior of the mechanical systems from the structure of a hybrid automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinel, Popa; Irina, Tudor; Nicolae-Doru, Stănescu

    2017-10-01

    In introduction are presented solutions of planetary mechanisms that can be used in the construction of the hybrid automobiles where the thermal and electrical sources must be coupled. The systems have in their composition a planetary mechanism with two degrees of mobility at which are coupled a thermal engine, two revertible electrical machines, a gear transmission with four gears and a differential mechanism which transmits the motion at the driving wheels. For the study of the dynamical behavior, with numerical results, one designs such mechanisms, models the elements with solids in AutoCAD, and obtains the mechanical properties of the elements. Further on, we present and solve the equations of motion of a hybrid automotive for which one knows the dynamical parameters.

  3. Enhancing corrosion resistance of reinforced concrete structures with hybrid fiber reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blunt, J.; Jen, G.; Ostertag, C.P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Reinforced concrete beams were subjected to cyclic flexural loading. • Hybrid fiber reinforced composites were effective in reducing corrosion rates. • Crack resistance due to fibers increased corrosion resistance of steel rebar. • Galvanic corrosion measurements underestimated corrosion rates. • Polarization resistance measurements predicted mass loss more accurately. - Abstract: Service loads well below the yield strength of steel reinforcing bars lead to cracking of reinforced concrete. This paper investigates whether the crack resistance of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concrete (HyFRC) reduces the corrosion rate of steel reinforcing bars in concrete after cyclic flexural loading. The reinforcing bars were extracted to examine their surface for corrosion and compare microcell and macrocell corrosion mass loss estimates against direct gravimetric measurements. A delay in corrosion initiation and lower active corrosion rates were observed in the HyFRC beam specimens when compared to reinforced specimens containing plain concrete matrices cycled at the same flexural load

  4. Structure of Mercury's magnetosphere for different pressure of the solar wind: Three dimensional hybrid simulations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trávníček, Pavel; Hellinger, Petr; Schriver, D.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 5 (2007), L05104/1-L05104/5 ISSN 0094-8276 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/05/1011 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Global simulations * Mercury's magnetosphere * solar wind * hybrid simulations * ion drift driven rings Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.744, year: 2007

  5. Structure of the lunar wake: Two-dimensional global hybrid simulations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trávníček, Pavel; Hellinger, Petr; Schriver, D.; Bale, S. D.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 32, - (2005), L06102/1-L06102/4 ISSN 0094-8276 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA205/05/1011 Grant - others:ESA(XE) PRODEX 14529; NSF(US) INT- 0010111; NASA (US) NAG5-11804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : hybrid simulations * lunar wake Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.491, year: 2005

  6. Thermal Analysis and Microhardness Mapping in Hybrid Laser Welds in a Structural Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    conditions. Via the keyhole the laser beam brings about easier ignition of the arc, stabilization of the arc welding process, and penetration of the...with respect to the conventional GMAW or GTAW processes without the need for very close fit-up. This paper will compare an autogenous laser weld to a...UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP017864 TITLE: Thermal Analysis and Microhardness Mapping in Hybrid Laser

  7. Oxide-Free Bonding of III-V-Based Material on Silicon and Nano-Structuration of the Hybrid Waveguide for Advanced Optical Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Pantzas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxide-free bonding of III-V-based materials for integrated optics is demonstrated on both planar Silicon (Si surfaces and nanostructured ones, using Silicon on Isolator (SOI or Si substrates. The hybrid interface is characterized electrically and mechanically. A hybrid InP-on-SOI waveguide, including a bi-periodic nano structuration of the silicon guiding layer is demonstrated to provide wavelength selective transmission. Such an oxide-free interface associated with the nanostructured design of the guiding geometry has great potential for both electrical and optical operation of improved hybrid devices.

  8. Photothermally Activated Pyroelectric Polymer Films for Harvesting of Solar Heat with a Hybrid Energy Cell Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Teahoon; Na, Jongbeom; Kim, Byeonggwan; Kim, Younghoon; Shin, Haijin; Kim, Eunkyoung

    2015-12-22

    Photothermal effects in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)s (PEDOTs) were explored for pyroelectric conversion. A poled ferroelectric film was coated on both sides with PEDOT via solution casting polymerization of EDOT, to give highly conductive and effective photothermal thin films of PEDOT. The PEDOT films not only provided heat source upon light exposure but worked as electrodes for the output energy from the pyroelectric layer in an energy harvester hybridized with a thermoelectric layer. Compared to a bare thermoelectric system under NIR irradiation, the photothermal-pyro-thermoelectric device showed more than 6 times higher thermoelectric output with the additional pyroelectric output. The photothermally driven pyroelectric harvesting film provided a very fast electric output with a high voltage output (Vout) of 15 V. The pyroelectric effect was significant due to the transparent and high photothermal PEDOT film, which could also work as an electrode. A hybrid energy harvester was assembled to enhance photoconversion efficiency (PCE) of a solar cell with a thermoelectric device operated by the photothermally generated heat. The PCE was increased more than 20% under sunlight irradiation (AM 1.5G) utilizing the transmitted light through the photovoltaic cell as a heat source that was converted into pyroelectric and thermoelectric output simultaneously from the high photothermal PEDOT electrodes. Overall, this work provides a dynamic and static hybrid energy cell to harvest solar energy in full spectral range and thermal energy, to allow solar powered switching of an electrochromic display.

  9. Structural and biological properties of thermosensitive chitosan-graphene hybrid hydrogels for sustained drug delivery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeednia, Leyla; Yao, Li; Berndt, Marcus; Cluff, Kim; Asmatulu, Ramazan

    2017-09-01

    Chitosan has the ability to make injectable thermosensitive hydrogels which has been highly investigated for drug delivery applications. The addition of nanoparticles is one way to increase the mechanical strength of thermosensitive chitosan hydrogel and subsequently and control the burst release of drug. Graphene nanoparticles have shown unique mechanical, optical and electrical properties which can be exploited for biomedical applications, especially in drug delivery. This study, have focused on the mechanical properties of a thermosensitive and injectable hybrid chitosan hydrogel incorporated with graphene nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been used for morphological and chemical characterization of graphene infused chitosan hydrogels. The cell viability and cytotoxicity of graphene-contained hydrogels were analyzed using the alamarBlue ® technique. In-vitro methotrexate (MTX) release was investigated from MTX-loaded hybrid hydrogels as well. As a last step, to evaluate their efficiency as a cancer treatment delivery system, an in vitro anti-tumor test was also carried out using MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. Results confirmed that a thermosensitive chitosan-graphene hybrid hydrogel can be used as a potential breast cancer therapy system for controlled delivery of methotrexate. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 2381-2390, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Genomic effects on advertisement call structure in diploid and triploid hybrid waterfrogs (Anura, Pelophylax esculentus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Alexandra; Reyer, Heinz-Ulrich

    2013-12-04

    In anurans, differences in male mating calls have intensively been studied with respect to taxonomic classification, phylogeographic comparisons among different populations and sexual selection. Although overall successful, there is often much unexplained variation in these studies. Potential causes for such variation include differences among genotypes and breeding systems, as well as differences between populations. We investigated how these three factors affect call properties in male water frogs of Pelophylax lessonae (genotype LL), P. ridibundus (RR) and their interspecific hybrid P. esculentus which comes in diploid (LR) and triploid types (LLR, LRR). We investigated five call parameters that all showed a genomic dosage effect, i.e. they either decreased or increased with the L/R ratio in the order LL-LLR-LR-LRR-RR. Not all parameters differentiated equally well between the five genotypes, but combined they provided a good separation. Two of the five call parameters were also affected by the breeding system. Calls of diploid LR males varied, depending on whether these males mated with one or both of the parental species (diploid systems) or triploid hybrids (mixed ploidy systems). With the exception of the northernmost mixed-ploidy population, call differences were not related to the geographic location of the population and they were not correlated with genetic distances in the R and L genomes. We found an influence of all three tested factors on call parameters, with the effect size decreasing from genotype through breeding system to geographic location of the population. Overall, results were in line with predictions from a dosage effect in L/R ratios, but in three call parameters all three hybrid types were more similar to one or the other parental species. Also calls of diploid hybrids varied between breeding systems in agreement with the sexual host required for successful reproduction. The lack of hybrid call differences in a mixed-ploidy population at

  11. Facile synthesis of graphene hybrid tube-like structure for simultaneous detection of ascorbic acid, dopamine, uric acid and tryptophan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Wen [Education Ministry Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Chai Yaqin, E-mail: yqchai@swu.edu.cn [Education Ministry Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Yuan Ruo, E-mail: yuanruo@swu.edu.cn [Education Ministry Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Chen Shihong; Han Jing; Yuan Dehua [Education Ministry Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2012-12-05

    Graphical abstract: A tube-like structure of graphene hybrid (GS-PTCA) was synthesized via {pi}-{pi} stacking interaction, and was used as modifier to fabricate electrode for simultaneous detection of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), uric acid (UA) and tryptophan (Trp). SEM images of GS, PTCA and GS-PTCA were presented. Under the synergistic effects between GS and PTCA, the modified electrode displayed high catalytic activity and selectivity toward the oxidation of AA, DA, UA, and Trp. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A simple strategy for simultaneous detection of AA, DA, UA and Trp has been constructed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The tube-like structure of graphene hybrid (GS-PTCA) was synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The GS-PTCA provided a selective interface for discrimination of AA, DA, UA and Trp. - Abstract: In the present work, a tube-like structure of graphene hybrid as modifier to fabricate electrode for simultaneous detection of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), uric acid (UA) and tryptophan (Trp) was reported. The hybrid was synthesized by a simple method based on graphene sheets (GS) and 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic acid (PTCA) via {pi}-{pi} stacking interaction under ultrasonic condition. The combination of GS and PTCA could effectively improve the dispersion of GS, owing to PTCA with the carboxylic-functionalized interface. Comparing with pure GS or PTCA modified electrode, GS-PTCA displayed high catalytic activity and selectivity toward the oxidation of AA, DA, UA, and Trp. Moreover, cyclic voltammetry, different pulse voltammetry and scanning electron microscopy were employed to characterize the sensors. The experiment results showed that the linear response range for simultaneous detection of AA, DA, UA, and Trp were 20-420 {mu}M, 0.40-374 {mu}M, 4-544 {mu}M and 0.40-138 {mu}M, respectively, and the detection limits were 5.60 {mu}M, 0.13 {mu}M, 0.92 {mu}M and 0.06 {mu}M (S/N = 3). Importantly, the proposed method offers

  12. High-Performance and Simply-Synthesized Ladder-Like Structured Methacrylate Siloxane Hybrid Material for Flexible Hard Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Hyeok Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A high performance ladder-like structured methacrylate siloxane hybrid material (LMSH was fabricated via simple hydrolytic sol–gel reaction, followed by free-radical polymerization. A structurally ordered siloxane backbone, the ladder-like structure, which is an essential factor for high performance, could be achieved by a short period of sol–gel reaction in only 4 h. This results in superior optical (Transmittance > 90% at 550 nm, thermal (T5 wt % decomposition > 400 ℃ , mechanical properties(elastic recovery = 0.86, hardness = 0.6 GPa compared to the random- and even commercialized cage-structured silsesquioxane, which also has ordered structure. It was investigated that the fabricated ladder-like structured MSH showed the highest overall density of organic/inorganic co-networks that are originated from highly ordered siloxane network, along with high conversion rate of polymerizable methacrylate groups. Our findings suggest a potential of the ladder-like structured MSH as a powerful alternative for the methacrylate polysilsesquioxane, which can be applied to thermally stable and flexible optical coatings, even with an easier and simpler preparation process.

  13. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hy D.; Claudet, Andre A.; Oliver, Andrew D.

    2010-09-07

    A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.

  14. Application of nonlinear rheology to assess the effect of secondary nanofiller on network structure of hybrid polymer nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamkar, Milad; Aliabadian, Ehsan; Shayesteh Zeraati, Ali; Sundararaj, Uttandaraman

    2018-02-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT)/polymer nanocomposites exhibit excellent electrical properties by forming a percolated network. Adding a secondary filler can significantly affect the CNTs' network, resulting in changing the electrical properties. In this work, we investigated the effect of adding manganese dioxide nanowires (MnO2NWs) as a secondary nanofiller on the CNTs' network structure inside a poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) matrix. Incorporating MnO2NWs to PVDF/CNT samples produced a better state of dispersion of CNTs, as corroborated by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The steady shear and oscillatory shear flows were employed to obtain a better insight into the nanofiller structure and viscoelastic behavior of the nanocomposites. The transient response under steady shear flow revealed that the stress overshoot of hybrid nanocomposites (two-fillers), PVDF/CNT/MnO2NWs, increased dramatically in comparison to binary nanocomposites (single-filler), PVDF/CNT and PVDF/MnO2NWs. This can be attributed to microstructural changes. Large amplitude oscillatory shear characterization was also performed to further investigate the effect of the secondary nanofiller on the nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of the samples. The nonlinear rheological observations were explained using quantitative nonlinear parameters [strain-stiffening ratio (S) and shear-thickening ratio (T)] and Lissajous-Bowditch plots. Results indicated that a more rigid nanofiller network was formed for the hybrid nanocomposites due to the better dispersion state of CNTs and this led to a more nonlinear viscoelastic behavior.

  15. A revolutionary concept to improve the efficiency of IC antennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milanesio, D.; Maggiora, R. [Politecnico di Torino, Dipartimento di Elettronica e Telecomunicazioni (DET), Torino (Italy)

    2014-02-12

    The successful design of an Ion Cyclotron (IC) antenna mainly relies on the capability of coupling high power to the plasma (MW), feature that is currently reached by allowing rather high voltages (tens of kV) on the unavoidable unmatched part of the feeding lines. This requirement is often responsible of arcs along the transmission lines and other unwanted phenomena that considerably limit the usage of IC launchers. In this work, we suggest and describe a revolutionary approach based on high impedance surfaces, which allows to increase the antenna radiation efficiency and, hence, to highly reduce the imposed voltages to couple the same level of power to the plasma. High-impedance surfaces are periodic metallic structures (patches) displaced usually on top of a dielectric substrate and grounded by means of vertical posts usually embedded inside a dielectric, in a mushroom-like shape. In terms of working properties, high impedance surfaces are electrically thin in-phase reflectors, i.e. they present a high impedance, within a given frequency band, such that the image currents are in-phase with the currents of the antenna itself, thus determining a significant efficiency increase. While the usual design of a high impedance surface requires the presence of a dielectric layer, some alternative solutions can be realized in vacuum, taking advantage of double layers ofmetallic patches. After an introductory part on the properties of high impedance surfaces, this work documents both their design by means of numerical codes and their implementation on a scaled mock-up.

  16. Platinum-TM (TM = Fe, Co) alloy nanoparticles dispersed nitrogen doped (reduced graphene oxide-multiwalled carbon nanotube) hybrid structure cathode electrocatalysts for high performance PEMFC applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinayan, B P; Ramaprabhu, S

    2013-06-07

    The efforts to push proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) for commercial applications are being undertaken globally. In PEMFC, the sluggish kinetics of oxygen reduction reactions (ORR) at the cathode can be improved by the alloying of platinum with 3d-transition metals (TM = Fe, Co, etc.) and with nitrogen doping, and in the present work we have combined both of these aspects. We describe a facile method for the synthesis of a nitrogen doped (reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs)) hybrid structure (N-(G-MWNTs)) by the uniform coating of a nitrogen containing polymer over the surface of the hybrid structure (positively surface charged rGO-negatively surface charged MWNTs) followed by the pyrolysis of these (rGO-MWNTs) hybrid structure-polymer composites. The N-(G-MWNTs) hybrid structure is used as a catalyst support for the dispersion of platinum (Pt), platinum-iron (Pt3Fe) and platinum-cobalt (Pt3Co) alloy nanoparticles. The PEMFC performances of Pt-TM alloy nanoparticle dispersed N-(G-MWNTs) hybrid structure electrocatalysts are 5.0 times higher than that of commercial Pt-C electrocatalysts along with very good stability under acidic environment conditions. This work demonstrates a considerable improvement in performance compared to existing cathode electrocatalysts being used in PEMFC and can be extended to the synthesis of metal, metal oxides or metal alloy nanoparticle decorated nitrogen doped carbon nanostructures for various electrochemical energy applications.

  17. The Toby Jug nebula (IC 2220): a bipolar and biconical nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, H.G.; King, D.J.; Scarrott, S.M.

    1981-01-01

    An optical linear polarization map of IC 2220, the nebula surrounding the cool red giant HD 65750, is presented. The nebula appears to be bipolar and biconical in structure. The mass of the nebula is estimated to be 0.01 solar mass and is consistent with the nebula being formed from the current mass loss stage of the central star. (author)

  18. Optical observations of the nearby galaxy IC342 with narrow band [SII] and Hα filters. I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučetić M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present observations of a portion of the nearby spiral galaxy IC342 using narrow band [SII] and Hα filters. These observations were carried out in November 2011 with the 2m RCC telescope at Rozhen National Astronomical Observatory in Bulgaria. In this paper we report coordinates, diameters, Hα and [SII] fluxes for 203 HII regions detected in two fields of view in IC342 galaxy. The number of detected HII regions is 5 times higher than previously known in these two parts of the galaxy. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176005: Emission nebulae: structure and evolution

  19. Population structure and reticulate evolution of Saccharomyces eubayanus and its lager-brewing hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, David; Sylvester, Kayla; Libkind, Diego; Gonçalves, Paula; Sampaio, José Paulo; Alexander, William G; Hittinger, Chris Todd

    2014-04-01

    Reticulate evolution can be a major driver of diversification into new niches, especially in disturbed habitats and at the edges of ranges. Industrial fermentation strains of yeast provide a window into these processes, but progress has been hampered by a limited understanding of the natural diversity and distribution of Saccharomyces species and populations. For example, lager beer is brewed with Saccharomyces pastorianus, an alloploid hybrid of S. cerevisiae and S. eubayanus, a species only recently discovered in Patagonia, Argentina. Here, we report that genetically diverse strains of S. eubayanus are readily isolated from Patagonia, demonstrating that the species is well established there. Analyses of multilocus sequence data strongly suggest that there are two diverse and highly differentiated Patagonian populations. The low nucleotide diversity found in the S. eubayanus moiety of hybrid European brewing strains suggests that their alleles were drawn from a small subpopulation that is closely related to one of the Patagonian populations. For the first time, we also report the rare isolation of S. eubayanus outside Patagonia, in Wisconsin, USA. In contrast to the clear population differentiation in Patagonia, the North American strains represent a recent and possibly transient admixture of the two Patagonian populations. These complex and varied reticulation events are not adequately captured by conventional phylogenetic methods and required analyses of Bayesian concordance factors and phylogenetic networks to accurately summarize and interpret. These findings show how genetically diverse eukaryotic microbes can produce rare but economically important hybrids with low genetic diversity when they migrate from their natural ecological context. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Hybrid TE-TM scheme for time domain numerical calculations of wakefields in structures with walls of finite conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andranik Tsakanian

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In particle accelerators a preferred direction, the direction of motion, is well defined. If in a numerical calculation the (numerical dispersion in this direction is suppressed, a quite coarse mesh and moderate computational resources can be used to reach accurate results even for extremely short electron bunches. Several approaches have been proposed in the past decades to reduce the accumulated dispersion error in wakefield calculations for perfectly conducting structures. In this paper we extend the TE/TM splitting algorithm to a new hybrid scheme that allows for wakefield calculations in structures with walls of finite conductivity. The conductive boundary is modeled by one-dimensional wires connected to each boundary cell. A good agreement of the numerical simulations with analytical results and other numerical approaches is obtained.

  1. Solid-State High Performance Flexible Supercapacitors Based on Polypyrrole-MnO2-Carbon Fiber Hybrid Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jiayou; Liu, Nishuang; Ma, Wenzhen; Ding, Longwei; Li, Luying; Su, Jun; Gao, Yihua

    2013-07-01

    A solid-state flexible supercapacitor (SC) based on organic-inorganic composite structure was fabricated through an ``in situ growth for conductive wrapping'' and an electrode material of polypyrrole (PPy)-MnO2 nanoflakes-carbon fiber (CF) hybrid structure was obtained. The conductive organic material of PPy greatly improved the electrochemical performance of the device. With a high specific capacitance of 69.3 F cm-3 at a discharge current density of 0.1 A cm-3 and an energy density of 6.16 × 10-3 Wh cm-3 at a power density of 0.04 W cm-3, the device can drive a commercial liquid crystal display (LCD) after being charged. The organic-inorganic composite active materials have enormous potential in energy management and the ``in situ growth for conductive wrapping'' method might be generalized to open up new strategies for designing next-generation energy storage devices.

  2. Preparation of Sb2S3 nanocrystals modified TiO2 dendritic structure with nanotubes for hybrid solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingpin; Wei, Yanan; Feng, Kangning; Hao, Yanzhong; Pei, Juan; Sun, Bao

    2018-06-01

    Array of TiO2 dendritic structure with nanotubes was constructed on transparent conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide glass (FTO) with titanium potassium oxalate as titanium source. Sb2S3 nanocrystals were successfully deposited on the TiO2 substrate via spin-coating method. Furthermore, TiO2/Sb2S3/P3HT/PEDOT:PSS composite film was prepared by successively spin-coating P3HT and PEDOT:PSS on TiO2/Sb2S3. It was demonstrated that the modification of TiO2 dendritic structure with Sb2S3 could enhance the light absorption in the visible region. The champion hybrid solar cell assembled by TiO2/Sb2S3/P3HT/PEDOT:PSS composite film achieved a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1.56%.

  3. Structural, electronic and optical properties of silver delafossite oxides: A first-principles study with hybrid functional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Persson, Clas

    2013-01-01

    Ternary delafossite compounds are potential materials for optoelectronic devices. Employing a first-principles method, we calculate the structural, electronic, and optical properties of the silver based compounds AgMO 2 (M=Al, Ga or In), which crystallize in delafossite structure. Our calculations show that these AgMO 2 oxides have indirect band gaps and the gap energies are in the region of 1.6–3.0 eV whereas, the lowest direct band gap energies are estimated in the range of 2.6–4.3 eV. Furthermore, we find that AgMO 2 compounds exhibit a strong anisotropy for the dielectric function and absorption spectra. The absorption onset for these compounds occurs well above the band gap energies. Overall, we show that the hybrid functional improves the lattice parameters and band gap energies and the calculated values are in good agreement with the experimental values

  4. Reversible structural transformation and enhanced performance of PEDOT:PSS-based hybrid solar cells driven by light intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Joseph Palathinkal; Srivastava, Saurabh; Zhao, Liyan; Abd-Ellah, Marwa; McGillivray, Donald; Kang, Jung Soo; Rahman, Md Anisur; Moghimi, Nafiseh; Heinig, Nina F; Leung, Kam Tong

    2015-04-15

    Hybrid solar cells made of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) ( PSS) and appropriate amounts of a cosolvent and a fluorosurfactant on planar n-type silicon substrates showed a photoconversion efficiency (PCE) of above 13%. These cells also exhibited stable, reproducible, and high external quantum efficiency (EQE) that was not sensitive to light-bias intensity (LBI). In contrast, solar cells made of pristine PSS showed low PCE and high EQE only under certain measurement conditions. The EQE was found to degrade with increasing LBI. Here we report that the LBI-sensitive variation of EQE of the low-PCE cells is related to a reversible structural transformation from a quinoid to a benzoid structure of PEDOT.

  5. Watching AGN feedback at its birth: HST observations of nascent outflow host IC860

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatalo, Katherine

    2016-10-01

    IC860 is a nearby IR-luminous early-type spiral with a unique set of properties: it is a shocked, poststarburst galaxy that hosts an AGN-driven neutral wind and a compact core of molecular gas. IC860 can serve as a rosetta stone for the early stages of triggering AGN feedback. We propose to use WFC3 on HST to obtain NUV, optical and near-IR imaging of IC860. We will create a spatially-resolved history of star formation quenching through SED-fitting of 7 requested broadband filters, and compare the spatially resolved star formation histories to in different positions within the underlying stellar features (such as spiral structure) that might define a narrative of how star formation is quenching in IC860. These observations will also resolve the super-star cluster sites to trace the most recent star formation. Finally, these observations will trace the mass of the outflow by building an absorption map of the dust. IC860 presents a unique opportunity to study a galaxy at an early stage of transitioning from blue spiral to red early-type galaxy, that also hosts an AGN-driven neutral wind and a compact, turbulent molecular gas core.

  6. Piezo-phototronic UV/visible photosensing with optical-fiber-nanowire hybridized structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaona; Yu, Ruomeng; Pan, Caofeng; Liu, Ying; Ding, Yong; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-03-04

    An optical-fiber-nanowire hybridized UV-visible photodetector (PD) is reported. The PD is designed to allow direct integration in optical communication systems without requiring the use of couplers via fiber-welding technology. The PD works in two modes: axial and off-axial illumination mode. By using the piezo-phototronic effect, the performance of the PD is enhanced/optimized by up to 718% in sensitivity and 2067% in photoresponsivity. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Quantum teleportation and entanglement swapping of electron spins in superconducting hybrid structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bubanja, Vladimir, E-mail: vladimir.bubanja@callaghaninnovation.govt.nz

    2015-06-15

    We present schemes for quantum teleportation and entanglement swapping of electronic spin states in hybrid superconductor–normal-metal systems. The proposed schemes employ subgap transport whereby the lowest order processes involve Cooper pair-electron and double Cooper-pair cotunneling in quantum teleportation and entanglement swapping protocols, respectively. The competition between elastic cotunneling and Cooper-pair splitting results in the success probability of 25% in both cases. Described implementations of these protocols are within reach of present-day experimental techniques.

  8. Students' Attitude in a Web-enhanced Hybrid Course: A Structural Equation Modeling Inquiry

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng-Chang Sam Pan; Stephen Sivo; James Brophy

    2003-01-01

    The present study focuses on five latent factors affecting students use of WebCT in a Web-enhanced hybrid undergraduate course at a southeastern university in the United States. An online questionnaire is used to measure a hypothetic model composed of two exogenous variables (i.e., subjective norm and computer self-efficacy), three endogenous variables (i.e., perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and attitude toward WebCT use), one dependent variable (i.e., actual system use), and elev...

  9. A Search for Hydrodynamical Interaction Between the ISM and Radio Jets in IC4296

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Glen

    1998-01-01

    The ROSAT HRI Data set on IC 4296 has been reduced and analysed. A draft paper on the small-scale structure of x-ray emission and its relation to the radio emission has been written. Mackie left the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in September 1997 and in January 1998 he joined the staff at Carter Observatory, New Zealand. Mackie is currently (May 1998) upgrading computer software at Carter to run IRAF-PROS and XSPEC x-ray software packages in order to reduce and analyze archival ROSAT PSPC data on IC 4296. The PSPC results are needed to investigate the hot gas temperature and abundance properties that will be used in conjunction with the radio jet properties to determine the hydrodynamical interaction status of IC 4296, and finalize the results of a research paper.

  10. Hybrid-DFT  +  V w method for band structure calculation of semiconducting transition metal compounds: the case of cerium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivády, Viktor; Gali, Adam; Abrikosov, Igor A

    2017-11-15

    Hybrid functionals' non-local exchange-correlation potential contains a derivative discontinuity that improves on standard semi-local density functional theory (DFT) band gaps. Moreover, by careful parameterization, hybrid functionals can provide self-interaction reduced description of selected states. On the other hand, the uniform description of all the electronic states of a given system is a known drawback of these functionals that causes varying accuracy in the description of states with different degrees of localization. This limitation can be remedied by the orbital dependent exact exchange extension of hybrid functionals; the hybrid-DFT  +  V w method (Ivády et al 2014 Phys. Rev. B 90 035146). Based on the analogy of quasi-particle equations and hybrid-DFT single particle equations, here we demonstrate that parameters of hybrid-DFT  +  V w functional can be determined from approximate theoretical quasi-particle spectra without any fitting to experiment. The proposed method is illustrated on the charge self-consistent electronic structure calculation for cerium dioxide where itinerant valence states interact with well-localized 4f atomic like states, making this system challenging for conventional methods, either hybrid-DFT or LDA  +  U, and therefore allowing for a demonstration of the advantages of the proposed scheme.

  11. Fabrication of Hybrid Polymer Solar Cells By Inverted Structure Based on P3HT:PCBM Active Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobih Shobih

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid polymer solar cell has privilege than its conventional structure, where it usually has structure of (ITO/PEDOT:PSS/Active Layer/Al. In humid environment the PEDOT:PSS will absorb water and hence can easily etch the ITO. Therefore it is necessary to use an alternative method to avoid this drawback and obtain more stable polymer solar cells, namely by using hybrid polymer solar cells structure with an inverted device architecture from the conventional, by reversing the nature of charge collection. In this paper we report the results of the fabrication of inverted bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM as active layer, utilizing ZnO interlayer as buffer layer between the ITO and active layer with a stacked structure of ITO/ZnO/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/Ag. The ZnO interlayer is formed through short route, i.e. by dissolving ZnO nanoparticles powder in chloroform-methanol solvent blend rather than by sol-gel process. Based on the measurement results on electrical characteristics of inverted polymer solar cells under 500 W/m2 illumination and AM 1.5 direct filter at room temperature, cell with annealing process of active layer at 110 °C for 10 minutes results in higher cell performance than without annealing, with an open-circuit voltage of 0.21 volt, a short-circuit current density of 1.33 mA/cm2 , a fill factor of 43.1%, and a power conversion efficiency of 0.22%. The low cell’s performance is caused by very rough surface of ZnO interlayer.

  12. Prometheus Reactor I&C Software Development Methodology, for Action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Hamilton

    2005-07-30

    The purpose of this letter is to submit the Reactor Instrumentation and Control (I&C) software life cycle, development methodology, and programming language selections and rationale for project Prometheus to NR for approval. This letter also provides the draft Reactor I&C Software Development Process Manual and Reactor Module Software Development Plan to NR for information.

  13. Hybride textuelle Strukturen und hybride textuelle Einheiten. Ein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    carrying set of all hybrid hierarchical structures are element-heterogeneous whilst the structure- carrying set of all ... grams of hierarchical hybrid article structures, the nodes for those text segments that establish the hybrid status of .... der; d ∈ ArtA ⊣ G|WAr (= Artikelangabe, anhand derer das Genus (= G) und zugleich die ...

  14. Synthesis of three-dimensional rare-earth ions doped CNTs-GO-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} hybrid structures using one-pot hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Guo, E-mail: guogao@sjtu.edu.cn [Institute of Nano Biomedicine and Engineering, Department of Instrument Science and Technology, Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhang, Qiang; Cheng, Xin-Bing [Beijing Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Reaction Engineering and Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Sun, Rongjin [Institute of Nano Biomedicine and Engineering, Department of Instrument Science and Technology, Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Shapter, Joseph G., E-mail: joe.shapter@flinders.edu.au [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, Bedford Park, Adelaide 5042 (Australia); Yin, Ting [Institute of Nano Biomedicine and Engineering, Department of Instrument Science and Technology, Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Cui, Daxiang, E-mail: dxcui@sjtu.edu.cn [Institute of Nano Biomedicine and Engineering, Department of Instrument Science and Technology, Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries (LIBs) are currently the dominant power source for all sorts of electronic devices due to their low cost and high energy density. The cycling stability of LIBs is significantly compromised due to the broad satellite peak for many anode materials. Herein, we develop a facile hydrothermal process for preparing rare-earth (Er, Tm) ions doped three-dimensional (3D) transition metal oxides/carbon hybrid nanocomposites, namely CNTs-GO-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, CNTs-GO-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Er and CNTs-GO-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Tm. The GO sheets and CNTs are interlinked by ultrafine Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles forming three-dimensional (3D) architectures. When evaluated as anode materials for LIBs, the CNTs-GO-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} hybrid composites have a bigger broad satellite peak. As for the CNTs-GO-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Er and CNTs-GO-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Tm hybrid composites, the broad satellite peak can be completely eliminated. When the current density changes from 5 C back to 0.1 C, the capacity of CNTs-GO-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Tm hybrid composites can recover to 1023.9 mAhg{sup −1}, indicating an acceptable rate capability. EIS tests show that the charge transfer resistance does not change significantly after 500 cycles, demonstrating that the cycling stability of CNTs-GO-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Tm hybrid composites are superior to CNTs-GO-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and CNTs-GO-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Er hybrid structures. - Graphical abstract: One-pot hydrothermal method for synthesis of rare-earth ions doped CNTs-GO-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} hybrid structures as anode materials of LIBs have been reported. - Highlights: • We report the synthesis of rare-earth ions doped CNTs-GO-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} hybrid structures. • The hybrid structures can improve the cycling stability of lithium storage. • As for anode materials, the broad satellite peak can be completely eliminated. • When the rate return back to 0.1 C, the capacity can recover to 1023.9 mAhg{sup −1}. • After 500

  15. Synthesis of three-dimensional rare-earth ions doped CNTs-GO-Fe3O4 hybrid structures using one-pot hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Guo; Zhang, Qiang; Cheng, Xin-Bing; Sun, Rongjin; Shapter, Joseph G.; Yin, Ting; Cui, Daxiang

    2015-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries (LIBs) are currently the dominant power source for all sorts of electronic devices due to their low cost and high energy density. The cycling stability of LIBs is significantly compromised due to the broad satellite peak for many anode materials. Herein, we develop a facile hydrothermal process for preparing rare-earth (Er, Tm) ions doped three-dimensional (3D) transition metal oxides/carbon hybrid nanocomposites, namely CNTs-GO-Fe 3 O 4 , CNTs-GO-Fe 3 O 4 -Er and CNTs-GO-Fe 3 O 4 -Tm. The GO sheets and CNTs are interlinked by ultrafine Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles forming three-dimensional (3D) architectures. When evaluated as anode materials for LIBs, the CNTs-GO-Fe 3 O 4 hybrid composites have a bigger broad satellite peak. As for the CNTs-GO-Fe 3 O 4 -Er and CNTs-GO-Fe 3 O 4 -Tm hybrid composites, the broad satellite peak can be completely eliminated. When the current density changes from 5 C back to 0.1 C, the capacity of CNTs-GO-Fe 3 O 4 -Tm hybrid composites can recover to 1023.9 mAhg −1 , indicating an acceptable rate capability. EIS tests show that the charge transfer resistance does not change significantly after 500 cycles, demonstrating that the cycling stability of CNTs-GO-Fe 3 O 4 -Tm hybrid composites are superior to CNTs-GO-Fe 3 O 4 and CNTs-GO-Fe 3 O 4 -Er hybrid structures. - Graphical abstract: One-pot hydrothermal method for synthesis of rare-earth ions doped CNTs-GO-Fe 3 O 4 hybrid structures as anode materials of LIBs have been reported. - Highlights: • We report the synthesis of rare-earth ions doped CNTs-GO-Fe 3 O 4 hybrid structures. • The hybrid structures can improve the cycling stability of lithium storage. • As for anode materials, the broad satellite peak can be completely eliminated. • When the rate return back to 0.1 C, the capacity can recover to 1023.9 mAhg −1 . • After 500 cycles, the hybrid structures still exhibited excellent cycling stability

  16. Tamm-plasmon and surface-plasmon hybrid-mode based refractometry in photonic bandgap structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ritwick; Srivastava, Triranjita; Jha, Rajan

    2014-02-15

    The transverse magnetic (TM) polarized hybrid modes formed as a consequence of coupling between Tamm plasmon polariton (TM-TPP) mode and surface plasmon polariton (SPP) mode exhibit interesting dispersive features for realizing a highly sensitive and accurate surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor. We found that the TM-TPP modes, formed at the interface of distributed Bragg reflector and metal, are strongly dispersive as compared to SPP modes at optical frequencies. This causes an appreciably narrow interaction bandwidth between TM-TPP and SPP modes, which leads to highly accurate sensing. In addition, appropriate tailoring of dispersion characteristics of TM-TPP as well as SPP modes could ensure high sensitivity of a novel SPR platform. By suitably designing the Au/TiO₂/SiO₂-based geometry, we propose a TM-TPP/SPP hybrid-mode sensor and achieve a sensitivity ≥900  nm/RIU with high detection accuracy (≥30  μm⁻¹) for analyte refractive indices varying between 1.330 and 1.345 in 600-700 nm wavelength range. The possibility to achieve desired dispersive behavior in any spectral band makes the sensing configuration an extremely attractive candidate to design sensors depending on the availability of optical sources.

  17. Position calibration of a 3-DOF hand-controller with hybrid structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chengcheng; Song, Aiguo

    2017-09-01

    A hand-controller is a human-robot interactive device, which measures the 3-DOF (Degree of Freedom) position of the human hand and sends it as a command to control robot movement. The device also receives 3-DOF force feedback from the robot and applies it to the human hand. Thus, the precision of 3-DOF position measurements is a key performance factor for hand-controllers. However, when using a hybrid type 3-DOF hand controller, various errors occur and are considered originating from machining and assembly variations within the device. This paper presents a calibration method to improve the position tracking accuracy of hybrid type hand-controllers by determining the actual size of the hand-controller parts. By re-measuring and re-calibrating this kind of hand-controller, the actual size of the key parts that cause errors is determined. Modifying the formula parameters with the actual sizes, which are obtained in the calibrating process, improves the end position tracking accuracy of the device.

  18. Nanowire Structured Hybrid Cell for Concurrently Scavenging Solar and Mechanical Energies

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Chen

    2009-04-29

    Conversion cells for harvesting solar energy and mechanical energy are usually separate and independent entities that are designed and built following different physical principles. Developing a technology that harvests multiple-type energies in forms such as sun light and mechanical around the clock is desperately desired for fully utilizing the energies available in our living environment. We report a hybrid cell that is intended for simultaneously harvesting solar and mechanical energies. Using aligned ZnO nanowire arrays grown on surfaces of a flat substrate, a dye-sensitized solar cell is integrated with a piezoelectric nanogenerator. The former harvests solar energy irradiating on the top, and the latter harvests ultrasonic wave energy from the surrounding. The two energy harvesting approaches can work simultaneously or individually, and they can be integrated in parallel and serial for raising the output current and voltage, respectively, as well as power. It is found that the voltage output from the solar cell can be used to raise the output voltage of the nanogenerator, providing an effective approach for effectively storing and utilizing the power generated by the nanogenerator. Our study demonstrates a new approach for concurrently harvesting multiple types of energies using an integrated hybrid cell so that the energy resources can be effectively and complementary utilized whenever and wherever one or all of them is available. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  19. Syntheses, structures and properties of four organic-inorganic hybrid nicotinate-bridging rare-earth-containing phosphotungstates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Peijun; Pang, Jingjing; Zhai, Cuiping; Zhao, Junwei

    2018-04-01

    Four novel organic-inorganic hybrid nicotinate-bridging dimeric rare-earth (RE)-containing phosphotungstates [H2N(CH3)2]8[RE(H2O)(NA)(α-HPW11O39)]2·24H2O (RE = HoIII for 1, ErIII for 2, TbIII for 3, DyIII for 4; HNA = nicotinic acid) have been synthesized from the reaction of trivacant Keggin precursor Na9[α-PW9O34]•16H2O, RE(NO3)3·6H2O, HNA by employing dimethylamine hydrochloride as organic solubilizing agent in the conventional aqueous solution system, which have been further characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra, thermogravimetric analyses and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Structural analysis indicates that the hybrid dimeric {[RE(H2O)(NA)(α-HPW11O39)]2}8- polyoxoanion in 1-4 can be considered as two head-to-head mono-RE-containing Keggin [RE(H2O)(NA)(α-HPW11O39)]4- subunits bridged by two (η2,μ-1,1)-nicotinate linkers, which stands for the first organic-inorganic hybrid RE-containing phosphotungstates functionalized by nicotinate ligands. What's more, the solid-state photoluminescence properties and lifetime decay behaviors of 1-4 have been measured at room temperature and their photoluminescence spectra display the characteristic emission bands of corresponding trivalent RE cations.

  20. Mechanical Property Analysis on Sandwich Structured Hybrid Composite Made from Natural Fibre, Glass Fibre and Ceramic Fibre Wool Reinforced with Epoxy Resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharat, K. R.; Abhishek, S.; Palanikumar, K.

    2017-06-01

    Natural fibre composites find wide range of applications and usage in the automobile and manufacturing industries. They find lack in desired properties, which are required for present applications. In current scenario, many developments in composite materials involve the synthesis of Hybrid composite materials to overcome some of the lacking properties. In this present investigation, two sandwich structured hybrid composite materials have been made by reinforcing Aloe Vera-Ceramic Fibre Wool-Glass fibre with Epoxy resin matrix and Sisal fibre-Ceramic Fibre Wool-Glass fibre with Epoxy resin matrix and its mechanical properties such as Tensile, Flexural and Impact are tested and analyzed. The test results from the two samples are compared and the results show that sisal fibre reinforced hybrid composite has better mechanical properties than aloe vera reinforced hybrid composite.

  1. Structural change of the physical economy. Decomposition analysis of physical and hybrid-unit input-output tables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoekstra, R.

    2003-10-01

    Economic processes generate a variety of material flows, which cause resource problems through the depletion of natural resources and environmental issues due to the emission of pollutants. This thesis presents an analytical method to study the relationship between the monetary economy and the 'physical economy'. In particular, this method can assess the impact of structural change in the economy on physical throughput. The starting point for the approach is the development of an elaborate version of the physical input-output table (PIOT), which acts as an economic-environmental accounting framework for the physical economy. In the empirical application, hybrid-unit input-output (I/O) tables, which combine physical and monetary information, are constructed for iron and steel, and plastic products for the Netherlands for the years 1990 and 1997. The impact of structural change on material flows is analyzed using Structural Decomposition Analysis (SDA), whic specifies effects such as sectoral shifts, technological change, and alterations in consumer spending and international trade patterns. The study thoroughly reviews the application of SDA to environmental issues, compares the method with other decomposition methods, and develops new mathematical specifications. An SDA is performed using the hybrid-unit input-output tables for the Netherlands. The results are subsequently used in novel forecasting and backcasting scenario analyses for the period 1997-2030. The results show that dematerialization of iron and steel, and plastics, has generally not occurred in the recent past (1990-1997), and will not occur, under a wide variety of scenario assumptions, in the future (1997-2030)

  2. Structural change of the physical economy. Decomposition analysis of physical and hybrid-unit input-output tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekstra, R.

    2003-01-01

    Economic processes generate a variety of material flows, which cause resource problems through the depletion of natural resources and environmental issues due to the emission of pollutants. This thesis presents an analytical method to study the relationship between the monetary economy and the 'physical economy'. In particular, this method can assess the impact of structural change in the economy on physical throughput. The starting point for the approach is the development of an elaborate version of the physical input-output table (PIOT), which acts as an economic-environmental accounting framework for the physical economy. In the empirical application, hybrid-unit input-output (I/O) tables, which combine physical and monetary information, are constructed for iron and steel, and plastic products for the Netherlands for the years 1990 and 1997. The impact of structural change on material flows is analyzed using Structural Decomposition Analysis (SDA), whic specifies effects such as sectoral shifts, technological change, and alterations in consumer spending and international trade patterns. The study thoroughly reviews the application of SDA to environmental issues, compares the method with other decomposition methods, and develops new mathematical specifications. An SDA is performed using the hybrid-unit input-output tables for the Netherlands. The results are subsequently used in novel forecasting and backcasting scenario analyses for the period 1997-2030. The results show that dematerialization of iron and steel, and plastics, has generally not occurred in the recent past (1990-1997), and will not occur, under a wide variety of scenario assumptions, in the future (1997-2030)

  3. Hybrid Density Functional Study of the Local Structures and Energy Levels of CaAl2O4:Ce3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Bibo; Jing, Weiguo; Lou, Liren; Zhang, Yongfan; Yin, Min; Duan, Chang-Kui

    2018-05-03

    First-principles calculations were carried out for the electronic structures of Ce 3+ in calcium aluminate phosphors, CaAl 2 O 4 , and their effects on luminescence properties. Hybrid density functional approaches were used to overcome the well-known underestimation of band gaps of conventional density functional approaches and to calculate the energy levels of Ce 3+ ions more accurately. The obtained 4f-5d excitation and emission energies show good consistency with measured values. A detailed energy diagram of all three sites is obtained, which explains qualitatively all of the luminescent phenomena. With the results of energy levels calculated by combining the hybrid functional of Heyd, Scuseria, and Ernzerhof (HSE06) and the constraint occupancy approach, we are able to construct a configurational coordinate diagram to analyze the processes of capture of a hole or an electron and luminescence. This approach can be applied for systematic high-throughput calculations in predicting Ce 3+ activated luminescent materials with a moderate computing requirement.

  4. Studies and mechanical properties of a new type of 'hybrid' ceramic block for buildings in structural masonry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camara, Cassio Freire; Gomes, Uilame Umbelino

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a hybrid ceramic block to the use of resides in the buildings executed with structural masonry. This work seeking new materials and / or products with the purpose of increasing the compressive strength of the ceramic blocks, without neglecting other properties (water absorption and linear shrinkage). After the obtained material (clay powder and crushed), the packaging (in percentages ranging from 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% substitution of crushed clay powder), the identification and measuring (weights and lengths) of the bodies of the test piece, was performed on the approach characterized by fluorescence, mineralogy and SEM of these materials as well as the characterization (SEM) of ceramic blocks after the sintering (temperature of the 900 deg C, 1000 deg C, and 1100 deg C rate with heating tax of 5 o C/minute and soak for 1 hour). Then the samples were subjected to the tests (compressive strength and water absorption) and the respective calculated linear shrinkage. After conducting the analysis of the results of these tests (according to the criteria and parameters required by the ABNT NBR 15270) was found that the 'hybrid' block with the addition of 10% crushed powder obtained the best results, increasing the compressive strength at 16 % without compromising the other parameters required by the Standard. (author)

  5. Torsional properties of hexagonal boron nitride nanotubes, carbon nanotubes and their hybrid structures: A molecular dynamics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Qi-lin, E-mail: xiongql@hust.edu.cn [Department of Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Engineering Structural Analysis and Safety Assessment, Luoyu Road 1037, Wuhan 430074 (China); Tian, Xiao Geng [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Structure Strength and Vibration, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2015-10-15

    The torsional mechanical properties of hexagonal single-walled boron nitride nanotubes (SWBNNTs), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), and their hybrid structures (SWBN-CNTs) are investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Two approaches - force approach and energy approach, are adopted to calculate the shear moduli of SWBNNTs and SWCNTs, the discrepancy between two approaches is analyzed. The results show that the shear moduli of single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs), including SWBNNTs and SWCNTs are dependent on the diameter, especially for armchair SWNTs. The armchair SWNTs show the better ability of resistance the twisting comparable to the zigzag SWNTs. The effects of diameter and length on the critical values of torque of SWNTs are obtained by comparing the torsional behaviors of SWNTs with different diameters and different lengths. It is observed that the MD results of the effect of diameter and length on the critical values of torque agrees well with the prediction of continuum shell model. The shear modulus of SWBN-CNT has a significant dependence on the percentages of SWCNT and the hybrid style has also an influence on shear modulus. The critical values of torque of SWBN-CNTs increase with the increase of the percentages of SWCNT. This phenomenon can be interpreted by the function relationship between the torque of different bonds (B-N-X, C-C-X, C-B-X, C-N-X) and the angles of bonds.

  6. Role of hydroxylation modification on the structure and property of reduced graphene oxide/TiO{sub 2} hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Shiyi [College of Physics and Electronic Science, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha 410114 (China); Liu, Tiangui, E-mail: tianguiliu@gmail.com [College of Physics and Microelectronics Science, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Tsang, Yuenhong [Department of Applied Physics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, 999077 (China); Chen, Chuansheng, E-mail: 1666423158@qq.com [College of Physics and Electronic Science, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha 410114 (China)

    2016-09-30

    Graphical abstract: The structure model and enhancement mechanism of hydroxylation treatment on adsorbability and photocatalytic activity. - Highlights: • Highly-hydroxylated TiO{sub 2}/rGO hybrids can be obtained by UV pre-excitation and microwave method. • Surface hydroxylation induces many defects (Ti{sup 3+}, O vacancy and Ti-OH) and changes color into yellow. • Hydroxylation expands the light absorption up to about 600 nm and benefits to adsorb organic dyes. • ESR reveals the self-accumulation of hydroxyl radicals under the irradiation of UV and visible light. • The photoinduced defects and rGO/TiO{sub 2}@OH-TiO{sub 2} heterojunctions enable the excellent applicability. - Abstract: To extend the spectra response of TiO{sub 2} and enhance its photocatalytic activity, surface modification and catalyst supporter have attracted great attention. In this report, a simple and versatile approach has been developed to hydroxylate the reduced graphene oxide/TiO{sub 2} hybrids (OH-rGO/TiO{sub 2}) by UV-microwave method, and the enhanced mechanisms of hydroxylation were analyzed in details. Experimental results show that TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals@OH-TiO{sub 2} heterojunctions formed on rGO sheets in situ by UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process. Hydroxylation not only can induce many surface defects (Ti{sup 3+}, O vacancy and Ti-OH) on the surface of TiO{sub 2}, but also change the color into yellow and strengthen the interaction between rGO and TiO{sub 2}. OH-rGO/TiO{sub 2} hybrids showed excellent durability for high-concentration dyes, and exhibited strong adsorbability and photocatalytic activity. These enhancements are attributed to the excellent property of rGO and surface defects of TiO{sub 2} induced by hydroxylation, which expand the light absorption up to 600 nm, benefit to the self-dispersion of hybrids, and improve the adsorption dynamic and charge transfer with lower carrier’s recombination.

  7. Influence of reinforcement type on the mechanical behavior and fire response of hybrid composites and sandwich structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giancaspro, James William

    Lightweight composites and structural sandwich panels are commonly used in marine and aerospace applications. Using carbon, glass, and a host of other high strength fiber types, a broad range of laminate composites and sandwich panels can be developed. Hybrid composites can be constructed by laminating multiple layers of varying fiber types while sandwich panels are manufactured by laminating rigid fiber facings onto a lightweight core. However, the lack of fire resistance of the polymers used for the fabrication remains a very important problem. The research presented in this dissertation deals with an inorganic matrix (Geopolymer) that can be used to manufacture laminate composites and sandwich panels that are resistant up to 1000°C. This dissertation deals with the influence of fiber type on the mechanical behavior and the fire response of hybrid composites and sandwich structures manufactured using this resin. The results are categorized into the following distinct studies. (i) High strength carbon fibers were combined with low cost E-glass fibers to obtain hybrid laminate composites that are both economical and strong. The E-glass fabrics were used as a core while the carbon fibers were placed on the tension face and on both tension and compression faces. (ii) Structural sandwich beams were developed by laminating various types of reinforcement onto the tension and compression faces of balsa wood cores. The flexural behavior of the beams was then analyzed and compared to beams reinforced with organic composite. The effect of core density was evaluated using oak beams reinforced with inorganic composite. (iii) To measure the fire response, balsa wood sandwich panels were manufactured using a thin layer of a fire-resistant paste to serve for fire protection. Seventeen sandwich panels were fabricated and tested to measure the heat release rates and smoke-generating characteristics. The results indicate that Geopolymer can be effectively used to fabricate both

  8. The Implications Related to Different IC, Different Projects and Different Thinking Addressing the Common Core of IC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Peter; Saghaug, Kristin Margrethe

    2009-01-01

    challenge the development of IC: - The IC at the organizational level seems to diminish when innovation gets highly dispersed and is operated outside the core of the organization - The attractiveness of the organization to different ICA, which is one fundament to sustainable and successful innovation, seems...... to fall when the IC at the organizational core level diminishes The objective of this paper is therefore to understand 1) How the IC at the organizational core level may continue to be developed, when at the same time innovation is taking place in dispersed groups and projects. 2) How to motivate...... the different ICA´s to bring learning and knowledge back to the core with the purpose to develop IC at the organizational core level....

  9. Optimization of an extraordinary magnetoresistance sensor in the semiconductor-metal hybrid structure

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jian

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show by numerical computation how geometric parameters influence the Extraordinary Magnetoresistance (EMR) effect in an InAs-Au hybrid device. Symmetric IVVI and VIIV configurations were considered. The results show that the width and the length-width ratio of InAs are important geometrical parameters for the EMR effect along with the placement of the leads. Approximately the same EMR effect was obtained for both IVVI and VIIV configurations when the applied magnetic field ranged from -1T to 1T. In an optimized geometry the EMR effect can reach 43000% at 1Tesla for IVVI and 42700% at 1 Tesla for the VIIV configuration. ©2010 IEEE.

  10. Hybrid nanocomposite based on cellulose and tin oxide: growth, structure, tensile and electrical characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadeva, Suresha K; Kim, Jaehwan

    2011-01-01

    A highly flexible nanocomposite was developed by coating a regenerated cellulose film with a thin layer of tin oxide (SnO 2 ) by liquid-phase deposition. Tin oxide was crystallized in solution and formed nanocrystal coatings on regenerated cellulose. The nanocrystalline layers did not exfoliate from cellulose. Transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy suggest that SnO 2 was not only deposited over the cellulose surface, but also nucleated and grew inside the cellulose film. Current-voltage characteristics of the nanocomposite revealed that its electrical resistivity decreases with deposition time, with the lowest value obtained for 24 h of deposition. The cellulose-SnO 2 hybrid nanocomposite can be used for biodegradable and disposable chemical, humidity and biosensors.

  11. Strain-controlled magnetic domain wall propagation in hybrid piezoelectric/ferromagnetic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Na; Devolder, Thibaut; Agnus, Guillaume; Aubert, Pascal; Daniel, Laurent; Kim, Joo-Von; Zhao, Weisheng; Trypiniotis, Theodossis; Cowburn, Russell P; Chappert, Claude; Ravelosona, Dafiné; Lecoeur, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The control of magnetic order in nanoscale devices underpins many proposals for integrating spintronics concepts into conventional electronics. A key challenge lies in finding an energy-efficient means of control, as power dissipation remains an important factor limiting future miniaturization of integrated circuits. One promising approach involves magnetoelectric coupling in magnetostrictive/piezoelectric systems, where induced strains can bear directly on the magnetic anisotropy. While such processes have been demonstrated in several multiferroic heterostructures, the incorporation of such complex materials into practical geometries has been lacking. Here we demonstrate the possibility of generating sizeable anisotropy changes, through induced strains driven by applied electric fields, in hybrid piezoelectric/spin-valve nanowires. By combining magneto-optical Kerr effect and magnetoresistance measurements, we show that domain wall propagation fields can be doubled under locally applied strains. These results highlight the prospect of constructing low-power domain wall gates for magnetic logic devices.

  12. Hybrid DNA i-motif: Aminoethylprolyl-PNA (pC5) enhance the stability of DNA (dC5) i-motif structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gade, Chandrasekhar Reddy; Sharma, Nagendra K

    2017-12-15

    This report describes the synthesis of C-rich sequence, cytosine pentamer, of aep-PNA and its biophysical studies for the formation of hybrid DNA:aep-PNAi-motif structure with DNA cytosine pentamer (dC 5 ) under acidic pH conditions. Herein, the CD/UV/NMR/ESI-Mass studies strongly support the formation of stable hybrid DNA i-motif structure with aep-PNA even near acidic conditions. Hence aep-PNA C-rich sequence cytosine could be considered as potential DNA i-motif stabilizing agents in vivo conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. elsA-Hybrid: an all-in-one structured/unstructured solver for the simulation of internal and external flows. Application to turbomachinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Llave Plata, M.; Couaillier, V.; Le Pape, M.-C.; Marmignon, C.; Gazaix, M.

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports recent work on the extension of the multiblock structured solver elsA to deal with hybrid grids. The new hybrid-grid solver is called elsA-H (elsA-Hybrid), is based on the investigation of a new unstructured-grid module has been built within the original elsA CFD (computational fluid dynamics) system. The implementation benefits from the flexibility of the object-oriented design. The aim of elsA-H is to take advantage of the full potential of structured solvers and unstructured mesh generation by allowing any type of grid to be used within the same simulation process. The main challenge lies in the numerical treatment of the hybrid-grid interfaces where blocks of different type meet. In particular, one must pay attention to the transfer of information across these boundaries, so that the accuracy of the numerical scheme is preserved and flux conservation is guaranteed. In this paper, the numerical approach allowing to achieve this is presented. A comparison between the hybrid and the structured-grid methods is also carried out by considering a fully hexahedral multiblock mesh for which a few blocks have been transformed into unstructured. The performance of elsA-H for the simulation of internal flows will be demonstrated on a number of turbomachinery configurations.

  14. Effect of polyvinyl alcohol content and after synthesis neutralization on structure, mechanical properties and cytotoxicity of sol-gel derived hybrid foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agda Aline Rocha de Oliveira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive glass/polymer hybrids are promising materials for biomedical applications because they combine the bioactivity of these glasses with the flexibility of polymers. In this work it was evaluated the effect of increasing the PVA content of the on structural characteristics and mechanical properties of hybrid. The hybrids were prepared with 70 wt. (% SiO2-30 wt. (% CaO and PVA fractions of 20 to 60 wt. (% by the sol-gel method. The structural and mechanical characterization was done by FTIR, SEM and compression tests. To reduce the acidic character of the hybrids due to the catalysts added, different neutralization solutions were tested. The calcium acetate alcoholic solution was the best neutralizing method, resulting in foams with final pH of about 7.0 and small sample contraction. The foams presented porosity of 60-85 wt. (% and pore diameters of 100-500 μm with interconnected structure. An increase of PVA fraction in the hybrids improved their mechanical properties. The scaffolds produced provided a good environment for the adhesion and proliferation of osteoblasts.

  15. Investigation of CO2 capture mechanisms of liquid-like nanoparticle organic hybrid materials via structural characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Youngjune

    2011-01-01

    Nanoparticle organic hybrid materials (NOHMs) have been recently developed that comprise an oligomeric or polymeric canopy tethered to surface-modified nanoparticles via ionic or covalent bonds. It has already been shown that the tunable nature of the grafted polymeric canopy allows for enhanced CO 2 capture capacity and selectivity via the enthalpic intermolecular interactions between CO2 and the task-specific functional groups, such as amines. Interestingly, for the same amount of CO2 loading NOHMs have also exhibited significantly different swelling behavior compared to that of the corresponding polymers, indicating a potential structural effect during CO2 capture. If the frustrated canopy species favor spontaneous ordering due to steric and/or entropic effects, the inorganic cores of NOHMs could be organized into unusual structural arrangements. Likewise, the introduction of small gaseous molecules such as CO2 could reduce the free energy of the frustrated canopy. This entropic effect, the result of unique structural nature, could allow NOHMs to capture CO2 more effectively. In order to isolate the entropic effect, NOHMs were synthesized without the task-specific functional groups. The relationship between their structural conformation and the underlying mechanisms for the CO2 absorption behavior were investigated by employing NMR and ATR FT-IR spectroscopies. The results provide fundamental information needed for evaluating and developing novel liquid-like CO2 capture materials and give useful insights for designing and synthesizing NOHMs for more effective CO2 capture. © the Owner Societies 2011.

  16. A hybrid heterojunction with reverse rectifying characteristics fabricated by magnetron sputtered TiOx and plasma polymerized aniline structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, Bimal K; Pal, Arup R; Bailung, Heremba; Chutia, Joyanti

    2012-01-01

    A TiO x film produced by direct current reactive magnetron sputtering without substrate heating or post-deposition annealing and a plasma polymerized aniline (PPA) structure deposited in the same reactor by a radio-frequency glow discharge without the assistance of a carrier gas are used for the fabrication of a heterojunction. The gas phase discharge is investigated by a Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy. The individual layers and the heterojunction are characterized for structural and optoelectronic properties. PPA has polymer-like structure and texture and is characterized by saturated-unsaturated, branched and crosslinked networks. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals a slightly reduced TiO x surface, which exhibits near band edge luminescence. The free radicals trapped in PPA readily react with oxygen when exposed to atmosphere. The heterojunction shows reverse rectifying characteristics under dark and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The energy levels of TiO x and PPA might exhibit reverse band bending and electrons and holes are accumulated on both sides of the heterojunction. The charge accumulation phenomena at the interface may play a key role in the device performance of a hybrid heterojunction. The current-voltage characteristic of the heterojunction is sensitive to UV light, so the structure may be used for photo-sensing applications. (paper)

  17. Investigation of CO2 capture mechanisms of liquid-like nanoparticle organic hybrid materials via structural characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Youngjune; Decatur, John; Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew; Park, Ah-Hyung Alissa

    2011-10-28

    Nanoparticle organic hybrid materials (NOHMs) have been recently developed that comprise an oligomeric or polymeric canopy tethered to surface-modified nanoparticles via ionic or covalent bonds. It has already been shown that the tunable nature of the grafted polymeric canopy allows for enhanced CO(2) capture capacity and selectivity via the enthalpic intermolecular interactions between CO(2) and the task-specific functional groups, such as amines. Interestingly, for the same amount of CO(2) loading NOHMs have also exhibited significantly different swelling behavior compared to that of the corresponding polymers, indicating a potential structural effect during CO(2) capture. If the frustrated canopy species favor spontaneous ordering due to steric and/or entropic effects, the inorganic cores of NOHMs could be organized into unusual structural arrangements. Likewise, the introduction of small gaseous molecules such as CO(2) could reduce the free energy of the frustrated canopy. This entropic effect, the result of unique structural nature, could allow NOHMs to capture CO(2) more effectively. In order to isolate the entropic effect, NOHMs were synthesized without the task-specific functional groups. The relationship between their structural conformation and the underlying mechanisms for the CO(2) absorption behavior were investigated by employing NMR and ATR FT-IR spectroscopies. The results provide fundamental information needed for evaluating and developing novel liquid-like CO(2) capture materials and give useful insights for designing and synthesizing NOHMs for more effective CO(2) capture. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  18. Fluid-structure-interaction analyses of reactor vessel using improved hybrid Lagrangian Eulerian code ALICE-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.Y.

    1993-06-01

    This paper describes fluid-structure-interaction and structure response analyses of a reactor vessel subjected to loadings associated with postulated accidents, using the hybrid Lagrangian-Eulerian code ALICE-II. This code has been improved recently to accommodate many features associated with innovative designs of reactor vessels. Calculational capabilities have been developed to treat water in the reactor cavity outside the vessel, internal shield structures and internal thin shells. The objective of the present analyses is to study the cover response and potential for missile generation in response to a fuel-coolant interaction in the core region. Three calculations were performed using the cover weight as a parameter. To study the effect of the cavity water, vessel response calculations for both wet- and dry-cavity designs are compared. Results indicate that for all cases studied and for the design parameters assumed, the calculated cover displacements are all smaller than the bolts` ultimate displacement and no missile generation of the closure head is predicted. Also, solutions reveal that the cavity water of the wet-cavity design plays an important role of restraining the downward displacement of the bottom head. Based on these studies, the analyses predict that the structure integrity is maintained throughout the postulated accident for the wet-cavity design.

  19. Fluid-structure-interaction analyses of reactor vessel using improved hybrid Lagrangian Eulerian code ALICE-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.Y.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes fluid-structure-interaction and structure response analyses of a reactor vessel subjected to loadings associated with postulated accidents, using the hybrid Lagrangian-Eulerian code ALICE-II. This code has been improved recently to accommodate many features associated with innovative designs of reactor vessels. Calculational capabilities have been developed to treat water in the reactor cavity outside the vessel, internal shield structures and internal thin shells. The objective of the present analyses is to study the cover response and potential for missile generation in response to a fuel-coolant interaction in the core region. Three calculations were performed using the cover weight as a parameter. To study the effect of the cavity water, vessel response calculations for both wet- and dry-cavity designs are compared. Results indicate that for all cases studied and for the design parameters assumed, the calculated cover displacements are all smaller than the bolts' ultimate displacement and no missile generation of the closure head is predicted. Also, solutions reveal that the cavity water of the wet-cavity design plays an important role of restraining the downward displacement of the bottom head. Based on these studies, the analyses predict that the structure integrity is maintained throughout the postulated accident for the wet-cavity design.

  20. Design and Comparative Study of O3/P2 Hybrid Structures for Room Temperature Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xingguo; Liu, Lilu; Song, Ningning; Gao, Fei; Yang, Kai; Lu, Yaxiang; Yang, Haitao; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Cheng, Zhao-Hua; Chen, Liquan

    2017-11-22

    Rechargeable sodium-ion batteries have drawn increasing attention as candidates for the post lithium-ion batteries in large-scale energy storage systems. Layered oxides are the most promising cathode materials and their pure phases (e.g., P2, O3) have been widely investigated. Here we report a series of cathode materials with O3/P2 hybrid phase for sodium-ion batteries, which possesses advantages of both P2 and O3 structures. The designed material, Na 0.78 Ni 0.2 Fe 0.38 Mn 0.42 O 2 , can deliver a capacity of 86 mAh g -1 with great rate capability and cycling performance. 66% capacity is still maintained when the current rate reaches as high as 10C, and the capacity retention is 90% after 1500 cycles. Moreover, in situ XRD was performed to examine the structure change during electrochemical testing in different voltage ranges, and the results demonstrate 4 V as the optimized upper voltage limit, with which smaller polarization, better structural stability, and better cycling performance are achieved. The results obtained here provide new insights in designing cathode materials with optimal structure and improved performance for sodium-ion batteries.

  1. Synthesis and electrochemical study of a hybrid structure based on PDMS-TEOS and titania nanotubes for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, António G B; Bastos, Alexandre C; Miranda Salvado, Isabel M; Galstyan, Vardan; Faglia, Guido; Sberveglieri, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Metallic implants and devices are widely used in the orthopedic and orthodontic clinical areas. However, several problems regarding their adhesion with the living tissues and inflammatory responses due to the release of metallic ions to the medium have been reported. The modification of the metallic surfaces and the use of biocompatible protective coatings are two approaches to solve such issues. In this study, in order to improve the adhesion properties and to increase the corrosion resistance of metallic Ti substrates we have obtained a hybrid structure based on TiO 2 nanotubular arrays and PDMS-TEOS films. TiO 2 nanotubes have been prepared with two different diameters by means of electrochemical anodization. PDMS-TEOS films have been prepared by the sol–gel method. The morphological and the elemental analysis of the structures have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization curves have been performed during immersion of the samples in Kokubo’s simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C to study the effect of structure layers and tube diameter on the protective properties. The obtained results show that the modification of the surface structure of TiO 2 and the application of PDMS-TEOS film is a promising strategy for the development of implant materials. (paper)

  2. ORION: a web server for protein fold recognition and structure prediction using evolutionary hybrid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghouzam, Yassine; Postic, Guillaume; Guerin, Pierre-Edouard; de Brevern, Alexandre G; Gelly, Jean-Christophe

    2016-06-20

    Protein structure prediction based on comparative modeling is the most efficient way to produce structural models when it can be performed. ORION is a dedicated webserver based on a new strategy that performs this task. The identification by ORION of suitable templates is performed using an original profile-profile approach that combines sequence and structure evolution information. Structure evolution information is encoded into profiles using structural features, such as solvent accessibility and local conformation -with Protein Blocks-, which give an accurate description of the local protein structure. ORION has recently been improved, increasing by 5% the quality of its results. The ORION web server accepts a single protein sequence as input and searches homologous protein structures within minutes. Various databases such as PDB, SCOP and HOMSTRAD can be mined to find an appropriate structural template. For the modeling step, a protein 3D structure can be directly obtained from the selected template by MODELLER and displayed with global and local quality model estimation measures. The sequence and the predicted structure of 4 examples from the CAMEO server and a recent CASP11 target from the 'Hard' category (T0818-D1) are shown as pertinent examples. Our web server is accessible at http://www.dsimb.inserm.fr/ORION/.

  3. Band structure of magneto-metallo-dielectric photonic crystals with hybrid one- and two-dimensional periodicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes-Ayona, E. [Instituto de Fisica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apartado Postal J-48, Puebla 72570 (Mexico); Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica Optica y Electronica, Apartado Postal 51, Puebla 72000 (Mexico); Halevi, P. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica Optica y Electronica, Apartado Postal 51, Puebla 72000 (Mexico)

    2012-06-15

    We calculate the band structure of a magneto-metallo-dielectric photonic crystal (PC) with hybrid one- and two-dimensional periodicity. Namely, the permittivity (permeability) is periodic in a plane (single direction). The metallic and magnetic properties are described, respectively, by means of the Drude model and a specific permeability model for Barium-M ferrite. Because of the dispersion of both the permeability and the permittivity, we obtain a non-standard eigenvalue problem which is possible to solve by means of a linearization technique. We found that the first band of this PC is very sensitive to the filling fraction of the magnetic component: by changing this fraction from 0.20 to 0.16 the slope - and effective index of refraction - changes from positive to negative. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. HI observations of the irregular galaxy IC 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shostak, G.S.; Woerden, H. van

    1983-01-01

    The authors have made radio synthesis observations of the galaxy IC 10 with resolutions of 30 arcsec and 8 km/sec in the neutral hydrogen line using the Westerbork telescope. These confirm Shostak's (1974) result that, in the central region of IC 10, the velocity gradient is opposite to that later measured by single-dish in the outer regions. The suggestion by Cohen (1979) that the velocity gradient reversal is due to IC 10 being nearly face-on and warped is consistent with the new data. (Auth.)

  5. Dimensional structure of DSM-5 posttraumatic stress symptoms: support for a hybrid Anhedonia and Externalizing Behaviors model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Cherie; Tsai, Jack; Durham, Tory A; Charak, Ruby; Biehn, Tracey L; Elhai, Jon D; Pietrzak, Robert H

    2015-02-01

    Several revisions to the symptom clusters of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been made in the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Central to the focus of this study was the revision of PTSD's tripartite structure in DSM-IV into four symptom clusters in DSM-5. Emerging confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) studies have suggested that DSM-5 PTSD symptoms may be best represented by one of two 6-factor models: (1) an Externalizing Behaviors model characterized by a factor which combines the irritability/anger and self-destructive/reckless behavior items; and (2) an Anhedonia model characterized by items of loss of interest, detachment, and restricted affect. The current study conducted CFAs of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms assessed using the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) in two independent and diverse trauma-exposed samples of a nationally representative sample of 1484 U.S. veterans and a sample of 497 Midwestern U.S. university undergraduate students. Relative fits of the DSM-5 model, the DSM-5 Dysphoria model, the DSM-5 Dysphoric Arousal model, the two 6-factor models, and a newly proposed 7-factor Hybrid model, which consolidates the two 6-factor models, were evaluated. Results revealed that, in both samples, both 6-factor models provided significantly better fit than the 4-factor DSM-5 model, the DSM-5 Dysphoria model and the DSM-5 Dysphoric Arousal model. Further, the 7-factor Hybrid model, which incorporates key features of both 6-factor models and is comprised of re-experiencing, avoidance, negative affect, anhedonia, externalizing behaviors, and anxious and dysphoric arousal symptom clusters, provided superior fit to the data in both samples. Results are discussed in light of theoretical and empirical support for the latent structure of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Heating performances of a IC in-blanket ring array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosia, G., E-mail: gbosia@to.infn.it [Department of Physics, University of Turin (Italy); Ragona, R. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics-LPP-ERM/KMS, Brussels (Belgium)

    2015-12-10

    An important limiting factor to the use of ICRF as candidate heating method in a commercial reactor is due to the evanescence of the fast wave in vacuum and in most of the SOL layer, imposing proximity of the launching structure to the plasma boundary and causing, at the highest power level, high RF standing and DC rectified voltages at the plasma periphery, with frequent voltage breakdowns and enhanced local wall loading. In a previous work [1] the concept for an Ion Cyclotron Heating & Current Drive array (and using a different wave guide technology, a Lower Hybrid array) based on the use of periodic ring structure, integrated in the reactor blanket first wall and operating at high input power and low power density, was introduced. Based on the above concept, the heating performance of such array operating on a commercial fusion reactor is estimated.

  7. Hybrid approach to structure modeling of the histamine H3 receptor: Multi-level assessment as a tool for model verification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Jończyk

    Full Text Available The crucial role of G-protein coupled receptors and the significant achievements associated with a better understanding of the spatial structure of known receptors in this family encouraged us to undertake a study on the histamine H3 receptor, whose crystal structure is still unresolved. The latest literature data and availability of different software enabled us to build homology models of higher accuracy than previously published ones. The new models are expected to be closer to crystal structures; and therefore, they are much more helpful in the design of potential ligands. In this article, we describe the generation of homology models with the use of diverse tools and a hybrid assessment. Our study incorporates a hybrid assessment connecting knowledge-based scoring algorithms with a two-step ligand-based docking procedure. Knowledge-based scoring employs probability theory for global energy minimum determination based on information about native amino acid conformation from a dataset of experimentally determined protein structures. For a two-step docking procedure two programs were applied: GOLD was used in the first step and Glide in the second. Hybrid approaches offer advantages by combining various theoretical methods in one modeling algorithm. The biggest advantage of hybrid methods is their intrinsic ability to self-update and self-refine when additional structural data are acquired. Moreover, the diversity of computational methods and structural data used in hybrid approaches for structure prediction limit inaccuracies resulting from theoretical approximations or fuzziness of experimental data. The results of docking to the new H3 receptor model allowed us to analyze ligand-receptor interactions for reference compounds.

  8. Hybrid control of supply chains : a structured exploration from a systems perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Dijkman, R.M.

    2013-01-01

    Supply chains are becoming increasingly complex these days, both in the structure of the chains and in the need for fine-grained, real-time control. This development occurs in many industries, such as manufacturing, logistics, and the service industry. The increasing structural complexity is caused

  9. HexaMob—A Hybrid Modular Robotic Design for Implementing Biomimetic Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasanka Sankhar Reddy CH.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Modular robots are capable of forming primitive shapes such as lattice and chain structures with the additional flexibility of distributed sensing. The biomimetic structures developed using such modular units provides ease of replacement and reconfiguration in co-ordinated structures, transportation etc. in real life scenarios. Though the research in the employment of modular robotic units in formation of biological organisms is in the nascent stage, modular robotic units are already capable of forming such sophisticated structures. The modular robotic designs proposed so far in modular robotics research vary significantly in external structures, sensor-actuator mechanisms interfaces for docking and undocking, techniques for providing mobility, coordinated structures, locomotions etc. and each robotic design attempted to address various challenges faced in the domain of modular robotics by employing different strategies. This paper presents a novel modular wheeled robotic design - HexaMob facilitating four degrees of freedom (2 degrees for mobility and 2 degrees for structural reconfiguration on a single module with minimal usage of sensor-actuator assemblies. The crucial features of modular robotics such as back-driving restriction, docking, and navigation are addressed in the process of HexaMob design. The proposed docking mechanism is enabled using vision sensor, enhancing the capabilities in docking as well as navigation in co-ordinated structures such as humanoid robots.

  10. Carbon Nanotube Enhanced Aerospace Composite Materials A New Generation of Multifunctional Hybrid Structural Composites

    CERN Document Server

    Kostopoulos, V

    2013-01-01

    The well documented increase in the use of high performance composites as structural materials in aerospace components is continuously raising the demands in terms of dynamic performance, structural integrity, reliable life monitoring systems and adaptive actuating abilities. Current technologies address the above issues separately; material property tailoring and custom design practices aim to the enhancement of dynamic and damage tolerance characteristics, whereas life monitoring and actuation is performed with embedded sensors that may be detrimental to the structural integrity of the component. This publication explores the unique properties of carbon nanotubes (CNT) as an additive in the matrix of Fibre Reinforced Plastics (FRP), for producing structural composites with improved mechanical performance as well as sensing/actuating capabilities. The successful combination of the CNT properties and existing sensing actuating technologies leads to the realization of a multifunctional FRP structure. The curre...

  11. Hybrid time-variant reliability estimation for active control structures under aleatory and epistemic uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Xiong, Chuang; Wang, Xiaojun; Li, Yunlong; Xu, Menghui

    2018-04-01

    Considering that multi-source uncertainties from inherent nature as well as the external environment are unavoidable and severely affect the controller performance, the dynamic safety assessment with high confidence is of great significance for scientists and engineers. In view of this, the uncertainty quantification analysis and time-variant reliability estimation corresponding to the closed-loop control problems are conducted in this study under a mixture of random, interval, and convex uncertainties. By combining the state-space transformation and the natural set expansion, the boundary laws of controlled response histories are first confirmed with specific implementation of random items. For nonlinear cases, the collocation set methodology and fourth Rounge-Kutta algorithm are introduced as well. Enlightened by the first-passage model in random process theory as well as by the static probabilistic reliability ideas, a new definition of the hybrid time-variant reliability measurement is provided for the vibration control systems and the related solution details are further expounded. Two engineering examples are eventually presented to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the methodology developed.

  12. Students' Attitude in a Web-enhanced Hybrid Course: A Structural Equation Modeling Inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chang Sam Pan

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on five latent factors affecting students use of WebCT in a Web-enhanced hybrid undergraduate course at a southeastern university in the United States. An online questionnaire is used to measure a hypothetic model composed of two exogenous variables (i.e., subjective norm and computer self-efficacy, three endogenous variables (i.e., perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and attitude toward WebCT use, one dependent variable (i.e., actual system use, and eleven demographic items. PROC CALIS is used to analyze the data collected. Results suggest the technology acceptance model may not be applicable to the higher education setting. However, student attitude toward WebCT instruction remains a significant determinant to WebCT use on a non-voluntary basis. Educational achievement (i.e., student final grades is regressed on the attitude factor as an outcome variable.Suggestions for practitioners and researchers in the field are mentioned.

  13. Electric field control of deterministic current-induced magnetization switching in a hybrid ferromagnetic/ferroelectric structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Kaiming; Yang, Meiyin; Ju, Hailang; Wang, Sumei; Ji, Yang; Li, Baohe; Edmonds, Kevin William; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Bao; Zhang, Nan; Liu, Shuai; Zheng, Houzhi; Wang, Kaiyou

    2017-07-01

    All-electrical and programmable manipulations of ferromagnetic bits are highly pursued for the aim of high integration and low energy consumption in modern information technology. Methods based on the spin-orbit torque switching in heavy metal/ferromagnet structures have been proposed with magnetic field, and are heading toward deterministic switching without external magnetic field. Here we demonstrate that an in-plane effective magnetic field can be induced by an electric field without breaking the symmetry of the structure of the thin film, and realize the deterministic magnetization switching in a hybrid ferromagnetic/ferroelectric structure with Pt/Co/Ni/Co/Pt layers on PMN-PT substrate. The effective magnetic field can be reversed by changing the direction of the applied electric field on the PMN-PT substrate, which fully replaces the controllability function of the external magnetic field. The electric field is found to generate an additional spin-orbit torque on the CoNiCo magnets, which is confirmed by macrospin calculations and micromagnetic simulations.

  14. Optical and structural properties of protein/gold hybrid bio-nanofilms prepared by layer-by-layer method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pál, Edit; Hornok, Viktória; Sebok, Dániel; Majzik, Andrea; Dékány, Imre

    2010-08-01

    Lysozyme/gold thin layers were prepared by layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly method. The build-up of the films was followed by UV-vis-absorbance spectra, quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) techniques. The structural property of films was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, while their morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was found that gold nanoparticles (NPs) had cubic crystalline structure, the primary particles form aggregates in the thin layer due to the presence of lysozyme molecules. The UV-vis measurements prove change in particle size while the colour of the film changes from wine-red to blue. The layer thickness of films was determined using the above methods and the loose, porous structure of the films explains the difference in the results. The vapour adsorption property of hybrid layers was also studied by QCM using different saturated vapours and ammonia gas. The lysozyme/Au films were most sensitive for ammonia gas among the tested gases/vapours due to the strongest interaction between the functional groups of the protein. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Elaboration, structural, vibrational and optical investigation of a two-dimensional self-assembled organic–inorganic hybrid compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dammak, T.; Boughzala, H.; Mlayah, A.; Abid, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Single crystals of a hybrid organic/inorganic material with the formula (C 4 N 3 H 16 )Cl[CuCl 4 ] were elaborated and studied by X-ray diffraction, and photoluminescence. The crystals consist of a self-assembled multilayer structure with a Pnam space group. The structure is built up from the staking of infinite two-dimensional layers of CuCl 6 corner-sharing octahedra, separated by organic (C 4 N 3 H 16 ) 3+ chains. Such a structure may be regarded as a multi quantum well system, in which CuCl 6 layers act as semiconductor wells and the organic molecules act as insulator barriers Furthermore, the room temperature IR and Raman spectra of the title compound were recorded and analyzed. For optical investigations, thin films have been prepared by spin-coating method from the ethanol solution of the material. Optical absorption spectra shows characteristic absorptions of CuCl-based layered perovskite centered at 300 and 380 nm, whereas the photoluminescence spectra shows a bleu intense emission around 420 nm, associated to radiative recombination of confined excitons in the CuCl 6 Quantum wells.

  16. The effect on radiation damage of structural material in a hybrid system by using a Monte Carlo radiation transport code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Günay, Mehtap; Şarer, Başar; Kasap, Hızır

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The effects of some fluids on gas production rates in structural material were investigated. • The MCNPX-2.7.0 Monte Carlo code was used for three-dimensional calculations. • It was found that biggest contribution to gas production rates comes from Fe isotope of the. • The desirable values for 5% SFG-PuO 2 with respect to radiation damage were specified. - Abstract: In this study, the molten salt-heavy metal mixtures 99–95% Li20Sn80-1-5% SFG-Pu, 99–95% Li20Sn80-1-5% SFG-PuF4, 99-95% Li20Sn80-1-5% SFG-PuO2 were used as fluids. The fluids were used in the liquid first-wall, blanket and shield zones of the designed hybrid reactor system. 9Cr2WVTa ferritic steel with the width of 4 cm was used as the structural material. The parameters of radiation damage are proton, deuterium, tritium, He-3 and He-4 gas production rates. In this study, the effects of the selected fluid on the radiation damage, in terms of individual as well as total isotopes in the structural material, were investigated for 30 full power years (FPYs). Three-dimensional analyses were performed using the most recent version of the MCNPX-2.7.0 Monte Carlo radiation transport code and the ENDF/B-VII.0 nuclear data library

  17. Structure of an E. coli integral membrane sulfurtransferase and its structural transition upon SCN− binding defined by EPR-based hybrid method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Shenglong; Wang, Wei; Yu, Lu; Peng, Junhui; Cai, Xiaoying; Xiong, Ying; Hayati, Zahra; Zhang, Longhua; Zhang, Zhiyong; Song, Likai; Tian, Changlin

    2016-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-based hybrid experimental and computational approaches were applied to determine the structure of a full-length E. coli integral membrane sulfurtransferase, dimeric YgaP, and its structural and dynamic changes upon ligand binding. The solution NMR structures of the YgaP transmembrane domain (TMD) and cytosolic catalytic rhodanese domain were reported recently, but the tertiary fold of full-length YgaP was not yet available. Here, systematic site-specific EPR analysis defined a helix-loop-helix secondary structure of the YagP-TMD monomers using mobility, accessibility and membrane immersion measurements. The tertiary folds of dimeric YgaP-TMD and full-length YgaP in detergent micelles were determined through inter- and intra-monomer distance mapping and rigid-body computation. Further EPR analysis demonstrated the tight packing of the two YgaP second transmembrane helices upon binding of the catalytic product SCN−, which provides insight into the thiocyanate exportation mechanism of YgaP in the E. coli membrane. PMID:26817826

  18. Interband cascade (IC) photovoltaic (PV) architecture for PV devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui Q.; Tian, Zhaobing; Mishima, Tetsuya D.; Santos, Michael B.; Johnson, Matthew B.; Klem, John F.

    2015-10-20

    A photovoltaic (PV) device, comprising a PV interband cascade (IC) stage, wherein the IC PV stage comprises an absorption region with a band gap, the absorption region configured to absorb photons, an intraband transport region configured to act as a hole barrier, and an interband tunneling region configured to act as an electron barrier. An IC PV architecture for a photovoltaic device, the IC PV architecture comprising an absorption region, an intraband transport region coupled to the absorption region, and an interband tunneling region coupled to the intraband transport region and to the adjacent absorption region, wherein the absorption region, the intraband transport region, and the interband tunneling region are positioned such that electrons will flow from the absorption region to the intraband transport region to the interband tunneling region.

  19. Study on Mine Emergency Mechanism based on TARP and ICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Jian; Wu, Zongzhi

    2018-01-01

    By analyzing the experiences and practices of mine emergency in China and abroad, especially the United States and Australia, normative principle, risk management principle and adaptability principle of constructing mine emergency mechanism based on Trigger Action Response Plans (TARP) and Incident Command System (ICS) are summarized. Classification method, framework, flow and subject of TARP and ICS which are suitable for the actual situation of domestic mine emergency are proposed. The system dynamics model of TARP and ICS is established. The parameters such as evacuation ratio, response rate, per capita emergency capability and entry rate of rescuers are set up. By simulating the operation process of TARP and ICS, the impact of these parameters on the emergency process are analyzed, which could provide a reference and basis for building emergency capacity, formulating emergency plans and setting up action plans in the emergency process.

  20. APPLICATTON OF SCTENTIF'IC PRINCIPLES IN MERINO SHEEP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    THE PRACTICAI- APPLICATTON OF SCTENTIF'IC PRINCIPLES IN MERINO SHEEP BREEDING. C.A. van der ..... There is, however, no practical evidence in this ... 1910" Comparison of three Australian merino strains for wool and body traits.

  1. Plasma end-loss studies on Scylla I-C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna, K.F.; York, T.M.

    1976-08-01

    The end-loss process in the collision dominated Scylla I-C plasma has been investigated with a local pressure sensitive diagnostic, integrated density measurement and axially arrayed diamagnetic loop probes. The development of a plasma loss orifice, well within the theta-pinch coil, has been identified. The magnitude of the observed orifice is found to be in excellent agreement with that predicted from collisional MHD theories. The axially flowing plasma is well confined until it flows through the loss orifice. After passing through the orifice, rapid axial expansion is observed. An indication of the existence of inward traveling rarefaction waves has been observed from the plasma midplane temperature data; an abrupt decrease in the plasma temperature at t approximately equal to 6.5 μs corresponds to the predicted time of arrival of rarefaction waves at the coil midplane. The plasma loss rate derived from the pressure data indicates an initial period (t 4 μs) of gradual decay in the loss rate. This initial period of high loss rate is predicted from the MHD flow theories when the measured, time dependent plasma parameters are substituted into the analytical models. The loss rate determined from the end-on interferograms does not respond to the detailed structure of the plasma loss process

  2. Wakefield accelerator with hybrid plasma-dielectric structure of rectangular cross-section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, V.A.; Linnik, A.F.; Mirnyj, V.I.; Onishchenko, I.N.; Uskov, V.V.

    2010-01-01

    Increase of wakefield intensity at its excitation by a long train of relativistic electron bunches in the rectangular dielectric structure when it is filled with plasma of resonant density was experimentally observed. The first portion of the bunches, produced by electron linac 'Almaz-2', ionizes gas at atmospheric pressure so that plasma frequency becomes equal to bunch repetition frequency and to the frequency of principal Eigen mode of the dielectric structure. Excitation enhancement at such resonant conditions is being studied taking into account the improvement of bunch train propagation in the transit channel caused by charge compensation with plasma and the electrodynamics change of the dielectric structure at filling with plasma.

  3. Simulation of design dependent failure exposure levels for CMOS ICs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, N.; Bhuva, B.L.; Rangavajjhala, V.; van der Molen, H.; Kerns, S.E.

    1990-01-01

    The total dose exposure of CMOS ICs introduces bias-dependent parameter shifts in individual devices. The bias dependency of individual parameter shifts of devices cause different designs to behave differently under identical testing conditions. This paper studies the effect of design and bias on the radiation tolerance of ICs and presents an automated design tool that produces different designs for a logic function, and presents important parameters of each design to circuit designer for trade off analysis

  4. A Hybrid Solid-State NMR and Electron Microscopy Structure-Determination Protocol for Engineering Advanced para-Crystalline Optical Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, Brijith; Rombouts, Jeroen; Oostergetel, Gert T.; Gupta, Karthick B.S.S.; Buda, Francesco; Lammertsma, Koop; Orru, Romano; de Groot, Huub J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy and TEM were demonstrated for de novo structure determination of para-crystalline materials with a bioinspired fused naphthalene diimide (NDI)–salphen–phenazine prototype light-harvesting compound. Starting from chiral building blocks with C2

  5. Effect of surface Fe-S hybrid structure on the activity of the perfect and reduced α-Fe2O3(001) for chemical looping combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xianbin; Qin, Wu; Wang, Jianye; Li, Junhao; Dong, Changqing

    2018-05-01

    Sulfurization of the gradually reduced Fe2O3 surfaces is inevitable while Fe2O3 is used as an oxygen carrier (OC) for coal chemical looping combustion (CLC), which will result in formation of Fe-S hybrid structure on the surfaces. The Fe-S hybrid structure will directly alter the reactivity of the surfaces. Therefore, detailed properties of Fe-S hybrid structure over the perfect and reduced Fe2O3(001) surfaces, and its effect on the interfacial interactions, including CO oxidization and decomposition on the surfaces, were investigated by using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The S atom prefers to chemically bind to Fe site with electron transfer from the surfaces to the S atom, and a deeper reduction of Fe2O3(001) leads to an increasing interaction between S and Fe. The formation of Fe-S hybrid structure alters the electronic properties of the gradually reduced Fe2O3(001) surfaces, promoting CO oxidation on the surfaces ranging from Fe2O3 to FeO, but depressing carbon deposition on the surfaces ranging from FeO to Fe. The sulfurized FeO acts as a watershed to realize relatively high CO oxidation rate and low carbon deposition. Results provided a fundamental understanding for controlling and optimizing the CLC processes.

  6. Fine-scale temporal and spatial variation of taxon and clonal structure in the Daphnia longispina hybrid complex in heterogeneous environments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yin, M.; Petrusek, A.; Seďa, Jaromír; Wolinska, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 12, January (2012), s. 1-12 ISSN 1471-2148 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA600960901 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : species complex * genetic-structure * interspecific hybridization * cyclic parthenogenesis * population-dynamics Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.285, year: 2012

  7. Lightweight Hybrid Ablator Incorporating Aerogel-Filled Open-Cell Foam Structural Insulator, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In previous work for NASA and DoD, Ultramet developed lightweight open-cell foam insulators composed of a carbon or ceramic structural foam skeleton filled with a...

  8. Omnidirectional excitation of sidewall gap-plasmons in a hybrid gold-nanoparticle/aluminum-nanopore structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatdanai Lumdee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The gap-plasmon resonance of a gold nanoparticle inside a nanopore in an aluminum film is investigated in polarization dependent single particle microscopy and spectroscopy. Scattering and transmission measurements reveal that gap-plasmons of this structure can be excited and observed under normal incidence excitation and collection, in contrast to the more common particle-on-a-mirror structure. Correlation of numerical simulations with optical spectroscopy suggests that a local electric field enhancement factor in excess of 50 is achieved under normal incidence excitation, with a hot-spot located near the top surface of the structure. It is shown that the strong field enhancement from this sidewall gap-plasmon mode can be efficiently excited over a broad angular range. The presented plasmonic structure lends itself to implementation in low-cost, chemically stable, easily addressable biochemical sensor arrays providing large optical field enhancement factors.

  9. Structural archetypes in nickel(II) hybrid vanadates. Towards a directed hydrothermal synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luis, R. Fernandez de; Urtiaga, M.K.; Mesa, J.L.; Rojo, T.; Arriortua, M.I.

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, we relate the modifications of the initial synthesis parameters (pH value, stoichiometry and concentration) with the different structural archetypes obtained in the {Ni/Bpy/VO} and {Ni/Bpe/VO} systems (4,4'-bipyridine (Bpy), 1,2-di(4-pyridyl) ethylene (Bpe)). The vanadium coordination is partially controlled by the hydrothermal synthesis conditions, and the final crystal structures depend on the synergetic interaction between the metal-organic subnets and the vanadium oxide subunits.

  10. Fabrication of ridge waveguide structure from photosensitive TiO2/ormosil hybrid films by using an ultraviolet soft imprint technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xuehua; Que, Wenxiu; Chen, Jing; Gao, Tianxi; Hu, Jiaxing; Liu, Weiguo

    2013-01-01

    Photosensitive TiO 2 /organically modified silane hybrid films were prepared by combining a low-temperature sol–gel process with a spin-coating technique. Optical properties and photochemical activities of the as-prepared hybrid sol–gel films under different UV irradiation time were characterized and monitored by prism coupling technique, UV–visible spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Surface morphology of the hybrid films was also observed by an atomic force microscopy. Advantages for fabrication of ridge waveguide structure based on the photosensitive hybrid films were demonstrated by an ultraviolet soft imprint technique. Effects of imprint force, imprint time, and UV irradiation time on high replication fidelity of the ridge waveguide structure were also investigated. An altitude replication fidelity of 99.7% can be obtained when the imprint force of 2 MPa, imprint time of 30 min and UV irradiation time of 45 min were chosen. Scanning electron microscopy and surface profiler were used to characterize the morphological and surface profile properties of the as fabricated ridge waveguide structure. Results indicate that the as-prepared photosensitive hybrid materials have great applicability for the fabrication of micro-optical elements and advantage as the imprint layer under the ultraviolet soft imprint technique. - Highlights: ► Photosensitive TiO 2 /ormosil hybrid film is prepared by a sol–gel process. ► Optical properties of the films change a little with UV exposure time. ► Photo-chemical property of the film changes a lot with UV exposure time. ► The imprint force and time, and the UV exposure time affect the imprint fidelity. ► A fidelity value of 99.7% is obtained under an optimized condition

  11. Fabrication of ridge waveguide structure from photosensitive TiO{sub 2}/ormosil hybrid films by using an ultraviolet soft imprint technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xuehua [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, International Center for Dielectric Research, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Que, Wenxiu, E-mail: wxque@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, International Center for Dielectric Research, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Chen, Jing; Gao, Tianxi; Hu, Jiaxing [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, International Center for Dielectric Research, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Liu, Weiguo [Micro-optoelectronic Systems Laboratories, Xi' an Technological University, Xi' an 710032, Shaanxi (China)

    2013-03-01

    Photosensitive TiO{sub 2}/organically modified silane hybrid films were prepared by combining a low-temperature sol–gel process with a spin-coating technique. Optical properties and photochemical activities of the as-prepared hybrid sol–gel films under different UV irradiation time were characterized and monitored by prism coupling technique, UV–visible spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Surface morphology of the hybrid films was also observed by an atomic force microscopy. Advantages for fabrication of ridge waveguide structure based on the photosensitive hybrid films were demonstrated by an ultraviolet soft imprint technique. Effects of imprint force, imprint time, and UV irradiation time on high replication fidelity of the ridge waveguide structure were also investigated. An altitude replication fidelity of 99.7% can be obtained when the imprint force of 2 MPa, imprint time of 30 min and UV irradiation time of 45 min were chosen. Scanning electron microscopy and surface profiler were used to characterize the morphological and surface profile properties of the as fabricated ridge waveguide structure. Results indicate that the as-prepared photosensitive hybrid materials have great applicability for the fabrication of micro-optical elements and advantage as the imprint layer under the ultraviolet soft imprint technique. - Highlights: ► Photosensitive TiO{sub 2}/ormosil hybrid film is prepared by a sol–gel process. ► Optical properties of the films change a little with UV exposure time. ► Photo-chemical property of the film changes a lot with UV exposure time. ► The imprint force and time, and the UV exposure time affect the imprint fidelity. ► A fidelity value of 99.7% is obtained under an optimized condition.

  12. Electrochemical H2O2 biosensor composed of myoglobin on MoS2 nanoparticle-graphene oxide hybrid structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jinho; Lee, Taek; Bapurao G, Bharate; Jo, Jinhee; Oh, Byung-Keun; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2017-07-15

    In this research, the electrochemical biosensor composed of myoglobin (Mb) on molybdenum disulfide nanoparticles (MoS 2 NP) encapsulated with graphene oxide (GO) was fabricated for the detection of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). Hybrid structure composed of MoS 2 NP and GO (GO@MoS 2 ) was fabricated for the first time to enhance the electrochemical signal of the biosensor. As a sensing material, Mb was introduced to fabricate the biosensor for H 2 O 2 detection. Formation and immobilization of GO@MoS 2 was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy. Immobilization of Mb, and electrochemical property of biosensor were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and amperometric i-t measurements. Fabricated biosensor showed the electrochemical signal enhanced redox current as -1.86μA at an oxidation potential and 1.95μA at a reduction potential that were enhanced relative to those of electrode prepared without GO@MoS 2 . Also, this biosensor showed the reproducibility of electrochemical signal, and retained the property until 9 days from fabrication. Upon addition of H 2 O 2 , the biosensor showed enhanced amperometric response current with selectivity relative to that of the biosensor prepared without GO@MoS 2 . This novel hybrid material-based biosensor can suggest a milestone in the development of a highly sensitive detecting platform for biosensor fabrication with highly sensitive detection of target molecules other than H 2 O 2 . Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Integration of plug-in hybrid cars for the encouragement of intelligent power distribution structures; Integration von Plug-in-Hybrid Cars zur Foerderung intelligenter Verteilnetzstrukturen. Vorstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horbaty, R.; Rigassi, R.

    2007-11-15

    This preliminary study for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at how plug-in hybrid cars could be used to support the electricity supply in Switzerland. This study explains to what extent hybrid cars would be in a position to provide the services needed to regulate the Swiss electricity mains. Core elements of the concept known as 'Vehicle to Grid' (V2G) are presented. The requirements placed on the cars' equipment, including reversible battery chargers and communication equipment, are reviewed. Mains regulation systems are discussed, as are battery storage and the potential advantages offered by such a system. Challenges and hindrances to implementation are examined and initial feasibility studies are analysed. Questions still to be addressed are noted. A comprehensive appendix rounds off the report.

  14. Water saving in IC wafer washing process; IC wafer senjo deno sessui taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, H. [Mitsubishi Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Araki, M.; Nakazawa, T.

    1997-11-30

    This paper reports features of a wafer washing technology, a new IC wafer washing process, its pure water saving effect, and a `QC washing` which has pure water saving effect in the wafer washing. Wafer washing processes generally include the SC1 process (using ammonia + hydrogen peroxide aqueous solution) purposed for removing contamination due to ultrafine particles, the SC2 process (using hydrochloric acid + hydrogen peroxide aqueous solution) purposed for removing contamination due to heavy metals, the piranha washing process (using hot sulfuric acid + hydrogen peroxide aqueous solution) purposed for removing contamination due to organic matters, and the DHF (using dilute hydrofluoric acid) purposed for removing natural oxide films. Natural oxide films are now remained as surface protection films, by which surface contamination has been reduced remarkably. A high-temperature washing chemical circulating and filtering technology developed in Japan has brought about a reform in wafer washing processes having been used previously. Spin washing is used as a water saving measure, in which washing chemicals or pure water are sprayed onto one each of wafers which is spin-rotated, allowing washing and rinsing to be made with small amount of washing chemicals and pure water. The QC washing is a method to replace tank interior with pure was as quick as possible in order to increase the rinsing effect. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  15. The engine of thought is a hybrid: roles of associative and structured knowledge in reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Aimée K; Feeney, Aidan

    2014-12-01

    Across a range of domains in psychology different theories assume different mental representations of knowledge. For example, in the literature on category-based inductive reasoning, certain theories (e.g., Rogers & McClelland, 2004; Sloutsky & Fisher, 2008) assume that the knowledge upon which inductive inferences are based is associative, whereas others (e.g., Heit & Rubinstein, 1994; Kemp & Tenenbaum, 2009; Osherson, Smith, Wilkie, López, & Shafir, 1990) assume that knowledge is structured. In this article we investigate whether associative and structured knowledge underlie inductive reasoning to different degrees under different processing conditions. We develop a measure of knowledge about the degree of association between categories and show that it dissociates from measures of structured knowledge. In Experiment 1 participants rated the strength of inductive arguments whose categories were either taxonomically or causally related. A measure of associative strength predicted reasoning when people had to respond fast, whereas causal and taxonomic knowledge explained inference strength when people responded slowly. In Experiment 2, we also manipulated whether the causal link between the categories was predictive or diagnostic. Participants preferred predictive to diagnostic arguments except when they responded under cognitive load. In Experiment 3, using an open-ended induction paradigm, people generated and evaluated their own conclusion categories. Inductive strength was predicted by associative strength under heavy cognitive load, whereas an index of structured knowledge was more predictive of inductive strength under minimal cognitive load. Together these results suggest that associative and structured models of reasoning apply best under different processing conditions and that the application of structured knowledge in reasoning is often effortful. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. On optimization of the large launching structures for the lower hybrid current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtak, O.

    1989-09-01

    The origin of secondary peaks in the power spectrum of a launching structure consisting of multijunction sections is analyzed by means of an approximate formula for the power spectrum. Results of numerical optimization of an actual structure with three-waveguide multijunction sections are given. It is shown that the basic electric length of the multijunction section cannot be chosen in such a way that both a sufficient reduction of the peaks and a favourable power distribution among waveguides is achieved simultaneously. The difficulties are eliminated by the use of aperiodically excited multijunction sections resulting in an equalization of phases of incident waves in the waveguides. (author). 8 figs., 14 refs

  17. Structural archetypes in nickel(II) hybrid vanadates. Towards a directed hydrothermal synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luis, R. Fernandez de; Urtiaga, M.K. [Dpto. Mineralogia y Petrologia, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco/UPV/EHU, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Mesa, J.L.; Rojo, T. [Dpto. Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco UPV/EHU, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Arriortua, M.I. [Dpto. Mineralogia y Petrologia, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco/UPV/EHU, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)], E-mail: maribel.arriortua@ehu.es

    2009-07-01

    In the present work, we relate the modifications of the initial synthesis parameters (pH value, stoichiometry and concentration) with the different structural archetypes obtained in the {l_brace}Ni/Bpy/VO{r_brace} and {l_brace}Ni/Bpe/VO{r_brace} systems (4,4'-bipyridine (Bpy), 1,2-di(4-pyridyl) ethylene (Bpe)). The vanadium coordination is partially controlled by the hydrothermal synthesis conditions, and the final crystal structures depend on the synergetic interaction between the metal-organic subnets and the vanadium oxide subunits.

  18. Two inorganic-organic hybrid materials based on polyoxometalate anions and methylene blue: Preparations, crystal structures and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie Shanshan; Zhang Yaobin; Liu Bin; Li Zuoxi; Hu Huaiming; Xue Ganglin; Fu Feng; Wang Jiwu

    2010-01-01

    Two novel inorganic-organic hybrid materials based on an organic dye cation methylene blue (MB) and Lindqvist-type POM polyanions, [C 22 H 18 N 3 S] 2 Mo 6 O 19 2DMF (1) and [C 22 H 18 N 3 S] 2 W 6 O 19 2DMF (2) were synthesized under ambient conditions and characterized by CV, IR spectroscopy, solid diffuse reflectance spectrum, UV-vis spectra in DMF solution, luminescent spectrum and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Crystallographic data reveal that compounds 1 and 2 are isostructural and both crystallize in the triclinic space group P1-bar . Their crystal structures present that the layers of organic molecules and inorganic anions array alternatively, and there exist strong π...π stacking interactions between dimeric MB cations and near distance interactions among organic dye cations, Lindqvist-type POM polyanions and DMF molecules. The solid diffuse reflectance spectra and UV-vis spectra in DMF solution appear new absorption bands ascribed to the charge-transfer transition between the cationic MB donor and the POM acceptors. Studies of the photoluminescent properties show that the formation of 1 and 2 lead to the fluorescence quenching of starting materials. -- Graphical abstract: Their crystal structures present that the layers of organic molecules and inorganic anions array alternatively, and there exist strong π...π stacking interactions between dimeric MB cations. Display Omitted

  19. Interface and photoluminescence characteristics of graphene-(GaN/InGaN){sub n} multiple quantum wells hybrid structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Liancheng, E-mail: wanglc@semi.ac.cn, E-mail: lzq@semi.ac.cn, E-mail: zh.zhang@hebut.edu.cn [Engineering Product Development Pillar (EPD), Singapore University of Technology & Design (SUTD), 8 Somapah Road, Singapore 487372 (Singapore); Semiconductor Lighting Technology Research and Development Center, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Mind Star (Beijing) Technology Co., Ltd., Zhongguancun South Street, Haidian District, No. 45 Hing Fat Building 1001, Beijing 100872 (China); Liu, Zhiqiang, E-mail: wanglc@semi.ac.cn, E-mail: lzq@semi.ac.cn, E-mail: zh.zhang@hebut.edu.cn; Tian, Ying Dong; Yi, Xiaoyan; Wang, Junxi; Li, Jinmin; Wang, Guohong [Semiconductor Lighting Technology Research and Development Center, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Zi-Hui, E-mail: wanglc@semi.ac.cn, E-mail: lzq@semi.ac.cn, E-mail: zh.zhang@hebut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Electronic Materials and Devices of Tianjin, School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300401 (China)

    2016-04-14

    The effects of graphene on the optical properties of active system, e.g., the InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells, are thoroughly investigated and clarified. Here, we have investigated the mechanisms accounting for the photoluminescence reduction for the graphene covered GaN/InGaN multiple quantum wells hybrid structure. Compared to the bare multiple quantum wells, the photoluminescence intensity of graphene covered multiple quantum wells showed a 39% decrease after excluding the graphene absorption losses. The responsible mechanisms have been identified with the following factors: (1) the graphene two dimensional hole gas intensifies the polarization field in multiple quantum wells, thus steepening the quantum well band profile and causing hole-electron pairs to further separate; (2) a lower affinity of graphene compared to air leading to a weaker capability to confine the excited hot electrons in multiple quantum wells; and (3) exciton transfer through non-radiative energy transfer process. These factors are theoretically analysed based on advanced physical models of semiconductor devices calculations and experimentally verified by varying structural parameters, such as the indium fraction in multiple quantum wells and the thickness of the last GaN quantum barrier spacer layer.

  20. Obtaining source current density related to irregularly structured electromagnetic target field inside human body using hybrid inverse/FDTD method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jijun; Yang, Deqiang; Sun, Houjun; Xin, Sherman Xuegang

    2017-01-01

    Inverse method is inherently suitable for calculating the distribution of source current density related with an irregularly structured electromagnetic target field. However, the present form of inverse method cannot calculate complex field-tissue interactions. A novel hybrid inverse/finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method that can calculate the complex field-tissue interactions for the inverse design of source current density related with an irregularly structured electromagnetic target field is proposed. A Huygens' equivalent surface is established as a bridge to combine the inverse and FDTD method. Distribution of the radiofrequency (RF) magnetic field on the Huygens' equivalent surface is obtained using the FDTD method by considering the complex field-tissue interactions within the human body model. The obtained magnetic field distributed on the Huygens' equivalent surface is regarded as the next target. The current density on the designated source surface is derived using the inverse method. The homogeneity of target magnetic field and specific energy absorption rate are calculated to verify the proposed method.

  1. Nanoparticle-Mediated Physical Exfoliation of Aqueous-Phase Graphene for Fabrication of Three-Dimensionally Structured Hybrid Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Younghee; Choi, Hojin; Kim, Min-Sik; Noh, Seonmyeong; Ahn, Ki-Jin; Im, Kyungun; Kwon, Oh Seok; Yoon, Hyeonseok

    2016-01-27

    Monodispersed polypyrrole (PPy) nanospheres were physically incorporated as guest species into stacked graphene layers without significant property degradation, thereby facilitating the formation of unique three-dimensional hybrid nanoarchitecture. The electrochemical properties of the graphene/particulate PPy (GPPy) nanohybrids were dependent on the sizes and contents of the PPy nanospheres. The nanohybrids exhibited optimum electrochemical performance in terms of redox activity, charge-transfer resistance, and specific capacitance at an 8:1 PPy/graphite (graphene precursor) weight ratio. The packing density of the alternately stacked nanohybrid structure varied with the nanosphere content, indicating the potential for high volumetric capacitance. The nanohybrids also exhibited good long-term cycling stability because of a structural synergy effect. Finally, fabricated nanohybrid-based flexible all-solid state capacitor cells exhibited good electrochemical performance in an acidic electrolyte with a maximum energy density of 8.4 Wh kg(-1) or 1.9 Wh L(-1) at a maximum power density of 3.2 kW kg(-1) or 0.7 kW L(-1); these performances were based on the mass or packing density of the electrode materials.

  2. A Structurally Simplified Hybrid Model of Genetic Algorithm and Support Vector Machine for Prediction of Chlorophyll a in Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieqiong Su

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available With decreasing water availability as a result of climate change and human activities, analysis of the influential factors and variation trends of chlorophyll a has become important to prevent reservoir eutrophication and ensure water supply safety. In this paper, a structurally simplified hybrid model of the genetic algorithm (GA and the support vector machine (SVM was developed for the prediction of monthly concentration of chlorophyll a in the Miyun Reservoir of northern China over the period from 2000 to 2010. Based on the influence factor analysis, the four most relevant influence factors of chlorophyll a (i.e., total phosphorus, total nitrogen, permanganate index, and reservoir storage were extracted using the method of feature selection with the GA, which simplified the model structure, making it more practical and efficient for environmental management. The results showed that the developed simplified GA-SVM model could solve nonlinear problems of complex system, and was suitable for the simulation and prediction of chlorophyll a with better performance in accuracy and efficiency in the Miyun Reservoir.

  3. Application of the Hybrid Simulation Method for the Full-Scale Precast Reinforced Concrete Shear Wall Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaixian Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid simulation (HS testing method combines physical test and numerical simulation, and provides a viable alternative to evaluate the structural seismic performance. Most studies focused on the accuracy, stability and reliability of the HS method in the small-scale tests. It is a challenge to evaluate the seismic performance of a twelve-story pre-cast reinforced concrete shear-wall structure using this HS method which takes the full-scale bottom three-story structural model as the physical substructure and the elastic non-linear model as the numerical substructure. This paper employs an equivalent force control (EFC method with implicit integration algorithm to deal with the numerical integration of the equation of motion (EOM and the control of the loading device. Because of the arrangement of the test model, an elastic non-linear numerical model is used to simulate the numerical substructure. And non-subdivision strategy for the displacement inflection point of numerical substructure is used to easily realize the simulation of the numerical substructure and thus reduce the measured error. The parameters of the EFC method are calculated basing on analytical and numerical studies and used to the actual full-scale HS test. Finally, the accuracy and feasibility of the EFC-based HS method is verified experimentally through the substructure HS tests of the pre-cast reinforced concrete shear-wall structure model. And the testing results of the descending stage can be conveniently obtained from the EFC-based HS method.

  4. Synthesis and structural characterization of piperazino-modified DNA that favours hybridization towards DNA over RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Joan; Bryld, Torsten; Lindegaard, Dorthe

    2011-01-01

    We report the synthesis of two C4'-modified DNA analogues and characterize their structural impact on dsDNA duplexes. The 4'-C-piperazinomethyl modification stabilizes dsDNA by up to 5°C per incorporation. Extension of the modification with a butanoyl-linked pyrene increases the dsDNA stabilizati...

  5. Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites: Structural Diversity and Opportunities for Semiconductor Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzi, David

    Photovoltaic (PV) devices based on three-dimensional perovskites, (Cs, MA, FA)Pb(I, Br)3 (MA =methylammonium, FA =formamidinium), have attracted substantial recent interest, because of the unprecedented rise in power conversion efficiency to values above 20%, which in turn is made possible by the near ideal band gap, strong optical absorption, high carrier mobilities, long minority carrier lifetimes, and relatively benign defects and grain boundaries for the absorbers. Some of the same properties that render these materials near-ideal for PV, also make them attractive for LED and other optoelectronic applications. Despite the high levels of device performance, the incorporation of the heavy metal lead, coupled with issues of device stability and electrical hysteresis pose challenges for commercializing these exciting technologies. This talk will provide a perspective on and discuss recent advances related to the broader perovskite family, focusing on the extraordinary structural/chemical diversity, including ability to control structural/electronic dimensionality, substitute on the organic cation, metal or halogen sites, and prospects of multi-functionality arising from separately engineered organic/inorganic structural components (e.g., see). Further exploration within this perovskite structural and chemical space offers exciting opportunities for future energy and electronic materials design. This work has been financially supported by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), U.S. Dept. of Energy, under Award Number DE-EE0006712.

  6. Crystalline Hybrid Polyphenylene Macromolecules from Octaalkynylsilsesquioxanes, Crystal Structures, and a Potential Route to 3-D Graphenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roll, Mark F; Kampf, Jeffrey W.; Laine, Richard M

    2011-05-10

    We report here the Diels–Alder reaction of octa(diphenylacetylene)silsesquioxane [DPA₈OS] with tetraphenylcyclopentadienone or tetra(p-tolyl)cyclopentadienone to form octa(hexaphenylbenzene)octasilsesquioxane, (Ph₆C₆)₈OS, or octa(tetratolyldiphenylbenzene)octasilsesquioxane, (p-Tolyl₄Ph₂C₆)₈OS. Likewise, tetra(p-tolyl)cyclopentadienone reacts with octa(p-tolylethynylphenyl)OS to form octa(pentatolylphenylbenzene)octasilsesquioxane (p-Tolyl₅PhC₆)₈OS. These compounds, with molecular weights of 4685–5245 Da, were isolated and characterized using a variety of analytical methods. The crystal structure of DPA₈OS offers a 3 nm³ unit cell with Z = 1. The crystal structure of (Ph₆C₆)₈OS was determined to have a triclinic unit cell of 11 nm³ with Z = 1. The latter structure is believed to be the largest discrete molecular structure reported with 330 carbons. Efforts to dehydrogenatively cyclize (Scholl reaction) the hexaarylbenzene groups to form 3-D octgraphene compounds are described.

  7. Evaluation of structural and mechanical properties of electrospun nano-micro hybrid of poly hydroxybutyrate-chitosan/silk scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbasi, Saeed; Fekrat, Farnoosh; Semnani, Daryoush; Razavi, Shahnaz; Zargar, Elham Naghash

    2016-01-01

    One of the new methods of scaffold fabrication is a nano-micro hybrid structure in which the properties of the scaffold are improved by introducing nanometer and micrometer structures. This method could be suitable for scaffold designing if some features improve. In this study, electrospun nanofibers of 9% weight solution of poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) (P3HB) and a 15% weight of chitosan by trifluoroacetic acid were coated on both the surface of a silk knitted substrate in the optimum condition to improve the mechanical properties of scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering application. These hybrid nano-micro fibrous scaffolds were characterized by structural and mechanical evaluation methods. Scanning electron microscopy values and porosity analysis showed that average diameter of nanofibers was 584.94 nm in electrospinning part and general porosity was more than 80%. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results indicated the presence of all elements without pollution. The tensile test also stated that by electrospinning, as well as adding chitosan, both maximum strength and maximum elongation increased to 187 N and 10 mm. It means that the microfibrous part of scaffold could affect mechanical properties of nano part of the hybrid scaffold, significantly. It could be concluded that P3HB-chitosan/silk hybrid scaffolds can be a good candidate for cartilage tissue engineering.

  8. Micromechanics of Amorphous Metal/Polymer Hybrid Structures with 3D Cellular Architectures: Size Effects, Buckling Behavior, and Energy Absorption Capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieszala, Maxime; Hasegawa, Madoka; Guillonneau, Gaylord; Bauer, Jens; Raghavan, Rejin; Frantz, Cédric; Kraft, Oliver; Mischler, Stefano; Michler, Johann; Philippe, Laetitia

    2017-02-01

    By designing advantageous cellular geometries and combining the material size effects at the nanometer scale, lightweight hybrid microarchitectured materials with tailored structural properties are achieved. Prior studies reported the mechanical properties of high strength cellular ceramic composites, obtained by atomic layer deposition. However, few studies have examined the properties of similar structures with metal coatings. To determine the mechanical performance of polymer cellular structures reinforced with a metal coating, 3D laser lithography and electroless deposition of an amorphous layer of nickel-boron (NiB) is used for the first time to produce metal/polymer hybrid structures. In this work, the mechanical response of microarchitectured structures is investigated with an emphasis on the effects of the architecture and the amorphous NiB thickness on their deformation mechanisms and energy absorption capability. Microcompression experiments show an enhancement of the mechanical properties with the NiB thickness, suggesting that the deformation mechanism and the buckling behavior are controlled by the brittle-to-ductile transition in the NiB layer. In addition, the energy absorption properties demonstrate the possibility of tuning the energy absorption efficiency with adequate designs. These findings suggest that microarchitectured metal/polymer hybrid structures are effective in producing materials with unique property combinations. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Synthesis of NiMn-LDH Nanosheet@Ni3S2 Nanorod Hybrid Structures for Supercapacitor Electrode Materials with Ultrahigh Specific Capacitance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shuai; Zhang, Yingxi; Lou, Gaobo; Wu, Yatao; Zhu, Xinqiang; Chen, Hao; Shen, Zhehong; Fu, Shenyuan; Bao, Binfu; Wu, Limin

    2018-03-27

    One of the key challenges for pseudocapacitive electrode materials with highly effective capacitance output and future practical applications is how to rationally construct hierarchical and ordered hybrid nanoarchitecture through the simple process. Herein, we design and synthesize a novel NiMn-layered double hydroxide nanosheet@Ni 3 S 2 nanorod hybrid array supported on porous nickel foam via a one-pot hydrothermal method. Benefited from the ultrathin and rough nature, the well-defined porous structure of the hybrid array, as well as the synergetic effect between NiMn-layered double hydroxide nanosheets and Ni 3 S 2 nanorods, the as-fabricated hybrid array-based electrode exhibits an ultrahigh specific capacitance of 2703 F g -1 at 3 A g -1 . Moreover, the asymmetric supercapacitor with this hybrid array as a positive electrode and wood-derived activated carbon as a negative electrode demonstrates high energy density (57 Wh Kg -1 at 738 W Kg -1 ) and very good electrochemical cycling stability.

  10. Effect of cerium on structure modifications of a hybrid sol–gel coating, its mechanical properties and anti-corrosion behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambon, Jean-Baptiste; Esteban, Julien; Ansart, Florence; Bonino, Jean-Pierre; Turq, Viviane; Santagneli, S.H.; Santilli, C.V.; Pulcinelli, S.H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► New sol–gel routes to replace chromates for corrosion protection of aluminum. ► Effect of cerium concentration on the microstructure of xerogel. ► Electrochemical and mechanical performances of hybrid coating with different cerium contents. ► Good correlation between the different results with an optimal cerium content of 0.01 M. -- Abstract: An organic–inorganic hybrid coating was developed to improve the corrosion resistance of the aluminum alloy AA 2024-T3. Organic and inorganic coatings derived from glycidoxypropyl-trimethoxysilane (GPTMS) and aluminum tri-sec-butoxide Al(O s Bu) 3 , with different cerium contents, were deposited onto aluminum by dip-coating process. Corrosion resistance and mechanical properties were investigated by electrochemical impedance measurements and nano-indentation respectively. An optimal cerium concentration of 0.01 M was evidenced. To correlate and explain the hybrid coating performances in relation to the cerium content, NMR experiments were performed. It has been shown that when the cerium concentration in the hybrid is higher than 0.01 M there are important modifications in the hybrid structure that account for the mechanical properties and anti-corrosion behavior of the sol–gel coating.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of eumelanin-based hybrids: The role of TiO{sub 2} in modulating the structure and biological performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitiello, Giuseppe [Department of Chemical, Materials and Production Engineering, University of Naples “Federico II”, p.le V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Naples (Italy); CSGI, Consorzio Interuniversitario per lo Sviluppo dei Sistemi a Grande Interfase, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Florence (Italy); Pezzella, Alessandro [Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples “Federico II” via Cintia 4, 80126 Naples (Italy); Institute for Polymers, Composites and Biomaterials (IPCB), CNR, Via Campi Flegrei 34, 80078 Pozzuoli (Italy); Zanfardino, Anna [Department of Biology, University of Naples “Federico II” via Cintia 4, 80126 Naples (Italy); Silvestri, Brigida [Department of Chemical, Materials and Production Engineering, University of Naples “Federico II”, p.le V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Naples (Italy); Giudicianni, Paola [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione, Centro Nazionale delle Ricerche IRC-CNR, via Claudio, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Costantini, Aniello [Department of Chemical, Materials and Production Engineering, University of Naples “Federico II”, p.le V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Naples (Italy); Varcamonti, Mario [Department of Biology, University of Naples “Federico II” via Cintia 4, 80126 Naples (Italy); Branda, Francesco [Department of Chemical, Materials and Production Engineering, University of Naples “Federico II”, p.le V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Naples (Italy); Luciani, Giuseppina, E-mail: giuseppina.luciani@unina.it [Department of Chemical, Materials and Production Engineering, University of Naples “Federico II”, p.le V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Naples (Italy)

    2017-06-01

    Eco-friendly hybrid Eumelanin-TiO{sub 2} nanostructures, recently obtained through in situ methodology based on hydrothermal route, have shown a striking antimicrobial activity, after exposure to oxidative environment, even under visible light induction condition. Nevertheless, the role of each component in defining the efficacy of these biological properties is far from being clearly defined. Furthermore, the effect of oxidative step on hybrids structure has not yet addressed. This study aims at elucidating the role of the ratio between eumelanin precursor, 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (DHICA), and TiO{sub 2}, for its polymerization in defining morphology and structural organization of TiO{sub 2}-melanin nanostructures. Furthermore, tests on a Gram-negative Escherichia coli DH5α strain under UV irradiation and even visible light allowed to assess the contribution of each component, as well as of the TiO{sub 2}–DHICA charge transfer complex to overall biological performance. Finally, results of biocide characterization were combined with spectroscopic evidences to prove that oxidative treatment induces a marked structural modification in melanin thus enhancing overall antimicrobial efficacy. - Highlights: • Eco-friendly hybrid Eumelanin-TiO{sub 2} nanostructures shows striking antimicrobial activity under visible light. • TiO{sub 2} catalyzes 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (DHICA) polymerization to eumelanin. • Eumelanin precursor/catalyst ratio modulates physico-chemical and structural properties of hybrid nanostructures. • Oxidative treatment increases the reticulation grade of the polymeric chains within the nanoparticles. • Additional oxidative process of the eumelanin pigment strongly improves the antimicrobial activity of hybrids.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of eumelanin-based hybrids: The role of TiO2 in modulating the structure and biological performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitiello, Giuseppe; Pezzella, Alessandro; Zanfardino, Anna; Silvestri, Brigida; Giudicianni, Paola; Costantini, Aniello; Varcamonti, Mario; Branda, Francesco; Luciani, Giuseppina

    2017-01-01

    Eco-friendly hybrid Eumelanin-TiO 2 nanostructures, recently obtained through in situ methodology based on hydrothermal route, have shown a striking antimicrobial activity, after exposure to oxidative environment, even under visible light induction condition. Nevertheless, the role of each component in defining the efficacy of these biological properties is far from being clearly defined. Furthermore, the effect of oxidative step on hybrids structure has not yet addressed. This study aims at elucidating the role of the ratio between eumelanin precursor, 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (DHICA), and TiO 2 , for its polymerization in defining morphology and structural organization of TiO 2 -melanin nanostructures. Furthermore, tests on a Gram-negative Escherichia coli DH5α strain under UV irradiation and even visible light allowed to assess the contribution of each component, as well as of the TiO 2 –DHICA charge transfer complex to overall biological performance. Finally, results of biocide characterization were combined with spectroscopic evidences to prove that oxidative treatment induces a marked structural modification in melanin thus enhancing overall antimicrobial efficacy. - Highlights: • Eco-friendly hybrid Eumelanin-TiO 2 nanostructures shows striking antimicrobial activity under visible light. • TiO 2 catalyzes 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (DHICA) polymerization to eumelanin. • Eumelanin precursor/catalyst ratio modulates physico-chemical and structural properties of hybrid nanostructures. • Oxidative treatment increases the reticulation grade of the polymeric chains within the nanoparticles. • Additional oxidative process of the eumelanin pigment strongly improves the antimicrobial activity of hybrids.

  13. Protein Tertiary Structure Prediction Based on Main Chain Angle Using a Hybrid Bees Colony Optimization Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Zakaria N.; Mahmuddin, Massudi; Mahmood, Mohammed Nooraldeen

    Encoding proteins of amino acid sequence to predict classified into their respective families and subfamilies is important research area. However for a given protein, knowing the exact action whether hormonal, enzymatic, transmembranal or nuclear receptors does not depend solely on amino acid sequence but on the way the amino acid thread folds as well. This study provides a prototype system that able to predict a protein tertiary structure. Several methods are used to develop and evaluate the system to produce better accuracy in protein 3D structure prediction. The Bees Optimization algorithm which inspired from the honey bees food foraging method, is used in the searching phase. In this study, the experiment is conducted on short sequence proteins that have been used by the previous researches using well-known tools. The proposed approach shows a promising result.

  14. Broadband Emission in Two-Dimensional Hybrid Perovskites: The Role of Structural Deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortecchia, Daniele; Neutzner, Stefanie; Srimath Kandada, Ajay Ram; Mosconi, Edoardo; Meggiolaro, Daniele; De Angelis, Filippo; Soci, Cesare; Petrozza, Annamaria

    2017-01-11

    Only a selected group of two-dimensional (2D) lead-halide perovskites shows a peculiar broad-band photoluminescence. Here we show that the structural distortions of the perovskite lattice can determine the defectivity of the material by modulating the defect formation energies. By selecting and comparing two archetype systems, namely, (NBT) 2 PbI 4 and (EDBE)PbI 4 perovskites (NBT = n-butylammonium and EDBE = 2,2-(ethylenedioxy)bis(ethylammonium)), we find that only the latter, subject to larger deformation of the Pb-X bond length and X-Pb-X bond angles, sees the formation of V F color centers whose radiative decay ultimately leads to broadened PL. These findings highlight the importance of structural engineering to control the optoelectronic properties of this class of soft materials.

  15. Hybrid inorganic–organic superlattice structures with atomic layer deposition/molecular layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tynell, Tommi; Yamauchi, Hisao; Karppinen, Maarit, E-mail: maarit.karppinen@aalto.fi [Department of Chemistry, Aalto University, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland)

    2014-01-15

    A combination of the atomic layer deposition (ALD) and molecular layer deposition (MLD) techniques is successfully employed to fabricate thin films incorporating superlattice structures that consist of single layers of organic molecules between thicker layers of ZnO. Diethyl zinc and water are used as precursors for the deposition of ZnO by ALD, while three different organic precursors are investigated for the MLD part: hydroquinone, 4-aminophenol and 4,4′-oxydianiline. The successful superlattice formation with all the organic precursors is verified through x-ray reflectivity studies. The effects of the interspersed organic layers/superlattice structure on the electrical and thermoelectric properties of ZnO are investigated through resistivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements at room temperature. The results suggest an increase in carrier concentration for small concentrations of organic layers, while higher concentrations seem to lead to rather large reductions in carrier concentration.

  16. Understanding twinning nucleation and dislocation core structure through interscale hybrid method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Ben; Zhang, Xiaodan

    2014-01-01

    The variety of emerging simulation methods and improved computational power advance the understanding in nanometals as a good compensation of the experiments. In this paper, the first principle methods are discussed, especially as a useful combination of the classical molecular dynamics, to overc......, to overcome the disadvantages of the latter method. Two examples are given as: the nucleation of the {10-12} deformation twinning in magnesium, and the screw dislocation core structure with/without hydrogen in tungsten....

  17. Extending lead-free hybrid photovoltaic materials to new structures: thiazolium, aminothiazolium and imidazolium iodobismuthates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianyue; Wang, Qifei; Nichol, Gary S; Morrison, Carole A; Han, Hongwei; Hu, Yue; Robertson, Neil

    2018-05-09

    We report on the synthesis, crystal structures, optoelectronic properties and solar cell device studies of three novel organic-inorganic iodobismuthates - [C3H4NS]3[Bi2I9] ([TH]3[Bi2I9]), [C3H4N2]3[Bi2I9] ([IM]3[Bi2I9]) and [C3H5N2S][BiI4] ([AT][BiI4]) as lead-free light harvesters. [TH]3[Bi2I9] and [IM]3[Bi2I9] show zero-dimensional structures, whereas a one-dimensional edge-sharing chain structure of BiI6-octahedra was observed in [AT][BiI4], with interchain short II contacts also giving rise to the possibility of three-dimensional charge transport ability. Accordingly, greater energy dispersion in the band structure of [AT][BiI4] can be observed, and less contribution from the organic moities at the conduction band minimum in [AT][BiI4] than [TH]3[Bi2I9] have been confirmed by density functional theory calculations. Moreover, bandgap values are redshifted from 2.08 eV for [TH]3[Bi2I9] and 2.00 eV for [IM]3[Bi2I9] to 1.78 eV for [AT][BiI4], determined by UV-Vis reflectance spectroscopy. Power conversion efficiency of 0.47% has been achieved by using ([AT][BiI4]) as the light absorber in a hole-conductor-free, fully printable solar cell, with relatively good reproducibility. We also note the observation of a capacitance effect for the first time in a photovoltaic device with bismuth-based solar absorber, which may be related to the mesoporous carbon counter-electrode.

  18. Simple structured hybrid WOLEDs based on incomplete energy transfer mechanism: from blue exciplex to orange dopant

    OpenAIRE

    Tianyou Zhang; Bo Zhao; Bei Chu; Wenlian Li; Zisheng Su; Xingwu Yan; Chengyuan Liu; Hairuo Wu; Yuan Gao; Fangming Jin; Fuhua Hou

    2015-01-01

    Exciplex is well known as a charge transfer state formed between electron-donating and electron-accepting molecules. However, exciplex based organic light emitting diodes (OLED) often performed low efficiencies relative to pure phosphorescent OLED and could hardly be used to construct white OLED (WOLED). In this work, a new mechanism is developed to realize efficient WOLED with extremely simple structure by redistributing the energy of triplet exciplex to both singlet exciplex and the orange ...

  19. Magnetic characterisation of large grain, bulk Y–Ba–Cu–O superconductor–soft ferromagnetic alloy hybrid structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippe, M.P.; Fagnard, J.-F.; Kirsch, S.; Xu, Z.; Dennis, A.R.; Shi, Y.-H.; Cardwell, D.A.; Vanderheyden, B.; Vanderbemden, P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Large grain, bulk YBaCuO superconductor (SC) combined with ferromagnetic elements. • The flux lines curve outwards through the ferromagnet in the remanent state. • The trapped field in the SC is enhanced by the presence of the ferromagnet. • The effects of the SC and the ferromagnet add when the ferromagnet is saturated. - Abstract: Large grain, bulk Y–Ba–Cu–O (YBCO) high temperature superconductors (HTS) have significant potential for use in a variety of practical applications that incorporate powerful quasi-permanent magnets. In the present work, we investigate how the trapped field of such magnets can be improved by combining bulk YBCO with a soft FeNi, ferromagnetic alloy. This involves machining the alloy into components of various shapes, such as cylinders and rings, which are attached subsequently to the top surface of a solid, bulk HTS cylinder. The effect of these modifications on the magnetic hysteresis curve and trapped field of the bulk superconductor at 77 K are then studied using pick-up coil and Hall probe measurements. The experimental data are compared to finite element modelling of the magnetic flux distribution using Campbell’s algorithm. Initially we establish the validity of the technique involving pick-up coils wrapped around the bulk superconductor to obtain its magnetic hysteresis curve in a non-destructive way and highlight the difference between the measured signal and the true magnetization of the sample. We then consider the properties of hybrid ferromagnet/superconductor (F/S) structures. Hall probe measurements, together with the results of the model, establish that flux lines curve outwards through the ferromagnet, which acts, effectively, like a magnetic short circuit. Magnetic hysteresis curves show that the effects of the superconductor and the ferromagnet simply add when the ferromagnet is saturated fully by the applied field. The trapped field of the hybrid structure is always larger than that of the

  20. Thermoelectric-pyroelectric hybrid energy generation from thermopower waves in core-shell structured carbon nanotube-PZT nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Taehan; Hwang, Hayoung; Shin, Dongjoon; Seo, Byungseok; Choi, Wonjoon

    2017-02-10

    There is an urgent need to develop a suitable energy source owing to the rapid development of various innovative devices using micro-nanotechnology. The thermopower wave (TW), which produces a high specific power during the combustion of solid fuel inside micro-nanostructure materials, is a unique energy source for unusual platforms that cannot use conventional energy sources. Here, we report on the significant enhancement of hybrid energy generation of pyroelectrics and thermoelectrics from TWs in carbon nanotube (CNT)-PZT (lead zirconate titanate, P(Z 0.5 -T 0.5 )) composites for the first time. Conventional TWs use only charge carrier transport driven by the temperature gradient along the core materials to produce voltage. In this study, a core-shell structure of CNTs-PZTs was prepared to utilize both the temperature gradient along the core material (thermoelectrics) and the dynamic change in the temperature of the shell structure (pyroelectrics) induced by TWs. The dual mechanism of energy generation in CNT-PZT composites amplified the average peak and duration of the voltage up to 403 mV and 612 ms, respectively, by a factor of 2 and 60 times those for the composites without a PZT layer. Furthermore, dynamic voltage measurements and structural analysis in repetitive TWs confirmed that CNT-PZT composites maintain the original performance in multiple TWs, which improves the reusability of materials. The advanced TWs obtained by the application of a PZT layer as a pyroelectric material contributes to the extension of the usable energy portion as well as the development of TW-based operating devices.

  1. Structured nanoporous surfaces from hybrid block copolymer micelle films with metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Minsoo P; Yi, Gi-Ra; Kim, Hyeong Jun; Kim, Bumjoon J

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel method for producing structured nanoporous thin films using block copolymer (BCP) micelles loaded with metallic ions. The BCP micellar thin films containing gold (Au) ions were prepared by spin-coating poly(styrene-block-4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) micelle solutions in which Au precursors (AuCl 4 − ) were selectively loaded onto the P4VP core. When the micellar films were exposed to cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) solutions, the Au precursors were selectively extracted from the P4VP domains due to their strong electrostatic interaction with CTAB, leading to the formation of pores in the micelles. Consequently, regularly patterned nanoporous surfaces were formed. By controlling the molecular weight (M n ) of PS-b-P4VP and the amount of Au precursors (λ) that were loaded in the P4VP domains, the pore size and depth could be tuned precisely. In particular, when a sufficient amount of Au precursors was loaded (λ  ≥ 0.3), the porous surface nanostructure was well developed. In addition, the pore size and depth of the nanostructure increased as the λ value increased. For instance, when the λ value increased from 0.3 to 1.0, the pore size increased from 22.8 nm to 28.8 nm, and the pore depth increased from 2.1 nm to 3.2 nm. Interestingly, the transition from the nonporous structures to the porous structures in the micellar film could be reversibly controlled by adding and removing the Au precursors in the film. Moreover, our method for the preparation of nanoporous films can be extended to micellar film by incorporating other metal ions such as silver (Ag) and iron (Fe). (paper)

  2. Structures and luminescent properties of new uranyl-based hybrid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severance, R.C.; Vaughn, S.A.; Smith, M.D.; Hans-Conrad zur, Loye [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of South Carolina, 631 Sumter Street, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    Six uranyl coordination compounds, UO{sub 2}(OH)(PYCA) (1), UO{sub 2}(PYCA){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O).2H{sub 2}O (2), UO{sub 2}(PIC){sub 2} (3), UO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(NIC){sub 2} (4), UO{sub 2}(OH)(HINIC)(INIC) (5), and UO{sub 2}(PYTAC){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} (6) were grown as single crystals via hydrothermal synthesis (PYCA - pyrazine-2-carboxylate, PIC - picolinate, NIC - nicotinate, INIC - iso-nicotinate, and PYTAC - 2-(pyridin-4-yl)thiazole-5-carboxylate) to study their optical properties. All six compounds have been identified via single crystal X-ray diffraction and fully characterized via powder X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Three of the complexes, 1, 3, and 6, represent new structures, and their synthesis and structural characterization is detailed within. The structures of 2, 4, and 5 have previously been reported in the literature. Coordination polymer 1 crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pca21 (a = 13.5476(5) Angstroms, b = 6.6047(2) Angstroms, c = 8.3458(3) Angstroms), and forms infinite 1-D chains of corner-sharing uranium polyhedra connected into 2-D layers by bridging ligands. Coordination polymer 3 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group Cc (a = 8.4646(8) Angstroms, b = 13.0357(11) Angstroms, c = 11.8955(10) Angstroms, {beta} = 96.815(2) degrees), and forms ligand-bridged 1-D chains. Complex 6 crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-1 (a = 5.6272(7) Angstroms, b = 8.9568(10) Angstroms, c = 10.4673(12) Angstroms, {alpha} 90.508(2) degrees, {beta} = 104.194(2) degrees, {gamma} = 91.891(2) Angstroms), and consists of isolated uranyl complexes connected via hydrogen bonds. The structures and luminescent properties of UO{sub 2}(OH)(PYCA) (1), UO{sub 2}(PYCA){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O).2H{sub 2}O (2), UO{sub 2}(PIC){sub 2} (3), UO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(NIC){sub 2} (4), UO{sub 2}(OH)(HINIC)(INIC) (5), and UO{sub 2}(PYTAC){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} (6) are discussed. (authors)

  3. Photovoltaic performance of hybrid ITO/PEDOT:PSS/n-SnS/Al solar cell structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Priyal; Arun, P.

    2016-07-01

    The present paper discusses the performance of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/n-SnS/Al structured solar cells fabricated by thermal evaporation. The performance characterizing parameters such as the open circuit voltage, short circuit current density, series resistance, parallel resistance, ideality factor and the overall efficiency were found to be dependent on the SnS grain size in the nano-meter regime and incident light intensity. The experimental work directly reconfirms the theoretical results and ideas raised in the literature by early researchers.

  4. Identification of Persistent RNA-DNA Hybrid Structures within the Origin of Replication of Human Cytomegalovirus

    OpenAIRE

    Prichard, Mark N.; Jairath, Sanju; Penfold, Mark E. T.; Jeor, Stephen St.; Bohlman, Marlene C.; Pari, Gregory S.

    1998-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) lytic-phase DNA replication initiates at the cis-acting origin of replication, oriLyt. oriLyt is a structurally complex region containing repeat elements and transcription factor binding sites. We identified two site-specific alkali-labile regions within oriLyt which flank an alkali-resistant DNA segment. These alkali-sensitive regions were the result of the degradation of two RNA species embedded within oriLyt and covalently linked to viral DNA. The virus-associa...

  5. Ionocovalency and Applications 1. Ionocovalency Model and Orbital Hybrid Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghe Zhang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Ionocovalency (IC, a quantitative dual nature of the atom, is defined and correlated with quantum-mechanical potential to describe quantitatively the dual properties of the bond. Orbiotal hybrid IC model scale, IC, and IC electronegativity scale, XIC, are proposed, wherein the ionicity and the covalent radius are determined by spectroscopy. Being composed of the ionic function I and the covalent function C, the model describes quantitatively the dual properties of bond strengths, charge density and ionic potential. Based on the atomic electron configuration and the various quantum-mechanical built-up dual parameters, the model formed a Dual Method of the multiple-functional prediction, which has much more versatile and exceptional applications than traditional electronegativity scales and molecular properties. Hydrogen has unconventional values of IC and XIC, lower than that of boron. The IC model can agree fairly well with the data of bond properties and satisfactorily explain chemical observations of elements throughout the Periodic Table.

  6. Surface Electronic Structure of Hybrid Organo Lead Bromide Perovskite Single Crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Komesu, Takashi

    2016-08-24

    The electronic structure and band dispersion of methylammonium lead bromide, CH3NH3PbBr3, has been investigated through a combination of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and inverse photoemission spectroscopy (IPES), as well as theoretical modeling based on density functional theory. The experimental band structures are consistent with the density functional calculations. The results demonstrate the presence of a dispersive valence band in MAPbBr3 that peaks at the M point of the surface Brillouin zone. The results also indicate that the surface termination of the CH3NH3PbBr3 is the methylammonium bromide (CH3NH3Br) layer. We find our results support models that predict a heavier hole effective mass in the region of -0.23 to -0.26 me, along the Γ (surface Brillouin center) to M point of the surface Brillouin zone. The surface appears to be n-type as a result of an excess of lead in the surface region. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  7. Probing Dominant Negative Behavior of Glucocorticoid Receptor β through a Hybrid Structural and Biochemical Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Jungki; Perera, Lalith; Krahn, Juno M.; Jewell, Christine M.; Moon, Andrea F.; Cidlowski, John A.; Pedersen, Lars C.

    2018-02-05

    ABSTRACT

    Glucocorticoid receptor β (GRβ) is associated with glucocorticoid resistance via dominant negative regulation of GRα. To better understand how GRβ functions as a dominant negative inhibitor of GRα at a molecular level, we determined the crystal structure of the ligand binding domain of GRβ complexed with the antagonist RU-486. The structure reveals that GRβ binds RU-486 in the same ligand binding pocket as GRα, and the unique C-terminal amino acids of GRβ are mostly disordered. Binding energy analysis suggests that these C-terminal residues of GRβ do not contribute to RU-486 binding. Intriguingly, the GRβ/RU-486 complex binds corepressor peptide with affinity similar to that of a GRα/RU-486 complex, despite the lack of helix 12. Our biophysical and biochemical analyses reveal that in the presence of RU-486, GRβ is found in a conformation that favors corepressor binding, potentially antagonizing GRα function. This study thus presents an unexpected molecular mechanism by which GRβ could repress transcription.

  8. Hybrid structure of polyaniline/ZnO nanograss and its application in dye-sensitized solar cell with performance improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Shibu; Wei Wei; Chen Xiangnan [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); Jiang Man, E-mail: jiangman1021@163.com [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); Zhou Zuowan, E-mail: zwzhou@at-c.net [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China)

    2012-06-15

    Polyaniline (PANI) hybridized ZnO photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was primarily prepared via a two-step process which involved hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanograss on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate and subsequently chemisorption of PANI on the surfaces of the ZnO nanorods. The PANI hybridized ZnO nanograss films were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), and the results indicated that there were chemical interactions between PANI and ZnO. Both pure ZnO nanograss and PANI hybridized ZnO nanograss were applied to DSSC. The results of photoelectrochemical measurement showed that the photocurrent density of PANI (100 mg/L) hybridized ZnO nanograss photoanode was significantly enhanced, and the overall light-conversion efficiency increased by 60%. The electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) displayed that the electron densities in photoanodes of PANI hybridized ZnO nanograss were larger than that in pure ZnO nanograss. This is ascribed to more effective charge separation and faster interfacial charge transferring occurred in the hybrid photoanode. - Graphical abstract: Operational principle of the DSSC: the introduced hybridizing PANI layer performs effective charge separation and faster interfacial charge transferring. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PANI/ZnO nanograss hybrid materials as photoanode in Dye-sensitized solar cell. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photoelectric conversion efficiency after hybridization was enhanced by 60%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PANI hybridizing ZnO nanograss induced a rapid charge separation.

  9. Hybrid structure of polyaniline/ZnO nanograss and its application in dye-sensitized solar cell with performance improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shibu; Wei Wei; Chen Xiangnan; Jiang Man; Zhou Zuowan

    2012-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) hybridized ZnO photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was primarily prepared via a two-step process which involved hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanograss on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate and subsequently chemisorption of PANI on the surfaces of the ZnO nanorods. The PANI hybridized ZnO nanograss films were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), and the results indicated that there were chemical interactions between PANI and ZnO. Both pure ZnO nanograss and PANI hybridized ZnO nanograss were applied to DSSC. The results of photoelectrochemical measurement showed that the photocurrent density of PANI (100 mg/L) hybridized ZnO nanograss photoanode was significantly enhanced, and the overall light-conversion efficiency increased by 60%. The electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) displayed that the electron densities in photoanodes of PANI hybridized ZnO nanograss were larger than that in pure ZnO nanograss. This is ascribed to more effective charge separation and faster interfacial charge transferring occurred in the hybrid photoanode. - Graphical abstract: Operational principle of the DSSC: the introduced hybridizing PANI layer performs effective charge separation and faster interfacial charge transferring. Highlights: ► PANI/ZnO nanograss hybrid materials as photoanode in Dye-sensitized solar cell. ► Photoelectric conversion efficiency after hybridization was enhanced by 60%. ► PANI hybridizing ZnO nanograss induced a rapid charge separation.

  10. The Search for Wolf-Rayet Stars in IC10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, Katie; Crowther, Paul; Archer, Isabelle

    2017-11-01

    We present a deep imaging and spectroscopic survey of the Local Group starburst galaxy IC10 using Gemini North/GMOS to unveil the global Wolf-Rayet population. It has previously been suggested that for IC10 to follow the WC/WN versus metallicity dependence seen in other Local Group galaxies, a large WN population must remain undiscovered. Our search revealed 3 new WN stars, and 5 candidates awaiting confirmation, providing little evidence to support this claim. We also compute an updated nebular derived metallicity of log(O/H)+12=8.40 +/- 0.04 for the galaxy using the direct method. Inspection of IC10 WR average line luminosities show these stars are more similar to their LMC, rather than SMC counterparts.

  11. Structure characterization, photoluminescence and dielectric properties of a new hybrid compound containing chlorate anions of zincate (II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassoued, Mohamed Saber; Abdelbaky, Mohammed S. M.; Ben Soltan, Wissem; Lassoued, Abdelmajid; Ammar, Salah; Gadri, Abdellatif; Ben Salah, Abdelhamid; García-Granda, Santiago

    2018-04-01

    A new hybrid compound, bis (2-aminophenylenamonium) tetrachlorozincate (II), was synthesized and formulated as (C6H9N2)2ZnCl4. Its crystal structure was solved by single crystal X-ray diffraction reveling that compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group C2/c (N°: 15) with cell parameters a = 7.4957(4) Å, b = 25.6837(15) Å, c = 9.4041(5) Å, β = 94.35(0)°, V = 1805.23(45) Å3. Their atomic arrangement can be described as an alternation of inorganic and organic layers, [ZnCl4]2- tetrahedral anions and 2-aminophenylenamonium cations. The cohesion of the atomic arrangement is ensured by hydrogen bonds (strong Nsbnd H⋯N and weak Nsbnd H⋯Cl) and π-π stacking interactions between identical antiparallel organic moieties. In optical transmission and photoluminescence measurements, this material exhibit two absorption bands (253 and 316 nm) and a strong emission line (390 nm), while the thermal analysis disclosed a phase transition at 420-445 K previously to the sample decomposition at 476 K. Finally, electrical measurements were performed to discuss the phase-transition mechanism.

  12. A hybrid classroom-online curriculum format for RN-BSN students: cohort support and curriculum structure improve graduation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Susan C; Metzger, Richard; Lindgren, Katherine S

    2011-05-01

    As more registered nurses (RNs) return to school to obtain a bachelor of science in nursing (BSN), innovative ways must be found to support them in this endeavor. Barriers for RNs who return to school include scheduling of coursework and fear of failure. One school of nursing with a traditional BSN program reviewed its RN-BSN track, with its low retention and graduation rates. With input from nursing leaders and nurses in the community, the school applied for and was awarded a 3-year Health Resources and Services Administration grant to redesign the RN-BSN program. A hybrid classroom-online curriculum is offered in a structured, sequential format so that the RNs are admitted once a year and must complete the courses as a group, in a cohort. Data collected from evaluations showed that program support, technology support, and social support from peers encouraged the RNs to "stay the course," and 100% completed the requirements to graduate. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Polyamidoamine-Decorated Nanodiamonds as a Hybrid Gene Delivery Vector and siRNA Structural Characterization at the Charged Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dae Gon; Rajasekaran, Nirmal; Lee, Dukhee; Kim, Nam Ah; Jung, Hun Soon; Hong, Sungyoul; Shin, Young Kee; Kang, Eunah; Jeong, Seong Hoon

    2017-09-20

    Nanodiamonds have been discovered as a new exogenous material source in biomedical applications. As a new potent form of nanodiamond (ND), polyamidoamine-decorated nanodiamonds (PAMAM-NDs) were prepared for E7 or E6 oncoprotein-suppressing siRNA gene delivery for high risk human papillomavirus-induced cervical cancer, such as types 16 and 18. It is critical to understand the physicochemical properties of siRNA complexes immobilized on cationic solid ND surfaces in the aspect of biomolecular structural and conformational changes, as the new inert carbon material can be extended into the application of a gene delivery vector. A spectral study of siRNA/PAMAM-ND complexes using differential scanning calorimetry and circular dichroism spectroscopy proved that the hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions between siRNA and PAMAM-NDs decreased endothermic heat capacity. Moreover, siRNA/PAMAM-ND complexes showed low cell cytotoxicity and significant suppressing effects for forward target E6 and E7 oncogenic genes, proving functional and therapeutic efficacy. The cellular uptake of siRNA/PAMAM-ND complexes at 8 h was visualized by macropinocytes and direct endosomal escape of the siRNA/PAMAM-ND complexes. It is presumed that PAMAM-NDs provided a buffering cushion to adjust the pH and hard mechanical stress to escape endosomes. siRNA/PAMAM-ND complexes provide a potential organic/inorganic hybrid material source for gene delivery carriers.

  14. New hybrid magnet system for structure research at highest magnetic fields and temperatures in the millikelvin region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeibidl, Peter; Ehmler, Hartmut; Tennant, Alan; Bird, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The Helmholtz Centre Berlin (HZB) is a user facility for the study of structure and dynamics with neutrons and synchrotron radiation with special emphasis on experiments under extreme conditions. Neutron scattering is uniquely suited to study magnetic properties on a microscopic length scale, because neutrons have comparable wavelengths and, due to their magnetic moment, they interact with the atomic magnetic moments. At HZB a dedicated instrument for neutron scattering at extreme magnetic fields and low temperatures is under construction, the Extreme Environment Diffractometer ExED. It is projected according to the time-of-flight principle for elastic and inelastic neutron scattering and for the special geometric constraints of analysing samples in a high field magnet. The new hybrid magnet will not only allow for novel experiments, it will be at the forefront of development in magnet technology itself. With a set of superconducting and resistive coils a maximum field above 30 T will be possible. To compromise between the needs of the magnet design for highest fields and the concept of the neutron instrument, the magnetic field will be generated by means of a coned, resistive inner solenoid and a superconducting outer solenoid with horizontal field orientation. To allow for experiments down to Millikelvin Temperatures the installation of a 3 He or a dilution cryostat with a closed cycle precooling stage is foreseen.

  15. Selective Epitaxy of InP on Si and Rectification in Graphene/InP/Si Hybrid Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Gang; Capellini, Giovanni; Hatami, Fariba; Di Bartolomeo, Antonio; Niermann, Tore; Hussein, Emad Hameed; Schubert, Markus Andreas; Krause, Hans-Michael; Zaumseil, Peter; Skibitzki, Oliver; Lupina, Grzegorz; Masselink, William Ted; Lehmann, Michael; Xie, Ya-Hong; Schroeder, Thomas

    2016-10-12

    The epitaxial integration of highly heterogeneous material systems with silicon (Si) is a central topic in (opto-)electronics owing to device applications. InP could open new avenues for the realization of novel devices such as high-mobility transistors in next-generation CMOS or efficient lasers in Si photonics circuitry. However, the InP/Si heteroepitaxy is highly challenging due to the lattice (∼8%), thermal expansion mismatch (∼84%), and the different lattice symmetries. Here, we demonstrate the growth of InP nanocrystals showing high structural quality and excellent optoelectronic properties on Si. Our CMOS-compatible innovative approach exploits the selective epitaxy of InP nanocrystals on Si nanometric seeds obtained by the opening of lattice-arranged Si nanotips embedded in a SiO 2 matrix. A graphene/InP/Si-tip heterostructure was realized on obtained materials, revealing rectifying behavior and promising photodetection. This work presents a significant advance toward the monolithic integration of graphene/III-V based hybrid devices onto the mainstream Si technology platform.

  16. Interface Engineering with MoS2 -Pd Nanoparticles Hybrid Structure for a Low Voltage Resistive Switching Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Feng; Tian, He; Zhao, Hai-Ming; Zhang, Tian-Yu; Mao, Wei-Quan; Qiao, Yan-Cong; Pang, Yu; Li, Yu-Xing; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2018-01-01

    Metal oxide-based resistive random access memory (RRAM) has attracted a lot of attention for its scalability, temperature robustness, and potential to achieve machine learning. However, a thick oxide layer results in relatively high program voltage while a thin one causes large leakage current and a small window. Owing to these fundamental limitations, by optimizing the oxide layer itself a novel interface engineering idea is proposed to reduce the programming voltage, increase the uniformity and on/off ratio. According to this idea, a molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 )-palladium nanoparticles hybrid structure is used to engineer the oxide/electrode interface of hafnium oxide (HfO x )-based RRAM. Through its interface engineering, the set voltage can be greatly lowered (from -3.5 to -0.8 V) with better uniformity under a relatively thick HfO x layer (≈15 nm), and a 30 times improvement of the memory window can be obtained. Moreover, due to the atomic thickness of MoS 2 film and high transmittance of ITO, the proposed RRAM exhibits high transparency in visible light. As the proposed interface-engineering RRAM exhibits good transparency, low SET voltage, and a large resistive switching window, it has huge potential in data storage in transparent circuits and wearable electronics with relatively low supply voltage. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Facile fabrication of nano-structured silica hybrid film with superhydrophobicity by one-step VAFS approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yi; Yue, Renliang; Liu, Gang; Yang, Jie; Ni, Yong; Wu, Xiaofeng; Chen, Yunfa

    2013-01-01

    Here we report a novel one-step vapor-fed aerosol flame synthesis (VAFS) method to attain silica hybrid film with superhydrophobicity on normal glass and other engineering material substrates using hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) as precursor. The deposited nano-structured silica films represent excellent superhydrophobicity with contact angle larger than 150° and sliding angle below 5°, without any surface modification or other post treatments. SEM photographs proved that flame-made SiO2 nanoparticles formed dual-scale surface roughness on the substrates. It was confirmed by FTIR and XPS that the in situ formed organic fragments on the particle surface as species like (CH3)xSiO2-x/2 (x = 1, 2, 3) which progressively lowered the surface energy of fabricated films. Thus, these combined dual-scale roughness and lowered surface energy cooperatively produced superhydrophobic films. IR camera had been used to monitor the real-time flame temperature. It is found that the inert dilution gas inflow played a critical role in attaining superhydrophobicity due to its cooling and anti-oxidation effect. This method is facile and scalable for diverse substrates, without any requirement of complex equipments and multiple processing steps. It may contribute to the industrial fabrication of superhydrophobic films.

  18. Effects of B site doping on electronic structures of InNbO4 based on hybrid density functional calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, M. F.; Zhou, C. P.; Li, Q. Q.; Zhang, C. L.; Shi, H. F.

    2018-01-01

    In order to improve the photocatalytic activity under visible-light irradiation, we adopted first principle calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) to calculate the electronic structures of B site transition metal element doped InNbO4. The results indicated that the complete hybridization of Nb 4d states and some Ti 3d states contributed to the new conduction band of Ti doped InNbO4, barely changing the position of band edge. For Cr doping, some localized Cr 3d states were introduced into the band gap. Nonetheless, the potential of localized levels was too positive to cause visible-light reaction. When it came to Cu doping, the band gap was almost same with that of InNbO4 as well as some localized Cu 3d states appeared above the top of VB. The introduction of localized energy levels benefited electrons to migrate from valence band (VB) to conduction band (CB) by absorbing lower energy photons, realizing visible-light response.

  19. Check of hybrid structures and lightweight construction materials. Usage of 3D-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szepanski, Kamil David [Hachtel Werkzeugbau GmbH und Co.KG, Aalen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Lightweight structures and modern methods of generating samples require in most cases non-destructive-testing to verify their state. They often must not be destroyed for initial testing as they are unique and irreplaceable. So computed tomography serves well as the sample is not being touched or manipulated for the analysis. Meanwhile in-situ testing of stable stress situations, for example pressure and tension is available and gives insight where only the measured data were before. This allows the identification of seeds for failure. The production process can be recorded also within the sample and not only its surface. We demonstrate detectable defects in carbon reinforced plastic parts, laser sintered metal parts and an example for optimizing the process of printing a plastic part for function.

  20. Check of hybrid structures and lightweight construction materials. Usage of 3D-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szepanski, Kamil David

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight structures and modern methods of generating samples require in most cases non-destructive-testing to verify their state. They often must not be destroyed for initial testing as they are unique and irreplaceable. So computed tomography serves well as the sample is not being touched or manipulated for the analysis. Meanwhile in-situ testing of stable stress situations, for example pressure and tension is available and gives insight where only the measured data were before. This allows the identification of seeds for failure. The production process can be recorded also within the sample and not only its surface. We demonstrate detectable defects in carbon reinforced plastic parts, laser sintered metal parts and an example for optimizing the process of printing a plastic part for function.