WorldWideScience

Sample records for hybrid heat pump

  1. Development of a hybrid chemical/mechanical heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzyll, Lawrence R.; Silvestri, John J.; Scaringe, Robert P.

    1991-01-01

    The authors present the current development status of a hybrid chemical/mechanical heat pump for low-lift applications. The heat pump provides electronics cooling by evaporating a pure refrigerant from an absorbent/refrigerant mixture in a generator/cold plate. The current development focused on evaluation of absorbent/refrigerant pairs, corrosion testing, pump and compressor design, and electronic cold plate design. Two cycle configurations were considered. The first configuration utilized a standard mechanical compressor and pump. The second cycle configuration investigated pumps and compressors with non-moving parts. An innovative generator/cold plate design is also presented. The development to date shows that this cycle has about the same performance as standard vapor compression heat pumps with standard refrigerants but may have some performance and reliability advantages over vapor compression heat pumps.

  2. Development of a hybrid chemical/mechanical heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzyll, Lawrence R.; Silvestri, John J.; Scaringe, Robert P.

    1991-01-01

    The authors present the current development status of a hybrid chemical/mechanical heat pump for low-lift applications. The heat pump provides electronics cooling by evaporating a pure refrigerant from an absorbent/refrigerant mixture in a generator/cold plate. The current development focused on evaluation of absorbent/refrigerant pairs, corrosion testing, pump and compressor design, and electronic cold plate design. Two cycle configurations were considered. The first configuration utilized a standard mechanical compressor and pump. The second cycle configuration investigated pumps and compressors with non-moving parts. An innovative generator/cold plate design is also presented. The development to date shows that this cycle has about the same performance as standard vapor compression heat pumps with standard refrigerants but may have some performance and reliability advantages over vapor compression heat pumps.

  3. Affordable Hybrid Heat Pump Clothes Dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Butterfield, Andrew [Jabil, St. Petersburg, FL (United States); Caldwell, Dustin D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Crook, Alexander [Jabil, St. Petersburg, FL (United States)

    2016-06-30

    This project was successful in demonstrating the feasibility of a step change in residential clothes dryer energy efficiency by demonstrating heat pump technology capable of 50% energy savings over conventional standard-size electric dryers with comparable drying times. A prototype system was designed from off-the-shelf components that can meet the project’s efficiency goals and are affordable. An experimental prototype system was built based on the design that reached 50% energy savings. Improvements have been identified that will reduce drying times of over 60 minutes to reach the goal of 40 minutes. Nevertheless, the prototype represents a step change in efficiency over heat pump dryers recently introduced to the U.S. market, with 30% improvement in energy efficiency at comparable drying times.

  4. Performance of a hybrid chemical/mechanical heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, John J.; Scaringe, Robert P.; Grzyll, Lawrence R.

    1990-01-01

    The authors present the design and preliminary results of the performance of a hybrid chemical/mechanical, low-lift (20 C) heat pump. Studies have indicated that this heat pump has several advantages over the traditional single fluid vapor compression (reverse Rankine) heat pump. Included in these benefits are: 1) increased COPc due to the approximation of the cycle to the Lorenz cycle and due to the availability of the heat of solution, along with the heat of vaporization, to provide cooling; and 2) ease of variation in system cooling capacity by changing the fluid composition. The system performance is predicted for a variety of refrigerant-absorbent pairs. Cooling capacity is determined for systems operating with ammonia as the refrigerant and lithium nitrate and sodium thiocyanate as the absorbents and also with water as the refrigerant and magnesium chloride, potassium hydroxide, lithium bromide, sodium hydroxide, and sulfuric acid as the absorbents. Early indications have shown that the systems operating with water as the refrigerant operate at 2-4 times the capacity of the ammonia-refrigerant-based systems. Using existing working fluids in the proposed innovative design, a coefficient-of-performance improvement of 21 percent is possible when compared to the best vapor compression systems analyzed.

  5. Performance of a hybrid chemical/mechanical heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, John J.; Scaringe, Robert P.; Grzyll, Lawrence R.

    1990-01-01

    The authors present the design and preliminary results of the performance of a hybrid chemical/mechanical, low-lift (20 C) heat pump. Studies have indicated that this heat pump has several advantages over the traditional single fluid vapor compression (reverse Rankine) heat pump. Included in these benefits are: 1) increased COPc due to the approximation of the cycle to the Lorenz cycle and due to the availability of the heat of solution, along with the heat of vaporization, to provide cooling; and 2) ease of variation in system cooling capacity by changing the fluid composition. The system performance is predicted for a variety of refrigerant-absorbent pairs. Cooling capacity is determined for systems operating with ammonia as the refrigerant and lithium nitrate and sodium thiocyanate as the absorbents and also with water as the refrigerant and magnesium chloride, potassium hydroxide, lithium bromide, sodium hydroxide, and sulfuric acid as the absorbents. Early indications have shown that the systems operating with water as the refrigerant operate at 2-4 times the capacity of the ammonia-refrigerant-based systems. Using existing working fluids in the proposed innovative design, a coefficient-of-performance improvement of 21 percent is possible when compared to the best vapor compression systems analyzed.

  6. Technical and Economic Working Domains of Industrial Heat Pumps: Part 2 - Ammonia-Water Hybrid Absorption-Compression Heat Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2014-01-01

    The ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pump (HACHP) is a relevant technology for industrial heat supply, especially for high sink temperatures and high temperature glides in the sink and source. This is due to the reduced vapour pressure and the non-isothermal phase change...... of the zeotropic mixture, ammonia-water. To evaluate to which extent these advantages can be translated into feasible heat pump solutions, the working domain of the HACHP is investigated based on technical and economic constraints. The HACHP working domain is compared to that of the best possible vapour...... compression heat pump with natural working fluids. This shows that the HACHP increases the temperature lifts and heat supply temperatures that are feasible to produce with a heat pump. The HACHP is shown to be capable of delivering heat supply temperatures as high as 140 XC and temperature lifts up to 60 K...

  7. Technical and economic working domains of industrial heat pumps: Part 2 - ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2015-01-01

    The ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pump (HACHP) has been proposed as a relevant technology for industrial heat supply, especially for high sink temperatures and high temperature glides in the sink and source. This is due to the reduced vapour pressure and the non-isothermal phase...... change of the zeotropic mixture, ammonia-water. To evaluate to which extent these advantages can be translated into feasible heat pump solutions, the working domain of the HACHP is investigated based on technical and economic constraints. The HACHP working domain is compared to that of the best available...... vapour compression heat pump with natural working fluids. This shows that the HACHP increases the temperature lifts and heat supply temperatures that are feasible to produce with a heat pump. The HACHP is shown to be capable of delivering heat supply temperatures as high as 150 °C and temperature lifts...

  8. Demand Response Performance of GE Hybrid Heat Pump Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-07-01

    This report describes a project to evaluate and document the DR performance of HPWH as compared to ERWH for two primary types of DR events: peak curtailments and balancing reserves. The experiments were conducted with GE second-generation “Brillion”-enabled GeoSpring hybrid water heaters in the PNNL Lab Homes, with one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Standard” electric resistance mode to represent the baseline and one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Heat Pump” mode to provide the comparison to heat pump-only demand response. It is expected that “Hybrid” DR performance, which would engage both the heat pump and electric elements, could be interpolated from these two experimental extremes. Signals were sent simultaneously to the two water heaters in the side-by-side PNNL Lab Homes under highly controlled, simulated occupancy conditions. This report presents the results of the evaluation, which documents the demand-response capability of the GE GeoSpring HPWH for peak load reduction and regulation services. The sections describe the experimental protocol and test apparatus used to collect data, present the baselining procedure, discuss the results of the simulated DR events for the HPWH and ERWH, and synthesize key conclusions based on the collected data.

  9. Simulation of Hybrid Photovoltaic Solar Assisted Loop Heat Pipe/Heat Pump System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nannan Dai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid photovoltaic solar assisted loop heat pipe/heat pump (PV-SALHP/HP water heater system has been developed and numerically studied. The system is the combination of loop heat pipe (LHP mode and heat pump (HP mode, and the two modes can be run separately or compositely according to the weather conditions. The performances of independent heat pump (HP mode and hybrid loop heat pipe/heat pump (LHP/HP mode were simulated and compared. Simulation results showed that on typical sunny days in spring or autumn, using LHP/HP mode could save 40.6% power consumption than HP mode. In addition, the optimal switchover from LHP mode to HP mode was analyzed in different weather conditions for energy saving and the all-year round operating performances of the system were also simulated. The simulation results showed that hybrid LHP/HP mode should be utilized to save electricity on sunny days from March to November and the system can rely on LHP mode alone without any power consumption in July and August. When solar radiation and ambient temperature are low in winter, HP mode should be used

  10. On the development of high temperature ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Reinholdt, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pumps (HACHP) are a promising technology for development of ecient high temperature industrial heat pumps. Using 28 bar components HACHPs up to 100 °C are commercially available. Components developed for 50 bar and 140 bar show that these pressure...

  11. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Macmichael, DBA

    1988-01-01

    A fully revised and extended account of the design, manufacture and use of heat pumps in both industrial and domestic applications. Topics covered include a detailed description of the various heat pump cycles, the components of a heat pump system - drive, compressor, heat exchangers etc., and the more practical considerations to be taken into account in their selection.

  12. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Brodowicz, Kazimierz; Wyszynski, M L; Wyszynski

    2013-01-01

    Heat pumps and related technology are in widespread use in industrial processes and installations. This book presents a unified, comprehensive and systematic treatment of the design and operation of both compression and sorption heat pumps. Heat pump thermodynamics, the choice of working fluid and the characteristics of low temperature heat sources and their application to heat pumps are covered in detail.Economic aspects are discussed and the extensive use of the exergy concept in evaluating performance of heat pumps is a unique feature of the book. The thermodynamic and chemical properties o

  13. Performance of a Solar Heating System with Photovoltaic Thermal Hybrid Collectors and Heat Pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannemand, Mark; Furbo, Simon; Perers, Bengt

    2017-01-01

    . When the solar collectors are unable to supply the heat demand an auxiliary heat source is used. Heat pumps can generate this heat. Liquid/water heat pumps have better performance than air/water heat pumps in cold climates but requires installation of a tubing system for the cold side of the heat pump....... The tubes are typically placed in the ground, requires a significant land area and increase the installation cost. A new system design of a solar heating system with two storage tanks and a liquid/water heat pump is presented. The system consists of PVT collectors that generate both heat and electricity....... Heat from the collectors is transferred to a domestic hot water storage tank or to a cold storage tank, which is used as the source for the heat pump. When the heat pump charges the warm storage tank, heat is extracted from the cold storage tank, which then can be reheated by the PVT collectors...

  14. Hybrid heat pump technoloy for industrial waste heat; Concept hybride warmtepomp. Meer Industriele restwarmte herbruikbaar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Pal, M.; Van den Heuvel, K. [Energieonderzoek Centrum Nederland ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Infante Ferreira, C. [Technische Universiteit Delft TUD, Delft (Netherlands)

    2011-09-15

    ECN has recently started research on a hybrid adsorption-compression heat transformer concept. Using this technology low-temperature waste heat can be reused, yielding considerable primary energy savings. A study in cooperation with the Delft University of Technology shows the hybrid technology can already be used with waste heat temperatures of 70C, e.g. in the drying process in a paper factory. The technology is also economically feasible. [Dutch] ECN is onlangs begonnen met onderzoek naar hybride adsorptiecompressie warmtetransformatoren. Deze technologie kan worden gebruikt om restwarmte op te waarderen naar nuttige warmte. Hiermee kunnen grote besparingen worden behaald op primair energiegebruik. Een studie uitgevoerd in samenwerking met de TU Delft toont aan dat deze technologie bruikbaar is met restwarmte vanaf 70C, bijvoorbeeld van een papierfabfiek. Naast technologisch is de technologie ook economisch haalbaar gebleken.

  15. Performance evaluation and parametric optimization of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell/heat-driven heat pump hybrid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.; Chen, J. [Department of Physics, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2012-06-15

    With the help of the current models of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells and three-heat-source heat pumps, a generic model of a PEM fuel cell/heat-driven heat pump hybrid system is established, so that the waste heat produced in the PEM fuel cell may be availably utilized. Based on the theory of electrochemistry and non-equilibrium thermodynamics, expressions for the efficiency and power output of the PEM fuel cell, the coefficient of performance and rate of pumping heat of the heat-driven heat pump, and the equivalent efficiency and power output of the hybrid system are derived. The curves of the equivalent efficiency and power output of the hybrid system varying with the electric current density and the equivalent power output versus efficiency curves are represented through numerical calculation. The general performance characteristics of the hybrid system are analyzed. The optimally operating regions of some important parameters of the hybrid system are determined. The influence of some main irreversible losses on the performance of the hybrid system is discussed in detail. The advantages of the hybrid system are revealed. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. COMPARATIVE STUDY AMONG HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM, COMPLETE GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP AND CONVENTIONAL HVAC SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Zhu; Yong X. Tao

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, a hotel with hybrid geothermal heat pump system (HyGSHP) in the Pensacola is selected and simulated by the transient simulation software package TRNSYS [1]. To verify the simulation results, the validations are conducted by using the monthly average entering water temperature, monthly facility consumption data, and etc. And three types of HVAC systems are compared based on the same building model and HVAC system capacity. The results are presented to show the advantages and disadvantages of HyGSHP compared with the other two systems in terms of energy consumptions, life cycle cost analysis.

  17. Modeling and design of a high efficiency hybrid heat pump clothes dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward; Butterfield, Andrew; Caldwell, Dustin; Crook, Alexander; Winkelman, Austin

    2017-09-01

    Computational modeling is used to design a hybrid heat pump clothes dryer capable of saving 50% of the energy used by residential clothes dryers with comparable drying times. The model represents the various stages of a drying cycle from warm-up through constant drying rate and falling drying rate phases and finishing with a cooldown phase. The model is fit to data acquired from a U.S. commercial standard vented electric dryer, and when a hybrid heat pump system is added, the energy factor increases from 3.0 lbs/kWh to 5.7-6.0 lbs/kWh, depending on the increase in blower motor power. The hybrid heat pump system is designed from off-the-shelf components and includes a recuperative heat exchanger, an electric element, and an R-134a vapor compression heat pump. Parametric studies of element power and heating element use show a trade-off between energy savings and cycle time. Results show a step-change in energy savings from heat pump dryers currently marketed in the U.S. based on performance represented by Enery Star from standardized DOE testing.

  18. Development of dual-source hybrid heat pump system using groundwater and air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Yujin; Ooka, Ryozo [Cw403 Institute of Industry Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Shiba, Yoshiro [Zeneral Heatpump Industry Co., Ltd., Nagoya 459-8001 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    To achieve high heat pump efficiency, groundwater heat pump (GWHP) system uses groundwater, which is relatively stable AT temperature compared with outdoor air, as a heat source. However, it is difficult to meet annual heating and cooling loads using only groundwater as a heat source. In order to optimize the operation method of GWHP systems, it is necessary to develop a system utilizing both groundwater and air sources according to the building load conditions. Furthermore, during intermediate seasons (such as spring and autumn) with reduced heating and cooling loads, GWHP system is less efficient than air source heat pump (ASHP) system according to temperature conditions. In order to more efficiently use GWHP systems, it is necessary to develop a system which utilizes both groundwater and air sources according to temperature conditions and building loads. This research has developed a GWHP system that employs a hybrid heat pump system with groundwater wells using dual groundwater and air heat sources. In this paper, the annual performance of the developed system has been calculated, and several case studies have been conducted on the effect of introduction location, refrigerant and pumping rate. Furthermore, the coefficient of system performance and the effects on underground environments have been evaluated by real-scale experiment using two wells. (author)

  19. Exergoeconomic optimization of an ammonia-water hybrid heat pump for heat supply in a spray drying facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Reinholdt, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Spray drying facilities are among the most energy intensive industrial processes. Using a heat pump to recover waste heat and replace gas combustion has the potential to attain both economic and emissions savings. In the case examined a drying gas of ambient air is heated to 200 XC. The inlet flow...... rate is 100,000 m3/h which yields a heat load of 6.1 MW. The exhaust air from the drying process is 80 XC. The implementation of an ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pump to partly cover the heat load is investigated. A thermodynamic analysis is applied to determine optimal circulation...... ratios for a number of ammonia mass fractions and heat pump loads. An exergoeconomic optimization is applied to minimize the lifetime cost of the system. Technological limitations are applied to constrain the solution to commercial components. The best possible implementation is identified in terms...

  20. Exergoeconomic optimization of an ammonia–water hybrid absorption–compression heat pump for heat supply in a spraydrying facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Reinholdt, Lars

    2015-01-01

    load of 6.1 MW. The exhaust air from the drying process is 80 C. The implementation of anammonia–water hybrid absorption–compression heat pump to partly cover the heat load is investigated. A thermodynamic analysis is applied to determine optimal circulation ratios for a number of ammonia mass...... fractions and heat pump loads. An exergo economic optimization is applied to minimize the lifetime cost of the system. Technological limitations are imposed to constrain the solution to commercial components. The best possible implementation is identified in terms of heat load, ammonia mass fraction...

  1. Hybrid space heating/cooling system with Trombe wall, underground venting, and assisted heat pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirley, J.W.; James, L.C.; Stevens, S.; Autry, A.N.; Nussbaum, M.; MacQueen, S.V.

    1983-06-22

    Our goal was to design and monitor a hybrid solar system/ground loop which automatically assists the standard, thermostatically controlled home heating/cooling system. The input from the homeowner was limited to normal thermostat operations. During the course of the project it was determined that to effectively gather data and control the various component interactions, a micro-computer based control system would also allow the HVAC system to be optimized by simple changes to software. This flexibility in an untested concept helped us to achieve optimum system performance. Control ranged from direct solar heating and direct ground loop cooling modes, to assistance of the heat pump by both solar space and ground loop. Sensors were strategically placed to provide data on response of the Trombe wall (surface, 4 in. deep, 8 in. deep), and the ground loop (inlet, 3/4 length, outlet). Micro-computer hardware and computer programs were developed to make cost effective decisions between the various modes of operation. Although recent advances in micro-computer hardware make similar control systems more readily achievable utilizing standard components, attention to the decision making criteria will always be required.

  2. On the development of high temperature ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Reinholdt, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pumps (HACHP) are a promising technology for development of ecient high temperature industrial heat pumps. Using 28 bar components HACHPs up to 100 °C are commercially available. Components developed for 50 bar and 140 bar show that these pressure ......, and 140 bar up to 147 °C. If the compressor discharge temperature limit is increased to 250 °C and the vapour water content constraint is removed, this becomes: 182 °C, 193 °C and 223 °C....

  3. Recovery act. Development of design and simulation tool for hybrid geothermal heat pump system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shaojie [ClimateMaster, Inc., Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Ellis, Dan [ClimateMaster, Inc., Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    2014-05-29

    The ground source heat pump (GSHP) system is one of the most energy efficient HVAC technologies in the current market. However, the heat imbalance may degrade the ability of the ground loop heat exchanger (GLHX) to absorb or reject heat. The hybrid GSHP system, which combines a geothermal well field with a supplemental boiler or cooling tower, can balance the loads imposed on the ground loop heat exchangers to minimize its size while retaining superior energy efficiency. This paper presents a recent simulation-based study with an intention to compare multiple common control strategies used in hybrid GSHP systems, including fixed setpoint, outside air reset, load reset, and wetbulb reset. A small office in Oklahoma City conditioned by a hybrid GSHP system was simulated with the latest version of eQUEST 3.7[1]. The simulation results reveal that the hybrid GSHP system has the excellent capability to meet the cooling and heating setpoints during the occupied hours, balance thermal loads on the ground loop, as well as improve the thermal comfort of the occupants with the undersized well field.

  4. Hybrid Ground-Source Heat Pump Installations: Experiences, Improvements, and Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hackel; Amanda Pertzborn

    2011-06-30

    One innovation to ground-source heat pump (GSHP, or GHP) systems is the hybrid GSHP (HyGSHP) system, which can dramatically decrease the first cost of GSHP systems by using conventional technology (such as a cooling tower or a boiler) to meet a portion of the peak heating or cooling load. This work uses three case studies (two cooling-dominated, one heating-dominated) to demonstrate the performance of the hybrid approach. Three buildings were studied for a year; the measured data was used to validate models of each system. The models were used to analyze further improvements to the hybrid approach, and establish that this approach has positive impacts, both economically and environmentally. Lessons learned by those who design and operate the systems are also documented, including discussions of equipment sizing, pump operation, and cooling tower control. Finally, the measured data sets and models that were created during this work are described; these materials have been made freely available for further study of hybrid systems.

  5. Design of serially connected ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pumps for district heating with the utilisation of a geothermal heat source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix;

    2016-01-01

    District heating (DH) can reduce the primary energy consumption in urban areas with significant heat demands. The design of a serially connected ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pump system was investigated for operation in the Greater Copenhagen DH network in Denmark, in order...... to supply 7.2 MW heat at 85 °C utilizing a geothermal heat source at 73 °C. Both the heat source and heat sink experience a large temperature change over the heat transfer process, of which a significant part may be achieved by direct heat exchange. First a generic study with a simple representation...

  6. Optimal control of a fuel cell/wind/PV/grid hybrid system with thermal heat pump load

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sichilalu, S

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimal energy management strategy for a grid-tied photovoltaic–wind-fuel cell hybrid power supply system. The hybrid system meets the load demand consisting of an electrical load and a heat pump water heater supplying thermal...

  7. Heat pump technology

    CERN Document Server

    Von Cube, Hans Ludwig; Goodall, E G A

    2013-01-01

    Heat Pump Technology discusses the history, underlying concepts, usage, and advancements in the use of heat pumps. The book covers topics such as the applications and types of heat pumps; thermodynamic principles involved in heat pumps such as internal energy, enthalpy, and exergy; and natural heat sources and energy storage. Also discussed are topics such as the importance of the heat pump in the energy industry; heat pump designs and systems; the development of heat pumps over time; and examples of practical everyday uses of heat pumps. The text is recommended for those who would like to kno

  8. 3D-CFD Design Study And Optimization Of A Centrifugal Turbo Compressor For The Operation In A Hybrid Sorption/ Compression Heat Pump Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Eckert, Thomas; Dostal, Leo; Helm, Martin; Schweigler, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In various applications the use of sorption chillers and heat pumps is limited by the available temperature level of the driving heat source or the heat sink for export of reject heat. These constraints can be overcome by integrating an efficient high-speed transonic turbo-compressor into the internal cycle of a thermally driven water/lithium bromide absorption heat pump. The operation in a hybrid heat pump with the refrigerant water implies specific challenges for the design of the compresso...

  9. Energy Management of a Hybrid-Power Gas Engine-Driven Heat Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingkun Meng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid-power gas engine-driven heat pump (HPGHP combines hybrid power technology with a gas engine heat pump. The engine in the power system is capable of operating constantly with high thermal efficiency and low emissions during different operating modes. In this paper, the mathematical models of various components is established, including the engine thermal efficiency map and the motor efficiency map. The comprehensive charging/discharging efficiency model and energy management optimization strategy model which is proposed to maximize the efficiency of instantaneous HPGHP system are established. Then, different charging/discharging torque limits are obtained. Finally, a novel gas engine economical zone control strategy which combined with the SOC of battery in real time is put forward. The main operating parameters of HPGHP system under energy management are simulated by Matlab/Simulink and validated by experimental data, such as engine and motor operating torque, fuel consumption rate and comprehensive efficiency, etc. The results show that during 3600 s’ run-time, the SOC value of battery packs varies between 0.58 and 0.705, the fuel consumption rate reaches minimum values of approximately 291.3 g/(kW h when the compressor speed is nearly 1550 rpm in mode D, the engine thermal efficiency and comprehensive efficiency reach maximum values of approximately 0.2727 and 0.2648 when the compressor speed is 1575 rpm and 1475 rpm, respectively, in mode D. In general, the motor efficiency can be maintained above 0.85 in either mode.

  10. Analysis of a Hybrid PV/Thermal Solar-Assisted Heat Pump System for Sports Center Water Heating Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Bai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of solar energy provides an alternative way to replace the primary source of energy, especially for large-scale installations. Heat pump technology is also an effective means to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels. This paper presents a practical case study of combined hybrid PV/T solar assisted heat pump (SAHP system for sports center hot water production. The initial design procedure was first presented. The entire system was then modeled with the TRNSYS 16 computation environment and the energy performance was evaluated based on year round simulation results. The results show that the system COP can reach 4.1 under the subtropical climate of Hong Kong, and as compared to the conventional heating system, a high fractional factor of energy saving at 67% can be obtained. The energy performances of the same system under different climatic conditions, that include three other cities in France, were analyzed and compared. Economic implications were also considered in this study.

  11. Regenerative Hydride Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.

    1992-01-01

    Hydride heat pump features regenerative heating and single circulation loop. Counterflow heat exchangers accommodate different temperatures of FeTi and LaNi4.7Al0.3 subloops. Heating scheme increases efficiency.

  12. Regenerative Hydride Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.

    1992-01-01

    Hydride heat pump features regenerative heating and single circulation loop. Counterflow heat exchangers accommodate different temperatures of FeTi and LaNi4.7Al0.3 subloops. Heating scheme increases efficiency.

  13. Absorption heat pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  14. Champagne Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.

    2004-01-01

    The term champagne heat pump denotes a developmental heat pump that exploits a cycle of absorption and desorption of carbon dioxide in an alcohol or other organic liquid. Whereas most heat pumps in common use in the United States are energized by mechanical compression, the champagne heat pump is energized by heating. The concept of heat pumps based on other absorption cycles energized by heat has been understood for years, but some of these heat pumps are outlawed in many areas because of the potential hazards posed by leakage of working fluids. For example, in the case of the water/ammonia cycle, there are potential hazards of toxicity and flammability. The organic-liquid/carbon dioxide absorption/desorption cycle of the champagne heat pump is similar to the water/ammonia cycle, but carbon dioxide is nontoxic and environmentally benign, and one can choose an alcohol or other organic liquid that is also relatively nontoxic and environmentally benign. Two candidate nonalcohol organic liquids are isobutyl acetate and amyl acetate. Although alcohols and many other organic liquids are flammable, they present little or no flammability hazard in the champagne heat pump because only the nonflammable carbon dioxide component of the refrigerant mixture is circulated to the evaporator and condenser heat exchangers, which are the only components of the heat pump in direct contact with air in habitable spaces.

  15. Performance-oriented Analysis of a Hybrid magnetic Assembly for a Heat-pump Magnetocaloric Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Insinga, Andrea Roberto; Smith, Anders; Bahl, Christian R.H.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional active-regenerator magnetocaloric devices include moving parts, with the purpose of generating an oscillating magnetic field in the magneto-caloric material, placed inside the regenerator. In this work a different design is analyzed, for application in a magnetocaloric heat pump...

  16. Regenerative adsorbent heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A regenerative adsorbent heat pump process and system is provided which can regenerate a high percentage of the sensible heat of the system and at least a portion of the heat of adsorption. A series of at least four compressors containing an adsorbent is provided. A large amount of heat is transferred from compressor to compressor so that heat is regenerated. The process and system are useful for air conditioning rooms, providing room heat in the winter or for hot water heating throughout the year, and, in general, for pumping heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature.

  17. Nonazeotropic Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ealker, David H.; Deming, Glenn

    1991-01-01

    Heat pump collects heat from water circulating in heat-rejection loop, raises temperature of collected heat, and transfers collected heat to water in separate pipe. Includes sealed motor/compressor with cooling coils, evaporator, and condenser, all mounted in outer housing. Gradients of temperature in evaporator and condenser increase heat-transfer efficiency of vapor-compression cycle. Intended to recover relatively-low-temperature waste heat and use it to make hot water.

  18. Nonazeotropic Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ealker, David H.; Deming, Glenn

    1991-01-01

    Heat pump collects heat from water circulating in heat-rejection loop, raises temperature of collected heat, and transfers collected heat to water in separate pipe. Includes sealed motor/compressor with cooling coils, evaporator, and condenser, all mounted in outer housing. Gradients of temperature in evaporator and condenser increase heat-transfer efficiency of vapor-compression cycle. Intended to recover relatively-low-temperature waste heat and use it to make hot water.

  19. Lunar Base Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D.; Fischbach, D.; Tetreault, R.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project was to investigate the feasibility of constructing a heat pump suitable for use as a heat rejection device in applications such as a lunar base. In this situation, direct heat rejection through the use of radiators is not possible at a temperature suitable for lde support systems. Initial analysis of a heat pump of this type called for a temperature lift of approximately 378 deg. K, which is considerably higher than is commonly called for in HVAC and refrigeration applications where heat pumps are most often employed. Also because of the variation of the rejection temperature (from 100 to 381 deg. K), extreme flexibility in the configuration and operation of the heat pump is required. A three-stage compression cycle using a refrigerant such as CFC-11 or HCFC-123 was formulated with operation possible with one, two or three stages of compression. Also, to meet the redundancy requirements, compression was divided up over multiple compressors in each stage. A control scheme was devised that allowed these multiple compressors to be operated as required so that the heat pump could perform with variable heat loads and rejection conditions. A prototype heat pump was designed and constructed to investigate the key elements of the high-lift heat pump concept. Control software was written and implemented in the prototype to allow fully automatic operation. The heat pump was capable of operation over a wide range of rejection temperatures and cooling loads, while maintaining cooling water temperature well within the required specification of 40 deg. C +/- 1.7 deg. C. This performance was verified through testing.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF A SOFTWARE DESIGN TOOL FOR HYBRID SOLAR-GEOTHERMAL HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS IN HEATING- AND COOLING-DOMINATED BUILDINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavuzturk, C. C. [Univ. of Hartford, West Hartford, CT (United States); Chiasson, A. D. [Univ. of Hartford, West Hartford, CT (United States); Filburn, T. P. [Univ. of Hartford, West Hartford, CT (United States)

    2012-11-29

    This project provides an easy-to-use, menu-driven, software tool for designing hybrid solar-geothermal heat pump systems (GHP) for both heating- and cooling-dominated buildings. No such design tool currently exists. In heating-dominated buildings, the design approach takes advantage of glazed solar collectors to effectively balance the annual thermal loads on the ground with renewable solar energy. In cooling-dominated climates, the design approach takes advantage of relatively low-cost, unglazed solar collectors as the heat rejecting component. The primary benefit of hybrid GHPs is the reduced initial cost of the ground heat exchanger (GHX). Furthermore, solar thermal collectors can be used to balance the ground loads over the annual cycle, thus making the GHX fully sustainable; in heating-dominated buildings, the hybrid energy source (i.e., solar) is renewable, in contrast to a typical fossil fuel boiler or electric resistance as the hybrid component; in cooling-dominated buildings, use of unglazed solar collectors as a heat rejecter allows for passive heat rejection, in contrast to a cooling tower that consumes a significant amount of energy to operate, and hybrid GHPs can expand the market by allowing reduced GHX footprint in both heating- and cooling-dominated climates. The design tool allows for the straight-forward design of innovative GHP systems that currently pose a significant design challenge. The project lays the foundations for proper and reliable design of hybrid GHP systems, overcoming a series of difficult and cumbersome steps without the use of a system simulation approach, and without an automated optimization scheme. As new technologies and design concepts emerge, sophisticated design tools and methodologies must accompany them and be made usable for practitioners. Lack of reliable design tools results in reluctance of practitioners to implement more complex systems. A menu-driven software tool for the design of hybrid solar GHP systems is

  1. Optimization of ground source heat pumps systems through the implementation of hybrid systems; Optimizacion de las instalaciones de bomba de calor geotermica mediante la implementacion de sistemas hibridos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magraner, T.; Quilis, M. S.; Martinez, S.

    2009-07-01

    One of the fundamental aspects to consider in the design of a ground heat pump system is the heat balance in the ground since thermal saturation of the ground produces a decreasing of the performance of the system throughout its useful life. The hybrid geothermal system which combined geothermal heat pump system with other systems for generation or dissipation energy are very suitable for balancing the heat exchanger meters needed for the proper functioning of the system, important aspect to reduce costs and achieve attractive return periods of the initial investment. Energesis Ingenieria has developed and implemented in two office buildings, a design of hybrid systems based on the combination of a geothermal heat pump and air-condensed units (dry coolers) that can ensure energy efficiencies comparable to geothermal pure systems, reducing substantially the investment cost. (Author) 5 refs.

  2. Experimental Results and Model Calculations of a Hybrid Adsorption-Compression Heat Pump Based on a Roots Compressor and Silica Gel-Water Sorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Pal, M.; De Boer, R.; Wemmers, A.K.; Smeding, S.F.; Veldhuis, J.B.J.; Lycklama a Nijeholt, J.A.

    2013-10-15

    Thermally driven sorption systems can provide significant energy savings, especially in industrial applications. The driving temperature for operation of such systems limits the operating window and can be a barrier for market-introduction. By adding a compressor, the sorption cycle can be run using lower waste heat temperatures. ECN has recently started the development of such a hybrid heat pump. The final goal is to develop a hybrid heat pump for upgrading lower (<100C) temperature industrial waste heat to above pinch temperatures. The paper presents the first measurements and model calculations of a hybrid heat pump system using a water-silica gel system combined with a Roots type compressor. From the measurements can be seen that the effect of the compressor is dependent on where in the cycle it is placed. When placed between the evaporator and the sorption reactor, it has a considerable larger effect compared to the compressor placed between the sorption reactor and the condenser. The latter hardly improves the performance compared to purely heat-driven operation. This shows the importance of studying the interaction between all components of the system. The model, which shows reasonable correlation with the measurements, could proof to be a valuable tool to determine the optimal hybrid heat pump configuration.

  3. Chiral brownian heat pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, M; Van den Broeck, C

    2008-04-04

    We present the exact analysis of a chiral Brownian motor and heat pump. Optimization of the construction predicts, for a nanoscale device, frequencies of the order of kHz and cooling rates of the order of femtojoule per second.

  4. Chiral Brownian heat pump

    OpenAIRE

    Van Den Broek, Martijn; Van Den Broeck, Christian

    2007-01-01

    We present the exact analysis of a chiral Brownian motor and heat pump. Optimization of the construction predicts, for a nanoscale device, frequencies of the order of kHz and cooling rates of the order of femtojoule per second.

  5. Development of the Hybrid Operation Method of a Multi-Geothermal Heat Pump System and Absorption Chiller-Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Ju Jung

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Considerable efforts have been made to reduce the energy consumption of buildings due to the energy crisis, and, the Korean government has supported the use of renewable energy through various grants. Among the possible renewable energy sources, geothermal energy can be used regardless of the outside weather. Therefore, energy consumption can be reduced considerably in summer and winter. Despite the increasing use of renewable energy, the use of renewables has not been operating appropriately. Therefore, this study examined some of the problems of the operation of renewable energy and some possible improvements. The aim of the study is to evaluate a building containing an actual installed multi-geothermal heat pump (Multi-GHP system, in terms of the energy efficiency. In addition, this study evaluated the present control system and the method of complex operation regarding existing heat sources systems and GHP systems through a simulation. The results can be regarded as the result of a hybrid operation method for the improvement of an existing operation. Therefore, the Multi-GHP system energy use of a hybrid operation condition of the Multi-GHP systems and the absorption (ABS chiller-heater system was reduced compared to the operation condition of the Multi-GHP system, and the total energy consumption of the heat source equipment was reduced. The proposed operation plan was evaluated after applying the system to a building. These results showed that the efficient operation of a Multi-GHP hybrid operation method is possible. As a result, the GHP energy use of Multi-GHP systems and the ABS chiller-heater system was reduced by 30% compared to existing operation and the total energy consumption of heat source equipment was reduced by 78%.

  6. Cold Climate Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    12. Data set 7 – energy consumption of heat pump and furnace ................................ 22 Figure 13. Experimentally adjusted TRNSYS model...minute SCF standard cubic feet SEER seasonal energy efficiency ratio SH superheated TMY Typical Meteorological Year TRNSYS Transient Systems...Simulation Program ( TRNSYS ), to generate an experimentally adjusted, simulation heating seasonal performance. 6.4.1 Simulation Results The TRNSYS model

  7. Heat pump planning handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bonin, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The Heat Pump Planning Handbook contains practical information and guidance on the design, planning and selection of heat pump systems, allowing engineers, designers, architects and construction specialists to compare a number of different systems and options. Including detailed descriptions of components and their functions and reflecting the current state of technology this guide contains sample tasks and solutions as well as new model calculations and planning evaluations. Also economic factors and alternative energy sources are covered, which are essential at a time of rising heat costs. T

  8. Sorption product heat pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonini, G.; Francois, O.; Gendarme, J.P.; Guilleminot, J.J.; Meunier, F.

    1988-07-15

    A continuous operating, and thus with enhanced performance, heat pump is presented. In this heat pump, the heat transfer between the hot source and the output system or network is realized through a solid adsorbent-refrigerant couple having endothermal desorption properties and exothermal adsorption or absorption properties. The sorption products are carried in a closed cycle movement between the two parts of the reactor. Each side of the reactor is assuming always the same function and the thermal inertia have to be overcome only when starting the reactor.

  9. Molecular heat pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Dvira; Nitzan, Abraham

    2006-02-01

    We propose a molecular device that pumps heat against a thermal gradient. The system consists of a molecular element connecting two thermal reservoirs that are characterized by different spectral properties. The pumping action is achieved by applying an external force that periodically modulates molecular levels. This modulation affects periodic oscillations of the internal temperature of the molecule and the strength of its coupling to each reservoir resulting in a net heat flow in the desired direction. The heat flow is examined in the slow and fast modulation limits and for different modulation wave forms, thus making it possible to optimize the device performance.

  10. Geothermal Heat Pump Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya L.; Lienau, Paul J.

    1995-01-01

    Geothermal heat pump systems are a promising new energy technology that has shown rapid increase in usage over the past ten years in the United States. These systems offer substantial benefits to customers and utilities in energy (kWh) and demand (kW) savings. The purpose of this study was to determine what existing monitored data was available mainly from electric utilities on heat pump performance, energy savings and demand reduction for residential, school, and commercial building applications. Information was developed on the status of electric utility marketing programs, barriers to market penetration, incentive programs, and benefits.

  11. Geothermal heat pump performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya L.; Lienau, Paul J.

    1995-01-01

    Geothermal heat pump systems are a promising new energy technology that has shown rapid increase in usage over the past ten years in the United States. These systems offer substantial benefits to customers and utilities in energy (kWh) and demand (kW) savings. The purpose of this study was to determine what existing monitored data was available mainly from electric utilities on heat pump performance, energy savings and demand reduction for residential, school, and commercial building applications. Information was developed on the status of electric utility marketing programs, barriers to market penetration, incentive programs, and benefits.

  12. Pioneering Heat Pump Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschliman, Dave [Indiana Inst. of Technology, Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States); Lubbehusen, Mike [Indiana Inst. of Technology, Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States)

    2015-06-30

    This project was initiated at a time when ground coupled heat pump systems in this region were limited in size and quantity. There were economic pressures with costs for natural gas and electric utilities that had many organizations considering ground coupled heat pumps; The research has added to the understanding of how ground temperatures fluctuate seasonally and how this affects the performance and operation of the heat pumps. This was done by using a series of temperature sensors buried within the middle of one of the vertical bore fields with sensors located at various depths below grade. Trending of the data showed that there is a lag in ground temperature with respect to air temperatures in the shoulder months, however as full cooling and heating season arrives, the heat rejection and heat extraction from the ground has a significant effect on the ground temps; Additionally it is better understood that while a large community geothermal bore field serving multiple buildings does provide a convenient central plant to use, it introduces complexity of not being able to easily model and predict how each building will contribute to the loads in real time. Additional controllers and programming were added to provide more insight into this real time load profile and allow for intelligent shedding of load via a dry cooler during cool nights in lieu of rejecting to the ground loop. This serves as a means to ‘condition’ the ground loop and mitigate thermal creep of the field, as is typically observed; and It has been observed when compared to traditional heating and cooling equipment, there is still a cost premium to use ground source heat pumps that is driven mostly by the cost for vertical bore holes. Horizontal loop systems are less costly to install, but do not perform as well in this climate zone for heating mode

  13. Advanced heat pump cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groll, E.A.; Radermacher, R.

    1993-07-01

    The desorption and absorption process of a vapor compression heat pump with a solution circuit (VCHSC) proceeds at gliding temperature intervals, which can be adjusted over a wide range. In case that the gliding temperature intervals in the desorber and the absorber overlap, a modification of the VCHSC employing a desorber/absorber heat exchange (DAHX) can be introduced, which results in an extreme reduction of the pressure ratio. Although the DAHX-cycle has features of a two-stage cycle, it still requires only one solution pump, one separator and one compressor. Such a cycle for the working pair ammonia/water is built in the Energy Laboratory of the Center for Environmental Energy Engineering at the University of Maryland. The experimental results obtained with the research plant are discussed and compared to those calculated with a simulation program. The possible temperature lift between heat source and heat sink depending on the achievable COP are presented.

  14. Heat driven pulse pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Steve M (Inventor); Martins, Mario S. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A heat driven pulse pump includes a chamber having an inlet port, an outlet port, two check valves, a wick, and a heater. The chamber may include a plurality of grooves inside wall of the chamber. When heated within the chamber, a liquid to be pumped vaporizes and creates pressure head that expels the liquid through the outlet port. As liquid separating means, the wick, disposed within the chamber, is to allow, when saturated with the liquid, the passage of only liquid being forced by the pressure head in the chamber, preventing the vapor from exiting from the chamber through the outlet port. A plurality of grooves along the inside surface wall of the chamber can sustain the liquid, which is amount enough to produce vapor for the pressure head in the chamber. With only two simple moving parts, two check valves, the heat driven pulse pump can effectively function over the long lifetimes without maintenance or replacement. For continuous flow of the liquid to be pumped a plurality of pumps may be connected in parallel.

  15. Technology assessment heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudolph, R.; Purper, G. (Battelle-Institut e.V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany, F.R.))

    Technology assessment for an increased application of heat pumps is carried out in four areas: Effects in the economics area, i.e. effects on the economic goals which are defined in the Stability Law, on the goals of the power supply policy which result from the energy programme and its projections, and on the economic structure as a whole. The whole range of social problems concerning the use of heat pumps, i.e. the questions which social groups are affected, how they react, and what consequences are they expected to have on energy conservation as an object of social policy. Consequences in the governmental and administrative sectors, i.e. effects on legislation, administration and government budgets. Effects on the ecological systems; of prime interest in this context are the utilisation of environmental energy, changes in the heat balance, and emmission of pollutants.

  16. RSES heat pump technician certification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiner, J.

    1996-06-01

    In 1987 the National Heat Pump certification test was developed by the Refrigeration Service Engineers Society (RSES), and in 1994, the program was more specifically named Heat Pump Service Technician Certification. This report describes the benefits of certification.

  17. Wavy tube heat pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haldeman, C. W.

    1985-12-03

    A PVC conduit about 4'' in diameter and a little more than 40 feet long is adapted for being seated in a hole in the earth and surrounds a coaxial copper tube along its length that carries Freon between a heat pump and a distributor at the bottom. A number of wavy conducting tubes located between the central conducting tube and the wall of the conduit interconnect the distributor with a Freon distributor at the top arranged for connection to the heat pump. The wavy conducting tubing is made by passing straight soft copper tubing between a pair of like opposed meshing gears each having four convex points in space quadrature separated by four convex recesses with the radius of curvature of each point slightly less than that of each concave recess.

  18. High Efficiency Water Heating Technology Development Final Report. Part I, Lab/Field Performance Evaluation and Accelerated Life Testing of a Hybrid Electric Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Murphy, Richard W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Linkous, Randall Lee [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    DOE has supported efforts for many years with the objective of getting a water heater that uses heat pump technology (aka a heat pump water heater or HPWH) successfully on the residential equipment market. The most recent previous effort (1999-2002) produced a product that performed very well in ORNL-led accelerated durability and field tests. The commercial partner for this effort, Enviromaster International (EMI), introduced the product to the market under the trade name Watter$aver in 2002 but ceased production in 2005 due to low sales. A combination of high sales price and lack of any significant infrastructure for service after the sale were the principal reasons for the failure of this effort. What was needed for market success was a commercial partner with the manufacturing and market distribution capability necessary to allow economies of scale to lead to a viable unit price together with a strong customer service infrastructure. General Electric certainly meets these requirements, and knowing of ORNL s expertise in this area, approached ORNL with the proposal to partner in a CRADA to produce a high efficiency electric water heater. A CRADA with GE was initiated early in Fiscal Year, 2008. GE initially named its product the Hybrid Electric Water Heater (HEWH).

  19. Stirling Engine Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Noboru

    Recent advances in the feasibility studies related to the Stirling engines and Stirling engine heat pumps which have been considered attractive due to their promising role in helping to solve the global environmental and energy problems,are reviewed. This article begins to describe the brief history of the Stirling engines and theoretical thermodynamic analysis of the Stirling cycle in order to understand several advantages on the Stirling engine. Furthermore,they could throw light on our question why the dream engines had not been promoted to practical applications during two hundred years. The present review shows that the Stirling engines with several unique advantages including 30 to 40% thermal efficiency and preferable exhaust characteristics,had been designed and constructed by recent tackling for the development of the advanced automobile and other applications using them. Based on the current state of art,it is being provided to push the Stirling engines combined with heat pumps based on the reversed Rankine cycle to the market. At present,however, many problems, especially for the durability, cost, and delicate engine parts must be enforced to solve. In addition,there are some possibilities which can increase the attractiveness of the Stirling engines and heat pumps. The review closes with suggestions for further research.

  20. Performance of hybrid quad generation system consisting of solid oxide fuel cell system and absorption heat pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cachorro, Irene Albacete; Daraban, Iulia Maria; Lainé, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    and absorption heat pump. The model is validated using data available in open literature. Overall this system shows better performance in terms of efficiency and CO2 emissions compared with cogeneration or tri-generation systems. Specifically, it suits better for applications, such food industry, where...

  1. Hydride heat pump with heat regenerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A regenerative hydride heat pump process and system is provided which can regenerate a high percentage of the sensible heat of the system. A series of at least four canisters containing a lower temperature performing hydride and a series of at least four canisters containing a higher temperature performing hydride is provided. Each canister contains a heat conductive passageway through which a heat transfer fluid is circulated so that sensible heat is regenerated. The process and system are useful for air conditioning rooms, providing room heat in the winter or for hot water heating throughout the year, and, in general, for pumping heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature.

  2. Heat pumps in industry. Pt. 2: Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.M. [Padova Univ., Vicenza (Italy). Ist. di Ingegneria Gestionale

    1995-04-01

    A selection of applications of heat pumps in industry is described, reporting plant lay-outs and performances. The selection includes compression heat pumps at different temperatures, vapour recompression systems, absorption heat pumps and heat transformers. (author)

  3. High Temperature Thermoacoustic Heat Pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tijani, H.; Spoelstra, S. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-07-15

    Thermoacoustic technology can provide new types of heat pumps that can be deployed in different applications. Thermoacoustic heat pumps can for example be applied in dwellings to generate cooling or heating. Typically, space and water heating makes up about 60% of domestic and office energy consumption. The application of heat pumps can contribute to achieve energy savings and environmental benefits by reducing CO2 and NOx emissions. This paper presents the study of a laboratory scale thermoacoustic-Stirling heat pump operating between 10C and 80C which can be applied in domestics and offices. The heat pump is driven by a thermoacoustic-Stirling engine. The experimental results show that the heat pump pumps 250 W of heat at 60C at a drive ratio of 3.6 % and 200 W at 80C at a drive ratio of 3.5 %. The performance for both cases is about 40% of the Carnot performance. The design, construction, and performance measurements of the heat pump will be presented and discussed.

  4. 地源热泵与混合式地源热泵应用对比分析%Comparative Analysis of Ground Source Heat Pumps and Hybrid Ground Source Heat Pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈正顺

    2014-01-01

    Ground Source Heat Pumps(GSHPs) and Hybrid Ground Source Heat Pumps(HGSHPs) in-stalled in several public buildings are compared. The annual energy consumption of buildings are simulated respectively, taking selection calculation of GSHPs and HGSHPs, as well as the initial investment, annual operating costs and the comprehensive fee of two programs.%对合肥几种常见公共建筑已完全使用地埋管换热器的地源热泵系统与混合式地源热泵系统进行了比较。分别对各类型建筑进行了全年能耗模拟,对地源热泵、混合式地源热泵系统进行了选型计算,并对比了两种方案的初投资、年运行费用、年综合费用。

  5. Heat pumps for the home

    CERN Document Server

    Cantor, John

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, heat pumps have emerged as a promising new form of technology with a relatively low environmental impact. Moreover, they have presented householders with an opportunity to reduce their heating bills. Heat pumps can heat a building by 'pumping' heat from either the ground or the air outside: an intriguing process which utilizes principles that are somewhat analogous to those employed in the domestic refrigerator. Armed with the practical information contained in these pages, homeowners will have the necessary knowledge to take advantage of this potentially low-carbon t

  6. Peltier heat pumps. Peltiervaermepumpar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torstensson, H. (Studsvik Energy, Nykoeping (SE))

    1990-06-01

    Todays Peltier devices in heat pump applications gives a low coeffificent of performance. A temperature difference of 40 deg C results in a COP-value of approx. 1.3. Peltier devices are manufactured of alloys composed of heavy elements like tellurium, selenium, bismuth and antimony. These elements thermoelectrical properties, figure of merit are decisive to the performance of the Peltier devices. An upper limit for the figure of merit, ZT, is said to be 2, which at {Delta}T=40 deg C would yield a COP of 2.0 as a maximum. Organic compounds have been investigated with regard to the electric conductivity. Thin film technique have been used for Peltier devices in micro-scale. There are no large-scale applications. The method does not give enhanced termoelectrical properties, but more rational and cheaper manufacturing. (author) (47 refs., 26 figs.).

  7. Heat pumps in district heating networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Elmegaard, Brian

    constraints limit the power plants. Efficient heat pumps can be used to decouple the constraints of electricity and heat production, while maintaining the high energy efficiency needed to match the politically agreed carbon emission goals. The requirements in terms of COP, location, capacity and economy...... are calculated using an energy system model which includes power plants, heat pumps and district heating consumption profiles. The model is developed with focus on accurate representation of the performance of the units in different locations and operating modes. The model can assist in investment decisions...... and strategic planning in the energy sector. The paper presents a case study of optimal implementation of heat pumps in the present energy system of the Copenhagen area. By introduction of the correct capacity of heat pumps, a 1,6 % reduction in fuel consumption for electricity and heat production can...

  8. Industrial heat pump assessment study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, R. N.; Priebe, S. J.; Wilfert, G. L.

    1989-03-01

    This report summarizes preliminary studies that assess the potential of industrial heat pumps for reduction of process heating requirements in industries receiving power from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). This project was initiated at the request of BPA to determine the potential of industrial heat pumps in BPA's service area. Working from known heat pump principles and from a list of BPA's industrial customers, the authors estimated the fuel savings potential for six industries. Findings indicate that the pulp and paper industry would yield the greatest fuel savings and increased electrical consumption. Assessments presented in this report represent a cooperative effort between The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), and Battelle-Northwest Laboratories.

  9. Magnetic heat pump flow director

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Frank S. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A fluid flow director is disclosed. The director comprises a handle body and combed-teeth extending from one side of the body. The body can be formed of a clear plastic such as acrylic. The director can be used with heat exchangers such as a magnetic heat pump and can minimize the undesired mixing of fluid flows. The types of heat exchangers can encompass both heat pumps and refrigerators. The director can adjust the fluid flow of liquid or gas along desired flow directions. A method of applying the flow director within a magnetic heat pump application is also disclosed where the comb-teeth portions of the director are inserted into the fluid flow paths of the heat pump.

  10. Hybrid system: Heat pump-solar air dryer for grains; Sistema hibrido: bomba de calor - calentador solar de aire para el secado de productos agricolas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto Gomez, Willfredo [Instituto Tecnologico de Tijuana, Tijuana (Mexico); Ortega Herrera, Jose Angel [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Design, building, operation and evaluation energy wise of a hybrid experimental type, with heat pump, that uses no chloride, does not destroy the ozone layer. It is solar air dryer for grains. In this research we dry rice. It has tree systems: 1.- A mechanical compression heat pump, 2.- An air solar heater, and 3.- An agriculture products dryer. The drying capacity is 20 pounds of grain /day, with a median daily solar radiation. The costs is approximately U.S. $ 6 000.00. The heat pump used 22 refrigerant first, and now works with refrigerant SUVA 9000. This refrigerant will be available this year in the I.S., it is one of the ecological class that substitutes the chlorofluorocarbonates. [Spanish] Se disena, construye, opera, y evalua energeticamente, un sistema hibrido tipo experimental, con bomba de calor que utiliza refrigerante que no contiene cloro, y no destruye la capa de ozono y un calentador solar de aire, para secar granos. En este trabajo secamos arroz. Se compone de tres sistemas: 1.- Bomba de calor por compresion mecanica, 2.- Calentador solar de aire, 3.- Secador de productos agricolas. La capacidad de secado es de 10 Kilos de granos/dia promedio. Tiene un costo aproximado de $ 60 000. La bomba de calor utiliza refrigerante 22 en una primera generacion, y actualmente opera con un refrigerante SUVA 9000, en una segunda generacion, este refrigerante se comercializara en este ano, en la Union Americana, pertenece a la familia de los llamados refrigerantes ecologicos, sustitutos de los clorofluorocarbonados.

  11. Heat pumps at the maltings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-11-01

    Heat pumps have halved the energy costs of producing finished malt at two of the country's maltsters. The fuel-fired kilning processes described are now performed by heat pumps with considerable energy and production benefits at the maltings of J.P. Simpson and Co. (Alnwick) Ltd, in Tivetshall St Margaret, Norfolk, and of Munton and Fison Plc of Stowmarket, Suffolk. The heat pump system installed at the Station Malting of J.P. Simpson was devised by the Electricity Council Research Centre at Capenhurst near Chester. Energy cost benefits of Pound 6,000 a month are being realised at Simpsons, but there is the added benefit that the system has been designed to provide conditioned air to the germination cycle to ensure that the correct temperature is maintained throughout the year. At the Cedars factory of Munton and Fison, heat pumps were used on a trial basis for plant micropropagation and for a fish farming unit.

  12. Heat-Powered Pump for Liquid Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Proposed thermoelectromagnetic pump for liquid metal powered by waste heat; needs no battery, generator, or other external energy source. Pump turns part of heat in liquid metal into pumping energy. In combination with primary pump or on its own, thermoelectric pump circulates coolant between reactor and radiator. As long as there is decay heat to be removed, unit performs function.

  13. Heat-Powered Pump for Liquid Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Proposed thermoelectromagnetic pump for liquid metal powered by waste heat; needs no battery, generator, or other external energy source. Pump turns part of heat in liquid metal into pumping energy. In combination with primary pump or on its own, thermoelectric pump circulates coolant between reactor and radiator. As long as there is decay heat to be removed, unit performs function.

  14. Portable Heat Pump Testing Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kłosowiak R.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the design and working principle of a portable testing device for heat pumps in the energy recirculation system. The presented test stand can be used for any refrigerating/reverse flow cycle device to calculate the device energy balance. The equipment is made of two portable containers of the capacity of 250 liters to simulate the air heat source and ground heat source with a system of temperature stabilization, compressor heat pump of the coefficient of performance (COP of = 4.3, a failsafe system and a control and measurement system.

  15. Absorption-heat-pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, G.; Perez-Blanco, H.

    1983-06-16

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  16. Multistage quantum absorption heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Luis A.

    2014-04-01

    It is well known that heat pumps, while being all limited by the same basic thermodynamic laws, may find realization on systems as "small" and "quantum" as a three-level maser. In order to quantitatively assess how the performance of these devices scales with their size, we design generalized N-dimensional ideal heat pumps by merging N -2 elementary three-level stages. We set them to operate in the absorption chiller mode between given hot and cold baths and study their maximum achievable cooling power and the corresponding efficiency as a function of N. While the efficiency at maximum power is roughly size-independent, the power itself slightly increases with the dimension, quickly saturating to a constant. Thus, interestingly, scaling up autonomous quantum heat pumps does not render a significant enhancement beyond the optimal double-stage configuration.

  17. Economics of heat pump systems for simultaneous heating and cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, S.; Devotta, S.; Patwardhan, V.S.

    1987-01-01

    Heat pumps can be incorporated advantageously into processes which require simultaneously both cooling and heating. The economics of heat pumps in India for simultaneous heat and cooling is assessed with respect to process, design and economic parameters. For the typical conditions of various parameters in India, a heat pump system for simultaneous heating and cooling is very attractive.

  18. Magnetic Heat Pump Containing Flow Diverters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Frank S.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed magnetic heat pump contains flow diverters for suppression of undesired flows. If left unchecked, undesired flows mix substantial amounts of partially heated and partially cooled portions of working fluid, effectively causing leakage of heat from heated side to cooled side. By reducing leakage of heat, flow diverters increase energy efficiency of magnetic heat pump, potentially offering efficiency greater than compressor-driven refrigerator.

  19. Magnetic Heat Pump Containing Flow Diverters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Frank S.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed magnetic heat pump contains flow diverters for suppression of undesired flows. If left unchecked, undesired flows mix substantial amounts of partially heated and partially cooled portions of working fluid, effectively causing leakage of heat from heated side to cooled side. By reducing leakage of heat, flow diverters increase energy efficiency of magnetic heat pump, potentially offering efficiency greater than compressor-driven refrigerator.

  20. Heat cascading regenerative sorption heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A simple heat cascading regenerative sorption heat pump process with rejected or waste heat from a higher temperature chemisorption circuit (HTCC) powering a lower temperature physisorption circuit (LTPC) which provides a 30% total improvement over simple regenerative physisorption compression heat pumps when ammonia is both the chemisorbate and physisorbate, and a total improvement of 50% or more for LTPC having two pressure stages. The HTCC contains ammonia and a chemisorbent therefor contained in a plurality of canisters, a condenser-evaporator-radiator system, and a heater, operatively connected together. The LTPC contains ammonia and a physisorbent therefor contained in a plurality of compressors, a condenser-evaporator-radiator system, operatively connected together. A closed heat transfer circuit (CHTC) is provided which contains a flowing heat transfer liquid (FHTL) in thermal communication with each canister and each compressor for cascading heat from the HTCC to the LTPC. Heat is regenerated within the LTPC by transferring heat from one compressor to another. In one embodiment the regeneration is performed by another CHTC containing another FHTL in thermal communication with each compressor. In another embodiment the HTCC powers a lower temperature ammonia water absorption circuit (LTAWAC) which contains a generator-absorber system containing the absorbent, and a condenser-evaporator-radiator system, operatively connected together. The absorbent is water or an absorbent aqueous solution. A CHTC is provided which contains a FHTL in thermal communication with the generator for cascading heat from the HTCC to the LTAWAC. Heat is regenerated within the LTAWAC by transferring heat from the generator to the absorber. The chemical composition of the chemisorbent is different than the chemical composition of the physisorbent, and the absorbent. The chemical composition of the FHTL is different than the chemisorbent, the physisorbent, the absorbent, and ammonia.

  1. Geothermal heat in a heat pump use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, A.; Hansen, J.; Obermeyer, H.; Pavlova, I.

    2016-09-01

    The considered innovative technology proposes to use alternative energy sources for the process efficiency in low-height construction. The world economy depends on price rises for energy sources and the danger of environmental pollution increases. Geothermal energy is the basic resource saving and environmentally safe renewable heat source that is characterized by inexhaustibility, permanent all the-year-round use, universal prevalence of resources and the ability to replace considerable volumes of traditional energy carriers. The expediency and power efficiency to apply a heat pump with the use of geothermal heat is proved for low-height construction.

  2. Staged regenerative sorption heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A regenerative adsorbent heat pump process and system for cooling and heating a space. A sorbent is confined in a plurality of compressors of which at least four are first stage and at least four are second stage. The first stage operates over a first pressure region and the second stage over a second pressure region which is higher than the first. Sorbate from the first stage enters the second stage. The sorbate loop includes a condenser, expansion valve, evaporator and the compressors. A single sorbate loop can be employed for single-temperature-control such as air conditioning and heating. Two sorbate loops can be used for two-temperature-control as in a refrigerator and freezer. The evaporator temperatures control the freezer and refrigerator temperatures. Alternatively the refrigerator temperature can be cooled by the freezer with one sorbate loop. A heat transfer fluid is circulated in a closed loop which includes a radiator and the compressors. Low temperature heat is exhausted by the radiator. High temperature heat is added to the heat transfer fluid entering the compressors which are desorbing vapor. Heat is transferred from compressors which are sorbing vapor to the heat transfer fluid, and from the heat transfer fluid to the compressors which are desorbing vapor. Each compressor is subjected to the following phases, heating to its highest temperature, cooling down from its highest temperature, cooling to its lowest temperature, and warming up from its lowest temperature. The phases are repeated to complete a cycle and regenerate heat.

  3. Carbon Dioxide Absorption Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A carbon dioxide absorption heat pump cycle is disclosed using a high pressure stage and a super-critical cooling stage to provide a non-toxic system. Using carbon dioxide gas as the working fluid in the system, the present invention desorbs the CO2 from an absorbent and cools the gas in the super-critical state to deliver heat thereby. The cooled CO2 gas is then expanded thereby providing cooling and is returned to an absorber for further cycling. Strategic use of heat exchangers can increase the efficiency and performance of the system.

  4. Carbon Dioxide Absorption Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A carbon dioxide absorption heat pump cycle is disclosed using a high pressure stage and a super-critical cooling stage to provide a non-toxic system. Using carbon dioxide gas as the working fluid in the system, the present invention desorbs the CO2 from an absorbent and cools the gas in the super-critical state to deliver heat thereby. The cooled CO2 gas is then expanded thereby providing cooling and is returned to an absorber for further cycling. Strategic use of heat exchangers can increase the efficiency and performance of the system.

  5. About Variable Speed Heating and Cooling Pumps

    OpenAIRE

    Cătălin Popovici; Jan Ignat

    2009-01-01

    The present work has the purpose of underlying the advantages of variable speed heating and cooling pumps use for the perspective of general and particular pumping costs and efficiency. The study approaches comparisons between constant flow pumps and variable flow pumps in different given situations and comparatively analyses the pumping costs.

  6. Design of Hybrid Ground Source Heat Pump System in WILO China Ltd. New Production Project%北京某工厂地源热泵系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰

    2015-01-01

    本文以北京某工厂混合式地源热泵空调系统为例,对于混合式地源热泵系统的设计、施工、自控作了较详细的论述,供同行借鉴参考。%Taking Uhybrid ground source heat pump system of a factory in Beijing as a example,design,construction,automatic control and operation about the hybrid ground source heat pump system are demonstrated in details for reference.

  7. District Heating System Using Heat Pump Installations and CHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit M.L.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the district heating system, in which part of the heat of return water thermal power is used to supply heat to the district heating puThe article describes the district heating system, in which part of the heat of return water thermal power is used to supply heat to the district heating pumps, evaporators heating and hot water. Heat pumps use carbon dioxide as refrigerant. During the transitional period of the year, and the summer heat pump for preparing hot-water supply system uses the heat of the surrounding air. The heat of the ambient air is used in the intermediate heat exchanger between the first and second stages of the heat pump to cool the gas after the first stage of the compressor of the heat pump.

  8. Geothermal Heat Pump Benchmarking Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-01-17

    A benchmarking study was conducted on behalf of the Department of Energy to determine the critical factors in successful utility geothermal heat pump programs. A Successful program is one that has achieved significant market penetration. Successfully marketing geothermal heat pumps has presented some major challenges to the utility industry. However, select utilities have developed programs that generate significant GHP sales. This benchmarking study concludes that there are three factors critical to the success of utility GHP marking programs: (1) Top management marketing commitment; (2) An understanding of the fundamentals of marketing and business development; and (3) An aggressive competitive posture. To generate significant GHP sales, competitive market forces must by used. However, because utilities have functioned only in a regulated arena, these companies and their leaders are unschooled in competitive business practices. Therefore, a lack of experience coupled with an intrinsically non-competitive culture yields an industry environment that impedes the generation of significant GHP sales in many, but not all, utilities.

  9. Linear programming control of a group of heat pumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fink, J.; van Leeuwen, Richard Pieter; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2015-01-01

    For a new district in the Dutch city Meppel, a hybrid energy concept is developed based on bio-gas co-generation. The generated electricity is used to power domestic heat pumps which supply thermal energy for domestic hot water and space heating demand of households. In this paper, we investigate di

  10. A simplified heat pump model for use in solar plus heat pump system simulation studies

    OpenAIRE

    Perers, Bengt; Anderssen, Elsa; Nordman, Roger; Kovacs, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Solar plus heat pump systems are often very complex in design, with sometimes special heat pump arrangements and control. Therefore detailed heat pump models can give very slow system simulations and still not so accurate results compared to real heat pump performance in a system. The idea here is to start from a standard measured performance map of test points for a heat pump according to EN 14825 and then determine characteristic parameters for a simplified correlation based model of the he...

  11. Sorption Refrigeration / Heat Pump Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Bidyut Baran; Alam, K. C. Amanul; Hamamoto, Yoshinori; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    Over the past few decades there have been considerable efforts to use adsorption (solid/vapor) for cooling and heat pump applications, but intensified efforts were initiated only since the imposition of international restrictions on the production and use of CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) and HCFCs (hydrochlorofluorocarbons). Up to now, only the desiccant evaporative cooling system of the open type has achieved commercial use, predominantly in the United States. Closed-type adsorption refrigeration and heat pump systems are rarely seen in the market, or are still in the laboratory testing stage. Promising recent development have been made in Japan for the use of porous metal hydrides and composite adsorbents. In this paper, a short description of adsorption theories along with an overview of present status and future development trends of thermally powered adsorption refrigeration cycles are outlined putting emphasis on experimental achievements. This paper also addressed some advanced absorption cycles having relatively higher COP, and also summarizes fundamental concepts of GAX cycles and various GAX cycles developed for heat pump applications.

  12. Optimized ground coupled heat pump mechanical package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catan, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    This project addresses the question of how well a ground coupled heat pump system could perform with a heat pump which was designed specifically for such systems operating in a northern climate. Conventionally, systems are designed around water source heat pumps which are not designed for ground coupled heat pump application. The objective of the project is to minimize the life cycle cost for a ground coupled system given the freedom to design the heat pump and the ground coil in concert. In order to achieve this objective a number of modeling tools were developed which will likely be of interest in their own right.

  13. A regenerative elastocaloric heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tušek, Jaka; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Eriksen, Dan; Dall'Olio, Stefano; Tušek, Janez; Pryds, Nini

    2016-10-01

    A large fraction of global energy use is for refrigeration and air-conditioning, which could be decarbonized if efficient renewable energy technologies could be found. Vapour-compression technology remains the most widely used system to move heat up the temperature scale after more than 100 years; however, caloric-based technologies (those using the magnetocaloric, electrocaloric, barocaloric or elastocaloric effect) have recently shown a significant potential as alternatives to replace this technology due to high efficiency and the use of green solid-state refrigerants. Here, we report a regenerative elastocaloric heat pump that exhibits a temperature span of 15.3 K on the water side with a corresponding specific heating power up to 800 W kg-1 and maximum COP (coefficient-of-performance) values of up to 7. The efficiency and specific heating power of this device exceeds those of other devices based on caloric effects. These results open up the possibility of using the elastocaloric effect in various cooling and heat-pumping applications.

  14. Heat pumps in agricultural uses. Factsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, R.D.

    1986-04-01

    This paper provides an elementary introduction to heat pumps and their potential for use in Ontario agricultural applications, taking into account local climatic conditions which mean high heating loads and small cooling loads. A heat pump's ability to remove heat from a variety of sources and boost this heat to a useable temperature enables such farm uses as recovery of heat from exhaust air in livestock barns, greenhouse heating using ground water, and heat extraction from manure. Basic types of heat pumps are evaluated and compared, and their costs are estimated.

  15. Air-to-water heat pumps for the home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodzin, S. [ed.

    1997-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters may be on the rise again. Retrofitters have shied away from this form of water heating due to concerns about cost, moise, efficiency, and maintaenance. Recent advances have overcome some of these problems and are helping the technology find a niche in both hot and cold climates. The topics covered in this article include the following: how heat pump water heaters work; air source from where to where, including air conditioning, heat recovery ventilation, hybrid systems; nuisances; maintenance; costs; to install or not to install; performance: a trick to quantify. 2 figs.

  16. 新型混合地源热泵的土壤热平衡性能模拟%Soil Thermal Balance Performance Simulation of the New Hybrid Ground Source Heat Pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小银; 彭彪

    2015-01-01

    Ground source heat pump is a new kind of green energy technologies which is advantage in energy conservation and environmental protection. O ne of the severe problems in the process of application is the thermal imbalance of the heat absorption and release to the ground. To solve this problem, this paper presents a new type of hybrid ground source heat pump in which hot w ater systemis combined with air conditioning systemof ground source heat pump. As an example, make a simulation of a new ly designed air conditioning systemof a hotel in Changsha. By comparison of the conventional single ground source heat pump, this new hybrid ground source heat pump has been confirmed to solve the imbalance of the heat absorption and release to the ground, effectively improved the operation efficiency ofairconditioning unitmean while.%地源热泵是一种新型节能环保的绿色能源利用技术,在应用过程中,存在的较大问题之一就是对土壤的吸放热不平衡。针对此问题本文提出了一种新的混合地源热泵形式,将热水系统和地源热泵空调系统进行耦合,对长沙某宾馆进行了系统设计并用T R N SY S进行了长达30年的模拟。通过和传统单一的地源热泵空调系统比较,证实了该系统不仅能有效地解决土壤吸放热不平衡问题,而且有效地提高了机组的运行效率。

  17. Recovery Act: Tennessee Energy Efficient Schools Initiative Ground Source Heat Pump Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, Terry [Townsend Engineering, Inc., Davenport, IA (United States); Slusher, Scott [Townsend Engineering, Inc., Davenport, IA (United States)

    2017-04-24

    The Tennessee Energy Efficient Schools Initiative (EESI) Hybrid-Water Source Heat Pump (HY-GSHP) Program sought to provide installation costs and operation costs for different Hybrid water source heat pump systems’ configurations so that other State of Tennessee School Districts will have a resource for comparison purposes if considering a geothermal system.

  18. Ground Source Heat Pump in Heating System with Electronics Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEAMŢU Ovidiu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring system is implemented for a ground coupled heat pump in heating/ system. The borehole heat exchangers – which are 150 m long - are filled with a mixture of water and ethilene glycol calledbrine. Metering and monitoring energy consumption is achieved for: heat pump, circulation pumps, additional electrical heating, hot air ventilation systems, control systems with sensors: analog and smart sensors. Instantaneous values are stored in a local computer.

  19. Magnetocaloric heat pump device, a heating or cooling system and a magnetocaloric heat pump assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention provides a magnetocaloric heat pump device, comprising a magnetocaloric bed; a magnetic field source, the magnetocaloric bed and the magnetic field source being arranged to move relative to each other so as to generate a magnetocaloric refrigeration cycle within the heat pump, wherein...

  20. ENERGY STAR Certified Geothermal Heat Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Geothermal Heat Pumps that are effective as of January 1, 2012. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=geo_heat.pr_crit_geo_heat_pumps

  1. Electricity Market Optimization of Heat Pump Portfolio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Andersen, Palle; Pedersen, Tom S.

    2013-01-01

    We consider a portfolio of domestic heat pumps controlled by an aggregator. The aggregator is able to adjust the consumption of the heat pumps without affecting the comfort in the houses and uses this ability to shift the main consumption to hours with low electricity prices. Further, the aggrega......We consider a portfolio of domestic heat pumps controlled by an aggregator. The aggregator is able to adjust the consumption of the heat pumps without affecting the comfort in the houses and uses this ability to shift the main consumption to hours with low electricity prices. Further...

  2. Kajian Eksperimen Heat Exchahger Pada Heat Pump Menggunakan Refrijeran Hidrokarbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusnandar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Heat pump or usually known as pump energy is a device that can cooling and heating to be used, which functions as a cooling evaporator can be direct replace to heating as a function of the condenser using a reversing valve.. Using heat exchangers in the heat pump system is installed on the suction line and discharge line, so it will give the suction line temperature changes will be higher and discharge line temperatures will be lower, resulting in a greater cooling effect and lighter work of compression. The heat pump uses refrigerant type of hydrocarbon that is friendly to the environment, such as refrigerant R-290. From the results obtained research that the highest of Coefficient of Performance (COP in the heat pump using heat exchangers is 4.8 and without using heat exchanger is 4.1. So value of COP of haet pump between using heat exchanger and withaout heat exchanger is 0.7. The highest efficiency obtained on the heat pump using heat exchangers is 90.3%, and efficiency of heat pump without using heat exchanger is 78.95%.

  3. A simplified heat pump model for use in solar plus heat pump system simulation studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Andersen, Elsa; Nordman, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Solar plus heat pump systems are often very complex in design, with sometimes special heat pump arrangements and control. Therefore detailed heat pump models can give very slow system simulations and still not so accurate results compared to real heat pump performance in a system. The idea here...... is to start from a standard measured performance map of test points for a heat pump according to EN 14825 and then determine characteristic parameters for a simplified correlation based model of the heat pump. By plotting heat pump test data in different ways including power input and output form and not only...... as COP, a simplified relation could be seen. By using the same methodology as in the EN 12975 QDT part in the collector test standard it could be shown that a very simple model could describe the heat pump test data very accurately, by identifying 4 parameters in the correlation equation found....

  4. A simplified heat pump model for use in solar plus heat pump system simulation studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Andersen, Elsa; Nordman, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Solar plus heat pump systems are often very complex in design, with sometimes special heat pump arrangements and control. Therefore detailed heat pump models can give very slow system simulations and still not so accurate results compared to real heat pump performance in a system. The idea here...... is to start from a standard measured performance map of test points for a heat pump according to EN 14825 and then determine characteristic parameters for a simplified correlation based model of the heat pump. By plotting heat pump test data in different ways including power input and output form and not only...... as COP, a simplified relation could be seen. By using the same methodology as in the EN 12975 QDT part in the collector test standard it could be shown that a very simple model could describe the heat pump test data very accurately, by identifying 4 parameters in the correlation equation found....

  5. Energy efficient ammonia heat pump. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, Claus; Pijnenburg, B.; Schumann Grindorf, H. [Danish Technological Institute, Aarhus (Denmark); Christensen, Rolf [Alfa Laval, Lund (Sweden); Rasmussen, Bjarne D. [Grundfos, Bjerringbro (Denmark); Gram, S.; Fredborg Jakobsen, D. [Svedan Industri Koeleanlaeg, Greve (Denmark)

    2013-09-15

    The report describes the development of a highly effective ammonia heat pump. Heat pumps play an increasingly important role in the search for more effective use of energy in our society. Highly efficient heat pumps can contribute to reduced energy consumption and improved economy of the systems which they are a part of. An ammonia heat pump with high pressure reciprocating compressor and a novel split condenser was developed to prove potential for efficiency optimization. The split of the condenser in two parts can be utilized to obtain smaller temperature approaches and, thereby, improved heat pump efficiency at an equal heat exchanger area, when compared to the traditional solution with separate condenser and de-superheater. The split condenser design can also be exploited for heating a significant share of the total heating capacity to a temperature far above the condensing temperature. Furthermore, the prototype heat pump was equipped with a plate type evaporator combined with a U-turn separator with a minimum liquid height and a liquid pump with the purpose of creating optimum liquid circulation ratio for the highest possible heat transfer coefficients at the lowest possible pressure drop. The test results successfully confirmed the highest possible efficiency; a COP of 4.3 was obtained when heating water from 40 deg. C to 80 deg. C while operating with evaporating/condensing temperatures of +20 deg C/+73 deg C. (Author)

  6. Unitary water-to-air heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.E.

    1977-10-01

    Performance and cost functions for nine unitary water-to-air heat pumps ranging in nominal size from /sup 1///sub 2/ to 26 tons are presented in mathematical form for easy use in heat pump computer simulations. COPs at nominal water source temperature of 60/sup 0/F range from 2.5 to 3.4 during the heating cycle; during the cooling cycle EERs range from 8.33 to 9.09 with 85/sup 0/F entering water source temperatures. The COP and EER values do not include water source pumping power or any energy requirements associated with a central heat source and heat rejection equipment.

  7. GEOTHERMAL HEAT PUMP GROUTING MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALLAN,M.

    1998-04-01

    The thermal conductivity of cementitious grouts has been investigated in order to determine suitability of these materials for grouting vertical boreholes used with geothermal heat pumps. The roles of mix variables such as water/cement ratio, sand/cement ratio and superplasticizer dosage were measured. The cement-sand grouts were also tested for rheological characteristics, bleeding, permeability, bond to HDPE pipe, shrinkage, coefficient of thermal expansion, exotherm, durability and environmental impact. This paper summarizes the thermal conductivity, permeability, bonding and exotherm data for selected cementitious grouts. The theoretical reduction in bore length that could be achieved with the BNL-developed cement-sand grouts is examined. Finally, the FY 98 research and field trials are discussed.

  8. Geothermal heat pump grouting materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, M.

    1998-08-01

    The thermal conductivity of cementitious grouts has been investigated in order to determine suitability of these materials for grouting vertical boreholes used with geothermal heat pumps. The roles of mix variables such as water/cement ratio, sand/cement ratio and superplasticizer dosage were measured. The cement-sand grouts were also tested for rheological characteristics, bleeding, permeability, bond to HDPE pipe, shrinkage, coefficient of thermal expansion, exotherm, durability and environmental impact. This paper summarizes the thermal conductivity, permeability, bonding and exotherm data for selected cementitious grouts. The theoretical reduction in bore length that could be achieved with the BNL-developed cement-sand grouts is examined. Finally, the FY 98 research and field trials are discussed.

  9. Industrial Heat Pump for a High Temperature District Heating Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Claus Nørgaard

    2013-01-01

    by excess thermal energy from thermal solar panels. An industrial heat pump system using the natural refrigerant ammonia, is extracting the thermal energy from the storage when needed, and produce hot water at 85°C, for the district heating grid. The heat pump also acts as contributor to electricity grid...

  10. Nonlinear Aspects of Heat Pump Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Najman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work attempts to answer the question: How much can we believe that the coefficient of performance provided by the manufacturer is correct, when a heat pump is required to face the real load coming from changes of temperature? The paper summarizes some basics of heat pump theory and describes the results of numerical models.

  11. Hybrid Heat Exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jianping Gene; Shih, Wei

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid light-weight heat exchanger concept has been developed that uses high-conductivity carbon-carbon (C-C) composites as the heat-transfer fins and uses conventional high-temperature metals, such as Inconel, nickel, and titanium as the parting sheets to meet leakage and structural requirements. In order to maximize thermal conductivity, the majority of carbon fiber is aligned in the fin direction resulting in 300 W/m.K or higher conductivity in the fin directions. As a result of this fiber orientation, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the C-C composite in both non-fiber directions matches well with the CTE of various high-temperature metal alloys. This allows the joining of fins and parting sheets by using high-temperature braze alloys.

  12. Unitary air-to-air heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.E.

    1977-07-01

    This technology evaluation covers commercially available unitary heat pumps ranging from nominal capacities of 1/sup 1///sub 2/ to 45 tons. The nominal COP of the heat pump models, selected as representative, vary from 2.4 to 2.9. Seasonal COPs for heat pump installations and single-family dwellings are reported to vary from 2.5 to 1.1, depending on climate. For cooling performance, the nominal EER's vary from 6.5 to 8.7. Representative part-load performance curves along with cost estimating and reliability data are provided to aid: (1) the systems design engineer to select suitably sized heat pumps based on life-cycle cost analyses, and (2) the computer programmer to develop a simulation code for heat pumps operating in an Integrated Community Energy System.

  13. Offshore watersource heat pump applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, W.H. II [ARK Associates, Round Rock, TX (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This paper discusses applications of the Water Source Heat Pump (WSHP) technology for offshore drilling or production operations to result in a substantial savings in space conditioning to result in a substantial savings in space conditioning and domestic hot water production. An even more cost competitive application of the WSHP is the once thorough design which circulates cool water from deep in the ocean straight through the unit, then discharges it to the ocean surface. A modification of this open loop technique circulates the fluid within an abandoned well bore casing. The advantage of this system is that natural convection of warm water from deep in the well upward, as the unit returns cool water at or near the surface, will greatly enhance the thermal advantage of the system. This will enable direct use in the heating season and perhaps be sufficient to operate an absorption chiller in the cooling season. The initial cost of either of these systems is equivalent to a packaged ac system, making the WSHP an ideal energy conservation measure.

  14. Analysis of Operating Characteristics of Hybrid Ground Source Heat Pump Assisted with Chiller%冷机辅助复合式地源热泵运行特性探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周世玉; 崔文智

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid ground source heat pump system assisted with chiller is proposed in this paper, and also two kinds of operation scheme. System operation of 30 years is simulated using TRNSYS software. Compared with conventional ground source heat pump system, operating characteristics and the feasibility of the hybrid ground source heat pump system are analyzed from the ground temperature increase, system performance, energy consumption and also the technical and economic aspects.%提出了冷水机组和热泵机组分设的复合式地源热泵系统,并提出了两种运行方案。采用 TRNSYS软件模拟其30年的系统运行,并分别从地温增幅、系统性能、能耗及技术经济角度和常规地源热泵系统进行比较,分析了该复合式地源热泵系统的运行特性及其可行性。

  15. Hybrid pump for Pazflor deepwater development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibet, Pierre-Jean

    2010-07-01

    Subsea Processing gives engineers permanent technical challenges due to the comprehensive specifications which often stretch the proven limits of technology. It is particularly true for pumps that have to boost a multiphase effluent, because they must, often at the same time, be tolerant to free gas, able to handle very viscous, generate a high ?P, and be efficient. The Pazflor project decided to base the development on full utilization of subsea pumps. This paper presents the state of the art of the pumps that are designed to be installed on the sea floor. It further describes why existing technology could not match the technical requirements for the Pazflor project. It finally presents the pump specifically developed for this world first full field's development application, the so called 'Hybrid Pump', with the description of the associated qualification program and results. (Author)

  16. Duplex Stirling gas fired heating only heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, W.

    1982-03-01

    In phase I the Duplex Stirling Gas fired Heat Pump was analyzed with the aid of the Sunpower third order simulation and optimization code and found to show heating COP of 1.7 at the rating point of 8 C (17 F) with a heat delivery of 10 kW. Also it was found that a direct heat exchange between working fluid and source and sink air was consistent with high COP in the heat pump, thus eliminating the need for an intermediate heat transfer fluid and its associated pumps and controls. Further, it was demonstrated in the simulation that the heat engine power output could be matched to the heat pump load over the range of source temperatures without need of complex control systems. Cost estimates, along with COP figures from the analysis indicated a payback time of 2 to 4 years in completion with existing combustion heating systems in northern climates.

  17. Jet pump assisted arterial heat pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienert, W. B.; Ducao, A. S.; Trimmer, D. S.

    1978-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of an arterial heat pipe with a capillary driven jet pump. The jet pump generates a suction which pumps vapor and noncondensible gas from the artery. The suction also forces liquid into the artery and maintains it in a primed condition. A theoretical model was developed which predicts the existence of two stable ranges. Up to a certain tilt the artery will prime by itself once a heat load is applied to the heat pipe. At higher tilts, the jet pump can maintain the artery in a primed condition but self-priming is not possible. A prototype heat pipe was tested which self-primed up to a tilt of 1.9 cm, with a heat load of 500 watts. The heat pipe continued to prime reliably when operated as a VCHP, i.e., after a large amount of noncondensible gas was introduced.

  18. Advanced heat pump research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuliasha, M. A.

    The Office of Building Energy Research and Development of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has been funding R&D in advanced heat pumps and appliances since 1976. Much of that research has been managed for DOE by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The objective of the Building Equipment Research (BER) program at ORNL has been to generate new concepts and develop a technology base for improving the energy efficiency and load characteristics of energy conversion equipment used in residential and commercial buildings. The research being pursued to achieve these objectives falls under three general areas: thermally activated heat pumps (TAHP), refrigeration systems, and building equipment systems. The TAHP work is concentrated on three technologies: (1) absorption heat pumps; (2) Stirling engine-driven heat pumps; and (3) internal combustion (IC) engine-driven heat pumps. Major project areas in refrigeration systems research include electric heat pumps, ground-coupled heat pumps, and refigerant mixtures. In the building equipment systems areas, project areas include advanced distribution systems, advanced insulation for appliances, and commercial building equipment.

  19. Experimental results and model calculations of a hybrid adsorption-compression heat pump based on a roots compressor and silica gel-water sorption

    OpenAIRE

    van der Pal, Michel; De Boer, Robert; Wemmers, Anton; Smeding, Simon; Veldhuis, Jakobert; Lycklama A Nijeholt, Jan-Aiso

    2013-01-01

    Part of: Thermally driven heat pumps for heating and cooling. – Ed.: Annett Kühn – Berlin: Universitätsverlag der TU Berlin, 2013 ISBN 978-3-7983-2686-6 (print) ISBN 978-3-7983-2596-8 (online) urn:nbn:de:kobv:83-opus4-39458 [http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:kobv:83-opus4-39458] Thermally driven sorption systems can provide significant energy savings, especially in industrial applications. The driving temperature for operation of such systems limits the operatin...

  20. Transient Analysis of a Magnetic Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, E. A.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental heat pump that uses a rare earth element as the refrigerant is modeled using NASTRAN. The refrigerant is a ferromagnetic metal whose temperature rises when a magnetic field is applied and falls when the magnetic field is removed. The heat pump is used as a refrigerator to remove heat from a reservoir and discharge it through a heat exchanger. In the NASTRAN model the components modeled are represented by one-dimensional ROD elements. Heat flow in the solids and fluid are analyzed. The problem is mildly nonlinear since the heat capacity of the refrigerant is temperature-dependent. One simulation run consists of a series of transient analyses, each representing one stroke of the heat pump. An auxiliary program was written that uses the results of one NASTRAN analysis to generate data for the next NASTRAN analysis.

  1. An open cycle absorption heat pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.M.; Longo, G.A. (Padua Univ. (Italy)); Piccininni, F. (Politecnico di Bari (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Tecnica)

    1992-09-01

    By using absorption dehumidification it is possible to obtain an open cycle absorption heat pump fed by a natural gas burner. The machine couples great simplicity with very good thermodynamic performance. The main feature is the recovery of the latent heat of the air flow. The open cycle heat pump is applied here to building heating, internal temperature 20[sup o]C, relative humidity 50%, with forced ventilation. The system has essentially a packed tower bed for dehumidification, a regenerator fed by a natural gas burner, connected to a condenser, and some heat exchangers. (author).

  2. Solar Assisted Heat Pump Study for Heating of Military Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-07-01

    This study identified 21 generic solar assisted heat pump systems and subjectively evaluated them. The six most promising systems were evaluated in... heat pump . Preliminary drawings intergrating this system into a family housing unit at Little Rock AFB were developed. The system selected had a 27-32 year pay back. (Author)

  3. Compact High Efficiency Adsorption Heat Pump

    OpenAIRE

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E; Humble, Paul H; Sweeney, Josh B

    2012-01-01

    An innovative adsorption cycle heat pump technology is presented that is compact and capable of achieving high energy efficiency for integrated space heating, air conditioning, and water heating. High energy efficiency is accomplished by effectively recuperating heat within the system to minimize energy consumption. This substantially reduces the thermodynamic losses that occur when the sorbent beds are thermally cycled without effective heat recuperation. Furthermore, equipment cost is reduc...

  4. Heat pumps in combined heat and power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Elmegaard, Brian

    2014-01-01

    of the considered cases. When considering a case where the heat pump is located at a CHP (combined heat and power) plant, a configuration that increases the DH return temperature proposes the lowest operation cost, as low as 12 EUR MWh-1 for a 90 °C e 40 °C DH network. Considering the volumetric heating capacity......Heat pumps have previously been proposed as a way to integrate higher amounts of renewable energy in DH (district heating) networks by integrating, e.g., wind power. The paper identifies and compares five generic configurations of heat pumps in DH systems. The operational performance......, a third configuration is superior in all cases. Finally, the three most promising heat pump configurations are integrated in a modified PQ-diagram of the CHP plant. Each show individual advantages, and for two, also disadvantages in order to achieve flexible operation....

  5. Developing a Magnetocaloric Domestic Heat Pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Christian R.H.

    2014-01-01

    beverage coolers, A/Cs for cars and electronics cooling. Devices for heating have not been extensively demonstrated. Here we consider a promising application of magnetocaloric heat pumps for domestic heating. The task of designing and building such a device is a multidisciplinary one encompassing materials...

  6. Absorption heat pump for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan; Simon, William E.; Warrier, Gopinath R.; Woramontri, Woranun

    1993-01-01

    In the first part, the performance of the Absorption Heat Pump (AHP) with water-sulfuric acid and water-magnesium chloride as two new refrigerant-absorbent fluid pairs was investigated. A model was proposed for the analysis of the new working pairs in a heat pump system, subject to different temperature lifts. Computer codes were developed to calculate the Coefficient of Performance (COP) of the system with the thermodynamic properties of the working fluids obtained from the literature. The study shows the potential of water-sulfuric acid as a satisfactory replacement for water-lithium bromide in the targeted temperature range. The performance of the AHP using water-magnesium chloride as refrigerant-absorbent pair does not compare well with those obtained using water-lithium bromide. The second part concentrated on the design and testing of a simple ElectroHydrodynamic (EHD) Pump. A theoretical design model based on continuum electromechanics was analyzed to predict the performance characteristics of the EHD pump to circulate the fluid in the absorption heat pump. A numerical method of solving the governing equations was established to predict the velocity profile, pressure - flow rate relationship and efficiency of the pump. The predicted operational characteristics of the EHD pump is comparable to that of turbomachinery hardware; however, the overall efficiency of the electromagnetic pump is much lower. An experimental investigation to verify the numerical results was conducted. The pressure - flow rate performance characteristics and overall efficiency of the pump obtained experimentally agree well with the theoretical model.

  7. Conventional and advanced exergoenvironmental analysis of an ammonia-water hybridabsorption-compression heat pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Reinholdt, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pump (HACHP) is a technology suitable for industrial scale heat pumps in the process industry. A helpful tool in the design of cost effective and low environmental impact energy conversion systems, such as the HACHP, is the application...

  8. Thermoeconomic comparison of industrial heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Christen Malte; Reinholdt, L.

    2011-01-01

    Four natural working fluids in various heat pump cycles are expected to cover the heating range between 50oC and 150°C. The different thermodynamic cycles are the Condensing Vapour, Transcritical and Compression/Absorption. As the considered technologies have significant differences in application......, limitations and design, a generic comparison is used. To establish the optimal individual temperature range of operation, a thermoeconomic evaluation is performed, with heat price as the decision parameter. Each individual heat pump is favourable in specific temperature intervals, which will vary according...... to the temperature lift between sink and source. At temperature lifts below 30°C the entire temperature range is covered. Exceeding this temperature lift, the range of sink temperatures is not completely covered above 125°C. Three of the heat pumps prove very cost competitive when compared to heating with natural...

  9. Thermoeconomic comparison of industrial heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Christen Malte; Reinholdt, L.

    2011-01-01

    Four natural working fluids in various heat pump cycles are expected to cover the heating range between 50oC and 150°C. The different thermodynamic cycles are the Condensing Vapour, Transcritical and Compression/Absorption. As the considered technologies have significant differences in application......, limitations and design, a generic comparison is used. To establish the optimal individual temperature range of operation, a thermoeconomic evaluation is performed, with heat price as the decision parameter. Each individual heat pump is favourable in specific temperature intervals, which will vary according...... to the temperature lift between sink and source. At temperature lifts below 30°C the entire temperature range is covered. Exceeding this temperature lift, the range of sink temperatures is not completely covered above 125°C. Three of the heat pumps prove very cost competitive when compared to heating with natural...

  10. ENERGY STAR Certified Geothermal Heat Pumps

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Geothermal Heat Pumps that are effective as of...

  11. High performance heat pump absorption cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.; Longo, G.; Rossetto, L.

    1988-10-01

    Absorption heat pumps can provide high performances when operating in suitable cycles with multiple effects. This report describes some multistage cycles and evaluates the coefficient of performance realistically obtainable both in winter and summer working conditions.

  12. Hot Topics! Heat Pumps and Geothermal Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The recent rapid rises in the cost of energy has significantly increased interest in alternative energy sources. The author discusses the underlying principles of heat pumps and geothermal energy. Related activities for technology education students are included.

  13. Hot Topics! Heat Pumps and Geothermal Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The recent rapid rises in the cost of energy has significantly increased interest in alternative energy sources. The author discusses the underlying principles of heat pumps and geothermal energy. Related activities for technology education students are included.

  14. Commercial absorption heat pumps (design, performance)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R. (Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Tecnica)

    1986-04-01

    After a historical review of the development of absorption heat pumps, a critical analysis is presented of the design and operation of typical 25-40 kW, commercially available heat pumps. This engineering critique is followed by an analysis of the performance of 25 kW plant thoroughly tested to provide, by means of statistically significant data, a reliable assessment of the coefficient of performance and capacity in function of the cold source temperature for different return temperatures.

  15. Economics of heat pump assisted drying systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendyala, V.R.; Devotta, S.; Patwardhan, V.S.

    1986-01-01

    The sensitivity of the economics of heat pump assisted dryers to various factors such as design, operational and economic variables, when payback period is adopted as the criterion, has been assessed for Indian conditions. Results have been presented in graphical form to illustrate the optimum conditions for economic viability. For the specific typical conditions and the current costs of electricity and steam in India, a heat pump assisted dryer has a payback period in the range of two to three years.

  16. 太阳能-土壤源热泵复合系统优化与性能分析%System Optimization and Performance Analysis of Solar Energy and Ground-source Heat Pump Hybrid System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁力勤

    2016-01-01

    本文利用瞬时系统模拟软件(Trnsys)搭建了常规土壤源热泵系统及太阳能-土壤源热泵并联复合式系统的模型,并根据不同集热器单位面积流量和水箱体积等参数进行了模拟计算。结果表明,土壤源热泵系统性能系数达3.6~3.8,具有明显的节能优势。%The models of ground-source heat pump system and the solar energy and ground-source heat pump shunt-wound hybrid system have been built by transient system (Trnsys) simulation software, and the simulation calculation has been processed according to the flow rate per unit area and water tank volume for different collectors. According to the simulation results, the coefficient of performance of the ground-source heat pump system is 3.6~3.8, and the system has advantages on energy saving.

  17. Optimized ground coupled heat pump mechanical package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catan, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    The system which was optimized was a horizontal earth coil in a given house in the Pittsburgh area. The types of components used in the heat pump are essentially conventional. The method of this study is derived from one used to optimize an air-source heat pump for operation at standard steady state conditions. A computer model, created at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), is used to predict heat pump performance for specified configuration and operating conditions. A predetermined set of design parameters is automatically altered by a constrained minimization program (a Numerical Algorithms Group library routine hereafter referred to as the optimizer) to find the combination for which the highest COP is predicted by the heat pump model. In the present study, the set of parameters to be varied include some pertaining to the ground coil as well as some pertaining to the heat pump. The optimizer, in this case, pursues a minimum life cycle cost which is calculated using the heat pump model, a ground coil model (called FTECM for Fast Transient Earth Coil model), and a parameterized cost model. The flow chart shows how the optimizer interacts with these programs to minimize life cycle cost.

  18. Multifunctional Heat Pump Installation for Dairy Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit M.L.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the installation based on the approach using the integration of the carbon dioxide heat pump in pasteurization and cooling installation for milk and in installations for preparing of hot and "icy" water. The scheme differs from the prototype by the use of additional heat exchangers and of their connection to the main elements of the installation. A proposed technique of elements connection in the heat pump installation permits to compensate the effect of temperature of cold water supply source, which is low-grade heat source for the heat pump, on the quality the work of the installation. The design of the installation enables to compensate the impact of seasonal variation of water temperature. The installation ensures the COP = 5.3.

  19. High temperature absorption compression heat pump for industrial waste heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinholdt, Lars; Horntvedt, B.; Nordtvedt, S. R.

    2016-01-01

    Heat pumps are currently receiving extensive interest because they may be able to support the integration of large shares of fluctuating electricity production based on renewable sources, and they have the potential for the utilization of low temperature waste heat from industry. In most industries......, the needed temperature levels often range from 100°C and up, but until now, it has been quite difficult to find heat pump technologies that reach this level, and thereby opening up the large-scale heat recovery in the industry. Absorption compression heat pumps can reach temperatures above 100°C......, and they have proved themselves a very efficient and reliable technology for applications that have large temperature changes on the heat sink and/or heat source. The concept of Carnot and Lorenz efficiency and its use in the analysis of system integration is shown. A 1.25 MW system having a Carnot efficiency...

  20. Solar-powered Rankine heat pump for heating and cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, J.

    1978-01-01

    The design, operation and performance of a familyy of solar heating and cooling systems are discussed. The systems feature a reversible heat pump operating with R-11 as the working fluid and using a motor-driven centrifugal compressor. In the cooling mode, solar energy provides the heat source for a Rankine power loop. The system is operational with heat source temperatures ranging from 155 to 220 F; the estimated coefficient of performance is 0.7. In the heating mode, the vapor-cycle heat pump processes solar energy collected at low temperatures (40 to 80 F). The speed of the compressor can be adjusted so that the heat pump capacity matches the load, allowing a seasonal coefficient of performance of about 8 to be attained.

  1. Demand flexibility from residential heat pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2014-01-01

    with high thermal time constant, heat pumps (HP) can offer a great deal of flexibility in the future intelligent grids especially to compensate fluctuating generation. However, the HP flexibility is highly dependent on thermal demand profile, namely hot water and space heating demand. This paper proposes...

  2. Lunar base heat pump, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Jeffrey H.; Harvey, A.; Lovell, T.; Walker, David H.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the Phase 1 process and analysis used to select a refrigerant and thermodynamic cycle as the basis of a vapor compression heat pump requiring a high temperature lift, then to perform a preliminary design to implement the selected concept, including major component selection. Use of a vapor compression heat pump versus other types was based on prior work performed for the Electric Power Research Institute. A high lift heat pump is needed to enable a thermal control system to remove heat down to 275 K from a habitable volume when the external thermal environment is severe. For example, a long-term lunar base habitat will reject heat from a space radiator to a 325 K environment. The first step in the selection process was to perform an optimization trade study, quantifying the effect of radiator operating temperature and heat pump efficiency on total system mass; then, select the radiator operating temperature corresponding to the lowest system mass. Total system mass included radiators, all heat pump components, and the power supply system. The study showed that lunar night operation, with no temperature lift, dictated the radiator size. To operate otherwise would require a high mass penalty to store power. With the defined radiation surface, and heat pump performances assumed to be from 40 percent to 60 percent of the Carnot ideal, the optimum heat rejection temperature ranged from 387 K to 377 K, as a function of heat pump performance. Refrigerant and thermodynamic cycles were then selected to best meet the previously determined design conditions. The system was then adapted as a ground-based prototype lifting temperature to 360 K (versus 385 K for flight unit) and using readily available commercial-grade components. Over 40 refrigerants, separated into wet and dry compression behavioral types, were considered in the selection process. Refrigerants were initially screened for acceptable critical temperature. The acceptable refrigerants were

  3. Crawl space-assisted heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, R. N.

    By means of field tests in real houses, it was found that the source air for the heat pump can be preheated (or precooled) by drawing the outdoor air through the crawl space before it is used by the heat pump. The outdoor air is warmed (or cooled) by flowing over the crawl space earth. Most of the data is from winter months, when one would expect the most benefit for heat pump performance. Generally, greater preheating occurs at lower outdoor air temperatures; and, the effect tapers off to virtually no gain at about 10 C. The preheating effect has been shown to be sustained for an entire winter season. Another experiment proved that the preheating does come, in great part, from the earth and not simply from the house above. Analysis had also led to the conclusion that the heat transfer mechanism is by simple conduction within the upper 0.3 m of the crawl space earth.

  4. A review on adsorption heat pump: Problems and solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Demir, Hasan; MOBEDI, Moghtada; Ülkü, Semra

    2008-01-01

    Adsorption heat pumps have considerably sparked attentions in recent years. The present paper covers the working principle of adsorption heat pumps, recent studies on advanced cycles, developments in adsorbent-adsorbate pairs and design of adsorbent beds. The adsorbent-adsorbate pair features for in order to be employed in the adsorption heat pumps are described. The adsorption heat pumps are compared with the vapor compression and absorption heat pumps. The problems and troubles of adsorptio...

  5. Heat Radiators for Electromagnetic Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Report proposes use of carbon/carbon composite radiators in electromagnetic coolant pumps of nuclear reactors on spacecraft. Carbon/carbon composite materials function well at temperatures in excess of 2,200 K. Aluminum has melting temperature of only 880 K.

  6. 两级双效溴化锂制冷-热泵复合循环%Hybrid Two-stage and Double-effect Lithium Bromide Refrigeration-heat Pump Compound Cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄少君; 卢玫; 朱家贤; 李凌

    2012-01-01

    在热电冷联产系统中,溴化锂吸收式制冷机在制冷过程中排放了大量的废热,这些废热品味低,难以直接回收利用.在此提出了两级双效溴化锂制冷-热泵复合循环,该循环具有冷凝温度较高的特点,便于直接回收冷凝排放热.系统以背压汽轮机的背压蒸汽为热源,制冷的同时利用循环所排出的废热加热锅炉补充水至较高温度.以具有相同功效的双效溴冷机与单效溴化锂热泵联合运行作为对比循环,制冷-热泵复合循环系统省去了一台蒸发器与冷凝器,减少了两个换热温差,并且通过热力计算、能量分析和(火用)分析表明,该循环的能量利用率与(火用)效率均有很大的提高,(火用)效率比对比循环提高了45%.%CCHP system, The waste heat quantity emitted from lithium bromide absorption refrigeration is large and low grade, so it is difficult to use directly. This paper proposes a hybrid two-stage and double-effect Lithium Bromide refrigeration - heat pump compound cycle. In this cycle, the condenser could emit higher temperature heat, which could increase the utilization rate of emitted waste heat. The cycle's heat source is the back pressure steam, and it can take advantage of the low-grade thermal energy emitted from the refrigeration process to heat up the boiler make-up water. This paper takes existiag double-effect lithium bromide absorption refrigeration and the single effect lithium bromide heat pump as contrast, the refrigeration - heat pump compound cycle system omits an evaporator and a condenser, which could decrease the temperature difference in heat exchange. And the energy analysis and the exergy analysis show that the compound cycle can improve exergy efficiency and energy utilization efficiency.

  7. Some comments on air source heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haukaas, H.T. (Norges tekniska hoegskola, Trondheim (Norway)). Institutt for kuldeteknikk

    1982-02-01

    Some vital conditions regarding air/water heat pumps are analyzed by use of computer simulators of a middle sized heat pump system. Heat pumps, and specially air source units, should always be used in combination with conventional heating equipment for peak load supply. (Bivalent systems). The economic optimum heat pump capacity compared to system design load is strongly related to the climate. At typical coastal conditions a ratio of 60-70 per cent is found favourable, while 40-50 per cent will be the correct choice for Norwegian inland area. Analysis of the evaporator shows that it should be designed for 120-130 W/m/sup 2/ specific load and 2-2.2 m/s inlet air velocity, which is well below common practice in designing standard air coolers. The condenser LMTD (logaritmic mean temperature difference) should be chosen about 4 degrees C, while the corresponding 'sellers optimum' is calculated to app. 8.5 degrees C. The difference in total heating costs between systems fully designed according to 'sellers optimum' and 'buyers optimum' respectively is found to be about 0.01 Nkr/kWh.

  8. Design of serially connected district heating heat pumps utilising a geothermal heat source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2017-01-01

    The design of two heat pumps (HP), connected in series, was investigated for operation in the district heating (DH) network of the Greater Copenhagen area, Denmark. The installation was dimensioned to supply 7.2 MW of heat at a temperature of 85 °C. The heat pumps utilise a geothermal heat source...

  9. Natural thermoelectric heat pump in social wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishay, Jacob S; Pertsis, Vitaly; Rave, Eran; Goren, Alon; Bergman, David J

    2003-05-30

    Photographs of wasps or hornets, taken with different temperature sensitive infrared cameras, reveal body temperatures that are sometimes significantly lower than the ambient temperature. This suggests that the hornets possess an intrinsic biological heat pump mechanism which can be used to achieve such cooling. Evidence is presented to substantiate this novel suggestion and to argue that the heat pump is most likely implemented by exploiting a thermoelectric effect in the hornet cuticle. Such a natural heat pump can conceivably also serve to cool the active hornet, engaged in daytime activities outside the nest at ambient temperatures exceeding 40 degrees C, to a body temperature that is low enough to allow its survival in extreme thermal conditions. It might also function as a means of raising the body temperature up to a level that enables the hornet to remain active even when the ambient temperature is as low as 10 degrees C.

  10. Use of solar assisted absorption heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.

    An absorption system can be used for both ambient cooling and heating by solar energy. Heating by an absorption heat pump can represent an interesting alternative, especially in the countries where electric power is not always easily available. Some machines available on the market have been tested. The COP behavior and heating capacity have been examined as a function of the cold source temperature and with regard to different thermal levels. The COP has reached 1.7. Some simulations have been carried out - with two different climatic conditions - to compare the performances of various ''conventional'' solar installation types with solar assisted absorption heat pumps. The series system has shown better performances, 25% to 75%, in comparison with the simpler solar installation. 16 refs.

  11. Technical and Economic Working Domains of Industrial Heat Pumps: Part 1 - Vapour Compression Heat Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2014-01-01

    A large amount of operational and economic constraints limit the applicability of heat pumps operated with natural working fluids. The limitations are highly dependent on the integration of heat source and sink streams. An evaluation of feasible operating conditions is carried out considering...... the constraints of available refrigeration equipment and a requirement of a positive Net Present Value of the investment. The considered sink outlet temperature range is from 40 °C to 140 °C, but for the heat pumps considered in this paper, the upper limit is 100 °C. Five heat pumps are studied. For each set...... of heat sink and source temperatures the optimal solution is determined. At low sink temperature glide R717 heat pumps show best performance, while at higher sink glide transcritical R744 may become important. In a second paper, the results of the VCHP are compared to a similar study considering...

  12. HEAT PUMP APPLICATION IN FOOD TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Korzenszky

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The economy of food technologies is greatly influenced by their energy consumption. Almost no operation or procedure exists that could be executed without the need for electricity. At the same time, several technologies require direct or indirect input of thermal energy as well. An example to quote is the heating of the raw materials of food industry or the pasteurisation or sterilisation of finished products, but heating the production rooms or cleaning or washing the machinery also require energy. Needless to say food industry plants constantly seek ways to improve their energy efficiency such as the reintroduction of waste heat into the technology and the use of renewables. Heat recovering heat exchangers are used in the pasteurisation technology of milk. In case of lower temperatures, however, simple heat exchangers are of no use. Few practical examples of heat recovery obtained upon cooling products or raw materials exist in the food industry even though the possibility of this is available using heat pumps. Heat pumps have been successfully applied to heat apartments with thermal energy recovered from the cooling of soils, water or air or to utilise the excess heat of thermal spring waters. Our present article introduces the application possibility in a soda water plant, fundamentally determining the quality of soda water and showing an example of rational utilisation.

  13. Analysis & Tools to Spur Increased Deployment of “Waste Heat” Rejection/Recycling Hybrid Ground-source Heat Pump Systems in Hot, Arid or Semiarid Climates Like Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masada, Glenn [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Moon, Tess [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This project team analyzed supplemental heat rejection/recovery (SHR) devices or systems that could be used in hybrid ground source heat pump (HGHP) systems located in arid or semi-arid regions in southwestern U.S. Identification of effective SHR solutions would enhance the deployment of ground source heat pumps (GHP) in these regions. In a parallel effort, the team developed integrated GHP models that coupled the building load, heat pump, and ground loop subsystems and which could be applied to residential and commercial office buildings. Then GHP and HGHP performances could be compared in terms of operational performance and life-cycle costs. Several potential SHR devices were analyzed by applying two strategies: 1) to remove heat directly from the water in the ground loop before it enters the ground and 2) to remove heat in the refrigerant loop of the vapor compression cycle (VCC) of the heat pump so less heat is transferred to the water loop at the condenser of the VCC. Cooling towers, adsorption coolers, and thermoelectric liquid coolers were included in strategy 1, and expanded desuperheaters, thermosyphons, and an optimized VCC were included in strategy 2. Of all SHR devices analyzed, only the cooling tower provided a cost-effective performance enhancement. For the integrated GHP model, the project team selected the building load model HAMBASE and its powerful computational Simulink/MatLab platform, empirical performance map models of the heat pumps based upon manufacturers’ performance data, and a ground loop model developed by Oklahoma State University and rewritten for this project in Simulink/MatLab. The design process used GLHEPRO, also from Oklahoma State University, to size the borehole fields. The building load and ground loop models were compared with simulations from eQuest, ASHRAE 140-2008 standards, EnergyPlus, and GLHEPRO and were found to predict those subsystems’ performance well. The integrated GHP model was applied to a 195m2

  14. Analysis of Efficiency for Current Heat Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vygantas Žėkas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The heat pump is the technology which enables to use renewable energy resources. We can judge about the usage of this technology from the coefficient of performance (COP. It is usually defined according to standard conditions. In this research the actual COP is calculated using thermodynamic analysis method, also performing physical measures of temperatures and pressures of realistically operating thermal pump. This coefficient is analyzed during various characteristic periods of the heating season. The prevailing COP meaning is 3.7-3.9.Article in Lithuanian

  15. Performance of a solar augmented heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedinger, A. F. G.; Tomlinson, J. J.; Reid, R. L.; Chaffin, D. J.

    Performance of a residential size solar augmented heat pump is reported for the 1979-1980 heating season. The facility located in Knoxville, Tennessee, has a measured heat load coefficient of 339.5 watt/C (644 BTU/hr- F). The solar augmented heat pump system consists of 7.4 cu m of one inch diameter crushed limestone. The heat pump is a nominal 8.8 KW (2 1/2 ton) high efficiency unit. The system includes electric resistance heaters to give the option of adding thermal energy to the pebble bed storage during utility off-peak periods, thus offering considerable load management capability. A 15 KW electric resistance duct heater is used to add thermal energy to the pebble bin as required during off-peak periods. Hourly thermal performance and on site weather data was taken for the period November 1, 1979, to April 13, 1980. Thermal performance data consists of heat flow summations for all modes of the system, pebble bed temperatures, and space temperature. Weather data consists of dry bulb temperature, dew point temperature, total global insolation (in the plane of the collector), and wind speed and direction. An error analysis was performed and the least accurate of the measurements was determined to be the heat flow at 5%. Solar system thermal performance factor was measured to be 8.77. The heat pump thermal performance factor was 1.64. Total system seasonal performance factor was measured to be 1.66. Using a modified version of TRNSYS, the thermal performance of this system was simulated. When simulation results were compared with data collected onsite, the predicted heat flow and power consumption generally were within experimental accuracy.

  16. Mass and Heat Transfer Enhancement of Chemical Heat Pumps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-PingLin; Xiu-GanYuan

    1993-01-01

    An inert additive,expanded graphit(EG),has been prepared and used to enhance the heat and mass transfer process of chemical heat pumps.The effects of mixing ratio and mixing method on the chemical reaction time are investigated.

  17. Practical and efficient magnetic heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G. V.

    1978-01-01

    Method for pumping heat magnetically at room temperature is more economical than existing refrigeration systems. Method uses natural magneto-thermal effect of gadolinium metal to establish temperature gradient across length of tube. Regenerative cyclic process in which gadolinium sample is magnetized and gives off heat at one end of tube, and then is demagnetized at other end to absorb heat has established temperature gradients of 144 degrees F in experiments near room temperature. Other materials with large magnetothermal effects can be used below room temperature. Possible commercial applications include freeze-drying and food processing, cold storage, and heating and cooling of buildings, plants, and ships.

  18. Practical and efficient magnetic heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G. V.

    1978-01-01

    Method for pumping heat magnetically at room temperature is more economical than existing refrigeration systems. Method uses natural magneto-thermal effect of gadolinium metal to establish temperature gradient across length of tube. Regenerative cyclic process in which gadolinium sample is magnetized and gives off heat at one end of tube, and then is demagnetized at other end to absorb heat has established temperature gradients of 144 degrees F in experiments near room temperature. Other materials with large magnetothermal effects can be used below room temperature. Possible commercial applications include freeze-drying and food processing, cold storage, and heating and cooling of buildings, plants, and ships.

  19. Assessment of solar-assisted gas-fired heat pump systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    As a possible application for the Goldstone Energy Project, the performance of a 10 ton heat pump unit using a hybrid solar gas energy source was evaluated in an effort to optimize the solar collector size. The heat pump system is designed to provide all the cooling and/or heating requirements of a selected office building. The system performance is to be augmented in the heating mode by utilizing the waste heat from the power cycle. A simplified system analysis is described to assess and compute interrrelationships of the engine, heat pump, and solar and building performance parameters, and to optimize the solar concentrator/building area ratio for a minimum total system cost. In addition, four alternative heating cooling systems, commonly used for building comfort, are described; their costs are compared, and are found to be less competitive with the gas solar heat pump system at the projected solar equipment costs.

  20. Assessment of solar-assisted gas-fired heat pump systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    As a possible application for the Goldstone Energy Project, the performance of a 10 ton heat pump unit using a hybrid solar gas energy source was evaluated in an effort to optimize the solar collector size. The heat pump system is designed to provide all the cooling and/or heating requirements of a selected office building. The system performance is to be augmented in the heating mode by utilizing the waste heat from the power cycle. A simplified system analysis is described to assess and compute interrrelationships of the engine, heat pump, and solar and building performance parameters, and to optimize the solar concentrator/building area ratio for a minimum total system cost. In addition, four alternative heating cooling systems, commonly used for building comfort, are described; their costs are compared, and are found to be less competitive with the gas solar heat pump system at the projected solar equipment costs.

  1. Heat Pumps in CHP Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt

    in Danish conditions. The limitations are highly dependent on the integration of heat source and sink streams. An evaluation of feasible operating conditions was carried out considering the constraints of available refrigeration equipment and a requirement of a positive net present value of the investment...... goals. The presented study investigates the possible introduction of HPs from both a thermodynamic and a system/operation management perspective, in order to find optimal integration schemes in both current and future energy scenarios. Five generic configurations of HPs in district heating (DH) systems...... that three configurations are particular advantageous, whereas the two remaining configurations result in system performance close to or below what may be expected from an electric heater. One of the three advantageous configurations is required to be positioned at the location of the heat demand, whereas...

  2. Heat pump evaluation for Space Station ATCS evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Brian E.; Petete, Patricia A.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary feasibility assessment of the application of a vapor compression heat pump to the Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) of SSF is presented. This paper focuses on the methodology of raising the surface temperature of the radiators for improved heat rejection. Some of the effects of the vapor compression cycle on SSF examined include heat pump integration into ATCS, constraints on the heat pump operating parameters, and heat pump performance enhancements.

  3. Heat pump evaluation for Space Station ATCS evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Brian E.; Petete, Patricia A.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary feasibility assessment of the application of a vapor compression heat pump to the Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) of SSF is presented. This paper focuses on the methodology of raising the surface temperature of the radiators for improved heat rejection. Some of the effects of the vapor compression cycle on SSF examined include heat pump integration into ATCS, constraints on the heat pump operating parameters, and heat pump performance enhancements.

  4. Dual-stroke heat pump field performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyo, S. E.

    1984-11-01

    Two nearly identical proprototype systems, each employing a unique dual-stroke compressor, were built and tested. One was installed in an occupied residence in Jeannette, Pa. It has provided the heating and cooling required from that time to the present. The system has functioned without failure of any prototypical advanced components, although early field experience did suffer from deficiencies in the software for the breadboard micro processor control system. Analysis of field performance data indicates a heating performance factor (HSPF) of 8.13 Stu/Wa, and a cooling energy efficiency (SEER) of 8.35 Scu/Wh. Data indicate that the beat pump is oversized for the test house since the observed lower balance point is 3 F whereas 17 F La optimum. Oversizing coupled with the use of resistance heat ot maintain delivered air temperature warmer than 90 F results in the consumption of more resistance heat than expected, more unit cycling, and therefore lower than expected energy efficiency. Our analysis indicates that with optimal mixing the dual stroke heat pump will yield as HSFF 30% better than a single capacity heat pump representative of high efficiency units in the market place today for the observed weather profile.

  5. A regenerative elastocaloric heat pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrecht, Kurt; Eriksen, Dan; Dallolio, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    A large fraction of global energy use is for refrigeration and air-conditioning, which could be decarbonized if efficient renewable energy technologies could be found. Vapour-compression technology remains the most widely used system to move heat up the temperature scale after more than 100 years...

  6. Manually operated elastomer heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, W. D.

    1970-01-01

    Device consisting of a rotating mechanism, a frame with multiple wide bands of rubber, and a fluid bath, demonstrates the feasibility of a human operated device capable of cooling or producing heat. This invention utilizes the basic thermodynamic properties of natural rubber.

  7. Residential Variable-Capacity Heat Pumps Sized to Heating Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munk, Jeffrey D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jackson, Roderick K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Odukomaiya, Adewale [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Gehl, Anthony C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Variable capacity heat pumps are an emerging technology offering significant energy savings potential and improved efficiency. With conventional single-speed systems, it is important to appropriately size heat pumps for the cooling load as over-sizing would result in cycling and insufficient latent capacity required for humidity control. These appropriately sized systems are often under-sized for the heating load and require inefficient supplemental electric resistance heat to meet the heating demand. Variable capacity heat pumps address these shortcomings by providing an opportunity to intentionally size systems for the dominant heating season load without adverse effects of cycling or insufficient dehumidification in the cooling season. This intentionally-sized system could result in significant energy savings in the heating season, as the need for inefficient supplemental electric resistance heat is drastically reduced. This is a continuation of a study evaluating the energy consumption of variable capacity heat pumps installed in two unoccupied research homes in Farragut, a suburb of Knoxville, Tennessee. In this particular study, space conditioning systems are intentionally sized for the heating season loads to provide an opportunity to understand and evaluate the impact this would have on electric resistance heat use and dehumidification. The results and conclusions drawn through this research are valid and specific for portions of the Southeastern and Midwestern United States falling in the mixed-humid climate zone. While other regions in the U.S. do not experience this type of climate, this work provides a basis for, and can help understand the implications of other climate zones on residential space conditioning energy consumption. The data presented here will provide a framework for fine tuning residential building EnergyPlus models that are being developed.

  8. Residential Variable-Capacity Heat Pumps Sized to Heating Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munk, Jeffrey D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jackson, Roderick K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Odukomaiya, Adewale [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Gehl, Anthony C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Variable capacity heat pumps are an emerging technology offering significant energy savings potential and improved efficiency. With conventional single-speed systems, it is important to appropriately size heat pumps for the cooling load as over-sizing would result in cycling and insufficient latent capacity required for humidity control. These appropriately sized systems are often under-sized for the heating load and require inefficient supplemental electric resistance heat to meet the heating demand. Variable capacity heat pumps address these shortcomings by providing an opportunity to intentionally size systems for the dominant heating season load without adverse effects of cycling or insufficient dehumidification in the cooling season. This intentionally-sized system could result in significant energy savings in the heating season, as the need for inefficient supplemental electric resistance heat is drastically reduced. This is a continuation of a study evaluating the energy consumption of variable capacity heat pumps installed in two unoccupied research homes in Farragut, a suburb of Knoxville, Tennessee. In this particular study, space conditioning systems are intentionally sized for the heating season loads to provide an opportunity to understand and evaluate the impact this would have on electric resistance heat use and dehumidification. The results and conclusions drawn through this research are valid and specific for portions of the Southeastern and Midwestern United States falling in the mixed-humid climate zone. While other regions in the U.S. do not experience this type of climate, this work provides a basis for, and can help understand the implications of other climate zones on residential space conditioning energy consumption. The data presented here will provide a framework for fine tuning residential building EnergyPlus models that are being developed.

  9. Aggregated Control of Domestic Heat Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten M.; Andersen, Palle; Pedersen, Tom S.

    2013-01-01

    A challenge in Denmark in the near future is to balance the electrical grid due to a large increase in the renewable energy production mainly from wind turbines. In this work an aggregated control system using heat pumps in single family houses to help balancing the grid is investigated. The cont...

  10. Multi-Function Gas Fired Heat Pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehdizadeh Momen, Ayyoub [ORNL; Abu-Heiba, Ahmad [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this project was to design a residential fuel fired heat pump and further improve efficiency in collaboration with an industry partner – Southwest Gas, the developer of the Nextaire commercial rooftop fuel-fired heat pump. Work started in late 2010. After extensive search for suitable engines, one manufactured by Marathon was selected. Several prototypes were designed and built over the following four years. Design changes were focused on lowering the cost of components and the cost of manufacturing. The design evolved to a final one that yielded the lowest cost. The final design also incorporates noise and vibration reduction measures that were verified to be effective through a customer survey. ETL certification is currently (as of November 2015) underway. Southwest Gas is currently in talks with GTI to reach an agreement through which GTI will assess the commercial viability and potential of the heat pump. Southwest Gas is searching for investors to manufacture the heat pump and introduce it to the market.

  11. Heat pumps in industry: Pt. 1; Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.M. (Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Ingegneria Gestionale)

    1994-11-01

    Industrial heat pumps are reviewed, classifying them according to the way by which the working fluid is taken from the lower to the higher pressure: mechanical or thermal. Each group is further subdivided in closed and open cycle. The most recent technological developments are considered for each classification. (author)

  12. Multi-Function Gas Fired Heat Pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Heiba, Ahmad [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Vineyard, Edward Allan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-11-30

    The aim of this project was to design a residential fuel fired heat pump and further improve efficiency in collaboration with an industry partner – Southwest Gas, the developer of the Nextaire commercial rooftop fuel-fired heat pump. Work started in late 2010. After extensive search for suitable engines, one manufactured by Marathon was selected. Several prototypes were designed and built over the following four years. Design changes were focused on lowering the cost of components and the cost of manufacturing. The design evolved to a final one that yielded the lowest cost. The final design also incorporates noise and vibration reduction measures that were verified to be effective through a customer survey. ETL certification is currently (as of November 2015) underway. Southwest Gas is currently in talks with GTI to reach an agreement through which GTI will assess the commercial viability and potential of the heat pump. Southwest Gas is searching for investors to manufacture the heat pump and introduce it to the market.

  13. Open cycle vapor compression heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhuja, R.; Becker, F. E.

    1980-07-01

    A compressor test facility was built incorporating a screw compressor modified for steam service. The compressor was tested over a wide range of operating conditions with experimental results showing excellent agreement with predicted performance. The compressor operation with wet steam and water injection was completely satisfactory, demonstrating its suitability for use in a steam heat pump system.

  14. Modelling of Ammonia Heat Pump Desuperheaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Stefan Wuust; Elmegaard, Brian; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study of modelling desuperheating in ammonia heat pumps. Focus is on the temperature profile of the superheated refrigerant. Typically, the surface area of a heat exchanger is estimated using the Log Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD) method. The assumption of this method...... is that the specific heat is constant throughout the temperature glide of the refrigerant in the heat exchanger. However, considering ammonia as refrigerant, the LMTD method does not give accurate results due to significant variations of the specific heat. By comparing the actual temperature profiles from a one....... The area of the heat exchanger can be increased or the condensation temperature can be raised to achieve the same temperature difference for the discretized model as for the LMTD. This would affect the compressor work, hence the COP of the system. Furthermore, for higher condenser pressure, and thus higher...

  15. Performance of a solar augmented heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedinger, A. F. G.; Tomlinsin, J. J.; Reid, R. L.; Chaffin, D. J.

    Performance results from a test house equipped with a parallel solar augmented heat pump system with off-peak storage and a utility interconnection back-up, are presented. The collector array consisted of 12 air heating flat plates with a 9 l/sec flow. Thermal storage was consigned to a 260 cu ft crushed limestone pebble bed, with an 8.8 kW heat pump used to draw heat from storage during off-peak hours and a 15 kW electrical resistance heater used to charge the pebble bed. Monitoring and data recording were carried out on all energy inputs and outputs of the systems, and a modified TRNSYS program was employed to model the system performance. The data indicate that although the system offered the possibility of reducing the utility capacity, the addition of the solar system did not significantly augment the performance of the heat-pump system, at least in terms of the cost of supplementary electricity.

  16. Comfort-constrained distributed heat pump management

    CERN Document Server

    Parkinson, Simon; Crawford, Curran; Djilali, Ned

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the design of a demand response network control strategy aimed at thermostatically controlled electric heating and cooling systems in buildings. The method relies on the use of programmable communicating thermostats, which are able to provide important component-level state variables to a system-level central controller. This information can be used to build power density distribution functions for the aggregate heat pump load. These functions lay out the fundamental basis for the methodology by allowing for consideration of customer-level constraints within the system-level decision making process. The proposed strategy is then implemented in a computational model to simulate a distribution of buildings, where the aggregate heat pump load is managed to provide the regulation services needed to successfully integrate wind power generators. Increased exploitation of wind resources will place similarly themed ancillary services in high-demand, traditionally provided by dispatchable energy ...

  17. DOE Webinar - Residential Geothermal Heat Pump Retrofits (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, E. R.

    2010-12-14

    This presentation was given December 14, 2010, as part of DOE's Webinar series. The presentation discusses geothermal heat pump retrofits, technology options, and an overview of geothermal energy and geothermal heat pumps.

  18. Experimental study on energy performance of clean air heat pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Nie, Jinzhe; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2014-01-01

    An innovative clean air heat pump (CAHP) was designed and developed based on the air purification capacity of regenerative silica gel rotor. The clean air heat pump integrated air purification, dehumidification and cooling in one unit. A prototype of the clean air heat pump was developed...

  19. Malone-Brayton Cycle Engine/Heat Pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A machine, such as a heat pump , and having an all liquid heat exchange fluid, operates over a more nearly ideal thermodynamic cycle by adjustment of...difference in axial lengths of rotary pumps of the gear or vane type to achieve the adjustment of volumetric capacity. Adjustment of the heat pump system

  20. Reflection of ground-source heat pump systems' application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGSuyun; LINZhenguo; WUXiangsheng; WUTian

    2003-01-01

    Ground-source heat pump system is an air-conditioning form of energy efficient and environment protection. This article introduced the forms of ground-source heat pump systems, analyzed the problems of ground-source heat pump systems in application in China, and put forward the solutions to these problems.

  1. NGTC`s natural gas heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binet, M. [Natural Gas Technologies Centre, Boucherville, PQ (Canada)

    1996-12-01

    An overview of natural gas heat pumps and cooling systems evaluation projects carried out by the Natural Gas Technologies Centre (NGTC) in Boucherville, Quebec, was presented. Technological description of three natural gas engine-driven technologies were provided, as well as the results of laboratory and field tests. The residential sector was covered by the 3-ton York Triathlon heat pump, the commercial sector by the 10-ton Trico natural gas engine-driven condensing unit, and the institutional sector by 25-ton Carrier engine-driven rooftops. The York Triathlon heat pump showed a good performance at the given conditions, with an average COP of 1.29 in cooling mode and of 1.03 in heating mode. The Trico unit was fully instrumented at NGTC; performance testing will be carried out later in 1996. The Carrier rooftops showed performance levels below those of the manufacturer`s suggested characteristics, although user satisfaction with the comfort provided by the units was high. 7 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Potential of the heat pump; Potenziale der Waermepumpe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flade, F. [Bundesverband WaermePumpe (BWP) e.V., Muenchen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Heat pumps have been around for years. They are a mature and economically efficient heating technology which will reduce primary energy consumption and CO2 emissions quickly and sustainably. In 2002, 251,000 million l of heating oil and 289,000 million cubic metres of gas were consumed for heating in Germany, which might have been greatly reduced with heat pumps. At a seasonal performance factor of 4.5 as is common in groundwater and ground source heat pumps, heat pumps will produce 40 percent less CO2 than gas-fuelled high-efficiency boilers. At 'normal' values of 3.5 which are more or less standard values for air-to-water heat pumps, CO2 emissions will be reduced by 30 percent. The heat pump is an ecologically effective and economically efficient alternative to conventional heating systems. (orig.)

  3. Optimization of a ground coupled heat pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, V.D.; Catan, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    A cooperative analytical project has optimized a horizontal ground coil heat pump system for the Pittsburgh climate. This is the first step in the exploration of several advanced designs including various ground coil devices and advanced heat pump components. The project made use of new and existing design tools to simulate system performance and determine first cost. The system life cycle cost was minimized while constraining the system to meet the design day cooling load using a function minimizing program. Among the system parameters considered were: air-to-refrigerant frontal area, air-to-refrigerant fin pitch, air-to-refrigerant air flowrate, compressor displacement, liquid-to-refrigerant coil length, liquid-to-refrigerant coil diameter, ground coil fluid flowrate, ground coil length, and ground coil depth.

  4. Phonon Cooling by an Optomechanical Heat Pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ying; Bariani, F; Meystre, P

    2015-11-27

    We propose and analyze theoretically a cavity optomechanical analog of a heat pump that uses a polariton fluid to cool mechanical modes coupled to a single precooled phonon mode via external modulation of the substrate of the mechanical resonator. This approach permits us to cool phonon modes of arbitrary frequencies not limited by the cavity-optical field detuning deep into the quantum regime from room temperature.

  5. Heat pump processes induced by laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbuny, M.; Henningsen, T.

    1980-01-01

    A carbon dioxide laser system was constructed for the demonstration of heat pump processes induced by laser radiation. The system consisted of a frequency doubling stage, a gas reaction cell with its vacuum and high purity gas supply system, and provisions to measure the temperature changes by pressure, or alternatively, by density changes. The theoretical considerations for the choice of designs and components are dicussed.

  6. Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B.; Earle, L.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.; Wilson, E.; Hancock, E.

    2013-02-01

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  7. Field Monitoring Protocol. Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Earle, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maguire, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wilson, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hancock, C. E. [Mountain Energy Partnership, Longmont, CO (United States)

    2013-02-01

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  8. Maldistribution in airewater heat pump evaporators. Part 1: Effects on evaporator, heat pump and system level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mader, Gunda; Palm, Björn; Elmegaard, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to quantify the effect of evaporator maldistribution onoperating costs of air-water heat pumps. In the proposed simulation model maldistributionis induced by two parameters describing refrigerant phase and air flow distribution.Annual operating costs are calculated...... based on heat pump performance at distinct operatingconditions. Results show that percentage increase of operating costs is similar for thethree considered climate zones, even though the effect of maldistribution on heat pumpperformance varies with operating conditions. Differences in terms of absolute...

  9. Measured Performance of a Low Temperature Air Source Heat Pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.K. Johnson

    2013-09-01

    A 4-ton Low Temperature Heat Pump (LTHP) manufactured by Hallowell International was installed in a residence near New Haven, Connecticut and monitored over two winters of operation. After attending to some significant service issues, the heat pump operated as designed. This report should be considered a review of the dual compressor “boosted heat pump” technology. The Low Temperature Heat Pump system operates with four increasing levels of capacity (heat output) as the outdoor temperature drops.

  10. Fluidized Bed Air-to-Air Heat Pump Evaporator Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    Frost formation of air-to-air heat pump evaporator surfaces reduces unit efficiency and restricts application. The use of a fluidized bed heat...exchanger as an air-to- heat pump evaporator was investigated to determine if frost accumulation could be eliminated. Experimental investigations were...evaluated, with no practical solution being developed. The use of a fluidized bed heat exchanger for air-to-air heat pump evaporators was determined not feasible. (Author)

  11. 石家庄地区地源热泵与太阳能复合空调系统的应用研究%Application Research of the Hybrid Solar Thermal and Ground Source Heat Pump System in Shijiazhuang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常冰

    2012-01-01

    针对我国北方地区地源热泵空调系统普遍存在的热平衡失调问题,设计了一款地源热泵与太阳能复合空气调节系统,并于2010年在石家庄市的老年公寓工程改造中应用.结果表明该系统效果良好,改造后比改造前地埋管换热器初始出水温度提高6℃;最低出水温度提高5℃;地源热泵机组能效比由1.67提高到3.82;冬季运行费用由20元/m2降低至11元/m2;该工程冬季总运行费用由5万元降低至2.75万元.该实例证明该系统结合了地源热泵和太阳能的各自优点,在石家庄地区应用效果明显,并且用于太阳能系统的初投资4.5万元一年后已收回成本,有推广应用的价值.%Aiming at heat balance problem in Northern region, a hybrid solar thermal and ground source heat pump system was designed, and it was applied in rebuilding of elderly apartments in Shijiazhuang City in 2010. The results showed that the application of this system received a good effect. The initial outlet temperature improved 6 t, the lowest outlet temperature improved 5 t ; the energy efficiency ratio of ground source heat pump improved from 1. 67 to 3. 82; operation fee in winter decreased from 20 to 11 Yuan/m2, the total fee in winter decreased from 50 to 27. 5 thousands Yuan. The example demonstrated that the system combined advantages of ground source heat pump and solar energy, had extensive application value.

  12. Residential CO2 Heat Pump System for Combined Space Heating and Hot Water Heating

    OpenAIRE

    Stene, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2, R-744) has been identified as a promising alternative to conventional working fluids in a number of applications due to its favourable environmental and thermophysical properties. Previous work on residential CO2 heat pumps has been dealing with systems for either space heating or hot water heating, and it was therefore considered interesting to carry out a theoretical and experimental study of residential CO2 heat pump systems for combined space heating and hot water hea...

  13. Open-cycle vapor compression heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, F. E.; Ruggles, A. E.

    1985-03-01

    Large quantities of low-grade energy in the form of low-pressure steam and low-temperature heat are often discharged to the environment by industry. The practical and economical recovery of energy from these sources is often limited by the number of applications that can directly use low-temperature heat. Thermo Electron has developed an open-cycle steam heat pump system capable of the direct recovery and upgrading of low-grade waste energy. The system compresses low-pressure waste steam (or steam made from sources of low-temperature waste heat) to produce high-pressure steam suitable for use in industrial processes. A prototype system has been developed that is capable of recovering and recompressing up to 10,000 lb/hr of waste steam, while using only 50 percent of the fuel that would be required to produce comparable steam in a boiler.

  14. Coabsorbent and thermal recovery compression heat pumping technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Staicovici, Mihail-Dan

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces two of the most exciting heat pumping technologies, the coabsorbent and the thermal recovery (mechanical vapor) compression, characterized by a high potential in primary energy savings and environmental protection. New cycles with potential applications of nontruncated, truncated, hybrid truncated, and multi-effect coabsorbent types are introduced in this work.   Thermal-to-work recovery compression (TWRC) is the first of two particular methods explored here, including how superheat is converted into work, which diminishes the compressor work input. In the second method, thermal-to-thermal recovery compression (TTRC), the superheat is converted into useful cooling and/or heating, and added to the cycle output effect via the coabsorbent technology. These and other methods of discharge gas superheat recovery are analyzed for single-, two-, three-, and multi-stage compression cooling and heating, ammonia and ammonia-water cycles, and the effectiveness results are given.  The author presen...

  15. Research on ground heat exchanger of Ground Source Heat Pump technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dong-sheng; SUN You-hong; GAO Ke; WU Xiao-hang

    2004-01-01

    Ground Source Heat Pump technique and its operating principle are described in this paper. Ground heat exchanger is the key technique of ground source heat pump and its pattems are discussed. Software is helpful to design ground heat exchanger. A project of Chinese Ground Source Heat Pump is introduced and its market is more and more extensive.

  16. Vlasov Simulations of Ionospheric Heating Near Upper Hybrid Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najmi, A. C.; Eliasson, B. E.; Shao, X.; Milikh, G. M.; Papadopoulos, K.

    2014-12-01

    It is well-known that high-frequency (HF) heating of the ionosphere can excite field- aligned density striations (FAS) in the ionospheric plasma. Furthermore, in the neighborhood of various resonances, the pump wave can undergo parametric instabilities to produce a variety of electrostatic and electromagnetic waves. We have used a Vlasov simulation with 1-spatial dimension, 2-velocity dimensions, and 2-components of fields, to study the effects of ionospheric heating when the pump frequency is in the vicinity of the upper hybrid resonance, employing parameters currently available at ionospheric heaters such as HAARP. We have found that by seeding theplasma with a FAS of width ~20% of the simulation domain, ~10% depletion, and by applying a spatially uniform HF dipole pump electric field, the pump wave gives rise to a broad spectrum of density fluctuations as well as to upper hybrid and lower hybrid oscillating electric fields. We also observe collisionless bulk-heating of the electrons that varies non-linearly with the amplitude of the pump field.

  17. Ground as a possible heat pump source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R. [Padova Univ. (Germany). Dipt. di Tecnica e Gestione die Istemi Industriali

    2001-06-01

    Heat pumps are devices that can increase the thermal level of heat taken from an available source. Their performances are usually very sensible to the temperatures. This is the reason why sources different from the outside air are welcome, since that source is thermally unfavourable. The ground is a possible very favourable source: temperature variations are damped in the ground so much the more deeper one descends. The variations are also delayed, so that in the coldest period one can find equality very good thermal levels. The two main used systems are: horizontal tubes at a depth between 0.8 and 1.5m and vertical tubes. This last technology has gained an increasing popularity with depths which are sometimes deeper than 100m. It interests a large volume of ground with a comparatively small surface area. It is a technology already widespread in Switzerland (where more than 15.000 ground heat pumps were installed in these years), Germany and Austria. It could be a very favourable technology also in Italy and other mediterranean countries both for the presence of good thermal levels underground with excellent characteristics of heat exchange and for the possible use of the ground as a suitable summer thermal sink. (orig.)

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF A HIGH PERFORMANCE COLD CLIMATE HEAT PUMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, W. Travis [Purdue University; Groll, Eckhard A. [Purdue University; Braun, James E. [Purdue University

    2014-06-01

    The primary goals of the proposed project were to develop, test, and evaluate a high performance and cost-effective vapor compression air-source heat pump for use in cold climate regions. Vapor compression heat pumps are a proven technology, and have been used for many years to meet heating requirements for buildings in residential, commercial, and industrial applications. However, in climate regions that experience very low outdoor ambient temperatures both the heating capacity and coefficient of performance (COP) of traditional air-source vapor compression heat pumps drops dramatically with a decrease in the outdoor air temperature. The efficiency of heat pumping equipment has improved substantially over the past 20 years; however, the efficiencies of the highest rated equipment on the market are approaching practical limits that cannot be surpassed without modifications to the basic cycle and possibly the use of additional hardware. In this report, three technologies to improve the efficiency of vapor compression systems are described. These are a) vapor injected compression, b) oil flooded compression and c) hybrid flow control of the evaporator. Compressor prototypes for both, oil flooded and vapor injected compression were developed by Emerson Climate Technologies. For the oil flooded compressor, the oil injection port location was optimized and an internal oil separator was added using several design iterations. After initial testing at Emerson Climate Technologies, further testing was done at Purdue University, and compressor models were developed. These models were then integrated into a system model to determine the achievable improvement of seasonal energy efficiency (SEER) for Minneapolis (Minnesota) climate. For the oil flooded compression, a 34% improvement in seasonal energy efficiency was found while a 21% improvement in seasonal energy efficiency ratio was found for the vapor injected compression. It was found that one benefit of both tested

  19. Crawl space assisted heat pump. [using stored ground heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternes, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    A variety of experiments and simulations, currently being designed or underway, to determine the feasibility of conditioning the source air of an air to air heat pump using stored ground heat or cool to produce higher seasonal COP's and net energy savings are discussed. The ground would condition ambient air as it is drawn through the crawl space of a house. Tests designed to evaluate the feasibility of the concept, to determine the amount of heat or cool available from the ground, to study the effect of the system on the heating and cooling loads of the house, to study possible mechanisms which could enhance heat flow through the ground, and to determine if diurnal temperature swings are necessary to achieve successful system performance are described.

  20. Low-Cost Gas Heat Pump for Building Space Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrabrant, Michael [Stone Mountain Technologies, Inc., Johnson City, TN (United States); Keinath, Christopher [Stone Mountain Technologies, Inc., Johnson City, TN (United States)

    2016-10-11

    Gas-fired residential space heating in the U.S is predominantly supplied by furnaces and boilers. These technologies have been approaching their thermodynamic limit over the past 30 years and improvements for high efficiency units have approached a point of diminishing return. Electric heat pumps are growing in popularity but their heating performance at low ambient temperatures is poor. The development of a low-cost gas absorption heat pump would offer a significant improvement to current furnaces and boilers, and in heating dominated climate zones when compared to electric heat pumps. Gas absorption heat pumps (GAHP) exceed the traditional limit of thermal efficiency encountered by typical furnaces and boilers, and maintain high levels of performance at low ambient temperatures. The project team designed and demonstrated two low-cost packaged prototype GAHP space heating systems during the course of this investigation. Led by Stone Mountain Technologies Inc. (SMTI), with support from A.O. Smith, and the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), the cross-functional team completed research and development tasks including cycle modeling, 8× scaling of a compact solution pump, combustion system development, breadboard evaluation, fabrication of two packaged prototype units, third party testing of the first prototype, and the evaluation of cost and energy savings compared to high and minimum efficiency gas options. Over the course of the project and with the fabrication of two Alpha prototypes it was shown that this technology met or exceeded most of the stated project targets. At ambient temperatures of 47, 35, 17 and -13°F the prototypes achieved gas based coefficients of performance of 1.50, 1.44, 1.37, and 1.17, respectively. Both units operated with parasitic loads well below the 750 watt target with the second Alpha prototype operating 75-100 watts below the first Alpha prototype. Modulation of the units at 4:1 was achieved with the project goal of 2:1 modulation

  1. A Numerical Study on System Performance of Groundwater Heat Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Sang Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater heat pumps have energy saving potential where the groundwater resources are sufficient. System Coefficients of Performance (COPs are measurements of performance of groundwater heat pump systems. In this study, the head and power of submersible pumps, heat pump units, piping, and heat exchangers are expressed as polynomial equations, and these equations are solved numerically to determine the system performance. Regression analysis is used to find the coefficients of the polynomial equations from a catalog of performance data. The cooling and heating capacities of water-to-water heat pumps are determined using Energy Plus. Results show that system performance drops as the water level drops, and the lowest flow rates generally achieve the highest system performance. The system COPs are used to compare the system performance of various system configurations. The groundwater pumping level and temperature provide the greatest effects on the system performance of groundwater heat pumps along with the submersible pumps and heat exchangers. The effects of groundwater pumping levels, groundwater temperatures, and the heat transfer coefficient in heat exchanger on the system performance are given and compared. This analysis needs to be included in the design process of groundwater heat pump systems, possibly with analysis tools that include a wide range of performance data.

  2. Carbon dioxide heat pump for dual-temperature drinking fountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨大章; 吕静; 何哲彬; 黄秀芝

    2009-01-01

    Carbon dioxide trans-critical heat pump system for heating and cooling water was designed,and its thermodynamic steady-state concentration model was established. Based on the steady-state model,parameters of the carbon dioxide trans-critical heat pump were calculated by computer programming. According to these parameters,the effects and application prospect of the heat pump system were analyzed for dual-temperature drinking fountains.

  3. Wind power integration with heat pumps, heat storages, and electric vehicles - Energy systems analysis and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedegaard, K.

    2013-09-15

    Denmark by about 300-600 MW, corresponding to the size of a large power plant. This can be achieved when investing in socio-economically feasible heat storages complementing the heat pumps. The potential for reducing the required investments in peak/reserve capacities is crucial for the feasibility of the heat storages. Intelligent heat storage in the building structure is identified as socio-economically feasible in 20-75 % of the houses with heat pump installations, depending on the cost of control equipment in particular. Investment in control equipment, enabling utilisation of existing hot water tanks for flexible heat pump operation, is found socio-economically feasible in about 20-70 % of the houses. In contrast, heat accumulation tanks are not competitive, due to their higher investments costs. Further analyses investigate the system effects of a gradual large-scale implementation of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) in Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, and Germany towards 2030. When charged/discharged intelligently, the electric vehicles can, in the long term, facilitate larger wind power investments, while they in the short term in many cases are likely to result in increased coal-based electricity generation. The electric vehicles can contribute significantly to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions, while system costs are generally increased, due to assumed investments in the costly BEVs. The need for peak/reserve capacities can be reduced through the use of vehicle-to-grid capability. Competing flexibility measures, such as large heat pumps, electric boilers, and thermal storages in the district heating system, have also been included in the energy systems analyses. These technologies can together facilitate increased wind power investments and reduce CO{sub 2} emissions in the same order of magnitude as a large-scale implementation of electric vehicles. Overall, it is concluded that individual heat pumps, flexibility

  4. Cold Climate Heat Pumps Using Tandem Compressors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    In cold climate zones, e.g. ASHRAE climate regions IV and V, conventional electric air-source heat pumps (ASHP) do not work well, due to high compressor discharge temperatures, large pressure ratios and inadequate heating capacities at low ambient temperatures. Consequently, significant use of auxiliary strip heating is required to meet the building heating load. We introduce innovative ASHP technologies as part of continuing efforts to eliminate auxiliary strip heat use and maximize heating COP with acceptable cost-effectiveness and reliability. These innovative ASHP were developed using tandem compressors, which are capable of augmenting heating capacity at low temperatures and maintain superior part-load operation efficiency at moderate temperatures. Two options of tandem compressors were studied; the first employs two identical, single-speed compressors, and the second employs two identical, vapor-injection compressors. The investigations were based on system modeling and laboratory evaluation. Both designs have successfully met the performance criteria. Laboratory evaluation showed that the tandem, single-speed compressor ASHP system is able to achieve heating COP = 4.2 at 47 F (8.3 C), COP = 2.9 at 17 F (-8.3 C), and 76% rated capacity and COP = 1.9 at -13 F (-25 C). This yields a HSPF = 11.0 (per AHRI 210/240). The tandem, vapor-injection ASHP is able to reach heating COP = 4.4 at 47 F, COP = 3.1 at 17 F, and 88% rated capacity and COP = 2.0 at -13 F. This yields a HSPF = 12.0. The system modeling and further laboratory evaluation are presented in the paper.

  5. Performance evaluation of heat pump dryer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, U S; Khan, M K

    2010-03-01

    A batch type heat pump assisted dehumidified air dryer was developed successfully with a medium range of temperatures (30-41°C) for safe drying of heat sensitive crops. Dehumidification system of the developed heat pump dryer (HPD) maintained the relative humidity (RH) of air entering the drying chamber below 40%. The inlet drying air temperature decreased during early hours of drying followed by rapid rise between the 2nd and 10th h, after which the temperature was almost stable. The RH of inlet and exhaust drying air increased initially and decreased subsequently with drying time as product became drier. The HPD was found to have a specific moisture extraction rate between 0.55 and 1.10 kg/kWh. Energy consumption for HPD for 24 h of operation was found less (4.48-5.05 kWh) than the hot air dryer (5.65-9.6 kWh) while operating under different drying conditions. Better quality dried sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) was obtained in HPD owing to lower drying air temperature.

  6. Heat pumping with optically driven excitons

    CERN Document Server

    Gauger, Erik M

    2010-01-01

    We present a theoretical study showing that an optically driven excitonic two-level system in a solid state environment acts as a heat pump by means of repeated phonon emission or absorption events. We derive a master equation for the combined phonon bath and two-level system dynamics and analyze the direction and rate of energy transfer as a function of the externally accessible driving parameters. We discover that if the driving laser is detuned from the exciton transition, cooling the phonon environment becomes possible.

  7. Chemical dehumidification and heat recovery: Open-cycle heat pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.; Longo, G.A.; Piccininni, F. (Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Tecnica)

    1992-02-01

    This article examines an open-cycle heat pump based on a stacked column working with an absorbing solution. The column treats both the expelled air and the fumes generated by the combustion of the methane feeding the solution regenerator. The system is quite easy: it consists of a stacked column, a regenerator with its condenser and four heat exchangers. A simulation - based on a 12kW charge with a 1000 kg/h air exchange - proved that it is possible to obtain an REP higher than 1.5.

  8. A comparison of the heat and mechanical energy of a heat-pump wind turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aybek, A.; Arslan, S.; Yildiz, E.; Atik, K. [University of Kahramanmaras (Turkey). Dept. of Agricultural Machinery

    2000-07-01

    While a variety of applications of wind energy have been studied in Turkey, no significant efforts have been made to utilize heat pumps for heat generation. The use of heat pumps in wind energy systems is worth considering because of the high efficiency of heat production. In this study, a directly coupled wind turbine-heat pump system was designed, constructed, and tested. Measurements determined the mechanical energy of the rotors of the wind turbine and the heat energy generated by the heat pump driven by the rotor shaft. Based on the comparisons between the power generated by the heat pump and the power of the Savonius rotors, it was found that the heat energy gained by the heat pump was four times greater than the mechanical energy obtained from the turbine. It was suggested that heat pumps could be efficiently used in wind energy systems. (Author)

  9. Energy Savings Potential for Pumping Water in District Heating Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Sarbu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In district heating stations, the heat carrier is circulated between the energy source and consumers by a pumping system. Fluid handling systems, such as pumping systems, are responsible for a significant portion of the total electrical energy use. Significant opportunities exist to reduce pumping energy through smart design, retrofitting, and operating practices. Most existing systems requiring flow control make use of bypass lines, throttling valves or pump speed adjustments. The most efficient of these options is pump speed control. One of the issues in using variable-speed pumping systems, however, is the total efficiency of the electric motor/pump arrangement under a given operating condition. This paper provides a comprehensive discussion about pump control in heating stations and analyzes the energy efficiency of flow control methods. Specific attention is also given to the selection of motor types, sizing and pump duty cycle. A comparative energy analysis is performed on the hot water discharge adjustment using throttling control valves and variable-speed drives in a district heating station constructed in Romania. To correlate the pumped flow rate with the heat demand and to ensure the necessary pressure using minimum energy, an automatic system has been designed. The performances of these control methods are evaluated in two practical applications. The results show that approximately 20%–50% of total pumping energy could be saved by using the optimal control method with variable-speed pumps. Additionally, some modernization solutions to reduce the environmental impact of heating stations are described.

  10. Residential CO{sub 2} heat pump system for combined space heating and hot water heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stene, Joern

    2004-02-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}, R-744) has been identified as a promising alternative to conventional working fluids in a number of applications due to its favourable environmental and thermophysical properties. Previous work on residential CO{sub 2} heat pumps has been dealing with systems for either space heating or hot water heating, and it was therefore considered interesting to carry out a theoretical and experimental study of residential CO{sub 2} heat pump systems for combined space heating and hot water heating - o-called integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump systems. The scope of this thesis is limited to brine-to-water and water-to-water heat pumps connected to low-temperature hydronic space heating systems. The main conclusions are: (1) Under certain conditions residential CO{sub 2} heat pump systems for combined space heating and hot water heating may achieve the same or higher seasonal performance factor (SPF) than the most energy efficient state-of-the-art brine-to-water heat pumps. (2) In contrary to conventional heat pump systems for combined space heating and DHW heating, the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump system achieves the highest COP in the combined heating mode and the DHW heating mode, and the lowest COP in the space heating mode. Hence, the larger the annual DHW heating demand, the higher the SPF of the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump system. (3) The lower the return temperature in the space heating system and the lower the DHW storage temperature, the higher the COP of the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump. A low return temperature in the space heating system also results in a moderate DHW heating capacity ratio, which means that a relatively large part of the annual space heating demand can be covered by operation in the combined heating mode, where the COP is considerably higher than in the space heating mode. (4) During operation in the combined heating mode and the DHW heating mode, the COP of the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump is heavily influenced by

  11. Feasibility of a complex compound heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockenfeller, Uwe

    1987-07-01

    A feasibility study is described of a double effect gas fired heat pump using ammoniated solid vapor complex compounds as the working media. The cycle takes advantage of the coordinative characteristics of complex compound ligand bonds resulting in large coordination spheres with only one degree of freedom. The cycle has high efficiency, no moving parts, and minimum electrical parasitic requirements. Fluid properties of candidate materials were measured with respect to vapor pressure equilibria, coordination properties and thermal stability. Preliminary reaction rate measurements were performed in adsorption and desorption processes. A computer model of double effect cycle was developed in order to predict the operating performance of the candidate complex compound media. The computer model was used to determine preliminary heat balances and coefficients of performance.

  12. Human Health Science Building Geothermal Heat Pump Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leidel, James [Oakland Univ., Rochester, MI (United States)

    2014-12-22

    The grant objectives of the DOE grant funded project have been successfully completed. The Human Health Building (HHB) was constructed and opened for occupancy for the Fall 2012 semester of Oakland University. As with any large construction project, some issues arose which all were overcome to deliver the project on budget and on time. The facility design is a geothermal / solar-thermal hybrid building utilizing both desiccant dehumidification and variable refrigerant flow heat pumps. It is a cooling dominant building with a 400 ton cooling design day load, and 150 ton heating load on a design day. A 256 vertical borehole (320 ft depth) ground source heat pump array is located south of the building under the existing parking lot. The temperature swing and performance over 2013 through 2015 shows the ground loop is well sized, and may even have excess capacity for a future building to the north (planned lab facility). The HHB achieve a US Green Building Counsel LEED Platinum rating by collecting 52 of the total 69 available LEED points for the New Construction v.2 scoring checklist. Being Oakland's first geothermal project, we were very pleased with the building outcome and performance with the energy consumption approximately 1/2 of the campus average facility, on a square foot basis.

  13. Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

    2016-07-05

    Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, and methods of managing refrigerant charge. Various embodiments remove idle refrigerant from a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat by opening a refrigerant recovery valve and delivering the idle refrigerant from the heat exchanger to an inlet port on the compressor. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled by controlling how much refrigerant is drawn from the heat exchanger, by letting some refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and various components can be interconnected with refrigerant conduit. Some embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to the heat exchanger and drive liquid refrigerant out prior to isolating the heat exchanger.

  14. Solar assisted heat pump on air collectors: A simulation tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karagiorgas, Michalis; Galatis, Kostas; Tsagouri, Manolis [Department of Mechanical Engineering Educators, ASPETE, N. Iraklio, GR 14121 (Greece); Tsoutsos, Theocharis [Environmental Engineering Dept., Technical University of Crete, Technical University Campus, GR 73100, Chania (Greece); Botzios-Valaskakis, Aristotelis [Centre for Renewable Energy Sources (CRES), 19th km Marathon Ave., GR 19001, Pikermi (Greece)

    2010-01-15

    The heating system of the bioclimatic building of the Greek National Centre for Renewable Energy Sources (CRES) comprises two heating plants: the first one includes an air source heat pump, Solar Air Collectors (SACs) and a heat distribution system (comprising a fan coil unit network); the second one is, mainly, a geothermal heat pump unit to cover the ground floor thermal needs. The SAC configuration as well as the fraction of the building heating load covered by the heating plant are assessed in two operation modes; the direct (hot air from the collectors is supplied directly to the heated space) and the indirect mode (warm air from the SAC or its mixture with ambient air is not supplied directly to the heated space but indirectly into the evaporator of the air source heat pump). The technique of the indirect mode of heating aims at maximizing the efficiency of the SAC, saving electrical power consumed by the compressor of the heat pump, and therefore, at optimizing the coefficient of performance (COP) of the heat pump due to the increased intake of ambient thermal energy by means of the SAC. Results are given for three research objectives: assessment of the heat pump efficiency whether in direct or indirect heating mode; Assessment of the overall heating plant efficiency on a daily or hourly basis; Assessment of the credibility of the suggested simulation model TSAGAIR by comparing its results with the TRNSYS ones. (author)

  15. An aeroacoustically driven thermoacoustic heat pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaton, W V; Zeegers, J C H

    2005-06-01

    The mean flow of gas in a pipe past a cavity can excite the resonant acoustic modes of the cavity--much like blowing across the top of a bottle. The periodic shedding of vortices from the leading edge of the mouth of the cavity feeds energy into the acoustic modes which, in turn, affect the shedding of the next vortex. This so-called aeroacoustic whistle can excite very high amplitude acoustic standing waves within a cavity defined by coaxial side branches closed at their ends. The amplitude of these standing waves can easily be 20% of the ambient pressure at optimal gas flow rates and ambient pressures within the main pipe. A standing wave thermoacoustic heat pump is a device which utilizes the in-phase pressure and displacement oscillations to pump heat across a porous medium thereby establishing, or maintaining, a temperature gradient. Experimental results of a combined system of aeroacoustic sound source and a simple thermoacoustic stack will be presented.

  16. Development and application of soil coupled heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu

    2017-05-01

    Soil coupled heat pump technology is a new clean heating mode, is the world's most energy efficient heating one of the ways. And because of the use of renewable geothermal resources with high heating performance so more and more people's attention. Although the use of soil-coupled heat pumps has been in use for more than 50 years (the first application in the United States), the market penetration of this technology is still in its infancy. This paper will focus on the development, characteristics and application of the coupled heat pump.

  17. Heat-pump-assisted dryer: Pt. 1; Mathematical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendyala, V.R.; Devotta, S.; Patwardhan, V.S. (National Chemical Lab., Poona (India))

    1990-07-01

    A mathematical model for an integrated heat-pump-assisted dryer has been developed. The dryer has been modelled considering the heat transfer and simultaneous heat and mass transfer zones. The heat-pump heat exchangers have been modelled by writing the enthalpy balance for differential lengths considering the various zones on the air and working-fluid sides. The compressor has been described by the polytropic compression equation. The model has been used for simulating an existing system using R11 to study the effect of approach velocity of air to the evaporator and of the suction superheat on the specific energy consumption of the heat pump assisted dryer. (author).

  18. Heat Pump Clothes Dryer Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    A heat pump clothes dryer (HPCD) is an innovative appliance that uses a vapor compression system to dry clothes. Air circulates in a closed loop through the drum, so no vent is required. The condenser heats air to evaporate moisture out of the clothes, and the evaporator condenses water out of the air stream. As a result, the HPCD can achieve 50% energy savings compared to a conventional electric resistance dryer. We developed a physics-based, quasi-steady-state HPCD system model with detailed heat exchanger and compressor models. In a novel approach, we applied a heat and mass transfer effectiveness model to simulate the drying process of the clothes load in the drum. The system model is able to simulate the inherently transient HPCD drying process, to size components, and to reveal trends in key variables (e.g. compressor discharge temperature, power consumption, required drying time, etc.) The system model was calibrated using experimental data on a prototype HPCD. In the paper, the modeling method is introduced, and the model predictions are compared with experimental data measured on a prototype HPCD.

  19. Heat transfer performance characteristics of hybrid nanofluids as coolant in louvered fin automotive radiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Rashmi R.; Sarkar, Jahar

    2016-12-01

    Present study deals with the enhancement of convective heat transfer performance of EG brine based various hybrid nanofluids i.e. Ag, Cu, SiC, CuO and TiO2 in 0-1% volume fraction of Al2O3 nanofluid, as coolants for louvered fin automobile radiator. The effects of nanoparticles combination and operating parameters on thermo physical properties, heat transfer, effectiveness, pumping power and performance index of hybrid nanofluids have been evaluated. Comparison of studied hybrid nanofluids based on radiator size and pumping power has been made as well. Among all studied hybrid nanofluids, 1% Ag hybrid nanofluid (0.5% Ag and 0.5% Al2O3) yields highest effectiveness and heat transfer rate as well as pumping power. However, SiC + Al2O3 dispersed hybrid nanofluid yields maximum performance index and hence this can be recommended for best coolant. For the same radiator size and heat transfer rate, pumping power increases by using Ag hybrid nanofluids leading to increase in engine thermal efficiency and hence reduction in engine fuel consumption. For same coolant flow rate and heat transfer rate, the radiator size reduces and pumping power increases by using Ag hybrid nanofluids leading to reduction in radiator size, weight and cost.

  20. Heat transfer performance characteristics of hybrid nanofluids as coolant in louvered fin automotive radiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Rashmi R.; Sarkar, Jahar

    2017-06-01

    Present study deals with the enhancement of convective heat transfer performance of EG brine based various hybrid nanofluids i.e. Ag, Cu, SiC, CuO and TiO2 in 0-1% volume fraction of Al2O3 nanofluid, as coolants for louvered fin automobile radiator. The effects of nanoparticles combination and operating parameters on thermo physical properties, heat transfer, effectiveness, pumping power and performance index of hybrid nanofluids have been evaluated. Comparison of studied hybrid nanofluids based on radiator size and pumping power has been made as well. Among all studied hybrid nanofluids, 1% Ag hybrid nanofluid (0.5% Ag and 0.5% Al2O3) yields highest effectiveness and heat transfer rate as well as pumping power. However, SiC + Al2O3 dispersed hybrid nanofluid yields maximum performance index and hence this can be recommended for best coolant. For the same radiator size and heat transfer rate, pumping power increases by using Ag hybrid nanofluids leading to increase in engine thermal efficiency and hence reduction in engine fuel consumption. For same coolant flow rate and heat transfer rate, the radiator size reduces and pumping power increases by using Ag hybrid nanofluids leading to reduction in radiator size, weight and cost.

  1. Evaluating the Heat Pump Alternative for Heating Enclosed Wastewater Treatment Facilities in Cold Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    AD-A1uG 385 COLD RE61ONS RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING LAS HANOVER NH F/e 13/1 EVALUATING THE HEAT PUMP ALTERNATIVE FOR HEATING ENCLOSED WASTE--ETC(U) NAT...1982Enginee Cold Regions Research & Engineering Laboratory Evaluating the heat pump alternative for heating enclosed wastewater treatment facilities in...COVERED EVALUATING; THlE HEAT PUMP ALTERNATIVE FOR HEATING ENCLOSED WASTEWATER TREATMENT FACI~IITIES IN COLD REGIONS 6 PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7

  2. Thermodynamic Analysis of a Waste Heat Driven Vuilleumier Cycle Heat Pump

    OpenAIRE

    Yingbai Xie; Xuejie Sun

    2015-01-01

    A Vuilleumier (VM) cycle heat pump is a closed gas cycle driven by heat energy. It has the highest performance among all known heat driven technologies. In this paper, two thermodynamic analyses, including energy and exergy analysis, are carried out to evaluate the application of a VM cycle heat pump for waste heat utilization. For a prototype VM cycle heat pump, equations for theoretical and actual cycles are established. Under the given conditions, the exergy efficiency for the theoretical ...

  3. Analysis of influencing factors for a hybrid photovoltaic/thermal and heat pump system%光伏光热一体化装置与热泵结合系统的影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荆树春; 朱群志; 张静秋; 唐李清

    2013-01-01

    光伏光热一体化装置与热泵结合系统,既能产生电能,又可以回收热能.利用修正Hottel-Whillier模型,结合理想制冷循环,建立了光伏光热一体化装置与热泵结合系统的数学模型.通过对制冷剂流量、辐射强度及水箱水温等影响因素的分析,确定合适的蒸发温度、冷凝温度、制冷量等参数,为选择合适的节流装置和压缩机提供理论依据.%A hybrid photovoltaic/thermal and heat pump system (PV/T-HP) can generate electricity as well as recover thermal energy.The mathematical model of PV/T-HP system is established by extension of the Hottel-Whillier model and ideal refrigeration cycle.After analyzing influence factors such as refrigerant flow,solar radiation intensity and water temperature etc.,the appropriate evaporating temperature,condensing temperature,cooling capacity and other parameters have been determined,which provide a theoretical basis for the selection of the appropriate throttling device and compressor.

  4. Residential heat pumps in the future Danish energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrovic, Stefan; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Denmark is striving towards 100% renewable energy system in 2050. Residential heat pumps are expected to be a part of that system.We propose two novel approaches to improve the representation of residential heat pumps: Coefficients of performance (COPs) are modelled as dependent on air and ground...... temperature while installation of ground-source heat pumps is constrained by available ground area. In this study, TIMES-DK model is utilised to test the effects of improved modelling of residential heat pumps on the Danish energy system until 2050.The analysis of the Danish energy system was done...... for politically agreed targets which include: at least 50% of electricity consumption from wind power starting from 2020, fossil fuel free heat and power sector from 2035 and 100% renewable energy system starting from 2050. Residential heat pumps supply around 25% of total residential heating demand after 2035...

  5. Wind power integration in Aalborg Municipality using compression heat pumps and geothermal absorption heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2013-01-01

    -temperature geothermal resources. The analyses have also demonstrated that the municipality will still rely heavily on surrounding areas for electric load balancing assistance. With a departure in a previously elaborated 100% renewable energy scenario, this article investigates how absorption heat pumps (AHP......) and compression heat pumps (HP) for the supply of DH impact the integration of wind power. Hourly scenario-analyses made using the EnergyPLAN model reveal a boiler production and electricity excess which is higher with AHPs than with HPs whereas condensing mode power generation is increased by the application......Aalborg Municipality, Denmark is investigating ways of switching to 100% renewable energy supply over the next 40 years. Analyses so far have demonstrated a potential for such a transition through energy savings, district heating (DH) and the use of locally available biomass, wind power and low...

  6. Measurement and Evaluation of Heating Performance of Heat Pump Systems Using Wasted Heat from Electric Devices for an Electric Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Moo-Yeon Lee; Jong-Phil Won; Chung-Won Cho; Ho-Seong Lee

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate heating performance characteristics of a coolant source heat pump using the wasted heat from electric devices for an electric bus. The heat pump, using R-134a, is designed for heating a passengers’ compartment by using discharged energy from the coolant of electric devices, such as motors and inverters of the electric bus. The heating performance of the heat pump was tested by varying the operating parameters, such as outdoor temperature and volum...

  7. Experiences with large heat pumps for space heating. Erfaringer med store varmepumper til rumopvarmning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willumsen, O.

    1984-01-01

    In Denmark, only a moderate number of large heat pumps has been installed. Large heat pumps are in this context defined as heat pumps with a heat output exceeding 50 kW. Heat sources for these heat pumps are - to some extent - the same as for smaller heat pumps, i.e. outdoor air, exhaust air, soil and ground water. The use of sewage water, water from lakes or seawater also is rather commen. Besides, more special heat sources based on industrial waste heat are being utilized. The report primarily deals with heat pumps using the most common heat sources. This means that industrial heat pumps are not included in this report. In a few cases it has been considered appropriate to include heat pumps with a heat output smaller than 50 kW, when the experiences from these installations are considered relevant for larger plants. Some of the main findings of the survey are: - When designing heat pump installations, greater attention should be paid towards a more precise evaluation of the annual energy demand of the heat load. - Consulting firms generally have inadequate knowledge of the practical attainable seasonal COP's. - The energy surveillance equipment is insufficient in many installations - or is missing completely. - Salt-based antifreeze solutions should normally be avoided. - Utilizing ground water as a heat source can be problematic due to fouling problems or corrosion damages.

  8. Optimal Ground Source Heat Pump System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozbek, Metin [ENVIRON; Yavuzturk, Cy [University of Hartford; Pinder, George [University of Vermont

    2015-04-15

    Despite the facts that GSHPs first gained popularity as early as the 1940’s and they can achieve 30 to 60 percent in energy savings and carbon emission reductions relative to conventional HVAC systems, the use of geothermal energy in the U.S. has been less than 1 percent of the total energy consumption. The key barriers preventing this technically-mature technology from reaching its full commercial potential have been its high installation cost and limited consumer knowledge and trust in GSHP systems to deliver the technology in a cost-effective manner in the market place. Led by ENVIRON, with support from University Hartford and University of Vermont, the team developed and tested a software-based a decision making tool (‘OptGSHP’) for the least-cost design of ground-source heat pump (‘GSHP’) systems. OptGSHP combines state of the art optimization algorithms with GSHP-specific HVAC and groundwater flow and heat transport simulation. The particular strength of OptGSHP is in integrating heat transport due to groundwater flow into the design, which most of the GSHP designs do not get credit for and therefore are overdesigned.

  9. Optimal Ground Source Heat Pump System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozbek, Metin [Environ Holdings Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States); Yavuzturk, Cy [Univ. of Hartford, West Hartford, CT (United States); Pinder, George [Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Despite the facts that GSHPs first gained popularity as early as the 1940’s and they can achieve 30 to 60 percent in energy savings and carbon emission reductions relative to conventional HVAC systems, the use of geothermal energy in the U.S. has been less than 1 percent of the total energy consumption. The key barriers preventing this technically-mature technology from reaching its full commercial potential have been its high installation cost and limited consumer knowledge and trust in GSHP systems to deliver the technology in a cost-effective manner in the market place. Led by ENVIRON, with support from University Hartford and University of Vermont, the team developed and tested a software-based a decision making tool (‘OptGSHP’) for the least-cost design of ground-source heat pump (‘GSHP’) systems. OptGSHP combines state of the art optimization algorithms with GSHP-specific HVAC and groundwater flow and heat transport simulation. The particular strength of OptGSHP is in integrating heat transport due to groundwater flow into the design, which most of the GSHP designs do not get credit for and therefore are overdesigned.

  10. Multi-Temperature Heat Pump with Cascade Compressor Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit M.L.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The object of the study is a multifunctional heat pump with several evaporators and condensers designed for simultaneous provision of technological processes with heat and cold. The aim of the work is the development and study of the scheme for this type of heat pumps, which ensures minimum irreversibility in the "compressor-gas coolers" chain, without the use of adjustable ejectors installed after evaporators and used as flow mixers. The obtained technical solution ensures the stabilization of the heat pump coefficient of performance (COP and prescribed thermal regimes of heat exchangers at a variable flow rate of the refrigerant. The novelty of the elaboration is inclusion a compressor of the first stage with a serially connected intermediate heat exchanger and a control valve that are located before the compressor inlet of the second stage of the heat pump, which allows to establish a rational pressure after the first stage of the compressors. A scheme is proposed for regulating the temperature at the inlet of the first stage compressors by regulating the flow through the primary circuits of the recuperative heat exchangers. The first stage compressor control system allows providing the required modes of operation of the heat pump. It is established, because of the exergetic analysis of the sections of the hydraulic circuit of heat pump located between the evaporators and gas coolers that the reduction of irreversible losses in the heat pump is ensured due to the optimal choice of the superheat value of the gas after the evaporators.

  11. Performance and Characteristics of Heat Pump Clothes Drier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarita, H.; Nasution, D. M.; Gunawan, S.; Nasution, A. H.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a study of clothes drying using a heat pump drier has been carried out. The objective is to examine the performance and drying characteristics of the heat pump clothes dryer. The result of performances and drying characteristics were compared with waste heat drying system of split-type residential air conditioner (RAC). A drying chamber with volume 1 m3 integrated with heat pump component had been designed and fabricated. The heat pump operated by vapor compression cycle with power input of 800W and refrigerant R22 as a working fluid. The clothes dried made of pure cotton with initial weight varied from 3.00 kg, 5.25 kg, and 6.38 kg, respectively. The results shown that the drying time and drying rate of heat pump drier are faster than waste heat drying system. The average total performance of heat pump clothes drier is 6.56. On the other hand, SMER which is obtained 1.492 kg/kWh. These values are lower than the SMER of waste heat drying system which shown the average value of 2.492 kg/kWh. In the case of drying clothes, waste heat drying of RAC shows a better performance in comparison with heat pump drying system.

  12. Heat pump assisted drying of agricultural produce-an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Krishna Kumar; Kar, Abhijit

    2012-04-01

    This review paper included the recent progress made in heat pump assisted drying, its principle, mechanism and efficiency, type and its application for drying of agricultural produce. Heat pump assisted drying provides a controllable drying environment (temperature and humidity) for better products quality at low energy consumption. It has remarkable future prospects and revolutionaries ability. The heat pump system consists of an expansion valve, two heat exchangers (evaporator and condenser), and a compressor, which are connected by using copper tubes. In this paper we also provided a review discussion on different type of heat pump assisted drying system ready for remarkable and commercial use in different type of food industries. Here we also have given some major advantage and disadvantage of heat pump assisted drying.

  13. Ground coupled solar heat pumps: analysis of four options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    Heat pump systems which utilize both solar energy and energy withdrawn from the ground are analyzed using a simplified procedure which optimizes the solar storage temperature on a monthly basis. Four ways of introducing collected solar energy to the system are optimized and compared. These include use of actively collected thermal input to the heat pump; use of collected solar energy to heat the load directly (two different ways); and use of a passive option to reduce the effective heating load.

  14. Multifamily Heat Pump Water Heater Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, M. [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation; Weitzel, E. [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation

    2017-03-03

    Although heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have gained significant attention in recent years as a high efficiency electric water heating solution for single family homes, central HPWHs for commercial or multi-family applications are not as well documented in terms of measured performance and cost effectiveness. To evaluate this technology, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California. Monitoring data collected over a 16 month period were then used to validate a TRNSYS simulation model. The TRNSYS model was then used to project performance in different climates using local electric rates. Results of the study indicate that after some initial commissioning issues, the HPWH operated reliably with an annual average efficiency of 2.12 (Coefficient of Performance). The observed efficiency was lower than the unit's rated efficiency, primarily due to the fact that the system rarely operated under steady-state conditions. Changes in the system configuration, storage tank sizing, and control settings would likely improve the observed field efficiency. Modeling results suggest significant energy savings relative to electric storage water heating systems (typical annual efficiencies around 0.90) providing for typical simple paybacks of six to ten years without any incentives. The economics versus gas water heating are currently much more challenging given the current low natural gas prices in much of the country. Increased market size for this technology would benefit cost effectiveness and spur greater technology innovation.

  15. Multifamily Heat Pump Water Heater Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Weitzel, E. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2013-11-22

    Although heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have gained significant attention in recent years as a high efficiency electric water heating solution for single family homes, central HPWHs for commercial or multi-family applications are not as well documented in terms of measured performance and cost effectiveness. To evaluate this technology, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California. Monitoring data collected over a 16 month period were then used to validate a TRNSYS simulation model. The TRNSYS model was then used to project performance in different climates using local electric rates. Results of the study indicate that after some initial commissioning issues, the HPWH operated reliably with an annual average efficiency of 2.12 (Coefficient of Performance). The observed efficiency was lower than the unit's rated efficiency, primarily due to the fact that the system rarely operated under steady-state conditions. Changes in the system configuration, storage tank sizing, and control settings would likely improve the observed field efficiency. Modeling results suggest significant energy savings relative to electric storage water heating systems (typical annual efficiencies around 0.90) providing for typical simple paybacks of six to ten years without any incentives. The economics versus gas water heating are currently much more challenging given the current low natural gas prices in much of the country. Increased market size for this technology would benefit cost effectiveness and spur greater technology innovation.

  16. Multifamily Heat Pump Water Heater Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Weitzel, E. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Although heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have gained significant attention in recent years as a high efficiency electric water heating solution for single family homes, central HPWHs for commercial or multi-family applications are not as well documented in terms of measured performance and cost effectiveness. To evaluate this technology, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California. Monitoring data collected over a 16 month period were then used to validate a TRNSYS simulation model. The TRNSYS model was then used to project performance in different climates using local electric rates. Results of the study indicate that after some initial commissioning issues, the HPWH operated reliably with an annual average efficiency of 2.12 (Coefficient of Performance). The observed efficiency was lower than the unit's rated efficiency, primarily due to the fact that the system rarely operated under steady-state conditions. Changes in the system configuration, storage tank sizing, and control settings would likely improve the observed field efficiency. Modeling results suggest significant energy savings relative to electric storage water heating systems (typical annual efficiencies around 0.90) providing for typical simple paybacks of six to ten years without any incentives. The economics versus gas water heating are currently much more challenging given the current low natural gas prices in much of the country. Increased market size for this technology would benefit cost effectiveness and spur greater technology innovation.

  17. Computational Simulation of a Water-Cooled Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozarth, Duane

    2008-01-01

    A Fortran-language computer program for simulating the operation of a water-cooled vapor-compression heat pump in any orientation with respect to gravity has been developed by modifying a prior general-purpose heat-pump design code used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

  18. Corrosion protection of steel in ammonia/water heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfeld, Florian B.; Sun, Zhaoli

    2003-10-14

    Corrosion of steel surfaces in a heat pump is inhibited by adding a rare earth metal salt to the heat pump's ammonia/water working fluid. In preferred embodiments, the rare earth metal salt includes cerium, and the steel surfaces are cerated to enhance the corrosion-inhibiting effects.

  19. Harnessing geothermal energy with heat pumps : a literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arisi, J.A. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Fossil fuel combustion emits large amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the atmosphere. Renewable fuel sources that do not have a negative impact on the environment are needed to reduce the risk of climatic change. This abstract discussed recent research related to geothermal energy. Two types of geothermal energy were investigated: (1) deep underground heat using turbines to produce electricity; and (2) shallow depth heat using heat pumps to provide space heating. A review of recent research on shallow depth heat harnessing was presented. The costs and GHG emission reductions related to the installation of a geothermal heat pump system for space heating were also discussed.

  20. Improved reliability of residential heat pumps; Foerbaettrad driftsaekerhet hos villavaermepumpar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haglund Stignor, Caroline; Larsson, Kristin; Jensen, Sara; Larsson, Johan; Berg, Johan; Lidbom, Peter; Rolfsman, Lennart

    2012-07-01

    Today, heat pump heating systems are common in Swedish single-family houses. Many owners are pleased with their installation, but statistics show that a certain number of heat pumps break every year, resulting in high costs for both insurance companies and owners. On behalf of Laensfoersaekringars Forskningsfond, SP Energy Technology has studied the cause of the most common failures for residential heat pumps. The objective of the study was to suggest what measures to be taken to reduce the number of failures, i.e. improving the reliability of heat pumps. The methods used were analysis of public failure statistics and sales statistics and interviews with heat pump manufacturers, installers, service representatives and assessors at Laensfoersaekringar. In addition, heat pump manuals have been examined and literature searches for various methods for durability tests have been performed. Based on the outcome from the interviews the most common failures were categorized by if they; 1. Could have been prevented by better operation and maintenance of the heat pump. 2. Caused by a poorly performed installation. 3. Could have been prevented if certain parameters had been measured, recorded and followed up. 4. Are due to poor quality of components or systems. However, the results show that many of the common failures fall into several different categories and therefore, different types of measures must be taken to improve the operational reliability of residential heat pumps. The interviews tell that failures often are caused by poor installation, neglected maintenance and surveillance, and poor quality of standard components or that components are used outside their declared operating range. The quality of the installations could be improved by increasing installers' knowledge about heat pumps and by requiring that an installation protocol shall be filled-in. It is also important that the owner of the heat pump performs the preventive maintenance recommended by the

  1. Geothermal heat pump system assisted by geothermal hot spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, M.; Koizumi, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The authors propose a hybrid geothermal heat pump system that could cool buildings in summer and melt snow on the pedestrian sidewalks in winter, utilizing cold mine water and hot spring water. In the proposed system, mine water would be used as cold thermal energy storage, and the heat from the hot spring after its commercial use would be used to melt snow for a certain section of sidewalks. Neither of these sources is viable for direct use application of geothermal resources, however, they become contributing energy factors without producing any greenhouse gases. To assess the feasibility of the proposed system, a series of temperature measurements in the Edgar Mine (Colorado School of Mines' experimental mine) in Idaho Springs, Colorado, were first conducted, and heat/mass transfer analyses of geothermal hot spring water was carried out. The result of the temperature measurements proved that the temperature of Edgar Mine would be low enough to store cold groundwater for use in summer. The heat loss of the hot spring water during its transportation was also calculated, and the heat requirement for snow melt was compared with the heat available from the hot spring water. It was concluded that the heat supply in the proposed usage of hot spring water was insufficient to melt the snow for the entire area that was initially proposed. This feasibility study should serve as an example of "local consumption of locally available energy". If communities start harnessing economically viable local energy in a responsible manner, there will be a foundation upon which to build a sustainable community.

  2. Experimental study on energy performance of clean air heat pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Nie, Jinzhe; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2014-01-01

    to investigate its energy performance. Energy consumption of the prototype of CAHP was measured in laboratory at different climate conditions including mild-cold, mildhot and extremely hot and humid climates. The energy saving potential of the clean air heat pump compared to a conventional ventilation and air......-conditioning system was calculated. The experimental results showed that the clean air heat pump saved substantial amount of energy compared to the conventional system. For example, the CAHP can save up to 59% of electricity in Copenhagen, up to 40% of electricity in Milan and up to 30% of electricity in Colombo......An innovative clean air heat pump (CAHP) was designed and developed based on the air purification capacity of regenerative silica gel rotor. The clean air heat pump integrated air purification, dehumidification and cooling in one unit. A prototype of the clean air heat pump was developed...

  3. A novel design method for ground source heat pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Xing-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel design method for ground source heat pump. The ground source heat pump operation is controllable by using several parameters, such as the total meters of buried pipe, the space between wells, the thermal properties of soil, thermal resistance of the well, the initial temperature of soil, and annual dynamic load. By studying the effect of well number and well space, we conclude that with the increase of the well number, the inlet and outlet water temperatures decrease in summer and increase in winter, which enhance the efficiency of ground source heat pump. The well space slightly affects the water temperatures, but it affects the soil temperature to some extent. Also the ground source heat pump operations matching with cooling tower are investigated to achieve the thermal balance. This method greatly facilitates ground source heat pump design.

  4. History of heat pumps - Swiss contributions and international milestones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zogg, M.

    2008-05-15

    Compared to conventional boilers, heating by heat pumps cuts down fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions to about 50%. Compared to electric resistance heating, the energy consumption is even reduced up to 80%. Therefore, the impressive market penetration growth of heat pumps will continue. Swiss pioneers were the first to realize functioning vapour recompression plants. The first European heat pumps were realized in Switzerland. To date it remains one of the heat pump champions. Swiss pioneering work in the development of borehole heat exchangers, sewage heat recovery, oil free piston compressors and turbo compressors is well known. The biggest heat pump ever built comes from Switzerland. Although there is a fairly comprehensive natural gas distribution grid, 75% of the new single-family homes built in Switzerland are currently heated by heat pumps. This paper presents some of the highlights of this success story focusing on Swiss developments and relating them to the international milestones. In order to indicate the direction in which the future development might go to, some recent Swiss research projects are presented as well. (author)

  5. Upscaling a district heating system based on biogas cogeneration and heat pumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Richard Pieter; Fink, J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; de Wit, Jan B.

    2015-01-01

    The energy supply of the Meppel district Nieuwveense landen is based on biogas cogeneration, district heating, and ground source heat pumps. A centrally located combined heat and power engine (CHP) converts biogas from the municipal wastewater treatment facility into electricity for heat pumps and

  6. Upscaling a district heating system based on biogas cogeneration and heat pumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van Richard P.; Fink, Jiří; Wit, de Jan B.; Smit, Gerard J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The energy supply of the Meppel district Nieuwveense landen is based on biogas cogeneration, district heating, and ground source heat pumps. A centrally located combined heat and power engine (CHP) converts biogas from the municipal wastewater treatment facility into electricity for heat pumps and h

  7. Upscaling a district heating system based on biogas cogeneration and heat pumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Richard Pieter; Fink, J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; de Wit, Jan B.

    2015-01-01

    The energy supply of the Meppel district Nieuwveense landen is based on biogas cogeneration, district heating, and ground source heat pumps. A centrally located combined heat and power engine (CHP) converts biogas from the municipal wastewater treatment facility into electricity for heat pumps and h

  8. Applicability of sewage heat pump air-conditioning system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈金华; 刘猛; 刘勇; 靳鸣; 陈洁

    2009-01-01

    A sewage heat pump system and its application based on a project in Chongqing,China,were discussed. Based on the sewage conditions,a feasibility analysis of the sewage heat pump air conditioning system was conducted. The theoretical and quantitative calculations indicate that sewage flux in the city sewage main pipe in the project can satisfy heat exchange requirements,and taking water from the pipes has relatively small influence on the pipe net in summer and winter. The sewage heat pump air-conditioning system can save 21.5% operating cost in one year,which is energy efficient and environmentally friendly.

  9. Motionless heat pump - A new application of thermal transpiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugimoto, K.; Hirota, Y.; Kizaki, Y.

    2016-11-01

    A motionless heat pump system using a combination of thermal transpiration flow of a rarefied gas and a phase change of water has been proposed. This system consists primarily of a thermal transpiration pump, referred to as a Knudsen pump, and two chambers filled with water and water vapor, respectively. The Knudsen pump moves water vapor from one chamber to the other. The pressure drop in the outflow chamber promotes the evaporation of water and heat absorption, whereas the pressure increase in the inflow chamber promotes vapor condensation and heat generation. The maximum pressure difference and mass flow rate obtained by a Knudsen pump composed of a glass fiber filter were 57.6 Pa and 0.0484 mg/s/cm2, respectively, at a temperature difference across the filter of 120 K between the two chambers. The vapor delivery capacity of this pump was also measured experimentally.

  10. Absorption Cycle Heat Pump Model for Control Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Kasper; Just Nielsen, Rene; Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard

    2015-01-01

    Heat pumps have recently received increasing interest due to green energy initiatives and increasing energy prices. In this paper, a nonlinear dynamic model of a single-effect LiBr-water absorption cycle heat pump is derived for simulation and control design purposes. The model is based...... on an actual heat pump located at a larger district heating plant. The model is implemented in Modelica and is based on energy and mass balances, together with thermodynamic property functions for LiBr and water and staggered grid representations for heat exchangers. Model parameters have been fitted...... to operational data and different scenarios are simulated to investigate the operational stability of the heat pump. Finally, this paper provides suggestions and examples of derivation of lower order linear models for control design. © Copyright IEEE - All rights reserved....

  11. Development of a jet pump-assisted arterial heat pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienert, W. B.; Ducao, A. S.; Trimmer, D. S.

    1977-01-01

    The development of a jet pump assisted arterial heat pipe is described. The concept utilizes a built-in capillary driven jet pump to remove vapor and gas from the artery and to prime it. The continuous pumping action also prevents depriming during operation of the heat pipe. The concept is applicable to fixed conductance and gas loaded variable conductance heat pipes. A theoretical model for the jet pump assisted arterial heat pipe is presented. The model was used to design a prototype for laboratory demonstration. The 1.2 m long heat pipe was designed to transport 500 watts and to prime at an adverse elevation of up to 1.3 cm. The test results were in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. The heat pipe carried as much as 540 watts and was able to prime up to 1.9 cm. Introduction of a considerable amount of noncondensible gas had no adverse effect on the priming capability.

  12. Heat pumps in nursing homes; Warmtepompen in verzorgingshuizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieleman, M. [Erbeko raadgevende ingenieurs, Hilversum (Netherlands)

    1996-04-01

    The most important options for the sector nursing homes to save 20-30% energy are the combined generation of heat and power (CHP or cogeneration) and the use of heat pumps. Cogeneration is cost-effective for a natural gas consumption of 200,000 m{sup 3} per year. The heat pump is a good option for both small and large nursing homes. 2 tabs.

  13. Optimal usage of low temperature heat sources to supply district heating by heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieper, Henrik; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study on the optimal usage of different low temperature heat sources to supply district heating by heat pumps. The study is based on data for the Copenhagen region. The heat sources were prioritized based on the coefficient of performance calculated for each hour....... Groundwater, seawater and air heat sources were compared with each other as well as to a scenario consisting of a combination of these heat sources. In addition, base load and peak load units were included. Characteristic parameters were the coefficient of performance, the number of full load hours...

  14. A Hybrid Power Generation System Combined Parabolic Trough Solar Collectors and Chemical Heat Pump%槽式太阳能集热与化学热泵耦合的复合发电系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳娟; 刘启斌; 金红光

    2014-01-01

    A hybrid power generation system combined parabolic trough solar collectors and chemical heat pump is proposed in the paper.The thermodynamic performance of the proposed system and the effects of the key operating parameters on the performances of the system were investigated.The relationship between the direct normal irradiation (DNI) and the performance of the proposed system was disclosed.When the DNI was larger than the design condition,variation of the mass flow rate of CaO for solar energy storage with the DNI was analyzed.In the design conditions,the output work of the system is 335.7 MW the thermal efficiency of the proposed system is 30.4%,and the solar-to-electric efficiency of the proposed system can reach 23.6%.The hybrid power system proposed can improve the thermal efficiency significantly by increasing the steam parameters compared to the conventional solar parabolic trough power generating system.%本文提出了一种抛物槽式太阳能集热与化学热泵耦合的复合发电系统,对其热力性能进行了分析,并研究了反应器中反应蒸汽温度、镜场加热给水温度等关键运行参数对系统性能的影响.研究了太阳能特征参数对系统性能的影响规律,分析了太阳直射辐照强度(DNI)高于设计工况时,储能材料氧化钙的量与DNI的关系.设计工况下,系统输出功335.7 MW,热效率为30.4%,发电效率23.6%.所提出的系统,为解决槽式太阳能单独热发电系统蒸汽参数低导致动力循环热效率低的难题提供了新途径.

  15. Ground-source Heat Pump Barometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    The double whammy dealt by the economic crisis and housing slump has stifled expansion of the ground-source heat pump market in many European countries. The European Union market contracted for the second year running (by 2.9% between 2009 and 2010), and this despite the fact that more than 100,000 units were sold over the twelve-month period, taking the number of installed units past the one million mark. [French] La crise economique ainsi que la crise immobiliere qui touchent de nombreux pays europeens ne facilitent pas l'essor du marche de la pompe a chaleur geothermique. Pour la deuxieme annee consecutive, le marche de l'union europeenne est en baisse (-2,9 % entre 2009 et 2010). il parvient tout de meme a se maintenir au-dessus des 100 000 unites vendues par an, ce qui lui permet de depasser pour la premiere fois le cap du million d'unites installees.

  16. Super heat pump energy accumulation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-08-20

    The SHP is a project for which NEDO is commissioned as a part of the Moonlight Project by MITI and has developed since 1985. This report introduced mainly the practical results(trial operation study of the 100kW class bench scale plant) in 1988 fiscal year and the present situation of SHP technical development. Further, this report introduced the estimation of the effects of carbon dioxide decrease and energy saving on the global warmimg up. On the bench scale experiment, the 100kW class compressive heat pump of super high performance and a 10Mcal class high density chemical energy storing technique between higher temperature(100{sup 0}C or more) and cooler temperature(10{sup 0}C or less) were established. The energy saving effect for business, industry and cooling energy in Japan by SHP is estimated to be 205kl(oil)/year in 2000 and CO{sub 2} reducing effect is estimated to be about 820,000tons/Year. 2 refs., 4figs.

  17. Optimized ground coupled heat pump design: Phase 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, J.W.; Catan, M.; Le Doux, P.; Metz, P.D.; Saunders, J.H.

    1985-10-01

    This report describes the first phase of a project to design a water-to-air heat pump optimized for ground coupling applications. The project is being conducted jointly by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and an industrial partner to be selected via a competitive procurement. In the completion of Phase I, three major tasks were completed. First, based on experimental work performed at BNL, water-refrigerant heat exchanger models were developed for incorporation into the ORNL heat pump optimization program. Next, a procedure was developed to generate correlations between heat pump entering fluid temperature and load. The correlations, called ''Source Temperature/Load Maps'', will tell the optimization program how many hours/season the heat pump will operate with any pair of values for these quantities. This report discusses these first two tasks within Phase I.

  18. Exergy analysis of the performance of low-temperature district heating system with geothermal heat pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekret Robert

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Exergy analysis of low temperature geothermal heat plant with compressor and absorption heat pump was carried out. In these two concepts heat pumps are using geothermal water at 19.5 oC with spontaneous outflow 24 m3/h as a heat source. The research compares exergy efficiency and exergy destruction of considered systems and its components as well. For the purpose of analysis, the heating system was divided into five components: geothermal heat exchanger, heat pump, heat distribution, heat exchanger and electricity production and transportation. For considered systems the primary exergy consumption from renewable and non-renewable sources was estimated. The analysis was carried out for heat network temperature at 50/40 oC, and the quality regulation was assumed. The results of exergy analysis of the system with electrical and absorption heat pump show that exergy destruction during the whole heating season is lower for the system with electrical heat pump. The exergy efficiencies of total system are 12.8% and 11.2% for the system with electrical heat pump and absorption heat pump, respectively.

  19. Improvements of high-temperature drying heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minea, V. [Hydro-Quebec Research Institute, Laboratoire des technologies de l' energie (LTE), 600, avenue de la Montagne, Shawinigan G9N 7N5 (Canada)

    2010-01-15

    Inadequate integration and/or inappropriate operating parameters of heat pump dryers may lead to troubles as too high/low discharge/suction pressures, low dehumidification efficiency and even mechanical damage to the compressor. This paper will help fix a number of common design errors and/or omissions, and suggests original control methods to avoid undesirable operational incidents and improve overall energy performance of high-temperature drying heat pumps. The scope is to provide normal and safe operating conditions, and thus accelerate the implementation of industrial drying heat pumps. (author)

  20. Stochastic pumping of heat: approaching the Carnot efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Dvira

    2008-12-31

    Random noise can generate a unidirectional heat current across asymmetric nano-objects in the absence (or against) a temperature gradient. We present a minimal model for a molecular-level stochastic heat pump that may operate arbitrarily close to the Carnot efficiency. The model consists a fluctuating molecular unit coupled to two solids characterized by distinct phonon spectral properties. Heat pumping persists for a broad range of system and bath parameters. Furthermore, by filtering the reservoirs' phonons the pump efficiency can approach the Carnot limit.

  1. Jet pump-drive system for heat removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, James R. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    The invention does away with the necessity of moving parts such as a check valve in a nuclear reactor cooling system. Instead, a jet pump, in combination with a TEMP, is employed to assure safe cooling of a nuclear reactor after shutdown. A main flow exists for a reactor coolant. A point of withdrawal is provided for a secondary flow. A TEMP, responsive to the heat from said coolant in the secondary flow path, automatically pumps said withdrawn coolant to a higher pressure and thus higher velocity compared to the main flow. The high velocity coolant is applied as a driver flow for the jet pump which has a main flow chamber located in the main flow circulation pump. Upon nuclear shutdown and loss of power for the main reactor pumping system, the TEMP/jet pump combination continues to boost the coolant flow in the direction it is already circulating. During the decay time for the nuclear reactor, the jet pump keeps running until the coolant temperature drops to a lower and safe temperature where the heat is no longer a problem. At this lower temperature, the TEMP/jet pump combination ceases its circulation boosting operation. When the nuclear reactor is restarted and the coolant again exceeds the lower temperature setting, the TEMP/jet pump automatically resumes operation. The TEMP/jet pump combination is thus automatic, self-regulating and provides an emergency pumping system free of moving parts.

  2. Thermodynamic analysis of geothermal heat pump during the cold season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrașcu, G.; Dumencu, A.; Horbaniuc, B.; Atanasiu, M. V.

    2016-08-01

    The paper is analysing the performances (COP, power and, heating heat rate function of time) for a ground-coupled heat pump that is used to heat a space during winter, for a period of 180 days. The analysis purpose is to evaluate the time based changes in values of COP and, energy transfers of a geothermal heat pump, considering a scenario for the variation of the ambient temperature in time and an analytical solution for the time dependence of the soil one. The temperatures and the energy transfer rates were determined on the basis of the irreversible entropy balance equation.

  3. Energy performance and consumption for biogas heat pump air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhenjun [Architectural Engineering College, Qingdao Agricultural University, 266109 (China); Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Wu, Huaizhi; Wu, Meiling [Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Biogas engine-driven heat pump air conditioner is a new-style system which includes biogas engine-driven heat pump, primary heat exchanger, second heat exchanger, sprayed room and fans, pumps, etc. In summertime, the air can be reheated by the waste heat water from the biogas engine in the system, while the air can be reheated and humidified by the waste heat water in winter. Reducing or displacing electrical heating requirements can achieve the great opportunity for significant energy savings. This paper, therefore, aims to improve the energy performance of the AC system by using the waste heat from the biogas engine. The mathematic model was used to research the BHPAC. Explicitly, we investigated the influence of various factors including the outdoor air temperature and humidity in summer and winter. Results show that the biogas engine-driven heat pump air conditioner can save more energy than the electrical power heat pump. In summer, the minimum for percentage of primary energy saving for BHPAC is over 25%. With the outdoor air dry-bulb temperature and the relative humidity rises, the saving energy percentage rises. In winter, the minimum for percentage of primary energy saving for BHPAC is 37%. The more the outdoor air relative humidity of the outdoor air decreases, the more the BHPAC saves energy. It is proved that the system which is a highly actively fully utilizing energy technology has good partial load characteristic and good effects of energy saving. (author)

  4. News from heat-pump research - Large-scale heat pumps, components, heat pumps and solar heating; News aus der Waermepumpen-Forschung - Gross-Waermepumpen, Komponenten, Waermepumpe und Solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-06-15

    These proceedings summarise the presentations made at the 16{sup th} annual meeting held by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's Heat Pump Research Program in Burgdorf, Switzerland. The proceedings include contributions on large-scale heat pumps, components and the activities of the heat pump promotion society. A summary of targets and trends in energy research in general is presented and an overview of the heat pump market in 2009 and future perspectives is given. International work within the framework of the International Energy Agency's heat pump group is reviewed, including solar - heat pump combinations. Field-monitoring and the analysis of large-scale heat pumps are discussed and the importance of the use of correct concepts in such installations is stressed. Large-scale heat pumps with carbon dioxide as working fluid are looked at, as are output-regulated air/water heat pumps. Efficient system solutions with heat pumps used both to heat and to cool are discussed. Deep geothermal probes and the potential offered by geothermal probes using carbon dioxide as a working fluid are discussed. The proceedings are rounded off with a list of useful addresses.

  5. Hybrid Switch Reluctance Drives For Pump Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe

    The initial research problem is to investigate an alternative motor drive to the existing permanent magnet synchronous and brushless DC-motor drives for pump applications. A review of different motor types showed that a possible candidate for another low cost permanent magnet motor may be the sin......The initial research problem is to investigate an alternative motor drive to the existing permanent magnet synchronous and brushless DC-motor drives for pump applications. A review of different motor types showed that a possible candidate for another low cost permanent magnet motor may...... a stroke. The changes of speed controller output during a stroke, may give rise to undesired low frequency oscillations in the speed controller output. A time variant speed controller is presented in the thesis that does not suffer from these issues. Like the brushless DC-motor (BLDC) and the permanent...

  6. Performance analysis of air——water dual source heat pump water heater with heat recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN ZeShao; TAO WenQuan; ZHU YanWen; HU Peng

    2012-01-01

    A new air-water dual source heat pump water heater with heat recovery is proposed.The heat pump system can heat water by using a single air source,a single water source,or air-water dual sources.The water is first pre-heated by waste hot water,then heated by the heat pump.Waste heat is recovered by first preheating the cold water and as water source of the heat pump.According to the correlated formulas of the coefficient of performance of air-source heat pump and water-source heat pump,and the gain coefficient of heat recovery-preheater,the formulas for the coefficient of performance of heat pump in six operating modes are obtained by using the dimensionless correspondence analysis method.The system characteristics of heat absorption and release associated with the heat recovery-preheater are analyzed at different working conditions.The developed approaches can provide reference for the optimization of the operating modes and parameters.The results of analysis and experiments show that the coefficient of performance of the device can reach 4-5.5 in winter,twice as much as air source heat pump water heater.The utilization of waste heat in the proposed system is higher than that in the system which only uses waste water to preheating or as heat source.Thus,the effect of energy saving of the new system is obvious.On the other hand,the dimensionless correspondence analysis method is introduced to performance analysis of the heat pump,which also has theoretical significance and practical value.

  7. Low Temperature District Heating Consumer Unit with Micro Heat Pump for Domestic Hot Water Preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zvingilaite, Erika; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Elmegaard, Brian

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present and analyse the feasibility of a district heating (DH) consumer unit with micro heat pump for domestic hot water (DHW) preparation in a low temperature (40 °C) DH network. We propose a micro booster heat pump of high efficiency (COP equal to 5,3) in a consumer DH unit...... in order to boost the temperature of the district heating water for heating the DHW. The paper presents the main designs of the suggested system and different alternative micro booster heat pump concepts. Energy efficiency and thermodynamic performance of these concepts are calculated and compared....... The results show that the proposed system has the highest efficiency. Furthermore, we compare thermodynamic and economic performance of the suggested heat pump-based concept with different solutions, using electric water heater. The micro booster heat pump system has the highest annualised investment (390 EUR...

  8. AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM OF HEAT PUMP STATION GAS COOLER AT THE WIDE RANGE OF HEAT LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juravleov A.A.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available There is examined the structure the of control system of gas cooler of heat pump station, which uses the carbon dioxide as the working fluid in the transctitical thermodynamical cycle. It is analiyed the structure of the complex: heat pump station – district heating system.

  9. Wind power integration using individual heat pumps – Analysis of different heat storage options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Karsten; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Significant installations of individual heat pumps are expected in future energy systems due to their economic competitiveness. This case study of the Danish energy system in 2020 with 50% wind power shows that individual heat pumps and heat storages can contribute to the integration of wind power...... reductions in excess electricity production and fuel consumption than heat accumulation tanks. Moreover, passive heat storage is found to be significantly more cost-effective than heat accumulation tanks. In terms of reducing fuel consumption of the energy system, the installation of heat pumps is the most...... important step. Adding heat storages only moderately reduces the fuel consumption. Model development has been made to facilitate a technical optimisation of individual heat pumps and heat storages in integration with the energy system....

  10. Flue gas condensing with heat pump; Roekgaskondensering med vaermepump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axby, Fredrik; Pettersson, Camilla [Carl Bro Energikonsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2004-11-01

    Flue gas condensing is often both a technically and economically efficient method to increase the thermal efficiency in a plant using fuels with high moisture and/or high hydrogen content. The temperature of the return water in district heating systems in Sweden is normally 50 deg C, which gives quite high efficiency for a flue gas condenser. The flue gas after the flue gas condenser still contains energy that to some extent can be recovered by a combustion air humidifier or a heat pump. The object of this project is to technically and economically analyse flue gas condensing with heat pump. The aim is that plant owners get basic data to evaluate if a coupling between a flue gas condenser and a heat pump could be of interest for their plant. With a heat pump the district heating water can be 'sub cooled' to increase the heat recover in the flue gas condenser and thereby increase the total efficiency. The project is set up as a case study of three different plants that represent different types of technologies and sizes; Aabyverket in Oerebro, Amagerforbraending in Copenhagen and Staffanstorp district heating central. In this report a system with a partial flow through the condenser of the heat pump is studied. For each plant one case with the smallest heat pump and a total optimization regarding total efficiency and cost for investment has been calculated. In addition to the optimizations sensitivity analyzes has been done of the following parameters: Moisture in fuel; Type of heat pump; Temperature of the return water in the district heating system; and, Size of plant. The calculations shows that the total efficiency increases with about 6 % by the installation of the heat pump at a temperature of the return water in the district heating system of 50 deg C at Aabyverket. The cost for production of heat is just below 210 kr/MWh and the straight time for pay-off is 5,4 years at 250 kr/MWh in heat credit and at 300 kr/MWh in basic price for electricity. The

  11. Demonstration of Building Heating with a Heat Pump Using Thermal Effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-01

    heat pump , which is a refrigeration device, was operated to provide building heat and to demonstrate both economic benefits and energy savings possible with this type of heating system. Heat pump fundamentals and system design considerations supplement the report of this demonstration project. Operational characteristics were monitored and are reported. A 25% reduction in heating costs was observed compared with an oil-fired system. The author recommends that the minimum coefficient of performance should be 3.4 for a cost effective,

  12. Exploring heating performance of gas engine heat pump with heat recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董付江; 刘凤国; 李先庭; 尤学一; 赵冬芳

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the heating performance of gas engine heat pump (GEHP) for air-conditioning and hot water supply, a test facility was developed and experiments were performed over a wide range of engine speed (1400−2600 r/min), ambient air temperature (2.4−17.8 °C) and condenser water inlet temperature (30−50 °C). The results show that as engine speed increases from 1400 r/min to 2600 r/min, the total heating capacity and energy consumption increase by about 30% and 89%, respectively; while the heat pump coefficient of performance (COP) and system primary energy ratio (PER) decrease by 44% and 31%, respectively. With the increase of ambient air temperature from 2.4 °C to 17.8 °C, the heat pump COP and system PER increase by 32% and 19%, respectively. Moreover, the heat pump COP and system PER decrease by 27% and 15%, respectively, when the condenser water inlet temperature changes from 30 °C to 50 °C. So, it is obvious that the effect of engine speed on the performance is more significant than the effects of ambient air temperature and condenser water inlet temperature.

  13. Solar assisted heat pumps: a possible wave of the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smetana, F.O.

    1976-12-01

    With the higher costs of electric power and the widespread interest to use solar energy to reduce the national dependence on fossil fuels, heat pumps are examined to determine their suitability for use with solar energy systems.

  14. Field Monitoring Protocol. Mini-Split Heat Pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Dane [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fang, Xia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tomerlin, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Winkler, Jon [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hancock, E. [Mountain Energy Partnership, Longmont, CO (United States)

    2011-03-01

    This Building America program report provides a detailed method for accurately measuring and monitoring performance of a residential mini-split heat pump, which will be used in high-performance retrofit applications.

  15. Solar assisted heat pumps: A possible wave of the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, F. O.

    1976-01-01

    With the higher costs of electric power and the widespread interest to use solar energy to reduce the national dependence on fossil fuels, heat pumps are examined to determine their suitability for use with solar energy systems.

  16. A mathematical model of the distillation units with heat pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zhuchkov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient hardware design of the rectification process and reduce energy costs for their implementation is an urgent task. The mathematical description of the alcohol distillation process using a heat pump was obtained in this study.

  17. Effect of Temperature Set-Back on Heat Pump Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    This report documents an analysis which shows that energy savings and corresponding cost savings could be realized by employing set-back strategies dependent on location, heat pump capacity and amount of set-back. (Author)

  18. Combined vapor compression/absorption heat pump cycles for engine-driven heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radermacher, Reinhard; Herold, Keith E.; Howe, Lawrence A.

    1988-12-01

    The performance of three combined absorption/vapor compression cycles for gas-fired internal combustion engine driven heat pumps was theoretically assessed. Two cycles were selected for the preliminary design of breadboard systems using only off-the-shelf components. The first cycle, based on the working pair ammonia/water, is termed the simple-cycle. The second cycle, based on the working pair lithium-bromide/water, is termed the compressor enhanced double-effect chiller. Both cycles are found to be technically feasible. The coefficient of performance and the capacity are increased by up to 21 percent for cooling in the first case (compressor efficiency of 0.7) and by up to 14 percent in the second (compressor efficiency of 0.5). Both were compared against the engine drive R22 vapor compression heat pump. The performance of actual machinery for both cycles is, in the current design, hampered by the fact that the desired oil-free compressors have poor isentropic efficiencies. Oil lubricated compressors together with very effective oil separators would improve the performance of the combined LiBr/water cycle to 23 percent.

  19. Fundamental optimal relation of a generalized irreversible Carnot heat pump with complex heat transfer law

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jun Li; Lingen Chen; Fengrui Sun

    2010-02-01

    The fundamental optimal relation between heating load and coefficient of performance (COP) of a generalized irreversible Carnot heat pump is derived based on a new generalized heat transfer law, which includes the generalized convective heat transfer law and generalized radiative heat transfer law, $q \\varpropto ( T^{n})^{m}$. The generalized irreversible Carnot heat pump model incorporates several internal and external irreversibilities, such as heat resistance, bypass heat leakage, friction, turbulence and other undesirable irreversibility factors. The added irreversibilities besides heat resistance are characterized by a constant parameter and a constant coefficient. The effects of heat transfer laws and various loss terms are analysed. The heating load vs. COP characteristic of a generalized irreversible Carnot heat pump is a parabolic-like curve, which is consistent with the experimental result of thermoelectric heat pump. The obtained results include those obtained in many literatures and indicated that the analysis results of the generalized irreversible Carnot heat pump were more suitable for engineering practice than those of the endoreversible Carnot heat pump.

  20. Development of a gas fired Vuilleumier heat pump for residential heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Henrik

    1989-01-01

    A natural gas-driven heat pump based on the Vuilleumier principle has been developed for use in single-family houses. The pump has a heat output of 7.5 kW at a coefficient of performance of 1.62 based on the lower heat content of the gas fuel. The heat pump uses helium as working fluid at 20 MPa...... mean pressure, and it is designed as a semihermetic unit. A crank mechanism distinguished by very small loads on the piston rings was developed. The advantages and disadvantages of the Vuilleumier principle for heat-driven heat pumps are discussed. Results of the extensive experimental work...... are presented. A new 20 kW Vuilleumier heat pump is briefly described...

  1. Improving Air-Conditioner and Heat Pump Modeling (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, J.

    2012-03-01

    A new approach to modeling residential air conditioners and heat pumps allows users to model systems by specifying only the more readily-available SEER/EER/HSPF-type metrics. Manufacturer data was used to generate full sets of model inputs for over 450 heat pumps and air conditioners. A sensitivity analysis identified which inputs can be safely defaulted 'behind-the-scenes' without negatively impacting the reliability of energy simulations.

  2. Improving Air-Conditioner and Heat Pump Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Jon [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-03-02

    This presentation describes a new approach to modeling residential air conditioners and heat pumps, which allows users to model systems by specifying only the more readily-available SEER/EER/HSPF-type metrics. Manufacturer data was used to generate full sets of model inputs for over 450 heat pumps and air conditioners. A sensitivity analysis identified which inputs can be safely defaulted “behind-the-scenes” without negatively impacting the reliability of energy simulations.

  3. Heat-pump-centered integrated community energy systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    Heat-pump-centered integrated community energy systems (HP-ICES) are energy systems for communities which provide heating, cooling and/or other thermal energy services through the use of heat pumps. Since heat pumps primarily transfer energy from existing and otherwise probably unused sources, rather than convert it from electrical or chemical to thermal form, HP-ICES offer significant potential for energy savings. Secondary benefits of HP-ICES include reduction of adverse environmental effects as compared to conventional systems, reliable production of services in contrast to the increasingly frequent utility curtailments and interruptions, and delivery of services to consumers at costs lower than those for conventional systems (including acquisition, operation, and maintenance costs). The objective of this multiphase project is development and demonstration of HP-ICES concepts leading to one or more operational systems by the end of 1984. The results of the system development phase of the HP-ICES Project are reported. Information is presented on: central heat pump and distributed heat pump ICES; potential applications; waste heat availability; system performance and economics; environmental impacts; site requirements; component testing requirements; mathematical analysis of heat balance and cost relations; and performance and economic analyses of HP-ICES located near Seattle, Washington and San Antonio, Texas. (LCL)

  4. Heat pumps; Synergy of high efficiency and low carbon electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Akio

    2010-09-15

    Heat pump is attracting wide attention for its high efficiency to utilize inexhaustible and renewable ambient heat in the environment. With its rapid innovation and efficiency improvement, this technology has a huge potential to reduce CO2 emissions by replacing currently widespread fossil fuel combustion systems to meet various heat demands from the residential, commercial and industrial sectors. Barriers to deployment such as low public awareness and a relatively long pay-back period do exist, so it is strongly recommended that each country implement policies to promote heat pumps as a renewable energy option and an effective method to combat global warming.

  5. Heat pumps in Denmark - From ugly duckling to white swan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyborg, Sophie; Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, the smart grid and heat pumps have increasingly gained attention in Denmark as an integral part of the low carbon transition of the energy system. The main reason being that the smart grid enables the integration of large amounts of intermittent wind energy into the electr......Over the last 10 years, the smart grid and heat pumps have increasingly gained attention in Denmark as an integral part of the low carbon transition of the energy system. The main reason being that the smart grid enables the integration of large amounts of intermittent wind energy...... into the electricity system via, among other things, intelligent interoperation with domestic heat pumps, which consume the 'green' electricity. Unfortunately, recent years' sales of heat pumps have been disappointing. Several studies have investigated the 'dissemination potential' of heat pumps in Denmark, primarily...... through conventional market research approaches. However, there is clearly a lack of studies that take a more socio-technical approach to understanding how technologies such as the heat pump develop and how they come to have a place in society as a result of contingent, emergent and complex historical...

  6. Heat pumps for heating, cooling, and energy recovery. Waermepumpen fuer Heizung, Kuehlung und Energierueckgewinnung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudolph, R.; Purper, G.; Frische, R.; Gruening, F.; Janssen, H.; Paul, I.; Rode, C.

    1979-07-01

    In this study technical, economic and ecological problems are analysed in detail as well as the (future) role which will be played by heat pump systems in heating, cooling, and energy recovery up to the year 1990. Corresponding to the programme of work, the following subjects are dealt with: 1. Technology of heat pumps and economy - Premises for and demands (made) on the use of heat pumps - Recent international developments in heat pump technology - Cost analysis and forecast for heat pump systems, using selected examples of residential, administrative and industrial buildings - present and expected economy of heat pumps compared with other heating/cooling systems 2. Survey on the situation expected in the marketplace - Supply analysis and forecast - Demand analysis and forecast 3. Technology policy - Assessment of technology results on heat pump technology - Analysis of the worthiness of heat pump technology to be sponsored by the government - Analysis of the technology policy led by other industrialized countries (analysis of the stage of development and diffusion) - Potential government grants.

  7. Mold Heating and Cooling Pump Package Operator Interface Controls Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josh A. Salmond

    2009-08-07

    The modernization of the Mold Heating and Cooling Pump Package Operator Interface (MHC PP OI) consisted of upgrading the antiquated single board computer with a proprietary operating system to off-the-shelf hardware and off-the-shelf software with customizable software options. The pump package is the machine interface between a central heating and cooling system that pumps heat transfer fluid through an injection or compression mold base on a local plastic molding machine. The operator interface provides the intelligent means of controlling this pumping process. Strict temperature control of a mold allows the production of high quality parts with tight tolerances and low residual stresses. The products fabricated are used on multiple programs.

  8. Biocorrosion of evaporators of water/water heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denier, P.; Sutter, E.M.M.; Cornet, A. (Ecole Nationale Superieure des Arts et Industries, 67 - Strasbourg (FR))

    1990-12-01

    During the last twenty years, many heat pumps were installed in Alsace (France) using groundwater. It appeared that water contained bacteria able to induce metallic corrosion. Thus, it was necessary to have a better knowledge of the situation. A statistical study on water analysis was realised. There is no noticeable relation between bacterial contamination and water chemistry or geographical location. Most of corrosion origines were - a bad water network conception (erosion, cavitation, oxygen differential cells...) - a bad use of metal coupling (galvanic corrosion). The presence of bacteria generally increases the phenomena described above. Solutions proposed are: PVC casing, stainless steel water pumps, heat pump evaporators in noble alloys or metals, PVC or resines lagging. For the actual set of heat pumps, there are less solutions but in some cases an intermediary exchanger would be a good and easy solution.

  9. Study and Test of Cold Storage Heat Recovery Heat Pump Coupled Solar Drying Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Li

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we design the recovery of a heat pump combined solar drying device. Then, with this device, drying experiments of aquatic product, tilapia, were conducted, indicating that the newly designed device functions are well in temperature adjusting and controlling performance and showing that drying time is closely related to energy consumption and drying conditions. Heat recovery heat pump combined solar energy drier can improve the drying quality of aquatic products, but also can greatly reduce the drying energy consumption, which provides theoretical support to the design and processing of heat recovery heat pump of refrigeration system coupled solar drying device.

  10. Heating and cooling with ground-loop heat pumps; Heizen und Kuehlen mit erdgekoppelten Waermepumpen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afjei, Th.; Dott, R. [Institut Energie am Bau, Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz (FHNW), Muttenz (Switzerland); Huber, A. [Huber Energietechnik AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2007-08-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of the SFOE-project 'Heating and cooling with ground coupled heat pumps' in which the benefits and costs of a heat pump heating and cooling system with a borehole heat exchanger were examined. In particular the dimensioning of the hydraulic system, control concept and user behaviour are dealt with. The results of the simulations of thermal building behaviour with MATLAB/SIMULINK, CARNOT, and EWS are discussed. The results of parameter studies carried out, including varying shading, cooling characteristic curves, temperature differences in the heat exchanger and the dead time between heating and cooling mode are discussed. These showed that a simple system with heat pump and borehole heat exchanger for heating or preparation of domestic hot water as well as for passive cooling proved to be the best choice.

  11. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, Carl [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, Srikanth [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads.

  12. Technical and economic working domains of industrial heat pumps: Part 1 - single stage vapour compression heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Markussen, Wiebke Brix;

    2015-01-01

    A large amount of operational and economic constraints limit the applicability of heat pumps operated with natural working fluids. The limitations are highly dependent on the integration of heat source and sink streams. An evaluation of feasible operating conditions was carried out considering...... the constraints of available refrigeration equipment and a requirement of a positive net present value of the investment. Six heat pump systems were considered, corresponding to an upper limit of the sink temperature of 120 °C. For each set of heat sink and source temperatures the best available technology...... was determined. The results showed that four different heat pump systems propose the best available technology at different parts of the complete domain. Ammonia systems presented the best available technology at low sink outlet temperature. At high temperature difference between sink in- and outlet...

  13. Heat-pump-centered integrated community energy systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    A Heat Pump Centered-Integrated Community Energy System (HP-ICES) concept was explored and developed that is based on use of privately owned ice-making heat pumps in each building or complex within a community. These heat pumps will provide all of the space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water needs. All of the community input energy required is provided by electrical power, thereby eliminating a community's dependence on gas or oil supplies. The heat pumps will operate in both air and water source modes, deriving performance advantages of both. The possible forms of an HP-ICES system, the technical and economic limitations, environmental impacts and other factors are discussed from a general viewpoint. The concept is applied to a specific planned community and its performance and economic features are examined in detail. It is concluded that the HP-ICES concept is technically viable, but that its economic desirability as compared with conventional heat pump systems is hampered by much higher initial costs, and that the economic feasibility of HP-ICES systems will depend on future fuel source costs and supply and on electric power rates. (LCL)

  14. Thermal efficiency improvements : a chemical heat pump system application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mert, M.S.; Salt, I.; Bolat, E. [Yildiz Technical Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Karaca, F. [Marmara Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Chemical heat pumps are used to upgrade thermal energy and provide energy storage without losses. The feasibility of an n-hexane/1-hexane/hydrogen chemical heat pump system based on the dehydrogenation of n-hexane at low temperatures and 1-hexane at high temperatures was investigated. Theoretical analysis was carried out using related thermodynamic and equilibrium data to determine the thermal efficiency of the cycle. The latent heats of vaporization at normal boiling points for n-hexane and 1-hexane were calculated using a Riedel equation. Heat capacities as a function of temperature were calculated by Missenard group contribution and Rowlinson-Bondi methods. Estimated C{sub PL} values were presented. The effect of temperature on the Standart heat of reaction was calculated. Gibbs free energy was expressed as a function of temperature. Results indicated that a high 1-hexane concentration in the liquid mixture was required. The ratio of upgraded heat to supplied heat was the key parameter for estimating the thermal coefficient of performance (COP). It was observed that the efficiency of the pump increased with an increase in low level hydrogenation pressure. It was concluded that designing a chemical heat pump involves the consideration of a variety of interacting parameters. 17 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs.

  15. Better or worse? Heat pumps; Wohl oder Weh? Waermepumpen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-07-01

    With no other heating system as in the case of heat pumps, the energy efficiency depends on so many details. An investigation of the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (Freiburg, Federal Republic of Germany) gives information about the best systems, common errors as well as important improvements.

  16. Measured Performance of a Low Temperature Air Source Heat Pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R. K. [Johnson Research LLC, Pueblo West, CO (United States)

    2013-09-01

    A 4-ton Low Temperature Heat Pump (LTHP) manufactured by Hallowell International was installed in a residence near New Haven, Connecticut and monitored over two winters of operation. After attending to some significant service issues, the heat pump operated as designed. This report should be considered a review of the dual compressor 'boosted heat pump' technology. The Low Temperature Heat Pumpsystem operates with four increasing levels of capacity (heat output) as the outdoor temperature drops. The system was shown to select capacity correctly, supplying the appropriate amount of heat to the house across the full range of outdoor temperatures. The system's Coefficient of Performance (Seasonal COP, or SCOP) over two entire winters was calculated, based on measured data, to be 3.29over the first winter and 2.68 over the second winter. A second seasonal efficiency calculation by a different method yielded a SCOP of 2.78 for the first winter and 2.83 for the second winter. This second seasonal efficiency calculation was determined by comparing measured heat pump energy use to the in situ energy use with resistance heat alone. This method is the ratio of the slopes of thedaily energy use load lines.

  17. Capillary Pump Loop (CPL) heat pipe development status report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The capillary pump loop (CPL) was re-introduced as a potential candidate for the management of large heat loads. It is currently being evaluated for application in the thermal management of large space structures. Test efforts were conducted to establish the feasibility of the CPL heat pipe design.

  18. Performance analysis on solar-water compound source heat pump for radiant floor heating system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲世林; 马飞; 仇安兵

    2009-01-01

    A solar-water compound source heat pump for radiant floor heating (SWHP-RFH) experimental system was introduced and analyzed. The SWHP-RFH system mainly consists of 11.44 m2 vacuum tube solar collector,1 000 L water tank assisted 3 kW electrical heater,a water source heat pump,the radiant floor heating system with cross-linked polyethylene (PE-X) of diameter 20 mm,temperature controller and solar testing system. The SWHP-RFH system was tested from December to February during the heating season in Beijing,China under different operation situations. The test parameters include the outdoor air temperature,solar radiation intensity,indoor air temperature,radiation floor average surface temperature,average surface temperature of the building envelope,the inlet and outlet temperatures of solar collector,the temperature of water tank,the heat medium temperatures of heat pump condenser side and evaporator side,and the power consumption includes the water source heat pump system,the solar source heat pump system,the auxiliary heater and the radiant floor heating systems etc. The experimental results were used to calculate the collector efficiency,heat pump dynamic coefficient of performance (COP),total energy consumption and seasonal heating performance during the heating season. The results indicate that the performance of the compound source heat pump system is better than that of the air source heat pump system. Furthermore,some methods are suggested to improve the thermal performance of each component and the whole SWHP-RFH system.

  19. Thermoacoustic Stirling Heat Pump Working as a Heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassem, Mohamed Mehdi; Ueda, Yuki; Akisawa, Atsushi

    2011-10-01

    A prototype thermoacoustic heat pump working as a heater was demonstrated. The heat pump was composed of an acoustic driver, a branched tube, and a looped tube containing a regenerator; the looped tube was connected to the acoustic driver via the branched tube, and the regenerator consisted of many narrow flow channels. The measurement results of the acoustic impedance inside the looped tube indicated that the energy conversion of the acoustic power flow into the acoustic heat flow in the regenerator occurred through the inherently efficient Stirling cycle. Moreover, the heat pump generated a hot temperature of 370 °C, corresponding to a temperature lift along the regenerator of 340 °C.

  20. Heat transfer analysis of underground U-type heat exchanger of ground source heat pump system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Guihong; Zhang, Liyin

    2016-01-01

    Ground source heat pumps is a building energy conservation technique. The underground buried pipe heat exchanging system of a ground source heat pump (GSHP) is the basis for the normal operation of an entire heat pump system. Computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD) numerical simulation software, ANSYS-FLUENT17.0 have been performed the calculations under the working conditions of a continuous and intermittent operation over 7 days on a GSHP with a single-well, single-U and double-U heat exchanger and the impact of single-U and double-U buried heat pipes on the surrounding rock-soil temperature field and the impact of intermittent operation and continuous operation on the outlet water temperature. The influence on the rock-soil temperature is approximately 13 % higher for the double-U heat exchanger than that of the single-U heat exchanger. The extracted energy of the intermittent operation is 36.44 kw·h higher than that of the continuous mode, although the running time is lower than that of continuous mode, over the course of 7 days. The thermal interference loss and quantity of heat exchanged for unit well depths at steady-state condition of 2.5 De, 3 De, 4 De, 4.5 De, 5 De, 5.5 De and 6 De of sidetube spacing are detailed in this work. The simulation results of seven working conditions are compared. It is recommended that the side-tube spacing of double-U underground pipes shall be greater than or equal to five times of outer diameter (borehole diameter: 180 mm).

  1. Energy and Exergy Analysis of an Annular Thermoelectric Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, S. C.; Manikandan, S.; Hans, Ranjana

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the concept of an annular thermoelectric heat pump (ATEHP) has been introduced. An exoreversible thermodynamic model of the ATEHP considering the Thomson effect in conjunction with Peltier, Joule and Fourier heat conduction has been investigated using exergy analysis. New expressions for dimensionless heating power, optimum current at the maximum energy, exergy efficiency conditions and dimensionless irreversibilities in the ATEHP are derived. The results show that the heating power, energy and exergy efficiency of the ATEHP are lower than the flat-plate thermoelectric heat pump. The effects of annular shape parameter ( S r = r 2 /r 1), dimensionless temperature ratio ( θ = T h /T c) and the electrical contact resistances on the heating power, energy/exergy efficiency of an ATEHP have been studied. This study will help in the designing of actual ATEHP systems.

  2. Mini-Split Heat Pumps Multifamily Retrofit Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, J.; Podorson, D.; Varshney, K.

    2014-05-01

    Mini-split heat pumps can provide space heating and cooling in many climates and are relatively affordable. These and other features make them potentially suitable for retrofitting into multifamily buildings in cold climates to replace electric resistance heating or other outmoded heating systems. This report investigates the suitability of mini-split heat pumps for multifamily retrofits. Various technical and regulatory barriers are discussed and modeling was performed to compare long-term costs of substituting mini-splits for a variety of other heating and cooling options. A number of utility programs have retrofit mini-splits in both single family and multifamily residences. Two such multifamily programs are discussed in detail.

  3. Innovative commercial ``ground source'' heat pump system sources and sinks: Engineering and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachs, H.M.; Lowenstein, A.I.; Henderson, H.I. Jr.; Carlson, S.W.; Risser, J.E.

    1998-07-01

    Geothermal heat pumps, which will be called GX systems in this paper, have been employed in specialty applications on both residential and commercial buildings for several decades. GX systems generally have very competitive life cycle costs, but somewhat higher initial costs. The incremental cost of the ground heat exchanger cost is close to the average cost per ton, so GX systems work best with very efficient building shells. Innovative methods can reduce the ground heat exchanger cost. These include better coupling of the heat exchange boreholes to the ground, hybrid systems that use low cost closed fluid coolers to supplement the ground heat exchanger where cooling loads dominate, open loop systems, and opportunistic systems that use sewage effluent or other non-standard sources for heat exchange. These approaches and their benefits are illustrated through five case studies.

  4. Performance analysis of multi-pump Raman+EDFA hybrid amplifiers for WDM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardim Martini, Márcia M.; Pontes, Maria José; Ribeiro, Moisés. R. N.; Kalinowski, Hypolito José

    2014-08-01

    An approximated technique to optimize the gain profile of multi-pump broadband hybrid amplifiers (Raman+EDFA) under residual pump recycling is applied to a WDM system. The Optimized hybrid amplifier configurations with multi-pumping were analyzed considering different number of input channels in order to check the global gain saturation and the changes in the global gain profile that occur due to signal-pump, signal-signal, and pump-pump interactions. This work extends the optimization of the gain profile from Raman+EDFA hybrid amplifiers and studies the signal-signal interactions, signal-pumping and pumping-pumping WDM systems. Multiple input channels allowed the gain characterization of the Raman+EDFA hybrid amplifier in terms of global gain, ripple, and noise figure considering applications for WDM systems.

  5. Study on the System Design of a Solar Assisted Ground Heat Pump System Using Dynamic Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Gyung Yu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the use of hybrid systems using multiple heat sources in buildings to ensure a stable energy supply and improve the system performance has gained attention. Among them, a heat pump system using both solar and ground heat was developed and various system configurations have been introduced. However, establishing a suitable design method for the solar-assisted ground heat pump (SAGHP system including a thermal storage tank is complicated and there are few quantitative studies on the detailed system configurations. Therefore, this study developed three SAGHP system design methods considering the design factors focused on the thermal storage tank. Using dynamic energy simulation code (TRNSYS 17, individual performance analysis models were developed and long-term quantitative analysis was carried out to suggest optimum design and operation methods. As a result, it was found that SYSTEM 2 which is a hybrid system with heat storage tank for only a solar system showed the highest average heat source temperature of 14.81 °C, which is about 11 °C higher than minimum temperature in SYSTEM 3. Furthermore, the best coefficient of performance (COP values of heat pump and system were 5.23 and 4.32 in SYSYEM 2, using high and stable solar heat from a thermal storage tank. Moreover, this paper considered five different geographical and climatic locations and the SAGHP system worked efficiently in having high solar radiation and cool climate zones and the system COP was 4.51 in the case of Winnipeg (Canada where the highest heating demand is required.

  6. Development of a nonazeotropic heat pump for crew hygiene water heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, David H.; Deming, Glenn I.

    1991-01-01

    A Phase 2 SBIR Program funded by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to develop a Nonazeotropic Heat Pump is described. The heat pump system which was designed, fabricated, and tested in the Foster-Miller laboratory, is capable of providing crew hygiene water heating for future manned missions. The heat pump utilizes a nonazeotropic refrigerant mixture which, in this application, provides a significant Coefficient of Performance improvement over a single-constituent working fluid. In order to take full advantage of the refrigerant mixture, compact tube-in-tube heat exchangers were designed. A high efficiency scroll compressor with a proprietary lubrication system was developed to meet the requirements of operation in zero-gravity. The prototype heat pump system consumes less than 200W of power compared to the alternative of electric cartridge heaters which would require 2 to 5 kW.

  7. Heating performance of a ground source heat pump system installed in a school building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaedo; SONG; Kwangho; LEE; Youngman; JEONG; Seongir; CHEONG; Jaekeun; LEE; Yujin; HWANG; Yeongho; LEE; Donghyuk; LEE

    2010-01-01

    The heating performance of a water-to-refrigerant type ground source heat pump system is represented in this paper under the actual working conditions of the GSHP(ground source heat pump) system during the winter season of 2008.Ten heat pump equipments with the capacity of 10 HP each and a closed vertical typed-ground heat exchanger with 24 boreholes of 175 m in depth were constructed.We investigated a variety of working conditions,including the outdoor temperature,the ground temperature,and the water temperature of inlet and outlet of the ground heat exchanger in order to examine the heating performance of the GSHP system.Subsequently,the heating capacity and the input power were investigated to determine the heating performance of the GSHP system.The average heating coefficient of performance(COP) of the heat pump was noted to be 5.1 at partial load of 47%,while the overall system COP was found to be 4.2.Also,performance of the GSHP system was compared with that of air source heat pump.

  8. Dynamic properties of single pump, dispersion-compensating Raman/EDFA hybrid amplifier recycling residual Raman pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju; Chang, You; Han, Young-Geun; Kim, Sang; Lee, Sang

    2004-12-27

    We experimentally investigate transient effects of our proposed single pump, dispersion-compensating Raman/EDFA hybrid amplifier recycling residual Raman pump in a cascaded EDF under the situation of multi-channel add/drop, and then demonstrate the use of a FBG based all-optical gain-clamping technique to efficiently suppress the output transients. The results show that the proposed hybrid amplifier has a significantly long transient response time of ~ 2 ms compared to the previous reported value of the conventional separate pump, Raman/EDFA hybrid amplifiers due to both the low-pumping regime operation of 14XX nm pumped EDFA section and the additional pump transit time through the 12.6 km long dispersion compensating fiber to reach the EDF. However, using a simple gain-clamping method we obtain an almost, transient-free operation.

  9. 16 CFR 305.12 - Labeling for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... pumps, and furnaces. (a) Layout. All energy labels for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and... air conditioners and heat pumps. (1) Headlines and texts, as illustrated in the prototype and sample.... (ii) Each heat pump label, except as noted in paragraph (g)(4)(iii) of this section, shall contain two...

  10. Heat pump contracting: a source of heat that takes care of the climate; Klimaschonende Waermeversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyeler, F.

    2003-07-01

    This article discusses heat pump 'contracting solutions' used in the refurbishment of the central heating systems of two housing developments in Zurich and Thun, Switzerland. In these and other projects, the high level of investment needed for the installation of the heat pumps was met by third-party contractors, who install and operate the space heating and domestic hot water systems and sell the heat energy to the tenants. The system serving the 96 'Rietlihof' apartments in Zurich is operated by the public utilities of the City of Zurich, EWZ, the housing development in Thun by the Bernese power utility BKW. The article stresses the importance of professional planning and the correct choice of heat sources. The ecological and economical advantages of heating system refurbishment projects that use heat pumps built, financed and operated by contractors are discussed.

  11. Heat Recovery in a Pasta Factory. Pinch Analysis Leads to Optimal Heat Pump Usage.

    OpenAIRE

    Staine, Frédéric; Favrat, Daniel; Krummenacher, Pierre

    1994-01-01

    In the previous issue of the IEA Heat Pump Centre Newsletter (Vol, 12, No.3, pp. 29-31), an article by these authors described the use of pinch analysis (also known as pinch technology) in a buildings application. This article describes a similar procedure for integrating a heat pump into a pasta production process. Many industrial processes, and particularly those dealing with drying, are characterized by an overabundance of low- grade heat which often cannot be effi...

  12. Heat Recovery in a Pasta Factory. Pinch Analysis Leads to Optimal Heat Pump Usage.

    OpenAIRE

    Staine, Frédéric; Favrat, Daniel; Krummenacher, Pierre

    1994-01-01

    In the previous issue of the IEA Heat Pump Centre Newsletter (Vol, 12, No.3, pp. 29-31), an article by these authors described the use of pinch analysis (also known as pinch technology) in a buildings application. This article describes a similar procedure for integrating a heat pump into a pasta production process. Many industrial processes, and particularly those dealing with drying, are characterized by an overabundance of low- grade heat which often cannot be effi...

  13. Study and Test of Cold Storage Heat Recovery Heat Pump Coupled Solar Drying Device

    OpenAIRE

    Min Li; Xiao-Qiang Jiang; Bao-Chuan Wu

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we design the recovery of a heat pump combined solar drying device. Then, with this device, drying experiments of aquatic product, tilapia, were conducted, indicating that the newly designed device functions are well in temperature adjusting and controlling performance and showing that drying time is closely related to energy consumption and drying conditions. Heat recovery heat pump combined solar energy drier can improve the drying quality of aquatic products, but also can gr...

  14. Hourly simulation of a Ground-Coupled Heat Pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naldi, C.; Zanchini, E.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a MATLAB code for the hourly simulation of a whole Ground-Coupled Heat Pump (GCHP) system, based on the g-functions previously obtained by Zanchini and Lazzari. The code applies both to on-off heat pumps and to inverter-driven ones. It is employed to analyse the effects of the inverter and of the total length of the Borehole Heat Exchanger (BHE) field on the mean seasonal COP (SCOP) and on the mean seasonal EER (SEER) of a GCHP system designed for a residential house with 6 apartments in Bologna, North-Center Italy, with dominant heating loads. A BHE field with 3 in line boreholes is considered, with length of each BHE either 75 m or 105 m. The results show that the increase of the BHE length yields a SCOP enhancement of about 7%, while the SEER remains nearly unchanged. The replacement of the on-off heat pump by an inverter-driven one yields a SCOP enhancement of about 30% and a SEER enhancement of about 50%. The results demonstrate the importance of employing inverter-driven heat pumps for GCHP systems.

  15. Miniature reciprocating heat pumps and engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiesen, Jack H. (Inventor); Willen, Gary S. (Inventor); Mohling, Robert A. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention discloses a miniature thermodynamic device that can be constructed using standard micro-fabrication techniques. The device can be used to provide cooling, generate power, compress gases, pump fluids and reduce pressure below ambient (operate as a vacuum pump). Embodiments of the invention relating to the production of a cooling effect and the generation of electrical power, change the thermodynamic state of the system by extracting energy from a pressurized fluid. Energy extraction is attained using an expansion process, which is as nearly isentropic as possible for the appropriately chosen fluid. An isentropic expansion occurs when a compressed gas does work to expand, and in the disclosed embodiments, the gas does work by overcoming either an electrostatic or a magnetic force.

  16. High-temperature industrial heat pump. Management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deckman, G

    1979-03-12

    The management plan for the development and demonstration of a high-temperature industrial heat pump for milk drying is presented. Section 2 describes the overall objective, technical approach, and program scope for development and demonstration of a heat pump system for use in an existing milk drying operation. The high temperature industrial heat pump program organization, its relationships to higher-level AiResearch organizations, subcontractor relationships, and personnel responsibilities are discussed in Section 3. The program management and control functions and data management techniques are described in Section 4. The activity for each work breakdown structure is described in Section 5. The program schedule is schematically shown in Section 6 and cost management reports are described in Section 7.

  17. Materials corrosion in ammonia/solid heat pump working media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, D.F.; Howell, M.; DeVan, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    Salt/ammonia complexes will undergo thermal cycles during use as working media for heat pumps. The interaction between container materials and complexes under thermal cyclic conditions was assessed to screen possible containment materials. Aluminum alloys 3003, 1100, and 6063 and carbon steel A214 were tested against possible heat pump working media SrCl{sub 2}/NH{sub 3}, CaBr{sub 2}/NH{sub 3}, and CaCl{sub 2}/NH{sub 3}. None of the containment materials showed susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking. While all the materials demonstrated excellent general corrosion resistance to SrCl{sub 2}/NH{sub 3}, only A214 displayed good general corrosion resistance to CaCl{sub 2}/NH{sub 3}. The complex CaBr{sub 2}/NH{sub 3} was found to be subject to thermal cyclic instability and should not be used as a heat pump working medium.

  18. Analysis of Decentralized Control for Absorption Cycle Heat Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Kasper; Just Nielsen, Rene; Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard

    2015-01-01

    Email Print Request Permissions This paper investigates decentralized control structures for absorption cycle heat pumps and a dynamic nonlinear model of a single-effect LiBr-water absorption system is used as case study. The model has four controllable inputs, which can be used to stabilize...... the operation of the heat pump under different load conditions. Different feasible input-output pairings are analyzed by computation of relative gain array matrices and scaled condition numbers, which indicate the best pairing choice and the potential of each input-output set. Further, it is possible...... to minimize the effect of cross couplings and improve stability with the right pairing of input and output. Simulation of selected candidate input-output pairings demonstrate that decentralized control can provide stable operation of the heat pump....

  19. Microgravity heat pump for space station thermal management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domitrovic, R E; Chen, F C; Mei, V C; Spezia, A L

    2003-01-01

    A highly efficient recuperative vapor compression heat pump was developed and tested for its ability to operate independent of orientation with respect to gravity while maximizing temperature lift. The objective of such a heat pump is to increase the temperature of, and thus reduce the size of, the radiative heat rejection panels on spacecrafts such as the International Space Station. Heat pump operation under microgravity was approximated by gravitational-independent experiments. Test evaluations include functionality, efficiency, and temperature lift. Commercially available components were used to minimize costs of new hardware development. Testing was completed on two heat pump design iterations--LBU-I and LBU--II, for a variety of operating conditions under the variation of several system parameters, including: orientation, evaporator water inlet temperature (EWIT), condenser water inlet temperature (CWIT), and compressor speed. The LBU-I system employed an ac motor, belt-driven scroll compressor, and tube-in-tube heat exchangers. The LBU-II system used a direct-drive AC motor compressor assembly and plate heat exchangers. The LBU-II system in general outperformed the LBU-I system on all accounts. Results are presented for all systems, showing particular attention to those states that perform with a COP of 4.5 +/- 10% and can maintain a temperature lift of 55 degrees F (30.6 degrees C) +/- 10%. A calculation of potential radiator area reduction shows that points with maximum temperature lift give the greatest potential for reduction, and that area reduction is a function of heat pump efficiency and a stronger function of temperature lift.

  20. Solar energy and heat pumps: evaluation of combined systems for heating and cooling of buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, J.W.; Catan, M.A.; Le Doux, P.

    1982-09-01

    An analysis of a broad range of solar assisted heat pump systems was carried out. Systems were divided into three categories on the basis of whether ground coupling was included in the system and, if so, whether solar energy was stored in the ground or used in some other way. In the category of non-ground-coupled systems, an advanced air-source heat pump concept designed to improve capacity and coefficient of performance at low source temperatures was used as the basis for a dual source heat pump. For ground coupled systems which do not store solar heat in the ground, three options were considered: use of simple passive techniques to reduce the effective heating load; use of photovoltaics to drive the heat pump compressor; and use of active solar components as a source to the heat pump, for direct space heating, or for domestic hot water only. For systems which do store solar energy in the ground, the minimum size for efficient thermal carryover from summer to winter was determined to be a system capable of serving approx. 100 houses. Use of a fuel-fired heat pump is also an advantage in these larger systems. Economic analyses were based on a maximum allowable payback of 8 years for residential systems. For the large-scale system, a simplified 10-year life-cycle costing was employed.

  1. The analisys of heat pumps using during the epuration process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Antipov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of application of steam recompression for epuration column heating was carried out in the work. Researches on epuration process were carried out on an industrial brew rectification apparatus of Veselolopansky distillery. During the experiment, column apparatus operating parameters interrelations with the heat pump energy characteristics were analyzed, variants for epuration column operation with a heat pump with different vapor pressure entering the compressor by varying the compression pressure were examined. The experiments carried out allowed to determine the optimum vapor pressure of compression, providing the column operation without the heating steam supply. At a slight overpressure of vapor the optimal compression ratio is 3.4–3.7 kPa, the pressure after the compressor is 352–376 kPa; in the bottom part of column at the atmospheric pressure the optimal compression pressure is 303–325 kPa, the compression ratio is 4.0–4.4. For the low-pressure-regime use the optimum pressure is 252–275 kPa, the degree of compression-stump is 4.9–5.5. Thermodynamic analysis modes of epuration showed that epuration column working with a heat pump has the highest exergy efficiency (32.6%. Use of heat pump saves 1.03–1.15 kg of steam at the rate of 1 liter of ethanol, introduced in the column with supply. Heat pumps can be used to reduce the energy intensity of BRA in obtaining high-quality rectified alcohol.

  2. Vapor-Compression Heat Pumps for Operation Aboard Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruemmele, Warren; Ungar, Eugene; Cornwell, John

    2006-01-01

    Vapor-compression heat pumps (including both refrigerators and heat pumps) of a proposed type would be capable of operating in microgravity and would be safe to use in enclosed environments like those of spacecraft. The designs of these pumps would incorporate modifications of, and additions to, vapor-compression cycles of heat pumps now used in normal Earth gravitation, in order to ensure efficiency and reliability during all phases of operation, including startup, shutdown, nominal continuous operation, and peak operation. Features of such a design might include any or all of the following: (1) Configuring the compressor, condenser, evaporator, valves, capillary tubes (if any), and controls to function in microgravitation; (2) Selection of a working fluid that satisfies thermodynamic requirements and is safe to use in a closed crew compartment; (3) Incorporation of a solenoid valve and/or a check valve to prevent influx of liquid to the compressor upon startup (such influx could damage the compressor); (4) Use of a diode heat pipe between the cold volume and the evaporator to limit the influx of liquid to the compressor upon startup; and (5) Use of a heated block to vaporize any liquid that arrives at the compressor inlet.

  3. Flathead Electric Cooperative Facility Geothermal Heat Pump System Upgrade.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaobing [Oak Ridge National Lab

    2014-06-01

    High initial cost and lack of public awareness of ground source heat pump (GSHP) technology are the two major barriers preventing rapid deployment of this energy saving technology in the United States. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 GSHP projects have been competitively selected and carried out to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. This paper highlights findings of a case study of one of the ARRA-funded GSHP demonstration projects, which is a heating only central GSHP system using shallow aquifer as heat source and installed at a warehouse and truck bay at Kalispell, MT. This case study is based on the analysis of measured performance data, utility bills, and calculations of energy consumptions of conventional central heating systems for providing the same heat outputs as the central GSHP system did. The evaluated performance metrics include energy efficiency of the heat pump equipment and the overall GSHP system, pumping performance, energy savings, carbon emission reductions, and cost-effectiveness of GSHP system compared with conventional heating systems. This case study also identified areas for reducing uncertainties in performance evaluation, improving operational efficiency, and reducing installed cost of similar GSHP systems in the future. Publication of ASHRAE at the annual conference in Seattle June 2014.

  4. Flathead Electric Cooperative Facility Geothermal Heat Pump System Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaobing [Oak Ridge National Lab

    2014-06-01

    High initial cost and lack of public awareness of ground source heat pump (GSHP) technology are the two major barriers preventing rapid deployment of this energy saving technology in the United States. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 GSHP projects have been competitively selected and carried out to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. This paper highlights findings of a case study of one of the ARRA-funded GSHP demonstration projects, which is a heating only central GSHP system using shallow aquifer as heat source and installed at a warehouse and truck bay at Kalispell, MT. This case study is based on the analysis of measured performance data, utility bills, and calculations of energy consumptions of conventional central heating systems for providing the same heat outputs as the central GSHP system did. The evaluated performance metrics include energy efficiency of the heat pump equipment and the overall GSHP system, pumping performance, energy savings, carbon emission reductions, and cost-effectiveness of GSHP system compared with conventional heating systems. This case study also identified areas for reducing uncertainties in performance evaluation, improving operational efficiency, and reducing installed cost of similar GSHP systems in the future. Publication of ASHRAE at the annual conference in Seattle.

  5. Optimal heat rejection pressure in transcritical carbon dioxide air conditioning and heat pump systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Shengming; Jakobsen, Arne

    1998-01-01

    Due to the urgent need for environmentally benign refrigerants, the use of the natural substance carbon dioxide in refrigeration systems has gained more and more attention. In systems such as automobile air-conditioners and heat pumps, owing to the relatively high heat rejection temperatures......, the cycles using carbon dioxide as refrigerant will have to operate in the transcritical area. In a transcritical carbon dioxide system, there is an optimal heat rejection pressure that gives a maximum COP. In this paper, it is shown that the value of this optimal heat rejection pressure mainly depends...... dioxide air conditioning or heat pump systems and for intelligent controlling such systems....

  6. Optimal heat rejection pressure in transcritical carbon dioxide air conditioning and heat pump systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Shengming; Jakobsen, Arne

    1998-01-01

    Due to the urgent need for environmentally benign refrigerants, the use of the natural substance carbon dioxide in refrigeration systems has gained more and more attention. In systems such as automobile air-conditioners and heat pumps, owing to the relatively high heat rejection temperatures...... dioxide air conditioning or heat pump systems and for intelligent controlling such systems......., the cycles using carbon dioxide as refrigerant will have to operate in the transcritical area. In a transcritical carbon dioxide system, there is an optimal heat rejection pressure that gives a maximum COP. In this paper, it is shown that the value of this optimal heat rejection pressure mainly depends...

  7. Vapor Compression and Thermoelectric Heat Pump Heat Exchangers for a Condensate Distillation System: Design and Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Lisa R.; Ungar, Eugene K.

    2013-01-01

    Maximizing the reuse of wastewater while minimizing the use of consumables is critical in long duration space exploration. One of the more promising methods of reclaiming urine is the distillation/condensation process used in the cascade distillation system (CDS). This system accepts a mixture of urine and toxic stabilizing agents, heats it to vaporize the water and condenses and cools the resulting water vapor. The CDS wastewater flow requires heating and its condensate flow requires cooling. Performing the heating and cooling processes separately requires two separate units, each of which would require large amounts of electrical power. By heating the wastewater and cooling the condensate in a single heat pump unit, mass, volume, and power efficiencies can be obtained. The present work describes and compares two competing heat pump methodologies that meet the needs of the CDS: 1) a series of mini compressor vapor compression cycles and 2) a thermoelectric heat exchanger. In the paper, the system level requirements are outlined, the designs of the two heat pumps are described in detail, and the results of heat pump performance tests are provided. A summary is provided of the heat pump mass, volume and power trades and a selection recommendation is made.

  8. Investigation of direct expansion in ground source heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalman, M. D.

    A fully instrumented subscale ground coupled heat pump system was developed, and built, and used to test and obtain data on three different earth heat exchanger configurations under heating conditions (ground cooling). Various refrigerant flow control and compressor protection devices were tested for their applicability to the direct expansion system. Undistributed Earth temperature data were acquired at various depths. The problem of oil return at low evaporator temperatures and low refrigerant velocities was addressed. An analysis was performed to theoretically determine what evaporator temperature can be expected with an isolated ground pipe configuration with given length, pipe size, soil conditions and constant heat load. Technical accomplishments to data are summarized.

  9. Application of Heat Pump in Cooling Water System of HIRFL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Accelerator generates a lot of heat when it is working.It must be cooled by the circulating cooling water.Generally the heat was released to atimosphere by the cooling water tower.Because the heat energy is very huge(about 2M watts for HIRFL),it is big waste and the machine can’t be cooled to appropriate temperature when ambient temperature is high in summer.In order to solve the problems,the heat pump has been used

  10. Heat pumps: planning, optimisation, operation and maintenance; Waermepumpen. Planung - Optimierung - Betrieb - Wartung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, P. [Kunz-Beratungen, Dietlikon (Switzerland); Afjei, T. [Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz, Institut fuer Energie am Bau, Muttenz (Switzerland); Betschart, W.; Prochaska, V. [Hochschule Luzern, Technik und Architektur, Horw (Switzerland); Hubacher, P. [Hubacher Engineering, Engelburg (Switzerland); Loehrer, R. [Scheco AG, Winterthur (Switzerland); Mueller, A. [Mueller und Pletscher AG, Winterthur (Switzerland)

    2008-01-15

    This handbook issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) in co-operation with a trade publication takes a look at the planning, optimisation, operation and maintenance of heat pumps. First of all, the basics of heat pump technology, heat pump components and refrigerants are discussed. Then, heat sources and heat distribution are looked at, followed by chapters on the integration of heat pumps into heating systems and noise protection topics. The definition of projects, commissioning and operation of heat pump systems are then discussed. Examples of installations round off the handbook.

  11. Geothermal source heat pump performance for a greenhouse heating system: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Sotirios Anifantis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouses play a significant function in the modern agriculture economy even if require great amount of energy for heating systems. An interesting solution to alleviate the energy costs and environmental problems may be represented by the use of geothermal energy. The aim of this paper, based on measured experimental data, such as the inside greenhouse temperature and the heat pump performance (input and output temperatures of the working fluid, electric consumption, was the evaluation of the suitability of low enthalpy geothermal heat sources for agricultural needs such as greenhouses heating. The study was carried out at the experimental farm of the University of Bari, where a greenhouse was arranged with a heating system connected to a ground-source heat pump (GSHP, which had to cover the thermal energy request. The experimental results of this survey highlight the capability of the geothermal heat source to ensue thermal conditions suitable for cultivation in greenhouses even if the compressor inside the heat pump have operated continuously in a fluctuating state without ever reaching the steady condition. Probably, to increase the performance of the heat pump and then its coefficient of performance within GSHP systems for heating greenhouses, it is important to analyse and maximise the power conductivity of the greenhouse heating system, before to design an expensive borehole ground exchanger. Nevertheless, according to the experimental data obtained, the GSHP systems are effective, efficient and environmental friendly and may be useful to supply the heating energy demand of greenhouses.

  12. Optimum Organization and Maximum Capabilities of Heat-Pump Heating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirlin, A. M.; Kuz‧min, V. A.

    2016-05-01

    The authors obtained a lower bound for the energy consumption in heating (maintaining an assigned temperature distribution in the system of intercommunicating chambers) and the corresponding distributions of the total heat-transfer coefficients and the temperature of the working medium of a heat pump in contact with the chambers and the environment.

  13. Theoretical heating coefficient of a heat pump water heater with heat recovery applied in household bathing room

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOUGuangxiao; WANGHanqing; GUWeili; KOUJianguo

    2003-01-01

    Presents the components and flow diagram of a heat pump water heater with heat reclaim applied In household bathing room, analyzes its characteristics from thermodynamical principle, calculates its theoretical heating coefficient under different operating conditions. The result shows that the maximum value of its heating coefficient is 12.9 under a typical operating condition.

  14. WASTE HEAT RECOVERY IN HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS: SOLUTION TO REDUCE GLOBAL WARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Baradey

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy conversion technologies, where waste heat recovery systems are included, have received significant attention in recent years due to reasons that include depletion of fossil fuel, increasing oil prices, changes in climatic conditions, and global warming. For low temperature applications, there are many sources of thermal waste heat, and several recovery systems and potential useful applications have been proposed by researchers [1-4]. In addition, many types of equipment are used to recover waste thermal energy from different systems at low, medium, and high temperature applications, such as heat exchangers, waste heat recovery boiler, thermo-electric generators, and recuperators. In this paper, the focus is on waste heat recovery from air conditioners, and an efficient application of these energy resources. Integration of solar energy with heat pump technologies and major factors that affect the feasibility of heat recovery systems have been studied and reviewed as well. KEYWORDS: waste heat recovery; heat pump.

  15. Modelling of Split Condenser Heat Pump with Limited Set of Plate Heat Exchanger Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Stefan Wuust; Elmegaard, Brian; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical study of optimal plate dimensions in a split condenser heat pump (SCHP), using ammonia as refrigerant. The SCHP setup differs from a traditional heat pump (THP) setup in the way that two separate water streams on the secondary side of the condenser are heated...... in parallel to different temperature levels, whereas only one stream is heated in a THP. The length/width ratio of the plate heat exchangers on the high pressure side of a SCHP was investigated to find the optimal plate dimensions with respect to minimum area of the heat exchangers. The total heat exchanger...... area was found to decrease with an increasing length/width ratio of the plates. The marginal change in heat exchanger area was shown to be less significant for heat exchangers with high length/width ratios. In practice only a limited number of plate dimensions are available and feasible...

  16. Smart Depths: Geothermal Heat Pumps Design Manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troian, S.

    2012-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Smart & Bioclimatic Design. One of the possible ways for smart and sustainable designs is the use of geothermal energy for space heating. This manual explains the possible use in designs, the functioning and treats different systems.

  17. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt(tm) whole-house building simulations.

  18. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of U.S. climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt™ whole-house building simulations.

  19. TESTING OF REFRIGERANT MIXTURES IN RESIDENTIAL HEAT PUMPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an investigation of four possibilities for replacing Hydrochlorofluorocarbon-22 (HCFC-22) with the non-ozone-depleting new refrigerants R-407D and R-407C in residential heat pumps. The first and simplest scenario was a retrofit with no hardware modific...

  20. Field Monitoring Protocol: Mini-Split Heat Pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, D.; Fang, X.; Tomerlin, J.; Winkler, J.; Hancock, E.

    2011-03-01

    The report provides a detailed method for accurately measuring and monitoring performance of a residential Mini-Split Heat Pump. It will be used in high-performance retrofit applications, and as part of DOE's Building America residential research program.

  1. Ductless Mini-Split Heat Pump Comfort Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, K. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Cambridge, MA (United States); Sehgal, N. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Cambridge, MA (United States); Akers, C. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Field tests were conducted in two homes in Austin, TX, to evaluate the comfort performance of ductless minisplit heat pumps (DMSHPs), measuring temperature and relative humidity measurements in four rooms in each home before and after retrofitting a central HVAC system with DMSHPs.

  2. Ductless Mini-Split Heat Pump Comfort Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, K.; Sehgal, N.; Akers, C.

    2013-03-01

    Field tests were conducted in two homes in Austin, TX to evaluate the comfort performance of ductless mini-split heat pumps (DMSHPs), measuring temperature and relative humidity measurements in four rooms in each home before and after retrofitting a central HVAC system with DMSHPs.

  3. Profile: Department of Refrigeration and Heat Pump Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, S.M. van der

    2000-01-01

    The activities in the fields of refrigeration and heatpumps are concentrated within TNO Environment, Energy and Process Innovation, Apeldoorn, and specifically within the Department of Refrigeration and Heat Pump Technology. The aim of this department is to develop, implement and test: — systems for

  4. Geothermal Heat Pumps Score High Marks in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Renewable Energy Lab (DOE).

    Geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) are showing their value in providing lower operating and maintenance costs, energy efficiency, and superior classroom comfort. This document describes what GHPs are and the benefits a school can garner after installing a GHP system. Three case studies are provided that illustrate these benefits. Finally, the Department…

  5. TWO-PHASE EJECTOR of CARBON DIOXIDE HEAT PUMP CALCULUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit B.M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is presented the calculus of the two-phase ejector for carbon dioxide heat pump. The method of calculus is based on the method elaborated by S.M. Kandil, W.E. Lear, S.A. Sherif, and is modified taking into account entrainment ratio as the input for the calculus.

  6. Maximizing Storage Flexibility in an Aggregated Heat Pump Portfolio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tom S.; Nielsen, Kirsten M.; Andersen, Palle

    2014-01-01

    To balance the electrical grid due to a large increase in the renewable energy production mainly from wind turbines will be a problem in the near future in Denmark. Smart grid solutions with new storage capacities are essential. In this work single family houses with heat pumps are investigated...

  7. Profile: Department of Refrigeration and Heat Pump Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, S.M. van der

    2000-01-01

    The activities in the fields of refrigeration and heatpumps are concentrated within TNO Environment, Energy and Process Innovation, Apeldoorn, and specifically within the Department of Refrigeration and Heat Pump Technology. The aim of this department is to develop, implement and test: — systems for

  8. Open cycle vapor compression heat pump. Annual report for 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakhuja, R.; Becker, F.E.

    1980-07-01

    A compressor test facility was built incorporating a screw compressor modified for steam service. The compressor was tested over a wide range of operating conditions with experimental results showing excellent agreement with predicted performance. The compressor operation with wet steam and water injection was completely satisfactory, demonstrating its suitability for use in a steam heat pump system.

  9. EnergyPlus Air Source Integrated Heat Pump Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Energy and Transportation Science Division; Adams, Mark B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Energy and Transportation Science Division; New, Joshua Ryan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Energy and Transportation Science Division

    2016-03-30

    This report summarizes the development of the EnergyPlus air-source integrated heat pump model. It introduces its physics, sub-models, working modes, and control logic. In addition, inputs and outputs of the new model are described, and input data file (IDF) examples are given.

  10. Heat-pump tumble dryers; Waermepumpen-Tumbler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemig, N.; Gatter, R.

    2004-07-01

    Commonly available tumble dryers with air-vented or condenser systems in combination with electrical heating have a high specific energy consumption and never fulfil the requirements for Energy Label Class A (<= 0.55 kWh/kg.). The development of a tumbler with a heat pump system has enabled a reduction of almost 50% in the specific energy consumption. In addition to ecological aspects, this means that a significant reduction in energy costs is achieved as well as a beneficial effect on room climate. Other considerations taken into account in the development of the 6.5 kg tumbler were: (i) Compact modular design; integration of the heat pump in the appliance casing; (ii) Long operating life without clogging-up of the heat exchanger by fluff; (iii) Stable process throughout the drying in ambient temperatures of up to 35 {sup o}C. Process stability in particular presented a tough challenge. The solution came in the form of an additional booster condenser that prevents overheating of the compressor towards the end of the process when only negligible amounts of energy are being carried away as a result of the low residual moisture in the laundry. It proved possible to reduce the specific power consumption to less than 0.4 kWh/kg and the leak rate to less 30 %. Thanks to the compact, modular design, the heat pump could be integrated in a housing which has the same size as a conventional 6.5 kg dryer. Clogging-up of the heat exchanger surfaces with fluff was prevented by a multi-stage cascade filtration system. With this heat pump dryer it has been possible for the very first time to develop to series production and launch an appliance in the up to 6.5 kg category that not only fulfils the requirements of Energy Label Class A but also offers a serious alternative to conventional tumble dryers thanks to its compact design, operating safety and ease of operation. Future development opportunities lie in more cost-effective production of the heat pump module, shortening of

  11. Assessment of two-level heat pump installations’ power efficiency for heat supply systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аlla Е. Denysova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of energy saving becomes one of the most important in power engineering. It is caused by exhaustion of world reserves in hydrocarbon fuel, such as gas, oil and coal representing sources of traditional heat supply. Conventional sources has essential shortcomings: low power, ecological and economic efficiencies, that can be eliminated by using alternative methods of power supply, like the considered one: low-temperature natural heat of ground waters of on the basis of heat pump installations application. The heat supply system considered provides an effective use of two-level heat pump installation operating as heat source the Odessa city ground waters during the lowest ambient temperature period. Proposed is a calculation method of heat pump installations on the basis of geothermal heat supply. Calculated are the values of electric energy consumption N by the compressors’ drive, and the heat supply system transformation coefficient µ for a source of geothermal heat from ground waters of Odessa city allowing to estimate efficiency of two-level heat pump installations.

  12. Pump, and earth-testable spacecraft capillary heat transport loop using augmentation pump and check valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A spacecraft includes heat-generating payload equipment, and a heat transport system with a cold plate thermally coupled to the equipment and a capillary-wick evaporator, for evaporating coolant liquid to cool the equipment. The coolant vapor is coupled to a condenser and in a loop back to the evaporator. A heated coolant reservoir is coupled to the loop for pressure control. If the wick is not wetted, heat transfer will not begin or continue. A pair of check valves are coupled in the loop, and the heater is cycled for augmentation pumping of coolant to and from the reservoir. This augmentation pumping, in conjunction with the check valves, wets the wick. The wick liquid storage capacity allows the augmentation pump to provide continuous pulsed liquid flow to assure continuous vapor transport and a continuously operating heat transport system. The check valves are of the ball type to assure maximum reliability. However, any type of check valve can be used, including designs which are preloaded in the closed position. The check valve may use any ball or poppet material which resists corrosion. For optimum performance during testing on Earth, the ball or poppet would have neutral buoyancy or be configured in a closed position when the heat transport system is not operating. The ball may be porous to allow passage of coolant vapor.

  13. Fort Bragg Embraces Groundbreaking Heat Pump Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Army’s Fort Bragg partnered with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to build new, low-energy buildings that are at least 50% below Standard 90.1-2007 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program.

  14. Air Source Cold Climate Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Unico, Inc. received ISO 9001 :2008 certification. 7.1 COST MODEL The market for CCHP consists includes both residential and light commercial...by electricity that could come from renewable energy. The field demonstration was conducted at the Camp Atterbury Joint Maneuver Training Center...American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers CAJMTC Camp Atterbury Joint Maneuver Training Center CCHP Cold Climate

  15. Ammonia and Carbon Dioxide Heat Pumps for Heat Recovery in Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Wiebke; Christensen, Stefan W.; Markussen, Michael M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a generic, numerical study of high temperature heat pumps for waste heat recovery in industry using ammonia and carbon dioxide as refrigerants. A study of compressors available on the market today, gives a possible application range of the heat pumps in terms of temperatures...... for the coefficient of performance, COP. By comparing the cycles it is found that for each set of operating conditions the two refrigerants perform equally well at one given inlet temperature of the heat sink. Above this temperature ammonia cycles have the best COP and below CO2 cycles perform best. A general...

  16. 太阳能辅助地源热泵供暖实验研究%Experimental study of a solar assisted ground source heat pump for heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵忠超; 丰威仙; 巩学梅; 米浩君; 成华; 云龙

    2014-01-01

    An experimental study is performed to determine the performance of the solar assisted ground source heat pump(SAGSHP)by using a solar-ground source heat pump hybrid system in the city of Ningbo. The result shows that comparing with the ground source heat pump(GSHP),when the ratio of solar energy to the whole en-ergy is 41. 9% ,the coefficient of performance( COP)of the heat pump and system can improve 15. 1% and 7. 7% respectively. Therefore,the solar assisted ground source heat pump has a significant performance advan-tage according to the experimental result.%选取宁波某公用建筑的太阳能-地源热泵复合系统为实验系统,对太阳能辅助地源热泵( solar assisted ground source heat pump,SAGSHP)供暖进行了实验研究.研究结果表明:与单一的地源热泵(ground source heat pump,GSHP)相比,当太阳能承担41.9%负荷时,热泵机组和整个系统的能效比(coefficient of performance,COP)分别提高了15.1%和7.7%, SAGSHP 供暖运行模式具有明显的性能优势.

  17. Performance and Costs of Ductless Heat Pumps in Marine-Climate High-Performance Homes -- Habitat for Humanity The Woods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubliner, Michael [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Howard, Luke [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Hales, David [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Kunkle, Rick [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Gordon, Andy [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Spencer, Melinda [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2016-02-23

    This final Building America Partnership report focuses on the results of field testing, modeling, and monitoring of ductless mini-split heat pump hybrid heating systems in seven homes built and first occupied at various times between September 2013 and October 2014. The report also provides WSU documentation of high-performance home observations, lessons learned, and stakeholder recommendations for builders of affordable high-performance housing.

  18. Exergetic evaluation of heat pump booster configurations in a low temperature district heating network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Elmegaard, Brian

    2012-01-01

    In order to minimise losses in a district heating network, one approach is to lower the temperature difference between working media and soil. Considering only direct heat exchange, the minimum forward temperature level is determined by the demand side, as energy services are required at a certain...... temperature. As domestic hot water is required at a temperature range where legionella is no longer a threat, forward temperatures in a traditional low temperature district heating network cannot be lowered beyond approximately 55 ºC. One solution is to boost the temperature of the forward tap water stream...... with a heat pump, as the remaining heat demands are often not required at temperature levels as high as the tap water. The scope of this work is to evaluate the power consumption and second law efficiency of booster heat pumps for tap water production in a low temperature district heating network. The heat...

  19. Wood chip drying with an absorption heat pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Lostec, Brice; Galanis, Nicolas [Genie Mecanique, Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500 Boul. de l' Universite, Sherbrooke, QC (Canada); Baribeault, Jean; Millette, Jocelyn [LTE, 600 Avenue de la Montagne, Shawinigan, QC (Canada)

    2008-03-15

    This paper presents the thermal and economic analysis of a mobile wood chip drying process. The dryer was subjected to different operating conditions, which were studied in order to determine the optimal characteristics of the dryer in terms of energy consumption. In addition, the impact of the exterior climatic conditions on the dryer's performance was also evaluated. The performance of the dryer coupled with an absorption heat pump was modeled in steady-state conditions under different operating parameters. Finally the system's energy performance was compared to the performance of two other systems (a wood burning furnace and a waste-heat recovery system). The results demonstrate that single-stage absorption heat pumps are only interesting when the set point temperature of the drying air is below 60 C. Otherwise, a two-stage absorption heat pump must be used. In terms of energy and financially, this type of drying is very costly. Of the three processes that were studied, heat recovery systems proved to be the most energy efficient and economic solution. (author)

  20. Incorporating the Variability of Wind Power with Electric Heat Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Long

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available With the mass introduction of wind power in Northern China, wind power variability has appeared. In this article, both existing electric heat pumps (EHPs and coal-fired combined heat and power (CHP facilities, which are generally equipped with extraction-condensing steam turbines coupled with district heating for space heating purposes, are proposed to incorporate the variability of wind power equivalently. The authors’ proposal arises from the facts that: (1 EHPs can provide space heating in the domestic sector with little thermal comfort change (e.g., energy carriers for space heating purposes can be switched from heating water to electricity; (2 coal-fired CHP units in Northern China can usually generate more electrical power corresponding to a shaved thermal power production. Thus, it is suggested that heating water from CHP units be shaved when the wind generation is low due to the variability of wind power, so as to enable more electrical power production and compensate for the corresponding insufficient wind generation. Following this, in the future and for some space heating loads at appropriate distances, electricity used as energy carrier should be converted by electric heat pumps for space heating. Thus, more electricity consumption will be achieved so as to avoid wasting wind power when the wind generation it is high. A numerical simulation is performed in order to illustrate the authors’ proposal. It is shown that the impact of variability of wind generation can be equivalently reduced to a great extent, which enable more wind power integration instead of curtailment and potential energy conservation. Moreover, in contrast to before, both the thermal and electrical power of coal-fired CHP units are no longer constants. In addition, the ratio of electrical to thermal power of CHP units is no longer constant either, and results in less energy consumption compared with fixed ratio. Finally, electricity consumed by end users’ EHPs

  1. Open-cycle vapor compression heat pump system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, F.E.

    1983-06-01

    Waste energy in the form of low pressure waste steam and low grade waste heat can be efficiently recovered and upgraded to high pressure steam by means of an open-cycle steam heat pump system. Thermo Electron has developed a steam heat pump system. A description of the system highlights the rotary screw compressor, the gas engine prime mover, the speed increaser, and the control system. The amount of energy saved by the system is dependent on the performance of the prime mover as well as the compressor. Energy savings of 40 to 70 percent are predicted. A demonstration system was installed at Monsanto in Indian Orchard, Massachusetts. Energy savings of over 63% compared to current steam generation efficiency is expected.

  2. High Efficiency R-744 Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elbel, Dr. Stefan W.; Petersen, Michael

    2013-04-25

    The project investigated the development and improvement process of a R744 (CO2) commercial heat pump water heater (HPWH) package of approximately 35 kW. The improvement process covered all main components of the system. More specific the heat exchangers (Internal heat exchanger, Evaporator, Gas cooler) as well as the expansion device and the compressor were investigated. In addition, a comparison to a commercially available baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint was made in order to compare performance as well as package size reduction potential.

  3. TEM Pump With External Heat Source And Sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesmith, Bill J.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed thermoelectric/electromagnetic (TEM) pump driven by external source of heat and by two or more heat pipe radiator heat sink(s). Thermoelectrics generate electrical current to circulate liquid metal in secondary loop of two-fluid-loop system. Intended for use with space and terrestrial dual loop liquid metal nuclear reactors. Applications include spacecraft on long missions or terrestrial beacons or scientific instruments having to operate in remote areas for long times. Design modified to include multiple radiators, converters, and ducts, as dictated by particular application.

  4. Geothermal heat pumps, a booming technology in North America; Geothermal Heat Pumps - der Boom der oberflaechennahen Geothermie in Nordamerika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanner, B. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften

    1997-12-01

    Over the last years, the interest in and the use of ground-source heat pumps has substantially increased in North America. In a market dominated by space cooling heat pumps can show clearly their advantages. This paper describes the development in Canada and USA, gives examples of the technologies used and presents some large plants. The differences to the Central European situation are discussed. Also mentioned are the various activities in market penetration, which peaked in the foundation of the `Geothermal Heat Pump Consortium` in Washington in 1994. (orig.) [Deutsch] In den letzten Jahren hat das Interesse an und der Einsatz von erdgekoppelten Waermepumpen in Nordamerika stark zugenommen. In einem von der Raumkuehlung dominierten Markt koennen Waermepumpen ihre Vorteile voll ausspielen. Der Beitrag beschreibt die Entwicklung in Kanada und den USA, stellt Beispiele der eingesetzten Technik vor und geht auf einige Grossanlagen ein. Ausserdem werden die Unterschiede zu der Situation in Mitteleuropa herausgearbeitet und die verschiedenen Aktivitaeten zu `Markt Penetration` behandelt, die 1994 in die Gruendung des `Geothermal Heat Pump Consortiums` in Washington muendeten. (orig.)

  5. ASPECTS OF THE PROBLEM OF INCENTIVES FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF HEAT PUMPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berzan V.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available There were identified reasons for incentives of the implementation of heat pumps by the Governement of industial developped countries. It is considered scheme of obtaining of benefits for the Governement as a result of heat pump incentives.

  6. Solar Assisted Ground Source Heat Pump Performance in Nearly Zero Energy Building in Baltic Countries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karolis Januševičius; Giedrė Streckienė

    2013-01-01

    .... Heat pump systems are a widespread solution to reduce energy use. A combination of heat pump and solar thermal collectors helps to meet standard requirements and increases the share of renewable energy use in total energy balance of country...

  7. Heat pump using dual heat sources of air and water. Performance in cooling mode; Mizu kuki ryonetsugen heat pump no kenkyu. Reibo unten ni okeru seino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, S.; Miura, N. [Kanagawa Institute of Technology, Kanagawa (Japan); Uchikawa, Y. [Kubota Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    When a heat pump is used for cooling purpose, it is possible to utilize different kinds of waste water as high-heat sources. However, these heat sources would have their temperatures vary with seasons and time in a day. Therefore, a discussion was given on performance of a heat pump when water and air heat sources are used for condensers during cooling operation independently, in series and in parallel, respectively. The air condenser shows an equivalent COP as compared with the water condenser when air temperature is lower by about 8 degC than water temperature. At the same heat source temperature, the COP for the water condenser indicated a value higher by about 0.6 than the case of the air condenser. A method to use condensers in parallel experiences little contribution from the air heat source, and performance of the heat pump decreases below the case of using the water heat source independently when the air heat source temperature becomes higher than that of the water heat source. In the case of series use in which a water condenser is installed in front and an air condenser in rear, its effect is exhibited when temperature in the air heat source is lower than that in the water heat source. Better performance was shown than in operating the water heat source independently. 2 refs., 9 figs.

  8. Efficient air-water heat pumps for high temperature lift residential heating, including oil migration aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Zehnder, Michele; Favrat, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This thesis presents a system approach with the aim to develop improved concepts for small capacity, high temperature lift air-water heat pumps. These are intended to replace fuel fired heating systems in the residential sector, which leads to a major reduction of the local greenhouse gas emissions. Unfavorable temperature conditions set by the existing heat distribution systems and by the use of atmospheric air, as the only accessible heat source, have to be overcome. The proposed concepts a...

  9. Control characteristics for heating system circulation pumps; Regelkennlinien fuer Heizungsumwaelzpumpen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallesoe, C. S.; Bidstrup, N.; Bayer, M.

    2009-07-01

    This article takes a look at variable speed circulation pumps for space heating systems that are used in one and two-family housing. Although the control systems in most houses usually have just one characteristic, the need for several control characteristics in order to cope with varying needs is discussed. The basics of finding out what the control characteristic should look like in a particular case are discussed. Modern circulation pumps with integrated speed control and their interplay with thermostatic valves are examined and discussed. A new automatic adaptation algorithm is described and its way of working is explained. Experience gained in practice is examined.

  10. The Seasonal Coefficient of Energy Transformation for Real Heat Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolandas Jonynas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The resort of low potential energy for buildings heating and preparation of domestic hot water (DHW are discussed in this paper. Real heat pump system, which was designed and mounted for individual house heating and DHW preparation, was analyzed. The purpose of this research was to explore the seasonal factor of performance for heat pump. Manufacturer and salespeople claim that the coefficient of performance (COP for their offered equipment is 4.5 or even higher. They also calculate the energy transformation through the entire season referring to it. Actually, it is likely that the COP cannot be used when calculating the seasonal energy transformation in reality. Electricity that is seasonally consumed and the heat that is produced in all the period should be analyzed in this context. The results of this exploration show that the real seasonal factor of performance is 3.02. With reference to experience of financial support for that type of heating systems in various European countries, there is a great necessity to create similar support schemes in Lithuania. The methodology of assessing the seasonal heat pump’s factors for performance also should be prepared in Lithuania.Article in Lithuanian

  11. Mode conversion and electron heating near the upper hybrid resonance frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, B.L.; Okuda, H.; Abe, H.

    1983-11-01

    Mode conversion near the upper hybrid resonance frequency and electron heating are studied using a one-dimensional electromagnetic relativistic particle code. It is found that for a sufficiently small pump field E/sub 0/, E/sub 0//sup 2//4..pi..nT/sub e/ less than or equal to 0.01, electron heating is localized in a region near the electron cyclotron layer where the pump frequency is equal to the local electron gyrofrequency. For stronger pump fields, electron heating takes place more or less uniformly across a region between the upper hybrid resonance layer and the cyclotron layer. In addition, a significant fraction of electromagnetic energy associated with the pump is found to be reflected back into the vacuum from a region in the plasma near the upper hybrid resonance layer for both strong (E/sub 0//sup 2//4..pi..nT/sub e/ approx. = 1) and weak pumps (E/sub 0//sup 2//4..pi..nT/sub e/ << 1).

  12. Theoretical energy and exergy analyses of solar assisted heat pump space heating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atmaca Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to use of alternative energy sources and energy efficient operation, heat pumps come into prominence in recent years. Especially in solar-assisted heat pumps, sizing the required system is difficult and arduous task in order to provide optimum working conditions. Therefore, in this study solar assisted indirect expanded heat pump space heating system is simulated and the results of the simulation are compared with available experimental data in the literature in order to present reliability of the model. Solar radiation values in the selected region are estimated with the simulation. The case study is applied and simulation results are given for Antalya, Turkey. Collector type and storage tank capacity effects on the consumed power of the compressor, COP of the heat pump and the overall system are estimated with the simulation, depending on the radiation data, collector surface area and the heating capacity of the space. Exergy analysis is also performed with the simulation and irreversibility, improvement potentials and exergy efficiencies of the heat pump and system components are estimated.

  13. Simulation of embedded heat exchangers of solar aided ground source heat pump system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 郑茂余; 邵俊鹏; 李忠建

    2008-01-01

    Aimed at unbalance of soil temperature field of ground source heat pump system, solar aided energy storage system was established. In solar assisted ground-source heat pump (SAGSHP) system with soil storage, solar energy collected in three seasons was stored in the soil by vertical U type soil exchangers. The heat abstracted by the ground-source heat pump and collected by the solar collector was employed to heating. Some of the soil heat exchangers were used to store solar energy in the soil so as to be used in next winter after this heating period; and the others were used to extract cooling energy directly in the soil by circulation pump for air conditioning in summer. After that solar energy began to be stored in the soil and ended before heating period. Three dimensional dynamic numerical simulations were built for soil and soil heat exchanger through finite element method. Simulation was done in different strata month by month. Variation and restoration of soil temperature were studied. Economy and reliability of long term SAGSHP system were revealed. It can be seen that soil temperature is about 3 ℃ higher than the original one after one year’s running. It is beneficial for the system to operate for long period.

  14. Improving the Efficiency of the Heat Pump Control System of Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump with Several Evaporators and Gas Coolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit M.L.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of coordination of the values of the refrigerant flow through the evaporators and gas coolers of the heat pump for the simultaneous production of heat and cold is studied. The compensation of the variations of the total flow through the evaporators is implemented using the variation of the capacity of the compressor and a corresponding change in flow through the auxiliary gas cooler of the heat pump. Control system of this gas cooler is constructed using the invariance principle of the output value (outlet temperature of the heated agent with respect to perturbations on the control channel (the refrigerant flow through the gas cooler. Principle of dual-channel compensation of the disturbance and advancing signal on input of control valve of the refrigerant through the gas cooler is ensured. Due to proposed solution, the intensity of the disturbances on the flow of refrigerant is reduced. Due to proposed technical solution power consumed by the heat pump compressor drive under transients is decreased.

  15. 75 FR 14368 - Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps: Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... and heat pumps; the analytical framework, models, and tools that DOE is using to evaluate amended... Heat Pumps, EERE-2008-BT- STD-0006, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20585-0121. Telephone... industrial equipment, including residential central air conditioners and heat pumps. (42 U.S.C. 6292(3)) In...

  16. 10 CFR 431.92 - Definitions concerning commercial air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... heat pumps. 431.92 Section 431.92 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps § 431.92 Definitions concerning commercial air conditioners and heat pumps. The following definitions apply...

  17. EFFICIENCY OF THE USE OF HEAT PUMPS ON THE CHP PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juravleov A.A.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The work is dedicated to the calculus of the efficiency of the use of heat pumps on the CHP plants. There are presented the interdependences between the pay-back period and NPV of heat pump and the price of 1 kWt of thermal power of heat pump and of the tariff of electricity.

  18. 77 FR 8178 - Test Procedures for Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps: Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 Test Procedures for Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps: Public... discuss methodologies and gather comments on testing residential central air conditioners and heat pumps... residential central air conditioners and heat pumps that are single phase with rated cooling capacities less...

  19. International Energy Agency, Heat Pump Center: The role of CNR/PFE in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallavalle, F.; Piantoni, E.; Recchi, V.

    The official integration of Italy to the International Energy Agency (IEA) heat pump centers program is discussed. The National Research Center coordinates the Italian activities related to the IEA. The operating programs of several types of heat pumps, coordinated by different countries are described. The heat pump markets in European countries and in the United States are briefly commented on.

  20. Measurement and Evaluation of Heating Performance of Heat Pump Systems Using Wasted Heat from Electric Devices for an Electric Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo-Yeon Lee

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate heating performance characteristics of a coolant source heat pump using the wasted heat from electric devices for an electric bus. The heat pump, using R-134a, is designed for heating a passengers’ compartment by using discharged energy from the coolant of electric devices, such as motors and inverters of the electric bus. The heating performance of the heat pump was tested by varying the operating parameters, such as outdoor temperature and volume flow rate of the coolant water of the electrical devices. Heating capacity, compressor work, and heating COP were measured; their behaviors with regard to the parameters were observed. Experimental results showed that heating COP increased with decrease of outdoor temperature, from 20.0 °C to 0 °C, and it observed to be 3.0 in the case of 0 °C outdoor temperature. The observed characteristics of the heating COP suggest that the heat pump is applicable as the cabin heater of an electric vehicle, which is limited by short driving range.

  1. Status report on survey of alternative heat pumping technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, S.

    1998-07-01

    The Department of Energy is studying alternative heat pumping technologies to identify possible cost effective alternatives to electric driven vapor compression heat pumps, air conditioners, and chillers that could help reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Over thirty different technologies are being considered including: engine driven systems, fuel cell powered systems, and alternative cycles. Results presented include theoretical efficiencies for all systems as well as measured performance of some commercial, prototype, or experimental systems. Theoretical efficiencies show that the alternative electric-driven technologies would have HSPFs between 4 and 8 Btu/Wh (1.2 to 2.3 W/W) and SEERs between 3 and 9.5 Btu/Wh (0.9 and 2.8 W/W). Gas-fired heat pump technologies have theoretical seasonal heating gCOPs from 1.1 to 1.7 and cooling gCOPs from 0.95 to 1.6 (a SEER 12 Btu/Wh electric air conditioner has a primary energy efficiency of approximately 1.4 W/W).

  2. Earliest Deadline Control of a Group of Heat Pumps with a Single Energy Source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fink, J.; van Leeuwen, Richard Pieter

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we develop and investigate the optimal control of a group of 104 heat pumps and a central Combined Heat and Power unit (CHP). The heat pumps supply space heating and domestic hot water to households. Each house has a buffer for domestic hot water and a floor heating system for space h

  3. Earliest Deadline Control of a Group of Heat Pumps with a Single Energy Source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fink, J.; van Leeuwen, Richard Pieter

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we develop and investigate the optimal control of a group of 104 heat pumps and a central Combined Heat and Power unit (CHP). The heat pumps supply space heating and domestic hot water to households. Each house has a buffer for domestic hot water and a floor heating system for space

  4. Performance of ultra low temperature district heating systems with utility plant and booster heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Thorsen, Jan Eric; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2017-01-01

    and power (CHP) and central heat pumps (HPs). The analysis focussed on the characteristic heat demands of newly build multi-story buildings and the results were based on the ratio of the individual demands compared to the total. It was found that the optimal return temperature was dependent on the forward...

  5. Analysis of a Residential Heating System Utilizing a Solar Assisted Water-to-Air Heat Pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-07-01

    heat pump heating system were analyzed. A realistic residence and solar assisted water-to-air heat pump system were modeled for this northern climate using the transient simulation computer code TRNSYS developed by the University of Wisconsin. The system was studied over a one month winter period, December, using actual hourly weather data. The system was analyzed for both the cloudiest and clearest December weather recorded in the last 30 years. The collector area and storage tank capacity were varied and the effects on system performance were

  6. Solar/gas Rankine/Rankine-cycle heat pump assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, H. E.; Melikian, G.

    1982-07-01

    This report contains an assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of Rankine-cycle solar-augmented gas-fired heat pumps (SAGFHP) for multi-family residential and light-commercial applications. The SAGFHP design considered in this report is based on the successful UTRC turbocompressor system which has been tested both in the laboratory and in a solar cooling installation in Phoenix. AZ. An hour-by-hour modeling of present-design SAGFHP performance in multi-family and office buildings in New York, Wisconsin, Nebraska and Oregon indicated that, even without solar augmentation, primary energy savings of up 17% and 31% could be achieved relative to advanced furnace plus electric air conditioning systems and electric heat pumps, respectively.

  7. Point Lepreau primary heat transport pump wear ring cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licina, G. [Structural Integrity Associates, Inc., San Jose, California (United States); Rankin, B. [Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station, Fredericton, New Brunswick (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The number 3 Primary Heat Transport (PHT) pump from Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station (Point Lepreau) was disassembled after more than 30 years of service for inspection during station refurbishment. The disassembly and inspection were performed to provide assurance of continued satisfactory operation during life extension. The inspection revealed cracks in the wear ring, at and near the tack welds (Type 309 stainless steel weld metal) at the cap screws that attach the Type 420 stainless steel wear ring to the body of the pump. Investigative work consisted of on-site PT and replication of the microstructure at the surface of the wear ring, subsequent impressions of two crack faces, and hardness determinations. This paper describes the investigative work and conclusions associated with resolution of the following questions: 1. What is the most likely cause of the cracking? 2. Will the cracks propagate within the base metal of the wear ring? 3. If propagation is possible, what is the risk of cracks intersecting, such that a piece of metal could become dislodged? Question number 3 has clear ramifications with respect to foreign material entering and damaging a nuclear fuel-containing pressure tube. There are also questions associated with extent of condition, specifically, whether other PHT pumps may have similar or worse cracking and whether such cracks will grow. Results will be applied to wear rings in other PHT pumps at Point Lepreau and are likely to be applicable to similar components in other CANDU PHT pumps. (author)

  8. Excitation of ion-cyclotron harmonic waves in lower-hybrid heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalon, E.

    1981-06-01

    The parametric excitation of ion-cyclotron waves by a lower-hybrid pump field is studied in the assumption that the magnitude of the pump is constant. The spatial amplification factor is given as a function of the wavenumber mismatch as produced by the plasma density gradient, and of the linear damping rates of the excited ion-cyclotron and sideband waves. The analysis is applied to plasma edge parameters relevant to the JFT2 heating experiment. It is found that ion-cyclotron harmonic modes are excited depending on pump frequency and plasma density. These modes are shown to have finite damping rates. The parallel refractive indices n1z of the excited sideband fields are found to be always larger than that of the driven pump field. Transition to quasi-mode decay occurs either by decreasing the pump frequency or by increasing the applied RF-power.

  9. INTENSIFICATION OF HEAT TRANSFER FROM THE IC CHIP TO THE HEAT SINK THROUGH THE USE OF NANOFILM THERMOELECTRIC HEAT PUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Ismailov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the to enhance the efficiency the thermoelectric heat pump by making the branches of semiconductor p- and n-type as nanofilms and creating conditions for the emergence of additional thermoeffect between the hot and cold junctions of dissimilar metals that will create a more efficient heat pumps with small dimensions.

  10. Open-cycle vapor compression heat pump. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, F.E.; Ruggles, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    A prototype gas-fired steam heat pump has been developed. The system utilizes a dry screw compressor driven by a 500-hp natural gas industrial engine. The system can recompress 10,000 lb/hr of clean steam over a 3 to 1 pressure ratio. The fuel consumption of this system is approximately 50 percent that of a direct-fired boiler. A similar size system capable of operating with contaminated steam is also being developed.

  11. Replacing Resistance Heating with Mini-Split Heat Pumps, Sharon, Connecticut (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-05-01

    Mini-split heat pumps can provide space heating and cooling in many climates and are relatively affordable. These and other features make them potentially suitable for retrofitting into multifamily buildings in cold climates to replace electric resistance heating or other outmoded heating systems. This report investigates the suitability of mini-split heat pumps for multifamily retrofits. Various technical and regulatory barriers are discussed and modeling was performed to compare long-term costs of substituting mini-splits for a variety of other heating and cooling options. A number of utility programs have retrofit mini-splits in both single family and multifamily residences. Two such multifamily programs are discussed in detail.

  12. Building Space Heating with a Solar-Assisted Heat Pump Using Roof-Integrated Solar Collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Yang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A solar assisted heat pump (SAHP system was designed by using a roof-integrated solar collector as the evaporator, and then it was demonstrated to provide space heating for a villa in Tianjin, China. A building energy simulation tool was used to predict the space heating load and a three dimensional theoretical model was established to analyze the heat collection performance of the solar roof collector. A floor radiant heating unit was used to decrease the energy demand. The measurement results during the winter test period show that the system can provide a comfortable living space in winter, when the room temperature averaged 18.9 °C. The average COP of the heat pump system is 2.97 and with a maximum around 4.16.

  13. Optimal Placement of A Heat Pump in An Integrated Power and Heat Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klyapovskiy, Sergey; You, Shi; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2017-01-01

    pump – a component that links electric and heating utilities together. The system used to demonstrate the integrated planning approach has two neighboring 10kV feeders and several distribution substations with loads that require central heating from the heat pump. The optimal location is found......With the present trend towards Smart Grids and Smart Energy Systems it is important to look for the opportunities for integrated development between different energy sectors, such as electricity, heating, gas and transportation. This paper investigates the problem of optimal placement of a heat...... with the help of mathematical optimization that minimizes investments of both electric and heating utilities, achieving the reduction of the total investment. The optimization is performed in Matlab using built-in Genetic Algorithm function and Matpower software package for calculating power flow equations....

  14. Significance of the non-aceotropic binary refrigerants, when used in heat pumps and refrigeration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakobs, R. (Technische Univ. Hannover (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Kaeltetechnik); Kruse, H.

    1977-07-01

    For heat pumps, peak energy economy and heat control are important factors for a successful competition with the traditional heating methods. It is demonstrated that non-aceotropic refrigerant mixtures provide considerable advantages for heat pump applications. For this reason, it is proposed to give careful consideration to such mixtures when using heat pump installations. A pilot refrigeration plant designed for technical studies on the plant was mounted at the Technical University of Hannover (FRG). This plant is briefly described.

  15. Energetic Efficiency Evaluation by Using GroundWater Heat Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokar Adriana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Romania has significant energy potential from renewable sources, but the potential used is much lower due to technical and functional disadvantages, to economic efficiency, the cost elements and environmental limitations. However, efforts are being made to integrate renewable energy in the national energy system. To promote and encourage private investments for renewable energy utilization, programs have been created in order to access funds needed to implement these technologies. Assessment of such investments was carried out from technical and economical point of view, by analyzing a heat pump using as heat source the solar energy from the ground.

  16. Heat pump system promises relief for asthma sufferers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, G.

    1992-01-01

    A new energy efficient system for heating and ventilating domestic dwellings is being evaluated by E. A. Technology - a major electricity utilisation and distribution research company in the U.K. As well as providing enhanced comfort levels at lower operating costs, the use of the new heat pump system from E. A. Technology could, it is believed, prove to be an effective means of controlling the numbers and activity of the common house dust mite - one of the principal causes of asthma attacks. (author).

  17. Control System for Solar-Assisted Heat Pump System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    heat pump , a water-to-air heat exchanger, a domestic water heater, and a cooling tower. The preferred embodiment of the controller of the present invention includes a first temperature sensing means for sensing the temperature of the collector fluid at the outlet of the solar collector system, a second temperature sensing means for sensing the temperature of the storage fluid at the thermal storage system, and a third temperature sensing means for sensing the temperature of the inlet water to the domestic water heater. The controller compares the temperature of the thermal

  18. Simulations of ionospheric turbulence produced by HF heating near the upper hybrid layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najmi, A.; Eliasson, B.; Shao, X.; Milikh, G. M.; Papadopoulos, K.

    2016-06-01

    Heating of the ionosphere by high-frequency (HF), ordinary (O) mode electromagnetic waves can excite magnetic field-aligned density striations, associated with upper and lower hybrid turbulence and electron heating. We have used Vlasov simulations in one spatial and two velocity dimensions to study the induced turbulence in the presence of striations when the O-mode pump is mode converted to large-amplitude upper hybrid oscillations trapped in a striation. Parametric processes give rise to upper and lower hybrid turbulence, as well as to large amplitude, short wavelength electron Bernstein waves. The latter excite stochastic electron heating when their amplitudes exceed a threshold for stochasticity, leading to a rapid increase of the electron temperature by several thousands of kelvin. The results have relevance for high-latitude heating experiments.

  19. Magnetic pumping as a source of particle heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichko, Emily; Egedal, Jan; Daughton, William; Kasper, Justin

    2016-10-01

    Magnetic pumping is a means of heating plasmas for both fusion and astrophysical applications. This study presents a generalized model, related to the compressional pumping model Fisk & Gloeckler applied to the solar wind (2006). Unlike previous models, this model includes diffusion of the anisotropic features which develop in velocity space, thereby allowing energy to be transferred to the particles directly from the turbulence. By using various orderings, the drift kinetic equation can be reduced to a more general form of Parker's equation with an anisotropic distribution function. Through expansions in both pitch angle and in space, it can be shown that this equation has power law solutions and results in an overall heating of the plasma. This form of heating is related to transit-time damping. Kinetic simulations were performed to test the theoretical model and explore regimes where spatial and velocity diffusion are of the same order of importance, regimes not easily available to analytical calculations. These simulations appear to confirm the pumping model in the appropriate limits.

  20. Ground-source heat pump case studies and utility programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.; Boyd, T.L.; Rogers, R.L.

    1995-04-01

    Ground-source heat pump systems are one of the promising new energy technologies that has shown rapid increase in usage over the past ten years in the United States. These systems offer substantial benefits to consumers and utilities in energy (kWh) and demand (kW) savings. The purpose of this study was to determine what existing monitored data was available mainly from electric utilities on heat pump performance, energy savings and demand reduction for residential, school and commercial building applications. In order to verify the performance, information was collected for 253 case studies from mainly utilities throughout the United States. The case studies were compiled into a database. The database was organized into general information, system information, ground system information, system performance, and additional information. Information was developed on the status of demand-side management of ground-source heat pump programs for about 60 electric utility and rural electric cooperatives on marketing, incentive programs, barriers to market penetration, number units installed in service area, and benefits.

  1. Performance Study of Thermoelectric Solar-Assisted Heat Pump with Reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertsatitthanakorn, C.; Soponronnarit, S.; Jamradloedluk, J.; Rungsiyopas, M.; Sarachitti, R.

    2014-06-01

    The simultaneous conversion of solar radiation into thermal and electrical energy in a thermoelectric (TE) solar-assisted heat pump is, for the purposes of this study, referred to as hybrid conversion. To capture more thermal and electrical energy, flat-plate reflectors have been mounted on a TE solar collector. To obtain higher solar radiation intensity on the TE solar collector, the position of the reflectors has been changed and the optimal position of the reflectors determined by both experimental measurements and numerical calculation so as to obtain maximal concentration of solar radiation intensity. The calculated values have been found to be in good agreement with measured ones. Improvements to the thermal energy and electrical power outputs of the system can be achieved by the use of the TE solar-assisted heat pump with reflectors. For the optimum position of the reflectors, the coefficient of performance (COP) of the system formed from a TE solar collector integrated with a heat pump (TESC-HP) was 5.60. The power output and conversion efficiency of the TE modules can reach 10.09 W and 2.40%, respectively, being improved by 34.5% and 18.2%, respectively, compared with the TESC-HP without reflectors.

  2. Measurement of heat pump processes induced by laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbuny, M.; Henningsen, T.

    1983-01-01

    A series of experiments was performed in which a suitably tuned CO2 laser, frequency doubled by a Tl3AsSe37 crystal, was brought into resonance with a P-line or two R-lines in the fundamental vibration spectrum of CO. Cooling or heating produced by absorption in CO was measured in a gas-thermometer arrangement. P-line cooling and R-line heating could be demonstrated, measured, and compared. The experiments were continued with CO mixed with N2 added in partial pressures from 9 to 200 Torr. It was found that an efficient collisional resonance energy transfer from CO to N2 existed which increased the cooling effects by one to two orders of magnitude over those in pure CO. Temperature reductions in the order of tens of degrees Kelvin were obtained by a single pulse in the core of the irradiated volume. These measurements followed predicted values rather closely, and it is expected that increase of pulse energies and durations will enhance the heat pump effects. The experiments confirm the feasibility of quasi-isentropic engines which convert laser power into work without the need for heat rejection. Of more immediate potential interest is the possibility of remotely powered heat pumps for cryogenic use, such applications are discussed to the extent possible at the present stage.

  3. Performance of Gas-Engine Driven Heat Pump Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdi Zaltash; Randy Linkous; Randall Wetherington; Patrick Geoghegan; Ed Vineyard; Isaac Mahderekal; Robert Gaylord

    2008-09-30

    Air-conditioning (cooling) for buildings is the single largest use of electricity in the United States (U.S.). This drives summer peak electric demand in much of the U.S. Improved air-conditioning technology thus has the greatest potential impact on the electric grid compared to other technologies that use electricity. Thermally-activated technologies (TAT), such as natural gas engine-driven heat pumps (GHP), can provide overall peak load reduction and electric grid relief for summer peak demand. GHP offers an attractive opportunity for commercial building owners to reduce electric demand charges and operating expenses. Engine-driven systems have several potential advantages over conventional single-speed or single-capacity electric motor-driven units. Among them are variable speed operation, high part load efficiency, high temperature waste heat recovery from the engine, and reduced annual operating costs (SCGC 1998). Although gas engine-driven systems have been in use since the 1960s, current research is resulting in better performance, lower maintenance requirements, and longer operating lifetimes. Gas engine-driven systems are typically more expensive to purchase than comparable electric motor-driven systems, but they typically cost less to operate, especially for commercial building applications. Operating cost savings for commercial applications are primarily driven by electric demand charges. GHP operating costs are dominated by fuel costs, but also include maintenance costs. The reliability of gas cooling equipment has improved in the last few years and maintenance requirements have decreased (SCGC 1998, Yahagi et al. 2006). Another advantage of the GHP over electric motor-driven is the ability to use the heat rejected from the engine during heating operation. The recovered heat can be used to supplement the vapor compression cycle during heating or to supply other process loads, such as water heating. The use of the engine waste heat results in greater

  4. Natural refrigerants. Future heat pumps for district heating; Naturliga koeldmedier. Framtida vaermepumpar foer fjaerrvaerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingvarsson, Paul; Steen Ronnermark, Ingela [Fortum Teknik och Miljoe AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Eriksson, Marcus [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Science

    2004-01-01

    International work on refrigerants is aiming at phasing out HFC. The solution might be natural refrigerants. Within 15-20 years, when present heat pumps for district heating in Sweden are likely not in service any longer, it might still be good economy to install new heat pumps since only the machines need to be replaced. This report describes the possibilities to use natural refrigerants. A first screening resulted in further study on some hydrocarbons, ammonia and carbon dioxide. Water was considered to require too large volumes. In present plants it is practically not possible to use any natural refrigerants, partly because the compressors are not adapted. In new plants the situation is different. Today it is technically possible to install new heat pumps in the studied size, 15 MW{sub th}, using ammonia or hydrocarbons as refrigerant. But likely it is very difficult to get permits from authorities since the refrigerants are toxic or highly flammable. There is substantial international research on using carbon dioxide, and this refrigerant is also used in some applications. Carbon dioxide is used at high pressure and in a trans-critical process. Surprisingly, it turned out that one compressor manufacturer considers it possible to supply a heat pump for district heating within 5 years. This development has taken place in Russia, mainly for domestic use. Thus, within 15 to 20 years there will probably exist a technique where carbon dioxide is used. However, more development is needed. Additionally, low district heating return temperatures are also needed to get an acceptable COP. The investment cost for a heat pump installation is considered to be approx. 30 % higher when using ammonia or propane compared to using R134a. When using carbon dioxide there is in the longer run potential to get lower cost than for R134a. The COPs are almost identical if the systems are properly designed. In the carbon dioxide case the COP is somewhat lower, but has a potential for

  5. MODEL OF LASER-TIG HYBRID WELDING HEAT SOURCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yanbin; Li Liqun; Feng Xiaosong; Fang Junfei

    2004-01-01

    The welding mechanism of laser-TIG hybrid welding process is analyzed. With the variation of arc current, the welding process is divided into two patterns: deep-penetration welding and heat conductive welding. The heat flow model of hybrid welding is presented. As to deep-penetration welding, the heat source includes a surface heat flux and a volume heat flux. The heat source of heat conductive welding is composed of two Gaussian distribute surface heat sources. With this heat source model, a temperature field is calculated. The finite element code MARC is employed for this purpose. The calculation results show a good agreement with the experimental data.

  6. Environmental benefits of different types of heat pumps, available and expected

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, P.J.

    1993-11-01

    A brief overview of integrated resource planning (IRP) is provided, with emphasis on how stakeholders interact within the process and where the opportunities may lie for heat pump advocates in cold climates. Five heat pump options that represent various approaches for improving heat pump cold weather performance are included here in a comparative analysis: 2-speed electric air source heat pumps, variable-speed electric air source heat pumps, electric ground-source heat pumps, natural gas engine-driven heat pumps, and natural gas absorption heat pumps. The comparative analysis addresses seasonal performance, seasonal peak demand, air pollutant emissions, customer energy costs, and recognition of environmental externalities in IRP, all in the context of a residential application in the Great Lakes region of the US. Several actions that may be in the interest of heat pump stakeholders in cold climates were identified, including: development of improved software for utility planners, advocacy of a practical form of the Societal Test for use in IRP that credits heat pumps for the residential air pollutant emissions that they avoid, and development of practical methods to credit heat pumps with other environmental benefits for which they may be responsible.

  7. Modelling of Thermal Behavior of Borehole Heat Exchangers of Geothermal Heat Pump Heating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gornov V.F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reports results of comparing the accuracy of the software package “INSOLAR.GSHP.12”, modeling non-steady thermal behavior of geothermal heat pump heating systems (GHCS and of the similar model “conventional” using finite difference methods for solving spatial non-steady problems of heat conductivity. The software package is based on the method of formulating mathematical models of thermal behavior of ground low-grade heat collection systems developed by INSOLAR group of companies. Equations of mathematical model of spatial non-steady thermal behavior of ground mass of low-grade heat collection system obtained by the developed method have been solved analytically that significantly reduced computing time spent by the software complex “INSOLAR.GSHP.12” for calculations. The method allows to turn aside difficulties associated with information uncertainty of mathematical models of the ground thermal behavior and approximation of external factors affecting the ground. Use of experimentally obtained information about the ground natural thermal behavior in the software package allows to partially take into account the whole complex of factors (such as availability of groundwater, their velocity and thermal behavior, structure and arrangement of ground layers, the Earth’s thermal background, precipitation, phase transformations of moisture in the pore space, and more, significantly influencing the formation of thermal behavior of the ground mass of a low-grade geothermal heat collection system. Numerical experiments presented in the article confirmed the high convergence of the results obtained through the software package “INSOLAR.GSHP.12” with solutions obtained by conventional finite-difference methods.

  8. Research and Development on Heat Pumps for Space Conditioning Applications: Proceedings of the DOE/ORNL Heat Pump Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, V. A.; Powell, R. H., Jr.

    1985-08-01

    This conference was planned to provide information on current activities in the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Building Equipment Research (BER) Program. It was primarily for the benefit of HVAC equipment manufacturers and other interested parties, including utilities, independent research and development organizations, universities, other government groups, and research funding and management organizations. The technical presentations were grouped into two principal subject areas: electric systems and thermally activated systems. Electric-system topics included field performance studies, laboratory experiments on cycling performance, analytical estimates of the benefits of variable capacity and zone control, nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures, ground-coupled systems, and an analysis of Stirling-cycle heat pumps. In the area of thermally activated heat pumps, presentations centered on the development of absorption systems, Stirling-engine-driven systems, and a linear, free-piston IC-engine compressor. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 27 presentations for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  9. Compact interior heat exchangers for CO{sub 2} mobile heat pumping systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafner, Armin

    2003-07-01

    The natural refrigerant carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) offers new possibilities for design of flexible, efficient and environmentally safe mobile heat pumping systems. As high-efficient car engines with less waste heat are developed, extra heating of the passenger compartment is needed in the cold season. A reversible transcritical CO{sub 2} system with gliding temperature heat rejection can give high air delivery temperature which results in rapid heating of the passenger compartment and rapid defogging or defrosting of windows. When operated in cooling mode, the efficiency of transcritical CO{sub 2} systems is higher compared to common (HFC) air conditioning systems, at most dominant operating conditions. Several issues were identified for the design of compact interior heat exchangers for automotive reversible CO{sub 2} heat pumping systems. Among theses issues are: (1) Refrigerant flow distribution, (2) Heat exchanger fluid flow circuiting, (3) Air temperature uniformity downstream of the heat exchanger, (4) Minimization of temperature approach, (5) Windshield flash fogging due to retained water inside the heat exchanger, (6) Internal beat conduction in heating mode operation, and (7) Refrigerant side pressure drop In order to provide a basis for understanding these issues, the author developed a calculation model and set up a test facility and investigated different prototype heat exchangers experimentally.

  10. Analysis of the application of an open-cycle absorption heat pump in industrial convection drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.M.; Gasparella, A.; Longo, G.A. [Dipt. di Tecnica e Gestione dei Sistemi Industriali, Univ. degli Studi di Padova, Vicenza (Italy)

    1999-07-01

    Heat recovery in convection driers has been investigated comparing different solutions (regenerative heat exchanger, vapour compression heat pump, sorption dehumidification heat pump) in a specific application of food industry. Systems based on chemical dehumidification show the best performance allowing a primary energy saving higher than 40% with respect to traditional plants. (orig.)

  11. The role of large‐scale heat pumps for short term integration of renewable energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Blarke, Morten; Hansen, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    technologies is focusing on natural working fluid hydrocarbons, ammonia, and carbon dioxide. Large-scale heat pumps are crucial for integrating 50% wind power as anticipated to be installed in Denmark in 2020, along with other measures. Also in the longer term heat pumps can contribute to the minimization...... of biomass consumption as base load in the energy system. Large heat pumps may also contribute to developing future smart energy systems as they can create flexibility between the electricity and heating/cooling sectors. A case study of Denmark in 2020 indicates that large heat pumps can increase fuel...... and carbon dioxide heat pumps have been developed regarding COP, investments, O&M, etc., along with heat source uptake investment costs for heat pumps....

  12. Hot water preparation using only a heat-pump; Warmwasserbereitung immer mit Waermepumpe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, H.; Gabathuler, H. R. [Gabathuler AG, beratende Ingenieure, Diessenhofen (Switzerland); Baumgartner, T. [Th. Baumgartner und Partner AG, Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2007-07-01

    This article discusses the use of heat-pumps to heat up domestic hot water. The authors note that previously, heat-pumps were used to provide only space heating and domestic hot water was heated up using separate electrical heating elements. The results of a research and development project that defined standard configurations for small heat-pump installations that also provide hot water are discussed. An existing installation with two heat-pumps with ground-loop heat probes and a hot water store was used for tests. Measurements made and the results obtained are presented and discussed. Six configuration variants are described and their operation examined in detail. It is concluded that heat pumps may always be used for hot water preparation despite hygiene regulations demanding hot water temperatures up to 60 {sup o}C to prevent legionella growth.

  13. 太阳能光电-热一体化与热泵耦合系统的热力性能实验研究%Experimental Study of Thermal Performances of the Sloar Photovoltaic-thermal Hybrid and Heat Pump Coupled Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴兴应; 龚光彩; 王晨光

    2015-01-01

    太阳能光电−热一体化(solar photovoltaic-thermal hybrid,PV-T)系统产生的热水的温度通常达不到生活所需的水温,如果和热泵联合工作,则可以提供较高温度的热水,系统的实用性明显提高。理论上在PV-T提供的热能与热泵吸收的热能相等时, PV-T与热泵能很好的匹配耦合,在此基础上建立了PV-T与热泵耦合的热力分析模型。结合热管式 PV-T 系统实验装置和热泵实验装置进行测试的实验数据,对该耦合系统的热力性能进行分析,基于两种不同算法,得出了匹配情况下PV-T耦合热泵系统的COP,实验还得出PV-T系统的火用效率为0.08左右,热泵的火用效率为0.38左右,匹配情况下耦合系统的火用效率为0.05左右,该 PV-T耦合热泵系统有较好的节能效果。文中对系统提出了节能建议。该研究结果为PV-T与热泵耦合工作的应用及其系统参数的选用提供理论依据。%Temperature of the hot water produced by solar photovoltaic-thermal hybrid(PV-T) system usually can not reach the required hot water temperature of daily life. Working with heat pump, the PV-T system can provide hot water with higher temperature and the practicability of this system will be improved significantly. When the heat energy produced by the PV-T system is equal to that absorbed by the heat pump, the PV-T and heat pump coupled systems can achieve a very good match in theory. Based on this condition, a theoretical model of the coupled systems was established. The thermal performance was tested and analyzed according to the experimental data obtained from the PV-T and heat pump equipments.COP of the coupled systems under matching condition was concluded by two different algorithms. The exergy efficiency of the PV-T system and heat pump were about 0.08 and 0.38, respectively. The exergy efficiency of the coupled systems was about 0.05 under matching condition, which implied that the coupled

  14. External pumping of hybrid nanostructures in microcavity with Frenkel and Wannier-Mott excitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubovskiy, O. A.; Agranovich, V. M.

    2016-09-01

    The exciton-exciton interaction in hybrid nanostructures with resonating Frenkel and Wannier-Mott excitons was investigated in many publications. In microcavity the hybrid nanostructures can be exposed to different types of optical pumping, the most common one being pumping through one of the microcavity side. However, not investigated and thus never been discussed the hybrid excitons generation by pumping of confined quantum wells from the side of empty microcavity without nanostructures in a wave guided configuration. Here, we consider the hybrid excitations in cavity with organic and inorganic quantum wells and with different types of pumping from external source. The frequency dependence for intensity of excitations in hybrid structure is also investigated. The results may be used for search of most effective fluorescence and relaxation processes. The same approach may be used when both quantum wells are organic or inorganic.

  15. Plasmonic pumping of excitonic photoluminescence in hybrid MoS2-Au nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najmaei, Sina; Mlayah, Adnen; Arbouet, Arnaud; Girard, Christian; Léotin, Jean; Lou, Jun

    2014-12-23

    We report on the fabrication of monolayer MoS2-coated gold nanoantennas combining chemical vapor deposition, e-beam lithography surface patterning, and a soft lift-off/transfer technique. The optical properties of these hybrid plasmonic-excitonic nanostructures are investigated using spatially resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. Off- and in-resonance plasmonic pumping of the MoS2 excitonic luminescence showed distinct behaviors. For plasmonically mediated pumping, we found a significant enhancement (∼65%) of the photoluminescence intensity, clear evidence that the optical properties of the MoS2 monolayer are strongly influenced by the nanoantenna surface plasmons. In addition, a systematic photoluminescence broadening and red-shift in nanoantenna locations is observed which is interpreted in terms of plasmonic enhanced optical absorption and subsequent heating of the MoS2 monolayers. Using a temperature calibration procedure based on photoluminescence spectral characteristics, we were able to estimate the local temperature changes. We found that the plasmonically induced MoS2 temperature increase is nearly four times larger than in the MoS2 reference temperatures. This study shines light on the plasmonic-excitonic interaction in these hybrid metal/semiconductor nanostructures and provides a unique approach for the engineering of optoelectronic devices based on the light-to-current conversion.

  16. Residential gas-fired sorption heat pumps. Test and technology evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeslund, M.

    2008-12-15

    Heat pumps may be the next step in gas-fired residential space heating. Together with solar energy it is an option to combine natural gas and renewable energy. Heat pumps for residential space heating are likely to be based on the absorption or adsorption process, i.e. sorption heat pumps. Manufacturers claim that the efficiency could reach 140-160%. The annual efficiency will be lower but it is clear that gas-fired heat pumps can involve an efficiency and technology step equal to the transition from non-condensing gas boilers with atmospheric burners to condensing boilers. This report contains a review of the current sorption gas-fired heat pumps for residential space heating and also the visible development trends. A prototype heat pump has been laboratory tested. Field test results from Germany and the Netherlands are also used for a technology evaluation. The tested heat pump unit combines a small heat pump and a supplementary condensing gas boiler. Field tests show an average annual efficiency of 120% for this prototype design. The manufacturer abandoned the tested design during the project period and the current development concentrates on a heat pump design only comprising the heat pump, although larger. The heat pump development at three manufacturers in Germany indicates a commercial stage around 2010-2011. A fairly high electricity consumption compared to traditional condensing boilers was observed in the tested heat pump. Based on current prices for natural gas and electricity the cost savings were estimated to 12% and 27% for heat pumps with 120% and 150% annual efficiency respectively. There is currently no widespread performance testing procedure useful for annual efficiency calculations of gas-fired heat pumps. The situation seems to be clearer for electric compression heat pumps regarding proposed testing and calculation procedures. A German environmental label exists and gasfired sorption heat pumps are also slightly treated in the Eco-design work

  17. ESTIMATION OF INDICES OF QUALITY OF WORK OF HEAT PUMP WITH VORTEX TUBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit M.L.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It is performed analisys of the use of efficiency of the use of vortex tube in heat pump with carbon dioxide as the refrigerant. Heat pump is desinated for parallel production of of heat on one temperature level and cold on two temperature levels. Scheme is compared with heat pump in which ejectors are used. It is demonstrated on the exemple that scheme with the vortex tube has COP increased comparitive with those with ejectors.

  18. Calculation methods for SPF for heat pump systems for comparison, system choice and dimensioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordman, Roger; Andersson, Kajsa; Axell, Monica; Lindahl, Markus

    2010-09-15

    In this project, results from field measurements of heat pumps have been collected and summarised. Also existing calculation methods have been compared and summarised. Analyses have been made on how the field measurements compare to existing calculation models for heat pumps Seasonal Performance Factor (SPF), and what deviations may depend on. Recommendations for new calculation models are proposed, which include combined systems (e.g. solar - HP), capacity controlled heat pumps and combined DHW and heating operation

  19. Hydrothermal treatment of sorption materials. Implications on adsorption heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henninger, S.K.; Mueller, S.; Ratzsch, K.F.; Schossig, P.; Henning, H.M. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany). Dept. of Thermal Systems and Buildings; Munz, G. [PSE AG, Freiburg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Material stability of adsorbents for thermally driven systems like heat storage and heat transformation plays a key role. In particular high power-density applications like adsorption heat pumps and chillers in combination with recently developed adsorption materials lead to a significant increased number of cycles over the lifetime (<100'000) making cycle stability crucial. With regard to current developments on composite structures improving the heat and mass transfer, additional stability analysis like thermo-mechanical properties are now getting into focus. This contribution gives a broad overview on the stability of current available sorption materials like silica gels and zeolites, recently developed (silica-) aluminophosphates (AIPO/SAPO) and most novel synthesized metal organic framework (MOF) materials under hydrothermal treatment. The results give a first indication on the suitability of these materials for the use in heat storage, thermally driven sorption heat pumps and cooling machines. Pure powders as well as composites have been analysed under continuous cycling conditions. Whereas the stability of powders and granules have been analysed in-situ by thermogravimetric cycle measurements, a cycling-test rig has been developed in order to realise a lifetime stress of composites consisting of active sorption material and a support structure. The need for a first stage short-cycle analysis is demonstrated impressively by the dramatic loss of more than 50% in sorption capacity of a SAPO-34 sample within the first 10 cycles. Several composite samples have passed a treatment of 30'000 cycles or more and show continuous degradation effects leading to a reduction in sorption capacity of 20% compared to the initial value. (orig.)

  20. Central model predictive control of a group of domestic heat pumps, case study for a small district

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van R.P.; Fink, J.; Smit, G.J.M.; Helfert, Markus; Krempels, Karl-Heinz; Donnellan, Brian; Klein, Cornel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate optimal control of a group of heat pumps. Each heat pump provides space heating and domestic hot water to a single household. Besides a heat pump, each house has a buffer for domestic hot water and a floor heating system for space heating. The paper describes models and

  1. Central model predictive control of a group of domestic heat pumps, case study for a small district

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Richard Pieter; Fink, J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Helfert, Markus; Krempels, Karl-Heinz; Donnellan, Brian; Klein, Cornel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate optimal control of a group of heat pumps. Each heat pump provides space heating and domestic hot water to a single household. Besides a heat pump, each house has a buffer for domestic hot water and a floor heating system for space heating. The paper describes models and

  2. Brookhaven solar-heat-pump simulator: technical description and experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catan, M.

    1982-07-01

    The series solar-assisted heat pump (SAHP) system has the potential to deliver heat with very high seasonal coefficients of performance (coefficient of performance or COP is the ratio of useful heat delivered to electrical power consumed). This potential rests on the ability of the heat-pump component to use the high source temperatures available from the solar-collector component to deliver heat with a COP which rises monotonically with source temperature. The Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Heat Pump Simulator has played an important role in a program aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of building simple potentially inexpensive heat pumps for use in SAHP systems. Basically the work described here consists of the following: (1) The construction and testing of a laboratory heat pump built from conventional components and characterized by a very desirable COP versus source temperature profile. (2) The testing of two prototype SAHPs built by heat-pump manufacturers under contract to DOE. (3) Detailed component and control tests aimed at establishing improvements in the SAHP prototypes. The paper describes, in some detail, the BNL Heat Pump Simulator, a versatile instrument used to test heat pumps and heat-pump subcomponents under transient and steady-state conditions.

  3. Domestic Hot Water Production with Ground Source Heat Pump in Apartment Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Yrjölä

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Producing domestic hot water (DHW with a ground source heat pump (GSHP is challenging due to the high temperature (HT of DHW. There are many studies proving the better performance of cascade heat pumps compared to single-stage heat pumps when the difference between the condensing and the evaporation temperature is large. In this system approach study, different GSHP arrangements are described and computationally compared. A two-stage heat pump arrangement is introduced in which water tanks of the heating system are utilized for warming up the DHW in two stages. It is shown that the electricity consumption with this two-stage system is approximately 31% less than with the single-stage heat pump and 12% less than with the cascade system. Further, both low temperature (LT and HT heat pumps can run alone, which is not common in cascade or other two-stage heat pumps. This is advantageous because the high loads of the space heating and DHW production are not simultaneous. Proper insulation of the DHW and recirculation pipe network is essential, and drying towel rails or other heating coils should be avoided when aiming for a high efficiency. The refrigerants in the calculations are R407C for the LT heat pump and R134a for the HT heat pump. Investment costs are excluded from calculations.

  4. Gas Engine-Driven Heat Pump with Desiccant Dehumidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [ORNL; Abu-Heiba, Ahmad [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    About 40% of total U.S. energy consumption was consumed in residential and commercial buildings. Improved air-conditioning technology has by far the greatest potential impact on the electric industry compared to any other technology that uses electricity. This paper describes the development of an innovative natural gas, propane, LNG or bio-gas IC engine-driven heat pump (GHP) with desiccant dehumidification (GHP/DD). This integrated system has higher overall efficiencies than conventional equipment for space cooling, addresses both new and existing commercial buildings, and more effectively controls humidity in humid areas. Waste heat is recovered from the GHP to provide energy for regenerating the desiccant wheel and to augment heating capacity and efficiency. By combining the two technologies, an overall source COP of greater that 1.5 (hot, humid case) can be achieved by utilizing waste heat from the engine to reduce the overall energy required to regenerate the desiccant. Moreover, system modeling results show that the sensible heat ratio (SHR- sensible heat ratio) can be lowered to less 60% in a dedicated outdoor air system application with hot, humid cases.

  5. Vapor compression CuCl heat pump integrated with a thermochemical water splitting cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamfirescu, C., E-mail: Calin.Zamfirescu@uoit.ca [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, ON, Canada L1H 74K (Canada); Naterer, G.F., E-mail: Greg.Naterer@uoit.ca [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, ON, Canada L1H 74K (Canada); Dincer, I., E-mail: Ibrahim.Dincer@uoit.ca [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, ON, Canada L1H 74K (Canada)

    2011-01-10

    In this paper, the feasibility of using cuprous chloride (CuCl) as a working fluid in a new high temperature heat pump with vapor compression is analyzed. The heat pump is integrated with a copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) thermochemical water splitting cycle for internal heat recovery, temperature upgrades and hydrogen production. The minimum temperature of heat supply necessary for driving the water splitting cycle can be lowered because the heat pump increases the working fluid temperature from 755 K up to {approx}950 K, at a high COP of {approx}6.5. Based on measured data available in past literature, the authors have determined the T-s diagram of CuCl, which is then used for the thermodynamic modeling of the cycle. In the heat pump cycle, molten CuCl is flashed in a vacuum where the vapor quality reaches {approx}2.5%, and then it is boiled to produce saturated vapor. The vapor is then compressed in stages (with inter-cooling and heat recovery), and condensed in a direct contact heat exchanger to transfer heat at a higher temperature. The heat pump is then integrated with a copper-chlorine water splitting plant. The heat pump evaporator is connected thermally with the hydrogen production reactor of the water splitting plant, which performs an exothermic reaction that generates heat at 760 K. Additional source heat is obtained from heat recovery from the hot reaction products of the oxy-decomposer. The heat pump transfers heat at {approx}950 K to the oxy-decomposer to drive its endothermic chemical reaction. It is shown that the heat required at the heat pump source can be obtained completely from internal heat recovery within the plant. First and second law analyses and a parametric study are performed for the proposed system to study the influence of the compressor's isentropic efficiency and temperature levels on the heat pump's COP. Two new indicators are presented: one represents the heat recovery ratio (the ratio between the thermal energy obtained by

  6. High-efficiency Commercial Cold Climate Heat Pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoud, Ahmad M. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Cogswell, F. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Verma, P. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States)

    2015-08-28

    United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) proposed in 2012 to design, develop and demonstrate an air-source 10TR high-efficiency commercial cold climate heat pump (CCCHP). The proposed heat pump would be scalable beyond 40TR, cost effective with a simple payback of < 3 years upon commercialization and would reduce annual electricity use for building space heating in cold climates by at least 20%. This would represent an annual savings of $2.3 billion and a 20% displacement of total greenhouse gases generated upon full commercialization. The primary objective was to develop a highly integrated system that shall meet or exceed DOE capacity and efficiency targets at key conditions and is scalable, cost-effective and simple relative to the state-of-the-art. Specifically, the goal of the project was to design, develop and demonstrate a CCCHP that exceeds DOE capacity degradation requirements at +17F and -13F conditions (0 and <15% degradation vs. 10 and 25% DOE requirements, respectively) while meeting or exceeding DOE capacity and system efficiency requirements at all other conditions.

  7. Water source heat pumps for greenhouse soil cooling. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spieser, H.

    1987-06-01

    In an attempt to diversify and grow flowers which are in high demand, growers are looking to produce certain exotic flowers which require unique growing conditions. One example is the Alstroemerias also knwon as the Peruvian Lily. If the plants are grown continuously at about 12-15/sup 0/C soil temperature, the plant will continue to flower regardless of air temperature and photoriod. These latter two factors are considered secondary to the importance of cool soil temperatures. Alstroemeria production is still relatively new to the greenhouse industry. Some controversy still exists as to the direct benefits of planned soil cooling. This project was set up to evaluate a mechanical soil cooling system for continuous year round Alstroemeria production. A heat pump soil cooling system was installed in two greenhouses each with dimensions of 16 m by 61 m. Combined these greenhouses have a growing area of 1952 m/sup 2/. These greenhouses are older wooden greenhouses, covered by double poly, air-inflated glazing. This system worked very well, maintaining the soil temperature at the proper levels throughout the spring and summer months. During the rest of the year the soil cooling system is used less intensely. During winter months when soil cooling is not required, the heat pumps provide base load heating to the greenhouse through fan forced unit heaters.

  8. National Certification Standard for Ground Source Heat Pump Personnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, John [Geothermal Heat Pump Consortium, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-07-31

    The National Certification Standard for the Geothermal Heat Pump Industry adds to the understanding of the barriers to rapid growth of the geothermal heat pump (GHP) industry by bringing together for the first time an analysis of the roles and responsibilities of each of the individual job tasks involved in the design and installation of GHP systems. The standard addresses applicable qualifications for all primary personnel involved in the design, installation, commissioning, operation and maintenance of GHP systems, including their knowledge, skills and abilities. The resulting standard serves as a foundation for subsequent development of curriculum, training and certification programs, which are not included in the scope of this project, but are briefly addressed in the standard to describe ways in which the standard developed in this project may form a foundation to support further progress in accomplishing those other efforts. Follow-on efforts may use the standard developed in this project to improve the technical effectiveness and economic feasibility of curriculum development and training programs for GHP industry personnel, by providing a more complete and objective assessment of the individual job tasks necessary for successful implementation of GHP systems. When incorporated into future certification programs for GHP personnel, the standard will facilitate increased consumer confidence in GHP technology, reduce the potential for improperly installed GHP systems, and assure GHP system quality and performance, all of which benefit the public through improved energy efficiency and mitigated environmental impacts of the heating and cooling of homes and businesses.

  9. Performance and Costs of Ductless Heat Pumps in Marine-Climate High-Performance Homes -- Habitat for Humanity The Woods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubliner, Michael [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Olympia, WA (United States). Washington States Univ. Energy Program; Howard, Luke [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Olympia, WA (United States). Washington States Univ. Energy Program; Hales, David [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Olympia, WA (United States). Washington States Univ. Energy Program; Kunkle, Rick [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Olympia, WA (United States). Washington States Univ. Energy Program; Gordon, Andy [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Olympia, WA (United States). Washington States Univ. Energy Program; Spencer, Melinda [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Olympia, WA (United States). Washington States Univ. Energy Program

    2016-02-18

    The Woods is a Habitat for Humanity (HFH) community of ENERGY STAR Homes Northwest (ESHNW)-certified homes located in the marine climate of Tacoma/Pierce County, Washington. This research report builds on an earlier preliminary draft 2014 BA report, and includes significant billing analysis and cost effectiveness research from a collaborative, ongoing Ductless Heat Pump (DHP)research effort for Tacoma Public Utilities (TPU) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). This report focuses on the results of field testing, modeling, and monitoring of ductless mini-split heat pump hybrid heating systems in seven homes built and first occupied at various times between September 2013 and October 2014. The report also provides WSU documentation of high-performance home observations, lessons learned, and stakeholder recommendations for builders of affordable high-performance housing such as HFH. Tacoma Public Utilities (TPU) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). This report focuses on the results of field testing, modeling, and monitoring of ductless mini-split heat pump hybrid heating systems in seven homes built and first occupied at various times between September 2013 and October 2014. The report also provides WSU documentation of high-performance home observations, lessons learned, and stakeholder recommendations for builders of affordable high-performance housing such as HFH.

  10. Heat exchanger selection and design analyses for metal hydride heat pump systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Voskuilen, Tyler G.; Waters, Essene L.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a design analysis for the development of highly efficient heat exchangers within stationary metal hydride heat pumps. The design constraints and selected performance criteria are applied to three representative heat exchangers. The proposed thermal model can be applied to select...... the most efficient heat exchanger design and provides outcomes generally valid in a pre-design stage. Heat transfer effectiveness is the principal performance parameter guiding the selection analysis, the results of which appear to be mildly (up to 13%) affected by the specific Nusselt correlation used....... The thermo-physical properties of the heat transfer medium and geometrical parameters are varied in the sensitivity analysis, suggesting that the length of independent tubes is the physical parameter that influences the performance of the heat exchangers the most. The practical operative regions for each...

  11. Performance analysis of system heat pump - heat recuperator used for air treatment in process industry

    OpenAIRE

    Milovančević Uroš M.; Kosi Franc F.

    2016-01-01

    A detailed parametric analysis and performance optimization of system “heat pump - recuperator is given in this paper. Mathematical model used for analysis is formed according to the physical model of the system and practical experience. Different types of compressors, and various temperature ranges are treated. Special attention is paid to influence of condensing and evaporating temperatures on system performances, so as to different features of heat recup...

  12. Characterization of a mini-channel heat exchanger for a heat pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteconi, A.; Giuliani, G.; Tartuferi, M.; Polonara, F.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper a mini-channel aluminum heat exchanger used in a reversible heat pump is presented. Mini-channel finned heat exchangers are getting more and more interest for refrigeration systems, especially when compactness and low refrigerant charge are desired. Purpose of this paper was to characterize the mini-channel heat exchanger used as evaporator in terms of heat transfer performance and to study the refrigerant distribution in the manifold. The heat exchanger characterization was performed experimentally by means of a test rig built up for this purpose. It is composed of an air-to-air heat pump, air channels for the external and internal air circulation arranged in a closed loop, measurement sensors and an acquisition system. The overall heat transfer capacity was assessed. Moreover, in order to characterize the flow field of the refrigerant in the manifold of the heat exchanger, a numerical investigation of the fluid flow by means of CFD was performed. It was meant to evaluate the goodness of the present design and to identify possible solutions for the future improvement of the manifold design.

  13. A review on opportunities for the development of heat pump drying systems in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kivevele

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, it has been discovered that heat pump drying is an efficient method of drying for drying industries. Heat pumps deliver more heat during the drying process than the work input to the compressor. Heat pump drying is a more advanced method than the traditional South African industrial and agricultural drying methods, such as direct/indirect sunlight, wood burning, fossil fuel burning, electrical heating and diesel engine heating. Heat pump dryers provide high energy efficiency with controllable temperature, air flow and air humidity and have significant energy-saving potential. In the last decade the market for heat pump systems for water heating and space cooling/heating has grown in South Africa, but the development of heat pumps for industrial and agricultural drying is very slow. As a result of high increases in fossil fuel prices and electricity in South Africa, as well as the problem of CO2 emissions, green energy, energy saving and energy efficiency are imperative. The development of heat pump drying systems in South Africa is an efficient way to solve energy problems in drying applications as this technology is still in its infancy. We review studies on heat pump drying and compare the methods therein with the most common methods of drying in South Africa.

  14. North Village Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redderson, Jeff

    2015-08-03

    This project demonstrated the feasibility of converting from a traditional direct exchange system to a ground source heat pump system on a large scale, multiple building apartment complex on a university campus. A total of ten apartment buildings were converted using vertical well fields and a ground source loop that connected the 24 apartments in each building into a common system. The system has yielded significant operational savings in both energy and maintenance and transformed the living environments of these residential buildings for our students.

  15. Estimation of Residential Heat Pump Consumption for Flexibility Market Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouzelis, Konstantinos; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2015-01-01

    devices’ consumption data are theoretically recorded, elaborated and their upcoming flexibility is bid to flexibility markets. However, there are many cases where explicit flexible device consumption data are absent. This paper presents a way to circumvent this problem and extract the potentially flexible...... load of a flexible device, namely a Heat Pump (HP), out of the aggregated energy consumption of a house. The main idea for accomplishing this, is a comparison of the flexible consumer with electrically similar non-flexible consumers. The methodology is based on machine learning techniques, probability...... for bidding flexibility in intra-day markets even in the absence of explicit device measurements....

  16. Development of an Air-Source Heat Pump Integrated with a Water Heating / Dehumidification Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Uselton, Robert B. [Lennox Industries, Inc; Shen, Bo [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    A residential-sized dual air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) concept is under development in partnership between ORNL and a manufacturer. The concept design consists of a two-stage air-source heat pump (ASHP) coupled on the air distribution side with a separate novel water heating/dehumidification (WH/DH) module. The motivation for this unusual equipment combination is the forecast trend for home sensible loads to be reduced more than latent loads. Integration of water heating with a space dehumidification cycle addresses humidity control while performing double-duty. This approach can be applied to retrofit/upgrade applications as well as new construction. A WH/DH module capable of ~1.47 L/h water removal and ~2 kW water heating capacity was assembled by the manufacturer. A heat pump system model was used to guide the controls design; lab testing was conducted and used to calibrate the models. Performance maps were generated and used in a TRNSYS sub-hourly simulation to predict annual performance in a well-insulated house. Annual HVAC/WH energy savings of ~35% are predicted in cold and hot-humid U.S. climates compared to a minimum efficiency baseline.

  17. Comfortable, high-efficiency heat pump with desiccant-coated, water-sorbing heat exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Y D; Wang, R Z; Ge, T S; Zheng, X

    2017-01-12

    Comfortable, efficient, and affordable heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems in buildings are highly desirable due to the demands of energy efficiency and environmental friendliness. Traditional vapor-compression air conditioners exhibit a lower coefficient of performance (COP) (typically 2.8-3.8) owing to the cooling-based dehumidification methods that handle both sensible and latent loads together. Temperature- and humidity-independent control or desiccant systems have been proposed to overcome these challenges; however, the COP of current desiccant systems is quite small and additional heat sources are usually needed. Here, we report on a desiccant-enhanced, direct expansion heat pump based on a water-sorbing heat exchanger with a desiccant coating that exhibits an ultrahigh COP value of more than 7 without sacrificing any comfort or compactness. The pump's efficiency is doubled compared to that of pumps currently used in conventional room air conditioners, which is a revolutionary HVAC breakthrough. Our proposed water-sorbing heat exchanger can independently handle sensible and latent loads at the same time. The desiccants adsorb moisture almost isothermally and can be regenerated by condensation heat. This new approach opens up the possibility of achieving ultrahigh efficiency for a broad range of temperature- and humidity-control applications.

  18. Generalized Performance Characteristics of Refrigeration and Heat Pump Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Huleihil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A finite-time generic model to describe the behavior of real refrigeration systems is discussed. The model accounts for finite heat transfer rates, heat leaks, and friction as different sources of dissipation. The performance characteristics are cast in terms of cooling rate (r versus coefficient of performance (w. For comparison purposes, various types of refrigeration/heat pump systems are considered: the thermoelectric refrigerator, the reverse Brayton cycle, and the reverse Rankine cycle. Although the dissipation mechanisms are different (e.g., heat leak and Joule heating in the thermoelectric refrigerator, isentropic losses in the reverse Brayton cycle, and limits arising from the equation of state in the reverse Rankine cycle, the r−w characteristic curves have a general loop shape. There are four limiting types of operation: open circuit in which both r and w vanish in the limit of slow operation; short circuit in which again r and w vanish but in the limit of fast operation; maximum r; maximum w. The behavior of the considered systems is explained by means of the proposed model. The derived formulae could be used for a quick estimation of w and the temperatures of the working fluid at the hot and cold sides.

  19. Heat Removal Performance of Hybrid Control Rod for Passive In-Core Cooling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Mo; Jeong, Yeong Shin; Kim, In Guk; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The two-phase closed heat transfer device can be divided by thermosyphon heat pipe and capillary wicked heat pipe which uses gravitational force or capillary pumping pressure as a driving force of the convection of working fluid. If there is a temperature difference between reactor core and ultimate heat sink, the decay heat removal and reactor shutdown is possible at any accident conditions without external power sources. To apply the hybrid control rod to the commercial nuclear power plants, its modelling about various parameters is the most important work. Also, its unique geometry is coexistence of neutron absorber material and working fluid in a cladding material having annular vapor path. Although thermosyphon heat pipe (THP) or wicked heat pipe (WHP) shows high heat transfer coefficients for limited space, the maximum heat removal capacity is restricted by several phenomena due to their unique heat transfer mechanism. Validation of the existing correlations on the annular vapor path thermosyphon (ATHP) which has different wetted perimeter and heated diameter must be conducted. The effect of inner structure, and fill ratio of the working fluid on the thermal performance of heat pipe has not been investigated. As a first step of the development of hybrid heat pipe, the ATHP which contains neutron absorber in the concentric thermosyphon (CTHP) was prepared and the thermal performance of the annular thermosyphon was experimentally studied. The heat transfer characteristics and flooding limit of the annular vapor path thermosyphon was studied experimentally to model the performance of hybrid control rod. The following results were obtained: (1) The annular vapor path thermosyphon showed better evaporation heat transfer due to the enhanced convection between adiabatic and condenser section. (2) Effect of fill ratio on the heat transfer characteristics was negligible. (3) Existing correlations about flooding limit of thermosyphon could not reflect the annular vapor

  20. First experience gained with heat-pump utilization in animal-husbandry plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuemmritz, W.; Schaeffel, W.

    1982-10-01

    For cleaning and desinfection of all milk-conducting plant parts, the LPG Tierproduktion at the town of Berlstedt (capacity of 2000 animal stands) needs a daily amount of c. 60 cbm of heated water. Recently 50% of this useful-water requirement has been covered by four small-size heat pumps WW 12 of a water/water configuration. In the heating house, two heat pumps have been installed on top of each other in each case. The circuit plan of the heat-pump facility is demonstrated. The facility operates at open and closed loop, contains two-step rotary pumps and heats useful water to 50-60/sup 0/C. Two heat pumps are operated via shift water throughout the year, the remaining two use brook water in summer and well water in winter as their heat source. 40 t of fuel oil were saved in 1981.

  1. Empirical Platform Data Analysis to Investigate how Heat Pumps Operate in Real-Life Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, Carolina; Elmegaard, Brian; Nielsen, M. P.

    2015-01-01

    Heat pumps have been widely acknowledged, by academia and industry, as highly efficient thermal energy technologies, for space heating and domestic hot water production. However, there is a lack of information about real performance in residential single family houses with active participation...... the suitability of heat pumps to support fossil-fuel free energy systems....

  2. Influence of individual heat pumps on wind power integration – Energy system investments and operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Karsten; Münster, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Individual heat pumps are expected to constitute a significant electricity demand in future energy systems. This demand becomes flexible if investing in complementing heat storage capabilities. In this study, we analyse how the heat pumps can influence the integration of wind power by applying...

  3. Dynamic Performance of a Residential Air-to-Air Heat Pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, George E.; Bean, John

    This publication is a study of the dynamic performance of a 5-ton air-to-air heat pump in a residence in Washington, D.C. The effect of part-load operation on the heat pump's cooling and heating coefficients of performance was determined. Discrepancies between measured performance and manufacturer-supplied performance data were found when the unit…

  4. Heat pump field test in Maastricht, Netherlands. Praktijkproef met een warmtepomp in Limburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassols, J. (Colibri Engineering Bureau (Netherlands)); Hamers, W.J.H. (NOVEM, Sittard (Netherlands)); Paulussen, M.J.M. (MEGA Limburg, Maastricht (Netherlands))

    1993-06-01

    A newly developed absorption heat pump has been fitted to an existing heating installation of the provincial government building in Maastricht, Netherlands. Major adjustments of the existing installation were necessary before the heat pump could be fitted in hydraulically. It is expected that considerable energy savings and reductions of NO-x and CO[sub 2] emissions can be realized.

  5. A new heat pump desiccant dehumidifier for supermarket application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R. M.; Castellotti, F. [Department of Management and Engineering, University of Padova, Vicenza (Italy)

    2007-07-01

    Recently a new equipment for dehumidification was put onto the market. It is a self-regenerating liquid desiccant cooling system able to dehumidify, heating or cooling the ambient air by an electric heat pump that is a part of the equipment. Its operation is here studied in a supermarket application where air temperature and relative humidity play a very important role and the air-conditioning becomes necessary not only to assure a suitable thermal comfort, but also to make the refrigerated display cabinets operate properly. In this paper possible energy savings, compared to a traditional mechanical dehumidification, are evaluated by means of a numerical model that simulates a typical Italian supermarket. (author)

  6. Heat-pump-assisted dryer: Pt. 2; Experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendyala, V.R.; Devotta, S.; Patwardhan, V.S. (National Chemical Lab., Poona (India))

    1990-07-01

    The performance of an experimental heat-pump-assisted dryer under operating conditions of some practical interest was studied. The system was operated using R11 and R12. The approach velocity of air to the evaporator and the superheat of the working fluid at the exit of the evaporator were identified as the critical parameters for optimization. The system was evaluated with respect to coefficient of performance (COP) and specific energy consumption (SEC). The (COP){sub A} and (SEC) values obtained using R11 were 3.5 and 3500 kJ/kg, respectively, and the corresponding values for R12 were 2.5 and 1800 kJ/kg. In spite of the lower (COP){sub A} for R12, the corresponding (SEC) values were better because the system could be operated without any additional electrical heating with R12. (author).

  7. Symposium on advances in refrigeration and heat pump technology. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmegaard, B.; Brix, W.; Ryhl Kaern, M. (and others)

    2012-06-15

    Technical University of Denmark - Department of Mechanical Engineering, Danish Technological Institute, and the Danish Energy Association in collaboration hosted a two-day symposium covering advances in refrigeration and heat pump technology on the 15th and 16th of May 2012. These proceedings are the formal documentation of the lectures that were given over the two days on several topics of significant relevance for the future development of technology for cooling and heating application. The focus was on both the industrial development of solutions for domestic, commercial and industrial applications in the near future as well as the scientific and engineering research in the more distant years to come. Applications of compression technology, phase changing materials and magnetic refrigeration were presented as well as novel results for selection of working fluids and design of cycles, development of components and cycles. (LN)

  8. Hourly Calculation Method of Air Source Heat Pump Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovico Danza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes an hourly simplified model for the evaluation of the energy performance of heat pumps in cooling mode maintaining a high accuracy and low computational cost. This approach differs from the methods used for the assessment of the overall energy consumption of the building, normally placed in the so-called white or black box models, where the transient conduction equation is deterministically and stochastically solved, respectively. The present method wants to be the expression of the grey box model, taking place between the previous approaches. The building envelope is defined using a building thermal model realized with a 3 Resistance 1 Capacitance (3R1C thermal network based on the solution of the lumped capacitance method. The simplified model evaluates the energy efficiency ratio (EER of a heat pump through the determination of the hourly second law efficiency of a reversed Carnot cycle. The results of the simplified method were finally compared with those provided by EnergyPlus, a dynamic building energy simulation program, and those collected from an outdoor test cell in real working conditions. The results are presented in temperatures and energy consumptions profiles and are validated using the Bland-Altman test.

  9. Heat pumps and technological development: Civil use in 80's (1st part)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R. (Bari Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Tecnica ed Impianti Termotecnici)

    1990-09-01

    This article analyses the technological development of heat pumps for civil purposes. These devices belong to the big family of heat pumps: electrical compression devices, thermally driven machines, adsorption machines, internal and external combustion engines. Electrical heat pumps saw an interesting development in their components, particularly in the compressor (with the adoption of screw and scroll compressors) and in the thermal exchange batteries, without forgetting the progress in electronics, from the setting to the expansion valve and the defrosting system.

  10. The ORNL Modulating Heat Pump Design Tool -- Mark IV User's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, C.K.

    2001-09-27

    The ORNL Modulating Heat Pump Design Tool consists of a Modulating HPDM (Heat Pump Design Model) and a parametric-analysis (contour-data generating) front-end. Collectively the program is also referred to as MODCON which is in reference to the modulating and the contour data generating capabilities. The program was developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the Department of Energy to provide a publicly-available system design tool for variable- and single-speed heat pumps.

  11. The ORNL Modulating Heat Pump Design Tool User's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, C.K.

    2001-06-01

    The ORNL Modulating Heat Pump Design Tool consists of a Modulating HPDM (Heat Pump Design Model) and a parametric-analysis (contour-data generating) front-end. Collectively the program is also referred to as MODCON which is in reference to the modulating and the contour data generating capabilities. The program was developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the Department of Energy to provide a publicly-available system design tool for variable- and single-speed heat pumps.

  12. Heat pump applications and water heating by means of solar collectors. Waermepumpenanwendungen und Wasserwaermung mit Sonnenkollektoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szokody, G.

    1990-01-15

    About 25 to 30% of all newly constructed single-family houses in Switzerland are equipped with heat pump systems. This increasing attractivity is partly due to new techniques, e.g. microprocessor control, as well as to higher component efficiencies, a more efficient heat exchange technology, and to the compactness of systems. Active solar energy conversion, i.e. by means of solar collectors, is another technique which is predominantly applied for water heating in single-family buildings. Public investments in this field are scarce. (BWI).

  13. Solar heat and heat pump. What benefits?; Solarthermie und Waermepumpe. Was bringt's?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droescher, Angela; Heinz, Andreas [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Waermetechnik; Gerardts, Bernhard [Solid GmbH, Graz (Austria)

    2013-11-08

    If solar heating and heat pumps work together, then usually in a single-family house. The fact that there is another way, shows a large solar heating system in Graz. Investigations show what potential there is in this type of system and where special attention is needed. [German] Wenn Solarwaerme und Waermepumpen zusammenarbeiten, dann meist im Einfamilienhaus. Dass es auch anders geht, zeigt eine Grossanlage bei Graz. Untersuchungen zeigen, welche Potenziale es bei Systemen dieser Art gibt und worauf besonders zu achten ist.

  14. EXERGY-BASED ECOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF GENERALIZED IRREVERSIBLE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    GOVIND MAHESHWARI; SUNIL K. SOMANI; SHARAD CHAUDHARY

    2011-01-01

    A reverse Carnot cycle forms the basis of all heat-pump cycles in providing heating and cooling loads. The optimal exergy-based Ecological analysis of an irreversible Heat-pump system with the losses of heat resistance, heat leak and internal irreversibility has been carried out by taking into account Exergy based ecological function (E) as an objective in the viewpoint of Finite-Time-Thermodynamics (FTT) or Entropy Generation Minimization (EGM). Exergy is defined here as the power required m...

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF COLD CLIMATE HEAT PUMP USING TWO-STAGE COMPRESSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses a well-regarded, hardware based heat pump system model to investigate a two-stage economizing cycle for cold climate heat pump applications. The two-stage compression cycle has two variable-speed compressors. The high stage compressor was modelled using a compressor map, and the low stage compressor was experimentally studied using calorimeter testing. A single-stage heat pump system was modelled as the baseline. The system performance predictions are compared between the two-stage and single-stage systems. Special considerations for designing a cold climate heat pump are addressed at both the system and component levels.

  16. Demonstration of a Low-Lift Heat Pump for High-Power Spacecraft Thermal Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzyll, Lawrence R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the development and demonstration of a prototype low-lift heat pump for high-power spacecraft thermal control The low-lift heat pump was designed to provide 25 kW of cooling at 303 K and transport this waste heat to a radiator for heat rejection. To accomplish this, a demonstration heat pump with an evaporation temperature of 298 K and a condensing temperature of 301 K was designed and built. HFC-227ea was the working fluid. This effort resulted in optimization of the centrifugal compressor impeller, diffuser, and shroud designs through extensive experimental testing. The detailed design of a magnetic bearing centrifugal compressor was completed. A prototype heat pump thermal control system was designed and fabricated which contained prototypical cold plate and condenser designs. This prototype system was extensively tested and demonstrated to measure performance parameters such as power consumption, cooling capacity, system size and mass, and other key parameters. Finally, the experimental performance was input into the theoretical trade study allowing for a comparison of the actual performance of the low-lift heat pump to a single-phase pumped loop. Inputting the experimental low-lift heat pump performance into the trade study showed that the low-lift heat pump still has lower system mass than the single-phase pumped loop for all space temperatures considered. The experimental results very closely match the theoretical results used in the trade study.

  17. An optimized ground-coupled heat pump system design for northern climate applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catan, M.A.; Baxter, V.D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of the performance of a ground coupled heat pump (GCHP) system with a water-source heat pump package designed expressly for such systems operating in a northern climate. The project objective was to minimize the life-cycle cost of a GCHP system by optimizing the design of both the heat pump package and the group coil in concert. In order to achieve this objective, a number of modelling tools were developed to analyze the heat pump's performance and cost, and the ground coil's performance.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF COLD CLIMATE HEAT PUMP USING TWO-STAGE COMPRESSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses a well-regarded, hardware based heat pump system model to investigate a two-stage economizing cycle for cold climate heat pump applications. The two-stage compression cycle has two variable-speed compressors. The high stage compressor was modelled using a compressor map, and the low stage compressor was experimentally studied using calorimeter testing. A single-stage heat pump system was modelled as the baseline. The system performance predictions are compared between the two-stage and single-stage systems. Special considerations for designing a cold climate heat pump are addressed at both the system and component levels.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF THE HEAT PUMP MARKET IN POLAND IN RELATION TO NEW LEGAL REGULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wachowicz-Pyzik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Heat pump market in Poland is one of the most dynamically developing branches of renewable energy sources (RES. Installations using different types of low-temperature heat pumps are becoming more and more popular especially among owners of detached houses. The article presents the characteristics of the heat pump market in Poland in recent years. Most important changes introduced on 20 February 2015 in the Act on Renewable Energy Sources (Journal of Laws 2015 pos. 478, were discussed. Also future prospects associated with increased use of heat pumps installations in the face of new regulations were analyzed.

  20. Heat-pump performance: voltage dip/sag, under-voltage and over-voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J.B. Heffernan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Reverse cycle air-source heat-pumps are an increasingly significant load in New Zealand and in many other countries. This has raised concern over the impact wide-spread use of heat-pumps may have on the grid. The characteristics of the loads connected to the power system are changing because of heat-pumps. Their performance during under-voltage events such as voltage dips has the potential to compound the event and possibly cause voltage collapse. In this study, results from testing six heat-pumps are presented to assess their performance at various voltages and hence their impact on voltage stability.

  1. The cost-effectiveness of heat pumps in specific buildings in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greyvenstein, G.P.; Meyer, J.P. (Potchefstroom Univ. for CHE (South Africa). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1993-09-01

    Water heating heat pumps are extremely energy efficient and large savings can be realized when they are compared to direct electrical resistance heaters. In spite of the energy efficiency of heat pumps, a large number of residential buildings in South Africa still use electrical heaters to heat water. The reason for this is that heat pumps are considerably more expensive than electrical heaters. Building owners tend to choose the system with the smallest initial cost and do not compare the two systems on the basis of life-cycle cost. It is also difficult to calculate the life-cycle cost of a heat pump because it depends on many factors like climatological conditions and water temperature. In this paper a methodology is developed to calculate the life-cycle cost of a heat pump hot water installation. The model is used to investigate the effect of daily runtime, electricity tariff, hot water consumption and geographical location on the cost-effectiveness of heat pumps. The cost-effectiveness of heat pumps increases with daily run time, water consumption and electricity tariff. Heat pumps are more cost-effective near the coast than in the interior. If sized correctly, heat pumps are more cost-effective than electrical heaters for all major cities in South Africa. The cost-effectiveness of heat pumps for two specific buildings, one a university student hostel in Potchefstroom and the other a hotel in Durban, is also investigated. For both cases it was found that heat pumps are more cost-effective than direct electrical resistance heaters. (author)

  2. Energy Optimization for Transcritical CO2 Heat Pump for Combined Heating and Cooling and Thermal Storage Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do Carmo, Carolina Madeira Ramos; Blarke, Morten; Yazawa, Kazuaki

    2012-01-01

    A transcritical heat pump (THP) cycle using carbon dioxide (CO2) as the refrigerant is known to feature an excellent coefficient of performance (COP) as a thermodynamic system. Using this feature, we are designing and building a system that combines a water-to-water CO2 heat pump with both hot an...

  3. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, Carl [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norfolk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, Srikanth [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norfolk, CT (United States)

    2016-02-05

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publically available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring(TM), A.O. Smith Voltex(R), and Stiebel Eltron Accelera(R) 300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

  4. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.

    2013-08-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring(tm), A.O. Smith Voltex(r), and Stiebel Eltron Accelera(r)300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

  5. Finite time exergoeconomic performance optimization for an irreversible universal steady flow variable-temperature heat reservoir heat pump cycle model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijun Feng, Lingen Chen, Fengrui Sun

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available An irreversible universal steady flow heat pump cycle model with variable-temperature heat reservoirs and the losses of heat-resistance and internal irreversibility is established by using the theory of finite time thermodynamics. The universal heat pump cycle model consists of two heat-absorbing branches, two heat-releasing branches and two adiabatic branches. Expressions of heating load, coefficient of performance (COP and profit rate of the universal heat pump cycle model are derived, respectively. By means of numerical calculations, heat conductance distributions between hot- and cold-side heat exchangers are optimized by taking the maximum profit rate as objective. There exist an optimal heat conductance distribution and an optimal thermal capacity rate matching between the working fluid and heat reservoirs which lead to a double maximum profit rate. The effects of internal irreversibility, total heat exchanger inventory, thermal capacity rate of the working fluid and heat capacity ratio of the heat reservoirs on the optimal finite time exergoeconomic performance of the cycle are discussed in detail. The results obtained herein include the optimal finite time exergoeconomic performances of endoreversible and irreversible, constant- and variable-temperature heat reservoir Brayton, Otto, Diesel, Atkinson, Dual, Miller and Carnot heat pump cycles.

  6. Metal hydride heat pump engineering demonstration and evaluation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Franklin E.

    1993-01-01

    Future generations of portable life support systems (PLSS's) for space suites (extravehicular mobility units or EMU's) may require regenerable nonventing thermal sinks (RNTS's). For purposes of mobility, a PLSS must be as light and compact as possible. Previous venting PLSS's have employed water sublimators to reject metabolic and equipment heat from EMU's. It is desirable for long-duration future space missions to minimize the use of water and other consumables that need to be periodically resupplied. The emission of water vapor also interferes with some types of instrumentation that might be used in future space exploration. The test article is a type of RNTS based on a metal hydride heat pump (MHHP). The task of reservicing EMU's after use must be made less demanding in terms of time, procedures, and equipment. The capability for quick turnaround post-EVA servicing (30 minutes) is a challenging requirement for many of the RNTS options. The MHHP is a very simple option that can be regenerated in the airlock within the 30 minute limit by the application of a heating source and a cooling sink. In addition, advanced PLSS's must provide a greater degree of automatic control, relieving astronauts of the need to manually adjust temperatures in their liquid cooled ventilation garments (LCVG's). The MHHP includes automatic coolant controls with the ability to follow thermal load swings from minimum to maximum in seconds. The MHHP includes a coolant loop subsystem with pump and controls, regeneration equipment for post-EVA servicing, and a PC-based data acquisition and control system (DACS).

  7. Earliest Deadline Control of a Group of Heat Pumps with a Single Energy Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Fink

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop and investigate the optimal control of a group of 104 heat pumps and a central Combined Heat and Power unit (CHP. The heat pumps supply space heating and domestic hot water to households. Each house has a buffer for domestic hot water and a floor heating system for space heating. Electricity for the heat pumps is generated by a central CHP unit, which also provides thermal energy to a district heating system. The paper reviews recent smart grid control approaches for central and distributed levels. An online algorithm is described based on the earliest deadline first theory that can be used on the aggregator level to control the CHP and to give signals to the heat pump controllers if they should start or should wait. The central controller requires only a limited amount of privacy-insensitive information from the heat pump controllers about their deadlines, which the heat pump controllers calculate for themselves by model predictions. In this way, a robust heat pump and CHP control is obtained, which is able to minimize energy demand and results in the desired thermal comfort for the households. The simulations demonstrate fast computation times due to minor computational and communication overheads.

  8. A Liquid-Liquid Thermoelectric Heat Exchanger as a Heat Pump for Testing Phase Change Material Heat Exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Rubik B.; Makinen, Janice; Le, Hung V.

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective of the Phase Change HX payload on the International Space Station (ISS) is to test and demonstrate the viability and performance of Phase Change Material Heat Exchangers (PCM HX). The system was required to pump a working fluid through a PCM HX to promote the phase change material to freeze and thaw as expected on Orion's Multipurpose Crew Vehicle. Due to limitations on ISS's Internal Thermal Control System, a heat pump was needed on the Phase Change HX payload to help with reducing the working fluid's temperature to below 0degC (32degF). This paper will review the design and development of a TEC based liquid-liquid heat exchanger as a way to vary to fluid temperature for the freeze and thaw phase of the PCM HX. Specifically, the paper will review the design of custom coldplates and sizing for the required heat removal of the HX.

  9. Ground Source Heat Pump Sub-Slab Heat Exchange Loop Performance in a Cold Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittereder, Nick [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Poerschke, Andrew [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report presents a cold-climate project that examines an alternative approach to ground source heat pump (GSHP) ground loop design. The innovative ground loop design is an attempt to reduce the installed cost of the ground loop heat exchange portion of the system by containing the entire ground loop within the excavated location beneath the basement slab. Prior to the installation and operation of the sub-slab heat exchanger, energy modeling using TRNSYS software and concurrent design efforts were performed to determine the size and orientation of the system. One key parameter in the design is the installation of the GSHP in a low-load home, which considerably reduces the needed capacity of the ground loop heat exchanger. This report analyzes data from two cooling seasons and one heating season.

  10. Operation Performance of Air Source Heat Pump System for Space Heating in Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jun; CHEN Yan; QU Hang; LI Xinguo

    2007-01-01

    An air source heat pump system (ASHPS) used in an office building is set up and studied experimentally. Its operating performance in winter is evaluated based on test data and a comparative discussion is given on the effect of climate conditions and heating load ratio on the operation behavior.Then heating capacity variation caused by evaporator frosting is analyzed as well. Finally, the defrosting parameters and the technical feasibility are studied for a constant heating demand. The experimental results indicate that both the outlet water temperature drop and the system COP should be taken into account when setting defrosting parameters, and ASHPS is a viable technology for space heating and hotwater production in winter in Tianjin, which can maintain the room temperature above 19 ℃ when the outdoor temperature is -2 ℃.

  11. Ground Source Integrated Heat Pump (GS-IHP) Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, V. D. [ORNL; Rice, K. [ORNL; Murphy, R. [ORNL; Munk, J. [ORNL; Ally, Moonis [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL; Craddick, William [ORNL; Hearn, Shawn A. [ClimateMaster, Inc.

    2013-05-24

    Between October 2008 and May 2013 ORNL and ClimateMaster, Inc. (CM) engaged in a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop a groundsource integrated heat pump (GS-IHP) system for the US residential market. A initial prototype was designed and fabricated, lab-tested, and modeled in TRNSYS (SOLAR Energy Laboratory, et al, 2010) to predict annual performance relative to 1) a baseline suite of equipment meeting minimum efficiency standards in effect in 2006 (combination of air-source heat pump (ASHP) and resistance water heater) and 2) a state-of-the-art (SOA) two-capacity ground-source heat pump with desuperheater water heater (WH) option (GSHPwDS). Predicted total annual energy savings, while providing space conditioning and water heating for a 2600 ft{sup 2} (242 m{sup 2}) house at 5 U.S. locations, ranged from 52 to 59%, averaging 55%, relative to the minimum efficiency suite. Predicted energy use for water heating was reduced 68 to 78% relative to resistance WH. Predicted total annual savings for the GSHPwDS relative to the same baseline averaged 22.6% with water heating energy use reduced by 10 to 30% from desuperheater contributions. The 1st generation (or alpha) prototype design for the GS-IHP was finalized in 2010 and field test samples were fabricated for testing by CM and by ORNL. Two of the alpha units were installed in 3700 ft{sup 2} (345 m{sup 2}) houses at the ZEBRAlliance site in Oak Ridge and field tested during 2011. Based on the steady-state performance demonstrated by the GS-IHPs it was projected that it would achieve >52% energy savings relative to the minimum efficiency suite at this specific site. A number of operational issues with the alpha units were identified indicating design changes needed to the system before market introduction could be accomplished. These were communicated to CM throughout the field test period. Based on the alpha unit test results and the diagnostic information coming from the field test

  12. Comfortable, high-efficiency heat pump with desiccant-coated, water-sorbing heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Y. D.; Wang, R. Z.; Ge, T. S.; Zheng, X.

    2017-01-01

    Comfortable, efficient, and affordable heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems in buildings are highly desirable due to the demands of energy efficiency and environmental friendliness. Traditional vapor-compression air conditioners exhibit a lower coefficient of performance (COP) (typically 2.8-3.8) owing to the cooling-based dehumidification methods that handle both sensible and latent loads together. Temperature- and humidity-independent control or desiccant systems have been proposed to overcome these challenges; however, the COP of current desiccant systems is quite small and additional heat sources are usually needed. Here, we report on a desiccant-enhanced, direct expansion heat pump based on a water-sorbing heat exchanger with a desiccant coating that exhibits an ultrahigh COP value of more than 7 without sacrificing any comfort or compactness. The pump’s efficiency is doubled compared to that of pumps currently used in conventional room air conditioners, which is a revolutionary HVAC breakthrough. Our proposed water-sorbing heat exchanger can independently handle sensible and latent loads at the same time. The desiccants adsorb moisture almost isothermally and can be regenerated by condensation heat. This new approach opens up the possibility of achieving ultrahigh efficiency for a broad range of temperature- and humidity-control applications.

  13. Comfortable, high-efficiency heat pump with desiccant-coated, water-sorbing heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Y. D.; Wang, R. Z.; Ge, T. S.; Zheng, X.

    2017-01-01

    Comfortable, efficient, and affordable heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems in buildings are highly desirable due to the demands of energy efficiency and environmental friendliness. Traditional vapor-compression air conditioners exhibit a lower coefficient of performance (COP) (typically 2.8–3.8) owing to the cooling-based dehumidification methods that handle both sensible and latent loads together. Temperature- and humidity-independent control or desiccant systems have been proposed to overcome these challenges; however, the COP of current desiccant systems is quite small and additional heat sources are usually needed. Here, we report on a desiccant-enhanced, direct expansion heat pump based on a water-sorbing heat exchanger with a desiccant coating that exhibits an ultrahigh COP value of more than 7 without sacrificing any comfort or compactness. The pump’s efficiency is doubled compared to that of pumps currently used in conventional room air conditioners, which is a revolutionary HVAC breakthrough. Our proposed water-sorbing heat exchanger can independently handle sensible and latent loads at the same time. The desiccants adsorb moisture almost isothermally and can be regenerated by condensation heat. This new approach opens up the possibility of achieving ultrahigh efficiency for a broad range of temperature- and humidity-control applications. PMID:28079171

  14. Numerical analysis of heat exchange processes for the ground source heat pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, H.; Muto, H.; Moritani, S.; Kohgo, Y.; Hamamoto, S.; Takemura, T.; Ohnishi, J.; Komatsu, T.

    2012-12-01

    Ground source heat pump systems (GSHP) use ground or groundwater as a heat source. They can achieve much higher coefficient of performance (COP) than conventional air source heat pump systems because the temperature of the ground is much more stable than that of the air. Heat energy in the ground is then viewed as one of the renewable energy sources. GSHP has been receiving great interests among countries in North America and Western Europe, as well as some developed countries in Asia because it can potentially reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission. While GSHP can inject heat from the buildings to the ground for cooling during the summer, it can pump heat stored in the ground for heating during the winter. As some physical, chemical, and biological properties of the ground and groundwater are temperature dependent, running GSHP can eventually affect groundwater quality. The main objective of this project was to develop a model that allows predicting not only ground and groundwater temperatures but also changes in physical, chemical, and biological properties of ground and groundwater with GSHP under operations. This particular study aims at simulating heat exchange and transfer processes in the ground for a vertical-loop closed GSHP system. In the closed GSHP system, an anti-freezing solution is circulated inside the closed-loop tube, called U-tube, that is buried in the ground. Heat is then transferred to the anti-freezing solution in the U-tube by a heat exchanger. In this study we used HYDRUS to predict temperature of the anti-freezing solution, as well as that of the ground. HYDRUS allows one to simulate variably-saturated water flow and solute and heat transport in porous media numerically in two- and three-dimensional domains with great flexibility in defining boundary conditions. At first changes in anti-freezing solution temperatures measured were predicted in response to Thermal Response Test (TRT) conducted at our study site. Then, heat

  15. Development of an Ionic-Liquid Absorption Heat Pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, Don

    2011-03-29

    Solar Fueled Products (SFP) is developing an innovative ionic-liquid absorption heat pump (ILAHP). The development of an ILAHP is extremely significant, as it could result in annual savings of more than 190 billion kW h of electrical energy and $19 billion. This absorption cooler uses about 75 percent less electricity than conventional cooling and heating units. The ILAHP also has significant environmental sustainability benefits, due to reduced CO2 emissions. Phase I established the feasibility and showed the economic viability of an ILAHP with these key accomplishments: • Used the breakthrough capabilities provided by ionic liquids which overcome the key difficulties of the common absorption coolers. • Showed that the theoretical thermodynamic performance of an ILAHP is similar to existing absorption-cooling systems. • Established that the half-effect absorption cycle reduces the peak generator temperature, improving collector efficiency and reducing collector area. • Component testing demonstrated that the most critical components, absorber and generator, operate well with conventional heat exchangers. • Showed the economic viability of an ILAHP. The significant energy savings, sustainability benefits, and economic viability are compelling reasons to continue the ILAHP development.

  16. Thermodynamic characteristics of a Brownian heat pump in a spatially periodic temperature field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper has studied the thermodynamic performance of a thermal Brownian heat pump,which consists of Brownian particles moving at a periodic sawtooth potential with external forces and contacting with the alternating hot and cold reservoirs along the space coordinate.The heat flows driven by both potential and kinetic energies are taken into account.The analytical expressions for the heating load,coefficient of performance(COP) and power input of the Brownian heat pump are derived and the performance characteristics are obtained by numerical calculations.It is shown that due to the heat flow via the change of kinetic energy of the particles,the Brownian heat pump is always irreversible and the COP can never attain the Carnot COP.The study has also investigated the influences of the operating parameters,i.e.the external force,barrier height of the potential,asymmetry of the sawtooth potential and temperature ratio of the heat reservoirs,on the performance of the Brownian heat pump.The effective regions of external force and barrier height of the potential in which the Brownian motor can operates as a heat pump are determined.The results show that the performance of the Brownian heat pump greatly depends on the parameters;if the parameters are properly chosen,the Brownian heat pump may be controlled to operate in the optimal regimes.

  17. Optimizations of spin-exchange relaxation-free magnetometer based on potassium and rubidium hybrid optical pumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jiancheng; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Hong; Li, Yang; Zou, Sheng

    2014-12-01

    The hybrid optical pumping atomic magnetometers have not realized its theoretical sensitivity, the optimization is critical for optimal performance. The optimizations proposed in this paper are suitable for hybrid optical pumping atomic magnetometer, which contains two alkali species. To optimize the parameters, the dynamic equations of spin evolution with two alkali species were solved, whose steady-state solution is used to optimize the parameters. The demand of the power of the pump beam is large for hybrid optical pumping. Moreover, the sensitivity of the hybrid optical pumping magnetometer increases with the increase of the power density of the pump beam. The density ratio between the two alkali species is especially important for hybrid optical pumping magnetometer. A simple expression for optimizing the density ratio is proposed in this paper, which can help to determine the mole faction of the alkali atoms in fabricating the hybrid cell before the cell is sealed. The spin-exchange rate between the two alkali species is proportional to the saturated density of the alkali vapor, which is highly dependent on the temperature of the cell. Consequently, the sensitivity of the hybrid optical pumping magnetometer is dependent on the temperature of the cell. We proposed the thermal optimization of the hybrid cell for a hybrid optical pumping magnetometer, which can improve the sensitivity especially when the power of the pump beam is low. With these optimizations, a sensitivity of approximately 5 fT/Hz(1/2) is achieved with gradiometer arrangement.

  18. WEXA: exergy analysis for increasing the efficiency of air/water heat pumps - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasser, L.; Wellig, B.; Hilfiker, K.

    2008-04-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study at the made by the Engineering and Architecture department at the Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts. The subject of the WEXA study (Waermepumpen-Exergie-Analyse - heat pump exergy analysis) is the analysis of the operation of air/water heat-pumps using exergy analysis methods. The basic thermodynamics of heating systems using heat-pumps is discussed. The exergy analyses and exergy balances for the various components and processes of an air/water heat-pump are presented and discussed. Comparisons are presented for heat-pumps with on/off and continuous control systems for their compressors and fans. The paper is concluded with a collection of appendices on the subject.

  19. Heat Pumps in Subarctic Areas: Current Status and Benefits of Use in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atlason, Reynir Smari; Oddsson, Gudmundur Valur; Unnthorsson, Runar

    2017-01-01

    Geothermal heat pumps use the temperature difference between inside and outside areas to modify a refrigerant, either for heating or cooling. Doing so can lower the need for external heating energy for a household to some extent. The eventual impact depends on various factors, such as the external...... source for heating or cooling and the temperature difference. The use of geothermal heat pumps, and eventual benefits has not been studied in the context of frigid areas, such as in Iceland. In Iceland, only remote areas do not have access to district heating from geothermal energy where households may...... therefor benefit from using geothermal heat pumps. It is the intent of this study to explore the observed benefits of using geothermal heat pumps in Iceland, both financially and energetically. This study further elaborates on incentives provided by the Icelandic government. Real data was gathered from...

  20. Program listing for heat-pump seasonal-performance model (SPM). [CNHSPM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-06-30

    The computer program CNHSPM is listed which predicts heat pump seasonal energy consumption (including defrost, cyclic degradation, and supplementary heat) using steady state rating point performance and binned weather data. (LEW)

  1. Heat Pump Drying of Fruits and Vegetables: Principles and Potentials for Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayose, Folasayo; Huan, Zhongjie

    2016-01-01

    Heat pump technology has been used for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning in domestic and industrial sectors in most developed countries of the world including South Africa. However, heat pump drying (HPD) of fruits and vegetables has been largely unexploited in South Africa and by extension to the sub-Saharan African region. Although studies on heat pump drying started in South Africa several years ago, not much progress has been recorded to date. Many potential users view heat pump drying technology as fragile, slow, and high capital intensive when compared with conventional dryer. This paper tried to divulge the principles and potentials of heat pump drying technology and the conditions for its optimum use. Also, various methods of quantifying performances during heat pump drying as well as the quality of the dried products are highlighted. Necessary factors for maximizing the capacity and efficiency of a heat pump dryer were identified. Finally, the erroneous view that heat pump drying is not feasible economically in sub-Saharan Africa was clarified. PMID:26904668

  2. Heat Pump Drying of Fruits and Vegetables: Principles and Potentials for Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayose, Folasayo; Huan, Zhongjie

    2016-01-01

    Heat pump technology has been used for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning in domestic and industrial sectors in most developed countries of the world including South Africa. However, heat pump drying (HPD) of fruits and vegetables has been largely unexploited in South Africa and by extension to the sub-Saharan African region. Although studies on heat pump drying started in South Africa several years ago, not much progress has been recorded to date. Many potential users view heat pump drying technology as fragile, slow, and high capital intensive when compared with conventional dryer. This paper tried to divulge the principles and potentials of heat pump drying technology and the conditions for its optimum use. Also, various methods of quantifying performances during heat pump drying as well as the quality of the dried products are highlighted. Necessary factors for maximizing the capacity and efficiency of a heat pump dryer were identified. Finally, the erroneous view that heat pump drying is not feasible economically in sub-Saharan Africa was clarified.

  3. Heat pumps: Industrial applications. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning design, development, and applications of heat pumps for industrial processes. Included are thermal energy exchanges based on air-to-air, ground-coupled, air-to-water, and water-to-water systems. Specific applications include industrial process heat, drying, district heating, and waste processing plants. Other Published Searches in this series cover heat pump technology and economics, and heat pumps for residential and commercial applications. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  4. Apartment block with heat-pumps and solar energy; Mit Waermepumpe und Sonnenenergienutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haltiner, E. W.

    2008-07-01

    This article takes a look at how the owner of an apartment block in Zurich, Switzerland has moved away from conventional heating-oil and installed two air/water heat pumps and 36 m{sup 2} of solar collectors to provide the necessary heating power and domestic hot water. The new installation, which also features speed-controlled circulation pumps in the heating circuit is briefly described. Subsidies received and tax-saving aspects are discussed. The heat pumps, which use the Enhanced Vapour Injection EVI system are briefly looked at. This system allows higher flow temperatures to be attained.

  5. Heat pumps and technological innovation: Civil use in 80's (2nd part)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R. (Bari Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Tecnica ed Impianti Termotecnici)

    1990-10-01

    Absorption heat pumps have rapidly spread as prototypes in machines used over the year with an excellent power performance. Developments concerning engines are also interesting, mainly in the light of a fresh interest for the Stirling. Research in the field of substances is considerable, both to find more suitable substances from a thermodynamic point of view and to replace chlorofluorocarbons which endanger the ozone layer. Important developments have also occurred in the recovery of heat build-ups in the ground and in roofs as sources for heat pumps, whereas, in some countries, more attention is paid to the use of heat pumps for district heating.

  6. Energy saving with heat pumps in indoor swimming pools; Energiebesparing met warmtepompen in overdekte zwembaden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langreck, J. [Colibri, Vaals (Netherlands)

    1997-01-01

    The article is based on the results of a study in which heat pumps and heat recovery equipment for indoor swimming pools are compared. By means of an average, reference indoor swimming pool the effects of energy savings and costs of different combinations of equipment are compared. It is concluded that more energy can be saved by a heat pump than by a heat recovery installation, although the payback period is longer for heat pumps. In all cases, an individual optimization of the total system for a specific swimming pool is decisive for the success of the energy saving investment costs. 3 figs., 1 ill., 2 tabs.

  7. COMPARATIVE EFFICIENCY OF HEAT-PUMPS APPLICATION IN LOW TEMPERATURE HEAT SUPPLY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Chepurnoy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The  article  considers  comparative  operation-efficiency  of  the  low-temperature  heatsupply systems with heat pumping plants (HPP and with hot-water boilers. The paper shows that for energy evaluation of the alternative heat-supply systems effectiveness one cannot employ the transformation ratio (heating coefficient and the fuel heat-utilization factor in the HPP. Nonetheless the transformation ratio enters the formulae designating the efficiency of HPP operation. The authors obtain a generalized formula for ascertainment of transformation ratio and suggest evaluating the operation efficiency of the heat-supply systems by means of indicators specifying relative gain in the exergy-efficiency factor, fuel savings and saving expenditures connected with fuel and utilities. They attain formulae and build nomographic charts for those indicators ascertainment. The operation-efficiency comparative analysis of the low-temperature heat supply systems with HPP and with hot-water boilers shows that the HPP systems increase their effectiveness with transformation ratio, fuel price increase as well as with low electric-energy prices. The article specifies that with fuel low prices, the transformation-ratios limiting values with which the HPP operation-efficacy gains, grow. Energy-efficiency increase in the HPP does not always guaranty their economic effectiveness. These findings are true only for the heating systems. The hot water-supply systems will require the HPP condenser water additional heating to the assumed temperature from another thermal source, which reduces the effectiveness of the heat pump plants utilizing.

  8. Solar-assisted heat pump research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, A.R.; Karayiannis, T.G. (South Bank Univ., London (United Kingdom). School of Engineering and Design)

    1994-01-01

    The main findings of a detailed literature search on solar-assisted heat pumps (SAHP) are presented. The various system types are described and the relevant performance criteria by which systems can be assessed are defined. While most work in the literature has focused on series systems there is no evidence that these can compete with parallel systems, either in non-purchased energy delivery or, more significantly, in cost. Efforts to improve control strategies for series systems are unable to achieve better performance. Technology is sufficiently advanced to exploit the best of these systems if the economic climate becomes favourable. Some suggestions are advanced as to where future research effort can make a useful contribution. (author)

  9. Transient analysis of a capillary pumped loop heat pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiper, A. M.; Feric, G.; Anjum, M. I.; Swanson, T. D.

    1990-01-01

    A bench-top Capillary Pumped Loop (CPL) test system has been developed and tested to investigate the transient mode operation of this system by applying a step power input to the evaporators. Tests were conducted at several power input and evaporator inlet subcooling combinations. In addition, a lumped-heat-capacity model of the CPL test system has been presented which is used for predicting qualitatively the transient operation characteristics. Good agreement has been obtained between the predicted and the measured temperature variations. A simple evaporator inlet subcooler model has also been developed to study effects of inlet subcooling on the steady-state evaporator wall temperature. Results were compared with the test data collected.

  10. Low-power communication with a photonic heat pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Duanni; Santhanam, Parthiban; Ram, Rajeev J

    2014-12-15

    An optical communication channel is constructed using a heated thermo-electrically pumped, high efficiency infrared light-emitting diode (LED). In these devices, electro-luminescent cooling is observed, resulting in greater than unity (> 100%) efficiency in converting electrical power to optical power. The average amount of electrical energy required to generate a photon (4.3 meV) is much less than the optical energy in that photon (520 meV). Such a light source can serve as a test-bed for fundamental studies of energy-efficient bosonic communication channels. In this low energy consumption mode, we demonstrate data transmission at 3 kilobits per second (kbps) with only 120 picowatts of input electric power. Although the channel employs a mid-infrared source with limited quantum efficiency, a binary digit can be communicated using 40 femtojoules with a bit error rate of 3 x 10-3.

  11. MODELING OF THE HEAT PUMP STATION ADJUSTABLE LOOP OF AN INTERMEDIATE HEAT-TRANSFER AGENT (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit B.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available There are examined equations of dynamics and statics of an adjustable intermediate loop of heat pump carbon dioxide station in this paper. Heat pump station is a part of the combined heat supply system. Control of transferred thermal capacity from the source of low potential heat source is realized by means of changing the speed of circulation of a liquid in the loop and changing the area of a heat-transmitting surface, both in the evaporator, and in the intermediate heat exchanger depending on the operating parameter, for example, external air temperature and wind speed.

  12. Ground Source Heat Pump Sub-Slab Heat Exchange Loop Performance in a Cold Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittereder, N.; Poerschke, A.

    2013-11-01

    This report presents a cold-climate project that examines an alternative approach to ground source heat pump (GSHP) ground loop design. The innovative ground loop design is an attempt to reduce the installed cost of the ground loop heat exchange portion of the system by containing the entire ground loop within the excavated location beneath the basement slab. Prior to the installation and operation of the sub-slab heat exchanger, energy modeling using TRNSYS software and concurrent design efforts were performed to determine the size and orientation of the system. One key parameter in the design is the installation of the GSHP in a low-load home, which considerably reduces the needed capacity of the ground loop heat exchanger. This report analyzes data from two cooling seasons and one heating season. Upon completion of the monitoring phase, measurements revealed that the initial TRNSYS simulated horizontal sub-slab ground loop heat exchanger fluid temperatures and heat transfer rates differed from the measured values. To determine the cause of this discrepancy, an updated model was developed utilizing a new TRNSYS subroutine for simulating sub-slab heat exchangers. Measurements of fluid temperature, soil temperature, and heat transfer were used to validate the updated model.

  13. Energy Savings and Peak Demand Reduction of a SEER 21 Heat Pump vs. a SEER 13 Heat Pump with Attic and Indoor Duct Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, J.; Withers, C.

    2014-03-01

    This report describes results of experiments that were conducted in an unoccupied 1600 square foot house--the Manufactured Housing (MH Lab) at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC)--to evaluate the delivered performance as well as the relative performance of a SEER 21 variable capacity heat pump versus a SEER 13 heat pump. The performance was evaluated with two different duct systems: a standard attic duct system and an indoor duct system located in a dropped-ceiling space.

  14. Environmentally friendly heat from modern heating technology. Optimal heat distribution using jet pumps; Umweltschonende Waerme durch moderne Heiztechnik. Optimale Waermeverteilung mit Strahlpumpen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilpper, Renate; Baelz, Uwe [W. Baelz und Sohn GmbH und Co., Heilbronn (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    The wood chip fired district heating plant in Olang in South Tyrol produces environmentally friendly heat from domestic wood. Its heat is delivered directly to the consumer using electricity-saving, durable jet pumps in combination with reliable, low-maintenance heating equipment as well as modern control technology. Consumers can regulate the jet pumps individually and use the heat optimally according to their demand.

  15. Heat-capacity measurements on small samples: The hybrid method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaasse, J.C.P.; Brück, E.H.

    2008-01-01

    A newly developed method is presented for measuring heat capacities on small samples, particularly where thermal isolation is not sufficient for the use of the traditional semiadiabatic heat-pulse technique. This "hybrid technique" is a modification of this heat-pulse method in case the temperature

  16. Heat-capacity measurements on small samples: The hybrid method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaasse, J.C.P.; Brück, E.H.

    2008-01-01

    A newly developed method is presented for measuring heat capacities on small samples, particularly where thermal isolation is not sufficient for the use of the traditional semiadiabatic heat-pulse technique. This "hybrid technique" is a modification of this heat-pulse method in case the temperature

  17. Development of hybrid solar-assisted cooling/heating system

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.

    2010-08-01

    A solar-assisted ejector cooling/heating system (SACH) was developed in this study. The SACH combines a pump-less ejector cooling system (ECS) with an inverter-type heat pump (R22) and is able to provide a stable capacity for space cooling. The ECS is driven by solar heat and is used to cool the condenser of the R22 heat pump to increase its COP and reduce the energy consumption of the compressor by regulating the rotational speed of the compressor through a control system. In a complete SACH system test run at outdoor temperature 35 °C, indoor temperature 25 °C and compressor speed 20-80 Hz, and the ECS operating at generator temperature 90 °C and condensing temperature 37 °C, the corresponding condensing temperature of the heat pump in the SACH is 24.5-42 °C, cooling capacity 1.02-2.44 kW, input power 0.20-0.98 kW, and cooling COPc 5.11-2.50. This indicates that the use of ECS in SACH can effectively reduce the condensing temperature of the heat pump by 12.6-7.3 °C and reduce the power consumption by 81.2-34.5%. The SACH can also supply heat from the heat pump. At ambient temperature from 5 °C to 35 °C, the heating COPh is in the range 2.0-3.3. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Oak Ridge Heat Pump Models: I. A Steady-State Computer Design Model of Air-to-Air Heat Pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, S.K. Rice, C.K.

    1999-12-10

    The ORNL Heat Pump Design Model is a FORTRAN-IV computer program to predict the steady-state performance of conventional, vapor compression, electrically-driven, air-to-air heat pumps in both heating and cooling modes. This model is intended to serve as an analytical design tool for use by heat pump manufacturers, consulting engineers, research institutions, and universities in studies directed toward the improvement of heat pump performance. The Heat Pump Design Model allows the user to specify: system operating conditions, compressor characteristics, refrigerant flow control devices, fin-and-tube heat exchanger parameters, fan and indoor duct characteristics, and any of ten refrigerants. The model will compute: system capacity and COP (or EER), compressor and fan motor power consumptions, coil outlet air dry- and wet-bulb temperatures, air- and refrigerant-side pressure drops, a summary of the refrigerant-side states throughout the cycle, and overall compressor efficiencies and heat exchanger effectiveness. This report provides thorough documentation of how to use and/or modify the model. This is a revision of an earlier report containing miscellaneous corrections and information on availability and distribution of the model--including an interactive version.

  19. Performance study of a heat pump dryer system for speciality crops - Pt. 1: development of a simulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adapa, P.K.; Schoenau, G.J.; Sokhansanj, S. [University of Saskatchewan (Canada). College of Engineering

    2002-07-01

    This research is concerned with the technology of heat pump assisted drying of specialty crops. A simplified procedure for modelling the performance of a low temperature heat pump dryer was developed. The system modelled consists of a vapour compression heat pump coupled to a continuous cross flow bed dryer. The model takes into account the detailed heat and mass transfer phenomena taking place in the heat pump and dryer circuits. (author)

  20. District heating and gas engine heat pump: Economic analysis based on a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.; Noro, M. [Department of Management and Engineering, University of Padova, Stradella, S. Nicola, 3, 36100 Vicenza (Italy)

    2006-02-01

    'S. Nicola' HVAC plant in Vicenza features innovative and significant energy savings characteristics. It has been set up by a gas engine heat pump (coupled to two condensing boilers) whose performances are here evaluated during three years of operation. Due to a grid expansion, the University received the offer of being connected to the district heating grid. This possibility that is often considered advantageous was economically evaluated. As a result of this, a significant increasing of the building annual energy bill was demonstrated in case of acceptance. (author)