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Sample records for hybrid grass carp

  1. The formation of diploid and triploid hybrids of female grass carp × male blunt snout bream and their 5S rDNA analysis.

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    He, Weiguo; Xie, Lihua; Li, Tangluo; Liu, Shaojun; Xiao, Jun; Hu, Jie; Wang, Jing; Qin, Qinbo; Liu, Yun

    2013-11-23

    Hybridization is a useful strategy to alter the genotypes and phenotypes of the offspring. It could transfer the genome of one species to another through combing the different genome of parents in the hybrid offspring. And the offspring may exhibit advantages in growth rate, disease resistance, survival rate and appearance, which resulting from the combination of the beneficial traits from both parents. Diploid and triploid hybrids of female grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus, GC, Cyprininae, 2n = 48) × male blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala, BSB, Cultrinae, 2n = 48) were successfully obtained by distant hybridization. Diploid hybrids had 48 chromosomes, with one set from GC and one set from BSB. Triploid hybrids possessed 72 chromosomes, with two sets from GC and one set from BSB.The morphological traits, growth rates, and feeding ecology of the parents and hybrid offspring were compared and analyzed. The two kinds of hybrid offspring exhibited significantly phenotypic divergence from GC and BSB. 2nGB hybrids showed similar growth rate compared to that of GC, and 3nGB hybrids significantly higher results. Furthermore, the feeding ecology of hybrid progeny was omnivorous.The 5S rDNA of GC, BSB and their hybrid offspring were also cloned and sequenced. There was only one type of 5S rDNA (designated type I: 180 bp) in GC and one type of 5S rDNA (designated type II: 188 bp) in BSB. However, in the hybrid progeny, diploid and triploid hybrids both inherited type I and type II from their parents, respectively. In addition, a chimera of type I and type II was observed in the genome of diploid and triploid hybrids, excepting a 10 bp of polyA insertion in type II sequence of the chimera of the diploid hybrids. This is the first report of diploid and triploid hybrids being produced by crossing GC and BSB, which have the same chromosome number. The obtainment of two new hybrid offspring has significance in fish genetic breeding. The results illustrate the effect

  2. Insights into the Antiviral Immunity against Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella Reovirus (GCRV in Grass Carp

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    Youliang Rao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Global fish production from aquaculture has rapidly grown over the past decades, and grass carp shares the largest portion. However, hemorrhagic disease caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV results in tremendous loss of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella industry. During the past years, development of molecular biology and cellular biology technologies has promoted significant advances in the understanding of the pathogen and the immune system. Immunoprophylaxis based on stimulation of the immune system of fish has also got some achievements. In this review, authors summarize the recent progresses in basic researches on GCRV; viral nucleic acid sensors, high-mobility group box proteins (HMGBs; pattern recognition receptors (PRRs, Toll-like receptors (TLRs and retinoic acid inducible gene I- (RIG-I- like receptors (RLRs; antiviral immune responses induced by PRRs-mediated signaling cascades of type I interferon (IFN-I and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs activation. The present review also notices the potential applications of molecule genetic markers. Additionally, authors discuss the current preventive and therapeutic strategies (vaccines, RNAi, and prevention medicine and highlight the importance of innate immunity in long term control for grass carp hemorrhagic disease.

  3. History of introductions and governmental involvement in promoting the use of grass, silver, and bighead carps

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    Numerous natural resource agency and media reports have alleged that Asian carps were introduced into the wild through escapes from commercial fish farms. This presentation chronologically traces the introductions of Asian carps (grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys mol...

  4. MERCURY INTOXICATION IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA)

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The present project was carried out to study the effects of acute and chronic mercury intoxication in Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). For acute phase experiment, 48 fish were divided into four equal groups (A, B, C and D). Groups B, C and D were given HgCl2 at sublethal dose as 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 mg/L, respectively, while group A acted as control. Skin, gills and kidneys were isolated from the fish after 48 and 96 hours for pathological studies. For chronic phase, 72 fish were divided int...

  5. Nutritional value of cabbage and kikuyu grass as food for grass carp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional value of cabbage and kikuyu grass as food for grass carp,. Ctenopharyngodon idella Val. ... the Transkei, farming is the main economic activity. (Anon, 1980). .... Eds. Varshney, C.K. & Rzoska, J., The Hague, W. Junk.,. 315 pp.

  6. Serodiagnosis of grass carp reovirus infection in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella by a novel Western blot technique.

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    He, Yongxing; Jiang, Yousheng; Lu, Liqun

    2013-12-01

    Frequent outbreaks of grass carp hemorrhagic disease, caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection, pose as serious threats to the production of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. Although various nucleic acids-based diagnostic methods have been shown effective, lack of commercial monoclonal antibody against grass carp IgM has impeded the development of any reliable immunoassays in detection of GCRV infection. The present study describes the preparation and screening of monoclonal antibodies against the constant region of grass carp IgM protein, and the development of a Western blot (WB) protocol for the specific detection of antibodies against outer capsid VP7 protein of GCRV that serves as antibody-capture antigen in the immunoassay. In comparison to a conventional RT-PCR method, validity of the WB is further demonstrated by testing on clinical fish serum samples collected from a grass carp farm in Jiangxi Province during disease pandemic in 2011. In conclusion, the WB technique established in this study could be employed for specific serodiagnosis of GCRV infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Protective roles of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella Mx isoforms against grass carp reovirus.

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    Limin Peng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Myxovirus resistance (Mx proteins are crucial effectors of the innate antiviral response against a wide range of viruses, mediated by the type I interferon (IFN-I signaling pathway. However, the antiviral activity of Mx proteins is diverse and complicated in different species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the current study, two novel Mx genes (CiMx1 and CiMx3 were identified in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella. CiMx1 and CiMx3 proteins exhibit high sequence identity (92.1%, and low identity with CiMx2 (49.2% and 49.5%, respectively from the GenBank database. The predicted three-dimensional (3D structures are distinct among the three isoforms. mRNA instability motifs also display significant differences in the three genes. The spatial and temporal expression profiles of three C. idella Mx genes and the IFN-I gene were investigated by real-time fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR following infection with grass carp reovirus (GCRV in vivo and in vitro. The results demonstrated that all the four genes were implicated in the anti-GCRV immune response, that mRNA expression of Mx genes might be independent of IFN-I, and that CIK cells are suitable for antiviral studies. By comparing expression patterns following GCRV challenge or poly(I:C treatment, it was observed that GCRV blocks mRNA expression of the four genes. To determine the functions of Mx genes, three CiMx cDNAs were cloned into expression vectors and utilized for transfection of CIK cells. The protection conferred by each recombinant CiMx protein against GCRV infection was evaluated. Antiviral activity against GCRV was demonstrated by reduced cytopathic effect, lower virus titer and lower levels of expressed viral transcripts. The transcription of IFN-I gene was also monitored. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results indicate all three Mx genes can suppress replication of grass carp reovirus and over-expression of Mx genes mediate feedback inhibition of the IFN

  8. MERCURY INTOXICATION IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA

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    M. S. Khan, S. A. Khan, Z. I. Chaudhary, M. N. Khan,1 A. Aslam , K. Ashraf2, R. M. Ayyub and M. F. Rai.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present project was carried out to study the effects of acute and chronic mercury intoxication in Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella. For acute phase experiment, 48 fish were divided into four equal groups (A, B, C and D. Groups B, C and D were given HgCl2 at sublethal dose as 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 mg/L, respectively, while group A acted as control. Skin, gills and kidneys were isolated from the fish after 48 and 96 hours for pathological studies. For chronic phase, 72 fish were divided into five groups (E, F, G, H and I, containing 12 fish each except group E which contained 24 fish. Groups F, G, H and I were given HgCl2 at sublethal dose of 0.3 mg/L for 4, 8, 12 and 16 days, respectively, while group E acted as control. Skin, gills and kidneys were isolated from each group (F, G, H and I after 4, 8, 12 and 16 days respectively for pathological studies. During chronic phase in the treatment groups normal histology of epidermis was disturbed with increased number of immature cells. Overall, skin layers were atrophied and withered. Histopathology of gills showed hyperplasia of epithelial cells of gill filaments, fusion of secondary lamellae giving a club shaped appearance of filaments and contraction and sloughing of respiratory epithelium in groups F, G, H and I. Histopathological examination of kidneys also showed a wide range of toxicity lesions and destruction in treatment groups (F, G, H and I. Disintegration and disorganization of cells of both renal and haemopoitic systems including dilatation of capillaries and thickening of basal lumen were observed. Mild to sever tubular epithelial degeneration, karyolysis, dilation and shrinkage of Bowman’s capsule and glomerulus were also observed. In chronic phase experiment, fish showed clinical signs including restlessness, difficult breathing, fin flickering and jerky movements. Suppressed growth rate was also observed in treatment groups (F, G, H and I. During acute phase, after 48 hours, these

  9. Molecular cloning of the MARCH family in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and their response to grass carp reovirus challenge.

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    Ou, Mi; Huang, Rong; Xiong, Lv; Luo, Lifei; Chen, Geng; Liao, Lanjie; Li, Yongming; He, Libo; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping

    2017-02-20

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is an economical aquaculture species in China, and the Grass Carp Reovirus (GCRV) that causes hemorrhagic disease seriously affects the grass carp cultivation industry. Substantial evidence indicates that there is an association between the membrane-associated RING-CH family of E3 ligase (MARCH) family and immune defense in mammals, while functional studies on non-mammalian MARCH proteins are limited. In order to know the characteristics of the MARCH genes in C. idellus, eight MARCH genes (MARCH1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 11) were cloned and the open reading frames (ORF) were identified in grass carp. All MARCH proteins in grass carp contained an RING-CH domain, which is characteristic of the MARCH protein. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that different MARCH proteins gathered into their separate clusters. All eight members of the MARCH gene family were detected in all tissues sampled, but the relative expression level differed. In addition, the mRNA expression of all the MARCHs was regulated at different levels in the immune organs after a GCRV challenge, and they responded robustly in both the intestine and liver. The mRNA expression of MARCH8, MHC II, TfR, IL1RAP, EGR1, and DUSP1 in the intestine after GCRV infection was analyzed, and the results showed that MARCH8 could negatively regulate TfR, IL1RAP, EGR1, and DUSP1, which signaled via the MAPK or NF-κB-activation pathways that play vital roles in immunity. Our findings identified a novel gene family in C. idellus and provided novel evidence that MARCH genes are inducible and involved in the immune response. Moreover, MARCH8 might function to negatively regulate immune receptors in C. idellus. Therefore, the MARCH might play a vital role in regulating the immune response of C. idellus.

  10. Construction and Characterization of Grass Carp(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)Fosmid Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Zhen-hu; LIN Chang-you; YANG Tian-yao; JIANG Yi-nan; XIA Chun

    2010-01-01

    Grass carp(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)genomic fosmid library cotaining 129014 clones was constructed and characterized from one diploid grass carp.The average insert size of the fosmid library was determined to be 35 kb by pulsed field gel electrophoresis,which is 4.1-fold coverage of the grass carp genome.To demonstrate the probability of picking the functional genes from the library,eleven functional genes were screened by three-dimensional PCR technique.The number of positive clones of these genes was from 1 to 6.So,this library may screen any useful genes from grass carp.This grass carp genome fosmid library will be integrated in the presently ongoing efforts to determine the sequence of the grass carp genome.

  11. THE PREVALENCE OF LERNAEID ECTOPARASITES IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA

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    Z. TASAWAR, S. ZAFAR, M. H. LASHARI AND C. S. HAYAT1

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of lernaeid ectoparasites in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella. For this purpose, 597 fishes (Ctenopharyngodon idella were examined for lernaeid ectoparasites at a private fish farm located in Multan, Pakistan. Four species of the genus Lernaea i.e. L. cyprinacea, L. polymorpha, L. oryzophila, and L. lophiara were recorded. It was observed that L. polymorpha had the highest (P20 cm.

  12. First direct confirmation of grass carp spawning in a Great Lakes tributary

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    Embke, Holly S.; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Richter, Catherine A.; Pritt, Jeremy J.; Christine M. Mayer,; Qian, Song

    2016-01-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), an invasive species of Asian carp, has been stocked for many decades in the United States for vegetation control. Adult individuals have been found in all of the Great Lakes except Lake Superior, but no self-sustaining populations have yet been identified in Great Lakes tributaries. In 2012, a commercial fisherman caught four juvenile diploid grass carp in the Sandusky River, a major tributary to Lake Erie. Otolith microchemistry and the capture location of these fish permitted the conclusion that they were most likely produced in the Sandusky River. Due to this finding, we sampled ichthyoplankton using paired bongo net tows and larval light traps during June–August of 2014 and 2015 to determine if grass carp are spawning in the Sandusky River. From the samples collected in 2015, we identified and staged eight eggs that were morphologically consistent with grass carp. Five eggs were confirmed as grass carp using quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction for a grass carp-specific marker, while the remaining three were retained for future analysis. Our finding confirms that grass carp are naturally spawning in this Great Lakes tributary. All eggs were collected during high-flow events, either on the day of peak flow or 1–2 days following peak flow, supporting an earlier suggestion that high flow conditions favor grass carp spawning. The next principal goal is to identify the spawning and hatch location(s) for the Sandusky River. Predicting locations and conditions where grass carp spawning is most probable may aid targeted management efforts.

  13. Ontogenetic development of adipose tissue in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

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    Liu, Pin; Ji, Hong; Li, Chao; Tian, Jingjing; Wang, Yifei; Yu, Ping

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the adipose tissue development process during the early stages of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) development, samples were collected from fertilized eggs to 30 days post-fertilization (dpf) of fish. Paraffin and frozen sections were taken to observe the characteristics of adipocytes in vivo by different staining methods, including hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Oil red O, and BODIPY. The expression of lipogenesis-related genes of the samples at different time points was detected by real-time qPCR. In addition, protein expression level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors γ (PPAR γ) was detected by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the neutral lipid droplets accumulated first in the hepatocytes of 14-dpf fish larvae, and visceral adipocytes appeared around the hepatopancreas on 16 dpf. As grass carp grew, the adipocytes increased in number and spread to other tissues. In 20-dpf fish larvae, the intestine was observed to be covered by adipose tissue. However, there was no significant change in the average size (30.40-40.01 μm) of adipocytes during this period. Accordingly, the gene expression level of PPAR γ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins α (C/EBP α) was significantly elevated after fertilization for 12 days (p adipose tissue is caused by active recruitment of adipocytes as opposed to hypertrophy of the cell. In addition, our study indicated that lipogenesis-related genes might regulate the ongoing development of adipose tissue.

  14. Functional investigation of grass carp reovirus nonstructural protein NS80

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    Shao Ling

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grass Carp Reovirus (GCRV, a highly virulent agent of aquatic animals, has an eleven segmented dsRNA genome encased in a multilayered capsid shell, which encodes twelve proteins including seven structural proteins (VP1-VP7, and five nonstructural proteins (NS80, NS38, NS31, NS26, and NS16. It has been suggested that the protein NS80 plays an important role in the viral replication cycle that is similar to that of its homologous protein μNS in the genus of Orthoreovirus. Results As a step to understanding the basis of the part played by NS80 in GCRV replication and particle assembly, we used the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H system to identify NS80 interactions with proteins NS38, VP4, and VP6 as well as NS80 and NS38 self-interactions, while no interactions appeared in the four protein pairs NS38-VP4, NS38-VP6, VP4-VP4, and VP4-VP6. Bioinformatic analyses of NS80 with its corresponding proteins were performed with all currently available homologous protein sequences in ARVs (avian reoviruses and MRVs (mammalian reoviruses to predict further potential functional domains of NS80 that are related to VFLS (viral factory-like structures formation and other roles in viral replication. Two conserved regions spanning from aa (amino acid residues of 388 to 433, and 562 to 580 were discovered in this study. The second conserved region with corresponding conserved residues Tyr565, His569, Cys571, Asn573, and Glu576 located between the two coiled-coils regions (aa ~513-550 and aa ~615-690 in carboxyl-proximal terminus were supposed to be essential to form VFLS, so that aa residues ranging from 513 to 742 of NS80 was inferred to be the smallest region that is necessary for forming VFLS. The function of the first conserved region including Ala395, Gly419, Asp421, Pro422, Leu438, and Leu443 residues is unclear, but one-third of the amino-terminal region might be species specific, dominating interactions with other viral components. Conclusions Our

  15. AGE AND SEASONAL DYNAMICS OF THE SYMBIOCENOSES OF GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA AND SILVER CARP (HYPOPHTHALMICHTHYS MOLITRIX IN FISH PONDS

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    N. Zaichenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Identification and analysis of age and seasonal dynamics of the symbiocenoses of grass carp and silver carp in fish ponds. Methodology. The work was performed at Belotserkovskoy hydrobiological station, located on the river Ros within Bila Tserkva. The objects of the study were symbiotic communities of grass carp and silver carp of different age groups (from yearlings to age-5 fish. Fish underwent partial parasitological dissection using generally accepted methods. Findings. The age and seasonal dynamics of the symbiotic communitues of grass carp and silver carp were investigated during different seasons of one year. The effect of different factors on the formation of symbiotic communities have been analyzed. Different species of symbiotic organisms were characterized by different temperature preferences (Peritrcha have the highest rates of invasion in the summer. The distribution of symbionts depend on the way of their transmission. Some species of protista, monogenea and parasitic crustaceans infect the host during their high density (wintering or spawning. Other species of symbiotic organisms infect the host by nutritional way, therefore the invasion rates increase with the intensity of feeding. The differences in symbiotic community structure of fish of different age group are related to the differences in species biology. The composition of symbiotic communities of fish of different age groups contain symbiotic organisms that do not depend on the host age (metacercaria of Diplostomum, some Protista; species that more rapidly infect fish juveniles (some species of ciliates, cestoda – B. acheilognathi and species that predominantly infect older age group (monogenea, parasitic crustaceans. Originality. For the first time, we performed complex investigations of symbiotic communities of grass carp and silver carp in view of the specificity of their biology and during different seasons. Practical value. The results of the work can be

  16. Sox genes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella with their implications for genome duplication and evolution

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    Tong Jingou

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Sox gene family is found in a broad range of animal taxa and encodes important gene regulatory proteins involved in a variety of developmental processes. We have obtained clones representing the HMG boxes of twelve Sox genes from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, one of the four major domestic carps in China. The cloned Sox genes belong to group B1, B2 and C. Our analyses show that whereas the human genome contains a single copy of Sox4, Sox11 and Sox14, each of these genes has two co-orthologs in grass carp, and the duplication of Sox4 and Sox11 occurred before the divergence of grass carp and zebrafish, which support the "fish-specific whole-genome duplication" theory. An estimation for the origin of grass carp based on the molecular clock using Sox1, Sox3 and Sox11 genes as markers indicates that grass carp (subfamily Leuciscinae and zebrafish (subfamily Danioninae diverged approximately 60 million years ago. The potential uses of Sox genes as markers in revealing the evolutionary history of grass carp are discussed.

  17. Establishment of the diploid gynogenetic hybrid clonal line of red crucian carp × common carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU ShaoJun; DUAN Wei; TAO Min; ZHANG Chun; SUN YuanDong; SHEN JiaMin; WANG Jing; LUO KaiKun; LIU Yun

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the gynogenetic cytobiological behavior of the third gynogenetic generation (G3), which was generated from the diploid eggs produced by the second gynogenetic generation (G2)of red crucian carp × common carp, and determined the chromosomal numbers of G3, G2×scatter scale carp and G2×allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp × common carp. The results showed that the diploid eggs of G2 with 100 chromosomes, activated by UV-irradiated sperm from scatter scale carp and without the treatment for doubling the chromosomes, could develop into G3 with 100 chromosomes.Similar to the first and second gynogenetic generations (G1 and G2), G3 was also diploid (2n=100) and presented the hybrid traits. The triploids (3n=150) and tetraploids (4n=200) were produced by crossing G2 with scatter scale carp, and crossing G2 with allotetraploids, respectively. The extrusion of the second polar body in the eggs of G2 ruled out the possibility that the retention of the second polar body led to the formation of the diploid eggs. In addition, we discussed the mechanism of the formation of the diploid eggs generated by G2. The establishment of the diploid gynogenesis clonal line (G1, G2 and G3) provided the evidence that the diploid eggs were able to develop into a new diploid hybrid clonal line by gynogenesis. By producing the diploid eggs as a unique reproductive way, the diploid gynogenetic progeny of allotetrapioid hybrids of red crucian carp × common carp had important significances in both biological evolution and production application.

  18. Establishment of the diploid gynogenetic hybrid clonal line of red crucian carp × common carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the gynogenetic cytobiological behavior of the third gynogenetic generation (G3), which was generated from the diploid eggs produced by the second gynogenetic generation (G2) of red crucian carp × common carp, and determined the chromosomal numbers of G3, G2×scatter scale carp and G2×allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp × common carp. The results showed that the diploid eggs of G2 with 100 chromosomes, activated by UV-irradiated sperm from scatter scale carp and without the treatment for doubling the chromosomes, could develop into G3 with 100 chromosomes. Similar to the first and second gynogenetic generations (G1 and G2), G3 was also diploid (2n=100) and presented the hybrid traits. The triploids (3n=150) and tetraploids (4n=200) were produced by crossing G2 with scatter scale carp and crossing G2 with allotetraploids, respectively. The extrusion of the second polar body in the eggs of G2 ruled out the possibility that the retention of the second polar body led to the formation of the diploid eggs. In addition, we discussed the mechanism of the formation of the diploid eggs generated by G2. The establishment of the diploid gynogenesis clonal line (G1, G2 and G3) provided the evidence that the diploid eggs were able to develop into a new diploid hybrid clonal line by gynogenesis. By producing the diploid eggs as a unique reproductive way, the diploid gyno- genetic progeny of allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp × common carp had important signifi- cances in both biological evolution and production application.

  19. Comparison of size, terminal fall velocity, and density of bighead carp, silver carp, and grass carp eggs for use in drift modeling

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    George, Amy E.; Garcia, Tatiana; Chapman, Duane C.

    2017-01-01

    Invasive Asian carp established in the United States spawn in the turbulent water of rivers, and their eggs and early larvae develop while drifting in the current. The eggs, which are believed to perish if they settle before hatching, are slightly denser than water and are held in suspension by water turbulence. It is possible to use egg drift modeling to assess the capability of a river to support the survival of Asian carp eggs. Detection of spawning and estimation of egg abundance in the drift are typically assessed by ichthyoplankton trawls. Correct sampling design and interpretation of trawl data require knowledge of the vertical distribution of eggs in the drift, which can be accomplished with particle transport models. Data that are required to populate models of egg drift and vertical distribution include physical properties of assessed rivers and information on egg size, density, and terminal fall velocity, but data on these egg characteristics have not been previously available. Physical characteristics of the eggs are presented as a function of postfertilization time. We recorded mean egg diameter and terminal fall velocity for eggs from each Asian carp species during the first 5 h of development and at approximately 12 and 22 h postfertilization. Eggs of all species reached their maximum size before 4 h. Water-hardened eggs of Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella were similarly sized in our trials, and water-hardened eggs of Bighead Carp H. nobilis were the largest. After water hardening, Silver Carp eggs sank slowest, and Bighead Carp eggs sank fastest. For a given species, smaller-diameter eggs generally had faster terminal fall velocities and higher specific gravity than larger eggs. We provide regression models of egg density and diameter for all three species, discuss usage of these data in modeling the drift and dispersion of Asian carp eggs, and discuss implications for egg sampling design.

  20. Microsatellite genetic diversity and differentiation of native and introduced grass carp populations in three continents

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    Chapman, Duane C.; Chen, Qin; Wang, Chenghui; Zhao, Jinlian; Lu, Guoqing; Zsigmond, Jeney; Li, Si-Fa

    2012-01-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a freshwater species native to China, has been introduced to about 100 countries/regions and poses both biological and environmental challenges to the receiving ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed genetic variation in grass carp from three introduced river systems (Mississippi River Basin in US, Danube River in Hungary, and Tone River in Japan) as well as its native ranges (Yangtze, Pearl, and Amur Rivers) in China using 21 novel microsatellite loci. The allelic richness, observed heterozygosity, and within-population gene diversity were found to be lower in the introduced populations than in the native populations, presumably due to the small founder population size of the former. Significant genetic differentiation was found between all pairwise populations from different rivers. Both principal component analysis and Bayesian clustering analysis revealed obvious genetic distinction between the native and introduced populations. Interestingly, genetic bottlenecks were detected in the Hungarian and Japanese grass carp populations, but not in the North American population, suggesting that the Mississippi River Basin grass carp has experienced rapid population expansion with potential genetic diversification during the half-century since its introduction. Consequently, the combined forces of the founder effect, introduction history, and rapid population expansion help explaining the observed patterns of genetic diversity within and among both native and introduced populations of the grass carp.

  1. Cloning and preliminary functional studies of the JAM-A gene in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

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    Du, Fukuan; Su, Jianguo; Huang, Rong; Liao, Lanjie; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping

    2013-06-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is a very important aquaculture species in China and other South-East Asian countries; however, disease outbreaks in this species are frequent, resulting in huge economic losses. Grass carp hemorrhage caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is one of the most serious diseases. Junction adhesion molecule A (JAM-A) is the mammalian receptor for reovirus, and has been well studied. However, the JAM-A gene in grass carp has not been studied so far. In this study, we cloned and elucidated the structure of the JAM-A gene in grass carp (GcJAM-A) and then studied its functions during grass carp hemorrhage. GcJAM-A is composed of 10 exons and 9 introns, and its full-length cDNA is 1833 bp long, with an 888 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encodes a 295 amino acid protein. The GcJAM-A protein is predicted to contain a typical transmembrane domain. Maternal expression pattern of GcJAM-A is observed during early embryogenesis, while zygote expression occurs at 8 h after hatching. GcJAM-A is expressed strongly in the gill, liver, intestine and kidney, while it is expressed poorly in the blood, brain, spleen and head kidney. Moreover, lower expression is observed in the gill, liver, intestine, brain, spleen and kidney of 30-month-old individuals, compared with 6-month-old. In a GcJAM-A-knockdown cell line (CIK) infected with GCRV, the expression of genes involved in the interferon and apoptosis pathways was significantly inhibited. These results suggest that GcJAM-A could be a receptor for GCRV. We have therefore managed to characterize the GcJAM-A gene and provide evidence for its role as a receptor for GCRV.

  2. [Effect of substrates of glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle on the level of oxidative processes in spermatozoa of grass carp and carp].

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    Gosh, R I

    1983-01-01

    Endogenic respiration of grass carp and carp spermatozoids is rather low. Oxidation rate of metabolites is different--malate is oxidized more intensively, it is followed by lactate, pyruvate, succinate. Sperm storage lowers the respiration level and oxidation rate of metabolites.

  3. Occurrence of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda, Bothriocephallidea) in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in the Changjiang River drainage

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    Xi, Bingwen; Wang, Guitang; Xie, Jun

    2011-05-01

    Bothriocephalus acheilognathi is a potentially serious pathogen in wild or cultured fish in worldwide distribution. We examined 58-farmed grass carp from Nanchang in the Changjiang (Yangtze) River drainage, from which 20.7% were found to harbor the parasite with an infection intensity of 36.9±54.7. The parasites were identified based on morphology and rDNA ITS sequence analysis. The present report represents the first record of the parasite in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in the river drainage.

  4. 草鱼出血病%Grass carp bleeding disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱并生

    2011-01-01

    @@ 草鱼Ctenopharyngodon idella是我国重要的淡水鱼类养殖品种,但养殖过程极易发生出血病导致草鱼大量死亡,给草鱼养殖业带来巨大损失。我国在20世纪70年代开始进行病原的研究,1980年发现病毒颗粒并确认为草鱼出血病病原,1991年国际病毒分类委员会将其命名为草鱼呼肠孤病毒(Grass carp reovirus,GCRV)。一直以来除呼肠孤病毒感染草鱼引起出血病外,未见有病毒和细菌混合感染的报道。本刊2009年8期介绍了邓国成、叶星等发表的文章“草鱼出血病混合感染的嗜水气单胞菌的分离、鉴定与理化特性”[1]。作者采集广东、福建等省部分地区的病鱼进行病原分析,发现所检病鱼样本存在病毒和细菌合并感染的情况,细菌性病原为嗜水气单胞菌Aeromonas hydrophila。研究结果为草鱼病害的有效防治提供了新的思路与科学依据。

  5. The use of food waste-based diets and Napier grass to culture grass carp: growth performance and contaminants contained in cultured fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhang; Mo, Wing-Yin; Nie, Xiang-Ping; Li, Kai-Bing; Choi, Wai-Ming; Man, Yu-Bon; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2016-04-01

    The present study used commercial feeds, food waste feeds, Napier grass, and mixed feeds (food waste feed to Napier grass ratio, 1:10) to feed grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). The results indicated that grass carp fed with food waste feeds and mix feeds achieved growth performance (based on specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio) that was similar to commercial feeds (p > 0.05). Concentrations of metalloid/metals in food waste feeds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Napier grass were relatively higher than other types of fish feeds (p  0.05). These findings show that food waste feeds are suitable for using in the production of fish feed and Napier grass can be served as supplemental feeds for grass carp, and hence reducing the production cost.

  6. Molecular cloning and polymorphism of major histocompatibility complex class I genes from grass carp (Ctenophayngodon idellus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Chun; XU Guangxian; LIN Changyou; HU Tuanjun; YAN Ruoqian; George F GAO

    2004-01-01

    In order to clarify the molecular sequences,allelic polymorphism and the tertiary structure of grass carp (Ctenophayngodon idellus) MHC class I,and to further study their relationship with disease resistances,grass carp MHC class I gene (Ctid-MHC I) was cloned from a cDNA library and the allelic polymorphism in the population was investigated.The results showed that most of the variations exist in the peptide-binding domain (PBD) and high polymorphism was identified in the Ctid-MHC I allelic genes from 12 individuals.Based on the genetic distance,Ctid-MHC class I can be classified into 6 types (from Ctid-MHC I-UA to Ctid-MHC I-UF) which were subdivided into 9 lineages (from A to I).Comparison of the Ctid-MHC I among animals and humans showed that the key amino acids of the peptide binding sites are conserved.Analysis of the tertiary structure of the PBD between Grass carp and human crystallographic data of HLA-A2,the variation with insertion or deletion was found in eight regions (A~H).The phylogenetic tree of MHC class I indicates the evolution of MHC class I among grass carp,fish,amphibian,birds,higher vertebrates and humans.

  7. Storage of unfertilized eggs of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella, in artificial media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnaz Safarzadenia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Two separate experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of artificial storage media, temperature and holding duration on the percentage of eyed embryos, hatching and malformed larvae of grass carp eggs, Ctenopharyngodon idella. Grass carp ova, outside the ovary cavity, were stored in GCACF (Grass Carp Artificial Coelomic Fluid and Dettlaff extender at 4°C and 20°C for 30, 60, 120 and 180 min. GCACF medium was made base on composition of grass carp coelomic fluid. For this work and designing the GCACF medium, ova were collected from ten females and they were filtered and coelomic fluid was separated for chemical composition analysis. This study was done with 16 treatments and one control group in three replicates. The results shown that storage duration and artificial media had significant effects on eyed embryos rate and hatching percentage (P0.05. Also, temperature had significant effects on the percentage of eyed embryos and hatching (P0.05. Eyed embryo and hatching rates decreased with increasing storage duration. Highest eyed embryo and hatching rate between treatments were observed in GCACF, 30 min storage and 4°C and lowest of them were observed in Dettlaff extender at 20°C and 180 min storage.

  8. Molecular cloning, tissue distribution, and pharmacological characterization of melanocortin-4 receptor in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Yang, Z; Zhang, Y-P; He, S; Liang, X-F; Tao, Y-X

    2017-04-01

    Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) plays a pivotal role in the mediation of leptin action on food intake and energy expenditure in mammals. The MC4R has also been identified in several teleosts, and its importance in the regulation of fish energy homeostasis is emerging. We herein reported on the molecular cloning, tissue distribution, and pharmacological characterization of MC4R in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), an economically and ecologically important fish. We showed that grass carp MC4R (ciMC4R) consisted of a 981 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 326 amino acids, highly homologous (>95%) to several teleost MC4Rs. Phylogenetic and synteny analysis further indicated ciMC4R was closely related to piscine MC4Rs. Using reverse transcription PCR, we found that mc4r messenger RNA was expressed in the brain as well as various peripheral tissues in grass carp. The pharmacological properties of ciMC4R were investigated using 4 agonists, including α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), β-MSH, [Nle(4), D-Phe(7)]-MSH (NDP-MSH), and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). We showed that all 4 ligands could bind to ciMC4R and initiate dose-dependent intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) accumulation. Grass carp MC4R had the highest affinity for NDP-MSH. Both NDP-MSH and ACTH (1-24) exhibited higher potencies compared to the other 2 endogenous agonists. The ciMC4R was constitutively active, with significantly increased basal cAMP level compared with that of human MC4R (P < 0.01). The availability of ciMC4R and its pharmacologic characteristics provide a basis for future investigation of its functional roles in regulating diverse physiological processes and novel insights into understanding the mechanism of food habit transition in grass carp.

  9. Transcriptome analysis of food habit transition from carnivory to herbivory in a typical vertebrate herbivore, grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella

    OpenAIRE

    He, Shan; Liang, Xu-Fang; Li, Ling; Sun, Jian; Wen, Zheng-Yong; Cheng, Xiao-Yan; Li, Ai-Xuan; Cai, Wen-Jing; He, Yu-Hui; Wang, Ya-ping; Tao, Ya-Xiong; Yuan, Xiao-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Background Although feeding behavior and food habit are ecologically and economically important properties, little is known about formation and evolution of herbivory. Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is an ecologically appealing model of vertebrate herbivore, widely cultivated in the world as edible fish or as biological control agents for aquatic weeds. Grass carp exhibits food habit transition from carnivory to herbivory during development. However, currently little is known about the ...

  10. The carp-goldfish nucleocytoplasmic hybrid has mitochondria from the carp as the nuclear donor species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guangfu; Zou, Guiwei; Liu, Xiangjiang; Liang, Hongwei; Li, Zhong; Hu, Shaona

    2014-02-25

    It is widely accepted that mitochondria and its DNA (mtDNA) exhibit strict maternal inheritance, with sperm contributing no or non-detectable mitochondria to the next generation. In fish, nuclear transfer (NT) through the combination of a donor nucleus and an enucleated oocyte can produce fertile nucleocytoplasmic hybrids (NCHs) even between different genera and subfamilies. One of the best studied fish NCHs is CyCa produced by transplanting the nuclei plus cytoplasm from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wuyuanensis) into the oocytes of the wild goldfish (Carassius auratus), which has been propagated by self-mating for three generations. These NCH fish thus provide a unique model to study the origin of mitochondria. Here we report the complete mtDNA sequence of the CyCa hybrid and its parental species carp and goldfish as nuclear donor and cytoplasm host, respectively. Interestingly, the mtDNA of NCH fish CyCa is 99.69% identical to the nuclear donor species carp, and 89.25% identical to the oocyte host species goldfish. Furthermore, an amino acid sequence comparison of 13 mitochondrial proteins reveals that CyCa is 99.68% identical to the carp and 87.68% identical to the goldfish. On an mtDNA-based phylogenetic tree, CyCa is clustered with the carp but separated from the goldfish. A real-time PCR analysis revealed the presence of carp mtDNA but the absence of goldfish mtDNA. These results demonstrate--for the first time to our knowledge--that the mtDNA of a NCH such as CyCa fish may originate from its nuclear donor rather than its oocyte host.

  11. Dietary taurine can improve the hypoxia-tolerance but not the growth performance in juvenile grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huijun; Tian, Lixia; Huang, Junwa; Liang, Guiying; Liu, Yongjian

    2013-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary taurine, as a feed additive, on the hypoxia-tolerance and growth performance of the juvenile grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus, one of the most important and intensively cultured freshwater fish, with the largest production in China. Graded levels of taurine (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 and 2.5 g kg(-1) dry diet) were fed to grass carp juveniles (mean weight: 5.26 ± 0.03 g) for 8 weeks. The survival time during acute hypoxia increased as dietary levels of taurine increased, with the highest dose of taurine resulting in the best acute hypoxia-tolerance. The erythrocyte osmotic fragility in grass carp was significantly improved when dietary taurine level was at least 1.5 g kg(-1) diet and can be improved much more when dietary taurine level was up to 2.5 g kg(-1) diet. A significant correlation between hemolysis rate of the erythrocyte osmotic fragility test and the survival time of acute hypoxia (r = -0.873, P = 0.023 taurine may contribute to its role of enhancing acute hypoxia-tolerance in grass carp. Dietary taurine cannot improve growth performance of grass carp, but it can increase the value of mesenteric fat index, indicating that dietary taurine influences the lipid metabolism. This study provides valuable information to improve hypoxia-tolerance of grass carp.

  12. Determination of LC50 of Copper Sulfate and Lead(II Nitrate and Behavioral Responses of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed NEKOUBIN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella were exposed to copper and lead for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. Experimental fishes which measured an average length of 8.2 ± 0.44 cm and weighed 4.3 ± 0.5 g. Seven groups (with three replicates of experimental fish were exposed to seven concentrations of each metal. The grass carps were kept in 21 tanks each stocked with 30 fishes were used in our experiments for each metal. The median lethal concentration (LC50 of copper to grass carp for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h were 2.422 mg/L, 2.222 mg/L, 2.006 mg/L, and 1.717 mg/L respectively. The median lethal concentration (LC50 of lead to grass carp for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h were 293.747 mg/L, 278.019 mg/L, 260.324 mg/L, and 246.455 mg/L, respectively. In addition, the behavioral changes of grass carp at different metal concentrations were determined. LC50 increased as mean exposure times decreased for both metals. Physiological responses like rapid opercular movement and frequent gulping of air was observed during the initial stages of exposure after which it became occasional. All these observations can be considered to monitor the quality of aquatic ecosystem and severity of pollution. In conclusion, copper is more toxic than lead for grass carp.

  13. Effects of sediment burial on grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes,1844), eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.; Deters, Joseph E.; Erwin, Susannah O.; Hayer, Cari-Ann

    2015-01-01

    It is thought that grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) eggs must remain suspended in the water column in order to hatch successfully. Using sand, the effects of varying sediment levels on grass carp eggs were tested at different developmental states and temperatures. Survival was high (15–35%, depending on temperature and trial) in the unburied treatment where eggs rested on a sand bed but were not covered by sediment. Survival was lower in the partial burial (5–10%) and very low (0–4%) in the full burial treatment. In all treatments, delayed hatching (organisms remaining in membranes past the stage of hatching competence) was noted. Deformities such as missing heads and pericardial edema occurred at high rates in the partial and full burials. Eggs that come in contact with the benthos and are resuspended in the water column should be considered in embryonic drift models.

  14. Nutritional lipid liver disease of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idullus (C. et V.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ding; Mao, Yongqing; Cai, Fasheng

    1990-12-01

    The inadequate nutrient content of pellet feeds widely used in recent years in China for grass carp farming led to lipid liver degeneration in the fish. The present studies show that the pathological features of lipid liver disease are anaemia and hepatic ceroidosis. Other clinical features are; the ratio of liver to body weight exceeds 3% and lipid content exceeds 5%. Extreme infiltration of hepaiocytes by lipid results in the following deteriorative effects: swelling of the liver cells, increase of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm and dislocation of the nucleus, loss of cytoplasm staining affinity, and increased activities of GOT and GPT in serum. Lipid liver degeneration of grass carp can be divided into three stages: 1) deposition of liver lipid; 2) lipid infiltration of hepatic parenchyma; 3) atrophy of liver nucleus. The causes of lipid liver degeneration are complicated, but the main cause is assumed to be an imbalance of nutrients in daily feed and the lock of some lipotropic substances.

  15. Comparison of intestinal bacterial communities in grass carp,Ctenopharyngodon idellus,from two different habitats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Jiajia; YU Yuhe; ZHANG Tanglin; GAO Lei

    2012-01-01

    The intestinal bacteria of vertebrates form a close relationship with their host.External and internal conditions of the host,including its habitat,affect the intestinal bacterial community.Similarly,the intestinal bacterial community can,in turn,influence the host,particularly with respect to disease resistance.We compared the intestinal bacterial communities of grass carp that were collected from farm-ponds or a lake.We conducted denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of amplified 16S rRNA genes,from which 66 different operational taxonomic units were identified.Using both the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means clustering and principal component analysis ordination,we found that the intestinal bacterial communities from the two groups of pond fish were clustered together and inset into the clusters of wild fish,except for DF-7,and there was no significant correlation between genetic diversity of grass carp and their intestinal bacterial communities(Mantel one-tailed test,R=0.157,P=0.175).Cetobacterium appeared more frequently in the intestine of grass carp collected from pond.A more thorough understanding of the role played by intestinal microbiota on fish health would be of considerable benefit to the aquaculture industry.

  16. Comparison of intestinal bacterial communities in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus, from two different habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jiajia; Yu, Yuhe; Zhang, Tanglin; Gao, Lei

    2012-09-01

    The intestinal bacteria of vertebrates form a close relationship with their host. External and internal conditions of the host, including its habitat, affect the intestinal bacterial community. Similarly, the intestinal bacterial community can, in turn, influence the host, particularly with respect to disease resistance. We compared the intestinal bacterial communities of grass carp that were collected from farm-ponds or a lake. We conducted denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of amplified 16S rRNA genes, from which 66 different operational taxonomic units were identified. Using both the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means clustering and principal component analysis ordination, we found that the intestinal bacterial communities from the two groups of pond fish were clustered together and inset into the clusters of wild fish, except for DF-7, and there was no significant correlation between genetic diversity of grass carp and their intestinal bacterial communities (Mantel one-tailed test, R=0.157, P=0.175). Cetobacterium appeared more frequently in the intestine of grass carp collected from pond. A more thorough understanding of the role played by intestinal microbiota on fish health would be of considerable benefit to the aquaculture industry.

  17. An integral projection model with YY-males and application to evaluating grass carp control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Richard A.; Eager, Eric A.; Brey, Marybeth; Hansen, Michael J.; Kocovsky, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Invasive fish species disrupt ecosystems and cause economic damage. Several methods have been discussed to control populations of invasive fish including the release of YY-males. YY-males are fish that have 2 male chromosomes compared to a XY-male. When YY-males mate, they only produce male (XY) offspring. This decreases the female proportion of the population and can, in theory, eradicate local populations by biasing the sex-ratio. YY-males have been used as a population control tool for brook trout in montane streams and lakes in Idaho, USA. The YY-male control method has been discussed for grass carp in Lake Erie, North America. We developed and presented an integral projection model for grass carp to model the use of YY-males as a control method for populations in this lake. Using only the YY-male control method, we found that high levels of YY-males would need to be release annually to control the species. Specifically, these levels were the same order of magnitude as the baseline adult population (e.g., 1000 YY-males needed to be released annual for 20 years to control a baseline adult population of 2500 grass carp). These levels may not be reasonable or obtainable for fisheries managers given the impacts of YY-males on aquatic vegetation and other constraints of natural resource management.

  18. Muscle characteristics comparison between grass carp and crisped grass carp%普通草鱼与脆化草鱼的肌肉特性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关磊; 朱瑞俊; 李小勤; 冷向军

    2011-01-01

    以9尾体重为(1 295.7±37.2)g的普通草鱼和9尾体重为(706.8±6.5)g脆化草鱼(脆肉鲩)为实验对象,对其肌肉理化及质构特性进行比较研究。结果显示:脆化草鱼肌肉粗蛋白含量高于普通草鱼(P〈0.05),粗脂肪和铁含量比普通草鱼低(P〈0.05),二者肌肉水分、粗灰分及钙、铬含量无显著差异;脆化草鱼肌肉pH、肌纤维密度和胶原蛋白含量均大于普通草鱼(P〈0.05);脆化草鱼在2 h和4 h的肌肉滴水损失低于普通草鱼(P〈0.05),但8 h后差别不大;脆化草鱼肌肉硬度和咀嚼力均比普通草鱼高(P〈0.05)。对肉质性状指标分析表明,在一定范围内,肌纤维密度、pH、胶原蛋白有提高肉质品质的作用趋势;肌肉脂肪含量与肌肉硬度,肌纤维密度与肌肉滴水损失之间均呈显著负相关(P〈0.05)。研究亮点:脆化草鱼是鱼类肉品研究热点之一;本研究较全面的分析普通草鱼和脆化草鱼的肌肉特点,其中无机元素、质构参数、pH和滴水损失对其肉质的影响,在鱼类肉品研究中较少;同时探求了多因子对肉品影响及其相互作用关系,为鱼类肌肉品质评价提供依据。%The differences in physical and chemical characteristics and textural mechanical properties in muscles between 9 grass carps(body weight of 1295.7 ± 37.2 g) and 9 crisped grass carps(body weight of 706.8 ± 6.5 g) were investigated in the present study.The results indicated that the content of protein in crisped grass carp muscle was higher,while the contents of crude lipid and ferrum were lower than those in grass carp(P〈0.05),and there were no significant differences in muscle moisture,crude ash,calcium and chromium contents in both groups.Crisped grass carp had higher pH value,muscle fiber density and collagen content in muscle than those of grass carp(P〈0.05).Compared with grass carp,muscle drip loss of crisped grass carp at 2 h,4 h

  19. Upgrading food wastes by means of bromelain and papain to enhance growth and immunity of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, W M; Lam, C L; Mo, W Y; Wong, M H

    2016-04-01

    The fast growing of global aquaculture industry accompanied with increasing pressure on the supply and price of traditional feed materials (e.g., fish meal and soy bean meal). This circumstance has urged the need to search alternative sources of feed stuff. Food waste was used as feed stuff in rearing fish which possess substantial protein and lipid. Grass carp are major species reared in Hong Kong with lower nutritional requirements; it is also an ideal species for investigating the feasibility of using food waste as fish feeds for local aquaculture industry. The growth and immunity, reflected by total protein, total immunologlobulin (IgI), and nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) activity of grass carp blood, were depressed when feeding with food waste feeds without enzymes. However, the supplementation of bromelain and papain in fish feed enhanced the efficient use of food waste by grass carp, which in turn improved the fish immunity. The present results indicated that the addition of those enzymes could enhance the feed utilization by fish and hematological parameters of grass carp, and the improvement on growth and immunity superior to the control (commercial feed) was observed with the addition of bromelain and papain supplement. Addition of 1 and 2 % mixture of bromelain and papain could significantly enhance the lipid utilization in grass carp.

  20. Prospects for Hybrid Breeding in Bioenergy Grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguirre, Andrea Arias; Studer, Bruno; Frei, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    of different hybrid breeding schemes to optimally exploit heterosis for biomass yield in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), two perennial model grass species for bioenergy production. Starting with a careful evaluation of current population and synthetic breeding methods......, we address crucial topics to implement hybrid breeding, such as the availability and development of heterotic groups, as well as biological mechanisms for hybridization control such as self-incompatibility (SI) and male sterility (MS). Finally, we present potential hybrid breeding schemes based on SI...... and MS for the two bioenergy grass species, and discuss how molecular tools and synteny can be used to transfer relevant information for genes controlling these biological mechanisms across grass species...

  1. Detection of Grass Carp Hemorrhage Virus (GCHV) from Vietnam and Comparison with GCHV Strain from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Grass carp plays an important role in small-scale aquaculture in Vietnam. However, a severe disease, known in Vietnam as "Red Spot Disease", is causing significant economic loss in grass carp aquaculture. In this study, the tissue samples isolated from the grass carp with Red Spot Disease in Vietnam are investigated and comparied with the control GCHV isolated in China by experimental infection, culture cell infection, serological cross reactivity, and RT-PCR amplification. Infected grass carp exhibits hemorrhage symptoms about 5 days after experimental injection with GCHV-V (Vietnam) strain. The symptoms and lethality induced by the GCHV-V strain are identical to that induced by the Chinese GCHV-9014 strain. The Chinese GCHV-873 strain induces typical cytopathogenic effects in 4 cell lines, such as CIK, CAB, FHM and GCO, from the 6 fish cell lines examined. No cytopathogenic effects are observed in all the 6 examined cell lines, including CAB, FHM, CIK, EPC, CCO and GCO, infected by the GCHV-V strain and GCHV-9014 strain. Immunodiffusion assays demonstrate an obvious cross-reactivity among three GCHV strains. Precipitin lines are clearly observed not only between the anti-GCHV-873 serum and the two strains GCHV-873 and GCHV-9014, but also between the anti-GCHV-873 serum and the GCHV-V strain. GCHV can be detected by immunodiffusion assays after three generations of blind propagations in the cell lines inoculated by GCHV-V strain. This implicates that GCHV-V viruses have been replicated and amplified despite there being no cytopathogenic effects observed in these examined cell lines. Three genome segments of GCHV, including S8, S9 and S10, are amplified by three sets of PCR primers designed according to the segment sequences published recently. The Q8fp and Q8rp primer set specific for genome segment S8 amplifies a 955 bp fragment from the extracted sample of diseased fish with Red Spot Disease, and the fragment size is identical to that amplified by the same

  2. Succession and Fermentation Products of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus Hindgut Microbiota in Response to an Extreme Dietary Shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Tong Hao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Dietary intake affects the structure and function of microbes in host intestine. However, the succession of gut microbiota in response to changes in macronutrient levels during a long period of time remains insufficiently studied. Here, we determined the succession and metabolic products of intestinal microbiota in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus undergoing an abrupt and extreme diet change, from fish meal to Sudan grass (Sorghum sudanense. Grass carp hindgut microbiota responded rapidly to the diet shift, reaching a new equilibrium approximately within 11 days. In comparison to animal-diet samples, Bacteroides, Lachnospiraceae and Erysipelotrichaceae increased significantly while Cetobacterium decreased significantly in plant-diet samples. Cetobacterium was negatively correlated with Bacteroides, Lachnospiraceae and Erysipelotrichaceae, while Bacteroides was positively correlated with Lachnospiraceae. Predicted glycoside hydrolase and polysaccharide lyase genes in Bacteroides and Lachnospiraceae from the Carbohydrate-Active enZymes (CAZy database might be involved in degradation of the plant cell wall polysaccharides. However, none of these enzymes was detected in the grass carp genome searched against dbCAN database. Additionally, a significant decrease of short chain fatty acids levels in plant-based samples was observed. Generally, our results suggest a rapid adaption of grass carp intestinal microbiota to dietary shift, and that microbiota are likely to play an indispensable role in nutrient turnover and fermentation.

  3. Expression pattern and transcriptional regulatory mechanism of noxa gene in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yongyan; Lu, Xiaonan; He, Libo; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Aidi; Li, Yongming; Huang, Rong; Liao, Lanjie; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping

    2015-12-01

    Noxa, a pro-apoptotic protein, plays an important role in cell apoptosis. The researches about noxa gene were concentrated in mammalians, whereas the role and transcriptional regulatory mechanism of noxa in fish were still unclear. In this study, the expression pattern and transcriptional regulatory mechanism of noxa gene in grass carp were analyzed. Noxa was constitutively expressed in all the examined tissues but the relative expression level differed. After exposure to grass carp reovirus (GCRV), mRNA expression level of noxa was down-regulated at the early phase whereas up-regulated at the late phase of infection. Luciferase assays showed that the promoter region -867 ∼ +107 of noxa had high activity and the region -678 ∼ -603 was important in the response to GCRV infection. By deleting the predicted transcription factor binding sites, transcription factors FOXO1 and CEBPβ were found important for noxa in response to GCRV infection. Moreover, the noxa promoter was biotin-labeled and incubated with nuclear extracts from GCRV infected cells. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that transcription factors FOXO1 and CEBPβ were also enriched in the combined proteins. Therefore, the results suggested that transcription factors FOXO1 and CEBPβ may play an important role in the regulation of noxa. Our study would provide new insight into the transcriptional regulatory mechanism of noxa in teleost fish.

  4. ENU-induced mutagenesis in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus by treating mature sperm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia-Yun Jiang

    Full Text Available N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU mutagenesis is a useful approach for genetic improvement of plants, as well as for inducing functional mutants in animal models including mice and zebrafish. In the present study, mature sperm of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus were treated with a range of ENU concentrations for 45 min, and then wild-type eggs were fertilized. The results indicated that the proportion of embryos with morphological abnormalities at segmentation stage or dead fry at hatching stage increased with increasing ENU dose up to 10 mM. Choosing a dose that was mutagenic, but provided adequate numbers of viable fry, an F1 population was generated from 1 mM ENU-treated sperm for screening purposes. The ENU-treated F1 population showed large variations in growth during the first year. A few bigger mutants with morphologically normal were generated, as compared to the controls. Analysis of DNA from 15 F1 ENU-treated individuals for mutations in partial coding regions of igf-2a, igf-2b, mstn-1, mstn-2, fst-1 and fst-2 loci revealed that most ENU-treated point mutations were GC to AT or AT to GC substitution, which led to nonsense, nonsynonymous and synonymous mutations. The average mutation rate at the examined loci was 0.41%. These results indicate that ENU treatment of mature sperm can efficiently induce point mutations in grass carp, which is a potentially useful approach for genetic improvement of these fish.

  5. Suppression of RNA Interference Pathway in vitro by Grass Carp Reovirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuai Guo; Dan Xu; Hong-xu Xu; Tu Wang; Jia-le Li; Li-qun Lu

    2012-01-01

    The means of survival of genomic dsRNA of reoviruses from dsRNA-triggered and Dicer-initiated RNAi pathway remains to be defined.The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) replication on the RNAi pathway of grass carp kidney cells (CIK).The dsRNA-triggered RNAi pathway was demonstrated unimpaired in CIK cells through RNAi assay.GCRV-specific siRNA was generated in CIK cells transfected with purified GCRV genomic dsRNA in Northern blot analysis; while in GCRV-infected CIK cells,no GCRV-specific siRNA could be detected.Infection and transfection experiments further indicated that replication of GCRV correlated with the increased transcription level of the Dicer gene and functional inhibition of in vitro synthesized egfp-siRNA in silencing the EGFP reporter gene.These data demonstrated that although only the genomic dsRNA of GCRV was sensitive to the cellular RNAi pathway,unidentified RNAi suppressor protein(s) might contribute to the survival of the viral genome and efficient viral replication.

  6. The formation of improved tetraploid population of red crucian carp × common carp hybrids by androgenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Bisexual fertile diploid androgenetic individuals (A0) (2n=100) were formed by androgenesis. In this way, the diploid spermatozoa from male allotetraploid hybrids (AT) (4n=200) of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) (♀) × common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) (♂) were used to fertilize the UV-treated haploid eggs of goldfish (Carassius auratus), and living androgenetic diploid fish were developed. The A0 became sexually mature at the age of 2 years, and they fertilized with each other to form their offspring (A1). In this study, we observed the chromosomal number, gonadal structure and appearance of A1 fish. The results are as follows: (1) In A1, there were 85% tetraploids (A1-4n), 10% triploids (A1-3n) and 5% diploids (A1-2n), suggesting that diploid A0 could produce diploid gametes. It was concluded that the formation of diploid gametes generated from diploid A0 was probably related to the mechanism of pre-meiotic endoreduplication. (2) Among A1, only A1-4n possessed normal ovaries and testes. The mature males of A1-4n produced white semen. Under the electron microscope, the head of diploid sperm generated by A1-4n was bigger than that of haploid sperm generated by red crucian carp. In the testes of the A1-4n, there were many mature normal spermatozoa with a head bearing plasma membrane and a tail having the typical structure of "9+2" microtubules. Between the head and the tail, there were some mitochondria. The ovaries of A1-4n developed well and mainly contained Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ-stage oocytes. The Ⅳ-stage oocytes were surrounded by inner and outer follicular cells. The micropyle was observed on the oolemma of follicular cells. There were abundant yolks and plenty of endoplasmic reticulum in the cytoplasm of Ⅳ-stage oocytes. Because A1-2n and A1-3n were distant crossing diploid hybrids and triploid hybrids respectively, they possessed abnormal gonads, and no mature semen and eggs were observed. (3) Compared with allotetraploids, the A1-4n fish not

  7. The formation of improved tetraploid population of red crucian carp x common carp hybrids by androgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wei; Qin, QinBo; Chen, Song; Liu, ShaoJun; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Chun; Sun, YuanDong; Liu, Yun

    2007-12-01

    Bisexual fertile diploid androgenetic individuals (A(0)) (2n=100) were formed by androgenesis. In this way, the diploid spermatozoa from male allotetraploid hybrids (AT) (4n=200) of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) (female) x common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) (male) were used to fertilize the UV-treated haploid eggs of goldfish (Carassius auratus), and living androgenetic diploid fish were developed. The A(0) became sexually mature at the age of 2 years, and they fertilized with each other to form their offspring (A(1)). In this study, we observed the chromosomal number, gonadal structure and appearance of A(1) fish. The results are as follows: (1) In A(1), there were 85% tetraploids (A(1)-4n), 10% triploids (A(1)-3n) and 5% diploids (A(1)-2n), suggesting that diploid A(0) could produce diploid gametes. It was concluded that the formation of diploid gametes generated from diploid A(0) was probably related to the mechanism of pre-meiotic endoreduplication. (2) Among A(1), only A(1)-4n possessed normal ovaries and testes. The mature males of A1-4n produced white semen. Under the electron microscope, the head of diploid sperm generated by A(1)-4n was bigger than that of haploid sperm generated by red crucian carp. In the testes of the A(1)-4n, there were many mature normal spermatozoa with a head bearing plasma membrane and a tail having the typical structure of "9+2" microtubules. Between the head and the tail, there were some mitochondria. The ovaries of A(1)-4n developed well and mainly contained II, III and IV-stage oocytes. The IV-stage oocytes were surrounded by inner and outer follicular cells. The micropyle was observed on the oolemma of follicular cells. There were abundant yolks and plenty of endoplasmic reticulum in the cytoplasm of IV-stage oocytes. Because A(1)-2n and A(1)-3n were distant crossing diploid hybrids and triploid hybrids respectively, they possessed abnormal gonads, and no mature semen and eggs were observed. (3) Compared with

  8. Microbial succession of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) filets during storage at 4°C and its contribution to biogenic amines' formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hang; Luo, Yongkang; Huang, Heping; Xu, Qian

    2014-11-03

    Investigation on the microbial succession of grass carp filets during storage at 4°C was carried out. For identification, 16S rRNA genes of the isolated pure strains were sequenced and analyzed. Acinetobacter was dominant in fresh grass carp. Species from the genera Brevundimonas, Empedobacter, Pseudomonas, Microbacterium, Flavobacterium, Moraxella, Shewanella and Soonwooa were also detected at the initial day. The communities were dominated by Aeromonas and Acinetobacter after 6days. Aeromonas followed by Pseudomonas was the predominant genera at the end of shelf-life of grass carp, while other genera such as Shewanella, Acinetobacter, Flavobacteriaceae and Psychrobacter were present in smaller numbers. We investigated biogenic amines' (BAs) production by six strains isolated from spoiled grass carp filets. Shewanella putrefaciens showed significantly higher abilities to produce putrescine, than those from other genera. Aeromonas veronii revealed a strong ability to produce putrescine and cadaverine. However, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter showed little ability to produce BAs.

  9. Proteolytic characterisation in grass carp sausage inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiaohua; Lin, Shengli; Zhang, Qilin

    2014-02-15

    The proteolysis in grass carp sausages inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum ZY40 and Pediococcus pentosaceus GY23 was investigated. As fermentation progressed, sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins in both sausages were obviously degraded, and the proteolytic process was more intense in sausages inoculated with P. pentosaceus GY23. The increases in α-amino nitrogen, trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-soluble peptides and free amino acids were also detected in both sausages. The differences in α-amino nitrogen content and free amino acids concentration were due to the activity of inoculated lactic acid bacteria, while endogenous enzymes contributed to the release of TCA-soluble peptides. Our findings indicate that lactic acid bacteria influence proteolytic characterisation in fermented fish sausage, with strain-dependent activity.

  10. Immunomodulatory Effects of a Bioactive Compound Isolated from Dryopteris crassirhizoma on the Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Chi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated effects of compound kaempferol 3-a-L-(4-O-acetylrhamnopyranoside-7-a-L-rhamnopyranoside (SA isolated from Dryopteris crassirhizoma during immune-related gene expression in Ctenopharyngodon idella head kidney macrophages (CIHKM. The expression of immune-related genes (IL-1β, TNF-α, MyD88, and Mx1 were investigated using real-time PCR at 2 h, 8 h, 12 h, and 24 h after incubation with 1, 10, and 50 μg mL−1 of SA. Furthermore, fish were injected intraperitoneally with 100 μL of SA, and immune parameters such as lysozyme activity, complement C3, SOD, phagocytic activity, and IgM level were examined at 1, 2, and 3 weeks after injection. The differential expression of cytokines was observed after exposure to SA. IL-1β genes displayed significant expression at 2 and 8 h after exposure to 1–10 μg mL−1 of SA. SA also induced gene expression of cytokines such as MyD88, Mx1, and TNF-α. Furthermore, enhanced immune parameters in grass carp confirmed the immunomodulatory activity of SA. Interestingly, this compound has no toxic effect on CIHKM cells as tested by MTT assay. In addition, fish immunised with 10 μg mL−1 of SA exhibited maximum resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila infection. These results suggest that SA has the potential to stimulate immune responses in grass carp.

  11. Chitosan Influences the Expression of P-gp and Metabolism of Norfloxacin in Grass Carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kun; Xie, Xinyan; Zhao, Yi-Ni; Li, Yi; Ruan, Jiming; Li, Hao-Ran; Jin, Tianyi; Yang, Xian-Le

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the administration of chitosan (CTS), expression of permeability glycoprotein (P-gp), and the metabolism of norfloxacin (NOR) in Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. Fish were administrated with a single dose of either NOR, CTS, 1:5 NOR-CTS or 1:10 NOR-CTS. The P-gp expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and real time-PCR. The concentration of NOR was determined using HPLC. The mRNA and protein expression of P-gp in the fish intestine was significantly enhanced following a single dosage of 40 mg/kg NOR, and peak expression occurred at 3 h after drug administration (P < 0.05). A single dosage of both 1:5 NOR-CTS and 1:10 NOR-CTS reduced the intestinal P-gp expression to levels significantly lower than that from NOR alone (P < 0.05), but significantly higher than that from the control (P < 0.05). Interestingly, CTS alone also led to a slight decrease in P-gp expression. In addition, pharmacokinetic assays revealed a marked increase in area under the curve (AUC) of NOR with 1:5 and 1:10 NOR-CTS, by approximately 1.5-fold and threefold, respectively. Finally, the relative bioavailability of NOR after a single oral dosage of 1:5 and 1:10 NOR-CTS was enhanced to 148.02% and 304.98%, respectively. In this study, we demonstrated that the transmembrane glycoprotein P-gp regulates NOR metabolism in the intestine of Grass Carp, suggesting that NOR may be a direct substrate of P-gp. More importantly, we showed that CTS can inhibit P-gp expression in a dose-dependent manner and improve the relative bioavailability of NOR in this species.

  12. In Situ Determination of the Effect of Drilling Noise and Vibration on Growth of Grass Carp, Myloparyngodon Piceus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yao; Zhang Shaona; Song Yunli; Zhao Jun; Chen Jufa; Zhang Dehua; Jiang Shangliang

    2003-01-01

    The study is carried out on the effect of drilling noise and vibration on growth of grass carp, Myloparyngodon Piceus, by using cut-fin marking method in situ. Compared with other methods, the method is more appropriate, for its operation is simpler and more data may be obtained under the same condition. The results show that drilling noise and vibration have significant effect on the growth of grass carp. Critical equivalent noise and vibration grade ( Nleq and Vleq) are about 84.4 dB and 90.2 dB, and the affecting radius is about 8.5 m. The effect of drilling noise and vibration could be influenced by some factors,such as duration of pollution and body weight of grass carp, etc. Grass carp′s growth could rapidly recover after removing drilling noise and vibration, indicating that the drilling noise and vibration do not damage the fish organs and the effect is reversible. Therefore, the effect mechanism may be due to the activating response of non-hearing system.

  13. Use of food waste as fish feeds: effects of prebiotic fibers (inulin and mannanoligosaccharide) on growth and non-specific immunity of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Wing Y; Cheng, Zhang; Choi, Wai M; Lun, Clare H I; Man, Yu B; Wong, James T F; Chen, Xun W; Lau, Stanley C K; Wong, Ming H

    2015-11-01

    The effects of inulin and mannanoligosaccharide (MOS) on the growth performance and non-specific immunity of grass carp were studied. Two doses of prebiotic fiber with 0.2 or 2% of the fibers are being mixed into fish feed pellets. Fish growth as well as selected non-specific immune parameters of grass carp were tested in a feeding trial, which lasted for 8 weeks. Fish was fed at 2.5% body mass per day. INU02, INU2, and MOS2 significantly improved relative weight gain, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio, and food conversion ratio of grass carp fed with food waste-based diet. In terms of non-specific immune response, grass carp showed significant improvement in all three tested parameters (total serum immunoglobin, bactericidal activity, and anti-protease activity). Adding 2% of inulin (INU2) into food waste diets seemed to be more preferable than other supplemented experimental diets (INU02, MOS02, MOS2), as it could promote growth of grass carp as well as improving the non-specific immune systems of grass carp.

  14. [Hybridization of crucian carp, Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758), in Ukrainian reservoirs and genetic structure of hybrids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezhzheryn, S V; Kokodyĭĭ, S V; Kulysh, A V; Verlat'iĭĭ, D B; Fedorenko, L V

    2012-01-01

    Hybridization of crucian carps Carassius carassius in polyspecific crucian populations of reservoirs of Ukraine and genetic structure of the hybrids were investigated using biochemical gene marking and cytometric procedure. The fact of wide hybridization between C. auratus and C. carassius was proved to be true by large number of hybrids which can form populations consisting only from hybrid individuals. Hybrids C. auratus x C. carassius were diploid, tryploid and in exceptional cases tetraploid; females and males which most likely breed by hybridogenesis. Besides, some clonal hybrids C. carassius x C. gibelio-1 appearing as tetraploid females, and one triploid female C. carassius x Tinca tinca were revealed. It is supported that hybridization of alien C. auratus with endemic C. carassius became one of mechanisms of replacement and depressions of populations of the last.

  15. Tools for assessing kinship, population structure, phylogeography, and interspecific hybridization in Asian carps invasive to the Mississippi River, USA: isolation and characterization of novel tetranucleotide microsatellite DNA loci in silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, T.L.; Eackles, M.S.; Chapman, D.C.

    2011-01-01

    We document the isolation and characterization of novel tetranucleotide microsatellite DNA markers for the invasive silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and provide the results of cross-species amplification for three additional invasive carp species: bighead (H. nobilis), grass (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and black (Mylopharyngodon piceus). In the target species these markers yielded levels of allelic diversity (average 4.4 alleles/locus) and heterozygosity (average 54.7%) sufficient to: (1) provide unique multilocus genotypes; (2) delineate kinship relationships; (3) differentiate populations/species; (4) estimate effective population sizes; and (5) provide unique demographic perspectives for control or eradication. Currently these markers are being utilized to determine the degree of introgressive hybridization between H. molitrix and H. nobilis, to quantify gene flow between different sub-basins established in the central United States, and to assess the demographic status of sub-basin groups. This information will be critically important in the management/control of these invasive species.

  16. Screening and identification of male-specific DNA fragments in common carps Cyprinus carpio using suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J J; Du, Q Y; Yue, Y Y; Dang, B J; Chang, Z J

    2010-08-01

    In this study, a sex subtractive genomic DNA library was constructed using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) between male and female Cyprinus carpio. Twenty-two clones with distinguishable hybridization signals were selected and sequenced. The specific primers were designed based on the sequence data. Those primers were then used to amplify the sex-specific fragments from the genomic DNA of male and female carp. The amplified fragments from two clones showed specificity to males but not to females, which were named as Ccmf2 [387 base pairs (bp)] and Ccmf3 (183 bp), respectively. The sex-specific pattern was analysed in a total of 40 individuals from three other different C. carpio. stocks and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella using Ccmf2 and Ccmf3 as dot-blotting probes. The results revealed that the molecular diversity exists on the Y chromosome of C. carpio. No hybridization signals, however, were detected from individuals of C. idella, suggesting that the two sequences are specific to C. carpio. No significant homologous sequences of Ccmf2 and Ccmf3 were found in GenBank. Therefore, it was interpreted that the results as that Ccmf2 and Ccmf3 are two novel male-specific sequences; and both fragments could be used as markers to rapidly and accurately identify the genetic sex of part of C. carpio. This may provide a very efficient selective tool for practically breeding monosex female populations in aquacultural production.

  17. [Studies on the ploymorphic of sperm of F2 hybrids of red crucian carp x common carp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian Zhong; Liu, Shao Jun; Zhang, Xuan Jie; Feng, Hao; Liu, Yun

    2004-08-01

    AThe ultrastructures of the sperm of F2 hybrids of red crucian carp x common carp were studied by using scanning and transmission electron microscope. The sperm of the F2 hybrids consisted of head, mid-piece and tail. There was no acrosome at the anterior end of the nuclears, whereas there was a vesicle. The results revealed that there existed obviously ploymorphic in the sperm of F2 hybrids. In the water-like semen from males of F2 hybrids, different sizes of the head of the sperm including haploid, diploid, tetraploid, and aneuploid sperm were observed. The head diameter of the smallest sperm was only 1.32 microm, but that of the biggest one was about 18.39 microm, and most of them varied from 1.85 to 2.15 microm. The haploid sperm was normal, while the a-neuploid, diploid, tetraploid and multiploid sperm were abnormal. Among the abnormal sperm, there was a super sperm with about 20 tails, whose head volume was much bigger than that of any other sperm. From the results of the transmission electron microscope, 3 sperm with two nucleus and 1 sperm with two tails were found. This study provided an useful evidence for the mechanism that the formation of tetraploid in F3 hybrids was due to the fertilization of the diploid eggs and diploid sperm produced by F2 hybrids.

  18. 3D reconstruction and capsid protein characterization of grass carp reovirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG; Qin; Shah; Sanket; LIANG; Yuyao; Z.; H.; ZHOU

    2005-01-01

    Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is a relatively new virus first isolated in China and is a member of the Aquareovirus genus of the Reoviridae family. Recent report of genomic sequencing showed that GCRV shared high degree of homology with mammalian reovirus (MRV). As a step of our effort to understand the structural basis of GCRV pathogenesis, we determined the three-dimensional (3D) structure of GCRV capsid at 17 (A) resolution by electron cryomicroscopy. Each GCRV capsid has a multilayered organization, consisting of an RNA core, an inner, middle and outer protein layer. The outer layer is made up of 200 trimers that are arranged on an incomplete T=13 icosahedral lattice. A characteristic feature of this layer is the depression resulting from the absence of trimers around the peripentonal positions, revealing the underlying trimers on the middle layer. There are 120 subunits in the inner layer arranged with T=1 symmetry. These structural features are common to other members of the Reoviridae. Moreover, SDS-PAGE analysis showed that GCRV virions contain seven structural proteins (VP1-VP7). These structural proteins have a high degree of sequence homology to MRV, consistent with the structural similarities observed in our study. The high structural similarities of isolated GCRV and MRV suggest that future structural studies focusing on GCRV entering into and replicating within its host cell are necessary in order to fully understand the structural basis of GCRV pathogenesis.

  19. High Level Expression of Grass Carp Reovirus VP7 Protein in Prokaryotic Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan-lan ZHANG; Jin-yu SHEN; Cheng-feng LEI; Xiao-ming LI; Qin FANG

    2008-01-01

    Sequences analysis revealed Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) s10 was 909 nucleotides coding a 34 kDa protein denoted as VP7, which was determined to be a viral outer capsid protein (OCP). To obtain expressed OCP in vitro, a full length VP7 gene was produced by RT-PCR amplification, and the amplified fragment was cloned into T7 promoted prokaryotic expression vector pRSET. The recombinant plasmid,which was named as pR/GCRV-VP7,was then transformed into E.coli BL21 host cells. The data indicated that the expressed recombinant was in frame with the N-terminal fusion peptide. The over-expressed fusion protein was produced by inducing with IPTG, and its molecular weight was about 37kDa, which was consistent with its predicted size. In addition, the fusion protein was produced in the form of the inclusion body with their yield remaining steady at more than 60% of total bacterial protein. Moreover,the expressed protein was able to bind immunologically to anti-his-tag monoclonal antibody (mouse) and anti-GCRV serum (rabbit). This work provides a research basis for further structure and function studies of GCRV during entry into cells.

  20. Optimized Multiresidue Analysis of Organic Contaminants of Priority Concern in a Daily Consumed Fish (Grass Carp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Chen, Yanru; Yang, Chen; Liu, Wenxiu; Kong, Xiangzhen; Qin, Ning; He, Qishuang

    2017-01-01

    The organic contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are of priority concern because of their persistence, toxicity, and long-distance transportation in global environment. Their residues in a daily consumed fish (grass carp) pose potential threat to human health and aquatic ecosystems. The present study optimized an analytical protocol of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), lip-removal by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), cleanup by solid phase cartridge (SC) or adsorption chromatography column (CC), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Besides traditional statistical parameters, some indicators were calculated to judge the performances of extraction by various methods. The optimization experiment showed that n-hexane/acetone was the best MEA extraction solvent; an optimal fraction time of 10–39 min could simultaneously elute all the target chemicals in a single GPC run. Both CC and SC showed good recoveries. However, CC performed better than SC (p manual filling, and operation by automated SPE system. PMID:28348919

  1. Optimized Multiresidue Analysis of Organic Contaminants of Priority Concern in a Daily Consumed Fish (Grass Carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The organic contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, are of priority concern because of their persistence, toxicity, and long-distance transportation in global environment. Their residues in a daily consumed fish (grass carp pose potential threat to human health and aquatic ecosystems. The present study optimized an analytical protocol of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE, lip-removal by gel permeation chromatography (GPC, cleanup by solid phase cartridge (SC or adsorption chromatography column (CC, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Besides traditional statistical parameters, some indicators were calculated to judge the performances of extraction by various methods. The optimization experiment showed that n-hexane/acetone was the best MEA extraction solvent; an optimal fraction time of 10–39 min could simultaneously elute all the target chemicals in a single GPC run. Both CC and SC showed good recoveries. However, CC performed better than SC (p<0.05 for OCPs, and SC performed better than CC for PBDEs (p<0.05. We also emphasized the limitations and advantages of SC and CC and finally proposed SC as the promising cleanup method because of its low-cost materials, time-saving steps, being free of manual filling, and operation by automated SPE system.

  2. Purification and characterization of α2-macroglobulin from grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus%草鱼α2巨球蛋白的分离纯化与若干特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤玲; 陆承平

    2004-01-01

    α2-Macroglobulin was purified from grass carp plasma by precipitation with polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000,gel filtration and anion-exchange chromatography. The three steps of the procedure resulted in the purification of grass carp plasma α2 M. The purified product was analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) under natural conditions and the proteins showed a single band. Meanwhile, it was analyzed by SDS, PAGE under reducing conditions and the proteins showed double bands with molecular weight of about 95 kD and 80 kD. This result demonstrated that grass carp α2M was composed of two distinct subunits. Most properties of grass carp α2M were similar to that of human α2M. Grass carp α2M treated with trypsin produced the fast form of the molecule more mobile in PAGE, but the untreated grass carpR2M had the property of electrophoretically slow-form. α2M was a nonspecific proteinase inhibitors of blood plasma. Inhibition of activity of Aeromonase hydrophilas extracellular proteinase (AhECPase) showed that grass carp α2M could inhibit the proteinases secreted from invading bacteria. Double immudiffusion of α2M demonstrated no cross-antigenicity between grass carp' s and human α2M

  3. Molecular cloning, expression and functional characterization of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor (TRAF)-interacting protein (TRIP) in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, R-H; Chang, Z-G; Sun, J; Yang, F; Nie, G-X; Ji, H

    2016-10-01

    TRIP (Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Receptor-Associated Factor (TRAF)-Interacting Protein), a member of the TNF superfamily, plays a crucial role in the modulation of inflammation in vertebrates. However, no information about TRIP is available in teleosts. In this study, the full-length cDNA of TRIP, containing a 5'UTR of 112 bp, an ORF of 1359 bp, and a 3'UTR of 29 bp before the poly (A) tail, was cloned from grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. The TRIP gene encoded a protein of 452 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 51.06 KD and a predicted theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of 9.11. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that TRIP mRNA was expressed in all the tissues examined in grass carp, with the highest expression in the kidney, followed by the intestine and thymus. However, lower levels of expression were also detected in fat, spleen, liver, gonad and heart. Subcellular localization and two-hybrid analysis revealed that TRIP was located in the nucleus and that it interacted with TRAF1 and TRAF2 in HEK293T cells. Furthermore, similar to TNF-α, IL-10 and TRIP mRNA expression was upregulated in the spleen of fish fed high-fat or high-carbohydrate diets, suggesting that TRIP might be associated with the response to excessive energy intake. The mRNA relative expression of TRIP was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) after hepatocyte of C. idella was treated with 2 μg/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 4 h, while the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-10 were significantly increased (P < 0.05). Taken together, these results indicate that TRIP might play important roles in immune defense and has the potential to be used as a anti-inflammation target in grass carp.

  4. Regulation of adipocytes lipolysis by n-3 HUFA in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pin; Li, Chao; Huang, Jiqin; Ji, Hong

    2014-10-01

    N-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA) have been shown to inhibit body fat accumulation in animals. To clarify the mechanism of this fat-lowering effect of n-3 HUFA in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, isolated grass carp mature adipocytes were incubated with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) at different concentrations for 6 h. The release of glycerol to the medium was detected, and the expression of the lipolysis-related genes was analyzed. In experiment 2, a 95-day feeding trial was conducted with two diets formulated with either lard oil (as control) or fish oil (supplying n-3 HUFA as treatment) as the main lipid source. The glycerol and free fatty acid (FFA) released from the isolated adipocytes of both groups were detected after the feeding period. The expression of select lipolysis-related genes in adipose tissue was also analyzed. The results from experiment 1 showed that the release of glycerol was significantly increased by DHA and EPA (P lipase (ATGL), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and leptin, was also significantly elevated in the treatment group (P < 0.05). Experiment 2 demonstrated that glycerol and FFA release from the isolated adipocytes were significantly higher in the treatment group compared to the control group (P < 0.05). The expression level of ATGL, HSL, TNFα and leptin in the treatment group was significantly higher than in the control group (P < 0.05). The present results provide novel evidence that n-3 HUFAs could regulate grass carp adipocyte lipolysis in vitro or in vivo, and the effect might be in part associated with their influence on the expression of lipolysis-related genes and lipolysis-related adipokines genes.

  5. Induction of diploid gynogenesis in Wels catfish (Silurus glanis) using UV-irradiated grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fopp-Bayat, Dorota

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the first successful induction of meiotic gynogenesis in Wels catfish (Silurus glanis) using heterologous sperm of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) with DNA inactivated by means of UV-irradiation at 4800 J/m(2). The cold shock at 6 degrees C (duration of 20 min) started in the nineth minute after fertilization was found as efficient in retaining the second polar body and producing meiotic diploids. Successful induction of meiotic gynogenesis was confirmed by the microsatellite DNA analysis, which revealed only maternal inheritance in gynogenetic offspring. Ploidy of gynogenetic offspring was verified by the application of active nucleoli counting analysis.

  6. Identification, organ expression and ligand-dependent expression levels of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Liang, Xu-Fang; Qu, Chun-Mei; Huang, Wei; Shen, Dan; Zhang, Wen-Bing; Mai, Kang-Sen

    2012-03-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-dependent transcription factors belonging to the nuclear receptor family, and can regulate various genes involved in lipid metabolism. The aim of the present study was to investigate the tissue distribution patterns of PPARs and their ligand specificities in grass carp. We cloned three PPAR isotypes of the species and evaluated their organ distribution patterns using real-time PCR. Through analyzing the deduced amino acid sequences identities between the products cloned in grass carp and those described in other species, we concluded that the same type of PPAR amino acid sequences in different species were with high homology, and different subtypes of PPAR in the same species were with low homology. The mRNA constitutive expression level of PPARα predominated in the liver, but was weak in other tested tissues. PPARβ was present in all tested organs, and particularly abundant in heart, liver and muscle. PPARγ was only detected in the liver, and to a lesser extent in brain, muscle and visceral adipose tissue. Grass carp were intraperitoneally injected with 50 mg kg(-1) body mass (bw) dose of clofibrate, 42 mg kg(-1) bw dose of 2-bromo palmitate and 1 mg kg(-1) bw dose of 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14) prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2), respectively, and the relative changes of the mRNA abundance of PPARs in liver were analyzed by real-time PCR. Clofibrate was able to increase the expressions of both PPARα and β, but was not able to for PPARγ. 2-bromo palmitate could affect the expressions of both PPARβ and γ, but was not able to for PPARα. 15d-PGJ2 was able to induce PPARβ expression, but PPARα and γ were not enhanced. Consequently, these results indicate that clofibrate, 2-bromo palmitate and 15d-PGJ2 could be applied as the activators of grass carp PPARs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Apparent digestibility of Asian carp and common carp-derived fish meals in feeds for hybrid striped bass Morone saxatilis female x M. chrysops male and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of nutrients (crude protein, amino acids, crude lipid, fatty acids, and minerals) were determined for fish meals derived from menhaden, Asian carp (combination of silver and bighead carps), and common carp in feeds for hybrid striped bass and rainbow trout....

  8. A one-step molecular biology method for simple and rapid detection of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella reovirus (GCRV) HZ08 strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) primers designed against conserved regions of segment 6 (s6) gene were used for the detection of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella reovirus (GCRV) HZ08 subtype. The entire amplification could be completed within 40 min at 62...

  9. Integrated biological control of water hyacinths, Eichhornia crassipes by a novel combination of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes, 1844), and the weevil, Neochetina spp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GOPALAKRISHNAN Ayyaru; RAJKUMAR Mayalagu; SUN Jun; PARIDA Ajay; VENMATHI MARAN Balu Alagar

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (Cyprinidae) and weevils Neochetina spp. (Curculionidae) to control the aquatic weed, water hyacinth, is investigated in a square net cage (happas) setting at a farm in Cuddalore District, South India. This novel combination of insects and fish is found to be superior to individual treatments for controlling the weed growth within 110 d. The biomass of the weed, number of plants, percentage of flowered plants and chlorophyll contents were studied. The weed biomass is reduced from 5 kg (dayto 0.33 kg (day 110) when exposed to grass carp and weevils. The number of plants is reduced to 0.75 in grass carp and weevil exposed happas, while it is 741.5 in the control. The mean number of leaves per plant is also reduced. In addition, the chlorophyll a and b are significantly reduced in happas exposed to the combination of fish and insects when compared to the other treatments. Based on the results of this study, we consider the combined use of grass carp and weevils to be more efficient and sustainable for managing water hyacinths than the use of these organisms individually.

  10. Molecular characterization of trypsinogens and development of trypsinogen gene expression and tryptic activities in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and topmouth culter (Culter alburnus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Guo-Liang; Li, Yang; Gao, Ze-Xia; Wang, Huan-Ling; Wang, Wei-Min

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the gene structures and expression of trypsinogens, as well as the trypsin activities of the grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus (herbivorous) and the topmouth culter Culter alburnus (carnivorous), which are commercially important freshwater species of the family Cyprinidae in China. Isolated full-length trypsinogen cDNA clones were 869 bp and 857 bp. The deduced amino acid sequences were 242aa and 247aa long, both containing the highly conserved residues essential for serine protease catalytic and conformational maintenance. The results from isoelectric and phylogenetic analyses suggest that grass carp trypsinogen is grouped with teleost trypsinogen group I, while topmouth culter trypsinogen is grouped with group II. The expression pattern of trypsinogen mRNA was similar between these two species, appearing 2 days post-hatching (dph) and reaching peaks at 11 and 23 dph. The trypsin-specific activities in both species were detected 2 dph and reached the major peaks at 8 dph, however the minor peaks were observed at 20 dph in the grass carp and 17 dph in the topmouth culter. The trypsin-specific activity was significantly higher in the grass carp than in the topmouth culter, which may be attributed to the nature of their different nutritional habits.

  11. Comparative Analysis on Growth and Morphology in Yangtze River ♀, Zhujiang River ♂ and Their F1 Hybrids of Juvenile Grass Carp%长江草鱼♀×珠江草鱼♂杂交子一代与其亲本一龄阶段生长性能和体型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅建军; 王荣泉; 刘峰; 宣云峰; 朱树人; 李家乐

    2009-01-01

    [目的]研究杂交草鱼一龄阶段的生长和体型特点.[方法]建立长江自交 YR(长江群体♀×长江群体♂)、珠江自交 ZR(珠江群体♀×珠江群体♂)、杂交 F1(长江群体♀×珠江群体♂)3个组合.为了避免前期生长差异对后期试验的影响,亲鱼催产至鱼苗下塘均同步进行,控制夏花培育过程养殖密度、养殖环境等条件保持一致;另一方面,到50日龄即对3个组合进行剪鳍标记同箱混养,克服不同网箱的影响.对3个组合鱼的生长和形态数据进行测量分析.体重(W)用电子天平测量,全长(TL)、体长(SL)、头长(HL)、体高(BH)和体宽(BW)用游标卡尺测量.绝对增重率 AGR(g/d)=(W2-W1) / ( t2-t1);超亲杂种优势HB(%)= (F1-BP ) ×100 / BP.其中,AGR为50~170日龄的绝对增重率;W2-W1 为饲养50~170 d的体增重;t2-t1 为两阶段的间隔天数;F1为杂交一代某性状的平均值;BP为优良亲本某性状的平均值.体型分析利用体长/全长、头长/全长、体高/体长及体宽/体长4个比例参数进行比较.[结果]体重、体长及绝对增重率均为 F1> ZR> YR;体重、体长,在50日龄组合间差异不显著(P>0.05),在170日龄组合间差异均极显著(P<0.01);绝对增重率,F1分别比ZR、YR高20.00%、50.00%,F1与ZR差异不显著(P>0.05),与YR差异显著(P<0.05);F1在体重上表现明显的超亲杂种优势(20.09%).3个组合间,体长/全长差异不显著(P>0.05),头长/全长、体高/体长及体宽/体长差异显著(P<0.05),F1表现头短、体高、体宽等特点.[结论] F1在生长性能和体型特征上均具有优势.%[Objective] The aim of this study was to investigate the growth and morphological characteristics of juvenile hybrids of grass carp. [Method] Three inbred generations of YR (Yangtze River stock ♀× Yangtze River stock ♂), ZR (Zhujiang River stock ♀× Zhujiang River stock ♂) and hybrids F1 (Yangtze River stock ♀×Zhujiang River stock ♂) were

  12. 草鱼鳃介导草鱼呼肠孤病毒免疫应答%GILL MEDIATES IMMUNE RESPONSES AFTER GRASS CARP REOVIRUS CHALLENGE IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青梅; 陈利军; 饶友亮; 付小哲; 苏建国

    2014-01-01

    采用草鱼呼肠孤病毒腹腔注射草鱼,通过定量 RT-PCR 检测了12个抗病毒免疫相关基因在鳃中不同时间点的表达模式,以了解鳃对内源性病毒的免疫应答。模式识别受体基因 CiTLR3、CiTLR7、CiTLR22、CiRIG-I、CiMDA5、CiLGP2、CiNOD1和CiNOD2,以及干扰素基因CiIFN-I的表达在注射病毒后12h、24h、48h及72h基本都上调。IgM基因的表达仅在72h上调。接头分子CiMyD88和CiIPS-1基因的表达在早期下调(6h),然后逐渐上升。为了证实病毒感染的可靠性,通过RT-PCR检测了病毒VP4基因。结果表明草鱼鳃在抗病毒免疫方面发挥着重要作用。%Gill plays an important physical barrier role in defending environmental microbes. How are im-mune responses to endogenous viruses in gill? In the present study, mRNA expressions of 12 antiviral im-mune-related genes were examined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) in grass carp (Cteno-pharyngodon idella) gill after grass carp reovirus (GCRV) challenge. The relative values of CiTLR3, CiTLR7, CiTLR22, CiRIG-I, CiMDA5, CiLGP2, CiNOD1, CiNOD2 and CiIFN-I were almost up-regulated at 12h, 24h, 48h and 72h. Additionally, the mRNA expression of CiIgM was triggered at 72h. However, relative expres-sions of CiMyD88 and CiIPS-1 were down-regulated at 6h, and subsequently increased. To further verify the reliability of viral infection, VP4 gene (outer capsid protein of GCRV, segment 6) was checked by RT-PCR amplification. The results indicate that gill serves as an important immune organ, and plays crucial roles in triggering antiviral immune responses in grass carp.

  13. Deficiency of dietary niacin impaired intestinal mucosal immune function via regulating intestinal NF-κB, Nrf2 and MLCK signaling pathways in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lin; Li, Shun-Quan; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Zhao, Juan; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary niacin on intestinal mucosal immune and physical barrier, and relative mRNA levels of signaling molecules in the intestine of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 540 young grass carp (255.63 ± 0.41 g) were fed six diets containing graded levels of niacin (3.95, 14.92, 24.98, 35.03, 44.97 and 55.01 mg/kg diet) for 8 weeks. Results observed that niacin deficiency decreased lysozyme (LA) and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities, and complement 3 (C3) content in the intestine (P niacin deficiency increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PC) contents, decreased glutathione content, and copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferases (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities in the intestine of young grass carp (P niacin deficiency decreased mRNA levels of CuZnSOD, MnSOD, GPx, CAT, GST, GR, Claudin b, Claudin 3, Claudin c, Occludin, ZO-1, Claudin 15 and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) (P  0.05). In conclusion, niacin deficiency decreased intestinal mucosal immune and intestinal physical function, as well as regulated mRNA levels of NF-κB P65, IκBα, IKKα, IKKβ, IKKγ, Nrf2, Keap1a, p38 MAPK and MLCK in the intestine of young grass carp. Based on the broken-line model analysis of intestinal lysozyme activity, the requirement of niacin for young grass carp (255.63 ± 0.41 g) were estimated to be 39.80 mg/kg diet.

  14. Molecular cloning and mRNA expression analysis of myosin heavy chain(MyHC)from fast skeletal muscle of grass carp,Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚武英; 符贵红; 宾石玉; 蒙涛; 周瑞雪; 成嘉; 赵发兰; 张红芳; 张建社

    2010-01-01

    The myosin heavy chain(MyHC)is one of the major structural and contracting proteins of muscle.We have isolated the cDNA clone encoding MyHC of the grass carp,Ctenopharyngodon idella. The sequence comprises 5 934 bp,including a 5 814 bp open reading frame encoding an amino acid sequence of 1 937 residues.The deduced amino acid sequence showed 69%homology to rabbit fast skeletal MyHC and 73%–76%homology to the MyHCs from the mandarin fish,walleye pollack,white croaker,chum salmon,and carp.The putative sequenc...

  15. Effect of ultrasonication on the fibril-formation and gel properties of collagen from grass carp skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ying; Wang, Haibo; Deng, Mingxia; Wang, Zhongwen; Zhang, Juntao; Wang, Haiyin; Zhang, Hanjun

    2016-02-01

    Controlling the fibril-formation process of collagen in vitro to fabricate novel biomaterials is a new area in the field of collagen research. This study aimed to determine the effect of ultrasonication on collagen fibril formation and the properties of the resulting collagen gels. Native collagen, extracted from the skin of grass carp, self-assembled under ultrasonic conditions (at different ultrasonic power and duration). The self-assembly kinetics, fibrillar morphology, and physical and cell growth-promoting properties of the collagen gels were analyzed and compared. The results showed that the self-assembly rate of collagen was increased by ultrasonication at the nucleation stage. The resulting fibrils exhibited smaller diameters and D-periodicity lengths than that of the untreated collagen samples (pgels also changed after ultrasonication at the nucleation stage. Texture profile analysis and cell proliferation assays showed that ultrasonication produced softer collagen gel colloids, which were more suitable for cell proliferation than the untreated collagen gels.

  16. Designing hybrid grass genomes to control runoff generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, C.; Binley, A.; Humphreys, M.; King, I. P.; O'Donovan, S.; Papadopoulos, A.; Turner, L. B.; Watts, C.; Whalley, W. R.; Haygarth, P.

    2010-12-01

    Sustainable management of water in landscapes requires balancing demands of agricultural production whilst moderating downstream effects like flooding. Pasture comprises 69% of global agricultural areas and is essential for producing food and fibre alongside environmental goods and services. Thus there is a need to breed forage grasses that deliver multiple benefits through increased levels of productivity whilst moderating fluxes of water. Here we show that a novel grass hybrid that combines the entire genomes of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne - the grass of choice for Europe’s forage agriculture) and meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis) has a significant role in flood prevention. Field plot experiments established differences in runoff generation with the hybrid cultivar reducing runoff by 50% compared to perennial ryegrass cultivar, and by 35% compared to a meadow fescue cultivar (34 events over two years, replicated randomized-block design, statistically significant differences). This important research outcome was the result of a project that combined plant genetics, soil physics and plot scale hydrology to identify novel grass genotypes that can reduce runoff from grassland systems. Through a coordinated series of experiments examining effects from the gene to plot scale, we have identified that the rapid growth and then turnover of roots in the L. perenne x F. pratensis hybrid is likely to be a key mechanism in reducing runoff generation. More broadly this is an exciting first step to realizing the potential to design grass genomes to achieve both food production, and to deliver flood control, a key ecosystem service.

  17. Angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activity of bioactive peptides produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of skin from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, Jierong; De Gobba, Cristian; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt

    2016-01-01

    Grass carp skin pieces were homogenized in water and hydrolyzed by Alcalase®, collagenase, proteinase K, and/or trypsin at their optimum conditions. Samples were taken at various degrees of hydrolysis and were evaluated for antioxidant, antimicrobial, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory...... activities. Alcalase and collagenase completely hydrolyzed the skin with different rates, and released peptides with antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitory activity. These activities increased linearly with increasing degrees of hydrolysis. Subsequent incubation of the collagenase...... hydrolysates with trypsin slightly increased the antioxidant activity. Proteinase K, although only partially hydrolyzing the skin, also catalyzed the release of peptides with antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitory activities. These results show that skin by-products from grass carp can...

  18. TGF-β1 exerts opposing effects on grass carp leukocytes: implication in teleost immunity, receptor signaling and potential self-regulatory mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu Yang

    Full Text Available In fish immunity, the regulatory role of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 has not been fully characterized. Here we examined the immunoregulatory effects of TGF-β1 in grass carp peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL and head kidney leukocytes (HKL. It is interesting that TGF-β1 consistently stimulated the cell viability and the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (Tnfα and Ifnγ and T/B cell markers [Cd4-like (Cd4l, Cd8α, Cd8β and Igμ] in PBL, which contrasted with its inhibitory tone in HKL. Further studies showed that grass carp TGF-β1 type I receptor, activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK5, was indispensable for the immunoregulatory effects of TGF-β1 in PBL and HKL. Notably, TGF-β1 persistently attenuated ALK5 expression, whereas immunoneutralization of endogenous grass carp TGF-β1 could increase ALK5 mRNA and protein levels. It is consistent with the observation that TGF-β1 decreased the number of ALK5(+ leukocytes in PBL and HKL, revealing a negative regulation of TGF-β1 signaling at the receptor level. Moreover, transient treatment with TGF-β1 for 24 h was sufficient to induce similar cellular responses compared with the continuous treatment. This indicated a possible mechanism by which TGF-β1 triggered the down-regulation of ALK5 mRNA and protein, leading to the desensitization of grass carp leukocytes toward TGF-β1. Accordingly, our data revealed a dual role of TGF-β1 in teleost immunity in which it can serve as a positive or negative control device and provided additional mechanistic insights as to how TGF-β1 controls its signaling in vertebrate leukocytes.

  19. Comparative Proteomic, Physiological, Morphological, and Biochemical Analyses Reveal the Characteristics of the Diploid Spermatozoa of Allotetraploid Hybrids of Red Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus) and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wei; Xu, Kang; Hu, Fangzhou; Zhang, Yi; Wen, Ming; Wang, Jing; Tao, Min; Luo, Kaikun; Zhao, Rurong; Qin, Qinbo; Zhang, Chun; Liu, Jinhui; Liu, Yun; Liu, Shaojun

    2016-02-01

    The generation of diploid spermatozoa is essential for the continuity of tetraploid lineages. The DNA content of diploid spermatozoa from allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp and common carp was nearly twice as great as that of haploid spermatozoa from common carp, and the durations of rapid and slow progressive motility were longer. We performed comparative proteomic analyses to measure variations in protein composition between diploid and haploid spermatozoa. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, 21 protein spots that changed in abundance were analyzed. As the common carp and the allotetraploid hybrids are not fully sequenced organisms, we identified proteins by Mascot searching against the National Center for Biotechnology Information non-redundant (NR) protein database for the zebrafish (Danio rerio), and verified them against predicted homologous proteins derived from transcriptomes of the testis. Twenty protein spots were identified successfully, belonging to four gene ontogeny categories: cytoskeleton, energy metabolism, the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and other functions, indicating that these might be associated with the variation in diploid spermatozoa. This categorization of variations in protein composition in diploid spermatozoa will provide new perspectives on male polyploidy. Moreover, our approach indicates that transcriptome data are useful for proteomic analyses in organisms lacking full protein sequences.

  20. Molecular cloning and nutrient regulation analysis of long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 gene in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Han-Liang; Chen, Shuai; Xu, Jian-He; Yi, Le-Fei; Peng, Yong-Xing; Pan, Qian; Shen, Xin; Dong, Zhi-Guo; Zhang, Xia-Qing; Wang, Wen-Xiang

    2017-02-01

    Long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (ACSL1), a key regulatory enzyme of fatty acid metabolism, catalyzes the conversion of long-chain fatty acids to acyl-coenzyme A. The full-length cDNAs of ACSL1a and ACSL1b were cloned from the liver of a grass carp. Both cDNAs contained a 2094bp open reading frame encoding 697 amino acids. Amino acid sequence alignment showed that ACSL1a shared 73.5% sequence identity with ACSL1b. Each of the two ACSL1s proteins had a transmembrane domain, a P-loop domain, and L-, A-, and G-motifs, which were relatively conserved in comparison to other vertebrates. Relative expression profile of ACSL1 mRNAs in different tissues indicated that ACSL1a is highly expressed in heart, mesenteric adipose, and brain tissues, whereas ACSL1b is highly expressed in heart, white muscle, foregut, and liver tissues. Nutrient regulation research showed that the expression levels of ACSL1a and ACSL1b were significantly down-regulated when 3, 6, and 9% fish oil were added in diet of grass carp as compared to the control group. However, no significant difference in the levels of ACSL1 mRNA was observed between the experimental groups. This study demonstrated the relationship between ACSL1a and ACSL1b genes in grass carp and laid a foundation for further research on ACSL family members in other species.

  1. 草鱼中内源性转谷氨酰胺酶特性的研究%Study on the Characterization of Transglutaminase from Grass Carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙静静; 罗自生; 吴翔; 施旭丹

    2012-01-01

    以草鱼为试验材料,测定不同条件下草鱼中内源性转谷氨酰胺酶(TGase)的活性.结果表明,草鱼糜中的TGase在pH 8~9,25 ~45℃时表现出较高的活性,钙离子能激发其活性,DTT在低浓度(0~1 mmol/L)范围时能增加它的活性,而NH4Cl、EDTA及一些金属离子抑制TGase的活性.%The characterization of transglutaminase (Tgase) from grass carp was studied under different conditions. The results showed that optimal pH and optimal temperature of transglutaminase from grass carp were 8~9 and 25~45 ℃, respectively. It could be activated by calcium ions. Dithiothreitol(DTT) can increase the Tgase activity. However, NH4Cl, EDTA and some metal ions inhibit the activity of Tgase from grass carp.

  2. One carp, two carp: are there more carp in the Wailoa River?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Bruce C; Nico, Leo; Tagawa, Annette

    2015-01-01

    The February, 2015 issue of Hawaii Fishing News included the annual list of Hawai`i records for the largest fish of various species caught in the state. Among the new records was one for a 15-pound grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) caught by Avery Berido in the Wailoa River at Hilo on September 13, 2013. A photograph taken by Mr. Berido of the record grass carp garnered our attention because pictured fish looked quite similar to another Asian carp species, the black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus). Mr. Berido informed us that he also captured a 10-pound grass carp from the same river in June, 2013. After close examination of all of the photographs provided by Mr. Berido, we concluded that both fish from the Wailoa River were unusually dark grass carp, not black carp.

  3. ONTOGENY OF THE DIGESTIVE TRACTS IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLUS), YELLOWCHECK CARP(ELOPICHTHYS BAMBUSA) AND TOPMOUTH CULTER(CULTER ALBURNUS)%草鱼、鳡和翘嘴鲌消化道组织的早期发育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮国良; 杨代勤; 王卫民

    2012-01-01

    研究仔稚鱼消化机能的发育变化对于掌握鱼类早期发育阶段的消化特点、营养需要及提高仔稚鱼成活与生长等均有重要意义.采用HE、PAS等染色方法,对草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)、鳡(Elopichthys bambusa)和翘嘴鲌(Culter alburnus)消化道组织的早期发育进行了研究,结果表明:(1)初孵仔鱼卵黄囊的相对体积以鳡的最大; (2)均在孵后2d和3d分别出现肠管和口裂,在孵后3d、4d和2d分别出现肠腔; (3)在孵后4d、7-9d和4d其肠腔内分别出现食物团,表明此时草鱼、鳡和翘嘴鲌已分别开始外源性摄食; (4)在孵后5d、6d和6d其肠道内表面分别出现黏膜褶,随后在稚鱼中其黏膜褶的高度和数量不同程度的发育; (5)草鱼和鳡的肠道分别在孵后14d和30d出现盘曲,而在翘嘴鲌的切片图中未发现其肠道的盘曲; (6)草鱼、鳡和翘嘴鲌的肠道分别于孵后17-23d、30d和24-29d出现数量较多的黏液细胞,此时标志着食性的转换和分化过程基本完善.%A thorough understanding of the temporal process of structure and function of larval and juvenile digestive systems has important values for investigating the digestive characteristics, nutritional needs of larva and juveniles, and enhancing their survival and growth. In inland aquaculture in China, grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus, yellowcheck carp Elopichthys bambusa and topmouth culter Culter albumus are economically important freshwater species that belong to the family Cyprinidae, with entirely different nutritional needs. Using the methods of histology, a comparative study among the above species in early developmental stages was conducted in our study to examine the ontogeny of digestive tracts. The results of the three species in different days post hatching (dph) showed the following: (1) yellow-check carp had the maximum relative bulk of yolk sac in newly hatched larva in the three species; (2) the intestinal tubes and oral fissures

  4. 香辛料液对草鱼块保鲜效果的影响%Preservation Effect of Spice Liquid on Grass Carp Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘蒙佳; 周强; 王艺燕

    2013-01-01

    To solve the preservation problem of freshwater fishes , we carried out a preliminary study on the preservation of fresh grass carp block by using spice liquid.The fresh grass carp was treated with the water extract liquid of ginger garlic aniseed -yellow wine complex (A liquid) and the ultrasonic extract liquid of ginger garlic aniseed -yellow wine complex (B liquid).Through the determination of the free moisture content , pH-value and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) content in the meat of grass carp during shelf life, and the assessment of its sensory score , the preservation effect of spice liquid on grass carp block was studied .The results showed that the complex spice liquid could effectively keep the sensory quality of grass carp during shelf life , and delay the rising of pH-value and TVBN content.The preservation effect of B liquid was more obvious than that of A liquid .%  根据淡水鱼存在的贮藏问题,就香辛料液对草鱼鱼块保鲜效果进行了初步研究。采用水浴浸提的姜蒜大料-黄酒复合液(甲液)和超声浸提的姜蒜大料—黄酒复合液(乙液)对新鲜草鱼鱼块进行处理,通过测定货架期草鱼鱼肉的游离水含量、pH值、挥发性盐基总氮(TVBN)以及感官评分,研究了香辛料液对草鱼块的保鲜效果。结果表明:复合液能够有效地保持鱼肉货价期感官品质,并能有效延缓pH值和TVBN值的升高,且超声浸提的乙液效果较为明显。

  5. Effect of Modified Gelatin from Silver Carp Skin Combined with Peptide-Zn Complex on Preservation of Grass Carp%鲢鱼皮改性明胶复合多肽锌对草鱼的保鲜作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玲; 马月; 罗永康; 李博

    2016-01-01

    The coating preservation of gelatin modified by transglutaminase (TGase) combined with peptide-Zn complex from silver carp skin on grass carp was studied. Sensory evaluation, thiobarbituric acid (TBA), total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), pH value and total bacterial count were measured to study the quality changes of grass carp with different treatments during cold storage. The results showed that modified gelatin alone and its combination with peptide-Zn complex prepared from silver carp skin protein hydrolysate were both effective in preventing deterioration and preserving the quality of grass carp by significantly inhibiting the increases in TBA value, TVB-N value and pH value and restraining bacterial growth. Modified gelatin was comparable to sodium alginate combined with peptide-Zn complex in terms of efficacy. However, compared with sodium alginate combined with peptide-Zn complex, grass carp had a better quality on the 6th d of storage after being coated with modified gelatin combined with peptide-Zn complex. As a result, the quality of grass carp remained at the first and second grades both for 3 more days. In conclusion, modified gelatin combined with peptide-Zn complex was a more effective coating for preserving the quality of aquatic products when compared with the combination with sodium alginate.%研究鲢鱼皮谷氨酰胺转胺酶(transglutaminase,TGase)改性明胶复合多肽锌对冷藏草鱼段的保鲜效果。通过测定草鱼段在4℃冷藏过程中感官评分、硫代巴比妥酸(thiobarbituric acid,TBA)、挥发性盐基氮(total volatile basic nitrogen,TVB-N)、pH值和菌落总数等指标,评估不同处理条件下草鱼品质的变化情况。结果表明,改性明胶及其复合多肽锌对草鱼均有明显的防腐保鲜作用,有效抑制了草鱼TBA值、TVB-N值、pH值的升高以及菌落总数的增长。与海藻酸钠多肽锌处理的涂膜组草鱼相比,改性明胶单独涂膜组的保鲜

  6. Expression and Identification of Inclusion Forming-related Domain of NS80 Nonstructural Protein of Grass Carp Reovirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao FAN; Lan-lan ZHANG; Cheng-feng LEI; Qin FANG

    2009-01-01

    Grass carp reovirus (GCRV), a double stranded RNA virus that infects aquatic animals, often with disastrous effects, belongs to the genus Aquareovirus and family Reoviridea. Similar to other reoviruses, genome replication of GCRV in infected cells occurs in cytoplasmic inclusion bodies, also called viral factories. Sequences analysis revealed the nonstructural protein NS80, encoded by GCRV segment 4, has a high similarity with uNS in MRV(Mammalian orthoreoviruses), which may be associated with viral factory formation. To understand the function of the uNS80 protein in virus replication, the initial expression and identification of the immunogenicity of the GCRV NS80 protein inclusion forming-related region (335.742) was investigated in this study. It is shown that the over-expressed fusion protein was produced by inducing with IPTG at 28oC. In addition, serum specific rabbit antibody was obtained by using super purified recombinant NS80(335.742) protein as antigen. Moreover, the expressed protein was able to bind to anti-his-tag monoclonal antibody (mouse) and NS80(335-742) specific rabbit antibody. Further western blot analysis indicates that the antiserum could detect NS80 or NS80C protein expression in GCRV infected cells. This data provides a foundation for further investigation of the role of NS80 in viral inclusion formation and virion assembly.

  7. Effect of ultrasonication on the fibril-formation and gel properties of collagen from grass carp skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Ying [College of Food Science and Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Wang, Haibo, E-mail: wanghaibo@whpu.edu.cn [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Deng, Mingxia [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Wang, Zhongwen [College of Food Science and Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Zhang, Juntao [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Wang, Haiyin [Tongji Medical Collage, Huzhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Zhang, Hanjun [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan, Hubei (China)

    2016-02-01

    Controlling the fibril-formation process of collagen in vitro to fabricate novel biomaterials is a new area in the field of collagen research. This study aimed to determine the effect of ultrasonication on collagen fibril formation and the properties of the resulting collagen gels. Native collagen, extracted from the skin of grass carp, self-assembled under ultrasonic conditions (at different ultrasonic power and duration). The self-assembly kinetics, fibrillar morphology, and physical and cell growth-promoting properties of the collagen gels were analyzed and compared. The results showed that the self-assembly rate of collagen was increased by ultrasonication at the nucleation stage. The resulting fibrils exhibited smaller diameters and D-periodicity lengths than that of the untreated collagen samples (p < 0.05). The viscoelasticity and textural properties of collagen gels also changed after ultrasonication at the nucleation stage. Texture profile analysis and cell proliferation assays showed that ultrasonication produced softer collagen gel colloids, which were more suitable for cell proliferation than the untreated collagen gels. - Highlights: • Effect of ultrasonic on collagen fibril formation and gel property was studied. • Collagen fibrillogenic rate can be increased by ultrasonic processing. • Ultrasonically treated gel was softer and more suitable for cell proliferation. • Ultrasonic can used to apply for development of novel collagen biomaterials.

  8. Dietary pantothenic acid deficiency and excess depress the growth, intestinal mucosal immune and physical functions by regulating NF-κB, TOR, Nrf2 and MLCK signaling pathways in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Liu, Yang

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary pantothenic acid (PA) on the growth, intestinal mucosal immune and physical barrier, and relative mRNA levels of signaling molecules in the intestine of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 540 grass carp (253.44 ± 0.69 g) were fed six diets with graded levels of PA (PA1, PA15, PA30, PA45, PA60 and PA75 diets) for 8 weeks. The results indicated that compared with PA deficiency (PA1 diet) and excess (PA75 diet) groups, optimal PA supplementation increased (P TOR) mRNA expression levels in some intestinal segments; (2) reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl contents, and Kelch-like ECH-associating protein 1a, Kelch-like ECH-associating protein 1b in the intestine; (3) Claudin 12, Claudin 15a and myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) mRNA levels in some intestinal segments of grass carp. In conclusion, optimum PA promoted growth, intestinal mucosal immune and physical function, as well as regulated mRNA levels of signaling molecules NF-κB P65, TOR, Nrf2 and MLCK in grass carp intestine. Based on the quadratic regression analysis of PWG and intestinal lysozyme activity, the optimal PA levels in grass carp (253.44-745.25 g) were estimated to be 37.73 mg/kg and 41.38 mg/kg diet, respectively.

  9. Molecular cloning and mRNA expression analysis of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) from fast skeletal muscle of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wuying; Fu, Guihong; Bing, Shiyu; Meng, Tao; Zhou, Ruixue; Cheng, Jia; Zhao, Falan; Zhang, Hongfang; Zhang, Jianshe

    2010-03-01

    The myosin heavy chain (MyHC) is one of the major structural and contracting proteins of muscle. We have isolated the cDNA clone encoding MyHC of the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. The sequence comprises 5 934 bp, including a 5 814 bp open reading frame encoding an amino acid sequence of 1 937 residues. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 69% homology to rabbit fast skeletal MyHC and 73%-76% homology to the MyHCs from the mandarin fish, walleye pollack, white croaker, chum salmon, and carp. The putative sequences of subfragment-1 and the light meromyosin region showed 61.4%-80% homology to the corresponding regions of other fish MyHCs. The tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific expressions of the MyHC gene were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. The MyHC gene showed the highest expression in the muscles compared with the kidney, spleen and intestine. Developmentally, there was a gradual increase in MyHC mRNA expression from the neural formation stage to the tail bud stage. The highest expression was detected in hatching larva. Our work on the MyHC gene from the grass carp has provided useful information for fish molecular biology and fish genomics.

  10. Genomic behavior of hybrid combinations between elephant grass and pearl millet

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Ferreira Leão; Lisete Chamma Davide; José Marcello Salabert de Campos; Antonio Vander Pereira; Fernanda de Oliveira Bustamante

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the genomic behavior of hybrid combinations between elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and pearl millet (P. glaucum). Tetraploid (AAA'B) and pentaploid (AA'A'BB) chromosome races resulting from the backcross of the hexaploid hybrid to its parents elephant grass (A'A'BB) and pearl millet (AA) were analyzed as to chromosome number and DNA content. Genotypes of elephant grass, millet, and triploid and hexaploid induced hybrids were compared. Pentaplo...

  11. 洋葱对草鱼细菌性烂鳃病的治疗效果试验%The Therapeutic Effect of Onion on the Pathogenic Bacteria of Gill Rot Disease in Grass Carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐大勇; 韦汉群; 张文丽

    2008-01-01

    [Objective]The curative effect of onion on bacterial rotted gill disease in grass carp was researched[Method]The combination method of taking medicine through oral and spraying was used to cure sick grass carp for I period of treatment in room under artificial conditions.[Result]Different concentrations of onion generated different cure rates.When the combinatien was adding 1.0%-2.0% medicine into feed and spraying 2.0g/m3-5.0g/m3,the curative result was the best with cure rote was 70%-90%[Conclusion]The onion was effective on curing bacterial rotted gill disease in grass carp and could be taken as curative medicine.

  12. The Influence of Probiotics on Results of Common carp,Crucian Carp,and Grass Carp Culture%微生态制剂对鲤、鲫和草鱼养殖池塘效益的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李绍戊; 王荻; 尹家胜; 卢彤岩

    2011-01-01

    The effects of probiotics I containing primarily Bacillus subtilis and probiotics II containing a mixture of various microorganisms on weight gain,food conversion ratio and drug cost of common carp(Cyprinus carpio),Crucian carp(Carassius auratus) and grass carp(Ctenophyargodon idellus) in culture ponds in Heilongjiang and Liaoning provinces.The probiotics,alone or together,were showed to have influence on weight gain,the food conversion ratio and the drug cost in the fish culture.There were 423.57% higher weight gain in Heilongjiang province and 90% higher weight gain in Liaoning province in the ponds treated with the probiotics used together,than that in the control ponds with lower drug production cost of 29% in Heilongjiang province and 56.25% in Liaoning province.The food conversion ratio was found to be decreased by 0.35 and 0.05 in the ponds treated with probiotics used together,indicating that the probiotics have important influence on the profit of grass carp culture in Liaoning province and of common carp farming in Heilongjiang and have a promotion of green aquaculture with less drugs,less feed and more profits.%以枯草芽孢杆菌为主的主要用于促进鱼类消化生长的微生态制剂I、多种混合微生物主要用于调节水质的微生态制剂II,或是两者混合使用的方法,比较研究了黑龙江省及辽宁省池塘养殖的鲤(Cyprinus carpio)、鲫(Carassius auratus)和草鱼(Ctenophyargodon idellus)的增重率、饲料系数及药价等效益。结果表明,单种或者混合使用微生态制剂均对池塘养殖鲤及草鱼的增重率、饵料系数及用药价格有一定影响,同时使用两种微生态制剂提高鱼类增重率最显著,辽宁省和黑龙江省分别提高了423.57%和90%;而两省养殖池塘的药价也分别降低了29%和56.25%。微生态制剂I及混合同时使用两种微生态制剂均能显著降低饲料系数,辽宁及黑龙江分别降低0.35及0.05。结果可

  13. The mannose-binding lectin mRNA is expressed at high level in spleen and liver in adult grass carp%二龄草鱼脾脏、肝脏组织高表达甘露糖结合凝集素mRNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴超; 陆承平

    2004-01-01

    Innate immunity is expected to be very important in fish. Mannose-bingding lectin (MBL) participates in the innate immune system as an activator of the complement system and as an opsonin after binding to certain carbohydrate structures on microorganisms. In this experiment, total mRNA was isolated from spleen, liver, gills, thymus, head kidney and kidney of adult and immature grass carp Ctenopharygodon idllus. The cDNA of MBL was obtained by RT-PCR using total mRNA from the spleen of carp as template. Such cDNA was labled with 32p and used as probe for Northern analysis, and autoradiographic signals were quantified by densitometry analysis. The results showed that MBL was high expressed in the spleen and liver and low in gills, thymus, head kidney and kidney of adult grass carp, and MBL was much lower expressed in spleen and liver of immature grass carp than those of adult grass carp. The results might partially explain why immature grass carp are vulnerable to grass carp hemorrhage virus (GCHV) whereas adult grass carp are not.This suggested that MBL mav be an imoortant anti-GCHV factor [Acta Zoologica Sinica 50 (1): 137 - 140. 2004].

  14. Two grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5 genes exhibit different yet conserved functions in development and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guo-Dong; Zhou, Chun-Xue; Lin, Si-Tong; Chen, Jie; Jiang, Xia-Yun; Zou, Shu-Ming

    2017-02-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding-protein 5 (igfbp5), the most conserved member of the IGFBP family in vertebrates, plays a critical role in controlling cell survival, growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. Here, we characterized the expression patterns of igfbp5a and igfbp5b in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), which are retained in many fish species, likely from the teleost-specific whole-genome duplication. Both igfbp5a and igfbp5b encode 268- and 263-aa peptides, respectively, which share a sequence identity of 71%. Their mRNAs are not detected in zygotes. At 14hpf, grass carp igfbp5b mRNA was detected in the somites, while igfbp5a mRNA has some possible signal around the eye and head region. At 24hpf, both igfbp5a and igfbp5b mRNA appear to be limited to the presomitic mesoderm. At 36hpf, igfbp5a mRNA was only detected in the midbrain, while igfbp5b mRNA was detected in both the midbrain and notochord. Overall, both mRNAs were expressed in most adult tissues. igfbp5a and igfbp5b were significantly upregulated in the muscle and liver after injection of 10μg per kilogram body weight of zebrafish growth hormone (zGH), while their hepatic expression was downregulated by 50μg zGH. During fasting, both igfbp5a and igfbp5b mRNAs were significantly downregulated in the muscle but upregulated in the liver. Collectively, the results suggest that the two igfbp5 genes play important but different roles in the regulation of growth and development in grass carp.

  15. Trunk kidney of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) mediates immune responses against GCRV and viral/bacterial PAMPs in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lijun; Li, Qingmei; Su, Jianguo; Yang, Chunrong; Li, Yinqian; Rao, Youliang

    2013-03-01

    Trunk kidney is a vital organ for excretion in teleosts. There have been sporadic reports of processing pathogens for the immune function in trunk kidney. However, molecular processes of pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) responding to virus and viral/bacterial pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are poorly elucidated in trunk kidney. In the present study, we investigated transcriptional profiles of twelve representative immune-related genes (TLRs (TLR3, TLR7 and TLR22); RLRs (RIG-I, MDA5 and LGP2); NLRs (NOD1 and NOD2); adapter molecules (MyD88 and IPS-1); effector molecule type I interferon (IFN-I) and immunoglobulin M (IgM)) in trunk kidney tissue of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) (designated as Ci) injection of grass carp reovirus (GCRV) utilizing quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Furthermore, mRNA expression patterns of these genes (IgM excepted) were examined post GCRV infection and polyinosine-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or peptidoglycan (PGN) stimulation in primary trunk kidney cells of grass carp. The relative values of CiTLR3, CiTLR22 and CiMyD88 were increased post GCRV challenge and viral/bacterial PAMPs stimulation. The mRNA transcriptions of CiTLR7 were obviously activated with GCRV challenge. Remarkably, the mRNA expressions of CiRIG-I, CiMDA5, CiLGP2 and CiIPS-1 were largely up-regulated with GCRV challenge and viral/bacterial PAMPs stimulation. Interestingly, the expression tendencies of CiNOD1 and CiNOD2 were differential not only in GCRV challenge and poly(I:C) stimulation, but also in LPS and PGN stimulation. It was demonstrated that CiIFN-I induced powerful anti-viral and anti-bacterial effects in trunk kidney. In addition, the expression of CiIgM was induced at 72 h post GCRV injection in vivo. Collectively, these results suggest that trunk kidney of grass carp serves as an important immune organ, and plays crucial roles in triggering anti-viral and anti-bacterial immune responses both

  16. Functional characterization of two CITED3 homologs (gcCITED3a and gcCITED3b in the hypoxia-tolerant grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Richard MK

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CITED proteins belong to a family of non-DNA-binding transcriptional co-regulators that are characterized by a conserved ED-rich domain at the C-terminus. This family of genes is involved in the regulation of a variety of transcriptional responses through interactions with the CBP/p300 integrators and various transcription factors. In fish, very little is known about the expression and functions of CITEDs. Results We have characterized two closely related but distinct CITED3 genes, gcCited3a and gcCited3b, from the hypoxia-tolerant grass carp. The deduced gcCITED3a and gcCITED3b proteins share 72% amino acid identity, and are highly similar to the CITED3 proteins of both chicken and Xenopus. Northern blot analysis indicates that the mRNA expression of gcCited3a and gcCited3b is strongly induced by hypoxia in the kidney and liver, respectively. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that both gene promoters are activated by gcHIF-1. Further, ChIP assays comparing normal and hypoxic conditions reveal differential in vivo binding of gcHIF-1 to both gene promoters in kidney and liver tissues. HRE-luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that both gcCITED3a and gcCITED3b proteins inhibit gcHIF-1 transcriptional activity, and GST pull-down assays confirmed that both proteins bind specifically to the CH1 domain of the grass carp p300 protein. Conclusion The grass carp gcCITED3a and gcCITED3b genes are differentially expressed and regulated in different fish organs in response to hypoxic stress. This is the first report demonstrating in vivo regulation of two closely-related CITED3 isogenes by HIF-1, as well as CITED3 regulation of HIF-1 transcriptional activity in fish. Overall, our findings suggest that unique molecular mechanisms operate through these two gcCITED3 isoforms that likely play an important regulatory role in the hypoxic response in the grass carp.

  17. A study on the usability of pond water used for growing grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella valenciennes in salad-lettuce production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raşit Zeki Eltez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aquaponics is a bio-integrated food production system that, aquaculture (fish production in intensive culture ponds and hydroponics (plant growing in water with nutrient solution plant production are made together. This study was designed in the shape of a closed system; two different feeding dose (3% and 4% of the live weight of the pool Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella Valenciennes feed with cultivation used pool water, Nutrient Film Technique (NFT in the form of the nutrient solution system designed as a lettuce-salad (Lactuca sativa group of crops to investigate the applicability of the system with the aim of cultivating the effects upon and carried out.

  18. Dataset on differential gene expression analysis for splenic transcriptome profiling and the transcripts related to six immune pathways in grass carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxi Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this paper are related to the research article entitled “Transcriptome profiling of developing spleen tissue and discovery of immune-related genes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella” (Li et al. 2016 [1]. Please refer to this article for interpretation of the data. Data provided in this submission are comprised of the expression levels of unigenes, significantly differentially expressed genes(DEGs, significant enrichment GO term and KEGG pathway of DEGs, and information of the transcripts assigned to six immune pathways.

  19. Effect of dietary phosphorus deficiency on the growth, immune function and structural integrity of head kidney, spleen and skin in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kang; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Wu, Pei; Liu, Yang; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluates the effects of dietary phosphorus on the growth, immune function and structural integrity (head kidney, spleen and skin) of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) that were fed graded levels of available phosphorus (0.95-8.75 g/kg diet). Results indicated that phosphorus deficiency decreased the growth performance of young grass carp. In addition, the results first demonstrated that compared with the optimal phosphorus level, phosphorus deficiency depressed the lysozyme (LZ) and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities and the complement 3 (C3), C4 and immunoglobulin M (IgM) contents, and down-regulated the mRNA levels of antimicrobial peptides, anti-inflammatory cytokines, inhibitor of κBα (IκBα) and target of rapamycin (TOR), whereas it up-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokines, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 and NF-κB p52 mRNA levels to decrease fish head kidney and spleen immune functions. Moreover, phosphorus deficiency up-regulated the mRNA levels of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1a (Keap1a), Fas ligand (FasL), apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (Apaf-1), Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax), caspase -2, -3, -7, -8 and -9, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), whereas it depressed the glutathione (GSH) contents and antioxidant enzymes activities, and down-regulated the mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes, NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), B-cell lymphoma protein-2 (Bcl-2), myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) and tight junction complexes to attenuate fish head kidney and spleen structural integrity. In addition, phosphorus deficiency increased skin hemorrhage and lesions morbidity. Finally, based on the percent weight gain (PWG) and the ability to combat skin hemorrhage and lesions, the dietary available phosphorus requirements for young grass carp (254.56-898.23 g) were estimated to be 4.10 and 4.13 g/kg diet, respectively. In summary, phosphorus deficiency decreases the growth

  20. Immunogenicity and protective role of antigenic regions from five outer membrane proteins of Flavobacterium columnare in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhang; Liu, Zhixin; Fu, Jianping; Zhang, Qiusheng; Huang, Bei; Nie, Pin

    2016-11-01

    Flavobacterium columnare causes columnaris disease in freshwater fish. In the present study, the antigenic regions of five outer membrane proteins (OMPs), including zinc metalloprotease, prolyl oligopeptidase, thermolysin, collagenase and chondroitin AC lyase, were bioinformatically analyzed, fused together, and then expressed as a recombinant fusion protein in Escherichia coli. The expressed protein of 95.6 kDa, as estimated by 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was consistent with the molecular weight deduced from the amino acid sequence. The purified recombinant protein was used to vaccinate the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. Following vaccination of the fish their IgM antibody levels were examined, as was the expression of IgM, IgD and IgZ immunoglobulin genes and other genes such as MHC Iα and MHC IIβ, which are also involved in adaptive immunity. Interleukin genes ( IL), including IL-1β, IL-8 and IL-10, and type I and type II interferon ( IFN) genes were also examined. At 3 and 4 weeks post-vaccination (wpv), significant increases in IgM antibody levels were observed in the fish vaccinated with the recombinant fusion protein, and an increase in the expression levels of IgM, IgD and IgZ genes was also detected following the vaccinations, thus indicating that an adaptive immune response was induced by the vaccinations. Early increases in the expression levels of IL and IFN genes were also observed in the vaccinated fish. At four wpv, the fish were challenged with F. columnare, and the vaccinated fish showed a good level of protection against this pathogen, with 39% relative percent survival (RPS) compared with the control group. It can be concluded, therefore, that the five OMPs, in the form of a recombinant fusion protein vaccine, induced an immune response in fish and protection against F. columnare.

  1. Evolutionary analysis of allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp × common carp,based on ISSR,AFLP molecular markers and cloning of cyclins genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU LiangGuo; YAN JinPeng; LIU ShaoJun; LIU Dong; YOU CuiPing; ZHONG Huan; TAO Min; LIU Yun

    2009-01-01

    The allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp × common carp are the first reported artificially cultured polyploid fish with bisexual fertility and stable inheritance in vertebrate.Using ISSR and AFLP markers and the cyclins genes,the genomes and cyclin gene sequence changes were analyzed between the allotetraploid hybrids and their parents.The results indicated that the allotetraploids inherited many genetic characteristics from their parents and the genetic characteristics were stable after 15 generations.However,the allotetraploids had a closer genetic relationship with their original female parents and represented a bias toward the maternal progenitor.DNA fingerprinting analysis showed that the allotetraploids had undergone sequences deletion from their original parents and that the deleted sequences were mostly from the male parent's genome.Some non-parental bands were found in the allotetraploid hybrids.Sequences analysis of the cyclin A1 and B1 genes showed nonsynonymous substitutions of single nucleotides in codons that were different from their original parents,leading to non-parental amino acid loci.We speculate that the non-additivity in the allotetraploids,compared with their progenitors,could be an adjustment to the genomic shock from heterozygosity and polyploidy, allowing maintenance of genetic stability.

  2. Molecular cloning and gene/protein expression of FAT/CD36 from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and the regulation of its expression by dietary energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Juan; Liu, Wei; Gao, Weihua; Wu, Fan; Yu, Lijuan; Lu, Xing; Yang, Chang-Geng; Jiang, Ming; Wen, Hua

    2017-01-18

    Fatty acid translocase/cluster of differentiation 36 (FAT/CD36) functions as a membrane long-chain fatty acid transporter in various tissues in land animals. Not much is known about the CD36 molecule in teleost fish. Therefore, we studied CD36 in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, ciCD36). The full-length complementary DNA sequence of ciCD36 was 1976 bp, with an ORF of 468 amino acids, which had high sequence similarity to the CD36 of common carp. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of ciCD36 was high in the intestine, heart, liver, visceral tissue, and brain, but absent in the kidney. The protein expression of ciCD36 was high in the brain, intestine, liver, heart, muscle, eye, visceral tissue, gonad, and gill, but not in the kidney. Four groups of grass carp (16 tanks) were fed three times daily to satiation with 17.2 kJ gross energy/g diet (control, CON), 19.4 kJ gross energy/g diet (more energy supplied by proteins, HP), 19.9 kJ gross energy/g diet (more energy supplied by fat, HF), and 19.1 kJ gross energy/g diet (more energy supplied by carbohydrate, HC) for 11 weeks, respectively. At the end of the feeding experiment, the fish were fasted for 48 h, and the brain, heart, intestine, and liver were sampled and designated as the 0-h samples. The fish were then fed a single meal of the above four diets, and these tissues were collected at 8- and 24-h intervals after refeeding to analyze ciCD36 mRNA and protein expression levels. The results showed that at the transcriptional and translational levels, ciCD36 expression was significantly affected by refeeding time and the different diets (P energy in grass carp. Translational regulation might be responsible for the observed variations in ciCD36 expression.

  3. Effect of Sugar on the Changes in Quality of Lightly Salted Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) Fillets under Vacuum Packaging at 4°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiying; Chen, Kexin; Chen, Jingru; Fan, Hongbing; Luo, Yongkang

    2016-03-01

    To estimate the effect of a low concentration of sugar on the changes in quality of lightly salted grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) during storage under vacuum packaging at 4°C, we determined the sensory score, total viable counts, biochemical quality, and physical quality of fish fillets. Fish samples were left untreated, dry cured with 1.3% salt, or dry cured with 1.3% salt plus 1.0% sugar. Compared with untreated samples, curing treatments reduced chemical changes reflected in pH, inosine monophosphate, hypoxanthine riboside, hypoxanthine, and total volatile base nitrogen; decreased the formation of phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, and histamine; and increased the overall sensory quality of fillets (P < 0.05). Compared to dry cured with 1.3% salt samples, sugar treatment significantly inhibited (P < 0.05) the increase in pH and total volatile base nitrogen value, but it promoted microbial growth and the formation of phenylethylamine and tyramine at later stages of storage. By considering each indicator, the addition of sugar, which can improve the taste of fillets, has no significant effect on the shelf life of vacuum-packaged grass carp fillets.

  4. Vitamin E deficiency depressed fish growth, disease resistance, and the immunity and structural integrity of immune organs in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella): Referring to NF-κB, TOR and Nrf2 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jia-Hong; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Wu, Pei; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Liu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary vitamin E on growth, disease resistance and the immunity and structural integrity of head kidney, spleen and skin in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). The fish were fed six diets containing graded levels of vitamin E (0, 45, 90, 135, 180 and 225 mg/kg diet) for 10 weeks. Subsequently, a challenge test was conducted by injection of Aeromonas hydrophila. The results showed that compared with optimal vitamin E supplementation, vitamin E deficiency caused depressed growth, poor survival rates and increased skin lesion morbidity in grass carp. Meanwhile, vitamin E deficiency decreased lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities, complement component 3 and complement component 4 contents in the head kidney, spleen and skin of grass carp (P E deficiency down-regulated antimicrobial peptides (Hepcidin, liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide-2A, -2B, β-defensin), IL-10, TGFβ1, IκBα, TOR and S6K1 mRNA levels (P E deficiency caused oxidative damage, decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities, and down-regulated the mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes and signaling molecules Nrf2 (P E deficiency also induced apoptosis by up-regulating capase-2, -3, -7, and -8 mRNA levels in the head kidney, spleen and skin of grass carp. In conclusion, this study indicated that dietary vitamin E deficiency depressed fish growth, impaired the immune function and disturbed the structural integrity of the head kidney, spleen and skin in grass carp, but optimal vitamin E supplementation can reverse those negative effects in fish. The optimal vitamin E requirements for young grass carp (266.39-1026.63 g) to achieve optimal growth performance and disease resistance based on the percent weight gain (PWG) and skin lesion morbidity were estimated to be 116.2 and 130.9 mg/kg diet, respectively. Meanwhile, based on immune indicator (LA activity in the head kidney) and

  5. Determination of the acute toxicity of isoniazid to three invasive carp species and rainbow trout in static exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Theresa M.; Hubert, Terrance D.

    2015-01-01

    Three invasive fishes of considerable concern to aquatic resource managers are the Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (bighead carp),Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (silver carp), and Ctenopharyngodon idella (grass carp), collectively known as Asian carps. There is a need for an effective chemical control agent for Asian carps. Isoniazid was identified as a potential toxicant for grass carp. The selective toxicity of isoniazid to grass carp was verified as a response to an anecdotal report received in 2013. In addition, the toxicity of isoniazid to bighead carp, silver carp, and Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout) was evaluated. Isoniazid was not toxic to grass carp at the reported anecdotal concentration, which was 13 milligrams per liter. Isoniazid (130 milligrams per liter) was not selectively toxic to bighead carp, silver carp, or grass carp when compared to rainbow trout.

  6. Modulation of immune response, physical barrier and related signaling factors in the gills of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed supplemented diet with phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lin; Chen, Yong-Po; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Zhao, Juan; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary phospholipids (PL) on the gill immune response and physical barrier of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 1080 juvenile grass carp with an average initial weight of 9.34 ± 0.03 g were fed six semi-purified diets containing 0.40% (unsupplemented control group), 1.43%, 2.38%, 3.29%, 4.37% and 5.42% PL for 2 months. Compared with the control group, optimal PL supplementation increased (P < 0.05): (1) the lysozyme activity, acid phosphatase activity, complement component 3 (C3) content, liver expressed antimicrobial peptide 1 (LEAP-1) and LEAP-2 mRNA expression; (2) the relative mRNA expression of interleukin 10, transforming growth factor β1, inhibitor factor κBα (IκBα) and target of rapamycin (TOR); (3) the activities of anti-superoxide anion (ASA), anti-hydroxyl radical (AHR), copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione content and mRNA levels of SOD1, CAT, GPx, GR and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) genes; (4) the transcription abundance of occludin, claudin b, claudin c, claudin 12 and zonula occludens 1 genes. At the same time, appropriate PL supplementation decreased (P < 0.05): (1) tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β, nuclear factor κB p65 (NF-κB p65), IκB kinase β (IKKβ) and IκB kinase γ (IKKγ) mRNA expression; (2) malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) content and the relative mRNA expression of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1a (Keap1a) and Keap1b; (3) the transcription abundance of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) genes. In conclusion, the positive effect of PL on gill health is associated with the improvement of the immunity, antioxidant status and tight junction barrier of fish gills. Finally, based on ACP activity, C3 content, PC content and ASA activity in the gills

  7. Preservation of Grass Carp Using Purified Bamboo Vinegar%竹醋精制液对冷藏草鱼的保鲜作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔宇; 刘华巍; 谢晶; 孙涛

    2012-01-01

    This paper studied the impact of the purified bamboo vinegar with different concentrations(volume concentrations were 0.5%,2.5% and 5.0%) on the preservation of grass carp.The pH value,volatile basic nitrogen(TVB-N),the total bacterial count(TBC) and thiobarbituric acid(TBA) were adopted as the quality indicators to measure the change in quality of grass carp in cold storage at(3±1)℃.The results showed that the purified bamboo vinegar with the three concentrations could inhibit the reproduction and growth of bacterial and lower the TBC value,TVB-N value and TBA value.The conclusion was that 5.0% purified bamboo vinegar performed the best in the inhibition of bacterial and anti-oxygen,which can apparently prolong the preservation period of grass carp.%本文以草鱼为试材,研究不同浓度(体积浓度分别为0.5%、2.5%、5.0%)竹醋精制液对草鱼冷藏过程中品质的影响。以pH值、挥发性盐基氮(TVB-N)、细菌总数(TBC)、硫代巴比妥酸(TBA)作为质量指标,测定草鱼在(3±1)℃冷藏过程中的品质变化。结果表明:3种浓度的竹醋精制液都能够抑制细菌生长繁殖,降低TVB-N值、TBC值和TBA值。其中:5.0%竹醋精制液对冷藏草鱼的抑菌和抗氧化效果最好,能够明显延缓草鱼的腐败变质,延长货架期。

  8. Application of Pullulan Polysaccharide in Preservation of Grass Carp%普鲁兰多糖在草鱼鱼肉保鲜中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成媛媛; 刘永乐; 王建辉; 王发祥; 李向红; 俞健; 刘冬敏

    2012-01-01

    In order to explore the fresh-keeping effect of pullulan polysaccharide on grass carp slices,the freshness indexes such as pH,sensory quality evaluation,total bacterial count,total volatile basic nitrogen(TVB-N) and peroxide value(POV) of grass carp slices treated with pullulan polysaccharide solution for 5 min during the mimic storage condition(25 ℃) were determined.The results showed that pullulan polysaccharide solution had a remarkable fresh-keeping effect.The total bacterial count and TVB-N value of grass carp slices treated with pullulan polysaccharide solution at the concentration of 0.50% were 2.15 × 105 CFU/g and 19.74 mg/l00 g,respectively,which can meet the requirements of freshness grade 2.%探讨普鲁兰多糖溶液对草鱼鱼肉的保鲜效果。以pH值、感官质量评价、细菌总数、挥发性盐基氮和过氧化值等为鲜度指标,鱼块经不同浓度的普鲁兰多糖溶液处理5min后,于模拟常温(25℃)贮藏,测定不同时间点其鲜度的变化。结果表明:普鲁兰多糖溶液对鱼肉有明显的保鲜效果,经0.50%多糖溶液处理的鱼肉,在模拟常温条件下贮藏12h后细菌总数和TVB-N值分别为2.15×105CFU/g和19.74mg/l00g,均低于淡水产品二级鲜度的要求,保鲜效果最好。

  9. Growth and nutritional evaluation of napier grass hybrids as forage for ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Turano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Napier grass is a perennial, tropical C-4 grass that can produce large amounts of forage. However, low temperatures and drought stress limit its productivity and nutritive value as a forage. To overcome these limitations, pearl millet × napier grass hybrids (PMN were developed. It was hypothesized that PMN hybrids were more drought-tolerant, produced higher yields, and had higher nutritive value than napier grass varieties. The yield and nutritive value of 4 napier grass varieties (Bana grass, Mott, MB4 and N51 and 4 PMN hybrids (PMN2, PMN3, 5344 and 4604 were determined with or without irrigation in a strip plot design in Hawaii. Hybrid PMN3 outperformed napier grass varieties and the other hybrids for yield, while 5344 showed higher nutritional content and digestibility than most other grasses. Dry matter yields during the 110-day study period ranged from 10.3 to 32.1 t/ha without irrigation and 19.6 to 55.8 t/ha with irrigation, indicating that moisture stress was limiting performance in raingrown pastures. Only hybrids PMN3 and PMN2 and variety MB4 showed significant growth responses to irrigation. Further work is needed to evaluate the hybrids in a range of environments over much longer periods to determine if these preliminary results can be reproduced over the long term. Similarly, feeding studies with animals are needed to determine if the in vitro data for digestibility are reflected in superior performance for the promising hybrids.Keywords: Biomass, cattle, in vitro digestion, nutrient content, Pennisetum, tropical grasses.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(4168-178

  10. Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing generates high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms for assessing hybridization between bighead and silver carp in the United States and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamer, James T; Sass, Greg G; Boone, Jason Q; Arbieva, Zarema H; Green, Stefan J; Epifanio, John M

    2014-01-01

    Bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix) are invasive species and listed as US federally injurious species under the Lacy Act. They have established populations in much of the Mississippi River Basin (MRB; Mississippi, Illinois, and Missouri rivers) and are capable of producing fertile hybrids and complex introgression. Characterizing the composition of this admixture requires a large set of high-quality, evolutionarily conserved, diagnostic genetic markers to aid in the identification and management of these species in the midst of morphological ambiguity. Restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing of 45 barcoded bighead and silver carp from the United States and China produced reads that were aligned to the silver carp transcriptome yielded 261 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with fixed allelic differences between the two species. We selected the highest quality 112 SNP loci for validation using 194 putative pure-species and F1 hybrids from the MRB and putative bighead carp and silver carp pure species from China (Amur, Pearl and Yangtze rivers). Fifty SNPs were omitted due to design/amplification failure or lack of diagnostic utility. A total of 57 species-diagnostic SNPs conserved between carp species in US and Chinese rivers were identified; 32 were annotated to functional gene loci. Twenty-seven of the 181 (15%) putative pure species were identified as hybrid backcrosses after validation, including three backcrosses from the Amur River, where hybridization has not been documented previously. The 57 SNPs identified through RAD sequencing provide a diagnostic tool to detect population admixture and to identify hybrid and pure-species Asian carps in the United States and China.

  11. α-lipoic acid ameliorates n-3 highly-unsaturated fatty acids induced lipid peroxidation via regulating antioxidant defenses in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiao-Chen; Jin, Ai; Sun, Jian; Yang, Zhou; Tian, Jing-Jing; Ji, Hong; Yu, Hai-Bo; Li, Yang; Zhou, Ji-Shu; Du, Zhen-Yu; Chen, Li-Qiao

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated the protective effect of α-lipoic acid (LA) on n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs)-induced lipid peroxidation in grass carp. The result indicated that diets with n-3 HUFAs increased the production of malondialdehyde (MDA) (P n-3 HUFAs-only group. However, diets with LA remarkably inhibited the n-3 HUFAs-induced increase of HSI, KI, and MDA level in serum, liver and muscle (P n-3 HUFAs in fatty acid composition of muscle and liver (P n-3 HUFAs-induced lipid peroxidation, remit the toxicity of the lipid peroxidant, and protect n-3 HUFAs against lipid peroxidation to promote its deposition in fish, likely strengthening the activity of antioxidant enzymes through regulating mRNA expressions of antioxidant enzyme genes via mediating Nrf2-Keap1 signaling pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 草鱼鱼肉肠质构性质的影响因素研究%Study on factors affecting texture properties of grass carp meat sausage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏

    2012-01-01

    The effects of egg white, corn starch, and vegetable oil on the whiteness, fracture strength, gel strength and elasticity of grass carp meat sausage were studied, and the results showed that all of these materials could improve the whiteness, gel strength and elasticity of sausage at proper addition levels, and the elasticity and gel strength of the sausage increased doubly with the addition of 15% corn starch (count at the weight of fish meat). When judged texture with gel strength, the proper addition levels of these materials in grass carp meat sausage were 15% corn starch, 3% egg white, and 1% vegetable oil.%研究了鸡蛋清、玉米淀粉、植物油对草鱼鱼肉肠白度、凝胶破裂强度、凝胶强度和弹性的影响,发现向鱼肉肠中添加适量的鸡蛋清、玉米淀粉和植物油都能增加产品的白度、凝胶强度和弹性,而添加15%的玉米淀粉可以使鱼肉肠的弹性和凝胶强度增加约1倍。以鱼肉肠凝胶强度为质构指标,确定制备鱼肉肠的辅料添加量为:15%的玉米淀粉,3%的鸡蛋清,1%的植物油。

  13. Utilisation of vegetable leaves for carp production

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    The results of two sets of experiments on mono-culture of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and mixed culture of carps (grass carp 50 : catla 20 : rohu 15 : mrigal 15) fed exclusively with vegetable leaves are reported. The experiments were conducted with two replicates each in 0.02 ha ponds of Wastewater Aquaculture Division of the Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, Rahara during 1991-93. Monoculture of grass carp stocked at 1000/ha demonstrated an average net production of 21.0...

  14. Organization and Variation Analysis of 5S rDNA in Different Ploidy-level Hybrids of Red Crucian Carp × Topmouth Culter

    OpenAIRE

    Weiguo He; Qinbo Qin; Shaojun Liu; Tangluo Li; Jing Wang; Jun Xiao; Lihua Xie; Chun Zhang; Yun Liu

    2012-01-01

    Through distant crossing, diploid, triploid and tetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var., RCC♀, Cyprininae, 2n = 100) × topmouth culter (Erythroculter ilishaeformis Bleeker, TC♂, Cultrinae, 2n = 48) were successfully produced. Diploid hybrids possessed 74 chromosomes with one set from RCC and one set from TC; triploid hybrids harbored 124 chromosomes with two sets from RCC and one set from TC; tetraploid hybrids had 148 chromosomes with two sets from RCC and two sets...

  15. Expression of Hu-IFN-α Gene in Transgenic Grass Carp%人α-干扰素基因在转基因草鱼中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈立祥; 肖调义; 汪冬庚; 苏建明; 陈开健; 章怀云; 张学文; 符少辉

    2001-01-01

    To raise carp's resistance to hemorrhage,a large amount of transgenic grass carp was obtained by transfering hu-IFN-α gene which was cloned under the control of the β-actin gene promoter of grass carp to the cytula of carp in the way of microinjection. ELISA detection of the gene expression of the transgenic grass carps was carried out by using the serum as samples.158 individuals were tested to be positive with a detectable hu-IFN-α expression level in 672 transgenic fish. The detectable ratio is 23.51% and the highest is 1 450 pg/mL in serum. The expression level of the transformed gene changes in different seasons and development stages.%为提高草鱼对出血病的抗性,采用显微注射法,将克隆在鲤β-肌动蛋白基因启动子下游的人α-干扰素基因转移到草鱼受精卵中,获得了大量转基因个体.抽取转基因鱼血浆,以酶联免疫吸附法检测了转基因草鱼中人α-干扰素基因的表达情况.从672尾转基因草鱼中检测出158尾有α-干扰素的表达,阳性率为23.51%,其中表达水平最高个体血浆中α-干扰素质量浓度为1 450 pg/mL.基因表达量随季节和个体发育时期有所变化.

  16. Cloning and analysis of the full-length cDNA sequences of the heat shock protein 70 gene from silver carp, grass carp and Nile tilapia%鲢鱼、草鱼和尼罗罗非鱼热休克蛋白70基因cDNA全序列的克隆与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何珊; 梁旭方; 李观贵; 王琳; 郁颖

    2009-01-01

    采用RT-PCR技术和RACE技术分别从淡水食毒藻鱼类鲢鱼(Hypophthalmichthys molotrix)、尼罗罗非鱼(Oreochromis nilotica)及草食性鱼类草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idella)肝脏扩增出热休克蛋白70(HSP70)cDNA全序列,并与其它鱼类、两栖类和哺乳类动物的HSP70氨基酸进行了同源性比较.结果表明,鲢鱼、草鱼和尼罗罗非鱼肝脏HSP70基因cDNA全长分别为2356 bp、2348 bp和2242 bp,分别编码649、649和638个氨基酸.鲢鱼、草鱼和尼罗罗非鱼HSP70与其它鱼类、两栖类和哺乳类动物HSP70氨基酸同源性均较高,表明其在进化上高度保守,且承担着重要的生理功能.构建系统进化树发现,鲢鱼、草鱼与其它鲤科鱼类斑马鱼、银鲫(Carassius auratils gibelio)的HSP70氨基酸同源性较高,处于同一进化树分枝;而尼罗罗非鱼HSP70未与其它鲈形目鱼类,如鲷科鱼类聚为一枝,而是占据一个独立的分枝,这与克隆得到的鲢鱼、草鱼肝脏HSP70基因可能为结构型HSP70,而尼罗罗非鱼肝脏HSP70基因可能为诱导型HSP70的结果相一致.%Heat shock protein 70 ( HSP70) full-length cDNAs were cloned from the liver of two phytoplanktivorous freshwater fish, silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis nilotica) , and one herbivorous fish, grass carp (Cunopharyngodon idella) using RT-PCR and RACE. Sequence analysis revealed that the silver carp, grass carp, and Nile tilapia HSP70 cDNAs were 2356, 2348, and 2242 bp in length, and contained an open-reading frame ( ORF) of 1950 bp ( encoding a polypeptide of 649 amino acids) , 1950 bp ( encoding a polypeptide of 649 amino acids), 1917 bp (encoding a polypeptide of 638 amino acids), respectively. Silver carp, grass carp and Nile tilapia HSP70 sequences are highly homologous to other fish, amphibia and mammals HSP70, which suggests that they play a role in fundamental cellular processes. Results of the phylogenetic analysis revealed that silver carp

  17. Efeito do gelo clorado sobre parâmetros químicos e microbiológicos da carne de carpa capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella Effect of chlorinated ice on chemical and microbiological features of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella flesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Scherer

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A rápida perecibilidade dos peixes provoca perdas na industrialização e comercialização desse alimento. No presente trabalho, avaliou-se a eficiência da utilização de gelo clorado para ampliar a vida-de-prateleira de carpa capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella. Foram realizadas contagens de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos e psicrotróficos na carne, e determinada a concentração de bases voláteis totais e o pH da carne de carpas armazenadas inteiras, sob refrigeração (3±1ºC, cobertas com gelo sem cloro ou clorado (5ppm, ao longo de 20 dias. O cloro reduziu significativamente (pThe rapid spoilage of fishes causes economical losses in the processing and marketing of these products. In the present study, the efficiency of chlorinated ice to increase grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella shelf life was evaluated. Mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria count, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN and pH were evaluated in the flesh of grass carp stored refrigerated (3±1ºC for 20 days, covered with chlorinated (5ppm or non-chlorinated ice. Chlorine significantly reduced (p<0,05 mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria count in the flesh, as well as pH and the initial values of TVBN. TVBN values were low and did not exhibit great changes over the storage time. Results showed that grass carp shelf life could be extended around 3 days by using chlorinated ice. Besides, pH and TVBN values were considered unsuitable to assess grass carp spoilage.

  18. Methionine Requirement of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idell) during Middle Growth Stage%生长中期草鱼蛋氨酸需要量的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐炳荣; 冯琳; 刘扬; 姜俊; 胡凯; 姜维丹; 李树红; 周小秋

    2012-01-01

    本试验通过研究饲料蛋氨酸水平对生长中期草鱼生长性能和消化吸收能力的影响,旨在确定生长中期草鱼的蛋氨酸需要量.选用平均体重为(259.00±0.48)g的草鱼900尾,随机分为6个处理(每个处理5个重复,每个重复30尾),分别饲喂蛋氨酸水平为2.19、4.72、7.18、9.67、12.21和14.69g/kg的试验饲料,试验期49 d.结果表明:与蛋氨酸水平为2.19 g/kg时相比,提高饲料中蛋氨酸水平显著地提高了生长中期草鱼的增重、摄食量、饲料效率、特定生长率和蛋白质效率(P<0.05).当蛋氨酸水平达到7.18 g/kg时,增重和特定生长率达到最大值.蛋氨酸水平显著影响生长中期草鱼的肝胰脏和肠道重量、肝胰脏和肠道蛋白质含量以及肠道长度(P<0.05),对肝体指数没有显著影响(P>0.05).当蛋氨酸水平≥4.72 g/kg时,肝胰脏和肠道重量以及肠道长度在各处理间差异不显著(P>0.05).肝胰脏和肠道蛋白质含量分别在蛋氨酸水平为9.67和12.21 g/kg时达到最大值.当蛋氨酸水平为7.18 g/kg时,肝胰脏和肠道胰蛋白酶、糜蛋白酶和脂肪酶活性均达到最大值.当蛋氨酸水平为4.72 g/kg时,肠道淀粉酶活性达到最大值,且与其他处理间差异达到显著水平(P<0.05).蛋氨酸水平显著影响各肠段Na+,K+-ATP酶、碱性磷酸酶、γ-谷氨酰转肽酶和肌酸激酶活性(P<0.05).由此得出,饲料中适宜水平的蛋氨酸可以提高生长中期草鱼的生长性能和消化吸收能力.以特定生长率为标识,当饲料胱氨酸含量为1.61 g/kg时,生长中期草鱼(259~498 g)的蛋氨酸需要量为10.41g/kg饲料或34.71 g/kg蛋白质.%This experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary methionine level on growth performance , digestive and absorptive ability of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idell) during middle growth stage, and to determine the methionine requirement of grass carp during middle growth stage. A total of 900

  19. Exogenous phospholipids supplementation improves growth and modulates immune response and physical barrier referring to NF-κB, TOR, MLCK and Nrf2 signaling factors in the intestine of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong-Po; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Zhao, Juan; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary phospholipids (PL) on the growth performance, intestinal enzyme activity and immune response and intestinal physical barrier of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 1080 juvenile grass carp with an average initial weight of 9.34 ± 0.03 g were fed six semi-purified diets containing 0.40% (unsupplemented control group), 1.43%, 2.38%, 3.29%, 4.37% and 5.42% PL for 2 months. Results indicated that 3.29% PL increased lysozyme (LZ) and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities and complement component 3 (C3) content (P intestine, suggesting that optimum PL could improve fish intestinal immunity. In addition, 3.29% PL increased the activities of anti-superoxide anion (ASA), anti-hydroxyl radical, copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR), the content of glutathione (P intestine, indicating that the optimum PL could improve fish intestinal physical barrier. Finally, based on the PWG, C3 content in the DI, ACP activity in the DI, intestinal PC content and intestinal ASA activity, the optimal dietary PL levels for juvenile grass carp (9.34-87.50 g) were estimated to be 3.46%, 3.79%, 3.93%, 3.72%, and 4.12%, respectively.

  20. 利用GC/MS分析草鱼内脏鱼油和菜籽油的脂肪酸组成%Comparative analysis of fatty acids composition in grass carp oil and rapeseed oil using GC/MS method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡卫强; 宋军; 刘忠义

    2011-01-01

    采用气质联用法对草鱼内脏鱼油和菜籽油的脂肪酸组成进行分析测定.结果表明,草鱼内脏鱼油中共检测出19种脂肪酸,其中饱和脂肪酸有7种,不饱和脂肪酸有12种;菜籽油中共检出14种脂肪酸,其中饱和脂肪酸有5种,不饱和脂肪酸有9种,两者脂肪酸的主要组成均为不饱和脂肪酸.因此可以利用草鱼内脏鱼油制备生物柴油.%The compositions of fatty acids in both grass carp oil and rap-seed oil are investigated by gas chromatography - mass spectrom-etry (GC/MS). The results showed that nineteen fatty acids, including seven saturated fatty acids and twelve unsaturated fatty acids, were identified in grass carp oil, and fourteen fatty acids, including five saturated fatty acids and nine unsaturated fatty acids, were detected in rap-seed oil. Unsaturated fatty acids are the main compositions in both oils. The results could indicate the grass carp oil was used to prepare biodiesel.

  1. The impaired intestinal mucosal immune system by valine deficiency for young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is associated with decreasing immune status and regulating tight junction proteins transcript abundance in the intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jian-Bo; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary valine on the growth, intestinal immune response, tight junction proteins transcript abundance and gene expression of immune-related signaling molecules in the intestine of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Six iso-nitrogenous diets containing graded levels of valine (4.3-19.1 g kg(-)(1) diet) were fed to the fish for 8 weeks. The results showed that percentage weight gain (PWG), feed intake and feed efficiency of fish were the lowest in fish fed the valine-deficient diet (P valine deficiency decreased lysozyme, acid phosphatase activities and complement 3 content in the intestine (P valine deficiency significantly decreased transcript of Occludin, Claudin b, Claudin c, Claudin 3, and ZO-1 (P valine did not have a significant effect on expression of Claudin 12 in the intestine of grass carp (P > 0.05). In conclusion, valine deficiency decreased fish growth and intestinal immune status, as well as regulated gene expression of tight junction proteins, NF-κB P65, IκBα and TOR in the fish intestine. Based on the quadratic regression analysis of lysozyme activity or PWG, the dietary valine requirement of young grass carp (268-679 g) were established to be 14.47 g kg(-1) diet (4.82 g 100 g(-1) CP) or 14.00 g kg(-1) diet (4.77 g 100 g(-1) CP), respectively.

  2. Effects of glucose, insulin and triiodothyroxine on leptin and leptin receptor expression and the effects of leptin on activities of enzymes related to glucose metabolism in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Rong-Hua; Zhou, Yi; Yuan, Xiao-Chen; Liang, Xu-Fang; Fang, Liu; Bai, Xiao-Li; Wang, Min; Zhao, Yu-Hua

    2015-08-01

    Leptin is an important regulator of appetite and energy expenditure in mammals, but its role in fish metabolism control is poorly understood. Our previous studies demonstrated that leptin has an effect on the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure as well as lipid metabolism (stimulation of lipolysis and inhibition of adipogenesis) in the grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. To further investigate the role of leptin in fish, the effects of glucose, insulin and triiodothyroxine (T3) on the expression levels of leptin and leptin receptor (Lepr) and the effects of leptin on the activities of critical glucose metabolism enzymes in grass carp hepatocytes were evaluated in the present study. Our data indicated that leptin gene expression was induced by glucose in a dose-dependent manner, while Lepr gene expression exhibited a biphasic change. A high dose of insulin (100 ng/mL) significantly up-regulated the expression of leptin and Lepr. Leptin expression was markedly up-regulated by a low concentration of T3 but inhibited by a high concentration of T3. T3 up-regulated Lepr expression in a dose-dependent manner. Together, these data suggest that leptin had a close relationship with three factors (glucose, insulin and T3) and might participate in the regulation of glucose metabolism in grass carp. In addition, we also found that leptin affected the activities of key enzymes that are involved in glucose metabolism, which might be mediated by insulin receptor substrate-phosphoinositol 3-kinase signaling.

  3. Physical and Flavor Characteristics, Fatty Acid Profile, Antioxidant Status and Nrf2-Dependent Antioxidant Enzyme Gene Expression Changes in Young Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) Fillets Fed Dietary Valine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jian-Bo; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary valine on the physical and flavor characteristics, fatty acid (FA) profile, antioxidant status and Nrf2-dependent antioxidant enzyme gene expression in the muscle of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed increasing levels of valine (4.3, 8.0, 10.6, 13.1, 16.9 and 19.1 g/kg) for 8 weeks. Compared with the control group, the group fed valine showed improved physical characteristics of fish fillets (increased relative shear force, hydroxyproline, protein and lipid levels and decreased cathepsin B and L activities, as well as cooking loss, were observed). Moreover, valine improved the flavor of young grass carp fillets by increasing the amino acid (AA) concentration in fish muscle (increased aspartic acid, threonine, glutamine, cystine, methionine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, lysine, histidine, arginine and valine concentrations were observed). Additionally, optimal valine supplementation increased the potential health benefits to humans by decreasing the saturated FA (C15:0 and C16:0) concentration and increasing the unsaturated FA (monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs), such as C16:1, C18:1c+t and C20:1, and polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs), such as C18:3n-3, C20:2 and C22:6) concentration. In addition, the reduced glutathione (GSH) content and the activities of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), catalase (CAT) and Selenium-dependent glutathione peroxydase (Se-GPx) increased under valine supplementation (P levels increased with dietary valine levels, possibly due to the up-regulation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), target of rapamycin (TOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and the down-regulation of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) in muscle (P antioxidant status and regulated the expression of the antioxidant enzyme genes Nrf2, Keap1, TOR and S6K1 in fish fillets.

  4. Physical and Flavor Characteristics, Fatty Acid Profile, Antioxidant Status and Nrf2-Dependent Antioxidant Enzyme Gene Expression Changes in Young Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) Fillets Fed Dietary Valine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary valine on the physical and flavor characteristics, fatty acid (FA) profile, antioxidant status and Nrf2-dependent antioxidant enzyme gene expression in the muscle of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed increasing levels of valine (4.3, 8.0, 10.6, 13.1, 16.9 and 19.1 g/kg) for 8 weeks. Compared with the control group, the group fed valine showed improved physical characteristics of fish fillets (increased relative shear force, hydroxyproline, protein and lipid levels and decreased cathepsin B and L activities, as well as cooking loss, were observed). Moreover, valine improved the flavor of young grass carp fillets by increasing the amino acid (AA) concentration in fish muscle (increased aspartic acid, threonine, glutamine, cystine, methionine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, lysine, histidine, arginine and valine concentrations were observed). Additionally, optimal valine supplementation increased the potential health benefits to humans by decreasing the saturated FA (C15:0 and C16:0) concentration and increasing the unsaturated FA (monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs), such as C16:1, C18:1c+t and C20:1, and polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs), such as C18:3n-3, C20:2 and C22:6) concentration. In addition, the reduced glutathione (GSH) content and the activities of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), catalase (CAT) and Selenium-dependent glutathione peroxydase (Se-GPx) increased under valine supplementation (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the SOD1, CAT and Se-GPx mRNA levels increased with dietary valine levels, possibly due to the up-regulation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), target of rapamycin (TOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and the down-regulation of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) in muscle (P < 0.05). In conclusion, valine improved the physical and flavor characteristics, FA profile, and antioxidant status and regulated the expression of the antioxidant enzyme genes Nrf2, Keap1, TOR

  5. Dietary vitamin C deficiency depresses the growth, head kidney and spleen immunity and structural integrity by regulating NF-κB, TOR, Nrf2, apoptosis and MLCK signaling in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui-Jun; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Feng, Lin; Liu, Yang; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary vitamin C on the growth, and head kidney, spleen and skin immunity, structural integrity and related signaling molecules mRNA expression levels of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 540 grass carp (264.37 ± 0.66 g) were fed six diets with graded levels of vitamin C (2.9, 44.2, 89.1, 133.8, 179.4 and 224.5 mg/kg diet) for 10 weeks. Subsequently, a challenge test was conducted by injection of Aeromonas hydrophila and the survival rate recorded for 14 days. The results indicated that compared with optimal vitamin C supplementation, vitamin C deficiency (2.9 mg/kg diet) decreased lysozyme (LA) and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities, and complement 3 and complement 4 (C4) contents (P spleen), IL-12 P40, IL-15, IL-17D, nuclear factor κB p65, IκB kinases (IKKα, IKKβ, IKKγ), target of rapamycin and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 mRNA levels (P spleen under injection fish of A. hydrophila, suggesting that vitamin C deficiency could decrease fish head kidney and spleen immunity and cause inflammation. Meanwhile, compared with optimal vitamin C supplementation, vitamin C deficiency decreased the activities and mRNA levels of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferases and glutathione reductase (P spleen under injection fish of A. hydrophila, suggesting that vitamin C deficiency could decrease fish head kidney and spleen structural integrity through depression of antioxidative ability, induction of apoptosis and disruption of tight junctional complexes. In addition, except the activities of ACP and MnSOD, and mRNA expression levels of TGF-β1, Occludin and MnSOD, the effect of vitamin C on fish head kidney, spleen and skin immunity and structural integrity other indicators model are similar under infection of A. hydrophila. Finally, the vitamin C requirement for the growth performance (PWG) of young grass carp was

  6. Genomic behavior of hybrid combinations between elephant grass and pearl millet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ferreira Leão

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the genomic behavior of hybrid combinations between elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum and pearl millet (P. glaucum. Tetraploid (AAA'B and pentaploid (AA'A'BB chromosome races resulting from the backcross of the hexaploid hybrid to its parents elephant grass (A'A'BB and pearl millet (AA were analyzed as to chromosome number and DNA content. Genotypes of elephant grass, millet, and triploid and hexaploid induced hybrids were compared. Pentaploid and tetraploid genomic combinations showed high level of mixoploidy, in discordance with the expected somatic chromosome set. The pentaploid chromosome number ranged from 20 to 34, and the tetraploid chromosome number from 16 to 28. Chromosome number variation was higher in pentaploid genomic combinations than in tetraploid, and mixoploidy was observed among hexaploids. Genomic combinations 4x and 5x are mixoploid, and the variation of chromosome number within chromosomal race 5x is greater than in 4x.

  7. A novel nucleo-cytoplasmic hybrid clone formed via androgenesis in polyploid gibel carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Li

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unisexual vertebrates have been demonstrated to reproduce by gynogenesis, hybridogenesis, parthenogenesis, or kleptogenesis, however, it is uncertain how the reproduction mode contributes to the clonal diversity. Recently, polyploid gibel carp has been revealed to possess coexisting dual modes of unisexual gynogenesis and sexual reproduction and to have numerous various clones. Using sexual reproduction mating between clone D female and clone A male and subsequent 7 generation multiplying of unisexual gynogenesis, we have created a novel clone strain with more than several hundred millions of individuals. Here, we attempt to identify genetic background of the novel clone and to explore the significant implication for clonal diversity contribution. Methods Several nuclear genome markers and one cytoplasmic marker, the mitochondrial genome sequence, were used to identify the genetic organization of the randomly sampled individuals from different generations of the novel clone. Results Chromosome number, Cot-1 repetitive DNA banded karyotype, microsatellite patterns, AFLP profiles and transferrin alleles uniformly indicated that nuclear genome of the novel clone is identical to that of clone A, and significantly different from that of clone D. However, the cytoplasmic marker, its complete mtDNA genome sequence, is same to that of clone D, and different from that of clone A. Conclusions The present data indicate that the novel clone is a nucleo-cytoplasmic hybrid between the known clones A and D, because it originates from the offspring of gonochoristic sexual reproduction mating between clone D female and clone A male, and contains an entire nuclear genome from the paternal clone A and a mtDNA genome (cytoplasm from the maternal clone D. It is suggested to arise via androgenesis by a mechanism of ploidy doubling of clone A sperm in clone D ooplasm through inhibiting the first mitotic division. Significantly, the selected nucleo

  8. CLONING AND EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLUS) PRKRIP1, A NEW IMMUNE RELATED GENE%草鱼免疫相关基因Prkrip1的克隆和表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董锋; 廖兰杰; 朱作言; 汪亚平

    2013-01-01

    With the expansion of the scale of grass carp, the viral disease of grass carp greatly affeated the yield of grass carp. To carry out fish virus immune response-related functional genes research, Partial cDNA sequence of Prkrip1 in grass carp was isolated from head kidney cDNA library by the method of homology cloning. The full length cDNA of grass carp Prkrip1 was obtained by means of 3′RACE and 5′RACE, respectively. The full length cDNA of grass carp Prkrip1 was 1057 bp, consisting of a 5′-terminal untranslated region (UTR) of 39 bp, a 3′-terminal UTR of 472 bp, and an open reading frame of 546 bp. Sequence alignment showed that the deduced amino acid sequence of grass carp Prkrip1 had an overall similarity of 69%-87% to that of other species homologues. Amino acid sequence analysis in-dicated the existence of three nuclear localization signals, a dsRNA binding region and an N-terminal conserved region as binding element of PKR. Then we used PCR to obtain a genomic DNA which covers the entire coding region of grass carp Prkrip1. In the 8.5 k-long genomic sequence, six exons and five introns were identified. The promoter re-gion-driven GFP eukaryotic expression plasmid was constructed. Expression of the GFP reporter gene confirmed the promoter cloned in this study was active, could be used for the analysis of the transcriptional regulation. Real-time RT-PCR results showed that grass carp Prkrip1 was expressed predominantly in liver and PBL, medium in gill, spleen, intestine, skin, brain, muscle, kidney and lower in head kidney. Whereas under GCRV-infection condition, the expres-sion of Prkrip1 gene was significantly up-regulated in most immune-related tissues in a time-dependent manner, in which Prkrip1 expression was increased to the highest value in four days post-infection, and then began to decline five days post-infection. In the fourth day, the two tissues with the highest expression level were intestine and liver, and higher expression in the spleen

  9. Identification and comparison of gonadal transcripts of testis and ovary of adult common carp Cyprinus carpio using suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-Jun; Xia, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Li-Fang; Jia, Yong-Fang; Nan, Ping; Li, Li; Chang, Zhong-Jie

    2015-06-01

    The limited number of gonad-specific and gonad-related genes that have been identified in fish represents a major obstacle in the study of fish gonad development and sex differentiation. In common carp Cyprinus carpio from China's Yellow River, the ovary and testis differ in volume and weight in adult fish of the same age. Comparing sperm, egg, and somatic cell transcripts in this carp may provide insight into the mechanisms of its gonad development and sex differentiation. In the present work, gene expression patterns in the carp ovary and testis were compared using suppression subtractive hybridization. Two bidirectional subtracted complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries were analyzed in parallel using testis or ovary as testers. Eighteen nonredundant clones were identified in the male library, including 15 known cDNAs. The expression patterns of selected genes in testis and ovary were analyzed using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Tektin-1, GAPDS, FGFIBP, IGFBP-5, and an unknown gene from the Ccmg4 clone were observed to be expressed only in testis. GSDF, BMI1b, Wt1a, and an unknown gene from the Ccme2 clone were expressed at higher levels in testis than in ovary at sexual maturity. Thirty functional expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified in 43 sequenced clones in the female library, including 28 known cDNAs, one uncharacterized cDNA (EST clone), and one novel sequence. Eight identified ESTs showed significant differences in expression between the testis and the ovary. ZP3C and Psmb2 were expressed exclusively in ovary, whereas the expression levels of IFIPGL-1, Setd6, ATP-6, CDC45, AIF-1, and an unknown gene from the Ccfh2 clone were more strongly expressed in ovary than in testis. In addition, the expression of ZP3C, Wt1a, and Setd6 was analyzed in male and female gonads, heart, liver, kidney, and brain. ZP3C was expressed only in ovary. Setd6 expression was significantly stronger in female tissues than that in the male, except in the liver

  10. Construction and analysis of liver suppression subtractive hybridization library of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) intraperitoneally injected with microcystin-LR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiancheng; Zhang, Kaiyue; Cui, Zhihui; Zhang, Yong; Jiang, Jiaoyun; Feng, Long; Liu, Qigen

    2011-09-01

    Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is the most frequently studied cyclic heptapeptide hepatotoxin produced by cyanobacteria. The toxin accumulates rapidly in the liver where it exerts most of its damage, but the molecular mechanisms behind its toxicity remain unclear. Here, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to identify alterations in gene transcription of the silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) after exposure to MC-LR. After hybridization and cloning, the forward and reverse subtractive cDNA libraries were obtained. At random, 150 positive clones (70 forward and 80 reverse) were selected and sequenced from the subtractive libraries, which gave a total of 88 gene fragment sequences (48 forward and 40 reverse). Sequencing analysis and homology searches showed that these ESTs represented 75 unique genes and 13 duplicates. Of the 75 unique genes, 38 shared high homology with fish genes of known functions, including immune-related genes, transporters and some involved in cell metabolism. Four sequenced genes (Fs59, Fs70, Rs2 and Rs15) were analyzed further using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The genes from the forward library (Fs59 and Fs70) were found to be transcriptionally upregulated, while the genes from the reverse library (Rs2 and Rs15) were found to be transcriptionally downregulated. These results confirmed the successful construction of the subtractive cDNA library that was enriched for genes that were differentially transcribed in the silver carp liver challenged with MC-LR.

  11. Toxic effects of three strobilurins (trifloxystrobin, azoxystrobin and kresoxim-methyl) on mRNA expression and antioxidant enzymes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Jiang, Chao; Wu, Zhuo-Qi; Gong, Yu-Xin; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2013-12-01

    The strobilurins are used widely in the world as effective fungicidal agents to control Asian soybean rust. In this study, the early life stage of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), which is one of the most important aquaculture species in China, was chosen to measure the acute toxicity of three common strobilurin-derived fungicides (trifloxystrobin (TFS), azoxystrobin (AZ) and kresoxim-methyl (KM)). As endpoints, normal developmental parameters (lethal concentration (LC₅₀) and average heart rate), expression of relative genes, and three antioxidant enzyme activities in the developing juveniles were recorded during a 48 h exposure. The results revealed that values of LC₅₀ were TFS 0.051 (0.046-0.058) mg L⁻¹, AZ 0.549 (0.419-0.771) mg L⁻¹ and KM 0.338 (0.284-0.407) mg L⁻¹ for juveniles. For the potential toxicity mechanisms, these three fungicides increased catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activity and decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, significantly inhibited expressions of three growth-related genes (IGF-1, IGF-2 and GHR) and two energy-related-genes (CCK and PYY), and caused pronounced up-regulation a stress-gene (HSP70). The present study demonstrated potential toxic effects of TFS, AZ and KM on the early development of C. idella. Overall, three strobilurins (TFS, AZ and KM) might cause serious damages to the aquatic species; therefore, their pollution supervision in water ecological environment should be strengthened.

  12. Effect of dietary cottonseed meal on growth performance, physiological response, and gossypol accumulation in pre-adult grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haokun; Yan, Quangen; Han, Dong; Jin, Junyan; Zhu, Xiaoming; Yang, Yunxia; Xie, Shouqi

    2016-09-01

    Cottonseed meal (CM) was used at up to 36.95% content in the diet (replacing 60% of dietary fish meal protein) without any negative eff ects on growth performance of pre-adult grass carp (initial body weight, 761 g) under outdoor conditions. A culture trial was conducted in net cages installed in a large concrete pond. Seven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets containing a gradient of CM concentrations (0, 12.2%, 24.4%, 36.6%, 48.8%, 54.8%, and 61.0%) as replacement for dietary fish meal protein (0, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 90%, and 100%) were formulated. Dietary non-resistant starch (from maize) was inverse to dietary CM. Growth performance and feed utilization of fish fed the diets containing CM replacing 0-40% fishmeal protein were not aff ected after the 6-week feeding trial. Accumulation of hepatopancreatic total gossypol in the hepatopancreas was significantly correlated with free gossypol content in the diets (HTG=88.6+1.5×DFG, R 2=0.89, Phigh-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and albumin ( P<0.05).

  13. Effect of e-beam irradiation and microwave heating on the fatty acid composition and volatile compound profile of grass carp surimi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongfei; Wang, Wei; Wang, Haiyan; Ye, Qingfu

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of e-beam irradiation(1-7 kGy) and irradiation coupled to microwave heating (e-I-MC, 70 °C internal temperature) on the fatty acid composition and volatile compound profile of grass carp surimi. Compared to control samples, e-beam irradiation generated three novel volatile compounds (heptane, 2,6-dimethyl-nonane, and dimethyl disulfide) and increased the relative proportions of alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones. Meanwhile, e-I-MC significantly increased aldehyde levels and generated five heterocyclic compounds along with these three novel compounds. No significant difference in volatile compounds were detected in e-I-MC samples with increasing irradiation dose (p>0.05), comparing to the control group. E-beam irradiation at 5 and 7 kGy increased the levels of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and decreased the levels of unsaturated fatty acids (p≤0.05), but did not affect the content of trans fatty acid levels (p>0.05). Irradiation, which had no significant effects on (Eicosapentaenoic acid) EPA, decreased (Docose Hexaenoie Acid) DHA levels. In the e-I-MC group, SFA levels increased and PUFA levels decreased. Additionally, MUFA levels were unaffected and trans fatty acid levels increased slightly following e-I-MC.

  14. Study on the fermenting technology of Lactobacillus in grass carp fermented sausage%草鱼肉发酵香肠的发酵工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 刘学军

    2011-01-01

    Grass carp surimi inculated with the combinations of L acidlophilus with Pediococcus pentosaceus. The fermenting temperature, fermenting time, the starter inoculates with amounts, the starter matches ratio were studied. The result presented that the optimal temperature fermenting was 30℃,time fermenting was 20h,the starter inoculates with amounts was 107cfu/g and the starter matches ratio (L: P)2:1, ferments being completed, the fermented sausage pH was 5.0, all of which achieved the processing technical optimization.%以嗜酸乳杆菌和戊糖片球菌作为混合发酵剂添加到草鱼鱼糜中,研究了接种量、发酵温度、菌种配比、发酵时间四个方面,通过测定pH和感官评分来确定发酵鱼肉香肠的最适发酵条件.结果显示:最佳发酵温度30℃,发酵时间20h,菌种比例(L:P)2:1,菌种接种量102cfu/g,pH5.0时,达到发酵鱼肉香肠最佳发酵效果.

  15. Hybridization of Neotyphodium endophytes enhances competitive ability of the host grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, S; Faeth, S H

    2012-07-01

    • Associations with microbial symbionts may lead to niche differentiation of their host. Vertically transmitted Neotyphodium endophytes of grasses often hybridize in nature. Infection by these hybrid symbionts may result in different host-plant phenotypes from those caused as a result of infection by nonhybrid symbionts. Observations of wild Arizona fescue (Festuca arizonica) populations show that hybrid Neotyphodium-infected (H+) grasses dominate in resource-poor environments, whereas nonhybrid endophyte-infected (NH+) grasses dominate in environments with more resources. We studied the hypothesis that hybridization of endophytes increases stress tolerance of the host. • To test whether hybridization of Neotyphodium affects performance and competitive abilities of the host depending on resources, we conducted a glasshouse experiment where competition, nutrients and watering were manipulated. • H+ plants had greater wet biomass than NH+ and endophyte-free plants, when grown in competition, but only in low-water and low-nutrient treatments. By contrast, NH+ plants did not perform better than H+ or endophyte-free plants regardless of the treatment combination. • Our results suggest that hybridization of symbiotic Neotyphodium endophytes may increase competitive potential of the host in stressful environments and that this hybridization may be underlying niche expansion of Arizona fescue in the environments with low resources.

  16. 草鱼腺苷酸基琥珀酸裂解酶克隆及序列分析%MOLECULAR CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ADENYLOSUCCINATE LYASE cDNA AND GENOMIC DNA IN GRASS CARP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈刚; 顾继锐; 辜文博; 朱文漓; 吴江; 刘汉元; 徐恒

    2009-01-01

    腺苷酸基琥珀酸裂解酶(Adenylosuccinate lyase,ADSL)是嘌呤核苷酸合成过程中的关键酶.研究以草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)肠道cDNA文库为基础,应用PCR、RT-PCR和RACE技术,成功获得了草鱼肠道组织腺苷酸基琥珀酸裂解酶基因的cDNA全长和基凶组DNA全长.该基因全长1584 bp,包含一个1449 bp的开放阅读框,编码482个氨基酸,与其他脊椎动物比对显示,其序列具有较高的保守性.草鱼腺苷酸基琥珀酸裂解酶基因组DNA由13个外显子和12个内含子组成,其外显子拼接位点非常保守.遵循GT-AG原则.%Ctenopharyngodon idellus, which is common known as grass carp, is a kind of large cyprinoid fish in China. It lives in both north and south water of China and is the most important fish in Chinese fresh water aquaculture. Grass carp can efficiently transform vegetable protein into high-quality animal protein. So people call the grass carp "cattle and sheep in water". The intestine of grass carp is the main part for nutrition digestion and the functional genes from the intestinal cell are tightly connected with the efficient transformation of vegetable protein and animal protein. Adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL) gene encoding enzymes involved in two pathways of purine nucleotide metabolism are of considerable biological and medical importance. It catalyzes two similar but separate reactions in the de novo purine biosynthesis pathway. Now, we are trying to build a connection between grass carp genome project and the industrialization of function feedstuff depended on the information that we have got from this research. In this research, we clone the full length cDNA and genomic DNA of ADSL from grass carp intestine, which is very important in the purine metabolism. The cDNA sequence of Grass Carp ADSL gene contains complete ORF starting at nucleotide 64 with a stop codon at nucleotide 1510-1512. The translated region is of 1446 nucleotides with full open reading frame (ORF

  17. 青鱼、草鱼、鲢鱼和鳙鱼组蛋白 H2A N-端基因克隆及其衍生抗菌肽%Cloning and Derived Antibacterial Peptides of Histone H2A Gene in Black Carp Mylopharyngodon piceus,Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus,Silver Carp Hy pophthalmichthys molitrix and Bighead Carp Aristichthys nobilis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武向敏; 赵燕静; 孔祥会; 江红霞; 李莉; 聂国兴; 李学军

    2014-01-01

    采用RT-PCR方法,以青鱼、草鱼、鲢鱼和鳙鱼肌肉提取总 RNA 为模板,运用 GenBank中BLAST 同源性搜索,寻找亲缘关系相近的鱼类基因序列,采用Primer5设计简并引物,进行 H2A N-端序列扩增,通过胶回收和连接,然后转化到载体中进行克隆测序,分别获得青鱼、草鱼、鲢鱼和鳙鱼组蛋白 H2A N-端基因序列,长为364 bp ,分析发现均属于不稳定蛋白质,等电点为10.48~11.02,平均亲水性为0.179~0.264。序列同源性比对结果显示,青鱼、草鱼、鲢鱼和鳙鱼同狭孔金线鲃和斑马鱼基因H2A编码蛋白质同源性极高,达到85%以上,与其他物种同源性较低,其中狭孔金线鲃与青鱼、草鱼、鲢鱼和鳙鱼的亲缘关系比斑马鱼更近,分子系统学分析也支持这一结果。青鱼、草鱼、鲢鱼和鳙鱼H2A衍生抗菌肽与庸鲽 Hipposin抗菌肽同源性极高,不仅存在碱性氨基酸,还存在酸性氨基酸。组蛋白 H2A N-端可衍生 Hipposin类抗菌肽,均为阳离子α螺旋结构抗菌肽。%Antimicrobial peptide derived from Histone H2A ,one of the chromosome structure protein ,is a cationic antimicrobial peptide showing a potential to substitute antibiotics .The characterization of histone H2A and the derivative antibacterial peptides are important for understanding of the mechanism and antibacterial difference among peptides derived from different H 2A genes in different fish .In this study , RT‐PCR was used to amply the H2A cDNA with the total RNA as the template in black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus , grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus , silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp A ristichthys nobilis .The homologous H2A gene sequences were selected in the BLAST in GenBank ,and aligned in software Mega5 . The universal primers were designed in software Primer5 to amplify H2A genes collected and linked with a T‐vector ,and transferred into the

  18. Meiosis in elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (Poaceae, Poales and their interspecific hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Helena Techio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivated and sexually compatible species Pennisetum purpureum (elephant grass, 2n = 4x = 28 and Pennisetum glaucum (pearl millet, 2n = 2x = 14 can undergo hybridization which favors the amplification of their genetic background and the introgression of favorable alleles into breeding programs. The main problem with interspecific hybrids of these species is infertility due to triploidy (2n = 3x = 21. This study describes meiosis in elephant grass x pearl millet hybrids and their progenitors. Panicles were prepared according to the conventional protocol for meiotic studies and Alexander’s stain was used for assessing pollen viability. Pearl millet accessions presented regular meiosis with seven bivalents and high pollen viability. For elephant grass, 14 bivalents in diakinesis and metaphase I were observed. The BAG 63 elephant grass accession, derived from tissue culture, presented a high frequency of meiotic abnormalities. The three hybrid accessions presented a high frequency of abnormalities characterized by irregular chromosomal segregation which resulted in the formation of sterile pollen.

  19. Changes in Volatile Compounds of Pomfret and Grass Carp during Different Storage Periods%不同冷藏期鲳鱼及草鱼气味变化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晶晶; 梁萍; 施文正; 顾赛麒; 王锡昌

    2016-01-01

    Pomfret and grass carp were chosen as representatives of sea and freshwater fish, respectively to investigate odor changes by electronic nose (E-nose) and changes in volatile flavor components during chilled storage by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that e-nose could distinguish the odor of different species of fish at different storage periods, and the odor changes of grass carp were much more obvious. A total of 22 and 19 volatiles were identified in pomfret and grass carp, respectively, during refrigeration, mainly consisting of aldehydes, alcohols, esters, and putrefactive compounds etc. The major volatiles of fresh pomfret were 1-penten-3-ol, 1-octen-3-ol, hexanal, heptanal and 2-octenal, while the major volatile of grass carp was caproic acid methyl ester. There were different changes in odorous components of pomfret and grass carp during refrigeration. The putrefactive compounds of pomfret were mainly trimethylamine and 3-methyl-butanol, and the contents of most aldehydes and alcohols showed a decreasing tendency. The fat oxidation products decanal, 1-octen-3-ol, hexanal and nonanal were found to be the main volatiles of grass carp stored for two and four days. Moreover, fewer putrefactive compounds were detected during the late storage period. The above results noted that growing environment, lipid oxidation and microbial spoilage may influence the odor of sea fish and freshwater fish during cold storage.%以鲳鱼和草鱼分别作为海水鱼和淡水鱼代表,利用电子鼻评价冷藏条件下不同贮藏期的鱼肉气味,并通过气相色谱-质谱检测挥发性风味成分的变化。结果表明,电子鼻可以较好区分不同贮藏期的鱼肉气味,且草鱼的气味变化较鲳鱼更为显著。贮藏期间鲳鱼和草鱼分别鉴定出22种和19种挥发性物质,主要包括醛类、醇类、酯类及腐败性化合物等。新鲜鲳鱼挥发性风味主要以1-戊烯-3醇、己醛、1-辛烯-3

  20. 复合芽孢杆菌对草鱼与鲢鳙混养的鱼种池水质的净化作用%Mixture of Bacillus Has Purification Effect on The Water in The Grass Carp with Silver Carp and Aristichthys nobilis Fish Fry Collection Pond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白利丹; 王海; 李景胜; 韩立忠; 杨建光

    2015-01-01

    Grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus juveniles with total length of 3 cm were polycultured with bighead carp Aristichthys nobilis juveniles and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix at a initial density of 3100 grass carp juveniles, 1100 bighead carp juve-niles, and 1100 silver carp juveniles in a 0.53 hm2 test pond where a mixture of Bacillus was administrated once every 15 d and at a ini-tial density of 2900 grass carp juveniles, 1500 bighead carp juveniles, and 1500 silver carp juveniles in a 0.667 hm2 control pond where no mixture of Bacillus was administrated. Water quality indicators were monitored in the test and control ponds 3 d after administrat ion of the Bacillus mixture. It was found that the water quality indicators was shown to be 18% lower COD, 6% lower ammonia nitro-gen level, and 41% lower unionized ammonia level in the test pond than in the control pond. However, higher Secchi disk transparency (28%)and dissolved oxygen level were observed in the test pond compared with those in the control pond, indicating that the mixture of Bacillus has purification effect on the water in an aquaculture pond.%试验池面积0.53hm2,池深2.5m,每0.067hm2放养全长3cm 草鱼 Ctenopharyngodon idellus 0.31万尾、鳙Aristichthys nobilis 0.11万尾、白鲢 Hypophthalmichthys molitrix 0.11万尾,每15d 泼洒复合芽孢杆菌 Bacillus;对照池面积0.667hm2,池深2.5m,每0.067hm2放养草鱼0.29万尾、鳙0.15万尾、白鲢0.15万尾,不泼洒复合芽孢杆菌。在泼洒复合芽孢杆菌3d 后,检测试验池和对照池水质,研究复合芽孢杆菌对水质净化的作用。结果表明:试验池塘全年 COD、氨氮和非离子氨水平分别比对照池低6%、18%和41%,而透明度(28%)和溶解氧则增加。复合芽孢杆菌对养鱼池塘水质具有明显的净化作用。

  1. Characterization of two heat shock proteins (Hsp70/Hsc70) from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella): evidence for their differential gene expression, protein synthesis and secretion in LPS-challenged peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Anying; Zhou, Xiaofei; Wang, Xinyan; Zhou, Hong

    2011-06-01

    Two cDNAs, encoding the stress-inducible 70-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp70) and the constitutively expressed 70-kDa heat shock cognate protein (Hsc70), were isolated from grass carp. The Hsp70 and Hsc70 cDNAs were 2250 bp and 2449 bp in length and contained 1932 bp and 1953 bp open reading frames, respectively. Tissue distribution results showed that Hsp70/Hsc70 was highly expressed in gill, kidney, head kidney and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). Using grass carp PBLs as a cell model, effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the mRNA and protein levels of Hsp70/Hsc70 were examined. In this case, LPS increased the mRNA expression of Hsp70 in a time- and dose-dependent manner, but had no effect on Hsc70 mRNA expression. In agreement with this, LPS elevated the intracellular Hsp70 markedly, but not the Hsc70 protein levels in parallel experiments. Furthermore, Hsp70 protein was also detected in culture medium. Moreover, inhibition of LPS on Hsp70 release in a time-dependent manner was observed, indicating that there may be a dynamic balance between Hsp70 stores and Hsp70 release in grass carp PBLs following exposure to LPS. Taken together, these results not only shed new insights into the different regulations of LPS on Hsp70/Hsc70 gene expression, protein synthesis and release, but also provide a basis for further study on the functional role of Hsp70 in fish immune response.

  2. Manganese deficiency or excess caused the depression of intestinal immunity, induction of inflammation and dysfunction of the intestinal physical barrier, as regulated by NF-κB, TOR and Nrf2 signalling, in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Tang, Ren-Jun; Liu, Yang; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Zhao, Juan; Zhang, Yong-An; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin

    2015-10-01

    Intestinal mucosal immune components and mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines, tight junction proteins, antioxidant enzymes and related signalling molecules in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) under dietary manganese (Mn) deficiency or excess were investigated. Fish were fed the diets containing graded levels of Mn [3.65-27.86 mg Mn kg(-1) diet] for 8 weeks. The results demonstrated that Mn deficiency significantly decreased the lysozyme and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities, up-regulated tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 8 and the signalling factor nuclear factor-κB p65, and down-regulated interleukin 10 (IL-10), transforming growth factor β1, inhibitor of signalling factors κB-α and target of rapamycin mRNA levels in the proximal intestine (PI), mid intestine (MI) and distal intestine (DI). However, Mn deficiency did not change the C3 content in the PI, whereas it decreased the C3 contents in the MI and DI. Additionally, Mn depletion also resulted in significantly low mRNA levels for tight junction proteins (claudin-b, claudin-c, claudin-15, occludin and zonula occludens-1), antioxidant enzymes (MnSOD, GPx and CAT) and NF-E2-related factor-2 in the intestines of fish. Excessive Mn exhibited toxic effects similar to Mn deficiency, where optimal Mn contents reversed those indicators. In conclusion, Mn deficiency or excess causes the depression of intestinal immunity, induction of inflammation and dysfunction of the intestinal physical barrier relating to NF-κB, TOR and Nrf2 signalling in grass carp. Furthermore, quadratic regression analysis at 95% maximum response of lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities in the distal intestine of young grass carp revealed the optimum dietary Mn levels to be 8.90 and 8.99 mg kg(-1) diet, respectively.

  3. 草鱼盐溶蛋白乳化性的研究%Study on emulsifying properties of salt-soluble proteins from grass carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉玲; 彭晓蓓; 董哲; 游远; 徐红萍

    2013-01-01

    Emulsifying properties of fish salt-soluble proteins(SSP) determine the surimi technical qualities such as uniformity and stability.The molecular mass of main compositions of SSP from grass carp were determined using the method of sodium dodecyl sulfate- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis ( SDS-PAGE) .Effects of pH, ironic strength,and the ratio of oil to water volume on emulsifying properties of SSP were studied by single factor and response surface method.The results showed that the molecular masses of myosin heavy chains,two myosin light chains,and actins from SSP were 200,30,23 , and 40ku respectively.pH and ironic strength were very significant factors which influenced emulsifying capability of SSP.The emulsifying activity index(EAI)of SSP had the maximum value(45J8mVg)on the condition of pH 7.94,ironic strength 0.7,the ratio of oil to water volume 1:7.pH was the significant factor which influenced emulsifying stability of SSP.The emulsifying stability index(ESI) of SSP had maximum value on the condition of pH 7,3, ironic strength 0.58,the ratio of oil to water volume 1:5.The optimal condition of emulsifying properties of SSP from grass carp were pH 7.5,ironic strength 0.6,the ratio of oil to water volume 1:7.%在鱼糜制品中,鱼盐溶蛋白(SSP)的乳化特性决定着产品的均匀性和稳定性.首先采用十二烷基硫酸钠-聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳法(SDS-PAGE)测定了草鱼SSP主要成分的分子质量.再采用单因素和响应面实验设计研究了pH、离子强度、油水相体积比对草鱼SSP乳化特性的影响 结果表明:SSP中肌球蛋白的重链、两条轻链和肌动蛋白的分子质量分别为200、30、23、40ku.pH和离子强度是影响SSP乳化能力的极显著因素;当pH为7.94,离子强度为0.7,油水相体积比为1∶7时,乳化活性指数(EAI)达到最大值,为45.78m2/g pH是影响乳化稳定性的显著因素;当pH7.3,离子强度0.58,油水相体积比1∶5时,SSP的乳化

  4. 草鱼BPI/LBP基因的克隆及特征研究%Cloning and characterization of BPI/LBP gene from grass carp,Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春荣; 苏建国; 黄腾; 彭丽敏

    2011-01-01

    【目的】克隆草鱼杀菌通透性增加蛋白/脂多糖结合蛋白(Bactericidal permeability-increasing pro-tein/LPS-binding protein,BPI/LBP)基因的cDNA全长,分析其结构特征,研究其表达规律,为进一步探明其功能奠定基础。【方法】首先用同源克隆及快速扩增cDNA末端技术(RACE),克隆草鱼BPI/LBP基因的cDNA全长,然后用生物信息学方法分析BPI/LBP基因的结构特征,最后用半定量RT-PCR检测BPI/LBP基因在草鱼不同组织(血、脑、眼%【Objective】 The full-length cDNA sequence of bactericidal permeability-increasing protein/LPS-binding protein(CiBPI/LBP) from grass carp,Ctenopharyngodon idella was cloned to study the characterization and expression profile and to lay a foundation for the functional studies.【Methods】 The CiBPI/LBP cDNA was identified from grass carp gill by homologous cloning and rapid amplification cDNA ends(RACE).The structural characterization was analyzed by bioinformatics method.The CiBPI/LBP expression pattern was examined in different tissues(blood,brain,eye,foregut,midgut,hindgut,gas blander,gill,head kidney,trunk kidney,heart,liver,muscle,skin and spleen) by semi-quantitative RT-PCR.【Result】 The CiBPI/LBP cDNA was 1 568 bp,encoding 473 amino acid(aa) residues,including signal peptide,BPI1 domain(BPI/LBP/CETP N-terminal domain) and BPI2 domain(BPI/LBP/CETP C-terminal domain).The molecular weight of the deduced protein was 51 551 u,and the isoelectric point 8.69.The amino acid sequence of CiBPI/LBP possessed 90%,73%,73%,and 72% identities with the BPI/LBPs of Cyprinus carpio,Oncorhynchus mykiss,Ictalurus punctatus and Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis respectively.CiBPI/LBP protein firstly clustered with BPI/LBP in Cyprinidae species,Cyprinus carpio in the phylogenetic analysis.CiBPI/LBP mRNA was detected in all the 15 tested tissues by semi-quantitative real-time RT-PCR,high in gill,head kidney and trunck kidney

  5. 草鱼hsp70和hsp90对温度急性变化的响应%Effect of rapid temperature change on expression of hsp70 and hsp90 in grass carp(Ctenopharyngodon idella)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周鑫; 董云伟; 王芳; 董双林

    2013-01-01

    Grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella) is one of the most important cultured fishes in China. During transportation in summer,massive mortality often occurs. As molecular chaperones,Hsps assist cells in their recovery from stress and promote cytoprotection. Limited reports described the expression of Hsps in grass carp at high temperatures, and the relationship between oxygen consumption, expression of heat shock protein and mortality needs to be investigated based on the oxygen- and capability- limited thermal tolerance theory (OCLTT) to further elucidate the thermal adaptation of this species to high temperature in view of integrated biology. In the present study,the expressions of hsp70 and hsp90 after rapid temperature increase were studied. Grass carps were acclimated at 20 t and then exposed to designated temperatures(20,22,24, 26,28,30,32,34 ℃) for 3 h heat shock. After 2 h-recovery at 20℃, liver, muscle and gill of tested fish were sampled and hsp70 and hsp90 were determined using semi-quantitive real-time PCR. Expression of hsps increased with temperature increase until 32℃ in muscle and gill, and then decreased at 34 ℃. In liver, expression of hsps kept increasing in all temperature treatments. These results indicated that hsp70 and hsp90 were sensitive to temperature increase in grass carp. Analyzed heat shock proteins data with previous results of oxygen consumption and lethal temperatures of grass carp, the physiological adaptations of grass carp could be explained by oxygen- and capability- limited thermal tolerance theory (OCLTT), which pointed out that the imbalance between oxygen demand and tissue oxygen supply ability was the primary factor which limited organisms' thermal tolerance and the ability of aerobic metabolism greatly limited the survival of organism beyond critical temperatures. With temperature increase, the maximum value of oxygen consumption in grass carp occurred at 28 ℃, and then the oxygen consumption decreased when

  6. 草鱼盐溶蛋白溶解性的研究%Solubility of salt soluble proteins from grass carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董哲; 马云; 王素雅; 杨玉玲; 刘婷婷

    2011-01-01

    采用响应面试验设计对影响盐溶蛋白溶解性的因素进行研究.结果表明,离子强度(A)为0.58,pH(B)8.16,温度(C)为32.75℃时,溶解性达到最大.离子强度和温度对溶解性的影响均显著.三因素之间的回归方程为溶解性=0.45+0.052A+0.036B-0.042C-0.014AB-0.035AC-1.425×10-3BC-0.048A2-0.075B2+0.026C,R2=0.9176.%The soluble conditions with different factors for SSP from grass carp were optimized with response surface method. The response surface method results showed that the maximum solubility was got when the ionic strength (A) was 0.58, the pH (B) was 8.16, temperature(C) was 32.75 ℃. The effects of ionic strength and temperature on solubility were both significant. The regression equation was SI = 0.45 + 0.052A + 0. 036B-0.042C-0.014AB -0.035 AC - 1.425 × 10 3BC - 0.048A2 -0.075B2 + 0.026C, R2 =0.917 6.

  7. Construction and Co-expression of Grass Carp Reovirus VP6 Protein and Enhanced Green Fluorescence Protein in the Insect Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Grass carp reovirus (GCRV), a disaster agent to aquatic animals, belongs to Genus Aquareovirus of family Reoviridea. Sequence analysis revealed GCRV genome segment 8 (s8) was 1296 bp nucleotides in length encoding an inner capsid protein VP6 of about 43kDa. To obtain in vitro non-fusion expression of a GCRV VP6 protein containing a molecular of fluorescence reporter, the recombinant baculovirus, which contained the GCRVs8 and eGFP (enhanced green fluorescence protein)genes, was constructed by using the Bac-to-Bac insect expression system. In this study, the whole GCRVs8 and eGFP genes, amplified by PCR, were constructed into a pFastBacDual vector under polyhedron (PH) and p10 promoters, respectively. The constructed dual recombinant plasmid (pFbDGCRVs8/eGFP) was transformed into DH10Bac cells to obtain recombinant Bacmid (AcGCRVs8/eGFP) by transposition. Finally, the recombinant bacluovirus (vAcGCRVs8/eGFP) was obtained from transfected Sf9 insect cells. The green fluorescence that was expressed by transfected Sf9 cells was initially observed 3 days post transfection, and gradually enhanced and extended around 5days culture in P1(Passage1) stock. The stable high level expression of recombinant protein was observed in P2 and subsequent passage budding virus (BV) stock. Additionally, PCR amplification from P1 and amplified P2 BV stock further confirmed the validity of the dual-recombinant baculovirus. Our results provide a foundation for expression and assembly of the GCRV structural protein in vitro.

  8. 草鱼肉松的加®®艺研究%Study on Processing TechnoIogy of Grass Carp Dried Fish FIoss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马腾飞; 谢志云; 吴先辉; 王丽霞

    2016-01-01

    以草鱼为原料,以盐、白砂糖、味精、姜、葱、黄酒、花椒、酱油、大蒜等为辅料,探讨鱼肉松的加工工艺。通过正交设计和感官评价,考察了白砂糖、盐、酱油的添加量以及炒松时间对鱼肉松感官品质的影响。结果表明:当盐为1.2%、白砂糖为5.0%、酱油为3.5%、炒松时间为12 min 时鱼肉松的感官品质最好,该工艺制作的鱼肉松具有鲜鱼香味、色泽协调、质地均匀、口感疏松的特点。%Use grass carp as raw materials and salt,white sugar,monosodium glutamate (MSG), ginger,green Chinese onion,yellow rice wine,pepper,soy sauce and garlic as auxiliary materials,the technology for producing dried fish floss is studied in this paper.Through orthogonal design and sensory evaluation,the effect of additive amount of salt,white sugar,soy sauce and frying time on the quality of dried fish floss is investigated.The result shows that the optimum recipe is:salt of 1.2%,sugar of 5.0% soy sauce of 3.5% and frying time of 12 min.The dried fish floss prepared under the optimum conditions has excellent quality with fish flavor,coordinate color and homogeneous and fluffy texture.

  9. Lipid changes of grass carp during cold storage%草鱼冷藏过程中脂类的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晨; 卢君; 陈桂平; 刘焱

    2013-01-01

    采用GC-MS对草鱼脂肪中的脂肪酸进行分析,测定在4℃密封贮藏条件下,鱼肉脂肪中脂肪酸、脂肪酸氧化产物丙二醛和过氧化值的变化.鉴定出草鱼脂肪中含18种脂肪酸,其中饱和脂肪酸为29.30%,单不饱和脂肪酸为43.21%,多不饱和脂肪酸27.47%.C14~C17的脂肪酸在贮藏的前5d变化都不大,20碳以上的脂肪酸,到第5天已发生较大变化,到第10天各种脂肪酸的含量均明显下降,丙二醛、过氧化物含量随着贮藏时间延长急剧上升.%Analyzed the fatty acid composition of grass carp by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC/MS), and studied the changes of the fatty acid、POV and the TBA value in the seal storage at 4℃. The result showed there are 18 kinds of fatty acids in the grass crap, with saturated fatty acid is 29.30%, which the monounsaturated fatty acid is 43.21%, the polyunsaturated fatty acid is 27.47%.In the first five days, the fatty acids of C14~C17 showed no significant change, however,on the fifth day the fatty acids of more than C20 had changed greatly, and in the 10th day the all fatty acids had decreased obviously. The TBA value and POV has increased dramatically with the extension of storage time.

  10. Changes in barrier health status of the gill for grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) during valine deficiency: Regulation of tight junction protein transcript, antioxidant status and apoptosis-related gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lin; Luo, Jian-Bo; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary valine on tight junction protein transcription, antioxidant status and apoptosis on grass carp gills (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish were fed six different experimental diets containing graded levels of valine (4.3, 8.0, 10.6, 13.1, 16.7, 19.1 g/kg). The results indicated that valine deficiency decreased Claudin b, Claudin 3, Occludin and ZO-1 transcription and increased Claudin 15 expression in the fish gill (P valine deficiency and valine supplementation did not have a significant effect on Claudin c and Claudin 12 expression in grass carp gills (P > 0.05). Valine deficiency also disrupted antioxidant status in the gill by decreasing anti-superoxide radicals and hydroxyl radical capacity, glutathione contents and the activities and mRNA levels of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) (P valine deficiency induced DNA fragmentation via the up-regulation of Caspase 3, Caspase 8 and Caspase 9 expressions (P valine deficiency impaired the structural integrity of fish gill by disrupted fish antioxidant defenses and regulating the expression of tight junction protein, cytokines, antioxidant enzymes, NF-κB p65, IκBα, TOR, Nrf2, Keap1 and apoptosis-related genes in the fish gill.

  11. cDNA cloning and function of insulin-like growth factor-I receptor gene (Igf-Ir) in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)%草鱼胰岛素样生长因子1受体基因cDNA全序列的克隆及功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周春雪; 蒋霞云; 陈杰; 邹曙明

    2014-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) is an important component of the insulin-like growth fac-tor system, which plays a key role in embryonic growth, formation of the nervous system, skeletal muscle development, and also appears to contribute to the establishment and progression of tumors. Despite its importance, little is known about the tissue distribution and expression pattern of IGF-IR during embryonic development in most commercially important cultured fish species. We isolated a 5 741 bp IGF-IR full-length cDNA from grass carp(Ctenopha ryngodon idellus). The IGF-IR cDNA included an 822 bp complete 5′untranslated region (5′UTR), a 581 bp 3′UTR, and a 4 338 bp open reading frame (ORF) region which encoded a 1 445 amino acid protein. The mature peptide contained seven structural domains including two Recep-L-domains, one Furin-like domain, three FN3 domains, and one PTKc-IGF-1R domain. Among these, the PTKc-IGF-1R domain was the most conservative domain of IGF-IR. The less conservative 3′UTR suggests that IGF-IR may play different transductional roles among different teleost species. The ORF deduced from the cDNA sequence was 95%, 93%, and 66%identical to the corresponding regions of IGF-IRa in common carp, zebrafish, and human IGF-IR, respectively, indicating a high level of conservation of IGF-IR during evolution. The grass carp IGF-IR has a high amino acid sequence identity with common carp and zebrafish IGF-IRa, suggesting it be-longs to the same type. Grass carp IGF-IR mRNA was detected during embryogenesis, beginning at 16 hpf (hours post fertilization) and continuing through the larval stages. The IGF-IR mRNA was transcribed in almost all adult tissues except the intestine, with expression being highest in the grass carp heart. Using whole mount in situ hybridization, IGF-IR mRNA was detected ubiquitously in 16 hpf embryos, with strong signals in the brain and spinal cord, but only a weak signal in the tail-fin. In 24 hpf embryos

  12. 反复冻融对草鱼和鲤鱼冷冻鱼糜品质变化的影响%Effect of Repeated Freeze-Thaw Cycles on Quality Properties of Frozen Surimis of Grass Carp and Common Carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓; 孙卫青; 杨华; 马俪珍

    2012-01-01

    In order to explore the effect of repeated freeze-thaw cycles on their quality,color parameters,cooking loss,water-holding capacity,shearing force and TBARS of frozen surimis of grass carp and common carp were determined during 4 repeated freeze-thaw cycles.More freeze-thaw cycles could result in a significant increase(P0.05) in cooking loss of grass carp and common carp surimi and a significant reduction(P0.05) in water-holding capacity but no significant difference between both fish species was observed.The shearing force of grass carp surimi was inversely proportional to the number of freeze-thaw cycles.The first freeze-thaw cycle caused denaturation and contraction of protein in common carp surimi and resulted in an increase in its shearing force,whereas the parameter declined with increasing number of freeze-thaw cycles.Repeated freeze-thaw cycles aggravated lipid oxidation in surimi from both fish species.As a result,significantly increased TBARS(P0.05) was observed and a significant difference(P0.05) was also between both fish species.After the fourth freeze-thaw cycle,surimi from both carp species lost their original color.%为了解反复冻融对淡水冷冻鱼糜品质变化的影响,本实验以草鱼和鲤鱼冷冻鱼糜为研究对象,通过测定二者在反复冷冻-解冻后的色泽、蒸煮损失、持水性、剪切力和硫代巴比妥酸值等指标,分析冷冻鱼糜冷冻贮存4个月过程中,期间反复冻融4次后其品质的变化。结果表明:随着冻融次数的增加,两种鱼糜的蒸煮损失均显著增加(P〈0.05),持水性显著降低(P〈0.05),而两种鱼之间差异不显著。草鱼冷冻鱼糜的剪切力随着冻融次数的增加直线式下降;第1次冻融,鲤鱼鱼糜蛋白变性收缩,剪切力提高,之后随着冻融次数的增加剪切力下降。反复冻融促进了两种冷冻鱼糜的脂肪氧化,TBARS值显著增加(P〈0.05),且组间差异也显著(P〈0.05)。

  13. Cloning and Expression Profiling of Myf-5 Gene of Grass Carp%草鱼生肌因子5基因的克隆及其组织表达谱分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞文; 鲜红; 腾文顶; 郑玉才; 邱翔; 林亚秋

    2012-01-01

    目的:获得草鱼生肌因子5(Myf-5)基因序列,分析其在草鱼不同组织和不同发育阶段中的表达规律.方法:根据鲤鱼Myf-5基因序列设计引物,用草鱼肌肉组织总RNA,经RT-PCR扩增其Myf-5基因序列;利用半定量RT-PCR分析草鱼My f-5基因在草鱼不同组织和不同发育阶段的mRNA表达特性.结果:获得了草鱼Myf-5基因开放读框序列723 bp,GenBank登录号为GU290227;该基因编码由240个氨基酸残基组成的蛋白,具有MyoD家族基因的典型性碱性螺旋-环-螺旋(bHLH)结构,其氨基酸序列与斑马鱼、鲤鱼、虹鳟、大西洋鲑等的同源性较高(74%~97%),与哺乳动物和禽类如人、小鼠、大鼠、猪、牛和鸡的同源性较低(56%~60%);在草鱼红肌、白肌、肝胰脏、肾脏、脑和肠中均检测到Myf-5基因的表达,红肌、白肌和脑组织中Myf-5基因mRNA的表达量显著高于其他组织(P<0.05);草鱼Myf-5基因的表达随着其生长发育呈下降趋势,在较大规格试验鱼(500 g)中的表达显著低于其他2种规格(50~60 g、120~130 g)的试验鱼(P<0.05).结论:获得了草鱼Myf-5基因序列,其在红肌、白肌和脑组织中的表达量显著高于其他组织,并随生长发育呈下降趋势,为研究Myf-5在草鱼肌肉发育过程中的作用提供了基础资料.%Objective; To obtain the myogenic factor 5(Myf-5) gene sequence of grass carp and analyze it's expression pattern in the different muscle tissue and developmental stage. Methods: PCR primers were designed according to Myf-5 gene sequence of Cyprinut carpio. Using the total RNA of grass carp muscle tissue and RT-PCR method, we amplified Myf-5 gene sequence; we also analyzed the mRNA expression character of Myf-5 gene, using semi-quantitative RT-PCR, in different tissue and developmental stage of grass carp. Results: A 723 bp ORF(GenBank accession No. GU290227) of Myf-5 gene was obtained with RT-PCR. The cDNA, encodes 240 amino acids peptides

  14. Influence of Different Salting Methods on the Salting Rate and Physicochemical Property of Grass Carp%不同腌制方式对草鱼腌制速率和理化性质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘然; 吕飞; 丁玉庭

    2012-01-01

    Effects of four different salting methods ( brining B, brining with vinegar BV, dry salting D, vacuum pluse tumbling VP) on the salting rate and the physicochemical changes of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) were studied. To achieve the same NaCl content, VP used the least time. Moisture content and Aw of grass craps treated by D and VP tended to decrease with increasing salting time (p〈0.05). Total weight change ratio tended to decrease when salted by D and VP, while, increasing when salted by B and BV (p〈0.05). When achieved the same NaCl content, different salting methods produced influence on the physicochemical properties of grass carp. The pH and formaldehyde nitrogen of D and VP treated fish tended to increase. The lowest pH and Formaldehyde nitrogen was found in samples treated by BV, while the total titratable acids increased in this samples. BV produced damage to protein as indicated by lower protein solubility and higher MFI (p〈0.05). In conclusion, the physicochemical changes of grass carp muscle during salting were governed by the applied salting method.%研究不同腌制方式(湿腌,醋腌,真空滚揉腌制,干腌)对草鱼腌制速率和理化性质的影响。干腌和真空滚揉腌制草鱼随着腌制时间增加重量不断降低,其Aw和水分含量降低速率快(P〈0.05),湿腌和醋腌草鱼重量随腌制时间的增长而增加(P〈0.05),达到相同含盐量时真空滚揉所需时间最少,不同腌制方式对草鱼理化性质产生了很大影响,醋腌草鱼pH和氨基态氮较低(p〈0.05),总酸较高(p〈0.05),湿腌对蛋白影响最小,其蛋白抽提率最高(P〈0.05),MFI最小(p〈0.05)。

  15. Densification and syntenic comparison of parental linkage maps in interspecific hybrids of silver carp and bighead carp%鲢鳙杂种亲本连锁图标记加密和共线性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立楠; 杨官品; 邹桂伟; 危起伟; 王军; 张鹏; 刘昕; 杨静

    2011-01-01

    Hybrids of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) are widely accepted in aquaculture due to their better culturing performance than their parents. In order to facilitate diverse studies of the two species, such as genetic resource management and mapping of economic traits, we have constructed the parental linkage maps of the interspecific hybrids previously; however, the maps contained mainly AFLPs. In order to increase the quality of the parental maps and their applicability, they were densified with newly developed microsatellite markers in this study. For the bighead carp (female parent) and the silver carp (male parent) map, the number of assigned markers increased from 153 to 288 (including 93 new microsatellites) and from 271 to 511 (including 136 new microsatellites), respectively. The total length of the female map increased from 852.0 to 965.8 cM, while the total length of the male map increased from 952.2 to 1 049.6 cM. Syntenic comparison between bighead carp map and silver carp maps identified 22 homologous linkage groups, among them slight rearrangement of markers was found. The total length of the common intervals bounded by 76 parentshared microsatellites was almost the same (female: male=1:1), which was significantly different from that of the intraspecific hybrids of silver carp (female:male=1 : 0.45[17]). In comparison with the mimic natural fertilization (intraspeeific hybrids[17]), the mixed milt fertilization (interspecific hybrids, this study) caused the obvious increase of genome wide recombination rate. The hybridization of silver carp and bighead carp should not influence the recombination rate of either parent; they are morphologically similar to each other and interfertile and have identical karyoptypes. We believe that mixed milt fertilization avoide the competition among sperms of an ejaculation, enhancing genome wide recombination accordingly. This fry raising method is not favorable to the

  16. Overcoming self-incompatibility in grasses: a pathway to hybrid breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do Canto, Javier; Studer, Bruno; Lubberstedt, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Allogamous grasses exhibit an effective two-locus gametophytic self-incompatibility (SI) system, limiting the range of breeding techniques applicable for cultivar development. Current breeding methods based on populations are characterized by comparably low genetic gains for important traits such as biomass yield. To implement more efficient breeding schemes, the overall understanding of the SI system is crucial as are the mechanisms involved in the breakdown of SI. Self-fertile variants in outcrossing grasses have been studied, and the current level of knowledge includes approximate gene locations, linked molecular markers and first hypotheses on their mode of action. Environmental conditions increasing seed set upon self-pollination have also been described. Even though some strategies were proposed to take advantage of self-fertility, there have, so far, not been changes in the methods applied in cultivar development for allogamous grasses. In this review, we describe the current knowledge about self-fertility in allogamous grasses and outline strategies to incorporate this trait for implementation in synthetic and hybrid breeding schemes.

  17. Widespread hybridization among species of Indian major carps in hatcheries, but not in the wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, V.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons;

    2005-01-01

    samples. Individual admixture coefficients showed that 24% of all hatchery-reared fishes were hybrids, whereas a single hybrid was observed in the wild-caught samples. Only catla Catla catla x rohu Labeo rohita and mrigal Cirrhinus cirrhosus x rohu hybrids were observed, the vast majority of which were F......-hybrids in hatchery samples, reproductive barriers among species have so far precluded widespread introgression. Continued hybridization may eventually lead to a breakdown of species barriers, thereby compromising the genetic integrity of the species in the wild, and leading to production losses...

  18. Effect of Different Freezing Way on the Quality Characteristics of Grass Carp Cubes%不同冻结方式对草鱼块品质特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓敏; 朱志伟

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the quality changes of grass carp cubes were investigated under various freezing processing of immersion and chilling freezing and traditional air-blast freezing. Results indicated that the freezing rate of ICF with ternary refrigerant exhibited 1.54-fold higher than that of air-blasting freezing, and 1.28-fold higher than that of ICF with alcoholic solution worked as the refrigerant Compared with the other two freezing processing, grass carp cubes frozen in ternary refrigerant had higher content of salt-soluble protein, less reduced Ca2+-ATPase activity, drip loss and cooking loss. The results of physicochemical and textural characteristics indicated that immersion and chilling freezing assisted to reduce the denaturation of fish protein. And the frozen grass carp cubes by ICF in ternary refrigerant exhibited this processing was the optimum to remain the inherent characteristics of foodstuff.%本文以草鱼块为对象,比较了浸渍冻结(ICF)和传统空气鼓风冻结对草鱼块冻结品质的影响.试验结果表明:三元载冷剂浸渍冻结其冻结速率是相同温度下空气鼓风式冻结的1.54倍,是酒精溶液为载冷剂的浸渍冻结的1.28倍;采用三元载冷剂浸渍冻结后的样品和空气鼓风式冻结、酒精溶液冻结后的样品相比,前者盐溶性蛋白含量高于后两者,并且Ca2+-ATPase活性降低率、汁液流失率及蒸煮损失均低于后两者.综合各指标说明,浸渍冻结有利于减少鱼蛋白的变性,采用三元载冷剂浸渍冻结的草鱼块品质优于其他两种冻结方式.

  19. The gel properties of collagen from scale of grass carp%草鱼鱼鳞胶原蛋白的凝胶性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪海波; 汪海婴; 梁艳萍; 张寒俊; 刘良忠

    2012-01-01

    In this study,the acid-soluble collagen(ASC) and pepsin-soluble collagen(PSC) were extracted from scale of grass carp by methods of acid and acid-pepsin.The properties of collagen gel were analyzed and compared with pig collagen(PC) by use of rheometer and texture analyzer.The results indicate that the ASC,PSC and PC were type Ⅰcollagen and the triple helical structure well held in the three collagen samples.The collagen concentration and pH were important influencing factors in the gel formation.The critical pH for gelation of ASC is 4.5 but the PSC and PC are 5,the critical concentration for gelation of the ASC,PSC and PC are 0.5mg/mL.The viscoelastic and texture analysis indicate that the ASC gel is rigid and brittle,but the PSC and PC gel are soft and flexile.Increasing temperature would result in irreversible destroyed for ASC gel texture,but enhance the PSC and PC gel rigidity.The texture of collagen gels were influenced by collagen concentration,pH and the triple helical structure of collagen.The rigidity of collagen gel would increase when enhance the collagen concentration and pH.The gelling ability of collagen would reduce rapidly when the triple helical structure of collagen was destroyed.%以草鱼鱼鳞为原料,分别提取鱼鳞中的酸溶性胶原蛋白(ASC)和酶溶性胶原蛋白(PSC),利用动态流变仪和物性分析仪开展胶原凝胶形成和凝胶性能的相关研究,并与哺乳动物来源的猪皮胶原(PC)相比较。实验结果表明,制备所得的3种胶原蛋白均为典型的Ⅰ型胶原并具有完整的3螺旋结构;蛋白浓度和体系pH值是影响胶原凝胶形成的重要因素。ASC形成凝胶的临界pH值为4.5,而PSC和PC为5,3种胶原蛋白凝胶形成的临界蛋白浓度均为0.5mg/mL。粘弹性分析和质构分析的实验结果表明,ASC容易形成一种硬度高但脆性大的凝胶,升高温度可导致其凝胶结构发生不可逆的破坏,而PSC和PC更容易形成一种

  20. 草鱼片猪霍乱沙门氏菌生长的控制%Growth control of Salmonella enterica Choleraesuis on grass carp fillets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 蔡俊鹏

    2012-01-01

    为了有效控制生鱼片等生食食品携带致病菌的生长,比较了物理(超高压)、化学(双氧水)和生物(蛭弧菌BDM01)三种方法对草鱼片上接种的猪霍乱沙门氏菌进行消除和控制的效果,并对被处理鱼片进行了感官评定。结果表明,与对照组相比,三种方法对草鱼片猪霍乱沙门氏菌均有很好的控制作用(P〈0.05);且蛭弧茵控制猪霍乱沙门氏菌的生物方法优于超高压和双氧水的物理、化学方法。与其他两种方法相比,蛭弧茵M01处理鱼片的生物方法能在较长时间内(48h)控制草鱼片猪霍乱沙门氏茵的增长,保持鱼片良好的感官状态。虽然在25qC保存/保鲜期间,生物处理组的猪霍乱沙门氏菌的初始浓度高于其他两种方法的处理组,但其增长受到更大的控制。结果表明,在受低度污染的鱼片保鲜中,蛭孤菌技术具有潜在的应用价值。%In order to control the growth of pathogen on the uncooked or half-cooked food like sashimi, effectiveness and availability of physical (HPP), chemical ( H202 ) a0d biological methods ( Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus BDM01 )were compared in controlling growth of Salmonella enterica Choleraesuis(S.Choleraesuis) on grass carp fillets. The results showed that air of the three methods caused a significantly reduction of this pathogenic bacterium( p 〈0.05).1n the lysis experiment,the effect of biological method was the best and the low- dose group.In the sensory assessment, biological method was better than physical and chemical methods in all the 48 hours and ensure sensory attribute of the fillets.During storage at 25~C,although with a higher original bacterium population than the other two methods, BDM0] performed indicated BALO(Bdetlovibrio-and-like organisms) possessed contamination. better in controlling bacterial growth. The results potential application value in fillets storage with low

  1. 感染小瓜虫草鱼幼鱼组织病理学变化%Histopathological Changes in Juvenile Grass Carp with Parasite Ichthyophthirius

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方珍珍; 苏文; 陶秉春

    2015-01-01

    Histopathological changes were observed in brain ,heart ,gill ,fin ,head kidney ,midkidney , premaxilla ,skin and viscus in juvenile grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus infected with protozoon Ichthyophthirius sp .The protozoon was found in various organs included gill filaments ,premaxilla , pectoral fins and dorsal fins ,and there was congestion in the brain ,and the auricle ,ventricule and arterial balls of the heart .There was congestion in the gill filaments with inflammatory cells infiltration ,the disappeared partly gill lamella structure ,and respiratory epithelial cells .The congestion in the head kidney , the fatty degeneration and hyalinization of epithelial cells of renal tubuls and the connecting tubule ,and enlargement of glomerula led to the disappearance of renal follicle ,with congestion in renal interstitium . The collagen fiber of dense layer in abdominal subcutaneous tissue showed part hyaline degeneration ,the congestion vein ,the intestinal mucous epithelial cell shed partly ,and the almost dissolved epithelial cells . The serious congestion was observed in the hepatopancreas ,and venous congestion appeared in the liver sinusoids and spleen .%应用组织病理学方法,对感染小瓜虫草鱼幼鱼的脑、心脏、鳃、鳍、头肾、中肾、上颌、皮肤肌肉及内脏团等组织器官进行观察。观察结果表明,各组织器官均有明显的组织病理学变化,鳃丝、上颌、胸鳍及背鳍等组织器官可见小瓜虫寄生;脑组织淤血;心耳、心室及动脉球内发生淤血;鳃丝淤血并有炎细胞浸润,部分鳃小片结构消失,呼吸上皮细胞脱落;头肾淤血;中肾肾小管、连接小管的上皮细胞内出现脂肪样变及玻璃样变,肾小球肿大导致肾小囊囊腔消失,肾间质淤血;腹皮下致密层胶原纤维发生玻璃样变,静脉淤血;肠道黏膜层部分上皮细胞脱落,严重者上皮细胞溶解消失,黏膜下层可见炎细胞浸润

  2. Application of Natural Deodorant and Preservative in the Preservation of Fresh Grass Carp(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)%天然复合脱腥保鲜液对草鱼的脱腥保鲜效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴涛; 茅林春

    2009-01-01

    研究比较了黄酒、姜葱蒜以及姜葱蒜-黄酒复合脱腥保鲜液对于新鲜草鱼鱼肉的脱腥效果,并选用脱腥效果最好的姜葱蒜-黄酒复合脱腥保鲜液应用于新鲜草鱼鱼肉的保鲜.通过测定货架期草鱼鱼肉的pH值、挥发性盐基总氮、TBA值、菌落总数以及感官评定,研究了脱腥保鲜液对于草鱼鱼肉货架期品质的影响.结果表明,该复合脱腥保鲜液能够有效地保持鱼肉的货架期品质,延缓鱼肉pH值、TVBN值、TBA值以及菌落总数的升高.%Deodorant effect of yellow wine,aqueous extraction of ginger,onion and garlic and yellow wine together with extraction of ginger,onion and garlic were compared in fresh grass carp deodorization,and the most effective deodorant,yellow wine together with extraction of ginger,onion and garlic was used to keep the preservation quality of grass carp fillets. The effects on preservation quality were determined by biochemical (pH,total volatile basic nitrogen,thiobarbituric acid),microbiological (total bacterial count) and sensory determinations during storage at 4℃. The extraction exhibited a beneficial effect on inhibiting lipid oxidation and bacterial growth in the fillets. Increases of pH,total volatile basic nitrogen,thiobarbituric acid and total bacterial count in fillets during storage were significantly reduced by the extraction.

  3. Optimization on acidification conditions of grass carp meat and effects on microorganism growth during preservation%草鱼肉酸化条件优化及其对微生物生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永乐; 王满生; 王发祥; 瞿国云; 俞健

    2012-01-01

    栅栏技术是近年来成功应用于鲜肉防腐保鲜的新技术,其中酸化(pH)是一个重要的栅栏因子.在栅栏技术理论的基础上,通过单因素试验和正交试验研究缓冲液类型、pH值、浓度和浸泡时间等酸化处理条件对草鱼肉贮藏过程中微生物生长的影响.结果表明,草鱼肉最佳酸化条件:以浓度为0.4 mol/L,pH为3.0的乳酸/乳酸钠缓冲液浸泡6 min,该条件下.鱼肉低温贮藏6d时微生物菌落平均总数为5.85×104 CFU/g,远低于草鱼二级品微生物指标要求.%Hurdle technology is a new technology successfully applied in the preservation of fresh meat, and acidification(pH) is one of important hurdle factors. In this study, the acidification buffer type,concentration and soaking time were investigated by single factor experiment and orthogonal experiment. The results showed that the optimal acidification condition for grass carp meat was as follow: 0. 4 mol/L,pH 3. 0 lactic acid/lactic acid sodium buffer, soaked 6 minutes,on this conditi-on, the average of the total number of mi-crobial colonies was 5, 85 X104 CFU/g when the fish meat was stored in the low temperature,which was far lower than the requirement of the microbiology indicator in the level 2 products of the grass carp.

  4. The Dominant Spoilage Bacteria and Their Growth and Decline Law in Grass Carp During Low Temperature Preservation%低温贮藏下草鱼肉优势腐败菌鉴定及其消长规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王发祥; 王满生; 刘永乐; 晏志萍; 俞健; 李向红; 王建辉

    2012-01-01

    The growth of special spoilage bacteria always plays the key roles on spoilage of the fresh-water fish products. In this study, spoilage bacteria in grass carp during 4% temperature preservation for 6 d were separated by dilution-plate method. Dominant spoilage bacteria were identified using BIOLOG micro-station and the law of their growth and delination was drawn. The results showed the four dominant spoilage bacteria in grass carp during low temperature preservation were Buttiauxella gaviniae, Pseudomonas fragi, Brochothrix thermosphacta and Psychrobacter immobilis; during the cold storage, except Psychrobacter immobili whose colony-form unit was increased all along, the other three bacteria all needed an adaptive phase before the slowdown of their increase set in.%通过稀释平板法对4℃条件贮藏6d的草鱼肉的腐败菌进行分离,再以微生物鉴定系统对优势腐败菌进行鉴定,并分析了其消长规律。结果表明,草鱼肉冷藏过程中的优势腐败菌主要为乡间布丘氏菌(Buttiauxella gaviniae)、草莓假单胞菌(Pseudomonasfragi)、热杀索丝菌(Brochothrixthermosphacta)、静止嗜冷杆菌(Psychrobact—erimmobilis)。而且在整个冷藏过程中,除静止嗜冷杆菌数量一直增长外,其余3种腐败菌都需经过一定的适应期后才开始缓慢增长。

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF CELLULOSE-DECOMPOSING BACTERIA IN THE INTESTINE OF GRASS CARP, CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA (VAL.)%草鱼肠道纤维素降解细菌的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王微微; 吴山功; 邹红; 郑英珍; 程莹寅; 王桂堂

    2014-01-01

    The microbiota in the animal digestive tracts plays an important role in the nutrition and metabolism of their host. Many cellulose-ingesting animals need the microorganisms in their digestive tracts for degrading cellulose and therefore providing the energy. For example, cellulose-decomposing bacterial population has been frequently found in the intestine of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), an herbivore fish species. However, knowledge about this type of bacteria remains unclear. In this study, we characterized the species of the cellulose-decomposing microbiota in the content and mucosa in the intestine of grass carp. We isolated and cultured the cellulolytic bacteria in the foregut, mid-gut and hindgut of the intestine using the medium with carboxymethycellulose (1%) as its sole carbon source. Entero-bacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) PCR fingerprint was utilized to identify different genotypes of the iso-lated bacteria. The cellulose-degrading activity of each strain was indicated by the ratio of the diameter of the clear zone to the diameter of the colony. We identified the genotypes of these bacteria by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene. Forty strains of cellulose-decomposing bacteria from intestinal content and mucosa of grass carp were identified. Two geno-types of the cellulose-decomposing bacteria were discovered in the content of foregut and hindgut, and in the mucosa of midgut and hindgut. Only one genotype of the cellulose-decomposing bacteria was discovered in the mucosa of foregut and midgut. The 16S rRNA sequencing analysis showed that the majority of the cellulolytic bacteria was Aeromonas which accounted for 85%of the total bacterial isolates. Enterobacter accounted for 7.5%and the“uncultured bacterium”accounted for 5%. The ability of degrading cellulose varied remarkably among different bacterial strains. High enzy-matic activity was observed in some isolates of the cellulose-degrading bacteria. The bacterial isolates with a

  6. DAMAGE OF OXIDIZED FISH OIL ON THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF HEPATOPANCREAS OF GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLUS)%饲料氧化鱼油对草鱼肝胰脏结构和功能的损伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈科全; 萧培珍; 叶元土; 蔡春芳; 吴萍; 黄雨薇; 吴韬; 林秀秀; 罗其刚; 张宝彤

    2016-01-01

    To investigate effects of oxidized fish oil on the structure and permeability of hepatopancreas of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), five iso-nitrogen and iso-energy diets were formulated with soybean oil, fish oil and oxi-dized fish oil at different concentrations, 6%fish oil, 6%soybean oil, 2%oxidized fish oil and 4%soybean oil, 4%oxi-dized fish oil and 2%soybean oil, 6%oxidized fish oil for a 72d experiment. Result showed that oxidized fish oil signi-ficantly increased (P<0.05) the content of ALB, GLB, MDA, GSH of grass carp serum and significantly reduced (P<0.05) the content of GSH, SOD of grass carp hepatopancreas. Oxidized fish oil significantly increased (P<0.05) the HSI, content of lipid of hepatopancreas and TG content of serum, and significantly reduced (P<0.05) the ratio of HDL and LDL at the same time. Oxidized fish oil significantly enhanced the content of TC on serum and hepatopancreas and the content of TBA on hepatopancreas (P<0.05) but significantly diminished the content of serum TBA (P<0.05). Oxi-dized fish oil caused fatty liver by disrupting the fat metabolism, mitochondrial damage of hepatopancreas by impact-ing bile acid accumulation, hepatopancreas cell fibrosis, and tissue atrophyin grass carp. In conclusion, products of oxi-dized fish oil may cause grass carp oxidative stress and decrease antioxidant capacity of grass carp hepatopancreas.%为了探讨饲料氧化鱼油对草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)肝胰脏组织结构及其功能的影响,研究以豆油、鱼油及氧化鱼油作为饲料脂肪源,分别设计鱼油组(6F)、豆油组(6S)、2%氧化鱼油(4S2OF)、4%氧化鱼油(2S4OF)及6%氧化鱼油(6OF)5组等氮、等能的半纯化饲料,在池塘网箱中养殖72d。结果显示:氧化鱼油显著增加草鱼血清ALB、GLB、MDA和GSH含量(P<0.05),显著降低肝胰脏GSH和SOD含量(P<0.05);氧化鱼油会显著增加草鱼肝胰脏指数及肝胰脏脂肪含量(P<0.05),且草

  7. EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTAL VE ON MEAT QUALITY AND ANTI-OXIDANT CAPACITY OF ADULT GRASS CARP%VE对草鱼成鱼肌肉品质和抗氧化性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小勤; 胡斌; 冷向军; 李家乐; 文华

    2009-01-01

    在VE含量为24.1 mg/kg的实用基础饲料中分别添加VE 0(对照组)、25、50、100、200 mg/kg,饲喂平均体重为(614.9±60.5)g的草鱼60d.考察VE对草鱼成鱼生长性能、肌肉品质和抗氧化性能的影响.结果表明,各组草鱼增重率分别为51.6%、53.5%、53.4%、53.5%、54.8%,饲料系数分别为2.28、2.17、2.20、2.19、2.15,饲料中添加25-200 mg/kg VE对草鱼成伍增重率、饲料系数无显著影响(P>0.05);在肌肉品质方面,饲料中添加VE对肌肉水分、粗蛋白、粗脂肪含量无显著影响(P>0.05).肌肉保鲜肉滴水损失和冷冻肉渗出损失随VE添加量的增加而降低;随饲料中VE添加量的增加,肌肉、肝脏中VE含量增加,丙二醛含量则显著降低(P<0.05),其中VE添加量为200 mr,/kg组的肌肉、肝脏VE含量较对照组增加431.0%、353.7%,丙二醛含量则下降67.2%、61.3%(P<0.01);在血清抗氧化能力方面,当VE添加量≥50 mg/kg后,草鱼血清SOD活性显著提高(P<0.05),而血清总抗氧化能力在VE添加量0-100 mg/kg各组间尤显著差异,200 mg/kgVE组的血清总抗氧化能力较对照组显著增高(P<0.05).上述研究表明,饲料中添加VE能促进草鱼生长,改善肌肉品质,增强机体抗氧化能力.以生长性能为标准,草鱼成鱼饲料(基础饲料含VE 24.1 mg/kg)中的VE添加量25 mg/kg;以肌肉品质、抗氧化能力指标为标准,草鱼成鱼饲料中的VE添加量为200 mg/kg.%A Study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplemental vitamin E(VE) in practical diet on growth, meat quality and anti-oxidant capacity of adult grass carp( Ctenopharyngodon idellus). Basal diet, added with VE 0 (control group) , 25 , 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg, were fed to adult grass carp for 60 days. The basal diet contained 28. 05% crude protein, 3. 25% crude fat and 24.1 mg/kg VE. Adult grass carp, with body weight of (614.9+60.5) g, were divided into five treatments with triplicate groups, and raised in 15 cement pools (3.0m x 2.5m x

  8. Syngas Production from Pyrolysis of Nine Composts Obtained from Nonhybrid and Hybrid Perennial Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavsová, Adéla; Raclavská, Helena; Juchelková, Dagmar; Škrobánková, Hana; Frydrych, Jan

    2014-01-01

    A pyrolysis of compost for the production of syngas with an explicit H2/CO = 2 or H2/CO = 3 was investigated in this study. The composts were obtained from nonhybrid (perennial) grasses (NHG) and hybrid (perennial) grasses (HG). Discrepancies in H2 evolution profiles were found between NHG and HG composts. In addition, positive correlations for NHG composts were obtained between (i) H2 yield and lignin content, (ii) H2 yield and potassium content, and (iii) CO yield and cellulose content. All composts resulted in H2/CO = 2 and five of the nine composts resulted in H2/CO = 3. Exceptionally large higher heating values (HHVs) of pyrolysis gas, very close to HHVs of feedstock, were obtained for composts made from mountain brome (MB, 16.23 MJ/kg), hybrid Becva (FB, 16.45 MJ/kg), and tall fescue (TF, 17.43 MJ/kg). The MB and FB composts resulted in the highest syngas formation with H2/CO = 2, whereas TF compost resulted in the highest syngas formation with H2/CO = 3. PMID:25101320

  9. Syngas Production from Pyrolysis of Nine Composts Obtained from Nonhybrid and Hybrid Perennial Grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adéla Hlavsová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A pyrolysis of compost for the production of syngas with an explicit H2/CO = 2 or H2/CO = 3 was investigated in this study. The composts were obtained from nonhybrid (perennial grasses (NHG and hybrid (perennial grasses (HG. Discrepancies in H2 evolution profiles were found between NHG and HG composts. In addition, positive correlations for NHG composts were obtained between (i H2 yield and lignin content, (ii H2 yield and potassium content, and (iii CO yield and cellulose content. All composts resulted in H2/CO = 2 and five of the nine composts resulted in H2/CO = 3. Exceptionally large higher heating values (HHVs of pyrolysis gas, very close to HHVs of feedstock, were obtained for composts made from mountain brome (MB, 16.23 MJ/kg, hybrid Becva (FB, 16.45 MJ/kg, and tall fescue (TF, 17.43 MJ/kg. The MB and FB composts resulted in the highest syngas formation with H2/CO = 2, whereas TF compost resulted in the highest syngas formation with H2/CO = 3.

  10. Organization and variation analysis of 5S rDNA in different ploidy-level hybrids of red crucian carp × topmouth culter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Weiguo; Qin, Qinbo; Liu, Shaojun; Li, Tangluo; Wang, Jing; Xiao, Jun; Xie, Lihua; Zhang, Chun; Liu, Yun

    2012-01-01

    Through distant crossing, diploid, triploid and tetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var., RCC♀, Cyprininae, 2n = 100) × topmouth culter (Erythroculter ilishaeformis Bleeker, TC♂, Cultrinae, 2n = 48) were successfully produced. Diploid hybrids possessed 74 chromosomes with one set from RCC and one set from TC; triploid hybrids harbored 124 chromosomes with two sets from RCC and one set from TC; tetraploid hybrids had 148 chromosomes with two sets from RCC and two sets from TC. The 5S rDNA of the three different ploidy-level hybrids and their parents were sequenced and analyzed. There were three monomeric 5S rDNA classes (designated class I: 203 bp; class II: 340 bp; and class III: 477 bp) in RCC and two monomeric 5S rDNA classes (designated class IV: 188 bp, and class V: 286 bp) in TC. In the hybrid offspring, diploid hybrids inherited three 5S rDNA classes from their female parent (RCC) and only class IV from their male parent (TC). Triploid hybrids inherited class II and class III from their female parent (RCC) and class IV from their male parent (TC). Tetraploid hybrids gained class II and class III from their female parent (RCC), and generated a new 5S rDNA sequence (designated class I-N). The specific paternal 5S rDNA sequence of class V was not found in the hybrid offspring. Sequence analysis of 5S rDNA revealed the influence of hybridization and polyploidization on the organization and variation of 5S rDNA in fish. This is the first report on the coexistence in vertebrates of viable diploid, triploid and tetraploid hybrids produced by crossing parents with different chromosome numbers, and these new hybrids are novel specimens for studying the genomic variation in the first generation of interspecific hybrids, which has significance for evolution and fish genetics.

  11. Organization and variation analysis of 5S rDNA in different ploidy-level hybrids of red crucian carp × topmouth culter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguo He

    Full Text Available Through distant crossing, diploid, triploid and tetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var., RCC♀, Cyprininae, 2n = 100 × topmouth culter (Erythroculter ilishaeformis Bleeker, TC♂, Cultrinae, 2n = 48 were successfully produced. Diploid hybrids possessed 74 chromosomes with one set from RCC and one set from TC; triploid hybrids harbored 124 chromosomes with two sets from RCC and one set from TC; tetraploid hybrids had 148 chromosomes with two sets from RCC and two sets from TC. The 5S rDNA of the three different ploidy-level hybrids and their parents were sequenced and analyzed. There were three monomeric 5S rDNA classes (designated class I: 203 bp; class II: 340 bp; and class III: 477 bp in RCC and two monomeric 5S rDNA classes (designated class IV: 188 bp, and class V: 286 bp in TC. In the hybrid offspring, diploid hybrids inherited three 5S rDNA classes from their female parent (RCC and only class IV from their male parent (TC. Triploid hybrids inherited class II and class III from their female parent (RCC and class IV from their male parent (TC. Tetraploid hybrids gained class II and class III from their female parent (RCC, and generated a new 5S rDNA sequence (designated class I-N. The specific paternal 5S rDNA sequence of class V was not found in the hybrid offspring. Sequence analysis of 5S rDNA revealed the influence of hybridization and polyploidization on the organization and variation of 5S rDNA in fish. This is the first report on the coexistence in vertebrates of viable diploid, triploid and tetraploid hybrids produced by crossing parents with different chromosome numbers, and these new hybrids are novel specimens for studying the genomic variation in the first generation of interspecific hybrids, which has significance for evolution and fish genetics.

  12. Evaluation of environmental contaminants and elements in bigheaded carps of the Missouri River at Easley, Missouri, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orazio, Carl E.; Chapman, Duane C.; May, Thomas W.; Meadows, John C.; Walther, Michael J.; Echols, Kathy R.; Deters, Joseph E.; Dierenfeld, S; Chapman, Duane C.; Hoff, MIchael H.

    2011-01-01

    Grass carp, black carp, bighead carp, and silver carp are native to Asia, and in North America are referred to as Asian carps. These fishes have been popular aquaculture species for more than a thousand years. After their importation to the United States in the 1960s and 1970s, all of these species have escaped confinement. There is concern about the ecological and economic damage consequences of introducing these environmental engineers into North America.

  13. Effects of Hybrid and Non-hybrid Epichloë Endophytes and Their Associated Host Genotypes on the Response of a Native Grass to Varying Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Tong; Oberhofer, Martina; Shymanovich, Tatsiana; Faeth, Stanley H

    2016-07-01

    Asexual Epichloë endophytes are prevalent in cool season grasses, and many are of hybrid origin. Hybridization of asexual endophytes is thought to provide a rapid influx of genetic variation that may be adaptive to endophyte-host grass symbiota in stressful environments. For Arizona fescue (Festuca arizonica), hybrid symbiota are commonly found in resource-poor environments, whereas non-hybrid symbiota are more common in resource-rich environments. There have been very few experimental tests where infection, hybrid and non-hybrid status, and plant genotype have been controlled to tease apart their effects on host phenotype and fitness in different environments. We conducted a greenhouse experiment where hybrid (H) and non-hybrid (NH) endophytes were inoculated into plant genotypes that were originally uninfected (E-) or once infected with either the H or NH endophytes. Nine endophyte and plant genotypic group combinations were grown under low and high water and nutrient treatments. Inoculation with the resident H endophyte enhanced growth and altered allocation to roots and shoots, but these effects were greatest in resource-rich environments, contrary to expectations. We found no evidence of co-adaptation between endophyte species and their associated host genotypes. However, naturally E- plants performed better when inoculated with the hybrid endophyte, suggesting these plants were derived from H infected lineages. Our results show complex interactions between endophyte species of hybrid and non-hybrid origin with their host plant genotypes and environmental factors.

  14. 草鱼天然抗性相关巨噬蛋白基因全长cDNA的克隆与表达分析%Molecular cloning, characterization and expression of natural resistance associated macrophage protein(Nramp)gene cDNA from grass carp(Ctenopharyngodon idella)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范玉顶; 徐进; 罗晓松; 周勇; 肖艺; 曾令兵

    2011-01-01

    Natural resistance associated macrophage protein (Nramp) family is a novel family of functional related proteins with innate resistance to intracellular parasites in mammals, which has the capacity of enhancing macrophages that are meant to kill pathogens. However, few reports are available about the structure and function of Nramp in lower vertebrates such as teleosts. In this study, cDNA of Nramp gene was amplified from liver of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length cDNA of Nramp gene was 3 158 bp, including a 155 bp 5'terminal UTR, a 1 368 bp 3' terminal UTR and a 1 635 bp open reading frame encoding a protein with 554 amino acid residues, which contained the signature features of the Nramp protein family: 12 transmembrane (TM)domains, a consensus transport motif (CTM) with 20 amino acid residues between the transmembrane domains 8 and 9. The deduced amino acid sequence of grass carp Nramp exhibited about 62.5%-90.2% homology with 16 other vertebrate Nramp sequences. Compared with the other fish's Nramps, the unique feature of grass carp Nramp was the presence of two iron-responsive regulatory-protein-binding sites (IRE) in 3'UTR and 5'UTR. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the grass carp Nramp was clustered with other fish Nramps and was closer to Nramp2 of mammals. RT-PCR results of grass carp Nramp transcripts in different tissues indicated that the grass carp Nramp transcripts were highly abundant in head kidney and spleen and low in muscle and skin. The grass carp kidney cells (CIK) challenged with the grass carp reovirus (GCRV) could evidently elevate Nramp mRNA levels in cell cultures.%天然抗性相关巨噬蛋白(Nramp)家族是一类抑制胞内寄生菌侵染的天然免疫相关蛋白.本研究克隆了草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)Nramp基因并进行了表达分析.该基因cDNA序列全长为3158 bp,编码1个含544个

  15. 草鱼鱼鳞对对苯二酚的吸附特性及其机理%Adsorption Characteristics and Mechanism of Grass Carp Scales towards Hydroquinone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊进; 汪海波; 欧其语; 李彦; 刘良忠; 张寒俊

    2011-01-01

    In the present study,grass carp scales were used to remove hydroquinone from aqueous solutions under different experimental conditions.The effects of pH,adsorbent dose,adsorption time,adsorption temperature and initial hydroquinone concentration on adsorption efficiency were systematically investigated to explore the optimal conditions for the removal of hydroquinone.Meanwhile,its adsorption mechanism was also elucidated.The results showed that the adsorbent grass scrap scales revealed good adsorption capacity towards hydroquinone and the optimal adsorption conditions were pH 7,25 ℃ adsorption temperature,0.5 g/L adsorbent dose,100 mg/L initial hydroquinone concentration and 8 h adsorption time.Under the optimal adsorption conditions,the adsorption amount of hydroquinone was 76.71 mg/g.Further,kinetic and thermodynamic analyses indicated that the adsorption of hydroquinone by grass carp scales was mostly a physical adsorption process,which was a multilayer adsorption and fitted well with a pseudo-second order kinetic model.Moreover,the Freundlich isotherm model could well describe the isothermal adsorption of hydroquinone onto grass carp scales.%以草鱼鱼鳞为原料制备生物吸附剂,通过静态吸附实验研究其对水溶液中对苯二酚的吸附性能,系统地考察pH值、吸附剂用量、对苯二酚初始质量浓度、吸附时间、吸附温度对鱼鳞吸附效果的影响,并通过吸附动力学和热力学分析,探讨鱼鳞吸附对苯二酚的吸附机理。结果表明,鱼鳞吸附剂对对苯二酚具良好的吸附效果,其最佳吸附条件为:当温度为25℃、吸附剂用量0.5g/L、对苯二酚溶液初始质量浓度为100mg/L、溶液体系pH7、吸附时间8h时,鱼鳞吸附剂的吸附容量可达到76.71mg/g。吸附热力学和动力学分析表明,鱼鳞对对苯二酚的吸附是以物理吸附为主的多层吸附,准二级动力学模型可以较好地反映这种吸附动力学行为,Freundlich等温吸附方程

  16. Development and Testing of Cool-Season Grass Species, Varieties and Hybrids for Biomass Feedstock Production in Western North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R. Larson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Breeding of native cool-season grasses has the potential to improve forage production and expand the range of bioenergy feedstocks throughout western North America. Basin wildrye (Leymus cinereus and creeping wildrye (Leymus triticoides rank among the tallest and most rhizomatous grasses of this region, respectively. The objectives of this study were to develop interspecific creeping wildrye (CWR × basin wildrye (BWR hybrids and evaluate their biomass yield relative to tetraploid ‘Trailhead’, octoploid ‘Magnar’ and interploidy-hybrid ‘Continental’ BWR cultivars in comparison with other perennial grasses across diverse single-harvest dryland range sites and a two-harvest irrigated production system. Two half-sib hybrid populations were produced by harvesting seed from the tetraploid self-incompatible Acc:641.T CWR genet, which was clonally propagated by rhizomes into isolated hybridization blocks with two tetraploid BWR pollen parents: Acc:636 and ‘Trailhead’. Full-sib hybrid seed was also produced from a controlled cross of tetraploid ‘Rio’ CWR and ‘Trailhead’ BWR plants. In space-planted range plots, the ‘Rio’ CWR × ‘Trailhead’ BWR and Acc:641.T CWR × Acc:636 BWR hybrids displayed high-parent heterosis with 75% and 36% yield advantages, respectively, but the Acc:641.T CWR × ‘Trailhead’ BWR hybrid yielded significantly less than its BWR high-parent in this evaluation. Half-sib CWR × BWR hybrids of Acc:636 and ‘Trailhead’ both yielded as good as or better than available BWR cultivars, with yields similar to switchgrass (Panicum virgatum, in the irrigated sward plots. These results elucidate opportunity to harness genetic variation among native grass species for the development of forage and bioenergy feedstocks in western North America.

  17. 草鱼线粒体型超氧化物歧化酶的生化遗传特性%Genetic and biochemical characteristics of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜勤; 罗琛

    2004-01-01

    , population genetics, and identification of different strains in the same species. However, the biochemical and genetic features of the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase have not been well characterized in fishes. In this study, we investigated the genetic phenotypes and biochemical features of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (fm-SOD) with polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis. Our data revealed three isoforms of fm-SOD which were named fm-SOD 1, fm-SOD 2 and fm-SOD 3 according to their positions from the positive pole to the negative pole. The combination of three isoforms of fm-SOD constitute three distinct biochemical phenotypes. Phenotype 1 was only associated with the fastest migratory isoform fm-SOD 1 and phenotype 3 with the slowest migratory isoform fm-SOD 3, while phenotype 2 was associated with all three isoforms. In the wild group of grass carp, all three phenotypes were observed, whereas in the mito-gynogenetic group, only phenotypes 1and 3 were observed. The ratio of the three phenotypes in the wild group was consistent with the 1: 2: 1 ratio ofMendelian inheritance for 2 alleles of a single locus in the autosomal chromosomes. These results suggested that: (1) the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase gene in grass carp resided in chromosomes instead of mitochondrial DNA; (2) mitochondrial superoxide dismutase was encoded by a single locus; (3) there were at least two variant alleles in grass carp and (4) the fm-SOD is composed of two subunits. In addition, the fm-SOD was sensitive to the mixture of 15% ethanol and 25 % chloroform but resistant to H2O2, indicating that the fm-SOD in grass carp is Mn-SOD [ Acta Zoologica Sinica 50(3): 389-394, 2004].

  18. Grass carp TGF-β1 impairs IL-1β signaling in the inflammatory responses: Evidence for the potential of TGF-β1 to antagonize inflammation in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinyan; Yang, Xiao; Wen, Chao; Gao, Yajun; Qin, Lei; Zhang, Shengnan; Zhang, Anying; Yang, Kun; Zhou, Hong

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, effects of TGF-β1 on IL-1β signaling during inflammatory response were examined in grass carp. In grass carp head kidney leukocytes (HKLs), LPS significantly induced the mRNA expression of grass carp TGF-β1 (gcTGF-β1) and IL-1β, indicating the involvement of TGF-β1 and IL-1β in inflammatory process. Using anti-IL-1β antibody to neutralize the endogenous IL-1β, we found that stimulation of IL-1β mRNA expression by LPS was independent on IL-1β itself. Interestingly, recombinant gcTGF-β1 (rgcTGF-β1) suppressed basal and LPS-stimulated IL-1β mRNA expression in spite of immunoneutralizing endogenous IL-1β or not. Given that IL-1β receptor signaling molecule and natural IL-1β inhibitors are the important regulators in IL-1β signaling and activity, the effect of LPS on these molecules' expression was determined in HKLs. Results showed that LPS significantly enhanced the mRNA levels of IL-1 receptor type I (IL-1RI) and II (IL-1RII), IL-1R accessory protein (IL-1Racp) and novel IL-1 family member (nIL-1F). Moreover, the induction of IL-1RII, IL-1Racp and nIL-1F by LPS was IL-1β-dependent since IL-1β immunoneutralization abolished these inductions, implying the involvement of IL-1β auto-induction in these effects. Consistently, TGF-β1 could block basal IL-1RI and nIL-1F mRNA expression, and LPS-induced IL-1RI, IL-1Racp and nIL-1F mRNA expression, suggesting these molecules as the regulatory sites for TGF-β1 to modulate IL-1β signaling. Subsequent in vivo studies showed that bacterial challenge significantly up-regulated IL-1β mRNA expression with a rapid and transient pattern and TGF-β1 mRNA expression with a relatively time-delayed kinetics in head kidney. These expression patterns coincide with their pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory roles, respectively. As expected, rgcTGF-β1 could suppress bacterial-induced IL-1β mRNA expression, strengthening the anti-inflammatory role of TGF-β1 in vivo. Taken together, these

  19. Immunity decreases, antioxidant system damages and tight junction changes in the intestine of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) during folic acid deficiency: Regulation of NF-κB, Nrf2 and MLCK mRNA levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2016-04-01

    This investigation used the same growth trial as the previous study, which showed that folic acid deficiency retarded growth in young grass carp (the percent weight gain of Groups 1-6 were 102.32 ± 3.41%, 137.25 ± 10.48%, 179.78 ± 3.95%, 164.33 ± 3.21%, 143.35 ± 8.12% and 115.28 ± 2.66%) [1]. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dietary folic acid on the immune response, antioxidant status and tight junctions in the intestine of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 540 young grass carp were fed diets containing graded levels of folic acid at 0.10, 0.47, 1.03, 1.48, 1.88 and 3.12 mg kg(-1) diet for 8 weeks. The results indicated that acid phosphatase and lysozyme activities, and the complement component 3 content in the proximal intestine (PI), mid intestine (MI) and distal intestine (DI) were decreased with folic acid deficiency (0.1 mg kg(-1)) (P Folic acid deficiency (0.1 mg kg(-1)) up-regulated interleukin 1β, interleukin 8, tumor necrosis factor α, nuclear factor κB p65 (NF-κB p65), IκB kinase α (IKK-α), IKK-β and IKK-γ gene expression, meanwhile down-regulated interleukin 10, transforming growth factor β, IκB and target of rapamycin gene expression in the PI, MI and DI (P folic acid deficiency decreased fish intestinal innate immune function may be partly contributed to the regulation of NF-κB p65 pathway. Moreover, the activities and corresponding gene expression of glutathione content, Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione s-transferases and glutathione reductase in fish intestine were depressed by deficient folic acid diet (0.1 mg kg(-1)) (P folic acid deficiency (0.1 mg kg(-1)) down-regulated NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) gene expression, up-regulated Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1a (Keap1a) and Keap1b gene expression in fish intestine (P folic acid diet damaged fish intestinal antioxidant capacity partly by regulating Nrf2/Keap1 pathway

  20. 脆肉鲩内脏鱼油的提取及脂肪酸组成分析%Extraction of Fish Oil from Crisped Grass Carp Viscera and Analysis of Fatty Acid Composition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文龙; 杨萍; 黄锦锋

    2012-01-01

    以脆肉鲩内脏为原料,采用稀碱水解法的工艺提取内脏鱼油。通过单因素实验和均匀设计试验确定稀碱水解法的工艺条件为:水解温度75℃,水解时间45min,pH8.5,盐析时间5min,加盐量1.5%,加水量为80mL/100g。鱼油提取率52%,酸价1.21mg KOH/g、过氧化值2.79mmol/kg;对提取的粗鱼油进行脂肪酸分析表明:饱和脂肪酸占总脂肪含量的34.8%,单不饱和脂肪酸的含量占57.16%,其中油酸占46.72%,多不饱和脂肪酸占8.04%,其中亚油酸占5.81%。%Fish oil was extracted from Crisped Grass Carp viscera by alkaline hydrolysis. The process parameters were optimized by uniform experimental design on basis of single experiments. The results showed that the rate of viscera and water was 100 : 80, viscera and salt was 100 : 1.5. It was hydrolysated at pH 8.5 and 75 ℃ for 45 min, then salting out for 5 min. The fish oil extraction rate was 52%, acid value and peroxide value was 1.21 mg KOH/g and 2.79 mmol/ kg, respectively. The content of saturated fatty acid of Crisped Grass Carp viscera oil was 34.8%, and monounsaturated fatty acid was 57.16% with 46.72% oleic acid, and polyunsaturated fatty acid was 8.04% with 5.81% linoleic acid.

  1. Dietary phenylalanine-improved intestinal barrier health in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is associated with increased immune status and regulated gene expression of cytokines, tight junction proteins, antioxidant enzymes and related signalling molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lin; Li, Wen; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Jiang, Jun; Tang, Ling; Wu, Pei; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2015-08-01

    The present work evaluated the effects of dietary phenylalanine (Phe) on the intestinal immune response, tight junction proteins transcript abundance, and the gene expression of immune- and antioxidant-related signalling molecules in the intestine. In addition, the dietary Phe (and Phe + Tyr) requirement of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) was also estimated. Fish were fed fish meal-casein-gelatin based diets (302.3 g crude protein kg(-1)) containing 3.4 (basal diet), 6.1, 9.1, 11.5, 14.0 and 16.8 g Phe kg(-1) with a fixed amount of 10.7 g tyrosine kg(-1) for 8 weeks. The results showed that Phe deficiency or excess Phe reduced the lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities and complement C 3 content in the intestine (P 0.05). Gene expression of interleukin-10 (IL-10), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), target of rapamycin (TOR) and inhibitor of nuclear factor κBα (IκBα) in proximal intestine (PI), mid intestine (MI) and distal intestine (DI) increased as dietary Phe increased up to 6.1, 9.1, 11.5 and 14.0 g kg(-1), respectively (P < 0.05). However, interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nuclear factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65) mRNA levels showed opposite tendencies. In addition, the mRNA level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly lower in the intestinal tissue of the group fed a diet with Phe levels of 16.8 g kg(-1) than in those of other groups (P < 0.05). The expression of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) gene was increased as dietary Phe increased up to 9.1 g kg(-1) (P < 0.05). In conclusion, Phe improved intestinal immune status, and regulated gene expression of cytokines, tight junction proteins, antioxidant enzymes, NF-κB p65, IκBα, TOR, and Nrf2 in the fish intestine. Based on the quadratic regression analysis of lysozyme activity at a 95% maximum, the dietary Phe requirement of young grass carp (256-629 g) was estimated to be 8.31 g kg(-1), corresponding to 2.75 g 100 g(-1) protein.

  2. Effects of dietary magnesium on the growth, body index, liver function and glucose metabolism of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella%镁对草鱼生长、形体、肝功能和糖代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪福保; 罗莉; 文华; 高开进; 陈任孝; 郭玉阳; 朱根廷

    2011-01-01

    A 10-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary magnesium on the growth, body index, liver function and glucose metabolism of the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. Purified casein-gelatin-based diets (containing 76. 9 mg mg/kg) supplemented with six levels of Mg (0, 150, 300, 600, 1200 and 2400 mg/kg, respectively) were fed to juvenile grass carps (initial weight: 10. 68 ±0. 14 g). The results showed that: the highest specific growth rate (SGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), protein retention ( PR), weight/length (W/L) and lowest feed conversion rate (FCR) were observed for fish fed the diet containing 692. 0 mg mg/kg ( P < 0. 05 ). The optimal dietary level of magnesium significantly improved the liver function of the grass carp ( P < 0. 05 ), but the liver function was mildly impaired, and the spleen index was significantly improved in fish fed the high-Mg diets ( i. e. 1200 and 2400 mg mg/kg supplemented). With the increase of dietary magnesium, liver aspartate alanine transaminase ( GOT and GPT) showed a downward trend, while the GOT/GPT ratio was first increased and then decreased. But the liver glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity was in the opposite trend. The GOT/GPT ratio reached the maximum at 692.0 mg/kg magnesiun level (P < 0. 05 ), while GDH activity reached the minimum. The optimal dietary level of magnesium significantly improved liver malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity and promoted hepatic glycogen deposition ( P < 0. 05 ). High-Mg diets ( = 1200 mg/kg supplemented) significantly reduced blood glucose levels of the grass carp ( P < 0. 05 ), and the other groups showed no significant difference ( P > 0. 05 ).%在以酪蛋白和明胶为蛋白源的纯化日粮(镁含量76.9 mg/kg)中添加不同水平的镁(0、150、300、600、1200和2400 mg/kg),研究镁对体重为(10.68±0.14)g的草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idella)生长、形体、肝功能和糖代谢的影响,时间为10周.结果显示:日粮中适

  3. Generation of Biotechnology-Derived Flavobacterium columnare Ghosts by PhiX174 Gene E-Mediated Inactivation and the Potential as Vaccine Candidates against Infection in Grass Carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxing Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavobacterium columnare is a bacterial pathogen causing high mortality rates for many freshwater fish species. Fish vaccination with a safe and effective vaccine is a potential approach for prevention and control of fish disease. Here, in order to produce bacterial ghost vaccine, a specific Flavobacterium lysis plasmid pBV-E-cat was constructed by cloning PhiX174 lysis gene E and the cat gene with the promoter of F. columnare into the prokaryotic expression vector pBV220. The plasmid was successfully electroporated into the strain F. columnare G4cpN22 after curing of its endogenous plasmid. F. columnare G4cpN22 ghosts (FCGs were generated for the first time by gene E-mediated lysis, and the vaccine potential of FCG was investigated in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus by intraperitoneal route. Fish immunized with FCG showed significantly higher serum agglutination titers and bactericidal activity than fish immunized with FKC or PBS. Most importantly, after challenge with the parent strain G4, the relative percent survival (RPS of fish in FCG group (70.9% was significantly higher than FKC group (41.9%. These results showed that FCG could confer immune protection against F. columnare infection. As a nonliving whole cell envelope preparation, FCG may provide an ideal alternative to pathogen-based vaccines against columnaris in aquaculture.

  4. Enhanced muscle nutrient content and flesh quality, resulting from tryptophan, is associated with anti-oxidative damage referred to the Nrf2 and TOR signalling factors in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella): Avoid tryptophan deficiency or excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Wen, Hai-Lang; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Zhao, Juan; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin

    2016-05-15

    Flesh quality, muscle antioxidant status and related signalling molecule expressions were investigated in young grass carp fed six levels of tryptophan (Trp) for 8 weeks. The results indicated that fish fed 0.7 (deficiency) and 6.1g Trp g/kg (excess) diets exhibited lower muscle water-holding capacity, tenderness, cathepsin activity, protein levels, lipids and collagen contents. Optimal Trp reversed these negative effects, which were related to enhanced glutathione (GSH) content and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities regulated at gene transcription levels, rather than to superoxide dismutase (SOD) or catalase (CAT). The expression of signalling molecules [Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1, target of rapamycin (TOR) and ribosomal S6 protein kinase 1] involved in the NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway revealed a potential method of Trp-enhanced antioxidant defence. Collectively, the present study indicated that appropriate Trp levels improved flesh quality partly related to the enhancement of antioxidant ability through Nrf2 and TOR signalling.

  5. Effects of polyphosphate and seaweed polysaccharides on gel properties of grass carp surimi%磷酸盐与海藻多糖对鲩鱼鱼糜凝胶性质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏

    2012-01-01

    Effects of sodium tripolyphosphate, carrageenan, and sodium alginate on gel properties of grass carp surimi were studied, and the results showed that sodium tripolyphosphate and sodium alginate had no positive effects on gel texture properties, while carrageenan increased gel hardness and strength, but reduced gel elasticity significantly. The surimi gel hardness, strength and elasticity were significantly increased when added sodium alginate along with calcium lactate.%研究了三聚磷酸钠、卡拉胶和海藻酸钠对鲩鱼鱼糜凝胶性质的影响,结果表明:三聚磷酸钠和海藻酸钠对鲩鱼鱼糜凝胶的性质没有明显的改善作用,卡拉胶能增加鱼糜凝胶的强度和硬度,但降低了凝胶的弹性。海藻酸钠和乳酸钙共同使用能明显增加鱼糜凝胶的强度、硬度和弹性。

  6. Thermal and hydrologic suitability of Lake Erie and its major tributaries for spawning of Asian carps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Chapman, Duane C.; McKenna, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp H. molitrix, and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (hereafter Asian carps) have expanded throughout the Mississippi River basin and threaten to invade Lakes Michigan and Erie. Adult bighead carp and grass carp have been captured in Lake Erie, but self-sustaining populations probably do not exist. We examined thermal conditions within Lake Erie to determine if Asian carps would mature, and to estimate time of year when fish would reach spawning condition. We also examined whether thermal and hydrologic conditions in the largest tributaries to western and central Lake Erie were suitable for spawning of Asian carps. We used length of undammed river, predicted summer temperatures, and predicted water velocity during flood events to determine whether sufficient lengths of river are available for spawning of Asian carps. Most rivers we examined have at least 100 km of passable river and summer temperatures suitable (> 21 C) for rapid incubation of eggs of Asian carps. Predicted water velocity and temperature were sufficient to ensure that incubating eggs, which drift in the water column, would hatch before reaching Lake Erie for most flood events in most rivers if spawned far enough upstream. The Maumee, Sandusky, and Grand Rivers were predicted to be the most likely to support spawning of Asian carps. The Black, Huron, Portage, and Vermilion Rivers were predicted to be less suitable. The weight of the evidence suggests that the largest western and central Lake Erie tributaries are thermally and hydrologically suitable to support spawning of Asian carps.

  7. Morphological characteristics of the interspecies hybrid between Sorghum and Sudan grass under intensive nitrogen nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikanović Jela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study was a two-year trial (2009 and 2010 regarding variability of morphological characteristics of species belonging to Sorghum genus, more specifically interspecies hybrid between sorghum and Sudan grass Siloking as affected by different applications of nitrogen. The following morphological characteristics were analysed: plant height, number of leaves, leaf ratio, stem ratio, and number of shoots. Samples were taken from the first cut when the effect of the applied nitrogen doses was the strongest. The results showed that increasing nitrogen quantities significantly affected the tested morphological characteristics, especially the intensity of tillering (increased number of secondary stems, number of the formed leaves, and ratio of leaf weight in the total above-ground biomass. The effect of applied nitrogen depended on the weather conditions, i.e. distribution of precipitation, so that plants reached maximum height when 105 kg N ha-1 was applied in the dry year and 180 kg N ha-1 in the wet year. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31078 i br. TR 31022

  8. VARIOUS FACTORS AFFECTING DRESSING PERCENTAGE OF COMMERCIALLY CULTURED CYPRINID FISH IN CARP FISH PONDS IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todor Marković

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the yield carcass of all categories of cyprinid fish reared in ponds in Serbia. Samples of two and three-year old carp, two-year old silver carp and grass carp were taken in the winter from a pond where the production is organized in a semi­intensive system. The three­year old carp was sampled from two ponds. In one case, it fed on barley, maize and wheat in the following proportions 40:30:30, while in the second case it fed on complete diet mixtures. Also, the samples of two­year old carp were taken from ponds where they fed on complete feed mixture. Dressing percentage was the most favourable in common carp (67%, followed by silver carp (62%, and it was the least in grass carp (60% (p<0.01. The best yield (66% was obtained in two-year old carp, followed by one-year old carp (64%, and the worst yield was determined in three-year old carp (58% (p<0.01. Carcasses yield was better in two-year old carp fed on pelleted feed (68% than in carp of the same age fed on grains (66% (p<0.01. The values of dressing percentage measured in three-year old carp reared in the semi-intensive system was 56%, and 59% in three-year old carp fed on pelleted complete feed mixture. Fish species, age, system of husbandry and diet showed a significant effect on carcasses yield. The highest dressing percentage and weight of fillets was noted in two-year old carp fed on complete feed, and it was a result of lower weight of internal organs and associated fat. The obtained results may be helpful in creating the best strategy for the selection of raw fish for fish manufacturing.

  9. Use of eyeballs for establishing ploidy of Asian carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, J.A.; Thomas, R.G.

    2007-01-01

    Grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and bighead carp H. nobilis are now established and relatively common in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya rivers. Commercial fishers of Louisiana's large rivers report recurrent catches of grass carp, and the frequency of bighead carp and silver carp catch is increasing. Twelve black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus were recently captured from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River system, and 10 were analyzed for ploidy. By using the methods described herein, all 10 fish were determined to be diploid. Such correct identifications of ploidy of feral Asian carp species, as well as other species, would provide science-based information constructive for meeting reporting requirements, tracking fish movements, and forecasting expansion of species distribution. To investigate the postmortem period for sample collection and to lessen demands on field operations for obtaining samples, a laboratory study was performed to determine the length of time for which eyeballs from postmortem black carp could be used for ploidy determinations. Acquiring eyes rather than blood is simpler and quicker and requires no special supplies. An internal DNA reference standard with a documented genome size, including erythrocytes from diploid black carp or Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, was analyzed simultaneously with cells from seven known triploid black carp to assess ploidy through 12 d after extraction. Ploidy determinations were reliable through 8 d postmortem. The field process entails excision of an eyeball, storage in a physiological buffer, and shipment within 8 d at refrigeration temperatures (4??C) to the laboratory for analysis by flow cytometry. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  10. An Improved Chitosan Coating Method for Bacteriostasis and Preservation of Grass Carp During Refrigerated Storage%改良壳聚糖涂膜技术对草鱼肉抑菌保鲜效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王发祥; 王满生; 刘永乐; 俞健; 王建辉; 李向红

    2013-01-01

    Chitosan coating is a new preservation technology with good preservation effect and superiority,but has some disadvantages,such as slow speed of film forming,difficulty in the operating and controlling the film thickness.Thus,improving the composition of coating solution and the coating technology is important for its preservation effect.The improved preservative and antibacterial effects on refrigerated grass carp meat was investigated by using new coating method with adding volatile ethanol.By varying the concentrations of ethanol and chitosan in coating solution,as well as coating methods,the total bacteria colony and TVB-N of the fish during its cold storage were studied.The results showed that the coating solution containing 75% ethanol had better antimicrobial and bactericidal effects with a decrease of>51% in initial bacterial count of fresh fish meat.The best chitosan concentration was 1.0% comprehensively considering its film-forming ability and antibacterial effect.In addition,the coating methods showed little difference in affecting the preservation of Grass carp,while spray coating pattern was relatively convenient in operation and economical in coating solution.These findings demonstrated that spray coating using acidic chitosan solution containing 75% ethanol was an effectvely new fish preservation technology.%壳聚糖溶液涂膜是一种新兴的保鲜技术,具有较好的保鲜效果和优越性,但尚存在成膜较慢、不易操作、膜层厚度难控制等缺点,因而改善涂膜液的组成和涂膜技术是涂膜保鲜的关键.本文研究了新的涂膜方式和添加易挥发的乙醇来改进壳聚糖涂膜液的成膜和抑菌效果.通过改变不同乙醇浓度、壳聚糖浓度和涂膜方式等条件,分析其对冷藏过程中草鱼肉的微生物菌落总数和TVB-N值的影响.结果表明,涂膜溶液中含有75%的乙醇时,不仅对冷藏草鱼肉的抑菌效果好,而且还具有减菌作用,使样品初始微

  11. Antioxidant activity and functional property of protein hydrolysates from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus ) meat%草鱼鱼肉蛋白酶解物抗氧化性及功能特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪; 罗永康; 尤娟

    2011-01-01

    为全面了解水解度(DH)、蛋白酶种类对草鱼鱼肉蛋白酶解产物抗氧化性和功能特性的影响,采用木瓜蛋白酶及Alcalase 2.4L在各自最适条件下进行酶解,制备水解度为10%和20%的酶解产物,对其功能特性进行分析.结果显示:随着水解度升高酶解产物的亚铁离子螯合能力增强,但还原力和清除DPPH自由基的能力下降(P<0.05).相同水解度下与Alcalase 2.4L酶解产物相比,木瓜蛋白酶酶解产物具有较强的清除DPPH自由基能力和还原力(P<0.05).2种蛋白酶酶解产物的溶解性、乳化性、起泡性均在pH4时达到最低,而后随pH升高而增大.相同pH下随着水解度的升高酶解产物的溶解性增强,乳化性下降.相同pH及水解度下木瓜蛋白酶酶解产物的溶解性和起泡性小于Alcalase 2.4L酶解产物,但乳化性优于Alcalase 2.4L酶解产物.酶解产物的抗氧化性及功能特性受水解度及蛋白酶种类的影响.%Antioxidant activity and functional properties of protein hydrolysates from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) meat,hydrolyzed by Alcalase 2.4L(HA) and Papain (HP) with different ( 10%, 20%) degrees of hydrolysis (DH) were investigated.With the DH rising,the metal chelating activity increased while the reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging activity decreased of both HA and HP(P<0.05).At the same DH test,HP possessed a better DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power than HA did (P<0.05).The solubilities, emulsion activity index and foaming capacity were lowest at pH 4.When the DH increased, the solubilities of hydrolysates increased, but the foaming capacity decreased in the pH range of 3-8.And HP displayed higher emulsion activity index but lower solubility and foaming capacity than HA did.The result revealed that the antioxidant activity and functional property of protein hydrolysates from grass carp meat were determined by the DH and types of the enzymes.

  12. Alimentação de juvenis de carpa capim com dietas à base de farelos vegetais e forragem = Feeding grass carp juveniles with plant-protein diets and forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia Aline Veiverberg

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar o potencial dos ingredientes de origem vegetal como substitutos da farinha de carne suína em dietas para Ctenopharyngodon idella Valenciennes, (1844 (carpa capim, 180 juvenis (15 por tanque foram criados durante 60 dias em sistema de recirculação de água. Foi avaliada a substituição da farinha de carne suína (FCS por farelo de canola (FC, farelo de girassol (FG e a mistura dos farelos de canola e girassol (FCG. As dietas também continham farelo de soja como fonte proteica. O consumo diário de forragem (1,24 a 2,11% do peso vivo não diferiu entre os tratamentos. Peso final, ganho em peso, taxa de crescimento específico e conversão alimentar aparente não diferiram estatisticamente entre as dietas. O rendimento de filé foi maior nos tratamentos FC e FCG, enquanto o índice digestivossomático foi maior nos tratamentos FG e FCG. Maior teor degordura e menores teores de proteína no peixe inteiro e de cinzas no filé foram obtidos no tratamento FCG. Os filés dos tratamentos FCS e FCG apresentaram maior valor de luminosidade. Os peixes da dieta FCS apresentaram maiores valores de proteínas, triglicerídeos e colesterol total no soro. Conclui-se que os farelos de canola e girassol podem ser utilizados em dietas para recria da carpa capim.To evaluate the potential of plant-protein sources to replace porcine meat meal in diets for grass carp juveniles, 180 fish (15 per tank were reared for 60 days in a re-use water system. We evaluated the replacement of porcine meat meal (FCS for canola meal (FC, sunflowermeal (FG or a mixture of canola and sunflower meal (FCG. The diets were also composed of soybean meal as a protein source. Daily forage intake ranged from 1.24 to 2.11% body weight and did not differ among treatments. Final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate and feed conversion rate did not differ statistically among diets. The fillet yield was higher in FC and FCG diets, while the digestive-somatic index was higher

  13. 投饲率对草鱼生长、体组成和能量收支的影响%Effects of ration levels on growth, body composition and energy budgets of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许艳; 罗伟; 王春芳

    2016-01-01

    为了建立草鱼( Ctenopharyngodon idella)的精准投喂模型管理系统,研究了不同投喂水平下草鱼的能量收支。实验在水温(27.5±2.0)℃条件下,选用初始体重(71.03±1.13) g的草鱼,共设5个不同投饲水平(饥饿、1%鱼体重(1% BW)、2% BW、4% BW和饱食),研究摄食水平对草鱼生长、鱼体组分和能量收支的影响。结果显示:随投喂水平的增加,草鱼鱼体水分减少,粗蛋白含量、粗脂肪含量和能量增加,灰分含量先减少后增加。特定生长率和热积温生长系数均随投喂水平的增加先增加再降低,在5%鱼体重时达到最大,且高于饱食投喂组。饵料转化率( FE)在投喂水平为体重2%组最高,且显著高于其他各组。干物质和能量表观消化率随投喂水平的增加而显著增加,蛋白质表观消化率在投喂水平为体重2%组显著高于其他组。生长能比例随投喂水平的增加而显著增加,而在体重2%组到饱食组间均无显著性差异;代谢能与生长能相反。在最大投喂水平下的能量收支方程为:100 C=21.72 F+4.25 U+45.85R+28.18 G或100 A=61.94R+38.06G。结果表明,5%鱼体重的投喂量为草鱼此阶段的最佳投喂水平。%A growth trial was carried out at 5 ration levels ( starvation, 1% BW, 2% BW, 4% BW and satiety) to in-vestigate the effects of ration levels on the growth, body composition and energy budget of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (initial body weight 71. 03 ± 1. 13 g) at (27. 5 ± 2. 0)℃. The weight gain rate and the thermal-unit growth coeffi-cient both increased to maximum at 5% BW and then decreased. Feed conversion efficiency was highest in the ration level of 2% BW. Moisture contents decreased while crude protein, lipid and gross energy increased. Ash content initially de-creased and then increased with ration levels. Apparent digestibility of dry matter and energy increased with the increasing ration levels. Apparent digestibility

  14. 草鱼肝脏GPT酶的动力学特征及对Nic的敏感性研究%Study on the kinetics characteristics of GPT from Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and its sensitivity to Niclosamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王进英; 王新石; 李文新

    2011-01-01

    The supernatant fluid of liver homogenate of Grass carp was used as enzyme solution.L25 (56)orthogonal matrix and spectrophotometric method was adopted to determine the optimal reaction system of the enzyme solution and its sensitivity to Niclosamide.The results is enzyme concentration 0.1 mg/mL、 α-ketoglutaric acid concentration 3 μmol/ml、pH value of the reaction system 8.5、reaction temperature 50℃、 reaction time 70min.It showed that the effect of enzyme concentration anda-ketoglutaric acid concentration to the activity of GPT is extremely significant(p<0.01)and the effect of temperature and time is significant(p<0.05).Under the optimal conditions, the inhibition ratio of GPT activity were 23.08、26.56、26.40、31.13and 35.95% respectively after be treated with series concentrations of Nic( 0.25、0.5、1.0、2.0 and 4.0 mg/L )by lh in vitro.There was a significant liner regression between the concentration of Nic and GPT inhibition ratio(R2= 0.9479).Preliminary presumption showed that GPT in the liver of Grass carp is one target of biochemical toxicity which was caused by Nic.%以草鱼肝脏匀浆上清液为GPT酶液,用L25(56)正交和分光光度法,测试其催化反应的最适条件及对Nic的敏感性.试验表明:在酶液浓度0.1 mg/mL、α-酮戊二酸3μmol/mL、反应体系pH8.5、反应温度50℃及反应时间70 min时,GPT转氨基速率达到最大值,其中酶浓度和底物对其活力影响均达到极显著水平(p<0.01),pH值和温度对其活力影响达到显著水平(p<0.05);在GPT反应最适条件下测得,0.25、0.5、1.0、2.0及4.0 mg/L的Nic与GPT共存1 h,其活性抑制率分别为23.08、26.56、26.40、31.13及35.95%,Nic浓度与GPT活性抑制呈良好的线性关系(R2=0.9479).初步推定草鱼肝脏GPT是Nic致其死亡的生化靶点.

  15. Cloning and expression of Calreticulin full length cDNA in tissues of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella%草鱼钙网蛋白的克隆与组织表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旭威; 王海英; 吴锐全; 谢骏; 郁二蒙; 吴垠; 余德光; 王广军; 龚望宝

    2012-01-01

    钙网蛋白是一种高度保守的分子伴侣蛋白,作为内质网主要的钙结合蛋白,广泛存在于真核生物细胞中,在病毒、寄生虫感染以及温度、氧气胁迫等情况下对细胞起保护作用.本试验中采用RACE方法首次克隆获得草鱼Ctenopharyngodon idellus钙网蛋白cDNA全序列,其全长为1389 bp,开放阅读框为1263bp,编码为421个氨基酸.将获得的草鱼钙网蛋白编码氨基酸序列与其它物种分别进行同源性比较,发现草鱼与斑马鱼Danio rerio、虹鳟Oncorhynchus mykiss的同源性较高,分别为86.26%、76.78%,而与人Homo sapiens、小家鼠Mus musculus的同源性为69.67%、69.19%.通过半定量RT-PCR检测可知,钙网蛋白在草鱼的肌肉、肠道、皮肤、肝胰脏、肾脏、脾脏、鳃和鳍中均有表达,其中在肝胰脏、鳍条中的表达量最高,除与皮肤中的表达量无显著差异外(P>0.05),均显著高于其它5个器官组织(P<0.05).%Calreticulin (CRT) as a highly conserved molecular chaperone protein extensively exists in eukaryotic cells, and CRT on the surface of the cell can protect cells in temperature, and oxygen stresses, pathogens and parasitic infections. The full length cDNA of calreticulin was cloned from grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus by race and per methods to ecvaluate the expression in different tissues . The gene was founf to consist of 1 389 bp with an open reading frame of 1 263 bp, encoding 421 amino acids. The amino acid sequence analysis showed that the grass carp Calreticulin had higher homology with zebra fish (86. 26% ) , and rainbow trout (76. 78% ) , and had 69.67% amino acid identity to murine and 69.19% to human CRTs. Tissue expression studies showed that CRT gene was all detected but expression was different in the tested tissues including muscle, skin, intestine, hepato-pancreas, kidney, spleen, gills and rays, but the expression in the hepatopancreas liver and fins was found maximum, significantly higher

  16. THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE PHYSIOLOGICAL BASED PHARMACOKINETIC MODEL FOR QUINOCETONE IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLUS)%喹烯酮在草鱼体内生理药动模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胥宁; 刘永涛; 杨秋红; 艾晓辉

    2015-01-01

    为了预测喹烯酮在草鱼体内药物残留, 建立其在草鱼体内生理药动学模型.通过搜集大量文献获得鱼的生理解剖参数, 采用已有的喹烯酮试验数据拟合得到药物特异性参数.基于 acslXtreme 生理药动学软件,进行模型假设、血流图设计、质量平衡方程的建立和模型拟合.喹烯酮为小分子药物, 其分布服从血流限速型, 在肝脏代谢, 从肾脏消除.喹烯酮通过口服进入肠道, 然后经肝脏代谢进入血液循环, 因此设定 5 个房室, 即肝、肾、肌肉、肠和其他组织.经过一系列的计算和调试, 最终建立喹烯酮在草体内5室生理药动模型, 成功拟合连续饲喂药物 60d之后的药物残留消除曲线, 其中肝脏中的预测结果比肾脏和肌肉高, 与实测数据一致.因此, 喹烯酮在鱼体内生理药动模型具有一定的应用价值, 将是药物残留检测的新亮点.%An effective physiological-based pharmacokinetic (PB-PK) model can be used to analogize and extrapolate the in vivo drug concentrations in different administrations and environments, as well as in different species of animals, hence it has become more and more popular in the drug residual prediction in aquatic animals. In order to predict drug residues of quinocetone in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), we established the PB-PK model of quinocetone in this study. We obtained the physiological and anatomical parameters of fish from literatures, and estimated the drug-specific parameters of quinocetone by fitting the existing data. We used the physiological pharmacokinetic soft-ware, asclXtreme, to make the model assumptions, to design the blood flow chart, to generate the mass balance equa-tions and to complete the model fitting. Quinocetone was a small molecule drug, and itsin vivo disposition was blood flow-limited. It was metabolized by the liver and excreted by the kidney. Quinocetone entered the intestine through oral administration and

  17. Cloning and characterization of grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella) Toll-like receptor 9%草鱼TLR9基因全长cDNA的克隆及特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春荣; 苏建国; 彭丽敏; 董捷

    2011-01-01

    The full-length cDNA sequence of Toll-like receptor 9 ( CiTLR9 ) gene was identified from grass carp( Ctenopharyngodon idella)gill by homologous cloning and rapid amplification cDNA ends(RACE).The CiTLR9 cDNA was 3 468 bp, encoding 1 058 amino acid (aa) residues, including signal peptide, 16 leucine rich repeat (LRR) motifs, one transmembrane zone and one Toll/IL-1 receptor ( TIR ) domain. The molecular weight of the deduced protein is 121 921 u, and the isoelectric point is 8.80. The amino acid sequence of CiTLR9 possessed 85% ,82% ,55%, and 55% identity with the TLR9s of Cyprinus carpio,Danio rerio,Salrno salar and Oncorhynchus mykiss respectively. CiTLR9 protein firstly clustered with TLR9s in Cyprinidae species, Cyprinus carpio and Danio rerio in the phylogenetic analysis. CiTLR9 mRNA was detected in all the tested 15 tissues ( blood, brain, eye, foregut, midgut, hindgut, gas bladder, gill, head kidney,trunk kidney, heart, hepatopancreas, muscle, skin, spleen ) by semi-quantitative real-time RT-PCR, highly in gill,blood and head kidney. The results serve further studies on functions of TLR9 and exploitation of immunostimulators in grass carp.%采用同源克隆及快速扩增cDNA末端技术,从草鱼鳃组织中克隆了Toll样受体9(Toll like receptor 9,TLR9)基因的cDNA全长.序列分析表明,草鱼TLR9 eDNA全长3 468 bp,编码1 058个氨基酸,其中包括18个氨基酸组成的信号肽、16个富含亮氨酸重复结构域(1eucine rich repeat,LRR)、1个跨膜区和1个TIR结构域(Toll/IL-1 receptor).该蛋白的分子量为121 921 u,等电点为8.80.氨基酸序列的同源性分析显示,草鱼TLR9与鲤TLR9的同源性最高(85%),依次为斑马鱼(82%)、大西洋鲑(55%)、虹鳟(55%).在系统发生树上,草鱼TLR9首先与鲤科的鲤和斑马鱼聚类.通过半定量RT-PCR检测可知,草鱼TLR9在被检测的15个组织中都有表达,其中在鳃中的表达最高,其次为血、头肾等.这些结果为进一步深入研究TLR9

  18. The decreased growth performance and impaired immune function and structural integrity by dietary iron deficiency or excess are associated with TOR, NF-κB, p38MAPK, Nrf2 and MLCK signaling in head kidney, spleen and skin of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan-Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Wu, Pei; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Feng, Lin

    2017-06-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary iron on the growth, and immune function and structural integrity in head kidney, spleen and skin as well as the underlying signaling of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Total 630 grass carp (242.32 ± 0.58 g) were fed diets containing graded levels of iron at 12.15 (basal diet), 35.38, 63.47, 86.43, 111.09, 136.37 mg/kg (diets 2-6 were added with ferrous fumarate) and 73.50 mg/kg (diet 7 was added with ferrous sulfate) diet for 60 days. Then, a challenge test was conducted by infection of Aeromonas hydrophila for 14 days. The results firstly showed that compared with optimal iron level, iron deficiency decreased lysozyme (LZ) and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities, complement 3 (C3), C4 and immunoglobulin M (IgM) contents and down-regulated the mRNA levels of antibacterial peptides, anti-inflammatory cytokines, inhibitor of κBα (IκBα), target of rapamycin (TOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), whereas up-regulated the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65, IκB kinases β (IKKβ) and eIF4E-binding protein (4E-BP) in head kidney and spleen of young grass carp (P integrity in head kidney and spleen of fish. Thirdly, iron deficiency increased skin hemorrhage and lesion morbidity, and impaired immune function and structural integrity in skin of fish. Fourthly, iron excess decreased growth and impaired the immune function and structural integrity in head kidney, spleen and skin of fish. Besides, in young grass carp, based on PWG and ability against skin hemorrhage and lesion, the efficacy of ferrous fumarate relative to ferrous sulfate was 140.32% and 126.48%, respectively, and the iron requirements based on PWG, ability against skin hemorrhage and lesion, ACP activities and MDA contents in head kidney and spleen were estimated to be 75.65, 87.03, 79.74, 78.93, 83.17 and 82.14 mg/kg diet (based on ferrous fumarate), respectively

  19. Deficiency of dietary niacin impaired gill immunity and antioxidant capacity, and changes its tight junction proteins via regulating NF-κB, TOR, Nrf2 and MLCK signaling pathways in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shun-Quan; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the effects of dietary niacin on gill immunity, tight junction proteins, antioxidant system and related signaling molecules mRNA expression, young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) were fed six diets containing graded levels of niacin (3.95-55.01 mg/kg diet) for 8 weeks. The study indicated that niacin deficiency decreased lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities, and complement 3 content, and caused oxidative damage that might be partly due to the decreased copper, zinc superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase activities and reduced glutathione content in fish gills (P niacin-deficient diet group. Conversely, the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 8, interferon γ2, and interleukin 1β), signaling molecules (nuclear factor kappa B p65, IκB kinase α, IκB kinase β, IκB kinase γ, Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1b, myosin light chain kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) were significantly increased (P niacin-deficient diet. Interestingly, the varying niacin levels of 3.95-55.01 mg/kg diet had no effect on the mRNA level of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1a, Claudin-c and -12 in fish gills (P > 0.05). In conclusion, niacin deficiency decreased gill immunity, impaired gill antioxidant system, as well as regulated mRNA expression of gill tight junction proteins and related signaling molecules of fish.

  20. 两种提取草鱼鱼鳞胶原蛋白工艺比较%Technique Comparison between Two Methods of Collagen Extraction from Grass Carp Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玉惠

    2013-01-01

    The extraction conditions of collagen from grass carp scale were optimized by measuring hydroxyproline content in the extraction sample,and the technique comparison between two extraction methods were carried out in the present work.Results showed that the optimum experiment conditions of water extraction were temperature 70℃,solid-liquid ratio 1∶40 (g∶ mL),reaction time 20 min; and the optimum experiment conditions of pepsin extraction were temperature 25℃,enzyme to substrate ratio 3%,hydrolysis time 120 min,and pH 3.As a result,the production by pepsin extraction method was higher than that from water extraction method,however,the cost of the former was also higher.%以草鱼鱼鳞为原料,分别用水提法和酶解法提取胶原蛋白,通过测定提取样品的胶原蛋白含量优化试验条件,并对两种鱼鳞胶原蛋白提取工艺进行比较研究.结果表明:同在最优试验条件下(水提法试验温度为70℃,料液比为1∶40(g∶ mL),反应时间为20 min;酶解法试验温度为25℃,酶与底物比为3%,酶解时间为120m in,pH为3),酶解法提取鱼鳞胶原蛋白得率明显要高于水提法,但酶解法试验成本高于水提法.

  1. Physico-chemical Changes of Pressurized Grass Carp Surimi during Frozen Storage%超高压草鱼糜冻藏过程中的理化性质变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱兆娜; 潘见; 符钰涓; 陶敏; 周典飞; 王颖

    2012-01-01

    Physico-chemical changes of grass carp surimi treated by ultra-high pressure(UHP) during frozen storage at-18 ℃ were studied by examining salt-soluble protein,pH,water-holding capacity,and total volatile basic nitrogen(TVB-N).The results showed that salt-soluble protein content and water-holding capacity initially increased and then decreased due to increased pressure,and reached the highest level of 155.6 mg/g and 93.9%,respectively at 400 MPa.During frozen storage,saltsoluble protein content,pH and water-holding capacity revealed a decreasing trend;in contrast,TVB-N exhibited an increasing trend.%以盐溶性蛋白含量、pH值、持水性、挥发性盐基氮(TVB-N)为指标,考察超高压处理的草鱼糜在-18℃冻藏期间理化性质的经时变化。结果表明:冻藏期间,盐溶蛋白含量和持水性随着压力的升高均先上升后下降,在400MPa时达到最大,分别为155.6mg/g和93.9%;盐溶蛋白含量、pH值、持水性呈下降趋势;TVB-N值呈现上升趋势。

  2. Comparative analysis of mitochondrial control region in polyploid hybrids of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus) x blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jinpeng; Liu, Liangguo; Liu, Shaojun; Guo, Xinhong; Liu, Yun

    2010-06-01

    The entire sequences of the mitochondrial (mt)DNA control region (CR) and portions of its flanking genes in the red crucian carp (RC) and blunt snout bream (BSB) as well as their polyploid hybrids (3nRB, 4nRB and 5nRB) were determined and subjected to a comparative analysis. The mtDNA-CRs of these five fish species ranged from 923 to 937 bp in length, they had the same flanking gene arrangement as other vertebrates and the pattern of nucleotide substitution bias was also similar to that in other vertebrates. Our data are consistent with the viewpoint of three domains [extended terminal associated sequence (ETAS domain), central conserved sequence block domain and conserved sequence block (CSB) domain] within the mtDNA-CR of mammals. On the basis our comparative analysis of the mtDNA-CRs of these five fish species, we were able to identify the consensus sequences of functional conserved units, including the ETAS, CSB-F, CSB-D, CSB-E, CSB1, CSB2 and CSB3 and putative promoter. The percentage of variable nucleotide positions (41.98%) in the central domain was lower than those in the ETAS and conserved domain (71.70 and 47.12%, respectively), suggesting that the central domain was the most conserved part of the mtDNA-CR. These results provide useful and important information for the further study of mtDNA-CR structure in fish. The sequence similarities of mtDNA-CR among the 3nRB, 4nRB, 5nRB hybrids and their respective female parents were higher than those among the 3nRB, 4nRB, 5nRB hybrids and their respective male parents, providing the direct evidence of stringent maternal inheritance of mtDNA-CR in the 3nRB, 4nRB and 5nRB hybrids.

  3. Effect of crosslinking method on biological properties of grass carp skin collagen sponges%交联方法对草鱼皮胶原蛋白海绵性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪海波; 梁艳萍; 李云雁; 王敏; 方成; 汪海婴

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effect of crosslinking method on biological properties of grass carp skin collagen sponge was discussed. Collagen was extracted from skin of grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and collagen sponge was prepared from this collagen. Then,this collagen sponge was crosslinked with different methods,such as UV, dehydrothermal, EDC/NHS and glutaraldehyde crosslinking processes. At the same time, the biological and mechanical properties of those collagen sponges, including degree of crosslinking, denaturation temperature,tensile strength and enzymatic sensitivity in vitro,were evaluated and compared. Experiment results indicated that the grass carp skin collagen was type I collagen. The degree of crosslinking of different crosslinking methods decreased in the order of glutaraldehyde (72. 0% ) > EDC/ NHS(32. 5% ) > dehydrothermal(29. 9% ) > UV( 15. 6% ). Compared with control collagen sponges,the denaturation temperature (67. 4 ℃), tensile strength ( 125. 6 kPa)and enzymatic sensitivity in vitro of collagen sponges crosslinked by glutaraldehyde were significantly improved ( P < 0. 05 ); EDC/NHS crosslinking could lead to obvious increasing in denaturation enthalpy (6. 86 J/g)and moderate improving on tensile strength (98.6 kPa) and enzymatic sensitivity for collagen sponge ( P < 0. 05). The changes of biological and mechanical properties of collagen sponges after being crosslinked by dehydrothermal and UV crosslinking processes were not notable. The results of FTIR showed that glutaraldehyde crosslinking could improve properties of collagen sponges by forming new covalent bond in triple helix structure of collagen, while EDC/NHS crosslinking do that by forming new hydrogen bonds among collagen molecules. This research shows that glutaraldehyde and EDC/NHS crosslinking could lead to obvious improvement in properties of collagen sponges but the influences on properties of collagen sponges after being crosslinked by dehydrothermal and UV crosslinking

  4. Forage growth, yield and quality responses of Napier hybrid grass cultivars to three cutting intervals in the Himalayan foothills

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A 3 x 3 factorial study was conducted in the southern foothills of Bhutan to compare 3 cultivars of Napier hybrid grass (Pennisetum purpureum x P. glaucum: Pakchong-1, CO-3 and Giant Napier), at 3 cutting intervals (40, 60 and 80 days), in terms of forage growth, dry matter (DM) yield and crude protein (CP) concentration. The effects of cultivar x cutting interval were significant only on tiller number per plant and leaf:stem ratio (LSR). CO-3 consistently produced the highest tiller number p...

  5. Two unisexual artificial polyploid clones constructed by genome addition of common carp (Cyprinus carp) and crucian carp (Carassius auratus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Qingjiang; (吴清江); YE; Yuzhen; (叶玉珍); DONG; Xinhong; (董新红)

    2003-01-01

    A polyploid hybrid fish with natural gynogenesis can prevent segregation and maintain their hybrid vigor in their progenies. Supposing the reproduction mode of induced polyploid fish being natural gynogenesis, allopolyploid hybrid between common carp and crucian carp into allopolyploid was performed. The purpose of this paper is to describe a lineage from sexual diploid carp transforming into allotriploid and allotetraploid unisexual clones by genome addition. The diploid hybrid between common carp and crucian carp reproduces an unreduced nucleus consisting of two parental genomes. This unreduced female pronucleus will fuse with male pronucleus and form allotriploid zygote after penetration of related species sperms. Allotriploid embryos grow normally, and part of female allotriploid can produce unreduced mature ova with three genomes. Mature ova of most allotriploid females are provided with natural gynogenetic trait and their nuclei do not fuse with any entrance sperm. All female offspring are produced by gynogenesis of allotriploid egg under activation of penetrating sperms. These offspring maintain morphological traits of their allotriploid maternal and form an allotetraploid unisexual clone by gynogenetic reproduction mode. However, female nuclei of rare allotriploid female can fuse with penetrating male pronuclei and result in the appearance of allotetraploid individuals by means of genome addition. All allotetraploid females can reproduce unreduced mature eggs containing four genomes. Therefore, mature eggs of allotetraploid maintain gynogenetic trait and allotetraploid unisexual clone is produced under activation of related species sperms.

  6. Cinética de deterioração apresentada por filés de carpa-capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella embalados a vácuo sob diferentes condições de refrigeração Kinetics of deterioration presented bt vacuum packaged grass carp (Ctenopharryngodon idella fillets under different refrigeration conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Prentice

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A diversificação da oferta de produtos pesqueiros e, as práticas de aquicultura poderão incrementar o consumo destes produtos, desde que a exigência cada vez maior dos consumidores por alimentos de melhor qualidade, frescos e naturais, seja levada em consideração. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um estudo tecnológico visando à obtenção de um alimento minimamente processado à base de carpa-capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella, estudando os fatores que influenciam na qualidade dos filés de carpa sob embalagem com atmosfera modificada a vácuo, armazenadas a temperatura de refrigeração. Em resumo, o processamento mínimo aplicado às amostras, aliado à embalagem a vácuo permitiu aumentar a vida-útil dos filés de carpa-capim.The offer of fishery products and the Aquaculture practices will can increase consume if the exigency for fresh and high quality products would be attend. The objective of this work was obtain a MPR product with grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, studying the factors that was important in the quality and in the deterioration of the products with modified atmosphere packaging at vacuum, stored at refrigeration temperature. In short, the MPR practices applied in the products and the vacuum packaging, allowed to increase the storage time of the grass carp fillets.

  7. 饲料中氧化鱼油对草鱼生长及肌肉脂肪酸组成的影响%Effects of Dietary Oxidizes Fish Oil on Growth and Muscle Fatty Acid Composition of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈科全; 叶元土; 蔡春芳; 黄雨薇; 吴韬; 林秀秀; 罗其刚; 张宝彤; 萧培珍

    2015-01-01

    A 72-day experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary oxidized fish oil on growth and muscle fatty acid composition of grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idellus) . Soybean oil, fish oil and oxi-dized fish oil as lipid sources, five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic semi-purified diets were formulated with 6%soybean oil (6S group), 6% fish oil (6F group), 2% oxidized fish oil+4% soybean oil (2OF group), 4%oxidized fish oil+2% soybean oil (4OF group) and 6% oxidized fish oil (6OF group), respectively. A total of 350 grass carp with the average body weight of (74.82±1.49) g were randomly assigned to 5 groups with 3 replicates per group and 20 fish per replicate. The results showed as follows:compared with 6S group, the spe-cific gain rate ( SGR) of grass carp in 6F, 2OF, 4OF and 6OF groups was decreased by 5.81% to 11.50%, the feed conversion ratio ( FCR) was increased by 8.64% to 17.28%, and the differences were significant ( P<0.05) . The content of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids ( PUFA) was positively correlated ( power function) with the SGR of grass carp. On the contrary, the dietary acid value ( AV) , peroxide value ( POV) and malon-dialdehyde ( MDA) content were negatively correlated ( power function) with SGR of grass carp, and posi-tively correlated ( power function) with FCR. It meant that, a little AV, POV or MDA content in diets could decrease the growth of grass carp, and reduce the utilization rate of protein and the content of muscle PUFA, and disturb the lipid metabolism. With the further increase of dietary AV, POV and MDA content, the influ-ence of dietary AV, POV and MDA content on growth rate and feed efficiency were stabled in the high level. Results indicate that, on one hand the fish oil provides the diatary unsaturated fatty acids, on the other hand the side effects of the oxidized product for growth of grass carp also significantly show. The key to improve the ef-ficiency of grass carp utilize the lipids is to keep suitable

  8. 草鱼ghrelin基因的分子克隆与组织分布及其摄食调控作用分析%Molecular cloning, tissue distribution and food intake regulatory effects of ghrelin in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勇; 李家乐; 沈玉帮; 傅建军; 王荣泉; 宣云峰

    2012-01-01

    ghrelin是一种在脊椎动物摄食调节过程中起重要作用的脑肠肽,具有明显的摄食促进作用.实验利用同源克隆技术获得了草鱼ghrelin基因的cDNA序列和DNA序列,其中cDNA序列全长506 bp,包括90 bp的5 '端非编码区(5’-untranslated region,5'UTR),312 bp的开放阅读框(open reading frame,ORF),以及104 bp的3’端非编码区(3’-untranslated region,3'UTR).开放阅读框编码的103个氨基酸的ghrelin前体肽,经剪切加工后形成含有19个氨基酸的成熟肽.氨基酸序列分析结果显示,草鱼ghrelin与硬骨鱼类ghrelin相似度最高,而与其他脊椎动物相似度较低,同时草鱼ghrelin成熟肽N端的“活性中心”(active core)为鲤科鱼类中常见的GTSF形式.与大多数硬骨鱼类的ghrelin基因结构相同,草鱼ghrelin基因也包括4个外显子和3个内含子.荧光定量PCR检测到ghrelin mRNA大量分布于草鱼的前肠和脾,脑、肾、肝、肌肉、皮和鳔等组织也有ghrelin mRNA分布.草鱼脑和肠中的ghrelin表达水平在摄食后下降,随着饥饿时间的延长表达水平逐步升高,最后维持在较高水平,表明ghrelin作为摄食启动信号对草鱼的摄食活动起到了促进作用.%Ghrelin is one of vital brain-gut peptides involved in feeding regulation in vertebrates, and is well known for its appetite-stimulating capacity. Nucleotide sequences of ghrelin gene were identified both at DNA and cDNA levels, using homology-based cloning techniques from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). The 506 bp full-length ghrelin cDNA consists of a 90 bp 5'-untranslated region, a 312 bp open reading frame and a 104 bp 3'-untranslated region. The 103-amino acid prepropeptide encoded by open reading frame turns into a mature peptide with 19 amino acids after posttranslational modification, putative amino acid sequence analysis among vertebrates indicated that grass carp ghrelin showed the highest sequence homology with teleosts, and lower homology

  9. Effects of Different Concentrations of Zinc Ion on Histological Structure of Brain and Hepatopancreas and Hepatopancreatic SOD Activity in Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus%不同质量浓度 Zn2+对草鱼脑、肝胰脏组织结构及肝胰脏中超氧化物歧化酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任洪涛

    2016-01-01

    T he influences of different concentrations of zinc ion (Zn2+ ) (0 ,9 .52 ,13 .14 ,18 .30 ,25 .02 , and 34 .53 mg/L ) on histological structure of brain and hepatopancreas and superoxide dismutase (SOD ) activity in hepatopancreas were studied in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus with body weight of some 10 g at water temperature of (20 ± 1) ℃ by a hydrostatic test to seek for the accumulation and toxicity mechanism of heavy metals .It was found that the LC50 of Zn2+ to grass carp was 23 .058 mg/L in 24 h , 10 .155 mg/L in 48 h ,and 19 .317 mg/L in 96 h ,with safe concentration of 4 .068 mg/L calculated by for‐mula(48 h LC50 × 0 .3)/(24 h LC50/48 h LC50 )2 and 1 .0155 mg/L estimated by formula 96 h LC50 × 0 .1 .In the early stage of Zn2+ poisoning ,the grass carp exposed to Zn2+ had clustered brain cells with the slightly enlarged nuclei ,and as the time elapsed ,the brain cells aggregated significantly ,and the w hole brain cells were almost filled with the nuclei .The hepatopancreas cells were found to be expansion ,discrete ,nuclear reduction ,a slight overflow of the cytoplasm ,a small number of liver cell cytoplasm overflow ,and residu‐al nuclear material scattered distribution in the grass carp exposed to Zn 2+ ,thus leading to cell necrosis . With the increase in Zn2+ concentration and time ,the activity of SOD in the hepatopanceas of grass carp w as decreased .%水温(20±1)℃,采用静水测试法研究了养殖水体中不同质量浓度Zn2+(0、9.52、13.14、18.30、25.02、34.53 mg/L )对体质量约10 g的草鱼脑和肝胰脏的组织结构及肝胰脏中超氧化物歧化酶活性的影响,探讨重金属的毒性积累和毒性机制。试验结果表明,Zn2+对草鱼的24、48 h和96 h半致死质量浓度分别为23.058、19.317、10.155 mg/L ,由公式(48 h LC50×0.3)/(24 h LC50/48 h LC50)2和96 h LC50×0.1计算出安全质量浓度分别为4.068 mg/L和1.0155 mg/L。

  10. Property Comparison of Grass Carp Skin Collagen Extracted by Different Method%不同方法提取的草鱼鱼皮胶原蛋白性质比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘焱; 刘伦伦; 罗灿; 瞿朝霞

    2015-01-01

    Extract collagen of grass carp's skin with acid, alkali ,enzyme and water method, the result of collagen's extraction yield in different method was as follow:acid>alkali>enzyme>water. The result of collagen's in different method was as follow: alkali >acid >water >enzyme. The result of collagen's SDS -PAGE electrophoresis was: the ribbons from water and alkali appeared in β-dipolymer and γ-tripolymer ribbons position, the ribbons from enzyme and acid no appearance, butα-chain's ribbons from enzyme and acid marks significantly thicker than ribbons from water and alkali. The result of collagen's UV scanning spectrum was:UV absorption intensity from acid and alkali were greater than that from water and enzyme , the maximum UV absorption left side from alkali and enzyme appeared some miscellaneous peaks. The result of collagen's FI-IR spectrum was: according with the characteristic absorption peak. The collagen extracted in four methods all have characteristic absorption peaks which are amideⅠ, amideⅡ, amideⅢ, and their position are similar to each other, It was in accordance withⅠcollagen's characteristic absorption peak.%采用酸法、碱法、酶法、水法从鱼皮中提取胶原蛋白,对其性质进行分析比较。结果表明,提取率,酸法>酶法>碱法>水法;热变性温度,水法>酶法>碱法>酸法;水法和碱法提取的胶原蛋白SDS-PAGE电泳图谱条带中出现β二聚体和γ三聚体,酶法和酸法没有出现,但是酶法和酸法的α链位置明显色带浓于水法和碱法;紫外吸收光谱中,酸法和碱法的吸收峰强度大于水法和酶法,碱法和酶法左侧出现了杂峰;红外光谱显示,碱法提取的鱼皮胶原蛋白不具备酰胺带特征吸收峰,其二级结构已破坏,酸法、酶法和水法提取的胶原蛋白均存在酰胺带特征吸收峰,而且出现位置相似,符合胶原蛋白特征吸收峰。

  11. 木瓜蛋白酶制备草鱼鳞胶原肽的工艺优化及产物特性分析%Processing optimization and properties of collagen peptide extraction from grass carp scales with papain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨莉莉; 申锋; 熊善柏; 赵思明

    2012-01-01

    The effects of hydrolyzing conditions on the enzymatic hydrolysis of grass carp scales with papain and the hydrolyzing process optimized by orthogonal experiment were studied. There was a significant effect of hydrolyzing temperature, initial pH value, substrate concentration, and papain dosage on the hydrolyzing degree and nitrogen recovery of papain hydrolysates (p〈0.05). Hydrolyzing temperature of 60 ℃, initial pH value 5.0, papain dosage of 3000 U/g Pro, substrate concentration 5%(w/v), and a hydrolysis time of 120 min were found to be the optimum conditions to obtain a higher nitrogen recovery and hydrolyzing degree, and the hydrolyzing degree and nitrogen recovery of papain hydrolysate were 12.68% and 89.42%, respectively. The solubility of collagen peptide was above 97% in acidic, neutral and alkaline conditions and molecular weight mainly distributed in 200-5000u by analyzing physiochemical properties of hydrolysates.%以草鱼鱼鳞为对象,研究木瓜蛋白酶酶解条件对鱼鳞蛋白酶解产物水解度和氮收率的影响,以获得较高氮收率及水解度的鱼鳞胶原肽。结果表明,水解温度、起始pH值、底物浓度和加酶量对木瓜蛋白酶水解产物的水解度和氮收率都有显著影响(p〈0.05);木瓜蛋白酶在底物浓度为5%、起始pH值为5.0、加酶量为3000 U/g蛋白、水解温度为60℃条件下水解鱼鳞120 min,鱼鳞水解产物的水解度和氮收率都较好,其水解度为12.68%、氮收率为89.42%;且水解产物在酸性、中性及碱性条件下的溶解性均在97%以上,分子量呈连续分布,主要分布在200~ 5000 u之间。

  12. Functional properties and quality control of protein hydrolysates from grass carp fish ( Ctenopharyngodon idellus) meat%草鱼肉蛋白酶解物功能特性及质量控制的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪; 尤娟; 罗永康

    2011-01-01

    采用Neutrase对草鱼鱼肉蛋白进行了酶解,得到了水解度(DH)为4.72%、9.80%、13.32%的酶解产物(NH),并分析了pH与水解度对酶解产物功能特性的影响.结果表明,酶解产物的溶解性、乳化性、起泡性在pH为4时达到最低,而后随pH的增大而增加.在pH为3~8的范围内随水解度的增加,酶解产物的溶解性增加,起泡性降低.pH为4时,水解度为4.72%、9.80%、13.32%的酶解产物的热稳定性之间存在显著性差异(P<0.05),且随水解度升高而增大.在pH为3-5的范围内酶解产物的乳化性随水解度升高而降低.酶解产物的溶解性、乳化性、起泡性间存在相关性(P<0.05).%Functional properties of protein hydrolysates from grass carp fish (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) meat,hydrolyzed by Neutrase(NH) at 4.72% , 9.80% and 13.32% of degree of hydrolysis (DH) were investigated. The solubilities,emulsion activity index and foaming capacity were the lowest at pH4.With the DH rising,the solubilities of hydrolysates increased,but the foaming capacity decreased in the pH range of 3~8.The NH displayed a lower heat stability with the DH rising at pH4 (P <0.05).As the DH rise,the emulsion activity index decreased in the pH range of 3 ~ 5. And there were significant relationship between solubility, emulsion activity index and foaming capacity( P <0.05 ).

  13. 主养草鱼池塘三种混养模式下鱼类肠道菌群PCR-DGGE比较%Comparative on Fish Intestinal Microbiota from Three Polyculture Patterns in Mainly Cultural Grass Carp Pond by PCR-DGGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琴; 熊邦喜; 朱玉婷; 施培松; 余育和

    2012-01-01

    消化道微生物在宿主生长、营养和健康等方面起到重要的作用.本实验采用基于PCR扩增的变性梯度凝胶电泳(PCR-DGGE)技术比较研究了主养草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)池塘三种不同混养模式下的鱼类肠道菌群差异.结果表明,三种混养模式下同种鱼的生长率出现显著性差异(P<0.05),而肠道细菌16SrDNA V3区特征片段PCR-DGGE指纹分析显示草鱼的肠道菌群相似性较高(>42.2%);投喂配合饲料的草鱼与摄食浮游生物的鲢(Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)、鳙(Aristichthys nobilis和匙吻鲟(Polyodon spathula)肠道菌群结构相差最大(<19%),鲢和鳙肠道菌群相似性较高(>41.6%),除模式Ⅱ鳙的肠道和匙吻鲟的胃菌群具有较高的相似性(>50.3%)外,匙吻鲟的消化道菌群和鲢鳙的相似性低.实验共回收测序了14条特定DGGE条带中的DNA片段,并进行系统进化分析,结果显示,这14条条带分别归属于4个细菌类群:变形细菌门(Proteobacteria),拟杆菌门(Bacteroidetes),厚壁菌门(Firmicutes)和梭杆菌门(Fusobacteria).研究结果为鱼类混养模式的优化,饲料研发和鱼病防治提供了基础参考资料.%The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the growth, nutrition and well being of the host, and it would be necessary to know the microflora structure in the gastrointestinal tract and the influence factors. The present study used 16S Rdna polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) technology to investigate the intestinal microbiota diversity of fanned fishes from three polyculture patterns with grass caxp(Ctenopharyngodon idellus) as a major component. The results showed that there was significant differences among special growth rate of the same species from the different polyculture patterns after four months' cultivation and data analysis (P 42.2%) of grass carp intestinal bacteria in different polyculture patterns. The intestinal

  14. Cloning and Tissue Expression Analysis ofPAX7 Gene in Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)%草鱼PAX7基因的克隆、序列分析及组织表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘甜; 冷向军; 郭婷; 胡静; 魏静; 李小勤

    2014-01-01

    Paired box gene 7(PAX7)is crucially important to the cellular renewal, differentiation and apoptosis, especially in neural crest development, gastrulation, and muscle self-renewal. ThePAX7 domains sequence is conserved among several species, such as zebrafish, apteronotidae, and rainbow trout, and the conserved sequence zebrafish was used to design degenerate primers for reverse-transcription PCR(RT-PCR). A partial sequence ofPAX7 from grass carp was obtained for a 645 bp segment encoding a 214 amino acid peptide, containing a paired box domain with 128 amino acids. The deduced protein showed homology to zebrafish(Danio rerio), apteronotidae(Sternopygus macrurus), Japanese Medaka(Oryzias latipes), gilthead bream(Sparus aurata), rainbow trout(Oncorhynchus mykiss), Atlantic salmon(Salmo salar), Arctic charr(Salvelinus alpinus), human(Homo sapiens), wild yak(Bos grunniens mutus), brown rat(Rattus norvegicus), and mouse(Mus musculus)with 90%-97% identities. Analysis of the PAX7 phylogenetic tree revealed that the grass carp joined with zebrafish, and there was a confluence of Japanese medaka, Arctic charr, Atlantic salmon, rainbow trout, apteronotidae and gilthead bream. The other branch was consisted of mouse, brown rat, wild yak and human. These results conformed to the traditional species classification evolution status. The expression in tissues was detected by Real-time quantitative PCR, which indicated that the highest level ofPAX7 gene expression was found in muscle, a lower expression level was found in foregut and skin, and the lowest detectable level was found in heart, brain, kidney and liver. The results are in agreement with the function of the gene.%配对盒基因7(Paired box 7 gene,PAX7)在神经嵴发育及原肠胚形成、肌肉自主更新与再生中扮演着重要角色,对细胞更新、分化、凋亡等起着十分重要的调控作用。参照GenBank中斑马鱼、线鳍电鳗和虹鳟等物种PAX7序列的保守区域设计简并引

  15. EFFECTS OF DIETARY OXIDIZED FISH OIL ON THE INTESTINAL STRUCTURE AND PERMEABILITY OF GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLUS)%饲料氧化鱼油引起草鱼肠道结构损伤、通透性增加

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈科全; 萧培珍; 叶元土; 蔡春芳; 吴萍; 黄雨薇; 吴韬; 林秀秀; 罗其刚; 张宝彤

    2016-01-01

    为了探讨饲料氧化鱼油对草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)肠道组织结构及其通透性的影响,本实验以豆油、鱼油及氧化鱼油作为饲料脂肪源,分别设计鱼油组(6F)、豆油组(6S)、2%氧化鱼油(4S2OF)、4%氧化鱼油(2S4OF)及6%氧化鱼油(6OF)5组等氮、等能的半纯化饲料。经72d池塘网箱养殖后,实验结果显示:(1)氧化鱼油显著增加(P<0.05)草鱼血清和肠道MDA含量、增加肠道GSH含量(P<0.05),但随氧化产物含量上升GSH含量出现下降。(2)氧化鱼油会显著降低肠道内胆汁酸的含量(P<0.05)。(3)氧化鱼油会显著增加肠道绒毛中杯状细胞的数量(P<0.05),且随着氧化产物的增加,肠道微绒毛高度呈现先上升后下降趋势。(4)氧化鱼油会导致肠道紧密连接间隙增大,增加肠道通透性,使血清中D-乳酸及内毒素含量显著增加(P<0.05)。结果表明,饲料中鱼油氧化产物损伤了草鱼肠道组织结构,尤其是肠道上皮细胞紧密连接结构损伤严重,从而破坏了肠道黏膜的机械屏障功能,使肠道通透性显著增加,肠道细菌内毒素等发生转移。鱼油氧化产物会引起草鱼肠道氧化与抗氧化应激反应,干扰草鱼“肝-肠”正常胆汁酸循环,致使草鱼肠道胆汁酸不足。%To investigate effects of oxidized fish oil on the structure and permeability of intestine of grass carp (Cteno-pharyngodon idellus), five iso-nitrogen and iso-energy diets were formulated with soybean oil, fish oil and oxidized fish oil at different concentrations:6%fish oil, 6%soybean oil, 2%oxidized fish oil and 4%soybean oil, 4%oxidized fish oil, and 2%soybean oil, 6%oxidized fish oil, respectively. Compared with the 6%soybean oil, the oxidative product of fish oil at low level increased serum and intestine MDA and GSH content but diminished the GSH content at high level. The oxidized fish oil significantly reduced intestine bile acid content (P<0.05). The

  16. 显微介导的远缘基因渐渗技术在鲤育种中的应用%Introgressive hybridization of exogenous gene by micro-injection in carp(Cyprinus carpio L.)breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫学春; 张晓峰; 刘翠; 孙效文; 梁利群; 曹顶臣; 李超; 葛彦龙

    2011-01-01

    以中国明对虾(Fenneropenaeus chinensis)为外源DNA供体,运用显微介导的远缘杂交技术,将中国明对虾总DNA直接导人鲤(Cyprinus carpio L.)受精卵内,创建鲤外源DNA导人系,并利用AFLP分子标记技术和肌肉营养成分分析,对显微介导中国明对虾基因鲤进行外源DNA检测与蛋白质和氨基酸含量进行测定,结果表明:(1)在30对AFLP引物中,有8对所扩增带,其显微介导中国明对虾基因鲤亲本和子代中都有和中国明对虾基因相同而对照鲤没有的带.说明受体鱼中,肯定有一段序列与目的基因序列一致,研究证明了亲缘关系甚远的异源DNA片段的超远缘杂交的可行性.(2)导人中国明对虾总DNA片段的显微介导中国明对虾基因鲤的蛋白质含量分别为18.37%,18.47%,17.99%,均高于对照组(17.06%);而氨基酸的总量分别为17.16%,17.56%,16.92%,也高于对照组((16.13%),其中天门冬氨酸、谷氨酸、甘氨酸、丙氨酸等4种鲜味氨基酸含量明显超过对照组,经数理统计分析,均有显著差异(P<0.05).说明直接导人中国明对虾总DNA对显微介导中国明对虾基因鲤的营养成分和氨基酸含量均产生影响,这可对鲤的品质改进,丰富鲤的遗传基础,为显微介导的超远缘杂交技术的应用提供思路.%Introgressive hybridization is a movement of a gene from one species into the gene pool of another by repeated backcrossing an interspecific hybrid with one of its parent species. It is an important source of genetic variation in natural population. But the natural introgressive does not have the human direct interference while the exotic introgression is induced intentionally and very slowly. Transgenic technique is an extreme example of introgression verified as a successful hybridization from a transgenic plant to a wild relative. Carp is an important species of fish, but has low muscle quality. The study that focused on the feasibility improves the quality of muscle of

  17. 草鱼过氧化氢酶全长cDNA的克隆、序列同源分析与组织表达%Full-length cDNA Cloning, Sequence Homology Analysis and Tissue Expre-ssion of a Catalase Gene from Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑清梅; 韩春艳; 温茹淑; 钟艳梅; 姚琼凤; 侯雨文

    2011-01-01

    过氧化氢酶(catalase,CAT)是生物体内抗氧化防御系统的关键酶之一,在清除过氧化氢而避免机体产生氧化应激的过程中起重要作用.本研究从草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)肝胰脏中克隆了CAT完整编码序列(complete coding sequence,CDS).该CAT序列(GenBank登陆号:FJ560431)全长2 263 bp,包括完全开放阅读框(ORF) 1 575 bp、5'非编码区(UTR) 118 bp和3' UTR 570 bp.其ORF编码525个氨基酸残基,理论分子量为59.59 kD,等电点为7.02.在草鱼CAT cDNA的终止密码子附近,其3' UTR具有长且完整的AC重复序列,与斑马鱼、鲢鱼及啮齿类动物CAT的3' UTR AC重复序列相似.序列比较表明,草鱼CAT的核苷酸及推测氨基酸序列与其它多种物种的一致性均较高,其一致性分别为93.4%~43.0%和98.1%~63.3%.同时,草鱼CAT cDNA的推测氨基酸序列具有与其它动物高度保守的特征性基序,包括亚铁血红素结合信号序列"RLFSYPDTH"、酶活性中心序列"FDRERIPERVVHAKGA"及3个催化位点残基His74、Asn147和Tyr357.此外,草鱼CAT还具有保守的亚铁血红素结合口袋与NADPH 结合位点.根据草鱼CAT基因的上述特征,推测其属于CAT基因家族中的单功能或典型CAT基因亚群.采用实时荧光定量PCR (Q-PCR)检测草鱼CAT的组织表达特征.结果显示,草鱼CAT mRNA在所检测的11种组织器官中均有表达,其中在肝中表达水平量较高,在红肌、白肌和脂肪中表达量较低.本研究结果将有助于进一步探讨鱼类CAT基因的结构与功能,并为研究其抗氧化分子机理奠定基础.%Catalase is a key enzyme in the antioxidant systems of living organisms that plays an important role in the against oxidative stress by eliminating hydrogen peroxide. The full-length catalase cDNA was cloned from hepatopancreas of grass carp {Ctenopharyngodon idellus). The gene CA T (GenBank Accession No. FJ560431) was 2 263 base-pairs (bp), including a complete protein coding region (ORF) of 1

  18. HISTORICAL ASPECTS OF THE USE OF GALICIAN CARP IN AQUACULTURE (A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. Hrytsyniak

    2016-09-01

    in the conditions of both pure line carp culture and for hybridization.

  19. Complete mitogenome sequence of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) and its use for molecular phylogeny of leuciscine fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenghui; Wang, Jun; Yang, Jinquan; Lu, Guoqing; Song, Xiao; Chen, Qin; Xu, Jiawei; Yang, Qinling; Li, Sifa

    2012-05-01

    The black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus (Cyprinidae), native to eastern Asian, is a large, commercially important fish, and has been introduced to many other countries for variable reasons. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequences from three specimens of black carp were first determined and were used to evaluate the sister relationship between black carp and grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). Two individuals had a mitogenome of 16,609 bp, while the other was 16,611 bp in length. Similar to most vertebrates, the black carp contains the same gene order and an identical number of genes or regions, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 1 putative control region. Phylogenetic analyses using three different computational algorithms (Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood, and Bayesian analysis) revealed two distinct clades in subfamily Leuciscinae. However, the sister taxonomic relationship of black carp and grass carp was not observed using sequences of nearly complete mitochondrial genomes, which suggests more nuclear gene markers are needed to resolve the phylogenetic relationship between black carp and grass carp.

  20. Changes of biogenic amines and quality indicators of grass carp (Ctenpharyngodon idellus) during chilled storage and effect on biogenic amines during thermal processing%草鱼冷藏过程鱼肉品质与生物胺的变化及热处理对生物胺的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张月美; 包玉龙; 罗永康; 王航

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the changes in biogenic amines and other quality indicators during chilled storage(4 ℃) and effect of thermal processing on biogenic amines (85 ℃,15 min) of grass carp (Ctenpharyngodon idellus) by observing the drip loss,sensory assessment,total volatile basic nitrogen(TVB-N),total viable counts and content of eight biogenic amines (tryptamine,2-phenylethyl-amine,putrescine,cadaverine,histamine,tyramine,spermidine and spermine).The correlation was analyzed between biogenic amines and quality indicators of grass carp.The resuhs showed that drip loss,TVB-N and total viable counts increased with storage time,which accorded with the changes of sensory scores.The preservation life of grass carp at 4 ℃ was 9 days.During the storage,putrescine and cadaverine changed most significantly that putrescine content reached (17.12 ± 4.40) mg·kg-1 and cadaverine content reached (237.47 ±3.96) mg·kg-1 at 15th day.Besides,cadaverine and putrescine had good correlation with drip loss,sensory assessment,TVB-N and total viable counts.After thermal processing,contents of putrescine,cadaverine,histamine and spermine decreased slightly,saying that thermal processing could not remove the biogenic amines of grass carp effectively.%文章研究了草鱼(Ctenpharyngodon idellus)冷藏过程鱼肉品质与生物胺的变化及热处理对生物胺的影响.将经过前处理的草鱼鱼片于4℃条件下贮藏,对其感官品质、挥发性盐基氮(TVB-N)、菌落总数、汁液流失率以及生物胺等指标进行测定,另外经过85℃、15 min的热处理后对草鱼鱼片的生物胺进行测定,探求其变化规律及草鱼的生物胺与其品质指标的相关性.结果表明,随着贮藏时间的延长,草鱼的汁液流失率、TVB-N、菌落总数均呈现明显的上升趋势,与感官分值的变化趋势相符,草鱼的感官接受极限为9d.草鱼鱼片在冷藏加工过程中变化最显著的生物胺是腐胺和尸胺,第15

  1. 草鱼鱼鳞胶原蛋白的提取及其部分生物学性能%Isolation and partial biological properties of scale collagens from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪海波; 梁艳萍; 汪海婴; 周坚; 张寒俊

    2012-01-01

    以草鱼鱼鳞为原料,分别提取鱼鳞中的酸溶性胶原蛋白(ASC)和酶溶性胶原蛋白(PSC),着重开展了其包括热稳定性、体外酶降解性以及胶原海绵材料特性在内的相关研究,并与哺乳动物来源的猪皮胶原(PC)相比较.实验结果表明,制备所得的3种胶原蛋白均为典型的Ⅰ型胶原并具有完整的三螺旋结构;PC的热变性温度(41.6℃)明显高于ASC(34.8℃)和PSC(35.2℃);3种胶原蛋白的体外酶降解性能受水解酶的种类、胶原蛋白提取方法、胶原蛋白来源、胶原蛋白受热历史以及蛋白的自组装程度影响.胶原蛋白酶、胰蛋白酶和木瓜蛋白酶对淡水鱼胶原均具有不同程度的降解能力,但胶原蛋白酶的降解能力最强;相同条件下,3种胶原蛋白体外酶降解率依次为ASC>PSC>PC;经热变性处理后胶原蛋白的体外酶降解率明显提高而经体外自组装处理后其体外酶降解率均出现不同程度的降低;3种胶原样品冻干后得到的胶原海绵材料具有不同的机械性能和组织结构,ASC和PSC海绵是一种多孔但拉伸承受力较弱的海绵材料,而PC则与之相反.%In this study, the acid-soluble collagen (ASC) and pepsin-soluble collagen (PSC) were extracted from scale of grass carp by the methods of acid and acid-pepsin. The partial biological properties of these collagens were researched and compared with pig skin collagen (PC). Experiment results indicate that the ASC, PSC and PC were type I collagen and the triple helical structure in the three collagen samples. The thermal transition temperature of PC(41.6 ℃) was obviously higher than that of ASC(34.8 ℃) and PSC(35.2 ℃). The in vitro enzyme degradation properties of collagens were influenced by many factors, such as the enzyme variety, the isolation methods of collagen, the collagen sources, the thermal treatment and self-assembly degree of collagens. PSC can be degraded by collagenase, trypsin and papain

  2. 不同可食性膜对草鱼鱼片保鲜效果的比较%Effects of Different Edible Films on the Fresh Keeping of Grass Carp Fillet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾艳菊; 刘坤; 马同锁; 魏连爽; 李建; 刘静

    2011-01-01

    Effects of different edible films on the fresh keeping of grass carp fillet were studied in this experiment. Different coating material and addition of onion, ginger and garlic mixed extract (T) were designed as two factors. Coating material used in this experiment were sodium carboxymethylcelluose (CMC), chitosan (Chi) and sodium alginate (NaAlg). Six coating solution were made (CMC, CMCT, Chi, ChiT, NaAlg and NaAlgT). Fish fillet were dipped into the solution described above for 5 minute, and then stored in a refrigerator maintained at 8t. Sensory evaluation, total bacterial counts, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) and pH of the fillet were determined at 0, 3, 6 day of the experiment. Sensory evaluation of CMC and CMCT were significantly lower than those of other groups, and their total bacterial counts, TVB-N and pH were all significantly higher than those of other groups. Sensory evaluation of NaAlg and NaAlgT was similar to Chi and ChiT, but their total bacterial counts, TVB-N and pH were all significantly lower than those of other groups. Addition of onion, ginger and garlic mixed extract could significantly reduce the pH of fillet. Those results indicated that NaAlg coating was better than CMC and Chi in the preservation offish fillet.%为比较不同材料的可食性膜对草鱼鱼片的保鲜效果,把成膜材料的类型和葱姜蒜混合乙醇提取液添加作为2个因素,制备CMC(羧甲基纤维素)、CMCT(羧甲基纤维素+葱姜蒜提取液)、Chi(壳聚糖)、ChiT(壳聚糖+葱姜蒜提取液)、NaAlg(海藻酸钠)和NaAlgT(海藻酸钠+葱姜蒜提取液)6种涂膜液.研究发现成膜材料对鱼片的保鲜指标具有显著影响.CMC和CMCT的感官评分均显著低于其他各组,而细菌总数、挥发性盐基氮(TVB-N)和pH显著高于其他各组;NaAlg和NaAlgT的感官评分与Chi和ChiT组相近,但细菌总数、TVB -N和pH显著低于其他各组.葱姜蒜提取液的添加可显著降低冷藏过程中鱼片的pH.试验

  3. Cloning and Expression Analysis of E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Nrdp1 from Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella%草鱼E3泛素连接酶Nrdp1基因cDNA克隆和表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隗黎丽; 杨竹青; 王自蕊; 熊六凤; 周秋白

    2013-01-01

    神经调节素受体降解蛋白1(neuregulin receptor degradation protein-1,Nrdpl)是一种新的E3泛素连接酶,可调节细胞增殖和凋亡等.研究采用RACE方法从草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idella)肝脏中克隆了Nrdpl的全长cDNA序列;采用半定量RT-PCR方法分析该基因在草鱼不同组织中表达情况.结果表明:该序列全长cDNA大小为1 865 bp(GenBank登录号:JX864048),其中开放阅读框为954 bp,编码318个氨基酸,预测分子量大小为36.09 ku,pH为7.0时理论等电点为5.83;5’和3’非翻译区的长度分别为291 bp和620 bp,在3’非翻译区发现2个mRNA不稳定信号(ATTTA)和1个多聚腺苷酸加尾信号(ATTAAA).该蛋白序列没有信号肽和跨膜结构,其二级结构主要以α-螺旋为主,不含β-折叠.氨基酸序列保守性分析表明,草鱼Nrdp1与斑马鱼、虹鳟及人的同源性分别为98%、94%和89%;该基因在心脏和脑中的表达量较多,在肌肉和血液中表达很少.%Nrdpl ( neuregulin receptor degradation protein - 1) is a newly defined E3 ubiquitin ligase and regulates the cell proliferation and apoptosis. In the present study, the cDNA sequence of grass carp Ctenopha-ryngodon idella Nrdp1 (gcNrdpl) consists of 1865 bp with a 291 bp 5' untranslated region (UTR) and a 620 bp 3' UTR, with an open reading frame of 954 bp encoding the 318 amino acids which is predicted to have no signal petptide and transmembrane helices. The deduced amino acid sequence of gcNrdpl showed 98% , 94% and 89% of identity to zebra fish Danio rerio, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and human Homo sapiens Nrdpl, respectively. The domain search revealed that gcNrdpl contains a RING domain (at amino acids 18 -56) and Pfam domain (at amino acids 137 -315). Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that gcNrdpl is clustered in a same clade with zebra fish and rainbow trout Nrdpl. RT-PCR demonstrated that the mRNA is con-stitutively expressed in all the examined organs examined of healthy fish

  4. An Investigation into the Self-assembly Behavior of Collagens from Grass Carp Scale%草鱼鱼鳞胶原蛋白体外自组装行为的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁艳萍; 王艳; 汪海波; 张寒俊; 周坚; 刘良忠

    2011-01-01

    In this study,acid-soluble collagen(ASC) and pepsin-soluble collagen(PSC) were extracted from grass carp scale and molecularly characterized.Meanwhile,a preliminary investigation into their self-assembly behavior in vitro was carried out along with a comparison with porcine skin collagen(PC).ASC,PSC and porcine skin collagen were all type Ⅰcollagens and showed a high similarity in molecular weight and secondary structure but a difference in amino acid composition.The results of turbidity tests indicated that all the collagens exhibited behavior in vitro under the appropriate temperature and pH.The process of self-assembly consisted of lag,rapid rise and plateau phases and their occurrence times were affected by medium pH.Under the same conditions,the self-assembly degree of porcine skin collagen was highest,followed by PSC and ASC.Environmental temperature,collagen concentration and thermal denaturation temperature had different effects on the self-assembly behavior in vitro of PSC.%以草鱼鱼鳞为原料,分别提取鱼鳞中的酸溶性胶原蛋白(ASC)和胃蛋白酶溶性胶原蛋白(PSC),在对胶原蛋白分子结构表征的基础上,开展鱼鳞胶原蛋白体外自组装行为的研究,并与哺乳动物来源的猪皮胶原(PC)相比较。结果表明:制备所得的3种胶原蛋白均为典型的Ⅰ型胶原,3种胶原蛋白的分子质量和二级结构较为相似,但氨基酸组成存在一定差异。采用浊度实验的方法观察胶原蛋白的体外自组装行为,结果表明:在合适的温度和pH值条件下,3种胶原蛋白均可产生体外自组装行为,其自组装进程可划分为迟滞段、快速上升段和平稳段3个阶段,其出现时间受溶液pH值的影响;在相同条件下,PC的体外自组装程度最高,其次为鱼鳞PSC和ASC;环境温度、胶原蛋白质量浓度以及蛋白的热变性处理均会不同程度的影响胶原蛋白的体外自组装行为。

  5. Genome evolution in alpine oat-like grasses through homoploid hybridization and polyploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterfeld, Grit; Wölk, Alexandra; Röser, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Hybridization and polyploidization can radically impact genome organization from sequence level to chromosome structure. As a result, often in response to environmental change and species isolation, the development of novel traits can arise and will tend to result in the formation of homoploid or polyploid hybrid species. In this study we focus on evidence of hybridization and polyploidization by ascertaining the species parentage of the endemic alpine Helictotrichon parlatorei group. This group comprises five taxa; the diploids H. parlatorei, Helictotrichon setaceum subsp. setaceum and subsp. petzense, their putative hybrid Helictotrichon ×krischae and the hexaploid Helictotrichon sempervirens. For molecular analyses, cloned nuclear Topoisomerase VI genes of H. sempervirens and H. ×krischae were sequenced and compared with sequences of the diploids to estimate the evolutionary history in this group. In addition, detailed chromosome studies were carried out including fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 5S and 45S ribosomal and satellite DNA probes, and fluorochrome staining with chromomycin and DAPI. Two distinct types of Topoisomerase VI sequences were identified. One of them (SET) occurs in both subspecies of H. setaceum, the other (PAR) in H. parlatorei. Both types were found in H. ×krischae and H. sempervirens Karyotypes of H. parlatorei and H. setaceum could be distinguished by chromosomes with a clearly differentiated banding pattern of ribosomal DNAs. Both patterns occurred in the hybrid H. ×krischae Hexaploid H. sempervirens shares karyotype features with diploid H. parlatorei, but lacks the expected chromosome characteristics of H. setaceum, possibly an example of beginning diploidization after polyploidization. The geographic origin of the putative parental species and their hybrids and the possible biogeographical spread through the Alps are discussed.

  6. 四倍体鲫鲤、三倍体湘云鲫染色体减数分裂观察%Chromosome pairing in meiosis Ⅰ in allotetraploid hybrids and allotriploid crucian carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张纯; 何晓晓; 刘少军; 孙远东; 刘筠

    2005-01-01

    In the present paper, the chromosome pairing during meiosis Ⅰ(MⅠ)of spermatocytes in allotetraploid hybrids of the red crucian carp (Carassius auratus, red var.)(♀)×common carp Cyprinus carpio (♂), allotriploid crucian carp, diploid red crucian carp and common carp was investigated. As the control groups, their chromosome number in metaphase of mitosis was also examined. During MⅠ, the homologous chromosomes of allotetraploid hybrids were paired, showing 100 bivalents, no univalent, trivalent and quadrivalent being found. The chromosome spreads of the allotriploid in MⅠconsisted of 50 bivalents and 50 unsynapsed univalent. Both in diploid red crucian carp and diploid common carp, only 50 bivalents were observed respectively. In the control groups, the metaphase spreads of chromosomes in mitosis in allotetraploid hybrids, allotriploids, diploid red crucian carp and common carp were 4n=200, 3n=150, and 2n=100, respectively. In all the different species, the bivalent number in MⅠ agreed with the chromosome number in mitosis. The 200 chromosomes the allotetraploids possessed only formed 100 bivalents during MⅠ, indicating that they were able to produce stably diploid gametes, maintaining the tetraploidy from one generation to the next one. The coexistence of bivalents and univalent in MⅠin triploid crucian carp resulted in the failure to form the normal mature gametes, providing the evidence on the chromosome level for the sterility of the triploids[Acta Zoologica Sinica 51(1):89-94,2005].%用精巢细胞直接制片法观察了异源四倍体鲫鲤、三倍体湘云鲫和二倍体红鲫、湘江野鲤精母细胞染色体第一次减数分裂中期配对情况;作为对照,观察了上述四种鱼肾细胞的有丝分裂中期染色体.在精母细胞第一次减数分裂中,异源四倍体鲫鲤同源染色体两两配对,形成100个二价体,没有观察到单价体、三价体和四价体;三倍体湘云鲫精母细胞形成50个二价体和50

  7. 草鱼中国土著群体与欧美日移居群体遗传差异的线粒体序列分析%GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLUS) GENETIC STRUCTURE ANALYSIS AMONG NATIVE POPULATIONS IN CHINA AND INTRODUCED POPULATIONS IN USA, EUROPE AND JAPAN BASED ON MITOCHONDRIAL SEQUENCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋晓; 李思发; 王成辉; 徐嘉伟; 杨琴玲

    2009-01-01

    草鱼是中国的土著鱼类,自20世纪60年代以来已被移居到100多个国家和地区,主要用来控制水草或水产养殖.本研究通过线粒体D-Loop区(764bp)和COII+tRNA基因(719bp)序列分析,了解草鱼的中国土著群体(长江、珠江、黑龙江)和国外移居群体(匈牙利多瑙河、美国密西西比河、日本利根川河)之间以及各地方群体间的遗传差异.结果表明,中国土著草鱼群体的遗传变异高于国外移居群体;分子方差分析(AMOVA)表明,不同草鱼群体的遗传变异主要来自群体内,而不同地域间的差异极少;群体两两间Fst值比较表明,大多数群体之间遗传差异极显著;由TCS构建的单倍型网络结构图显示,长江草鱼群体是最原始的群体,其他水系草鱼均由长江群体演化而来;通过基因流分析发现,匈牙利多瑙河群体和日本利根川河群体来自长江和黑龙江群体,美国密西西比河群体除引自长江、黑龙江水系外,还有部分引自于珠江水系.%Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is one of the most important freshwater species in aquaculture. Meanwhile, the grass carp is originally distributes in China, and then it has been introduced into more than 100 countries for aquatic weed control and aquaculture since 1960s. In the past five decades, the grass carps have been adapted to the local environment and developed local groups. However, the genetic variation among the grass carps in native and introduced regions, as well the genetic phylogeny, is not clear. Meanwhile, there is no available literature to clarify which river systems in China are the most likely origins of colonized populations in introduced regions. In this study, partial sequences of the mitochondrial D-Loop (764bp), COII + tRNA (719bp) were analyzed from native (the Yangtze, Amur and Pearl Rivers in China) and introduced (the Danube River in Hungary, the Mississippi River in USA and the Tonegawa River in Japan) populations of the

  8. 糖对草鱼肝脂代谢关键基因转录水平的调控研究%Effects of Carbohydrates on Transcription of Five Key Genes Involved in Lipid Metabolism in Hepatopancreas of Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙君君; 卢荣华; 常志光; 秦超彬; 杨峰; 聂国兴

    2015-01-01

    在目前集约化水产养殖模式下,草鱼肝脂质代谢紊乱问题比较严重,已引起人们的高度关注。为获知糖对草鱼肝脂代谢的影响及作用机理,本研究分别从活体和细胞水平上分析了糖对肝脂代谢5个关键基因转录水平变化的影响。采用实时荧光定量 PCR(qRT‐PCR)技术,检测了在低糖(糖含量24%)和高糖(糖含量42%)投喂条件下草鱼肝脏中固醇调节元件结合蛋白‐1c、过氧化物酶体增殖物激活受体α和乙酰辅酶A羧化酶的转录水平变化,H·E染色观察肝脏组织形态学变化;并检测了在不同浓度葡萄糖作用下,草鱼肝细胞中固醇调节元件结合蛋白‐1c、脂肪酸合酶和脂蛋白脂酶基因的表达变化。结果显示,肝组织中固醇调节元件结合蛋白‐1c、乙酰辅酶A羧化酶在高糖组中的表达量显著高于对照组和低糖组(P <0.05),过氧化物酶体增殖物激活受体α在高糖和低糖条件下变化不明显(P>0.05);H · E染色观察发现在高糖条件下草鱼肝组织出现了大量的脂肪蓄积;在其肝细胞中固醇调节元件结合蛋白‐1c、脂肪酸合酶、脂蛋白脂酶的mRNA表达量随葡萄糖浓度增加均呈先升后降趋势,分别在葡萄糖浓度为10 mmol/L和20 mmol/L时达到最高值(P <0.05)。研究结果表明,葡萄糖可能通过调节固醇调节元件结合蛋白‐1c、乙酰辅酶A羧化酶和脂蛋白脂酶等基因的表达进而调节体内糖向脂的转化过程。研究结果为丰富鱼类糖代谢调控机理提供研究资料,并有望为提高鱼类饲料糖的利用效率提供理论依据。%In current intensive aquaculture ,the hepatopancreatic lipid metabolic disorderis are serious in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) ,and has caused the attention of people .The transcriptional effects of carbohydrates on the five key genes involved in lipid metabolism in

  9. Potted Silver Carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 4 silver carp of about 200 grams each, mushrooms, winter bamboo shoots, minced ginger root and scallions, cooking wine, broth, salt and MSG (optional). Method: 1. After cleaning the carp place them in a pot; add in all other ingredients and some broth, Seal the opening of the pot with kraft paper

  10. Forage growth, yield and quality responses of Napier hybrid grass cultivars to three cutting intervals in the Himalayan foothills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesang Wangchuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A 3 x 3 factorial study was conducted in the southern foothills of Bhutan to compare 3 cultivars of Napier hybrid grass (Pennisetum purpureum x P. glaucum: Pakchong-1, CO-3 and Giant Napier, at 3 cutting intervals (40, 60 and 80 days, in terms of forage growth, dry matter (DM yield and crude protein (CP concentration. The effects of cultivar x cutting interval were significant only on tiller number per plant and leaf:stem ratio (LSR. CO-3 consistently produced the highest tiller number per plant, leaves per plant and LSR, while Pakchong-1 produced the lowest. Pakchong-1 plants were taller, had bigger tillers and basal circumference and higher stem DM production than CO-3 and Giant. Leaf CP for all cultivars was about 17%, while stem CP concentration was lower for Pakchong-1 than for the other cultivars (3.6 vs. 5.3%, P<0.05. While 40-day cutting intervals produced high quality forage, yields suffered marked-ly and the best compromise between yield and quality of forage seemed to occur with 60-day cutting intervals. Pakchong-1 seems to have no marked advantages over CO-3 and Giant for livestock feed, and feeding studies would verify this. Its higher stem DM yields may be advantageous for biogas production and this aspect should be investigated.Keywords: Bhutan, CO-3, crude protein , dry matter, Giant Napier, Pakchong-1.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(3142-150

  11. Forage growth, yield and quality responses of Napier hybrid grass cultivars to three cutting intervals in the Himalayan foothills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesang Wangchuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A 3 x 3 factorial study was conducted in the southern foothills of Bhutan to compare 3 cultivars of Napier hybrid grass (Pennisetum purpureum x P. glaucum: Pakchong-1, CO-3 and Giant Napier, at 3 cutting intervals (40, 60 and 80 days, in terms of forage growth, dry matter (DM yield and crude protein (CP concentration. The effects of cultivar x cutting interval were significant only on tiller number per plant and leaf:stem ratio (LSR. CO-3 consistently produced the highest tiller number per plant, leaves per plant and LSR, while Pakchong-1 produced the lowest. Pakchong-1 plants were taller, had bigger tillers and basal circumference and higher stem DM production than CO-3 and Giant. Leaf CP for all cultivars was about 17%, while stem CP concentration was lower for Pakchong-1 than for the other cultivars (3.6 vs. 5.3%, P<0.05. While 40-day cutting intervals produced high quality forage, yields suffered marked-ly and the best compromise between yield and quality of forage seemed to occur with 60-day cutting intervals. Pakchong-1 seems to have no marked advantages over CO-3 and Giant for livestock feed, and feeding studies would verify this. Its higher stem DM yields may be advantageous for biogas production and this aspect should be investigated.Keywords: Bhutan, CO-3, crude protein , dry matter, Giant Napier, Pakchong-1.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(3142-150

  12. A hypoallergenic hybrid molecule with increased immunogenicity consisting of derivatives of the major grass pollen allergens, Phl p 2 and Phl p 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhart, Birgit; Mothes-Luksch, Nadine; Vrtala, Susanne; Kneidinger, Michael; Valent, Peter; Valenta, Rudolf

    2008-07-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy is currently based on the administration of allergen extracts containing natural allergens. However, its broad application is limited by the poor quality of these extracts. Based on recombinant allergens, well-defined allergy vaccines for allergen-specific immunotherapy can be produced. Furthermore, they can be modified to reduce their allergenic activity and to avoid IgE-mediated side effects. Here, we demonstrate that the immunogenicity of two grass pollen-derived hypoallergenic allergen derivatives could be increased by engineering them as a single hybrid molecule. We used a hypoallergenic Phl p 2 mosaic, generated by fragmentation of the Phl p 2 sequence and reassembly of the resulting peptides in an altered order, and a truncated Phl p 6 allergen, to produce a hybrid protein. The hybrid retained the reduction of IgE reactivity and allergenic activity of its components as shown by ELISA and basophil activation assays. Immunization with the hybrid molecule demonstrated the increased immunogenicity of this molecule, leading to higher levels of allergen-specific IgG antibodies compared to the single components. These antibodies could inhibit patients' IgE binding to the wild-type allergens. Thus, the described strategy allows the development of safer and more efficacious vaccines for the treatment of grass pollen allergy.

  13. Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Andrew R; Jerde, Christopher L; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L; Chadderton, W Lindsay; Lodge, David M; Hunter, Margaret E; Nico, Leo G

    2013-01-01

    In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided.

  14. Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Mahon

    Full Text Available In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, common carp (Cyprinus carpio, and goldfish (Carassius auratus. All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided.

  15. Evidence of Asian carp spawning upstream of a key choke point in the Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, James H.; Knights, Brent C.; McCalla, Sunnie; Monroe, Emy; Tuttle-Lau, Maren T.; Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.; Vallazza, Jon; Amberg, Jon

    2017-01-01

    Bighead Carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, Silver Carp H. molitrix, and Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella(collectively termed “Asian carp”) were introduced into North America during the 1960s and 1970s and have become established in the lower Mississippi River basin. Previously published evidence for spawning of these species in the upper Mississippi River has been limited to an area just downstream of Dam 22 (near Saverton, Missouri). In 2013 and 2014, we sampled ichthyoplankton at 18 locations in the upper Mississippi River main stem from Dam 9 through Dam 19 and in four tributaries of the Mississippi River (Des Moines, Skunk, Iowa, and Wisconsin rivers). We identified eggs and larvae by using morphological techniques and then used genetic tools to confirm species identity. The spawning events we observed often included more than one species of Asian carp and in a few cases included eggs that must have been derived from more than one upstream spawning event. The upstream extent of genetically confirmed Grass Carp ichthyoplankton was the Wisconsin River, while Bighead Carp and Silver Carp ichthyoplankton were observed in Pool 16. In all these cases, ichthyoplankton likely drifted downstream for several hours prior to collection. Higher water velocities (and, to a lesser extent, higher temperatures) were associated with an increased likelihood of observing eggs or larvae, although the temperature range we encountered was mostly above 17°C. Several major spawning events were detected in 2013, but no major spawning events were observed in 2014. The area between Dam 15 and Dam 19 appears to be the upstream edge of spawning activity for both Silver Carp and Bighead Carp, suggesting that this area could be a focal point for management efforts designed to limit further upstream movement of these species..

  16. Pb^2+对草鱼鱼种肾脏和鳃Na^+/K^+-ATPase活性的影响%Effects of Pb^2+ on Na^+/K^+ - ATPase of the Kidney and Gill in Grass Carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温茹淑; 郑清梅; 黄勋和

    2012-01-01

    The changes of Na+/K +-ATPase activity of the kidney and gill in grass carp were studied in the bath method under three different Pb2+ on concentration 72,144,288mg/L and 24,48,72,96 h.The results show that:compared with gills,Pb2+ had a more obvious inhibition on the activity of Na+-K +-ATPase in kidney,and the longer the exposure,the stronger the inhibition.%采用静态染毒法研究了不同质量浓度的铅离子胁迫下,暴露24,48,72,96h后对草鱼(Ctenopharyngodonidellus)鱼种肾脏和鳃组织中Na+/K+-ATPas活性的影响.结果表明:Pb2+对草鱼鱼种的肾脏、鳃组织Na+/K+-ATPase的活性有抑制作用.且具有时间和浓度效应,即随Pb2+胁迫时间的延长和浓度的升高而下降.Pb2+对草鱼鱼种肾脏Na+/K+-ATPase活性的抑制作用较鳃组织明显,Na+/K+-ATPase可作为一种很有潜力的环境污染效应的生物标志物.

  17. Population studies of native grass-endophyte symbioses provide clues for the roles of host jumps and hybridization in driving their evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, K D

    2012-06-01

    Fungal endophytes in the genera Epichloë and Neotyphodium, collectively termed the epichloae, have fascinated biologists for decades. These intriguing fungi, also referred to as 'class 1 or clavicipitaceous endophytes', spend the large majority, or even their entire life cycle, within the tissues of their cool-season grass hosts without eliciting any symptoms of infection. While all epichloae reside within the intercellular spaces of aboveground vegetative grass tissues, the species at the symbiotic extreme are known as Neotyphodium, and the intimacy of their interaction extends to the reproductive (flowering) stage. At this point, fungal filaments (hyphae) nondestructively invade the developing ovaries of their host and are incorporated into perfectly viable, healthy seeds. Thus, these endophytes live solely within the tissues of their host plants and are transmitted maternally from generation to generation. A second life history characteristic of interest is that while all Epichloë and some Neotyphodium species are haploid, a great many of the strictly seed-transmitted Neotyphodium spp. are interspecific hybrids. This phenomenon may be critical for the success of these symbioses over longer spans of evolutionary time and will be discussed in greater detail below. A third characteristic, and one of the primary reasons these grass endophytes have received so much attention over the last three decades, is the strong mutualistic nature these relationships often exhibit. In exchange for photosynthetically derived carbon, the endophytes protect their cool-season grass hosts from grazing herbivores and a variety of abiotic stresses. It has been hypothesized that these three biological phenomena are related (Schardl & Craven 2003), perhaps with the former two driving the third, and it is here that the recent article in Molecular Ecology entitled 'Genetic diversity in epichloid endophytes of Hordelymus europaeus suggests repeated host jumps and interspecific

  18. Spring viremia of carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahne, W.; Bjorklund, H.V.; Essbauer, S.; Fijan, N.; Kurath, G.; Winton, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    pring viremia of carp (SVC) is an important disease affecting cyprinids, mainly common carp Cyprinus carpio. The disease is widespread in European carp culture, where it causes significant morbidity and mortality. Designated a notifiable disease by the Office International des Epizooties, SVC is caused by a rhabdovirus, spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV). Affected fish show destruction of tissues in the kidney, spleen and liver, leading to hemorrhage, loss of water-salt balance and impairment of immune response. High mortality occurs at water temperatures of 10 to 17°C, typically in spring. At higher temperatures, infected carp develop humoral antibodies that can neutralize the spread of virus and such carp are protected against re-infection by solid immunity. The virus is shed mostly with the feces and urine of clinically infected fish and by carriers. Waterborne transmission is believed to be the primary route of infection, but bloodsucking parasites like leeches and the carp louse may serve as mechanical vectors of SVCV. The genome of SVCV is composed of a single molecule of linear, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA containing 5 genes in the order 3¹-NPMGL-5¹ coding for the viral nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, glycoprotein, and polymerase, respectively. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the viral proteins, and sequence homologies between the genes and gene junctions of SVCV and vesicular stomatitis viruses, have led to the placement of the virus as a tentative member of the genus Vesiculovirus in the family Rhabdoviridae. These methods also revealed that SVCV is not related to fish rhabdoviruses of the genus Novirhabdovirus. In vitro replication of SVCV takes place in the cytoplasm of cultured cells of fish, bird and mammalian origin at temperatures of 4 to 31°C, with an optimum of about 20°C. Spring viremia of carp can be diagnosed by clinical signs, isolation of virus in cell culture and molecular methods. Antibodies directed

  19. The dynamics of the plankton for the second summer of carp polyculture with phytoplankton consumer species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina GHEORGHE

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The biologic processes in water are strictly dependent on physical-chemical factors. By maintaining the balances of the environmental factors, it can ensures the micro and macro fauna development with direct implication on breeding and developing the fishy material.The aim of this article was to monitor and register the plankton dynamics in six rearing ponds for the polyculture of carp (Cyprinus carpio with Asian complex species: silver carp (H. molitrix, grass carp (Ct. idella and bighead carp (A. nobilis. The experiment took place in six ponds of C.C.D.P. Nucet, during a period of 120 days.At the end of the experiment one determined that the evolution of both phytoplankton and zooplankton was in a close correlation with both the variation of physical-chemical factors as well as with thetechnology of the fishy material in these ponds.

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT FOOD ON THE PRODUCTION OF MARKET CARP (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Debeljak

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Izvorni znanstveni članak THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT FOOD ON THE PRODUCTION OF MARKET CARP (Cyprinus carpio L. Debeljak, Lj. Turk, M. Fašaić, K. Sotjić, B. Puni tekst (Hrvatski Str. 83 - 94 (pdf, 2.21 MB downloads: 471 Sažetak This research was carried out on 8 experimental fish-pounds with individual sizes of 0,1 ha-1 on fish farm Draganići during 1990 culturing season. Carp was reared under conditions of polyculture with total stock density 3250 ind × ha-1. (77 % carp, 2500 ind × ha-1 ; 23% -- 250 ind × ha-1 each species of herbivorous fish – silver carp, bighead, grass carp. The influence of fertilization and different feeding of fish was researched through these parameters: yield and increment of fish, individual weight, losses, food conversion, Fultons and Clark’s coefficient of carp. The hydrochemical conditions in individual pounds where researched too (tabl 2. The total increment of fish was 703 ind × ha-1 (I variant, without fertilization, feeding of carp with cereals, 1302 ind × ha-1 (variant II, fertilization, 500 kg × ha-1 NPK 17: 8: 9, feeding with cereals and 2537 kg × ha-1 (variant III, without fertilization, feeding carp with pellets containing 20% protein of animal origin. The increment of carps was 611.4; 897.8 and 1923.5 kg × ha-1 resp. The results of production are shown on tables 3, 4 and 5. The losses of carp were similar in all variants of fish-pounds (tabl. 4. The average individual weight of carp was 30% bigger in the fish pond with fertilization, and 154% in fish pond with feeding carp with pellets containing 20% protein of animal origin in compare to control variant 1. Food conversion was lower for 26% in the variant which was fertilized, and for 13% in the variant fed with protein pellets, in compare to control variant l. The Fulton's and Clark's condition coefficient of carp was similar in all experimental ponds except in the variant III. In this variant the Fulton's condition coefficient was

  1. Effects of growth hormone over-expression on reproduction in the common carp Cyprinus carpio L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Mengxi; Chen, Ji; Peng, Wei; Wang, Yaping; Liao, Lanjie; Li, Yongming; Trudeau, Vance L; Zhu, Zuoyan; Hu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    To study the complex interaction between growth and reproduction we have established lines of transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio) carrying a grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) growth hormone (GH) transgene. The GH-transgenic fish showed delayed gonadal development compared with non-transgenic common carp. To gain a better understanding of the phenomenon, we studied body growth, gonad development, changes of reproduction related genes and hormones of GH-transgenic common carp for 2years. Over-expression of GH elevated peripheral gh transcription, serum GH levels, and inhibited endogenous GH expression in the pituitary. Hormone analyses indicated that GH-transgenic common carp had reduced pituitary and serum level of luteinizing hormone (LH). Among the tested genes, pituitary lhβ was inhibited in GH-transgenic fish. Further analyses in vitro showed that GH inhibited lhβ expression. Localization of ghr with LH indicates the possibility of direct regulation of GH on gonadotrophs. We also found that GH-transgenic common carp had reduced pituitary sensitivity to stimulation by co-treatments with a salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist and a dopamine antagonist. Together these results suggest that the main cause of delayed reproductive development in GH transgenic common carp is reduced LH production and release.

  2. 雌核发育二倍体鲫鲤及其他倍性鱼cdc2基因cDNA全序列克隆及表达%The cloning of cdc2 cDNAs and a comparative study of its expression in different ploidy fishes including the diploid gynogenetic hybrid of red crucian carp × common carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶敏; 刘少军; 钟欢; 周毅; 宋灿; 张纯; 刘筠

    2013-01-01

    Cdc2(Cyclin Dependent Kinase,namely CDK1)encoded by cdc2 gene and CyclinB combination regulates G2/M transition. To find out molecular mechanism that diploid hybrid fish could produce diploid gamete,the full length cDNAs of cdcl in the third gynogenetic generation(G3) ,red crucian carp( Carassius auratus red var. ) ,triploid crucian carp and allotetraploid were obtained by PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Our data showed that all the cDNAs of cdcl gene in the four different ploidy fishes encode a protein of 302 amino acids containing a domain (PSTAVRE) which combine Cyclins. A high homology of 97. 6% of the Cdc2 protein can be drawn by comparing the amino acid sequences in these four fishes, which indicates the higher conservative function and evolution of Cdc2 protein in these four fishes. A comparative expression pattern of cdcl in early-stage gonads of G3 and different ploidy fishes was carried out by Realtime PCR using specific primers against the same sequences of coding regions in the four fishes. The results showed that the expression of cdcl in the ovary of G3 was higher than those of red crucian carp and triploid crucian carp, while lower than that of allotetraploid, which, at the molecular level, indicates existence of polyploid oogonia in early-stage gonads of G3. The higher expression of cdcl in G3 suggests that consecutive S-phase replication may occur without intervening mitosis, which might be related to the formation mechanisms for the diploid eggs generated by diploid hybrids.%为研究雌核发育二倍体鲫鲤产生二倍体卵子的分子机制,实验采用PCR和cDNA末端快速分离法,克隆获得了雌核发育二倍体鲫鲤第三代(G3)、二倍体红鲫、三倍体湘云鲫和四倍体鲫鲤的细胞周期相关基因——cdc2基因cDNA全序列.结果显示,4种不同倍性鱼cdc2基因均编码含有302个氨基酸蛋白,而且编码的蛋白都含有与其他CDK激酶相当保守的序列PSTAVRE;同源性分析发现,4

  3. FEATURES OF PONDS ECOSYSTEM WHEN ECHINACEA PURPUREA (ECHINACEA PURPUREA L. MOENCH WERE USING IN CARP FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dobrjanska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Definition fish productivity of the experimental ponds, fixed set of chemical parameters, that are specific to the environmental condition of water, which is the process of growing fish in a certain relation to it, and the level of accumulation of heavy metals in different organs and tissues of carp. Methodology. The ponds was three breed groups one-years carp average weight 39,7 g (hybrid of carp and wild carp, crossbreed frames carp, lyubin scaly carp with planting density 1000 ind./ha. Control group of carp was fed extruded feed containing 20 % protein, and research group ― the same feed, which was added in the manufacturing process, chopped dried Echinacea purpurea in the amount of 1 %. The duration of the experiment was 86 days. Definition of hydro-chemical parameters was performed by standard methods in analytical chemistry. Quantitative determination of the concentration of heavy metals in water and the organs and tissues of fish was performed by direct absorption solution in propane-butane air flames using absorption spectrophotometer C-115-M1. Findings. It was reviewed ecological status of water bodies. Found that when used in feeding carp Echinacea purpurea increased fish productivity, reduced cost of feed for growing. Chemical composition of experimental ponds water, while virtually unchanged. The comparative characteristics of heavy metals in organs and tissues carp in this part of the diet. Originality. At first time investigated the influence of Echinacea purpurea by adding it to feed on fish productivity, accumulation and distribution of heavy metals in organs and tissues of carp. Practical value. Fish productivity in the experimental ponds was higher by 20,4 % relative to control. Costs of feed per pound of gain decreased by 13,3 % when was used in fish feeding chopped dried Echinacea purpurea. Almost all metals accumulated in the organs and tissues of experimental groups of carp in a somewhat lesser extent.

  4. Effects of inorganic nitrogen form on growth, morphology, N uptake, and nutrient allocation in hybrid Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum × Pennisetum americanum cv. Pakchong1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jampeetong, Arunothai; Brix, Hans; Kantawanichkul, Suwasa

    2014-01-01

    Plant cultivars with high biomass production may have a high potential for being used in integrated water treatment and plant production system. The highly productive hybrid Napier grass cultivar, Pennisetum purpureum × Pennisetum americanum cv. Pakchong1, may be a candidate species for being use...

  5. 两种碳源对草鱼养殖水质、藻类和微生物群落的影响%Effect of two different carbon sources on water quality and microbial community in grass carp culture systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚军; 刘春花; 林文辉; 王芳; 石存斌; 吴淑勤

    2015-01-01

    The present research investigated the effect of two different carbon sources on water quality and microbial com -munity in grass carp (Ctenoparyngodon idellus) culture systems.The experiment was carried out in 6 m2 canvas cages stocked with 150 grass carp ( individual weight 25.69 g ±0.73 g) .Starch ( GS) and starch with sodium acetate in the pro-portions of 19∶1 ( GSA) were used as carbon source and applied to the water column once a week .During a 60 d culture period, the total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), chlorophyll a (chl a) and the biovolume of phytoplankton in water increased gradually , while secchi disk visibility and C/N ratio declined, and total ammonia nitrogen ( TAN) kept below 0.25 mg/L.The different carbon sources had no significant effect on water quality and phytoplankton community pa -rameters.The average well color development ( AWCD) and Shannon-Weaver index ( H) obtained by the BIOLOG Eco plate assay was higher in GS treatment when compared to GSA treatment , and the differentials increased significantly dur-ing the culture period .This study showed that sodium acetate could reduce activity and diversity of microbial community , and enrich the phytoplankton species number and diversity .%为研究淀粉及其与乙酸钠的复合物(淀粉乙酸钠质量比为19∶1)两种碳源对草鱼养殖水体水质、藻类和微生物群落调控作用的差异,在为期60 d的试验中,每周向养殖水体添加一次碳源,添加量为当日水体氨氮含量的20倍,监测分析水体理化指标、藻类和微生物群落参数。结果显示:(1)试验期内,淀粉组(GS)和淀粉乙酸钠组( GSA)养殖水体氨氮保持在0.25 mg/L左右,总氮、总磷和叶绿素a均逐步升高,而透明度和碳氮比逐步下降,同次样品两试验组间水体理化指标差异不显著。(2)试验期内, GS组和GSA组藻类数量逐步上升,中后期显著高于前期,同次样品两试验组

  6. Alimentação de juvenis de carpa capim com dietas à base de farelos vegetais e forragem - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i3.9052 Feeding grass carp juveniles with plant-protein diets and forage - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i3.9052

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Strohschein Maschke

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar o potencial dos ingredientes de origem vegetal como substitutos da farinha de carne suína em dietas para Ctenopharyngodon idella Valenciennes, (1844 (carpa capim, 180 juvenis (15 por tanque foram criados durante 60 dias em sistema de recirculação de água. Foi avaliada a substituição da farinha de carne suína (FCS por farelo de canola (FC, farelo de girassol (FG e a mistura dos farelos de canola e girassol (FCG. As dietas também continham farelo de soja como fonte proteica. O consumo diário de forragem (1,24 a 2,11% do peso vivo não diferiu entre os tratamentos. Peso final, ganho em peso, taxa de crescimento específico e conversão alimentar aparente não diferiram estatisticamente entre as dietas. O rendimento de filé foi maior nos tratamentos FC e FCG, enquanto o índice digestivossomático foi maior nos tratamentos FG e FCG. Maior teor de gordura e menores teores de proteína no peixe inteiro e de cinzas no filé foram obtidos no tratamento FCG. Os filés dos tratamentos FCS e FCG apresentaram maior valor de luminosidade. Os peixes da dieta FCS apresentaram maiores valores de proteínas, triglicerídeos e colesterol total no soro. Conclui-se que os farelos de canola e girassol podem ser utilizados em dietas para recria da carpa capim.To evaluate the potential of plant-protein sources to replace porcine meat meal in diets for grass carp juveniles, 180 fish (15 per tank were reared for 60 days in a re-use water system. We evaluated the replacement of porcine meat meal (FCS for canola meal (FC, sunflower meal (FG or a mixture of canola and sunflower meal (FCG. The diets were also composed of soybean meal as a protein source. Daily forage intake ranged from 1.24 to 2.11% body weight and did not differ among treatments. Final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate and feed conversion rate did not differ statistically among diets. The fillet yield was higher in FC and FCG diets, while the digestive-somatic index was

  7. Effects of Dietary Gracilaria lemaneiformis on Growth Performance, Serum Biochemical Indices and Muscle Fatty Acid Composition of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)%饲料中添加龙须菜对草鱼生长性能、血清生化指标及肌肉脂肪酸组成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明; 刘永坚; 李雅婷; 陈先权; 曾帅霖; 田丽霞

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of dietary Gracilaria lemaneiformis on growth performance, serum biochemical indices and muscle fatty acid composition of grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idellus) , juvenile fish at the average body weight of (15.94±0.10) g were fed six isonitrogenous and isolipid diets containing graded levels of Gracilaria lemaneiformis [ 0 ( control group ) , 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5%, respectively ] for 8 weeks. Each diet fed four water tanks and each tank had 30 fish. The results showed as follows:1) there were no significant differences in weight gain rate ( WGR) , specific growth ratio ( SGR) , survival rate ( SR) and feed efficiency ( FE) of fish fed diets supplemented with different proportions of Gracilaria lemaneiformis ( P>0.05) . 2) Hepato-somatic index ( HSI) of fish in experimental groups was higher than that in control group, and the differences were significant except 5% supplementation group ( P0.05), however, there were significant differences in the contents of ash and crude lipid in whole body, crude lipid in liver and moisture in muscle ( P0.05). 5) Fatty acid composition in muscle of grass carp was affected by diets with different proportions of Gracilaria lemane-iformis. Diets supplemented with different proportions of Gracilaria lemaneiformis could significantly affect the contents of fatty acids except C14∶1, C20∶0 and C20∶2 in muscle ( P0.05)。2)各试验组的肝体指数( HSI)均高于对照组,对照组与除5%添加组外的其他试验组的差异均达到显著水平( P0.05),而饲料中不同添加比例龙须菜对全鱼粗灰分与粗脂肪、肝脏粗脂肪及肌肉水分含量有显著影响(P0.05)。5)饲料中龙须菜添加比例影响了草鱼肌肉脂肪酸的组成,除C14∶1、C20∶0、C20∶2外,其他肌肉脂肪酸的含量均受到饲料中龙须菜的添加比例的显著影响(P<0.05),其中肌肉多不饱和脂肪酸(PUFA)含量及n-3/n-6 PUFA均在3%添加组获得最高值。1%、2%

  8. EFFECTS OF MDA ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE, STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF HEPATOPANCREAS AND INTESTINE OF GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLUS)%饲料丙二醛对草鱼生长、肝胰脏及肠道结构和功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈科全; 萧培珍; 周亚琴; 叶元土; 蔡春芳; 吴萍; 黄雨薇; 吴韬; 林秀秀; 罗其刚; 张宝彤

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated effects of MDA on the growth performance, structure and function of hepatopancreas and intestine of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and evaluated effects between MDA and other products of oxi-dized fish oil. Five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were prepared with soybean oil, fish oil and different level of MDA for a 72-day experiment. The results indicated that MDA and other products of oxidized fish oil both signifi-cantly increased the FCR of grass carp and decreased the SGR and PRR of grass carp (P<0.05). Only MDA signifi-cantly decreased the LRR (P<0.05). Moreover, MDA and other products of oxidized fish oil both significantly de-creased the TBA content in serum (P<0.05), and increased the content of TC, TG and MDA and the activity of SOD in serum (P<0.05). Only MDA significantly increased ALT content and decreased the radio between HDL and LDL in serum (P<0.05). MDA and other products of oxidized fish oil both significantly increased the lipid content of hepato-pancreas (P<0.05) and stimulated the oxidative stress of hepatopancreas. MDA damaged the morphology in hepatopan-creas cell and significantly decreased the number of nucleus of hepatopancreas cell (P<0.05), which lead to the obvi-ously trend of fibrosis of the hepatopancreas cell. MDA and other products of oxidized fish oil both significantly in-creased the number of goblet cells in the microvilli (P<0.05). To the permeability, serum D-lactic acid and endotoxin significantly increased because of the defect of the tight junction, the hyperplasia and edema of villi. In conclusion, MDA decrease the growth performance of grass carp by regulating the oxidative stress and lipid metabolism. MDA and other products of oxidized fish oil affect the hepatopancreas with different mechanism. Both MDA and other products of oxidized fish oil can mediate the function of intestine.%为了探讨丙二醛(MDA)对草鱼Ctenopharyngodon idellus (74.82±1.49) g生长、肝胰脏及肠道

  9. Effects of Hg2+ on the Na+/K+-ATPase and Histology of the Kidney and Gill in Grass Carp%Hg2+对草鱼鱼种肾、鳃Na+/K+-ATPase及其组织结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温茹淑; 郑清梅; 徐鸿飞; 方展强

    2012-01-01

    The changes of Na+ /K+ -ATPase activity and histology of the kidney and gill in grass carp were studied in the bath method under three different Mercury in concentrations 0. 045 ,0. 091 ,0. 181 mg/L. The results show that: compared with that on gills, Hg2+ had a more obvious inhibition on the activity of Na+ /K+ -ATPase in kidney, and the longer the exposure, the stronger the inhibition. On the histology, renal tubule had the tendency of atrophy, while the glomerulus had no obvious symptom; gill - lamellae had the manifestation of curve, fusion, disarticulation and enlargement on the top, which had the effects of time and dose.%以浸浴法对草鱼鱼种进行毒性试验,比较在0.045,0.091,0.181 mg/L 3个不同Hg2+质量浓度下,草鱼的肾脏和鳃组织中Na+/K+-ATPase活性变化规律及其组织结构的变化.结果表明:相对鳃而言,Hg2+对草鱼肾的Na+/K+-ATPase活性有较明显的抑制作用,且随着暴露时间的延长而加强.在组织结构上,草鱼肾小管出现萎缩的现象,肾小球未见明显症状;鳃小片出现弯曲、融合、脱落和顶端呈肿大等现象,肾、鳃的组织结构特征均具有时间及剂量效应.

  10. 维生素A对草鱼幼鱼生长、体成分和转氨酶活性的影响%Effects of vitamin A on growth performance,body composition and serum transaminase activities in the juvenile grass carp(Ctenopharyngodon idella)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋明; 文华; 吴凡; 刘伟; 田娟; 杨长庚

    2012-01-01

    【目的】研究VA对草鱼幼鱼生长、体成分和转氨酶活性的影响,以确定草鱼饲料中VA适宜的添加量。【方法】采用酪蛋白和脱脂豆粕为蛋白源、白糊精为糖源、玉米胚芽油和大豆油为脂肪源的半纯化饲料作为基础饲料,配制VA水平为0(对照组),810,1 620,2 520,3 224,3 980,7 950,16 386IU/kg的8组试验饲料,饲养初始体质量为(10.79±0.52)g的草鱼12周,每组3个重复,每重复40尾,试验结束后测算体质量增长率、特定生长率、饲料系数、鱼体营养成分以及血清中碱性磷酸酶(ALP)、谷丙转氨酶(GPT)和谷草转氨酶(GOT)活性等指标。【结果】对照组的草鱼幼鱼,在试验后期有8.33%出现眼球突出、尾鳍充血的症状,添加VA试验组的草鱼未出现类似症状;饲料中VA含量在0~1 620IU/kg时,体质量增长率随饲料中VA增加而显著增加(P〈0.05),饲料中VA含量〉7 950IU/kg时,体质量增长率显著降低(P〈0.05);特定生长率的变化趋势与体质量增长率类似,而饲料系数变化趋势与体质量增长率相反;VA对草鱼成活率和全鱼水分、蛋白质、脂肪、灰分含量无显著性影响(P〉0.05);饲料中缺乏VA会显著降低血清中ALP的活性,同时显著提高GPT和GOT的活性(P〈0.05)。【结论】在本试验条件下,饲料中缺乏VA会引起草鱼幼鱼眼球突出、尾鳍充血和肝功能异常,饲料中添加适量的VA会促进草鱼的生长,降低饲料系数,但过量的VA会降低草鱼幼鱼的生长速度。对草鱼体质量增长率与饲料中VA含量进行折线回归分析,可知草鱼幼鱼获得最佳生长时对VA的需要量为1 653IU/kg,同时建议饲料中VA含量不宜超过7 950IU/kg。%【Objective】 This experiment was conducted to reveal the effects of the dietary vitamin A on growth,body composition and transaminase activities in the juvenile grass carp(Ctenopharyngodon idella),to determine optimal

  11. Malheur - Common Carp Movement Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Invasive common carp Cyprinus carpio were introduced into the Harney Basin in the 1920’s and were recognized as a problem in Malheur Lake in 1952. The common carp...

  12. 16S rRNA-targeted polymerase chain reaction and oligonucleotide hybridization to screen for Azoarcus spp., grass-associated diazotrophs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurek, T; Burggraf, S; Woese, C R; Reinhold-Hurek, B

    1993-11-01

    Phylogenetic analyses after reverse transcriptase sequencing of 16S rRNA of nitrogen-fixing, grass-associated Azoarcus strains confirmed their affiliation to the beta subdivision of the Proteobacteria. Strains representing three different species formed a phylogenetically coherent unit related to Rhodocyclus purpureus, with actual percent similarities among the three sequences ranging from 93.1 to 97.3%. Within variable regions V2 and V5, we found stretches of sequences considerably conserved within the genus Azoarcus but differing from most other gram-negative bacteria, with the specificity being enhanced when different regions were combined. Genus-specific primers selected from both regions amplified fragments from all but one Azoarcus species in polymerase chain reactions (PCR) but not from any reference strain tested. Primers of lesser specificity generated fragments from members of all five Azoarcus species as well as from some reference strains. Those unspecific amplifications could be differentiated by oligonucleotide hybridization, detecting only fragments generated from Azoarcus strains except strain 6a3, which represents the same group which could not be detected by genus-specific PCR. Thus we propose the application of PCR amplification with 16S rRNA-targeted, genus-specific primers in combination with hybridization of a 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide to PCR-generated fragments as diagnostic tests; this allows an initial screening for presence of members of the genus Azoarcus.

  13. With four grass three skin two bean soup combined with Astragalus crucian carp soup diet therapy in the treatment of 118 cases of ascites due to cirrhosis%自拟四草三皮二豆汤联合黄芪鲫鱼汤食疗治疗肝硬化腹水118例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶; 朱建新

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To observe the four grass three skin two bean decoction combined with Astragalus crucian carp soup nutritional therapy in treating ascites due to liver cirrhosis (TCM syndrome of qi stagnation and blood stasis, liver stagnation and spleen deficiency syndrome, qi stagnation and blood stasis) the clinical curative effect. Methods:336 patients with liver cirrhosis were randomly divided into the treatment group of 118 cases, 118 cases in the control group. The treatment group was given routine treatment of Western medicine + four grass three skin two bean soup orally combined with diet therapy; the control group (conventional western medicine treatment of protecting liver and diuretic therapy, see "practical" version eleventh cirrhosis Department of internal medicine relevant chapters for processing). For 4 weeks, body weight and waist circumference were observed, to understand the ascites subsided, compared 2 groups of clinical curative effect. Results: in the treatment group than in the control group, body weight and abdominal circumference decreased more significantly, the total effective rate of treatment group was 92%, 78% in the control group, by the analysis of Ridit, a significant difference between the 2 groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: sure four grass three skin two bean soup orally combined with therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of ascites due to cirrhosis.%目的:观察四草三皮二豆汤内服联合黄芪鲫鱼汤食疗治疗肝硬化腹水(中医辨证属于气滞血瘀证、肝郁脾虚证、气滞血瘀证)的临床疗效。方法:336例肝硬化腹水患者随机分为治疗组118例,对照组118例。治疗组给西医常规治疗+四草三皮二豆汤内服联合食疗治疗;对照组西药常规治疗(保肝和利尿治疗,参见《实用内科学》第11版肝硬化有关章节进行处理)。治疗4周,主要观察体重和腹围,用以了解腹水消退情况,比较两组临床疗效。结果:治疗组较

  14. Relative effectiveness of carp pituitary extract, luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analog LHRHa injections and LHRHa implants for producing hybrid catfish fry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adoption of the hybrid catfish (channel catfish, Ictalruus punctatus, female x blue catfish, I. furcatus, male) is increasing in the catfish industry. The most effective way to produce fry is hormone induced spawning of females coupled with hand stripping and in vitro fertilization. The success of...

  15. Relationship between gill raker morphology and feeding habits in filter-feeding Asian carps (Hypophthalmichthys spp. in Lake Balaton (Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Vitál

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp (H. molitrix are freshwater planktivorous fish originated from Eastern Asia, which were introduced all over the world. Previous studies suggested that bighead carp with comb-like gill rakers feeds mainly on zooplankters, while silver carp with sponge-like filtering apparatus filters smaller particles and the majority of its diet is composed of phytoplankton. In Lake Balaton, however, the Asian carp stock is formed by the hybrids of these two species, whose filtering apparatus varies within the whole range from comb-like to spongious structures. Since there is no information on how hybridization affects the feeding efficiency of Asian carps, we analysed the relationship between gill raker morphology and food size-distribution in hybrid Asian carps, in Lake Balaton. Filtering apparatus of each sampled fish (n=26 was characterized by two morphological indexes, assumed to be indicative of feeding efficiency. First, the effective area of the filtering apparatus was measured relative to the respiration organ; the width of the gill raker relative to the width of the gill-filaments was determined at the centre of the gill-arch. Second, density of pores on the outer surface of the spongy gill raker areas was counted, while zero scores were given to comb-like areas. Feeding of fish was determined from the filtrate suspension collected directly from the inner surface of gill rakers. Diet items were identified, counted and classified into three phyto- (> 40 μm, 40−10 μm, 1.3 mm, 1.3−0.4 mm, < 0.4 mm size groups. Contrary to our expectations, no significant relationship was found between the gill raker morphology and phyto- and zooplantonic food size distribution in hybrid Asian carps. Thus, the Asian carp stock, consisting of hybrids with variously mixed phenotypes, consumes similar food, but seasonality has a significant impact on their diet.

  16. Massive Production of All-female Diploids and Triploids in the Crucian Carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KaiKun Luo, Jun Xiao, ShaoJun Liu, Jing Wang, WeiGuo He, Jie Hu, QinBo Qin, Chun Zhang, Min Tao, Yun Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In many species of aquaculture importance, all-female and sterile populations possess superior productivity due to faster growth and a relatively homogenous size of individuals. However, the production of all-female and sterile fish in a large scale for aquaculture is a challenge in practice, because treatments necessary for gynogenesis induction usually cause massive embryonic and larval mortality, and the number of induced gynogens is too small for their direct use in aquaculture. Here we report the massive production of all-female triploid crucian carp by combining artificial gynogenesis, sex reversal and diploid-tetraploid hybridization. Previously, we have obtained an allotetraploid carp population (4n = 200 by hybridization between red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var; ♀ and common carp (Cyprinus carpio; ♂. We induced all-female diploid gynogens of the Japanese crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri; 2n = 100. We also generated male diploid gynogens of the same species treated gynogenetic fry with 17-α-methyltestosterone, leading to the production of sex-revered gynogenetic males. Finally, these males were used to cross with the female diploid Japanese crucian carp gynogens and the allotetraploid females, resulting in the production of fertile all-female diploid Japanese crucian carp (2n=100 and sterile all-female triploid hybrids (3n = 150, respectively. Therefore, diploid crucian carp gynogenetic females and sex-reversed male together with an allotetraploid line provide an opportunity to produce all-female triploid populations in a large scale to meet demands in aquaculture industry.

  17. Effects of Feeding Broad Bean and Dehulling Broad Bean Diets on Growth Performance, Muscle Quality and Blood Physiological-Biochemical Indices of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)%投喂蚕豆饲料和去皮蚕豆饲料对草鱼生长性能、肌肉品质及血液生理生化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛盼; 胡毅; 郇志利; 黄云; 余建波; 肖调义

    2014-01-01

    本试验旨在研究投喂蚕豆饲料和去皮蚕豆饲料对草鱼生长性能、肌肉品质及血液生理生化指标的影响。试验选取初始体重为(860±40) g的草鱼450尾,随机分为3组,分别为对照组、蚕豆组和去皮蚕豆组,每组设置3个重复,每个重复放养50尾草鱼。对照饲料参考草鱼商品饲料配方配制,蚕豆饲料和去皮蚕豆饲料分别用蚕豆和去皮蚕豆部分替代对照饲料中的豆粕、菜籽粕及棉籽粕,蚕豆和去皮蚕豆的用量均为80%。试验期为20周。结果表明:与对照组相比,蚕豆组和去皮蚕豆组草鱼的增重率和饲料系数无显著变化(P>0.05),但脏体指数和肝体指数显著降低(P0 . 05 ) , but the viscerosomtic index and hepato-somatic index were significantly reduced ( P <0 . 05 ) . Feeding BB and DBB diets significantly increased the number of red blood cells and white blood cells, the contents of serum glucose, total cholesterol and urea nitro-gen and the activity of serum glutamic-oxal(o)acetic transaminase (P<0. 05), but significantly reduced the activity of serum superoxide dismutase (P <0. 05). Compared with the control group, the muscle moisture content and water loss rate in BB and DBB groups were significantly decreased ( P<0 . 05 ) , but the crude lipid content was significantly increased ( P<0 . 05 ) , the myofibril length and muscular fiber diameter were signifi-cantly raised ( P<0 . 05 ) , and the contents of delicious amino acids and essential amino acids were significant-ly increased ( P<0 . 05 ) . The results indicate that feeding BB and DBB diets have no negative effects on the growth performance, but all can change the muscle quality of grass carp, and there is no necessary association between the change of muscle quality and broad bean skin.

  18. 低pH对草鱼鳃和肝组织超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性的影响%Effects of low pH on superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities of branchial and liver tissue of grass carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马广智; 唐玫; 徐军

    2001-01-01

    The branchia and liver tissues of grass carp were treated atdifferent pH levels (6.0, 5.5, 4.5) for 4 and 7 d. The SOD activity of liver tissue at low pH was significantly higher than that in controls(pH 6.8) on the 4 th day, but the SOD activity of branchia tissue was not significantly different. On the 7 th day, the SOD activity of liver tissue decreased significantly in lower pH groups, whereas that of branchia tissue in pH 6.0 and pH 5.5 groups was significantly higher than that in controls and the SOD activity at pH 4.5 was significantly low. The results in hard water groups also show that low SOD activity caused by low pH (pH 4.5) can be raised by increasing Ca2+ concentration in water.%在实验室条件下,把草鱼置于低pH(6.0,5.5,4.5)水中4d和7d,测试鳃和肝组织SOD活性的变化。结果表明,在实验的第4天,低pH引起肝组织SOD活性升高,而对鳃组织SOD活性无显著影响;在第7天,低pH引起肝组织SOD活性显著降低,而鳃组织在pH6.0和pH5.5时SOD活性升高,在pH4.5时SOD活性下降。提高水中钙浓度,可减缓pH4.5实验组(第7天)鳃和肝组织SOD活性的降低。

  19. 氧化鱼油诱导草鱼 Ctenopharyngodon idellus 肝胰脏谷胱甘肽/谷胱甘肽转移酶通路的应激反应%Induced Stress of Glutathione/Glutathione Transferase Gene Pathway in Hepatopancreas of Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus by Dietary Oxidized Fish Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林秀秀; 叶元土; 蔡春芳; 吴萍; 黄雨薇; 陈科全; 李婷; 罗其刚

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile grasscarp Ctenopharyngodon idellus w ith body w eightof (74.8±1)g w ere reared in netcagesdisposed in a pond and fed five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic sem i-purified diets containing soybean oil (6S),fish oil (6F),2% oxidized fish oil (2O F),4% oxidized fish oil(4O F),and 6% oxidized fish oil(6O F)atw atertem perature of25~33℃ for72 days to study the effects ofdietary oxidized fish oilon oxidative stress pathw ay by detecting ofG SH /G STs pathw ay gene expression,G SH content,and SO D activity in hepatopancr eas of grass carp.The results show ed thatthe expression of GCLC in 6O F group w as significantly reduced (P0.05).The expression of GSR w as found to be reduced in each group,w ith significantdifference betw een 6F group and 4O F group (P0.05);各试验组 GSR 的表达活性均下调,6F 和4OF 组间显著下调(P<0.05);GSTPI 的表达活性均显著下调(P<0.05),与饲料中(EPA+DHA)含量呈线性负相关关系;除6F 组外,其余各组 MGST1的表达活性均较6S 组显著下调(P<0.05),且 MGST1的表达活性与饲料丙二醛(MDA)含量呈二项式关系,与6S 组相比,其余各组肝胰脏中 GSH 含量及 SOD 活性均显著下调(P<0.05)。氧化鱼油引起草鱼 GSH/GST 合成通路基因表达相适应,肝胰脏 GSH 合成相关基因和 MGST1的表达活性下调,而 GSTPI 的表达活性增强。GSH/GSTs 通路基因表达活性和 GSH 含量随饲料中氧化鱼油的增加呈梯度变化。

  20. SOME HEMATOLOGICAL VALUES OF TWO-YEAR OLD CARP (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Fašaić

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out in three variants of experimental fish ponds in which different technologies were applied (l - without fertilizing, feeding of carp with cereals; II - fertilizing, feeding of carp with cereals; III - without fertilizing, feeding of carp with pellets containing 20% of protein. Carp was reared under conditions of policulture with total stock density 3250 ind. ha-1 (2500 ind•ha-1 carp 250 ind•ha-1 silver carp, 250 ind•ha-1 bighead and 250 ind•ha-1 grass carp. Average weights of fishes were from 29 to 77 g. The values of some hematological and biochemical indices of carp were estimated (hematocrit, hemoglobin, MCHC, total protein and total lipids. The mean value of concentration of hemoglobin was 111,80±18,38 gl-1 (variant I; 121,60±15,86 gl-1 (variant II and 122,00±15,61 gl-1 (variant III. Hematocrit value was 0,25±0,03 L˙L-1 0,30±0,03 L˙L-1 0,28±0,02 L˙L-1, and MCHC 0,23±0,01 L˙L-1; 0,23±0,01 L˙L-1; 0,25±0,01 L˙L-1 resp. The concentration of total protein in blood plasma of carp was 27,00±0,32 g˙L-1 (variant 1, 32,00±0,52 g˙L-1 (variant II and 34,00±1,02 g˙L-1 (variant III. The concentration oftotallipids was 10,1O±0,29 g˙L-1,11,20±1,60 g˙L-1 and 1l,20±1,60 g˙L-1 resp. The differences between means values of these indices found in carp of different variants were significant (P>0.05 only for values of total protein (table 3 in variant III where carp was fed with protein of animal origin.

  1. Effects of Freshwater Mussels Hyriopsis cumingii on Plankton Community Structure in an Intensive Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus Pond%河蚌对草鱼混养精养池塘中浮游植物群落结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑宗林; 郑曙明; 王广军; 赵峥

    2015-01-01

    Twenty thousand 1 year old freshwater mussel H yriopsis cumingii was stocked into 2 grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus (with body weight of 50 g) ponds of each 0 .8 hm2 and water depth of 1 .8 m at stocking density of 12 000 per pond polycultured with silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix with body weight of 24—100 g at stocking density of 500 individuals per pond and bighead carp A ristichthys no-bilis with body weight of 150 g at stocking density of 100 individuals per pond ,2 same size and stocking ponds without freshwater mussel as control ponds .The species and biomass of phytoplankton were deter-mined in the ponds in a 24 day interval to look insight on effects of freshwater mussel on phytoplankton community structure .The results showed that there were the phytoplankton of 94 species ,48 genera ,6 phyla in the fish-mussel polyculture ponds ,while 91 species ,42 genera ,6 phyla were observed in the con-trol ponds ,with the dominant species accounting for 47 .8% in the fish-mussel polyculture ponds ,and 41.8% in the control ponds ,with Cyclotella and Synedra in Bacillariophyta ,besides Chlorella ,Scenedes-mus and Closterium in Chlorophyta .The Shannon-Wiener diversity index of phytoplankton was found from 1.24 to 1 .41 in the fish mussel polyculture ponds and from 1 .26 to 1 .36 in the control ponds .The density of the phytoplankton were varied from 539 .23 × 104ind/L to 1289 .53 × 104ind/L in the fish-mussel polycul-ture ponds and from 669 .57 × 104 ind/L to 1608 .50 × 104 ind/L in the control ponds ,with the biomass of 6 .68—12 .47 mg/L in the fish-mussel polyculture ponds and 8 .40—18 .62 mg/L in the control ponds .The growth and reproduction of phytoplankton was to some extent restrained in the fish mussel plyculture ponds ,indicating that fish- mussel polyculture can change phytoplankton community structure ,and en-hance the ability to automatically adjust the water ,and more conducive to aquaculture .%试验池塘4口 ,每口面积0 .8 hm2

  2. ANALYSIS OF INDIVIDUAL BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF AMUR CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO HAEMATOPTERUS REPRODUCED USING CRYOPRESERVED SPERM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kolisnyk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To reproduce Amur carp population using cryopreserved sperm and analyze some biological and fish culture peculiarities of the reproduced fish stock. Methodology. Generally accepted methods for fish culture [1]. Experimental reproduction was carried out in pond conditions of «Carpathian vodogray» LTD (Lisnevychi village, Pustomytivsky district, Lviv region. Hydrochemical analysis was carried out classically by O. Alуokin (1970 [2], hydrobiological studies in the fatting ponds according to V. Zhadin (1956, 1960 [3, 4]. Haemoglobin concentration was determined by hemocyanin method of G. Dervis, A. Vorobiov [5]. Blood for this method was collected from fish heart with the use of Pasteur pipettes in Eppendorf tubes with heparin. Following exterior morphometric parameters were analysed: body weight (m, g, standard fish body length (l, cm, largest body height (H, cm and body circumference (O cm. Following exterior indices were calculated based on these parameters: body depth index (l/H, body circumference index (l/O and Fulton’s condition factor (Kv. The study was carried out using two groups of carp: control and experimental. The first group was reproduced from the native sperm, the second from the cryopreserved sperm. Findings. Carp reproduction and growing was carried out using native and cryopreserved sperm. This work contains the results of growing 1+ Amur carp of experimental and control groups. Hydrochemical and hydrobiological parameters of the fattening ponds were studied. Peculiarities of the exterior and some hematological parameters of the carp of different origin were characterized. Originality. For the first time we performed a comparison of some biological parameters of Amur carp reproduced using native and cryopreserved sperm. Practical Value. Considering the economic importance of Amur carp due to its use in hybridization, reproduction of its population plays an important role in the development of the stocks of the pure

  3. SMOKE-SATURATED WATER FROM FIVE GRASSES GROWING IN JAPAN INHIBITS IN VITRO PROTOCORM-LIKE BODY FORMATION IN HYBRID CYMBIDIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. TEIXEIRA DA SILVA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Smoke derived from the burning of plant material has been shown to stimulate seed growth of several species. In addition, several studies have reported that when smoke is condensed with water, smoke-saturated water (SSW can also stimulate the germination of orchid seeds. In this study, SSW was derived from burning the aerial part of five grasses growing in the wild in Shikoku, Japan (Arundinella hirta (Thunb. C. Tanaka var. hirta, Microstegium japonicum (Miquel Koidzumi, Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Paspalum thunbergii Kunth ex Steud., Themeda triandra Forssk. var. japonica (Willd. Makino, all of which flower between August and October. SSW was added at three concentrations (1, 5, 10%, v/w to solid, agarized Teixeira Cymbidium (TC medium to assess the impact on in vitro organogenesis of hybrid Cymbidium, specifically on new protocorm-like body (neo-PLB formation. The SSW of all five species strongly inhibited the formation of neo-PLBs at all concentrations relative to the control (no SSW added. Since PLBs are considered to be the equivalent of somatic embryos in orchids, and since SSW is able to stimulate the germination of zygotic embryos in other plant families, the mechanism of action is clearly different between zygotic and somatic embryos.

  4. Biological characteristics of an improved triploid crucian carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    An improved triploid crucian carp(ITCC) was produced by crossing improved tetraploids(G1×AT,) with improved red crucian carp(IRCC,),which were obtained by distant crossing and gynogenesis.The biological characteristics of ITCC,including the number and karyotype of chromosomes,gonadad and pituitary structures,phenotype,and growth rate are reported.ITCC possessed 150 chromosomes with the karyotype 33m+51sm+33st+33t.In the breeding season,both ovary-like and testis-like gonads of ITCC were unable to produce normal mature gametes.The ultrastructure of the pituitary of ITCC showed that most of the endocrine granules in gonadotrophic hormone(GTH) cells had not been released,providing endocrinological evidence for the sterility of ITCC.Compared with triploid crucian carp(TCC) produced by mating Japanese crucian carp with allotetraploid hybrids,ITCC not only retained the excellent traits of fast growth rate and sterility,but also acquired improved morphological characteristics,including higher body,shorter tail and smaller head.

  5. Variations in 5S rDNAs in diploid and tetraploid offspring of red crucian carp × common carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lihai; Zhang, Chun; Tang, Xiaojun; Chen, Yiyi; Liu, Shaojun

    2017-08-08

    The allotetraploid hybrid fish (4nAT) that was created in a previous study through an intergeneric cross between red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var., ♀) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., ♂) provided an excellent platform to investigate the effect of hybridization and polyploidization on the evolution of 5S rDNA. The 5S rDNAs of paternal common carp were made up of a coding sequence (CDS) and a non-transcribed spacer (NTS) unit, and while the 5S rDNAs of maternal red crucian carp contained a CDS and a NTS unit, they also contained a variable number of interposed regions (IPRs). The CDSs of the 5S rDNAs in both parental fishes were conserved, while their NTS units seemed to have been subjected to rapid evolution. The diploid hybrid 2nF1 inherited all the types of 5S rDNAs in both progenitors and there were no signs of homeologous recombination in the 5S rDNAs of 2nF1 by sequencing of PCR products. We obtained two segments of 5S rDNA with a total length of 16,457 bp from allotetraploid offspring 4nAT through bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequencing. Using this sequence together with the 5S rDNA sequences amplified from the genomic DNA of 4nAT, we deduced that the 5S rDNAs of 4nAT might be inherited from the maternal progenitor red crucian carp. Additionally, the IPRs in the 5S rDNAs of 4nAT contained A-repeats and TA-repeats, which was not the case for the IPRs in the 5S rDNAs of 2nF1. We also detected two signals of a 200-bp fragment of 5S rDNA in the chromosomes of parental progenitors and hybrid progenies by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). We deduced that during the evolution of 5S rDNAs in different ploidy hybrid fishes, interlocus gene conversion events and tandem repeat insertion events might occurred in the process of polyploidization. This study provided new insights into the relationship among the evolution of 5S rDNAs, hybridization and polyploidization, which were significant in clarifying the genome evolution of

  6. 草鱼幼鱼实用日粮中添加紫花苜蓿草粉效果评价%EVALUATION OF DRY CLOVER MEAL AS A FEED PROTEIN RESOURCE IN PRACTICAL DIETS OF JUVENILE GRASS CARP.CTENOPHARYNGODON INELLA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵华林; 钟鸣; 冯健; 罗波; 赵海祥

    2011-01-01

    实验旨在评估苜蓿草粉作为草鱼饲料的潜在蛋白原料的可能性.360尾草鱼幼鱼[(8.72±0.34)朗分成6个实验组,每个实验组3个平行组,每组20尾鱼,养殖于250 L循环水族箱中.试验日粮1、2、3、4、5添加2.5%、5%、10%、15%和20%苜蓿草粉,分别占日粮总蛋白的1.75%、3.50%、7.0%、10.5%和14%.对照组日粮以大豆粕、花生粕、棉籽粕和菜籽粕作为对照蛋白源.所有日粮为等蛋白质(粗蛋白28.5%)和等能量(15.92 mJ/kg).实验期为56d,实验各组鱼在整个试验期间,没有出现死亡.2.5%和5%苜蓿草粉日粮组(试验日粮1、2)鱼较对照组鱼生长性能与饲料效益有所提高,10%组(试验日粮3)与对照组无显著性差异,但15%和20%日粮组(试验日粮4、5)鱼较对照组鱼显著性下降(P<0.05).结果表明,苜蓿草粉在草鱼日粮中适宜添加量为7.8%.最多可以添加到10%.%In order to attain a more economically sustainable, environmentally friendly and viable production, the research interest has been directed towards the evaluation and use of unconventional protein sources. This study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of dried clover (Medicago sativa L.) meal as an alternative protein source for grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. A 56d feeding trial was carried out on 6 triplicate groups of 20 fish (8.72±0.34) g in 250 L aquaria connected to a re-circulating system. Five test diets were formulated to contain clover meal at levels of 2.5%,5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of the diets or 1.75%, 3.5%, 7.0%, 10.5% and 14.0% of the total plant dietary protein (Diet 1, 2,3, 4 and 5) respectively and one diet acting as a control which included soybean meal, peanut meal, cottonseed meal and rapeseed meal as protein sources. All diets were isonitrogenous (28.5% crude protein) and isoenergetic (15.92 M J/kg).No mortality was observed during the whole test period. Fish in diets with 2.5% and 5% dry clover meal (Diet I and 2

  7. Impact of the Three Gorges Dam on reproduction of four major Chinese carps species in the middle reaches of the Changjiang River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingzheng; Duan, Zhonghua; Gao, Xin; Cao, Wenxuan; Liu, Huanzhang

    2016-09-01

    Silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), bighead carp ( Aristichthys nobilis), grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella), and black carp ( Mylopharyngodon piceus) are the four major Chinese carps and are commercially important aquaculture species in China. Reproduction of these carp has declined since the construction of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) due to an altered water flow and thermal regime in the Changjiang (Yangtze) River. However, details of the changes in reproduction of the four species are not well understood. To assess the impact of the TGD on reproduction of the four carp, we investigated their eggs and larvae at Yidu City, which is 80 km below the TGD, during 2005-2012. We examined diff erences in larval abundance of the four species in the Jianli section (350 km downstream of the TGD) before (1997-2002) and after (2003-2012) construction of the TGD. Based on these observations, the first spawning date of the four species was delayed a mean of about 25 days after the dam was constructed. Mean egg abundance in the Yidu section of the river was 249 million and mean larval abundance was 464 million, which were significant decreases since the 1980s. Moreover, larval abundance in the Jianli section after the dam was constructed was significantly lower than that before construction (ANCOVA, Pconserve these four major Chinese carps species.

  8. Type II SOCS as a feedback repressor for GH-induced Igf1 expression in carp hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xue; Xiao, Jia; He, Mulan; Ma, Ani; Wong, Anderson O L

    2016-05-01

    Type II suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) serve as feedback repressors for cytokines and are known to inhibit growth hormone (GH) actions. However, direct evidence for SOCS modulation of GH-induced insulin-like growth factor 1 (Igf1) expression is lacking, and the post-receptor signaling for SOCS expression at the hepatic level is still unclear. To shed light on the comparative aspects of SOCS in GH functions, grass carp was used as a model to study the role of type II SOCS in GH-induced Igf1 expression. Structural identity of type II SOCS, Socs1-3 and cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein (Cish), was established in grass carp by 5'/3'-RACE, and their expression at both transcript and protein levels were confirmed in the liver by RT-PCR and LC/MS/MS respectively. In carp hepatocytes, GH treatment induced rapid phosphorylation of JAK2, STATs, MAPK, PI3K, and protein kinase B (Akt) with parallel rises in socs1-3 and cish mRNA levels, and these stimulatory effects on type II SOCS were shown to occur before the gradual loss of igf1 gene expression caused by prolonged exposure of GH. Furthermore, GH-induced type II SOCS gene expression could be negated by inhibiting JAK2, STATs, MEK1/2, P38 (MAPK), PI3K, and/or Akt respectively. In CHO cells transfected with carp GH receptor, over-expression of these newly cloned type II SOCS not only suppressed JAK2/STAT5 signaling with GH treatment but also inhibited GH-induced grass carp Igf1 promoter activity. These results, taken together, suggest that type II SOCS could be induced by GH in the carp liver via JAK2/STATs, MAPK, and PI3K/Akt cascades and serve as feedback repressors for GH signaling and induction of igf1 gene expression.

  9. Growth and feed utilization by juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella feed with Azolla filiculoides with low lipid diet/ Desempenho e conversão alimentar de juvenis de carpa capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella alimentadas com Azolla filiculoides e ração com baixo teor lipídico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Dufech Esteves

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The total supply of fish available for human consumption will depend more of the expansion of low trophy level fish farming than of wild-caught fish. Aquatic plants used at treatment of aquaculture wastewater have been showed like an alternative to exclusive diet feed. The aquatic fern, Azolla filiculoides is an example with high level of protein. Consequently, more research on feed requirements of herbivorous fish is required. The aim of this study was to evaluate the growth performance and feed efficiency of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella fed with three different diets using low lipid feed and water fern (Azolla filiculoides. The experiment was carried out in nine (9 tanks of 300 L capacity with three fish per tank (initial body weight = 55,43g. Feeding rate was 2.5% Fish were fed on two times a day with three treatments (R= Diet/Azolla on dry weight R= 2.5; R = 5 and R= 10. The specific growth rate (SGR = 1.39%, daily growth gain (DGG = 1.06 g / day and were significantly (p A oferta de pescado para o consumo humano dependerá mais da expansão do cultivo de peixes que se alimentam dos primeiros níveis tróficos do que daqueles oriundos da pesca extrativa. Plantas aquáticas usadas em fitotratamento de efluentes de aquacultura vêm sendo referidas como uma alternativa alimentar ao uso exclusivo de rações. A Azolla filiculoides é uma pteridófita que apresenta alto nível protéico. Assim, pesquisas sobre as exigências nutricionais de espécies herbívoras são necessárias. O objetivo principal deste estudo foi avaliar o crescimento e eficiência alimentar de juvenis de carpa capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella alimentadas com três relações (R entre ração com baixo teor lipídico e a planta aquática in natura (Azolla filiculoides. O experimento foi conduzido em nove reservatórios com capacidade de 300L e três indivíduos por unidade (Peso Inicial = 53,43g. A taxa alimentar diária foi de 2,5%, dividida em duas refei

  10. Malondialdehyde Causes Glutathione/Glutathione Transferase Pathway Oxidative Stress in Intestine and Hepatopancreas of Grass Carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idellus)%丙二醛引起草鱼肠道、肝胰脏谷胱甘肽/谷胱甘肽转移酶通路抗氧化应激

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林秀秀; 叶元土; 蔡春芳; 吴萍; 黄雨薇; 陈科全; 徐登辉; 彭侃; 罗其刚

    2015-01-01

    为了研究丙二醛( MDA )对草鱼肠道、肝胰脏抗氧化防御能力的影响,以谷胱甘肽(GSH)/谷胱甘肽转移酶(GSTs)通路为研究对象,选择初始体重(74.8±1.0) g的草鱼(Cteno-pharyngodon idelluspond) ,随机分为4组,每组设3个重复,每个重复20尾. 4组草鱼分别投喂基础饲料(对照组)以及在基础饲料中添加61 ( B1 组)、124 ( B2 组)、185 mg/kg ( B3 组) MDA的试验饲料,在池塘网箱养殖72 d后,测定肠道、肝胰脏和血清中MDA和GSH含量,采用荧光定量PCR( qRT-PCR)方法测定草鱼肠道、肝胰脏GSH/GSTs通路中谷氨酸-半胱氨酸连接酶催化亚基( GCLC)、谷胱甘肽还原酶( GSR)、pi-谷胱甘肽硫转移酶( GSTpi)、微粒体谷胱甘肽硫转移酶1( MGSt1)基因表达量. 结果显示:1)与对照组相比,除B3组肝胰脏MDA含量显著升高( P0.05);各试验组血清MDA含量均显著升高(P0.05);B1、B2组血清GSH含量显著升高( P0.05);B2、B3组肠道及B3组肝胰脏GSTpi表达量显著上调( P0.05); serum MDA content of all experimental groups were significantly higher than that in control group ( P0.05);compared with control group, serum GSH content of B1 and B2 groups was signifi-cantly increased ( P0.05);the expression level of GSTpi was significantly up-regulated in intestine of B2 and B3 groups and in hepatopancreas of B3 group( P<0.05); the expression level of MGST1 was significantly up-regulated in intestine of B3 group ( P<0.05); the expression level of MGST1 was significantly down-regulated in hepatopancreas of all experimental groups ( P<0.05) . The results show that MDA causes GSH/GSTs pathway oxidative stress in intestine and hepatopancreas of grass carp and impacts of MDA have some differences in intestine and hepatopancreas.

  11. 不同加工方式下草鱼鱼糜制品中杂环胺生成与变化的研究%Formation and variation of heterocyclic amines in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)surimi products by different cooking methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洪生; 徐琦; 张美琴; 吴瑛; 吴光红

    2014-01-01

    文章研究了草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)鱼糜制品在水煮、200℃烘烤和140~200℃油炸条件下杂环胺的变化,并初步探讨了杂环胺形成机制。11种杂环胺的质量分数采用超高效液相色谱-电喷雾串联质谱法进行测定。结果表明杂环胺的种类和生成速率与加工方式有关。水煮方式下仅检出2种杂环胺,第60分钟时总量为1.78μg·kg -1;200℃烘烤方式下检出9种杂环胺,第30分钟时总量为75.78μg·kg -1;200℃油炸方式检出9种杂环胺,第8分钟时总量高达115.11μg·kg -1。在140~200℃油炸温度下杂环胺的质量分数随着油炸时间和温度的增加而显著增大(P ﹤0.05),生成杂环胺的种类也有所增加。%We investigated the effect of different cooking methods on variation of heterocyclic amines in grass carp(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)surimi products and discussed their formation mechanism. With ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tan-dem mass spectrometry,we detected the contents of 11 kinds of heterocyclic amines. Results reveal that types of heterocyclic amines and their formation rate were related with cooking methods. Only two kinds of heterocyclic amines were detected,with 1. 78 μg·kg - 1 at the 60th minute by boiling method;nine kinds of heterocyclic amines were detected,with 75. 78 μg·kg - 1 at the 30th minute by 200℃ baking method;nine kinds of heterocyclic amines were detected,with 115. 11 μg·kg - 1 at the 8th minute by 200 ℃ frying method. At frying temperature of 100 ~ 200 ℃,the types and contents of heterocyclic amines increased significantly with increase of frying tem-perature and time.

  12. FACTORS AFFECTING TRANSMISSION AND SPREAD OF THE VIRUS SPRING VIREMIA OF CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kharkavlyuk

    2014-09-01

    Washington and Missouri states in 2004 and in Upper Mississippi in 2007. A SVC-like virus was found in cultivated shrimps in Hawaii. Natural outbreaks of a SVC infection were registered in following cyprinids: common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio koi, Crucian carp (Carassius carassius, silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, Prussian carp (Carassius auratus, ide (Leuciscus idus, tench (Tinca tinca and bream (Abramis brama. SVCV transmission is horizontal but vertical transmission from the ovarial liquid of carp has been established as well. Among virus transmission vectors are invertebrate parasites Argulus foliaceus (Crustacea, Branchiura and Piscicola geometra (Annelida, Hirudinea. There is also mechanical transmission of the virus with the aid of fishing gears. The virus can persist in water and silt for a long period of time. Originality. Measures for the prevention of infection of specialized fish farms have been proposed based on the performed analysis. Practical value. The analysis allows developing modern methods of diagnostics and control of the virus spread.

  13. Studies of Rice Straw, Elephant Grass and Hybrid Pennisetum Silage%稻秸、象草和杂交狼尾草青贮的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许能祥; 丁成龙; 顾洪如; 程云辉; 侯晓静

    2011-01-01

    为探讨乳酸菌(Lactobacillus plantarum)添加剂对不同原料青贮发酵品质的影响,对水稻(Oryza sativa L.)的2个中粳稻品系(9015,9019)稻秸和2个热带牧草(象草(Pennisetum purpureum ),杂交狼尾草(Pennisetum americanum XP.purpureum))进行了青贮研究.将新鲜稻秸或牧草切碎后添加乳酸菌(0.02g·kg1),同时设对照组(无添加物),袋装青贮45d后取样检测.结果表明:添加乳酸菌的青贮饲料其可溶性碳水化合物(WSC)含量、有机物消化率(IVOMD)、干物质回收率(DMR)、乳酸((LA)含量、乳酸/乙酸( LA/AA)比对照提高;中性洗涤纤维(NDF)含量、酸性洗涤纤维(ADF)含量,pH,氨态氮/总氮(AN/TN)、挥发性脂肪酸(VFAs)含量下降;乳酸菌(LAB)对WSC含量、NDF含量、DMR,IVOMD,LA含量、AN/TN、乙酸(AA)含量、丙酸(PA)含量、IA/AA,VFAs含量影响差异极显著(P<0.01).不同的青贮原料对青贮饲料的营养特性指标、pH,LA含量,AN/TN,LA/ AA,AA含量和VFAs含量影响极显著(P<0.01),杂交狼尾草的青贮品质最佳.添加乳酸菌可以改善青贮饲料的品质,但不同原料间的青贮品质差异较大.%The effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on fermentation quality of different materials were studied. Fresh straws of 2 medium japonica rice lines (9015 and 9019) and 2 tropical forage varieties(elephant grass and Hybrid Pennisetum)were chopped and ensiled with adding or without adding LAB (0.02 g · kg-1 fresh material) . Results show that water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) content, in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD), dry matter recovery (DMR), lactic acid (LA) content, lactic acid / acetic acid (LA/AA)with adding LAB were more increased than those without adding LAB. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF)content, acid detergent fiber (ADF) content, pH, ammonia nitrogen/total nitrogen (AN/TN), volatile fatty acids(VFAs) content with adding LAB were more reduced than those without adding LAB. There were very significant in WSC content

  14. Ecological impacts of filter-feeding Asian carps (Hypophthalmichthys spp. in Lake Balaton, Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely Boros

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp (H. molitrix and their hybrids (collectively referred as Asian carps−AC are primarily planktivorous cyprinid fishes that have been introduced into more than 30 countries around the world, including Hungary. However, recent studies demonstrated that AC can adversely affect the water quality and native fish populations. In this study, we report on the rate of hybridization, growth parameters and feeding habits of AC, to assess their ecological impacts and life history traits in the oligo-mesotrophic Lake Balaton. We found that the majority of the investigated AC (n=116 were hybrids. In general, hybrid AC with silver carp characteristics dominated the stock (90%, but 10% of individuals exhibited bighead carp phenotype and the proportion of bighead carp genes exceeded 98% in 4 individuals. However, the variance in phenotypes and the rate of hybridization did not influence significantly the feeding habits. Rather, the food composition was determined by the availability of different food resources and the concentration of suspended inorganic particles in the ambient water. Stable isotope analyses and microscopic analyses of gut contents revealed that the vast majority (>99% of the ingested and metabolised food was zooplankton (mainly Rotifers, Cladocerans and Copepods. Despite the low proportions of algae in the food, we identified 155 phytoplankton taxa in the foregut-contents, among which there were several species (e.g., Scenedesmus spp. and Microcystis spp. that survived the passage through the guts. Growth rates of AC were intermediate in Lake Balaton, while their condition factors were relatively high compared with other ecosystems. The relatively high condition factors were particularly interesting in the light of the high inorganic matter content of ingested food (43±9% in dry mass. We conclude that the presence of AC is an ecological threat to Lake Balaton, because AC can be important

  15. Koi herpesvirus disease in carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremić Svetlana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A disease in the koi carp (Cyprinus carpio koi and the common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio, caused by the herpesvirus and accompanied by a high mortality rate, has spread across numerous fish ponds all over the world since 1998, resulting in massive mortality and significant financial losses. The herpesvirus-like virus, called the koi herpesvirus (KHV has been isolated and identified from the koi and the common carp in the course of the incidences of massive mortalities. The first appearance of a disease with a high mortality in the common and the koi carp caused by the koi herpesvirus (KHV was described in 1998 in Israel and the United States of America (USA. Since that time, a large number of cases of outbreaks of this disease have been confirmed throughout the world, including the USA, Israel, and a large number of European countries. The deaths occurred seasonally, in late spring or early autumn, when the water temperature was from 18-28ºC. The most important factor of the environment that affects the occurrence and gravity of this disease is the water temperature. This disease is currently considered one of the factors that present the biggest threat to populations of the common and the koi carp. Diseased fish are disoriented, their movements uncoordinated, their breathing rapid, gills swollen, and they have local skin lesions. The virus was isolated from tissue of diseased fish and cultivated on a KF-1 (koi fin cells cell line. Electronic microscopy examinations revealed virus identical viral particles of the Herpesviridae family. Analyses of the virion polypeptide and DNA established differences between the KHV and the previously known herpesvirus of the Cyprinida family, Herpesvirus cyprini (CHV, and the virus of the channel catfish (Channel catfish virus - CCV. In the years 2004 and 2005, high mortality was established among one-year and two-year carp fry on three fish ponds. At two ponds, the deaths occurred among one year and two

  16. Subchronic toxicity study of GH transgenic carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Ling; Liu, Yu-Mei; Jia, Xu-Dong; Li, Ning; Zhang, Wen-Zhong

    2012-11-01

    A subchronic toxicity study of GH (growth hormone) transgenic carp was carried out with 60 SD rats aged 4 weeks, weight 115∼125 g. Ten male and 10 female rats were allotted into each group. Animals of the three groups (transgenic carp group (GH-TC), parental carp group (PC) and control group) were fed soy- and alfalfa-free diet (SAFD) with 10% GH transgenic carp powder, 10% parental carp powder or 10% common carp powder for 90 consecutive days, respectively. In the end of study, animals were killed by exsanguination via the carotid artery under diethyl ether anesthesia, then weights of heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, thymus, brain, ovaries and uterus/testis were measured. Pathological examination of organs was determined. Endocrine hormones of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroid hormone (T4), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 17β-estradiol (E2), progesterone (P) and testosterone (T) levels were detected by specific ELISA kit. Parameters of blood routine and blood biochemical were measured. The weights of the body and organs of the rats, food intake, blood routine, blood biochemical test and serum hormones showed no significant differences among the GH transgenic carp-treated, parental carp-treated and control groups (P>0.05). Thus, it was concluded that at the dose level of this study, GH transgenic carp showed no subchronic toxicity and endocrine disruption to SD rats.

  17. Location and timing of Asian carp spawning in the Lower Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deters, Joseph E.; Chapman, Duane C.; McElroy, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    We sampled for eggs of Asian carps, (bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp H. molitrix, and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella) in 12 sites on the Lower Missouri River and in six tributaries from the months of May through July 2005 and May through June 2006 to examine the spatial and temporal dynamics of spawning activity. We categorized eggs into thirty developmental stages, but usually they could not be identified to species. We estimated spawning times and locations based on developmental stage, temperature dependent rate of development and water velocity. Spawning rate was higher in the daytime between 05:00 and 21:00 h than at night. Spawning was not limited to a few sites, as has been reported for the Yangtze River, where these fishes are native, but more eggs were spawned in areas of high sinuosity. We employ a sediment transport model to estimate vertical egg concentration profiles and total egg fluxes during spawning periods on the Missouri River. We did not identify substantial spawning activity within tributaries or at tributary confluences examined in this study.

  18. Grass Lignocellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Danny E.

    Grass lignocelluloses are limited in bioconversion by aromatic constituents, which include both lignins and phenolic acids esters. Histochemistry, ultraviolet absorption microspectrophotometry, and response to microorganisms and specific enzymes have been used to determine the significance of aromatics toward recalcitrance. Coniferyl lignin appears to be the most effective limitation to biodegradation, existing in xylem cells of vascular tissues; cell walls with syringyl lignin, for example, leaf sclerenchyma, are less recalcitrant. Esterified phenolic acids, i.e., ferulic and p-coumaric acids, often constitute a major chemical limitation in nonlignified cell walls to biodegradation in grasses, especially warm-season species. Methods to improve biodegradability through modification of aromatics include: plant breeding, use of lignin-degrading white-rot fungi, and addition of esterases. Plant breeding for new cultivars has been especially effective for nutritionally improved forages, for example, bermudagrasses. In laboratory studies, selective white-rot fungi that lack cellulases delignified the lignocellulosic materials and improved fermentation of residual carbohydrates. Phenolic acid esterases released p-coumaric and ferulic acids for potential coproducts, improved the available sugars for fermentation, and improved biodegradation. The separation and removal of the aromatic components for coproducts, while enhancing the availability of sugars for bioconversion, could improve the economics of bioconversion.

  19. Reproductive condition and occurrence of intersex in bighead carp and silver carp in the Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulias, D.M.; Chapman, D.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the reproductive biology of the exotic bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix in the Missouri River. In order to fill this gap in understanding, herein is described the reproductive condition of these Asian carps. Evidence is presented which indicates that bighead and silver carp in the Missouri River have a protracted spawning period that extends from early spring through fall and some individual bighead and silver carp are spawning multiple times during a reproductive season. Although bighead and silver carps are successfully maturing and spawning in the Missouri River some reproductive abnormalities such as intersex, atresia, and sterility were observed. Knowledge of the reproductive activity of these invasive carps may be useful to resource managers tasked with their control. Furthermore, the reproductive abnormalities observed should be considered when evaluating the environmental condition of the Missouri River relative to supporting a healthy fish fauna. ?? Springer 2006.

  20. The transcriptomes of the crucian carp complex (Carassius auratus) provide insights into the distinction between unisexual triploids and sexual diploids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Yan; Li, Jiong-Tang; Kuang, You-Yi; Xu, Ru; Zhao, Zi-Xia; Hou, Guang-Yuan; Liang, Hong-Wei; Sun, Xiao-Wen

    2014-05-27

    Both sexual reproduction and unisexual reproduction are adaptive strategies for species survival and evolution. Unisexual animals have originated largely by hybridization, which tends to elevate their heterozygosity. However, the extent of genetic diversity resulting from hybridization and the genomic differences that determine the type of reproduction are poorly understood. In Carassius auratus, sexual diploids and unisexual triploids coexist. These two forms are similar morphologically but differ markedly in their modes of reproduction. Investigation of their genomic differences will be useful to study genome diversity and the development of reproductive mode. We generated transcriptomes for the unisexual and sexual populations. Genes were identified using homology searches and an ab initio method. Estimation of the synonymous substitution rate in the orthologous pairs indicated that the hybridization of gibel carp occurred 2.2 million years ago. Microsatellite genotyping in each individual from the gibel carp population indicated that most gibel carp genes were not tri-allelic. Molecular function and pathway comparisons suggested few gene expansions between them, except for the progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation pathway, which is enriched in gibel carp. Differential expression analysis identified highly expressed genes in gibel carp. The transcriptomes provide information on genetic diversity and genomic differences, which should assist future studies in functional genomics.

  1. The Transcriptomes of the Crucian Carp Complex (Carassius auratus Provide Insights into the Distinction between Unisexual Triploids and Sexual Diploids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Yan Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Both sexual reproduction and unisexual reproduction are adaptive strategies for species survival and evolution. Unisexual animals have originated largely by hybridization, which tends to elevate their heterozygosity. However, the extent of genetic diversity resulting from hybridization and the genomic differences that determine the type of reproduction are poorly understood. In Carassius auratus, sexual diploids and unisexual triploids coexist. These two forms are similar morphologically but differ markedly in their modes of reproduction. Investigation of their genomic differences will be useful to study genome diversity and the development of reproductive mode. We generated transcriptomes for the unisexual and sexual populations. Genes were identified using homology searches and an ab initio method. Estimation of the synonymous substitution rate in the orthologous pairs indicated that the hybridization of gibel carp occurred 2.2 million years ago. Microsatellite genotyping in each individual from the gibel carp population indicated that most gibel carp genes were not tri-allelic. Molecular function and pathway comparisons suggested few gene expansions between them, except for the progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation pathway, which is enriched in gibel carp. Differential expression analysis identified highly expressed genes in gibel carp. The transcriptomes provide information on genetic diversity and genomic differences, which should assist future studies in functional genomics.

  2. HEMATOLOGICAL BLOOD PARAMETERS OF YOUNG-OF-THE-YEAR CARPS (CYPRINIDAE REARED USING FISH RANCHING TECHNOLOGY IN THE SOUTHERN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Volichenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the hematological characteristics of blood young-of-the-year carps reared using fish ranching technology in the southern Ukraine and to establish certain correlations between the main fish technical features of the studied groups of the young-of-the-year fish. Methodology. The studies were based on field and experimental methods adopted for fisheries, biochemical and statistical studies. Findings. The paper contains the data on mean fish weight, hematological and biochemical parameters of serum of young-of-the-year carps reared using fish ranching technology. Based on a comparative analysis of the obtained data, we detected significant peculiarities and qualitative difference in the absence of foam cells and basophils, which distinguish carp from the group of herbivorous fish, established significant correlations between mean fish weight and hematologic indices of blood. Marked by fish-breeding relationships with signs like weight and some parameters of blood components in all studied fish: hemoglobin in the range from 0.7858 to 0.9943, number of erythrocytes from 0.7843 to 0.9942, lymphocytes from 0.7848 to 0.9949, сholеsterol from 0.7640 to 0.9616 and triglycerides of 0.7499 in silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and 0.9616 in common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio. To show these relationships graphically, we used regression analysis and the obtained regression equations can give an accurate assessment of the quality of fish seeds through hematological blood parameters and mean weight. Originality. The analysis of hematological parameters of blood of young-of-the-year carps: common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio, silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella reared using fish ranching technology in the south of Ukraine was performed for the first time. Practical value. The obtained data allow scientifically recommending them as a component of

  3. Malheur - Telemetry Targeted Carp Movement and Removal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Invasive common carp Cyprinus carpio were introduced into the Harney Basin in the 1920’s and were recognized as a problem in Malheur Lake in 1952. The common carp...

  4. Carp-based aquafeeds and market-driven approaches to controlling invasive Asian carp in the Illinois River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incentivizing ‘overfishing’ through the creation of high value markets for rendered carp products such as fish meal (FM) is a promising strategy to reduce the density of silver carp and bighead carp (collectively referred to as Asian carp) in the Illinois River. However, the nutrient content and dig...

  5. Netherlands grass monitoring network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stienezen, M.W.J.; Remmelink, G.J.; |Weiden, van der T.; Tjoonk, L.; Nolles, J.E.; Voskamp-Harkema, W.; Pol, van den A.

    2016-01-01

    To support on farm grazing management in the Netheralnds a grass monitoring was established in 2014. The aim of the network is to share and publish data on grass quality, grass growth and soil temperature in different regions of the Netherlands to serve as a benchmark. Grass quality, sward height

  6. Development and use of genetically uniform strains of common carp in experimental animal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, A B; Sukkel, M; Gort, G; Komen, J; Richter, C J

    1998-10-01

    Fish are widely used in numerous fields of basic and applied research. Currently, they are the third laboratory animal group in numbers, and will become increasingly important. Common carp is a major species in both aquaculture and research. Inbred strains of carp by gynogenetic (only female inheritance) and androgenetic (only male inheritance) reproduction techniques were developed at our university. With these methods, homozygous animals are produced in one generation and we present the production of homozygous inbred and F1 hybrid strains of common carp. As in mammalian research, using genetically well defined fish is a methodological necessity since in outbred stocks: (1) repeatability between experiments is low, (2) high levels of inbreeding may have accumulated and (3) high intrastrain variability might obscure treatment effects. Within inbred strains, the variation is reduced and as a result, less animals (compared to outbreds) are necessary to obtain statistically significant results. We illustrate this with experimental data from an F1 hybrid and partly outbred strain of common carp, both subjected to an antibiotic treatment resulting in reduced gonadal growth. Results obtained from a single inbred strain should be generalized with the use of a panel of inbred strains. We show that optimal allocation of animals between and within inbred strains depends on the ratio (variation between strains): (variation within strains). When selecting a panel of inbred strains, attention has to be paid to genetic relations between strains to avoid testing within a limited genetic range. It should be considered that in inbred strains, (genic) dominance and interaction effects are absent, due to the absence of heterozygous genotypes. In general, variation within inbred strains will be reduced for traits with a high degree of genetic determination. However, in inbred strains of carp produced by gynogenesis or androgenesis, the chromosome manipulation treatment induces

  7. SMOKE-SATURATED WATER FROM FIVE GRASSES GROWING IN JAPAN INHIBITS IN VITRO PROTOCORM-LIKE BODY FORMATION IN HYBRID CYMBIDIUM

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2013-01-01

    Smoke derived from the burning of plant material has been shown to stimulate seed growth of several species. In addition, several studies have reported that when smoke is condensed with water, smoke-saturated water (SSW) can also stimulate the germination of orchid seeds. In this study, SSW was derived from burning the aerial part of five grasses growing in the wild in Shikoku, Japan (Arundinella hirta (Thunb.) C. Tanaka var. hirta, Microstegium japonicum (Miquel) Koidzumi, Miscanthus sinensi...

  8. La productivité semencière : l’enjeu du développement des hybrides Festulolium entre fétuque et ray-grass chez les graminées fourragères

    OpenAIRE

    Ghesquière, Marc; Bourgoin, Thierry; Hacquet, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Les Festulolium sont des hybrides interspécifiques entre fétuque et ray-grass développés pour améliorer la production fourragère sous stress climatique, température et déficit hydrique. Il existe à ce jour 36 variétés inscrites au catalogue Européen dont 4 seulement au catalogue Français. Modifiée en 2004, la définition de Festulolium par l’Union Européenne peut recouvrir désormais une très grande diversité de formes ; 9 combinaisons amphiploïdes et plus de 60 formes introgressées à des degré...

  9. Developmental rate and behavior of early life stages of bighead carp and silver carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.

    2011-01-01

    The early life stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of early life stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.

  10. Inactivation of koi-herpesvirus in water using bacteria isolated from carp intestines and carp habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, N; Sasaki, R-K; Kasai, H; Yoshimizu, M

    2013-12-01

    Since its first outbreak in Japan in 2003, koi-herpesvirus (KHV) remains a challenge to the carp Cyprinus carpio L. breeding industry. In this study, inactivation of KHV in water from carp habitats (carp habitat water) was investigated with the aim of developing a model for rapidly inactivating the pathogen in aquaculture effluent. Experiments with live fish showed that, in carp habitat water, KHV lost its infectivity within 3 days. Indications were that inactivation of KHV was caused by the antagonistic activity of bacteria (anti-KHV bacteria) in the water from carp habitats. Carp habitat water and the intestinal contents of carp were therefore screened for anti-KHV bacteria. Of 581 bacterial isolates, 23 showed anti-KHV activity. An effluent treatment model for the disinfection of KHV in aquaculture effluent water using anti-KHV bacteria was developed and evaluated. The model showed a decrease in cumulative mortality and in the number of KHV genome copies in kidney tissue of fish injected with treated effluent compared with a positive control. It is thought that anti-KHV bacteria isolated from the intestinal contents of carp and from carp habitat water can be used to control KHV outbreaks.

  11. Rag expression identifies B and T cell lymphopoietic tissues during the development of common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttenhuis, B.T.; Huising, M.O.; Meulen, van der T.; Oosterhoud, van C.N.; Alvarez Sánchez, N.; Taverne-Thiele, J.J.; Stroband, H.W.J.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    The generation of lymphoid cells during carp development was studied by analyzing expression of the recombination activating genes (rag) using in situ hybridization and real time quantitative PCR. These data were combined with immunohistochemistry using the mAb's WCL9 (cortical thymocytes) and WCI12

  12. Rag expression identifies B and T cell lymphopoietic tissues during the development of common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttenhuis, B.T.; Huising, M.O.; Meulen, van der T.; Oosterhoud, van C.N.; Alvarez Sánchez, N.; Taverne-Thiele, J.J.; Stroband, H.W.J.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    The generation of lymphoid cells during carp development was studied by analyzing expression of the recombination activating genes (rag) using in situ hybridization and real time quantitative PCR. These data were combined with immunohistochemistry using the mAb's WCL9 (cortical thymocytes) and WCI12

  13. Carp Control on Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the past few years the two pools at Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge have become heavily infested with Carp. These fish enter the pools over the tops of...

  14. Acoustical deterrence of Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke J. Vetter,; Cupp, Aaron R.; Fredricks, Kim T.; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Allen F. Mensinger,

    2015-01-01

    The invasive Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) dominate large regions of the Mississippi River drainage and continue to expand their range northward threatening the Laurentian Great Lakes. This study found that complex broadband sound (0–10 kHz) is effective in altering the behavior of Silver Carp with implications for deterrent barriers or potential control measures (e.g., herding fish into nets). The phonotaxic response of Silver Carp was investigated using controlled experiments in outdoor concrete ponds (10 × 4.9 × 1.2 m). Pure tones (500–2000 Hz) and complex sound (underwater field recordings of outboard motors) were broadcast using underwater speakers. Silver Carp always reacted to the complex sounds by exhibiting negative phonotaxis to the sound source and by alternating speaker location, Silver Carp could be directed consistently, up to 37 consecutive times, to opposite ends of the large outdoor pond. However, fish habituated quickly to pure tones, reacting to only approximately 5 % of these presentations and never showed more than two consecutive responses. Previous studies have demonstrated the success of sound barriers in preventing Silver Carp movement using pure tones and this research suggests that a complex sound stimulus would be an even more effective deterrent.

  15. Differential screening and characterization analysis of the egg envelope glycoprotein ZP3 cDNAs between gynogenetic and gonochoristic crucian carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Gynogenetic silver crucian carp,Carassius auratus gibelio,is an intriguing model system.In the present work,a systemic study has been initiated by introducing suppression subtractive hybridization technique into this model system to identify the differentially expressed genes in oocytes between gynogenetic silver crucian carp and its closely related gonochoristic color crucian carp.Five differential cDNA fragments were identified from the preliminary screening,and two of them are ZP3 homologues.Moreover,the full length ZP3 cDNAs were cloned from their oocyte cDNA libraries.The length of ZP3 cDNAs were 1378 bp for gyno-carp and 1367 bp for gono-carp,and they can be translated into proteins with 435 amino acids.Obvious differences are not only in the composition of amino acids,but also in the number of potential O-linked oligosaccharide sites.In addition,gyno-carp ZP3 amino acid sequence has an unexpected higher identity value with common carp (83.5%) than that with the closely related gono-carp (74.7%).The unique homology may be originated from the ancient hybridization.Northern blot analysis confirmed that expression of the ZP3 gene occurred exclusively in the oocytes.Because O-linked oligosaccharides on ZP3 have been demonstrated to play very important roles in fertilization,it is suggested that the extra O-linked glycosylation sites may be related to the unique sperm-egg recognition mechanism in gynogenesis.

  16. Rapid establishment of pure lines of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molirix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhongwei; YE Yuzhen; ZHOU Jianfeng; WU Qingjiang

    2004-01-01

    The diversity of gynogenetic, artificial sex reversal and natural silver carp and bighead carp is examined using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method.All of the 187 bands are obtained and 19 (10.16%) of them are polymorphic in gynogenetic silver carp.Meanwhile 32 (15.61%) out of 205 bands are polymorphic in control group.In gynogenetic bighead carp a total of 232 bands are identified and 11 (4.74%) out of them are polymorphic, while 25 (10.37%) out of 241 bands are polymorphic in control group.The genetic distance of four populations is calculated and it is 0.102 and 0.023 for gynogenetic silver carp and gynogenetic bighead carp respectively.The values of natural silver carp and bighead carp are 0.161 and 0.104.From the UPGMA trees constructed based on genetic distance, the sex reversal individuals that match with the gynogenetic female individuals are picked out.A new breeding process of establishing a pure line is developed.

  17. The Formation of the Polyploid Hybrids From Different Subfamily Fish Crossings and Its Evolutionary Significance

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shaojun; Qin, Qinbo; Xiao, Jun; Lu, Wenting; Shen, Jiamin; Li, Wei; Liu, Jifang; Duan, Wei; Zhang, Chun; Tao, De Min; Zhao, Rurong; Yan, Jinpeng; Liu, Yun

    2007-01-01

    This study provides genetic evidences at the chromosome, DNA content, DNA fragment and sequence, and morphological levels to support the successful establishment of the polyploid hybrids of red crucian carp × blunt snout bream, which belonged to a different subfamily of fish (Cyprininae subfamily and Cultrinae subfamily) in the catalog. We successfully obtained the sterile triploid hybrids and bisexual fertile tetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp (RCC) (♀) × blunt snout bream (BSB) (♂) as w...

  18. COMPARATIVE ANALYSES CONCERNING PARASITIC DIVERSITY OF COMMON CARP AND KOI CARP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA RADU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiments carried on ponds of CCDP Nucet, researches being axled on comparative and comprehensive analysis of pathologic incidences on common and Japanese carp. This researches present theoretical and empirical convenience, because allow to elaborate of prophylaxis and disease control on. The ichthyo-pathologic exam was carried on for 271 exemplars of common carp, subspecies Cyprinus carpio carpio and 31 exemplars of ornamental carp (koi carp. There were identified 30 species of allogenic parasites, 9 species of parasites characteristic for carp as well as some common species of parasites with broad dissemination on cultured fish. All analyzed exemplars of showed parasitic infestation, but with a different extent of extensively and intensively. The most important epidemiologic factors from the analyzed ponds that increase the parasitic invasions were represented by the presence of infested fish, rearing in policulture of species and ages, as well as by the high density, water quality, thermic and flow fluctuations.

  19. Histopathological Effects on Testis of Adult Male Carp, Cyprinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and complete loss in lobular structure with degenerating spermatozoa in some carps. .... according to the germ cell types present and .... Testis (20x) of carp exposed to 1000 µg/L of BPA showing testicular organization; slightly reduced lobular.

  20. Carp Control on Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge 1954

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Carp Control in refuge pools has been an important project during the last three years on Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge. The necessity for curtailing the carp...

  1. 转青鱼生长激素基因异源四倍体鲫鲤%Black Carp GH Gene Transgenic Allotetraploid Hybrids of Carassius auratus red var.(♀) × Cyprinus carpio (♂)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯浩; 傅永明; 骆剑; 吴慧; 刘筠; 刘少军

    2011-01-01

    The ecological risk is the “bottleneck” for commercialization of transgenic fish. The sterile transgenic triploid fish derived from hydrating the transgenic tetraploid fish and transgenic diploid fish is one of the keys to solve this problem.The “all fish” gene construct (pbcAbcGHc) containing Black Carp B-actin gene promoter and cDNA of growth hormone (GH) gene from the same species was introduced into the fertilized eggs of the allotetroploid fish through microinjection. The contrast cultivation results show that the weight and body length of PO of the transgenic allotetraploid fish of 150 days were much larger than those of the controls. PCR assay was applied among 60 transgenic allotetraploid fish of 150 days and the integration ratio of the exogenous transplant gene in the genome of the caudal fin is 90%. The transplant gene could be detected in 13 of 20 samples from the sperm of the male transgenic tetraploid fish.The RT-PCR result demonstrates that the transcription of exogenous GH gene could be found in the muscle, liver,kidney and oval of the biggest transgenic allotetraploid fish. This study has developed PO of the Black Carp GH gene transgenic tetraploid fish with outstanding growth rate, which made the solid foundation for the pure line establishment of the transgenic tetraploid fish and for developing the sterile transgenic triploid fish.%生态安全性是转基因鱼走向市场的瓶颈,通过转基因四倍体鱼同转基因二倍体鱼杂交获得不育的转基因三倍体鱼是解决该问题的有效途径之一.本研究构建了青鱼β-actin基因启动子和青鱼生长激素(GH)基因精确连接的"金鱼"基因pbcAbcGHc;并采用显微注射法将pbcAbcGHc 导入异源四倍体鲫鲤受精卵.对照养殖结果表明,150日龄的转基因异源四倍体鲫鲤原代(P0)的体重及体长明显大于对照组.选择60尾P0代转基因异源四倍体鲫鲤,采用PCR方法检测出外源青鱼GH基因在P0代转基因四倍体尾

  2. Researches on Evaluating the Efficiency of Hormonal Stimulation with Silver Carp Pituitary Extract in Order to Optimize Controlled Reproductive Technology at Asian Cyprinids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Popescu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Large requirements of fish larvae, led the specialists at the Carja 1 farm to experience injection with pituitary extract from other species of cyprinids, silver carp pituitary. The experiment took place in the period from 2-25 June 2008. To verify the effectiveness of injections of silver carp pituitary suspension were used two experimental groups of 30 exemplars (1:1, the first group of females received a total dose of 2.9 mg/kg, and the second batch a dose of 4.5 mg/kg. The total dose used for breeding male is 2 mg/kg pituitary. During the Asian cyprinid reproductive guided aimed to determine: the proportion of breeding maturation, fertilization rates and survival during embryonic development index and the index of survival to hatch from eggs to larvae of 3-5 days (most representative for the whole process of reproduction. Determining the number of larvae from each batch of fertilized eggs, the ultimate goal of action is guided by reproductive hormonal stimulation with silver carp pituitary. The number of larvae obtained from experimental plots 3-5 days silver carp injected with silver carp pituitary extract (63,96 and 64,67 thousand comparable with those obtained in experimental groups grass carp (36,21 and 31,14 thousand and bighead carp (39,36 and 41, 34 thousand was approximately 58% higher.

  3. THE ANALYSIS OF THE FLOW INTENSITY OF FREE-RADICAL PROCESSES IN HEPATOPANCREAS TISSUES OF AND SKELETAL MUSCLES OF AGE-2 CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO OF DIFFERENT GENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Osoba

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To perform determination of the content of individual lipid peroxidation products in hepatopancreas tissues and skeletal muscle of carp of different genesis. Methods. Determination of free radical products of lipid peroxidation in hepatopancreas tissues of and skeletal muscle of carp was performed by spectrophotometric analysis. In particular, the content of malondialdehyde was determined by reaction with thiobarbituric acid, which at high a temperature in acidic medium proceeds with the formation of colored trimethine complex. The intensity of the formation of lipid hydroperoxides was determined after precipitation of proteins by a solution of trichloroacetic acid and lipid extraction by ethanol with following interaction of the studied extracts of ammonium thiocyanate. To determine the content of diene conjugates in tissues, we used a method, which is based on the formation of conjugated double bonds accompanied by the appearance of a new absorption maximum in the spectrum range of λmax = 233 nm. The results. As a result of the studies it was found that the content of malondialdehyde in skeletal muscle of two-year scaly and framed carp of Nesvich zonal type is likely lower in comparison with that of skeletal muscle of Amur wild carp and the carp hybrid grows relatively group - hybrid carp .It was marked the growth in the content of diene conjugates in skeletal muscle of Lyubin Nesvich scaly carp compared to framed ones.It was shown the tissue specificity savings to individual products of lipid peroxidation in experimental groups of fish. The scientific novelty. For the first time, a comparative analysis of the contents of individual products of free radical oxidation in tissues of age-2 scaly carp and framed Nesvich zonal and Lyubin interbreed type with groups such as the Amur wild carp and carp hybrid has been perfomed. Factors providing such intensity of lipid peroxidation processes in tissues of the studied age-2 groups of fish

  4. Protoplast production from napier grass and pearl millet triploid hybrids Obtenção de protoplastos de híbridos triplóides entre o capim-elefante e milheto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza de Oliveira Timbó

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to obtain protoplasts from napier grass and pearl millet triploid hybrids as a basis for future studies on chromosomal duplication. Explants were taken from mesophyll of in vitro- and in vivo-cultured plants or from calli of two triploid hybrids (H1 and H2, which were treated with enzymatic solutions containing different concentrations of cellulase R-10 (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% with an additional 0.2% macerozyme and 0.1% driselase or 1.0% pectolyase Y-23 and 0.5% hemicellulase. Enzymatic digestion was monitored once every hour for five hours. Protoplasts were obtained from in vitro and in vivo leaflets of both triploid hybrids, and in vitro leaflets were the best explant sources. The quantity of produced protoplasts varied according to the hybrid, the enzymatic solution and the treatment time.Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, a obtenção de protoplastos de híbridos triplóides entre o capim-elefante e o milheto como base para futuros trabalhos de duplicação cromossômica. Foram utilizados explantes de mesofilo de plantas cultivadas in vitro e in vivo, ou de calos de dois híbridos triplóides (H1 e H2, os quais foram tratados com soluções enzimáticas em diferentes concentrações da enzima celulase R-10 (0,5; 1,0; 1,5 e 2,0%, acrescidas de 0,2% macerozyme e 0,1% driselase ou 1,0% pectolyase Y-23 e 0,5% hemicelulase. A digestão enzimática foi monitorada a cada hora durante 5 horas. Obtiveram-se protoplastos a partir de folhas in vitro e in vivo dos dois híbridos triplóides, sendo as folhas in vitro as melhores fontes de explante. A quantidade de protoplastos variou em função do híbrido, da solução enzimática e do tempo de tratamento.

  5. Hybridization and long-distance colonization at different time scales: towards resolution of long-term controversies in the sweet vernal grasses (Anthoxanthum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Manuel; Sahuquillo, Elvira; Torrecilla, Zeltia; Popp, Magnus; Catalán, Pilar; Brochmann, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Repeated hybridization and/or polyploidization confound classification and phylogenetic inference, and multiple colonizations at different time scales complicate biogeographical reconstructions. This study investigates whether such processes can explain long-term controversies in Anthoxanthum, and in particular its debated relationship to the genus Hierochloë, the evolution of its conspicuously diverse floral morphology, and the origins of its strikingly disjunct occurrences. A hypothesis for recurrent polyploid formation is proposed. Methods Three plastid (trnH-psbA, trnT-L and trnL-F) and two nuclear (ITS, ETS) DNA regions were sequenced in 57 accessions of 17 taxa (including 161 ETS clones) and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses were conducted. Divergence times were inferred in *BEAST using a strict molecular clock. Key Results Anthoxanthum was inferred as monophyletic and sister to one species of Hierochloë based on the plastid data, whereas the nuclear data suggested that one section (Anthoxanthum section Anthoxanthum) is sister to a clade including the other section (Anthoxanthum section Ataxia) as sister to the genus Hierochloë. This could explain the variation in floral morphology; the aberrant characters in Ataxia seem to result from a Miocene hybridization event between one lineage with one fertile and two sterile florets (the Anthoxanthum lineage) and one which probably had three fertile florets as in extant Hierochloë. The distinct diploid A. gracile lineage originated in the Miocene; all other speciation events, many of them involving polyploidy, were dated to the Late Pliocene to Late Pleistocene. Africa was apparently colonized twice in the Late Pliocene (from the north to afro-alpine eastern Africa, and from south-east Asia to southern Africa), whereas Macaronesia was colonized much later (Late Pleistocene) by a diploid Mediterranean lineage. The widespread European tetraploid A. odoratum originated at least twice. Conclusions

  6. EPICHLOE SPECIES: fungal symbionts of grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schardl, C L

    1996-01-01

    Epichloë species and their asexual descendants (Acremonium endophytes) are fungal symbionts of C3 grasses that span the symbiotic continuum from antagonism to mutualism depending on the relative importance, respectively, of horizontal transmission of sexual spores versus vertical clonal transmission in healthy grass seeds. At least seven sexual Epichloë species are identifiable by mating tests, and many asexual genotypes are interspecific hybrids. Benefits conferred by the symbionts on host plants include protection from biotic factors and abiotic stresses such as drought. Four classes of beneficial alkaloids are associated with the symbionts: ergot alkaloids, indolediterpenes (lolitrems), peramine, and saturated aminopyrrolizidines (lolines). These alkaloids protect host plants from insect and vertebrate herbivores, including livestock. Genetic engineering of the fungal symbionts as more suitable biological protectants for forage grasses requires identification of fungal genes for alkaloid biosynthesis, and DNA-mediated transformation of the fungi.

  7. PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND YIELDS OF GRASSES GROWN IN SALINE CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.D. Purbajanti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to know effects of saline condition to crop physiology, growth andforages yield. A factorial completed random design was used in this study. The first factor was type ofgrass, these were king grass (Pennisetum hybrid, napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum, panicum grass(Panicum maximum, setaria grass (Setaria sphacelata and star grass (Cynodon plectostachyus. Thesecond factor was salt solution (NaCl with concentration 0, 100, 200 and 300 mM. Parameters of thisexperiment were the percentage of chlorophyll, rate of photosynthesis, number of tiller, biomass and drymatter yield. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and followed by Duncan’s multiple range testwhen there were significant effects of the treatment. Panicum grass had the highest chlorophyll content(1.85 mg/g of leaf. Photosynthesis rate of setaria grass was the lowest. The increasing of NaClconcentration up to 300 mM NaCl reduced chlorophyll content, rate of photosynthesis, tiller number,biomass yield and dry matter yield. Responses of leaf area, biomass and dry matter yield to salinitywere linear for king, napier, panicum and setaria grasses. In tar grass, the response of leaf area andbiomass ware linear, but those of dry matter yield was quadratic. The response of tiller number tosalinity was linear for all species.

  8. Pests in ornamental grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornamental perennial grasses are becoming increasingly popular in the landscape due to their beauty and ease of care. Although few pest problems are encountered in ornamental grasses, they are not immune to insects and disease. Two lined spittlebugs (Prosapia bicincta) can cause damage to ornament...

  9. Herbicidal Control of Grasses

    OpenAIRE

    Om Prakash; Srinivasan Ramanujam

    1980-01-01

    Necessity of the herbicidal application for controlling undesirable grasses, by the Defence Services, Military farms and Inter Service Organisations is highlighted. Control of grasses by herbicidal chemicals, registered under the Insecticides Act 1968 in this country, is reviewed apart from a mention of non-chemical methods.

  10. Modelling grass digestibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.C.J.

    1999-01-01

    Grass digestibility is determined by the rate of plant development, mass of plant organs (leaf blades, leaf sheaths and stem internodes) and composition of organs. The development of an integrating model for grass digestibility necessitates the quantification of developmental characteristics of plan

  11. ANALISA PERUBAHAN KECEPATAN DAN KEKUATAN MEMANJANG AKIBAT PERUBAHAN BENTUK LAMBUNG PADA PATROL SPEED BOAT “GRASS CARP” DI RAWAPENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Wibawa BS

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Pada penelitian ini, sebuah Fibreglass Patrol Speed Boat GRASS CARP yang dioperasikan di wilayah perairan Rawapening Kab. Semarang dihitung dan dianalisa kecepatannya menggunakan Maxsurf Hullspeed version 11.03 dan untuk analisa dan perhitungan kekuatan memanjang menggunakan Maxsurf Hidromax version 11.03. Perhitungan dan analisa kecepatan dilakukan untuk mengetahui hambatan total yang yang diterima baik kapal rancangan maupun kapal sesungguhnya, daya yang dibutuhkan untuk mencapai kecepatan maksimal yang sama dengan kapal rancangan yaitu 13 knot, serta penyebab terjadinya perbedaan kecepatan. Sedangkan analisa pada kekuatan memanjang dilakukan untuk mengetahui apakah GRASS CARP telah memenuhi syarat BKI dilihat dari segi tegangan perhitungan, faktor keamanan kondisi air tenang dan sagging serta hogging, dan nilai modulus serta momen inersianya.

  12. Induction of gynogenesis in red crucian carp using spermatozoa of blunt snout bream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yuandong; LIU Yun; TAO Min; LIU Shaojun; ZHANG Chun; DUAN Wei; SHEN Jiamin; WANG Jing; ZENG Chen; LONG Yu

    2007-01-01

    Gynogenetic diploid was induced in red crucian carp (RCC) ( Carassius auratus Red Variety) eggs using UV-irradiated spermatozoa from blunt snout bream (B) (Megalobrama amblycephala ) or from mirror carp (C) (Cyprinus carpio. L). Spermatozoa were genetically inactivated by an appropriate UV dosage, and then the maternal DNA was duplicated with cold shock at 0-4 ℃. When using the spermatozoa of B, the fertilization rate, hatching rate and survival at first feeding were 52.6 ± 3.0 %, 23.6 ± 4.1 % and 15.7 ± 3.4 %, respectively, and the survival at first feeding was significantly higher than that ( 11.3 ± 2.2 % ) when using the spermatozoa of C (Cyprinus carpio. L). According to the morphological characteristics, the chromosome number and the degree of gonadal development, gynogenetic RCC could be distinguished from the control hybrids of RCC♀ × B ♂ . The individuals with red body color, 100 chromosomes and normal gonadal development were successful gynogenetic RCC, while the individuals with 124 or 148 chromosomes and delayed gonadal development were hybrids of (RCC × B). The triploid hybrids (RCC × B) (2 years old) were sterile, but the tetraploid hybrids (RCC × B) were sexually mature age of two. In the present study, compared to the spermatozoa of C, the advantages of spermatozoa of B as the activation source were that could increase the survival at first feeding of gynogenetic individuals and simplify the confirmation of gynogenetic status, which suggested that the spermof B was an effective activation source for inducing gynogenesis in crucian carp.

  13. Cold shocks: a stressor for common carp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanck, M.W.T.; Booms, G.H.R.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.; Komen, J.

    2000-01-01

    The stress response of common carp Cyprinus carpio was studied by evaluating plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate after single or multiple rapid temperature drops (ΔT: 7, 9 or 11°C). All three amplitudes used induced a significant rise in plasma cortisol levels. Peaks occurred within 20 min after

  14. Spring viraemia of carp virus: recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Usama; Lu, Yuanan; Lin, Li; Yuan, Junfa; Wang, Min; Liu, Xueqin

    2016-05-01

    Spring viraemia of carp is an environmentally and economically important disease affecting cyprinids, primarily common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The causative agent of this disease is Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) - a member of the genus Vesiculovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae. The disease is presently endemic in Europe, America and several Asian countries, where it causes significant morbidity and mortality in affected fish. SVCV infection is generally associated with exophthalmia; abdominal distension; petechial haemorrhage of the skin, gills, eyes and internal organs; degeneration of the gill lamellae; a swollen and coarse-textured spleen; hepatic necrosis; enteritis; and pericarditis. The SVCV genome is composed of linear, negative-sense, ssRNA containing five genes in the order 3'-N-P-M-G-L-5', encoding a nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, glycoprotein and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, respectively. Fully sequenced SVCV strains exhibit distinct amino acid substitutions at unique positions, which may contribute to as-yet unknown strain-specific characteristics. To advance the study of SVCV and the control of spring viraemia of carp disease in the future, this review summarizes our current understanding of SVCV in terms of its genomic characteristics, genetic diversity and pathogenesis, and provides insights into antiviral immunity against SVCV, diagnosis of SVCV and vaccination strategies to combat SVCV.

  15. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of changes in serum levels of growth hormone (cGH) in common carps (Cyprinus carpio)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to purify the common native carp growth hormone (ncGH), produce monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to common native carp growth hormone (ncGH), and further enhance the sensitivity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for ncGH. Additionally, we investigated changes in serum ncGH levels in carps raised in different environmental conditions. The recombinant grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) growth hormone was purified and used as antigen to immunize the rabbit. The natural ncGH was isolated from the pituitaries of common carp. SDS-PAGE and Western blot utilizing the polyclonal anti-rgcGH antibody confirmed the purification of ncGH from pituitaries. Purified ncGH was then used as an immunogen in the B lymphocyte hybridoma technique. A total of 14 hybridoma cell lines (FMU-cGH 1-14) were established that were able to stably secrete mAbs against ncGH. Among them, eight clones (FMU-cGH1-6, 12 and 13) were successfully used for Western blot while nine clones (FMU-cGH 1-7, 9 and 10) were used in fluorescent staining and immunohistochemistry. Epitope mapping by competitive ELISA demonstrated that these mAbs recognized five different epitopes. A sensitive sandwich ELISA for detection of ncGH was developed using FMU-cGH12 as the coating mAb and FMU-cGH6 as the enzyme labeled mAb. This detection system was found to be highly stable and sensitive, with detection levels of 70 pg/mL. Additionally, we found that serum ncGH levels in restricted food group and in the net cage group increased 6.9-and 5.8-fold, respectively, when compared to controls, demonstrating differences in the GH stress response in common carp under different living conditions.

  16. A Study on Mixed Silage of Rice Straw with Corn Stalk,Hybrid Pennisetum and Elephant Grass%稻秸与玉米秸、杂交狼尾草及象草混合青贮的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许能祥; 丁成龙; 顾洪如; 程云辉; 王康; 王兴刚

    2012-01-01

    对稻秸分别与玉米秸、杂交狼尾草和象草的混合青贮进行了研究,并采用乳酸菌(Chikuso-1)添加剂处理探讨其对不同原料混合青贮发酵品质的影响.结果表明:添加乳酸菌的青贮料pH、乳酸(LA)含量和氨态氮/总氮(AN/TN)均极显著优于对照(无添加物,P<0.01),乳酸菌对青贮料的可溶性碳水化合物(WSC)含量、粗蛋白质(CP)含量、中性洗涤纤维(NDF)含量、酸性洗涤纤维(ADF)含量、有机物消化率(IVOMD)的影响差异均不显著;添加乳酸菌的稻秸与玉米秸、杂交狼尾草混合青贮料干物质回收率(DMR)均极显著高于对照(P<0.01),稻秸与象草混合青贮料显著高于对照(P<0.05).不同混合青贮料的pH、LA含量、AN/TN、WSC含量、CP含量、ADF含量、DMR差异极显著(P<0.01).稻秸与玉米秸混合青贮料品质最佳,最差的是稻秸与象草混合青贮料.%The effects of lactic acid bacteria on fermentation quality of different mixed materials were studied. Rice straw was mixed with corn stalk, hybrid Pennisetum, respectively. Three mixed materials were ensiled with adding or without adding lactic acid bacteria (0. 02g ? Kg"1 fresh material). Results showed that the pH, lactic acid (LA) and ammonia nitrogen / total nitrogen (AN/TN) with adding LAB were very significantly excellent than those without adding LAB(P<0. 01). There were not significant effect of lactic acid bacteria on water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) content, crude protein (CP) content, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content, acid detergent fiber (ADF) content, in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD). Dry matter recovery (DMR) of the mixed silage with rice straw and corn stalk, rice straw and hybrid Pennisetum with adding LAB were very significantly increased than those without adding lactic acid bacteria(Pgrass with adding LAB were significantly increased than those without adding lactic acid

  17. Comparative pharmacokinetics of norfloxacin nicotinate in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and crucian carp (Carassius auratus) after oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, N; Ai, X; Liu, Y; Yang, Q

    2015-06-01

    Comparative pharmacokinetics of norfloxacin nicotinate (NFXNT) was investigated in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and crucian carp (Carassius auratus) after a single oral dose of 10 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). Analyses of plasma samples were performed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) with fluorescence detection. After oral dose, plasma concentration-time curves of common carp and crucian carp were best described by a two-compartment open model with first-order absorption. The pharmacokinetic parameters of common carp were similar to those of crucian carp. The distribution half-life (t1/2α ), elimination half-life (t1/2β ), peak concentration (Cmax ), time-to-peak concentration (Tmax ), and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of common carp were 1.58 h, 26.33 h, 6069.79 μg/L, 1.08 h, and 103072.36 h·μg/L, respectively, and those corresponding to crucian carp were 1.36 h, 26.55 h, 9586.06 μg/L, 0.84 h, and 126604.4 h·μg/L, respectively. These studies demonstrated that 10 mg NFXNT/kg body weight in common carp and crucian carp following oral dose presented good pharmacokinetic characteristics. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Fiber composition of a diversity panel of the world collection of sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) and related grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The world collection of sugarcane (Saccharum hybrids) and related grasses (WCSRG) is an important genetic resource for sugarcane and energy cane (Saccharum hybrids) breeding. Fiber components and structural carbohydrates in bioenergy feedstocks are utilized for conversion to lignocellulosic biofuel....

  19. Influences of radiation on carp from farm ponds in Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yuzuru

    2015-12-01

    A massive release of artificial radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant caused radioactive contamination of farms as well as of aquatic products. Carp in small ponds in the highly radiocontaminated area of Iitate Village, Fukushima Prefecture, have been confined to the ponds since the accident, and it is thought that the carp may have suffered health issues as a result. Therefore, I investigated the health condition of the carp in order to elucidate the effects of radiation.Blood neutrophil, monocyte and lymphocyte counts in the carp from three ponds in Fukushima were lower than those in carp from a non-polluted pond in Tochigi Prefecture. Histological observations indicated abnormal hyperplasia of macrophages in the spleen, kidney, liver and pancreas of carp in Fukushima. Although there are likely to have been deleterious effects on carp health due to the radiation in Fukushima, this has not yet been confirmed because only one control pond was available for comparison, and I was not able to find any symptoms in the carp that correlated with internal cesium concentration. Further research is now being conducted to investigate the effects of radiation on carp.

  20. Influences of radiation on carp from farm ponds in Fukushima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yuzuru

    2015-01-01

    A massive release of artificial radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant caused radioactive contamination of farms as well as of aquatic products. Carp in small ponds in the highly radiocontaminated area of Iitate Village, Fukushima Prefecture, have been confined to the ponds since the accident, and it is thought that the carp may have suffered health issues as a result. Therefore, I investigated the health condition of the carp in order to elucidate the effects of radiation. Blood neutrophil, monocyte and lymphocyte counts in the carp from three ponds in Fukushima were lower than those in carp from a non-polluted pond in Tochigi Prefecture. Histological observations indicated abnormal hyperplasia of macrophages in the spleen, kidney, liver and pancreas of carp in Fukushima. Although there are likely to have been deleterious effects on carp health due to the radiation in Fukushima, this has not yet been confirmed because only one control pond was available for comparison, and I was not able to find any symptoms in the carp that correlated with internal cesium concentration. Further research is now being conducted to investigate the effects of radiation on carp. PMID:26666689

  1. Genomic incompatibilities in the diploid and tetraploid offspring of the goldfish × common carp cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaojun; Luo, Jing; Chai, Jing; Ren, Li; Zhou, Yi; Huang, Feng; Liu, Xiaochuan; Chen, Yubao; Zhang, Chun; Tao, Min; Lu, Bin; Zhou, Wei; Lin, Guoliang; Mai, Chao; Yuan, Shuo; Wang, Jun; Li, Tao; Qin, Qinbo; Feng, Hao; Luo, Kaikun; Xiao, Jun; Zhong, Huan; Zhao, Rurong; Duan, Wei; Song, Zhenyan; Wang, Yanqin; Wang, Jing; Zhong, Li; Wang, Lu; Ding, Zhaoli; Du, Zhenglin; Lu, Xuemei; Gao, Yun; Murphy, Robert W; Liu, Yun; Meyer, Axel; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2016-02-02

    Polyploidy is much rarer in animals than in plants but it is not known why. The outcome of combining two genomes in vertebrates remains unpredictable, especially because polyploidization seldom shows positive effects and more often results in lethal consequences because viable gametes fail to form during meiosis. Fortunately, the goldfish (maternal) × common carp (paternal) hybrids have reproduced successfully up to generation 22, and this hybrid lineage permits an investigation into the genomics of hybridization and tetraploidization. The first two generations of these hybrids are diploids, and subsequent generations are tetraploids. Liver transcriptomes from four generations and their progenitors reveal chimeric genes (>9%) and mutations of orthologous genes. Characterizations of 18 randomly chosen genes from genomic DNA and cDNA confirm the chimera. Some of the chimeric and differentially expressed genes relate to mutagenesis, repair, and cancer-related pathways in 2nF1. Erroneous DNA excision between homologous parental genes may drive the high percentage of chimeric genes, or even more potential mechanisms may result in this phenomenon. Meanwhile, diploid offspring show paternal-biased expression, yet tetraploids show maternal-biased expression. These discoveries reveal that fast and unstable changes are mainly deleterious at the level of transcriptomes although some offspring still survive their genomic abnormalities. In addition, the synthetic effect of genome shock might have resulted in greatly reduced viability of 2nF2 hybrid offspring. The goldfish × common carp hybrids constitute an ideal system for unveiling the consequences of intergenomic interactions in hybrid vertebrate genomes and their fertility.

  2. Simulated population responses of common carp to commercial exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Michael J.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Brown, Michael L.

    2011-12-01

    Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a widespread invasive species that can become highly abundant and impose deleterious ecosystem effects. Thus, aquatic resource managers are interested in controlling common carp populations. Control of invasive common carp populations is difficult, due in part to the inherent uncertainty of how populations respond to exploitation. To understand how common carp populations respond to exploitation, we evaluated common carp population dynamics (recruitment, growth, and mortality) in three natural lakes in eastern South Dakota. Common carp exhibited similar population dynamics across these three systems that were characterized by consistent recruitment (ages 3 to 15 years present), fast growth (K = 0.37 to 0.59), and low mortality (A = 1 to 7%). We then modeled the effects of commercial exploitation on size structure, abundance, and egg production to determine its utility as a management tool to control populations. All three populations responded similarly to exploitation simulations with a 575-mm length restriction, representing commercial gear selectivity. Simulated common carp size structure modestly declined (9 to 37%) in all simulations. Abundance of common carp declined dramatically (28 to 56%) at low levels of exploitation (0 to 20%) but exploitation >40% had little additive effect and populations were only reduced by 49 to 79% despite high exploitation (>90%). Maximum lifetime egg production was reduced from 77 to 89% at a moderate level of exploitation (40%), indicating the potential for recruitment overfishing. Exploitation further reduced common carp size structure, abundance, and egg production when simulations were not size selective. Our results provide insights to how common carp populations may respond to exploitation. Although commercial exploitation may be able to partially control populations, an integrated removal approach that removes all sizes of common carp has a greater chance of controlling population abundance

  3. 76 FR 15857 - Injurious Wildlife Species; Listing the Bighead Carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) as Injurious Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ..., 2007 (72 FR 59019), the Service added black carp to this list. The Service published a Federal Register notice of inquiry on bighead carp (68 FR 54409; September 17, 2003) and provided a 60-day public comment... 2009 supported the petitioned action for bighead carp. The Asian Carp Prevention and Control Act...

  4. A risk analysis of bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys sp.) in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soes, D.M.; Leuven, R.S.E.W.; Matthews, J.; Broeckx, P.B.; Haenen, O.L.M.; Engelsma, M.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Two species of bigheaded carp (silver carp and bighead carp) are known to be invasive species of special concern. To gain insight into the occurrence of the alien bigheaded carp species in the Netherlands, the possibility of them becoming invasive, the possible ecological, economical and social

  5. Response of Bighead Carp and Silver Carp to repeated water gun operation in an enclosed shallow pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, Jason G.; Jensen, Nathan; Parsley, Michael J.; Gaugush, Robert F.; Severson, Todd J.; Hatton, Tyson W.; Adams, Ryan F.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    The Bighead Carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp H. molitrix are nonnative species that pose a threat to Great Lakes ecosystems should they advance into those areas. Thus, technologies to impede Asian carp movement into the Great Lakes are needed; one potential technology is the seismic water gun. We evaluated the efficacy of a water gun array as a behavioral deterrent to the movement of acoustic-tagged Bighead Carp and Silver Carp in an experimental pond. Behavioral responses were evaluated by using four metrics: (1) fish distance from the water guns (D); (2) spatial area of the fish's utilization distribution (UD); (3) persistence velocity (Vp); and (4) number of times a fish transited the water gun array. For both species, average D increased by 10 m during the firing period relative to the pre-firing period. During the firing period, the spatial area of use within the pond decreased. Carp were located throughout the pond during the pre-firing period but were concentrated in the north end of the pond during the firing period, thus reducing their UDs by roughly 50%. Overall, Vp decreased during the firing period relative to the pre-firing period, as fish movement became more tortuous and confined, suggesting that the firing of the guns elicited a change in carp behavior. The water gun array was partially successful at impeding carp movement, but some fish did transit the array. Bighead Carp moved past the guns a total of 78 times during the pre-firing period and 15 times during the firing period; Silver Carp moved past the guns 96 times during the pre-firing period and 13 times during the firing period. Although the water guns did alter carp behavior, causing the fish to move away from the guns, this method was not 100% effective as a passage deterrent.

  6. Genetic analysis of QTL for eye cross and eye diameter in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) using microsatellites and SNPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S B; Zhang, X F; Lu, J G; Fu, H T; Jia, Z Y; Sun, X W

    2015-04-17

    A group of 107 F1 hybrid common carp was used to construct a linkage map using JoinMap 4.0. A total of 4877 microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers isolated from a genomic library (978 microsatellite and 3899 SNP markers) were assigned to construct the genetic map, which comprised 50 linkage groups. The total length of the linkage map for the common carp was 4775.90 cM with an average distance between markers of 0.98 cM. Ten quantitative trait loci (QTL) were associated with eye diameter, corresponding to 10.5-57.2% of the total phenotypic variation. Twenty QTL were related to eye cross, contributing to 10.8-36.9% of the total phenotypic variation. Two QTL for eye diameter and four QTL for eye cross each accounted for more than 20% of the total phenotypic variation and were considered to be major QTL. One growth factor related to eye diameter was observed on LG10 of the common carp genome, and three growth factors related to eye cross were observed on LG10, LG35, and LG44 of the common carp genome. The significant positive relationship of eye cross and eye diameter with other commercial traits suggests that eye diameter and eye cross can be used to assist in indirect selection for many commercial traits, particularly body weight. Thus, the growth factor for eye cross may also contribute to the growth of body weight, implying that aggregate breeding could have multiple effects. These findings provide information for future genetic studies and breeding of common carp.

  7. A Study of the Carpe Diem in Two Literary Poems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万彰劼

    2011-01-01

    Carpe diem expresses a philosophy of recognizing the brevity of life and seizing an opportunity in time.Poems then breathe wit and wisdom with the carpe diem theme running through,on the basis of which many distinguished Cavalier poets have created a numb

  8. Innate immune receptors in carp: recognition of protozoan parasites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, C.M.S.

    2010-01-01

    This PhD thesis reports on pattern recognition receptors involved in the immune responses of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to two protozoan parasites Trypanoplasma borreli and Trypanosoma carassii. The immune responses of carp are fundamentally different when comparing these two extracellular blood

  9. Asian carp behavior in response to static water gun firing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layhee, Megan J.; Gross, Jackson A.; Parsley, Michael J.; Romine, Jason G.; Glover, David C.; Suski, Cory D.; Wagner, Tristany L.; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Gresswell, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The potential for invasion of Asian carp into the Great Lakes has ecological and socio-economic implications. If they become established, Asian carp are predicted to alter lake ecosystems and impact commercial and recreational fisheries. The Chicago Sanitary and Shipping Canal is an important biological conduit between the Mississippi River Basin, where invasive Asian carp are abundant, and the Great Lakes. Millions of dollars have been spent to erect an electric barrier defense in the canal to prevent movement of Asian carp into the Great Lakes, but the need for additional fish deterrent technologies to supplement the existing barrier is warranted. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center are examining seismic water gun technology, formerly used in oceanic oil exploration, as a fish deterrent. The goal of the current study is to employ telemetry and sonar monitoring equipment to assess the behavioral response of Asian carp to seismic water guns and the sound energy it generates.

  10. Use of Grasses and Mixtures of Grasses for Energy Purposes

    OpenAIRE

    David Andert; Jan Frydrych; Ilona Gerndtová

    2012-01-01

    As levels of agricultural productivity increase, there is also an increase in land area not utilized for food production. This area can be used for growing energy crops, including grasses. When land is set aside for grassing, or when the potential of perennial grasses is not utilized due to reductions in cattle herds, there is also an increased amount of grass that can be utilized for energy purposes. Experiments were carried out on the principle of single-stage anaerobic digestion within the...

  11. Histopathological changes induced by environmental stress in common carp, Japanese coloured carp, European eel, and African catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szakolczai, J

    1997-01-01

    Histopathological changes caused by stress during catching and transport were examined in four fish species, the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), the Japanese coloured carp (koi, the coloured variant of the Asian carp, Cyprinus carpio haematopterus), the European eel (Anguilla anguilla), and the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). In all species, the goblet cells of the gills and skin were decreased in number and slight detachment of the epithelium of the secondary gill lamellae was seen. Loss of goblet cells and detachment of the columnar epithelial cells were found in the intestinal mucosa of common carp and coloured carp. It is supposed that these lesions may affect ion transport and respiration in the gills and disturb normal intestinal function, thus serving as a starting point for different diseases.

  12. GUI development for GRASS GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Landa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses GUI development for GRASS GIS. Sophisticated native GUI for GRASS is one of the key points (besides the new 2D/3D raster library, vector architecture improvements, etc. for the future development of GRASS. In 2006 the GRASS development team decided to start working on the new generation of GUI instead of improving the current GUI based on Tcl/Tk.

  13. Molecular responses differ between sensitive silver carp and tolerant bighead carp and bigmouth buffalo exposed to rotenone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amberg, Jon J.; Schreier, Theresa M.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Some species of fish are more tolerant of rotenone, a commonly used non-specific piscicide, than others. This species-specific tolerance to rotenone has been thought to be associated with the uptake and the efficiency at which the chemical is detoxified. However, rotenone stimulates oxidative stress and superoxides, which are also toxic. Understanding the modes in which fish physiologically respond to rotenone is important in developing improved protocols for its application in controlling aquatic nuisance species. Using a molecular approach, we investigated the physiological and molecular mechanisms of rotenone resistance. Species-specific responses were observed when rotenone-sensitive silver, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and both rotenone-resistant bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, and bigmouth buffalo, Ictiobus cyprinellus, were exposed to rotenone. Rotenone levels in plasma were highest 90 min after exposure in both silver carp and bigmouth buffalo, but bigmouth buffalo tolerated over twice the burden (ng mL-1 g-1) than silver carp. Expression of genes related with detoxification (cyp1a and gst) increased in silver carp, but either decreased or remained the same in bighead carp. Genes linked with oxidative stress in the cytosol (gpx, cat and sod1) and hsp70 increased only in silver carp after a 6-h exposure. Expression of genes associated with oxidative stress in the mitochondria (sod2 and ucp2) differed between silver carp and bighead carp. Expression of sod2 changed minimally in bighead carp, but expression of ucp2 linearly increased to nearly 85-fold of the level prior to exposure. Expression of sod2 and ucp2 did not change until 6 h in silver carp. Use of sod1 and sod2 to combat oxidative stress results in hydrogen peroxide production, while use of ucp2 produces nitric oxide, a chemical known to inhibit apoptosis. We conclude that the mechanism at which a fish handles oxidative stress plays an important role in the tolerance to rotenone.

  14. Meadow Fescue: The Forgotten Grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1990, we found an unknown grass growing on a farm in southwestern Wisconsin. We have identified this grass as meadow fescue, popular in the late 19th century and early 20th century before tall fescue was imported into the USA. The grass was established throughout the Charles Opitz farm by harve...

  15. Common Carp Abundance, Biomass, and Removal from Dewey and Clear Lakes on the Valentine National Wildlife Refuge: Does Trapping and Removing Carp Payoff?

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a nonnative invasive nuisance species to North America. Many authors have documented the detrimental affects of common carp invasions...

  16. USGS science and technology help managers battle invading Asian carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Cynthia S.; Morrison, Sandra S.

    2016-09-28

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts Asian carp research focused on early detection, risk assessment, and development of control tools and strategies. The goals are to prevent the establishment of invasive Asian carp in the Great Lakes and to reduce their impacts in the Ohio River and Mississippi River Basins and elsewhere. Managers can use the information, tools, and strategies for early detection of Asian carp and to control them when their presence is first evident. New detection and control tools are designed to accommodate expansion to other invasive species and application in geographically diverse areas.This USGS focus complements goals of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI), a multi-agency collaboration started in 2010 to protect and restore the Great Lakes. As a member of the Asian Carp Regional Coordinating Committee, which guides Asian carp efforts, the USGS works closely with Federal and State agencies, Canada, and others to address high-priority Asian carp issues and provide science to inform management decisions.The USGS has gained extensive knowledge of Asian carp biology and life history over the past 30 years. That knowledge guides the design, development, and application of control strategies, and is essential for developing approaches in line with modern principles and practices of integrated pest management (IPM). IPM is a process used to solve pest problems while minimizing risks to people and the environment.

  17. Dynamics of algae growth and nutrients in experimental enclosures culturing bighead carp and common carp:Phosphorus dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suiliang Huang; Baoyan Liu; Shaoming Wang; Yang Luo; Adam Szymkiewicz; Romuald Szymkiewicz; Min Wu; Changjuan Zang; Shenglan Du; Joseph Domagalski; Magdalena Gajewska; Feng Gao; Chao Lin; Yong Guo

    2016-01-01

    This is the third paper of the series about “Dynamics of algae growth and nutrients in experimental enclosures culturing bighead carp and common carp”. In this paper, phosphorus dynamics were inves-tigated under the condition of culturing bighead carp and common carp with added fish food (nitrogen dynamics is discussed in the second paper because their behaviors are so different from each other). Nearly fifty days’ observation results indicated that the reservoir water was typical of “phosphorus limited” water, and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) was the main constituent of measured total phosphorus (TP). The presence of fish food resulted in significantly higher SRP, dissolved total phos-phorus (DTP) and TP concentrations in contrast with the reservoir water. Moreover, continuous supply of fish food led to the decline of total nitrogen to total phosphorus (TN:TP) from more than 100 to less than 5. Variations in the ratio of TN to TP favored the growth of blue-green algae. Fish species affected phosphorus concentrations, and culturing bait-eating common carp contributed more to reducing the SRP, DTP and TP concentrations than culturing planktivorous bighead carp. 0.5%, 4.1%and 3.1%TP can be removed in enclosures with culturing bighead carp, common carp and mixed bighead carp and common carp, respectively. Abundant phosphorus in the fish culturing activities may be present as the uneaten food, algae cells, and within the water column and sediment, which should be taken into serious con-sideration for the target of future water eutrophication prevention and safety of the drinking water supply.

  18. Phytoplankton, especially diatoms, in the gut contents and feces of two plantivorous cyprinids—Silver carp and bighead carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ping; Liu, Jiankang

    1994-12-01

    In order to clarify whether the planktivorous silver carp and bighead carp can collect phytoplankton as small as Cyclotella(intestine, the average valve diameter of Cyclotella changed little. The average ratio of empty frustule of Cyclotella to total Cyclotella in the foregut contents of the fishes were 1.8 1.9 times higher than that in the lake water, but changed little from foregut to feces. The aquarium experiment showed that both carps could collect particles as small as 8 10 μm, which was obviously narrower than the distance between their gill rakers. Probably, secretion of mucus plays an important role in collecting such small particles.

  19. [The bipolarity of the genetic structure of communities of the crucian carp (Carassius linnaeus, 1758) as a reflection of paradoxal reproductive relationships].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezhzherin, S V; Kokodiy, S V; Kulish, A V; Pukhtaevitch, P P

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of 133 populations of Carasiius spp. from water bodies in Ukraine showed their polyspecific structure: 62% of individuals of the studied 3453 specimens. turned out to be bisexual goldfishes C. auratus, 25%. were unisexual Prissian carps C. gibelio, 6% accounted for the aboriginal species crucian carp C. carassius, and 6% were hybrids C. auratus x C. carassius. In this case a clear trend has been revealed towards the formation of homogeneous alternative populations, specifically: either C. auratus, or C. gibelio. Individuals of C. carassius and the hybrids C. auratus x C. carassius typically comprise an admixture in various populations. The cause of the bipolar distribution of individuals of C. auratus and C. gibelio between various water bodies is the instability of mixed populations as far as individuals of C. auratus very quickly replace females of C. gibelio due to their low reproductive potential.

  20. Contrasting strategies to cope with drought conditions by two tropical forage C4 grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Juan Andrés; Pineda, Marcela; Jiménez, Juan de la Cruz; Vergara, Manuel Fernando; Rao, Idupulapati M.

    2015-01-01

    Drought severely limits forage productivity of C4 grasses across the tropics. The avoidance of water deficit by increasing the capacity for water uptake or by controlling water loss are common responses in forage C4 grasses. Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and Brachiaria hybrid cv. Mulato II are tropical C4 grasses used for livestock production due to their reputed resistance to drought conditions. However, there is scant information on the mechanisms used by these grasses to overcome water-limited conditions. Therefore, assessments of cumulative transpired water, shoot growth, leaf rolling, leaf gas exchange, dry mass production and a number of morpho-physiological traits were recorded over a period of 21 days under well-watered or drought conditions. Drought reduced shoot dry mass of both grasses by 35 %, yet each grass exhibited contrasting strategies to cope with water shortage. Napier grass transpired most available water by the end of the drought treatment, whereas a significant amount of water was still available for Mulato II. Napier grass maintained carbon assimilation until the soil was fairly dry, whereas Mulato II restricted water loss by early stomatal closure at relatively wet soil conditions. Our results suggest that Napier grass exhibits a ‘water-spending’ behaviour that might be targeted to areas with intermittent drought stress, whereas Mulato II displays a ‘water-saving’ nature that could be directed to areas with longer dry periods. PMID:26333827

  1. Avaliação de clones de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. e de um híbrido com o milheto (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Br. submetidos a estresse hídrico. 2. Valor nutritivo Evaluation of elephant grass clones (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. and an elephant grass x pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Br. hybrid submitted to water stress. 2. Nutritive value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glesser Porto Barreto

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o valor nutritivo de três cultivares de capim-elefante (Cameroon, Roxo de Botucatu e Mott e de um híbrido de capim-elefante com o milheto (híbrido HV-241, cultivados sob diferentes condições de umidade (com e sem estresse hídrico. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso com parcelas subdivididas e três repetições. Na parcela principal, estudou-se o efeito dos regimes de umidade e nas subparcelas, os diferentes clones. Foram avaliados os teores de matéria seca (% MS, proteína bruta (PB e fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS. Os materiais submetidos a estresse hídrico apresentaram elevado grau de dessecação (mais de 58% de MS, sobretudo os cultivares de capim-elefante. As plantas submetidas a estresse hídrico apresentaram teores de PB (17,58% significativamente superiores aos das irrigadas (14,45%, sendo que, entre os cultivares, apenas o Cameroon (14,68% PB diferiu dos demais (16,46% PB. Quanto aos teores de FDN, não se verificou diferença entre os dois regimes de umidade, mas os cvs. Mott e Cameroon apresentaram teores superiores (61,79% aos do cv. Roxo de Botucatu e do híbrido HV-241 (56,60%. Não foi verificada diferença na DIVMS entre os regimes de umidade nem entre os diferentes clones, sendo o valor médio de 53,07%.This trial aimed to study the nutritive value of three Elephant grass clones (Cameroon, Roxo de Botucatu and Mott and an Elephant grass with pearl millet hybrid (HV-241 cultivated under two different humidity conditions (with and without water stress. A randomized block design with split plots and three replicates was used. In the main plot, the effect of the humidity regimes was studied and in the split plot, the different clones. The dry matter (DM; crude protein (CP and of neutral detergent fiber (NDF content; and in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD were analyzed. The materials submitted to water stress showed a

  2. Attacking invasive grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2015-01-01

    In grasslands fire may play a role in the plant invasion process, both by creating disturbances that potentially favour non-native invasions and as a possible tool for controlling alien invasions. Havill et al. (Applied Vegetation Science, 18, 2015, this issue) determine how native and non-native species respond to different fire regimes as a first step in understanding the potential control of invasive grasses.

  3. Bacterial content in the intestine of frozen common carp Cyprinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aalharbi

    2012-04-12

    Apr 12, 2012 ... The quantitative and qualitative analyses of bacterial flora associated with the intestine of common carp. Cyprinus carpio in ..... pathogenic bacteria is of concern to fish processors. ... (Mediterranean) Sea and stored in ice.

  4. Effect of montmorillonite on arsenic accumulation in common carp

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-02-01

    Feb 1, 2012 ... The effect of montmorillonite (MMT) on dietary arsenic (As(III)) accumulation in tissues of common carp ... Owing to its toxic potential to humans, it is a high priority ... various heavy metal ions (Bhattacharyya and Gupta,. 2008).

  5. Malheur - Efficacy of Electrofishing to Reduce Recruitment of Common Carp

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Our goal is to investigate the efficacy of using a portable electrofishingsystem to help control common carp by killing their eggs and embryos at Malheur...

  6. Algoritmo memético con operadores de inteligencia artificial para el CARP con inicio y fin no determinado y bi-objetivo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    B J Macías; C A Amaya

    2016-01-01

    ... y minimizar el costo total. Adicionalmente se propone complementar la heurística, la cual es basada en algoritmos genéticos, con operadores de inteligencia artificial. Palabras clave: algoritmo genético; algoritmo memético; optimización multiobjetivo; CARP; OCARP; MO-OCARP; redes neuronales; búsqueda local; ruteo de vehículos sobre arcos. Hybrid Algorithm...

  7. Transgenes in F4 pMThGH- transgenic common carp (Cy- prinus carpio L.) are highly polymorphic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To gain information on the integration pattern of pMThGH-tansgene, 50 transgenes were recovered from F4 generation of pMThGH transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and 33 recovered genes were analyzed. The restriction maps of these recovered genes were constructed by digestion with five kinds of enzymes. These transgenes can be classified into 4 types according to their restriction maps. Only one type of transgenes maintains its original molecular form, whereas the other three types are very different from the original one and vary each other on both molecular weight and restriction maps. This implies that the sequences of most transgenes have been deleted and/or rearranged during integration and inheritance. The results of PCR am-plification and Southern blot hybridization indicate that MThGH in TypeI transgene keeps intact but most of its se-quence has been deleted in other three types. All these results suggest that transgenes in F4 generation of transgenic carp are highly polymorphic. Two DNA fragments concerning integration site of transgenes were cloned from recovered transgenes, and found to be homologous to the 5′UTR of β-actin gene of common carp and mouse mRNA for receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), respectively.

  8. Production of sugarcane and tropical grasses as renewable energy source. Third annual report, 1979-1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Research continued on tropical grasses from Saccharum and related genera as sources of intensively-propagated fiber and fermentable solids. Candidate screening for short-rotation grasses was expanded to include six sorghum x Sudan grass hybrids developed by the Dekalb Company. Sugacane and napier grass yield trends in year 3 include: (1) Increased yields with delay of harvest frequency; (2) lack of response to close spacing; (3) a superiority of napier grass over sugarcane when harvested at intervals of six months or less; and (4) a general superiority of the sugarcane variety NCo 310 over varieties PR 980 and PR 64-1791. Delayed tasseling of a wild, early-flowering S. spontaneum hybrid enabled three crosses to be made in December using commercial hybrids as female parents. Approximately 1000 seedlings were produced. The first field-scale minimum tillage experiment was completed. Sordan 77 produced 2.23 OD tons/acre/10 weeks, with winter growing conditions and a total moisture input of 4.75 inches. Mechanization trials included successful planting of napier grass with a sugarcane planter, and the mowing, solar-drying, and round--baling of napier grass aged three to six months. Production-cost and energy-balance studies were initiated during year 3 using first-ratoon data for intensively propagated sugarcane. Preliminary cost estimates for energy cane (sugarcane managed for total biomass rather than sucrose) were in the order of $25.46/OD ton, or about $1.70/mm Btus.

  9. Using mitochondrial nucleotide sequences to investigate diversity and genealogical relationships within common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, B T; Burridge, C P; Pham, T A; Austin, C M

    2005-02-01

    Direct sequencing of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop (745 bp) and MTATPase6/MTATPase8 (857 bp) regions was used to investigate genetic variation within common carp and develop a global genealogy of common carp strains. The D-loop region was more variable than the MTATPase6/MTATPase8 region, but given the wide distribution of carp the overall levels of sequence divergence were low. Levels of haplotype diversity varied widely among countries with Chinese, Indonesian and Vietnamese carp showing the greatest diversity whereas Japanese Koi and European carp had undetectable nucleotide variation. A genealogical analysis supports a close relationship between Vietnamese, Koi and Chinese Color carp strains and to a lesser extent, European carp. Chinese and Indonesian carp strains were the most divergent, and their relationships do not support the evolution of independent Asian and European lineages and current taxonomic treatments.

  10. Carp Control Project in the Main Pool at Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Over the past several years carp have become an increasing problem in the management of the Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge for Waterfowl. Carp compete directly...

  11. Antiparasitic efficacy of curcumin from Curcuma longa against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in grass carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) is a ciliated parasite that elicits great economic losses in aquaculture. In the present study, a polyphenol compound, curcumin, was obtained from the rhizome of Curcuma longa by bioassay-guided isolation based on the efficacy of anti-Ich theronts. Anti-Ich efficac...

  12. Forecasting the impacts of silver and bighead carp on the Lake Erie food web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, H.; Rutherford, E.S.; Mason, D.M.; Breck, J.T.; Wittmann, M.E.; Cooke, R.M.; Lodge, D.M.; Rothlisberger, J.D.; Zhu, Z.; Johnson, T.B.

    2016-01-01

    Nonindigenous bigheaded carps (Bighead Carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp H. molitrix; hereafter, “Asian carps” [AC]) threaten to invade and disrupt food webs and fisheries in the Laurentian Great Lakes through their high consumption of plankton. To quantify the potential effects of AC

  13. A common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) leucocyte cell line shares morphological and functional characteristics with macrophages.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weyts, F.A.A.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Flik, G.; Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.

    1997-01-01

    A carp leucocyte cell line (CLC), originating from peripheral blood, was characterised to assess its suitability for studies into carp macrophage functions. The cells reacted with a monoclonal antibody raised against carp head kidney macrophages. Other macrophage characteristics observed were: bindi

  14. Population genetics of invasive common carp Cyprinus carpio L. in coastal drainages in eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, G D; Gilligan, D M; Grewe, P; Moran, C; Nicholas, F W

    2010-10-01

    The common carp Cyprinus carpio introduced in two drainages in eastern Australia are largely descended from European common carp, and in a third drainage they descend largely from East Asian common carp. The partial genetic differentiation among the species in those drainages is consistent with their origins.

  15. CARP Is a Potential Tumor Suppressor in Gastric Carcinoma and a Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism in CARP Gene Might Increase the Risk of Gastric Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu-chang; Gan, Lu; Shi, Yi; Yang, Han-shuo; Wei, Yu-quan

    2014-01-01

    Background The caspase-associated recruitment domain-containing protein (CARP) is expressed in almost all tissues. Recently, the tumor-suppressive function of CARP was discovered and attracted increasing attention. This study aimed to investigate the role of CARP in the carcinogenesis of human gastric carcinoma. Methodology/Principal Findings Compared with normal gastric tissue, the downregulation of CARP expression was observed in gastric carcinoma tissue by cDNA array and tissue microarray assay. In vitro, the gastric carcinoma cell line (BGC-823) was stably transfected with pcDNA3.1B-CARP or plus CARP siRNA, and we used MTT, flow cytometry, cell migration on type I collagen, cell-matrix adhesion assay and western blot analysis to investigate the potential anti-tumor effects of CARP. The data showed that overexpressing CARP suppressed the malignancy of gastric carcinoma BGC-823 cell line, including significant increases in apoptosis, as well as obvious decreases in cell proliferation, migration, adhesion ability, and tumor growth. The tumor-suppressive effects of CARP were almost restored by siRNA-directed CARP silence. In addition, overexpression of CARP induced G1 arrest, decreased the expressions of cyclin E and CDK2, and increased the expressions of p27, p53 and p21. In vivo, the tumor-suppressive effect of CARP was also verified. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype of CARP (rs2297882) was located in the Kozak sequence of the CARP gene. The reporter gene assay showed that rs2297882 TT caused an obvious downregulation of activity of CARP gene promoter in BGC-823 cells. Furthermore, the association between rs2297882 and human gastric carcinoma susceptibility was analyzed in 352 cases and 889 controls. It displayed that the TT genotype of rs2297882 in the CARP gene was associated with an increased risk of gastric carcinoma. Conclusions/Significance CARP is a potential tumor suppressor of gastric carcinoma and the rs2297882 C>T phenotype of CARP may

  16. Ornamental Landscape Grasses. Slide Script.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, Steven M.; Adams, Denise W.

    This slide script to accompany the slide series, Ornamental Landscape Grasses, contains photographs of the 167 slides and accompanying narrative text intended for use in the study and identification of commercially important ornamental grasses and grasslike plants. Narrative text is provided for slides of 62 different perennial and annual species…

  17. Identification of some Malaysian grasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1935-01-01

    When BUSE gave an enumeration of the grasses collected by JUNGHUHN in Java and Sumatra, he mentioned under Paspalum a species, described by RETZIUS in the year 1781 as Paspalum hirsutum. BUSE identified a grass from Sumatra as being the species of RETZIUS, on account of the description, having certa

  18. Comparative analysis and evolutionary significance of the HMG1 gene in crucian carp,blunt snout bream,and their polyploid progeny

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Liu; Zhen Liu; Shaojun Liu; Liangguo Liu; Cuiping You; Lin Chen; Huan Zhong; Yun Liu

    2009-01-01

    The full-length mRNA of the high mobility group protein 1 coding gene (HMG1) was obtained by RACE-PCR from red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.),blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala),and their triploid and tetraploid progeny.The sequence contained an open reading frame of 579 nucleotides coding for 193 amino acids.The nucleotide identity of HMG1 was higher between the tetraploid hybrid and the maternal red crucian carp (99%) than between the tetraploid hybrid and the paternal blunt snout bream (97%).The nucleotide identity between the triploid hybrids and each parent (95%) was lower than that between the parents (98%).The protein identity between the tetraploid hybrid and each parent (100%) was higher than that between the triploid hybrid and each parent (97%).Our results suggest that interspecific hybridization generates a shock to the HMG1 gene in triploid hybrids,causing divergence of nucleotides.The HMG1 protein of the tetraploid hybrids was consistent with that of its parents,which reduced the barrier of cross incompatibility between alleles,providing the basis for the bisexual fertile tetraploid hybrids forming a new polyploid species in nature.The secondary and tertiary structures of the HMG1 protein contain eight helices,three switches,two DNA-binding domains in the N-terminus,and a long acidic tail in the C-terminus.Together,these data suggest that the HMG1 protein plays a role of protein-DNA interactions,facilitating various DNA-dependent activities in the nucleus.We also investigated the phylogeny of fish,amphibian,reptilian,bird,and mammalian HMG1 proteins.Our results suggest that HMG1 is an ancestral protein that has been highly conserved.These data provide clues as to how interspecific hybridization may form polyploid hybrids.

  19. Meadow-grass gall midge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Monrad

    The area with meadow-grass (Poa pratensis, L.) grown for seed production in Den-mark is a significant proportion of the entire seed production. The meadow-grass gall midge (Mayetiola schoberi, Barnes 1958) is of considerable economic importance since powerful attacks can reduce the yield...... drastically. It overwinters as larvae in a puparium, in the soil, and begins to hatch on average in late April, but the time is de-pending on the temperature. Emergence of the meadow-grass gall midge in spring takes place over a 2-3 week period. Beginning of emergence of the meadow-grass gall midge takes...... maximum. Therefore, the spraying frequency could be lowered signifi-cantly and in many cases lowered to only one insecticide application in meadow-grass every year....

  20. Classical and molecular cytogenetics of Khawia sinensis (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), invasive parasite of carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosová, Martina; Oros, Mikuláš

    2012-05-01

    Chromosomes of the invasive tapeworm Khawia sinensis (Caryophyllidea), the specific parasite of common carp, were analyzed by means of conventional Giemsa staining and using fluorescent DAPI and YOYO-1 dyes, silver staining, and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 18S rDNA probe. The karyotype is composed of eight pairs of metacentric and telocentric chromosomes (2n = 16, n = 3m + 5t, TCL = 42.54 μm). Constitutive heterochromatin was located at pericentromeric regions of all pairs, except for the largest metacentric pair (no. 1), which possessed no DAPI-positive band. FISH with rDNA probe revealed that both homologues of chromosome pair no. 6 carry a cluster of ribosomal arrays, which were located interstitially close to the centromere. Present results are compared with previous cytogenetic data on Khawia spp., and comments are made on the karyotypes with respect to their phylogenetic links.

  1. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals the genetic basis of skin color variation in common carp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanliang Jiang

    Full Text Available The common carp is an important aquaculture species that is widely distributed across the world. During the long history of carp domestication, numerous carp strains with diverse skin colors have been established. Skin color is used as a visual criterion to determine the market value of carp. However, the genetic basis of common carp skin color has not been extensively studied.In this study, we performed Illumina sequencing on two common carp strains: the reddish Xingguo red carp and the brownish-black Yellow River carp. A total of 435,348,868 reads were generated, resulting in 198,781 assembled contigs that were used as reference sequences. Comparisons of skin transcriptome files revealed 2,012 unigenes with significantly different expression in the two common carp strains, including 874 genes that were up-regulated in Xingguo red carp and 1,138 genes that were up-regulated in Yellow River carp. The expression patterns of 20 randomly selected differentially expressed genes were validated using quantitative RT-PCR. Gene pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes indicated that melanin biosynthesis, along with the Wnt and MAPK signaling pathways, is highly likely to affect the skin pigmentation process. Several key genes involved in the skin pigmentation process, including TYRP1, SILV, ASIP and xCT, showed significant differences in their expression patterns between the two strains.In this study, we conducted a comparative transcriptome analysis of Xingguo red carp and Yellow River carp skins, and we detected key genes involved in the common carp skin pigmentation process. We propose that common carp skin pigmentation depends upon at least three pathways. Understanding fish skin color genetics will facilitate future molecular selection of the fish skin colors with high market values.

  2. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals the Genetic Basis of Skin Color Variation in Common Carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanliang; Zhang, Songhao; Xu, Jian; Feng, Jianxin; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A.; Sun, Xiaowen; Xu, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Background The common carp is an important aquaculture species that is widely distributed across the world. During the long history of carp domestication, numerous carp strains with diverse skin colors have been established. Skin color is used as a visual criterion to determine the market value of carp. However, the genetic basis of common carp skin color has not been extensively studied. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we performed Illumina sequencing on two common carp strains: the reddish Xingguo red carp and the brownish-black Yellow River carp. A total of 435,348,868 reads were generated, resulting in 198,781 assembled contigs that were used as reference sequences. Comparisons of skin transcriptome files revealed 2,012 unigenes with significantly different expression in the two common carp strains, including 874 genes that were up-regulated in Xingguo red carp and 1,138 genes that were up-regulated in Yellow River carp. The expression patterns of 20 randomly selected differentially expressed genes were validated using quantitative RT-PCR. Gene pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes indicated that melanin biosynthesis, along with the Wnt and MAPK signaling pathways, is highly likely to affect the skin pigmentation process. Several key genes involved in the skin pigmentation process, including TYRP1, SILV, ASIP and xCT, showed significant differences in their expression patterns between the two strains. Conclusions In this study, we conducted a comparative transcriptome analysis of Xingguo red carp and Yellow River carp skins, and we detected key genes involved in the common carp skin pigmentation process. We propose that common carp skin pigmentation depends upon at least three pathways. Understanding fish skin color genetics will facilitate future molecular selection of the fish skin colors with high market values. PMID:25255374

  3. Cytonuclear evidence for hybridogenetic reproduction in natural populations of the Australian carp gudgeon (Hypseleotris: Eleotridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Daniel J; Bond, Nicholas R; Adams, Mark; Hughes, Jane M

    2011-08-01

    Although most vertebrates reproduce sexually, a small number of fishes, amphibians and reptiles are known in which reproduction is asexual, i.e. without meiotic recombination. In fishes, these so-called unisexual lineages usually comprise only females and utilize co-occurring males of a related sexual species to reproduce via gynogenesis or hybridogenesis. Here, we examine patterns of microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in a widespread group of freshwater fishes (carp gudgeons; Hypseleotris spp.) to investigate a long-standing proposal that this group includes unisexual forms. We show that the mtDNA genome of most carp gudgeons in tributaries of the Goulburn River belongs to one of two deeply divided clades (∼10% cyt b divergence) and that nuclear variation divides the same individuals into four distinct groups. Group 1 exhibits the genotypic proportions of a random mating population and has a 1:1 sex ratio. Two other groups are extremely sex-biased (98% male, 96% female), exhibit excess heterozygosity at most loci and share at least one allele per locus with group 1. We propose that these two groups represent 'unisexual' hybridogenetic lineages and that both utilize co-occurring group 1 as sexual host. Interestingly, the fourth distinct group appears to represent hybrid offspring of the two putative hybridogenetic lineages. The propagation of clonal haploid genomes by both males and females and the ability of these clones to unite and form sexually mature diploid hybrid offspring may represent a novel mechanism that contributes to the dynamics of coexistence between hybridogenetic lineages and their sexual hosts. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. The chromosomal constitution of fish hybrid lineage revealed by 5S rDNA FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun; Ye, Lihai; Chen, Yiyi; Xiao, Jun; Wu, Yanhong; Tao, Min; Xiao, Yamei; Liu, Shaojun

    2015-12-03

    The establishment of the bisexual fertile fish hybrid lineage including the allodiploid and allotetraploid hybrids, from interspecific hybridization of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var. 2n = 100, 2n = AA) (♀) × common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. 2n = 100, 2n = BB) (♂), provided a good platform to investigate genetic relationship between the parents and their hybrid progenies. The chromosomal inheritance of diploid and allotetraploid hybrid progenies in successive generations, was studied by applying 5S rDNA fluorescence in situ hybridization. Signals of 5S rDNA distinguished the chromosomal constitution of common carp (B-genome) from red crucian carp (A-genome), in which two strong signals were observed on the first submetacentric chromosome, while no major signal was found in common carp. After fish hybridization, one strong signal of 5S rDNA was detected in the same locus on the chromosome of diploid hybrids. As expected, two strong signals were observed in 4nF3 tetraploid hybrids offspring and it is worth mentioning that two strong signals were detected in a separating bivalent of a primary spermatocyte in 4nF3. Furthermore, the mitosis of heterozygous chromosomes was shown normal and stable with blastular tissue histological studies. We revealed that 5S rDNA signal can be applied to discern A-genome from B-genome, and that 5S rDNA bearing chromosomes can be stably passed down in successive generations. Our work provided a significant method in fish breeding and this is important for studies in fish evolutionary biology.

  5. Coexistence of diploid, triploid and tetraploid crucian carp (Carassius auratus in natural waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Cuiping

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Crucian carp (abbreviated CC belongs to the genus of Carassius within the family of Cyprinidae. It has been one of the most important freshwater species for Chinese aquaculture and is especially abundant in the Dongting water system of Hunan province. CC used to be considered as all diploid forms. However, coexistence of diploid (abbreviated 2nCC, triploid (abbreviated 3nCC and tetraploid crucian carp (abbreviated 4nCC population of the Dongting water system was first found by our recently researches. Results We examined the ploidy level and compared biological characteristics in different ploidy CC. In reproductive mode, 2nCC was bisexual generative and 4nCC generated all-female offspring by gynogenesis. However, 3nCC generated progenies in two different ways. 3nCC produced bisexual triploid offspring fertilized with 3nCC spermatozoa, while it produced all-female triploid offspring by gynogenesis when its ova were activated by heterogenous spermatozoa. The complete mitochondrial DNA of three different ploidy fishes was sequenced and analyzed, suggesting no significant differences. Interestingly, microchromosomes were found only in 3nCC, which were concluded to be the result of hybridization. Allogenetic DNA fragments of Sox genes were obtained in 3nCC and 4nCC, which were absent in 2nCC. Phylogenetics analysis based on Sox4 gene indicated 3nCC and 4nCC formed a separate group from 2nCC. Conclusions In summary, this is the first report of the co-existence of three types of different ploidy crucian carps in natural waters in China. It was proved that the coexistence of different ploidy CC was reproductively maintained. We further hypothesized that 3nCC and 4nCC were allopolyploids that resulted from hybridization. The different ploidy CC population we obtained in this study possesses great significance for the study of polyploidization and the evolution of vertebrates.

  6. 银鲫dmrt2b基因的分子特征及功能分析%MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION AND FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF GIBEL CARP DMRT2b

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘沙; 桂建芳

    2011-01-01

    实验克隆了银鲫dmrt2b基因的全长cDNA序列,并对其表达图式和在胚胎发育过程中的功能做了初步研究.银鲫dmrt2b和斑马鱼dmrt2b有相似的基因组结构.在胚胎发育过程中,银鲫dmrt2b主要在体节中表达.在成体中主要分布于肌肉中.注射银鲫的dmrt2b可以挽救斑马鱼dmrt2b敲降胚的表型.上述结果表明银鲫dmrt2b基因同斑马鱼dmrt2b基因有相同的功能.%Gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) is a good model animal for evolutionary developmental biology.Our previous studies have already identified a novel fish-specific duplicated gene dmrt2b from gibel carp.Then we found that, in zebrafish, duplicated genes dmrt2b and dmrt2a played common overlapping functions in the establishment of left-right asymmetry of the body plan, and dmrt2b contributed to a divergent function in somitogenesis through Hedgehog pathway, but dmrt2a did not contribute to Hedgehog pathway.In this study, we cloned the full-length cDNA of gibel carp dmrt2b.The entire dmrt2b cDNA sequence was 1938 bp long and the open read frame was 1014 long, which encoded a protein with 337 amino acids.Gibel carp dmrt2b had a genomic organization similar to zebrafish dmrt2b, which had same numbers and positions of exons and introns.Therefore, gibel carp dmrt2b and zebrafish dmrt2b were orthologs.Then we analyzed expression pattern and functions involved of gibel carp dmrt2b during embryogenesis.By whole mount in situ hybridization, we found gibel carp dmrt2b mainly localized in the somites during embryogenesis.Then it mainly expressed in muscle of adult fish.This expression pattern was also similar to that of zebrafish dmrt2b.Microinjection of gibel carp dmrt2b mRNA into zebrafish dmrt2b morphants could rescue the phenotype.Above results suggested that gibel carp dmrt2b might have the same function with zebrafish dmrt2b during the embryogenesis.

  7. Extending juvenility in grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeppler, Shawn; de Leon Gatti, Natalia; Foerster, Jillian

    2017-04-11

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for modulating the juvenile to adult developmental growth transition in plants, such as grasses (e.g. maize). In particular, the invention provides methods for enhancing agronomic properties in plants by modulating expression of GRMZM2G362718, GRMZM2G096016, or homologs thereof. Modulation of expression of one or more additional genes which affect juvenile to adult developmental growth transition such as Glossy15 or Cg1, in conjunction with such modulation of expression is also contemplated. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of GRMZM2G362718 and/or GRMZM2G096016 are also contemplated, as are transgenic plants and products produced there from, that demonstrate altered, such as extended juvenile growth, and display associated phenotypes such as enhanced yield, improved digestibility, and increased disease resistance. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved forage or feed crops or in biofuel production.

  8. Evolutionary origins and ecological consequences of endophyte symbiosis with grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Keith; Schardl, Christopher

    2002-10-01

    Over the past 20 yr much has been learned about a unique symbiotic interaction between fungal endophytes and grasses. The fungi (Clavicipitaceae, Ascomycota) grow intercellularly and systemically in aboveground plant parts. Vertically transmitted asexual endophytes forming asymptomatic infections of cool-season grasses have been repeatedly derived from sexual species that abort host inflorescences. The phylogenetic distribution of seed-transmitted endophytes is strongly suggestive of cocladogenesis with their hosts. Molecular evidence indicates that many seed-transmitted endophytes are interspecific hybrids. Superinfection may result in hyphal fusion and parasexual recombination. Most endophytes produce one or more alkaloid classes that likely play some role in defending the host plant against pests. Hybridization may have led to the proliferation of alkaloid-production genes among asexual endophytes, favoring hybrids. The ergot alkaloid ergovaline, lolitrems, and lolines are produced by only a single sexual species, Epichloë festucae, but they are common in seed-transmitted endophytes, suggesting that E. festucae contributed genes for their synthesis. Asexual hybrids may also be favored by the counteracting of the accumulation of deleterious mutations (Muller's rachet). Endophyte infection can provide other benefits, such as enhanced drought tolerance, photosynthetic rate, and growth. Estimates of infection frequency have revealed variable levels of infection with especially high prevalence in the subfamily Pooideae. Longitudinal studies suggest that the prevalence of seed-transmitted endophytes can increase rapidly over time. In field experiments, infected tall fescue suppressed other grasses and forbs relative to uninfected fescue and supported lower consumer populations. Unlike other widespread plant/microbial symbioses based on the acquisition of mineral resources, grass/endophyte associations are based primarily on protection of the host from biotic and

  9. WHEAT GRASS HEALTH BENEFITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nutraceutical is a food or food product that provides health and medical benefits, including the preventionand treatment of disease. Nutraceuticals are the products typically claim to prevent chronic diseases, improve health,delay the aging process, and increase life expectancy.Let us know something about one such nutraceutical.Wheatgrass is a commonly found herb in India contains enzymes like protease, cytrochrome, amylase, lipase,transhydrogenase and SOD (super oxide dismutase. Besides these enzymes, it also contains all the essential aminoacids especially alanine, asparatic acid, glutamic acid, arginine and serine, which are helpful in providing good amountof protein in body which builds and repair tissues. Wheatgrass contains chlorophyll and flavonoids in good amount.It also contains vitamins like vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin E and minerals like iron, calcium and magnesium.Chlorophyll has been shown to build red blood cells quickly,cures anemia, normalise blood pressure by dilating theblood vessels. Chlorophyll has been shown to produce an unfavourable environment for bacterial growth in the bodyand therefore effective in increasing the body's resistance to illness. Probably the most important benefit ofwheatgrass is, it is a cancer fighting agent. Many people strongly believe that the benefits of wheatgrass on cancerare real and that consuming wheat grass can help in the treatment and even in the prevention of cancer. Wheatgrassproduces an immunization effect against many dietary carcinogens..Additional benefits of wheatgrass are bettercomplexion and a healthy glow. The slowing of graying hair is also a benefit believed to come from wheatgrass. Wecan grow wheat grass in small cups, pots and trays very conveniently in our homes, so that we will have fresh juiceand powder with minimum cost.

  10. Isolation and Characterization of Glycophorin from Carp Red Blood Cell Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiko Aoki

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We isolated a high-purity carp glycophorin from carp erythrocyte membranes following extraction using the lithium diiodosalicylate (LIS-phenol method and streptomycin treatment. The main carp glycophorin was observed to locate at the position of the carp and human band-3 proteins on an SDS-polyacrylamide gel. Only the N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc form of sialic acid was detected in the carp glycophorin. The oligosaccharide fraction was separated into two components (P-1 and P-2 using a Glyco-Pak DEAE column. We observed bacteriostatic activity against five strains of bacteria, including two known fish pathogens. Fractions from the carp erythrocyte membrane, the glycophorin oligosaccharide and the P-1 also exhibited bacteriostatic activity; whereas the glycolipid fraction and the glycophorin fraction without sialic acid did not show the activity. The carp glycophorin molecules attach to the flagellum of V. anguillarum or the cell surface of M. luteus and inhibited bacterial growth.

  11. [Effect of glyphosate on the energy exchange in carp organs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhidenko, A A; Bibchuk, E V; Barbukho, E V

    2013-01-01

    The use of glyphosate as a herbicide in agriculture can lead to the presence of its residues and metabolites (aminomethylphosphonic acid) in food for human consumption and pose a threat to health. The effect of these herbicides on the fish organism at the biochemical level has been insufficiently studied. We studied changes in the content of adenine nucleotides, enzyme activity, quantitative indexes of energy metabolism substrates in carp under the action of glyphosate. It has been found that proteins are the major energy substrate under the influence of glyphosate in the liver, brain, white muscle of carp yearlings. Glyphosphate decreases energy metabolism in the brain of carp and increases it in the white muscles. The growth of activity of catabolic enzymes in the liver under the influence of glyphosate can be attributed to the adaptive remodelling of metabolic pathways for homeostasis and enantiostasis in response to herbicides.

  12. Reversing land degradation through grasses: a systematic meta-analysis in the Indian tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Debashis; Srivastava, Pankaj; Giri, Nishita; Kaushal, Rajesh; Cerda, Artemi; Meherul Alam, Nurnabi

    2017-02-01

    Although intensive agriculture is necessary to sustain the world's growing population, accelerated soil erosion contributes to a decrease in the environmental health of ecosystems at local, regional and global scales. Reversing the process of land degradation using vegetative measures is of utmost importance in such ecosystems. The present study critically analyzes the effect of grasses in reversing the process of land degradation using a systematic review. The collected information was segregated under three different land use and land management situations. Meta-analysis was applied to test the hypothesis that the use of grasses reduces runoff and soil erosion. The effect of grasses was deduced for grass strip and in combination with physical structures. Similarly, the effects of grasses were analyzed in degraded pasture lands. The overall result of the meta-analysis showed that infiltration capacity increased approximately 2-fold after planting grasses across the slopes in agricultural fields. Grazing land management through a cut-and-carry system increased conservation efficiencies by 42 and 63 % with respect to reduction in runoff and erosion, respectively. Considering the comprehensive performance index (CPI), it has been observed that hybrid Napier (Pennisetum purpureum) and sambuta (Saccharum munja) grass seem to posses the most desirable attributes as an effective grass barrier for the western Himalayas and Eastern Ghats, while natural grass (Dichanthium annulatum) and broom grass (Thysanolaena maxima) are found to be most promising grass species for the Konkan region of the Western Ghats and the northeastern Himalayan region, respectively. In addition to these benefits, it was also observed that soil carbon loss can be reduced by 83 % with the use of grasses. Overall, efficacy for erosion control of various grasses was more than 60 %; hence, their selection should be based on the production potential of these grasses under given edaphic and agro

  13. Grass fungal endophytes and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craven, Kelly

    2015-03-10

    The invention provides isolated fungal endophytes and synthetic combinations thereof with host grass plants. Methods for inoculating grass plant with the endophytes, for propagating the grass-endophyte combinations, and for producing feeds and biofuels from grass-endophyte combinations are also provided.

  14. TUMOUR CASE IN KOI CARP (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Sholichah

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A case study of tumour in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio was observed in rearing periode. This tumour occurs solitary, large, pale red, fleshy masses under the lips and dental plates on the outside, and by reason of its size, may prevent closure the mouth. Moreover, this tumour goes through into the inside of the mouth. At necropsy, there were two soft, firm, small mass at inside of the mouth and the bigger mass at outside the mouth. Samples of this tumour were fixed in 10% formalin were used for histology analysis. The clinical course of the tumour is one of relatively slow but progressive growth. The proliferative stage of the neoplastic process is preceded and accompanied by a striking vascular reaction. Intensed hyperemia invariably occurs in that region of the mucosal surface which later becomes the site of neoplastic proliferation. Neoplastic cells lied around lamina propria and submucosal. These cells were joined together to make vacuolization and the other cells become pleiomorphism with hyperchromatic nucleus and N/C ratio cells are 1:1. In some area, there were many empty holes, around the holes there were debris cells, inflammation cells, and erythrocytes.

  15. Distant hybridization leads to different ploidy fishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Distant hybridization makes it possible to transfer the genome of one species to another, which results in changes in phenotypes and genotypes of the progenies. This study shows that distant hybridization or the combination of this method with gynogenesis or androgenesis lead to different ploidy fishes with genetic variation, including fertile tetraploid hybrids, sterile triploid hybrids, fertile diploid hybrids, fertile diploid gynogenetic fish, and their derived progenies. The formations of the different ploidy fishes depend on the genetic relationship between the parents. In this study, several types of distant hybridization, including red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) (2n=100, abbreviated as RCC) (♀)×common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) (2n=100, abbreviated as CC) (♂), and RCC (2n=100) (♀)×blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) (2n=48, abbreviated as BSB) (♂) are described. In the distant hybridization of RCC (♀)×CC (♂), bisexual fertile F3–F18 allotetraploid hybrids (4n=200, abbreviated as 4nAT) were formed. The diploid hybrid eggs and diploid sperm generated by the females and males of 4nAT developed into diploid gynogenetic hybrids and diploid androgenetic hybrids, respectively, by gynogenesis and androgenesis, without treatment for doubling the chromosome. Improved tetraploid hybrids and improved diploid fishes with genetic variation were derived from the gynogenetic hybrid line. The improved diploid fishes included the high-body RCC and high-body goldfish. The formation of the tetraploid hybrids was related to the occurrence of unreduced gametes generated from the diploid hybrids, which involved in premeiotic endoreduplication, endomitosis, or fusion of germ cells. The sterile triploid hybrids (3n=150) were produced on a large scale by crossing the males of tetraploid hybrids with females of diploid fish (2n=100). In another distant hybridization of RCC (♀)×BSB (♂), different ploidy fishes were obtained, including

  16. Distant hybridization leads to different ploidy fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, ShaoJun

    2010-04-01

    Distant hybridization makes it possible to transfer the genome of one species to another, which results in changes in phenotypes and genotypes of the progenies. This study shows that distant hybridization or the combination of this method with gynogenesis or androgenesis lead to different ploidy fishes with genetic variation, including fertile tetraploid hybrids, sterile triploid hybrids, fertile diploid hybrids, fertile diploid gynogenetic fish, and their derived progenies. The formations of the different ploidy fishes depend on the genetic relationship between the parents. In this study, several types of distant hybridization, including red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) (2n=100, abbreviated as RCC) (female) x common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) (2n=100, abbreviated as CC) (male), and RCC (2n=100) (female) x blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) (2n=48, abbreviated as BSB) (male) are described. In the distant hybridization of RCC (female) x CC (male), bisexual fertile F(3)-F(18) allotetraploid hybrids (4n=200, abbreviated as 4nAT) were formed. The diploid hybrid eggs and diploid sperm generated by the females and males of 4nAT developed into diploid gynogenetic hybrids and diploid androgenetic hybrids, respectively, by gynogenesis and androgenesis, without treatment for doubling the chromosome. Improved tetraploid hybrids and improved diploid fishes with genetic variation were derived from the gynogenetic hybrid line. The improved diploid fishes included the high-body RCC and high-body goldfish. The formation of the tetraploid hybrids was related to the occurrence of unreduced gametes generated from the diploid hybrids, which involved in premeiotic endoreduplication, endomitosis, or fusion of germ cells. The sterile triploid hybrids (3n=150) were produced on a large scale by crossing the males of tetraploid hybrids with females of diploid fish (2n=100). In another distant hybridization of RCC (female) x BSB (male), different ploidy fishes were

  17. Genetic divergence between Cyprinus carpio carpio and Cyprinus carpio haematopterus as assessed by mitochondrial DNA analysis, with emphasis on origin of European domestic carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian Feng; Wu, Qing Jiang; Ye, Yu Zhen; Tong, Jin Gou

    2003-09-01

    Although common carp is the major fish species in Asian and European aquaculture and many domestic varieties have occurred, there is a controversy about the origination of European domestic common carp. Some scientists affirmed that the ancestor of European domestic common carp was Danube River wild common carp, but others considered it might be Asian common carp. For elucidating origination of European domestic common carp, we chose two representative European domestic common carp strains (German mirror carp and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp) and one wild common carp strain of Cyprinus carpio carpio subspecies (Volga River wild common carp) and two Asian common carp strains, the Yangtze River wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) and traditionally domestic Xingguo red common carp, as experimental materials. ND5-ND6 and D-loop segments of mitochondrial DNA were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and analyzed through restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequencing respectively. The results revealed that HaeIII and DdeI digestion patterns of ND5-ND6 segment and sequences of control region were different between European subspecies C. carpio carpio and Asian subspecies C. carpio haematopterus. Phylogenetic analysis showed that German mirror carp and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp belonged to two subspecies, C. carpio carpio and C. carpio haematopterus, respectively. Therefore, there were different ancestors for domestic carp in Europe: German mirror carp was domesticated from European subspecies C. carpio carpio and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp originated from Asian subspecies C. carpio haematopterus.

  18. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  19. Grass and weed killer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002838.htm Grass and weed killer poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Many weed killers contain dangerous chemicals that are harmful if ...

  20. Analysis of koi herpesvirus latency in wild common carp and ornamental koi in Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia-Rong; Bently, Jennifer; Beck, Linda; Reed, Aimee; Miller-Morgan, Tim; Heidel, Jerry R; Kent, Michael L; Rockey, Daniel D; Jin, Ling

    2013-02-01

    Koi herpesvirus (KHV) infection is associated with high mortalities in both common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio koi) worldwide. Although acute infection has been reported in both domestic and wild common carp, the status of KHV latent infection is largely unknown in wild common carp. To investigate whether KHV latency is present in wild common carp, the distribution of KHV latent infection was investigated in two geographically distinct populations of wild common carp in Oregon, as well as in koi from an Oregon-based commercial supplier. Latent KHV infection was demonstrated in white blood cells from each of these populations. Although KHV isolated from acute infections has two distinct genetic groups, Asian and European, KHV detected in wild carp has not been genetically characterized. DNA sequences from ORF 25 to 26 that are unique between Asian and European were investigated in this study. KHV from captive koi and some wild common carp were found to have ORF-25-26 sequences similar to KHV-J (Asian), while the majority of KHV DNA detected in wild common carp has similarity to KHV-U/-I (European). In addition, DNA sequences from IL-10, and TNFR were sequenced and compared with no differences found, which suggests immune suppressor genes of KHV are conserved between KHV in wild common carp and koi, and is consistent with KHV-U, -I, -J.

  1. Function of the opioid system during inflammation in carp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Chadzinska, M.K.

    2009-01-01

    The opioid system is involved in modulation of both innate and acquired immune responses, thus altering resistance to a variety of infectious agents. We sequenced and characterized carp opioid receptors (MOR, DOR, and KOR) and found their regulated expression in piscine leukocytes. Moreover, both in

  2. Macrophage polarisation: immune responses of carp against parasites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joerink, M.

    2006-01-01

    In the studies described in this thesis we used a natural host-parasite model of two parasites ( Trypanoplasma borreli and Trypanosoma carassii ) infecting common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.), to obtain more knowledge about the phenomenon of macrophage polarisation in 'the evolutionary older' teleosts

  3. Food handling and mastication in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sibbing, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    The process of food handling in the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and its structures associated with feeding are analyzed. The aim of this study is to explain the relation between the the architecture of the head and its functions in food processing and to determin

  4. Hormonal regulation of hepatic glycogenolysis in the carp, Cyprinus carpio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssens, P.A.; Lowrey, P.

    1987-04-01

    Carp (Cyprinus carpio) liver maintained normal glycogen content and enzyme complement for several days in organ culture. Epinephrine-stimulated glycogenolysis, phosphorylase activation, and cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner with EC/sub 50/s of 100, 100, and 500 nM, respectively. These actions were blocked by the ..beta..-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol, but not by the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine. Glycogenolysis and tissue cAMP were uninfluenced by 10/sup -6/ M arginine vasotocin, arginine vasopressin, lysine vasotocin, lysine vasopressin, mesotocin, or oxytocin, but were slightly increased by 10/sup -5/ M isotocin and slightly decreased by 10/sup -6/ M angiotensin II. (/sup 125/I)-iodocyanopindolol (ICP), a ..beta..-adrenergic ligand, bound to isolated carp liver membranes with a K/sub D/ of 83 pM. Maximum binding of 45 fmol/mg protein was at 600 pM. Propranolol, isoprenaline, epinephrine, phenylephrine, norepinephrine, and phenoxybenzamine displaced ICP with K/sub D/s of 100 nM, 2, 20, 20, 60, and 200 ..mu..M, respectively. The ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonists, yohimbine and prazosin, showed no specific binding. These data provide evidence that catecholamines act via ..beta..-adrenergic receptors in carp liver and that ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptors are not present. Vasoactive peptides play no significant role in regulation of carp liver glycogenolysis.

  5. Food handling and mastication in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sibbing, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    The process of food handling in the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and its structures associated with feeding are analyzed. The aim of this study is to explain the relation between the the architecture of the head and its functions in food processing and to determine the specializations for some

  6. Trypanosomiasis-induced Th17-like immune responses in carp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla M S Ribeiro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In mammalian vertebrates, the cytokine interleukin (IL-12 consists of a heterodimer between p35 and p40 subunits whereas interleukin-23 is formed by a heterodimer between p19 and p40 subunits. During an immune response, the balance between IL-12 and IL-23 can depend on the nature of the pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP recognized by, for example TLR2, leading to a preferential production of IL-23. IL-23 production promotes a Th17-mediated immune response characterized by the production of IL-17A/F and several chemokines, important for neutrophil recruitment and activation. For the cold blooded vertebrate common carp, only the IL-12 subunits have been described so far. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Common carp is the natural host of two protozoan parasites: Trypanoplasma borreli and Trypanosoma carassii. We found that these parasites negatively affect p35 and p40a gene expression in carp. Transfection studies of HEK293 and carp macrophages show that T. carassii-derived PAMPs are agonists of carp TLR2, promoting p19 and p40c gene expression. The two protozoan parasites induce different immune responses as assessed by gene expression and histological studies. During T. carassii infections, in particular, we observed a propensity to induce p19 and p40c gene expression, suggestive of the formation of IL-23. Infections with T. borreli and T. carassii lead to an increase of IFN-γ2 gene expression whereas IL-17A/F2 gene expression was only observed during T. carasssii infections. The moderate increase in the number of splenic macrophages during T. borreli infection contrasts the marked increase in the number of splenic neutrophilic granulocytes during T. carassii infection, along with an increased gene expression of metalloproteinase-9 and chemokines. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study that provides evidence for a Th17-like immune response in fish in response to infection with a protozoan parasite.

  7. Food consumption and growth rates of juvenile black carp fed natural and prepared feeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgins, Nathaniel C.; Schramm, Harold L.; Gerard, Patrick D.

    2014-01-01

    The introduced mollusciphagic black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus poses a significant threat to native mollusks in temperate waters throughout the northern hemisphere, but consumption rates necessary to estimate the magnitude of impact on mollusks have not been established. We measured food consumption and growth rates for small (77–245 g) and large (466–1,071 g) triploid black carp held individually under laboratory conditions at 20, 25, and 30°C. Daily consumption rates (g food · g wet weight fish−1·d−1·100) of black carp that received prepared feed increased with temperature (small black carp 1.39–1.71; large black carp 1.28–2.10), but temperature-related increases in specific growth rate (100[ln(final weight) - ln(initial weight)]/number of days) only occurred for the large black carp (small black carp −0.02 to 0.19; large black carp 0.16–0.65). Neither daily consumption rates (5.90–6.28) nor specific growth rates (0.05–0.24) differed among temperatures for small black carp fed live snails. The results of these laboratory feeding trials indicate food consumption rates can vary from 289.9 to 349.5 J·g−1·d−1 for 150 g black carp receiving prepared feed, from 268.8 to 441.0 J·g−1·d−1for 800 g black carp receiving prepared feed, and from 84.8 to 90.2 J·g−1·d−1 for 150 g black carp that feed on snails. Applying estimated daily consumption rates to estimated biomass of native mollusks indicates that a relatively low biomass of bla

  8. Hot Water Extract of Leather Carp (Cyprinus carpio nudus) Improves Exercise Performance in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gong-Hyeon; Harwanto, Dicky; Park, Sun-Mee; Choi, Jae-Suk; Kim, Mi-Ryung; Hong, Yong-Ki

    2015-12-01

    The hot water extract of leather carp (Cyprinus carpio nudus) has been used as a nourishing tonic soup and as an aid for recovery from physical fatigue. In this study, we investigated the effect of leather carp extract on exercise performance in mice. Swimming endurance and forelimb grip strength were assessed following oral administration of the extract (once per day for 7 days) at a dose of 0.5 mg/10 μL/g body weight. After 7 days, mice given the leather carp extract had significantly greater swimming endurance [105±18 s (Pleather carp extract can improve physical exercise performance and prevent oxidative stress caused by exhaustive workouts.

  9. MORPHOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF COMMON CARP (Cyprinus carpio carpio L. POPULATIONS IN REPUBLIC OF CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tea Tomljanović

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study common carp populations from Croatian fish ponds (Draganići, Končanica, Našička Breznica, Orahovica (Grudnjak and Poljana, and three carp populations from open waters (Sava and Danube rivers and Vransko lake were analyzed, with total of 295 specimens. All populations were checked for 20 morphometric and 13 meristic parameters. The analysis was conducted using Principal component analysis (PCA and Constrained linear analysis of canonical redundancy (RDA. According to the number gill rakers the most distinguished are carps from Sava river and Vransko lake, and some individuals from the Danube river, while the fish pond populations do not emphasize by this parameter. Fish pond populationes Grudnjak, Draganići, Končanica and Našice are overlapping. The Danube population is divided into two groups: one group is closely associated with fish pond populations, while another group is closely link with populations of carp in open waters. Specimens of carp from the Danube, which are morphologically similar to fish pond carps are considered to have recently entered into open water and still have the external characteristics of domestic carps. By this research a significant separation of domestic and open waters carp was revealed which has proven Monte Carlo test (F=347.191; p=0.002, however, a clear separation of domestic strains of common carps is not noticeable.

  10. Grass Roots War on Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Amsden, Alice H

    2012-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa’s failure to slay the dragon of poverty is due to a logical flaw in its policies: the remedies to reduce poverty don’t address the causes. Poverty is caused by unemployment, owing to a scarcity of jobs that pay above bare subsistence, but grass-roots poverty alleviation measures are exclusively designed to make job-seekers more capable although no jobs are available. The ‘appropriate’ technologies of the grass roots movement that dominates anti-poverty policies are ...

  11. Characterization and physical mapping of 18S and 5S ribosomal genes in Indian major carps (Pisces, Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindra Kumar; Kushwaha, Basdeo; Nagpure, Naresh S

    2013-06-01

    Characterization of the major (18S) and minor (5S) ribosomal RNA genes were carried out in three commercially important Indian major carp (IMC) species, viz. Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala along with their physical localizations using dual colour fluorescence in situ hybridization. The diploid chromosome number in the above carps was confirmed to be 50 with inter-species karyo-morphological variations. The 18S rDNA signals were observed on 3 pair of chromosomes in C. catla and L. rohita, and two pairs in C. mrigala. The 5S rDNA signal was found on single pair of chromosome in all the species with variation in their position on chromosomes. The sequencing of 18S rDNA generated 1804, 1805 and 1805 bp long fragments, respectively, in C. catla, L. rohita and C. mrigala with more than 98% sequence identity among them. Similarly, sequencing of 5S rDNA generated 191 bp long fragments in the three species with 100% identity in coding region and 23.2% overall variability in non-transcribed spacer region. Thus, these molecular markers could be used as species-specific markers for taxonomic identification and might help in understanding the genetic diversity, genome organization and karyotype evolution of these species.

  12. Production of sugarcane and tropical grasses as a renewable energy source. Second quarterly report; year 2, 1978-1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, A.G.; Garcia, M.; Gonzalex-Molina, C.; Ortez-Velez, J.

    1979-01-01

    Research centered on greenhouse screening of candidate grasses coupled with field-plot studies on varieties, optimal nitrogen and seeding rates, variable row spacing, and frequency of harvest. Candidate grasses were identified for short-rotation crops having potentially greater versatility than Sordan 70A (earlier maturatoon greater tolerance to moisture stress). Field-plot studies were performed on the optimization of N-fertilization and seeding rates for Sordan 70A. Field-plot data were recorded on sugarcane and napier grass responses to harvest frequency and row spacing. These results underscore a superiority of first-ratoon yields over plant-crop yields, of napier grass over sugarcane (up to 4 months), and delayed harvests over frequent harvests. Breeding tests were successful in producing F/sub 1/ seedlings from crosses between an unknown and early-tasseling wild S. spontaneum hybrid and late-tasseling commercial sugarcane hybrids.

  13. Perrenial Grasses for Sustainable European Protein Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Uffe; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    production into grass production. Grasses and legumes have higher contents of protein with better quality (high lysine and methionine contents) than grain and seed crops. Thus, substituting imported soya bean protein with protein extracted from perennial grasses is an interesting option....

  14. Grass pollen allergens globally: the contribution of subtropical grasses to burden of allergic respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J M

    2014-06-01

    Grass pollens of the temperate (Pooideae) subfamily and subtropical subfamilies of grasses are major aeroallergen sources worldwide. The subtropical Chloridoideae (e.g. Cynodon dactylon; Bermuda grass) and Panicoideae (e.g. Paspalum notatum; Bahia grass) species are abundant in parts of Africa, India, Asia, Australia and the Americas, where a large and increasing proportion of the world's population abide. These grasses are phylogenetically and ecologically distinct from temperate grasses. With the advent of global warming, it is conceivable that the geographic distribution of subtropical grasses and the contribution of their pollen to the burden of allergic rhinitis and asthma will increase. This review aims to provide a comprehensive synthesis of the current global knowledge of (i) regional variation in allergic sensitivity to subtropical grass pollens, (ii) molecular allergenic components of subtropical grass pollens and (iii) allergic responses to subtropical grass pollen allergens in relevant populations. Patients from subtropical regions of the world show higher allergic sensitivity to grass pollens of Chloridoideae and Panicoideae grasses, than to temperate grass pollens. The group 1 allergens are amongst the allergen components of subtropical grass pollens, but the group 5 allergens, by which temperate grass pollen extracts are standardized for allergen content, appear to be absent from both subfamilies of subtropical grasses. Whilst there are shared allergenic components and antigenic determinants, there are additional clinically relevant subfamily-specific differences, at T- and B-cell levels, between pollen allergens of subtropical and temperate grasses. Differential immune recognition of subtropical grass pollens is likely to impact upon the efficacy of allergen immunotherapy of patients who are primarily sensitized to subtropical grass pollens. The literature reviewed herein highlights the clinical need to standardize allergen preparations for both

  15. Three Grasses New to Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    SCHOLZ, Hildemar

    2014-01-01

    Studies on herbarium material of grasses recently collected in Turkey revealed the existence of three taxa hitherto not reported from this country: Bromus tomentellus Boiss. subsp. nivalis (Bornm.) H. Scholz & Byfield, subsp. et stat. nov., Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus as a probably introduced plant, and Poa asiae-minoris H. Scholz & Byfield, sp. nova, described here as a species new to science.

  16. Three Grasses New to Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    SCHOLZ, Hildemar

    2000-01-01

    Studies on herbarium material of grasses recently collected in Turkey revealed the existence of three taxa hitherto not reported from this country: Bromus tomentellus Boiss. subsp. nivalis (Bornm.) H. Scholz & Byfield, subsp. et stat. nov., Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus as a probably introduced plant, and Poa asiae-minoris H. Scholz & Byfield, sp. nova, described here as a species new to science.

  17. Invasive Bighead and Silver Carps Form Different Sized Shoals that Readily Intermix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Ghosal

    Full Text Available Two species of congeneric filter-feeding microphagous carps from Asia, the bighead and the silver carp, were recently introduced to North America and have become highly invasive. These species of carp have similar food habits but the silver carp has the unique habit of jumping when disturbed. Both species have complex but poorly understood social behaviors and while both are thought to aggregate (form groups and shoal (form tight social groups, this possibility has not yet been examined in these species. The present study examined the grouping tendencies of these species in the laboratory and the effects of fish density and species identity on it. Using nearest neighbor distance (NND as a metric, we showed that both juvenile bighead and juvenile silver carp grouped (aggregate strongly (P0.05 on this behavior. Within aggregations, bighead carp tended to form a single large shoal while silver carp formed shoals of 2-3 individuals. Further, when tested as mixed-species groups, bighead and silver carp readily shoaled with each other but not with the common carp, which is from Eurasia and a member of another feeding guild. Due to their similar feeding strategies, we speculate that the bighead and silver carp tend to aggregate and shoal to facilitate both their foraging efforts and to avoid predation, while the differences in the size of the shoals they form may seemingly reflect their different anti-predation strategies. These complex shoaling behaviors likely influence Asian carp distribution in rivers, and thus how they might be sampled and managed.

  18. Potential reproduction of invasive Asian carps (Hypophthalmichthys spp. in Lake Balaton: pro and contra evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Mozsár

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Asian carps (bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis × silver carp H. molitrix had been introduced into Lake Balaton (Hungary from 1972 to increase fishery yields and as a biological control of algal blooms. Although the stocking was stopped by 1983, the biomass of Asian carps is still high in the lake, constituting about one-third of the total fish biomass. Our analyses revealed that the present Asian carp stock cannot have originated directly from the last official stockings. The origin of the present stock is undefined, and there are two potential explanations for the source of recruitment. First, it is possible that Asian carps escape from the nearby fishery ponds and get into Lake Balaton periodically. The second explanation is that Asian carps spawn in the lake. However, preceding studies suggested that Asian carps are not able to reproduce in lacustrine environments. In this study, our aim was to contrast the pro and contra evidences of natural Asian carp reproduction in Lake Balaton. We studied the reproductive parameters and genetic pools of 58 Asian carps, sampled between March−November 2011 and 2013. Mature vitellogenic oocytes and post-ovulatory follicles were found in the posterior segments of gonads. This suggests that a fraction of mature eggs was released from the ovaries during the year, but does not necessary imply successful reproduction. Considerable seasonal variations in gonado-somatic indexes (GSI were observed, fluctuating between 6−28% in 2011 and 12−29% in 2013. However, the within-year dynamics of GSI changes suggest that fish do not release significant amounts of milt during the potential spawning period. Rather, the resorption of nutrients allocated to eggs seems probable during autumn. Genetic analyses showed remarkable deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium within the stock, which indicates that Asian carps do not constitute a closed, self-sustaining population in Lake Balaton.

  19. Invasive Bighead and Silver Carps Form Different Sized Shoals that Readily Intermix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Ratna; Xiong, Peter X; Sorensen, Peter W

    2016-01-01

    Two species of congeneric filter-feeding microphagous carps from Asia, the bighead and the silver carp, were recently introduced to North America and have become highly invasive. These species of carp have similar food habits but the silver carp has the unique habit of jumping when disturbed. Both species have complex but poorly understood social behaviors and while both are thought to aggregate (form groups) and shoal (form tight social groups), this possibility has not yet been examined in these species. The present study examined the grouping tendencies of these species in the laboratory and the effects of fish density and species identity on it. Using nearest neighbor distance (NND) as a metric, we showed that both juvenile bighead and juvenile silver carp grouped (aggregate) strongly (P0.05) on this behavior. Within aggregations, bighead carp tended to form a single large shoal while silver carp formed shoals of 2-3 individuals. Further, when tested as mixed-species groups, bighead and silver carp readily shoaled with each other but not with the common carp, which is from Eurasia and a member of another feeding guild. Due to their similar feeding strategies, we speculate that the bighead and silver carp tend to aggregate and shoal to facilitate both their foraging efforts and to avoid predation, while the differences in the size of the shoals they form may seemingly reflect their different anti-predation strategies. These complex shoaling behaviors likely influence Asian carp distribution in rivers, and thus how they might be sampled and managed.

  20. CARPS An integrated proposal and data collection system

    CERN Document Server

    Brister, K

    2002-01-01

    Modern scripting languages and database tools combined provide a new framework for developing beam-line control and data management software. The CARPS system supports data collection by storing low level beam-line control commands in a database and playing these commands back to collect data sets. This system is combined with proposal and data management tools for support of both local and remote users.

  1. Macrophage polarisation: immune responses of carp against parasites

    OpenAIRE

    Joerink, M.

    2006-01-01

    In the studies described in this thesis we used a natural host-parasite model of two parasites ( Trypanoplasma borreli and Trypanosoma carassii ) infecting common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.), to obtain more knowledge about the phenomenon of macrophage polarisation in 'the evolutionary older' teleosts and the consequences of differential activation for the individual host.The general aspects of the teleost immune system are very similar to those of the mammalian immune system. Polarisation of m...

  2. WATER BLOOM OF BLUEGREEN ALGE IN CARP FISHPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melita Mihaljević

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The massive development of bluegreen algae (Cyanophyta/Cyanobacteria, the so--called water bloom, is a frequent phenomenon in fishpond ecosystems. This study analyses water bloom development in three carp fishponds owned by a fishbreeding company at Donji Miholjac (Croatia, where one-year-old carps (Cyprinus carpio , were bred in defferent fishstock densities. Analyses of physicallychemical properties of water and phytoplankton biomass were per- formed in fortnight intervals from May till October, 1992. In all there investigated fishponds the water bloom of bluegreen algae developed, but at a different time and showing a different qualitative composition. In the fishpond with fishstock density of 250 kg/ha water bloom consisted of the species Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, and the biggest biomass (131.92 mg/I was found in August. In the fishpond with fishstock density of 437 kg/ha a water bloom consisting of species from the genues Anabaena and species Aphanizomenon flos-aquae developed at the end of July. In the fishpond with the so--called intensive breeding (fishstock density of 750 kg/ha water bloom of the species Microcystis aeruginosa developed as late as September. The beginning of water bloom development was caused by the low value (lower than 7 of the ratio between the quantities of total phosphorus and total nitrogen. However, the qualitative composition of water bloom was influenced by one-year-old carp fingerlings density.

  3. Hierarchical structure of the otolith of adult wild carp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Zhuo; Gao Yonghua [State key laboratory of new ceramics and fine processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Feng Qingling, E-mail: biomater@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [State key laboratory of new ceramics and fine processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-04-30

    The otolith of adult wild carp contains a pair of asterisci, a pair of lappilli and a pair of sagittae. Current research works are mainly restricted to the field of the daily ring structure. The purpose of this work is to explore the structural characteristics of carp's otolith in terms of hierarchy from nanometer to millimeter scale by transmission election microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Based on the observation, carp's lapillus is composed of ordered aragonite crystals. Seven hierarchical levels of the microstructure were proposed and described with the scheme representing a complete organization in detail. SEM studies show not only the clear daily growth increment, but also the morphology within the single daily increment. The domain structure of crystal orientation in otolith was observed for the first time. Furthermore, TEM investigation displays that the lapillus is composed of aragonite crystals with nanometer scale. Four hierarchical levels of the microstructure of the sagitta are also proposed. The asteriscus which is composed of nanometer scale vaterite crystals is considered to have a uniform structure.

  4. Gut melatonin response to microbial infection in carp Catla catla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Palash Kumar; Hasan, Kazi Nurul; Maitra, Saumen Kumar

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of present study was to demonstrate the response of gut melatoninergic system to Aeromonas hydrophila infection for 3 or 6 days and search for its correlation with the activity of different antioxidative and digestive enzymes to focus their interplay under pathophysiological conditions in carp (Catla catla). Microscopic study of gut in infected fish revealed degenerative changes in the tunica mucosa and lamina propria layers with sloughed off epithelial cells in the lumen. The activity of each digestive enzyme was reduced, but the levels of melatonin, arylalkylamine-N-acetyl transferase protein, the key regulator of melatonin biosynthesis, and different enzymatic antioxidants in gut were gradually and significantly increased with the progress of infection. Gut melatonin concentrations in A. hydrophila challenged carp by showing a positive correlation with the activity of each antioxidative enzyme, and a negative correlation with different digestive enzymes argued in favor of their functional relation, at least, during pathological stress. Moreover, parallel changes in the gut and serum melatonin titers indicated possible contribution of gut to circulating melatonin. Collectively, present carp study provided the first data to suggest that endogenous gut melatonin may be implicated to the mechanism of response to microbial infections in any fish species.

  5. UV induced visual cues in grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baby, Sabulal; Johnson, Anil John; Govindan, Balaji; Lukose, Sujith; Gopakumar, Bhaskaran; Koshy, Konnath Chacko

    2013-01-01

    Grasses are traditionally considered as wind pollinated, however, field observations confirmed frequent insect visits to grass flowers, suggesting insect pollination. Fruit and seed predators inflict heavy losses to cereals and millets during their growth, maturation and storage. The actual factors guiding insects and predators to grass flowers, fruits and seeds are not clear. Here, we report attractive blue fluorescence emissions on grass floral parts such as glumes, lemma, palea, lodicules, staminal filaments, pollens and fruits in ultraviolet (UV) 366 nm, whereas the stigmatic portions were not blue, but red fluorescent. We characterized the blue fluorescent constituent in grass reproductive structures as ferulic acid (FA). Fluorescence spectra of blue-emitting grass floral, seed extracts and isolated FA on excitation at 366 nm showed their emissions at 420–460 nm. We propose these FA-based blue fluorescence emissions in grass reproductive structures as visual cues that attract pollinators, predators and even pests towards them. PMID:24061408

  6. Out-of-sample validation for structured expert judgment of Asian carp establishment in Lake Erie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooke, R.M.; Wittmann, M.E.; Lodge, D.M.; Rothlisberger, J.D.; Rutherford, E.S.; Zhang, H.; Mason, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    Structured expert judgment (SEJ) is used to quantify the uncertainty of nonindigenous fish (bighead carp [Hypophthalmichthys nobilis] and silver carp [H. molitrix]) establishment in Lake Erie. The classical model for structured expert judgment model is applied. Forming a weighted combination (called

  7. History of introductions and governmental invovlement in promoting the use of Asian carps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous natural resource agency and media reports have alleged that Asian carps were introduced into the wild through escapes from commercial fish farms. This chapter traces the chronology associated with introductions of Asian carps and discusses the likeliest pathways of their introduction to th...

  8. Carp macrophages and neutrophilic granulocytes secrete an interleukin-1-like factor.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.; Weyts, F.A.A.; Debets, R.; Flik, G.

    1995-01-01

    Carp, Cyprinus carpio L, macrophages and neutrophilic granulocytes obtained from pronephros were cultured. Supernatant was harvested after 48 h and tested for interleukin-1 (IL-1) bioactivity. A concentration-dependent stimulation of proliferation was found of carp Ig− lymphocytes as well as of the

  9. Ontogeny of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) innate immune system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttenhuis, B.T.; Taverne-Thiele, J.J.; Grou, C.P.O.; Bergsma, J.; Saeij, J.P.J.; Nakayasu, C.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    The ontogeny of the teleost innate immune system was studied in carp using cellular, histological and quantitative molecular techniques. Carp myeloid cells first appeared ventro-lateral of the aorta at 2 days post fertilization (the start of hatching), and subsequently around the sinuses of the vena

  10. Major histocompatibility complex genes in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, van S.H.M.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis describes a study of the major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) genes of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The molecules encoded by Mhc genes play an essential role in the specific immune response, by presenting antigens to T lymphocytes. Knowledge of the Mhc of carp, therefore, cont

  11. Seasonal trends in eDNA detection and occupancy of bigheaded carps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Richard A.; Merkes, Christopher; Jackson, Craig; Goforth, Reuben; Amberg, Jon

    2017-01-01

    Bigheaded carps, which include silver and bighead carp, are threatening to invade the Great Lakes. These species vary seasonally in distribution and abundance due to environmental conditions such as precipitation and temperature. Monitoring this seasonal movement is important for management to control the population size and spread of the species. We examined if environmental DNA (eDNA) approaches could detect seasonal changes of these species. To do this, we developed a novel genetic marker that was able to both detect and differentiate bighead and silver carp DNA. We used the marker, combined with a novel occupancy model, to study the occurrence of bigheaded carps at 3 sites on the Wabash River over the course of a year. We studied the Wabash River because of concerns that carps may be able to use the system to invade the Great Lakes via a now closed (ca. 2017) connection at Eagle Marsh between the Wabash River's watershed and the Great Lakes' watershed. We found seasonal trends in the probability of detection and occupancy that varied across sites. These findings demonstrate that eDNA methods can detect seasonal changes in bigheaded carps densities and suggest that the amount of eDNA present changes seasonally. The site that was farthest upstream and had the lowest carp densities exhibited the strongest seasonal trends for both detection probabilities and sample occupancy probabilities. Furthermore, other observations suggest that carps seasonally leave this site, and we were able to detect this with our eDNA approach.

  12. More than Carpe Diem On the Theme of To his Coy Mistress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵金凤

    2008-01-01

    Andrew Marvell's famous poem To his Coy Mistress is commonly considered a seduction poem with the theme of carpe diem.The poet's massive dependence on the sexual imagery,the images of time,eternity,and the decomposition,however,transcends the tradition of the usual carpe diem theme of seduction poem,unfolding the pessimism clad in the erotic overcoat.

  13. Ontogeny of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) innate immune system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttenhuis, B.T.; Taverne-Thiele, J.J.; Grou, C.P.O.; Bergsma, J.; Saeij, J.P.J.; Nakayasu, C.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    The ontogeny of the teleost innate immune system was studied in carp using cellular, histological and quantitative molecular techniques. Carp myeloid cells first appeared ventro-lateral of the aorta at 2 days post fertilization (the start of hatching), and subsequently around the sinuses of the vena

  14. Immune-relevant thrombocytes of common carp undergo parasite-induced nitric oxide-mediated apoptosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fink, I.R.; Ribeiro, C.M.S.; Forlenza, M.; Taverne-Thiele, J.J.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Wiegertjes, G.

    2015-01-01

    Common carp thrombocytes account for 30–40% of peripheral blood leukocytes and are abundant in the healthy animals' spleen, the thrombopoietic organ. We show that, ex vivo, thrombocytes from healthy carp express a large number of immune-relevant genes, among which several cytokines and Toll-like rec

  15. Phenotypic plasticity in the spawning traits of bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) in novel ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Alison A.; Keller, Doug; Amberg, Jon J.; Bailey, Elizabeth J.; Goforth, Reuben R.

    2013-01-01

    1. Bigheaded carp, including both silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead (H. nobilis) carp, are successful invasive fishes that threaten global freshwater biodiversity. High phenotypic plasticity probably contributes to their success in novel ecosystems, although evidence of plasticity in several spawning traits has hitherto been largely anecdotal or speculative. 2. We collected drifting eggs from a Midwestern U.S.A. river from June to September 2011 and from April to June 2012 to investigate the spawning traits of bigheaded carp in novel ecosystems. 3. Unlike reports from the native range, the presence of drifting bigheaded carp eggs was not related to changes in hydrological regime or mean daily water temperature. Bigheaded carp also exhibited protracted spawning, since we found drifting eggs throughout the summer and as late as 1 September 2011. Finally, we detected bigheaded carp eggs in a river reach where the channel is c. 30 m wide with a catchment area of 4579 km2, the smallest stream in which spawning has yet been documented. 4. Taken with previous observations of spawning traits that depart from those observed within the native ranges of both bighead and silver carp, our findings provide direct evidence that bigheaded carp exhibit plastic spawning traits in novel ecosystems that may facilitate invasion and establishment in a wider range of river conditions than previously envisaged.

  16. Energy sorghum--a genetic model for the design of C4 grass bioenergy crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullet, John; Morishige, Daryl; McCormick, Ryan; Truong, Sandra; Hilley, Josie; McKinley, Brian; Anderson, Robert; Olson, Sara N; Rooney, William

    2014-07-01

    Sorghum is emerging as an excellent genetic model for the design of C4 grass bioenergy crops. Annual energy Sorghum hybrids also serve as a source of biomass for bioenergy production. Elucidation of Sorghum's flowering time gene regulatory network, and identification of complementary alleles for photoperiod sensitivity, enabled large-scale generation of energy Sorghum hybrids for testing and commercial use. Energy Sorghum hybrids with long vegetative growth phases were found to accumulate more than twice as much biomass as grain Sorghum, owing to extended growing seasons, greater light interception, and higher radiation use efficiency. High biomass yield, efficient nitrogen recycling, and preferential accumulation of stem biomass with low nitrogen content contributed to energy Sorghum's elevated nitrogen use efficiency. Sorghum's integrated genetics-genomics-breeding platform, diverse germplasm, and the opportunity for annual testing of new genetic designs in controlled environments and in multiple field locations is aiding fundamental discovery, and accelerating the improvement of biomass yield and optimization of composition for biofuels production. Recent advances in wide hybridization between Sorghum and other C4 grasses could allow the deployment of improved genetic designs of annual energy Sorghums in the form of wide-hybrid perennial crops. The current trajectory of energy Sorghum genetic improvement indicates that it will be possible to sustainably produce biofuels from C4 grass bioenergy crops that are cost competitive with petroleum-based transportation fuels.

  17. Age, growth, and gonadal characteristics of adult bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, in the lower Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrank, S.J.; Guy, C.S.

    2002-01-01

    Bighead carp were introduced into Arkansas in 1973 to improve water clarity in production ponds. Bighead carp subsequently escaped aquaculture facilities in the early 1980's and dispersed into the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. The first documentation of bighead carp reproduction in the Mississippi River system was in 1989. The population has increased in the Missouri River as is evident in their increased proportion in the commercial harvest since 1990. The effect of this exotic planktivore on native ecosystems of the U.S. has not been examined. Basic biological data on bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis in the Missouri River are needed to predict potential ecological problems and provide a foundation for manipulative studies. The objectives of this study were to assess age, growth, and gonadal characteristics of bighead carp in the Missouri River. Adult bighead carp in our sample varied from age 3 to age 7 and length varied from 475 to 1050 mm. There was a large variation in length at age, and overall bighead carp exhibited fast growth. For example, mean back-calculated length at age 3 was 556 mm. The sample was dominated by bighead carp from the 1994 year class. There was no difference in gonad development (i.e., gonadal somatic index, egg diameter) between winter and spring samples. Length of male bighead carp and GSI were not significantly correlated; however, females exhibited a positive linear relationship between length and GSI. In each ovary, egg diameter frequencies exhibited a bimodal distribution, indicating protracted spawning. Mean fecundity was 226 213, with a maximum fecundity of 769 964. Bighead carp in the Missouri River have similar life history characteristics to Asian and European populations. They have become well established in the Missouri River and it is likely that dispersal and population density will increase.

  18. Suitability of Lake Erie for bigheaded carps based on bioenergetic models and remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Karl R.; Chapman, Duane C.; Wynne, Timothy; Masagounder, Karthik; Paukert, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Algal blooms in the Great Lakes are a potential food source for silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (H. nobilis; together bigheaded carps). Understanding these blooms thus plays an important role in understanding the invasion potential of bigheaded carps. We used remote sensing imagery, temperatures, and improved species specific bioenergetics models to determine algal concentrations sufficient for adult bigheaded carps. Depending on water temperature we found that bigheaded carp require between 2 and 7 μg/L chlorophyll or between 0.3 and 1.26 × 105cells/mL Microcystis to maintain body weight. Algal concentrations in the western basin and shoreline were found to be commonly several times greater than the concentrations required for weight maintenance. The remote sensing images show that area of sufficient algal foods commonly encompassed several hundred square kilometers to several thousands of square kilometers when blooms form. From 2002 to 2011, mean algal concentrations increased 273%–411%. This indicates Lake Erie provides increasingly adequate planktonic algal food for bigheaded carps. The water temperatures and algal concentrations detected in Lake Erie from 2008 to 2012 support positive growth rates such that a 4 kg silver carp could gain between 19 and 57% of its body weight in a year. A 5 kg bighead carp modeled at the same water temperatures could gain 20–81% of their body weight in the same period. The remote sensing imagery and bioenergetic models suggest that bigheaded carps would not be food limited if they invaded Lake Erie.

  19. Formation and biological characterization of three new types of improved crucian carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The improved tetraploids (G1×AT) were obtained by distant crossing and gynogenesis and the high-body individuals accounted for 2% among G1×AT. After mating with each other, the high-body in- dividuals produced three kinds of bisexual fertile diploid fishes: high-body red crucian carp, high-body fork-like-tails goldfish and gray common carp. The high-body red crucian carp mating with each other formed three types of improved crucian carp (ICC) including improved red crucian carp (IRCC), im- proved color crucian carp (ICCC) and improved gray crucian carp (IGCC). The phenotypes, chromo- some numbers, gonadal structure and fertility of the three kinds of ICC and their offspring were observed. All the three kinds of ICC possessed some improved phenotypes such as higher body, smaller head and shorter tail. The ratios of the body height to body length of IRCC, ICCC and IGCC were 0.54, 0.51 and 0.54, respectively. All of them were obviously higher than that of red crucian carp 0.41 (P<0.01). Three kinds of ICC had the same chromosome number as red crucian carp with 100 chromosomes. All the ICC possessed normal gonads producing mature eggs or sperm, which was important for the production of an improved diploid population. Compared with red crucian carp, all the ICC had stronger fertility such as higher gametes production, higher fertilization rate and higher hatchery rate. Three types of improved diploid fish population were generated from the three kinds of ICC by self-crossing, respectively. The ICC can serve as ornamental fish and edible fish. They are also ideal parents to produce triploids by mating with tetraploids. The new ICC plays an important role in biological evolution and fish genetic breeding.

  20. Formation and biological characterization of three new types of improved crucian carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Qin, QinBo; Chen, Song; Liu, ShaoJun; Duan, Wei; Liu, JinHui; Zhang, Chun; Luo, KaiKun; Xiao, Jun; Liu, Yun

    2008-06-01

    The improved tetraploids (G(1)xAT) were obtained by distant crossing and gynogenesis and the high-body individuals accounted for 2% among G(1)xAT. After mating with each other, the high-body individuals produced three kinds of bisexual fertile diploid fishes: high-body red crucian carp, high-body fork-like-tails goldfish and gray common carp. The high-body red crucian carp mating with each other formed three types of improved crucian carp (ICC) including improved red crucian carp (IRCC), improved color crucian carp (ICCC) and improved gray crucian carp (IGCC). The phenotypes, chromosome numbers, gonadal structure and fertility of the three kinds of ICC and their offspring were observed. All the three kinds of ICC possessed some improved phenotypes such as higher body, smaller head and shorter tail. The ratios of the body height to body length of IRCC, ICCC and IGCC were 0.54, 0.51 and 0.54, respectively. All of them were obviously higher than that of red crucian carp 0.41 (P<0.01). Three kinds of ICC had the same chromosome number as red crucian carp with 100 chromosomes. All the ICC possessed normal gonads producing mature eggs or sperm, which was important for the production of an improved diploid population. Compared with red crucian carp, all the ICC had stronger fertility such as higher gametes production, higher fertilization rate and higher hatchery rate. Three types of improved diploid fish population were generated from the three kinds of ICC by self-crossing, respectively. The ICC can serve as ornamental fish and edible fish. They are also ideal parents to produce triploids by mating with tetraploids. The new ICC plays an important role in biological evolution and fish genetic breeding.

  1. SOD FORM OF PERENNIAL GRASSES

    OpenAIRE

    Belyuchenko I. S.

    2014-01-01

    The article considers the peculiarities of turf and sod, specificity of formation of kidneys for regeneration, types of shoots, vegetative mobility and specificity of growth in certain conditions, turf grasses are divided into loosely-and tightly-turf characterized, by specific features of environmental, biological characteristics; forming turf from generative rosettes, elongated and shortened vegetative, side ground shoots, differing specificity of morphological, biochemical and fitocoenotic...

  2. Data on the parasite fauna of the European common carp Cyprinus carpio carpio and Asian common carp Cyprinus carpio haematopterus support an Asian ancestry of the species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalman Molnár

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The common carp subspecies (Cyprinus carpio carpio has been regarded as an autochtonous species of Europe. Evidence obtained by comparing the parasite fauna of the European and the Asian subspecies (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus establish that such fish in the Far East harbour a significantly richer array of parasite species, and were the exclusive hosts of most of the specific parasites, including all monogenean and myxosporean spp., until recent intensive fish translocations from the Far East. I therefore propose that the common carp originated in the Far-East. The commoncarp would have originally inhabited only the Far East freshwaters, arriving in Europe in the Middle Ages by anthropogenic transfers. During the long trip from China to Europe, the common carp lost its original parasite fauna. In its new habitat, it acquired some parasite from the crucian carp, Carassius carassius, a closely related fish. Infection of the European subspecies with the Asian parasites that had been lost in Europe recommenced only in the middle of the last century, when the Amur wild carp and the coloured carp variations became introduced to Europe. The examination of the parasite fauna of fishes is an excellent tool for surveying the origin of fishes.

  3. A comparative study of accumulated total mercury among white muscle, red muscle and liver tissues of common carp and silver carp from the Sanandaj Gheshlagh Reservoir in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshnamvand, Mehdi; Kaboodvandpour, Shahram; Ghiasi, Farzad

    2013-01-01

    The Sanandaj Gheshlagh Reservoir (SGR) is a mercury polluted lake that is located in the West of Iran. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) are the most abundant fishes in the SGR. A total of 48 common and silver carps (24 each) were captured randomly, using 50×6 m gill net (mesh size: 5×5 cm) during July to December 2009. Each month, the levels of accumulated total mercury (T-Hg) in white muscle, red muscle and liver tissues of these fishes were measured using an Advanced Mercury Analyzer (Model; Leco 254 AMA, USA) on the dry weight basis. There were no statistically significant differences between T-Hg concentrations in white muscle, red muscle and liver in common carp in comparison with similar tissues in silver carp (P>0.05). The content of T-Hg in liver tissue of both species was lower than of white and red muscle tissues. Higher levels of accumulated T-Hg were observed during summer. Results showed that T-Hg concentrations in common and silver carps target tissues were strongly dependent on age, length and weight (Ptissues of all samples with weights of over 850 g were greater than those limits established by WHO and FAO (500 ng g(-1)). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Combining ability of elephant grass based on nutritional characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Quitete Ribeiro da Silva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work was to evaluate the effects of general combining ability (CGC of the parents and specific combining ability (CEC in the elephant grass hybrids by diallel analysis adapted to partial diallel crosses based on nutritional characters. Sixteen hybrids and eight parents in a randomized block design with three replications were evaluated. The study considered percentage of dry matter (%DM, ash (%ASH, crude protein (%CP and neutral detergent fiber (NDF. There were significant differences among genotypes for the traits evaluated, with a predominance of dominance gene effect. Based on CGC, the best parents were Taiwan A-144, Vruckwona Africana e Taiwan A-146. The best intersections based on CEC were Taiwan A-144 x Taiwan A-146, Vruckwona Africana x Taiwan A-146, Vruckwona Africana x Mercker S.E.A., Vruckwona Africana x Napier nº2 e Pusa Napier nº2 x Mercker Santa Rita.

  5. Acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity in carp brain and muscle after acute exposure to diafuran Atividade da enzima acetilcolinesterase em cérebro e músculo de carpas após exposição aguda ao diafuran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Ineu Golombieski

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sublethal adverse effects may result from exposure of aquatic organisms to insecticides at environmentally relevant concentrations. Fingerlings of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus, 1758, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, Valenciennes, 1844, and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis, Richardson, 1845 were exposed to diafuran, an insecticide widely used during rice cultivation in Southern Brazil. The aim of this study was to verify the relationship between the lethal concentration (LC50 of diafuran and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity in brain and muscle tissues of these species as a possible early biomarker of exposure to this insecticide. LC50 was determined for fish exposed to diafuran concentrations during 96 h (short term: common carp: control, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 mg L-1; grass carp: control, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 3.5 mg L-1 and, bighead carp: control, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 mg L-1, as well as the determination of AChE at concentrations near LC50 for these species. LC50 values (nominal concentrations were 1.81 mg L-1 for the common carp, 2.71 mg L-1 for the grass carp and, 2.37 mg L-1 for the bighead carp. All carps exposed to diafuran were lethargic (lower concentrations or immobile. Diafuran inhibited the acetylcholinesterase activity in brain (~38% and muscle (~50% of all species. Muscle of bighead carp under control treatment showed higher specific AChE activity than brain (14.44 against 5.94 µmol min-1 g protein-1, respectively. Concentrations of diafuran used for rice cropping may affect Cyprinus carpio, Ctenopharyngodon idella and Aristichthys nobilis behaviors and the AChE activities in brain and muscle of these species may be an early biomarker of toxicity of this insecticide.Exposição a inseticidas em concentrações elevadas no ambiente podem ocasionar efeitos adversos subletais em organismos aquáticos. Alevinos de carpa húngara (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus, 1758, carpa capim (Ctenopharyngodon

  6. Symbiotic grasses: A review of basic biology of forage grass fungal endophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungal endophytes associated with grasses are the fundamental reason for the basic successes of several pasture grasses, notable tall fescues, and perennial ryegrass. Tall fescue and perennial ryegrass fungal endophytes, Neotyphodium coenophialum and N. lolii, respectively, and their relatives ...

  7. Persistence of Overseeded Cool-Season Grasses in Bermudagrass Turf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Serensits

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cool-season grass species are commonly overseeded into bermudagrass turf for winter color. When the overseeded grass persists beyond the spring; however, it becomes a weed. The ability of perennial ryegrass, Italian (annual ryegrass, intermediate ryegrass, and hybrid bluegrass to persist in bermudagrass one year after seeding was determined. Perennial ryegrass, intermediate ryegrass, and Italian ryegrass produced acceptable ground cover in the spring after fall seeding. Hybrid bluegrass did not establish well, resulting in unacceptable cover. Perennial ryegrass generally persisted the most one year after seeding, either because of summer survival of plants or because of new germination the following fall. Plant counts one year after seeding were greater in the higher seeding rate treatment compared to the lower seeding treatment rate of perennial ryegrass, suggesting new germination had occurred. Plant counts one year after seeding plots with intermediate ryegrass or Italian ryegrass were attributed primarily to latent germination and not summer survival. Applications of foramsulfuron generally did not prevent overseeded species stand one year after seeding, supporting the conclusion of new germination. Although quality is less with intermediate ryegrass compared to perennial ryegrass, it transitions out easier than perennial ryegrass, resulting in fewer surviving plants one year later.

  8. Multiple grass mixes as opposed to single grasses for allergen immunotherapy in allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangl, K; Niederberger, V; Valenta, R

    2013-11-01

    Grass pollen allergy affects approximately 40% of allergic patients. Subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy (SCIT) is the only allergen-specific and disease-modifying treatment available. Currently available therapeutic vaccines for the treatment of grass pollen allergy are based on natural grass pollen extracts which are either made from pollen of one cross-reactive grass species or from several related grass species. Clinical studies have shown that SCIT performed with timothy grass pollen extract is effective for the treatment of grass pollen allergy. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that recombinant timothy grass pollen allergens contain the majority of relevant epitopes and can be used for SCIT in clinical trials. However, recent in vitro studies have suggested that mixes consisting of allergen extracts from several related grass species may have advantages for SCIT over single allergen extracts. Here, we review current knowledge regarding the disease-relevant allergens in grass pollen allergy, available clinical studies comparing SCIT with allergen extracts from timothy grass or from mixes of several related grass species of the Pooideae subfamily, in vitro cross-reactivity studies performed with natural allergen extracts and recombinant allergens and SCIT studies performed with recombinant timothy grass pollen allergens. In vitro and clinical studies performed with natural allergen extracts reveal no relevant advantages of using multiple grass mixes as opposed to single grass pollen extracts. Several studies analysing the molecular composition of natural allergen extracts and the molecular profile of patients' immune responses after SCIT with allergen extracts indicate that the major limitation for the production of a high quality grass pollen vaccine resides in intrinsic features of natural allergen extracts which can only be overcome with recombinant allergen-based technologies.

  9. Carbon dioxide as a tool to deter the movement of invasive bigheaded carps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael R. Donaldson,; Amberg, Jon; Shivani Adhikari,; Cupp, Aaron R.; Jensen, Nathan; Romine, Jason G.; Adam Wright,; Gaikowski, Mark; Cory D. Suski,

    2016-01-01

    Nonnative bigheaded carps are established in the Mississippi River and there is substantial concern about their potential entry into the interconnected Laurentian Great Lakes. While electrical barriers currently exist as a preventative measure, there is need for additional control mechanisms to promote barrier security through redundancy. We tested the effectiveness of infused carbon dioxide gas (CO2) as a tool to influence the movement and behavior invasive bigheaded carps, namely Bighead CarpHypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp H. molitrix, as well as native Bigmouth BuffaloIctiobus cyprinellus, Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus, Paddlefish Polyodon spathula, and Yellow Perch Perca flavescens in an experimental pond. Individuals were monitored with acoustic telemetry before, during, and after CO2 addition to the pond. We noted distinct changes in fish behavior following CO2 addition. Each species except Paddlefish maintained farther distances from the CO2 infusion manifold relative to controls. Both bigheaded carp species had slower persistence velocities (persistence of a movement in a given direction) following CO2 infusion and Bighead Carp used a smaller area of the pond immediately after CO2 addition. Pond pH progressively decreased up to 1.5 units following CO2 infusion. This work provides evidence that could inform future research to enhance existing control measures used to deter high-risk invasive fishes, such as bigheaded carps.

  10. Predictive Management of Asian Carps in the Upper Mississippi River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondracek, Bruce C.; Carlson, Andrew K.

    2014-01-01

    Prolific non-native organisms pose serious threats to ecosystems and economies worldwide. Nonnative bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix), collectively referred to as Asian carps, continue to colonize aquatic ecosystems throughout the central United States. These species are r-selected, exhibiting iteroparous spawning, rapid growth, broad environmental tolerance, high density, and long-distance movement. Hydrological, thermal, and physicochemical conditions are favorable for establishment beyond the current range, rendering containment and control imperative. Ecological approaches to confine Asian carp populations and prevent colonization characterize contemporary management in the United States. Foraging and reproduction of Asian carps govern habitat selection and movement, providing valuable insight for predictive control. Current management approaches are progressive and often anticipatory but deficient in human dimensions. We define predictive management of Asian carps as synthesis of ecology and human dimensions at regional and local scales to develop strategies for containment and control. We illustrate predictive management in the Upper Mississippi River System and suggest resource managers integrate predictive models, containment paradigms, and human dimensions to design effective, socially acceptable management strategies. Through continued research, university-agency collaboration, and public engagement, predictive management of Asian carps is an auspicious paradigm for preventing and alleviating consequences of colonization in the United States.

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: gold crucian carp [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gold crucian carp Carassius auratus auratus Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Carassius_auratus_aura...tus_L.png Carassius_auratus_auratus_NL.png Carassius_auratus_auratus_S.png Carassius_auratus_aura...tus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=L http://bioscie...ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=NL http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=NS ...

  12. 应用RNAi技术构建的转基因鲤的检测分析%Detection and Analysis of Transgenic Common Carp with RNAi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫学春; 梁利群; 曹顶臣; 孙效文

    2013-01-01

    The eukaryotic expression vector including myostatin gene with H1 promoter were injected into the nuclear area in a zygote of common carp by microinjection technology and then a group of transgenic carps with RNAi phenotype was obtained.PCR and molecular hybridization detection revealed that the exon-gene was integrated into the receptor fish with integrated level of 32.78%.In the growth experiment,it was found that the transgenic fish had about 99% more rapid growth,22% higher body height,and 26% higher body width than common carp in the control group,in which 31.82% of individuals in the transgenic population had 60% higher body width than the ones in the control group.The findings indicated that the hairpin-type dsRNA expressed by the plasmid degraded the transcript products of myo and was useful in inhibition of the expression of its homologue genes in muscle cells and in improvement of the renew power of common carp muscles.This inhibited power was showed that the back muscle of common carp became wider,and body weight was increased,indicating that dsRNA transcripted and expressed by myo has RNAi effect in common carp.This experiment applies a new method to gain transgenic common carp with special functions.%将构建携带H1启动子的肌肉生长抑制基因的真核表达载体,通过显微注射技术导入鲤受精卵核区附近,获得了一批具有RNAi表型的转基因鲤,PCR和分子杂交检测证实外源基因整合到受体鱼的基因组中,阳性率为32.78%;一龄鱼的生长实验表明,转基因鲤比普通鲤平均生长快0.99倍,其体高和体厚分别平均增长0.22和0.26倍,其中有31.82%的群体平均体厚是普通鲤的1.6倍.结果显示,该质粒表达的发夹环型dsRNA可以有效降解其转录产物,对阻抑肌细胞中同源基因的表达、鲤肌肉的再生能力增强起到了重要作用.这种抑制作用表现为鲤背部肌肉增厚、体质量增加,说明该基

  13. Comparative genetics in the grasses

    OpenAIRE

    Gale, Michael D.; Devos, Katrien M.

    1998-01-01

    Genetic mapping of wheat, maize, and rice and other grass species with common DNA probes has revealed remarkable conservation of gene content and gene order over the 60 million years of radiation of Poaceae. The linear organization of genes in some nine different genomes differing in basic chromosome number from 5 to 12 and nuclear DNA amount from 400 to 6,000 Mb, can be described in terms of only 25 “rice linkage blocks.” The extent to which this intergenomic coli...

  14. Effect of individual grass species and grass species mixtures on soil quality as related to root biomass and grass yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekeren, van N.J.M.; Bos, M.; Wit, de J.; Keidel, H.; Bloem, J.

    2010-01-01

    For the purpose of feeding value, drought resistance and nitrogen utilization, other grasses (e.g. Festuca arundinacea and Dactylis glomerata) than the currently widely used perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne) are introduced in dairy farming, either as a monoculture or in a mixture. To study the ef

  15. A Walk in the "Tall, Tall Grass"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaatz, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    This inquiry-based lesson was inspired by Denise Fleming's book entitled, "In the Tall, Tall Grass" (1991). The author used the book and a real study of prairie grasses to teach kindergartners how to make careful observations and record what they see. In addition, they learn how to "draw as scientists." Here the author describes her class's yearly…

  16. Complete Genome of Bacillus subtilis Myophage Grass

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Stanton Y.; Colquhoun, Jennifer M.; Perl, Abbey L.; Chamakura, Karthik R.; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F.

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis is a ubiquitous Gram-positive model organism. Here, we describe the complete genome of B. subtilus myophage Grass. Aside from genes encoding core proteins pertinent to the life cycle of the phage, Grass has several interesting features, including an FtsK/SpoIIIE protein.

  17. Tree-grass interactions in savannas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholes, RJ

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available portions of the soil profile being used by tree roots occurs whether or not grasses are present. Conversely, grasses were capable of limiting water recharge of deeper soils on the fine-textured site, thus reducing Acacia growth. Stuart-Hill et al (164...

  18. Immunomodulation by Zearalenone in Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Constanze; Junge, Ranka; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) is a frequent contaminant of animal feeds, but its effects on fish have not yet been investigated extensively. In order to fill this gap a feeding trial with juvenile carp was conducted. Three groups of fish were fed feeds contaminated with ZEN at three concentrations (low: 332 μg kg−1, medium: 621 μg kg−1, and high: 797 μg kg−1 feed) for four weeks. Possible reversible effects of ZEN were evaluated by feeding additional groups with the ZEN-contaminated feeds for four weeks, followed by the uncontaminated diet for two weeks. Immune function of isolated leukocytes from head kidney and trunk kidney was assessed using the assessment of NO production, the respiratory burst assay, the chemiluminescence assay, and the measurement of arginase activities. These investigations frequently revealed increased immune responses after exposure of fish to low ZEN concentrations and reduced immune responses after exposure to high mycotoxin concentrations. Moreover, the feeding of the uncontaminated diet for further two weeks did not improve the immune responses in most cases. These results indicate that cellular immune functions in ZEN-contaminated carp are influenced which may be relevant for fish health in aquaculture. PMID:26491670

  19. Immunomodulation by Zearalenone in Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Pietsch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN is a frequent contaminant of animal feeds, but its effects on fish have not yet been investigated extensively. In order to fill this gap a feeding trial with juvenile carp was conducted. Three groups of fish were fed feeds contaminated with ZEN at three concentrations (low: 332 μg kg−1, medium: 621 μg kg−1, and high: 797 μg kg−1 feed for four weeks. Possible reversible effects of ZEN were evaluated by feeding additional groups with the ZEN-contaminated feeds for four weeks, followed by the uncontaminated diet for two weeks. Immune function of isolated leukocytes from head kidney and trunk kidney was assessed using the assessment of NO production, the respiratory burst assay, the chemiluminescence assay, and the measurement of arginase activities. These investigations frequently revealed increased immune responses after exposure of fish to low ZEN concentrations and reduced immune responses after exposure to high mycotoxin concentrations. Moreover, the feeding of the uncontaminated diet for further two weeks did not improve the immune responses in most cases. These results indicate that cellular immune functions in ZEN-contaminated carp are influenced which may be relevant for fish health in aquaculture.

  20. Hydrodynamic Analysis of C-start in Crucian Carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Jing; Xiezhen Yin; Xiyun Lu

    2004-01-01

    The kinematics of turning maneuvers of startled Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus) are presented. All escape responses observed are C-type fast-starts. The position of the center of mass and the moment of inertia of the fish are calculated.The results show that the position of the center of mass is always at 35 % of the length of the fish from the head and the position of the center of mass and moment of inertia can be considered unchanged during C-start of Crucian Carp. Hydrodynamic analysis of the C-start is given based on the kinematics data from our experiments. The C-start consists of three stages. In stage 1, the tail fin of fish rapidly flaps in one direction, and a large moment acts on the fish's body, which rotates around the center of mass with an angular acceleration. In stage 2, the tail fin flaps more slowly in the opposite direction at slower speed, the fish's body rotates around the center of mass with angular deceleration and the center of mass of the fish moves along an arc. In stage 3, the moment approximately equals zero, the fish's body stops rotating and the center of mass the moves along a straight line.

  1. SQ grass sublingual allergy immunotherapy tablet for disease-modifying treatment of grass pollen allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Ronald; Roberts, Graham; de Blic, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergy immunotherapy is a treatment option for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). It is unique compared with pharmacotherapy in that it modifies the immunologic pathways that elicit an allergic response. The SQ Timothy grass sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) tablet is approved in North...... America and throughout Europe for the treatment of adults and children (≥5 years old) with grass pollen-induced ARC. OBJECTIVE: The clinical evidence for the use of SQ grass SLIT-tablet as a disease-modifying treatment for grass pollen ARC is discussed in this review. METHODS: The review included...... the suitability of SQ grass SLIT-tablet for patients with clinically relevant symptoms to multiple Pooideae grass species, single-season efficacy, safety, adherence, coseasonal initiation, and cost-effectiveness. The data from the long-term SQ grass SLIT-tablet clinical trial that evaluated a clinical effect 2...

  2. The denitrification characteristics of Pseudomonas stutzeri SC221-M and its application to water quality control in grass carp aquaculture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Deng

    Full Text Available To reduce ammonium and nitrite in aquaculture water, an isolate of the denitrifying bacterium Pseudomonas stutzeri, SC221-M, was obtained. The effects of various nitrogen and carbon sources, the ratio of carbon to nitrogen and temperature on bacterial growth, denitrification rates and the expression levels of nirS and nosZ in SC221-M were studied. The following conditions were determined to be optimal for growth and denitrification in SC221-M: NaNO2 as the nitrogen source, sodium citrate as the carbon source, a carbon to nitrogen ratio range of 4-8, and a temperature range of 20-35°C. Subsequently, SC221-M and the Bacillus cereus BSC24 strain were selected to generate microbial preparations. The results showed that addition of the microbial preparations decreased various hydrochemical parameters, including total dissolved solids, ammonium, nitrite, total nitrogen and the chemical oxygen demand. Nitrogen removal rates were highest on day 9; the removal rates of BSC24, SC221-M, a mixed preparation and a 3× mixed preparation were 24.5%, 26.6%, 53.9% and 53.4%, respectively. The mixed preparation (SC221-M+BSC24 was more effective at removing nitrogen than either the SC221-M or BSC24 preparation. Roche 454 pyrosequencing and subsequent analysis indicated that the control and other groups formed separate clusters, and the microbial community structure in the water changed significantly after the addition of microbial preparations. These results indicate that the addition of microbial preparations can improve both the water quality and microbial community structure in an experimental aquaculture system. P. stutzeri strain SC221-M and its related microbial preparations are potential candidates for the regulation of water quality in commercial aquaculture systems.

  3. Cynatratoside-C efficacy against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, and toxicity tests on grass carp and mammal blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich), a ciliated protozoan parasite, results in high fish mortality and causes severe economic losses in aquaculture. To find new efficient anti-Ich agents, cynatratoside-C was isolated from Cynanchum atratum by bioassay-guided fractionation in a previous study. This st...

  4. Genomic insight into the common carp (Cyprinus carpio genome by sequencing analysis of BAC-end sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jintu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common carp is one of the most important aquaculture teleost fish in the world. Common carp and other closely related Cyprinidae species provide over 30% aquaculture production in the world. However, common carp genomic resources are still relatively underdeveloped. BAC end sequences (BES are important resources for genome research on BAC-anchored genetic marker development, linkage map and physical map integration, and whole genome sequence assembling and scaffolding. Result To develop such valuable resources in common carp (Cyprinus carpio, a total of 40,224 BAC clones were sequenced on both ends, generating 65,720 clean BES with an average read length of 647 bp after sequence processing, representing 42,522,168 bp or 2.5% of common carp genome. The first survey of common carp genome was conducted with various bioinformatics tools. The common carp genome contains over 17.3% of repetitive elements with GC content of 36.8% and 518 transposon ORFs. To identify and develop BAC-anchored microsatellite markers, a total of 13,581 microsatellites were detected from 10,355 BES. The coding region of 7,127 genes were recognized from 9,443 BES on 7,453 BACs, with 1,990 BACs have genes on both ends. To evaluate the similarity to the genome of closely related zebrafish, BES of common carp were aligned against zebrafish genome. A total of 39,335 BES of common carp have conserved homologs on zebrafish genome which demonstrated the high similarity between zebrafish and common carp genomes, indicating the feasibility of comparative mapping between zebrafish and common carp once we have physical map of common carp. Conclusion BAC end sequences are great resources for the first genome wide survey of common carp. The repetitive DNA was estimated to be approximate 28% of common carp genome, indicating the higher complexity of the genome. Comparative analysis had mapped around 40,000 BES to zebrafish genome and established over 3

  5. Vegetative hyphal fusion and subsequent nuclear behavior in Epichloe grass endophytes.

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    Jun-Ya Shoji

    Full Text Available Epichloë species (including the former genus Neotyphodium are fungal symbionts of many agronomically important forage grasses, and provide their grass hosts with protection from a wide range of biotic and abiotic stresses. Epichloë species include many interspecific hybrids with allodiploid-like genomes, which may provide the potential for combined traits or recombination to generate new traits. Though circumstantial evidence suggests that such interspecific hybrids might have arisen from nuclear fusion events following vegetative hyphal fusion between different Epichloë strains, this hypothesis has not been addressed empirically. Here, we investigated vegetative hyphal fusion and subsequent nuclear behavior in Epichloë species. A majority of Epichloë strains, especially those having a sexual stage, underwent self vegetative hyphal fusion. Vegetative fusion also occurred between two hyphae from different Epichloë strains. Though Epichloë spp. are uninucleate fungi, hyphal fusion resulted in two nuclei stably sharing the same cytoplasm, which might ultimately lead to nuclear fusion. In addition, protoplast fusion experiments gave rise to uninucleate putative hybrids, which apparently had two markers, one from each parent within the same nucleus. These results are consistent with the notion that interspecific hybrids arise from vegetative hyphal fusion. However, we also discuss additional factors, such as post-hybridization selection, that may be important to explain the recognized prevalence of hybrids in Epichloë species.

  6. Vegetative hyphal fusion and subsequent nuclear behavior in Epichloë grass endophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Jun-Ya; Charlton, Nikki D; Yi, Mihwa; Young, Carolyn A; Craven, Kelly D

    2015-01-01

    Epichloë species (including the former genus Neotyphodium) are fungal symbionts of many agronomically important forage grasses, and provide their grass hosts with protection from a wide range of biotic and abiotic stresses. Epichloë species include many interspecific hybrids with allodiploid-like genomes, which may provide the potential for combined traits or recombination to generate new traits. Though circumstantial evidence suggests that such interspecific hybrids might have arisen from nuclear fusion events following vegetative hyphal fusion between different Epichloë strains, this hypothesis has not been addressed empirically. Here, we investigated vegetative hyphal fusion and subsequent nuclear behavior in Epichloë species. A majority of Epichloë strains, especially those having a sexual stage, underwent self vegetative hyphal fusion. Vegetative fusion also occurred between two hyphae from different Epichloë strains. Though Epichloë spp. are uninucleate fungi, hyphal fusion resulted in two nuclei stably sharing the same cytoplasm, which might ultimately lead to nuclear fusion. In addition, protoplast fusion experiments gave rise to uninucleate putative hybrids, which apparently had two markers, one from each parent within the same nucleus. These results are consistent with the notion that interspecific hybrids arise from vegetative hyphal fusion. However, we also discuss additional factors, such as post-hybridization selection, that may be important to explain the recognized prevalence of hybrids in Epichloë species.

  7. On the number of genes controlling the grass stage in longleaf pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, C D; Weng, C; Kubisiak, T L; Stine, M; Brown, C L

    2003-01-01

    The grass stage is an inherent and distinctive developmental trait of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris), in which height growth in the first few years after germination is suppressed. In operational forestry practice the grass stage extends for two to several years and often plays a role in planting failures and decisions to plant alternative species. Interspecies hybrids involving loblolly (P. taeda) and slash (P. elliottii var. elliottii) pines have been investigated as a means to produce planting stock with improved early height growth and to develop backcross populations for advanced generation breeding. We have reevaluated data from several interspecies populations, with the objective of estimating the number of genes contributing to the difference in first-year height growth between longleaf and loblolly pines. Estimates based on means and variances of parental and interspecies hybrid and backcross families suggest a minimum of 4 to 10 genes with standard errors less than half the estimates. These results suggest that the grass stage has evolved through the accumulation of alleles at several loci, each with small effects on various components of first-year height growth. Given the complexity of the grass-stage trait, tree breeders may need to combine genetic marker analysis with recurrent backcross breeding to efficiently develop longleaf pine planting stock for improved reforestation.

  8. Carp Control Study - Control Methods and Their Application to Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study grew out of a need for information regarding alternative solutions to chemical control of carp in Malheur Lake. Of particular concern has been the...

  9. Assessment of microcystin concentration in carp and catfish: a case study from Lakshmikund pond, Varanasi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shweta; Asthana, Ravi Kumar

    2014-06-01

    The present study was conducted to analyse microcystin concentrations in Lakshmikund pond, Varanasi, India, as well as in carp and catfish of the pond. The concentrations of microcystin were found well above the WHO guidelines (1 µg/L) both for the dissolved and particulate fractions of bloom samples. The microcystin concentrations in different organs of carp and catfish were in the following sequence; liver > gut > kidney > gall bladder > gills > muscles and gut > liver > kidney > gall bladder > gills > muscles, respectively. The bioaccumulation of microcystin in carp and catfish was negatively correlated with body weight, and showed species specificity. The higher bioaccumulation of microcystin in muscles of catfish (>tenfold) over carp indicates a possible threat to human beings on consumption of catfish. Therefore, to avoid animal and human intoxication, routine analyses of microcystin in pond water as well as fishes are strongly recommended.

  10. FEEDING AND GROWHT OF CARP YEARLINGS AT THE DIRECTIONAL FORMATION OF NATURAL FOOD BASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Koba

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Feeding and growth of carp yearlings in nursery ponds of the experimental farm “Nyvka” at the directional formation of natural food base have been studied. It was found that application of methods of directional formation of natural food base, including fertilization of nursery ponds with different organic fertilizers, resulted in supplying juvenile carp with natural food. The content of live feed objects (zooplankton, zoobenthos in carp gut in the experiment was 48.3?50.4% versus 32.6% in the control. Survival of carp yearlings from stocked non?grown larvae was higher in the experiment and composed 31.5 - 48.6% versus 21.0 in the control; fish productivity was 326.0 - 736.3 kg/ha and 232.1 kg/ha, respectively.

  11. Radio Telemetry Study of Common Carp in Clear Lake, Iowa, To Guide Future Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The common carp