WorldWideScience

Sample records for hybrid grapevine rootstock

  1. Evaluation of Lime-induced Chlorosis Tolerance in New Rootstock Hybrids of Grapevine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    P. Pavloušek

    2009-01-01

    ...: length of annual shoots, chlorophyll content index (CCI) and leaf chlorosis score. The evaluated rootstock hybrids were combinations of North American Vitis spp. (V. berlandieri, V. riparia, V. rupestris, and V. cinerea...

  2. Naturalised Vitis rootstocks in Europe and consequences to native wild grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigo, Nils; Arnold, Claire

    2007-06-13

    The genus Vitis is represented by several coexisting species in Europe. Our study focuses on naturalised rootstocks that originate in viticulture. The consequences of their presence to the landscape and to native European species (Vitis vinifera ssp. silvestris) are evaluated. This study compares ecological traits (seven qualitative and quantitative descriptors) and the genetic diversity (10 SSR markers) of populations of naturalised rootstocks and native wild grapevines. 18 large naturalised rootstock populations were studied in the Rhône watershed. Wild European grapevines are present in four main habitats (screes, alluvial forests, hedges, and streamside hedges). In contrast, naturalised rootstock populations are mainly located in alluvial forests, but they clearly take advantage of alluvial system dynamics and connectivity at the landscape level. These latter populations appear to reproduce sexually, and show a higher genetic diversity than Vitis vinifera ssp. silvestris. The regrouping of naturalised rootstocks in interconnected populations tends to create active hybrid swarms of rootstocks. The rootstocks show characters of invasive plants. The spread of naturalised rootstocks in the environment, the acceleration of the decline of the European wild grapevine, and the propagation of genes of viticultural interest in natural populations are potential consequences that should be kept in mind when undertaking appropriate management measures.

  3. Naturalised Vitis rootstocks in Europe and consequences to native wild grapevine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Arrigo

    Full Text Available The genus Vitis is represented by several coexisting species in Europe. Our study focuses on naturalised rootstocks that originate in viticulture. The consequences of their presence to the landscape and to native European species (Vitis vinifera ssp. silvestris are evaluated. This study compares ecological traits (seven qualitative and quantitative descriptors and the genetic diversity (10 SSR markers of populations of naturalised rootstocks and native wild grapevines. 18 large naturalised rootstock populations were studied in the Rhône watershed. Wild European grapevines are present in four main habitats (screes, alluvial forests, hedges, and streamside hedges. In contrast, naturalised rootstock populations are mainly located in alluvial forests, but they clearly take advantage of alluvial system dynamics and connectivity at the landscape level. These latter populations appear to reproduce sexually, and show a higher genetic diversity than Vitis vinifera ssp. silvestris. The regrouping of naturalised rootstocks in interconnected populations tends to create active hybrid swarms of rootstocks. The rootstocks show characters of invasive plants. The spread of naturalised rootstocks in the environment, the acceleration of the decline of the European wild grapevine, and the propagation of genes of viticultural interest in natural populations are potential consequences that should be kept in mind when undertaking appropriate management measures.

  4. VARYING DEGREE OF GRAFTING COMPATIBILITY BETWEEN CV. CHARDONNAY, MERLOT AND DIFFERENT GRAPEVINE ROOTSTOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavica TODIĆ

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Level of affi nity between grapevine rootstock and Vitis vinifera as scion, quality of reproductive materials and technological actions in grapevine rootstock production process determine success in grapevine rootstock production in large extent. Practical training showed that difference in level of compatibility between grapevine rootstock and grafted Vitis vinifera cultivars are existing. Direct effects of these differences are unequal yield of fi rst class grafted grapevine rootlings. In this paper, level of compatibility in nursery between clones of cv. Chardonnay BCL 75, VCR4 and cv. Merlot R18, MCL 519 and grapevine rootstocks Kober 5BB (Vitis berlandieri x V. riparia, SO4 (V. berlandieri x V. riparia and 41B (Chasselas x V.berlandieri were investigated. The trial was conducted in commercial grapevine nursery located in Velika Drenova, Serbia. As an index of compatibility, grade of high quality grapevine grafted rootlings, dry matter in mature shoots and root system development were used. Grafting was done by `tongue grafting` indoor technique. Stratifi cation was done in sand, on temperature of the stratifi cation material of 26-28oC, and humidity of around 90%. Grafted cuttings were waxed twice: before stratifi cation, and before planting in the nursery. Grafted rootlings were classed in two classes according to regulations of quality, (Yugoslav Offi cial Register, 26/79. Grafted rootlings that did not satisfi ed standard criteria were discarded. Both clones of cv. Chardonnay gave the highest percentage of I class grafted rootlings on grapevine rootstock 41B: clone BCL 75 – 60% and clone VCR4 – 61%. In the same combination, those grapevine grafted rootlings had the highest weight of the root system. Lower percentage of obtained I class grafted rootlings was established on rootstock Kober 5BB, while statistically signifi cantly lower yields were obtained on grapevine rootstock SO4: clone BCL75 – 43% and clone VCR4 – 48%. Dry

  5. Grapevine rootstock effects on scion sap phenolic levels, resistance to Xylella fastidiosa infection, and progression of Pierce’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    The xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) causes Pierce’s disease (PD), an important disease of grapevine, Vitis vinifera L. Grapevine rootstocks were developed to provide increased resistance to root disease, but rootstock effects on cane and vine diseases remain unclear. Grapevines that ...

  6. [Physiological and biochemical responses of different scion/rootstock combinations grapevine to partial rootzone drought].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wei; Li, En-Mao; Zhai, Heng; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Du, Yuan-Peng

    2008-02-01

    By using self-made wooden boxes with two separated zones, the grapevine Vitis vinifera cv. Malvasia (M) grafted on rootstocks 3309C, 420A and 110R, respectively, was planted, and the physiological and biochemical responses of these scion/rootstock combinations to bilateral alternative irrigation (AI) and unilateral irrigation (UI) were studied. The results showed that in treatments AI and UI, the average leaf ABA content of test scion/rootstock combinations increased by 267.5% and 394.7%, respectively, while stomatal conduction and transpiration decreased markedly. In treatment UI, the leaf SOD and CAT activities and Pro content were notably enhanced, with the greatest increment in M/110R and followed by in M/420A and M/3309C; while in treatment AI, the leaf SOD and CAT activities of test scion/rootstock combinations enhanced slightly and Pro content increased markedly. UI induced a remarkable increase of leaf relative electronic conductivity and MDA and H2O2 contents, with the highest increment in M/3309C and the lowest in M/110R. In summary, the drought resistance of different scion/rootstock combinations grapevine mainly depended on the variety of rootstock. 110R had a higher drought-resistance than 420A and 3309C. Comparing with unilateral irrigation, bilateral alternative irrigation had lesser damage to grapevine, being a profitable water-saving irrigation technique.

  7. Grafting with rootstocks induces extensive transcriptional re-programming in the shoot apical meristem of grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, Sarah Jane; Ollat, Nathalie

    2013-10-02

    Grafting is widely used in the agriculture of fruit-bearing crops; rootstocks are known to confer differences in scion biomass in addition to improving other traits of agricultural interest. However, little is known about the effect of rootstocks on scion gene expression. The objective of this study was to determine whether hetero-grafting the grapevine variety Vitis vinifera cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon N' with two different rootstocks alters gene expression in the shoot apex in comparison to the auto-grafted control. Cabernet Sauvignon was hetero-grafted with two commercial rootstock genotypes and auto-grafted with itself. Vigor was quantified by measurements of root, stem, leaf and trunk biomass. Gene expression profiling was done using a whole genome grapevine microarray; four pools of five shoot apex samples were harvested 4 months after grafting for each scion/rootstock combination. The rootstocks increased stem biomass or conferred increased vigor by the end of the first growth cycle. Globally hetero-grafting two different genotypes together triggered an increase in shoot apex gene expression; however no genes were differentially expressed between the two hetero-grafts. The functional categories related to DNA, chromatin structure, histones, flavonoids and leucine rich repeat containing receptor kinases were the most enriched in the up-regulated genes in the shoot apex of hetero-grafted plants. The choice of rootstock genotype had little effect on the gene expression in the shoot apex; this could suggest that auto- and hetero-grafting was the major factor regulating gene expression.

  8. ROOTSTOCK-SCION INTERACTION: 1. EFFECT ON THE YIELD COMPONENTS OF CABERNET SAUVIGNON GRAPEVINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBERTO MIELE

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The interaction between rootstock, scion and environment can induce different responses to the grapevine physiology. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the rootstock effect on the yield components of Cabernet Sauvignon (CS grapevine grown in the Serra Gaúcha viticultural region. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks, with 15 treatments, three replicates and ten vines per plot. The results show that all variables evaluated were significantly affected by the year and the rootstock. The CS/Solferino was among other combinations influenced by the year and had higher significant yield/ vine. Indeed, it was higher than that CS/Rupestris du Lot, CS/101-14 Mgt., CS/3309 C, CS/5BB K, CS/161- 49 C, CS/1103 P. and CS/Isabel. The number of clusters/bud, per burst bud and per vine and the weight of clusters were affected by the rootstock as well. Pruning weight/vine, yield/pruning weight, leaf area/vine, leaf area index and leaf area/fresh fruit weight are variables related to the physiology of grapevine which were also affected by the rootstock. In general, rootstocks had adapted well to the environment where the experiment was carried out, giving vigor and high yield to Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine, which means that they may be used by grape growers in this region. However, the choice of the right rootstock depends on various aspects, such as those related to the soil characteristics, climate conditions, grape varieties, and even clones, and production purposes.

  9. Comparative response of six grapevine rootstocks to inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi based on root traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogiatzis, Antreas; Bowen, Pat; Hart, Miranda; Holland, Taylor; Klironomos, John

    2017-04-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis has been proven to be essential in grapevines, sustaining plant growth especially under abiotic and biotic stressors. The mycorrhizal growth response of young grapevines varies among rootstock cultivars and the underlying mechanisms involved in this variation are unknown. We predicted that this variation in mycorrhizal response may be explained by differences in root traits among rootstocks. We analyzed the entire root system of six greenhouse-grown rootstocks (Salt Creek, 3309 Couderc, Riparia Gloire, 101-14 Millardet et de Grasset, Swarzmann, Teleki 5C), with and without AM fungal inoculation (Rhizophagus irregularis) and characterized their morphological and architectural responses. Twenty weeks after the inoculation, aboveground growth was enhanced by AM colonization. The rootstock varieties were distinctly different in their response to AM fungi, with Salt Creek receiving the highest growth benefit, while Schwarzmann and 5C Teleki receiving the lowest. Plant responsiveness to AM fungi was negatively correlated with branching intensity (fine roots per root length). Furthermore, there was evidence that mycorrhizas can influence the expression of root traits, inducing a higher branching intensity and a lower root to shoot ratio. The results of this study will help to elucidate how interactions between grapevine rootstocks and AM fungi may benefit the establishment of new vineyards.

  10. Relationship between Nacl Concentration of the Irrigation Water and the Plants Moisture Content of Four Antiphylloxeric Rootstocks of Grapevine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    FATBARDHA SHPATI; LUSH SUSAJ; ELISABETA SUSAJ

    2016-01-01

    Study for the relationship between whole plant moisture content and the shoot hardwood cuttings and NaCl concentration of four antiphylloxeric rootstocks of grapevine was conducted during 2014 -2015...

  11. Root Proteomic Analysis of Grapevine Rootstocks Inoculated with Rhizophagus irregularis and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. herbemontis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Vilvert

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Grapevine decline and death caused by the pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. herbemontis is among the main phytosanitary problem for viticulture in southern Brazil. The eradication of infected plants is presently the most common procedure for disease control in vineyards. Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is an option to reduce or neutralize the negative impacts of soil pathogenic microorganisms, but the mechanisms of plant response involved in this process are not yet completely elucidated. In order to better understand these mechanisms, an experiment was carried out to identify proteins related to plant defence induced by the mycorrhizal fungus after infection with the pathogenic fungus. We used the grapevine rootstocks SO4 and R110 (susceptible and resistant to the pathogenic fungus, respectively inoculated or not inoculated with the mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis, and inoculated or not inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. herbemontis. Growth of the rootstocks’ shoot and root and presence of pathogenic symptoms were evaluated. The protein profiles of roots were characterized by two-dimensional electrophoresis and proteins were identified using mass spectrometry. The grapevine rootstocks inoculated with R. irregularis had higher biomass production and lower level of pathogenic symptoms. The R110 rootstock differentially accumulated 73 proteins, while SO4 accumulated 59 proteins. Nine plant-defence proteins were expressed by SO4 rootstock, and six were expressed by R110 rootstock plants. The results confirm the effect of mycorrhizal fungi in plant growth promotion and their potential for biological control against soil pathogenic fungus. Protein expression is dependent on rootstock characteristics and on the combination of plant material with the fungi.

  12. Occurrence fungi causing black foot on young grapevines and nursery rootstock plants in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia CARLUCCI

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Young grapevine plants with decline and wood necrosis symptoms were collected from vineyards and nurseries in the Apulia and Molise regions, Italy, from 2013 to 2015. Isolations of fungi were prepared from 45 diseased grapevine plants, and the cultures were identified. Several species commonly associated with Petri disease, Botryosphaeria dieback, and black foot disease were isolated. A detailed study was carried out, and 182 isolates resembling Cylindrocarpon-like asexual forms were identified through morphological characterisation and DNA analysis of internal transcribed spacer regions 1 and 2 of the rRNA gene and the partial β-tubulin gene. Dactylonectria torrensensis and Ilyonectria liriodendri were identified based on morphological features and the partial histone 3 gene, so these fungi can be defined as the causal agents of black foot on grapevine for the first time in Italy. Thelonectria blackeriella is also described as a new species, through morphological characterisation and multigenic analysis using sequence data for five loci (large subunit RNA, internal transcribed spacers, β-tubulin, actin, RNA polymerase II subunit 1. This new species was associated with black foot symptoms according to preliminary pathogenicity tests, with representative isolates of each of the three species. Pathogenicity tests showed that these species can cause black streaking in the wood of 1-year-old grapevine rootstock shoots. The identification of D. torresensis, I. liriodendri and T. blackeriella from young grapevine plants and rooted rootstock highlights the importance of black foot disease in Italy, which has previously been overlooked.

  13. Grapevine rootstock effects on scion sap phenolic levels, resistance to Xylella fastidiosa infection, and progression of Pierce's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Christopher M; Wallingford, Anna K; Chen, Jianchi

    2013-01-01

    The xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) causes Pierce's disease (PD), an important disease of grapevine, Vitis vinifera L. Grapevine rootstocks were developed to provide increased resistance to root disease, but rootstock effects on cane and vine diseases remain unclear. Grapevines that consisted of Cabernet Sauvignon or Chardonnay grafted to 13 different rootstocks were inoculated with Xf and evaluated for PD severity and Xf titer after 6 months. A subset of six rootstock/scion combinations had xylem sap phenolic levels assessed in non-infected and Xf-infected grapevines. Vigor also was analyzed by measuring root lengths and masses. Cabernet Sauvignon grafted to 101-14MG, 1103P, 420A, or Schwarzmann had reduced PD severity compared to Cabernet Sauvignon grafted to 110R, 5BB, or SO4. Chardonnay grafted to Salt Creek or Freedom had reduced PD severity compared to Chardonnay grafted to RS3 or Schwarzmann. Chardonnay grafted to RS3 had greater Xf titer than Chardonnay grafted to 101-14MG, Freedom, or Salt Creek. No other differences in Xf titer among rootstocks were observed. Of the six scion/rootstock combinations which had xylem sap phenolics analyzed, Chardonnay/RS3 had the highest levels of most phenolics whereas Cabernet Sauvignon/101-14MG had the lowest phenolic levels. However, Chardonnay/101-14MG, which had mild PD symptoms, had greater sap levels of caftaric acid than other scion/rootstock combinations. Sap levels of caftaric acid, methyl salicylate, a procyanidin trimer, and quinic acid were greater in Xf-infected vs. non-infected grapevines. Chardonnay on 101-14MG or Salt Creek had greater root mass than Chardonnay on RS3. Cabernet Sauvignon on 101-14MG had greater root mass than Cabernet Sauvignon on 110R. These results identified rootstocks with the capacity for reducing PD symptom progression. Rootstocks also were shown to affect Xf titer, xylem sap phenolic levels, and plant vigor.

  14. Grapevine rootstock effects on scion sap phenolic levels, resistance to Xylella fastidiosa infection, and progression of Pierce’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Michael Wallis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf causes Pierce’s disease (PD, an important disease of grapevine, Vitis vinifera L.. Grapevine rootstocks were developed to provide increased resistance to root disease, but rootstock effects on cane and vine diseases remain unclear. Grapevines that consisted of Cabernet Sauvignon or Chardonnay grafted to 13 different rootstocks were inoculated with Xf and evaluated for PD severity and Xf titer after six months. A subset of six rootstock/scion combinations had xylem sap phenolic levels assessed in non-infected and Xf-infected grapevines. Vigor also was analyzed by measuring root lengths and masses. Cabernet Sauvignon grafted to 101-14MG, 1103P, 420A, or Schwarzmann had reduced PD severity compared to Cabernet Sauvignon grafted to 110R, 5BB, or SO4. Chardonnay grafted to Salt Creek or Freedom had reduced PD severity compared to Chardonnay grafted to RS3 or Schwarzmann. Chardonnay grafted to RS3 had greater Xf titer than Chardonnay grafted to 101-14MG, Freedom, or Salt Creek. No other differences in Xf titer among rootstocks were observed. Of the six scion/rootstock combinations which had xylem sap phenolics analyzed, Chardonnay/ RS3 had the highest levels of most phenolics whereas Cabernet Sauvignon/101-14MG had the lowest phenolic levels. However, Chardonnay/101-14MG, which had mild PD symptoms, had greater sap levels of caftaric acid than other scion/rootstock combinations. Sap levels of caftaric acid, methyl salicylate, a procyanidin trimer, and quinic acid were greater in Xf-infected versus non-infected grapevines. Chardonnay on 101-14MG or Salt Creek had greater root mass than Chardonnay on RS3. Cabernet Sauvignon on 101-14MG had greater root mass than Cabernet Sauvignon on 110R. These results identified rootstocks with the capacity for reducing PD symptom progression. Rootstocks also were shown to affect Xf titer, xylem sap phenolic levels, and plant vigor.

  15. Physiological characterization of grapevine rootstocks grown in soil with increasing zinc doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovani Zalamena

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study aimed to evaluate the performance of grapevine rootstocks under increasing levels of Zn in the soil and to identify physiological variables that can be used as indicators of excess of Zn in the soil. The rootstocks SO4, Paulsen1103, IAC572, IAC313 and 420A were grown in pots containing soil, which received Zn doses of 0, 20, 40, 80 or 160 mg kg-1 of soil. Dry matter (DM, Zn content in shoots and roots, chlorophyll index, initial fluorescence (Fo, maximum fluorescence (Fm, maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm, effective quantum yield of photosystem II (Y-II and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ were evaluated. The increase of Zn levels in the soil decreased DM in all rootstocks, and IAC572 was superior to the others. The variation in the indices of chlorophyll a and b had little expression in relation the soil Zn levels, but allowed identifying that the rootstocks Paulsen 1103, 420A and SO4 are sensitive to Zn toxicity and that IAC572 and IAC313 were not sensitive to the tested levels. Fluorescence analysis showed a negative effect of Zn contents on the variables Fo, Fm, Y-II and NPQ in all rootstocks, which proved to be good indicators of Zn phytotoxicity.

  16. Transcriptional Characterization of a Widely-Used Grapevine Rootstock Genotype under Different Iron-Limited Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannozzi, Alessandro; Donnini, Silvia; Vigani, Gianpiero; Corso, Massimiliano; Valle, Giorgio; Vitulo, Nicola; Bonghi, Claudio; Zocchi, Graziano; Lucchin, Margherita

    2016-01-01

    Iron chlorosis is a serious deficiency that affects orchards and vineyards reducing quality and yield production. Chlorotic plants show abnormal photosynthesis and yellowing shoots. In grapevine iron uptake and homeostasis are most likely controlled by a mechanism known as "Strategy I," characteristic of non-graminaceous plants and based on a system of soil acidification, iron reduction and transporter-mediated uptake. Nowadays, grafting of varieties of economic interest on tolerant rootstocks is widely used practice against many biotic and abiotic stresses. Nevertheless, many interspecific rootstocks, and in particular those obtained by crossing exclusively non-vinifera genotypes, can show limited nutrient uptake and transport, in particular for what concerns iron. In the present study, 101.14, a commonly used rootstock characterized by susceptibility to iron chlorosis was subjected to both Fe-absence and Fe-limiting conditions. Grapevine plantlets were grown in control, Fe-deprived, and bicarbonate-supplemented hydroponic solutions. Whole transcriptome analyses, via mRNA-Seq, were performed on root apices of stressed and unstressed plants. Analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) confirmed that Strategy I is the mechanism responsible for iron uptake in grapevine, since many orthologs genes to the Arabidopsis "ferrome" were differentially regulated in stressed plant. Molecular differences in the plant responses to Fe absence and presence of bicarbonate were also identified indicating the two treatments are able to induce response-mechanisms only partially overlapping. Finally, we measured the expression of a subset of genes differentially expressed in 101.14 (such as IRT1, FERRITIN1, bHLH38/39) or known to be fundamental in the "strategy I" mechanism (AHA2 and FRO2) also in a tolerant rootstock (M1) finding important differences which could be responsible for the different degrees of tolerance observed.

  17. Transcriptional Characterization of a Widely-Used Grapevine Rootstock Genotype under Different Iron-Limited Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannozzi, Alessandro; Donnini, Silvia; Vigani, Gianpiero; Corso, Massimiliano; Valle, Giorgio; Vitulo, Nicola; Bonghi, Claudio; Zocchi, Graziano; Lucchin, Margherita

    2017-01-01

    Iron chlorosis is a serious deficiency that affects orchards and vineyards reducing quality and yield production. Chlorotic plants show abnormal photosynthesis and yellowing shoots. In grapevine iron uptake and homeostasis are most likely controlled by a mechanism known as “Strategy I,” characteristic of non-graminaceous plants and based on a system of soil acidification, iron reduction and transporter-mediated uptake. Nowadays, grafting of varieties of economic interest on tolerant rootstocks is widely used practice against many biotic and abiotic stresses. Nevertheless, many interspecific rootstocks, and in particular those obtained by crossing exclusively non-vinifera genotypes, can show limited nutrient uptake and transport, in particular for what concerns iron. In the present study, 101.14, a commonly used rootstock characterized by susceptibility to iron chlorosis was subjected to both Fe-absence and Fe-limiting conditions. Grapevine plantlets were grown in control, Fe-deprived, and bicarbonate-supplemented hydroponic solutions. Whole transcriptome analyses, via mRNA-Seq, were performed on root apices of stressed and unstressed plants. Analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) confirmed that Strategy I is the mechanism responsible for iron uptake in grapevine, since many orthologs genes to the Arabidopsis “ferrome” were differentially regulated in stressed plant. Molecular differences in the plant responses to Fe absence and presence of bicarbonate were also identified indicating the two treatments are able to induce response-mechanisms only partially overlapping. Finally, we measured the expression of a subset of genes differentially expressed in 101.14 (such as IRT1, FERRITIN1, bHLH38/39) or known to be fundamental in the “strategy I” mechanism (AHA2 and FRO2) also in a tolerant rootstock (M1) finding important differences which could be responsible for the different degrees of tolerance observed. PMID:28105035

  18. Messenger RNA exchange between scions and rootstocks in grafted grapevines

    Science.gov (United States)

    We demonstrated the existence of genome-scale mRNA exchange in grafted grapevines, a woody fruit species with significant economic importance. By using diagnostic SNPs derived from high throughput genome sequencing, we identified more than three thousand genes transporting mRNAs across graft junctio...

  19. Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine grafted onto rootstocks during the autumn-winter season in southeastern Brazilian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rita de Souza

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The change of grape (Vitis vinifera harvest from summer to winter through double pruning management has improved the fine wine quality in southern Brazil. High altitude, late cultivar and grafting combination all need to be investigated to optimize this new viticulture management. For this purpose, this study was carried out during the 2011 and 2012 growing seasons in a high altitude region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using eight grafting combinations for five year old Cabernet Sauvignon vines. The stem water potential, photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance were not affected by rootstock type. The rootstocks IAC 766 and 101-14 induced, respectively, the highest and lowest vegetative vigor in Cabernet Sauvignon, as shown by leaf area and pruning weight. In the 2011 growing season, the leaf chlorophyll contents were increased in IAC 766, whereas vines grafted onto 101-14 accumulated more leaf starch, probably due to reduced vegetative and reproductive growth. In general, rootstocks K5BB, 1045P, SO4 and IAC 766 had the highest yield as compared to 1103P and 101-14. Berries from the grapevine with the highest yield did not differ in pH, total soluble solids and acidity. The rootstocks did not influence the anthocyanins and total phenols in both growing seasons. Quality parameters were better in the 2011 than in the 2012 growing season due to better climatic conditions, mainly less rainfall. The best performance of Cabernet Sauvignon was achieved when grafted onto K5BB, 1045P, SO4 and IAC 766 rootstocks.

  20. Influence of rootstocks and pruning times on yield and on nutrient content and extraction in 'Niagara Rosada' grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Tecchio

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of rootstocks and pruning times on yield and on nutrient content and extraction by pruned branches and harvested bunches of 'Niagara Rosada' grapevine in subtropical climate. The rootstocks 'IAC 766', 'IAC 572', 'IAC 313', 'IAC 571-6', and '106-8 Mgt' were evaluated. Treatments consisted of a combination between five rootstocks and three pruning times. At pruning, fresh and dry matter mass of branches were evaluated to estimate biomass accumulation. At harvest, yield was estimated by weighing of bunches per plant. Branches and bunches were sampled at pruning and at harvest, respectively, for nutrient content analysis. Nutrient content and dry matter mass of branches and bunches were used to estimate total nutrient extraction. 'Niagara Rosada' grapevine grafted onto the 'IAC 572' rootstock had the highest yield and dry matter mass of bunches, which were significantly different from the ones observed in 'Niagara Rosada'/'IAC 313'. 'Niagara Rosada' grafted onto the 'IAC 572' rootstock extracted the largest quantity of K, P, Mg, S, Cu, and Fe, differing from 'IAC 313' and 'IAC 766' in K and P extraction, and from '106-8 Mgt' in Mg and S extraction. Winter pruning results in higher yield, dry matter accumulation by branches, and total nutrient content and extraction.

  1. Relationship between Nacl Concentration of the Irrigation Water and the Plants Moisture Content of Four Antiphylloxeric Rootstocks of Grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FATBARDHA SHPATI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Study for the relationship between whole plant moisture content and the shoot hardwood cuttings and NaCl concentration of four antiphylloxeric rootstocks of grapevine was conducted during 2014 -2015 at the Experimental Base of the Agricultural University of Tirana. Rooted rootstock’s cuttings were irrigated using normal tap water up to July 20, and, after that, for 45 days, were irrigated using sodium chloride solucion in six different concentrations [control (normal tap water, 2000, 4000, 6000, 8000, and 10000 ppm]. Obtained results showed that with the increase of NaCl concentration, the whole plant moisture content and the hardwood cuttings, was decreased for all rootstocks under study. For the same NaCl concentration, the moisture content of the entire plants and shoot hardwood cuttings were different for different rootstocks. Ranking of rootstocks, according to the plant moisture content, was 1103P (83.2-83.6%, followed by 140Ru (79.5-79.8%, SO4 (79.3-79.5% and Kober 5BB (79.03-79.2%. The moisture content of shoot hardwood cuttings was lower than moisture content of the whole plant. Ranking of the rootstocks, according to the moisture content of hardwood cuttings, was 1103P (58.2-58.4%, 140Ru (59.8-59.9%, Kober 5BB (55.6-55.9% and SO4 (54.9-55%. Ampelographic assessment of the resistance of the rootstocks to chlorides (salt was carried out using OIV Code 402. Rootstock SO4 was more sensitive and less resistant to sodium chloride concentration compare to 1103 P, 140Ru and Kober 5BB. There were significant differences (p ≤ 0.01 in plant moisture content between NaCl treatments and tested rootstocks.

  2. Mapping genetic loci for tolerance to lime-induced iron deficiency chlorosis in grapevine rootstocks (Vitis sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert, Pierre-François; Bordenave, Louis; Donnart, Martine; Hévin, Cyril; Ollat, Nathalie; Decroocq, Stéphane

    2013-02-01

    Iron is essential to plants for chlorophyll formation as well as for the functioning of various iron-containing enzymes. Iron deficiency chlorosis is a wide-spread disorder of plants, in particular, of those growing on calcareous soils. Among the different ways to control iron deficiency problems for crops, plant material and especially rootstock breeding is a suitable and reliable method, especially for fruit trees and grapes. The aim of the experiment was to characterize the genetic basis of grapevine chlorosis tolerance under lime stress conditions. A segregating population of 138 F1 genotypes issued from an inter-specific cross between Vitis vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon (tolerant) × V. riparia Gloire de Montpellier (sensitive) was developed and phenotyped both as cuttings and as rootstock grafted with Cabernet Sauvignon scions in pots containing non-chlorosing and chlorosing soils. Tolerance was evaluated by chlorosis score, leaf chlorophyll content and growth parameters of the shoots and roots. The experiments were performed in 2001, 2003 and 2006. The plants analysed in 2006 were reassessed in 2007. The most significant findings of the trial were: (a) the soil properties strongly affect plant development, (b) there are differences in tolerance among segregating genotypes when grown as cuttings or as rootstocks on calcareous soil, (c) calcareous conditions induced chlorosis and revealed quantitative trait loci (QTLs) implicated in polygenic control of tolerance, (d) rootstock strongly contributes to lime-induced chlorosis response, and (e) a QTL with strong effect (from 10 to 25 % of the chlorotic symptom variance) was identified on chromosome 13. This QTL colocalized with a QTL for chlorophyll content (R (2) = 22 %) and a major QTL for plant development that explains about 50 % of both aerial and root system biomass variation. These findings were supported by stable results among the different years of experiment. These results open new insights into the

  3. Prunus hybrids rootstocks for flat peach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Legua

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Peach (Prunus persica L. is the most important stone fruit tree grown in Spain and is the second most important fruit crop in Europe. The influence of eight Prunus rootstocks (GF-677, Krymsk® 86, PADAC 97-36, PADAC 99-05, PADAC 9912-03, PADAC 0024-01, PAC 0021-01 and PAC 0022-01 on vigor, yield and fruit quality traits of 'UFO 3' flat peach cultivar was studied. The highest trunk cross sectional area was exhibited by GF-677 and the lowest by PADAC 99-05, while intermediate values were found on the other rootstocks. The highest yield efficiency was found on PADAC 99-05, PAC 0021-01, PAC 0022-01 and PADAC 0024-01 and the lowest was shown on Krymsk® 86. The fruit quality parameters measured were color, fruit and stone weights, equatorial diameter, pulp thickness, pulp yield, firmness, pH, soluble solids content and titratable acidity. 'UFO 3' grafted on GF-677 resulted in the largest fruit weight, while the smallest was on PADAC 99-05. Fruits of 'UFO 3' showed a tendency to have higher firmness, higher red colored skin and RI when grafted on PADAC 99-05.

  4. Trifoliata hybrids rootstocks for 'Lane Late' navel orange in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Legua

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Carrizo citrange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.] and Cleopatra mandarin (C. reshni Hort. ex Tan. are the most important rootstocks used in Spain, but they are problematic and it is necessary to search for new rootstocks with better all-round performance. The performance of 'Lane Late' navel orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osb] on ten rootstocks was determined in the South of the province of Alicante (Spain. They are Carrizo citrange, Cleopatra mandarin and eight new hybrids obtained at the Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias in Valencia (Spain: 020324 [Troyer citrange (C. sinensis × P. trifoliata × Cleopatra mandarin], Forner-Alcaide 418 (F&A 418 [Troyer citrange × common mandarin (C. deliciosa Ten.], Forner-Alcaide 13 (F&A 13, 030118, 030127 and 030131 (Cleopatra mandarin × P. trifoliata and 030212 and 030230 (Cleopatra mandarin × Troyer citrange. Soil is clay loam, with pH 8.5 and electric conductivity in the saturation extract at 25ºC of 5.79 mS cm-1. Yield was weighed during the first nine harvests, fruit quality was determined in the last three. Pre-harvest fruit-drop was controlled for the 4th until 9th harvests. The trees of 'Lane Late' navel budded on Cleopatra mandarin were the tallest (2.5 m and F&A 418 (1.6 m the shortest of all rootstocks tested. Trees on 030131 hybrid and Carrizo citrange rootstocks had the highest mean yield (81.2 and 80.3 kg per tree per year respectively, while trees on F&A 418 produced the lowest mean yield (22.3 kg per tree per year. Trees on 030131, 020324 and 030212 had the highest yield efficiency as total cumulative yield per cubic meter of canopy volume (62.1, 58.7 and 55.9 kg m-3 respectively whereas trees on 030127, F&A 418 and Cleopatra mandarin had lower yield efficiencies (45.0, 44.4 and 38.6 kg m-3, respectively. Pre-harvest fruit-drop was lower in trees grafted on Cleopatra mandarin (24.62 % and on 030212 (26.61 %, and was also low on F&A 418 (27

  5. Resistance of Some Vitis Rootstocks to Xiphinema index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A R

    1983-07-01

    Thirty-eight grapevine (Vitis spp.) rootstocks were screened in pots for resistance to the dagger nematode, Xiphinema index, from 1979 to 1981. Resistance ratings were based on visible root symptoms and on changes in the nematode populations over 16 months. Nineteen of the 23 Californian hybrid rootstocks tested were resistant, as were 'Harmony',' 'Freedom,' 'Schwarzmann,' and '3309.' Two hybrids of V. rufotomentosa, '171-52' and '176-9,' were possibly immune to X. index. The rootstocks 'ARG 1,' ' 110 R,' '1202,' and '1616,' which are used commercially for phylloxera resistance were susceptible.

  6. Physiological responses in roots of the grapevine rootstock 140 Ruggeri subjected to Fe deficiency and Fe-heme nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rayo, Sandra; Di Foggia, Michele; Rodrigues Moreira, Erica; Donnini, Silvia; Bombai, Giuseppe; Filippini, Gianfranco; Pisi, Annamaria; Rombolà, Adamo D

    2015-11-01

    Iron (Fe)-heme containing fertilizers can effectively prevent Fe deficiency. This paper aims to investigate root physiological responses after a short period of Fe-heme nutrition and Fe deficiency under two pH conditions (with or without HEPES) in the Fe chlorosis-tolerant grapevine rootstock 140 Ruggeri. Organic acids in root exudates, Fe reduction capacity, both roots and root exudates contributions, together with other physiological parameters associated to plant Fe status were evaluated in plants grown in hydroponics. Analyses of root tips by SEM, and Raman and IR spectra of the precipitates of Fe-heme fertilizers were performed. The physiological responses adopted by the tolerant 140 Ruggeri to the application of Fe-heme indicated an increased Fe reduction capacity of the roots. This is the first report showing oxalic, tartaric, malic and ascorbic as major organic acids in Vitis spp. root exudates. Plants reacted to Fe deficiency condition exuding a higher amount of ascorbic acid in the rhizosphere. The presence of HEPES in the medium favoured the malic acid exudation. The lowest concentration of oxalic acid was found in exudates of plants subjected to Fe-heme and could be associated to a higher accumulation in their root tips visualized by SEM analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. In vitro multiplication of rootstock grapevine in variations of culture media - DOI: 10.4025/actasciagron.v28i3.954

    OpenAIRE

    Villa, Fabíola; UFLA; Pasqual, Moacir; UFLA; Pio, Leila Aparecida Salles; UFLA; Assis, Francinely Aparecida; UFLA

    2008-01-01

    The grapevine micropropagation can generate virus-free plants and in short time period. Aiming at improving in vitro propagation techniques, concentrations of MS culture medium and sucrose were tested. Axillary buds (2.0 cm length) of ‘043-43’ rootstocks maintained in vitro were excisaded in aseptic conditions and inoculated in tubes with five concentrations of MS culture medium (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200%) and five different sucrose concentrations (0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 g L-1), in all possible ...

  8. A framework map from grapevine V3125 (Vitis vinifera 'Schiava grossa' x 'Riesling') x rootstock cultivar 'Börner' (Vitis riparia x Vitis cinerea) to localize genetic determinants of phylloxera root resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junke; Hausmann, Ludger; Eibach, Rudolf; Welter, Leocir J; Töpfer, Reinhard; Zyprian, Eva M

    2009-10-01

    Grapevine rootstock cultivar 'Börner' is a hybrid of Vitis riparia and Vitis cinerea Arnold that shows high resistance to phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch). To localize the determinants of phylloxera root resistance, the susceptible grapevine V3125 (Vitis vinifera 'Schiava grossa' x 'Riesling') was crossed to 'Börner'. Genetic framework maps were built from the progeny. 235 microsatellite markers were placed on the integrated parental map. They cover 1,155.98 cM on 19 linkage groups with an average marker distance of 4.8 cM. Phylloxera resistance was scored by counting nodosities after inoculation of the root system. Progeny plants were triplicated and experimentally infected in 2 years. A scan of the genetic maps indicated a quantitative trait locus on linkage group 13. This region was targeted by six microsatellite-type markers newly developed from the V. vinifera model genome sequence. Two of these appear closely linked to the trait, and can be useful for marker-assisted breeding.

  9. Salinity Responses of Grafted Grapevines: Effects of Scion and Rootstock Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuray SIVRITEPE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Two-year-old Sultana and Mke vines (Vitis vinifera L. grafted onto Rupestris du Lot (Vitis rupestris Scheele and 110 R (Vitis berlandieri Vitis rupestris were grown in soil, sand, sphagnum peat and farmyard manure mixture (2:1:1:1 v/v irrigated with 0.3, 2.7 and 5.45 dS m-1 NaCl solutions for a period of 60 days. Biomass accumulation, relative chlorophyll content, leaf water potential, stomatal conductance and transpiration were significantly reduced by salinity in all graft combinations. The inhibiting effect of salinity on growth varied according to the characteristics of the scion genotype and the level of salinity. The results imply the predominance of the scion genotype in determining variation in the leaf-level physiological characteristics of grafted vines because stomatal conductance and transpiration were higher in Sultana than in Mke at the same leaf water potential and the level of salinity, regardless of the rootstock genotype. NaCl treatments did not affect leaf Cu concentration while inducing significant Na, K, Ca, N, P, Mg, Fe, Mn and Zn elevations in the leaves of all scion/rootstock combinations. While salinity caused an increase in N content and a decrease in K content in the roots of all graft combinations, it had no influence on Ca, P, Cu and Zn concentrations. In contrast to the Sultana grafted vines, NaCl salinity led to a decrease in Mg, Fe and Mn concentrations in the roots of Mke grafted vines. Nevertheless, ion accumulation in leaves and roots of grafted vines under saline or non-saline conditions was controlled predominantly by the genotype of the scion. In response to salinity, Sultana grafts accumulated higher amounts of ions in their leaves than in their roots. However, in Mke, higher ion concentrations were seen in the roots. Therefore, the increase in the transport of inorganic ions up to the leaves seems to be the major component of osmotic adjustment in salt-stressed Sultana vines.

  10. Influence of rootstock on nutrient content in grape petioles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Dalbó

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity of rootstocks can affect nutrient uptake and the nutrient status of grapevines. The rootstock influence on nutrient content in grape petioles was evaluated on three rootstocks competition experiments carried out at Vale do Rio do Peixe region, in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, with the cultivars Niagara Rosada, Concord, and Isabella, grafted on different rootstocks. Two soil liming depths were also evaluated in the Isabella experiment. The greatest rootstock effect was observed on K and Mg content and K/Mg ratio in the petioles. The Vitis vinifera x V. rotundifolia hybrid rootstocks VR 043-43 and VR 044-4 provided the highest K/Mg values and self rooted Isabella the lowest K/Mg ratio. The other tested rootstocks resulted in intermediate values. There was also significant effect on P content, but only in Niagara Rosada and Concord experiments. The depth of soil liming did not significantly affect K and Mg content in the Isabella experiment. The results indicate that rootstock must be considered for nutritional status evaluation and fertilizer recommendation regarding to K and Mg.

  11. Efeito do porta-enxerto no teor de nutrientes em tecidos da videira "cabernet sauvignon" Effect of rootstock on nutrient content of 'cabernet sauvignon' grapevine tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Miele

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A nutrição mineral da videira constitui-se em importante fator para a qualidade dos vinhos. Devido a isso, avaliou-se o efeito de porta-enxertos no teor de nutrientes em diferentes tecidos da videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (Vitis vinifera L. na Serra Gaúcha. o experimento foi conduzido durante o ciclo vegetativo de 2004/2005, com os porta-enxertos Rupestris du lot, 101-14, 3309, 420A, Kober 5BB, 161-49, So4 e Paulsen 1103, enxertados em 1993 com a cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. o delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com oito tratamentos e três repetições, sendo quatro plantas/parcela. Coletaram-se folhas - separando-se os pecíolos dos limbos -, cachos - separando-se as bagas das ráquis - e ramos, os quais foram posteriormente secados em estufa e pesados. Analisaram-se os nutrientes n, P, K, Ca e Mg. os resultados mostram que houve efeito significativo do porta-enxerto nos teores de N, P, K, Ca e Mg no limbo, pecíolo, ráquis e baga da videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e que este efeito variou em função do nutriente e do tecido considerado. Entretanto, não houve efeito significativo do porta-enxerto no teor desses nutrientes no ramo da videira. Além disso, a ordem de grandeza do teor dos nutrientes variou em função do tecido avaliado. Assim, os teores de n e de Ca foram maiores no limbo; os de P e K, na ráquis; e o de Mg, no pecíolo.Grapevine mineral nutrition is an important factor influencing wine quality. For this, the effect of rootstocks on the nutrient content in different tissues of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. grown in the Serra Gaúcha region was evaluated. The experiment was carried out during the 2004/2005 vegetative cycle with the rootstocks Rupestris du Lot, 101-14, 3309, 420A, Kober 5BB, 161-49, SO4, and Paulsen 1103. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with eight treatments, three replicates, four plants/plot. leaves - petioles were separated from the limbs -, clusters - berries

  12. The development of seed-propagated peach-almond hybrids for use as almond rootstocks (Oral presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach-almond hybrids are becoming increasingly popular rootstocks in California almond orchards due to their enhanced vigor as compared with almond propagated on peach root. However, these hybrids are difficult to root without the use of in vitro micropropagation. The development of uniform and vi...

  13. Somatic hybridization for citrus rootstock breeding: an effective tool to solve some important issues of the Mediterranean citrus industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambier, Dominique; Benyahia, Hamid; Pensabene-Bellavia, Giovanni; Aka Kaçar, Yildiz; Froelicher, Yann; Belfalah, Zina; Lhou, Beniken; Handaji, Najat; Printz, Bruno; Morillon, Raphael; Yesiloglu, Turgut; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2011-05-01

    The prevalence of sour orange rootstock in the southern and eastern part of the Mediterranean Basin is presently threatened by the spread of Citrus Tristeza Virus (CTV) and its main vector Toxoptera citricida, combined with abiotic constraints such as drought, salinity and alkalinity. The search for alternative CTV-resistant rootstocks that also withstand the other constraints is now considered an urgent priority for a sustainable citrus industry in the area. Complementary progenitors can be found in citrus germplasm to combine the desired traits, particularly between Poncirus and Citrus genera. The production of somatic hybrids allows cumulating all dominant traits irrespective of their heterozygosity level, and would appear to be an effective way to solve the rootstock challenge facing the Mediterranean citrus industry. This paper presents the results obtained during a regional collaborative effort between five countries, to develop new rootstocks by somatic hybridization. New embryogenic callus lines to be used for somatic hybridization have been created. Protoplast fusions have been performed at CIRAD and IVIA laboratories, focusing on intergeneric combinations. Analysis of ploidy level by flow cytometry and molecular markers confirmed the acquisition of new interesting tetraploid somatic hybrids for six combinations. Diploid cybrids with intergeneric (Citrus × Poncirus) nucleus and C. reticulata or C. aurantifolia mitochondria were also identified for four combinations. The agronomical performance of a pre-existing somatic hybrid between Poncirus trifoliata and Citrus reticulata was validated in calcareous soils in Morocco. Somatic hybridization is now integrated into the breeding programs of the five Mediterranean countries.

  14. Micropropagação do porta-enxerto de videira '420-A' Micropropagation of '420-A' grapevine rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pryscilla Menarin Dzazio

    2002-12-01

    meio MS/2 e aclimatização em substrato vermiculita ou Plantmax®.The objective of this work was to establish a protocol for the rootstock of 420-A micropropagation. The establishment of the cultures was accomplished with nodal segments, whose source of explants was the budding of woody stakes stored under refrigeration. In the initial cultivation were tested: the effect of 6-benzilaminopurine and kinetin with 0, 1, 5 and 10 µM concentrations, different culture medium (MS, NN and WPM and dilutions of the basic medium (MS, MS/2, MS/4 and MS/8. In the alongation and multiplication steps were tested the following culture medium: MS, MS/2, NN and WPM. In the rooting were tested: the MS/2 culture medium with or without activated coal (1gL-1. In the acclimatization were tested the substrate vermiculite, Plantmax and carbonized rice hulls. The kinetin didn't present effect on the budding and the growth of the nodal segments. BAP already promoted an increase in the number of sprouts per explant. The increase in the concentration of BAP reduced the number of leaves emitted by explant and increased the vitrification symptoms, being the best results obtained with 1 µM of BAP. In the initial cultivation the MS medium culture with the normal concentration of salts allowed the largest growth of the buddings. The dilutions of the MS medium in ¼ and 1/8 showed very harmful to the development of the rootstock '420-A', being quite harmed the growth of the shoots after the first subcultivation. During the multiplication the medium MS/2 showed more appropriate. The roots happened naturally during the multiplication, being unnecessary the use of activated coal in the culture medium. The acclimatization was accomplished with success in a misty camera, being obtained high survival rates in vermiculite (95,8% and Plantmax® (87%. It is concluded that the rootstock '420-A' can be micropropagated by initial cultivation of nodal segments in a culture medium of MS+1µM of BAP, multiplication

  15. New results concerning the plum pox virus epidemiology and resistance of plum cultivars, hybrids and rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minoiu, N; Maxim, A; Vladianu, D; Platon, I; Balaci, R

    1998-09-01

    Our recent results on the plum pox virus (PPV) epidemiology show that PPV spreads very rapidly in plum tree plantations in the contaminated areas. A clearing of the PPV-infected trees reduces significantly the spread of the virus but does not eliminate the disease. Some plum tree cultivars, hybrids and rootstocks (Scoldus, Alina, Cristi, BN 1/8Fl, BN 2Gr. etc) showing field resistance could not be infected with PPV by natural way. However, they could be infected with PPV by artificial inoculation except for the plum tree cv. Local of Dragasani and the BN 4Kr myrobalan, which proved to be immune to PPV. PPV was not transmitted through seeds in plum tree and myrobalan in the nursery. The Hyalopterus pruni aphids were found PPV-positive by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

  16. Rootstock of interspecific squash hybrids (Cucurbita maxima x Cucurbita moschata) increases lycopene content of watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The watermelon industry in the U.S. is facing increased soil-borne disease pressure and the loss of the soil fumigant methyl bromide. To combat this, grafting of scions with disease-resistant rootstocks of cucurbit species has garnered widespread interest. Both scion and rootstock can affect plant...

  17. Propagação in vitro e avaliação de parâmetros morfofisiológicos de porta-enxertos de videira In vitro propagation and evaluation of morphophysiologic parameters of grapevine rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Borghezan

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A micropropagação de genótipos selecionados pode contribuir para atender a demanda de plantas matrizes e mudas de qualidade genética e sanitária comprovadas de videira (Vitis spp. no Estado de Santa Catarina. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer e multiplicar in vitro porta-enxertos de videira e avaliar parâmetros morfofisiológicos fundamentais à micropropagação e aclimatização. Os porta-enxertos VR043-43, VR039-16, Paulsen 1103, R110, SO4 e Kober 5BB foram estabelecidos e multiplicados in vitro pelo método de gemas axilares em meio de cultura DSD1. Quarenta e dois por cento dos explantes foram estabelecidos in vitro. Houve variabilidade de crescimento, área foliar e matéria seca entre os genótipos. O porta-enxerto Paulsen 1103 foi numericamente superior aos demais no desenvolvimento in vitro em comprimento de caule (6,2 cm, produção de biomassa (34,8 mg e área foliar (18,1 cm² in vitro. O teor de clorofila total variou entre os porta-enxertos e o ambiente de cultura, com 0,7 e 2,8 mg/g de matéria fresca do R110 (in vitro e VR043-43 (ex vitro, respectivamente. A maior (216,4/mm² e a menor (119,2/mm² densidade estomática foram apresentadas pelo VR039-16 in vitro e pelo SO4 ex vitro, respectivamente. A taxa de sobrevivência de plantas na aclimatização foi em média 90,3±1,1% por genótipo. Os porta-enxertos de videira avaliados apresentaram características morfofisiológicas apropriadas para a propagação in vitro e a transferência ex vitro.Micropropagation of selected genotypes can be valuable to achieve demand for elite plants with genetic fidelity and high sanitary quality of grapevine (Vitis spp. in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The objective of this work was to propagate grapevine rootstocks in vitro and to evaluate important morphophysiologic parameters for the plants micropropagation and acclimatization. Axillary buds of the rootstocks grapevine VR043-43, VR039-16, Paulsen 1103, R110, SO4 and Kober 5BB

  18. Desenvolvimento do porta-enxerto SO4 de videira afetado pelo número de gemas da estaca e por fungos micorrízicos arbusculares Development of grapevine rootstock SO4 affected by cutting size and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Vitor Dutra de Souza

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Instalou-se um experimento conduzido em casa de vegetação, Eldorado do Sul, RS, Brasil, no qual estacas do porta-enxerto SO4 (Teleki 4 Sel. Oppenheim (Vitis berlandieri x Vitis riparia com uma, duas ou três gemas foram ou não inoculadas com duas espécies de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA (Gigaspora margarita e Scutellospora heterogama. Após dez meses de experimento, analisou-se a porcentagem de sobrevivência, o número de folhas e de raízes, peso de matéria fresca e seca da raiz e da parte aérea, e tamanho das brotações. A porcentagem de sobrevivência e o desenvolvimento vegetativo das estacas de SO4 foram diretamente proporcionais ao número de gemas das mesmas, sendo recomendado o uso de estacas com três gemas. Verificou-se que os FMA testados incrementaram o desenvolvimento vegetativo de plântulas de SO4, independentemente da espécie estudada.The effect of two AMF (Gigaspora margarita and Scutellospora heterogama on rooting and vegetative development of SO4 (Vitis berlandieri x Vitis riparia grapevine rootstock with different cutting length (one, two or three buds was evaluated. The number of leafs and roots, the matter weight and dry roots and stems, and the bud size were measured a ten-month period. Both AMF were efficient to increase SO4 rootstock vegetative development. SO4 rootstock survival and vegetative development increased with bud number. Therefore, the use of three buds cutting was recomended.

  19. Black-foot disease of grapevine: an update on taxonomy, epidemiology and management strategies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carlos AGUSTÍ-BRISACH; Josep ARMENGOL

    2013-01-01

    Black-foot is one of the most destructive grapevine trunk diseases in nurseries and young vineyards, causing necrotic root lesions, wood necrosis of the rootstock base, and a gradual decline and death of grapevines...

  20. [Effects of rootstocks on the growth and berry quality of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine in Changli zone, Hebei Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min-min; Yuan, Jun-wei; Liu, Chang-jiang; Han, Bin; Huang, Jia-zhen; Guo, Zi-juan; Zhao, Sheng-iian

    2016-01-01

    Cabernet Sauvignon grafted onto seven rootstocks 188-08, 5BB, SO4, 3309C, 110R, 5C and 101-14M, with the own-rooted vines as control, were investigated to study the effects of different rootstocks on the growth, fruit quality and yield of Cabernet Sauvignon in Changli zone, Hebei Province, China. The results showed that Cabernet Sauvignon grafted on 5BB and 5C significantly increased the trunk diameter, and 5C significantly increased one-year-old shoot diameter. 188-08, 5BB and 5C as rootstock obviously improved berry soluble solid content, in addition 188- 08 and 5BB significantly increased berry reducing sugar content. The vines on 101-14M and 3309C significantly decreased berry titratable acid content. The rootstock 5C and 101-14M significantly raised grape skin phenol and anthocyanin contents, and rootstock 101-14M significantly increased tannin content in grape skin. Cabernet Sauvignon grafted onto 3309C, 110R, 5C and 101-14M obviously got higher yield per vine than own-rooted vines. Growing parameter, grape quality index and yield per vine grafted on seven rootstocks and own-rooted vine were synthetically evaluated by fuzzy evaluation method, and the synthetical effects of vine grafted on seven rootstocks were better than own-rooted vine, with the order of scores from high to low as 5C, 101-14M, 3309C, 5BB, 188-08, 110R and SO4 under Changli unique climate and environment conditions.

  1. Genome sequences and structures of two biologically distinct strains of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2 and sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Baozhong; Li, Caihong; Goszczynski, Dariusz E; Gonsalves, Dennis

    2005-08-01

    Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2 (GLRaV-2), a member of the genus Closterovirus within Closteroviridae, is implicated in several important diseases of grapevines including "leafroll", "graft-incompatibility", and "quick decline" worldwide. Several GLRaV-2 isolates have been detected from different grapevine genotypes. However, the genomes of these isolates were not sequenced or only partially sequenced. Consequently, the relationship of these viral isolates at the molecular level has not been determined. Here, we group the various GLRaV-2 isolates into four strains based on their coat protein gene sequences. We show that isolates "PN" (originated from Vitis vinifera cv. "Pinot noir"), "Sem" (from V. vinifera cv. "Semillon") and "94/970" (from V. vinifera cv. "Muscat of Alexandria") belong to the same strain, "93/955" (from hybrid "LN-33") and "H4" (from V. rupestris "St. George") each represents a distinct strain, while Grapevine rootstock stem lesion-associated virus.

  2. Multiplicação in vitro de porta-enxerto de videira em variações do meio MS = In vitro multiplication of rootstock grapevine in variations of culture media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Aparecida Salles Pio

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A micropropagacao da videira pode gerar plantas livres de virus e em curto espaco de tempo. Com o objetivo de aprimorar tecnicas de propagacao in vitro, testaram-se concentracoes de meio de cultura MS e de sacarose. Gemas axilares com 2,0 cm, de plantulas preestabelecidas in vitro do porta-enxerto de videira 043-43, foram excisadas em condicoes assepticas e introduzidas em tubos de ensaio com cinco concentracoes de MS (0, 50, 100, 150 e 200% e cinco diferentes concentracoes de sacarose (0, 15, 30, 45 e 60 g L-1, em todas as combinacoes possiveis. O pH foi ajustado para 5,8 antes da adicao de 6,0 g L-1 de agar e da autoclavagem a 121oC e 1 atm por 20 minutos. Apos a inoculacao, os explantes foram mantidos por 60 dias, em sala de crescimento com temperatura de 25 } 1oC, irradiancia de 32 ƒÊmol.m.2.s.1 e fotoperiodo de 16 horas diarias. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualisado, em esquema fatorial (5x5, utilizando-se de quatro repeticoes com 12 plantulas por tratamento. Foram avaliados os numeros de folhas, numero de raizes por planta,comprimento da parte aerea e peso da biomassa. Ha influencia da concentracao do meio MS e da sacarose sobre o crescimento e desenvolvimento, tanto da parte aerea quanto do sistema radicular doporta-enxerto de videira 043-43. Para a micropropagacao do porta-enxerto de videira, melhores resultados sao obtidos com o uso do meio MS ate na sua concentracao original, suplementado com 15-30 g L-1 de sacarose.The grapevine micropropagation can generate virus-free plants and in short time period. Aiming at improving in vitro propagation techniques, concentrations of MS culture medium and sucrose weretested. Axillary buds (2.0 cm length of e043-43f rootstocks maintained in vitro were excisaded in aseptic conditions and inoculated in tubes with five concentrations of MS culture medium (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200% and five different sucrose concentrations (0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 g L-1, in all possible

  3. Evaluation of Paclobutrazol Spraying on Salinity Hardiness of Peach- Almond Hybrid (GF677 Rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    azam amiri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Salinity is a common abiotic stress that seriously affects crop production in some parts of the world, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. The deleterious effects of salinity on plant growth are associated with low osmotic potential of soil solution (water stress, nutritional imbalance, specific ion effect (salt stress, or a combination of these factors. Paclobutrazol (PBZ, a member of the triazole plant growth inhibitor group, is a broad-spectrum gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor. Triazoles have both fungal toxicity and plant growth regulatory effects. They also increase tolerance of various plant species to biotic and abiotic stresses, including fungal pathogens, drought, air pollutants, and low- and high-temperature stress. According to our knowledge, there are no reports on the effects of exogenous PBZ enhancing vegetative peach- almond hybrid (GF 677 rootstock tolerance to salt stress. Therefore, the objective of this work was the possibility test of this idea that PBZ application would protect GF 677 rootstock from damaging effects of salinity. Materials and Methods: One-year-old rooted cuttings of GF 677 were grown in in plastic pots in the research greenhouse of Agricultural College, Isfahan University of Technology of Iran. The minimum and maximum temperatures during the experiment period were 19 and 32˚C, respectively. After cutting establishment (3 months, the plants were sprayed twice (with a 7 days interval with 0 (control, 20 and 40 mg l-1 PBZ to the point of run-off. One week after the second foliar application of PBZ, each plants was subjected to one of several salt stress treatments. The salt treatments (0, 25 and 50 mM NaCl were applied to the pots intervals in 0.5 l of irrigation water. To avoid osmotic shock, the NaCl concentration was increased gradually. The layout was a 3×3 factorial experiment in a completely randomized design, with four replications. The experimental measurements were carried out

  4. Meios de cultura na micropropagação do porta-enxerto de videira "VR043-43" (Vitis vinifera x Vitis rotundifolia Culture media in micropropagation of grapevine rootstock 'vr 043-43' (Vitis vinifera x Vitis rotundifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Pereira Machado

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A escolha adequada do meio de cultura é um fator relevante para a micropropagação, devido ao importante papel dos componentes minerais no processo de regeneração. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito dos meios de cultura MS/2, NN, WPM, QL e C2D, no cultivo inicial, a partir de segmentos nodais e em três subcultivos do porta-enxerto de videira "VR043-43". O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Os meios de cultura não tiveram efeito significativo sobre o número de brotações por explante no cultivo inicial e nos subcultivos. No primeiro subcultivo, os melhores resultados para o número de microestacas por explante inicial foram encontrados com os meios de cultura MS/2, QL e C2D, e, no segundo subcultivo, não houve diferenças estatísticas entre os tratamentos. A altura das brotações no cultivo inicial, no primeiro e no segundo subcultivos aumentou com o meio de cultura QL. No primeiro subcultivo, 83,3% das brotações enraizaram no meio de cultura QL. Para o cultivo inicial do porta-enxerto de videira "VR043-43" in vitro, a partir de segmentos nodais e para a multiplicação das microestacas, o meio de cultura QL apresenta-se adequado para o desenvolvimento das brotações.The right choice of the culture medium is an important factor for micropropagation mainly because of the mineral component role during the regeneration process. This research was aimed at evaluating the effect of the MS/2, NN, WPM, QL and C2D culture medium on the establishment of nodal segments and multiplication of grapevine rootstock 'VR043-43'. The data was analyzed according to a randomized complete block design with four replications. The culture medium had no significant effect on the number of shoots per explant in the initial culture and subcultures. For the first subculture, the best number of microcuttings per initial explant was obtained using the MS/2, QL and C2D culture medium. For the second

  5. Evaluating paradox walnut rootstocks for resistance to Armillaria root disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    The most common Juglans regia (English walnut) rootstock in California is Paradox, a hybrid between J. hindsii (Northern California black walnut) and J. regia. Unfortuntely, Paradox rootstock is highly susceptible to Armillaria root disease. The relative resistance of new clonal, Paradox rootstock...

  6. Caipira sweet orange + Rangpur lime: a somatic hybrid with potential for use as rootstock in the Brazilian citrus industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Januzzi Mendes-da-Glória

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Protoplast culture following polyethylene glycol-induced fusion resulted in the regeneration of somatic hybrid plants between Caipira sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck and Rangpur lime (C. limonia L. Osbeck. The plants were confirmed as somatic hybrids by leaf morphology, chromosome number and RAPD profile. All regenerated plants were tetraploid (2n = 4x = 36, with intermediate leaf morphology and complementary RAPD banding profile of both parents. This combination may be useful as a rootstock for the citrus industry in Southeastern Brazil since this somatic hybrid could combine the drought tolerance and vigor of Rangpur lime with the blight tolerance of Caipira sweet orange.Híbridos somáticos de laranja doce (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck e limão Cravo (C. limonia L. Osbeck foram regenerados após a fusão (polietileno glicol e cultura de protoplastos. Os híbridos somáticos foram confirmados pela análise da morfologia das folhas, determinação do número de cromossomos e marcadores moleculares (RAPD. Todas as plantas analisadas revelaram-se tetraplóides (2n = 4x = 36, possuíam folhas de morfologia intermediária e uma combinação do padrão de bandas de RAPD de ambos os parentais. Esta combinação pode se tornar útil como porta-enxerto para a Região Sudeste da indústria citrícola brasileira. Este híbrido somático potencialmente combinará as características de tolerância à seca e o vigor do limão Cravo com a tolerância ao declínio da laranja Caipira.

  7. Arquitetura do sistema radicular do porta-enxerto de videira 'IAC 766' na época de transplante do viveiro para o campo Root architecture of IAC 766 grapevine rootstock in the transplanting from the nursery to the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Sfeir de Aguiar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Na propagação de porta-enxertos de videira por estaquia em recipientes para posterior transplante ao campo, é importante evitar danos ao sistema radicular. O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar, por meio da avaliação da arquitetura do sistema radicular, a melhor fase de desenvolvimento da muda para o transplante, ao campo, do porta-enxerto de videira 'IAC 766' Campinas, em Marialva - PR. As plantas foram avaliadas aos 60; 90; 120; 150 e 180 dias após a estaquia lenhosa em substratos contidos em sacos plásticos de 20cm de largura por 30cm de altura. As raízes foram expostas e fotografadas, avaliando-se comprimento e área do sistema radicular pelo programa SIARCS 3.0. Foi utilizado também um diagrama de arquitetura radicular, atribuindo-se notas à conformação do sistema radicular e foi contado o número de raízes enoveladas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições, com 10 plantas por parcela. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de regressão polinomial. Todas as características, com exceção das notas da arquitetura do sistema radicular, ajustaram-se ao modelo de regressão linear crescente. A melhor fase para o transplante da muda do porta-enxerto 'IAC 766' para o campo é aos 90 dias após a estaquia.In grapevine propagation with cuttings in containers it is important to avoid damages to root system during transplanting to the field. The aim of this research was to determine, by means of root system evaluation, the best period to transplant 'IAC 766' (Campinas rootstock. The trial was set up in July 2004 in Marialva County (PR. The plants were evaluated 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days after the establishment of woody cutting in plastic bags of 20cm wide and 30cm high. The roots were exposed and pictures were taken in lateral and top positions and were evaluated by SIARCS 3.0 software, with determination of the area and the length of the root system

  8. Avaliação de substratos para inoculação micorrízica e aclimatização de dois porta-enxertos de videira micropropagados Evaluation of substrates for mycorrhization and weaning of two micropropagated grapevine rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josy Moraes Zemke

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar substratos favoráveis à associação micorrízica na produção de mudas micropropagadas de porta-enxertos de videira. Os porta-enxertos SO4 e Paulsen 1103 foram aclimatizados por três semanas em bandejas alveoladas, contendo seis substratos (à base de solo, composto termofílico, casca de arroz carbonizada, vermiculita, areia e um substrato comercial, com e sem inoculação micorrízica. No final da aclimatização e dez semanas depois, avaliaram-se a colonização micorrízica, a matéria seca de parte aérea e o comprimento radicular das plantas. A intensidade de colonização micorrízica variou em razão dos porta-enxertos e dos substratos utilizados na aclimatização, havendo interação significativa entre os dois fatores. O substrato comercial proporcionou a maior produção de biomassa, mas promoveu a menor colonização micorrízica em todos os porta-enxertos. As combinações mais favoráveis de produção de biomassa vegetal e de taxa de colonização micorrízica ocorreram no porta-enxerto Paulsen 1103, no substrato à base de solo, composto termofílico e areia e, no porta-enxerto SO4, no substrato à base de solo, composto termofílico e vermiculita.The aim of this work was to select substrates conductive to the establishment of arbuscular mycorrhizas in the production of micropropagated grapevine rootstocks. Micropropagated SO4 and Paulsen 1103 rootstock plantlets were weaned for three weeks in trays with mycorrhizal fungal- inoculated or uninoculated substrates (prepared with soil, compost, calcined rice hulls, vermiculite and sand, besides a commercial substrate. At the end of the weaning period and ten weeks after, shoot and root growth and mycorrhizal root colonization were evaluated. Mycorrhizal root colonization varied according to the rootstock and substrates, with a significant interaction between these factors. The commercial substrate was associated with the highest increase

  9. Identification of breeding signatures in grapevine hybrids, donors of resistances against downy and powdery mildew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vezzulli, S.; Peressotti, E.; Banchi, E.; Dolzani, C.; Micheli, S.; Stefanini, M.; Salamini, F.; Velasco, R.; Riaz, S.; Walker, M.A.; Reisch, B.I.; De Weg, Van W.E.; Bink, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the most valuable crops in the world, but has been often plagued by encountering new parasites that still represent a major constraint, such as downy (DM) and powdery (PM) mildew. Nowadays, growers are still obliged to recur to a massive use of pesticides t

  10. Identification of breeding signatures in grapevine hybrids, donors of resistances against downy and powdery mildew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vezzulli, S.; Peressotti, E.; Banchi, E.; Dolzani, C.; Micheli, S.; Stefanini, M.; Salamini, F.; Velasco, R.; Riaz, S.; Walker, M.A.; Reisch, B.I.; De Weg, Van W.E.; Bink, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the most valuable crops in the world, but has been often plagued by encountering new parasites that still represent a major constraint, such as downy (DM) and powdery (PM) mildew. Nowadays, growers are still obliged to recur to a massive use of pesticides

  11. Root distribution of irrigated grapevine rootstocks in a coarse texture soil of the São Francisco Valley, Brazil Distribuição radicular de porta-enxertos de videiras irrigadas em um solo de textura arenosa do Vale do São Francisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUÍS HENRIQUE BASSOI

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to determine the root distribution of four grapevine rootstocks (Salt Creek, Dogridge, Courdec 1613, IAC 572 in a coarse texture soil of a commercial growing area in Petrolina County, São Francisco Valley, Brazil. Rootstocks were grafted to a seedless table grape cv. Festival, and irrigated by microsprinkler. Roots were quantified by the trench wall method aided by digital image analysis. Results indicated that roots reached 1 m depth, but few differences among rootstocks were found. All of them presented at least 90 % of the roots distributed until 0.6 m depth, with a greater root presence in the first 0.4 m. The upper 0.6 m can be taken into account as the effective rooting depth for soil and water management.Um experimento foi conduzido para se determinar a distribuição radicular de quatro porta-enxertos (Salt Creek, Dogridge, Courdec 1613, IAC 572 em um solo de textura arenosa, em um plantio comercial em Petrolina - PE, no Vale do São Francisco. Os porta-enxertos foram enxertados com a cv. de uva de mesa sem sementes Festival, e irrigados por microaspersão. As raízes foram quantificadas pelo método da parede da trincheira auxiliado pela análise de imagem digital. Os resultados indicaram que as raízes atingiram 1 m de profundidade, mas poucas diferenças entre os porta-enxertos foram observadas. Cerca de 90% do sistema radicular de todos os porta-enxertos estavam distribuídos até 0,6 m de profundidade, mas houve uma grande presença de raízes até 0,4 m. A camada superficial de solo de 0,6 m pode ser considerada como a profundidade efetiva do sistema radicular para fins de manejo de solo e água.

  12. Multiplicação in vitro do porta-enxerto de videira 'VR043-43' (Vitis vinifera x Vitis rotundifolia Multiplication in vitro of grapevine rootstock 'VR043-43' (Vitis vinifera x Vitis rotundifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Pereira Machado

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A micropropagação é uma técnica que possibilita a propagação massal de plantas de interesse econômico. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito de 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP e cinetina (CIN na multiplicação do porta-enxerto de videira 'VR043-43'. O isolamento foi realizado em meio de cultura QL, suplementado com BAP ou CIN, nas concentrações de 0; 2,5; 5,0 e 10,0µM. Os subcultivos foram realizados a cada 45 dias. O número de brotações por explante aumentou ao longo dos subcultivos com BAP. Esse efeito não foi observado com a CIN, que obteve resultado semelhante ao da testemunha (1,0 brotação/explante. As concentrações de 5,0 e 10,0 µM de BAP promoveram o maior número de brotações, porém com redução da altura. A concentração mais elevada de CIN (10,0 µM, também teve efeito negativo na altura das brotações, assim como no número de folhas por brotação. A formação de calo (100% foi observada com BAP e CIN em todas as concentrações, e na ausência de citocinina não houve a formação de calo. A citocinina BAP reduziu a formação de raízes, que foi de 100% com a CIN e a testemunha.The micropropagation is one technique that makes possible the massal propagation of plants of economic interest. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP and kinetin (KIN in the multiplication in vitro of the grapevine rootstock 'VR043-43'. The isolation was carried through in culture medium QL, supplemented with BAP or KIN, in the concentrations of 0; 2,5; 5,0 and 10,0µM. The subcultures had been carried out each 45 days. The number of shoots per explant increased along with the subcultures with BAP. However this effect was not observed with the KIN that it got resulted similar to the one of the cytokin-free (1,0 shoot/explant. The concentrations of 5,0 nd 10,0 µM of BAP had promoted the biggest number of shoots with reduction of the height. The highest concentration of KIN (10,0 µ

  13. Transcription profiles of boron-deficiency-responsive genes in citrus rootstock root by suppression subtractive hybridization and cDNA microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gao-Feng; Liu, Yong-Zhong; Sheng, Ou; Wei, Qing-Jiang; Yang, Cheng-Quan; Peng, Shu-Ang

    2014-01-01

    Boron (B) deficiency has seriously negative effect on citrus production. Carrizo citrange (CC) has been reported as a B-deficiency tolerant rootstock. However, the molecular mechanism of its B-deficiency tolerance remained not well-explored. To understand the molecular basis of citrus rootstock to B-deficiency, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and microarray approaches were combined to identify the potential important or novel genes responsive to B-deficiency. Firstly four SSH libraries were constructed for the root tissue of two citrus rootstocks CC and Trifoliate orange (TO) to compare B-deficiency treated and non-treated plants. Then 7680 clones from these SSH libraries were used to construct a cDNA array and microarray analysis was carried out to verify the expression changes of these clones upon B-deficiency treatment at various time points compared to the corresponding controls. A total of 139 unigenes that were differentially expressed upon B-deficiency stress either in CC or TO were identified from microarray analysis, some of these genes have not previously been reported to be associated with B-deficiency stress. In this work, several genes involved in cell wall metabolism and transmembrane transport were identified to be highly regulated under B-deficiency stress, and a total of 23 metabolic pathways were affected by B-deficiency, especially the lignin biosynthesis pathway, nitrogen metabolism, and glycolytic pathway. All these results indicated that CC was more tolerant than TO to B-deficiency stress. The B-deficiency responsive genes identified in this study could provide further information for understanding the mechanisms of B-deficiency tolerance in citrus.

  14. Micorrização e indução de quitinases e β-1,3-glucanases e resistência à fusariose em porta-enxerto de videira Mycorrhizal inoculation and induction of chitinases and β-1,3-glucanases and fusarium resistance in grapevine rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Dalla Costa

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os níveis de expressão de β-1,3-glucanases e quitinases nos porta-enxertos de videira SO4 e R110, respectivamente suscetível e resistente a Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. herbemontis, bem como avaliar o efeito do fungo micorrízico arbuscular Glomus intraradices no crescimento, na expressão dessas enzimas e na supressão do patógeno no porta-enxerto suscetível. Foram quantificadas as atividades enzimáticas de β-1,3-glucanases e quitinases nas raízes dos porta-enxertos. Mudas do porta-enxerto SO4 receberam inóculos de G. intraradices e F. oxysporum, e foram avaliadas quanto ao crescimento, atividade das duas enzimas e sintomas de doença. As atividades das enzimas nas raízes do porta-enxerto resistente aumentaram entre 0 e 5 dias após a inoculação do patógeno. A atividade de quitinases nas raízes do porta-enxerto suscetível aumentou com a inoculação do fungo micorrízico e do patógeno. A atividade de β-1,3-glucanases foi maior somente com a presença do fungo micorrízico e do patógeno. Videiras com inoculação de G. intraradices apresentaram diminuição nos sintomas de infecção por Fusarium spp., o que indica que o fungo micorrízico promove a indução de quitinases e β-1,3-glucanases especificamente na supressão ou inibição do patógeno.The objective of this work was to evaluate the expression levels of β-1,3-glucanases and chitinases in SO4 and 110 grapevine rootstocks, respectively susceptible and resistant to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. herbemontis, as well as to evaluate the effect of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices on plant growth, on enzyme expression and on pathogen suppression in the susceptible rootstock. The enzyme activities of β-1,3-glucanases and chitinases in the rootstocks roots were evaluated. Plant growth, enzyme activity, and disease symptoms were evaluated in SO4 plantlets inoculated with G. intraradices and F. oxysporum. Enzyme activities

  15. Co‐infection by Botryosphaeriaceae and Ilyonectria spp. fungi during propagation causes decline of young grafted grapevines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whitelaw‐Weckert, M. A; Rahman, L; Appleby, L. M; Hall, A; Clark, A. C; Waite, H; Hardie, W. J

    2013-01-01

    ... . champini cv. R amsey rootstock) were assayed for microbial pathogens. I lyonectria spp. ( I . macrodidyma or I . liriodendra, producers of phytotoxin brefeldin A , BFA , and cause of black foot disease of grapevines...

  16. Evaluating wild grapevine tolerance to copper toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambrollé, J; García, J L; Figueroa, M E; Cantos, M

    2015-02-01

    We evaluate copper tolerance and accumulation in Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris in populations from a copper contaminated site and an uncontaminated site, and in the grapevine rootstock "41B", investigating the effects of copper (0-23 mM) on growth, photosynthetic performance and mineral nutrient content. The highest Cu treatment induced nutrient imbalances and inhibited photosynthetic function, causing a drastic reduction in growth in the three study plants. Effective concentration was higher than 23 mM Cu in the wild grapevines and around 9 mM in the "41B" plants. The wild grapevine accessions studied controlled root Cu concentration more efficiently than is the case with the "41B" rootstock and must be considered Cu-tolerant. Wild grapevines from the Cu-contaminated site present certain physiological characteristics that make them relatively more suitable for exploitation in the genetic improvement of vines against conditions of excess Cu, compared to wild grapevine populations from uncontaminated sites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Acclimatization of 'VR043-43' (Vitis vinifera x Vitis rotundifolia grapevine rootstock Aclimatização do porta-enxerto de videira 'VR043-43' (Vitis vinifera x Vitis rotundifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Pereira Machado

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The pre-acclimatization stage can be used to improve micropropagation protocols and increase the yield of produced plants. The influence of sucrose and photon flux density (PFD levels on the acclimatization of in vitro-grown 'VR043-43' (Vitis vinifera x Vitis rotundifolia grapevine rootstocks was evaluated. Rooted shoots were obtained from 4-week-old in vitro shoots cultivated in QL (Quoirin and Lepoivre, 1977 culture medium supplemented with 15, 30 and 45 g L-1 of sucrose. The experiment was kept in a 25 ± 2ºC growth room, under 16-h photoperiod and PFD of 18 µmol m-2 s-1 or 43 µmol m-2 s-1. Plants were transferred to an intermittent misting system greenhouse for 10 d followed by 20 d of once-a-day watering routine using a handheld hose. Plant height was influenced by sucrose concentration, and shoots produced on media supplemented with 30 g L-1 sucrose were the tallest (5.0 cm. The largest leaf area was obtained with 31.3 g L-1 of sucrose, under the PFD of 43 µmol m-2 s-1 (13.3 cm². Absence of sucrose in the culture medium led to a significant reduction in leaf area at both PFDs. Shoot (aerial part dry matter was largest when 30 or 45 g L-1 of sucrose (17.5 and 16.7 mg per plant, respectively were used. Microcuttings rooted in all sucrose concentrations tested. The highest survival percentage (100% during ex vitro acclimatization was obtained for shoots cultured in media supplemented with 45 g L-1 of sucrose under both PFDs tested.A fase de pré-aclimatização pode ser utilizada para aperfeiçoar os protocolos de micropropagação e aumentar o rendimento na produção de mudas. Avaliou-se a influência da sacarose e níveis de densidade de fluxo de fóton (DFF in vitro, na sobrevivência das mudas do porta-enxerto de videira 'VR043-43'(Vitis vinifera x Vitis rotundifolia, na fase de aclimatização. Microestacas obtidas de brotações in vitro foram cultivadas em meio de cultura QL suplementado 15, 30 e 45 g L-1 de sacarose. O

  18. Characterization of wild north american grapevine cold hardiness using differential thermal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cold hardiness of 33 different grapevine genotypes, representing six wild North American grapevine species, one wild Asian grapevine species, and six hybrid grapevines, was evaluated by measuring lethal temperatures for dormant buds using low temperature exotherms. Studies were conducted in thre...

  19. Water relations of field-grown grapevines in the São Francisco Valley, Brazil, under different rootstocks and irrigation strategies Relações hídricas de videiras cultivadas no Vale do São Francisco sob diferente porta-enxertos e estratégias de irrigação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rita de Souza

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available There is an increased demand for high quality winegrapes in the São Francisco Valley, a new wine producing area in Brazil. As the grape quality is closely linked to the soil water status, understanding the effects of rootstock and irrigation management on grapevine water relations is essential to optimize yield and quality. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of irrigation strategies and rootstocks on water relations and scion vigour of field-grown grapevines in Petrolina, Pernambuco state, Brazil. The cultivars used as scions are Moscato Canelli and Syrah, both grafted onto IAC 572 and 1103 Paulsen rootstocks. The following water treatments were used: deficit irrigation, with holding water after veraison; and partial root-zone drying, supplying (100% of crop evapotranspiration of the water loss to only one side of the root system after fruit set, alternating the sides periodically (about 24 days. In general, all treatments had values of pre-dawn leaf water potential higher than -0.2 MPa, suggesting absence of water stress. The vine water status was more affected by rootstock type than irrigation strategies. Both cultivars grafted on IAC 572 had the highest values of midday leaf water potential and stem water potential, measured on non-transpiring leaves, which were bagged with both plastic sheet and aluminum foil at least 1 h before measurements. For both cultivars, the stomatal conductance (g s, transpiration (E and leaf area index (LAI were also more affected by roostsotck type than by irrigation strategies. The IAC 572 rootstock presented higher g s, E and LAI than the 1103 Paulsen. Differences in vegetative vigor of the scion grafted onto IAC 572 rootstocks were related to its higher leaf specific hydraulic conductance and deeper root system as compared to the 1103 Paulsen, which increased the water-extraction capability, resulting in a better vine water status.Existe aumento na demanda por vinhos de alta qualidade no

  20. Evaluation of Inter-Specific Hybrid of P. atlantica and P. vera L. cv. ‘Badami - Riz-e-Zarand’ as Pistachio rootstock to Salinity Stress According to Some Growth Indices and Eco-physiological and Biochemical Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Karimi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the inter-specific hybrid of P. atlantica Desf. and P. vera L. cv. ‘Badami- Riz-e- Zarand’ to salinity stress, a factorial experiment was conducted based on completely randomized design with 0, 60 and 120 mM of salinity levels of sodium chloride, calcium chloride and magnesium chloride (3:2:1 with four replications on ‘Qazvini’, ‘Badami-Riz-e-Zarand’ and inter-specific of P. atlantica Ч P. vera cv. ‘Badami-Rize-Zarand’ rootstocks of pistachio. The results showed that salinity has increased proline content of leaves. Chlorophyll index, relative water content of leaf, leaf area, shoot and root fresh and dry weight, stem diameter and number of leaves were decreased by increasing salinity. Rootstocks responded differently to salinity, so that the most reduction in chlorophyll index, leaf area and leaf number were observed in ‘Badami-Riz-e-Zarand’ rootstock and the least reduction was observed in the hybrid.

  1. Reprodução de Meloidogyne spp. em porta-enxertos e híbridos de pepino Reproduction of Meloidogyne spp. in rootstocks and cucumber hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Renata S Wilcken

    2010-03-01

    Tetsukabuto' and 'Excite Ikki' and four cucumber (Cucumis sativus Japanese type hybrids of ('Yoshinari', 'Kouki', 'Taisho' and 'Tsuyataro'. Two experiments were carried out in greenhouse, each one with a nematode specie. Each plot consisted of one plant per pot containing 2 liters of autoclaved soil. Nine days after the seedlings transplantation, each plant was inoculated with 5,000 eggs and second-stage juveniles (initial population - Pi of M. javanica or M. incognita race 2. 'Rutgers' tomatoes were used as a standard for inoculum viability in both experiments. The experimental design was completely randomized with five replicates per treatment. Sixty days after inoculated, each plant was evaluated, when root fresh weight, total number of nematodes in the soil and in the roots (final population - Pf, nematodes number per gram of root and the reproduction factor of both Meloidogyne species (FR=Pf/Pi were determined. All rootstocks and cucumber hybrids allowed the M. javanica and M. incognita race 2 multiplication, but, generally, reproduction factor values were greater in cucumbers than in rootstocks.

  2. Apple and pear rootstock research in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Kviklys, Darius

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents ongoing apple and pear rootstock trials at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture. Rootstock research projects are established in following directions: rootstock and location interaction (Baltic fruit rootstock studies where Byelorussian, Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian and Polish research institutions are involved); budding high effect on rootstock performance; interstock trials; rootstock effect on fruit quality, ripening time and fruit storage; rootstock and tree trainin...

  3. Local and systemic mycorrhiza-induced protection against the ectoparasitic nematode Xiphinema index involves priming of defence gene responses in grapevine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhipeng; Fayolle, Léon; van Tuinen, Diederik; Chatagnier, Odile; Gianinazzi, Silvio; Gianinazzi-Pearson, Vivienne

    2012-01-01

    The ectoparasitic dagger nematode (Xiphinema index), vector of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV), provokes gall formation and can cause severe damage to the root system of grapevines. Mycorrhiza formation by Glomus (syn. Rhizophagus) intraradices BEG141 reduced both gall formation on roots of the grapevine rootstock SO4 (Vitis berlandieri×V. riparia) and nematode number in the surrounding soil. Suppressive effects increased with time and were greater when the nematode was post-inoculated rather than co-inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus. Using a split-root system, decreased X. index development was shown in mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal parts of mycorrhizal root systems, indicating that both local and systemic induced bioprotection mechanisms were active against the ectoparasitic nematode. Expression analyses of ESTs (expressed sequence tags) generated in an SSH (subtractive suppressive hybridization) library, representing plant genes up-regulated during mycorrhiza-induced control of X. index, and of described grapevine defence genes showed activation of chitinase 1b, pathogenesis-related 10, glutathione S-transferase, stilbene synthase 1, 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase, and a heat shock proein 70-interacting protein in association with the observed local and/or systemic induced bioprotection against the nematode. Overall, the data suggest priming of grapevine defence responses by the AM fungus and transmission of a plant-mediated signal to non-mycorrhizal tissues. Grapevine gene responses during AM-induced local and systemic bioprotection against X. index point to biological processes that are related either to direct effects on the nematode or to protection against nematode-imposed stress to maintain root tissue integrity. PMID:22407649

  4. Local and systemic mycorrhiza-induced protection against the ectoparasitic nematode Xiphinema index involves priming of defence gene responses in grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhipeng; Fayolle, Léon; van Tuinen, Diederik; Chatagnier, Odile; Li, Xiaolin; Gianinazzi, Silvio; Gianinazzi-Pearson, Vivienne

    2012-06-01

    The ectoparasitic dagger nematode (Xiphinema index), vector of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV), provokes gall formation and can cause severe damage to the root system of grapevines. Mycorrhiza formation by Glomus (syn. Rhizophagus) intraradices BEG141 reduced both gall formation on roots of the grapevine rootstock SO4 (Vitis berlandieri×V. riparia) and nematode number in the surrounding soil. Suppressive effects increased with time and were greater when the nematode was post-inoculated rather than co-inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus. Using a split-root system, decreased X. index development was shown in mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal parts of mycorrhizal root systems, indicating that both local and systemic induced bioprotection mechanisms were active against the ectoparasitic nematode. Expression analyses of ESTs (expressed sequence tags) generated in an SSH (subtractive suppressive hybridization) library, representing plant genes up-regulated during mycorrhiza-induced control of X. index, and of described grapevine defence genes showed activation of chitinase 1b, pathogenesis-related 10, glutathione S-transferase, stilbene synthase 1, 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase, and a heat shock proein 70-interacting protein in association with the observed local and/or systemic induced bioprotection against the nematode. Overall, the data suggest priming of grapevine defence responses by the AM fungus and transmission of a plant-mediated signal to non-mycorrhizal tissues. Grapevine gene responses during AM-induced local and systemic bioprotection against X. index point to biological processes that are related either to direct effects on the nematode or to protection against nematode-imposed stress to maintain root tissue integrity.

  5. Produção de mudas de videira 'Itália' através de enxertia verde em porta-enxertos propagados por estacas herbáceas Production of 'Italia' grapevine nursery plants tfrough green grafting in herbaceous rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgo Ruffo Roberto

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo estudar a viabilidade da produção de mudas de videira 'Itália' (Vitis vinifera L. através de enxertia verde nos porta-enxertos IAC 766 'Campinas' e IAC 572 'Jales' propagados por estaquia herbácea. O preparo das estacas, a partir de porta-enxertos livres de vírus, consistiu em deixar apenas uma folha na parte superior da estaca e um nó na base, ficando as mesmas com 20 cm de comprimento e 0,5 cm de diâmetro. As estacas foram então dispostas para enraizamento em caixas plásticas perfuradas contendo o substrato casca de arroz carbonizada em câmara de nebulização. Verificado o enraizamento, os porta-enxertos foram transplantados para sacos de polietileno com substrato à base de terra e mantidos em casa de vegetação. Avaliou-se a enxertia da videira 'Itália' realizada aos 30; 60 e 90 dias após o transplante dos porta-enxertos. O delineamento estatístico foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 6 tratamentos e 5 repetições, sendo cada parcela composta por 10 mudas, em esquema fatorial 2 x 3. O efeito de cada fator, porta-enxertos e épocas de enxertia verde após o transplante, na produção das mudas, foi avaliado aos 80 dias após cada época de enxertia, através das seguintes variáveis: porcentagem de enxertos brotados; comprimento e diâmetro dos brotos; pesos da matéria seca e fresca das raízes por muda; e área de raízes e comprimento total de raízes por estaca, através da análise de imagem no programa SIARCS®. Com base nos principais resultados, pode-se concluir que é possível a obtenção de mudas de videira 'Itália', realizando-se a enxertia verde em porta-enxertos herbáceos após 90 dias do seu enraizamento, com 77,50% de pegamento médio dos enxertos.The objetive of this research was to evaluate the feasibility to produce nursery plants of 'Italia' grapevine through green grafting on herbaceous cutting of two rootstocks (IAC 766 'Campinas' and IAC 572 'Jales'. Rootstocks

  6. Overexpression of antimicrobial lytic peptides protects grapevine from Pierce's disease under greenhouse but not field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijian T; Hopkins, Donald L; Gray, Dennis J

    2015-10-01

    Pierce's disease (PD) caused by Xylella fastidiosa prevents cultivation of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and susceptible hybrids in the southeastern United States and poses a major threat to the grape industry of California and Texas. Genetic resistance is the only proven control of X. fastidiosa. Genetic engineering offers an alternative to heretofore ineffective conventional breeding in order to transfer only PD resistance traits into elite cultivars. A synthetic gene encoding lytic peptide LIMA-A was introduced into V. vinifera and a Vitis hybrid to assess in planta inhibition of X. fastidiosa. Over 1050 independent transgenic plant lines were evaluated in the greenhouse, among which nine lines were selected and tested under naturally-inoculated field conditions. These selected plant lines in the greenhouse remain disease-free for 10 years, to date, even with multiple manual pathogen inoculations. However, all these lines in the field, including a grafted transgenic rootstock, succumbed to PD within 7 years. We conclude that in planta production of antimicrobial lytic peptides does not provide durable PD resistance to grapevine under field conditions.

  7. Next Generation Mapping of Enological Traits in an F2 Interspecific Grapevine Hybrid Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi; Manns, David C.; Sacks, Gavin L.; Mansfield, Anna Katharine; Luby, James J.; Londo, Jason P.; Reisch, Bruce I.; Cadle-Davidson, Lance E.; Fennell, Anne Y.

    2016-01-01

    In winegrapes (Vitis spp.), fruit quality traits such as berry color, total soluble solids content (SS), malic acid content (MA), and yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) affect fermentation or wine quality, and are important traits in selecting new hybrid winegrape cultivars. Given the high genetic diversity and heterozygosity of Vitis species and their tendency to exhibit inbreeding depression, linkage map construction and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping has relied on F1 families with the use of simple sequence repeat (SSR) and other markers. This study presents the construction of a genetic map by single nucleotide polymorphisms identified through genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) technology in an F2 mapping family of 424 progeny derived from a cross between the wild species V. riparia Michx. and the interspecific hybrid winegrape cultivar, ‘Seyval’. The resulting map has 1449 markers spanning 2424 cM in genetic length across 19 linkage groups, covering 95% of the genome with an average distance between markers of 1.67 cM. Compared to an SSR map previously developed for this F2 family, these results represent an improved map covering a greater portion of the genome with higher marker density. The accuracy of the map was validated using the well-studied trait berry color. QTL affecting YAN, MA and SS related traits were detected. A joint MA and SS QTL spans a region with candidate genes involved in the malate metabolism pathway. We present an analytical pipeline for calling intercross GBS markers and a high-density linkage map for a large F2 family of the highly heterozygous Vitis genus. This study serves as a model for further genetic investigations of the molecular basis of additional unique characters of North American hybrid wine cultivars and to enhance the breeding process by marker-assisted selection. The GBS protocols for identifying intercross markers developed in this study can be adapted for other heterozygous species. PMID:26974672

  8. Next Generation Mapping of Enological Traits in an F2 Interspecific Grapevine Hybrid Family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Yang

    Full Text Available In winegrapes (Vitis spp., fruit quality traits such as berry color, total soluble solids content (SS, malic acid content (MA, and yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN affect fermentation or wine quality, and are important traits in selecting new hybrid winegrape cultivars. Given the high genetic diversity and heterozygosity of Vitis species and their tendency to exhibit inbreeding depression, linkage map construction and quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping has relied on F1 families with the use of simple sequence repeat (SSR and other markers. This study presents the construction of a genetic map by single nucleotide polymorphisms identified through genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS technology in an F2 mapping family of 424 progeny derived from a cross between the wild species V. riparia Michx. and the interspecific hybrid winegrape cultivar, 'Seyval'. The resulting map has 1449 markers spanning 2424 cM in genetic length across 19 linkage groups, covering 95% of the genome with an average distance between markers of 1.67 cM. Compared to an SSR map previously developed for this F2 family, these results represent an improved map covering a greater portion of the genome with higher marker density. The accuracy of the map was validated using the well-studied trait berry color. QTL affecting YAN, MA and SS related traits were detected. A joint MA and SS QTL spans a region with candidate genes involved in the malate metabolism pathway. We present an analytical pipeline for calling intercross GBS markers and a high-density linkage map for a large F2 family of the highly heterozygous Vitis genus. This study serves as a model for further genetic investigations of the molecular basis of additional unique characters of North American hybrid wine cultivars and to enhance the breeding process by marker-assisted selection. The GBS protocols for identifying intercross markers developed in this study can be adapted for other heterozygous species.

  9. Avaliação do enraizamento, desenvolvimento de raízes e parte aérea de porta-enxertos de videira em condições de campo Evaluation of rooting, development of roots and shoot biomass from rootstock of grapevine, in field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Tecchio

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar o enraizamento, a brotação e o desenvolvimento de raízes de diferentes porta-enxertos de videira em condições de campo. Estacas lenhosas dos porta-enxertos '420 A', 'Golia', '5C', '8B', 'RR101-14', 'SO4', '99R', 'Kober 5BB', 'IAC 766', 'IAC 572', 'IAC 571-6', 'Ripária do Traviú' e 'Rupestris du Lot' foram colocadas em canteiro de terra, sem tratamento prévio. O delineamento foi em blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições e vinte estacas por parcela, com as estacas dispostas em espaçamento de 12 x 5cm. As estacas foram colocadas para enraizar no início de julho e removidas no final de setembro para as avaliações. A porcentagem de estacas enraizadas variou de 79% para 'Ripária do Traviú' a 99% para o 'RR101-14'. Quanto à brotação, o 'Ripária do Traviú' apresentou 47%, 'IAC 571-6', 'IAC 572', '420 A', 'Rupestris du Lot', 'Kober', 'IAC 766', '8B', '5C', apresentaram de 76 a 89% e 'Golia', 'SO4', '99R' e 'RR 101-14' mais de 90%. 'IAC 572' e 'IAC 571-6' apresentaram o menor número de raízes por estaca, no entanto, foram as que apresentaram raízes mais desenvolvidas, seguidas pelo '5C' e 'Rupestris du Lot'. 'Kober 5BB' e 'Ripária do Traviú' apresentaram as raízes menos desenvolvidas. As demais variedades apresentaram valores intermediários. Concluiu-se que, entre todos os porta-enxertos, o 'Ripária do Traviú' apresentou os menores índices de enraizamento e brotação das estacas, nas condições de campo.The goals of this investigation was to evaluate the rooting, budding and development of roots from different rootstock of grapevine, in field conditions. Ligneous cutting of rootstock '420 A', 'Golia', '5C', '8B', 'RR101-14', 'SO4', '99R', 'Kober 5BB', 'IAC 766', 'IAC 572', 'IAC 571-6', 'Ripária do Traviú' and 'Rupestris du Lot' were planted in soil, without previous preparation. The experimental design was done in randomized blocks, with five repetitions and twenty cutting per plot

  10. A first pedigree-based analysis (PBA) approach for the dissection of disease resistance traits in grapevine hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peressotti, E.; Dolzani, C.; Poles, L.; Banchi, E.; Stefanini, M.; Salamini, F.; Velasco, R.; Vezzulli, S.; Riaz, S.; Walker, M.A.; Reisch, B.I.; De Weg, Van W.E.; Bink, M.C.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    To date, molecular markers are available for many economically important traits in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) as well as in other fruit crops. Unfortunately, lack of knowledge of the allelic variation of the related genes hampers their full exploitation in commercial breeding programs. These m

  11. A first pedigree-based analysis (PBA) approach for the dissection of disease resistance traits in grapevine hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peressotti, E.; Dolzani, C.; Poles, L.; Banchi, E.; Stefanini, M.; Salamini, F.; Velasco, R.; Vezzulli, S.; Riaz, S.; Walker, M.A.; Reisch, B.I.; De Weg, Van W.E.; Bink, M.C.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    To date, molecular markers are available for many economically important traits in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) as well as in other fruit crops. Unfortunately, lack of knowledge of the allelic variation of the related genes hampers their full exploitation in commercial breeding programs. These

  12. Crescimento de híbridos e variedades porta-enxerto de citros sob salinidade = Growth of hybrids and rootstock varieties of citrus under salinity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Dantas Fernandes

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A salinidade da água e do solo afeta o crescimento, o desenvolvimento e a produção de espécies frutíferas, dentre as quais os citros. O uso de porta-enxertos tolerantes pode garantir a sustentabilidade do agronegócio citrícola em tais condições. Assim, estudou-se a sensibilidade à salinidade durante a fase de formação de portaenxertoscompreendendo variedades e híbridos selecionados. O experimento foirealizado em casa-de-vegetação, considerando cinco níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação [testemunha, irrigação com água de abastecimento local, condutividade elétrica da água (CEa de 0,41 dS m-1 e água com CEa de 1,0; 2,0; 3,0 e 4,0 dS m-1] e sete genótipos, utilizando delineamento em blocos casualizados, com cinco repetiçõesem esquema fatorial e quatro plantas úteis por parcela, durante o período de 150 dias. Avaliaram-se variáveis de crescimento e fisiológicas. A redução mais expressiva foi observada na fitomassa seca total da parte aérea com aumento unitário da CEa. Observou-se redução linear no crescimento com aumento da salinidade nos híbridosLVK x LVA-009 e TSK x TRENG-256. Dentre os genótipos avaliados, o limoeiro ‘Volkameriano’ foi o menos sensível ao estresse salino.Water and soil salinity affects the growth, development and production of fructiferous species, such as citrus. The use of tolerant rootstocks can guarantee the agribusiness of citrus under such conditions. Thus, the sensibility to salinity during the phase of rootstock formation of varieties and selected hybrids was studied. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, with five levels of irrigation water salinity [control, tap water with electrical conductivity (ECw of 0.41 dS m-1, and water with ECw of 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 dS m-1] and seven genotypes, in a randomized block designand five replications each consisting of four plants, during 150 day period. Growth and physiologic variables were evaluated. Significant effects

  13. More crop for drop - climate change and wine: an economic evaluation of a new drought-resistant rootstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galletto, Luigi; Barisan, Luigino; Boatto, Vasco; Costantini, Edoardo A C; Lorenzetti, Romina; Pomarici, Eugenio; Vecchio, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    The current paper presents the results of an economic evaluation of a new drought-resistant rootstock (M4), capable to maintain in adverse environmental conditions high photosynthetic activity, to accumulate osmotic compounds and to compensate for the accumulation of sodium and chlorine in the grapevines, in two core Italian grapevine growing areas: the North-East and Sicily. After collecting data on quantitative (yield per plant in kg) and qualitative parameters (°Brix, anthocyanins, pH) of experimental vineyards (Cabernet Sauvignon variety) planted using the traditional rootstock 1103P and the innovative M4 rootstock, over a seven-year period, a cost-benefit analysis calculated the effects of replacing the traditional rootstock. The results show that M4 rootstock yields higher net revenues compared to the best situation of 1103P rootstock, roughly in 40% of North-East vineyards and in more than 80% of their Sicilian counterparts. In addition, 14% of North-East vineyards and more than 94% of Sicilian vineyards are currently exposed to drought risk, and these areas are expected to increase in the coming years. Thus the M4 rootstock, as other related innovations [51-53], could significantly improve watersaving strategies, which are gaining increasing attention from both public bodies and wine companies.

  14. Elimination of Grapevine fleck virus by in vitro Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela Cătălina GUŢĂ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine fleck virus produces a ubiquitous disease, latent in European grapevine varieties (Vitis vinifera L. and in most American rootstocks, being found in all viticultural countries, in simple or complex infections with other more dangerous viruses. Different techniques for sanitation showed controversial results regarding fleck elimination in grapevine. In vitro culture of ‘Tămâioasă românească’ 3-2-2 with fleck virus and ‘Burgund’ 63 Mn with double infection (Grapevine fleck virus and Grapevine virus A, naturally infected have been submitted to hemotherapy using a combination of ribavirin and oseltamivir in three concentration variants (V1-40 mg/L ribavirin + 40 mg/L oseltamivir; V2-20 mg/L ribavirin + 40 mg/L oseltamivir; V3-20 mg/L ribavirin + 80 mg/L oseltamivir and three consecutive subcultures. The plants regenerated after each subculture were evaluated by ELISA from the viewpoint of virus elimination and the RT-PCR was used for confirmation of the diagnostic. Due the phytotoxic effect of viricides, the ltiplication rate decreased on experimental variants in the next subculture comparatively to the control, but no mortality of explants has been registered. Grapevine fleck virus has been 100% eliminated both from simple and mixed infections on all variants by in vitro chemotherapy, under the simultaneous action of two viricides. Unsatisfactory results have been achieved with Grapevine virus A elimination.

  15. Citrus rootstocks influence the population densities of pest mites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rocha da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus are attacked by pest mites such as the citrus rust mite Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead (Acari: Eriophyidae and the spider mite Tetranychus mexicanus (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae. However, little is known on citrus rootstocks influencing pest mites. We aimed to evaluate the influence of rootstocks on population densities of pest mites on the sweet oranges 'Pera CNPMF D-6' and 'Valencia Tuxpan' throughout time. Adults of both mite species were monthly counted during 19 months from June 2011 to February 2013. Rootstocks influenced the populations of pest mites, since lower densities of P. oleivora were found on 'Pera CNPMF D-6' sweet orange grafted on the hybrid TSKC × CTTR - 002 and on 'Swingle' citrumelo in comparison with the hybrid LVK × LCR - 010, 'Red' rough lime and 'Santa Cruz' rangpur lime as rootstocks. Similarly, lower densities of T. mexicanus were found on 'Valencia Tuxpan' sweet orange grafted on the hybrid HTR-051 in comparison to 'Indio' citrandarin, 'Sunki Tropical' mandarin and LVK × LCR - 010 as rootstocks. We concluded that densities of the mites P. oleivora and T. mexicanus on the sweet oranges 'Pera CNPMF D-6' and 'Valencia Tuxpan' were affected in some periods of the year by some rootstocks, suggesting influence of some genotypes on these pests.

  16. Rootstock on vine performance and wine quality of ‘Syrah’ under double pruning management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Alcântara Novelli Dias

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the Brazilian Southeast, the production of high quality wines is attained by a new management approach called double pruning. This management changes the harvesting of wine grape (Vitis vinifera L. from wet summer to dry winter through a two pruning procedures carried out during the year. The first pruning is done during the winter to induce a vegetative cycle (all clusters are removed and a second pruning is done during the summer to induce the reproductive cycle. In this study, ten different rootstocks were compared in order to optimize yield and wine quality of Syrah vines conducted under autumn-winter season by double pruning approach. Syrah grapevines grafted onto ‘Rupestris du Lot’ and ‘IAC 766’ showed the highest pruning weight, while ‘110 Richter’ and ‘161-49 Courdec’ induced the lowest cane vigor. The average production of two seasons identified ‘IAC 766’, ‘Kober 5BB’ and ‘Rupestris du Lot’ as the most productive rootstocks. In both seasons, the grape quality was more influenced by the plant development status than by rootstocks. ‘Syrah’ wine from vigorous and high yielding rootstocks, ‘IAC 766’ and ‘Rupestris du Lot’, showed satisfactory wine phenolic composition and alcohol/acidity balance. This study showed that vigorous rootstock increased yield without compromising grape and winter wine quality of Syrah grapevines subjected to double pruning management in the Brazilian Southeast.

  17. Caracterização de frutos e poliembrionia em sementes de 'flying dragon' e de híbridos de porta-enxerto de citros Fruit characterization and seed polyembryony of 'flying dragon' and of hybrids citrus rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Amato Moreira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A diversificação de porta-enxertos é uma realidade no momento atual da citricultura brasileira, devido aos inúmeros problemas fitossanitários que vêm sendo recorrentes. Neste contexto, algumas alternativas já são implementadas, como a utilização de alguns híbridos produzidos a partir do melhoramento convencional e por variedades já consagradas na citricultura. O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de caracterizar os frutos e avaliar a germinação e a poliembrionia das sementes de híbridos e alguns porta-enxertos convencionais. Para caracterização, foram colhidas, ao acaso, 12 amostras (frutos de cada porta-enxerto. Na avaliação do percentual de germinação, índice de velocidade de germinação e poliembrionia, foi utilizado o esquema fatorial 5 (porta-enxertos: híbridos UFLAD-2, UFLAD-3 e UFLAD-4, citrumeleiro 'Swingle' e o Poncirus trifoliata var. monstrosa 'Flying Dragon' x 2 (com e sem a remoção do tegumento da semente, sendo utilizadas quatro repetições. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que: O tamanho do fruto não influenciou no rendimento de sementes. A remoção do tegumento acelerou o tempo de germinação das sementes em todos os porta-enxertos e proporcionou maior percentual de germinação. A poliembrionia não afetou o processo de germinação das sementes. Os porta-enxertos UFLAD-2, UFLAD-3, UFLAD-4 e citrumeleiro 'Swingle' apresentam potencial para serem utilizados como porta-enxertos na propagação de algumas variedades cítricas.The diversification of the rootstocks is a reality at the moment of the brazilian citriculture, due many problems that have been recurring. In this context some alternatives are already a reality as the use of some hybrids produced through conventional breeding and varieties already used in citrus. This work was carried out aiming to characterize the fruit and evaluate the germination and the polyembryony of the seed. For characterization were randomly

  18. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis stimulates key genes of the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and stilbenoid production in grapevine leaves in response to downy mildew and grey mould infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruisson, Sébastien; Maillot, Pascale; Schellenbaum, Paul; Walter, Bernard; Gindro, Katia; Deglène-Benbrahim, Laurence

    2016-11-01

    Grapevine (Vitis spp) is susceptible to serious fungal diseases usually controlled by chemical treatments. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are obligate plant symbionts which can stimulate plant defences. We investigated the effect of mycorrhization on grapevine stilbenoid defences. Vitis vinifera cvs Chasselas, Pinot noir and the interspecific hybrid Divico, on the rootstock 41B, were mycorrhized with Rhizophagus irregularis before leaf infection by Plasmopara viticola or Botrytis cinerea. Gene expression analysis showed an up-regulation of PAL, STS, and ROMT, involved in the stilbenoid biosynthesis pathway, in plant leaves, 48 h after pathogen inoculation. This defense response could be potentiated under AMF colonization, with an intensity level depending on the gene, the plant cultivar and/or the pathogen. We also showed that higher amounts of active forms of stilbenoids (i.e trans-form of resveratrol, ε- and δ-viniferins and pterostilbene) were produced in mycorrhized plants of the three genotypes in comparison with non-mycorrhized ones, 10 days post-inoculation with either pathogen. These results support the hypothesis that AMF root colonization enhances defence reactions against a biotrophic and a necrotrophic pathogen, in the aerial parts of grapevine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ácido indolbutírico no enraizamento de estacas semilenhosas do porta-enxerto de videira 'VR043-43' (Vitis vinifera x Vitis rotundifolia Indole butyric acid on rooting ability of semihardwood cutting of grapevine rootstock 'VR 043-43' (Vitis vinifera x Vitis rotundifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Pereira Machado

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar diferentes concentrações de ácido indolbutírico (AIB no enraizamento de estacas semilenhosas do porta-enxerto de videira 'VR043-43' (Vitis vinifera x Vitis rotundifolia. O experimento foi realizado na Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba-PR, no período de dezembro de 2004 a janeiro de 2005. As concentrações de AIB testadas foram 0; 1.000; 2.000 e 3.000 mg L-1, sendo a base das estacas imersas nas soluções dos reguladores vegetais, durante dez segundos. Após 40 dias em câmara de nebulização, as estacas foram avaliadas. As estacas com maior porcentagem de enraizamento foram aquelas que não receberam tratamento com AIB (92,5%. A porcentagem de estacas mortas aumentou com as concentrações de AIB, e a porcentagem de retenção foliar diminuiu. Houve incremento do número médio de raízes primárias por estacas com as maiores concentrações de AIB, porém as matérias fresca e seca das raízes não diferiram significativamente entre os tratamentos. Conclui-se que o AIB não é necessário para o enraizamento de estacas semilenhosas do porta-enxerto 'VR043-43'.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the indolebutyric acid (IBA on the rooting of semi hardwood cuttings of grapevine rootstock 'VR043-43' (Vitis vinifera x Vitis rotundifolia. The experiment was set up at the Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR, Brazil, in December/2004 to January/2005. The IBA concentrations were 0; 1,000; 2,000 and 3,000 mg L-1, and the cutting base was dipped in the solution for ten seconds. After 40 days under intermittent mist condition the cuttings were evaluated. The results showed that higher percentage of rooted cuttings was obtained with 0 mg L-1 of IBA (92,5%. The percentage of death cuttings increased with the IBA concentrations and decreased leaf retention. There was an increase in the root number per cutting with the increase of IBA concentrations, but there was no

  20. Rootstocks for 'Tahiti' lime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenzel Neusa Maria Colauto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The 'Tahiti' lime (Citrus latifolia Tanaka is an important commercial citrus cultivar in Brazil. 'Rangpur' lime has being used as its main rootstock, but it is susceptible to root rot caused by Phytophthora, reducing tree longevity. An experiment was set up in a randomized block design, with three trees per plot of each rootstock and four replicates, and run for 12 years, aiming to compare the performance of 'IAC-5 Tahiti' lime, budded on 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osb.; 'C-13' citrange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.; 'African' rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush.; 'Volkamer' lemon (Citrus volkameriana Ten. & Pasq.; trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.; 'Sunki' mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tan. and 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan.. Eleven years after the establishment of the orchard, trees with the greatest canopy development were budded on 'C-13' citrange and 'African' rough lemon, and both differed significantly from trees budded on trifoliate orange, 'Sunki' and 'Cleopatra' mandarins, which presented the smallest canopy development. Trees budded on 'Rangpur' lime and 'C-13' citrange had the highest cumulative yields, and were different from trees budded on trifoliate orange, 'Cleopatra' and 'Sunki' mandarins. There was no rootstock effect on mean fruit weight and on the total soluble solid/acid ratio in the juice. The 'Rangpur' lime and the 'Cleopatra' mandarin rootstocks reduced longevity of plants.

  1. First experiences with grape rootstocks x phylloxera interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Pavloušek

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape phylloxera, Dactulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch., is one of most destructive insect pest of cultivated grapes (Vitis vinifera L. worldwide. Phylloxera was the cause of incomparable structural changes in European viticulture. It also led to the usage of new biotechnology – rootstocks for grape varieties. The direct damage is related to phylloxera feeding of roots and leaves. Rootstocks bred solely with American Vitis spp. parentage allow little or none of phylloxera related root damage that is seen on Vitis vinifera. Rootstocks with partial Vitis vinifera parentage may also confer a high level of grape phylloxera resistance, but this resistance is not durable. Rootstock was evaluated under laboratory conditions and with pot trials. Resistance against phylloxera at roots and leaves was evaluated. Highest resistance degree was proved for variety Börner. Good resistance was found for most of tested rootstock varieties. Very good resistance have SO4 PO 0/7 and Craciunel 2 PO 0/6. It is interesting, that hybrid Kl×SO4 has also relatively good resistance. This promising franco-american needs further examination thanks to its good growing properties. After long time, this research offers new results about rootstock and phylloxera interactions under conditions of Southern Moravia. Results serve as a ground for further resistance breeding against phylloxera in Czech Republic.

  2. Viabilidade de uso do híbrido Hawaii 7996 como porta-enxerto de cultivares comerciais de tomate Potential of Hawaii 7996 hybrid as rootstock for tomato cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suane Coutinho Cardoso

    2006-01-01

    solanacearum, as compared to non-grafted seedlings. Seedling production and grafting were done in nursery and grafted plants essayed Cruz das Almas, State of Bahia, Brazil, from October of 2003 to February of 2004. Cleft graft was used on to Hawaii 7996 hybrid as rootstocks, and 'Santa Clara', 'Santa Cruz Kada' and 'Débora Plus', susceptible to the disease were used as scion. The experimental design was a completely randomized blocks with six treatments and five replicates (3 scion-rootstock combinations and 3 types of non-grafted seedlings. The following characteristics were evaluated: stem diameter, plant and first inflorescence height, distance between inflorescences and commercial fruit yield. Plant growth, average fruit weight and yield did not differ between grafted treatments and non-grafted seedlings. There was no incompatibility between the rootstock and the scion plants. 'Santa Cruz Kada' showed more sensitivity to the agroecological conditions of Cruz das Almas, which reflected negatively in the yield and average fruit weight. The hybrid 'Hawaii 7996' is a promising rootstock allowing the growth of tomato crop bacterial wilting susceptible cultivars, in areas infested with R. solanacearum.

  3. Características da laranjeira 'Valência' sobre clones e híbridos de porta-enxertos tolerantes à tristeza Characteristics of 'Valencia' sweet orange onto clones and hybrid rootstocks tolerant to the tristeza disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Bordignon

    2003-01-01

    ção precoce e elevadosºBrix e ratio desse genitor, tratando-se de determinantes genéticos independentes. Trifoliata induziu altos valores de ratio do suco e, todos os seus grupos de híbridos foram superiores à Sunki e ao Cravo. Quanto à produção, verificou-se a superioridade do Cravo em relação à Sunki e esta em relação ao Trifoliata, enquanto nos híbridos constatou-se ampla variabilidade genética, sendo 228 significativamente mais produtivos que o Trifoliata, 100 superiores à Sunki e 47 ao Cravo. Os resultados evidenciaram alto potencial de seleção desses híbridos.Variability and selection potential of 396 hybrids of Rangpur lime 'Limeira', (Citrus limonia (C, Sunki mandarin (C. sunki (S, Sour orange 'São Paulo'(C. aurantium (A and Trifoliate orange 'Davis A'(Poncirus trifoliata (T tolerant to the tristeza disease were studied, comparatively to the genitors Rangpur lime, Sunki and Trifoliate orange. Hybrids TxA, TxS, SxT, CxS, SxC, CxA and SxA were investigated as to yield of first three crops, productivity and several vegetative and industrial characteristics of Valencia sweet orange onto them. Rangpur lime, Trifoliate orange and T x S, S x T, T x A, C x A hybrids initiated yielding before Sunki and S x C, C x S, S x A hybrids. This result indicates a dominance of the precocious yield of Trifoliate even in the hybrids with Sunki and conversely, the opposite trend of Sunki and its hybrids, except in the combination with Trifoliate orange. Yield per canopy area induced by Trifoliate orange was low, contrasting with Rangpur lime, Sunki mandarin and T x S, S x T hybrids. It was observed a close relationship between the diameter of scions, the diameter of rootstocks right after transplant to the field and the same parameters in the subsequent years. Height, canopy, rootstock and scion trunk diameters were highly correlated and useful for composing an index vigor. Trifoliate orange and Sunki mandarin are the most divergent genitors regarding vigor, and the

  4. Influence of rootstock on nutrient content in grape petioles Influência do porta-enxerto no teor de nutrientes nos pecíolos de videiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Dalbó

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity of rootstocks can affect nutrient uptake and the nutrient status of grapevines. The rootstock influence on nutrient content in grape petioles was evaluated on three rootstocks competition experiments carried out at Vale do Rio do Peixe region, in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, with the cultivars Niagara Rosada, Concord, and Isabella, grafted on different rootstocks. Two soil liming depths were also evaluated in the Isabella experiment. The greatest rootstock effect was observed on K and Mg content and K/Mg ratio in the petioles. The Vitis vinifera x V. rotundifolia hybrid rootstocks VR 043-43 and VR 044-4 provided the highest K/Mg values and self rooted Isabella the lowest K/Mg ratio. The other tested rootstocks resulted in intermediate values. There was also significant effect on P content, but only in Niagara Rosada and Concord experiments. The depth of soil liming did not significantly affect K and Mg content in the Isabella experiment. The results indicate that rootstock must be considered for nutritional status evaluation and fertilizer recommendation regarding to K and Mg.A diversidade genética dos porta-enxertos de videira pode afetar a absorção de nutrientes e o estado nutricional dos vinhedos. A influência do porta-enxerto nos teores de nutrientes em pecíolos de videira foi avaliada em três experimentos de competição de porta-enxertos instalados na região do Vale do Rio do Peixe-SC. As cultivares-copa foram Niagara Rosada e Concord, enxertadas sobre diversos porta-enxertos. Para a cultivar Isabel, além do efeito do porta-enxerto, avaliou-se também a influência de duas profundidades de calagem do solo. Os maiores efeitos do porta-enxerto foram verificados nos teores de K e Mg e na relação K/Mg nos pecíolos. Os porta-enxertos híbridos de Vitis vinifera x V. rotundifolia (VR 043-43 e VR 044-4 induziram as maiores relações K/Mg, ao passo que a cultivar Isabel (pé-franco resultou nos menores valores

  5. Rootstock effects fruit quality among 'Ray Ruby' grapefruit trees grown in the Indian River district of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this experiment was to compare fruit quality parameters of ‘Ray Ruby’ grapefruit grown on seven rootstocks. Four recent releases from the USDA rootstock breeding program, US-852, US-897, US-942 and US-812 (all Citrus reticulata x P. trifoliata hybrids), X639 (C. reticulata x P. tri...

  6. Caracterização de híbridos de Poncirus trifoliata e de outros porta-enxertos de citros no Estado da Bahia Characterization of Poncirus trifoliata hybrids and other citrus rootstocks in the State of Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Sampaio Passos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos visando à caracterização de híbridos de Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. e porta-enxertos tradicionais foram realizados no sentido de se conhecer o seu comportamento nas condições tropicais do Estado da Bahia. Foram tomadas medidas de altura, diâmetro e peso de frutos, número de sementes por fruto e por quilo, bem como contagem de embriões, taxa de poliembrionia, percentagens de germinação e de vingamento de borbulhas na enxertia, em mais de 34 acessos, a maioria introduzida da Califórnia - EUA. Os dados obtidos estimulam o uso de alguns híbridos de trifoliata, como os das tangerineiras 'Cleópatra' (Citrus reshni hort. ex Tanaka e 'Sunki' (C. sunki hort. ex Tanaka com os trifoliatas 'Swingle' e 'English'.Studies on characterization of trifoliate hybrids and traditional rootstocks were accomplished in order to know their behavior under tropical conditions in the State of Bahia. Measurements of the height, diameter and weight of the fruits were taken, number of seeds per fruit and per kilo were counted, as well as number of embryos, polyembryony and germination rate and grafting in 34 accessions, mostly introduced from California, USA. The obtained data encourage the use of some trifoliate hybrids, as those from crosses between 'Cleopatra' mandarin (C. reshni hort. ex Tanaka and 'Sunki' mandarin (C. sunki hort. ex Tanaka with 'Swingle' and 'English' trifoliate.

  7. Grapevine phytoplasma disease in Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Chkhaidze

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Results of grapevine yellows disease (GY studies in 2005–2015 are reported. Based on symptoms and Dienes' staining method the disease was detected in Kartli, Kakheti and Guria regions on Vitis vinifera (L. Rkatsiteli, Saperavi, Shavkapito, Tavkveri, Aladasturi, Kachichi, Ganjuri, Chardonnay, Vitis labrusca (L. cultivar Isabella, species hybrid cultivar Noah. The phytoplasmas were also visualized by using electron microscopy. The disease seriously modifies the structure of leaf the grapevine phloem, the chlorophyll content and the functioning of sink–source system. According to anatomical characters the studied cultivars showed a decreasing resistance from Noah, to Aladasturi, Rkatsiteli, Kachichi and Saperavi. In the areas of disease epidemic 12 leafhopper species were identified: Agalmatium grylloides (Fabricius, 1794, Cicadella viridis (Linnaeus, 1758, Dictyophara europaea (Linnaeus, 1767, Empoasca vitis (Gothe, 1875, Erythroneura imeretina Dekanoidze, 1962, Hyalesthes mlokosieviczi Signoret, 1879, Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret, 1865, Lepironia coleoptrata (Linnaeus, 1758, Pentastiridius leporinus (Linnaeus, 1761, Philaenus spumarius (Linnaeus, 1758, Metcalfa pruinosa (Say, 1830, Ricania japonica (Melichar, 1898, which may be possible vectors of grapevine phytoplasmas in Georgia.

  8. Unveiling inoculum sources of black foot pathogens in a commercial grapevine nursery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida CARDOSO

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Black foot of grapevine is an important disease caused primarily by Ilyonectria spp. and “Cylindrocarpon” pauciseptatum. These pathogens affect grapevine nurseries and young vineyards, causing the decline and death of plants. In the nursery, the primary infections of the grafted cuttings are mainly attributed to soil-borne inoculum, which could infect the roots and the basal end of rootstocks during the rooting stage. The aim of this research was to detect other possible sources of inoculum throughout the different nursery stages by classical and molecular techniques (nested-PCR and multiplex nested-PCR. Results revealed the presence of the I. liriodendri and/or I. macrodidyma complex in grapevine rootstock and scion cuttings, cutting tools, water from hydration tanks, well water, callusing medium, one indoor air sample and soils collected from mother fields and nurseries. “Cylindrocarpon” pauciseptatum was only detected in the callusing medium, nursery soils, rooted-graftlings and on the root pruning machine. Forty four isolates obtained from soils (mother fields and nurseries and rooted graftlings (six grapevine cultivar/rootstock combinations were sequenced for part of histone H3 gene to resolve the species. While I. liriodendri, I. macrodidyma and I. torresensis were identified from soil samples, from rooted graftlings it was also possible to detect I. liriodendri, I. macrodidyma, I. novozelandica, I. torresensis, Ilyonectria sp. 2, “C.“ pauciseptatum and four Ilyonectria isolates which are close to I. cyclaminicola. The results demonstrated that, in addition to nursery soils, mother field soils, rootstock and scion cuttings, water from wells and hydration tanks, callusing media, cutting tools and indoor air should be considered as potential sources of inoculum for black foot pathogens.

  9. Effects of Partial Rootzone Drying on the Growth of Vitis vinifera cv. Malvasia Grafted on Different Rootstocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Wei; GUAN Xue-qiang; LI En-mao; ZHAI Heng; WANG Xiao-fang; DU Yuan-peng

    2007-01-01

    To lay a biological foundation for rootstocks and alternate irrigation (AI) popularization, the effects of partial rootzone drying (PRD) on the growth of the grapevine Malvasia grafted on different rootstocks were investigated. Biological effects of 1/2 divided root irrigation on three combinations, i.e., Malvasia/420A, Malvasia/3309C, and Malvasia/110R,were studied by wood-boxed plants. All the plants were separated into three groups for different irrigation strategies.Mass growth of new root in alternate-irrigated plants was remarkably promoted by about 7.8-22.2% higher than the wellwatered ones. However, new shoot growth, especially the internode was reduced by alternate irrigation. The average root-shoot ratio of all the three combinations was increased from 1.1 to 1.46. New root growth and internode length were decreased by fixed partial rootzone irrigation (FI) at different amount, M/3309C at 37.9 and 36.9%, M/110R at 18.4 and 22.5%, respectively. Total biomass of all the three combinations under FI decreased at the rate of 19.2-34.3% compared with well-watered ones. Water stress adaptation of grapevine mainly depends on rootstock. 110R is more efficient than3309C and 420A in water stress adaptation. PRD-AI benefited root growth, thus improved the drought-resistant ability of grapevine.

  10. Physiological and agronomical responses of Syrah grapevine under protected cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rita de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of Syrah grapevine under protected cultivation with different plastic films was evaluated during 2012 and 2013 seasons in South of Minas Gerais State. Agronomical and physiological measurements were done on eight years old grapevines, grafted onto ‘1103 Paulsen’ rootstock cultivated under uncovered conditions, covered with transparent and with diffuse plastic films. Both plastic covers induced the highest shoot growth rate and specific leaf area. The diffuse plastic induced greater differences on leaf area, pruning weight and leaf chlorophyll content as compared to uncovered vines. Grapevines under diffuse plastic also had the lowest rates of photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration. Leaf starch, glucose and fructose contents were not affected by treatment, but leaf sucrose was reduced by transparent plastic. The leaf and stem water potential were higher under diffuse plastic. In 2013, grapevines under diffuse plastic showed the highest yields mainly due to decreased rot incidence and increased cluster weight. Furthermore, berries under diffuse plastic showed the highest anthocyanins concentration. The use of diffuse plastic induces more agronomical benefits to produce Syrah grape under protected cultivation.

  11. Quantitative anatomy of grapevine (Vitis L. leaf blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine S. Codreanu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Current investigations were conducted to clarify the features of grapevine which are adaptive to drought and can be used in selection and introduction of VitisL. There are determined biometric values of 21 morpho-anatomic characters of leaf blade for 10 species of grapevine, 10 cultivars of V. viniferaL. and 10 distant hybrids V. vinifera× Muscadinia rotundifoliaMichx. As a result of this study 6 leaf blade quantitative characters which determine relative grapevine drought resistance were described. The most drought resistant species, sorts and hybrids of grapevine are that which have: a greater average thickness of leaf blade; b smaller surface (average area of leaf blade; c less ratio between average area and average volume of dried leaf blade; d greater mass of dried leaf blade; e higher degrees of the leaf succulence and sclerophylly.

  12. Avaliação de citrandarins e outros híbridos de trifoliata como porta-enxertos para citros em São Paulo Performance of citrandarins and others trifoliate hybrids rootstocks in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Blumer

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Laranjeiras Valência enxertadas em citrandarins e outros híbridos de trifoliata foram plantadas em 1988, em Itirapina (SP, num Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo textura arenosa e conduzidas sem irrigação. O citrandarin Sunki x English (1.628, sem diferir estatisticamente de Cleópatra x Rubidoux (1.660, Cleópatra x English (710, Cleópatra x Swingle (715 e do trangpur Cravo x Carrizo (717, induziu a maior produção de frutos nas cinco primeiras colheitas do experimento (1991-1995, sendo que os três primeiros foram os mais produtivos nas três últimas colheitas. Os citranges Troyer e Carrizo foram significativamente inferiores aos citrandarins Sunki x English (1.628, Cleópatra x Rubidoux (1.660 e Cleópatra x English (710 em todos os anos, exceto 1994. Nenhuma das plantas apresentou sintomas de suscetibilidade à tristeza ou ao declínio. Os seedlings dos porta-enxertos diferiram quanto à área lesionada pela inoculação com Phytophthora parasitica. Os citrandarins Cleópatra x Swingle (1.587, Cleópatra x Trifoliata (1.574, Cleópatra x Rubidoux (1.600, Clementina x Trifoliata (1.615 e o limão Cravo x citrange Carrizo (717 foram significativamente mais resistentes que Cleópatra x Christian (712, Sunki x English (1.628, Cleópatra x Swingle (715 e Cleópatra x English (710.Valencia sweet orange trees budded onto citrandarins and others trifoliate hybrids rootstocks from the USDA Horticultural Research Laboratory, Fort Pierce, Florida, were planted in 1988 on a sandy textured Oxisol in São Paulo State, Brazil, and managed without irrigation. Tristeza and blight diseases are endemic in this area. Trees of Sunki x English (1.628, Cleopatra x Rubidoux (1.660, Cleopatra x English (710, Cleopatra x Swingle (715 and Rangpur lime x Carrizo citrange (717, produced the highest cumulative yields in the first five crops (1991-1995. The first three rootstocks induced the highest crops in the last three years. Carrizo and Troyer citranges had the lowest

  13. 几种苹果砧木杂交后代对红富士苹果树体生长及早花特性的影响%Effects of different apple rootstock hybrids on the growth and early flowering of Fuji apple tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隗晓雯; 郭静; 史娟; 郭兴科; 张学英; 徐继忠

    2015-01-01

    为苹果矮化砧木杂交育种亲本选择与选配提供依据,以‘西府海棠’、‘珠美海棠’、‘77‐34’、‘P22’、‘S H38’、‘S19’等苹果砧木的杂交后代嫁接红富士为试材,研究不同砧木杂交后代对树体大小、枝类组成、新梢生长等与树体生长相关的性状及早花特性的影响。结果表明:以不同组合杂交后代为砧木的红富士苹果在树高方面无显著差异;77‐34× S H38的杂交后代嫁接红富士植株短枝+叶丛枝所占总枝量的比率显著高于其他组合;77‐34× S H38杂交后代、西府海棠× S19杂交后代嫁接红富士植株的早花比例明显高于其他组合。供试材料中,‘77‐34’是矮砧杂交育种中较为适宜的母本,‘S19’是较为适宜的父本。%To select suitable parents for apple dwarf rootstock breeding ,the experiment was carried out with Fuji apple trees grafted onto different apple rootstock hybrids .Effects of dif‐ferent apple rootstock hybrids on tree characters ,including tree size ,composition of shoot types ,new shoot growth and early flowering were studied .The results showed that the ratio of leafage shoot + dwarf shoot to total number of shoots on 77‐34 × SH38 hybrids was markedly higher than that of other trees ;the early flowering habit of Fuji apple trees grafted onto 77‐34 × SH38 hybrids ,Midget crabapple × S19 hybrids were obviously higher than that of other trees .‘77‐34’was a suitable mother parent and ‘S19’was a suitable father parent for breeding of dwarf and early flowering rootstocks in the test materials .

  14. ROOTSTOCK-SCION INTERACTION: 2. EFFECT ON THE COMPOSITION OF CABERNET SAUVIGNON GRAPE MUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBERTO MIELE

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The interaction between rootstock, scion and the environment may induce different responses to the grapevine physiology and, consequently, to the grape composition. The vineyards of Serra Gaúcha, Brazil, are established in different soil types, each with different morphological and physicochemical attributes. Moreover, the grapevines are grafted onto a diversity of rootstocks. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of 15 rootstocks in the composition of the Cabernet Sauvignon (CS grape must. The following rootstocks were used: Rupestris du Lot, 101-14 Mgt., 3309 C, 420A Mgt., 5BB K, 161-49 C, SO4, Solferino, 1103 P, 99 R, 110 R, Gravesac, Fercal, Dogridge and Isabel, featuring some genetic diversity altogether. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with 15 treatments, three replicates, 10 vines per plot. The grapes were harvested at maturity for four years, and then crushed for winemaking. Next, the grape musts were centrifuged to separate the solid phase from the liquid phase, which was used for analyses related to sugar, acidity and minerals. The data were submitted to correlation analysis and Principal Component Analysis. The main results from the average of four years show that, in general, the grape musts of the CS/101-14 Mgt., CS/161-49 C, CS/3309 C, CS/Rupestris du Lot and CS/Gravesac combinations had high values of density, total soluble solids, pH and °Brix/titratable acidity ratio, and low titratable acidity, which was high with CS/99 R, CS/110 R, CS/Dogridge and CS/1103 P. Potassium had higher concentrations in the grape musts of CS/SO4 and CS/5BB K. Titratable acidity did not correlate with density and total soluble solids, but positively correlated with yield. Density, total soluble solids, and the concentration of potassium were positively correlated with pH.

  15. A New Cucumber Rootstock Ft Hybrid —'Weisheng No.1'%黄瓜专用砧木新品种威盛1号的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永成; 刘爱群; 赵丽丽; 王国政; 赵越

    2013-01-01

    'Weisheng No.l' is a new cucumber rootstock F1 hybrid bred by crossing S0703 as female parent with S0704 as male parent. It has stronger graft compatibility and symbiotic affinity. When grafted with cucumber scion, its seedling has high survival rate. Grafted seedlings are highly resistant to seedling damping-off, resistant to downy mildew and Fusarium wilt. Especially after grafting with cucumber, its fruit has shiny green skin, and the fruit is straight up. All these have obviously improved its external appearance quality. At the same time, the contents of soluble sugar in cucumber fruit is increased. Grafted seedlings can yield 11.49% higher than self-rooted cucumber, and 8.32% higher than grafted with ' Heizinangua'. It is suitable to be cultivated in open field in northern China, and protected facility grafted with cucumber.%威盛1号是以自交系S0703为母本,自交系S0704为父本配制而成的中国南瓜(Cucurbita moschata Duch.)黄瓜专用砧木一代杂种.该砧木与黄瓜的嫁接亲和性和共生亲和力都很强,嫁接苗成活率高,高抗黄瓜猝倒病,抗霜霉病和枯萎病.特别是嫁接后可使黄瓜瓜皮表面光亮无蜡粉、瓜条顺直,明显地提高外观品质;同时瓜条中可溶性糖含量有所增加,黄瓜产量比自根苗提高11.49%,比用黑籽南瓜嫁接提高8.32%.适宜我国北方露地和保护地黄瓜嫁接栽培.

  16. Breeding of Interspecific Hybrid Squash Rootstock Jingxinzhen No.3 for Melon and Watermelon%甜瓜、西瓜专用砧木品种——京欣砧3号的选育和推广

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾长才; 李海真; 张帆; 姜立纲

    2011-01-01

    Jingxinzhen No. 3 is interspecific hybrid squash rootstock for melon and watermelon. It was developed by using line 05-88 (Cucwbita maxima) as female parent and line 04-36 (Cucurbita moschata) male parent. Compared with check varieties , Jingxinzhen No. 3 has higher germination, uniform seedling, strong plant vigor. It has high grafting affinity with watermelon and melon scion. The grafted plants are tolerant to low temperature and weak light,resistant to Fusarium wilt,and tolerant to salinity. The grafted plant produces higher yield and good quality fruit.%京欣砧3号是用印度南瓜种05-88自交系作母本,中国南瓜系04-36自交系作父本配制而成的远缘南瓜(Cucurbita maxima×Cucurbita moschata)杂交种,主要用于甜瓜和西瓜嫁接栽培.采用京欣砧3号等不同砧木嫁接甜瓜和西瓜试验结果显示:与其他参试葫芦砧木和各类南瓜砧木相比,京欣砧3号发芽率高,出苗整齐,苗壮.与甜瓜、西瓜嫁接亲和性好,共生力强,结合面致密,成活率高.嫁接苗耐低温弱光.抗枯萎病,耐盐碱,叶部病害轻.嫁接后增产效果明显,对果实品质影响小.

  17. Factors influencing stomatal conductance in response to water availability in grapevine: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie-Lamoureux, Anouk; Sacco, Dario; Risse, Paul-André; Lovisolo, Claudio

    2017-04-01

    The main factors regulating grapevine response to decreasing water availability were assessed under statistical support using published data related to leaf water relations in an extensive range of scion and rootstock genotypes. Matching leaf water potential (Ψleaf ) and stomatal conductance (gs ) data were collected from peer-reviewed literature with associated information. The resulting database contained 718 data points from 26 different Vitis vinifera varieties investigated as scions, 15 non-V. vinifera rootstock genotypes and 11 own-rooted V. vinifera varieties. Linearised data were analysed using the univariate general linear model (GLM) with factorial design including biological (scion and rootstock genotypes), methodological and environmental (soil) fixed factors. The first GLM performed on the whole database explained 82.4% of the variability in data distribution having the rootstock genotype the greatest contribution to variability (19.1%) followed by the scion genotype (16.2%). A classification of scions and rootstocks according to their mean predicted gs in response to moderate water stress was generated. This model also revealed that gs data obtained using a porometer were in average 2.1 times higher than using an infra-red gas analyser. The effect of soil water-holding properties was evaluated in a second analysis on a restricted database and showed a scion-dependant effect, which was dominant over rootstock effect, in predicting gs values. Overall the results suggest that a continuum exists in the range of stomatal sensitivities to water stress in V. vinifera, rather than an isohydric-anisohydric dichotomy, that is further enriched by the diversity of scion-rootstock combinations and their interaction with different soils. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  18. Parentais femininos monoembriônicos na obtenção de porta-enxertos híbridos de citros The use of female monoembryonic parents to obtain citrus rootstocks hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter dos Santos Soares Filho

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Visando a evitar os efeitos da poliembrionia, os quais dificultam a distinção entre indivíduos híbridos e aqueles de origem materna (nucelares. O Programa de Melhoramento Genético de Citros da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical selecionou híbridos monoembriônicos, com potencial de geração de novos porta-enxertos, e utilizou-os como parentais femininos em polinizações abertas. Esses parentais foram: trifoliados HTR-001; HTR-002; HTR-005; HTR-037; HTR-073 e HTR-135, além de LCR (limoeiro 'Cravo' Citrus limonia x LRF (limoeiro 'Rugoso da Flórida' C. jambhiri - 005. As progênies de meios-irmãos obtidas compreenderam, respectivamente, 364; 55; 12; 58; 51; 551 e 59 seedlings (plantas oriundas de sementes zigóticos. Os híbridos dentro de progênies foram extremamente variáveis quanto à altura da planta e diâmetro do caule, também apresentando diferenças na presença de ramificações, formato, cor e textura do limbo foliar e tamanho de espinhos. A progênie mais vigorosa relacionou-se ao parental HTR-073, dando-se o contrário com aquela relativa ao híbrido LCR x LRF-005. Este trabalho indica que, em citros, a utilização de parentais femininos monoembrônicos em cruzamentos abertos constitui método simples e fácil de obtenção de híbridos.Seeking to avoid the effects of polyembryony, that difficult the identification of hybrids and individuals of maternal origin (nucellar, the Citrus Breeding Program of Embrapa Cassava & Tropical Fruits selected monoembryonic hybrids with potential of generating new rootstocks. Thus, the trifoliate hybrids HTR-001, HTR-002, HTR-005, HTR-037, HTR-073 and HTR-135, besides LCR ('Rangpur' lime Citrus limonia x LRF ('Florida' rough lemon C. jambhiri - 005 were used as female parents in open pollinations design. The half-sibling progenies obtained were, respectively, 364; 55; 12; 58; 51; 551 and 59 zygotic seedlings. The hybrids inside progenies were extremely variable as regards the height

  19. Shoot chloride exclusion and salt tolerance in grapevine is associated with differential ion transporter expression in roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Sam W; Baumann, Ute; Blackmore, Deidre H; Walker, Amanda R; Walker, Rob R; Gilliham, Matthew

    2014-10-25

    Salt tolerance in grapevine is associated with chloride (Cl-) exclusion from shoots; the rate-limiting step being the passage of Cl- between the root symplast and xylem apoplast. Despite an understanding of the physiological mechanism of Cl- exclusion in grapevine, the molecular identity of membrane proteins that control this process have remained elusive. To elucidate candidate genes likely to control Cl- exclusion, we compared the root transcriptomes of three Vitis spp. with contrasting shoot Cl- exclusion capacities using a custom microarray. When challenged with 50 mM Cl-, transcriptional changes of genotypes 140 Ruggeri (shoot Cl- excluding rootstock), K51-40 (shoot Cl- including rootstock) and Cabernet Sauvignon (intermediate shoot Cl- excluder) differed. The magnitude of salt-induced transcriptional changes in roots correlated with the amount of Cl- accumulated in shoots. Abiotic-stress responsive transcripts (e.g. heat shock proteins) were induced in 140 Ruggeri, respiratory transcripts were repressed in Cabernet Sauvignon, and the expression of hypersensitive response and ROS scavenging transcripts was altered in K51-40. Despite these differences, no obvious Cl- transporters were identified. However, under control conditions where differences in shoot Cl- exclusion between rootstocks were still significant, genes encoding putative ion channels SLAH3, ALMT1 and putative kinases SnRK2.6 and CPKs were differentially expressed between rootstocks, as were members of the NRT1 (NAXT1 and NRT1.4), and CLC families. These results suggest that transcriptional events contributing to the Cl- exclusion mechanism in grapevine are not stress-inducible, but constitutively different between contrasting varieties. We have identified individual genes from large families known to have members with roles in anion transport in other plants, as likely candidates for controlling anion homeostasis and Cl- exclusion in Vitis species. We propose these genes as priority candidates

  20. YIELD AND QUALITY OF ‘PERA’ SWEET ORANGE GRAFTED ON DIFFERENT ROOTSTOCKS UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIO HÉLDER RODRIGUES SAMPAIO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate, under field conditions, different combinations between ‘Pera’ sweet orange and eight rootstocks: ‘Rangpur’ lime (RL, ‘Volkamer’ lemon (VL, ‘Cleopatra’ mandarin (CM, ‘Sunki Maravilha’ mandarin (SMM, ‘Indio’ and ‘Riverside’ citrandarins, and VL x RL (‘Rangpur’ lime-010 and TH-051 hybrids. The soil water matric potential (?m was characterized for all scion-rootstock combinations at distance of 1.0m from the trunk at the plant row direction and depths of 0.25 m, 0.50 m 0.90 m in the dry and wet seasons. For two years, fruit production parameters and fruit quality were assessed. Differences of Ym among scion-rootstock combinations were observed during the dry season (p=0.05. The lowest Ym values for RL and the highest for TH-051 indicate the existence of different intrinsic mechanisms affecting the water extraction of each scion-rootstock combination. Rootstocks have influenced fruit yield and quality (p=0.05. The best combinations for fruit quality and production were sweet orange grafted on ‘Riverside’, ‘Indio’ and TH-051 rootstocks.

  1. Graft union formation in grapevine induces transcriptional changes related to cell wall modification, wounding, hormone signalling, and secondary metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, Sarah Jane; Clemente Moreno, Maria José; Hevin, Cyril; Nyamba Mendome, Larissa Zita; Delrot, Serge; Trossat-Magnin, Claudine; Ollat, Nathalie

    2013-07-01

    Grafting is particularly important to the cultivation of perennial crops such as grapevine (Vitis vinifera) because rootstocks can provide resistance to soil-borne pests and diseases as well as improve tolerance to some abiotic stresses. Successful grafting is a complex biochemical and structural process beginning with the adhesion of the two grafted partners, followed by callus formation and the establishment of a functional vascular system. At the molecular level, the sequence of events underlying graft union formation remains largely uncharacterized. The present study investigates the transcriptome of grapevine rootstock and graft interface tissues sampled 3 d and 28 d after grafting of over-wintering stems in the spring. Many genes were differentially expressed over time, from 3 d to 28 d after grafting, which could be related to the activation of stem growth and metabolic activity in the spring. This hypothesis is supported by the up-regulation of many genes associated with cell wall synthesis, and phloem and xylem development. Generally, there was an up-regulation of gene expression in the graft interface tissue compared with the rootstock, particularly genes involved in cell wall synthesis, secondary metabolism, and signalling. Although there was overlap between the genes differentially expressed over time (from 3 d to 28 d after grafting) with the gene differentially expressed between the rootstock and the graft interface, numerous graft interface-specific genes were identified.

  2. Profiling of Disease-Related Metabolites in Grapevine Internode Tissues Infected with Agrobacterium vitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Min Jung

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Green shoot cuttings of 10 different grapevine species were inoculated with Agrobacterium vitis to find disease-related metabolites in the grapevine. Crown galls formed 60 days after inoculation varied in gall severity (GS evaluated by gall incidence (GI and gall diameter (GD, which were classified into three response types as RR (low GI and small GD, SR (high GI and small GD, and SS (high GI and large GD, corresponding to resistant, moderately resistant, and susceptible responses, respectively. In this, 4, 4, and 2 Vitis species were classified into RR, SR, and SS, respectively. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis of the grapevine stem metabolites with A. vitis infection showed 134 metabolites in various compound classes critically occurred, which were differentially clustered with the response types by the principal component analysis. Multivariate analysis of the metabolite profile revealed that 11 metabolites increased significantly in relation to the response types, mostly at post-inoculation stages, more prevalently (8 metabolites at two days after inoculation than other stages, and more related to SS (7 metabolites than RR (3 metabolites or SR (one metabolite. This suggests most of the disease-related metabolites may be rarely pre-existing but mostly induced by pathogen infection largely for facilitating gall development except stilbene compound resveratrol, a phytoalexin that may be involved in the resistance response. All of these aspects may be used for the selection of resistant grapevine cultivars and their rootstocks for the control of the crown gall disease of the grapevine.

  3. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torregrosa, Laurent; Vialet, Sandrine; Adivèze, Angélique; Iocco-Corena, Pat; Thomas, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis) is considered to be one of the major fruit crops in the world based on hectares cultivated and economic value. Grapes are used not only for wine but also for fresh fruit, dried fruit, and juice production. Wine is by far the major product of grapes, and the focus of this chapter is on wine grape cultivars. Grapevine cultivars of Vitis vinifera L. have a reputation for producing premium quality wines. These premium quality wines are produced from a small number of cultivars that enjoy a high level of consumer acceptance and are firmly entrenched in the market place because of varietal name branding and the association of certain wine styles and regions with specific cultivars. In light of this situation, grapevine improvement by a transgenic approach is attractive when compared to a classical breeding approach. The transfer of individual traits as single genes with a minimum disruption to the original genome would leave the traditional characteristics of the cultivar intact. However, a reliable transformation system is required for a successful transgenic approach to grapevine improvement. There are three criteria for achieving an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system: (1) the production of highly regenerative transformable tissue, (2) optimal cocultivation conditions for both grapevine tissue and Agrobacterium, and (3) an efficient selection regime for transgenic plant regeneration. In this chapter, we describe a grapevine transformation system that meets these criteria. We also describe a protocol for the production of transformed roots suitable for functional gene studies and for the production of semi-transgenic grafted plants.

  4. Avaliação de híbridos de videira destinados à elaboração de vinhos brancos em Caldas, Minas Gerais Agronomic characterisation of grapevine hybrids destined to white wine vinification grown in Caldas, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo de Albuquerque Regina

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação do comportamento de novas cultivares de videiras destinadas à elaboração de vinhos é importante no sentido de se melhorar a qualidade dos vinhos produzidos no sul de Minas Gerais. Neste sentido, avaliaram-se alguns híbridos de videiras tradicionais e de novas obtenções, nas condições de cultivo de Caldas, Minas Gerais. Foram avaliadas oito cultivares, enxertadas sobre o porta-enxerto RR 101-14, conduzidas em espaldeira. As avaliações foram efetuadas no período de 1999 a 2002 e constituíram-se de anotações dos estádios fenológicos de brotação, floração e maturação, da produção e qualidade dos frutos, além da incidência de antracnose e míldio. O ciclo entre brotação e colheita oscilou entre 147 e 169 dias, destacando 'Seyve Villard 5276' como o ciclo de menor duração e 'Seibel 10173' como o ciclo mais longo. As colheitas mais precoces foram 'G 159 OC 32258', 'G 159 OC 32458' e 'Seyve Villard 5276', enquanto as mais tardias foram as variedades 'Moscato Embrapa' e 'Baco blanc'. As maiores produções foram registradas para 'Couderc 13' (10,31 kg.pl-1, 'Baco blanc' (9,02 kg.pl-1, 'Moscato Embrapa' (7,66 kg.pl-1 e 'Villenave' (5,66 kg.pl-1 e as menores para 'G 159 OC 32258' (2,97 kg.pl-1 e 'Seibel 10173' (3,20 kg.pl-1. Os índices médios de sólidos solúveis totais oscilaram entre 14,63 e 19,23 ºBrix, respectivamente, para as cultivares 'Couderc 13' e 'G 159 OC 32258', e os valores de acidez total variaram de 91,7 meq.L-1 a 153,2 meq.L-1, respectivamente, para as cultivares 'Baco blanc' e 'Seibel 10173'.Environmental conditions and growing practices determine the vine's quality. The knowledge of new grapevine's cultivars responses to these factors within the growing season contributes to improve the quality of the wines produced in a specific region. Thus, traditional grapevines hybrids and new attainments were evaluated in Caldas, Minas Gerais conditions. The study was carried out from 1999 to 2002

  5. Biological control of crown gall on grapevine and root colonization by nonpathogenic Rhizobium vitis strain ARK-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Akira

    2013-01-01

    A nonpathogenic strain of Rhizobium vitis ARK-1 was tested as a biological control agent for grapevine crown gall. When grapevine roots were soaked in a cell suspension of strain ARK-1 before planting in the field, the number of plants with tumors was reduced. The results from seven field trials from 2009 to 2012 were combined in a meta-analysis. The integrated relative risk after treatment with ARK-1 was 0.15 (95% confidence interval: 0.07-0.29, P0.001), indicating that the disease incidence was significantly reduced by ARK-1. In addition, the results from four field trials from 2007 to 2009 using R. vitis VAR03-1, a previously reported biological control agent for grapevine crown gall, were combined in a meta-analysis. The integrated relative risk after treatment with VAR03-1 was 0.24 (95% confidence interval: 0.11-0.53, P0.001), indicating the superiority of ARK-1 in inhibiting grapevine crown gall over VAR03-1 under field conditions. ARK-1 did not cause necrosis on grapevine shoot explants. ARK-1 established populations on roots of grapevine tree rootstock and persisted inside roots for two years.

  6. Budagovsky 9 rootstock: uncovering a novel resistance to fire blight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budagovsky 9 (B.9) apple rootstock, displayed a high level of susceptibility (similar to M.9 rootstock) to fire blight bacteria (Erwinia amylovora) when leaves of non-grafted B.9 plants were inoculated. However, when older B.9 rootstock tissue was inoculated directly with E. amylovora, rootstock tis...

  7. Effects of hot water treatments on dormant grapevine propagation materials used for grafted vine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soltekin Oguzhan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Agrobacterium vitis is responsible for the crown gall disease of grapevine which breaks the grapevine trunk vascular system. Nutrient flow is prevented by crown gall and it leads to weak growth and death of the plants. It can be destructive disease often encountered in vineyards and it can be spread in cuttings for propagation. Thermotherapy treatment is an alternative method for eradicating A. vitis from grapevine cuttings but effects of thermotherapy treatments on dormant vine tissue, bud vitality, rooting and shooting of the propagation materials are not yet fully understood. In this research, it is aimed to determine the effects of thermotherapy treatment (Hot water treatment on callus formation (at the basal part and grafting point, grafted vine quality (shoot length, shoot width, root number, shooting and rooting development, fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots and final take in the grafted vine production. Experiment was conducted in the nursery of Manisa Viticultural Research Institute. Rootstocks (Kober 5BB, Couderc 1613 and 41B and scions (Sultan 7 and Manisa sultanı were hot-water treated at 50∘C for 30 minutes which is the most common technique against Agrobacterium vitis. After thermotherapy treatment, all rootstocks were grafted with Sultan 7 and Manisa sultanıvarieties. They were kept for 22 days in callusing room for callus development and then they were planted in polyethlyene bags for rooting. At the end of the study, significant treatment x rootstock interaction were observed for the final take of Sultan 7 variety. Thermotherapy treated of 1613C/Sultan 7 combinations had more final take than the control (untreated group. For instance, hot water treated cuttings of 1613C/Sultan 7 combinations had 75% final take while the control group had the 70%. Also there were not observed any adverse effects of HWT on bud and tissue vitality.

  8. The Accumulation of miRNAs Differentially Modulated by Drought Stress Is Affected by Grafting in Grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliarani, Chiara; Vitali, Marco; Ferrero, Manuela; Vitulo, Nicola; Incarbone, Marco; Lovisolo, Claudio; Valle, Giorgio; Schubert, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is routinely grafted, and rootstocks inducing drought tolerance represent a source for adapting vineyards to climate change in temperate areas. Our goal was to investigate drought stress effects on microRNA (miRNA) abundance in a drought-resistant grapevine rootstock, M4 (Vitis vinifera × Vitis berlandieri), compared with a commercial cultivar, Cabernet Sauvignon, using their autografts and reciprocal grafts. RNA extracted from roots and leaves of droughted and irrigated plants of different graft combinations was used to prepare cDNA libraries for small RNA sequencing and to analyze miRNAs by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Measurements of leaf water potential, leaf gas exchange, and root hydraulic conductance attested that, under irrigation, M4 reduced water loss in comparison with cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon mostly through nonhydraulic, root-specific mechanisms. Under drought, stomatal conductance decreased at similar levels in the two genotypes. Small RNA sequencing allowed the identification of 70 conserved miRNAs and the prediction of 28 novel miRNAs. Different accumulation trends of miRNAs, observed upon drought and in different genotypes and organs, were confirmed by RT-qPCR Corresponding target transcripts, predicted in silico and validated by RT-qPCR, often showed opposite expression profiles than the related miRNAs. Drought effects on miRNA abundance differed between the two genotypes. Furthermore, the concentration of drought-responsive miRNAs in each genotype was affected by reciprocal grafting, suggesting either the movement of signals inducing miRNA expression in the graft partner or, possibly, miRNA transport between scion and rootstock. These results open new perspectives in the selection of rootstocks for improving grapevine adaptation to drought. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Engineering cherry rootstocks with resistance to Prunus necrotic ring spot virus through RNAi-mediated silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guo-qing; Sink, Kenneth C; Walworth, Aaron E; Cook, Meridith A; Allison, Richard F; Lang, Gregory A

    2013-08-01

    Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) is a major pollen-disseminated ilarvirus that adversely affects many Prunus species. In this study, an RNA interference (RNAi) vector pART27-PNRSV containing an inverted repeat (IR) region of PNRSV was transformed into two hybrid (triploid) cherry rootstocks, 'Gisela 6' (GI 148-1) and 'Gisela 7'(GI 148-8)', which are tolerant and sensitive, respectively, to PNRSV infection. One year after inoculation with PNRSV plus Prune Dwarf Virus, nontransgenic 'Gisela 6' exhibited no symptoms but a significant PNRSV titre, while the transgenic 'Gisela 6' had no symptoms and minimal PNRSV titre. The nontransgenic 'Gisela 7' trees died, while the transgenic 'Gisela 7' trees survived. These results demonstrate the RNAi strategy is useful for developing viral resistance in fruit rootstocks, and such transgenic rootstocks may have potential to enhance production of standard, nongenetically modified fruit varieties while avoiding concerns about transgene flow and exogenous protein production that are inherent for transformed fruiting genotypes.

  10. INFLUENCE OF ROOTSTOCKS ON Fusarium WILT, NEMATODE INFESTATION, YIELD AND FRUIT QUALITY IN WATERMELON PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Álvarez-Hernández

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbita maxima x Cucurbita moschata rootstock are used to prevent infection with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum in watermelon production; however, this rootstock is not effective against nematode attack. Because of their vigor, the grafted plants can be planted at lower plant densities than the non-grafted plants. The tolerance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum and Meloidogyne incognita was assessed in watermelon plants grafted onto a hybrid of Citrullus lanatus cv Robusta or the Cucurbita maxima x Cucurbita moschata cv Super Shintoza rootstocks. The densities of plants were 2083 and 4166 plants ha-1. Non-grafted watermelons were the controls. The Crunchy Red and Sangría watermelon cultivars were used as the scions, it the latter as a pollinator. The experiments were performed for two production cycles in soils infested with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum and Meloidogyne incognita. The incidence of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum was significantly greater in the non-grafted than in the grafted plants. The grafted plants presented similar resistance to Fusarium regardless of the rootstock. The root-knot galling index for Meloidogyne incognita was significantly lower in plants grafted onto Citrullus lanatus cv Robusta than onto the other rootstock. The yields of plants grafted onto Citrullus lanatus cv Robusta grown at both plant densities were significantly higher than in the other treatments.

  11. Black-foot disease of grapevine: an update on taxonomy, epidemiology and management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos AGUSTÍ-BRISACH

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Black-foot is one of the most destructive grapevine trunk diseases in nurseries and young vineyards, causing necrotic root lesions, wood necrosis of the rootstock base, and a gradual decline and death of grapevines. Causal agents of the disease are included into the genera Campylocarpon, “Cylindrocarpon”, Cylindrocladiella and Ilyonectria. Recent taxonomical studies of Neonectria and related genera with “Cylindrocarpon”-like anamorphs based on morphological and phylogenetic studies, divided Neonectria into five genera. Thus, the current taxonomical position and classification of the causal agents of black-foot disease, mainly “Cylindrocarpon”/Ilyonectria, comprises one of the main topics of this review. The review also provides an update on geographical distribution, epidemiology and management strategies of the disease.  

  12. The genetics of tolerance to tristeza disease in citrus rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Bordignon

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled pollinations between four elite citrus rootstocks, Citrus limonia - 'Limeira' rangpur lime (Cravo, C. sunki - 'Sunki' mandarin (Sunki, C. aurantium - 'São Paulo' sour orange (Azeda and Poncirus trifoliata - 'Davis A' trifoliate orange (Trifoliata, resulted in 1614 nucelar and 1938 hybrid plants identified by the isozyme loci Pgi-1, Pgm-1, Got-1, Got-2, Aps-1, Me-1, Prxa-1 and or by the morphological markers broadness of leaf petiole wing or trifoliolate leaves. Tolerance to the citrus tristeza virus (CTV was evaluated under nursery and field conditions for several years by the reaction of Valencia orange infected with a severe strain of CTV and grafted onto the hybrids and nucellar clones. Genetic analyses indicated that tolerance was controlled by at least two loci designated here as Az and t interacting in dominant-recessive epistasis. Genotypes Az__ __ __ and __ __ tt were tolerant while azaz T__ was intolerant. The intolerant Azeda was azaz TT, the tolerant rootstocks Sunki and Cravo were Azaz tt and the Trifoliata was Azaz TT. The different degrees of intolerance seen in some hybrids may reflect the inability of segregating modifiers from parental clones to overcome the epistatic interaction that controls the major tolerance reaction.

  13. Forest management guidelines for controlling wild grapevines

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Clay Smith

    1984-01-01

    Grapevines (Vitis spp.) are becoming a major problem to forest managers in the Appalachians, especially when clearcutting is done on highly productive hardwood sites. Where present, grapevines can reduce tree quality and growth, and eventually kill the tree. Silvical characteristics of grapevines are discussed as background for grapevine control....

  14. Resistência de pimentas a nematóides de galha e compatibilidade enxerto/porta-enxerto entre híbridos de pimentão e pimentas Hot peppers resistance to root-knot-nematodes and stump/rootstock compatibility among hot peppers and red pepper hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Duda de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    hybrids grafting. The experiment was carried out in 2005, in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State. Plants were cleft and notch grafted and, 25 days later, the pant surviving was evaluated. Later, the grafted plants and plants without stump were transplanted to a greenhouse and inoculated, individually, with 5,000 eggs and infants in the second phase of M. incognita. The rootstock resistance to nematodes was evaluated at 181 days after inoculation, based on the reproduction factor. The stump/rootstocks compatibility was evaluated considering yield and quality of fruits obtained through seven harvests, 113 to 181 days after seedling transplant. An average of 99,69% of surviving plants was obtained, 25 days after grafting date. The C. annuum and C. frutescens rootstocks were resistant to M. incognita at the end of the vegetative cycle and they provided to grafted plants the higher and lower fruit production and quality respectively, being called compatible and non compatible to stump with Rubia R, Margarita, and Maximos red pepper hybrids. 'Maximos' and 'Margarita', when grafted, presented better productivity and fruit quality, than 'Rubia R'; when non-grafted the productivity did not differ among them, prominence having for 'Margarita' about fruit quality.

  15. Growth and nutrient uptake of Citrus rootstock varieties as affected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth and nutrient uptake of Citrus rootstock varieties as affected poultry manure and NPK fertilizer in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria. ... Since plant height and stem diameter determine the quality of rootstock seedlings, poultry manure at 9 ...

  16. Contrasting susceptibilities to Flavescence dorée in Vitis vinifera, rootstocks and wild Vitis species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Eveillard

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Flavescence dorée (FD is a quarantine disease of grapevine, involving interactions between the plants, leafhopper vectors, and FD phytoplasma (FDp. Characterising the susceptibility of vine varieties could limit disease propagation. After extensive surveys in vineyards, we showed that Cabernet Sauvignon is highly susceptible, with a high proportion of symptomatic branches and phytoplasma titers, in contrast to Merlot. Localized insect transmissions and grafting showed that phytoplasma circulate in the whole plant in the Cabernet-Sauvignon cultivar, but in Merlot they are restricted to the transmission point. Insect-mediated transmission under high confinement mimicking natural conditions confirmed these phenotypes and allowed the classification of 28 Vitis accessions into three distinct categories, according to the percentage of infected plants and their phytoplasma titers. Reduced symptoms, low phytoplasma titers, and low percentages of infected plants were found to be associated in the Vitis vinifera cultivars tested. Interestingly, the low susceptibility of Merlot was observed for one of its parents, i.e., Magdeleine Noire des Charentes. Rootstocks and their Vitis parents, although having high percentages of infected plants and intermediate to high phytoplasma titers, shared a symptomless response. This is troubling, because rootstocks can constitute a silent reservoir of contamination in mother plants or when they grow wild nearby vineyards. Altogether, data suggest distribution of genetic traits within the Vitis genus involved in insect-mediated phytoplasma transmission, multiplication, circulation and symptom development.

  17. Contrasting Susceptibilities to Flavescence Dorée in Vitis vinifera, Rootstocks and Wild Vitis Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eveillard, Sandrine; Jollard, Camille; Labroussaa, Fabien; Khalil, Dima; Perrin, Mireille; Desqué, Delphine; Salar, Pascal; Razan, Frédérique; Hévin, Cyril; Bordenave, Louis; Foissac, Xavier; Masson, Jean E.; Malembic-Maher, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Flavescence dorée (FD) is a quarantine disease of grapevine, involving interactions between the plants, leafhopper vectors, and FD phytoplasma. Characterizing the susceptibility of vine varieties could limit disease propagation. After extensive surveys in vineyards, we showed that Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) is highly susceptible, with a high proportion of symptomatic branches and phytoplasma titers, in contrast to Merlot (M). Localized insect transmissions and grafting showed that phytoplasma circulate in the whole plant in the CS cultivar, but in M they are restricted to the transmission point. Insect-mediated transmission under high confinement mimicking natural conditions confirmed these phenotypes and allowed the classification of 28 Vitis accessions into three distinct categories, according to the percentage of infected plants and their phytoplasma titers. Reduced symptoms, low phytoplasma titers, and low percentages of infected plants were found to be associated in the Vitis vinifera cultivars tested. Interestingly, the low susceptibility of M was observed for one of its parents, i.e., Magdeleine Noire des Charentes. Rootstocks and their Vitis parents, although having high percentages of infected plants and intermediate to high phytoplasma titers, shared a symptomless response. This is troubling, because rootstocks can constitute a silent reservoir of contamination in mother plants or when they grow wild nearby vineyards. Altogether, data suggest distribution of genetic traits within the Vitis genus involved in insect-mediated phytoplasma transmission, multiplication, circulation, and symptom development. PMID:27965681

  18. Regeneration systems for pyramiding disease resistance into walnut rootstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to regenerate selected walnut rootstocks adventitiously. This is an essential step to be able to produce transgenic walnut rootstocks with superior traits, such as disease resistance. A series of plant tissue culture experiments were conducted on RX1 and VX211 rootstocks wit...

  19. Foreword: Special issue on fungal grapevine diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    An impressively large proportion of fungicides applied in European, North American and Australian agriculture has been used to manage grapevine powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator), grapevine downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola), and botrytis bunch rot (Botrytis cinerea). These fungal and oomycetous plan...

  20. In Vitro Propagation of Citrus Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneel SHARMA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Present investigation was conducted to standardize a protocol for in-vitro propagation of citrus rootstocks viz. Rough lemon, Cleopatra mandarin Pectinifera and Troyer citrange. The shoot tip explant was found better for callus induction of these rootstocks than the nodal segment. Maximum callus formation (40.0% and 23.3% of shoot tip explants was obtained in Cleopatra mandarin, Pectinifera, and Rough lemon and Troyer citrange, respectively in treatment MS basal media + 0.5mg/l Kin, 2.0mg/l NAA, and 2.0mg/l 2, 4-D. Furthermore, the maximum number of shoots per explant was obtained through the callus in Pectinifera, Rough lemon and Cleopatra mandarin in MS basal media + BAP 1mg/l. Maximum rooting of shoots (1.11% was noted in rootstock Rough lemon followed by Cleopatra mandarin for the � MS media supplemented with 10mg/l IBA. Although the callus development and bud proliferation was recorded in rootstock Troyer citrange however, shoot and root formation did not occur. The potting media consisting of soil, sand and FYM in the ratio of 1:1:1 by volume was better with maximum survival rate of hardened plants six weeks after transferring to the pots under greenhouse for Rough lemon followed by Pectinifera and Cleopatra mandarin rootstock.

  1. 2015 Progress Report – Evaluation of the Cornell-Geneva Apple Rootstocks and Other Promising Apple Rootstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of new apple rootstocks from the Cornell/USDA apple rootstock breeding project, located at Geneva, NY which are resistant to fire blight are rapidly becoming available to the industry. These rootstocks are also dwarfing, tolerant to replant disease and productive. Data on cumulative yield...

  2. Micropropagação de porta-enxertos híbridos de Vitis labrusca x Vitis rotundifolia com resistência à pérola-da-terra (Eurhizococcus brasiliensis Hempel, Hemiptera: Margarodidae Micro propagation of hybrids of Vitis labrusca x Vitis rotundifolia rootstocks with resistance to perola-da-terra (Eurhizococcus brasiliensis Hempel, Hemiptera: Margarodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Beatriz Bernd

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A produção homogênea de porta-enxertos resistentes à pérola-da-terra (Eurhizococcus brasiliensis Hempel, Hemiptera: Margarodidae e adaptados à região vitivinícola do Sul do País, pela técnica de micropropagação, poderá vir a atender à demanda do setor produtivo de uva e evitar as perdas causadas pela praga. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um protocolo de micropropagação dos híbridos 1 e 2, que possuem as qualidades genéticas e de vigor desejadas para porta-enxerto, e resistência à pérola-da-terra. A partir de gemas axilares cultivadas em meio Galzy adicionado de 3µM de bezilaminopurina (BAP, foi possível induzir a multibrotação, com um número satisfatório de brotos, passível de ser incrementado por subcultivos sucessivos no mesmo meio de cultura. Os brotos obtidos neste meio e transferidos para o meio de cultura Galzy, adicionado de 8µM.10-3 de ácido naftalenoacético (ANA, enraizaram em 100%, superando a dificuldade de enraizamento que em geral tem sido a maior barreira apresentada pela espécie V. rotundifolia e seus híbridos.The homogeneous production of rootstock resistant to perola-da-terra (Eurhizococcus brasiliensis Hempel, Hemiptera: Margarodidae and well adapted to the growth conditions of the main grape growing region of Southern Brazil by the use of the micropropagation technique, may come to solve the demand of the grape productive sector and avoid losses caused by this pest. The objective of this work was to develop a protocol of micro propagation for the hybrids 1 and 2, which have the desired genetic qualities and vigor to be used as rootstock resistant to perola-da-terra. From axillaries buds cultivated in Galzy culture medium with 3µM of BAP, it was possible to induce multiple shooting with a reasonable number of shoots, which may be improved by successive subcultures in the same medium. The shoots were transferred to Galzy culture medium with 8µM.10-3 of NAA and all of them rooted

  3. Efeito da tristeza em caracteres vegetativos, produtivos e industriais da laranjeira 'Valência' enxertada em híbridos segregando para tolerância Effect of the citrus tristeza disease on vegetative, productive and industrial characters of 'Valencia' sweet orange grafted onto hybrid rootstocks segregating for tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Bordignon

    2003-01-01

    ólidos solúveis aumentou significativamente, 14% em média, nos híbridos intolerantes.The effect of the citrus tristeza disease caused by CTV on vegetative, productive, and industrial characters of the sweet orange 'Valencia' grafted onto seven hybrid progenies of full sibs segregating for tolerance was studied. The hybrids were originated from controlled crosses between the commercial rootstocks 'Davis A' Poncirus trifoliata (T, Sunki mandarin (S, 'São Paulo' sour orange (A and 'Limeira' Rangpur lime (C. Two sets of hybrids were studied. The first was formed by 298 individuals, from which 20 were T x S, 67 S x T, 98 S x A, 48 C x A, and 65 T x A. The second set had 1.243 hybrids, being 845 S x A, 240 A x S, 139 C x A, and 19 A x C. In the nursery, tristeza disease was responsible for 21% of death among the intolerant individuals, while among survivors transplanted to the field, an additional 13% died in a four-years period. Among the intolerant survivors in the field, tristeza reduced in four years rootstock diameter to 41%, scion diameter in 45%, and general vigor in 42%. Fruit weight was reduced in 22% in average. Yield was the most drastically affected character, being reduced to 41% in the first harvest, and up to 90% in the fifth harvest. Accumulated yields of five years were reduced 85% in the intolerant segregants among the different groups of hybrids. Productivity (yield/area of canopy was also intensely affected (46% indicating that the reduction in yield was proportionally more intense than the correspondent reduction in the vegetative growth. The relation between scion/rootstock diameters decreased 7% in the intolerant plants. Although small, it indicated that the vegetative growth of the tolerant canopies was more affected than the rootstocks, despite their intolerance. Little or no effect was detected on external peel color, juice outturn, and soluble solids/acids ratio. Acidity and soluble solids significantly increased at an average of 12 and 14

  4. Development of virulence to Meloidogyne incognita on resistant pepper rootstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ros-Ibanez, C.; Robertson, L.; Martinez-Lluch, M. C.; Cano-Garcia, A.; Lacasa-Plasencia, A.

    2014-06-01

    The root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita is a major soil parasite of pepper crops in greenhouses in Southeast Spain. Due to the limitations of the use of soil fumigants, grafting plants on resistant rootstocks (R-rootstocks) has become an important alternative to chemical nematicides. The repeated use of R-rootstocks can bring about the selection of virulent populations capable of overcoming resistance. We carried out a six-year investigation on resistant rootstocks in a naturally M. incognita infested greenhouse, and found that two successive years of growing plants grafted on R-rootstocks Atlante (ATL) were sufficient to overcome resistance (galling index 1.5 and 5.6 in the first and second years respectively). A large variability was observed between several R-rootstocks. Two R-rootstocks (C19 and Snooker) behaved like ATL while two others (Terrano and DRO 8801) were not infected by RKN. Laboratory studies with the same R-rootstocks, inoculated with two nematode isolates (avirulent and virulent against ATL) confirmed the greenhouse results, indicating that some rootstocks may be infested by virulent populations and others may not. It suggests that different R-genes, which are differentially overcome by RKN, have been introgressed into the rootstocks. This may have consequences for the management of resistant rootstocks in the field. (Author)

  5. Development of virulence to Meloidogyne incognita on resistant pepper rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ros Ibáñez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The root-knot nematode (RKN Meloidogyne incognita is a major soil parasite of pepper crops in greenhouses in Southeast Spain. Due to the limitations of the use of soil fumigants, grafting plants on resistant rootstocks (R-rootstocks has become an important alternative to chemical nematicides. The repeated use of R-rootstocks can bring about the selection of virulent populations capable of overcoming resistance. We carried out a six-year investigation on resistant rootstocks in a naturally M. incognita infested greenhouse, and found that two successive years of growing plants grafted on R-rootstocks Atlante (ATL were sufficient to overcome resistance (galling index 1.5 and 5.6 in the first and second years respectively. A large variability was observed between several R-rootstocks. Two R-rootstocks (C19 and Snooker behaved like ATL while two others (Terrano and DRO 8801 were not infected by RKN. Laboratory studies with the same R-rootstocks, inoculated with two nematode isolates (avirulent and virulent against ATL confirmed the greenhouse results, indicating that some rootstocks may be infested by virulent populations and others may not. It suggests that different R-genes, which are differentially overcome by RKN, have been introgressed into the rootstocks. This may have consequences for the management of resistant rootstocks in the field.

  6. Efficient procedure for grapevine embryogenic suspension establishment and plant regeneration: role of conditioned medium for cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Amar, A; Cobanov, P; Boonrod, K; Krczal, G; Bouzid, S; Ghorbel, A; Reustle, G M

    2007-09-01

    An efficient system for the establishment and multiplication of highly prolific embryogenic cell cultures of grapevine (Vitis sp.) was developed. Using anther-derived pro-embryogenic masses as starting material, cell suspensions of different grapevine cultivars (Tempranillo, Cabernet-Sauvignon) and rootstocks (Kober 125 AA, Kober 5 BB, 110 Richter) were initiated in liquid medium containing NOA (1.0 mg l(-1)) and BAP (0.25 mg l(-1)) as growth regulators. Conditioned medium was recovered and utilised for establishing new, highly totipotent cell cultures. The suspensions obtained, showed embryogenic competence resulting in somatic embryo induction and subsequent plant regeneration. In this study, a simplified establishment procedure for grapevine embryogenic cell suspension allowing the fast multiplication of embryogenic material is described. Evidence for the promoting effect of the protein fraction derived from conditioned medium, on cell proliferation was found. In bioassays, addition of ss-D: -GlcY affect cell proliferation suggesting that arabinogalactan proteins are required for growth processes in grapevine cell cultures.

  7. Short day transcriptomic programming during induction of dormancy in grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Y Fennell

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bud dormancy in grapevine is an adaptive strategy for the survival of drought, high and low temperatures and freeze dehydration stress that limit the range of cultivar adaptation. Therefore, development of a comprehensive understanding of the biological mechanisms involved in bud dormancy is needed to promote advances in selection and breeding, and to develop improved cultural practices for existing grape cultivars. The seasonally indeterminate grapevine, which continuously develops compound axillary buds during the growing season, provides an excellent system for dissecting dormancy, because the grapevine does not transition through terminal bud development prior to dormancy. This study used gene expression patterns and targeted metabolite analysis of two grapevine genotypes, that are short photoperiod responsive (Vitis riparia and non-responsive (V. hybrid, Seyval for dormancy development, to determine differences between bud maturation and dormancy commitment. Grapevine gene expression and metabolites were monitored at seven time points under long (LD, 15 h and short (SD, 13 h day treatments. The use of age-matched buds and a small (2h photoperiod difference minimized developmental differences and allowed us to separate general photoperiod from dormancy specific gene responses. Gene expression profiles indicated three distinct phases (perception, induction and dormancy in SD-induced dormancy development in V. riparia. Different genes from the NAC DOMAIN CONTAINING PROTEIN 19 and WRKY families of transcription factors were differentially expressed in each phase of dormancy. Metabolite and transcriptome analyses indicated ABA, trehalose, raffinose and resveratrol compounds have a potential role in dormancy commitment. Finally, a comparison between V. riparia compound axillary bud dormancy and dormancy responses in other species emphasized the relationship between dormancy and the expression of genes associated with C3HC4-TYPE RING FINGER, NAC

  8. Short day transcriptomic programming during induction of dormancy in grapevine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, Anne Y.; Schlauch, Karen A.; Gouthu, Satyanarayana; Deluc, Laurent G.; Khadka, Vedbar; Sreekantan, Lekha; Grimplet, Jerome; Cramer, Grant R.; Mathiason, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Bud dormancy in grapevine is an adaptive strategy for the survival of drought, high and low temperatures and freeze dehydration stress that limit the range of cultivar adaptation. Therefore, development of a comprehensive understanding of the biological mechanisms involved in bud dormancy is needed to promote advances in selection and breeding, and to develop improved cultural practices for existing grape cultivars. The seasonally indeterminate grapevine, which continuously develops compound axillary buds during the growing season, provides an excellent system for dissecting dormancy, because the grapevine does not transition through terminal bud development prior to dormancy. This study used gene expression patterns and targeted metabolite analysis of two grapevine genotypes that are short photoperiod responsive (Vitis riparia) and non-responsive (V. hybrid, Seyval) for dormancy development to determine differences between bud maturation and dormancy commitment. Grapevine gene expression and metabolites were monitored at seven time points under long (LD, 15 h) and short (SD, 13 h) day treatments. The use of age-matched buds and a small (2 h) photoperiod difference minimized developmental differences and allowed us to separate general photoperiod from dormancy specific gene responses. Gene expression profiles indicated three distinct phases (perception, induction and dormancy) in SD-induced dormancy development in V. riparia. Different genes from the NAC DOMAIN CONTAINING PROTEIN 19 and WRKY families of transcription factors were differentially expressed in each phase of dormancy. Metabolite and transcriptome analyses indicated ABA, trehalose, raffinose and resveratrol compounds have a potential role in dormancy commitment. Finally, a comparison between V. riparia compound axillary bud dormancy and dormancy responses in other species emphasized the relationship between dormancy and the expression of RESVERATROL SYNTHASE and genes associated with C3HC4-TYPE RING

  9. Life history and assessment of grapevine phylloxera leaf galling incidence on Vitis species in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidart, María Valeria; Mujica, María Valentina; Bao, Leticia; Duarte, Felicia; Bentancourt, Carlos María; Franco, Jorge; Scatoni, Iris Beatriz

    2013-12-01

    Grapevine phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch) (Hemiptera: Phylloxeridae) is a worldwide pest of Vitis species. It has forms that feed on leaves and roots. Root forms predominate on Vitis vinifera (L.) cultivars, while leaf forms predominate on Vitis species from its native American range. Recently, high densities of D. vitifoliae infestations in leaves of V. vinifera in Brazil, Peru, and Uruguay have been reported. The aims of this study were to determine the seasonal development of grape phylloxera, quantify infestation levels on V. vinifera leaves, and compare them with infestation levels on leaves of a rootstock of American origin. Studies were conducted in two vineyards in Uruguay from 2004-2007. Terminal shoots of 3309 C and Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Tannat, Viognier, grafted onto resistant rootstock, were sampled weekly and leaves examined for gall presence and insect life stage. First galls were detected in early October; eggs began to appear within two weeks. Two oviposition peaks occurred by the end of December, and they coincided with bursts of shoot growth. On 3309C rootstock, oviposition peaks were more frequent than on the European cultivars. Based on thermal accumulation, D. vitifoliae could complete eight generations a year in Uruguay. Rootstock 3309C suffered the greatest damage but in some cases was similar to the European cultivars. Damage to Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon and Viognier were also high. There were no galls on Tannat. The 2005-2006 season was characterized by low infestation rates caused by a prolonged drought that affected vegetative growth. There were also differences between vineyards, where the vigorous plants suffering more damage. Leaf galling phylloxera incidence and damage were mainly associated to the cultivar but plant vigor and environmental factors also contributed to increase the incidence.

  10. Micropropagation of peach rootstocks and cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balla, Ildikó; Mansvelt, Lucienne

    2013-01-01

    Peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) is one of the most popular stone fruits, commercially produced largely in Mediterranean and, to a lesser extent, in continental climatic conditions. Several breeding programs with different aims release annually large numbers of new cultivars. Micropropagation offers a suitable method to provide the growers of sufficient quantities of rootstocks, as well as of pathogen-free planting material of old and new cultivars.An effective four-step micropropagation procedure for cultivar and rootstock production is described here, based on the use of modified MS and WPM media. The health status of the initial shoot tips is very important, also because the growth and proliferation rate of shoot cultures from virus-infected clones are generally very poor. Proliferation and elongation phases depend on the major macro-elements, as well as the content and ratio of plant growth regulators. It is important to grow the cultures at 22°C, as hyperhydricity may develop at higher temperatures. Although sucrose is the most common carbon source used during proliferation and rooting, for some peach cultivars and rootstocks the replacement of sucrose (10 g/L) with glucose (20 g/L) in the rooting medium improves the rooting and survival rates of plants in the acclimatization phase. The rooting rate of the rootstock "Cadaman" is improved with the chelated form of iron FeEDDHA at 150 mg/L. Rooted plants are acclimatized in greenhouse under high humidity conditions.

  11. The Geneva apple rootstock breeding program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ancient practice of clonal propagation of perennial fruit crops by means of grafting was transformed when humans realized that certain properties of selected root systems could be beneficial for increasing productivity of that fruit crop. Certain clonal apple rootstocks were recognized for their...

  12. Unique characteristics of Geneva apple rootstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Geneva® apple rootstock breeding program has been operating since the early 1970’s. It is a unique program in that it had access to important germplasm resources that later became the USDA ARS apple collection in Geneva, NY. This genetic diversity allowed for the achievement of one of the proj...

  13. General properties of grapevine viruses occurring in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter Cseh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The past fifty years important advances have been made in the field of grapevine virus research, including characterization of pathogens and control measurements. Still the occurrence of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV, Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV, Tomato black ring virus (TBRV, Grapevine chrome mosaic virus (GCMV, Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV, Grapevine Bulgarian latent virus (GBLV, Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV, Grapevine leafroll- associated viruses (GLRaV1-4, Grapevine virus A (GVA, Grapevine virus B (GVB and Grapevine rupestris stem pitting- associated virus (GRSPaV have been reported in Hungary and characterized by conventional methods as woody indexing, herbaceous indexing and serological methods. Among grapevine viruses the Grapevine line pattern virus (GLPV seems to be uncial; because it was reported only in Hungary. Causal agents of several grapevine diseases, like enation, vein necrosis and vein mosaic remained undiscovered. These virus-like diseases occurred only sporadically, without economic importance.

  14. Viability of Botryosphaeriaceae species pathogenic to grapevine after hot water treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina ELENA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The viability of eight species of Botryosphaeriaceae pathogenic to grapevine was studied after a hot water treatment (HWT in order to evaluate the feasibility of this technique as a potential tool to control these species during the grapevine propagation process. In a first trial (in vitro, mycelial plugs contained in Eppendorf tubes with sterile distilled water were subjected to different combinations of temperature (50–54°C and exposure time (15, 30 and 45 min in a hot water bath. Growth rates of treated mycelia were compared to untreated controls. Significant differences in survival and growth for all factors (species, temperature and time and their 2-way interactions were observed. Fungal survival and growth generally decreased with increasing temperatures and exposure times. Diplodia seriata, Neofusicoccum luteum, N. parvum and Spencermartinsia viticola were the most susceptible species to temperature, while Lasiodiplodia theobromae and N. vitifusiforme were the most tolerant. In a second trial (in planta, the fungi were inoculated into grapevine canes (Richter 110 rootstock. Inoculated canes were incubated at 25°C for 3 weeks to allow the fungi to colonize the wood and then subjected to HWT in the range of 50–53°C for 30 min, and survival of fungi after HWT was assessed. Survival of all species was sharply reduced after HWT of 30 min at 51°C and higher temperatures. At 50°C, Lasiodiplodia theobromae was the most tolerant species whereas N. luteum was the most susceptible. Results obtained in this study demonstrate the feasibility of controlling these pathogens by HWT in the nursery grapevine propagation process.

  15. Effects of nutrient media, different cytokinin types and their concentrations on in vitro multiplication of G × N15 (hybrid of almond × peach vegetative rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M. Arab

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to assess the effects of different media i.e. Murashige and Skoog (MS and Quoirin and Lepoivre (QL, cytokinin type i.e. 6-Benzyladenin (BA and 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP and cytokinin concentration on in vitro proliferation of the G × N15 rootstock. To evaluate the effects of different media and cytokinin type, two separate experiments were conducted as factorial based on completely randomized design, and single nodes were used as explants. The results showed that MS nutrient medium was found to be superior to QL nutrient medium. Regarding the interaction between media and growth regulators, the best interaction was found in MS medium supplemented with 1 mg l−1 BAP resulting in 8.5 new micro shoots/explant while 7.75 shoots were observed in MS medium containing 1.25 mg l−1 BA. The longest length of new micro-shoots (2.10 cm was obtained in hormone-free MS medium. Findings of this study showed that there is a significant correlation between the hormone level and plantlet height and formed callus weight so that an increase in BAP and BA levels in both of MS and QL media resulted significantly in height decrease and callus weight increase. The results also suggest that the best and the worst plantlets in terms of quality were observed in hormone-free QL medium and MS medium supplemented with 1.25 mg l−1, respectively. These results reflect the fact that the presence of high amounts of NH4NO3 and cytokinin especially BAP in culture medium triggered inhibitory effect on shoot growth.

  16. ROOTSTOCKS EFFECTS ON THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BORDÔ, ISABEL AND IAC 138-22 MÁXIMO MUST AND WINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARLON JOCIMAR RODRIGUES DA SILVA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT It has been demonstrated that rootstocks can influence grape characteristics, but there are few data in literature about the rootstocks influence in the wine characteristics, especially in wines elaborated with Vitis labrusca or hybrid grapes. This study evaluated the influence of ‘IAC 766’ and ‘106-8 Mgt’ rootstocks on the physicochemical characteristics of ‘Bordô’, ‘Isabel’ and ‘IAC 138-22 ‘Máximo’ musts and wines. The musts were evaluated for pH, soluble solids, total acidity and soluble solids/acidity ratio. The wines were evaluated for density, alcohol content; total, volatile and fixed acidity; pH, dry extract, reducing sugars, reduced dry extract, alcohol in weight/reduced dry extract; free and total sulfur dioxide; anthocyanins, polyphenols index (I 280; polyphenols and total flavonoids and antioxidant activity. The ‘Bordô’, ‘Isabel’ and IAC 138-22 ‘Máximo’ musts had low soluble solids for winemaking. The ‘106-8 Mgt’ rootstock promoted higher dry extract content and reduced dry extract in Bordô wine, and lower total and fixed acidity in IAC 138-22 Máximo wine. In Isabel wine, higher pH was promoted by the ‘IAC 766’ rootstock. Aside from low total acidity of the Bordô wine, all the physicochemical characteristics of the wines studied are in accordance with Brazilian law. There was no effect of rootstocks in the phenolics content and antioxidant activity of wines.

  17. Effect of bioagents and resistance inducers on grapevine crown gall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Biondi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioagents and chemicals were applied to one-year old grafted vines (Ancelotta/420A in glasshouse and field experiments set up at the Vivai Cooperativi Rauscedo (VCR, Pordenone, Italy. In the glasshouse, holes were drilled in vines on the rootstock and the holes were charged with suspensions of different strains of Pseudomonas spp., and with the biofungicides BS-F4 and Serenade, both based on Bacillus subtilis, before inoculation with a vitopine Agrobacterium vitis strain. The growth retardant Regalis and the resistance inducer Bion were applied to the vines two weeks before inoculation with the pathogen. Six months after inoculation, disease incidence was lowest when BS-F4 had been applied. In the field trial, the vines were wounded by making a cut in the crown, after which they were dipped into the antagonist suspensions just before inoculation with the pathogen. In the two weeks before inoculation, the root systems of the vines were dipped into Regalis and Bion solutions at 7 day intervals. Only these resistance inducers and BS-F4 significantly reduced disease severity. The results indicate that a potential for defence against A. vitis may exist even in susceptible grapevine cultivars, and that this potential can be activated by diverse elicitors.

  18. An innovative pot system for monitoring the effects of water stress on grapevines and grape quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puccioni, Sergio; Leprini, Marco; Mocali, Stefano; Perria, Rita; Priori, Simone; Storchi, Paolo; Zombardo, Alessandra; Costantini, Edoardo

    2016-04-01

    The advantage of a pot system is the possibility to control many variables and factors with a large number of replicates, obtaining statistically significant results in only one year of experimentation. An innovative pot system for the monitoring of grapevine water stress was set up. The system consists of 99 pots of 70 liters, filled by 3 different soils collected from premium vineyards of the Chianti Classico district (Tuscany). The soils showed different texture (clay-loam, loam and sandy-loam), different gravel and carbonate content, and different available water capacity (AWC). The same soils had been field monitored for grapevine water stress; therefore it was possible to compare the grapevine behaviour both in pot and in field conditions. The grapevine cultivar was Pinot noir clone ENTAV 115, which can be used to investigate the genetic expression in response to environmental factors, since its genome has been sequenced. Different rootstocks theses were compared: not grafted, 1103 Paulsen and M101-14. Each combination rootstock-soil was repeated 9 times. Every pot was equipped for drip irrigation and with electrodes for soil moisture determination by TDR. A non-stop automated control unit recorded meteorological data (temperature and rainfalls), soil temperature and water potential on 9 selected pots. These 9 selected pots were also used to calibrate a model for soil water volume/tension curve. Soil, leaves and grapes samples from each pot were collected for microbial community determination, through NGS analysis. A preliminary study was based on testing the ability of the system to simulate the natural growing conditions of the grapevines. Therefore the grape performances of the potted plants were compared to those of plants cultivated in the vineyards where the soils were taken. In July 2015 three levels of water supply were tested during 5 weeks (up to veraison) in order to study the effects of water stress on the plants and the grape. Later, all the pots

  19. PERFORMANCE OF ‘TUXPAN VALENCIA’ SWEET ORANGE GRAFTED ONTO 14 ROOTSTOCKS IN NORTHERN BAHIA, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NATIANA DE OLIVEIRA FRANÇA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the State of Bahia, Brazil, the citrus industry is located on the north coast with the prevalence of the combination ‘Pera’ sweet orange on ‘Rangpur’ lime. Scion-rootstock diversification may contribute to the increase of yield and the extension of harvest season, as long as to decrease the risk associated to abiotic and biotic stresses. Therefore, the performance of ‘Tuxpan Valencia’ sweet orange grafted onto 14 rootstocks was evaluated in Rio Real – BA. Planting was performed in 2006 under rainfed cultivation on cohesive ultisol and tree spacing of 6.0 m x 4.0 m. Tree size, yield and fruit quality were evaluated in the period of 2010-2014, in addition to tree survival at nine years old and drought tolerance in the field based on leaf wilting. In the evaluated conditions, ‘Sunki Tropical’ and ‘Sunki Maravilha’ mandarins led to the highest scion canopy volume. The highest accumulated yield in five harvests was recorded on ‘Santa Cruz Rangpur’ lime, ‘Volkamer’ lemon, ‘Riverside’ and ‘Indio’ citrandarins, ‘Sunki Tropical’ mandarin and the hybrid TSKC x (LCR x TR – 001. ‘Riverside’ and TSKFL x CTSW – 049 induced higher yield efficiency on the canopy. The rootstocks did not influence the tree survival nine years after planting except for lower survival of TSKFL x CTSW – 049. Drought tolerance was not affected either. Regarding to the fruit quality of ‘Tuxpan Valencia’, the rootstocks influenced the juice content, soluble solids and technological index with the citrandarins, ‘Santa Cruz Rangpur’ lime, ‘Volkamer’ lemon and ‘Sunki Tropical’ mandarin presenting higher performance in general.

  20. Vigor, produtividade e qualidade de frutos de quatro tangerineiras e híbridos sobre quatro porta-enxertos Vegetative growth, yield and fruit quality of four mandarin and hybrid cultivars on four rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sanches Stuchi

    2008-09-01

    to 2006. The experiment was installed in Bebedouro, SP, Brazil, in 1997. Data collected included: annual and total accumulated fruit production in all cultivars for all years (2000-2006, fruit quality in 2005 and 2006 (fruit mass, total soluble solids, total acids, ratio, scion volume, scion trunk diameter, yield efficiency (Kg fruits/m³ scion, and alternate bearing index. Cumulative yield and fruit quality of all cultivars were not influenced by the rootstocks. 'Swingle' citrumelo induced reduced size trees in most of scion cultivars. 'Nova' tangelo has adequate characteristics and potential as a fresh fruit market cultivar. 'Swatow' mandarin had similar fruit quality with those of 'Ponkan' mandarin. 'Ellendale' tangor and 'Fortune' tangerine had low and irregular yield.

  1. Root-knot nematode resistant rootstocks for grafted watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rootstock lines of wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) with resistance to root-knot nematodes (RKN) were developed by our team at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory. Rootstock lines RKVL 301, RKVL 316, and RKVL 318 (RKVL = Root Knot Vegetable Laboratory) were compared to wild tinda (Praec...

  2. Progress in developing Armillaria resistant rootstocks for use with peach

    Science.gov (United States)

    GuardianTM (BY520-9) peach seedling rootstock was released in 1993 to provide a rootstock with superior resistance to peach tree short life (PTSL) which at the time was the number one cause of premature death of peach (Prunus persica L. [Batsch]) trees in the southeastern US. Since that time Guardi...

  3. Scion - rootstock relationships and root behaviour in glasshouse roses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuchs, H.W.M.

    1994-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the cultivation of cut roses in the glasshouse is commonly carried out yearround. Most cultivars are grown on a rootstock. The first part of this study investigates various rootstocks for their ability to influence production and quality throughout the year. The mutual influence

  4. Effect of rootstock diameter on apple saplings growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VAHID AVDIU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This research paper presents the results of a field trial with managed nursery trees including two apple cultivars Golden Reinders and Gala Galaxy on the rootstocks M9 and MM 106. In April 2011, the saplings (bench grafted in March 2011 were planted in the distance 100 cm x 35 cm in randomized block design in threecombinations of rootstock diameters (5-7 mm, 7-9 mm, 9-11 mm with threereplications (in total 60 saplings for each apple cultivar-rootstock and combinations in Mirovica, Kosovo. The following parameters were examined: growth, rootstock diameter, scion diameter, and stocks growth dynamic. The experimental design was a ANOVAs one-way analysing two different factors cultivars, rootstocks types and treatments (three combinations of rootstocks diameter. Significant differences were found in scion thickness and sapling growth among the three different combinations of rootstock diameter, dimensions and cultivars. Insignificant were differences were found within factors as cultivar, rootstock and their combinations Key words: Amino acids, Moringa oleifera, poultry manure.

  5. Scion-rootstocks relationships and root behaviour in glasshouse roses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuchs, H.W.M.

    1994-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the cultivation of cut roses in the glasshouse is commonly carried out yearround. Most cultivars are grown on a rootstock. The first part of this study investigates various rootstocks for their ability to influence production and quality throughout the year. The mutual influence

  6. Heterografting with nonself rootstocks induces genes involved in stress responses at the graft interface when compared with autografted controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, S J; Clemente Moreno, M J; Hevin, C; Nyamba Mendome, L Z; Delrot, S; Magnin, N; Trossat-Magnin, C; Ollat, N

    2014-06-01

    Although grafting is widely used in the agriculture of fruit-bearing crops, little is known about graft union formation in particular when two different species are grafted together. It is fascinating that two different plant species brought together can develop harmoniously as one organism for many decades. The objective of this study was to determine whether grafting two different grapevine genotypes alters gene expression at the graft interface in comparison to the presumably wound-like gene expression changes induced in autografts. Gene expression at the graft interface was studied 3, 7, 14, and 28 d after grafting in hetero- and autografts of grapevine (Vitis spp.). Genes differentially expressed between the hetero- and autografts during graft union formation were identified. These genes were clustered according to their expression profile over the time course. MapMan and Gene Ontology enrichment analysis revealed the coordinated upregulation of genes from numerous functional categories related to stress responses in the hetero- compared to the autografts. This indicates that heterografting with nonself rootstocks upregulates stress responses at the graft interface, potentially suggesting that the cells of the graft interface can detect the presence of a nonself grafting partner. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  7. PLEADING FOR THE GRAPEVINE CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela Cătălina Guţă

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The grapevine is cultivated with good results on hilly terrain, on sand and sandy soils, thus ensuring high recovery of these categories of agricultural land considered unsuitable for other crops. Vineyards, so related to people existence everywhere, became something more than just places of economic interest. What makes the viticulture to be so important is that it refers to the food value, therapeutic, recreational of grapes, must and wine, wine derived products and residues from wine, the great extent of the area occupied by vineyards, to good natural conditions (pedo-climatic existing in our country and also to the aesthetic value of the land planted with vines worldwide. The fitting of the gardens of the house, both in the countryside and in urban areas, includes in most cases the presence of grapevine plants cut in different art forms, their care being an exciting job. In general, by the presence of vines are valued the spaces next to existing buildings (house, yard, various outbuildings, along fences and roads. Grapevines location, cutting types chosen, besides beautifying the yard, must make a harmonious aspect of the whole surrounding. Chosen forms of management (arches, halfarches can protect the strong sunlight places. By the kiosks or other artistic realized forms are created spaces for rest, shade.

  8. Procedure for collecting and packaging grapevine samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapevine yellows (GY) is a term that is used to refer to any of several diseases of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) that are caused by phytoplasmas. Around the globe, diverse ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma’ species cause indistinguishable disease symptoms in V. vinifera and are spread by different species of ...

  9. Reassessment of Phomopsis species on grapevines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niekerk, van J.M.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Farr, D.F.; Fourie, P.H.; Halleen, F.; Crous, P.W.

    2005-01-01

    Ten species of Phomopsis have previously been identified from grapevines. Of these, P. viticola, the causal agent of Phomopsis cane and leaf spot, and P. vitimegaspora, the causal agent of swelling arm of grapevines, have been confirmed as severe pathogens of this host. Earlier taxonomic treatments

  10. More Than Rumors. Understanding the Organizational Grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaremba, Alan

    Because the grapevine can precipitate managerial nightmares (employee resentment, distorted messages, instant diffusion of incendiary rumors), managers are well-advised to study this informal communications network and diffuse its organizational impact. This paper discusses the development, accuracy, resilience, and management of the grapevine.…

  11. Suitable criteria for drought-tolerant peach rootstocks grown in northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriwan Boonanunt

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Peach growing in rainfed areas in the hi ghlands of northern Thailand is suffering from drought conditions, which are becoming increasingly severe every y ear. Drought tol erant rootstocks provide one option to all eviate this problem. Thus, this study aims to find some guides for selecting drought -tolerant peach rootstocks. The local peach vari ety ‘Red Angkhang’ and 3 new hybrid cultivars ‘42047T1’, ‘43060T1’ and ‘43087T2’ were used in this study. Two-y ear-old peach seedlings of each cultivar were grown in pots and divided into 2 groups. The first group consisted of well - watered plants (100% of evapotranspiration and the second group consisted of water-deficit plants which received only 30% of evapotranspiration for 5 weeks. After that, the water- defi cit peach seedlings were re-watered in the same manner as the well-watered plants f or 2 weeks. Water stress led to a decrease in growth in all cultivars. T h e water- deficit tol erance of Red Angkhang was comparable to that of the new hybrid 42047T1, but the two cultivars used different mechanisms: Red Angkhang responded to water deficit by increasing only the root dry wei ght while hybrid 42047T1 also accumulated sorbitol. The 43060T1 and 43087T2 h y b r i d s were l ess tol erant to water defi cit and responded by decreasing the root dry wei ght with no sorbitol accumulation. From this study , we suggest that root dry wei ght and sorbitol concentration can be used to screen drought tolerant rootstocks in peach in northern Thailand.

  12. [Cadmium accumulation, subcellular distribution, and chemical forms in Vitis vinifera cv. chardonnay grapevine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yuan-Peng; Li, Hong-Jing; Yin, Ke-Lin; Zhai, Heng

    2012-06-01

    A pot culture experiment was conducted to study the Cd absorption, Cd subcellular distribution, and Cd chemical forms in one-year old self-rooted Chardonnay and SO4 rootstock-grafted Chardonnay grapevine after root-irrigating with different concentration CdCl and CaCl2. In the grapevine, the absorbed Cd was mostly distributed in underground organs (root and rhizome). In treatment 4 mmol x L(-1) of CdCl2, 77.1% and 1.4% of the absorbed Cd in self-rooted Chardonnay were accumulated in underground organs and leaves, respectively, while 93.9% and 0.1% of the absorbed Cd in grafted Chardonnay were accumulated in the organs below graft position and in leaves, respectively. 5 mmol L(-1) of CaCl2 decreased the plant Cd absorption and accumulation, while 10 mmol x L(-1) of CaCl2 increased the plant Cd absorption and accumulation significantly. The Cd subcellular distribution in roots and leaves was in the order of cell wall > soluble fraction > organelle, and more than 50% of the Cd was accumulated in cell wall. In the roots, NaCl-extractable Cd had a major proportion, followed by HAc-extractable Cd, and water-extractable Cd. The contents of all the Cd chemical forms varied with the increasing concentration of Cd in the treatments.

  13. Characterization of the largest relic Eurasian wild grapevine reservoir in Southern Iberian Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroyo-García, R.; Cantos, M.; Lara, M.; López, M.A.; Gallardo, A.; Ocete, C.A.; Pérez, A.; Bánáti, B.; García, J.L.; Ocete, R.

    2016-11-01

    Wild grapevine is becoming a threatened species in the Iberian Peninsula due to human impacts. The aim of this work was to carry out a holistic study for six years of the largest wild grapevine population found up to date in SW Iberian Peninsula. This population has 115 vines. Ampelographic and soil characteristics have been studied. Evaluation of its environment has also been studied by describing the main parasitic species and natural enemies of pests. The ability of this plant material for its micropropagation and storage in slow-growth conditions has been tested. Microvinification resulted in a wine with good acidity and medium color intensity, two interesting characteristics under a warm climatology. Finally, the identification of private alleles in this wild population, absent in other locations from the Northern and Southern Iberian territories, is a very valuable feature and confirms the importance of establishing conservation programs. The population here studied is genetically unique and potentially useful for commercial rootstocks and cultivars breeding that would improve viticulture and enology. (Author)

  14. Chromosomal localization of ribosomal DNA sequences in an apple rootstock using a digoxygenin detection system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUJIMEI; SEGARDINER

    1995-01-01

    A 6kb rDNA probe comprising the 18S coding plus spacer sequences has been hybridized to the metaphase chromosomes of apple rootstock cultivar MM106 demonstrating the localization of ribosomal gene arrays in the vicinity of the telomeric regions of the short arms of chromosomes 6 and 14.The in situ results using digoxygenin labelling coupled to an alkaline phosphatase immunoassay were confirmed by silver staining for NORs and nucleoli.This study demonstrates the feasibility of molecular cytogenetic analysis of very small chromosomes(1.0-2.7μm) of apple.

  15. Influence of Plum Rootstocks on the Content of Reducing Sugars in the Annual Shoots of Cultivar ‘Kubanskaya Kometa’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dēķena Dzintra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The lack of suitable plum rootstocks for Baltic conditions has become a problem during recent years due to changing climatic conditions. Rapid temperature fluctuations between freezing and thawing are occurring more frequently. The winter-hardiness of rootstocks is essential for overwintering of trees in such conditions. The content of accumulated reducing sugars is an important physiological factor influencing wintering ability of trees. The dynamics of reducing sugars was investigated during two winter seasons (2010/2011 and 2011/2012 in one-year-old ‘Kubanskaya Kometa’ (Prunus x rossica Erem. hybrid plum shoots from two orchards planted in 2001 at Pūre Horticultural Research Centre (Latvia and Polli Horticultural Research Centre (Estonia. Cultivar ‘Kubanskaya Kometa’ was grafted on eight clonal rootstocks: ‘St. Julien A’, ‘Brompton’ cuttings, ‘Ackermann’, ‘Pixy’, GF8/1, G5/22, GF655/2, ‘Hamyra’ and eight seedling rootstocks: ‘St. Julien INRA 2’, ‘St. Julien d’Orleans’, ‘St. Julien Noir’, ‘Brompton’ seedlings, ‘Wangenheims Zwetsche’, ‘St. Julien Wädenswill’, ‘Myrobаlan’ and Prunus cerasifera var. divaricata. Trees were planted at 5×3 m spacing in four replications per rootstock with three trees per plot. Shoot samples were harvested five times during the winter period. The concentration of reducing sugars (mg g-1 dry weight was determined with Bertran’s method. Significant differences in concentration of reducing sugar were found between samples coming from different locations and in two seasons. The maximum concentration of reducing sugar was found in December or January depending on growing location and meteorological conditions

  16. Root distribution of rootstocks for 'Tahiti' lime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves Carmen Silvia Vieira Janeiro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies on citrus roots are important for genetic selection of cultivars and for management practices such as localized irrigation and fertilization. To characterize root systems of six rootstocks, taking into consideration chemical and physical characteristics of a clayey Typic Hapludox of the Northern State of Paraná, this study was performed having as scion the 'IAC-5 Tahiti' lime [Citrus latifolia (Yu. Tanaka]. The rootstocks 'Rangpur' lime (C. limonia Osbeck, 'Africa Rough' lemon (C. jambhiri Lush., 'Sunki' mandarin [C. sunki (Hayata hort. ex Tan.], Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf., 'C13' citrange [C. sinensis (L. Osb. x P. trifoliata (L. Raf] and 'Catânia 2' Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana Ten. & Pasq. were used applying the trench profile method and the SIARCS® 3.0 software to determine root distribution. 'C-13' citrange had the largest root system. 'Volkamer' lemon and 'Africa Rough' lemon presented the smallest amount of roots. The effective depth for 80 % of roots was 31-53 cm in rows and 67-68 cm in inter-rows. The effective distance of 80 % of roots measured from the tree trunk exceeded the tree canopy for P. trifoliata, 'Sunki' mandarin, and 'Volkamer' and 'Africa Rough' lemons.

  17. Grapevine canopy reflectance and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minden, K. A.; Philipson, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    Field spectroradiometric and airborne multispectral scanner data were applied in a study of Concord grapevines. Spectroradiometric measurements of 18 experimental vines were collected on three dates during one growing season. Spectral reflectance, determined at 30 intervals from 0.4 to 1.1 microns, was correlated with vine yield, pruning weight, clusters/vine, and nitrogen input. One date of airborne multispectral scanner data (11 channels) was collected over commercial vineyards, and the average radiance values for eight vineyard sections were correlated with the corresponding average yields. Although some correlations were significant, they were inadequate for developing a reliable yield prediction model.

  18. Some seasonal carbohydrate fluctuations in coppiced rootstocks of Platanus occidentalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, M.R.; Steinbeck, K.

    Carbohydrate concentrations were determined in 11-year-old rootstocks of American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis) which had been coppiced on one- or two-year rotations for the preceding eight years. Sixty rootstocks were destructively sampled periodically between September 1976 and April 1977. Root starch concentrations declined erratically from 21 percent of dry weight in autumn to 14 percent by late April. Sugar levels rose from 1.5 percent in autumn to 5 percent in winter and declined to 3 percent in spring. Considerable variation in root starch levels from tree to tree was observed, and differences in starch and sugar concentrations between rootstocks coppiced on an annual or biannual basis were unimportant. These data suggest that while differences in above-ground biomass yields encountered in short rotation coppice forestry are not due to differences in rootstocks carbohydrate concentrations, the total quantity of reserve carbohydrate stored in a root system is probably a controlling factor for sprout regrowth potential.

  19. Performance of 'Oneco' mandarin on six rootstocks in South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Pereira Gonzatto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the effect of six rootstocks on yield, fruit quality, and growth of 'Oneco' mandarin during the first seven harvesting seasons, in Butiá, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The rootstocks evaluated were: 'Swingle' citrumelo (Citrus paradisi × Poncirus trifoliata, 'Caipira' orange (C. sinensis, 'Troyer' citrange (C. sinensis × P. trifoliata, 'Rangpur' lime (C. limonia, 'Volkamer' lemon (C. volkameriana, and 'Flying Dragon' trifoliata orange (P. trifoliata var. monstrosa. Plants budded onto 'Flying Dragon' had the lowest vegetative development, which indicates the dwarfing characteristics of this rootstock, and had the highest mean production efficiency, despite low yield. Plants grafted on 'Volkamer' lemon and 'Rangpur' lime had the highest alternate bearing. Under the experimental conditions evaluated, the most adequate rootstocks for mandarin 'Oneco' are 'Swingle' citrumelo and 'Troyer' citrange, regarding fruit yield and quality.

  20. Performance of 'Oneco' mandarin on six rootstocks in South Brazil.

    OpenAIRE

    Mateus Pereira Gonzatto; Alisson Pacheco Kovaleski; Eduardo Cesar Brugnara; Roberto Luis Weiler; Ivar Antônio Sartori; Jurandir Gonçalves de Lima; Renar João Bender; Sergio Francisco Schwarz

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to assess the effect of six rootstocks on yield, fruit quality, and growth of 'Oneco' mandarin during the first seven harvesting seasons, in Butiá, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The rootstocks evaluated were: 'Swingle' citrumelo (Citrus paradisi × Poncirus trifoliata), 'Caipira' orange (C. sinensis), 'Troyer' citrange (C. sinensis × P. trifoliata), 'Rangpur' lime (C. limonia), 'Volkamer' lemon (C. volkameriana), and 'Flying Dragon' trifoliata orange (P. trifo...

  1. Performance of 'Oneco' mandarin on six rootstocks in South Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzatto,Mateus Pereira; Kovaleski, Alisson Pacheco; Brugnara, Eduardo Cesar; Weiler,Roberto Luis; Sartori, Ivar Antonio; Lima, Jurandir Goncalves de; Bender, Renar João; Schwarz,Sergio Francisco

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to assess the effect of six rootstocks on yield, fruit quality, and growth of 'Oneco' mandarin during the first seven harvesting seasons, in Butiá, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The rootstocks evaluated were: 'Swingle' citrumelo (Citrus paradisi × Poncirus trifoliata), 'Caipira' orange (C. sinensis), 'Troyer' citrange (C. sinensis × P. trifoliata), 'Rangpur' lime (C. limonia), 'Volkamer' lemon (C. volkameriana), and 'Flying Dragon' trifoliata orange (P. trifo...

  2. Performance of 'Okitsu' Satsuma Mandarin on nine rootstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Zuleide Hissano Tazima; Carmen Silvia Vieira Janeiro Neves; Inês Fumiko Ubukata Yada; Rui Pereira Leite Júnior

    2013-01-01

    Mandarins have become increasingly valued as citrus fruits for the fresh market due to the easy peeling, attractive flavor, and health and nutritional properties. Plant growth and yield, and characteristics of fruits of 'Okitsu' Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) trees grafted on nine rootstocks were evaluated in Londrina, northern Paraná, Brazil. The rootstocks were: 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osb.); 'Cleopatra' (Citrus reshni hort. ex Tanaka) and 'Sunki' mandarins (Citrus sunki hort...

  3. [Salt stress tolerance of cucumber-grafted rootstocks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Ping; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shi-Rong; Liu, Shu-Ren; Liu, Chao-Jie; Tian, Jing

    2012-05-01

    Taking 4 different Cucurbita maxima x C. moschata rootstocks for cucumber (Cucumis sativus) as test materials, a solution culture experiment was conducted to study their growth and antioxidative enzyme activities under the stresses of Ca(NO3)2 and NaCl, with the salt stress tolerance of the rootstocks evaluated by subordinate function. At 30 mmol x L(-1) of Ca (NO3)2 or 45 mmol x L(-1) of NaCl, the growth of the rootstock seedlings was improved; but at 60 and 120 mmol x L(-1) of Ca(NO3)2 or 90 and 180 mmol x L(-1) of NaCl, the growth and the antioxidative systems of the seedlings were inhibited, and the salt injury index of 'Qingzhen No. 1' was the smallest, with the decrement of biomass and SOD, POD and CAT activities and the increment of relative conductance being significantly lower than those of the others. Under the stress of high concentration Ca(NO3)2, the SOD, POD and CAT activities of test rootstocks were higher, and the salt injury index and relative conductance were lower, as compared with those under high concentration NaCl, suggesting that the damage of Ca(NO3)2 stress to cucumber-grafted rootstock were smaller than that of NaCl stress. Among the 4 rootstocks, 'Qingzhen No. 1' had the strongest salt stress tolerance, followed by 'Zuomu Nangua', 'Fengyuan Tiejia', and 'Chaoba Nangua'.

  4. Rootstock effects on gene expression patterns in apple tree scions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Philip J; Rytter, Jo; Detwiler, Elizabeth A; Travis, James W; McNellis, Timothy W

    2003-11-01

    Like many fruit trees, apple trees (Malus pumila) do not reproduce true-to-type from seed. Desirable cultivars are clonally propagated by grafting onto rootstocks that can alter the characteristics of the scion. For example, the M.7 EMLA rootstock is semi-dwarfing and reduces the susceptibility of the scion to Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight disease. In contrast, the M.9 T337 rootstock is dwarfing and does not alter fire blight susceptibility of the scion. This study represents a comprehensive comparison of gene expression patterns in scions of the 'Gala' apple cultivar grafted to either M.7 EMLA or M.9 T337. Expression was determined by cDNA-AFLP coupled with silver staining of the gels. Scions grafted to the M.9 T337 rootstock showed higher expression of a number of photosynthesis-related, transcription/translation-related, and cell division-related genes, while scions grafted to the M.7 EMLA rootstock showed increased stress-related gene expression. The observed differences in gene expression showed a remarkable correlation with physiological differences between the two graft combinations. The roles that the differentially expressed genes might play in tree stature, stress tolerance, photosynthetic activity, fire blight resistance, and other differences conferred by the two rootstocks are discussed.

  5. Arthropods vector grapevine trunk disease pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, P; Allsopp, E; Roets, F; Mostert, L; Halleen, F

    2014-10-01

    Arthropod-mediated dispersal of pathogens is known in many cropping systems but has never been demonstrated for grapevine trunk disease pathogens. Arthropods from vineyards were screened for the presence of pathogens associated with Petri disease and esca using cultural and molecular techniques. The ability of the most abundant pathogen-carrying species to inoculate healthy grapevine vascular tissues was also determined. Millipedes and ants were allowed to associate with a DsRed- Express-transformed Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, after which they were exposed to freshly pruned healthy grapevines under controlled conditions and wounds were monitored for subsequent infection. In addition, the possibility of millipede excreta, commonly found on pruning wounds in the field, to act as inoculum source was determined. A diverse arthropod fauna was associated with declining grapevines and many of these carried trunk disease pathogens. However, spiders, the ant Crematogaster peringueyi, and the millipede Ommattoiulus moreleti were the most abundant pathogen carriers. The ant and millipede species fed on pruning wound sap and effectively transmitted trunk disease pathogens. Millipede excreta contained viable spores of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and may serve as an inoculum source. Numerous arthropods, including beneficial predators, are potential vectors of grapevine trunk disease pathogens. Our results highlight the need for an integrated approach, including targeted management of ants and millipedes at the time of pruning, to limit the spread of grapevine trunk diseases.

  6. Grapevine cell early activation of specific responses to DIMEB, a resveratrol elicitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilati Stefania

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In response to pathogen attack, grapevine synthesizes phytoalexins belonging to the family of stilbenes. Grapevine cell cultures represent a good model system for studying the basic mechanisms of plant response to biotic and abiotic elicitors. Among these, modified β-cyclodextrins seem to act as true elicitors inducing strong production of the stilbene resveratrol. Results The transcriptome changes of Vitis riparia × Vitis berlandieri grapevine cells in response to the modified β-cyclodextrin, DIMEB, were analyzed 2 and 6 h after treatment using a suppression subtractive hybridization experiment and a microarray analysis respectively. At both time points, we identified a specific set of induced genes belonging to the general phenylpropanoid metabolism, including stilbenes and hydroxycinnamates, and to defence proteins such as PR proteins and chitinases. At 6 h we also observed a down-regulation of the genes involved in cell division and cell-wall loosening. Conclusions We report the first large-scale study of the molecular effects of DIMEB, a resveratrol inducer, on grapevine cell cultures. This molecule seems to mimic a defence elicitor which enhances the physical barriers of the cell, stops cell division and induces phytoalexin synthesis.

  7. Effect of high soil copper concentration on mycorrhizal grapevines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogales, Amaia; Santos, Erika S.; Viegas, Wanda; Aran, Diego; Pereira, Sofia H.; Vidigal, Patricia; Lopes, Carlos M.; Abreu, M. Manuela

    2017-04-01

    Repeated application of Copper (Cu) based fungicides in vineyards since the end of the 19th century has led to a significant increase in the concentration of this chemical element in many viticultural soils. Although Cu is an essential micronutrient for most organisms, it can be toxic for the development and survival of plants and soil (micro)organisms at high concentrations and eventually lead to yield loses in viticulture, as it negatively affects key physiological and biogeochemical processes. However, some soil microorganisms, including arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), have developed adaptive mechanisms for persistence in environments with supra-optimal levels of essential elements or in the presence of harmful ones, as well as for increasing plant tolerance to such abiotic stress conditions. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of a high total soil concentration of Cu on microbial soil activity as well as on the development of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal grapevines. A microcosm assay was set up under greenhouse and controlled conditions. Touriga Nacional grapevine variety plants grafted onto 1103P rootstocks were inoculated either with the AMF Rhizophagus irregularis or Funneliformis mosseae, or were left as non-inoculated controls. After three months, they were transplanted to containers filled with 4 kg of a sandy soil (pH: 7.0; electrical conductivity: 0.08 mS/cm; [organic C]: 5.6 g/kg; [N-NO3]: 1.1 mg/kg; [N-NH4]: 2.5 mg/kg; [extractable K]: 45.1 mg/kg; [extractable P]: 52.3 mg/kg), collected near to a vineyard in Pegões (Portugal). Two treatments were carried out: with and without Cu application. The soil with high Cu concentration was prepared by adding 300 mg Cu/kg (in the form of an aqueous solution of CuSO4·5H2O) followed by an incubation during four weeks in plastic bags at room temperature in dark. Physico-chemical soil characteristics (pH, electrical conductivity and nutrients concentration in available fraction), soil

  8. Chemical defoliation of apple rootstocks and the influence of rootstocks type on the defoliation of 'Jonathan' scion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Basak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The following substances were used to defoliate apple rootstock instead of hand defoliation before digging out: KI, CuSO4 · 5H2O, Mg(ClO32< · H2O, ethephon (Ethrel 68-250 and CKB 1131, preparation N252, and the mixtures: ethephon (Ethrel with copper sulphate, or with gibberellic acid, morphactin (EMD with ethephon, and morphactin with ethephon and copper sulphate. Among the inorganic defoliants tested, only Mg(ClO32 · H2O gave satisfactory results in defoliating apple rootstocks. When applied at the end of September this chemical did not decrease winter hardiness of the rootstocks. Ethrel and the preparation CKB 1131,caused satisfactory defoliation, but when used in optimal concentrations for defoliation they decreased the winter hardiness of plants. The mixture of ethephon with copper sulphate in which both components were used in low concentrations also appeared highly effective. Ethephon in low concentration mixed with EMD caused only partial defoliation of the rootstocks. Addition of gibberellic acid did not improve the effectiveness of ethephon. Preparation N252 in a concentration of 0.15% effectively defoliated the rootstocks and did not cause a subsequent decrease of frost hardiness in the conditions of this experiment. The response of 'Jonathan' scions to defoliants was modified by the rootstock.

  9. Rootstock-regulated gene expression patterns associated with fire blight resistance in apple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Desirable apple varieties are clonally propagated by grafting vegetative scions onto rootstocks. Rootstocks influence many phenotypic traits of the scion, including resistance to pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora, which causes fire blight, the most serious bacterial disease of apple....

  10. Sweet orange trees grafted on selected rootstocks fertilized with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.

    OpenAIRE

    Quaggio José Antônio; Mattos Junior Dirceu; Cantarella Heitor; Stuchi Eduardo Sanches; Sempionato Otávio Ricardo

    2004-01-01

    The majority of citrus trees in Brazil are grafted on 'Rangpur lime' (Citrus limonia Osb.) rootstock. Despite its good horticultural performance, search for disease tolerant rootstock varieties to improve yield and longevity of citrus groves has increased. The objective of this work was to evaluate yield efficiency of sweet oranges on different rootstocks fertilized with N, P, and potassium. Tree growth was affected by rootstock varieties; trees on 'Swingle' citrumelo [Poncirus trifoliata (L....

  11. Geneva apple rootstock performance in New York state and progress in commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of new apple rootstocks from the Cornell/USDA apple rootstock breeding project, located at Geneva NY which are resistant to the bacterial disease fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) are rapidly becoming available. Some named rootstock genotypes from this program have previously been tested in s...

  12. SELECTION OF VARIETY-ROOTSTOCK COMBINATIONS OF PLUM FOR THE KRASNODAR REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushkov D. N.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the results of integrated assessment of variety-rootstock combinations of plum on clonal rootstocks and different schemes of landing. We have defined the basic biometric parameters of trees, and specific indicators of productivity, allowing to identify the most optimal variety-stable rootstock combination for the conditions of the Krasnodar region

  13. Growth, Yielding and Healthiness of Grapevine Cultivars ‘Solaris’ and ‘Regent’ in Response to Fertilizers and Biostimulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisek Jerzy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the years 2008–2015, field experiments were conducted on the vines of cultivars ‘Solaris’ and ‘Regent’ grafted on SO4 rootstock. The following treatments: 1. control (untreated, 2. NPK (mineral fertilization 70 kg N·ha−1; 40 kg P·ha−1; 120 kg K·ha−1, 3. mycorrhizal substrate (AMF – Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi, 4. NPK + AMF, 5. manure (before planting, 6. NPK + manure (before planting, 7. Bioilsa, 8. NPK + Bioilsa, 9. BF-Ecomix, 10. NPK + BF-Ecomix, 11. Ausma and 12. NPK + Ausma were applied to evaluate the usefulness of biostimulants and mineral and organic fertilizers in organic grapevine production in “cool climate” conditions of Poland. The tests did not show a definite positive effect of the biostimulants and organic fertilizers on growth, yielding and healthiness of the cultivars ‘Solaris’ and ‘Regent’. There were no substantial differences in total marketable yield in the years 2009 to 2015 between control and other treatments. Grapevines planted in soil rich in minerals grew and yielded well despite no mineral fertilization for a number of years. In 2014, when the air humidity was high during vegetation, intensive rotting of the berries of cultivar ‘Solaris’, caused by Botrytis cinerea, was observed on plants fertilized with NPK.

  14. Plant protection products in organic grapevine growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivčev Branislava V.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pests and grapevine diseases in organic production are suppressed by preventive measures with a view to reducing the impact of the attack. Allowed substances acting on patogenous fungi, insects, mites and other harmful organisms are used, if appropriate. Insecticides of plant origin are used in the organic production of grapevine, as well as vegetable oils, powders and insecticidal soaps that are selective, with a narrow range of effects and of lower toxicity, as well as biological products. As a rule, such plant protection products require a more frequent application. Copper-based and sulphur-based fungicides are still leading products in suppressing grapevine diseases. Researches are directed to decrease the quantity of application and to find their replacement by also efficient fungicides. A special emphasis is put on researching the efficient fungicides for suppressing Botrytis bunch rot and factors causing grapevine wood diseases (Esca and Eutypa in organic production. Along with copper and sulphur, different substances such as bicarbonates, plant extracts and oils, biological products being parasites, patogenous or diseases agent antagonists, and natural products such as milk and whey are applied in the organic production of grapevine.

  15. Contributions of roots and rootstocks to sustainable, intensified crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Peter J; Atkinson, Christopher J; Bengough, A Glyn; Else, Mark A; Fernández-Fernández, Felicidad; Harrison, Richard J; Schmidt, Sonja

    2013-03-01

    Sustainable intensification is seen as the main route for meeting the world's increasing demands for food and fibre. As demands mount for greater efficiency in the use of resources to achieve this goal, so the focus on roots and rootstocks and their role in acquiring water and nutrients, and overcoming pests and pathogens, is increasing. The purpose of this review is to explore some of the ways in which understanding root systems and their interactions with soils could contribute to the development of more sustainable systems of intensive production. Physical interactions with soil particles limit root growth if soils are dense, but root-soil contact is essential for optimal growth and uptake of water and nutrients. X-ray microtomography demonstrated that maize roots elongated more rapidly with increasing root-soil contact, as long as mechanical impedance was not limiting root elongation, while lupin was less sensitive to changes in root-soil contact. In addition to selecting for root architecture and rhizosphere properties, the growth of many plants in cultivated systems is profoundly affected by selection of an appropriate rootstock. Several mechanisms for scion control by rootstocks have been suggested, but the causal signals are still uncertain and may differ between crop species. Linkage map locations for quantitative trait loci for disease resistance and other traits of interest in rootstock breeding are becoming available. Designing root systems and rootstocks for specific environments is becoming a feasible target.

  16. Effects of Different Rootstocks on the Growth and Fruit Quality of Greenhouse Cucumber in Early Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bing; ZHANG Tianwei; ZHAO Jiayu; JIANG Xinmei

    2009-01-01

    Different pumpkin rootstocks were used to study the effects of different rootstocks on the growth and fruit quality of greenhouse cucumber in early spring. The results showed that the grafted cucumber could significantly improve the production, and different rootstock had a certain effect on the survival rate and fruit quality. Jinhuanghou and Fengyijiajiewang as rootstock had the highest survival rate, which were 79.0% and 70.7%, respectively. As rootstocks of greenhouse cucumber, Jinhuanghou, Lvzhoujuxing,Fengyi, Huofenghuang, and Dawei No.17 were better than others according to taste, and Heizinangua, Jinhuanghou, Fengyi,Huofenghuang, and Dawei No. 17 were better according to output.

  17. GFLV replication in electroporated grapevine protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valat; Toutain; Courtois; Gaire; Decout; Pinck; Mauro; Burrus

    2000-06-29

    Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV), responsible for the economically important court-noué disease, is exclusively transmitted to its natural host in the vineyards through Xiphinema nematodes. We have developed direct inoculation of GFLV into grapevine through protoplast electroporation. Protoplasts were isolated from mesophyll of in vitro-grown plants and from embryogenic cell suspensions. Permeation conditions were determined by monitoring calcein uptake. Low salt poration medium was selected. Electrical conditions leading to strong transient gene expression were also tested for GFLV inoculation (isolate F13). GFLV replication was detected with either virus particles (2 µg) or viral RNA (10 ng) in both protoplast populations, as shown by anti-P38 Western blotting. Direct inoculation and replication were also observed with Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV), a closely related nepovirus, as well as with another GFLV isolate. These results will be valuable in grapevine biotechnology, for GFLV replication studies, transgenic plant screening for GFLV resistance, and biorisk evaluation.

  18. Apple tree production in Italy: rootstocks, cultivars, fertilization, and irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovambattista Sorrenti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Italy is one of the main apple producers in Europe, primarily intended for fresh consumption, both in the domestic and foreign markets. Fruit yield and quality depends on the cultivar, rootstock, and management practices, such as the fertilization and irrigation adopted in the orchard. This review aims at reporting the main apple cultivars and rootstocks, the management of fertilization and irrigation, as well as their adaptation to apple tree orchards in Italy. The programs for genetic improvement carried out in this country involved the selection of apple tree cultivars and rootstocks which enable a high fruit yield and quality, in order to meet the requirements from the consumer market. In the fertilization and irrigation management, nutrients and water are supplied in amounts next to the actual need of the plants, providing an adequate nutrition, a satisfactory yield, and high quality fruits, besides preventing, whenever possible, nutrients and water losses in the environment.

  19. Unravelling the diversity of grapevine microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Cátia; Pinho, Diogo; Sousa, Susana; Pinheiro, Miguel; Egas, Conceição; Gomes, Ana C

    2014-01-01

    Vitis vinifera is one of the most widely cultivated fruit crops with a great economic impact on the global industry. As a plant, it is naturally colonised by a wide variety of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms that interact with grapevine, having either beneficial or phytopathogenic effects, who play a major role in fruit yield, grape quality and, ultimately, in the evolution of grape fermentation and wine production. Therefore, the objective of this study was to extensively characterize the natural microbiome of grapevine. Considering that the majority of microorganisms are uncultivable, we have deeply studied the microflora of grapevine leaves using massive parallel rDNA sequencing, along its vegetative cycle. Among eukaryotic population the most abundant microorganisms belonged to the early diverging fungi lineages and Ascomycota phylum, whereas the Basidiomycota were the least abundant. Regarding prokaryotes, a high diversity of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria was unveiled. Indeed, the microbial communities present in the vineyard during its vegetative cycle were shown to be highly structured and dynamic. In all cases, the major abundant microorganisms were the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium and the prokaryotic Enterobacteriaceae. Herein, we report the first complete microbiome landscape of the vineyard, through a metagenomic approach, and highlight the analysis of the microbial interactions within the vineyard and its importance for the equilibrium of the microecosystem of grapevines.

  20. Unravelling the diversity of grapevine microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia Pinto

    Full Text Available Vitis vinifera is one of the most widely cultivated fruit crops with a great economic impact on the global industry. As a plant, it is naturally colonised by a wide variety of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms that interact with grapevine, having either beneficial or phytopathogenic effects, who play a major role in fruit yield, grape quality and, ultimately, in the evolution of grape fermentation and wine production. Therefore, the objective of this study was to extensively characterize the natural microbiome of grapevine. Considering that the majority of microorganisms are uncultivable, we have deeply studied the microflora of grapevine leaves using massive parallel rDNA sequencing, along its vegetative cycle. Among eukaryotic population the most abundant microorganisms belonged to the early diverging fungi lineages and Ascomycota phylum, whereas the Basidiomycota were the least abundant. Regarding prokaryotes, a high diversity of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria was unveiled. Indeed, the microbial communities present in the vineyard during its vegetative cycle were shown to be highly structured and dynamic. In all cases, the major abundant microorganisms were the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium and the prokaryotic Enterobacteriaceae. Herein, we report the first complete microbiome landscape of the vineyard, through a metagenomic approach, and highlight the analysis of the microbial interactions within the vineyard and its importance for the equilibrium of the microecosystem of grapevines.

  1. Recuperação e distribuição do nitrogênio fornecido a videiras jovens Recovery and distribution of supplied nitrogen to young grapevines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Brunetto

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a recuperação e a distribuição do N fornecido a videiras jovens. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação na Embrapa Uva e Vinho, Bento Gonçalves, RS. Foram utilizadas videiras da cultivar Riesling Itálico e Chardonnay, enxertadas no porta-enxerto 101-14 Mgt. Foi cultivada uma planta por vaso contendo 3,5 kg de um Neossolo Litólico. A solução de sulfato de amônio com 2% de átomos 15N, na dose de 185,60 mg de N foi aplicada na superfície do solo depois do transplante das videiras. As plantas foram coletadas em seis épocas, e separadas em folhas, porta-enxerto + enxerto, raízes grossas e finas. Todas as partes das videiras foram secadas em estufa, para determinação da produção de matéria seca e análise do N total e 15N. A maior recuperação do N do fertilizante pelas videiras jovens ocorreu em épocas próximas ao fornecimento do N. A maior quantidade de N acumulado nas videiras derivou-se de formas diferentes daquelas do N fornecido. As folhas e raízes foram o maior compartimento de N total e N derivado do fertilizante.The objective of this work was to estimate the recovery and the distribution of N supplied to young grapevines. The experiment was carried out in greenhouse at Embrapa Uva e Vinho, Bento Gonçalves, RS, Southern Brazil. Cultivars used were Riesling Itálico and Chardonnay grafted on rootstock 101-14 Mgt. One plant was cultivated in each vase containing 3.5 kg of Udorthent soil. The solution of ammonium sulphate with 2% atoms 15N, at the rate of 185.60 mg N, was applied on the soil surface after the transplantation of the grapevines. Plants were collected six times, during vegetative growth, and fractionated in leaves, rootstock + scion, thick roots and fine roots, and then oven-dried, weighted, and analyzed for total N and 15N contents. The largest N recovery of the fertilizer for the young grapevines ocurred in times near to the N supplying. The largest amount

  2. Rootstocks: diversity, domestication and impacts on shoot phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafting is an ancient agricultural practice that joins the root system (rootstock) of one plant to the shoot system (scion) of another individual. It is most commonly employed in woody perennial crops such as Apples, Grapes, and Citrus species to shorten scion juvenile stage length, facilitate clo...

  3. Growth of citrus rootstocks under aluminium stress in hydroponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Walter Esfrain

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants present different degrees of adaptation to aluminium (Al concentrations in the soil, and the understanding of this characteristic can lead to a viable option for the utilization of acid soils. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of five Al concentrations (0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mumol L-1 on the growth of 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck and 'Volkamer' lemon (Citrus volkameriana Hort. ex Tan., and tangerine rootstocks 'Cleópatra' (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan and 'Sunki' (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tan., in hydroponic culture. The treatments were arranged in a randomized block design, with four replications. For all rootstocks, the relative growth rate in terms of plant total fresh matter increased under low and, decreased under large Al concentrations. Growth of the shoot, leaf area ratio and leaf weight ratio decreased for all rootstocks in the presence of Al. The 'Rangpur' lime had a decrease of the root system growth, starting from 23 mumol L-1 of Al. For the remaining rootstocks, this growth reached maximum values at 91 to 117 mumol L-1 of Al, respectively. Considering all the evaluated characteristics of plant growth, the 'Rangpur' lime was the most susceptible to Al.

  4. Geneva rootstocks for weak growing scion cultivars like Honeycrisp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplicate field trials with ‘Honeycrisp’ apple on 22 rootstocks conducted for 9 years at Geneva, NY (in Western NY State) and Peru, NY (in Northern NY State), showed that two dwarf Geneva® stocks (G.41 and G.11) had good tree survival, superior yield performance to M.9, similar fruit size as M.9 and...

  5. Characterization of iron deficiency symptoms in grapevine (Vitis spp.) leaves by reflectance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustioni, Laura; Grossi, Daniele; Brancadoro, Lucio; Failla, Osvaldo

    2017-09-01

    The work aims at the description of the iron deficiency symptoms in grapevine leaves by reflectance spectroscopy at the plant and leaf levels. 5 genotypes of Vitis spp. were selected and grown in hydroponic conditions with and without iron supply. 450 spectra were collected among basal, young and apical leaves, as well as veins and interveinal areas. Iron deficiency produced significant and characteristic modifications in the pigment accumulation, proportion and distribution in plants. Basal leaves resulted to have higher concentrations of photosynthetic pigments in stressed plants with respect to the control, probably due to compensation effects. Iron deficient plants had lower chlorophyll concentrations in young and apical leaves. In the apical zone, also the relative composition of pigments appeared to be modified, explaining the reddish-yellowish apex appearance of iron deficient vines. Finally, the pigment distribution along the shoot characterized the symptoms, as well as the spectral variations among veins and interveinal areas. These results could support future applications in vineyard management (e.g.: symptom identification and detection; precision fertilization) as well as breeding programs for new rootstock selections (e.g.: fast screenings of seedlings). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Rootstock breeding in Prunus species: Ongoing efforts and new challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Gainza

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The current global agricultural challenges imply the need to generate new technologies and farming systems. In this context, rootstocks are an essential component in modern agriculture. Most currently used are those clonally propagated and there are several ongoing efforts to develop this type of plant material. Despite this tendency, lesser number of rootstock breeding programs exists in comparison to the large number of breeding programs for scion cultivars. In the case of rootstocks, traits evaluated in new selection lines are quite different: From the agronomic standpoint vigor is a key issue in order to establish high-density orchards. Other important agronomic traits include compatibility with a wide spectrum of cultivars from different species, good tolerance to root hypoxia, water use efficiency, aptitude to extract or exclude certain soil nutrients, and tolerance to soil or water salinity. Biotic stresses are also important: Resistance/tolerance to pests and diseases, such as nematodes, soil-borne fungi, crown gall, bacterial canker, and several virus, viroids, and phytoplasms. In this sense, the creation of new rootstocks at Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Fruticultura (CEAF offers an alternative to stone fruit crop, particularly in Chile, where just a few alternatives are commercially available, and there are site-specific problems. The implementation of molecular markers in order to give support to the phenotypic evaluation of plant breeding has great potential assisting the selection of new genotypes of rootstocks. Marker-Assisted Selection (MAS can shorten the time required to obtain new cultivars and can make the process more cost-effective than selection based exclusively on phenotype, but more basic research is needed to well understood the molecular and physiological mechanisms behind the studied trait.

  7. Detection of Nepovirus Vector and Nonvector Xiphinema Species in Grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ghelder, C; Reid, A; Kenyon, D; Esmenjaud, D

    2015-01-01

    Fanleaf degeneration is considered the most damaging viral disease of grapevine. The two major nepoviruses involved are Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) and Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV) which are respectively and specifically transmitted by the dagger nematodes Xiphinema index and X. diversicaudatum. The methods described below are aimed at detecting four prevalent grapevine Xiphinema species: the vector species previously mentioned and two nonvector species X. vuittenezi and X. italiae.

  8. Association of RGA-SSCP markers with resistance to downy mildew and anthracnose in grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantasawat, P A; Poolsawat, O; Prajongjai, T; Chaowiset, W; Tharapreuksapong, A

    2012-07-02

    Downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) and anthracnose (Sphaceloma ampelinum) are two major diseases that severely affect most grapevine (Vitis vinifera) cultivars grown commercially in Thailand. Progress of conventional breeding programs of grapevine for improved resistance to these diseases can be speeded up by selection of molecular markers associated with resistance traits. We evaluated the association between 13 resistance gene analog (RGA)-single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) markers with resistance to downy mildew and anthracnose in 71 segregating progenies of seven cross combinations between susceptible cultivars and resistant lines. F(1) hybrids from each cross were assessed for resistance to downy mildew and anthracnose (isolates Nk4-1 and Rc2-1) under laboratory conditions. Association of resistance traits with RGA-SSCP markers was evaluated using simple linear regression analysis. Three RGA-SSCP markers were found to be significantly correlated with anthracnose resistance, whereas significant correlation with downy mildew resistance was observed for only one RGA-SSCP marker. These results demonstrate the usefulness of RGA-SSCP markers. Four candidate markers with significant associations to resistance to these two major diseases of grapevine were identified. However, these putative associations between markers and resistance need to be verified with larger segregating populations before they can be used for marker-assisted selection.

  9. Configuration of watermelon fruit quality in response to rootstock-mediated harvest maturity and postharvest storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, Marios C; Soteriou, Georgios A; Rouphael, Youssef; Siomos, Anastasios S; Gerasopoulos, Dimitrios

    2016-05-01

    The configuration of watermelon fruit quality was analysed in a multi-factorial approach accounting for the effects of grafting, harvest maturity and postharvest storage. Diploid, seeded, hybrid cv. Pegasus, cultivated as scion on interspecific hybrid squash rootstock TZ148 and as non-grafted control, was stored at 25 °C following sequential harvests from the onset of ripening to over-maturity. Delayed rootstock-mediated climax in pulp lycopene and chroma was observed, while both were heightened by postharvest storage when harvest preceded full maturity. Pulp firmness was increased by 46.5% on TZ148, while postharvest decrease in firmness was non-significant. Non-grafted fruits attained their peak in pulp carbohydrate content earlier during ripening. Monosaccharide content declined and sucrose content increased both preharvest and postharvest; overall sugar content declined by 4.3% during storage. Pulp acidity decreased steadily with ripening but was moderately increased by grafting. Citrulline content increased by 12.5% on TZ148; moreover, it climaxed with ripening and declined with storage only in grafted fruit. Grafting enhances pulp texture and bioactive composition. Potential suppression of sugar content as a result of grafting is minimized at full commercial maturity. Brief postharvest ambient storage enhances pulp lycopene and chroma, especially in early-picked fruit, notwithstanding the depletion of monosaccharides and citrulline and a limited deterioration of texture. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Antennal and behavioral responses of grapevine moth Lobesia botrana females to volatiles from grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasin, Marco; Anfora, Gianfranco; Ioriatti, Claudio; Carlin, Silvia; De Cristofaro, Antonio; Schmidt, Silvia; Bengtsson, Marie; Versini, Giuseppe; Witzgall, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Grapevine moth Lobesia botrana is the economically most important insect of grapevine Vitis vinifera in Europe. Flower buds, flowers, and green berries of Chardonnay grapevine are known to attract L. botrana for oviposition. The volatile compounds collected from these phenological stages were studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the antennal response of L. botrana females to these headspace collections was recorded by gas chromatography-electroantennography. The compounds found in all phenological stages, which consistently elicited a strong antennal response, were pentadecane, nonanal, and alpha-farnesene. In a wind tunnel, gravid L. botrana females flew upwind to green grapes, as well as to headspace collections from these berries released by a piezoelectric sprayer release device. However, no females landed at the source of headspace volatiles, possibly due to inappropriate concentrations or biased ratios of compounds in the headspace extracts.

  11. Identification of Eutypa lata, a Grapevine Parasite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Delibašić

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytopathogenic fungus Eutypa lata (Pers.: Fr. Tul. and C. Tul., the causing agent of eutypa dieback, has been increasingly often identified in recent times as a cause of grapevine disease. It was first discovered and identified in Australian vineyards (Carter,1973, where it represented one of the most dangerous fungus pathogens of this plant. A few years later it was discovered in European vineyards as well. This polyfagous fungus,known originally as E. armeniaca (Honsf. & Carter, was first discovered on apricot, on which it caused the “gummosis disease”.In Serbia, Eutypa lata has not been determined officially. However, bearing in mind the form of its spreading (anemochory, as well as the fact that our country is a major producer of grape and fruit, we need to pay special attention to this dangerous pathogen since thereare indications that it is already present in our vineyards.During the period between 2003 and 2005, an inspection of a great number of vineyards in the areas of Vršac, Fruška Gora and Kruševac, was conducted. Many of them had grapevines with typical eutypa dieback symptoms. The aim of the inspection was to find grapevines with this disease, to mark them and take samples for laboratory analysis. Marking suspicious grapevines enabled us to monitor the volume of symptoms, as well as other changes on grapevines. Different colours were used for markings, according to the principle “same colour – same year” The procedure revealed that the average periodbetween early and mild disease symptoms and extreme changes, including withering of entire vines, was 2 to 3 years.The signs of eutypa dieback on diseased grapevines are manifested: on leaves in the form of chlorosis, twisting, necrosis of the edges, drying out and falling off; on shoots,where the shortening of internodia is noticable, as well as colour change and “zig-zag” distribution of internodes; on blossoms and clusters, where absence of flowering, partial

  12. Unravelling the Diversity of Grapevine Microbiome

    OpenAIRE

    Cátia Pinto; Diogo Pinho; Susana Sousa; Miguel Pinheiro; Conceição Egas; Ana C Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Vitis vinifera is one of the most widely cultivated fruit crops with a great economic impact on the global industry. As a plant, it is naturally colonised by a wide variety of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms that interact with grapevine, having either beneficial or phytopathogenic effects, who play a major role in fruit yield, grape quality and, ultimately, in the evolution of grape fermentation and wine production. Therefore, the objective of this study was to extensively char...

  13. Sorosphaera viticola, a plasmodiophorid parasite of grapevine

    OpenAIRE

    Neuhauser, Sigrid; Huber, Lars; Kirchmair, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Sorosphaera viticola is a soil-borne, endophytic parasite of grapevine. It is classified within the plasmodiophorids, an enigmatic group of obligate biotrophic parasites of higher plants. Sorosphaera viticola has been found abundantly in the roots of Vitis spp. in Germany and Canada. This may indicate a global distribution of this root parasite. But its biphasic life-cycle, its soil-borne nature and its co-occurrence with other soil-borne pathogens make an assessment of the disease pattern or...

  14. Transpiration of the ‘Rebula’ cuttings (Vitis vinifera L.) grafted on three different rootstocks (Vitis sp.)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    LavrenČiČ, Primož; Sivilotti, Paolo; Peterlunger, Enrico

    2007-01-01

    ....) in dependence on the vine (Vitis sp.) rootstocks. The local vine variety ‘Rebula’ was grafted on three different rootstocks (Vitis sp.): (1) on the ‘Rebula’ (Vitis vinifera L.) vine itself, (2...

  15. Modeling deployment of Pierce’s disease resistant grapevines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deployment of Pierce’s disease resistant grapevines is a key solution to mitigating economic losses caused by Xylella fastidiosa. While Pierce’s disease resistant grapevines under development display mild symptoms and have lower bacterial populations than susceptible varieties, all appear to remain ...

  16. Serial Transmission of Information: A Study of the Grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, William L.; O'Connor, J. Regis

    In order to test the conclusions of previous studies of the informal communication system commonly known as the "grapevine," a study was conducted of the flow of one unit of information over the organizational grapevine. One of the experimenters planted a unit of information with two secretaries in the departmental office of Speech and…

  17. Relationship between endogenous hormonal content and somatic organogenesis in callus of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivars and Prunus persica×Prunus dulcis rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Le-Disquet, Isabel; Guivarc'h, Anne; Cos-Terrer, José

    2014-05-01

    The relationship between endogenous hormones content and the induction of somatic peach plant was studied. To induce multiple shoots from callus derived from the base of stem explants of the scion cultivars 'UFO-3', 'Flariba' and 'Alice Bigi', and the peach×almond rootstocks 'Garnem' and 'GF677', propagated plants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog salts augmented with 0.1mgL(-1) of indolebutyric acid, 1mgL(-1) of 6-benzylaminopurine and 3% sucrose. The highest regeneration rate was obtained with the peach×almond rootstocks. Endogenous levels of abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin (Z), zeatin riboside (ZR), ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA) were analyzed in the organogenic callus. Lower levels of several hormones, namely Z, ZR, ABA, and ACC were found in the peach×almond rootstock compared to peach cultivars, while IAA and SA presented inconclusive returns. These results suggest that the difference in somatic organogenesis capacity observed in peach and peach×almond hybrids is markedly affected by the endogenous hormonal content of the studied genotypes.

  18. Monitoring the viability of citrus rootstocks seeds stored under refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Alves de Carvalho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The citrus nursery tree is produced through the bud grafting process, in which rootstock is usually grown from seed germination. The objective of this research was to evaluate, in two dissimilar environmental conditions, the viability and polyembryony expression of five citrus rootstocks seeds stored in different periods under refrigeration. The rootstock varieties evaluated were: Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osb. cv. Limeira, Trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata Raf. cv. Limeira, Citrumelo (P. trifoliata x C. paradisi Macf. cv. Swingle, Sunki mandarin (C. sunki Hort. ex Tanaka and Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana Ten. & Pasq. cv. Catania 2. The experimental design was the randomized blocks in a 11 x 5 x 2 factorial scheme, evaluating from time zero to the tenth month of storage, the five varieties of rootstock in two environments: germination and growth B.O.D type chamber (Biological Oxygen Demand - Eletrolab Brand Model FC 122 at 25 °C; and greenhouse seedbed with partial temperature control (22 °C to 36 °C and humidity control (75-85%. The plot had 24 seeds in four replicates, using trays with substrate in greenhouse and Petri dishes with filter paper in B.O.D. chamber. The seed germination rate and polyembryony expression were evaluated monthly. It was concluded that Trifoliate and Citrumelo Swingle seeds can be stored for up to seven months, while Volkamer lemon, Rangpur lime and Sunki seeds can be stored for up to ten months. The polyembryony expression rate was slightly higher when measured in greenhouse than in B.O.D. chamber and remained stable in both environments until the seventh month, from which dropped sharply. Citrumelo Swingle seeds expressed the highest polyembryony rate (18.8%, followed by Rangpur lime and Volkamer lemon (average value of 13.7%, Sunki (9.4% and Trifoliate (3.2%. Despite some differences among varieties, the viability of rootstock stored seeds can be monitored either in the greenhouse or in B

  19. Bacteria as growth-promoting agents for citrus rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giassi, Valdionei; Kiritani, Camila; Kupper, Katia Cristina

    2016-09-01

    The microbial community plays an essential role in maintaining the ecological balance of soils. Interactions between microorganisms and plants have a major influence on the nutrition and health of the latter, and growth-promoting rhizobacteria can be used to improve plant development through a wide range of mechanisms. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate bacteria as growth-promoting agents for citrus rootstocks. A total of 30 bacterial isolates (11 of Bacillus spp., 11 actinobacteria, and 8 lactic acid bacteria) were evaluated in vitro for indoleacetic acid production, phosphate solubilization, and nitrogen (N) fixation. In vivo testing consisted of growth promotion trials of the bacterial isolates that yielded the best results on in vitro tests with three rootstocks: Swingle citrumelo [Citrus×paradisi Macfad cv. Duncan×Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.], Sunki mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tan), and rangpur (Citrus×limonia Osbeck). The parameters of interest were height, number of leaves, stem diameter, shoot and root dry mass, and total dry mass at 150days after germination. The results showed that most bacterial isolates were capable of IAA production. Only one lactic acid bacterium isolate (BL06) solubilized phosphate, with a high solubilization index (PSI>3). In the actinobacteria group, isolates ACT01 (PSI=2.09) and ACT07 (PSI=2.01) exhibited moderate phosphate-solubilizing properties. Of the Bacillus spp. isolates, only CPMO6 and BM17 solubilized phosphate. The bacterial isolates that most fixated nitrogen were BM17, ACT11, and BL24. In the present study, some bacteria were able to promote growth of citrus rootstocks; however, this response was dependent on plant genotype and isolate. Bacillus spp. BM16 and CPMO4 were able to promote growth of Swingle citrumelo. In Sunki mandarin plants, the best treatment results were obtained with BM17 (Bacillus sp.) and ACT11 (actinobacteria). For Rangpur lime rootstock, only BM05 (Bacillus sp

  20. CROWN GALL INCIDENCE: SEEDLING PARADOX WALNUT ROOTSTOCK VERSUS OWN-ROOTED ENGLISH WALNUT TREES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seedling Paradox (Juglans hindsii x J. regia) has been the rootstock of choice for English walnut in California because of its vigor and greater tolerance of wet soil conditions. However, seedling Paradox rootstock is highly susceptible to crown gall, a disease caused by the soil-borne bacterium Agr...

  1. First report of root rot caused by Phytopythium helicoides on pistachio rootstock in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined pathogenicity of Phytopythium helicoides on UCB-1 rootstock to investigate its role in root disease and collapse observed on potted pistachio plants. Approximately 25 potted 2-year-old pistachio rootstock trees in a Kern County, CA, research plot maintained outdoors and irrigated to cont...

  2. Effects of apple (Malus x domestica) rootstocks on scion performance and hormone concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rootstocks can influence the productivity and profitability of an orchard in a very significant way. Dwarfing rootstocks had a large impact in making possible the high-density orchards that have been planted during the last 15 years. However, there is a serious threat to high-density apple orchards,...

  3. The vigour of glasshouse roses : scion - rootstock relationships : effects of phenotypic and genotypic variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de D.P.

    1993-01-01

    Glasshouse roses commonly are combination plants, consisting of a scion variety and a rootstock of different genotypes. In this study, various environmental and genotypic factors have been investigated that influence the vigour of rootstocks and scion varieties, separately and in graft

  4. Evaluation of pyrus and quince rootstocks for high density pear orchards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, F.M.

    2008-01-01

    High density planting systems are a prerequisite to economise the use of land and labour costs of orchards. Dwarfing rootstocks controlling the vigour of the scion cultivars form the basis for such orchards (Wertheim and Webster, 2005). In the Netherlands, rootstock research is limited to and focuss

  5. The vigour of glasshouse roses. Scion rootstock relationships, effects of phenotypic & genotypic variation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de D.P.

    1993-01-01

    Glasshouse roses commonly are combination plants, consisting of a scion variety and a rootstock of different genotypes. In this study, various environmental and genotypic factors have been investigated that influence the vigour of rootstocks and scion varieties, separately and in graft combination.I

  6. Implementation of molecular marker technologies in the apple rootstock breeding program in Geneva - challenges and successes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Geneva® Apple Rootstock Breeding program was initiated in the early 1970’s with the overarching goal of developing disease resistant, productive and precocious apple rootstocks. Near the turn of the century the program was joined with USDA ARS resources and in addition to focusing on releasing ...

  7. Phylogenetic Relationships Among Cucurbit Species Used as Rootstocks for Grafting Watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an increased interest in the United States in grafting watermelon on cucurbit rootstocks to control soilborne diseases. Several cucurbit species including Lagenaria siceraria, Cucurbita spp. and Benincasa hispida (wax gourds) have been used in Asia as rootstocks for watermelon. In our pre...

  8. Improved watermelon quality using bottle gourd rootstock expressing a Ca(2+)/H(+) antiporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottle gourd ("Lagenaria siceraria" Standl.) has been commonly used as a source of rootstock for watermelon. To improve its performance as a rootstock without adverse effects on the scion, the bottle gourd was genetically engineered using a modified "Arabidopsis" Ca(2+)/H(+) exchanger sCAX2B. This t...

  9. Molecular characterization of Prunus mahaleb L. rootstock canditates by ISSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozyurt Ibrahim Kursat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prunus mahaleb is widely used as rootstocks particularly on calcareous and dry soils for both sweet and sour cherry cultivars in Turkey. Genetic diversity and relationships among members of Prunus mahaleb including 29 preselected rootstock candidate accessions from Tokat region in Turkey were investigated by using 15 ISSR markers. The study revealed high genetic diversity among accessions, detecting 138 fragments, of which 103 (75% were polymorphic. The number of polymorphic bands per primer was between 3-13, with average of 6.86. The primers 890 and 891 gave the highest polymorphism ratio (100%. The UPGMA dendrogram and the principal coordinate analysis revealed a clear differentiation among accessions. Reference rootstock, SL-64 clustered separately. The study demonstrates that ISSRs provide promising marker tools in revealing genetic diversity and relationships in Prunus mahaleb rootstock candidate accessions and can contribute to efficient identification, conservation, and utilization of germplasm for rootstock improvement through conventional as well as molecular breeding approaches.

  10. Grafting of different combinations of scions and rootstocks of passion fruit plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Andrade dos Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of rootstock in the cultivation of passion fruit aims to solve problems related to diseases caused by soil-borne pathogens. The seedling production by this method may provide greater longevity for plants and smaller losses for the producer of passion fruit. The objective of this study was to evaluate the grafting of different canopy / rootstock, using Passiflora alata and Passiflora cincinnata as rootstocks for yellow, sweet and purple passion fruit plants. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial 2 x 3 scheme (two rootstocks and three types of scions, with four replications and ten plants per plot. The Passiflora cincinnata when used as rootstock for yellow, purple, and sweet passion fruit showed lower grafting success rate and seedling development. The formation of seedlings by grafting of yellow and purple passion fruit on Passiflora alata proved to be feasible for the majority of those characteristics.

  11. Integration of Cadmium Accumulation, Subcellular Distribution, and Physiological Responses to Understand Cadmium Tolerance in Apple Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangtao Zhou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is a nonessential and highly toxic element causing agricultural problems. However, little information is available about the variation in Cd tolerance among apple rootstocks and its underlying physiological regulation mechanisms. This study investigated Cd accumulation, subcellular distribution, and chemical forms as well as physiological changes among four apple rootstocks exposed to either 0 or 300 μM CdCl2. The results showed that variations in Cd tolerance existed among these rootstocks. Cd exposure caused decline in photosynthesis, chlorophyll and biomass in four apple rootstocks, which was less pronounced in M. baccata, indicating its higher Cd tolerance. This finding was corroborated with higher Cd tolerance indexes (TIs of the whole plant in M. baccata than those in the other three apple rootstocks. Among the four apple rootstocks, M. baccata displayed the lowest Cd concentrations in roots, wood, and leaves, the smallest total Cd amounts as well as the lowest BCF. In apple rootstocks, it was found that to immobilize Cd in cell wall and soluble fraction (most likely in vacuole and to convert it into pectate- or protein- integrated forms and undissolved Cd phosphate forms may be the primary strategies to reduce Cd mobility and toxicity. The physiological changes including ROS, carbohydrates and antioxidants were in line with the variations of Cd tolerance among four apple rootstocks. In comparison with the other three apple rootstocks, M. baccata had lower concentrations of ROS in roots and bark, H2O2 in roots and leaves and MDA in roots, wood and bark, but higher concentrations of soluble sugars in bark and starch in roots and leaves, and enhanced antioxidants. These results indicate that M. baccata are more tolerant to Cd stress than the other three apple rootstocks under the current experiment conditions, which is probably related to Cd accumulation, subcellular partitioning and chemical forms of Cd and well

  12. Sorosphaera viticola, a plasmodiophorid parasite of grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Neuhauser

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available >Sorosphaera viticola is a soil-borne, endophytic parasite of grapevine. It is classifi ed within the plasmodiophorids, an enigmatic group of obligate biotrophic parasites of higher plants. Sorosphaera viticola has been found abundantly in the roots of Vitis spp. in Germany and Canada. This may indicate a global distribution of this root parasite. But its biphasic life-cycle, its soil-borne nature and its co-occurrence with other soil-borne pathogens make an assessment of the disease pattern or a possible yield reduction of this fungus diffi cult.

  13. Soaking grapevine cuttings in water: a potential source of cross contamination by micro-organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen WAITE

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine nurseries soak cuttings in water during propagation to compensate for dehydration and promote root initiation. However, trunk disease pathogens have been isolated from soaking water, indicating cross contamination. Cuttings of Vitis vinifera cv. Sunmuscat and V. berlandieri x V. rupestris rootstock cv. 140 Ruggeri were immersed in sterilized, deionised water for 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 h. The soaking water was cultured (25°C for 3 days on non-specific and specific media for fungi and bacteria. The base of each cutting was debarked and trimmed and three 3 mm thick, contiguous, transverse slices of wood cultured at 25°C for 3 days. The soaking water for both cultivars became contaminated with microorganisms within the first hour. Numbers of fungi iso-lated from the wood slices soaked for one hour were significantly greater than those from non-soaked cuttings. The number of bacterial colonies growing from the wood slices increased after soaking for 2‒4 h in Sunmuscat. In a second experiment Shiraz cuttings were soaked for 1, 2, 4, 8 and 24 h. The soaking water became contaminated within the first hour but only the bacterial count increased significantly over time. Microorganisms also established on the container surfaces within the first hour although there were no significant increases over 24 h. These results confirm that soaking cuttings is a potential cause of cross contamination and demonstrate contamination of cuttings occurs after relatively short periods of soaking. Avoiding exposing cuttings to water will reduce the transmission of trunk diseases in propagation.

  14. DEVELOPMENT AND SUPPRESSION OF GRAPEVINE BLACK FOOT CAUSED BY ILYONECTRIA RADICICOLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadeeja A. Saido

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Present study investigated the development and suppression of grapevine black foot using a highly virulent strain of Ilyonectria radicicola during 2010-2012 after its widespread outbreak in Duhok - Iraq since 2008. Inoculated roots showed distinctive symptoms of sunken necrotic lesions with internal black streaking of rootstocks. Production of mycelial mass (in vitro was higher at pH 5.0 resulting in 57% severity of foot rot compared to 46.16% at pH 7.0. In general, Kamali cv. was the most susceptible cultivar with 59.29% of stubby root growth affected compared to 53.32% and 40.83% on Rashmew and Taefi cvs. respectively. Wounding roots of a susceptible cultivar developed the conspicuous symptoms of black foot rot with a severity of 90%. Increasing the conidial inoculum was essential for severe infection development to more than 62%, whereas interaction between inoculation and wounding of roots increased lesion severity to 80.09%. However, acidic pH significantly enhanced disease progression on inoculated vine cuttings to 84.41% compared to 40% at neutral pH. Unfortunately, inoculum of Ilyonectria radicicola was not suppressed significantly even with fungicide application and continued its damage on Rashmew cv. Resulting in disease severity of 23.70% . More than 25% of the inoculated vines grown in amendments of Trichoderma harzianum and farmyard manures were infected compared to 14.80% and 20.73% of the non-inoculated. Exclusion of fungal inoculum improved the plant vigours as measured by dry weight and shoot growth, whereas significant stimulation of root growth were evidenced in the amended treatments particularly those with farmyard manures and fungicides. 

  15. Genetic and QTL analysis of resistance to Xiphinema index in a grapevine cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, K; Riaz, S; Roncoroni, N C; Jin, Y; Hu, R; Zhou, R; Walker, M A

    2008-01-01

    Resistance to the dagger nematode Xiphinema index has been an important objective in grape rootstock breeding programs. This nematode not only causes severe feeding damage to the root system, but it also vectors grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV), the causal agent of fanleaf degeneration and one of the most severe viral diseases of grape. The established screening procedures for dagger nematode resistance are time consuming and can produce inconsistent results. A fast and reliable greenhouse-based system for screening resistance to X. index that is suitable for genetic studies and capable of evaluating breeding populations is needed. In this report, the dynamics of nematode numbers, gall formation, and root weight loss were investigated using a variety of soil mixes and pot sizes over a 52-week period. Results indicated that the number of galls formed was correlated with the size of the nematode population and with the degree of root weight loss. After inoculation with 100 nematodes, gall formation could be reliably evaluated in 4-8 weeks in most plant growth conditions and results were obtained 6 months more rapidly than past evaluation methods. This modified X. index resistance screening method was successfully applied to 185 of the 188 F(1) progeny from a cross of D8909-15 x F8909-17 (the 9621 population), which segregates for a form of X. index resistance originally derived from Vitis arizonica. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was carried out on both parental genetic maps of 255 markers using MapQTL 4.0. Results revealed that X. index resistance is controlled by a major QTL, designated Xiphinema index Resistance 1 (XiR1), near marker VMC5a10 on chromosome 19. The XiR1 QTL was supported by a LOD score of 36.9 and explained 59.9% of the resistance variance in the mapping population.

  16. Rapid Propagation of Sweet and Sour Cherry Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušica DORIĆ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a protocol for micropropagation of Prunus sp. rootstocks included in the sweet and sour cherry breeding program. Germplasm diversity for rootstock breeding derives from natural populations, where conditions and biological vectors for systematic infection with viral diseases are constantly present. The establishment of aseptic culture depends primarily on the explant type, as all selections were collected from natural habitat. For nearly all investigated selections, dormant buds were the favored source, due to enabling rosette initiation in more than 58% cases. In P. cerasus L. selections, 100% contamination was noted when shoot tips were used as an explant source. Significant influence of the double-phase medium on the number and height of multiplied shoots was observed in the standard cherry rootstock, ‘Gisela 6’. For P. fruticosa Pall., selection ‘SV1’ and ‘SV2’, and P. cerasus ‘D6’ selection, the double-phase medium also had a significant effect on the height of multiplied shoots, when compared to solid DKW (Driver and Kuniyuki Walnut medium. Genetic variability of selections within the investigated species resulted in variable plant rooting success. Adding Fe-EDDHA (Ethylenediamine di-2-hydroxy-phenyl acetate ferric in the 200 mg l-1 concentration to the rooting medium significantly enhanced the percentage of rooted plants. The highest rooting percentage was noted for ‘Gisela 6’ and ‘D6’ genotype at 1 mg l-1 IBA (indole-3-butyric acid, while 0.8 mg l-1 was the optimum concentration for P. mahaleb L. ‘M1’ selection. P. fruticosa genotypes required significantly higher IBA concentration for rooting (2.5 and 3.5 mg l-1.

  17. Avaliação genética de seleções e híbridos de limões cravo, volkameriano e rugoso como porta-enxertos para laranjeiras Valência na presença da morte súbita dos citros Genetic evaluation of selections and hybrids of rangpur lime, volkamer and rough lemons rootstocks for Valência orange trees in the presence of the citrus sudden death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgino Pompeu Junior

    2013-03-01

    genótipos Rangpur- Lime x Trifoliata 3810 (1648, Rangpur- Lime x Trifoliata 5320 (1644, Limão- Cravo x Citrange- Carrizo (1524, Citrus pennivesiculata (880, Limão- Cravo x Trifoliata- Swingle A (1707, Rangpur- Rose- Lemon 124684 (864, Rangpur- Red -Lime D33.47 (867 e Limão- Cravo -Ipanema (1522. Dentre os 10 melhores genótipos para produção de frutos e para eficiência produtiva, apenas três são coincidentes: Rangpur- Rose -Lime (868, Citrus pennivesiculata (880 e Limão- Cravo-Ipanema (1522.This study aimed to perform the genetic evaluation of fruit production, productive efficiency and growth of Valência orange (Citrus sinensis trees scions grafted on selections and hybrids of Rangpur lime (C. limonia, Volkamer (C. volkameriana and Rough (C. jambhiri lemons rootstocks grown in the presence of the Citrus Sudden Death (CSD. In an affected endemic area for CSD 36 genotypes of these rootstocks were evaluated, represented by five plants each one, measured in five harvests from the third to seventh years after planting. Seven of them showed symptoms of CSD: Rangpur Otaheite orange 12901 (859, Rangpur Red Lime D.33.30 (866, Limão Cravo EEL (871, Rangpur Borneo red (874, Citrus kokhai (1649, Rough lemon 58329 (1655 and Limão Cravo x Swingle B (1695. For selection and breeding purposes, genetic and phenotypic parameters were estimated and individual genotypic values were predicted for all traits by the REML/BLUP (restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased prediction procedure. The analysis of fruit production in five harvests showed selective accuracy of 84.59% revealing that a greater number of harvests is unnecessary. Selection of the best seven genotypes led to a genetic gain of 11.5% for fruit production while the selection of the very best genotype provided an estimated genetic gain of 16.3%. The higher predicted genetic means (>70.0 kg.pl-1 for fruit production were obtained for the genotypes Ipanema Rangpur Lime (1522, Santa Bárbara Red Lime (884

  18. Biotechnology of temperate fruit trees and grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laimer, Margit; Mendonça, Duarte; Maghuly, Fatemeh; Marzban, Gorji; Leopold, Stephan; Khan, Mahmood; Balla, Ildiko; Katinger, Hermann

    2005-01-01

    Challenges concerning fruit trees and grapevines as long lived woody perennial crops require adapted biotechnological approaches, if solutions are to be found within a reasonable time frame. These challenges are represented by the need for correct identification of genetic resources, with the foreseen use either in conservation or in breeding programmes. Molecular markers provide most accurate information and will be the major solution for questions about plant breeders rights. Providing healthy planting material and rapid detection of newly introduced pathogens by reliable methods involving serological and molecular biological tools will be a future challenge of increases importance, given the fact that plant material travels freely in the entire European Union. But also new breeding goals and transgenic solutions are part of the biotechnological benefits, e.g. resistance against biotic and abiotic stress factors, modified growth habits, modified nutritional properties and altered processing and storage qualities. The successful characterization of transgenic grapevines and stone fruit trees carrying genes of viral origin in different vectors constructed under ecological consideration, will be presented. Beyond technical feasibility, efficiency of resistance, environmental safety and Intellectual Property Rights, also public acceptance needs consideration and has been addressed in a specific project. The molecular determination of internal quality parameters of food can also be addressed by the use of biotechnological tools. Patient independent detection tools for apple allergens have been developed and should allow to compare fruits from different production systems, sites, and genotypes for their content of health threatening compounds.

  19. Design and evaluation of a grapevine pruner for biofungicide application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, M A; Squire, L M; Sabeh, N C; Giles, D K; VanderGheynst, J S

    2005-05-01

    Eutypa lata is a significant grapevine pathogen with limited means of prevention and control. The biological control agent Fusarium lateritium can prevent E. lata infection if applied directly onto a vine pruning wound. F. lateritium was suspended and stored in an invert emulsion formulation. A commercially available pruning shear was modified to dispense the formulated F. lateritium onto the cutting blade for direct application onto the pruning wound simultaneously with grapevine cutting. The modified pruner was tested for its ability to cover grapevine pruning wounds using the emulsion formulation. Efficacy of formulated F. lateritium on pruned grapevine canes was also studied using the pruner for application. Addition of grooves in the pruning blade significantly improved wound coverage. Biological efficacy testing determined that applying formulated F. lateritium with the modified pruner was as effective as pipetting formulation directly onto the pruning wound.

  20. Transient expression assays in grapevine: a step towards genetic improvement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jelly, Noémie S; Valat, Laure; Walter, Bernard; Maillot, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    In the past few years, the usefulness of transient expression assays has continuously increased for the characterization of unknown gene function and metabolic pathways. In grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L...

  1. Phytotoxic metabolites produced by Botryosphaeriaceae involved in grapevine trunk diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Basso, Sara; Andolfi, Anna; Maddau, Lucia; Linaldeddu, Benedetto Teodoro; Deidda, Antonio; Serra, Salvatorica; Cimmino, Alessio; Evidente, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Fungi belonging to the Botryosphaeriaceae family are well known as cosmopolitan pathogens, saprophytes and endophytes and occur on a wide range of hosts including grapevine. More recently, a new species of Lasiodiplodia was isolated from declining grapevines in Sardinia (Italy). This still undescribed species showed to produce in liquid culture several phytotoxic secondary metabolites. In this communication the chemical and biological characterization of these bioactive secondary metabolit...

  2. The Soil Microbiome Influences Grapevine-Associated Microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Zarraonaindia, Iratxe; Owens, Sarah M.; Weisenhorn, Pamela; West, Kristin; Hampton-Marcell, Jarrad; Lax, Simon; Bokulich, Nicholas A; Mills, David A.; Martin, Gilles; Taghavi, Safiyh; van der Lelie, Daniel; Gilbert, Jack A

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Grapevine is a well-studied, economically relevant crop, whose associated bacteria could influence its organoleptic properties. In this study, the spatial and temporal dynamics of the bacterial communities associated with grapevine organs (leaves, flowers, grapes, and roots) and soils were characterized over two growing seasons to determine the influence of vine cultivar, edaphic parameters, vine developmental stage (dormancy, flowering, preharvest), and vineyard. Belowground bacteri...

  3. Rootstock-regulated gene expression patterns associated with fire blight resistance in apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Philip J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Desirable apple varieties are clonally propagated by grafting vegetative scions onto rootstocks. Rootstocks influence many phenotypic traits of the scion, including resistance to pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora, which causes fire blight, the most serious bacterial disease of apple. The purpose of the present study was to quantify rootstock-mediated differences in scion fire blight susceptibility and to identify transcripts in the scion whose expression levels correlated with this response. Results Rootstock influence on scion fire blight resistance was quantified by inoculating three-year old, orchard-grown apple trees, consisting of 'Gala' scions grafted to a range of rootstocks, with E. amylovora. Disease severity was measured by the extent of shoot necrosis over time. 'Gala' scions grafted to G.30 or MM.111 rootstocks showed the lowest rates of necrosis, while 'Gala' on M.27 and B.9 showed the highest rates of necrosis. 'Gala' scions on M.7, S.4 or M.9F56 had intermediate necrosis rates. Using an apple DNA microarray representing 55,230 unique transcripts, gene expression patterns were compared in healthy, un-inoculated, greenhouse-grown 'Gala' scions on the same series of rootstocks. We identified 690 transcripts whose steady-state expression levels correlated with the degree of fire blight susceptibility of the scion/rootstock combinations. Transcripts known to be differentially expressed during E. amylovora infection were disproportionately represented among these transcripts. A second-generation apple microarray representing 26,000 transcripts was developed and was used to test these correlations in an orchard-grown population of trees segregating for fire blight resistance. Of the 690 transcripts originally identified using the first-generation array, 39 had expression levels that correlated with fire blight resistance in the breeding population. Conclusions Rootstocks had significant effects on the fire blight

  4. Fruit quality properties of some virus-free grapefruit varieties grafted on different rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şenay KURT

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sanitation studies against virus and virus like diseases causing large economic losses in citrus plantations in Turkey were begun at Antalya Citrus Research Institute in 1988. As a result of the study, some virus-free grapefruit varieties (Redblush, Rio Red, Ray Ruby, Henderson, Star Ruby and Marsh Seedless budded on Local sour orange and Troyer citrange rootstocks were planted at breeding parcel in 1995. Effects of rootstocks on fruit quality properties were investigated in these grapefruit varieties. Local sour orange and Troyer citrange affected similarly on the fruit quality of grapefruit cultivars. It could be suggested that these rootstocks could be recommended for grapefruit growing.

  5. Performance of ‘Okitsu’ satsuma mandarin trees on different rootstocks in Northwestern Parana State

    OpenAIRE

    Zuleide Hissano Tazima; Carmen Silvia Vieira Janeiro Neves; Inês Fumiko Ubukata Yada; Rui Pereira Leite Júnior

    2014-01-01

    In the State of Paraná, citrus production is based mainly on Rangpur lime rootstock, which has good results with the established cultivars. However, research is needed into rootstocks for use with cultivars that remain to be commercially exploited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the vegetative development and yield of ‘Okitsu’ satsuma mandarin plants (Citrus unshiu Marc.), as well as fruit quality, budded on nine rootstocks in the Northwest State of Paraná, Brazil. The orchard wa...

  6. Performance of 'Okitsu' Satsuma Mandarin on nine rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuleide Hissano Tazima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mandarins have become increasingly valued as citrus fruits for the fresh market due to the easy peeling, attractive flavor, and health and nutritional properties. Plant growth and yield, and characteristics of fruits of 'Okitsu' Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc. trees grafted on nine rootstocks were evaluated in Londrina, northern Paraná, Brazil. The rootstocks were: 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osb.; 'Cleopatra' (Citrus reshni hort. ex Tanaka and 'Sunki' mandarins (Citrus sunki hort. ex Tanaka; 'C-13' [Citrus sinensis × Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.] and 'Carrizo' citranges [C. sinensis × P. trifoliata (L. Raf.]; 'Volkamer' lemon (Citrus volkameriana V. Ten. & Pasq.; trifoliate orange [P. trifoliata (L. Raf.; 'Caipira DAC' sweet orange [C. sinensis (L. Osb.] and 'Swingle' citrumelo [Citrus paradisi Macfad. cv. Duncan × P. trifoliata (L. Raf.]. The highest plant growth was for the trees on 'Cleopatra' mandarin and 'Caipira DAC' sweet orange. In contrast, the smallest size was for the trees on 'Volkamer' lemon and trifoliate orange. The largest difference between the trunk diameter below and above the grafting point was induced by 'Swingle' citrumelo. Trees of 'Okitsu' Satsuma mandarin on 'Swingle' citrumelo presented the highest yield, while 'C-13', 'Carrizo', 'Sunki', and 'Swingle' induced the largest fruit masses. With regard to fruit characteristics, 'Carrizo' and trifoliate orange induced the best ratio and juice content. Based on theoretical values, 'Rangpur' lime and 'Volkamer' lemon induced the lowest yields

  7. Macro- and microscopic leaf characteristics of six grapevine genotypes (Vitis spp.) with different susceptibilities to grapevine downy mildew

    OpenAIRE

    Boso Alonso, Susana; Alonso-Villaverde Iglesias, Virginia; Santiago Blanco, José Luis; Gago Montaña, Pilar; Dürrenberger, M.; Düggelin, M.; Kassemeyer, H. H.; Martínez Rodríguez, María del Carmen

    2010-01-01

    This work reports the leaf morphology of six grapevine genotypes, five belonging to Vitis vinifera and one to Vitis riparia. Earlier studies on these genotypes showed different levels of susceptibility to grapevine downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola). The aim of this work was to detect differences between the leaf morphology of these cultivars at the macro- and microscopic levels, and to characterize morphological traits which could be associated with susceptibility and resistance to downy ...

  8. Inheritance of downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) and anthracnose (Sphaceloma ampelinum) resistance in grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poolsawat, O; Mahanil, S; Laosuwan, P; Wongkaew, S; Tharapreuksapong, A; Reisch, B I; Tantasawat, P A

    2013-12-13

    Downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) and anthracnose (Sphaceloma ampelinum) are two of the major diseases of most grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars grown in Thailand. Therefore, breeding grapevines for improved downy mildew and anthracnose resistance is crucial. Factorial crosses were made between three downy mildew and/or anthracnose resistant lines ('NY88.0517.01', 'NY65.0550.04', and 'NY65.0551.05'; male parents) and two or three susceptible cultivars of V. vinifera ('Black Queen', 'Carolina Black Rose', and/or 'Italia'; female parents). F1 hybrid seedlings were evaluated for downy mildew and anthracnose resistance using a detached/excised leaf assay. For both diseases, the general combining ability (GCA) variance among male parents was significant, while the variance of GCA among females and the specific combining ability (SCA) variance were not significant, indicating the prevalence of additive over non-additive gene actions. The estimated narrow sense heritabilities of downy mildew and anthracnose resistance were 55.6 and 79.2%, respectively, suggesting that downy mildew/anthracnose resistance gene(s) were highly heritable. The 'Carolina Black Rose x NY65.0550.04' cross combination is recommended for future use.

  9. Simple sequence repeat-based assessment of genetic relationships among Prunus rootstocks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Turkoglu, Z; Bilgener, S; Ercisli, S; Bakir, M; Koc, A; Akbulut, M; Gercekcioglu, R; Gunes, M; Esitken, A

    2010-01-01

    Ten SSR loci, previously developed for Prunus, were analyzed to examine genetic relationships among 23 rootstock candidates for sweet and sour cherries, of the species P. avium, P. cerasus, P. mahaleb, and P. angustifolia...

  10. Rootstock mass of coppiced Platanus occidentalis as affected by spacing and rotation length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbeck, K.; Nwoboshi, L.C.

    1980-01-01

    The root mass per unit land area for Platanus occidentalis was determined 9 years after planting 1-0 seedlings. Trees had been planted at 0.3 X 1.2, 0.6 X 1.2 and 1.2 X 1.2 m spacings and coppiced after two growing seasons in the field. Rotations of 1, 2, and 7 years were then imposed. Rootstocks coppiced annually had significantly less rootstock mass (16.0 tons/ha) than those harvested on longer cycles. No significant difference was found between the 2- and 7-year rotations, which averaged 22.8 and 25.2 tons of dry rootstock mass per hectare, respectively. Spacing did not affect rootstock mass per unit land area. Rotations of 2 years or longer and relatively wide spacings are recommended for short rotation forestry.

  11. Evaluation, grafting success and field establishment of cashew rootstock as influenced by VAM fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmipathy, R; Balakrishna, A N; Bagyaraj, D J; Sumana, D A; Kumar, D P

    2004-11-01

    Seven isolates of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi were isolated from cashew rhizosphere soil of different cashew growing regions of South India. These seven isolates along with two more VAM fungi namely Acaulospora laevis and Glomus mosseae, which were found to be better symbionts for cashew during our earlier study were used to study their effectiveness on the growth and nutrition of cashew rootstock Ullal-1. Four promising VAM fungi were selected based on this study. Rootstocks inoculated with these four fungi were evaluated for their vigour through grafting success, using Ullal-3 cashew variety as scion. Grafting success was more in rootstocks inoculated with A. laevis and one of local isolates Glomus etunicatum. Grafts with rootstock treated with G. etunicatum and A. laevis survived and performed better when planted in the field compared to the uninoculated and other VAM fungal treatments.

  12. Tetraploid citrus rootstocks are more tolerant to salt stress than diploid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Basel; Allario, Thierry; Dambier, Dominique; Ollitrault, Patrick; Morillon, Raphaël

    2008-09-01

    Citrus trees are subject to several abiotic constraints such as salinity. Providing new rootstocks more tolerant is thus a requirement. In this article, we investigated salt stress tolerance of three tetraploid rootstock genotypes when compared to their respective diploid rootstocks (Poncirus trifoliata, Carrizo citrange, Cleopatra mandarin). Plant growth, leaf fall and ion contents were investigated. At the end of the experiment, leaf fall was observed only for diploid Poncirus trifoliata plants as well as chlorosis symptoms for Poncirus trifoliata and Carrizo citrange diploid plants. The diploid Cleopatra mandarin plants growth rate was not affected by salt stress and has even been increased for tetraploid Cleopatra mandarin. Ion contents investigation has shown lower accumulations of chloride ions in leaves of the tetraploid plants when compared to diploid plants. Our results suggest that citrus tetraploid rootstocks are more tolerant to salt stress than their corresponding diploid.

  13. Metabolic variations in different citrus rootstock cultivars associated with different responses to Huanglongbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Ute; Fiehn, Oliver; Bowman, Kim D

    2016-10-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most destructive bacterial diseases of citrus. No resistant cultivars have been identified, although tolerance has been observed in the genus Poncirus and some of its hybrids with Citrus that are commonly used as rootstocks. In this study we exploited this tolerance by comparing five different tolerant hybrids with a cultivar that shows pronounced HLB sensitivity to discern potential contributing metabolic factors. Whole leaves of infected and non-infected greenhouse-grown seedlings were extracted and subjected to untargeted GC-TOF MS based metabolomics. After BinBase data filtering, 342 (experiment 1) and 650 (experiment 2) unique metabolites were quantified, of which 122 and 195, respectively, were assigned by chemical structures. The number of metabolites found to be differently regulated in the infected state compared with the non-infected state varied between the cultivars and was largest (166) in the susceptible cultivar Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reticulata) and lowest (3) in the tolerant cultivars US-897 (C. reticulata 'Cleopatra' × Poncirus trifoliata) and US-942 (C. reticulata 'Sunki' × P. trifoliata) from experiment 2. Tolerance to HLB did not appear to be associated with accumulation of higher amounts of protective metabolites in response to infection. Many metabolites were found in higher concentrations in the tolerant cultivars compared with susceptible Cleopatra mandarin and may play important roles in conferring tolerance to HLB. Lower availability of specific sugars necessary for survival of the pathogen may also be a contributing factor in the decreased disease severity observed for these cultivars.

  14. Anatomical and histological researches on rootstock and scion compatibility in early period after grafting in avocado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman BAYRAM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Avocado seedling rootstocks are used entirely due to easier and cheaper production in conditions of our country. However, a study on compatibility of scion and rootstock of varieties used as seedling rootstock, have not been produced in our country yet. Thus, seedlings of the 'Bacon', 'Fuerte', 'Hass' and 'Zutano' varieties produced as commercial varieties along with 'Topa Topa' and 'Mexicola' varieties used as a source of seedling rootstocks were studied under greenhouse conditions between the years 2009-2011. Determination of the scion and rootstock compatibility was purposed in the graft sections during certain periods after grafting of 'Hass' variety with these seedlings. As a result; graft union formations in samples of all combinations successfully realized in the anatomical and histological studies after 30 and 90 days from grafting and a negative finding regarding to incompatibility were not met. However, more studies should be made for determination of incompatibility that may arise in between rootstocks and scions in the later years.

  15. [Evaluation of zinc deficiency tolerance in different kinds of apple rootstocks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiao-dan; Liu, Fei; Wang, Yan-an; Fu, Chun-xia; Yan, Yu-jing; Sha, Guang-li; Shu, Huai-rui

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to screen and evaluate the zinc deficiency tolerance among eight apple rootstocks, i.e., Malus baccata, M. rockii, M. xiaojinensis, M. sikkimensis, M. sieversii, M. robusta, M. hupehensis and Malus 'Flame'. The experiment took these 8 kinds of root-stocks as the research materials to observe and analyze the index of the rootstock's height, dry biomass, root architecture and zinc concentration, and with help of the fuzzy membership function to work out a comprehensive evaluation on their zinc deficiency tolerance. The result showed that several obvious zinc deficiency symptoms were observed in three kinds of rootstocks (M. rockii, M. sikkimensis and M. sieversii), such as dwarfed plant and newborn small leaves, while such symptoms were not obvious in M. xiaojinensis and M. 'Flame'. The plant biomass, height and zinc accumulation of aerial part greatly decreased under zinc deficiency stress, while smaller reduction was observed in M. xiaojinensis than in other rootstocks. M. xiaojinensis and M. baccata had higher zinc concentrations in leaves than others. According to the fuzzy membership function and cluster analysis, the resistance of the eight apple rootstocks to zinc deficiency was ranked: M. xiaojinensis was the highest one; M. 'Flame' was the second; M. baccata, M. sikkimensis, M. robusta and M. hupehensis were rather weaker; M. rockii and M. sieversii demonstrated the highest sensitivity to zinc deficiency.

  16. The evaluation of occurrence of PPV symptoms in young peach orchard according to the used rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klára Gogolková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The degree of PPV occurrence was monitored in a young peach orchard during 2010–2011. This study evaluates the percentage of infected trees in 2010 as well as the intensity of PPV symptoms in 2011 in two peach varieties „Royal Glory“ and „Symphony“ grafted on seven different rootstocks of Prunus species after the natural infection. The different intensity of PPV symptoms was proved on infected parts such as flowers, leaves, fruits and from rootstocks’ point of view.In 2010 were PPV symptoms most often detected in variety ’Royal Glory’ grafted on rootstock Julior where 100% of trees were infected. No visible symptoms were observed in trees of variety ’Symphony’ on Pumiselect rootstock. As for the rootstocks evaluation, PPV symptoms were most numerous in trees grafted on MRS 2/5 rootstock (94.78%, at least were monitored on Lesiberian rootstock (28.47%.The intensity of PPV symptoms on flowers, leaves and fruits in each combination was evaluated in 2011. Generally, the PPV symptoms were present mainly on flowers and less on fruits.

  17. Transmissão experimental do Grapevine virus B pela cochonilha Pseudococcus longispinus Targioni-Tozzetti (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae Transmission of the Grapevine virus B by the mealybug Pseudococcus longispinus Targioni-Tozzetti (Hemiptera:Pseudococcidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Kuniyuki

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Em São Paulo, existem dois isolados do Grapevine virus B (GVB, sorologicamente semelhantes e sintomatologicamente distintos, que causam a doença denominada fendilhamento cortical ("grapevine corky bark", GCB. Na literatura estrangeira existem relatos de que o GVB pode ser transmitido por cochonilhas brancas. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi o de verificar a transmissibilidade do GVB de videira infectada para videira sadia através da cochonilha da espécie Pseudococcus longispinus. Os dois isolados do vírus foram testados: o isolado comum (GVB-C e o isolado Itália (GVB-I. A confirmação de infecção foi feita através da análise visual de sintomas, ELISA e RT-PCR. Em todos os testes de inoculação experimental, os primeiros sintomas da virose foram notados com, aproximadamente, 8 a 12 meses após a exposição às cochonilhas. Plantas sadias da variedade LN-33, mantidas ao redor de uma planta infectada com o GVB-C e altamente infestada pela P. longispinus, tornaram-se infectadas com incidência de 54,2%, após 4 anos. Empregando-se inoculação experimental com cochonilhas virulíferas, plantas da indicadora LN-33 apresentaram infecção de 46,2% e 40,0% para o GVB-C e GVB-I, respectivamente, após 3 anos de observações. Apesar desta espéciede cochonilhaocorrer de maneira eventual nos vinhedos do Estado de São Paulo, precauções devem ser tomadas em áreas onde são mantidos clones sadios de variedades de copa e de porta-enxerto de videira, visto que esses insetos, além de possuírem grande número de plantas hospedeiras, também podem transmitir outros importantes vírus da videira.In the State of São Paulo, Brazil, there are two isolates of Grapevine virus B (GVB associated with grapevine corky bark disease (GCB. Although serologically similar, they induce distinct reaction on some grape varieties. They are called GVB-C for common isolate and GVB-I for isolate obtained from the variety Italia. The objective of this work was

  18. Evaluation of Yield and Healthiness of Twenty Table Grapevine Cultivars Grown in Central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisek Jerzy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available During the years 2008-2013, 20 table grape cultivars grown in Skierniewice (Central Poland were assessed. Among the assessed cultivars, two - ‘Chasselas Blanc’ (standard and ‘Favorit’ belonged to V. vinifera. Eighteen interspecific hybrids - ‘Aron’, ‘Esther’ (‘Eszter’, ‘Fanny’, ‘Flora’, ‘Galanth’, ‘Ganita’, ‘Garant’, ‘Katharina’, ‘Lidi’, ‘Lilla’, ‘Muscat Bleu’, ‘Nelly’, ‘Osella’, ‘Philipp’, ‘Rosetta’, ‘Rosina’, ‘Timur’ and ‘Verdelet’ were bred in various European countries. Vines, grafted on ‘Kober 5 BB’ rootstock, were planted in 2007 and annually covered for winter. Taking into account productivity, quality of fruits, susceptibility to frost damage and fungal diseases, the Swiss ‘Muscat Bleu’ and German ‘Garant’ proved most suitable for cultivation in the conditions of Central Poland. Plants of all cultivars belonging to the group of interspecific hybrids were less susceptible to infections caused by fungal pathogens than plants of V. vinifera genotypes. The assessment of frost resistance based on the observation of those parts of bushes, which were not covered, showed high diversification among the interspecific hybrids.

  19. USEFULNESS OF THE GRAPEVINE VIRUS-INFECTED COLLECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena-Cocuţa Buciumeanu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to use the virus-infected material as reference in various studies, a grapevine virus collection was established at NRDIBH Ştefănşti-Argeş. The vines are infected with 1-3 of the main specific viruses of this crop: fanleaf virus, leafroll associated virus serotypes 1+3, fleck virus and virus A. Different lots of plants belonging to the same cultivar are infected with different viruses. The own rooted or grafted potted plants are maintained in an insect-proof greenhouse. The main goals of the study of grapevine under the influence of virus infection had in view: symptoms, in vitro behaviour of virus infected grapevine, virus elimination, plant positive control in the diagnostic process. The symptoms produced by viral infection can affect the whole plant (systemic symptoms or they are visible on certain parts of the plant (local symptoms. In vitro studies of virus infected grapevines comparatively with the healthy material aimed with the quantitative and qualitative aspects of the culture: multiplication and rooting rates, shoots elongation, abnormal cuttings and vitrification phenomena. Infected grapevine cultivars and clones were subjected to virus elimination through thermotherapy, chemotherapy or electrotherapy, combined with in vitro culture. The diagnosis of leafroll, fleck, vein necrosis and corky bark diseases have been done by in vitro micrografting, as rapid biological method of virus detection. Samples collected from infected vines were used as material testing for virus detection by ELISA in inter-laboratory comparisons and Iaboratory-performed validation.

  20. Genetic characterization of some Romanian red wine grapevine varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghetea, Ligia Gabriela; Motoc, Rozalia Magda; Niculescu, Ana-Maria; Litescu, Simona Carmen; Duma, Virgil-Florin; Popescu, Carmen Florentina

    2008-04-01

    In our study we have considered three of the most valuable Romanian red wine grapevine cultivars: Feteasca neagra, Feteasca alba and Novac. We have chosen to study grapevine because grapes and wine are an important part of a healthy diet, and because red grapes have the highest content of proanthocyanidins, that act as antioxidants (free radical scavengers) in the human body. Proanthocyanidins possess anti-mutagenic, anti-tumor, anti-viral activities and they present many other confirmed or potential benefits. Genotyping method was applied in order to asses the genetic profile at 14 microsatellite loci, for two cultivars: Feteasca neagra and Feteasca alba. In order to achieve this, the HPLC-DAD method was used. The content of anthocyans in grape skin from two cultivars - Feteasca neagra and Novac - was measured. Microsatellite markers have been certified as powerful tools for assessing genetic identities and genetic relationships between grapevine gene pools. Genetic characterization of grapevine cultivars can certify their authenticity and purity, two features that have a direct effect on the quality and value of the finished product, the wine. In our country, this is the first attempt in order to establish a genetic profile for valuable Romanian origin grapevine varieties. In some of the 14 microsatellitic loci, Feteasca neagra and Feteasca alba cultivars presented allele size variants different from the values cited in the literature, proving that these cultivars belong to a geographical distinct gene pool. The content of anthocyans in Feteasca neagra grape skin was significantly higher than in Novac.

  1. Genomics technologies to study structural variations in the grapevine genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardone Maria Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine is one of the most important crop plants in the world. Recently there was great expansion of genomics resources about grapevine genome, thus providing increasing efforts for molecular breeding. Current cultivars display a great level of inter-specific differentiation that needs to be investigated to reach a comprehensive understanding of the genetic basis of phenotypic differences, and to find responsible genes selected by cross breeding programs. While there have been significant advances in resolving the pattern and nature of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs on plant genomes, few data are available on copy number variation (CNV. Furthermore association between structural variations and phenotypes has been described in only a few cases. We combined high throughput biotechnologies and bioinformatics tools, to reveal the first inter-varietal atlas of structural variation (SV for the grapevine genome. We sequenced and compared four table grape cultivars with the Pinot noir inbred line PN40024 genome as the reference. We detected roughly 8% of the grapevine genome affected by genomic variations. Taken into account phenotypic differences existing among the studied varieties we performed comparison of SVs among them and the reference and next we performed an in-depth analysis of gene content of polymorphic regions. This allowed us to identify genes showing differences in copy number as putative functional candidates for important traits in grapevine cultivation.

  2. Response of grapevines to fluoride under field conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, F.

    1983-07-01

    Grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz) were fumigated in open-top chambers with hydrogen fluoride for 64 days at mean atmospheric fluoride concentrations of 0.17 or 0.28 ..mu..gHFm/sup -3/. Other grapevines grown under ambient conditions in the vineyard or maintained in control chambers were exposed to 0.13 or 0.05 ..mu..gHFm/sup -3/, respectively. Leaves of grapevines exposed to 0.28, 0.17, 0.13, or 0.05 ..mu..gHFm/sup -3/ accumulated up to 85, 55, 20, or 11 ..mu..gFg/sup -1/, respectively. Foliar necrosis was observed on plants exposed to 0.28 ..mu..gHFm/sup -3/, but no injury symptoms were observed at 0.17 ..mu..gHFm/sup -3/ or in control plants. Grapevines growing under ambient conditions had significantly greater mean bunch weight, peduncle weight, number of grapes per bunch, and leaf protein levels than the fumigated treatments. However, these differences may be associated with a chamber effect rather than with an effect of fluoride on grapevines. No significant differences were found between treatments for grape potential alcohol content, fruit acids, number of bunches or grapes per vine, fresh weight of grapes, or leaf chlorophyll content, despite foliar fluoride concentrations in the highest fluoride fumigation level reaching 85 ..mu..gFg/sup -1/. No evidence was found of significant fluoride accumulation in berries or canes. 26 references, 4 tables.

  3. Produção e qualidade de uvas de mesa 'Sugraone' sobre diferentes porta-enxertos no Submédio do Vale do São Francisco Production and quality of table grapes 'Sugraone' on different rootstocks in the São Francisco River Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Coelho de Souza Leão

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar o comportamento agronômico da cultivar de uva de mesa sem sementes Sugraone sobre quatro porta-enxertos nas condições do Submédio do Vale do São Francisco. O experimento foi conduzido em um vinhedo comercial no município de Sento Sé-BA durante quatro ciclos de produção (2002 à 2004, em sistema de condução do tipo latada e irrigação por gotejamento. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro cultivares de porta-enxerto ('Paulsen 1103', 'SO4', 'Harmony' e '420A', utilizando-se delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso. Foram obtidas maiores produções por planta e vigor vegetativo sobre o porta-enxerto 'Paulsen 1103'. Também observou-se uma tendência de maior massa de cachos, massa e tamanho de bagas sobre este porta-enxerto, embora tenham ocorrido variações entre os ciclos de produção. O porta-enxerto exerceu influência sobre o teor de sólidos solúveis totais, mas não afetou a acidez total e a relação SST/ATT dos frutos.The present work aimed to evaluate the agronomic performance of the seedless grape cultivar Sugraone on four rootstocks in the São Francisco Valley. The trial was carried out in a commercial vineyard in Sento Sé, State of Bahia for four seasons (2002 to 2004. The treatments were four cultivars of rootstock ('Paulsen 1103', 'SO4', 'Harmony' and '420A', using a randomized block design. The highest yield per plant and vegetative vigor were obtained on the rootstock Paulsen 1103. Also there was a tendency for higher mass of bunches, mass and size of berries on the same rootstock, although there were variations between seasons. The rootstock showed positive influence on the content of soluble solids, but did not affect the total acidity and TSS/TA. Young plants of grapevine cv. Sugraone showed good agronomic performance on Paulsen 1103, but it is important to continue the studies for a larger number of years to recommend their use in the São Francisco Valley.

  4. Ferrisia gilli (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Transmits Grapevine Leafroll-Associated Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wistrom, C M; Blaisdell, G K; Wunderlich, L R; Almeida, R P P; Daane, K M

    2016-08-01

    Several mealybug species are vectors of grapevine leafroll-associated viruses (GLRaV), which cause the economically important grapevine leafroll disease in grape-producing regions worldwide. The mealybug Ferrisia gilli Gullan is a new pest of grapevines in El Dorado County, located in the Sierra Foothill wine-growing region of California. GLRaV species 1, 2, 3, and 4LV have been detected in vineyards with symptomatic vines in the Sierra Foothills. We conducted controlled virus acquisition and transmission experiments using source vine accessions infected with different combinations of GLRaV. We determined that F. gilli acquired GLRaV 1, 2, 3, and 4LV, and transmitted GLRaV-3 and GLRaV-4LV to uninfected recipient vines. Like numerous other mealybug species, in addition to causing direct damage to vines, F. gilli poses a threat to the grape industry as a vector of economically damaging viruses.

  5. Grapevine bud break prediction for cool winter climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nendel, Claas

    2010-05-01

    Statistical analysis of bud break data for grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L. cvs. Riesling and Müller-Thurgau) at 13 sites along the northern boundary of commercial grapevine production in Europe revealed that, for all investigated sites, the heat summation method for bud break prediction can be improved if the starting date for the accumulation of heat units is specifically determined. Using the coefficient of variance as a criterion, a global minimum for each site can be identified, marking the optimum starting date. Furthermore, it was shown that the application of a threshold temperature for the heat summation method does not lead to an improved prediction of bud break. Using site-specific parameters, bud break of grapevine can be predicted with an accuracy of ± 2.5 days. Using average parameters, the prediction accuracy is reduced to ± 4.5 days, highlighting the sensitivity of the heat summation method to the quality and the representativeness of the driving temperature data.

  6. Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and Phaeoacremonium spp. in grapevines from Uruguay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo ABREO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Symptoms corresponding to esca and Petri diseases have been described in Uruguay as being associated with Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and Phaeoacremonium spp. Isolates of Phaeoacremonium spp. recovered from diseased grapevines were characterized and identified. Additionally, specific primers developed for Pa. chlamydospora and Phaeoacremonium spp. were evaluated for direct detection of these fungi in asymptomatic grapevine tissues. The bark was removed, and the trunk underneath was surface-disinfected. Chips from symptomatic grapevines were plated on potato dextrose agar and incubated at 25°C. Isolates were identified morphologically and phylogenetically. Sequences of ITS rDNA, β-tubulin and actin genes made it possible to identify 52 isolates as Pa. chlamydospora, 33 as Pm. aleophilum, and one as Pm. australiense. The Pm. aleophilum isolates were divided into three groups by their growth pattern and their colony shape at 37°C: a white colonies with yellow or brown reverse; b brown colonies with clear margin and a dark center on the reverse; c brown colonies with dark-brown diffusible pigments and brown reverse. Further studies are required to explain these differences. Primers Pac1f/Pac2r specific for Phaeoacremonium spp., PalN1/Pal2 specific for Pm. aleophilum, F2bt/R1bt specific for Pm. aleophilum and ten other Phaeoacremonium species, and Pch1/Pch2 and Pmo1f/Pmo2r, both specific for Pa. chlamydospora were evaluated on the DNA of target fungi and some of other fungi frequently isolated from diseased vine tissues. F2bt/R1bt and Pmo1f/ Pmo2r were selected, and were used in a nested PCR to detect Phaeoacremonium spp. and Pa. chlamydospora in asymptomatic canes of nursery mother grapevines. Nine out of ten sampled grapevines tested positive for one of the fungi. Molecular diagnosis is potentially a useful method to assess the health of mother grapevines.

  7. Spliceosomal intron size expansion in domesticated grapevine (Vitis vinifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goertzen Leslie R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spliceosomal introns are important components of eukaryotic genes as their structure, sizes and contents reflect the architecture of gene and genomes. Intron size, determined by both neutral evolution, repetitive elements activities and potential functional constraints, varies significantly in eukaryotes, suggesting unique dynamics and evolution in different lineages of eukaryotic organisms. However, the evolution of intron size, is rarely studied. To investigate intron size dynamics in flowering plants, in particular domesticated grapevines, a survey of intron size and content in wine grape (Vitis vinifera Pinot Noir genes was conducted by assembling and mapping the transcriptome of V. vinifera genes from ESTs to characterize and analyze spliceosomal introns. Results Uncommonly large size of spliceosomal intron was observed in V. vinifera genome, otherwise inconsistent with overall genome size dynamics when comparing Arabidopsis, Populus and Vitis. In domesticated grapevine, intron size is generally not related to gene function. The composition of enlarged introns in grapevines indicated extensive transposable element (TE activity within intronic regions. TEs comprise about 80% of the expanded intron space and in particular, recent LTR retrotransposon insertions are enriched in these intronic regions, suggesting an intron size expansion in the lineage leading to domesticated grapevine, instead of size contractions in Arabidopsis and Populus. Comparative analysis of selected intronic regions in V. vinifera cultivars and wild grapevine species revealed that accelerated TE activity was associated with grapevine domestication, and in some cases with the development of specific cultivars. Conclusions In this study, we showed intron size expansion driven by TE activities in domesticated grapevines, likely a result of long-term vegetative propagation and intensive human care, which simultaneously promote TE proliferation and

  8. Improvement of grafted watermelon transplant survival as a result of size and starch increases over time caused by rootstock fatty alcohol treatment Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty alcohol treatments can be used to eliminate the meristem of cucurbit (Family Cucurbitaceae) rootstocks which prevents regrowth when grafting, but the effects of the treatment on the rootstock have not been documented. Two rootstock types, ‘Emphasis’ bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) and ‘Car...

  9. Colonização micorrízica natural de porta-enxertos de citros em campo Natural mycorrhizal colonization of citrus rootstocks under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiara de Souza Nunes

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, em campo, a colonização micorrízica de porta-enxertos tradicionais e híbridos de citros, do Programa de Melhoramento Genético de Citros, da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical, selecionados como tolerantes à seca. Raízes finas de citros e amostras de solo foram coletadas em duas épocas do ano. A colonização micorrízica foi elevada nos dois pomares amostrados, com variação entre os genótipos e as épocas de avaliação. Todos os porta-enxertos apresentaram porcentagens elevadas de colonização micorrízica, de 42 a 83%, mesmo em condições de alto teor de fósforo no solo.The objective of this work was to evaluate the mycorrhizal colonization of citrus rootstocks (traditional and hybrid, in the field, selected as tolerant to water deficit by the Citrus Breeding Program of Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical. Fine roots and soil samples were collected in two seasons of the year. The mycorrhizal colonization was high in both citrus orchards sampled, and varied among the genotypes and the seasons of the year. All citrus rootstocks presented high percentages of root colonization, varying from 42 to 83%, even in high soil phosphorous conditions.

  10. Accessions of Citrullus lanatus var. Citroides are Valuable Rootstocks for Grafted Watermelon in Fields Infested with Root-Knot Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) RKVL rootstock lines developed at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory, USDA, ARS in Charleston, South Carolina, were compared to wild tinda and commercial cucurbit rootstock cultivars for grafting of seedless watermelon ‘Tri-X 313’ (C. lanatus var. lanatu...

  11. Apple replant disease and the –omics: interaction of apple rootstock metabolome and the soil microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple replant disease (ARD) negatively impacts tree health and reduces crop yield in new orchard plantings. Use of tolerant rootstock cultivars can diminish the growth limiting effects of ARD; however specific rootstock attributes enabling ARD tolerance are not understood. Systems biology tools were...

  12. Phenotypic and histochemical traits of the interaction between Plasmopara viticola and resistant or susceptible grapevine varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toffolatti Silvia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grapevine downy mildew, caused by Plasmopara viticola, is a very serious disease affecting mainly Vitis vinifera cultivated varieties around the world. Breeding for resistance through the crossing with less susceptible species is one of the possible means to reduce the disease incidence and the application of fungicides. The hybrid Bianca and some of its siblings are considered very promising but their resistance level can vary depending on the pathogen strain. Moreover, virulent strains characterized by high fitness can represent a potential threat to the hybrid cultivation. Results The host response and the pathogen virulence were quantitatively assessed by artificially inoculating cv Chardonnay, cv Bianca and their siblings with P. viticola isolates derived from single germinating oospores collected in various Italian viticultural areas. The host phenotypes were classified as susceptible, intermediate and resistant, according to the Area Under the Disease Progress Curve caused by the inoculated strain. Host responses in cv Bianca and its siblings significantly varied depending on the P. viticola isolates, which in turn differed in their virulence levels. The fitness of the most virulent strain did not significantly vary on the different hybrids including Bianca in comparison with the susceptible cv Chardonnay, suggesting that no costs are associated with virulence. Among the individual fitness components, only sporangia production was significantly reduced in cv Bianca and in some hybrids. Comparative histological analysis revealed differences between susceptible and resistant plants in the pathogen diffusion and cytology from 48 h after inoculation onwards. Defence mechanisms included callose depositions in the infected stomata, increase in peroxidase activity, synthesis of phenolic compounds and flavonoids and the necrosis of stomata and cells immediately surrounding the point of invasion and determined alterations in

  13. Morphological Characterization of Cherry Rootstock Candidates Selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysen Koc

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of rootstocks particularly for sweet cherry cultivars is of great importance for successful and sustainable production. Choosing the right cherry rootstocks is just as important as choosing the right cultivar. In this study, 110 sweet cherry, 30 sour cherry, and 41 mahaleb types displaying rootstock potential for sweet cherry cultivars were selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey. The morphologic characteristics of the studied genotypes were compared with the standard clonal rootstocks PHL-A, MaxMa 14, Montmorency, Weiroot 158, Gisela 5, Gisela 6, and SL 64. A total of 42 morphological UPOV characteristics were evaluated in the selected genotypes and clonal rootstocks. The obtained data were analyzed by using principal component analysis and it revealed that eigenvalues of the first 3 components were able to represent 36.43% of total variance. The most significant positive correlations of the plant vigor were determined with leaf blade length and petiole thickness. According to the diversity analysis of coefficients, the 05 C 002 and 08 C 039 genotypes were identified as being similar (6.66, while the 05 C 002 and 55 S 012 genotypes were determined as the most distant genotypes (325.84 in terms of morphology.

  14. 柑桔砧木育种研究进展%Advances in Citrus Rootstock Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱世平; 江东; 洪棋斌; 龚桂芝; 刘小丰; 赵晓春

    2013-01-01

    柑桔主要通过嫁接进行繁殖.柑桔砧木对接穗生长势、产量、果实大小、品质和抗性等都有直接的影响.砧木遗传改良是保持柑桔产业具有较强竞争力和较高生产力的重要步骤,世界各国都在致力于柑桔优良砧木的培育.本文就近几十年来柑桔砧木育种进展进行简要综述.%Citrus is mainly propagated by grafting. The rootstock directly affects the growth vigor, production, fruit size and quality, and stress-responsiveness of the scion. The health and productivity of citrus industry is greatly dependent on the performance of the rootstocks. The genetic improvement of citrus rootstocks has become a vital step towards the industry being more productive and competitive. In most of citrus growing countries, selecting and creating superior rootstock is one of the most important practices in citrus breeding. In this paper, the progresses in citrus root-stock breeding in the past decades will be briefly reviewed.

  15. Micropropagation of the new apple rootstock ‘G. 814’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Meneguzzi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: International breeding programs launched new genetic material of apple rootstocks that in addition to precocity and great yield are resistant to major diseases and soil pests encountered in the largest apple producing regions in Brazil. Given this, there is a necessity for vegetative propagation of these materials for study and possible replacement of existing rootstocks. The objective was to adapt a micropropagation protocol for new apple rootstock ‘G. 814’. In the multiplication phase were evaluated BAP concentrations: 0; 0.5; 1; 2 and 4mg L-1 and in the rooting phase were evaluated IBA concentrations: 0; 0.25; 0.50; 1; 1.5 and 2.5mg L-1. These new results demonstrated that this new rootstock selection can be propagated with this tissue culture adapted protocol. For the successful in vitro propagation of apple rootstock ‘G. 814’ it is indicated the use of 1mg L-1 BAP at multiplication phase and 1.5mg L-1 IBA at rooting phase.

  16. Production of interstocked 'Pera' sweet orange nursey trees on 'Volkamer' lemon and 'Swingle' citrumelo rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girardi Eduardo Augusto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Incompatibility among certain citrus scion and rootstock cultivars can be avoided through interstocking. 'Pera' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck nursery tree production was evaluated on 'Swingle' citrumelo (Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf x Citrus paradisi Macf and 'Volkamer' lemon (Citrus volkameriana Pasquale incompatible rootstocks, using 'Valencia' and 'Hamlin' sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, 'Sunki' mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka, and 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tanaka as interstocks. Citrus nursery trees interstocked with 'Pera' sweet orange on both rootstocks were used as control. 'Swingle' citrumelo led to the highest interstock bud take percentage, the greatest interstock height and rootstock diameter, as well as the highest scion and root system dry weight. Percentage of 'Pera' sweet orange dormant bud eye was greater for plants budded on 'Sunki' mandarin than those budded on 'Valencia' sweet orange. No symptoms of incompatibility were observed among any combinations of rootstocks, interstocks and scion. Production cycle can take up to 17 months with higher plant discard.

  17. Regulation of nitrate transport in citrus rootstocks depending on nitrogen availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezo, Miguel; Camañes, Gemma; Flors, Víctor; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; García-Agustín, Pilar

    2007-09-01

    Previously, we reported that in Citrus plants, nitrate influx through the plasmalemma of roots cells follows a biphasic pattern, suggesting the existence of at least two different uptake systems, a high and low affinity transport system (HATS and LATS, respectively). Here, we describe a novel inducible high affinity transport system (iHATS). This new nitrate transport system has a high capacity to uptake nitrate in two different Citrus rootstocks (Cleopatra mandarin and Troyer citrange). The iHATS was saturable, showing higher affinity than constitutive high affinity transport system (cHATS) to the substrate NO(3) (-). The V(max) for this saturable component iHATS was higher than cHATS, reaching similar values in both rootstocks.Additionally, we studied the regulation of root NO(3) (-) uptake mediated by both HATS (iHATS and cHATS) and LATS. In both rootstocks, cHATS is constitutive and independent of N-status. Concerning the regulation of iHATS, this system is upregulated by NO(3) (-) and down-regulated by the N status and by NO(3) (-) itself when plants are exposed to it for a longer period of time. LATS in Cleopatra mandarin and Troyer citrange rootstocks is repressed by the N-status.The use of various metabolic uncouplers or inhibitors indicated that NO(3) (-) net uptake mediated by iHATS and LATS was an active transport system in both rootstocks.

  18. Sweet orange trees grafted on selected rootstocks fertilized with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quaggio José Antônio

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of citrus trees in Brazil are grafted on 'Rangpur lime' (Citrus limonia Osb. rootstock. Despite its good horticultural performance, search for disease tolerant rootstock varieties to improve yield and longevity of citrus groves has increased. The objective of this work was to evaluate yield efficiency of sweet oranges on different rootstocks fertilized with N, P, and potassium. Tree growth was affected by rootstock varieties; trees on 'Swingle' citrumelo [Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. × C. paradisi Macf.] presented the smallest canopy (13.3 m³ in the fifth year after tree planting compared to those on 'Rangpur lime' and 'Cleopatra' mandarin [C. reshni (Hayata hort. ex Tanaka] grown on the same grove. Although it was observed an overall positive relationship between canopy volume and fruit yield (R² = 0.95**, yield efficiency (kg m-3 was affected by rootstocks, which demonstrated 'Rangpur lime' superiority in relation to Cleopatra. Growth of citrus trees younger than 5-yr-old might be improved by K fertilization rates greater than currently recommended in Brazil, in soils with low K and subjected to nutrient leaching losses.

  19. Relationships between leaf conductance to CO2 diffusion and photosynthesis in micropropagated grapevine plants, before and after ex vitro acclimatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fila, Gianni; Badeck, Franz-W; Meyer, Sylvie; Cerovic, Zoran; Ghashghaie, Jaleh

    2006-01-01

    In vitro-cultured plants typically show a low photosynthetic activity, which is considered detrimental to subsequent ex vitro acclimatization. Studies conducted so far have approached this problem by analysing the biochemical and photochemical aspects of photosynthesis, while very little attention has been paid to the role of leaf conductance to CO(2) diffusion, which often represents an important constraint to CO(2) assimilation in naturally grown plants. Mesophyll conductance, in particular, has never been determined in in vitro plants, and no information exists as to whether it represents a limitation to carbon assimilation during in vitro growth and subsequent ex vitro acclimatization. In this study, by means of simultaneous gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements, the stomatal and mesophyll conductance to CO(2) diffusion were assessed in in vitro-cultured plants of the grapevine rootstock '41B' (Vitis vinifera 'Chasselas'xVitis berlandieri), prior to and after ex vitro acclimatization. Their impact on electron transport rate partitioning and on limitation of potential net assimilation rate was analysed. In vitro plants had a high stomatal conductance, 155 versus 50 mmol m(-2) s(-1) in acclimatized plants, which ensured a higher CO(2) concentration in the chloroplasts, and a 7% higher electron flow to the carbon reduction pathway. The high stomatal conductance was counterbalanced by a low mesophyll conductance, 43 versus 285 mmol m(-2) s(-1), which accounted for a 14.5% estimated relative limitation to photosynthesis against 2.1% estimated in acclimatized plants. It was concluded that mesophyll conductance represents an important limitation for in vitro plant photosynthesis, and that in acclimatization studies the correct comparison of photosynthetic activity between in vitro and acclimatized plants must take into account the contribution of both stomatal and mesophyll conductance.

  20. Bacterial endophytic communities in the grapevine depend on pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisano, Andrea; Antonielli, Livio; Pancher, Michael; Yousaf, Sohail; Pindo, Massimo; Pertot, Ilaria

    2014-01-01

    Microbial plant endophytes are receiving ever-increasing attention as a result of compelling evidence regarding functional interaction with the host plant. Microbial communities in plants were recently reported to be influenced by numerous environmental and anthropogenic factors, including soil and pest management. In this study we used automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) fingerprinting and pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA to assess the effect of organic production and integrated pest management (IPM) on bacterial endophytic communities in two widespread grapevines cultivars (Merlot and Chardonnay). High levels of the dominant Ralstonia, Burkholderia and Pseudomonas genera were detected in all the samples We found differences in the composition of endophytic communities in grapevines cultivated using organic production and IPM. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) assigned to the Mesorhizobium, Caulobacter and Staphylococcus genera were relatively more abundant in plants from organic vineyards, while Ralstonia, Burkholderia and Stenotrophomonas were more abundant in grapevines from IPM vineyards. Minor differences in bacterial endophytic communities were also found in the grapevines of the two cultivars.

  1. Grapevine phenology and climate change in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cola, G.; Failla, O.; Maghradze, D.; Megrelidze, L.; Mariani, L.

    2016-10-01

    While the climate of Western Europe has been deeply affected by the abrupt climate change that took place in the late `1980s of the twentieth century, a similar signal is detected only few years later, in 1994, in Georgia. Grapevine phenology is deeply influenced by climate and this paper aimed to analyze how phenological timing changed before and after the climatic change of 1994. Availability of thermal resources in the two climatic phases for the five altitudinal belts in the 0-1250-m range was analyzed. A phenological dataset gathered in two experimental sites during the period 2012-2014, and a suitable thermal dataset was used to calibrate a phenological model based on the normal approach and able to describe BBCH phenological stages 61 (beginning of flowering), 71 (fruit set), and 81 (veraison). Calibration was performed for four relevant Georgian varieties (Mtsvane Kakhuri, Rkatsiteli, Ojaleshi, and Saperavi). The model validation was performed on an independent 3-year dataset gathered in Gorizia (Italy). Furthermore, in the case of variety Rkatsiteli, the model was applied to the 1974-2013 thermal time series in order to obtain phenological maps of the Georgian territory. Results show that after the climate change of 1994, Rkatsiteli showed an advance, more relevant at higher altitudes where the whole increase of thermal resource was effectively translated in phenological advance. For instance the average advance of veraison was 5.9 days for 250-500 m asl belt and 18.1 days for 750-1000 m asl). On the other hand, at lower altitudes, phenological advance was depleted by superoptimal temperatures. As a final result, some suggestions for the adaptation of viticultural practices to the current climatic phase are provided.

  2. Influence of Rootstocks on Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium Content in Petioles of Four Table Grape Varieties Influencia de Portainjertos sobre el Contenido Peciolar de Nitrógeno, Fósforo y Potasio en Cuatro Variedades de Uva de Mesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ibacache G

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Four field trials were conducted at Vicuña Experimental Center (30°02' S, 70°44' W located in the Coquimbo Region, Chile, over four seasons, 2002-2003 to 2005-2006, to determine the influence of 10 rootstocks (Freedom, Harmony, Saint George, Salt Creek, SO4, 1613C, 1103P, 99R, 110R, 140Ru, as well as own roots vines on nutrient content in petioles of vars. Flame Seedless, Thompson Seedless, Superior Seedless and Red Globe grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.. The trials took place at a site that had previously planted to vineyard. The experimental design was randomized complete block with four replicates. Petioles opposite to clusters were taken at bloom as samples and analyzed for total N, P and K content. Significant differences in nutrient levels due to rootstocks were found in all varieties. Rootstocks increased the levels of petiole nutrients (except P over the values usually reported in literature for table grapes. Vines grafted onto the rootstock ‘Salt Creek’ had significantly higher petiole N and P content than those on their own roots vines. Total N level increased 67% in ‘Flame Seedless’, 77% in ‘Red Globe’, 33% in ‘Thompson Seedless’ and 8.5% in ‘Superior Seedless’. On the other hand, the petiole P level doubled in all varieties by using ‘Salt Creek’ as rootstock. Potassium status was also affected by rootstocks. ‘Harmony’ and ‘1613C’ showed higher K levels by at least 60% in vars. Flame Seedless, Red Globe and Thompson Seedless as compared to plants grown on their own roots. The present investigation demonstrates that rootstocks may have a considerable effect on grapevine nutrition.Se realizaron cuatro ensayos en Vicuña (30°02' S, 70°44' O, Región de Coquimbo, Chile, durante cuatro temporadas, 2002-2003 a 2005-2006 para determinar la influencia de 10 portainjertos de vid (Vitis vinifera L. (Freedom, Harmony, Saint George, Salt Creek, SO4, 1613C, 1103P, 99R, 110R, 140Ru, además de plantas sobre sus

  3. NMR Spectroscopy Identifies Metabolites Translocated from Powdery Mildew Resistant Rootstocks to Susceptible Watermelon Scions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Iqbal; Kousik, Chandrasekar; Hassell, Richard; Chowdhury, Kamal; Boroujerdi, Arezue F

    2015-09-16

    Powdery mildew (PM) disease causes significant loss in watermelon. Due to the unavailability of a commercial watermelon variety that is resistant to PM, grafting susceptible cultivars on wild resistant rootstocks is being explored as a short-term management strategy to combat this disease. Nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolic profiles of susceptible and resistant rootstocks of watermelon and their corresponding susceptible scions (Mickey Lee) were compared to screen for potential metabolites related to PM resistance using multivariate principal component analysis. Significant score plot differences between the susceptible and resistant groups were revealed through Mahalanobis distance analysis. Significantly different spectral buckets and their corresponding metabolites (including choline, fumarate, 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetate, and melatonin) have been identified quantitatively using multivariate loading plots and verified by volcano plot analyses. The data suggest that these metabolites were translocated from the powdery mildew resistant rootstocks to their corresponding powdery mildew susceptible scions and can be related to PM disease resistance.

  4. Transcriptional regulation of lycopene metabolism mediated by rootstock during the ripening of grafted watermelons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qiusheng; Yuan, Jingxian; Gao, Lingyun; Liu, Peng; Cao, Lei; Huang, Yuan; Zhao, Liqiang; Lv, Huifang; Bie, Zhilong

    2017-01-01

    Rootstocks have comprehensive effects on lycopene accumulation in grafted watermelon fruits. However, little is known about lycopene metabolic regulation in grafted watermelon. To address this problem, parallel changes in lycopene contents and the expression of its metabolic genes were analyzed during the fruit ripening of nongrafted watermelon and watermelon grafted onto bottle gourd, pumpkin, and wild watermelon. Results showed that rootstocks mediated the transcriptional regulations of lycopene accumulation in different ways. Bottle gourd and wild watermelon promoted lycopene accumulation in grafted watermelon fruits by upregulating the biosynthetic genes phytoene synthase (PSY) and ζ-carotene desaturase (ZDS), and downregulating the catabolic genes β-carotene hydroxylase (CHYB), zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP), 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD). However, pumpkin did not affect lycopene accumulation by upregulating both biosynthetic and catabolic genes. The rootstock-dependent characteristic of lycopene accumulation in grafted watermelon fruits provided an alternative model for investigating lycopene metabolic regulation.

  5. COMPATIBILITY AND FEASIBILITY OF GRAFT TOMATO CULTIVAR SANTA CRUZ KADA IN DIFFERENT ROOTSTOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Zeist

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Tomato production through the technique of grafting aims to control soil pathogens, induce flowering, and improve tolerance to waterlogging, salinity and alkalinity of the soil. For this work were performed 50 grafts for each type of rootstock, totaling 100 slips and 50 seedlings kept as control. After 15 days of grafting, the seedlings were evaluated on the percentage of picks grafting. The treatment which used the tomato cultivar Cherry Red® as rootstock presented results of vegetative growth (height and volume Cup higher than other treatments. However after transplanting, defective development was observed for plants with grafting when compared to the controls. After 35 days of follow up, there was a low survival rate, being 5% of the plants. According to the results obtained in this work the tomato cultivar Santa Cruz Kada® has good compatibility with the rootstock cultivar Cayenne® pepper and tomato cultivar Cherry Red®

  6. Effects of rootstock on the composition of bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau) essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verzera, Antonella; Trozzi, Alessandra; Gazea, Florea; Cicciarello, Giuseppe; Cotroneo, Antonella

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the composition of bergamot oils obtained from plants grafted on the following rootstocks: sour orange, Carrizo citrange, trifoliate orange, Alemow, Volkamerian lemon, and Troyer citrange. The aim of this study is to evaluate the possibility of using rootstocks other than sour orange, checking their effect on the composition of the essential oil. Results are reported for analysis of 203 bergamot oils during the years 1997-1998, 1998-1999, and 1999-2000. The oils were analyzed by HRGC and HRGC/MS; 78 components were identified, and the results were in agreement with those reported in the literature for the Calabrian bergamot oils obtained from industry. Because of the quality of their essential oils, Alemow and Volkamerian lemon can be considered as substitutes for sour orange rootstocks.

  7. Avaliação ecofisiológica de clones de videira cv. Syrah Ecophysiological evaluation of grapevine's clones cv Syrah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murillo de Albuquerque Regina

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o comportamento agronômico e ecofisiológico de três clones de videira da cultivar Syrah. Foram empregadas plantas adultas, enxertadas sobre SO4 e cultivadas em solo arenoso com lençol freático superficial. O clone 470 mostrou-se ao mesmo tempo mais precoce, mais vigoroso e menos produtivo, confirmando o seu potencial de clone qualitativo. Por outro lado, não foram verificadas diferenças de comportamento entre clones, para a assimilação do carbono e condutância estomática em condições não limitantes à fotossíntese.In this work were evaluated the phenological behavior, some agronomic traits and net photosynthesis of three grapevine clones obtained from the variety Syrah. The plants used were graffted over the rootstock SO4, and were grown in a flooded sand soil. Even though the clone number 470 had been the more precocious and robust, although it was the less productive. Even so, the result confirmed the qualitative potencial of this clone. On the other hand significant differences among the clones which have not been observed for carbon assimilation and stomatal conductance in a suitable environmental conditions for photosynthesis occurrence.

  8. Rootstock-scion interaction affecting citrus response to CTV infection: a proteomic view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laino, Paolo; Russo, Maria P; Guardo, Maria; Reforgiato-Recupero, Giuseppe; Valè, Giampiero; Cattivelli, Luigi; Moliterni, Vita M C

    2016-04-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is the causal agent of various diseases with dramatic effects on citrus crops worldwide. Most Citrus species, grown on their own roots, are symptomless hosts for many CTV isolates. However, depending on different scion-rootstock combination, CTV infection should result in distinct syndromes, being 'tristeza' the more severe one, leading to a complete decline of the susceptible plants in a few weeks. Transcriptomic analyses revealed several genes involved either in defense response, or systemic acquired resistance, as well as transcription factors and components of the phosphorylation cascades, to be differentially regulated during CTV infection in Citrus aurantifolia species. To date little is known about the molecular mechanism of this host-pathogen interaction, and about the rootstock effect on citrus response to CTV infection. In this work, the response to CTV infection has been investigated in tolerant and susceptible scion-rootstock combinations by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE). A total of 125 protein spots have been found to be differently accumulated and/or phosphorylated between the two rootstock combinations. Downregulation in tolerant plants upon CTV infection was detected for proteins involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and defense response, suggesting a probable acclimation response able to minimize the systemic effects of virus infection. Some of these proteins resulted to be modulated also in absence of virus infection, revealing a rootstock effect on scion proteome modulation. Moreover, the phospho-modulation of proteins involved in ROS scavenging and defense response, further supports their involvement either in scion-rootstock crosstalk or in the establishment of tolerance/susceptibility to CTV infection. © 2015 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  9. Assessment of the genetic diversity of the Tunisian citrus rootstock germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoussi, Hager; Duval, Marie-France; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Belfalah, Zina; Froelicher, Yann; Risterucci, Ange-Marie; Perrier, Xavier; Jacquemoud-Collet, Jean-Pierre; Navarro, Luis; Harrabi, Moncef; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2012-03-19

    Citrus represents a substantial income for farmers in the Mediterranean Basin. However, the Mediterranean citrus industry faces increasing biotic and abiotic constraints. Therefore the breeding and selection of new rootstocks are now of the utmost importance. In Tunisia, in addition to sour orange, the most widespread traditional rootstock of the Mediterranean area, other citrus rootstocks and well adapted to local environmental conditions, are traditionally used and should be important genetic resources for breeding. To characterize the diversity of Tunisian citrus rootstocks, two hundred and one local accessions belonging to four facultative apomictic species (C. aurantium, sour orange; C. sinensis, orange; C. limon, lemon; and C. aurantifolia, lime) were collected and genotyped using 20 nuclear SSR markers and four indel mitochondrial markers. Multi-locus genotypes (MLGs) were compared to references from French and Spanish collections. The differentiation of the four varietal groups was well-marked. The groups displayed a relatively high allelic diversity, primarily due to very high heterozygosity. Sixteen distinct MLGs were identified. Ten of these were noted in sour oranges. However, the majority of the analysed sour orange accessions corresponded with only two MLGs, differentiated by a single allele, likely due to a mutation. The most frequent MLG is shared with the reference sour oranges. No polymorphism was found within the sweet orange group. Two MLGs, differentiated by a single locus, were noted in lemon. The predominant MLG was shared with the reference lemons. Limes were represented by three genotypes. Two corresponded to the 'Mexican lime' and 'limonette de Marrakech' references. The MLG of 'Chiiri' lime was unique. The Tunisian citrus rootstock genetic diversity is predominantly due to high heterozygosity and differentiation between the four varietal groups. The phenotypic diversity within the varietal groups has resulted from multiple introductions

  10. Physiological and Transcriptional Changes of Three Citrus Rootstock Seedlings under Iron Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lina; Zhu, Qingqing; Sun, Yinya; Du, Wei; Pan, Zhiyong; Peng, Shu’ang

    2017-01-01

    Iron is an essential micronutrient for plants, and plants have evolved adaptive mechanisms to improve iron acquisition from soils. Grafting on iron deficiency-tolerant rootstock is an effective strategy to prevent iron deficiency-chlorosis in fruit-tree crops. To determine the mechanisms underlying iron uptake in iron deficiency, two iron deficiency-tolerant citrus rootstocks, Zhique (ZQ) and Xiangcheng (XC), as well as iron deficiency-sensitive rootstock trifoliate orange (TO) seedlings were studied. Plants were grown in hydroponics system for 100 days, having 50 μM iron (control) and 0 μM iron (iron deficiency) nutrient solution. Under iron deficiency, more obvious visual symptoms of iron chlorosis were observed in the leaves of TO, whereas slight symptoms were observed in ZQ and XC. This was further supported by the lower chlorophyll concentration in the leaves of TO than in leaves of ZQ and XC. Ferrous iron showed no differences among the three citrus rootstock roots, whereas ferrous iron was significantly higher in leaves of ZQ and XC than TO. The specific iron absorption rate and leaf iron proportion were significantly higher in ZQ and XC than in TO, suggesting the iron deficiency tolerance can be explained by increased iron uptake in roots of ZQ and XC, allowed by subsequent translocation to shoots. In transcriptome analysis, 29, 298, and 500 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in response to iron deficiency were identified in ZQ, XC, and TO, respectively (Fold change ≥ 2 and Probability ≥ 0.8 were used as thresholds to identify DEGs). A Gene Ontology analysis suggested that several genotype-specific biological processes are involved in response to iron deficiency. Genes associated with cell wall biosynthesis, ethylene and abscisic acid signal transduction pathways were involved in iron deficiency responses in citrus rootstocks. The results of this study provide a basis for future analyses of the physiological and molecular mechanisms of the

  11. Estimation Of Productive Value Of Czech Origin Scab-Resistant Apple Cultivars On Different Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sosna Ireneusz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Apple cultivars resistant to scab are suitable for the conventional and organic cultivation. Rootstocks impact on the growth of trees, yield and fruit quality of scab-resistant cultivars were examined in the experiment conducted at Fruit Experimental Station - Samotwór near Wrocław, during the years 1998-2008. In the spring of 1998, the trees of five Czech origin scab-resistant apple cultivars ‘Rosana’, ‘Rubinola’, ‘Rajka’, ‘Goldstar’ and ‘Topaz’ each on M.9, P2, P60, P16 and P22 rootstocks were planted at a spacing of 3.5 × 1.2 m (2380 trees per hectare. The results of 11-year-long studies showed that ‘Rubinola’ and ‘Rajka’ were characterised by the strongest vigour, while ‘Rosana’ grew much weaker. Significant differences in the cumulative yield were not observed between cultivars, but rootstocks influenced cropping instantly. Trees on rootstock P60 had biggest cross-section area and canopy volume, and the highest cumulative yield. Fruit weight was highest from trees on M9 and P60. ‘Topaz’ and ‘Rosana’ formed significantly lightest fruits and ‘Goldstar’ the heaviest. Trees on the super-dwarfing P22 rootstock grew and yielded very weakly and produced very small fruits. The greatest susceptibility to powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha was observed in ‘Topaz’ and ‘Rajka’. ‘Rubinola’ has the best potential for organic cultivation, especially on dwarfing rootstocks.

  12. Comportamento vegetativo e produtivo de videiras 'Cabernet sauvignon' cultivadas sob cobertura plástica Vegetative growth and yield of 'Cabernet sauvignon' grapevine under overhead plastic covering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clenilso Sehnen Mota

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O uso de cobertura plástica no cultivo de videira encontra-se em expansão no Rio Grande do Sul, por ser uma alternativa que visa a proteger as plantas da precipitação pluvial e do granizo. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os impactos de uma cobertura plástica translúcida e impermeável sobre a fenologia, o crescimento (de ramos, folhas, cachos e bagas e a produtividade em videiras 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (Vitis vinifera L., com cinco anos de idade, conduzidas em sistema 'Y', sobre porta-enxerto Paulsen 1103. O experimento, conduzido no município de Caxias do Sul-RS, seguiu o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, tendo os tratamentos sem e com cobertura plástica, com quatro repetições de 15 plantas (unidade experimental. As alterações microclimáticas impostas pela cobertura plástica não foram expressivas para alterar a fenologia da videira. As plantas cultivadas sob cobertura plástica apresentaram maiores valores de comprimento e massa fresca de ramos e de área, e massa seca foliar em comparação às plantas descobertas. O peso e o diâmetro de bagas foram superiores nas videiras cobertas apenas no início do ciclo e não diferiram próximo da colheita. As demais variáveis analisadas não foram afetadas pela cobertura plástica. A cobertura plástica interferiu no crescimento vegetativo das plantas, mas não afetou a produção.There is an increasing adoption of overhead plastic covering for grapevines in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil, to protect the plants from rain and hail storms. This study was carried out to evaluate the impacts of overhead plastic covering with a translucent and water-proof plastic film on phenological, growth (of branch, leaves, clusters, and berries, and yield attributes of five years old 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. on Paulsen 1103 rootstock raised as 'Y' management system. The experiment was carried out in Caxias do Sul, State of Rio Grande do Sul, and followed a

  13. Performance of ‘Okitsu’ satsuma mandarin trees on different rootstocks in Northwestern Parana State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuleide Hissano Tazima

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the State of Paraná, citrus production is based mainly on Rangpur lime rootstock, which has good results with the established cultivars. However, research is needed into rootstocks for use with cultivars that remain to be commercially exploited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the vegetative development and yield of ‘Okitsu’ satsuma mandarin plants (Citrus unshiu Marc., as well as fruit quality, budded on nine rootstocks in the Northwest State of Paraná, Brazil. The orchard was established at the Experimental Station of the Agronomic Institute of Paraná-IAPAR, Paranavaí, PR, in January 2001. The experimental design was randomized blocks with nine treatments, three replications, and two plants per plot. The rootstocks were Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osb., Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni hort. ex Tanaka, C-13 citrange [Citrus sinensis × Poncirus trifoliata orange (L. Raf.], Volkamer lemon (Citrus volkameriana V. Ten. e Pasq., Carrizo citrange [C. sinensis × P. trifoliata (L. Raf.], Sunki mandarin (Citrus sunki hort. ex Tanaka, trifoliate orange [P. trifoliata (L. Raf. ], Swingle citrumelo [Citrus paradisi Macfad. cv. Duncan × P. trifoliata (L. Raf.], and Caipira DAC sweet orange [C. sinensis (L. Osb.]. The largest plant canopy to ‘Okitsu’ was induced by Cleopatra and the lowest by trifoliata, with 37.1 m3 and 9.9 m3, respectively. The highest relationship between scion and rootstock trunk diameter was observed for the plants budded on Swingle. The largest accumulated yields per plant over eight seasons were induced by Volkamer, Rangpur, Caipira DAC, Cleopatra, and Carrizo, ranging from 867.3 to 989.6 kg. These rootstocks also induced the largest fruit mass, along with Sunki, ranging from 173.3 to 188.0 g. Trifoliate induced accumulated production of 52.5% in relation to Rangpur lime. Rangpur, Carrizo, trifoliate, and Swingle induced the largest averages for the ratio, ranging from 10.41 to 10.79. For orchard

  14. Impact of Ozone Gradient on Grapevine Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alebic-Juretic, Ana; Bokan-Vucelic, Itana; Mifka, Boris; Zatezalo, Marija; Zubak, Velimir

    2017-04-01

    Due to complex orography and air mass circulation, the Rijeka Bay area is characterized by O3 gradient, with concentrations risen with the altitude (1). Therefore AOT40 values were often exceeded and should result in harmful effects on vegetation. Based on previous controlled experiments (2), we examined the possible effect of atmospheric ozone on grape leaves under natural O3 gradient. Grapevine leaves (2-5) were collected from May to September 2016 at two sampling points in the proximity of two AQM stations: Site 1 in the city centre (20m asl) and Site 2 (186m asl) in the suburban settlement. Subsequent to weighing and determination of surface area, the leaves (0,5 g) were extracted in 95% ethanol and analysed on chlorophyl a (Chla), chlorophyl b (Chlb) and carotene (Car) content by UV-VIS spectrometry on 3 wavelengths (664, 649, 470 nm) (3) In summer 2016 O3 gradient was not that pronounced as usual (1), but stil the concentrations differed by approx. 20%, exceeding national AOT40 value at both sites (22.360 and 28.061 μg m-3 h, respectively, at Sites 1 and 2). The concentrations of other pollutants were bellow limit values (LV). The Cha and Chb in a sample leaves collected at the end of May at Site 2 are equal to that with filtered O3 in control experiment (2), i.e. without damage caused by ozone, while the Car content is lower approx. 50% and is kept at the same level. The con-centrations of pigments obtained in July prooved the possible damage by O3, while in subsequent months could speed up natural ageing. This is the first evidence of O3 damage on plants in the Rijeka Bay area, in spite of weaker O3 gradient and lacking visible signs of damage. Preliminary results indicate the need for more frequent sampling, particularly in the period included in AOT40 (May-July). References: 1. Alebić-Juretić A (2012) Int J Remote Sensing, 33(2): 335-345 2. Britvec M, Reichenauer T, Soja G., Ljubešić N, Pećina M (2001) Biologia (Bratislava),56/4: 417-424 3. Sumanata

  15. Effects of grafting with pumpkin rootstock on carbohydrate metabolism in cucumber seedlings under Ca(NO3)2 stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wen-wen; Li, Lin; Gao, Pan; Li, He; Shao, Qiao-sai; Shu, Sheng; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shi-rong

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of grafting on the carbohydrate status and the enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in self-grafted and grafted cucumber seedlings using the salt-tolerant pumpkin rootstock 'Qingzhen 1' (Cucurbita maxima × Cucurbita moschata) under 80 mM Ca(NO3)2 stress for 6 d. The growth of self-grafted seedlings was significantly inhibited after the treatment of Ca(NO3)2 stress, whereas the inhibition of growth was alleviated in pumpkin rootstock-grafted seedlings. Ca(NO3)2 stress increased the contents of the total soluble sugar, sucrose and fructose, but decreased the starch content in rootstock-grafted leaves. However, compared with self-grafted plants, rootstock-grafted seedlings were observed with a higher content of sucrose and total soluble sugar (TSS) under salt stress. Rootstock-grafted seedlings exhibited higher activities of acid invertase (AI), neutral invertase (NI) and phosphate sucrose synthase (SPS) of sucrose metabolism in leaves than that of self-grafted seedlings under salinity. Moreover, the activities of fructokinase (FK), hexokinase (HK), phosphofructokinase (PFK) and pyruvate kinase (PK) of glycolysis were maintained at a higher level in leaves of rootstock-grafted seedlings after Ca(NO3)2 stress. Additionally, rootstock-grafting decrease the high percentage enhancement of key enzymes gene expression in glycolysis in the scion leaves of cucumber seedlings induced by salt stress. These results suggest that the rootstock-grafting improved salt tolerance, which might play a role in elevated sucrose metabolism and a glycolytic pathway regulated by the pumpkin rootstock.

  16. Detection of drought tolerant genes within seedling apple rootstocks in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    This investigation was conducted to detect the drought tolerant genes (four genes) within seedling apple rootstocks derived from five apple genotypes, including Syrian apple cultivars. The results showed that the gene MdPepPro (a cyclophilin) was found in all studied genotypes and their progenies e...

  17. Rootstock assessment for root-knot nematode management in grafted honeydew melon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root-knot nematodes (RKN) are one of the most damaging soilborne pathogens of honeydew melon (Cucumis melo var. inodorus). Currently their management is dependent on soil fumigation. Vegetable grafting with resistant rootstocks may be an effective approach for RKN management in the sustainable produ...

  18. 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid as an alternative auxin for rooting of vine rootstock cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Brasil Dias Tofanelli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Viticulture is an important agricultural activity in semiarid northeastern Brazil, and the quality and ease of vine propagation are very important in this context. This study evaluated the use of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D as an alternative to indolebutyric acid (IBA in the rooting of vine rootstock cuttings. The trial was conducted at the Universidade Federal de Sergipe (São Cristóvão-SE between January and March 2010 with cuttings of the rootstocks of 'IAC-766', 'IAC-572', and 'Paulsen 1103' treated with 2,4-D or IBA applied at concentrations of 0, 1000, 2000, or 3000 rng-L-1 for 5 s and planted in a field on washed sand. At 56 days after planting, the percentages of rooted, sprouted, callused, and dead cuttings were evaluated, and also the average number and length of the rooted cuttings. The results showed that 2,4-D was not superior to IBA in the characteristics wanted for the rooting process of the vine rootstock cuttings. The vine rootstocks showed potential for propagation by cutting without auxin application. It was observed that the high concentrations were the worst for the rooting of the cuttings.

  19. The effect of media composition on multiplication of grape rootstocks in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Břetislav Křižan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current demand for in vitro cultures of grape rootstocks, not only for mass production of plants, but also for genetic engineering is evident. The study on micropropagation of grape rootstock genotypes namely Kober 5BB, Kober 125AA and Teleki 5C was performed. The aim of the study was to develop an optimized protocol to obtain large quantity of plant material. Protocol is based on regeneration via organogenesis, considering that grape embryogenic calluses are laborious to establish and the genotype of the regenerated plants can be altered. Using of Driver and Kuniyuki Walnut media for the establishing of proliferating cultures gave better results than Murashige Skoog media in case of all used rootstocks. Subsequent cultivation on modified Murashige Skoog media with 1-naphtalene acetic acid and increased concentration of cytokynin was characterized by multiplication of cultures and formation of clusters with high multiplication capability. The clusters obtained from rootstock genotypes were suitable for mass propagation as well as for genetic transformation due to their high ability of regeneration.

  20. Formation of ‘Crioula’ guava rootstock under saline water irrigation and nitrogen doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro de P. Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this research was to evaluate the growth and formation of fresh and dry weight of ‘Crioula’ guava rootstock irrigated with waters of different saline levels and nitrogen (N doses, in an experiment conducted in plastic tubes under greenhouse conditions. The experimental design was randomized blocks, in a 5 x 4 factorial scheme with four replicates, and the treatments consisted of five levels of water electrical conductivity - ECw (0.3, 1.1, 1.9, 2.7 and 3.5 dS m-1 and four N doses (70, 100, 130 and 160% of the N dose recommended for the cultivation of guava seedlings, cv. ‘Paluma’. The dose referring to 100% corresponds to 773 mg of N dm-3. The highest growth of ‘Crioula’ guava rootstock was obtained with ECw of 0.3 dS m-1 and fertilization of 541.1 mg N dm-3 of soil; increasing N doses did not reduce the deleterious effect of the salt stress on the growth and phytomass formation of ‘Crioula’ guava rootstock; irrigation with water of up to 1.75 dS m-1, in the production of guava rootstocks, promotes acceptable reduction of 10% in growth and quality of the seedlings.

  1. Rootstock control of scion transpiration and its acclimation to water deficit are controlled by different genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marguerit, Elisa; Brendel, Oliver; Lebon, Eric; Van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Ollat, Nathalie

    2012-04-01

    The stomatal control of transpiration is one of the major strategies by which plants cope with water stress. Here, we investigated the genetic architecture of the rootstock control of scion transpiration-related traits over a period of 3 yr. The rootstocks studied were full sibs from a controlled interspecific cross (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon × Vitis riparia cv. Gloire de Montpellier), onto which we grafted a single scion genotype. After 10 d without stress, the water supply was progressively limited over a period of 10 d, and a stable water deficit was then applied for 15 d. Transpiration rate was estimated daily and a mathematical curve was fitted to its response to water deficit intensity. We also determined δ(13) C values in leaves, transpiration efficiency and water extraction capacity. These traits were then analysed in a multienvironment (year and water status) quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. Quantitative trait loci, independent of year and water status, were detected for each trait. One genomic region was specifically implicated in the acclimation of scion transpiration induced by the rootstock. The QTLs identified colocalized with genes involved in water deficit responses, such as those relating to ABA and hydraulic regulation. Scion transpiration rate and its acclimation to water deficit are thus controlled genetically by the rootstock, through different genetic architectures. © 2012 INRA. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Rootstock and vineyard floor management influence on 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grape yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungmin; Steenwerth, Kerri L

    2011-08-01

    This is a study on the influence that two rootstocks (110R, high vigour; 420A, low vigour) and three vineyard floor management regimes (tilled resident vegetation - usual practise in California, and barley cover crops that were either mowed or tilled) had upon grape nitrogen-containing compounds (mainly ammonia and free amino acids recalculated as YAN), sugars, and organic acids in 'Cabernet Sauvignon' clone 8. A significant difference was observed for some of the free amino acids between rootstocks. In both sample preparation methods (juiced or chemically extracted), 110R rootstock grapes were significantly higher in SER, GLN, THR, ARG, VAL, ILE, LEU, and YAN than were 420A rootstock grapes. Differences in individual free amino acid profiles and concentrations were observed between the two sample preparations, which indicate that care should be taken when comparing values from dissimilar methods. No significant differences among vineyard floor treatments were detected, which suggests that mowing offers vineyard managers a sustainable practise, alternative to tilling, without negatively affecting grape nitrogen compounds, sugars, or organic acids. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Ultralow oxygen treatment for control of Planococcus ficus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) on grape rootstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controlled atmosphere with ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatments for control of vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus Signoret (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), on grape rootstocks were developed successfully. Two ULO treatments with 30 ppm oxygen, 3 days at 25'C and 4 days at 15'C, achieved complete control of a...

  4. Elevation, rootstock, and soil depth affect the nutritional quality of mandarin oranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of elevation, rootstock, and soil depth on the nutritional quality of mandarin oranges from 11 groves in California were investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy by quantifying 29 compounds and applying multivariate statistical data analysis. A comparison of the juic...

  5. Biosafety considerations of RNAi-mediated virus resistance in fruit-tree cultivars and in rootstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemgo, Godwin Nana Yaw; Sabbadini, Silvia; Pandolfini, Tiziana; Mezzetti, Bruno

    2013-12-01

    A major application of RNA interference (RNAi) is envisaged for the production of virus-resistant transgenic plants. For fruit trees, this remains the most, if not the only, viable option for the control of plant viral disease outbreaks in cultivated orchards, due to the difficulties associated with the use of traditional and conventional disease-control measures. The use of RNAi might provide an additional benefit for woody crops if silenced rootstock can efficiently transmit the silencing signal to non-transformed scions, as has already been demonstrated in herbaceous plants. This would provide a great opportunity to produce non-transgenic fruit from transgenic rootstock. In this review, we scrutinise some of the concerns that might arise with the use of RNAi for engineering virus-resistant plants, and we speculate that this virus resistance has fewer biosafety concerns. This is mainly because RNAi-eliciting constructs only express small RNA molecules rather than proteins, and because this technology can be applied using plant rootstock that can confer virus resistance to the scion, leaving the scion untransformed. We discuss the main biosafety concerns related to the release of new types of virus-resistant plants and the risk assessment approaches in the application of existing regulatory systems (in particular, those of the European Union, the USA, and Canada) for the evaluation and approval of RNAi-mediated virus-resistant plants, either as transgenic varieties or as plant virus resistance induced by transgenic rootstock.

  6. Metabolic consequences of infection of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. "Modra frankinja" with flavescence dorée phytoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prezelj, Nina; Covington, Elizabeth; Roitsch, Thomas Georg

    2016-01-01

    Flavescence dorée, caused by the quarantine phytoplasma FDp, represents the most devastating of the grapevine yellows diseases in Europe. In an integrated study we have explored the FDp-grapevine interaction in infected grapevines of cv. "Modra frankinja" under natural conditions in the vineyard....

  7. Rootstock alleviates PEG-induced water stress in grafted pepper seedlings: physiological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penella, Consuelo; Nebauer, Sergio G; Bautista, Alberto San; López-Galarza, Salvador; Calatayud, Ángeles

    2014-06-15

    Recent studies have shown that tolerance to abiotic stress, including water stress, is improved by grafting. In a previous work, we took advantage of the natural variability of Capsicum spp. and selected accessions tolerant and sensitive to water stress as rootstocks. The behavior of commercial cultivar 'Verset' seedlings grafted onto the selected rootstocks at two levels of water stress provoked by adding 3.5 and 7% PEG (polyethylene glycol) was examined over 14 days. The objective was to identify the physiological traits responsible for the tolerance provided by the rootstock in order to determine if the tolerance is based on the maintenance of the water relations under water stress or through the activation of protective mechanisms. To achieve this goal, various physiological parameters were measured, including: water relations; proline accumulation; gas exchange; chlorophyll fluorescence; nitrate reductase activity; and antioxidant capacity. Our results indicate that the effect of water stress on the measured parameters depends on the duration and intensity of the stress level, as well as the rootstock used. Under control conditions (0% PEG) all plant combinations showed similar values for all measured parameters. In general terms, PEG provoked a strong decrease in the gas exchange parameters in the cultivar grafted onto the sensitive accessions, as also observed in the ungrafted plants. This effect was related to lower relative water content in the plants, provoked by an inefficient osmotic adjustment that was dependent on reduced proline accumulation. At the end of the experiment, chronic photoinhibition was observed in these plants. However, the plants grafted onto the tolerant rootstocks, despite the reduction in photosynthetic rate, maintained the protective capacity of the photosynthetic machinery mediated by osmotic adjustment (based on higher proline content). In addition, water stress limited uptake and further NO3(-) transfer to the leaves. Increased

  8. Cultivating the Grapevine: An Analysis of Rumor Principles and Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited CULTIVATING THE...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CULTIVATING THE GRAPEVINE: AN ANALYSIS OF RUMOR PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS 5...Specifically, this study draws from a review of current and historical literature on rumor theory to distill a set of principles to guide the successful

  9. Influence of water stress on Botryosphaeriaceae disease expression in grapevines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan VAN NIEKERK

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Several species in Botryosphaeriaceae have been associated with grapevine trunk diseases. To evaluate the effect of water stress on infection of grapevines by Botryosphaeriaceae spp., 1-year-old Shiraz/101-14 Mgt nursery grapevine plants were planted in plastic potting bags and placed outdoors under shade netting. Five weeks after planting, vines were pruned and the pruning wounds inoculated with spore suspensions of Neofusicoccum australe, Neofusicoccum parvum, Lasiodiplodia theobromae or Diplodia seriata. Control treatments consisted of applications of sterile water or a Trichoderma harzianum spore suspension. Stem inoculations were done by inserting a colonised or uncolonised agar plug into a wound made in each stem. Four different irrigation regimes were introduced 12 weeks after planting to simulate varying degrees of water stress. Measurements of stomatal conductance, photosynthetic rate and leaf spectrometry were made to monitor physiological stress. Eight months after inoculation, vines were uprooted and the root, shoot and plant mass of each vine determined. Lesions observed in the inoculated pruning wounds and stems were also measured. Vines subjected to the lowest irrigation regime were significantly smaller than optimally irrigated vines. Water stressed vines also had significantly lower photosynthetic rates and levels of stomatal conductance compared with vines receiving optimal irrigation, indicating that these plants experienced significantly higher levels of physiological stress. The mean lesion length was significantly longer in the pruning wounds and stems of plants subjected to the lowest irrigation regime, with lesion length declining linearly with increasing irrigation volume. These results clearly indicate that when a grapevine is exposed to water stress, colonisation and disease expression by Botryosphaeriaceae spp. are much more severe.

  10. Mechanisms of frost adaptation and freeze damage in grapevine buds

    OpenAIRE

    Badulescu Valle, Radu Virgil

    2002-01-01

    Mechanisms of frost hardening in compound (latent) buds of the grapevine cultivar ?Bacchus? were tested with different methods during three winters. The investigated parameters were LTE/HTE (low temperature exotherm/high temperature exotherm), water content, starch, sugar- and anions combination and bud histology. Water content from wood and buds was determined regularly every 2 weeks from March 1998 until Mai 2000. The lowest water content in wood and buds (about 40 %) was found ...

  11. Understanding grapevine-microbiome interactions: implications for viticulture industry

    OpenAIRE

    Iratxe Zarraonaindia; Gilbert, Jack A

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, the analysis of complex communities such as that of the grapevine-microbe holobiont has been limited by the fact that most microbes are notculturable under laboratory conditions (less than 1%). However, metagenomics, the study of the genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples without the need for enrichment or of culturing, has led to open an unprecedented era in the field of microbiology. Importantly, this technological advance has now become ...

  12. Doses of controlled-release fertilizer for production of rubber tree rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Luis Grisi Macedo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This experimental study aimed to evaluate the effects of doses of controlled-release fertilizer (ALL on the development of rubber tree rootstocks. The fertilizer used was Osmocote®, scheduled to be released for 8-9 months and with the following composition: N (15%, P2O5 (9%, K2O (12%, Mg (1%, S (2.3%, B (0.02%, Cu (0.05%, Fe (1%, Mn (0.06%, Mo (0.02% and Zn (0.05%. A randomized block design was used, with four treatments and eight replicates of 20 plants per plot. The controlled-release fertilizer was added to Rendimax Floreira® substrate at doses of 0, 3, 6 and 9 g per liter, and rootstocks were produced in plastic containers with a capacity of two liters of substrate. Three seeds of clone GT 1 were scattered in each container and thinning was performed on day 60, leaving the most vigorous plant only. After the fourth leaf shot from each rootstock, the containers of each treatment were topped, due to compaction, with 300 mL of the relevant fertilizer and substrate mixture. The rootstocks were evaluated at eight months of age as to height, stem diameter (DC 5 cm above root collar, total dry matter, shoot and root dry matter, leaf nutrient levels and percentage of plants suitable for grafting (DC≥1.0 cm. Results revealed that adequate development and nutrition of rootstocks was achieved by using 6 g of controlled-release fertilizer per liter of substrate.

  13. Anatomical and Physiological Responses of Citrus Trees to Varying Boron Availability Are Dependent on Rootstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Geisa L; Zambrosi, Fernando C B; Tanaka, Francisco A O; Boaretto, Rodrigo M; Quaggio, José A; Ribeiro, Rafael V; Mattos, Dirceu

    2016-01-01

    In Citrus, water, nutrient transport and thereby fruit production, are influenced among other factors, by the interaction between rootstock and boron (B) nutrition. This study aimed to investigate how B affects the anatomical structure of roots and leaves as well as leaf gas exchange in sweet orange trees grafted on two contrasting rootstocks in response to B supply. Plants grafted on Swingle citrumelo or Sunki mandarin were grown in a nutrient solution of varying B concentration (deficient, adequate, and excessive). Those grafted on Swingle were more tolerant to both B deficiency and toxicity than those on Sunki, as revealed by higher shoot and root growth. In addition, plants grafted on Sunki exhibited more severe anatomical and physiological damages under B deficiency, showing thickening of xylem cell walls and impairments in whole-plant leaf-specific hydraulic conductance and leaf CO2 assimilation. Our data revealed that trees grafted on Swingle sustain better growth under low B availablitlity in the root medium and still respond positively to increased B levels by combining higher B absorption and root growth as well as better organization of xylem vessels. Taken together, those traits improved water and B transport to the plant canopy. Under B toxicity, Swingle rootstock would also favor plant growth by reducing anatomical and ultrastructural damage to leaf tissue and improving water transport compared with plants grafted on Sunki. From a practical point of view, our results highlight that B management in citrus orchards shall take into account rootstock varieties, of which the Swingle rootstock was characterized by its performance on regulating anatomical and ultrastructural damages, improving water transport and limiting negative impacts of B stress conditions on plant growth.

  14. Transcriptome Profiling to Understand the Effect of Citrus Rootstocks on the Growth of 'Shatangju' Mandarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang-Yu; Li, Juan; Liu, Meng-Meng; Yao, Qing; Chen, Jie-Zhong

    2017-01-01

    To obtain insight into potential mechanisms underlying the influence of rootstock on scion growth, we performed a comparative analysis of 'Shatangju' mandarin grafted onto 5 rootstocks: Fragrant orange (Citrus junons Sieb. ex. Tanaka), Red tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco), 'Shatangju' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), Rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush) and Canton lemon (Citrus limonia Osbeck). The tree size of 'Shatangju' mandarin grafted onto Canton lemon and Rough lemon were the largest, followed by self-rooted rootstock trees, and the lowest tree sizes correspond to ones grafted on Red tangerine and Fragrant orange rootstocks. The levels of indoleacetic acid (IAA) and gibberellin (GA) were significantly and positively related to growth vigor. The differences of gene expression in leaves of trees grafted onto Red tangerine, Canton lemon and 'Shatangju' mandarin were analyzed by RNA-Seq. Results showed that more differentially expressed genes involved in oxidoreductase function, hormonal signal transduction and the glycolytic pathway were enriched in 'Red tangerine vs Canton lemon'. qRT-PCR analysis showed that expression levels of ARF1, ARF8, GH3 and IAA4 were negatively correlated with the growth vigor and IAA content. The metabolism of GA was influenced by the differential expression of KO1 and GA2OX1 in grafted trees. In addition, most of antioxidant enzyme genes were up-regulated in leaves of trees grafted onto Red tangerine, resulting in a higher peroxidase activity. We concluded that different rootstocks significantly affected the expression of genes involved in auxin signal transduction pathway and GA biosynthesis pathway in the grafted plants, and then regulated the hormone levels and their signal pathways.

  15. Anatomical and Physiological Responses of Citrus Trees to Varying Boron Availability Is Dependent on Rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geisa Lima Mesquita

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In Citrus, water, nutrient transport and thereby fruit production, are influenced among other factors, by the interaction between rootstock and boron (B nutrition. This study aimed to investigate how B affects the anatomical structure of roots and leaves as well as leaf gas exchange in sweet orange trees grafted on two contrasting rootstocks in response to B supply. Plants grafted on Swingle citrumelo or Sunki mandarin were grown in a nutrient solution of varying B concentration (deficient, adequate, and excessive. Those grafted on Swingle were more tolerant to both B deficiency and toxicity than those on Sunki, as revealed by higher shoot and root growth. In addition, plants grafted on Sunki exhibited more severe anatomical and physiological damages under B deficiency, showing thickening of xylem cell walls and impairments in whole-plant, leaf-specific hydraulic conductance and leaf CO2 assimilation. Our data revealed that trees grafted on Swingle sustain better growth under low B availablitlity in the root medium and still respond positively to increased B levels by combining higher B absorption and root growth as well as better organization of xylem vessels. Taken together, those traits improved water and B transport to the plant canopy. Under B toxicity, Swingle rootstock would also favor plant growth by reducing anatomical and ultrastructural damage to leaf tissue and improving water transport compared with plants grafted on Sunki. From a practical point of view, our results highlight that B management in citrus orchards shall take into account rootstock varieties, of which the Swingle rootstock was characterized by its performance on regulating anatomical and ultrastructural damages, improving water transport and limiting negative impacts of B stress conditions on plant growth.

  16. Maiden pear trees growth in replant soil after inoculation of rootstocks with mycorrhizal inoculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Świerczyński

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the production of fruit trees it is important to set up a nursery always in a new site, alternatively to follow crop rotation rules. It is not always possible due to the size of a farm and production volume. In order to limit the effects of replant soil one can use different procedures before setting up a nursery. Chemical methods, however, must be replaced with non chemical ones due to environmental protection and reduction of production costs. In the experiment conducted in 2009-2012, growth of maiden pear trees of ‘Conference’ growing on three quince MA, MC, S1 rootstocks, cultivated in replant and non-replant soil after the use of mycorrhizal treatment, was compared. The strongest growth of maiden pear trees was obtained on non-replant soil with mycorrhizal and without mycorrhizal treatment of rootstocks. Inoculation of rootstocks influenced positively the height and fresh mass of the root system of maiden pear trees growing on two considered sites. On the other hand, inoculation did not rise the diameter of stem and number of lateral shoots of the maidens. Influence of mycorrhizal treatment of rootstocks on the length of lateral shoots was not obvious. Significantly the best results of maiden pear trees growth, except for the stem diameter, were obtained on MA quince compared to two other types. The mycorrhizal treatment gave better result of percentage obtained by maiden pear trees only in the replant site. The best efficiency of maiden pear trees in nursery production was observed for MA quince rootstock.

  17. An Automated Field Phenotyping Pipeline for Application in Grapevine Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kicherer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to its perennial nature and size, the acquisition of phenotypic data in grapevine research is almost exclusively restricted to the field and done by visual estimation. This kind of evaluation procedure is limited by time, cost and the subjectivity of records. As a consequence, objectivity, automation and more precision of phenotypic data evaluation are needed to increase the number of samples, manage grapevine repositories, enable genetic research of new phenotypic traits and, therefore, increase the efficiency in plant research. In the present study, an automated field phenotyping pipeline was setup and applied in a plot of genetic resources. The application of the PHENObot allows image acquisition from at least 250 individual grapevines per hour directly in the field without user interaction. Data management is handled by a database (IMAGEdata. The automatic image analysis tool BIVcolor (Berries in Vineyards-color permitted the collection of precise phenotypic data of two important fruit traits, berry size and color, within a large set of plants. The application of the PHENObot represents an automated tool for high-throughput sampling of image data in the field. The automated analysis of these images facilitates the generation of objective and precise phenotypic data on a larger scale.

  18. Fungi inhabiting healthy grapevine canes (Vitis spp. in some nurseries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Król

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study, conducted in the years 2000 - 2002, was to identify fungi species colonizing apparently healthy canes and to investigate whether canes storage modify the quantitative and qualitative composition of these fungi. The plant material was collected from 5 commercial plantations growing in various regions of Poland, taking into consideration 8 cultivars which were the most frequently cultivated. From each plantation and cultivar 20 apparently healthy canes were randomly sampled in two terms: before storage - November/December (term I and 3-4 months after storage - February/March (term II. The results showed that from asymptomatic canes 2746 isolates of fungi belonging to 23 species were obtained, but the majority of them origined from canes analysed after storage. It was found that P. viticola is able to live latently within grapevine tissue in Polish conditions because isolates of this fungus from visually healty canes the all studied plantations and terms were obtained. Among the other fungi species inhabiting grapevine canes Alternaria alternata and Fusarium spp. dominated. Moreover, both in term I and term II Botrytis cinerea, Phoma spp., Epicoccum purpurascens and Cladosporium cladosporioides were frequently isolated, whereas fungi from the genus Acremonium only in the term I. Each time isolates of Trichoderma spp. and Gliocladium spp. were also obtained. Inhabitation of grapevine canes by various fungi species shown in the present experiment indicate the danger of pathogens spread with propagation material on the new plantations.

  19. The Soil Microbiome Influences Grapevine-Associated Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarraonaindia, Iratxe; Owens, Sarah M.; Weisenhorn, Pamela; West, Kristin; Hampton-Marcell, Jarrad; Lax, Simon; Bokulich, Nicholas A.; Mills, David A.; Martin, Gilles; Taghavi, Safiyh; van der Lelie, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Grapevine is a well-studied, economically relevant crop, whose associated bacteria could influence its organoleptic properties. In this study, the spatial and temporal dynamics of the bacterial communities associated with grapevine organs (leaves, flowers, grapes, and roots) and soils were characterized over two growing seasons to determine the influence of vine cultivar, edaphic parameters, vine developmental stage (dormancy, flowering, preharvest), and vineyard. Belowground bacterial communities differed significantly from those aboveground, and yet the communities associated with leaves, flowers, and grapes shared a greater proportion of taxa with soil communities than with each other, suggesting that soil may serve as a bacterial reservoir. A subset of soil microorganisms, including root colonizers significantly enriched in plant growth-promoting bacteria and related functional genes, were selected by the grapevine. In addition to plant selective pressure, the structure of soil and root microbiota was significantly influenced by soil pH and C:N ratio, and changes in leaf- and grape-associated microbiota were correlated with soil carbon and showed interannual variation even at small spatial scales. Diazotrophic bacteria, e.g., Rhizobiaceae and Bradyrhizobium spp., were significantly more abundant in soil samples and root samples of specific vineyards. Vine-associated microbial assemblages were influenced by myriad factors that shape their composition and structure, but the majority of organ-associated taxa originated in the soil, and their distribution reflected the influence of highly localized biogeographic factors and vineyard management. PMID:25805735

  20. Preliminary attempts to biolistic inoculation of grapevine fanleaf virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valat, L; Mode, F; Mauro, M C; Burrus, M

    2003-03-01

    Biolistics has been studied to inoculate grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV), a Nepovirus, to its natural woody host, Vitis sp., and its herbaceous host, Chenopodium quinoa. At first, bombardment conditions for in vitro and greenhouse grown plants were set using the uidA reporter gene. The infectious feature of the cartridges was then evaluated by studying infection of C. quinoa plants. Systemic infection was obtained with either GFLV particles or RNA extracts in experimental conditions which gave also the highest transient uidA gene expression. Concerning grapevine, our results indicate that extrapolation to this plant is difficult. In only 1 out of 8 independent bombardment experiments done with GFLV and 41B, we were able to detect the virus in freshly bombarded leaves. Similarly, later after bombardment, Pol mRNAs were detected once, at days 7 and 14 only. Incubating the plants in darkness, as suggested in the literature, or using Rupestris Saint Georges, an indicator for GFLV presence, did not yield any improvement. Finely, our observations suggest that detection of GFLV in bombarded grapevine tissues by immunological or molecular techniques remains a limiting factor, probably due to an excess of inhibitory compounds released during the biolistic process.

  1. Effects of long term exposure to hydrogen fluoride on grapevines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, F.

    1984-01-01

    Grapevines Vitis vinifera L. Shiraz were exposed to hydrogen fluoride in open-top chambers for 189 days at mean atmospheric fluoride concentrations of 0.27, 0.17 or 0.07 ..mu..g HFm/sup -3/. Grapevines growing under ambient conditions outside the chambers were exposed to a mean atmospheric fluoride concentration of 0.08 ..mu..g HFm/sup -3/. The maximum leaf fluoride concentrations associated with these treatments were 62, 27, 9 and 15 ..mu..g Fg/sup -1/, respectively. Foliar necrosis was first observed on grapevines exposed to 0.27 and 0.17 ..mu..g HFm/sup -3/ after 83 and 99 days, respectively. Exposure to fluoride increased the fluoride content of berries and peduncles, and reduced leaf chlorophyll a and total chlorophyll concentration at both mid-season and harvest. Exposure to 0.17 ..mu..g HF m/sup -3/ was associated with higher total acid content of grapes than other treatments. Fluoride had no significant effect on bunch weight, number of bunches, grape yield, grape water or potential alcohol content, leaf chlorophyll b or leaf protein concentration. The high accumulation of fluoride in peduncles, but low fluoride accumulation in berries, suggests that the peduncle acts to block the translocation of fluoride from sites of uptake to the fruit. 42 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.

  2. Verification of the stomatal conductance of Nebbiolo grapevine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stefania PRINO; Federico SPANNA; Claudio CASSARDO

    2009-01-01

    Wine is one of the most important Italian export products, and Nebbiolo is one of the most respected Italian grapes. In the summer of 2007, a measurement campaign was carried out in a Nebbiolo vineyard located in Vezza d'Alba, near Cuneo, Italy. Using a gauge of trade gases and some other insU'uments, we recorded the stomatal conductance and also some physiological parameters useful for estimating the dependence of stomatal conductance on environmental variables. The goal of this experiment was improving the parameterization of grapevine evapotranspiration through the assessment of the stomatal conductance and, in particular, of the functional dependence of the stomatal conductance on the following variables: the photosynthetically active radiation, the atmospheric temperature, the atmospheric moisture deficit, and the carbon dioxide concentration. The observations allowed us to check and, in some cases, to adapt the existing' general parameterizations found in literature. The results showed some significant differences with the existing parameterizations concerning the atmospheric temperature, the atmospheric moisture deficit, and the carbon dioxide concentration. The parameterizations obtained in this experiment, although referring to a specific plant and site (namely the Nebbiolo at Vezza d'Alba), could allow assessment of the best environmental conditions under which the Nebbiolo grapevine production is the best, and in future could be tested for other grapevines or climates.

  3. Evaluation of grapevine as a host for the glassy-winged sharpshooter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapevine was evaluated as a feeding and oviposition host for the glassy-winged sharpshooter. Two sets of experiments were conducted. The first set compared performance and preference of glassy-winged sharpshooter females for grapevine (cv. Chardonnay) versus cowpea (Vigna unguiculata cultivar black...

  4. Molecular and phenotypic characterisation of novel Phaeoacremonium species isolated from esca diseased grapevines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essakhi, S.; Mugnai, L.; Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Surico, G.

    2008-01-01

    Petri disease and esca are very destructive grapevine decline diseases that occur in most countries where grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is cultivated. Phaeoacremonium species are among the principal hyphomycetes associated with symptoms of the two diseases, producing a range of enzymes and phytotoxic m

  5. Epigenetic repressor-like genes are differentially regulated during grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almada, Rubén; Cabrera, Nuri; Casaretto, José A; Peña-Cortés, Hugo; Ruiz-Lara, Simón; González Villanueva, Enrique

    2011-10-01

    Grapevine sexual reproduction involves a seasonal separation between inflorescence primordia (flowering induction) and flower development. We hypothesized that a repression mechanism implicating epigenetic changes could play a role in the seasonal separation of these two developmental processes in grapevine. Therefore, the expression of five grapevine genes with homology to the Arabidopsis epigenetic repressor genes FERTILIZATION INDEPENDENT ENDOSPERM (FIE), EMBRYONIC FLOWER 2 (EMF2), CURLY LEAF (CLF), MULTICOPY SUPPRESSOR OF IRA 1 (MSI1) and SWINGER (SWN) was analyzed during the development of buds and vegetative and reproductive organs. During bud development, the putative grapevine epigenetic repressor genes VvCLF, VvEMF2, VvMSI1, VvSWN and VvFIE are mainly expressed in latent buds at the flowering induction period, but also detected during bud burst and inflorescence/flower development. The overlapping expression patterns of grapevine PcG-like genes in buds suggest that chromatin remodeling mechanisms could be operating during grapevine bud development for controlling processes such as seasonal flowering, dormancy and bud burst. Furthermore, the expression of grapevine PcG-like genes was also detected in fruits and vegetative organs, suggesting that epigenetic changes could be at the basis of the regulation of various proliferation-differentiation cell transitions that occur during grapevine development.

  6. Molecular and phenotypic characterisation of novel Phaeoacremonium species isolated from esca diseased grapevines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essakhi, S.; Mugnai, L.; Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Surico, G.

    2008-01-01

    Petri disease and esca are very destructive grapevine decline diseases that occur in most countries where grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is cultivated. Phaeoacremonium species are among the principal hyphomycetes associated with symptoms of the two diseases, producing a range of enzymes and phytotoxic

  7. Poliembrionia e atributos morfológicos de sementes de porta-enxertos de citros Polyembryony and morphological seed traits in citrus rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Emilia Vital de Oliveira Duarte

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A poliembrionia é um caráter fundamental no melhoramento genético e na multiplicação comercial de porta-enxertos de citros. Este trabalho avaliou as relações entre poliembrionia e diferentes atributos morfológicos de sementes de 12 genótipos de citros selecionados como porta-enxertos. Foram analisadas 50 sementes por genótipo, quanto a massa, altura, largura, número de embriões, taxa de poliembrionia, grau de dificuldade de extração da testa, coloração da semente, estimada por um matiz das duas notas de cores predominantes, e razão de cor, calculada pela divisão entre a menor e a maior nota do matiz. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância, comparando-se as médias pelo teste de Scott-Knott e determinando-se os coeficientes de correlação de Pearson entre as variáveis (P Seed polyembryony is an important trait for breeding and commercial multiplication of citrus rootstocks. This study evaluated relationships of polyembryony with different morphological seed traits of 12 citrus genotypes selected as rootstocks. The following traits were evaluated individually on 50 seeds per genotype: seed mass, height, width and embryo number, polyembryony level, difficulty for seed coat extraction, and seed color, which was estimated by a two-grade scale representing predominant colors on the endosperm. Data was submitted to variance analyses and the means were compared by the Scott-Knott Test (P < 0.05. Pearson's Correlation Coefficients were determined among all variables for all genotypes and individually. Citrus rootstocks had significantly distinct seed traits and could be classified in three polyembryony groups, with three Rangpur lime selections presenting polyembryony lower than 50% and the citrandarins as totally polyembryonic. Other trifoliate hybrids showed low to intermediate polyembryony. Seed coat extraction was more difficult in smaller seeds. For majority of genotypes, the number of embryos in the seed had

  8. Breeding rootstocks for Prunus species: Advances in genetic and genomics of peach and cherry as a model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Guajardo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Prunus rootstock is an important choice in optimizing productivity of grafted cultivars. Nevertheless, many Prunus rootstocks are notoriously intolerant to hypoxia which is caused by waterlogging and/or heavy soils. There is no available information to help select Prunus rootstocks that are tolerant to stress conditions such as root hypoxia caused by excess moisture. Information from genetic maps has demonstrated a high level of synteny among Prunus species, and this suggests that they all share a similar genomic structure. It should be possible to identify the genetic determinants involved in tolerance to hypoxia and other traits in Prunus rootstocks by applying methods to identify regions of the genome involved in the expression of important traits; these have been developed mainly in peach which is the model species for the genus. Molecular markers that are tightly linked to major genes would be useful in marker-assisted selection (MAS to optimize new rootstock selection. This article provides insight on the advances in the development of molecular markers, genetic maps, and gene identification in Prunus, mainly in peach; the aim is to provide a general approach for identifying the genetic determinants of hypoxia stress in rootstocks.

  9. Preformation in vegetative buds of pistachio (Pistacia vera): relationship to shoot morphology, crown structure and rootstock vigor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, Timothy M; Beede, Robert H; Dejong, Theodore M

    2007-08-01

    Effects of rootstock, shoot carbohydrate status, crop load and crown position on the number of preformed leaf primordia in the dormant terminal and lateral buds of mature and immature 'Kerman' pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) trees were investigated to determine if rootstock vigor is associated with greater shoot preformation. There was no significant variation in preformation related to the factors studied, suggesting strong genetic control of preformation in 'Kerman' pistachio. The growth differences observed among trees on different rootstocks were associated with greater stimulation of neoformed growth in trees on the more vigorous rootstocks. However, most annual extension growth in mature tree crowns was preformed, contrasting with the relatively high rate of neoformation found in young tree crowns. Large amounts of neoformed growth in young trees may allow the trees to become established quickly and secure resources, whereas predominantly preformed growth in mature trees may allow for continued crown expansion without outgrowing available resources. We hypothesized that the stimulation of neoformed growth by the more vigorous rootstocks is associated with greater resource uptake or transport, or both. Understanding the source of variation in shoot extension growth on different rootstocks has important implications for orchard management practices.

  10. Modification of gibberellin biosynthesis in the grafted apple scion allows control of tree height independent of the rootstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulley, Sean M; Wilson, Fiona M; Hedden, Peter; Phillips, Andrew L; Croker, Stephen J; James, David J

    2005-03-01

    The availability of short stature apple scions that required minimal applications of chemical growth retardants and could be used with a range of rootstocks would be of considerable benefit to fruit growers. We have suppressed the expression of a gene encoding the gibberellin (GA) biosynthetic enzyme GA 20-oxidase to reduce the levels of bioactive GAs in a scion variety, resulting in significant reductions in stem height. Application of GA3 reversed the effect. The scion remained dwarfed after grafting on to normally invigorating rootstocks, whilst control plants of the same cultivar displayed the expected vigour when grafted on to these rootstocks. This approach could be applicable to any perennial crop variety, allowing dwarf trees to be obtained on any available rootstock or on their own roots without the need for chemical growth retardant application. In effect, seedlings that are well suited to local conditions (drought, salinity) could be employed as tree rootstocks, as could existing rootstocks valued for characters other than vigour control, such as pest and disease resistance.

  11. Proteomic study participating the enhancement of growth and salt tolerance of bottle gourd rootstock-grafted watermelon seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanjuan; Wang, Liping; Tian, Jing; Li, Jing; Sun, Jin; He, Lizhong; Guo, Shirong; Tezuka, Takafumi

    2012-09-01

    An insertion grafting technique to do research on salt tolerance was applied using watermelon (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Mansf. cv. Xiuli) as a scion and bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Standl. cv. Chaofeng Kangshengwang) as a rootstock. Rootstock-grafting significantly relieved the inhibition of growth and photosynthesis induced by salt stress in watermelon plants. Proteomic analysis revealed 40 different expressed proteins in response to rootstock-grafting and/or salt stress. These proteins were involved in Calvin cycle, amino acids biosynthesis, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, ROS defense, hormonal biosynthesis and signal transduction. Most of these proteins were up-regulated by rootstock-grafting and/or susceptible to salt stress. The enhancement of the metabolic activities of Calvin cycle, biosynthesis of amino acids, carotenoids and peroxisomes, glycolytic pathway and tricarboxylic acid cycle will probably contribute to intensify the biomass and photosynthetic capacity in rootstock-grafted seedlings under condition without salt. The accumulation of key enzymes included in these biological processes described above seems to play an important role in the enhancement of salt tolerance of rootstock-grafted seedlings. Furthermore, leucine-rich repeat transmembrane protein kinase and phospholipase may be involved in transmitting the internal and external stimuli induced by grafting and/or salt stress.

  12. Unveiling inoculum sources of black foot pathogens in a commercial grapevine nursery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Margarida CARDOSO; Inês DINIZ; Ana CABRAL; Cecília REGO; Helena OLIVEIRA

    2013-01-01

    .... In the nursery, the primary infections of the grafted cuttings are mainly attributed to soil-borne inoculum, which could infect the roots and the basal end of rootstocks during the rooting stage...

  13. Assessment of the genetic diversity of the Tunisian citrus rootstock germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snoussi Hager

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Citrus represents a substantial income for farmers in the Mediterranean Basin. However, the Mediterranean citrus industry faces increasing biotic and abiotic constraints. Therefore the breeding and selection of new rootstocks are now of the utmost importance. In Tunisia, in addition to sour orange, the most widespread traditional rootstock of the Mediterranean area, other citrus rootstocks and well adapted to local environmental conditions, are traditionally used and should be important genetic resources for breeding. To characterize the diversity of Tunisian citrus rootstocks, two hundred and one local accessions belonging to four facultative apomictic species (C. aurantium, sour orange; C. sinensis, orange; C. limon, lemon; and C. aurantifolia, lime were collected and genotyped using 20 nuclear SSR markers and four indel mitochondrial markers. Multi-locus genotypes (MLGs were compared to references from French and Spanish collections. Results The differentiation of the four varietal groups was well-marked. The groups displayed a relatively high allelic diversity, primarily due to very high heterozygosity. Sixteen distinct MLGs were identified. Ten of these were noted in sour oranges. However, the majority of the analysed sour orange accessions corresponded with only two MLGs, differentiated by a single allele, likely due to a mutation. The most frequent MLG is shared with the reference sour oranges. No polymorphism was found within the sweet orange group. Two MLGs, differentiated by a single locus, were noted in lemon. The predominant MLG was shared with the reference lemons. Limes were represented by three genotypes. Two corresponded to the 'Mexican lime' and 'limonette de Marrakech' references. The MLG of 'Chiiri' lime was unique. Conclusions The Tunisian citrus rootstock genetic diversity is predominantly due to high heterozygosity and differentiation between the four varietal groups. The phenotypic diversity within the

  14. The Role of Rootstock in Antioxidant Activity of Citrus Fruit: Comparison of Antioxidant Activity of The Fruits of Two Commercial Citrus Varieties With The Fruits of Four Different Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N . Hemmati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: all fruits that called citrus are from rutaceae family and aurantioideae subfamily. This subfamily have more than 33 different genus that only three of its genus (citrus, poncirus and fortunella have economic aspects and in citrus producing country are important. It's reported that orange skin has a phenolic compounds which play a role in natural defense mechanism. Also various compounds of phenolic and antioxidant have a major role in fruit tolerance to stressful condition suh as cold and drought. Metabolites found in citrus fruits have antioxidant properties and it's very useful in pharmaceutical, food and cosmetics industries. Oranges, like other citrus fruits, are an excellent source of vitamin C; Vitamin C is a powerful natural antioxidant. Consumption of foods rich in vitamin C helps the body develop resistance against infectious agents and scavenge harmful, pro-inflammatory free radicals from the blood. Various factors such as rootstock type can effect on quality and quantity of citrus fruits. Also, the usage of rootstock causes the change in plant characteristics such as flowering time, ripening time, fruit quality and antioxidant characters of the fruits. Other factors except the rootstock such as scion, geographical and climate factors are effective on producing secondary metabolites. Also active substances or secondary metabolites are producing by the conduction of genetic processes, but their production are being effected by other factors obviously. The aim of this study is to investigating the biochemical changes grafted tree fruit that affected by rootstock with study the correlation between grafted tree and rootstock changes. Materials and Methods: This study was done to compare the amount of total phenol, total flavonoids and antioxidant features of fruit flesh and skin with investigating the effect of cultivar and rootstock on these parameters based on completely randomized factorial design with three replications

  15. Propagation of Vitis spp. by bench grafting table using different rootstocks and auxins/Propagacao de Vitis spp. pela enxertia de mesa utilizando diferentes porta-enxertos e auxinas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Regina, Murillo De Albuquerque; De Souza, Claudia Rita; Dias, Frederico Alcantara Novelli

    2012-01-01

    .... On the other hand, considering that the healing process of grafted cuttings varies according to the rootstock used, the regional experimentation is necessary for rootstocks varieties available in the...

  16. The detection of viruses and phytoplasmas in dwarfed shoots of grapevine varieties Aurelius and Neuburger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Věra Holleinová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The survey of occurrence of six chosen virus pathogens and phytoplasmas complex was done on plants of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. which showed symptoms of short-shoot syndrom. The results of serological and molecular tests did not confirm either virus or phytoplasma infection as the main source of short-shoot syndrom. The presence of 6 viruses in samples taken from 45 affected plants of grapevine on 4 habitats. The highest occurrence of viruses was found out on habitat Moravská Nová Ves, where all taken samples were infected by Grapevine leafroll-associated virus GLRaV-1 (100 %. In 66 % of the samples taken from that habitat were detected mixed infection of Grapevine virus A and GLRaV-1. These 2 pathogens but were not detected in samples from affected plants from the other habitats or very sporadically – just in 2 plants. Another 4 virus pathogens were detected either sporadically (Grapevine fleck virus, Grapevine leafroll-assoc. virus GLRaV-3, Arabis mosaic virus or not at all (Grapevine fanleaf virus. From 270 tests made to 6 viruses were only 20 positive, e. g. 7.4 %. It means that from 45 plants were 15 infected at least by 1 virus (33 %. The phytoplasmas complex was tested in 28 plants. The result was positive only in 1 plant, by another test the Potato stolbur phytoplasma was confirmed.

  17. Revisiting Vitis vinifera subtilase gene family: a possible role in grapevine resistance against Plasmopara viticola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Figueiredo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Subtilisin-like proteases, also known as subtilases, are a very diverse family of serine peptidases present in many organisms. In grapevine, there are hints of the involvement of subtilases in defence mechanisms, but their role is not yet understood. The first characterization of the subtilase gene family was performed in 2014. However, simultaneously, the grapevine genome was re-annotated and several sequences were re-annotated or retrieved. We have performed a re-characterization of this family in grapevine and identified 82 genes coding for 97 putative proteins, as result of alternative splicing. All the subtilases identified present the characteristic S8 peptidase domain and the majority of them also have a pro-domain I9 inhibitor, a protease-associated (PA domain and a signal peptide for targeting to the secretory pathway. Phylogenetic studies revealed six subtilase groups denominated VvSBT1 to VvSBT6. As several evidences have highlighted the participation of plant subtilases in response to biotic stimulus, we have investigated subtilase participation in grapevine resistance to Plasmopara viticola, the causative agent of downy mildew. Fourteen grapevine subtilases presenting either high homology to P69C from tomato, SBT3.3 from Arabidopsis thaliana or located near the Resistance to Plasmopara viticola (RPV locus were selected. Expression studies were conducted in the grapevine-P. viticola pathosystem with resistant and susceptible cultivars. Our results may indicate that some of grapevine subtilisins are potentially participating in the defence response against this biotrophic oomycete.

  18. Grapevine water absorption in different soils. A spatio-temporal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brillante, Luca; Bois, Benjamin; Lévêque, Jean; Mathieu, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Hillslope vineyards show complex water dynamics between soil and plants. To gain further insight of this relationship, 8 grapevine plots were monitored during two vintages (2011-2013), on Corton Hill, Burgundy, France. Grapevine water status was monitored weekly by surveying water potential, and at harvest, using δ13C analysis of grape juice. Soil volumetric humidity was also measured weekly, using TDR probes. A pedotransfer function was developed to transform Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) into Soil Volume Water and therefore to spatialise and describe variations in space and time in the Fraction of Transpirable Soil Water (FTSW). During the two years of monitoring, grapevines experienced great variation in water status, which ranged from low to substantial water deficit. With this freshly developed method, it was possible to observe differences in water absorption pattern by roots, in different soils, and at different depth. Great heterogeneity was observed, both laterally and vertically in grapevine water absorption. The contribution of each soil region to plant water status varies according to grapevine water status. It is different between day and night and depends from soil characteristics. It is to our knowledge the first time that water absorption by grapevine is revealed in space (2D) and time, and has therefore allowed a deeper comprehension of plant and soil dynamics in grapevine.

  19. Quince 'CPP': new dwarf rootstock for pear trees on organic and high density planting

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Vasconcelos Botelho; Everton Schneider; Danielle Machado; Rafael Piva; Andricia Verlindo

    2012-01-01

    In Brazil, pear production presents the same incipient situation over the last 15 years, due mostly to low production technology. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the development, growth and production of the pear tree cultivars Cascatense, Tenra and Hosui grafted on 'CPP' quince rootstock, using 'FT' pear as interstem. This trial was carried out in Guarapuava, State of Paraná, Southern region of Brazil, by five productive cycles. The pear trees were planted in September of 2004,...

  20. Improving agronomic water use efficiency in tomato by rootstock-mediated hormonal regulation of leaf biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Romero-Aranda, Remedios; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael; Martínez-Andújar, Cristina; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Albacete, Alfonso

    2016-10-01

    Water availability is the most important factor limiting food production, thus developing new scientific strategies to allow crops to more efficiently use water could be crucial in a world with a growing population. Tomato is a highly water consuming crop and improving its water use efficiency (WUE) implies positive economic and environmental effects. This work aimed to study and exploit root-derived hormonal traits to improve WUE in tomato by grafting on selected rootstocks. Firstly, root-related hormonal parameters associated to WUE were identified in a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the wild tomato species Solanum pimpinellifolium. A principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that some hormonal traits were associated with productivity (plant biomass and photosynthesis) and WUE in the RIL population. Leaf ABA concentration was associated to the first component (PC1) of the PCA, which explained a 60% of the variance in WUE, while the ethylene precursor ACC and the ratio ACC/ABA were also associated to PC1 but in the opposite direction. Secondly, we selected RILs according to their extreme biomass (high, B, low, b) and water use (high, W, low, w), and studied the differential effect of shoot and root on WUE by reciprocal grafting. In absence of any imposed stress, there were no rootstock effects on vegetative shoot growth and water relations. Finally, we exploited the previously identified root-related hormonal traits by grafting a commercial tomato variety onto the selected RILs to improve WUE. Interestingly, rootstocks that induced low biomass and water use, 'bw', improved fruit yield and WUE (defined as fruit yield/water use) by up to 40% compared to self-grafted plants. Although other hormonal factors appear implicated in this response, xylem ACC concentration seems an important root-derived trait that inhibits leaf growth but does not limit fruit yield. Thus tomato WUE can be improved exploiting rootstock-derived hormonal signals

  1. Different adaptation strategies of two citrus scion/rootstock combinations in response to drought stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho Filho, Mauricio Antônio; Morillon, Raphaël; Bonatto, Diego; da Silva Gesteira, Abelmon

    2017-01-01

    Scion/rootstock interaction is important for plant development and for breeding programs. In this context, polyploid rootstocks presented several advantages, mainly in relation to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here we analyzed the response to drought of two different scion/rootstock combinations presenting different polyploidy: the diploid (2x) and autotetraploid (4x) Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia, Osbeck) rootstocks grafted with 2x Valencia Delta sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) scions, named V/2xRL and V/4xRL, respectively. Based on previous gene expression data, we developed an interactomic approach to identify proteins involved in V/2xRL and V/4xRL response to drought. A main interactomic network containing 3,830 nodes and 97,652 edges was built from V/2xRL and V/4xRL data. Exclusive proteins of the V/2xRL and V/4xRL networks (2,056 and 1,001, respectively), as well as common to both networks (773) were identified. Functional clusters were obtained and two models of drought stress response for the V/2xRL and V/4xRL genotypes were designed. Even if the V/2xRL plant implement some tolerance mechanisms, the global plant response to drought was rapid and quickly exhaustive resulting in a general tendency to dehydration avoidance, which presented some advantage in short and strong drought stress conditions, but which, in long terms, does not allow the plant survival. At the contrary, the V/4xRL plants presented a response which strong impacts on development but that present some advantages in case of prolonged drought. Finally, some specific proteins, which presented high centrality on interactomic analysis were identified as good candidates for subsequent functional analysis of citrus genes related to drought response, as well as be good markers of one or another physiological mechanism implemented by the plants. PMID:28545114

  2. Oxidative stress homeostasis in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa C Carvalho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants can maintain growth and reproductive success by sensing changes in the environment and reacting through mechanisms at molecular, cellular, physiological and developmental levels. Each stress condition prompts a unique response although some overlap between the reactions to abiotic stress (drought, heat, cold, salt or high light and to biotic stress (pathogens does occur. A common feature in the response to all stresses is the onset of oxidative stress, through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. As hydrogen peroxide and superoxide are involved in stress signaling, a tight control in ROS homeostasis requires a delicate balance of systems involved in their generation and degradation. If the plant lacks the capacity to generate scavenging potential, this can ultimately lead to death. In grapevine, antioxidant homeostasis can be considered at whole plant levels and during the development cycle. The most striking example lies in berries and their derivatives, such as wine, with nutraceutical properties associated with their antioxidant capacity. Antioxidant homeostasis is tightly regulated in leaves, assuring a positive balance between photosynthesis and respiration, explaining the tolerance of many grapevine varieties to extreme environments.In this review we will focus on antioxidant metabolites, antioxidant enzymes, transcriptional regulation and cross-talk with hormones prompted by abiotic stress conditions. We will also discuss three situations that require specific homeostasis balance: biotic stress, the oxidative burst in berries at veraison and in vitro systems. The genetic plasticity of the antioxidant homeostasis response put in evidence by the different levels of tolerance to stress presented by grapevine varieties will be addressed. The gathered information is relevant to foster varietal adaptation to impending climate changes, to assist breeders in choosing the more adapted varieties and to suitable viticulture

  3. Sweet orange trees grafted on selected rootstocks fertilized with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium Laranjas-doce sobre diferentes porta-enxertos adubadas com nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio

    OpenAIRE

    José Antônio Quaggio; Dirceu Mattos Junior; Heitor Cantarella; Eduardo Sanches Stuchi; Otávio Ricardo Sempionato

    2004-01-01

    The majority of citrus trees in Brazil are grafted on 'Rangpur lime' (Citrus limonia Osb.) rootstock. Despite its good horticultural performance, search for disease tolerant rootstock varieties to improve yield and longevity of citrus groves has increased. The objective of this work was to evaluate yield efficiency of sweet oranges on different rootstocks fertilized with N, P, and potassium. Tree growth was affected by rootstock varieties; trees on 'Swingle' citrumelo [Poncirus trifoliata (L....

  4. Salt tolerance of precocious-dwarf cashew rootstocks: physiological and growth indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carneiro Paulo Torres

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The cashew crop (Anacardium occiedentale L. is of great economic and social importance for Northeast Brazil, a region usually affected by water and soil salinity. The present study was conducted in a greenhouse to evaluate the effects of four salinity levels established through electrical conductivity of irrigation water (ECw: 0.7, 1.4, 2.1 and 2.8 dS m-1, at 25ºC, on growth and physiological indexes of five rootstocks of dwarf-precocious cashew varieties CCP06, CCP09, CCP1001, EMBRAPA50, and EMBRAPA51. Plant height, leaf area, dry weight of root, shoot and total; water content of leaves, root/shoot ratio, leaf area ratio, absolute and relative growth rates and rate of net assimilation were evaluated. The majority of the evaluated variables were found to be affected by ECw and the effects varied among clones; however, no significant interactive effects were observed for factors. The value of ECw = 1.39 dS m-1 was considered as a threshold tolerance for the precocious cashew rootstocks used in this study. The dwarf-precocious cashew is moderately sensible to soil salinity during the formation phase of rootstock. Clones EMBRAPA51 and EMBRAPA50 presented, respectively, the least and the best development indexes.

  5. Is rootstock-induced dwarfing in olive an effect of reduced plant hydraulic efficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, Andrea; Gascó, Antonio; Raimondo, Fabio; Gortan, Emmanuelle; Lo Gullo, Maria A; Caruso, Tiziano; Salleo, Sebastiano

    2006-09-01

    We investigated the hydraulic architecture of young olive trees either self-rooted or grafted on rootstocks with contrasting size-controlling potential. Clones of Olea europea L. (Olive) cv 'Leccino' inducing vigorous scion growth (Leccino 'Minerva', LM) or scion dwarfing (Leccino 'Dwarf', LD) were studied in different scion/rootstock combinations (LD, LM, LD/LD, LM/LM, LD/LM and LM/LD). Shoots growing on LD root systems developed about 50% less leaf surface area than shoots growing on LM root systems. Root systems accounted for 60-70% of plant hydraulic resistance (R), whereas hydraulic resistance of the graft union was negligible. Hydraulic conductance (K = 1/R) of LD root systems was up to 2.5 times less than that of LM root systems. Total leaf surface area (A(L)) was closely and positively related to root hydraulic conductance so that whole-plant hydraulic conductance scaled by A(L) did not differ between experimental groups. Accordingly, maximum transpiration rate and minimum leaf water potential did not differ significantly among experimental groups. We conclude that reduced root hydraulic conductance may explain rootstock-induced dwarfing in olive.

  6. Chemical characteristics of grape juices from different cultivar and rootstock combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Mirela Resende Nassur

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of different combinations of grape cultivars and rootstocks on chemical characteristics of grape juices. Six treatments were evaluated, consisting of combinations between the Isabel Precoce and BRS Cora grape cultivars and the 'IAC 766', 'IAC 313', and 'IAC 572' rootstocks. Approximately 10 L of juice were obtained per treatment. Analyses of color, total soluble solids content, pH, anthocyanins, total phenolics, total sugars, and quantification and identification of biogenic amines by HPLC were performed. Biogenic amines, such as putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, and spermine, were found in all evaluated cultivars. By principal component analysis (PCA, treatments can be divided into two groups, according to the cultivar. Juices obtained from 'Isabel Precoce' are characterized by higher levels of total sugar content and soluble solids; however, juices from 'BRS Cora' are positively correlated with phenolic content, anthocyanins, and color and acidity parameters. The differences found by PCA for juices from the Isabel Precoce and BRS Cora cultivars indicate that, regardless of the rootstock used, the most important factor in the chemical characterization of juices is the grape cultivar.

  7. Simple sequence repeat-based assessment of genetic relationships among Prunus rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkoglu, Z; Bilgener, S; Ercisli, S; Bakir, M; Koc, A; Akbulut, M; Gercekcioglu, R; Gunes, M; Esitken, A

    2010-11-03

    Ten SSR loci, previously developed for Prunus, were analyzed to examine genetic relationships among 23 rootstock candidates for sweet and sour cherries, of the species P. avium, P. cerasus, P. mahaleb, and P. angustifolia. Five genotypes of P. laurocerasus, not used as rootstock, were included in the molecular analysis. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 8 to 12, with a mean of 9, while the number of microsatellite genotypes varied from 8 to 17, indicating that the SSRs were highly informative. The degree of heterozygosity (0.61) was high. Clustering analysis resulted in two main clusters. The first cluster was divided into two subclusters; the first subcluster consisted of P. avium and P. cerasus, and the second subcluster consisted of P. laurocerasus. The second cluster was divided into two subclusters. The first subcluster consisted of P. mahaleb genotypes and the second consisted of P. angustifolia genotypes. The reference rootstocks also clustered with their associated botanical species. Unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean analysis demonstrated that P. laurocerasus genotypes had less genetic variation and that P. avium genotypes were more closely related to P. cerasus. The SSR-based phylogeny was generally consistent with Prunus taxonomy information, suggesting the applicability of SSR analysis for genotyping and phylogenetic studies in the genus Prunus.

  8. The effects of different salt concentrations on growth and chlorophyll content of some pumpkin rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Köksal AYDİNŞAKİR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of different salinity levels, (0.7, 4.0, 8.0, 12.0, 16.0 dS m-1 on some physiological parameters of Obez F1, Ferro F1, RS841 F1, which are used as rootstocks in watermelon cultivation. Salty irrigation water was obtained through mixing of NaCl and CaCl2 salt into tap water. When the plants were at the 3-4 leaf stage, different salinity levels were applied. Plants were harvested during the phase of florescence. The study was carried out using split plots in randomized complete block design while rootstocks are main plot, salinity levels are sub-plot with three replications. While the salinity level was increasing, the physiological parameters decreased in each three rootstocks. While the plant height changed between 14.4-107.1 cm, the plant leaf area varied between 152.0-2182.7 cm2. Chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b and total carotenoid values decreased as the salinity level increased. Excluding the maximum value obtained from control plot, the highest chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, and total carotenoid values were obtained in Obez variety under 4.0 dS m-1 application with 14.8 mg l-1, 12.8 mg l-1 and 0.28 mg g-1 fw, respectively.

  9. Delivery of Nucleic Acids and Proteins from Grafted Rootstocks for Pathogen and Pest Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor eHaroldsen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Grafting has been used in agriculture for over two thousand years. With modern advances in biotechnology, new options for utilizing this proven horticultural technique are emerging. Specifically, trans-grafting, the combination of a genetically engineered (GE rootstock with a wild-type (WT scion, has the potential to provide biotic and abiotic stress tolerance or to increase plant vigor and productivity. Yet, it is unclear whether nucleic acids and proteins will be transmitted across a graft and, if so, whether this movement may affect the efficacy of the trans-grafting approach and/or regulatory oversight of the WT scion and its products. There are reports of the movement of organellar DNA and cellular mRNAs and proteins across graft unions, but to what extent these molecules affect performance of the scion is not clear. Strategies that can be used to limit or enhance nucleic acid or protein movement in order to maximize trans-grafting benefits have not been defined. This paper reviews, using specific examples, the transport of nucleic acids and proteins between rootstock and scion with the objectives of increasing the benefits grafting, particularly for pathogen resistance and defining how use of GE rootstocks effectively extends the horticultural utility of grafting.

  10. Development Correlations of the Buds of Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana ROTARU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The development characteristics of different buds of the grapevine are mainly related by stimulation and/or inhibition effects, the action of which is still inexplicable. The present study examines the development dynamics of the buds of a one-year old branch after excision of different buds and the application of ?-naphtyl acetic acid (ANA, as well as the growth capacity of each bud individually. We verified the effects of acrotony cited previously by various researchers. These effects are due to different developmental characteristics of which could to lay the groundwork for the improvement of different productions methods.

  11. Dwarifng apple rootstock responses to elevated temperatures:A study on plant physiological features and transcription level of related genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Bei-bei; SUN Jian; LIU Song-zhong; JIN Wan-mei; ZHANG Qiang; WEI Qin-ping

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of heat stress on physiological features, together with endogenous hormones and the transcription level of related genes, to estimate the heat resistance ability and stress injury mechanism of different dwarifng apple rootstocks. Among the six rootstocks, the rootstocks of native Shao series (SH series) showed better heat stress resistance than those of Budagovski 9 (B9), Cornel-Geneva 24 (CG24), and Maling 26 (M26) from abroad. Among SH series rootstocks, SH1 and SH6 showed higher heat stress resistance than SH40. M26 demonstrated the lowest adaption ability to heat stress, showing higher leaf conductivity and lower liquid water content (LWC) with the increase in temperature. Heat stress also resulted in the suppression of photosynthesis, which showed no signiifcant res-toration after 7-day recovery. It should be noted that although a higher temperature led to a lower LWC and photosynthetic efifciency (Pn) of CG24, there was no signiifcant increase in leaf conductivity, and 7 days after the treatment, thePn of CG24 recovered. The extremely high temperature tolerance of SH series rootstocks could be related to the greater osmotic ad-justment (OA), which was relfected by smaler reductions in leaf relative water content (RWC) and higher turgor potentials and leaf gas exchange compared with the other rootstocks. Determination of hormones indicated multivariate regulation, and it is presumed that a relatively stable expression levels of functional genes under high-temperature stress is necessary for heat stress resistance of rootstocks.

  12. The relationship between root hydraulics and scion vigour across Vitis rootstocks: what role do root aquaporins play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambetta, G A; Manuck, C M; Drucker, S T; Shaghasi, T; Fort, K; Matthews, M A; Walker, M A; McElrone, A J

    2012-11-01

    Vitis vinifera scions are commonly grafted onto rootstocks of other grape species to influence scion vigour and provide resistance to soil-borne pests and abiotic stress; however, the mechanisms by which rootstocks affect scion physiology remain unknown. This study characterized the hydraulic physiology of Vitis rootstocks that vary in vigour classification by investigating aquaporin (VvPIP) gene expression, fine-root hydraulic conductivity (Lp(r)), % aquaporin contribution to Lp(r), scion transpiration, and the size of root systems. Expression of several VvPIP genes was consistently greater in higher-vigour rootstocks under favourable growing conditions in a variety of media and in root tips compared to mature fine roots. Similar to VvPIP expression patterns, fine-root Lp(r) and % aquaporin contribution to Lp(r) determined under both osmotic (Lp(r)(Osm)) and hydrostatic (Lp(r)(Hyd)) pressure gradients were consistently greater in high-vigour rootstocks. Interestingly, the % aquaporin contribution was nearly identical for Lp(r)(Osm) and Lp(r)(Hyd) even though a hydrostatic gradient would induce a predominant flow across the apoplastic pathway. In common scion greenhouse experiments, leaf area-specific transpiration (E) and total leaf area increased with rootstock vigour and were positively correlated with fine-root Lp(r). These results suggest that increased canopy water demands for scion grafted onto high-vigour rootstocks are matched by adjustments in root-system hydraulic conductivity through the combination of fine-root Lp(r) and increased root surface area.

  13. Comparative detection of a large population of grapevine viruses by TaqMan(®) RT-qPCR and ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruisson, Sébastien; Lebel, Sylvain; Walter, Bernard; Prevotat, Laurent; Seddas, Sam; Schellenbaum, Paul

    2017-02-01

    Grapevine (Vitis spp.) can be infected by numerous viruses that are often widespread and of great economic importance. Reliable detection methods are necessary for sanitary selection which is the only way to partly control grapevine virus diseases. Biological indexing and ELISA are currently the standard methods for screening propagation material, and PCR-methods are becoming increasingly popular. Due to the diversity of virus isolates, it is essential to verify that the tests allow the detection of the largest possible virus populations. We developed three quadruplex TaqMan(®) RT-qPCR assays for detecting nine different viruses that cause considerable damage in many vineyards world-wide. Each assay is designed to detect three viruses and the grapevine Actin as an internal control. A large population of grapevines from diverse cultivars and geographic location was tested for the presence of nine viruses: Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV), Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV), Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV), Grapevine leafroll-associated viruses (GLRaV-1, -2, -3), Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus (GRSPaV), Grapevine virus A (GVA), and Grapevine virus B (GVB). In general, identical results were obtained with multiplex TaqMan(®) RT-qPCR and ELISA although, in some cases, viruses could be detected by only one of the two techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Apple Rootstock New Variety Chistock #1%苹果砧木新品种中砧1号

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩振海; 王忆; 张新忠; 许雪峰; 孙扬吾; 沈隽

    2013-01-01

    The iron has a very important role in the growth and development of the plant,iron deficiency causes chlorosis in apple trees.The main producing areas of apple in China just iron deficiency,therefore,filter out iron-efficient resources from rich apple germplasm resources,and breeding new varieties of apple rootstocks through breeding means is fundamental pathway to solve due to iron deficiency affected yield and quality of apple production.Since 1984,the project team screened iron-efficient genotypes from 40 apple stocks and found Malus xiaojinensis Cheng et Jiang,grow normally and do not exhibit symptoms of chlorosisin in conditions of very low Fe content,was considered to be an excellent germplasm with tolerance to iron deficiency.Subsequently,open pollinated hybrids groups were established on the basis of M.xiaojinensis Cheng et Jiang seedlings.In 1990,excellent grades was obtained through original selection from natural seedlings.Then after multiple selection and comparison test,bred apple clonal rootstocks Chistock #1.Chistock #1 is a tetraploid in chromosome number (2n =4x =68),with a capacity of apomixis,and setting rate above 85% after emasculation bagged.Then with excellent grafting compatibility,seedling dry good standing and strong solid ground,semi-dwarf,dwarf extent,effects and yield capacity were similar with simi-dwarfing apple rootstock M7.Sweet fruit flavor,palatability,and excellent quality.Resist apple early defoliation disease and branches ring rot,high resistance to apple Chlorotic leaf spot virus(CLSV),Stem pitting virus(SPV) and the Stem groove virus(SGV) and other latent virus.Chistock #1 can effectively prevent etiolation due to iron deficiency as apple rootstock in the lime parent material soil areas.%铁是植物生长的必需微量元素,缺铁导致苹果发生失绿症,生长结果受到影响.我国苹果主产区恰在缺铁区域范围内,因此,从丰富的苹果种质资源中筛选出铁高效型资源,通

  15. Influence of epiphytic bacteria from grapevine leaves on Phomopsis viticola Sacc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Król

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Out of 282 isolates of epiphytic bacteria population originating from grapevine leaves 15% inhibited growth of Phomopsis viticola on potato-dextrose agar. Protective activity of 16 isolates, representing different morphological groups was tested on one-year old of grapevine stems fragments. Majority of bacterial isolates which inhibited the fungus growth in-vitro provided no protection of stems fragments against P. viticola. The efficiency of protection activity of bacterial isolates tested decreased with time. The most effective isolates of bacteria in protection of grapevine stemswere identified as Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas fluorescens.

  16. Determination of the activity signature of key carbohydrate metabolism enzymes in phenolic-rich grapevine tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Covington, Elizabeth Dunn; Roitsch, Thomas Georg; Dermastia, Marina

    2016-01-01

    assays for enzymes of primary carbohydrate metabolism, while based on our recently published one for quantitative measurement of activities using coupled spectrophotometric assays in a 96-well format, is tailored to the complexities of phenolic- and anthocyanin-rich extracts from grapevine leaf....... As a case study we applied the protocol to grapevine leaf samples infected with plant pathogenic bacteria 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani', known to alter carbohydrate metabolism in grapevine. The described adaptations may be useful for determination of metabolic fingerprints for physiological phenotyping...

  17. The effect of different types of rootstock on the quality of maiden trees of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. cv. ‘Regina’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Baryła

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the period 2006–2009 in Lublin, a study was conducted to determine the effect of five types of rootstock: ‘Colt’, ‘F12/1’, sweet cherry (Prunus avium L., ‘GiSelA 5’ and ‘Piast’ mahaleb cherry (Prunus mahaleb L., on the growth and quality of maiden sweet cherry trees cv. ‘Regina’ in a commercial nursery. Based on the three-year average, rootstocks were shown to have a significant effect on the investigated quality characteristics of maiden sweet cherry trees. Trees budded on ‘Colt’ vegetative rootstock were characterized by strongest growth and best quality. In each year, they were thicker, higher and better branched than sweet cherries on the rootstock. Under the tested conditions, ‘GiSelA 5’ dwarf rootstock significantly reduced the growth and quality of budded sweet cherry trees in the nursery. During the period 2007–2009, no physiological incompatibility symptoms were observed ‘Regina’ sweet cherry cv. and ‘Piast’ seedling rootstocks. The growth of trees budded on ‘Piast’ mahaleb cherry was poorer than on ‘Colt’ clonal rootstock, but it was stronger than on ‘F12/1’ and Prunus avium L. rootstocks.

  18. Yield, fruit quality traits and leaf nutrient concentration of sapodilla cv ‘Prolific’ grafted onto 16 rootstocks in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research on sapodilla has been very limited. A field study was conducted to determine the yield potential, fruit quality traits, leaf nutrient composition and scion/rootstock compatibility of cultivar ‘Prolific’ grafted onto 16 sapodilla rootstocks. For this purpose cultivars ‘Adelaide’, ‘Arcilago’...

  19. Grapevine Pathogenic Microorganisms: Understanding Infection Strategies and Host Response Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armijo, Grace; Schlechter, Rudolf; Agurto, Mario; Muñoz, Daniela; Nuñez, Constanza; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the most important fruit crop worldwide. Commercial cultivars are greatly affected by a large number of pathogenic microorganisms that cause diseases during pre- and/or post-harvest periods, affecting production, processing and export, along with fruit quality. Among the potential threats, we can find bacteria, fungi, oomycete, or viruses with different life cycles, infection mechanisms and evasion strategies. While plant-pathogen interactions are cycles of resistance and susceptibility, resistance traits from natural resources are selected and may be used for breeding purposes and for a sustainable agriculture. In this context, here we summarize some of the most important diseases affecting V. vinifera together with their causal agents. The aim of this work is to bring a comprehensive review of the infection strategies deployed by significant types of pathogens while understanding the host response in both resistance and susceptibility scenarios. New approaches being used to uncover grapevine status during biotic stresses and scientific-based procedures needed to control plant diseases and crop protection are also addressed.

  20. Mitochondria change dynamics and morphology during grapevine leaf senescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ruberti

    Full Text Available Leaf senescence is the last stage of development of an organ and is aimed to its ordered disassembly and nutrient reallocation. Whereas chlorophyll gradually degrades during senescence in leaves, mitochondria need to maintain active to sustain the energy demands of senescing cells. Here we analysed the motility and morphology of mitochondria in different stages of senescence in leaves of grapevine (Vitis vinifera, by stably expressing a GFP (green fluorescent protein reporter targeted to these organelles. Results show that mitochondria were less dynamic and markedly changed morphology during senescence, passing from the elongated, branched structures found in mature leaves to enlarged and sparse organelles in senescent leaves. Progression of senescence in leaves was not synchronous, since changes in mitochondria from stomata were delayed. Mitochondrial morphology was also analysed in grapevine cell cultures. Mitochondria from cells at the end of their growth curve resembled those from senescing leaves, suggesting that cell cultures might represent a useful model system for senescence. Additionally, senescence-associated mitochondrial changes were observed in plants treated with high concentrations of cytokinins. Overall, morphology and dynamics of mitochondria might represent a reliable senescence marker for plant cells.

  1. Mitochondria change dynamics and morphology during grapevine leaf senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruberti, Cristina; Barizza, Elisabetta; Bodner, Martina; La Rocca, Nicoletta; De Michele, Roberto; Carimi, Francesco; Lo Schiavo, Fiorella; Zottini, Michela

    2014-01-01

    Leaf senescence is the last stage of development of an organ and is aimed to its ordered disassembly and nutrient reallocation. Whereas chlorophyll gradually degrades during senescence in leaves, mitochondria need to maintain active to sustain the energy demands of senescing cells. Here we analysed the motility and morphology of mitochondria in different stages of senescence in leaves of grapevine (Vitis vinifera), by stably expressing a GFP (green fluorescent protein) reporter targeted to these organelles. Results show that mitochondria were less dynamic and markedly changed morphology during senescence, passing from the elongated, branched structures found in mature leaves to enlarged and sparse organelles in senescent leaves. Progression of senescence in leaves was not synchronous, since changes in mitochondria from stomata were delayed. Mitochondrial morphology was also analysed in grapevine cell cultures. Mitochondria from cells at the end of their growth curve resembled those from senescing leaves, suggesting that cell cultures might represent a useful model system for senescence. Additionally, senescence-associated mitochondrial changes were observed in plants treated with high concentrations of cytokinins. Overall, morphology and dynamics of mitochondria might represent a reliable senescence marker for plant cells.

  2. Climate change impacts and adaptive strategies: lessons from the grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosedale, Jonathan R; Abernethy, Kirsten E; Smart, Richard E; Wilson, Robert J; Maclean, Ilya M D

    2016-11-01

    The cultivation of grapevines for winemaking, known as viticulture, is widely cited as a climate-sensitive agricultural system that has been used as an indicator of both historic and contemporary climate change. Numerous studies have questioned the viability of major viticulture regions under future climate projections. We review the methods used to study the impacts of climate change on viticulture in the light of what is known about the effects of climate and weather on the yields and quality of vineyard harvests. Many potential impacts of climate change on viticulture, particularly those associated with a change in climate variability or seasonal weather patterns, are rarely captured. Key biophysical characteristics of viticulture are often unaccounted for, including the variability of grapevine phenology and the exploitation of microclimatic niches that permit successful cultivation under suboptimal macroclimatic conditions. We consider how these same biophysical characteristics permit a variety of strategies by which viticulture can adapt to changing climatic conditions. The ability to realize these strategies, however, is affected by uneven exposure to risks across the winemaking sector, and the evolving capacity for decision-making within and across organizational boundaries. The role grape provenance plays in shaping perceptions of wine value and quality illustrates how conflicts of interest influence decisions about adaptive strategies within the industry. We conclude by considering what lessons can be taken from viticulture for studies of climate change impacts and the capacity for adaptation in other agricultural and natural systems. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Dissipation of glyphosate from grapevine soils in Sonora, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma J. Salazar López

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine is one of the important crops in Sonora, due to revenue generation from its export to foreign countries. Among the most widely used herbicides for this crop is glyphosate, which is considered moderately toxic and persistent. The present research evaluates the dissipation of glyphosate in grapevine planted soil at three depths (5, 30 and 60 cm. Sampling was carried out before glyphosate application, and 5, 10, 18, 27, and 65 days after. Glyphosate was extracted from soil samples using ammonium hydroxide. The derivate extracts were partitioned with dichloromethane and analyzed using gas chromatography with pulsed flame photometric detector (PFPD. The results showed that average glyphosate residues are significantly greater at 5 cm (0.09 mg kg-1 than the other depths (30 and 60 cm, having a difference of 0.078 mg kg-1 between them (P < 0.03. Glyphosate concentration time profiles were similar; it reached maximum soil concentration in a range of 10 to 18 days after application. The half-life of glyphosate in soil has an average of 39 days at all depths. Our data suggests that the release in soil of glyphosate applied to weeds delays its transference to soil by 14 days, and extends residue half life to 55 days after application. These results could be the basis for further research, including more environmental parameters that could affect the dissipation or degradation process in soil.

  4. Precision breeding of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) for improved traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Dennis J; Li, Zhijian T; Dhekney, Sadanand A

    2014-11-01

    This review provides an overview of recent technological advancements that enable precision breeding to genetically improve elite cultivars of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). Precision breeding, previously termed "cisgenic" or "intragenic" genetic improvement, necessitates a better understanding and use of genomic resources now becoming accessible. Although it is now a relatively simple task to identify genetic elements and genes from numerous "omics" databases, the control of major agronomic and enological traits often involves the currently unknown participation of many genes and regulatory machineries. In addition, genetic evolution has left numerous vestigial genes and sequences without tangible functions. Thus, it is critical to functionally test each of these genetic entities to determine their real-world functionality or contribution to trait attributes. Toward this goal, several diverse techniques now are in place, including cell culture systems to allow efficient plant regeneration, advanced gene insertion techniques, and, very recently, resources for genomic analyses. Currently, these techniques are being used for high-throughput expression analysis of a wide range of grapevine-derived promoters and disease-related genes. It is envisioned that future research efforts will be extended to the study of promoters and genes functioning to enhance other important traits, such as fruit quality and vigor.

  5. Bioactive stilbenes from Vitis vinifera grapevine shoots extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaher, Nassima; Arraki, Kamel; Dillinseger, Elsa; Temsamani, Hamza; Bernillon, Stéphane; Pedrot, Eric; Delaunay, Jean-Claude; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Monti, Jean-Pierre; Izard, Jean-Claude; Atmani, Djebbar; Richard, Tristan

    2014-03-30

    Viticultural residues from commercial viticultural activities represent a potentially important source of bioactive stilbenes such as resveratrol. The main aim of the present study was therefore to isolate, identify and perform biological assays against amyloid-β peptide aggregation of original stilbenes from Vitis vinifera shoots. A new resveratrol oligomer, (Z)-cis-miyabenol C (3), was isolated from Vitis vinifera grapevine shoots together with two newly reported oligostilbenes from Vitis vinifera shoots, vitisinol C (1) and (E)-cis-miyabenol C (2), and six known compounds: piceatannol, resveratrol, (E)-ε-viniferin (trans-ε-viniferin), ω-viniferin, vitisinol C and (E)-miyabenol C. The structures of these resveratrol derivatives were established on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis including nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. All the newly reported compounds were tested for their anti-aggregative activity against amyloid-β fibril formation. Vitisinol C was found to exert a significant activity against amyloid-β aggregation. Vitis vinifera grapevine shoots are potentially interesting as a source of new bioactive stilbenes, such as vitisinol C. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Phytotoxins Produced by Fungi Associated with Grapevine Trunk Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Evidente

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Up to 60 species of fungi in the Botryosphaeriaceae family, genera Cadophora, Cryptovalsa, Cylindrocarpon, Diatrype, Diatrypella, Eutypa, Eutypella, Fomitiporella, Fomitiporia, Inocutis, Phaeoacremonium and Phaeomoniella have been isolated from decline-affected grapevines all around the World. The main grapevine trunk diseases of mature vines are Eutypa dieback, the esca complex and cankers caused by the Botryospheriaceae, while in young vines the main diseases are Petri and black foot diseases. To understand the mechanism of these decline-associated diseases and the symptoms associated with them, the toxins produced by the pathogens involved in these diseases were isolated and characterised chemically and biologically. So far the toxins of only a small number of these decline fungi have been studied. This paper presents an overview of the toxins produced by the most serious of these vine wood pathogens: Eutypa lata, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, Phaeoacremonium aleophilum and some taxa in the Botryosphaeriaceae family, and examines how these toxins produce decline symptoms. The chemical structure of these metabolites and in some cases their vivotoxin nature are also discussed.

  7. Phytotoxins produced by fungi associated with grapevine trunk diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andolfi, Anna; Mugnai, Laura; Luque, Jordi; Surico, Giuseppe; Cimmino, Alessio; Evidente, Antonio

    2011-12-01

    Up to 60 species of fungi in the Botryosphaeriaceae family, genera Cadophora, Cryptovalsa, Cylindrocarpon, Diatrype, Diatrypella, Eutypa, Eutypella, Fomitiporella, Fomitiporia, Inocutis, Phaeoacremonium and Phaeomoniella have been isolated from decline-affected grapevines all around the World. The main grapevine trunk diseases of mature vines are Eutypa dieback, the esca complex and cankers caused by the Botryospheriaceae, while in young vines the main diseases are Petri and black foot diseases. To understand the mechanism of these decline-associated diseases and the symptoms associated with them, the toxins produced by the pathogens involved in these diseases were isolated and characterised chemically and biologically. So far the toxins of only a small number of these decline fungi have been studied. This paper presents an overview of the toxins produced by the most serious of these vine wood pathogens: Eutypa lata, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, Phaeoacremonium aleophilum and some taxa in the Botryosphaeriaceae family, and examines how these toxins produce decline symptoms. The chemical structure of these metabolites and in some cases their vivotoxin nature are also discussed.

  8. Phenoliner: A New Field Phenotyping Platform for Grapevine Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kicherer, Anna; Herzog, Katja; Bendel, Nele; Klück, Hans-Christian; Backhaus, Andreas; Wieland, Markus; Rose, Johann Christian; Klingbeil, Lasse; Läbe, Thomas; Hohl, Christian; Petry, Willi; Kuhlmann, Heiner; Seiffert, Udo; Töpfer, Reinhard

    2017-07-14

    In grapevine research the acquisition of phenotypic data is largely restricted to the field due to its perennial nature and size. The methodologies used to assess morphological traits and phenology are mainly limited to visual scoring. Some measurements for biotic and abiotic stress, as well as for quality assessments, are done by invasive measures. The new evolving sensor technologies provide the opportunity to perform non-destructive evaluations of phenotypic traits using different field phenotyping platforms. One of the biggest technical challenges for field phenotyping of grapevines are the varying light conditions and the background. In the present study the Phenoliner is presented, which represents a novel type of a robust field phenotyping platform. The vehicle is based on a grape harvester following the concept of a moveable tunnel. The tunnel it is equipped with different sensor systems (RGB and NIR camera system, hyperspectral camera, RTK-GPS, orientation sensor) and an artificial broadband light source. It is independent from external light conditions and in combination with artificial background, the Phenoliner enables standardised acquisition of high-quality, geo-referenced sensor data.

  9. The Effect of Water Stress on Some Morphological, Physiological, and Biochemical Characteristics and Bud Success on Apple and Quince Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Bolat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different water stress (control, medium, and severe on some morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics and bud success of M9 apple and MA quince rootstocks were determined. The results showed that water stress significantly affected most morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics as well as budding success on the both rootstocks. The increasing water stress decreased the relative shoot length, diameter, and plant total fresh and dry weights. Leaf relative water content and chlorophyll index decreased while electrolyte leakage increased with the increase of water stress in both rootstocks. An increase in water stress also resulted in reduction in budding success in Vista Bella/M9 (79.33% and 46.67% and Santa Maria/MA (70.33% and 15.33% combinations. However, the water stress in Santa Maria/MA was more prominent. The increase in water stress resulted in higher peroxidase activities as well as phenol contents in both rootstocks. Although catalase activity, anthocyanin, and proline contents increased with the impact of stress, this was not statistically significant. The results suggest that the impact of stress increased with the increase of water stress; therefore, growers should be careful when using M9 and MA rootstocks in both nursery and orchards where water scarcity is present.

  10. The effect of water stress on some morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics and bud success on apple and quince rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolat, Ibrahim; Dikilitas, Murat; Ercisli, Sezai; Ikinci, Ali; Tonkaz, Tahsin

    2014-01-01

    The effects of different water stress (control, medium, and severe) on some morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics and bud success of M9 apple and MA quince rootstocks were determined. The results showed that water stress significantly affected most morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics as well as budding success on the both rootstocks. The increasing water stress decreased the relative shoot length, diameter, and plant total fresh and dry weights. Leaf relative water content and chlorophyll index decreased while electrolyte leakage increased with the increase of water stress in both rootstocks. An increase in water stress also resulted in reduction in budding success in Vista Bella/M9 (79.33% and 46.67%) and Santa Maria/MA (70.33% and 15.33%) combinations. However, the water stress in Santa Maria/MA was more prominent. The increase in water stress resulted in higher peroxidase activities as well as phenol contents in both rootstocks. Although catalase activity, anthocyanin, and proline contents increased with the impact of stress, this was not statistically significant. The results suggest that the impact of stress increased with the increase of water stress; therefore, growers should be careful when using M9 and MA rootstocks in both nursery and orchards where water scarcity is present.

  11. The effect of rootstocks on the growth and yielding of sour cherry cv. 'Łutówka'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Wociór

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The strength of growth of 'Łutówka' trees was related to the soil quality and the rootstock. Measurements of the tree trunks and the crown size showed that on fertile soil the trees grafted on Mahaleb cherry grew worse, forming by 12% thinner trunks and by over 20% (significantly smaller crowns as compared to Mazzard cherry trees. On poor sandy-loamy soil the crowns of trees grafted on Mahaleb were significantly, more than 40% bigger than those on Mazzard cherry. No significant differences in the yielding and productivity of trees grafted on Mahaleb and Mazzard cherry trees were found on grey brown podzolic soil. The experiment conducted on sandy-loamy soil pointed to significant differences in the yielding and productivity between 'Łutówka' trees grafted on the studied rootstocks. The trees grafted on Mahaleb cherry in both studied years were characterized by significantly greater productivity than on the other rootstocks. Significantly higher yields were gathered from the trees on Mahaleb cherry than on vegetative rootstocks, and by 70% higher than on Mazzard cherry. P-HL A rootstock is of little use in the planting of 'Łutówka', which grown poorly on light soils. Besides poor growth and yielding, in longer dry periods the studies found the appearance of chlorosis of magnesium on older leaves, and even wilting of the leaves.

  12. Agronomical Parameters, Sugar Profile and Antioxidant Compounds of “Catherine” Peach Cultivar Influenced by Different Plum Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Font i Forcada

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of seven plum rootstocks (Adesoto, Monpol, Montizo, Puebla de Soto 67 AD, PM 105 AD, St. Julien GF 655/2 and Constantí 1 on individual and total sugars, as well as on antioxidant content in fruit flesh of “Catherine” peaches, was evaluated for three years. Agronomical and basic fruit quality parameters were also determined. At twelve years after budding, significant differences were found between rootstocks for the different agronomic and fruit quality traits evaluated. The Pollizo plum rootstocks Adesoto and PM 105 AD seem to induce higher sweetness to peach fruits, based on soluble solids content, individual (sucrose, fructose and sorbitol and total sugars. A clear tendency was also observed with the rootstock Adesoto, inducing the highest content of phenolics, flavonoids, vitamin C and relative antioxidant capacity (RAC. Thus, the results of this study demonstrate the significant effect of rootstock on the sugar profile and phytochemical characteristics of peach fruits. In addition, this work shows the importance of the sugar profile, because specific sugars play an important role in peach flavour quality, as well as the studied phytochemical compounds when looking for high quality peaches with enhanced health properties.

  13. Evaluation of PAL activity, Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents in Three Pistachio (Pistacia vera L. Cultivars Grafted onto Three Different Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nadernejad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL is a biochemical marker of the environmental stress and plays a pivotal role in phenolic synthesis. The lower ROS level and oxidative damage was observed in grafted plants and the rootstocks have a profound influence on the biochemical composition, especially phenolic compounds. Regarding the importance of the effect rootstocks have on scion in pistachio trees, this study was carried out to assess and compare three pistachio cultivars ("Ahmadaghaii", "Ohadi" and "Kallehghuchi" on three rootstocks (Mutica, Ahli, Sarakhs. PAL activity, phenolic compounds, flavonoid and anthocyanin contents in leaves, flowers and fruits were measured toward the selection of the most suitable and compatible rootstock/scion resistant to environmental stresses. The results showed that PAL activity was different among the cultivars and organs. A positive correlation was observed between PAL activity and phenolic compounds in the leaves and flowers of Mutica- Ahmadaghaii, suggesting that it is more resistant than the others to environmental stresses. PAL activity and total phenolics in fruits of pistachio suffered a decrease when the maturation processes began. The hulls of the pistachio fruits contained high levels of phenolic compounds especially in Mutica-Ahmadaghaii suggesting its function as a protective layer and a defense chemical against ultraviolet radiation and pathogen. Our results indicated the presence of a number of bioactive compounds in kernels with the highest amount belonging to Mutica- Ahmadaghaii, and therefore it is concluded that pistachio rootstocks may affect the antioxidant compounds in kernels.

  14. Different Citrus rootstocks present high dissimilarities in their antioxidant activity and vitamins content according to the ripening stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardeñosa, Vanessa; Barros, Lillian; Barreira, João C M; Arenas, Francisco; Moreno-Rojas, José M; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-02-01

    "Lane Late" sweet orange grafted on six different citrus rootstocks and grown in the Guadalquivir valley (Seville, Spain) were picked at different ripening stages in two consecutive seasons to characterize their antioxidant activity (free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition) and quantify their main antioxidant compounds (vitamin E and vitamin C). Linear discriminant analysis and 2-way ANOVA were applied to compare the effects induced by citrus rootstock and ripening stage. The results showed that differences in antioxidant activity and related compounds are mainly dependent on the citrus rootstock, despite ripening stage had also some particular effects. Changes observed in 2012 showed less marked differences among the citrus rootstock. Nevertheless, Cleopatra rootstock showed the highest antioxidant activity in both years, indicating that an increase in its cultivation might be a good solution to sweet orange farmers. Concerning the ripening stage, samples collected in January presented higher vitamin contents, while those collected in April showed higher antioxidant activity. This result allows deciding the harvesting period according to the desired effect.

  15. Physical mapping of three fruit ripening genes:Endopolygalacturonase,ACC oxidase and ACC synthase from apple(Malus x domestica) in an apple rootstock A106(Malus sieboldii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUJIMEI; SEGARDINER; 等

    1995-01-01

    The apple rootstock,A106(Malus sieboldii),had 17 bivalents in pollen mother cells at meiotic metaphase 1,and 17 chromosomes in a haploid pollen cell.Karyotypes were prepared from root-tip cells with 2n=34 chromosomes,Seven out of 82 karyotypes(8.5%) showed one pari of satellites at the end of the short arm of chromosome 3.C-bands were shown on 6 pairs of chromosomes 2,4,6,8,14,and 16 near the telomeric regions of short arms.Probes for three ripening-related genes from Malus x domestica:endopolygalacturonase(EPG,0.6kb),ACC oxidase(1.2kb),and ACC synthase(2kb)were hybridized in situ to metaphase chromosomes of A106.Hybridization sites for the EPG gene were observed on the long arm of chromosome 14 in 15 out of 16 replicate spreads and proximal to the centromere of chromosomes 6 and 11.For the ACC oxidase gene,hylridization sites were observed in the telomeric region of the short arm of chromosomes 5 and 11 in 87% and 81% of 16 spreads respectively,proxiaml to the centromere of chromosome 1 in 81% of the spreads,and on the long arm of chromosome 13 in 50% of the spreads. Physical mapping of three fruit ripening genes in an apple rootstock A106.Twenty five spreads were studied for the ACC synthase gene and hybridization sites were observed in the telomeric region of the short arm of chromosome 12 in 96% of the spreads.chromosomes 9 and 10 in 76% of the spreads,and chromosome 17 in 56% of the spreads.

  16. ‘Bois noir’: new phytoplasma disease of grapevine in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirchenari Seyed Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, grapevines showing symptoms suggesting the ‘bois noir’ phytoplasma disease were observed in vineyards located in several central provinces of Iran. Polymerase chain reaction assays using phytoplasma universal primer pair P1A/P7A followed by primer pair R16F2n/R16R2 in nested PCR, confirmed the association of phytoplasmas with symptomatic grapevines. The results of RFLP analyses using HpaII, HinfI, MseI, RsaI, and TaqI restriction enzymes, indicated that grapevine phytoplasma isolates in these regions could be related to the 16SrXII group. Sequence analyses of the partial 16S rRNA gene confirmed that Iranian grapevine phytoplasmas are associated with ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’. This is the first report of the ‘bois noir’ disease outbreak in Iran

  17. Surface disinfection procedure and in vitro regeneration of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) axillary buds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M F Lazo-Javalera; R Troncoso-Rojas; M E Tiznado-Hernández; M A Martínez-Tellez; I Vargas-Arispuro; M A Islas-Osuna; M Rivera-Domínguez

    2016-01-01

      Establishment of an efficient explants surface disinfection protocol is essential for in vitro cell and tissue culture as well as germplasm conservation, such as the case of Grapevine (Vitis spp.) culture...

  18. Genetic structure of the fungal grapevine pathogen Eutypa lata from four continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The generalist ascomycete fungus Eutypa lata causes Eutypa dieback of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) worldwide. To decipher the cosmopolitan distribution of this fungus, the population genetic structure of 17 geographic samples was investigated from four continental regions (Australia, California, Europ...

  19. Surface disinfection procedure and in vitro regeneration of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) axillary buds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lazo-Javalera, M F; Troncoso-Rojas, R; Tiznado-Hernández, M E; Martínez-Tellez, M A; Vargas-Arispuro, I; Islas-Osuna, M A; Rivera-Domínguez, M

    2016-01-01

    Establishment of an efficient explants surface disinfection protocol is essential for in vitro cell and tissue culture as well as germplasm conservation, such as the case of Grapevine (Vitis spp.) culture...

  20. Root-associated bacteria promote grapevine growth: from the laboratory to the field

    KAUST Repository

    Rolli, Eleonora

    2016-08-18

    Background and Aims: Laboratory and greenhouse experiments have shown that root-associated bacteria have beneficial effects on grapevine growth; however, these effects have not been tested in the field. Here, we aimed to demonstrate whether bacteria of different geographical origins derived from different crop plants can colonize grapevine to gain a beneficial outcome for the plant leading to promote growth at the field scale. Methods: To link the ecological functions of bacteria to the promotion of plant growth, we sorted fifteen bacterial strains from a larger isolate collection to study in vitro Plant Growth Promoting (PGP) traits. We analysed the ability of these strains to colonise the root tissues of grapevine and Arabidopsis using green-fluorescent-protein-labelled strain derivatives and a cultivation independent approach. We assessed the ability of two subsets randomly chosen from the 15 selected strains to promote grapevine growth in two field-scale experiments in north and central Italy over two years. Parameters of plant vigour were measured during the vegetative season in de novo grafted vine cuttings and adult productive plants inoculated with the bacterial strains. Results: Beneficial bacteria rapidly and intimately colonized the rhizoplane and the root system of grapevine. In the field, plants inoculated with bacteria isolated from grapevine roots out-performed untreated plants. In both the tested vineyards, bacteria-promotion effects largely rely in the formation of an extended epigeal system endowed of longer shoots with larger diameters and more nodes than non-inoculated plants. Conclusions: PGP bacteria isolated in the laboratory can be successfully used to promote growth of grapevines in the field. The resulting larger canopy potentially increased the photosynthetic surface of the grapevine, promoting growth.

  1. Selection and evaluation of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria from grapevine rhizospheres for use as biofertilizers

    OpenAIRE

    Min Liu; Xu Liu; Bao-Sen Cheng; Xue-Lei Ma; Xiao-Tong Lyu; Xian-Fang Zhao; Yan-Lun Ju; Zhuo Min; Yu-Lin Fang

    2016-01-01

    Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) have the ability to solubilize insoluble phosphorus (P) and release soluble P. Extensive research has been performed with respect to PSB isolation from the rhizospheres of various plants, but little is known about the prevalence of PSB in the grapevine rhizosphere. In this study, we aimed to isolate and identify PSB from the grapevine rhizosphere in five vineyards of Northwest China, to characterize their plant-growth-promoting (PGP) traits, evaluate the ...

  2. Development of Virus-Induced Gene Expression and Silencing Vector Derived from Grapevine Algerian Latent Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Sang-Ho Park; Hoseong Choi; Semin Kim; Won Kyong Cho; Kook-Hyung Kim

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine Algerian latent virus (GALV) is a member of the genus Tombusvirus in the Tombusviridae and infects not only woody perennial grapevine plant but also herbaceous Nicotiana benthamiana plant. In this study, we developed GALV-based gene expression and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) vectors in N. benthamiana. The GALV coat protein deletion vector, pGMG, was applied to express the reporter gene, green fluorescence protein (GFP), but the expression of GFP was not detected due to the n...

  3. Production of highly bioactive resveratrol analogues pterostilbene and piceatannol in metabolically engineered grapevine cell cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez‐Márquez, Ascensión; Morante‐Carriel, Jaime A.; Ramírez‐Estrada, Karla; Cusidó, Rosa M.; Palazon, Javier; Bru‐Martínez, Roque

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine stilbenes, particularly trans-resveratrol, have a demonstrated pharmacological activity. Other natural stilbenes derived from resveratrol such as pterostilbene or piceatannol, display higher oral bioavailability and bioactivity than the parent compound, but are far less abundant in natural sources. Thus, to efficiently obtain these bioactive resveratrol derivatives, there is a need to develop new bioproduction systems. Grapevine cell cultures are able to produce large amounts of eas...

  4. Bottle gourd rootstock-grafting affects nitrogen metabolism in NaCl-stressed watermelon leaves and enhances short-term salt tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanjuan; Lu, Xiaomin; Yan, Bei; Li, Bin; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shirong; Tezuka, Takafumi

    2013-05-01

    The plant growth, nitrogen absorption, and assimilation in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Mansf.) were investigated in self-grafted and grafted seedlings using the salt-tolerant bottle gourd rootstock Chaofeng Kangshengwang (Lagenaria siceraria Standl.) exposed to 100mM NaCl for 3d. The biomass and NO3(-) uptake rate were significantly increased by rootstock while these values were remarkably decreased by salt stress. However, compared with self-grafted plants, rootstock-grafted plants showed higher salt tolerance with higher biomass and NO3(-) uptake rate under salt stress. Salinity induced strong accumulation of nitrate, ammonium and protein contents and a significant decrease of nitrogen content and the activities of nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NiR), glutamine synthetase (GS), and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) in leaves of self-grafted seedlings. In contrast, salt stress caused a remarkable decrease in nitrate content and the activities of GS and GOGAT, and a significant increase of ammonium, protein, and nitrogen contents and NR activity, in leaves of rootstock-grafted seedlings. Compared with that of self-grafted seedlings, the ammonium content in leaves of rootstock-grafted seedlings was much lower under salt stress. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity was notably enhanced in leaves of rootstock-grafted seedlings, whereas it was significantly inhibited in leaves of self-grafted seedlings, under salinity stress. Three GDH isozymes were isolated by native gel electrophoresis and their expressions were greatly enhanced in leaves of rootstock-grafted seedlings than those of self-grafted seedlings under both normal and salt-stress conditions. These results indicated that the salt tolerance of rootstock-grafted seedlings might (be enhanced) owing to the higher nitrogen absorption and the higher activities of enzymes for nitrogen assimilation induced by the rootstock. Furthermore, the detoxification of ammonium by GDH when the GS/GOGAT pathway

  5. The accumulation and localization of chalcone synthase in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huiling; Wang, Wei; Zhan, JiCheng; Yan, Ailing; Sun, Lei; Zhang, Guojun; Wang, Xiaoyue; Ren, Jiancheng; Huang, Weidong; Xu, Haiying

    2016-09-01

    Chalcone synthase (CHS, E.C.2.3.1.74) is the first committed enzyme in the flavonoid pathway. Previous studies have primarily focused on the cloning, expression and regulation of the gene at the transcriptional level. Little is yet known about the enzyme accumulation, regulation at protein level, as well as its localization in grapevine. In present study, the accumulation, tissue and subcellular localization of CHS in different grapevine tissues (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon) were investigated via the techniques of Western blotting, immunohistochemical localization, immunoelectron microscopy and confocal microscopy. The results showed that CHS were mainly accumulated in the grape berry skin, leaves, stem tips and stem phloem, correlated with flavonoids accumulation. The accumulation of CHS is developmental dependent in grape berry skin and flesh. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that CHS were primarily localized in the exocarp and vascular bundles of the fruits during berry development; in palisade, spongy tissues and vascular bundles of the leaves; in the primary phloem and pith ray in the stems; in the growth point, leaf primordium, and young leaves of leaf buds; and in the endoderm and primary phloem of grapevine roots. Furthermore, at the subcellular level, the cell wall, cytoplasm and nucleus localized patterns of CHS were observed in the grapevine vegetative tissue cells. Results above indicated that distribution of CHS in grapevine was organ-specific and tissue-specific. This work will provide new insight for the biosynthesis and regulation of diverse flavonoid compounds in grapevine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. SOYBEAN AND CASEIN HYDROLYSATES INDUCE GRAPEVINE IMMUNE RESPONSES AND RESISTANCE AGAINST PLASMOPARA VITICOLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihed eLachhab

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasmopara viticola, the causal agent of grapevine downy mildew, is one of the most devastating grape pathogen in Europe and North America. Although phytochemicals are used to control pathogen infections, the appearance of resistant strains and the concern for possible adverse effects on environment and human health are increasing the search for alternative strategies. In the present investigation, we successfully tested two protein hydrolysates from soybean (soy and casein (cas to trigger grapevine resistance against P. viticola. On Vitis vinifera cv. Marselan plants, the application of soy and cas reduced the infected leaf surface by 76 and 63%, as compared to the control, respectively. Since both hydrolysates might trigger the plant immunity, we investigated their ability to elicit grapevine defence responses. On grapevine cell suspensions, a different free cytosolic calcium signature was recorded for each hydrolysate, whereas a similar transient phosphorylation of two MAP kinases of 45 and 49 kDa was observed. These signalling events were followed by transcriptome reprogramming, including the up-regulation of defence genes encoding pathogenesis-related (PR proteins and the stilbene synthase enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of resveratrol, the main grapevine phytoalexin. Liquid chromatography analyses confirmed the production of resveratrol and its dimer metabolites, δ- and ε-viniferins. Overall, soy effects were more pronounced as compared to the cas one. Both hydrolysates proved to act as elicitors to enhance grapevine immunity against pathogen attack.

  7. Produção antecipada de mudas de videira ‘Rubi’ (Vitis vinifera através de enxertia verde Anticipation of ‘Rubi’ grapevine nursery trees production through green grafting technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Ruffo Roberto

    2004-08-01

    -enxertos ‘Campinas’ e ‘Jales’ não apresentam diferenças quanto às características dos enxertos brotados e do seu sistema radicular.The objetive of this research was to evaluate the feasibility to produce nursery trees of ‘Rubi’ grapevine through green grafting on herbaceous cutting of two vine rootstocks (‘Campinas’ - IAC 766 and ‘Jales’ - IAC 572. Rootstocks cuttings were taken from a virus-free stock plant, and consisted of the leaves elimination of the basal portion, leaving just one leaf in the superior part of each one. Cuttings were prepared with a cut below the node in the basal portion and a cut in the internode in the superior portion, leaving each one with 20cm of length and 0.5cm of diameter. Cuttings were then placed in plastic boxes containing hull rice coal growth medium on mist chamber. After four weeks, the rooted rootstocks were transferred into plastic bags containing soil mix. The ‘Rubi’ green grafting was performed in three different periods after the rootstocks transplantation (30, 60 and 90 days. A randomized design was used as statistical model with 6 treatments and 5 replications. Each plot was composed by 10 trees. The treatments were compared 80 days after each grafting period through the following parameters: porcentage of shooting grafts, length and diameter of shooting grafts, fresh and dry weigth of roots and root quantification (root area and total root length through image analysis using SIARCS® software. It was possible to conclude that: a the production advance of ‘Rubi’ young trees is possible performing the green grafting on ‘Campinas’ and ‘Jales’ rootstocks 90 days after their rooting, b the green grafting technique reduces the time necessary to produce ‘Rubi’ young trees by 5-6 months on greenhouse condition and c nursery trees of ‘Rubi’ grapevine produced through green grafting on herbaceous cuttings of ‘Campinas’ and ‘Jales’ rootstocks do not show differences in relation to the

  8. Grapevine root distribution in drip and microsprinkler irrigation Distribuição radicular de videiras irrigadas por gotejamento e microaspersão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Henrique Bassoi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape (Vitis vinifera L. yield and its quality are dependent of the status of the root system. Root distribution information is also valuable for soil and water management. An analysis of methods to evaluate the root distribution of grapevines for both, drip and microsprinkler irrigation in a Typic Acrustox is presented for the table grape cv. Italia grafted on the rootstock IAC-313, in northeastern Brazil. Measured root parameters using the monolith method were root dry weight (Dw and root length density (Lv, while root area (Ap was estimated using the soil profile method in combination with digital image analysis. For both irrigation systems, roots were present to the 1 m soil depth and extended laterally to 1 m distance from the trunk, but grapevines irrigated by microsprinkler showed greater root presence as the distance from the trunk increased. Values of Ap were reasonably well correlated to Dw and Lv. However, correlation values were higher when fractional root distribution was used. The soil profile method in combination with image analysis techniques, allows proper grapevine root distribution evaluation.A produção de uva (Vitis vinifera L. em termos quantitativos e qualitativos depende do estado das raízes. Além disso, informações sobre a distribuição radicular são úteis para o manejo de solo e água. Por isso, uma análise de métodos para a avaliação da distribuição radicular de videiras cv. Itália / IAC 313 num Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo irrigadas por gotejamento e microaspersão foi realizada em Petrolina – PE e Juazeiro - BA, no Vale do São Francisco. Os parâmetros medidos pelo método do monolito foram a matéria seca (Dw e densidade de comprimento de raízes (Lv, enquanto a área de raízes (Ap foi estimada pelo método do perfil de solo combinado com a análise de imagens digitais. Para ambos os sistemas de irrigação, as raízes estiveram presentes até 1 m de profundidade e estenderam-se lateralmente até 1

  9. Expression and in situ localization of two major PR proteins of grapevine berries during development and after UV-C exposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Colas

    Full Text Available In grapevine Vitis vinifera L. cv Pinot noir, the Pathogenesis-Related (PR proteins CHI4D and TL3 are among the most abundant extractable PR proteins of ripe berries and accumulate during berry ripening from véraison until full maturation. Evidence was supplied in favor of the involvement of these two protein families in plant defense mechanisms and plant development. In order to better understand CHI4D and TL3 function in grapevine, we analyzed their temporal and spatial pattern of expression during maturation and after an abiotic stress (UV-C by in situ hybridization (ISH and immunohistolocalization. In ripening berries, CHI4D and TL3 genes were mainly expressed in the exocarp and around vascular bundles of the mesocarp. In UV-C exposed berries, CHI4D and TL3 gene expression was strongly induced before véraison. Corresponding proteins localized in the exocarp and, to a lesser extent, around vascular bundles of the mesocarp. The spatial and temporal accumulation of the two PR proteins during berry maturation and after an abiotic stress is discussed in relation to their putative roles in plant defense.

  10. New pheromone components of the grapevine moth Lobesia botrana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzgall, Peter; Tasin, Marco; Buser, Hans-Ruedi; Wegner-Kiss, Gertrud; Mancebón, Vicente S Marco; Ioriatti, Claudio; Bäckman, Anna-Carin; Bengtsson, Marie; Lehmann, Lutz; Francke, Wittko

    2005-12-01

    Analysis of extracts of sex pheromone glands of grapevine moth females Lobesia botrana showed three previously unidentified compounds, (E)-7-dodecenyl acetate and the (E,E)- and (Z,E)-isomers of 7,9,11-dodecatrienyl acetate. This is the first account of a triply unsaturated pheromone component in a tortricid moth. The monoenic acetate (E)-7-dodecenyl acetate and the trienic acetate (7Z,9E,11)-dodecatrienyl acetate significantly enhanced responses of males to the main pheromone compound, (7E,9Z)-7,9-dodecadienyl acetate, in the wind tunnel. The identification of sex pheromone synergists in L. botrana may be of practical importance for the development of integrated pest management systems.

  11. Comparison of formulae used in determination of graft compatibility in different grape- American grape rootstock combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeliha GÖKBAYRAK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitis vinifera L. cultivars have to be grafted on American grape rootstocks due to phylloxera and nematode damages, which makes it obligatory to determine their graft compatibility in a vineyard. For this purpose, any of four formulae developed by Perraudine, Branas, Spiegel-Roy & Lavee and Onaran was inconclusive to reliably determine the compatibility of a scion/stock combination. Therefore, it is needed to compare these results with values of pruning weight, yield and quality analyses obtained from a long-term grape growing. In addition, they have to be supported by histological and biochemical analyses.

  12. Mineral Content in Leaves of Tomato Plants Grafted on Solanum Rootstocks

    OpenAIRE

    松添, 直隆; 間, 浩美; 花田, 勝美; モハメド, アリ, エル, サイド, アリ; 大久保, 敬; 藤枝, 國光

    1995-01-01

    Nutrient uptake of tomato plants cv. Momotaro grafted on Solanum sisymbriifoliulm, S. torvum and S. toxicarium which are resistant to soil-born disease were compared with tomato grafted on its own root, a tomato/tomato, scion/rootstock combination. Mineral content in leaves of tomato/S. sisymbriifoliulm was nearly equal to that of tomato/tomato. In leaves of tomato/S. torvum, nitrogen content was higher, and magnesium content was lower than those of tomato/tomato. Furthermore, phosphorus and ...

  13. Doses of controlled-release fertilizer for production of rubber tree rootstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Luis Grisi Macedo; Elainy Botelho Carvalho Pereira; Ailton Vitor Pereira; Nelson Venturin; Antonio Nilson Zamunér Filho

    2012-01-01

    This experimental study aimed to evaluate the effects of doses of controlled-release fertilizer (ALL) on the development of rubber tree rootstocks. The fertilizer used was Osmocote®, scheduled to be released for 8-9 months and with the following composition: N (15%), P2O5 (9%), K2O (12%), Mg (1%), S (2.3%), B (0.02%), Cu (0.05%), Fe (1%), Mn (0.06%), Mo (0.02%) and Zn (0.05%). A randomized block design was used, with four treatments and eight replicates of 20 plants per plot. The controlled-r...

  14. Grapevine under deficit irrigation: hints from physiological and molecular data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, M M; Zarrouk, O; Francisco, R; Costa, J M; Santos, T; Regalado, A P; Rodrigues, M L; Lopes, C M

    2010-05-01

    A large proportion of vineyards are located in regions with seasonal drought (e.g. Mediterranean-type climates) where soil and atmospheric water deficits, together with high temperatures, exert large constraints on yield and quality. The increasing demand for vineyard irrigation requires an improvement in the efficiency of water use. Deficit irrigation has emerged as a potential strategy to allow crops to withstand mild water stress with little or no decreases of yield, and potentially a positive impact on fruit quality. Understanding the physiological and molecular bases of grapevine responses to mild to moderate water deficits is fundamental to optimize deficit irrigation management and identify the most suitable varieties to those conditions. How the whole plant acclimatizes to water scarcity and how short- and long-distance chemical and hydraulic signals intervene are reviewed. Chemical compounds synthesized in drying roots are shown to act as long-distance signals inducing leaf stomatal closure and/or restricting leaf growth. This explains why some plants endure soil drying without significant changes in shoot water status. The control of plant water potential by stomatal aperture via feed-forward mechanisms is associated with 'isohydric' behaviour in contrast to 'anysohydric' behaviour in which lower plant water potentials are attained. This review discusses differences in this respect between grapevines varieties and experimental conditions. Mild water deficits also exert direct and/or indirect (via the light environment around grape clusters) effects on berry development and composition; a higher content of skin-based constituents (e.g. tannins and anthocyanins) has generally being reported. Regulation under water deficit of genes and proteins of the various metabolic pathways responsible for berry composition and therefore wine quality are reviewed.

  15. VitisNet: "Omics" integration through grapevine molecular networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Grimplet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genomic data release for the grapevine has increased exponentially in the last five years. The Vitis vinifera genome has been sequenced and Vitis EST, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic tools and data sets continue to be developed. The next critical challenge is to provide biological meaning to this tremendous amount of data by annotating genes and integrating them within their biological context. We have developed and validated a system of Grapevine Molecular Networks (VitisNet. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The sequences from the Vitis vinifera (cv. Pinot Noir PN40024 genome sequencing project and ESTs from the Vitis genus have been paired and the 39,424 resulting unique sequences have been manually annotated. Among these, 13,145 genes have been assigned to 219 networks. The pathway sets include 88 "Metabolic", 15 "Genetic Information Processing", 12 "Environmental Information Processing", 3 "Cellular Processes", 21 "Transport", and 80 "Transcription Factors". The quantitative data is loaded onto molecular networks, allowing the simultaneous visualization of changes in the transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome for a given experiment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: VitisNet uses manually annotated networks in SBML or XML format, enabling the integration of large datasets, streamlining biological functional processing, and improving the understanding of dynamic processes in systems biology experiments. VitisNet is grounded in the Vitis vinifera genome (currently at 8x coverage and can be readily updated with subsequent updates of the genome or biochemical discoveries. The molecular network files can be dynamically searched by pathway name or individual genes, proteins, or metabolites through the MetNet Pathway database and web-portal at http://metnet3.vrac.iastate.edu/. All VitisNet files including the manual annotation of the grape genome encompassing pathway names, individual genes, their genome identifier, and chromosome

  16. Burgundy regional climate change and its potential impact on grapevines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yiwen [University of Burgundy, Center for Climate Research, UMR 5210 CNRS, Dijon (France); G.C. Rieber Climate Institute at the Nansen Environment and Remote Sensing Center, Bergen (Norway); Castel, Thierry [University of Burgundy, Center for Climate Research, UMR 5210 CNRS, Dijon (France); AgroSup, Department of Agriculture and Environment, Dijon (France); Richard, Yves; Cuccia, Cedric [University of Burgundy, Center for Climate Research, UMR 5210 CNRS, Dijon (France); Bois, Benjamin [University of Burgundy, Center for Climate Research, UMR 5210 CNRS, Dijon (France); IUVV, University of Burgundy, Dijon (France)

    2012-10-15

    ARPEGE general circulation model simulations were dynamically downscaled by The Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) for the study of climate change and its impact on grapevine growth in Burgundy region in France by the mid twenty-first century. Two time periods were selected: 1970-1979 and 2031-2040. The WRF model driven by ERA-INTERIM reanalysis data was validated against in situ surface temperature observations. The daily maximum and minimum surface temperature (T{sub max} and T{sub min}) were simulated by the WRF model at 8 x 8 km horizontal resolution. The averaged daily T{sub max} for each month during 1970-1979 have good agreement with observations, the averaged daily T{sub min} have a warm bias about 1-2 K. The daily T{sub max} and T{sub min} for each month (domain averaged) during 2031-2040 show a general increase. The largest increment ({proportional_to}3 K) was found in summer. The smallest increments (<1 K) were found in spring and fall. The spatial distribution of temperature increment shows a strong meridional gradient, high in south in summer, reversing in winter. The resulting potential warming rate in summer is equivalent to 4.7 K/century under the IPCC A2 emission scenario. The dynamically downscaled T{sub max} and T{sub min} were used to simulate the grape (Pinot noir grape variety) flowering and veraison dates. For 2031-2040, the projected dates are 8 and 12 days earlier than those during 1970-1979, respectively. The simulated hot days increase more than 50% in the two principal grapevine regions. They show strong impact on Pinot noir development. (orig.)

  17. Phenolic Compounds and Bioactivity of Healthy and Infected Grapevine Leaf Extracts from Red Varieties Merlot and Vranac (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anđelković, Marko; Radovanović, Blaga; Anđelković, Ana Milenkovic; Radovanović, Vladimir

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the phenolic composition, radical scavenging activity, and antimicrobial activity of grapevine leaf extracts from two red grape varieties, Vranac and Merlot (Vitis vinifera L.). The extracts were prepared from healthy grapevine leaves and those infected by Plasmopara viticola (downy mildew). The phenolic composition of the grapevine leaf extracts was determined using spectrophotometric assays and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The radical scavenging activity of grapevine leaf extracts was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay, and their antimicrobial activity was determined by microwell dilution tests. The total phenolic content was higher in healthy grapevine leaf extracts than in infected grapevine leaf extracts. The RP-HPLC analysis detected significant amounts of flavonols, phenolic acids, and flavan-3-ols, and small amounts of stilbenes in the grapevine leaf extracts. Compared with the infected grapevine leaf extracts, the healthy grapevine leaf extracts were richer in flavonols, phenolic acids, and flavan-3-ols, but had lower stilbenes contents. All extracts showed strong free radical scavenging activity, which was strongly correlated with the total phenolic content (R(2) = 0.978). The extracts showed a stronger antimicrobial activity towards Gram-positive bacterial strains than towards Gram-negative bacterial strains and yeast. The phenolic compounds in grapevine leaves were responsible for their strong radical scavenging and antimicrobial activities. Together, these results demonstrate that grapevine leaves have high nutritional value and can be used as a fresh food and to prepare extracts that can be used as additives in food and medicines.

  18. The Effect of Different Cucurbit Rootstocks on Some Morphological and Physiological Traits of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus cv. Super Dominus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    reihane Mesgari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cucumber is one of the most important vegetable crops for the local consumption and exportation. The use of grafted vegetable seedlings has been popular in many countries during recent years. Growing fruit-bearing vegetables, chiefly tomato, cucumber and watermelon through grafted seedlings become a widespread practice worldwide. Grafting is a valuable technique to avoid soil-borne diseases, provide biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, enhance nutrient uptake, optimize water use, and increase fruit yield and quality. Vegetable grafting is a new topic in Iran and there are a limited number of studies on grafted vegetable production. However, attention to grafting by researchers has recently increased. Suitable rootstocks should be identified and characterized for the effective utilization of grafting. The rootstock's vigorous root system increases the efficiency of water and nutrient absorption, and may also serve as a source of endogenous plant hormones, thus leading to increased growth and yield in addition to disease control. In the present study, we investigated the response of two Cucurbita sp. and an Iranian melon as rootstocks for cucumber. Materials and methods: In order to study the effect of cucurbit rootstocks and grafting method on growth, yield and fruit quality of cucumber (Cucumis sativus cv. Super Dominus, an experiment was conducted as a factorial design in the base of RCBD with three replications in the greenhouse and research farm, University of Zanjan. Treatments were included three rootstocks (Cucurbita moschata L., Lagenaria siceraria and Cucumis melo L. and ungrafted plants (control and two grafting method (hole insertion and splice grafting. Seeds were sown simultaneously in plastic pots. For obtaining the same stem diameter of scion and rootstocks, cucumber seeds were planted four days earlier than rootstocks seeds. The seedlings were grown in an environment-controlled greenhouse with 25/20 day

  19. In vitro gene expression and mRNA translocation from transformed walnut (Juglans regia) rootstocks expressing DsRED fluorescent protein to wild-type scions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaochen; Walawage, Sriema L; Leslie, Charles A; Dandekar, Abhaya M; Tricoli, David M; Hu, Hengkang; Huang, Youjun; Zhang, Jiaqi; Xv, Chuanmei; Huang, Jianqin; Zhang, Qixiang

    2017-06-01

    An in vitro grafting method was developed for examining gene translocation from rootstock to scion in walnut. Results showed the DsRED gene itself was not translocated but expressed mRNA was. Grafting is widely used in plants, especially in fruit and nut crops. Selected rootstocks can control scion growth and physiological traits, including shortening of the juvenile phase and controlling tree size. Rootstocks also can provide improved soil adaptation and pathogen resistance. Development of genetically modified (GM) fruit crops has progressed recently, but commercial cultivation is still limited due to the time required for evaluation and issues with deregulation. In this study, we evaluated the stability of DsRED marker gene expression in in vitro walnut shoots and examined translocation of the gene and its mRNA from transformed rootstock to wild-type scion. Results show that DsRED was expressed uniformly in transformed tissue-cultured shoots. When used as in vitro rootstocks, these had good graft affinity with wild-type control scion. PCR and qRT-PCR analysis showed that the DsRED gene was not transported from rootstock to scion, but the transcribed mRNA was translocated. This result provides further evidence of gene signal transport from rootstock to scion in fruit and nut crops.

  20. Vascular Occlusions in Grapevines with Pierce’s Disease Make Disease Symptom Development Worse1[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiang; Sun, Yuliang; Walker, M. Andrew; Labavitch, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Vascular occlusions are common structural modifications made by many plant species in response to pathogen infection. However, the functional role(s) of occlusions in host plant disease resistance/susceptibility remains controversial. This study focuses on vascular occlusions that form in stem secondary xylem of grapevines (Vitis vinifera) infected with Pierce’s disease (PD) and the impact of occlusions on the hosts’ water transport and the systemic spread of the causal bacterium Xylella fastidiosa in infected vines. Tyloses are the predominant type of occlusion that forms in grapevine genotypes with differing PD resistances. Tyloses form throughout PD-susceptible grapevines with over 60% of the vessels in transverse sections of all examined internodes becoming fully blocked. By contrast, tylose development was mainly limited to a few internodes close to the point of inoculation in PD-resistant grapevines, impacting only 20% or less of the vessels. The extensive vessel blockage in PD-susceptible grapevines was correlated to a greater than 90% decrease in stem hydraulic conductivity, compared with an approximately 30% reduction in the stems of PD-resistant vines. Despite the systemic spread of X. fastidiosa in PD-susceptible grapevines, the pathogen colonized only 15% or less of the vessels in any internode and occurred in relatively small numbers, amounts much too small to directly block the vessels. Therefore, we concluded that the extensive formation of vascular occlusions in PD-susceptible grapevines does not prevent the pathogen’s systemic spread in them, but may significantly suppress the vines’ water conduction, contributing to PD symptom development and the vines’ eventual death. PMID:23292789

  1. Vascular occlusions in grapevines with Pierce's disease make disease symptom development worse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiang; Sun, Yuliang; Walker, M Andrew; Labavitch, John M

    2013-03-01

    Vascular occlusions are common structural modifications made by many plant species in response to pathogen infection. However, the functional role(s) of occlusions in host plant disease resistance/susceptibility remains controversial. This study focuses on vascular occlusions that form in stem secondary xylem of grapevines (Vitis vinifera) infected with Pierce's disease (PD) and the impact of occlusions on the hosts' water transport and the systemic spread of the causal bacterium Xylella fastidiosa in infected vines. Tyloses are the predominant type of occlusion that forms in grapevine genotypes with differing PD resistances. Tyloses form throughout PD-susceptible grapevines with over 60% of the vessels in transverse sections of all examined internodes becoming fully blocked. By contrast, tylose development was mainly limited to a few internodes close to the point of inoculation in PD-resistant grapevines, impacting only 20% or less of the vessels. The extensive vessel blockage in PD-susceptible grapevines was correlated to a greater than 90% decrease in stem hydraulic conductivity, compared with an approximately 30% reduction in the stems of PD-resistant vines. Despite the systemic spread of X. fastidiosa in PD-susceptible grapevines, the pathogen colonized only 15% or less of the vessels in any internode and occurred in relatively small numbers, amounts much too small to directly block the vessels. Therefore, we concluded that the extensive formation of vascular occlusions in PD-susceptible grapevines does not prevent the pathogen's systemic spread in them, but may significantly suppress the vines' water conduction, contributing to PD symptom development and the vines' eventual death.

  2. Host plant volatiles induce oriented flight behaviour in male European grapevine moths, Lobesia botrana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Arx, Martin; Schmidt-Büsser, Daniela; Guerin, Patrick M

    2011-10-01

    The European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana relies on a female produced sex pheromone for long-distance mate finding. Grapevine moth males compete heavily during limited time windows for females. The aim of this study was to investigate the perception of host plant volatiles by grapevine moth males and whether such compounds elicit upwind oriented flights. We compared five host plant headspace extracts by means of gas chromatography linked electroantennogram (EAG) recording. We identified 12 common host plant volatiles (aliphatic esters, aldehydes, and alcohols, aromatic compounds and terpenes) that elicit EAG responses from grapevine moth males and that occur in at least three of the host plant volatile headspace extracts tested. Subsequently the behavioural response of grapevine moth males to four these compounds presented singly and in mixtures (1-hexanol, 1-octen-3-ol, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and (E)-β-caryophyllene) was recorded in a wind tunnel. Grapevine moth males engaged in upwind flights to all of four compounds when released singly at 10,000 pg/min and to all, except 1-octen-3-ol, when released at 100 pg/min. A blend of the four host plant volatiles released at 10,000 pg/min and mixed at a ratio based on the analysis of Vitis vinifera cv. Solaris volatile emissions attracted significantly more males than any single compound. Grapevine moth males perceive and respond to host plant volatiles at biologically relevant levels indicating that host plant volatiles figure as olfactory cues and that L. botrana males can discern places where the likelihood of encountering females is higher.

  3. 黄瓜专用砧木品种京欣砧6号的选育%A New Cucumber Rootstock Hybrid——Jingxinzhen No.6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海真; 张帆; 贾长才; 姜立纲; 张国裕

    2011-01-01

    Jingxinzhen No. 6 is a cucumber hybrid rootstock developed by crossing winter squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch.)lines N11 as female parent and N78 as male parent. It has good compatibility and affinity when cucumber scion is grafted on. The grafted plants are tolerant to the low temperature and low light,and resistant to Fusarium wilt. The grafted cucumber plants produce higher yield and fruits with shiny dark green skin and good quality. It is adapted to spring and winter protected production of cucumber.%京欣砧6号是以自交系N11为母本,N78为父本配制而成的中国南瓜(Cucurbita rrtoschata Duch.)杂交种.该砧木品种嫁接黄瓜亲和力好,共生亲和力强,成活率高,结合面致密,耐低温弱光,抗枯萎病,有促进黄瓜生长、增强其抗病能力和提高黄瓜产量的效果.嫁接黄瓜后,瓜条亮绿无蜡粉,明显提高了黄瓜商品品质.适宜早春和越冬保护地黄瓜嫁接栽培.

  4. Physiological Response of Field Grown Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Marzemino to Grapevine Leafroll-Associated Virus (GLRaV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bertamini

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The physiological response of field grown grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Marzemino plants to grapevine leafroll-associated virus (GLRaV-1 was studied. Changes in photosynthetic pigments and in photosynthetic activity were investigated. GLRaV-1 considerably decreased the leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn, stomatal conductance (gs and the transpiration rate (E in grapevine leaves, and also strongly reduced pigments, soluble proteins, ribulose-1,5- bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPC and nitrate reductase activity. In isolated thylakoids, the virus strongly inhibited whole-chain and photosystem (PS II activity, while PSI activity was only marginally inhibited. The artificial exogenous electron donors diphenyl carbazide, manganese chloride (MnCl2 and hydroxylamine (NH2OH did not restore lost PSII activity to virus-infected leaves. Chlorophyll fluorescence suggested that the inhibition of primary light reactions was a major effect of virus infection. Immunological studies showed that D1 protein levels of the PSII reaction centre were significantly lower in virus-infected leaves. It is concluded that the decreases in photosynthetic pigments and photosynthetic activities caused by the virus strongly impair photosynthesis in Marzemino grapevine plants.

  5. Grafted vegetables – the influence of rootstock and scion on postharvest quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallik Elazar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Grafting of vegetable seedlings is a unique horticultural technology, practised for more than 50 years, to overcome problems associated with intensive cultivation on limited arable land. Grafting vegetables can protect against soil-borne diseases and nematodes, against abiotic stresses such as high/low temperatures, salinity, drought or excessive soil-water content, and against elevated soil concentrations of heavy metals and organic pollutants. In addition, the grafted plant takes up water and nutrients from the soil more efficiently and retains its vitality for longer periods during the growing season. However, rootstock/scion combinations may affect and alter the final size, yield, and quality of fruits from grafted plants, both immediately postharvest and during prolonged storage. These alterations may be attributed in part to differing production environments and methods, the type of rootstock/scion combinations used, and harvest date. The aim of this paper is to review the most recent literature on the effects of grafting on postharvest quality of fruits/vegetables: tomato, watermelon, melon, eggplant, cucumber and pepper. The review will conclude by identifying several prospects for future research aimed at improving the quality of grafted fruit/vegetable products.

  6. Influence of three rootstocks on yield and commercial quality of "Italian Sweet" pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Doñas-Uclés

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pepper crops (Capsicum annuum L. represent a very important production sector in the Southeast of Spain. Specifically, in the province of Almería, approximately 7000 hectares are grown every year. Due to the economic importance that this crop has for the region and the withdrawal of soil fumigants from the market, agronomic techniques have been adopted with the aim of controlling some soil pathogens and increasing the yield and quality parameters of the fruits obtained. The use of grafted pepper plants is not, as yet, very well established in this region, due mainly to the lack of commercial rootstocks that satisfy the producers of this vegetable. In this experiment three pepper rootstocks were assessed. An experiment was designed with four treatments and three replications of each one (12 experimental plots, which were distributed in randomised blocks. Three of the treatments corresponded to grafted plants of the "Palermo" cultivar onto: "Oscos", "AR40" and "Tresor", using non-grafted "Palermo" cultivar as the control test. The average yield expressed in kg/plant, showed significant differences between grafted and non-grafted plants. The highest fruit weight was obtained in Palermo onto Tresor. The presence of Blossom end rot (BER in the assessed fruits also showed significant differences between the different treatments, with the fruits from plants grafted onto Tresor showing a higher proportion of BER and the fruits coming from plants grafted onto AR40 showing the lowest proportion.

  7. Rooting of herbaceous minicuttings of peach rootstock under effect of indolebutyric acid (IBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cari Rejane Fiss Timm

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of rootstocks resulting from sexual propagation is a major problem that peach crop has in Brazil, reflecting the lack of plant homogeneity, which compromises the productivity of orchards. The clonal propagation is a promising alternative for the production of homogeneous seedlings with low cost and speed, as well as the maintenance of important agronomic characteristics. Therefore, the study aimed to assess the feasibility of propagation of rootstocks of Nemared, Flordaguard and Okinawa peach cultivars through herbaceous minicuttings, testing different concentrations of IBA (0; 1,000; 2,000; and 3,000mg.L-1. The minicuttings were immersed in the solution for five seconds and, then, placed in clear plastic containers containing medium grained vermiculite. The experiment was conducted with four replications of 20 minicuttings in the greenhouse. In 45 days, it was observed that Nemared obtained 76% of rooting with 1,000 mg.L-1of IBA, not differing from Flordaguard with 66%. The estimated dose of IBA for maximum rooting was 1,590 mg.L-1.

  8. Comparative of Qualitative and Quantitative Characteristics of Four Commercial Mandarin Cultivars on 'Flying Dragon' Rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Abedi Gheshlaghi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available 'Flying dragon' is one of the citrus rootstocks that are considered to be a promised dwarfing rootstock in the world. This experiment was conducted in the Astara research station for study of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of 4 mandarin cultivars (Unshiu, Clementine, Page, and Yunesi budded on 'Flying dragon'. This experiment was carried out with four cultivars in randomized complete bloke design (RCBD with three replications. Qualitative and quantitative characteristics of fruits, as well as vegetative traits were recorded and analyzed for 3, 6 and 1 years, respectively. The highest yield was observed on Yunesi cultivar in the final year of experiments and the lowest yield was on Unshiu cultivar in the fifth year. TSS/TA and means of fruit weight were affected by interaction of year and cultivar. The highest means of fruit weight was on Yunesi in the years of 85 and the highest TSS/TA was in years of 88 on Clementine cultivar. The highest alternate bearing index obtained in years of 88 on the Unshiu cultivar and the lowest that was on the Page cultivar. The highest yield efficiency, cumulative yield and plant height were observed on Yunesi cultivar, and the highest width and canopy of tree were on Unshiu cultivar. The lowest yield and tree size were on Page cultivar.

  9. Some rootstocks improve pepper tolerance to mild salinity through ionic regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penella, Consuelo; Nebauer, Sergio G; Quiñones, Ana; San Bautista, Alberto; López-Galarza, Salvador; Calatayud, Angeles

    2015-01-01

    Grafting has been proposed as an interesting strategy that improves the responses of crops under salinity. In pepper, we reported increased fruit yield of the commercial 'Adige' cultivar under salinity when grafted onto accessions Capsicum chinense Jacq. 'ECU-973' (12) and Capsicum baccatum L. var. pendulum 'BOL-58' (14), whereas no effect was observed when grafted onto accession Capsicum annuum L var. 'Serrano' (5). We also analysed the physiological and biochemical mechanisms related to the tolerance conferred by these rootstocks. Responses to salinity (40 mM NaCl) were studied in the different plant combinations for 30 days by determining water relations, mineral content, proline accumulation, photosynthetic parameters, nitrate reductase activity and antioxidant capacity. Higher salt tolerance was achieved when the 'Adige' cultivar was grafted onto the 12 genotype, which allowed not only lower Na(+) and Cl(-) accumulation in the scion, but also ion selectivity maintenance, particularly Na(+)/K(+) discrimination. These traits led to a minor negative impact on photosynthesis, nitrate reductase activity and lipid peroxidation in grafted scion leaves. This work suggests that using tolerant pepper rootstocks that maintain the scion's ion homeostasis is a promising strategy to provide salinity tolerance and can consequently improve crop yield.

  10. Effect of saline conditions on the maturation process of Clementine clemenules fruits on two different rootstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, J. M.; Gomez-Gomez, A.; Perez-Perez, J. G.; Botia, P.

    2010-07-01

    The production of mandarins is important in the Mediterranean area, where the continued use of saline water reduces fruit yield and modifies fruit quality. Grafted trees of Clemenules mandarin scion on Carrizo citrange and Cleopatra mandarin rootstocks, two of the most common citrus rootstocks employed in this area, were irrigated with two saline treatments (control and 30 mM NaCl). The fruit quality was studied through the last two months before the fruit harvest. Salinity reduced both the fruit number and the mean fruit weight on Carrizo trees whereas no fruit weight reduction was observed on Cleopatra. The decrease of fruit weight on Carrizo trees is probably due to the lower water content and consequently the lower juice percentage. Although the saline treatment produced significant differences in some fruit quality variables (shape and thickness indices) throughout the maturation process, they were minimal at the harvest time. Total soluble solids (TSS) were significantly higher in fruits from the saline treatments, probably due to a passive dehydration. It is also possible that de novo synthesis of sugars occurred, since fruits from Cleopatra trees receiving the saline treatment had similar water contents but higher TSS than control fruits. The external fruit colour indicated that the saline treatment accelerated the maturation process; however, the maturity index showed that the high acidity of these fruits delayed the internal maturation with respect to the control fruits. (Author) 41 refs.

  11. Comparison between diploid and tetraploid citrus rootstocks: morphological characterization and growth evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divanilde Guerra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tetraploid citrus rootstocks may present different morphological characteristics and growth when compared to diploid ones. This worked aimed at comparing morphological characteristics and height growth of diploid and tetraploid plants from the rootstocks 'Swingle' citrumelo [C. paradise Macf. x Poncirus trifoliate (L. Raf], citrange 'Troyer' (C. sinensis (L. Osb. x P. trifoliata and citranges 'Fepagro C 13' and 'Fepagro C 37' [C. sinensis cv. Pêra x P. trifoliata] during twelve months. Diploid (2n=18 and tetraploid (2n=36 plants originated from the same seed were identified, cultivated and evaluated every 45 days regarding color, height, petiole length, leaf length and central leaflet width. Significant differences were observed for the evaluated characteristics: the average of petiole length was 1.78 cm in the diploid and 0.99 cm in the tetraploid plants; the average of leaf length was 2.32 cm in the diploid and 2.95 cm in the tetraploid plants; the average of central leaflet width was 1.33 cm in the diploid and 1.69 cm in the tetraploid plants. Moreover, tetraploid plants had darker and thicker leaves than the diploid ones. Variation regarding height was observed and the diploid plants presented higher growth than the tetraploid ones. As tetraploid plants are smaller, have a slow height growth and wider and longer leaves.

  12. Host Range of a Population of Pratylenchus vulnus in Commercial Fruit, Nut, Citrus, and Grape Rootstocks in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinochet, J; Verdejo, S; Soler, A; Canals, J

    1992-12-01

    In a host-range study carried out under greenhouse conditions, a total of 37 commercial fruit tree, grape, and citrus rootstocks were tested for their reaction to a population of the lesion nematode, Pratylenchus vulnus, in Spain. Twenty-five rootstocks had a Pf/Pi > 1.5. These included almond (Desmayo Rojo, 1143), apple (EM-9, EM-106), avocado (Hass), cherry (Santa Lucia 64, Camil, M x M 14, Masto de Montafiana), grape (41-B, Fercal, Ritcher 110), hazelnut (Pauetet), loquat (Nadal), peach (Montclar, GF-305), pear (OHF-333), pistachio (P. atlantica, P. vera, P. terebinthus), plum (San Julian 655-2, Montizo, Pixy, Myrobalan 605), and walnut (Serf). The peach rootstock Nemaguard and the grape 161-49 had Pf/Pi between 1.0 and 1.5 (slightly higher than inoculation level). All the tested citrus (Alemow, rough lemon, Carrizo citrange, sour orange, Troyer citrange, Citrumelo), plus three grape (SO4, Vitis rupestris, 1103-P), and the olive rootstock Arbequina had a Pf/Pi < 1.0.

  13. Influence of Mahaleb and Gisela 5 Rootstocks on the Growth of „Bigarreau Burlat” Sweet Cherry Cultivar

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pal, Monica; Mitre, Viorel; Tripon, Andreea; Lazar, Mihai; Lisandru, Tabita; Molnar, Sabin

    2016-01-01

    The influence of Prunus Mahaleb L. and ‘Gisela 5’ rootstocks on the growth of ‘Biggareau Burlat’ sweet cherry cultivar was evaluate on the environmental conditions of Cluj-Napoca city, in 2015, in a high-density plot...

  14. Metabolic composition of apple rootstock rhizodeposits differs in a genotype-specific manner and affects growth of subsequent plantings

    Science.gov (United States)

    The percolated rhizodeposit composition and quantity of 4 apple rootstock genotypes grown in sand was examined via liquid chromatography mass spectrometry time-of-flight, specifically contrasting the rhizodeposits of apple replant disease susceptible genotypes (M26, M9Nic29) with apple replant disea...

  15. Irrigation and rootstock effects on the phenolic concentration and aroma potential of Vitis vinifera L. cv. cabernet sauvignon grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koundouras, Stefanos; Hatzidimitriou, Effimia; Karamolegkou, Margarita; Dimopoulou, Eirini; Kallithraka, Stamatina; Tsialtas, John T; Zioziou, Eleftheria; Nikolaou, Nikolaos; Kotseridis, Yorgos

    2009-09-09

    Compositional changes of skin and seed phenolic compounds and berry glycosylated aroma precursors were measured in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon onto 1103P and SO4 rootstocks, in three irrigation regimes (FI, 100% of evapotranspiration; DI, 50% of evapotranspiration; and NI, non-irrigated). The study was conducted in a commercial vineyard of central Greece, in a factorial experiment during two growing seasons (2005-2006). Grape samples were obtained at commercial harvest. The deficit water supply decreased berry size but did not affect the skin/pulp weight ratio. Water limitation, especially pre-veraison, caused a substantial increase of skin anthocyanin concentration, and this effect was independent of water deficit-induced reductions in berry size and vine vigor. Among individual anthocyanins, malvidin-3-O-glucoside was mostly affected by water supply. The rootstock genotype did not affect berry growth parameters and skin polyphenol concentrations. The irrigation regime (mainly post-veraison) and rootstock genotype affected total flavan-3-ol monomers in seed tissue, mainly as a result of variations in the catechin amount. The lower seed phenolic concentration was found in non-irrigated and SO4-grafted vines, probably as a result of the restriction of scion vigor caused by these treatments, thereby altering cluster exposure. Skin and seed tannins were not affected by either rootstock or irrigation. The limited water supply was associated with increased aroma potential at harvest.

  16. Soluble Sugars and Sucrose-Metabolizing Enzymes Related to Cold Acclimation of Sweet Cherry Cultivars Grafted on Different Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ece Turhan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The bark tissues were collected from 4-year-old sweet cherry trees cvs. 0900 Ziraat and Lambert grafted on Gisela 5 and Mazzard rootstocks in cold-acclimated (CA and nonacclimated (NA stages. Bark tissues subjected to 4°C and −5°C injured to a limited extent in both stages. However, more than 50% injury occurred by temperatures equal to or colder than −15°C only in NA period. Total soluble sugar (TSS, reducing sugars, and sucrose contents were higher in CA than those in NA stages in all samples. The activities of acid invertase (EC 3.2.1.26 and sucrose synthase (SS (EC 2.4.2.13 enzymes were higher in NA stage than those in CA stage. Considering the rootstocks, reducing sugars were higher in both cultivars grafted on Gisela 5 whereas sucrose contents were higher in both cultivars grafted on Mazzard. However, the enzyme activities of both cultivars were higher on Mazzard rootstock than on Gisela 5. In conclusion, cold hardiness of sweet cherry graft combinations was suggested by increasing their TSS, reducing sugars, and sucrose contents significantly in the CA stage. Moreover, acid invertase and SS are down regulated during cold acclimation. Indeed the results suggested that Mazzard is more cold-hardy rootstock than Gisela 5.

  17. Can Pierce’s disease resistance introgressed into Vitis vinifera be translocated from a resistant rootstock to a susceptible scion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this research is to evaluate the potential of a non-transgenic, PD-resistant Vitis vinifera selection used as an experimental rootstock to confer systemic resistance to PD-susceptible V. vinifera scions. Source of PD-susceptible plant material was the wine grape variety ‘Chardonnay’, kno...

  18. The influence of rootstock and time of harvest on the fruit quality during storage of in two grapefruit cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Ligia de Castro Machado

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the ‘Cleopatra’ mandarin and ‘Swingle’ citrumelo rootstocks and time of harvest on the quality of cold-stored (13°C and 90% R.H. ‘Ruby Red’ and ‘Star Ruby’ grapefruit grown under the tropical conditions prevalent in Ceará state, Brazil, were evaluated. Fruit quality was assessed by mass loss and peel color, the percentage of juice, soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, maturity index, and ascorbic acid content. The results suggested that ‘Ruby Red’ and ‘Star Ruby’ grapefruit presented similar amounts of soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid levels at harvest, and the trends over the course of storage followed similar patterns for both cultivars, regardless of rootstock. The influence of scion-rootstock combination on the studied variables was dependent on the time of harvest. The peel color of ‘Ruby Red’ grafted on ‘Swingle’ citrumelo is more vivid and redder when harvested in October than when harvested in August. ‘Ruby Red’ and ‘Star Ruby’ grapefruit harvested in October are sweeter, less acidic, juicier, and richer in ascorbic acid than those harvested in August. ‘Cleopatra’ mandarin rootstock might favor ascorbic acid levels at harvest, but the fruit may lose more weight during storage.

  19. Fruit quality of 'Tahiti' lime (Citrus latifolia Tanak grafted on twelve different rootstocks Qualidade de frutos de limeira-ácida 'Tahiti' (Citrus latifolia Tanaka enxertada em doze porta-enxertos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sanches Stuchi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the effect of twelve rootstocks on fruit quality of the nucellar clone IAC-5 of 'Tahiti' lime, (Citrus latifolia Tanaka and the influence of fruit position on tree in fruit quality was evaluated in the Citrus Experimental Station of Bebedouro (EECB, located in the Bebedouro county, state of São Paulo, Brazil. A 8.0 x 5.0m planting frame was utilized. The evaluated rootstocks were: 'Carrizo' citrange (C. sinensis (L. Osbeck x Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.; the hybrids 'Rangpur' lime x 'Swingle' citrumello (C. limonia Osbeck x P. trifoliata Raf and 'Changsha' x 'English Small'(C. sunki Hort. ex Tan. x P. trifoliata Raf.; the mandarins 'Sun Chu Sha Kat' (C. reticulata Blanco and 'Sunki' (C. sunki Hort. ex Tanaka; the 'Rangpur' limes 'Cravo Limeira' and ' Cravo FCAV' (C. limonia Osbeck; the 'Swingle' citrumello (P. trifoliata Raf. x C. paradisi Macf.; the 'Orlando' tangelo (C. reticulata Blanco x C. paradisi Macf. and the trifoliates cvs. 'Rubidoux', 'FCAV' and 'Flying Dragon' (P. trifoliata Raf.. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design, with twelve treatments, six replicates and one plant per plot. The rootstocks induced differences in fruit quality; however, all the evaluated quality characteristics were within the values considered as normal and acceptable for the variety, constituting good alternative rootstocks for the 'Rangpur' lime. Additionally, the fruit position in the plant (northeastern or southwestern had a significant influence on the external fruit color regardless of the rootstock.No presente trabalho, avaliou-se a influência de doze porta-enxertos sobre a qualidade dos frutos da lima-ácida 'Tahiti' (Citrus latifolia Tanaka, clone 'IAC-5', amostrados em duas posições nas plantas, em experimento conduzido na Estação de Citricultura de Bebedouro, em um pomar de três anos. O espaçamento utilizado foi de 8.0 x 5.0m. Os porta-enxertos utilizados foram: citrangeiro 'Carrizo' (C. sinensis (L

  20. Compatibilidade de enxertia de cultivares de marmeleiros com pereiras Compatibility of pear cultivars on quinces rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeni Fonseca Pinto Tomaz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A insuficiência de estudos sobre compatibilidade de porta-enxertos é um dos fatores limitantes ao desenvolvimento da cultura da pereira (Pyrus sp. no Brasil. A utilização do marmeleiro (Cydonia oblonga como porta-enxerto para a cultura da pereira apresenta inúmeras vantagens, entre as quais a redução do vigor e a rápida entrada em produção; todavia, sua combinação com algumas cultivares copa apresenta problemas de incompatibilidade de enxertia, podendo ocasionar a ruptura do caule das plantas no pomar. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a compatibilidade de enxertia de algumas cultivares de marmeleiros ('Quince C' e 'Adams' com pereiras ('Packham's Triumph' e 'Kieffer'. As variáveis analisadas foram: diâmetro da secção do tronco no ponto de enxertia, 5 cm abaixo e 5 cm acima do ponto de enxertia, diferença do diâmetro entre porta-enxerto e copa, altura das plantas, volume e massa seca da copa e raízes. Além disso, efetuou-se a observação da conexão vascular no ponto de enxertia através da imersão da base das plantas (abaixo do ponto de enxertia, em solução corante de Ácido Fuccínico 0,08%. Concluiu-se que a cultivar 'Packham's Triumph'apresenta compatibilidade de enxertia com o marmeleiro cultivares 'Adams'e 'Quince C', enquanto o híbrido 'Kieffer' apresentou sintomas morfológicos de incompatibilidade de enxertia com o marmeleiro cultivares 'Quince C' e 'Adams'.The lack of studies on compatibility of pear cultivars and rootstocks is one of the limiting factors on the development of the pear crop in Brazil. The use of quinces as rootstocks for pear cultivars has several advantages, among them the reduction in vigor and earlier bearing trees, however, its combination with some scions cultivars results in problems of incompatibility , such as lost of trees of the orchard due to break of the graft union. The objective of this study was to determine the compatibility between pears cvs. Packham's Triumph and Kieffer

  1. Shared and host-specific microbiome diversity and functioning of grapevine and accompanying weed plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samad, Abdul; Trognitz, Friederike; Compant, Stéphane; Antonielli, Livio; Sessitsch, Angela

    2017-04-01

    Weeds and crop plants select their microbiota from the same pool of soil microorganisms, however, the ecology of weed microbiomes is poorly understood. We analysed the microbiomes associated with roots and rhizospheres of grapevine and four weed species (Lamium amplexicaule L., Veronica arvensis L., Lepidium draba L. and Stellaria media L.) growing in proximity in the same vineyard using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We also isolated and characterized 500 rhizobacteria and root endophytes from L. draba and grapevine. Microbiome data analysis revealed that all plants hosted significantly different microbiomes in the rhizosphere as well as in root compartment, however, differences were more pronounced in the root compartment. The shared microbiome of grapevine and the four weed species contained 145 OTUs (54.2%) in the rhizosphere, but only nine OTUs (13.2%) in the root compartment. Seven OTUs (12.3%) were shared in all plants and compartments. Approximately 56% of the major OTUs (>1%) showed more than 98% identity to bacteria isolated in this study. Moreover, weed-associated bacteria generally showed a higher species richness in the rhizosphere, whereas the root-associated bacteria were more diverse in the perennial plants grapevine and L. draba. Overall, weed isolates showed more plant growth-promoting characteristics compared with grapevine isolates. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Possible role of catalase in post-dormancy bud break in grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Francisco J; Lira, Waldo

    2005-03-01

    Changes in the activity of catalase (Cat) and in the levels of H2O2 were followed throughout dormancy in buds of grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.). In grapevines grown in the Elqui valley in Chile, a region with warm-winters, the activity of Cat increased during the recess period of buds, reaching a maximum and thereafter decreased to less than one third of its maximal activity. Three isoforms of Cat were detected in extracts of buds by native PAGE analysis, and the extracted activity was inhibited competitively by hydrogen cyanamide (HC), a potent bud-break agent. Furthermore, HC applications to field-grown grapevines in addition to the expected effect on advancing bud break, reduced the Cat activity during bud dormancy. Similar reductions were observed during dormancy in buds of grapevines grown in the Central valley in Chile, a region with temperate winters, suggesting that HC and winter chilling inhibits the activity of the main H2O2 degrading enzyme in grape buds. A transient rise in H2O2 levels preceded the release of buds from endodormancy, moreover, the peak of H2O2 and the onset of bud break occurred earlier in HC treated than in control grapevines, suggesting the participation of H2O2 as a signal molecule in the release of endodormancy in grape buds. The relationship between Cat inhibition, rise in H2O2 levels and initiation of bud break are discussed.

  3. Genetic characterization of autochthonous grapevine cultivars from Eastern Turkey by simple sequence repeats (SSRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiye Peral Eyduran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, two well-recognized standard grape cultivars, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot, together with eight historical autochthonous grapevine cultivars from Eastern Anatolia in Turkey, were genetically characterized by using 12 pairs of simple sequence repeat (SSR primers in order to evaluate their genetic diversity and relatedness. All of the used SSR primers produced successful amplifications and revealed DNA polymorphisms, which were subsequently utilized to evaluate the genetic relatedness of the grapevine cultivars. Allele richness was implied by the identification of 69 alleles in 8 autochthonous cultivars with a mean value of 5.75 alleles per locus. The average expected heterozygosity and observed heterozygosity were found to be 0.749 and 0.739, respectively. Taking into account the generated alleles, the highest number was recorded in VVC2C3 and VVS2 loci (nine and eight alleles per locus, respectively, whereas the lowest number was recorded in VrZAG83 (three alleles per locus. Two main clusters were produced by using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram constructed on the basis of the SSR data. Only Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot cultivars were included in the first cluster. The second cluster involved the rest of the autochthonous cultivars. The results obtained during the study illustrated clearly that SSR markers have verified to be an effective tool for fingerprinting grapevine cultivars and carrying out grapevine biodiversity studies. The obtained data are also meaningful references for grapevine domestication.

  4. Transmission of Grapevine virus A and Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 1 and 3 by Heliococcus bohemicus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Nymphs From Plants With Mixed Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, S; Cavalieri, V; Gribaudo, I; Sacco, D; Marzachì, C; Bosco, D

    2016-08-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) represent a serious threat for viticulture as vectors of phloem-restricted viruses associated with the grapevine rugose wood and leafroll diseases. Heliococcus bohemicus (Šulc) is known to be involved in the spread of these two viral diseases, being a vector of the Grapevine virus A (GVA) and the Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 1 and 3 (GLRaV-1 and GLRaV-3). This study investigated the acquisition and transmission efficiency of H. bohemicus fed on mixed-infected plants. Nymphs were field-collected onto GVA, GLRaV-1, and GLRaV-3 multiple-infected grapevines in two vineyards in North-Western Italy, and were used in transmission experiments under controlled conditions. Even if most of the collected nymphs were positive to at least one virus, transmission occurred only to a low number of test grapevines. The transmission frequency of GLRaV-3 was the highest, whereas GVA was transmitted to few test plants. The transmission of multiple viruses occurred at low rates, and nymphs that acquired all the three viruses then failed to transmit them together. Statistical analyses showed that the three viruses were independently acquired and transmitted by H. bohemicus and neither synergistic nor antagonistic interactions occurred among them. GVA and GLRaVs transmission efficiencies by H. bohemicus were lower than those reported for other mealybug vectors. This finding is consistent with the slow spread of leafroll and rugose wood diseases observed in Northern Italy, where H. bohemicus is the predominant vector species.

  5. Molecular cloning and characterization of UDP-glucose: furaneol glucosyltransferase gene from grapevine cultivar Muscat Bailey A (Vitis labrusca × V. vinifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kanako; Takase, Hideki; Kobayashi, Hironori; Matsuo, Hironori; Takata, Ryoji

    2015-10-01

    2,5-Dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (furaneol) is an important aroma compound in fruits, such as pineapple and strawberry, and is reported to contribute to the strawberry-like note in some wines. Several grapevine species are used in winemaking, and furaneol is one of the characteristic aroma compounds in wines made from American grape (Vitis labrusca) and its hybrid grape. Furaneol glucoside was recently isolated as an important furaneol derivative from the hybrid grapevine cultivar, Muscat Bailey A (V. labrusca × V. vinifera), and this was followed by its isolation from some fruits such as strawberry and tomato. Furaneol glucoside is a significant 'aroma precursor of wine' because furaneol is liberated from it during alcoholic fermentation. In this study, a glucosyltransferase gene from Muscat Bailey A (UGT85K14), which is responsible for the glucosylation of furaneol was identified. UGT85K14 was expressed in the representative grape cultivars regardless of species, indicating that furaneol glucoside content is regulated by the biosynthesis of furaneol. On the other hand, furaneol glucoside content in Muscat Bailey A berry during maturation might be controlled by the expression of UGT85K14 along with the biosynthesis of furaneol. Recombinant UGT85K14 expressed in Escherichia coli is able to transfer a glucose moiety from UDP-glucose to the hydroxy group of furaneol, indicating that this gene might be UDP-glucose: furaneol glucosyltransferase in Muscat Bailey A. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. New vineyard fields: Grape Juice. Selection of grapevine species, juice making, stabilization / Nouvelle filière : jus de raisin. Sélection des cépages, élaboration, stabilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escudier Jean-Louis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Proposed by FOULON-SOPAGLY society and INRA, a six years applied research program was developed in France to enable creation of create specific lines to elaborate high quality juice with new adapted grapevine varieties and specialized vineyards, with adapted technology. 448 vine varieties from INRA Vassal first international collection of grapevine species were evaluated to finally select 14: 2 V.vinifera,9 hybrids, and 3 from INRA creation (ref A. Bouquet by hybridization. These last references, obtained from 4 or 5 back crossing between Muscadinia. rotondifolia.X.V.vinifera, have in particular a high level of resistance against mildew and oidium.These varieties have RUN 1 and RPV1. resistance genes, with several other secondary genes on one chromosome locus. This makes access to organic market easier. Agronomic criteria are studied for this selection. Among the 14 selected grapevine species, some have high level of polyphenols (6 times more than alicante. Others (white and red have a high aromatic potential. Others have a low sugar content 135 g/l to 150 g/l and adapted sugar/ acidity ratio. -In the cellar: The absence of fermentation and alcohol requires optimization of the process for juice making. For example by increasing polyphenols extraction and colour stability by using thermo-treatment. Flash release process coupled with enzymatic soaking on grapes at 45°C for example, increases 2 or 3 fold polysaccharide juice content, and increases anthocyanins extraction and hence colour intensity. With this process the draining of grape marc and juice production increase. Pressure technology by on line horizontal decanter is possible. -In juice storehouse. Electro membrane process, (oenodia membrane process with specific membranes gives possibilities to achieve two objectives on juice: - Decrease pH and increase acidity of juice and colour stabilization, without any additive.

  7. Transcriptional analysis of late ripening stages of grapevine berry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaumie Sabine

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The composition of grapevine berry at harvest is a major determinant of wine quality. Optimal oenological maturity of berries is characterized by a high sugar/acidity ratio, high anthocyanin content in the skin, and low astringency. However, harvest time is still mostly determined empirically, based on crude biochemical composition and berry tasting. In this context, it is interesting to identify genes that are expressed/repressed specifically at the late stages of ripening and which may be used as indicators of maturity. Results Whole bunches and berries sorted by density were collected in vineyard on Chardonnay (white cultivar grapevines for two consecutive years at three stages of ripening (7-days before harvest (TH-7, harvest (TH, and 10-days after harvest (TH+10. Microvinification and sensory analysis indicate that the quality of the wines made from the whole bunches collected at TH-7, TH and TH+10 differed, TH providing the highest quality wines. In parallel, gene expression was studied with Qiagen/Operon microarrays using two types of samples, i.e. whole bunches and berries sorted by density. Only 12 genes were consistently up- or down-regulated in whole bunches and density sorted berries for the two years studied in Chardonnay. 52 genes were differentially expressed between the TH-7 and TH samples. In order to determine whether these genes followed a similar pattern of expression during the late stages of berry ripening in a red cultivar, nine genes were selected for RT-PCR analysis with Cabernet Sauvignon grown under two different temperature regimes affecting the precocity of ripening. The expression profiles and their relationship to ripening were confirmed in Cabernet Sauvignon for seven genes, encoding a carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase, a galactinol synthase, a late embryogenesis abundant protein, a dirigent-like protein, a histidine kinase receptor, a valencene synthase and a putative S

  8. RNA-Sequencing Reveals Biological Networks during Table Grapevine (‘Fujiminori’) Fruit Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Lingfei; Mu, Qian; Fang, Xiang; Zhang, Kekun; Jia, Haifeng; Li, Xiaoying; Bao, Yiqun; Fang, Jinggui

    2017-01-01

    Grapevine berry development is a complex and genetically controlled process, with many morphological, biochemical and physiological changes occurring during the maturation process. Research carried out on grapevine berry development has been mainly concerned with wine grape, while barely focusing on table grape. ‘Fujiminori’ is an important table grapevine cultivar, which is cultivated in most provinces of China. In order to uncover the dynamic networks involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis, cell wall development, lipid metabolism and starch-sugar metabolism in ‘Fujiminori’ fruit, we employed RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) and analyzed the whole transcriptome of grape berry during development at the expanding period (40 days after full bloom, 40DAF), véraison period (65DAF), and mature period (90DAF). The sequencing depth in each sample was greater than 12×, and the expression level of nearly half of the expressed genes were greater than 1. Moreover, greater than 64% of the clean reads were aligned to the Vitis vinifera reference genome, and 5,620, 3,381, and 5,196 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between different fruit stages, respectively. Results of the analysis of DEGs showed that the most significant changes in various processes occurred from the expanding stage to the véraison stage. The expression patterns of F3’H and F3’5’H were crucial in determining red or blue color of the fruit skin. The dynamic networks of cell wall development, lipid metabolism and starch-sugar metabolism were also constructed. A total of 4,934 SSR loci were also identified from 4,337 grapevine genes, which may be helpful for the development of phylogenetic analysis in grapevine and other fruit trees. Our work provides the foundation for developmental research of grapevine fruit as well as other non-climacteric fruits. PMID:28118385

  9. Control strategies for grapevine phytoplasma diseases: factors influencing the profitability of replacing symptomatic plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco PAVAN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The course of ‘flavescence dorée’ (FD and ‘bois noir’ (BN diseases can result in either recovery or death of affected grapevines. When farmers observe symptomatic grapevines, they must choose whether to replace or maintain the plants. To establish whether there is an advantage in replacing symptomatic grapevines, data were collected on the costs of replacing them (removing the diseased plants and planting new grapevines, with resultant yield loss during the rearing period and growing them on (yield losses in symptomatic grapevines over the following years. To calculate the cost of maintaining FD-infected plants, the possibility was also considered that symptomatic grapevines may be sources of phytoplasmas for the vector Scaphoideus titanus Ball. The symptomatic course of BN was observed in ‘Chardonnay’, and of FD in ‘Chardonnay’, ‘Merlot’ and ‘Perera’ grape cultivars. The costs of replacement decreased with the increase in the productive lifetime of the vineyards. The cost of maintenance was greatly influenced by the course of the diseases, and in the case of FD, also by the risk of new infections due to the fact that S. titanus acquires phytoplasmas from infected grapevines. The replacement of plants affected by BN is not profitable when recovery is the most frequent course of the disease, particularly when it is considered that replantings can, in turn, become infected. The replacement of plants affected by FD is not profitable for cultivars with a recovery near to 100% (‘Merlot’, whereas it is necessary for cultivars where the course of the disease is frequently lethal (‘Perera’. For cultivars with intermediate sensitivity, the decision varies in relation to agronomic/economic factors and to the risk of new infections (‘Chardonnay’. For FD, both replacement and maintenance strategies need to be associated with S. titanus control inside and outside the vineyards. In the case of maintenance the infected

  10. A Fundamental Step in IPM on Grapevine: Evaluating the Side Effects of Pesticides on Predatory Mites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Pozzebon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on side effects of pesticides on non-target beneficial arthropods is a key point in Integrated Pest Management (IPM. Here we present the results of four experiments conducted in vineyards where the effects of chlorpyrifos, thiamethoxam, indoxacarb, flufenoxuron, and tebufenozide were evaluated on the generalist predatory mites Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten and Amblyseius andersoni (Chant, key biocontrol agents of herbivorous mites on grapevines. Results show that indoxacarb and tebufenozide had a low impact on the predatory mites considered here, while a significant impact was observed for chlorpyrifos, flufenoxuron, and thiamethoxam. The information obtained here should be considered in the design of IPM strategies on grapevine.

  11. Effects of sunlight exposure on grapevine powdery mildew development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Craig N; Wilcox, Wayne F

    2012-09-01

    Natural and artificially induced shade increased grapevine powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) severity in the vineyard, with foliar disease severity 49 to 75% higher relative to leaves in full sun, depending on the level of natural shading experienced and the individual experiment. Cluster disease severities increased by 20 to 40% relative to those on check vines when ultraviolet (UV) radiation was filtered from sunlight reaching vines in artificial shading experiments. Surface temperatures of leaves in full sunlight averaged 5 to 8°C higher than those in natural shade, and in one experiment, filtering 80% of all wavelengths of solar radiation, including longer wavelengths responsible for heating irradiated tissues, increased disease more than filtering UV alone. In controlled environment experiments, UV-B radiation reduced germination of E. necator conidia and inhibited both colony establishment (hyphal formation and elongation) and maturity (latent period). Inhibitory effects of UV-B radiation were significantly greater at 30°C than at 20 or 25°C. Thus, sunlight appears to inhibit powdery mildew development through at least two mechanisms, i.e., (i) UV radiation's damaging effects on exposed conidia and thalli of the pathogen; and (ii) elevating temperatures of irradiated tissues to a level supraoptimal or inhibitory for pathogen development. Furthermore, these effects are synergistic at temperatures near the upper threshold for disease development.

  12. VESPUCCI: exploring patterns of gene expression in grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eMoretto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale transcriptional studies aim to decipher the dynamic cellular responses to a stimulus, like different environmental conditions. In the era of high-throughput omics biology, the most used technologies for these purposes are microarray and RNA-Seq, whose data are usually required to be deposited in public repositories upon publication. Such repositories have the enormous potential to provide a comprehensive view of how different experimental conditions lead to expression changes, by comparing gene expression across all possible measured conditions. Unfortunately, this task is greatly impaired by differences among experimental platforms that make direct comparisons difficult.In this paper we present the Vitis Expression Studies Platform Using COLOMBOS Compendia Instances (VESPUCCI, a gene expression compendium for grapevine which was built by adapting an approach originally developed for bacteria, and show how it can be used to investigate complex gene expression patterns. We integrated nearly all publicly available microarray and RNA-Seq expression data: 1608 gene expression samples from 10 different technological platforms. Each sample has been manually annotated using a controlled vocabulary developed ad hoc to ensure both human readability and computational tractability. Expression data in the compendium can be visually explored using several tools provided by the web interface or can be programmatically accessed using the REST interface. VESPUCCI is freely accessible at http://vespucci.colombos.fmach.it.

  13. Understanding grapevine-microbiome interactions: implications for viticulture industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarraonaindia, Iratxe; Gilbert, Jack A.

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, the analysis of complex communities such as that of the grapevine-microbe holobiont has been limited by the fact that most microbes are not culturable under laboratory conditions (less than 1%). However, metagenomics, the study of the genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples without the need for enrichment or of culturing, has led to open an unprecedented era in the field of microbiology. Importantly, this technological advance has now become so pervasive that it is being regularly applied to explore soils and plants of agricultural interest. Interestingly, many large companies are taking notice, with significant financial investment being used to exploring ways to manipulate the productivity, disease resistance and stress tolerance for crops by influencing the microbiome. To understand which microbes one needs to manipulate to influence this valuable characteristics, we need to sequence the microbiome and capture the genetic and hence functional metabolic information contained therein. For viticulture and other agricultural fields where the crop is also associated to particular flavor properties that may also be manipulated, understanding how the bacteria, fungi and viruses influence the development and hence chemical makeup of the crop is essential. PMID:28357290

  14. Essential host plant cues in the grapevine moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasin, Marco; Bäckman, Anna-Carin; Bengtsson, Marie; Ioriatti, Claudio; Witzgall, Peter

    2006-03-01

    Host plant odours attract gravid insect females for oviposition. The identification of these plant volatile compounds is essential for our understanding of plant insect relationships and contributes to plant breeding for improved resistance against insects. Chemical analysis of grape headspace and subsequent behavioural studies in the wind tunnel show that host finding in grapevine moth Lobesia botrana is encoded by a ratio-specific blend of three ubiquitous plant volatiles. The odour signal that attracts mated females to grape consists of the terpenoids ( E)-β-caryophyllene, ( E)-β-farnesene and ( E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene. These compounds represent only a fraction of the volatiles released by grapes, and they are widespread compounds known throughout the plant kingdom. Specificity may be achieved by the blend ratio, which was 100:78:9 in grape headspace. This blend elicited anemotactic behaviour in moths at remarkably small amounts. Females were attracted at release rates of only a few nanograms per minute, at levels nearly as low as those known for the attraction of male moths to the female sex pheromones.

  15. Resistance induced component of management of diseases of grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusciélio Barbosa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of induced resistance presents as a viable alternative in the management of diseases of the vine. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of Agro Mos® and potassium phosphite in controlling diseases of grapevine under field conditions in the Valley San Francisco. O test was conducted under field conditions in the experimental area IFSertão Pernambucano, Petrolina, PE, using the cultivar Petit Sirah. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, composed of five treatments and five replicates: T1 - control; T2 - Cabrio Top® - CT (2kg ha-1; T3 - Agro Mos® - AM (3mL L-1; T4 - Fosfito de potássio - FP (4mL L-1; T5 - Agro Mos® - AM (3mL L-1 interleaved with the fungicide Cabrio Top® - CT (2kg ha-1. Each plot consisted of eight plants. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and averages compared by Tukey test at 5%. Conditions in which the experiment was developed, the use of potassium phosphite and Agro-Mos® promoted a significant reduction in the incidence of Plasmopara viticola and Uncinula necator.Key-words: resistance induced, Plasmopara viticola, Uncinula necator.

  16. Phylloxera and the grapevine: a sense of common purpose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battey, Nicholas H; Simmonds, Paul E

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of life is its continuation: survival is the reason things live. Here we explore this 'basic' of biology, by reference to the extraordinary life-cycle of the aphid-like pest phylloxera, and the complexity of its relationship with its host the grapevine. The effort and ingenuity that phylloxera employs to continue itself leads to a doubt that survival alone is sufficient reason. It has frequently been suggested that the reduction of life to a catalogue of facts (by science) creates this doubt, because it robs existence of its essence (which is something other than its mechanics). The part that science is said to steal is what Robert Pirsig calls Quality-the harmonious balance of things. Pirsig seems to imply that this is something inherent in things-and independent from us. A more mundane explanation is that the difference between facts and the complete reality is us-the tendency of mind to connect freely between different kinds of information. This possibility is briefly illustrated here by a myth based on the facts of phylloxera.

  17. Understanding grapevine-microbiome interactions: implications for viticulture industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iratxe Zarraonaindia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, the analysis of complex communities such as that of the grapevine-microbe holobiont has been limited by the fact that most microbes are notculturable under laboratory conditions (less than 1%. However, metagenomics, the study of the genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples without the need for enrichment or of culturing, has led to open an unprecedented era in the field of microbiology. Importantly, this technological advance has now become so pervasive that it is being regularly applied to explore soils and plants of agricultural interest. Interestingly, many large companies are taking notice, with significant financial investment being used to exploring ways to manipulate the productivity, disease resistance and stress tolerance for crops by influencing the microbiome. To understand which microbes one needs to manipulate to influence this valuable characteristics, we need to sequence the microbiome and capture the genetic and hence functional metabolic information contained therein. For viticulture and other agricultural fields where the crop is also associated to particular flavor properties that may also be manipulated, understanding how the bacteria, fungi and viruses influence the development and hence chemical makeup of the crop is essential.

  18. The effect of rootstocks on the efficiency of a nursery of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. trees cv. ‘Regina’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Baryła

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the period 2006–2009 in Lublin, a study was conducted to determine the effect of five rootstocks: ‘Colt’, ‘F12/1’, sweet cherry (Prunus avium L., ‘GiSelA 5’, and ‘Piast’, on bud take in the cultivar ‘Regina’, the quality of budded trees and the efficiency of a sweet cherry tree nursery. The highest percentage of bud take in cherry trees cv. ‘Regina’ and the best efficiency of the sweet cherry tree nursery were obtained for the rootstocks ‘Piast’ and ‘Colt’. In two years during the three-year study period, the rootstock was found to significantly affect the efficiency of the sweet cherry tree nursery. When grafted on the rootstocks ‘Colt’ and ‘Piast’, a significantly higher percentage of trees met the requirements of the Polish Standard PN-R-67010 than on the clonal rootstock ‘GiSelA 5’. Under the tested conditions, the quality of maiden sweet cherry trees cv. ‘Regina’ grafted on the dwarfing rootstock ‘GiSelA 5’ was lowest.

  19. Analise comparativa da organização e metodologia da seleção clonal da videira na frança e Brasil Clone selection methods for grapevine in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murillo de Albuquerque Regina

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available A origem policlonal da videira, associando-se sua sensibilidade à ocorrência de mutações somáticas espontâneas, faz com que exista uma grande variabilidade genética no interior de uma mesma cultivar dessa espécie, permitindo, por meio da seleção clonal, a obtenção de descendências que atendam aos objetivos específicos de produção, como produtividade e qualidade. Em razão da ocorrência generalizada de viroses na maioria dos vinhedos, a seleção clonal da videira é obrigatoriamente genética e sanitária, devendo obedecer a um certo número de etapas para que os clones selecionados possam atender aos requisitos qualitativos desejados. Na França, o programa de seleção clonal da videira data dos anos 60, e já permitiu a obtenção de centenas de clones de cultivares porta-enxerto e cultivares de vinho e mesa. Com este trabalho objetivou-se ilustrar as diferentes etapas e organização da seleção clonal da videira na França.The polyclone origin of grapevine has been associated with the high occurrence of somatic mutations. Most part of these mutations are spontaneous and are responsible for most of the genetic variability inside a variety of this species. The large genetic variability found in grapevine has allowed grape breeders to obtain new varieties with better agronomic traits only by clone selection. However, due to the virus occurrence, the clone selection has been used also to eliminate plant pathogens, as a routine procedure. The selection process of plants without virus follows a severe set of rules where several steps are developed before the new clone is obtained. The program of clone selection in France, has been developed since the 60's decade and has been responsible for the creation of hundreds of varieties of rootstocks, table grapes and wine grapes. This work has as main objective, make a report about the organization of the several stages of clone selection in France.

  20. Enraizamento in vitro de porta-enxertos de Prunus In vitro rooting of Prunus rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rogalski

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Na micropropagação de Prunus sp., o enraizamento tem sido considerado uma fase crítica, pois determina a sobrevivência das plantas durante a aclimatização. Dentre os fatores importantes ao enraizamento in vitro, destacam-se o genótipo e as auxinas por serem determinantes na indução e na formação de raízes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações de IBA no enraizamento in vitro dos porta-enxertos de espécies do gênero Prunus: cultivares Capdeboscq e GF677, e seleções VP411 e VP417. Para o enraizamento in vitro, brotos com 2-3cm de comprimento foram introduzidos em meio de Lepoivre suplementado com 0,1; 0,5; 1,0 e 2,0 mg.L-1 IBA. Observou-se que o porta-enxerto 'Capdeboscq' apresentou maior taxa de enraizamento e maior número de raízes in vitro, sendo superior aos demais genótipos quanto a estas características. O nível de 1,0 mg.L-1 de IBA esteve associado à maior taxa média de enraizamento (100%, 64% e 64,0%, respectivamente para os porta-enxertos 'Capdeboscq', 'GF677' e VP411. O nível de 2,0 mg.L-1 de IBA foi superior para a seleção VP417 com taxa de 64% de enraizamento. Para os porta-enxertos 'Capdeboscq' e 'GF677', o número máximo de raízes foi de 9,6 e 5,2 raízes por broto, respectivamente, em resposta ao nível de 2,0 mg.L-1 de IBA, enquanto as seleções VP411 e VP417 apresentaram o maior número de raízes (3,6 e 3,9, respectivamente em resposta ao nível de 1,0 mg.L-1 de IBA.In Prunus sp. micropropagation of rooting is considered a critical stage, since it determines the plant survival during the acclimatization. Among important factors associated with rooting, the genotype and the auxins are considered important in the induction and formation of roots. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of different IBA on the in vitro rooting of Prunus rootstocks Capdeboscq and GF677, and the selections VP411 and VP417. For the in vitro rooting stage, shoots of

  1. Effects of transient soil waterlogging and its importance for rootstock selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Morales-Olmedo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Under transient waterlogging, a number of transformations in the soil are generated associated with lack of aeration, seriously affecting the root system. Significant progress has been reported on understanding the effects of lack of oxygen on the metabolism of the roots, although few studies have examined changes in the soil. Diverging conclusions about the degree of tolerance exhibited by plants exclude the effects of hypoxia and anoxia on physical-chemical soil properties under plant experiments. This review examines the main changes occurring in soil and roots due to transient soil waterlogging conditions. Parameters such as antioxidant capacity, nutrient uptake dynamics and regeneration and distribution of the root system are relevant for selecting rootstocks tolerant to soil waterlogging.

  2. The elaboration of a practical protocol for the micropropagation of several apple rootstock varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina Clapa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The apple rootstock varieties ‘MM 106/4’, ‘MM 106/6’, ‘D 18’, ‘D 20’, ‘JTE-H’ and ‘MR 09/4’ were multiplied in vitro on modified Murashige and Skoog media gelled with wheat starch (MSs and supplemented with 0.7 mg/l BA, which provided intense axillary shoot proliferation. Among the genotypes we studied, MR 09/4 had the highest multiplication rate  (19.56, followed by D18 (15.36. The lowest multiplication rates were recorded in MM 106/6 (5.36 and in MM 106/4 (3.32. The use of the technique of direct ex vitro rooting and acclimatization in floating perlite provided rooting percentages of more than 90 %.

  3. Blends of agar/galactomannan for Marubakaido apple rootstock shoot proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lucyszyn

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Galactomannans (GMs extracted from seeds of a native Brazilian specie designated Cassia fastuosa (cassia and from Cyamopsis tetragonolobus (guar gum - a commercial GM were mixed with agar, in the proportion of 3/3 g.L¹ (w/w, and used as a gelling agent in Marubakaido apple rootstock (Malus prunifolia Borkh micropropagation. The rheological measurements of the gels showed a good interaction between both hidrocolloids. The micropropagation results on these media were compared with behaviour of standard medium containing agar only (6 g.L-1. Results from in vitro experiments indicated enhanced proliferation of apple shoots and also the occurrence of hyperhydric shoots was lower in the modified gel-medium.

  4. Resposta de porta-enxertos de citros ao déficit hídrico Response of citrus rootstocks to water deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Costa Cerqueira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido em casa de vegetação na Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, em Cruz das Almas - BA, e objetivou-se à identificação de porta-enxertos de citros melhor adaptados ao ecossistema de Tabuleiros Costeiros, quanto a tolerância à seca. Foram estudados os limoeiros 'Cravo' e 'Volkameriano', laranjeira 'Azeda' e os híbridos trifoliados HTR - 051, TSK x CTTR - 002 e TSK x CTTR - 017. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 6 õ 9, com seis genótipos e nove tempos de avaliação. As avaliações foram realizadas na sequência: irrigação, déficit hídrico e irrigação, quando plantas possuíam de 3 a 4 pares de folhas. Foram analisadas as variáveis massas secas da raiz e da parte aérea, o potencial hídrico da planta e a transpiração da folha. Quanto à massa seca da parte aérea, os genótipos limoeiro Volkameriano e laranjeira 'Azeda' apresentaram decréscimos no período de déficit hídrico, sendo que os demais não apresentaram diferenças significativas. Na ausência de irrigação, todos os genótipos apresentaram decréscimos nos seus potenciais hídricos, enquanto apenas os híbridos apresentaram recuperação, mantendo a transpiração. Os híbridos HTR - 051 e TSK x CTTR - 017 apresentaram os melhores desempenhos para todas as variáveis estudadas, mostrando-se mais promissores como porta-enxertos de citros em condições de déficit hídrico.This work was carried out under green house condition at the Embrapa Cassava and Tropical Fruit Crops, Cruz das Almas - Bahia- Brazil, aiming to identify citrus rootstocks better adapted to Coastal Table Land ecosystem as for their drought tolerance. It was studied the Rangpur lime, Volkamer lemon, Sour orange and the trifoliated hybrids HTR - 051, TSK x CTTR - 002, and TSK x CTTR - 017, the last three from the breeding program of the Embrapa Cassava and Tropical Fruits Crops. The experimental design was completely randomized under

  5. 樱桃新砧木——马哈利‘CDR-1’的选育%A new cherry dwarf rootstock variety——Mahaleb ‘ CDR-1'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡宇良; 冯瑛; 张雪; 宛甜; 高平; 王玉

    2013-01-01

    樱桃新砧木马哈利‘CDR-1’属于马哈利樱桃种(Prunus mahaleb),为自然杂交种.‘CDR-1’萌芽力和成枝力强;抗根癌病能力优于中国樱桃和考特砧木;‘CDR-1’砧甜樱桃比酸樱桃及中国樱桃砧甜樱桃早果1~2 a;‘CDR-1’砧甜樱桃矮化效果达到中国樱桃砧甜樱桃的70%;有较强的耐盐碱性.适宜在陕西渭北、关中、陕南等同类地区栽植.%Mahaleh 'CDR-1' is a new Cherry rootstock of Prunus mahaleb , a natural hybrid with strong sprout capacity and branching ability. The resistance ability of 'CDR-1' rootstock to crown gall disease is superior to Chinese cherry (P. pseudo- cerasus) and Colt; Sweet cherry grafted on 'CDR-1' is one or two years earlier bearing than that on sour cherry(prunus cera- sus) and Chinese cherry (P. pseudocerasus); Dwarfing effect of 'CDR-1' compared with Chinese cherry (P. pseudocerasus L) is 70 percent and it has strong salt and alkaline tolerance ability. It is suitable for cultivation in Weibei Plateau , middle and south parts of Shaanxi or the similar area.

  6. Biochemical changes in grape rootstocks resulted from humic acid treatments in relation to nematode infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hosny H Kesba; Hossam S El-Beltagi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of humic acid on nematode infected, resistant and susceptible grapes in relation to lipid peroxidation and antioxidant mechanisms on selected biochemical parameters known as proactive substances. Methods: The grape rootstocks, superior, superior/freedom and freedom were reacted differently to Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis according to rootstock progenitor. Two weeks after inoculation, two commercial products of humic acid were applied at the rate of (2, 4 mL or grams/plant) as soil drench. After 4 months, nematode soil populations were extracted and counted. A subsample of roots from each plant was stained and gall numbers, embedded stages per root were calculated, final population, nematode build up (Pf/Pi), average of eggs/eggmass were estimated. Subsamples of fresh root of each treatment were chemically analyzed. Results: Freedom reduced significantly the nematode criteria and build up. Humic acid granules appeared to be more suppressive to nematode build up on superior and the higher dose on superior/freedom than liquid treatments. On freedom, all treatments reduced significantly the nematode build up regardless to the material nature. The higher dose was more effective than the lower one. As a result of humic acid applications, the malondialdehyde (MDA) and H2O2 contents were significantly reduced after humic acid treatments while the antioxidant compounds glutathione (GSH), ascorbic acid (ASA) and total phenol contents were significantly increased when compared with check. Antioxidant defense enzymes ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) showed significant increase in their specific activities in treated plants compared with nematode treated check. Conclusions: Humic acid treatments improve the yield of grape by increasing the contents of antioxidant compounds and the specific activities of antioxidant enzymes.

  7. The influence of season collection of explants on micropropagation of peach rootstock GF-677

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elektra Spahiu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of season on the rate of multiplication on in vitro culture of peach rootstock GF- 677 was investigated on Murashige and Skoog (MS media, supplemented with GA3 0.1 mg/L and IAA 0.1mg/l. Benzyladenine (BAP at concentrations 1mg/l was used in the multiplication stage and 1mg/l IBA in the stage of rooting. Shoot-tip and nodal segment explants were collected from 5 years old rootstock GF-677 (Prunus persica x Prunus amygdalus in February 24th (from dormant shoots that have been sprouted in climatic room, March 22th, April 20th, May 18th and September 15th during the 2009 growing season and have been sterilized by sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl 10% for 20 min. The data on the effect of the season collection of the explants on number of shoots per explants, the mean shoot length and the percentage of rooted shoots were recorded six weeks after culture. In vitro performance of explants indicated a positive correlation between shoot proliferation and season collection The highest number of shoots per explants (3,5 was obtained on explants collected in March 22th (3,5, which was on a par with explants collected in February 24th (from shoots that have been sprouted in climatic room. Moreover, the highest shoot length was observed on explants collected on February and March (1,53cm and 1,505cm respectively. The percentage of rooted shoots from explants sampled on February was not markedly greater than those sampled on March. The number of shoots per explants, the shoot length and the percentage of rooted shoots on explants sampled in April, May and September were significantly lower than those sampled in February and March. The amount of chlorophyll a + b of the shoots coming from explants collected in March was markedly greater than those collected in February, April, May and September.

  8. Physiological, biochemical and molecular responses in four Prunus rootstocks submitted to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Sergio; Dridi, Jihène; Gutiérrez, Diego; Moret, David; Irigoyen, Juan J; Moreno, María A; Gogorcena, Yolanda

    2013-10-01

    An understanding of the mechanisms that determine plant response to reduced water availability is essential to improve water-use efficiency (WUE) of stone fruit crops. The physiological, biochemical and molecular drought responses of four Prunus rootstocks (GF 677, Cadaman, ROOTPAC 20 and ROOTPAC(®) R) budded with 'Catherina' peach cultivar were studied. Trees were grown in 15-l containers and subjected to a progressive water stress for 26 days, monitoring soil moisture content by time domain reflectometry. Photosynthetic and gas exchange parameters were determined. Root and leaf soluble sugars and proline content were also measured. At the end of the experiment, stressed plants showed lower net photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, and higher intrinsic leaf WUE (AN/gs). Soluble sugars and proline concentration changes were observed, in both root and leaf tissues, especially in an advanced state of stress. The accumulation of proline in roots and leaves with drought stress was related to the decrease in osmotic potential and increase in WUE, whereas the accumulation of sorbitol in leaves, raffinose in roots and proline in both tissues was related only to the increase in the WUE. Owing to the putative role of raffinose and proline as antioxidants and their low concentration, they could be ameliorating deleterious effects of drought-induced oxidative stress by protecting membranes and enzymes rather than acting as active osmolytes. Higher expression of P5SC gene in roots was also consistent with proline accumulation in the tolerant genotype GF 677. These results indicate that accumulation of sorbitol, raffinose and proline in different tissues and/or the increase in P5SC expression could be used as markers of drought tolerance in peach cultivars grafted on Prunus rootstocks.

  9. Genome-wide analysis of the expansin gene superfamily reveals grapevine-specific structural and functional characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Dal Santo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Expansins are proteins that loosen plant cell walls in a pH-dependent manner, probably by increasing the relative movement among polymers thus causing irreversible expansion. The expansin superfamily (EXP comprises four distinct families: expansin A (EXPA, expansin B (EXPB, expansin-like A (EXLA and expansin-like B (EXLB. There is experimental evidence that EXPA and EXPB proteins are required for cell expansion and developmental processes involving cell wall modification, whereas the exact functions of EXLA and EXLB remain unclear. The complete grapevine (Vitis vinifera genome sequence has allowed the characterization of many gene families, but an exhaustive genome-wide analysis of expansin gene expression has not been attempted thus far. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified 29 EXP superfamily genes in the grapevine genome, representing all four EXP families. Members of the same EXP family shared the same exon-intron structure, and phylogenetic analysis confirmed a closer relationship between EXP genes from woody species, i.e. grapevine and poplar (Populus trichocarpa, compared to those from Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa. We also identified grapevine-specific duplication events involving the EXLB family. Global gene expression analysis confirmed a strong correlation among EXP genes expressed in mature and green/vegetative samples, respectively, as reported for other gene families in the recently-published grapevine gene expression atlas. We also observed the specific co-expression of EXLB genes in woody organs, and the involvement of certain grapevine EXP genes in berry development and post-harvest withering. CONCLUSION: Our comprehensive analysis of the grapevine EXP superfamily confirmed and extended current knowledge about the structural and functional characteristics of this gene family, and also identified properties that are currently unique to grapevine expansin genes. Our data provide a model for the

  10. The powdery mildew resistance gene REN1 co-segregates with an NBS-LRR gene cluster in two Central Asian grapevines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgante Michele

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grape powdery mildew is caused by the North American native pathogen Erysiphe necator. Eurasian Vitis vinifera varieties were all believed to be susceptible. REN1 is the first resistance gene naturally found in cultivated plants of Vitis vinifera. Results REN1 is present in 'Kishmish vatkana' and 'Dzhandzhal kara', two grapevines documented in Central Asia since the 1920's. These cultivars have a second-degree relationship (half sibs, grandparent-grandchild, or avuncular, and share by descent the chromosome on which the resistance allele REN1 is located. The REN1 interval was restricted to 1.4 cM using 38 SSR markers distributed across the locus and the segregation of the resistance phenotype in two progenies of collectively 461 offspring, derived from either resistant parent. The boundary markers delimit a 1.4-Mbp sequence in the PN40024 reference genome, which contains 27 genes with known functions, 2 full-length coiled-coil NBS-LRR genes, and 9 NBS-LRR pseudogenes. In the REN1 locus of PN40024, NBS genes have proliferated through a mixture of segmental duplications, tandem gene duplications, and intragenic recombination between paralogues, indicating that the REN1 locus has been inherently prone to producing genetic variation. Three SSR markers co-segregate with REN1, the outer ones confining the 908-kb array of NBS-LRR genes. Kinship and clustering analyses based on genetic distances with susceptible cultivars representative of Central Asian Vitis vinifera indicated that 'Kishmish vatkana' and 'Dzhandzhal kara' fit well into local germplasm. 'Kishmish vatkana' also has a parent-offspring relationship with the seedless table grape 'Sultanina'. In addition, the distant genetic relatedness to rootstocks, some of which are derived from North American species resistant to powdery mildew and have been used worldwide to guard against phylloxera since the late 1800's, argues against REN1 being infused into Vitis vinifera from a

  11. A simple and cost effective liquid culture system for the micropropagation of two commercially important apple rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Mohina; Ram, Raja; Bhattacharya, Amita

    2014-07-01

    The two commercially important apple rootstocks i.e., MM106 and B9 were micropropagated using a liquid culture system. Three different strengths of 0.8% agar solidified PGR free basal MS medium were first tested to optimize the culture media for both the rootstocks. Full strength medium (MS0) supported maximum in vitro growth, multiplication, rooting and survival under field conditions as opposed to quarter and half strength media. When three different volumes of liquid MS0 were tested, highest in vitro growth, multiplication, rooting and also survival under field conditions were achieved in 20 mL liquid MS0. The cost of one litre of liquid medium was also reduced by 8 times to Rs. 6.29 as compared to solid medium. The cost of 20 mL medium was further reduced to Rs. 0.125.

  12. Knockdown of MLO genes reduces susceptibility to powdery mildew in grapevine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pessina, Stefano; Lenzi, Luisa; Perazzolli, Michele; Campa, Manuela; Costa, Dalla Lorenza; Urso, Simona; Valè, Giampiero; Salamini, Francesco; Velasco, Riccardo; Malnoy, Mickael

    2016-01-01

    Erysiphe necator is the causal agent of powdery mildew (PM), one of the most destructive diseases of grapevine. PM is controlled by sulfur-based and synthetic fungicides, which every year are dispersed into the environment. This is why PM-resistant varieties should become a priority for sustainable

  13. Acquisition of Flavescence Dorée Phytoplasma by Scaphoideus titanus Ball from Different Grapevine Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Galetto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Flavescence dorée (FD is a threat for wine production in the vineyard landscape of Piemonte, Langhe-Roero and Monferrato, Italy. Spread of the disease is dependent on complex interactions between insect, plant and phytoplasma. In the Piemonte region, wine production is based on local cultivars. The role of six local grapevine varieties as a source of inoculum for the vector Scaphoideus titanus was investigated. FD phytoplasma (FDP load was compared among red and white varieties with different susceptibility to FD. Laboratory-reared healthy S. titanus nymphs were caged for acquisition on infected plants to measure phytoplasma acquisition efficiency following feeding on different cultivars. FDP load for Arneis was significantly lower than for other varieties. Acquisition efficiency depended on grapevine variety and on FDP load in the source plants, and there was a positive interaction for acquisition between variety and phytoplasma load. S. titanus acquired FDP with high efficiency from the most susceptible varieties, suggesting that disease diffusion correlates more with vector acquisition efficiency than with FDP load in source grapevines. In conclusion, although acquisition efficiency depends on grapevine variety and on FDP load in the plant, even varieties supporting low FDP multiplication can be highly susceptible and good sources for vector infection, while poorly susceptible varieties may host high phytoplasma loads.

  14. First Report of Lasiodiplodia crassispora as a pathogen of grapevine trunks in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niekerk, van J.M.; Bester, W.; Halleen, F.; Crous, P.W.; Fourie, P.H.

    2010-01-01

    In 2003 and 2004, a survey of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) trunk pathogens was conducted in 30 vineyards in the Western and Northern Cape and Limpopo provinces of South Africa. In each vineyard, 20 visually healthy plants were sampled randomly by removing the distal part of one cordon arm. Isolatio

  15. Possibilities of environmentally acceptable control methods of American grapevine leafhopper (Scaphoideus titanus Ball, 1932

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žiga LAZNIK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The American Grapevine Leafhopper (AGL (Scaphoideus titanus Ball, 1932 is a small insect of the family leafhoppers (Cicadellidae, originally spread across North America. Specie has been introduced to Europe, where is known primarily as a vector of phytoplasma Grapevine flavescence dorée (FD, (Candidatus Phytoplasma vitis, a disease-causing grapevine yellows. AGL was first found in Slovenia in 1983. First occurrence of grapevine yellows was confirmed in Slovenia in 2005. Since no effective biological control agents are known to date, AGL populations are suppressed using insecticides during the host plant's growth period. Some researchers reported that it is in both continents (North America, Europe abundance of natural enemies of the AGL very small. Researchers reported that some parasitoids (Drynidae: Hymenoptera and Pipunculidae: Diptera parasitize the AGL, but the percentage of efficiency is very low (from 1.3 to 0.8 %. Among the methods of integrated pest management of AGL methods of mating disruption, thermotherapy, and cover crops are used.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of water ascent in embolized xylem vessels of grapevine stem segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingtao Wang; Melvin T. Tyree; Roderick E. Wasylishen

    2013-01-01

    Temporal and spatial information about water refilling of embolized xylem vessels and the rate of water ascent in these vessels is critical for understanding embolism repair in intact living vascular plants. High-resolution 1H magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experiments have been performed on embolized grapevine stem segments while they were...

  17. Strategies for durable resistance to the grapevine powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly all cultivars of Vitis vinifera are highly susceptible to the grapevine powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator. Grape breeders around the world are working to introgress resistance from wild Vitis. Of the widely-used introgressions, most involve dominant, race-specific resistance phenotype...

  18. Interaction of Ulocladium atrum, a Potential Biological Control Agent, with Botrytis cinerea and Grapevine Plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Ronseaux

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of biological control agent, Ulocladium atrum (isolates U13 and U16 in protecting Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay against gray mold disease caused by Botrytis cinerea, and simulation of the foliar defense responses was investigated. A degraded mycelium structure during cultural assay on potato dextrose agar revealed that U. atrum isolates U13 and U16 were both antagonistic to B. cinerea, mainly when isolates were inoculated two days before Botrytis. Under in vitro conditions, foliar application of U. atrum protected grapevine leaves against gray mold disease. An increase in chitinase activity was induced by the presence of U. atrum isolates indicating that the biological control agents triggered plant defense mechanisms. Moreover, U13 has the potential to colonize the grapevine plantlets and to improve their growth. The ability of U. atrum isolates to exhibit an antagonistic effect against B. cinerea in addition to their aptitude to induce plant resistance and to promote grapevine growth may explain a part of their biological activity. Hence, this study suggests that U. atrum provides a suitable biocontrol agent against gray mold in grapevines.

  19. Deep amplicon sequencing reveals mixed phytoplasma infection within single grapevine plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Mogens; Contaldo, Nicoletta; Makarova, Olga

    2011-01-01

    The diversity of phytoplasmas within single plants has not yet been fully investigated. In this project, deep amplicon sequencing was used to generate 50,926 phytoplasma sequences from 11 phytoplasma-infected grapevine samples from a PCR amplicon in the 5' end of the 16S region. After clustering ...

  20. Performance of several models for predicting budburst date of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de Cortázar-Atauri, Iñaki; Brisson, Nadine; Gaudillere, Jean Pierre

    2009-07-01

    The budburst stage is a key phenological stage for grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), with large site and cultivar variability. The objective of the present work was to provide a reliable agro-meteorological model for simulating grapevine budburst occurrence all over France. The study was conducted using data from ten cultivars of grapevine (Cabernet Sauvignon, Chasselas, Chardonnay, Grenache, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Riesling, Sauvignon, Syrah, Ugni Blanc) and five locations (Bordeaux, Colmar, Angers, Montpellier, Epernay). First, we tested two commonly used models that do not take into account dormancy: growing degree days with a base temperature of 10 degrees C (GDD(10)), and Riou's model (RIOU). The errors of predictions of these models ranged between 9 and 21 days. Second, a new model (BRIN) was studied relying on well-known formalisms for orchard trees and taking into account the dormancy period. The BRIN model showed better performance in predicting budburst date than previous grapevine models. Analysis of the components of BRIN formalisms (calculation of dormancy, use of hourly temperatures, base temperature) explained the better performances obtained with the BRIN model. Base temperature was the main driver, while dormancy period was not significant in simulating budburst date. For each cultivar, we provide the parameter estimates that showed the best performance for both the BRIN model and the GDD model with a base temperature of 5 degrees C.

  1. Acquisition of Flavescence Dorée Phytoplasma by Scaphoideus titanus Ball from Different Grapevine Varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galetto, Luciana; Miliordos, Dimitrios E; Pegoraro, Mattia; Sacco, Dario; Veratti, Flavio; Marzachì, Cristina; Bosco, Domenico

    2016-09-15

    Flavescence dorée (FD) is a threat for wine production in the vineyard landscape of Piemonte, Langhe-Roero and Monferrato, Italy. Spread of the disease is dependent on complex interactions between insect, plant and phytoplasma. In the Piemonte region, wine production is based on local cultivars. The role of six local grapevine varieties as a source of inoculum for the vector Scaphoideus titanus was investigated. FD phytoplasma (FDP) load was compared among red and white varieties with different susceptibility to FD. Laboratory-reared healthy S. titanus nymphs were caged for acquisition on infected plants to measure phytoplasma acquisition efficiency following feeding on different cultivars. FDP load for Arneis was significantly lower than for other varieties. Acquisition efficiency depended on grapevine variety and on FDP load in the source plants, and there was a positive interaction for acquisition between variety and phytoplasma load. S. titanus acquired FDP with high efficiency from the most susceptible varieties, suggesting that disease diffusion correlates more with vector acquisition efficiency than with FDP load in source grapevines. In conclusion, although acquisition efficiency depends on grapevine variety and on FDP load in the plant, even varieties supporting low FDP multiplication can be highly susceptible and good sources for vector infection, while poorly susceptible varieties may host high phytoplasma loads.

  2. Surface disinfection procedure and in vitro regeneration of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) axillary buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo-Javalera, M F; Troncoso-Rojas, R; Tiznado-Hernández, M E; Martínez-Tellez, M A; Vargas-Arispuro, I; Islas-Osuna, M A; Rivera-Domínguez, M

    2016-01-01

    Establishment of an efficient explants surface disinfection protocol is essential for in vitro cell and tissue culture as well as germplasm conservation, such as the case of Grapevine (Vitis spp.) culture. In this research, different procedures for disinfection and regeneration of field-grown grapevine cv. 'Flame seedless' axillary buds were evaluated. The buds were disinfected using either NaOCl or allyl, benzyl, phenyl and 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanates. Two different media for shooting and four media for rooting were tested. Shoot and root development per buds were registered. The best disinfection procedure with 90 % of tissue survival involved shaking for 60 min in a solution containing 20 % Clorox with 50 drops/L Triton(®) X-100. These tissues showed the potential to regenerate a complete plant. Plant regeneration was conducted using full strength Murashigue and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 8 µM benzyl aminopurine for shoot induction and multiplication, whereas rooting was obtained on half strength MS supplemented with 2 mg L(-1) of indole-3-butyric acid and 200 mg L(-1) of activated charcoal. In this work, it was designed the protocols for obtaining sterile field-grown grapevine buds and in vitro plant development. This methodology showed potential to produce vigorous and healthy plants in 5 weeks for clonal grapevine propagation. Regenerated plants were successfully established in soil.

  3. GRAPEVINE VIRUS DISEASES:ECONOMIC IMPACT AND CURRENT ADVANCES IN VIRAL PROSPECTION AND MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCOS FERNANDO BASSO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Grapevine (Vitis spp. is a major vegetative propagated fruit crop with high socioeconomic importance worldwide. It is susceptible to several graft-transmitted agents that cause several diseases and substantial crop losses, reducing fruit quality and plant vigor, and shorten the longevity of vines. The vegetative propagation and frequent exchanges of propagative material among countries contribute to spread these pathogens, favoring the emergence of complex diseases. Its perennial life cycle further accelerates the mixing and introduction of several viral agents into a single plant. Currently, approximately 65 viruses belonging to different families have been reported infecting grapevines, but not all cause economically relevant diseases. The grapevine leafroll, rugose wood complex, leaf degeneration and fleck diseases are the four main disorders having worldwide economic importance. In addition, new viral species and strains have been identified and associated with economically important constraints to grape production. In Brazilian vineyards, eighteen viruses, three viroids and two virus-like diseases had already their occurrence reported and were molecularly characterized. Here, we review the current knowledge of these viruses, report advances in their diagnosis and prospection of new species, and give indications about the management of the associated grapevine diseases.

  4. Transmission competency of single-female Xiphinema index lines for Grapevine fanleaf virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demangeat, Gérard; Komar, Véronique; Van-Ghelder, Cyril; Voisin, Roger; Lemaire, Olivier; Esmenjaud, Daniel; Fuchs, Marc

    2010-04-01

    Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) is vectored specifically from grapevine to grapevine by the ectoparasitic nematode Xiphinema index. Limited information is available on the vector competency of X. index populations from diverse geographical origins. We determined the transmissibility of two GFLV strains showing 4.6% amino acid divergence within their coat protein (e.g., strains F13 and GHu) by seven clonal lines of X. index developed from seven distinct populations from the Mediterranean basin (Cyprus, southern France, Israel, Italy, and Spain), northern France, and California. X. index lines derived from single adult females were produced on fig (Ficus carica) plants to obtain genetically homogenous aviruliferous clones. A comparative reproductive rate analysis on Vitis rupestris du Lot and V. vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon showed significant differences among clones, with the single-female Cyprus line showing the highest rate (30-fold the initial population) and the Spain and California lines showing the lowest rate (10-fold increase), regardless of the grapevine genotype. However, there was no differential vector competency among the seven X. index lines for GFLV strains F13 and GHu. The implications of our findings for the dynamic of GFLV transmission in vineyards and screening of Vitis spp. for resistance to GFLV are discussed.

  5. Molecular analyses of Pythium irregulare isolates from grapevines in South Africa suggest a single variable species

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pythium irregulare species complex is the most common and widespread Pythium spp. associated with grapevines in South Africa. This species complex can be subdivided into several morphological and phylogenetic species that are all highly similar at the sequence level. The complex includes P. re...

  6. A polyphasic approach for the characterization of endophytic Alternaria strains isolated from grapevines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polizzotto, Rachele; Andersen, Birgitte; Martini, Marta

    2012-01-01

    A polyphasic approach was set up and applied to characterize 20 fungal endophytes belonging to the genus Alternaria, recovered from grapevine in different Italian regions.Morphological, microscopical, molecular and chemical investigations were performed and the obtained results were combined in a...

  7. Cadophora species as trunk pathogens and wood-infecting fungi of grapevine in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadophora species, in particular Cadophora luteo-olivacea, are reported from grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) in California, South Africa, Spain, Uruguay, and Canada. Frequent isolation from vines co-infected with the Esca pathogens (Togninia minima, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora), and confirmation of it...

  8. Abscisic acid form, concentration, and application timing influence phenology and bud cold hardiness in Merlot grapevines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of abscisic acid (ABA) form, concentration and application timing on bud cold hardiness, phenology and fruiting performance on ‘Merlot’ grapevines (Vitis vinifera) were evaluated in a three year field trial with site locations in British Columbia Canada, Ontario Canada, Washington U.S. ...

  9. Role of MLO genes in susceptibility to powdery mildew in apple and grapevine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pessina, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Powdery mildew (PM) is a major fungal disease that threatens thousands of plant species. PM is caused by Podosphaera leucotricha in apple and Erysiphe necator in grapevine. Powdery mildew is controlled by frequent applications of fungicides, having negative effects on the environment, and leading to

  10. Changes in the proteome of grapevine leaves (Vitis vinifera L.) during long-term drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, Angelika; Weidner, Stanisław

    2017-04-01

    The essence of exploring and understanding mechanisms of plant adaptation to environmental stresses lies in the determination of patterns of the expression of proteins, identification of stress proteins and their association with the specific functions in metabolic pathways. To date, little information has been provided about the proteomic response of grapevine to the persistent influence of adverse environmental conditions. This article describes changes in the profile of protein accumulation in leaves of common grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) seedlings in response to prolonged drought. Isolated proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2 DE), and the proteins whose level of accumulation changed significantly due to the applied stress factors were identified with tandem mass spectrometry MALDI TOF/TOF type. Analysis of the proteome of grapevine leaves led to the detection of many proteins whose synthesis changed in response to the applied stressor. Drought caused the most numerous changes in the accumulation of proteins associated with carbohydrate and energy metabolism, mostly connected with the pathways of glycolysis and photosystem II protein components. The biological function of the identified proteins is discussed with reference to the stress of drought. Some of the identified proteins, especially the ones whose accumulation increased during drought stress, may be responsible for the adaptation of grapevine to drought. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Performance of several models for predicting budburst date of grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de Cortázar-Atauri, Iñaki; Brisson, Nadine; Gaudillere, Jean Pierre

    2009-07-01

    The budburst stage is a key phenological stage for grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L.), with large site and cultivar variability. The objective of the present work was to provide a reliable agro-meteorological model for simulating grapevine budburst occurrence all over France. The study was conducted using data from ten cultivars of grapevine (Cabernet Sauvignon, Chasselas, Chardonnay, Grenache, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Riesling, Sauvignon, Syrah, Ugni Blanc) and five locations (Bordeaux, Colmar, Angers, Montpellier, Epernay). First, we tested two commonly used models that do not take into account dormancy: growing degree days with a base temperature of 10°C (GDD10), and Riou’s model (RIOU). The errors of predictions of these models ranged between 9 and 21 days. Second, a new model (BRIN) was studied relying on well-known formalisms for orchard trees and taking into account the dormancy period. The BRIN model showed better performance in predicting budburst date than previous grapevine models. Analysis of the components of BRIN formalisms (calculation of dormancy, use of hourly temperatures, base temperature) explained the better performances obtained with the BRIN model. Base temperature was the main driver, while dormancy period was not significant in simulating budburst date. For each cultivar, we provide the parameter estimates that showed the best performance for both the BRIN model and the GDD model with a base temperature of 5°C.

  12. Cell wall modification in grapevine cells in response to UV stress investigated by atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesniewska, E.; Adrian, M.; Klinguer, A.; Pugin, A

    2004-08-15

    Despite cell wall reinforcement being a well-known defence mechanism of plants, it remains poorly characterized from a physical point of view. The objective of this work was to further describe this mechanism. Vitis vinifera cv Gamay cells were treated with UV-light (254 nm), a well-known elicitor of defence mechanisms in grapevines, and physical cell wall modifications were observed using the atomic force microscopy (AFM) under native conditions. The grapevine cell suspensions were continuously observed in their culture medium from 30 min to 24 h after elicitation. In the beginning, cellulose fibrils covered by a matrix surrounded the control and treated cells. After 3 h, the elicited cells displayed sprouted expansions around the cell wall that correspond to pectin chains. These expansions were not observed on untreated grapevine cells. The AFM tip was used to determine the average surface elastic modulus of cell wall that account for cell wall mechanical properties. The elasticity is diminished in UV-treated cells. In a comparative study, grapevine cells showed the same decrease in cell wall elasticity when treated with a fungal biotic elicitor of defence response. These results demonstrate cell wall strengthening by UV stress.

  13. Glassy-winged sharpshooter oviposition effects on foliar grapevine and red-tipped photinia terpenoid levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    The glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is an important vector of Xylella fastidiosa, the bacterium that causes Pierce's disease of grapevine and is a threat to grape production throughout the United States. Female GWSS deposit egg masses be...

  14. Deep amplicon sequencing reveals mixed phytoplasma infection within single grapevine plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Mogens; Contaldo, Nicoletta; Makarova, Olga

    2011-01-01

    The diversity of phytoplasmas within single plants has not yet been fully investigated. In this project, deep amplicon sequencing was used to generate 50,926 phytoplasma sequences from 11 phytoplasma-infected grapevine samples from a PCR amplicon in the 5' end of the 16S region. After clustering ...

  15. Investigating the spread and effect of Grapevine red blotch virus in California-grown Zinfandel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapevine red blotch virus (GRBV) is a major concern for California winegrape growers since its discovery in 2012. Negative impacts on juice have been reported, though inconsistent. A treehopper, Spissistilus festinus, transmitted GRBaV in strict laboratory studies, but field evidence of transmissio...

  16. Clarifying the Effects of Dwarfing Rootstock on Vegetative and Reproductive Growth during Tree Development: A Study on Apple Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costes, E.; García-Villanueva, E.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite the widespread use of dwarfing rootstocks in the fruit-tree industry, their impact on tree architectural development and possible role in the within-tree balance between growth and flowering are still poorly understood, in particular during the early years of growth. The present study addressed this question in apple trees, through a detailed analysis of shoot populations, i.e. both vegetative and flowering shoots, during tree development. Methods Architectural databases were constructed for trees of two cultivars that were either own-rooted or grafted on dwarfing rootstock. Within-tree shoot demographics and annual shoot characteristics, i.e. their dimensions, number of laterals and flowering, were observed from the first to the fifth year of growth and compared among scion/root system combinations. Key Results Differences in axis demographics appeared among scion/root system combinations after the second year of growth. Differences were found (a) in the number of long axes and (b) the number of medium axes. Dwarfing rootstock reduced the total number of axes developed in a tree, and this reduction resulted from proportionally more medium axes and spurs than long axes. The life span of spurs was also shortened. These phenomena appeared after an increase in flowering that started in the second year of growth and involved both axillary and terminal positions. Flowering regularity was also increased in grafted trees. Conclusions These results confirm that the number of long shoots and flowering potential depend on the cultivar. They indicate that tree architectural plasticity in response to its root system mainly derives from the number of medium shoots developed and follows priorities within the whole tree axis population. There was also evidence for dwarfing rootstock involvement in adjusting the flowering abundance and that differences in flowering occurrence take precedence over those regarding vegetative growth during tree development

  17. Identification of the Er1 resistence gene and RNase S-alleles in Malus prunifolia var. ringo rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Zanon Agapito-Tenfen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Woolly apple aphid (WAA; Eriosoma lanigerum Hausm. is a major insect pest that has significant economic impact on apple growers worldwide. Modern breeding technologies rely on several molecular tools to help breeders select genetic determinants for traits of interest. Consequently, there is a need for specific markers linked to the genes of interest. Apple scions and rootstocks have an additional barrier to the introduction of pest resistance genes due to the presence of self-incompatibility S-RNase alleles. The genetic characterization and early identification of these alleles can amplify the contribution of a breeding program to the selection of resistant genitors that are as compatible as possible. In this study, we identified the Er1 gene involved in the resistance to WAA in Malus prunifolia var. ringo, also known as ‘Maruba Kaido’ rootstock, and we analyzed the inheritance pattern of the WAA resistance Er1 gene in a segregant population derived from Malus pumila ‘M.9’ and ‘Maruba Kaido’ rootstocks. The self-incompatibility of S-RNase alleles S6S26 of ‘Maruba Kaido’ were also identified along with their inheritance pattern. We also confirmed the identification of the S1S3 alleles in the ‘M.9’ rootstock. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to characterize WAA resistance and RNase S-alleles in ‘Maruba Kaido’. Furthermore, we discuss the potential use of the genetic markers for these genes and their potential impact on apple breeding programs.

  18. Alleviation of salt stress in citrus seedlings inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi depends on the rootstock salt tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Josefa M; Pérez-Tornero, Olaya; Morte, Asunción

    2014-01-01

    Seedlings of Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan.) and Alemow (Citrus macrophylla Wester) were inoculated with a mixture of AM fungi (Rhizophagus irregularis and Funneliformis mosseae) (+AM), or left non-inoculated (-AM). From forty-five days after fungal inoculation onwards, half of +AM or -AM plants were irrigated with nutrient solution containing 50 mM NaCl. Three months later, AM significantly increased plant growth in both Cleopatra mandarin and Alemow rootstocks. Plant growth was higher in salinized +AM plants than in non-salinized -AM plants, demonstrating that AM compensates the growth limitations imposed by salinity. Whereas AM-inoculated Cleopatra mandarin seedlings had a very good response under saline treatment, inoculation in Alemow did not alleviate the negative effect of salinity. The beneficial effect of mycorrhization is unrelated with protection against the uptake of Na or Cl and the effect of AM on these ions did not explain the different response of rootstocks. This response was related with the nutritional status since our findings confirm that AM fungi can alter host responses to salinity stress, improving more the P, K, Fe and Cu plant nutrition in Cleopatra mandarin than in Alemow plants. AM inoculation under saline treatments also increased root Mg concentration but it was higher in Cleopatra mandarin than in Alemow. This could explain why AM fungus did not completely recovered chlorophyll concentrations in Alemow and consequently it had lower photosynthesis rate than control plants. AM fungi play an essential role in citrus rootstock growth and biomass production although the intensity of this response depends on the rootstock salinity tolerance.

  19. Growth and Photosynthetic Response of Two Persimmon Rootstocks (Diospyros kaki and D. virginiana under Different Salinity Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral INCESU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Salinity continues to be a major factor in reduced crop productivity and profit in many arid and semiarid regions. Seedlings of Diospyros kaki Thunb. and D. virginiana L. are commonly used as rootstock in persimmon cultivation. In this study we have evaluated the effects of different salinity levels on photosynthetic capacity and plant development of D. kaki and D. virginiana. Salinity was provided by adding 50 mM, 75 mM and 100 mM NaCl to nutrient solution. In order to determine the effects of different salinity levels on plant growth, leaf number, plant height, shoot and root dry mass were recorded. Besides leaf Na, Cl, K and Ca concentrations were determined. Also leaf chlorophyll concentration, chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv’/Fm’ and leaf gas exchange parameters including leaf net photosynthetic rate (PN, stomatal conductance (gS, leaf transpiration rate (E, and CO2 substomatal concentration (Ci were investigated. Significant decrease of leaf number, shoot length and plant dry mass by increasing salinity levels was observed in both rootstocks. D. virginiana was less affected in terms of plant growth under salinity stress. Leaf chlorophyll concentration reduction was higher in the leaves of D. kaki in comparison to D. virginiana in 100 mM NaCl treatment. By increasing salinity levels PN, gS and E markedly decreased in both rootstocks and D. kaki was more affected from salinity in terms of leaf gas exchange parameters. In addition there was no significant difference but slight decreases were recorded in leaf chlorophyll fluorescences of both rootstocks.

  20. 樱桃番茄嫁接砧木筛选研究%Selection of Grafted Rootstocks of Cherry Tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张朝坤; 康月惠; 张连水

    2009-01-01

    The effect of different rootstocks on the scion, Gege cherry tomato, was studied, such as Nongyou wild tomato, Tuolubamu, Jinzuan rootstock, Zhanmu No.1. The results showed that among the 4 rootstocks, the affinity was remarkably different, the first was Zhanmu No.1, then was Jinzuan rootstock, Tuolubamu was the last one. In terms of bacterial wilt, P. solanaeerum, the difference between grafted seedlings and no-grafted seedlings was extremely remarkable; and the yield of grafted seedling increased by 15.9%-48.7%, specially for those using Nongyou wild tomato and Zhanmu No.1 as root-stock.%以格格樱桃番茄作接穗,农优野茄、托鲁巴姆、金钻砧木和砧木1号作砧木,进行嫁接和嫁接苗栽培试验.试验结果表明.4种砧木与樱桃番茄嫁接亲和性由强到弱依次为:砧木1号、金钻砧木、农优野茄和托鲁巴姆;嫁接苗青枯病发病率与自根苗差异均达到极显著水平,嫁接苗产量比自根苗增产15.9%~48.7%,在抗青枯病和产量方面表现都比较好的砧木为农优野茄和砧木1号.

  1. Confirmation of cross-fertilization using molecular markers in ornamental passion flower hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, L D H C S; Belo, G O; Souza, M M; Santos, S F; Cerqueira-Silva, C B M; Corrêa, R X

    2011-01-11

    Several interspecific Passiflora hybrids are produced in the northern hemisphere for the ornamental plant market. In Brazil, production of passion flower hybrids is limited to the introgression of genes into the main cultivated species, yellow passion fruit, to be used as rootstocks. Confirmation of hybridization in the initial developmental stage is important for breeding perennial and sub-perennial plants, such as passion flowers, reducing time and costs in plant stock maintenance. In order to obtain F₁ hybrids with ornamental potential, four species of Passiflora (P. alata, P. gardneri, P. gibertii, and P. watsoniana) from the Active Germplasm Bank at UESC were hybridized. Flower buds, in pre-anthesis, of the genitors were previously protected, and the female buds were emasculated. To confirm hybridization, the genomic DNA of the genitor species and the supposed hybrids was extracted and RAPD primers were used to obtain molecular markers and select passion flower interspecific hybrids. Eight primers were used to confirm hybrids derived from P. gardneri with P. alata, P. watsoniana with P. alata, P. watsoniana with P. gardneri, and P. gardneri with P. gibertii; 75, 50, 45, and 46% of the informative bands, respectively, confirmed the hybrid nature of these plants. The RAPD technique was effective in the early identification of hybrids; this will be useful for development of hybrid Passiflora progeny.

  2. GRAPEVINE FE-CHLOROSIS ON PODUNAVLJE VINEGROWING AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mato Drenjančević

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The characteristic of Podunavlje vinegrowing area in the far east of the Republic of Croatia is carbonate soil with loess as a parent substrate. Chlorosis is common on this soil and it is often caused by excess concentrations of calcium and magnesium and deficiency of iron and zinc. It can also be resulted by inactivation, if it is transformed so that a plant can not use it. The lack of iron in grape vine is resulted in leaf vein, first in younger leaves where the venation remains green, and then marginal necrosis and defoliation are developed. The results of the study include the data based on the field researches of Podunavlje vinegrowing subregion and exact research of fertilization field trial. Field research of Podunavlje vinegrowing subregion, vineyards of Srijem, Erdut and Baranya were conducted in July 2007. The field research consisted of locating plantations, measuring plantations chlorosis, determining their general condition and measuring total concentration of chloroplast pigments by an indirect method (chlorophyll meter on the chlorotic and nonchlorotic plants of a grapevine. The intensity of a relative chlorosis was calculated from data measured by a chlorophyll meter. Field research was located on the production area of a company Agro-Ilok ltd. in Ilok, locality Radoš, and carried out during the period 2008 and 2009. It included cultivar Welsh Riesling, grapevine stock Kober 5BB, the most important white cultivar and grapevine stock in the vinegrowing region Continental Croatia. The experiment was set up according to a split plot method at 5x3 levels. The main factor A consisted of different chemical treatments in a basic fertilization: : A1 = 0 control without fertilization; A2 = 150 kg P2O5 + 300 K2O kg ha-1 (KCl; A3 = 150 kg P2O5 + 300 K2O kg ha-1 (K2SO4; A4 = 150 kg P2O5 + 300 K2O kg ha-1 (KCl + 25 kg ha-1 Fe - FeSO4x7H2O; A5 = 150 kg P2O5 + 300 K2O kg ha-1 (K2SO4 + 25 kg ha-1 Fe - FeSO4x7H2O. Factor B had got three levels

  3. Evaluation of Two Biochemical Markers for Salt Stress in Three Pistachio Rootstocks Inoculated with Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (Glomus mosseae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamshiri M.H.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The possible involvement of the methylglyoxal and proline accumulation in leaves and roots of three pistachio rootstocks, cv. Sarakha, Abareqi and Bane baghi, pre-inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus mosseae in response to salt stress was studied during a greenhouse experiment in 2013. Six months old pistachio seedlings were exposed to four salinity levels of irrigation water (EC of 0.5 as control, 5, 10 and 15 dS m-1 for 70 days. Methylglyoxal and proline of the roots and leaves were increased by increasing salt stress. The highest concentrations of proline in leaves and roots were recorded in Abareqi rootstock while the lowest concentration was observed in Sarakhs. In general, a negative relationship was obtained between proline and methylglyoxal concentrations in both tissues especially at two highest levels of salinity. A very strong relationship between salinity and measured biochemical markers were found. The level of both biomarkers were reduced in both tissues and in all rootstocks as the effect of mycorrhizal symbiosis. Root colonization percentage was declined as the effect of salinity in Abareqi and Bane baghi and not in Sarakhs.

  4. Influence of Mahaleb and Gisela 5 Rootstocks on the Growth of „Bigarreau Burlat” Sweet Cherry Cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Pal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The influence of Prunus Mahaleb L. and ‘Gisela 5’ rootstocks on the growth of ‘Biggareau Burlat’ sweet cherry cultivar was evaluate on the environmental conditions of Cluj-Napoca city, in 2015, in a high-density plot (trees are planted at the distance of 4 x 1.5 m with 1666 trees/ha, trained as spindle busch, with trellis system and drip fert-irigation provided. The measurements were done in April, on 10 trees of the cultivar grafted on different rootstock, in the 4th year after planting. The trunck diameter growth was measured 5 cm above the graft, and it was also recorded the number and length of annual increases (long, medium and spur fruiting branches and calculated the tree height. After first four years from planting, ‘Biggareau Burlat’ grafted on ‘Gisela 5’ rootstock proved to be more vigorously than grafted on Prunus Mahaleb L., considering the total numbers of the medium and long branches per tree. ‘Biggareau Burlat’/Gisela 5, compared to ‘Biggareau Burlat’/P. Mahaleb significantly exceeded in the number of medium branches (4.7 comparatively to 3, number of long branches on the tree (17.2 comparatively to 7.9, number of inflorescences buds (74.7 comparatively to 41.3  and the total length of annual tree branches.

  5. Proteomic study related to vascular connections in watermelon scions grafted onto bottle-gourd rootstock under different light intensities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowbiya Muneer

    Full Text Available Although grafting is broadly used in the production of crops, no information is available about the proteins involved in vascular connections between rootstock and scion. Similarly, proteome changes under the light intensities widely used for grafted seedlings are of practical use. The objective of this study was to determine the proteome of vascular connections using watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. 'Sambok Honey' and 'Speed' as the scion and bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Stanld. 'RS Dongjanggun' as the rootstock grown under different light intensities (25, 50, 75 and 100 μmol m-2 s-1. Our proteomic analysis revealed 24 and 27 differentially expressed proteins in 'Sambok Honey' and 'Speed', respectively, under different light intensities. The identified proteins were largely involved in ion binding, amino acid metabolism, transcriptional regulation and defense response. The enhancement of ion-binding, transcriptional regulation, amino acid metabolism, and defense response proteins suggests a strengthening of the connection between the rootstock and scion under high light intensity. Indeed, the accumulation of key enzymes in the biological processes described above appears to play an important role in the vascular connections of grafted seedlings. Moreover, it appears that 100 μmol m-2 s-1 results in better protein expression responses in grafted seedlings.

  6. Evaluation of Productivity and Light Quality in Two High Density Dwarf Rootstock Apple Orchards in Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dengtao GAO; Jingnan GUO; Zhifeng WEI; Qingjin FAN; Chaoxuan YANG

    2012-01-01

    [Ohjective] The aim of the study is to investigate the productivity and light quality in two high density M26 dwarf rootstock apple orchards in central China so as to provide some management guidance for close planting of dwarf rootstock apples.[Method] The technical parameters of individual trees and group parameters as shoot number and composition and canopy coverage were determined, and the light quality in the canopy, fruit production and quality were investigated. [Result] Slender spindle (SS) orchard has 54 thousands shoots per 667 m^2. Coverage rate is 76%. Leaf area index is 1.9. The ratio of long, medium and spur shoots is 1:1:8. Fruit yield is 3 263 kg/667 m^2 with 85% first grade fruit. Light interception in the canopy is 58% while the ratio of canopy with good light is 65%. Modified slender spindle (MSS) orchard has 93 thousands shoots per 667 m^2 and the coverage is 77%. Leaf area index is 3.3. The ratio cf long, medium and spur shoots is 1:2:7. Fruit yield is 3 931 kg/667 m^2 with 85% first grade fruit. The light interception in the canopy is 73% while the ratio of canopy with good light is 35%. [Conclusion] Apple orchard with M26 dwarf rootstock trained as SS and MSS tree form in medium planting density may be useful to the management of the similar orchards in Central China.

  7. Proteomic study related to vascular connections in watermelon scions grafted onto bottle-gourd rootstock under different light intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneer, Sowbiya; Ko, Chung Ho; Soundararajan, Prabhakaran; Manivnnan, Abinaya; Park, Yoo Gyeong; Jeong, Byoung Ryong

    2015-01-01

    Although grafting is broadly used in the production of crops, no information is available about the proteins involved in vascular connections between rootstock and scion. Similarly, proteome changes under the light intensities widely used for grafted seedlings are of practical use. The objective of this study was to determine the proteome of vascular connections using watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.) 'Sambok Honey' and 'Speed' as the scion and bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Stanld.) 'RS Dongjanggun' as the rootstock grown under different light intensities (25, 50, 75 and 100 μmol m-2 s-1). Our proteomic analysis revealed 24 and 27 differentially expressed proteins in 'Sambok Honey' and 'Speed', respectively, under different light intensities. The identified proteins were largely involved in ion binding, amino acid metabolism, transcriptional regulation and defense response. The enhancement of ion-binding, transcriptional regulation, amino acid metabolism, and defense response proteins suggests a strengthening of the connection between the rootstock and scion under high light intensity. Indeed, the accumulation of key enzymes in the biological processes described above appears to play an important role in the vascular connections of grafted seedlings. Moreover, it appears that 100 μmol m-2 s-1 results in better protein expression responses in grafted seedlings.

  8. Fosfato de sódio e cloreto de potássio na micropropagação de videira e amoreira-preta = Sodium phosphate and potassium chloride concentrations: micropropagation of grapevine and blackberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Villa

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se no presente trabalho testar diferentes concentrações de fosfato de sódio (NaH2PO4.H2O e cloreto de potássio (KCl do meio White e adicionadas ao meio Knudson, na multiplicação in vitro de videira e amoreira-preta. O meio foi constituído de sais doKnudson, acrescido de 25 g L-1 de sacarose e 6 g L-1 de ágar, e o pH ajustado para 5,8 antes da autoclavagem a 121ºC e 1 atm por 20 minutos. Os tratamentos consistiram de concentrações de NaH2PO4.H2O (0, 125, 250, 500 e 1.000 mg L-1 e de KCl (0, 125, 250, 500 e 1.000 mg L-1, em todas as combinações possíveis e do porta-enxerto de videira ‘R110’ e da amoreira-preta cv. Cherokee. Segmentos nodais, oriundos de plântulas preestabelecidas in vitro foram excisados eintroduzidos em tubos de ensaio contendo 15 mL do meio de cultura. Posteriormente, os tubos de ensaio foram transferidos para sala de crescimento a 25 ± 2ºC, irradiância de 32 mmol m–2 s–1 efotoperíodo de 16 horas diárias. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualisado, utilizando-se 4 repetições com 12 plântulas cada. O experimento foi avaliado após 60 dias de cultivo in vitro e o maior comprimento da parte aérea e peso fresco de calos foram verificados em meio Knudson, na ausência de cloreto de potássio. A adição de cloreto de potássio ao meio Knudson não influenciou no aumento do comprimento da parte aérea das duas frutíferas e namassa fresca de calos do porta-enxerto de videira ‘R110’. Não é necessário adicionar fosfato de sódio ao meio para se obter maior massa fresca da parte aérea das frutíferas.This work aimed to test different concentrations of sodium phosphate (NaH2PO4.H2O and potassium chloride (KCl taken from the White medium and added to the Knudson culture medium, in the in vitro multiplication of grapevine rootstocks and blackberry. The culture medium was constituted of Knudson salts, added of 25 g L-1 of sucrose and 6 g L-1 of agar, and the adjusted pH to 5

  9. Differential accumulation of flavonoids and phytohormones resulting from the canopy/rootstock interaction of citrus plants subjected to dehydration/rehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ivanildes C Dos; Almeida, Alex-Alan Furtado de; Pirovani, Carlos P; Costa, Márcio Gilberto Cardoso; Silva, Maria Fatima das Graças Fernandes da; Bellete, Barbara Sayuri; Freschi, Luciano; Soares Filho, Walter; Coelho Filho, Maurício Antônio; Gesteira, Abelmon da Silva

    2017-10-01

    Water scarcity can elicit drastic changes in plant metabolic and hormonal regulation, which may be of fundamental importance to stress tolerance. The study of plant the metabolic alterations in response to water deficit, especially the effects of the rootstocks level, is important to elucidate the mechanisms associated to drought tolerance. To verify the influence of rootstock and grafting on the tolerance to drought in citrus plants, we analyzed the growth, phytohormone levels and flavonoid profiles in grafted and ungrafted citrus plants subjected to different soil water regimes on plant status (well-watered, moderate drought and severe drought and rehydrated) under field conditions. The experiments were conducted under field conditions in the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (EMBRAPA), Cruz das Almas, BA, Brazil. Water deficit reduced the total leaf area per plant in all canopy/rootstock combinations. Self-grafting reduce root volume, area and length when compared to ungrafted plants. Drought-induced increases in salicylic acid and abscisic acid associated with concomitant reductions in indoleacetic acid were observed in most canopy/rootstock combinations. However, plants with 'Sunki Maravilha' rootstocks exhibited the most pronounced changes in hormonal levels upon drought stress. Associated to these hormonal changes, drought also significantly affected flavonoid content and profile in both leaves and roots of the distinct citrus combinations. Glycosylated (GFs) and polimethoxylated flavonoids were predominantly found in leaves, whereas prenylated coumarins were found in the roots. Leaf levels of GFs (vicenin, F11, rutin and rhoifolin) were particularly modulated by drought in plants with 'Rangpur Santa Cruz' lime rootstock, whereas root levels of prenylated coumarins were most regulated by drought in plants with the 'Sunki Maravilha' root system. Taken together, these data indicate that the impacts of water deficit restriction on growth, hormonal

  10. Influence of plum rootstocks on agronomic performance, leaf mineral nutrition and fruit quality of ‘Catherina’ peach cultivar in heavy-calcareous soil conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Mestre

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The agronomic performance and leaf mineral nutrition of the non-melting clingstone peach cv. ‘Catherina’ was evaluated on seven hexaploid plum rootstocks, as well as one Prunus persica seedling. They were assessed over a period of 15 years in a field trial at the Experimental Station of Aula Dei-CSIC (Zaragoza, Spain, located in the Ebro Valley (NE Spain. Growing conditions generated varying levels of tree mortality, the highest with Constantí 1, Monpol and Montizo, whereas all Adesoto, GF 655/2 and PM 105 AD trees survived well. GF 655/2 and P. Soto 67 AD proved to be the most dwarfing rootstocks, while Constantí 1 and Monpol were the most invigorating and generated greater cumulative yields. However, the highest yield efficiency was recorded on GF 655/2 and Montizo, although they did not differ significantly from Adesoto and P. Soto 67 AD. The highest average values for fruit weight were observed on PM 105 AD and the lowest on GF 655/2, but they did not differ significantly from the rest of the rootstocks. The highest average values for the soluble solids content was observed on the Pollizo rootstocks Adesoto and PM 105 AD, followed by P. Soto 67 AD. All rootstocks induced N deficiency, with the exception of Constantí 1, GF 655/2 and Montizo, and iron deficiency, except PM 105 AD. The invigorating rootstock Constantí 1 seems to induce higher SPAD values. According to the ΣDOP index, Montizo presented the most suitable balanced nutritional index, but it did not differ significantly from the rest of the rootstocks except GF 655/2 and P. Soto 67 AD.

  11. Bottle gourd rootstock-grafting promotes photosynthesis by regulating the stomata and non-stomata performances in leaves of watermelon seedlings under NaCl stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanjuan; Yu, Li; Wang, Liping; Guo, Shirong

    2015-08-15

    Previously, we found that the amelioration of photosynthetic capacity by bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Standl.) rootstock in watermelon seedlings (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Mansf.) with salt treatment might be closely related to the enzymes in Calvin cycle such as ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) (Yang et al., 2012). We confirmed this and showed more details in this study that improved photosynthesis of watermelon plants by bottle gourd rootstock was associated with the decreased stomata resistance and the increased photochemical activity and photosynthetic metabolism with or without 100mM NaCl stress for 3 days. The analysis of gas exchange parameters showed that self-grafted plants suffered serious non-stomatal limitation to photosynthesis under salt stress while rootstock-grafted plants were mainly affected by stomata limitation in stress conditions. Further, results showed that NaCl stress markedly reduced the chlorophyll content, damaged the structure of photosynthetic apparatus, and inhibited photochemical activity and CO2 assimilation in self-grafted plants. In contrast, rootstock-grafting increased the chlorophyll content, especially chlorophyll b, and minimized the harmful effects on photosystem II (PSII) reaction center and the thylakoids structure induced by NaCl stress. Furthermore, rootstock-grafting enhanced the content and activity of Rubisco and thus elevated carbon fixation in the leaves of watermelon scions under salt stress. The gene expressions of enzymes related to ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) regeneration were also up-regulated by rootstock and this probably guaranteed the sufficient supply of RuBP for the operation of Calvin cycle in watermelon scions under salt stress. Thus, bottle gourd rootstock promoted photosynthesis by the activation of stomatal and non-stomatal abilities, especially the regulation of a variety of photosynthetic enzymes, including Rubisco in grafted watermelon plants under NaCl stress.

  12. Analysis of SAR and optical temporal signatures of grapevine over a heterogeneous vineyard landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loussert, P.; Baup, F.; Corgne, S.; Quénol, H.; Ortega, A.

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work is to analyse grapevine temporal signatures over a viticultural landscape with remote sensing data in order to evaluate the impact of the perennial practices on optical and SAR signals. For this, the effects of different combinations of vineyard organisations on multi-temporal high and very high spatial resolution SAR and optical data have been analysed. The study area is located in Mendoza (Argentina). All the ground data were acquired during an experimental campaign performed in 2014-2015 over 153 vineyards (around 400ha). The data of the perennial practices were recorded over each of the 153 vineyards. The schedule of the annual practices were also provided over the all site. The grapevine phenological cycle was finally monitored on 14 fields through GLAI (Green Leaf Area index) estimation using hemispherical images and grapevine canopy height measurements. The satellite images dataset is composed of 6 Dual-Pol TerraSAR-X images, 5 Pleiades images, and 6 Landsat-8 images. After calibrating the images, backscattering coefficients and polarimetric parameters were extracted from Terrasar-X images (entropy and alpha angle) and the NDVI from optical images. The analysis of the temporal signatures regarding perennial practices revealed a strong impact of the inter-row spacing management. Ranges of values of backscattering coefficients differ with the type of management but their temporal variation seems to be linked to soil moisture changes. Depending on the roughness of the inter-row spacing the alpha angle evolution is linked to grapevine growth in the case of a chemically weeded inter-row spacing. But it remains at high values when the inter-row spacing is ploughed or grassed. In those cases, the entropy increases along the growth cycle. The vegetation indexes series are increasing with the grapevine growth depending on canopy width and soil management. Thus this work highlighted the variability of the SAR and optical signals due to

  13. Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs and Their Targets in Grapevine ( Vitis vinifera)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of newly identified, small, non-coding RNAs that play vital roles in regulation. Based on miRNAs unique features of expression pattern, evolutionary conservation, secondary structure and genetic requirements for biogenesis, computational predication strategy is adopted to predicate the novel miRNAs. In this research, potential miRNAs and their targets in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) were predicted. We used previously known plant miRNAs against grapevine genome sequence databases to search for potential miRNAs. A total of 81 potential miRNAs were detected following a range of strict filtering criteria. Using these potential miRNA sequences, we could further blast the mRNA database to find the potential targets in this species. Comparative analysis of miRNAs in grapevine and other species reveals that miRNAs exhibit an evolutional conservation, the number and function of miRNAs must have significantly expanded during the evolution of land plants. Furthermore divergence made versatile functions of miRNAs feasible. Cluster of miRNAs likely represents an ancient expression mechanism. Predicted target genes include not only transcription factors but also genes implicated in floral development, signal transduction, diseases and stress response. Till now, little is known about experimental or computational identification of miRNA in grapevine species. Increased knowledge of the biological mechanisms of the grapevine will allow targeted approaches to increase the quality of fruit and reduce the impact of parasites together with stress, which could enable a sustainable, environmentally-sound, farming policy.

  14. Spatio-temporal effects of soil and bedrock variability on grapevine water status in hillslope vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brillante, Luca; Bois, Benjamin; Mathieu, Olivier; Leveque, Jean

    2014-05-01

    Hillslope vineyards show various and complex water dynamics between soil and plants, and in order to gain further insight into this phenomenon, 8 grapevine plots were monitored during three vintages, from 2010 to 2013, on Corton Hill, Burgundy, France. Plots were distributed along a topolithosequence from 330 to 270 metres a.s.l. Grapevine water status was monitored weekly by surveying water potential, and, at the end of the season, by the use of the δ13C analysis of grape juice. Soil profile of each plot was described and analysed (soil texture, gravel content, organic carbon, total nitrogen, pH, CEC). Soil volumetric humidity was measured weekly, using TDR probes. A pedotransfer function was developed to transform Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) into soil volume wetness and therefore to spatialise and observe variation in the Fraction of Transpirable Soil Water (FTSW). During the three years of monitoring, grapevines experienced great variation in water status, which ranged from low to considerable water deficit (as expressed by pre-dawn leaf water potential and δ13C analysis of grape juice). With ERI imaging, it was possible to observe differences in water absorption pattern by roots, in different soils, and at different depth. In addition, significant differences were observed in grapevine water status in relation to variations in the physical characteristics of the terroir along the hillslope (i.e. the geo-pedological context, the elevation etc.). Grapevine water behaviour and plant-soil water relationships on the hillslope of Corton Hill have been extensively characterised in this study by ultimate technologies, allowing to present this terroir as a very interesting example for future generalisation and modelling of the hillslope vineyard water dynamics.

  15. Functions of EDS1-like and PAD4 genes in grapevine defenses against powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Dai, Ru; Pike, Sharon M; Qiu, Wenping; Gassmann, Walter

    2014-11-01

    The molecular interactions between grapevine and the obligate biotrophic fungus Erysiphe necator are not understood in depth. One reason for this is the recalcitrance of grapevine to genetic modifications. Using defense-related Arabidopsis mutants that are susceptible to pathogens, we were able to analyze key components in grapevine defense responses. We have examined the functions of defense genes associated with the salicylic acid (SA) pathway, including ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY 1 (EDS1), EDS1-LIKE 2 (EDL2), EDL5 and PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT 4 (PAD4) of two grapevine species, Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, which is susceptible to E. necator, and V. aestivalis cv. Norton, which is resistant. Both VaEDS1 and VvEDS1 were previously found to functionally complement the Arabidopsis eds1-1 mutant. Here we show that the promoters of both VaEDS1 and VvEDS1 were induced by SA, indicating that the heightened defense of Norton is related to its high SA level. Other than Va/VvEDS1, only VaEDL2 complemented Arabidopsis eds1-1, whereas Va/VvPAD4 did not complement Arabidopsis pad4-1. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation results indicated that Vitis EDS1 and EDL2 proteins interact with Vitis PAD4 and AtPAD4, suggesting that Vitis EDS1/EDL2 forms a complex with PAD4 to confer resistance, as is known from Arabidopsis. However, Vitis EDL5 and PAD4 did not interact with Arabidopsis EDS1 or PAD4, correlating with their inability to function in Arabidopsis. Together, our study suggests a more complicated EDS1/PAD4 module in grapevine and provides insight into molecular mechanisms that determine disease resistance levels in Vitis species native to the North American continent.

  16. Physical mapping in highly heterozygous genomes: a physical contig map of the Pinot Noir grapevine cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurman Irena

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cultivars grown today are those selected centuries ago, even though grapevine is one of the most important fruit crops in the world. Grapevine has therefore not benefited from the advances in modern plant breeding nor more recently from those in molecular genetics and genomics: genes controlling important agronomic traits are practically unknown. A physical map is essential to positionally clone such genes and instrumental in a genome sequencing project. Results We report on the first whole genome physical map of grapevine built using high information content fingerprinting of 49,104 BAC clones from the cultivar Pinot Noir. Pinot Noir, as most grape varieties, is highly heterozygous at the sequence level. This resulted in the two allelic haplotypes sometimes assembling into separate contigs that had to be accommodated in the map framework or in local expansions of contig maps. We performed computer simulations to assess the effects of increasing levels of sequence heterozygosity on BAC fingerprint assembly and showed that the experimental assembly results are in full agreement with the theoretical expectations, given the heterozygosity levels reported for grape. The map is anchored to a dense linkage map consisting of 994 markers. 436 contigs are anchored to the genetic map, covering 342 of the 475 Mb that make up the grape haploid genome. Conclusions We have developed a resource that makes it possible to access the grapevine genome, opening the way to a new era both in grape genetics and breeding and in wine making. The effects of heterozygosity on the assembly have been analyzed and characterized by using several complementary approaches which could be easily transferred to the study of other genomes which present the same features.

  17. Dynamics and Reversibility of the DNA Methylation Landscape of Grapevine Plants (Vitis vinifera) Stressed by In Vitro Cultivation and Thermotherapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baránek, Miroslav; Čechová, Jana; Raddová, Jana; Holleinová, Věra; Ondrušíková, Eva; Pidra, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    ... investigated in grapevine plants (Vitis vinifera) stressed by in vitro cultivation. It was observed that significant part of induced epigenetic changes could be repeatedly established by exposure to particular planting and stress conditions...

  18. Grapevines respond to glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis) oviposition by increasing local and systemic terpenoid levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapevines (Vitis vinifera) have been observed to respond to oviposition by glassy-winged sharpshooters [Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar)(Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)] by producing volatile compounds that attract egg parasitoids such as Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae). Recent work ...

  19. Response of tomato rootstocks with the Mi resistance gene to Meloidogyne incognita race 2 at different soil temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubeyir Devran

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Rootstocks have been effective against many soil-borne pathogens in protected tomato production. Rootstocks with heat-stable root-knot nematode resistance may prolong the production season since the root-knot nematode resistance gene Mi-1.2 irreversibly breaks down at soil temperatures above 28°C. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of soil temperature on root-knot nematode resistance conferred by two genes of tomato, using some commercial tomato cultivars, rootstocks, and PI lines. The response of these genes against Meloidogyne incognita race 2 was studied in two commonly used rootstock cv.  Beaufo