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Sample records for hybrid gaseous detector

  1. Gaseous Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, Maxim

    Since long time, the compelling scientific goals of future high-energy physics experiments were a driving factor in the development of advanced detector technologies. A true innovation in detector instrumentation concepts came in 1968, with the development of a fully parallel readout for a large array of sensing elements - the Multi-Wire Proportional Chamber (MWPC), which earned Georges Charpak a Nobel prize in physics in 1992. Since that time radiation detection and imaging with fast gaseous detectors, capable of economically covering large detection volumes with low mass budget, have been playing an important role in many fields of physics. Advances in photolithography and microprocessing techniques in the chip industry during the past decade triggered a major transition in the field of gas detectors from wire structures to Micro-Pattern Gas Detector (MPGD) concepts, revolutionizing cell-size limitations for many gas detector applications. The high radiation resistance and excellent spatial and time resolution make them an invaluable tool to confront future detector challenges at the next generation of colliders. The design of the new micro-pattern devices appears suitable for industrial production. Novel structures where MPGDs are directly coupled to the CMOS pixel readout represent an exciting field allowing timing and charge measurements as well as precise spatial information in 3D. Originally developed for the high-energy physics, MPGD applications have expanded to nuclear physics, photon detection, astroparticle and neutrino physics, neutron detection, and medical imaging.

  2. Hybrid gaseous photomultipliers

    CERN Document Server

    Rodionov, I; Peskov, Vladimir; Sokolova, T

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a hybrid gaseous photomultiplier. It consists of two planar parts: a sealed chamber with a semitransparent bi-alkali or SbCs photocathode (the 'scintillation chamber') and a position-sensitive gaseous detector with a CsI photocathode flushed with a gas at 1 atm (the 'readout detector'). This device was developed according to two different designs. In the first design the scintillation chamber operates with pure Xe at 1 atm pressure. Electrons created from the photocathode by visible light move through the capillary plate (which acts as a light attenuator) and produce a weak very ultra-violet (VUV) scintillation light in the gap between the capillary plate and the collecting mesh. This VUV light is detected by the readout gaseous detector. In the second design, the sealed scintillation chamber was operated in vacuum. The photoelectrons extracted from the photocathode hit the scintillator emitting VUV light. The VUV light was detected with the readout detector. A practical quantum efficiency o...

  3. Gaseous wire detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Va' vra, J.

    1997-08-01

    This article represents a series of three lectures describing topics needed to understand the design of typical gaseous wire detectors used in large high energy physics experiments; including the electrostatic design, drift of electrons in the electric and magnetic field, the avalanche, signal creation, limits on the position accuracy as well as some problems one encounters in practical operations.

  4. An X-ray scanner prototype based on a novel hybrid gaseous detector

    CERN Document Server

    Iacobaeus, C; Lund-Jensen, B; Peskov, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a prototype of a new type of hybrid X-ray detector. It contains a thin wall (few μm) edge- illuminated lead glass capillary plate (acting as a converter of X-rays photons to primary electrons) combined with a microgap parallel-plate avalanche chamber operating in various gas mixtures at 1 atm. The operation of these converters was studied in a wide range of X-ray energies (from 6 to 60 keV) at incident angles varying from 0° to 90°. The detection efficiency, depending on the geometry, photon's energy, incident angle and the mode of operation, was between a few and 40%. The position resolution achieved was 50 μm in digital form and was practically independent of the photon's energy or gas mixture. The developed detector may open new possibilities for medical imaging, for example in mammography, portal imaging, radiography (including security devices), crystallography and many other applications.

  5. Gaseous Detectors: Charged Particle Detectors - Particle Detectors and Detector Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hilke, H J

    2011-01-01

    Gaseous Detectors in 'Charged Particle Detectors - Particle Detectors and Detector Systems', part of 'Landolt-Börnstein - Group I Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Volume 21B1: Detectors for Particles and Radiation. Part 1: Principles and Methods'. This document is part of Part 1 'Principles and Methods' of Subvolume B 'Detectors for Particles and Radiation' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Subsection '3.1.2 Gaseous Detectors' of Section '3.1 Charged Particle Detectors' of Chapter '3 Particle Detectors and Detector Systems' with the content: 3.1.2 Gaseous Detectors 3.1.2.1 Introduction 3.1.2.2 Basic Processes 3.1.2.2.1 Gas ionization by charged particles 3.1.2.2.1.1 Primary clusters 3.1.2.2.1.2 Cluster size distribution 3.1.2.2.1.3 Total number of ion pairs 3.1.2.2.1.4 Dependence of energy deposit on particle velocity 3.1.2.2.2 Transport of...

  6. Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM) Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanvo, Kondo

    2017-09-01

    Gaseous detectors have played a pivotal role as tracking devices in the field of particle physics experiments for the last fifty years. Recent advances in photolithography and micro processing techniques have enabled the transition from Multi Wire Proportional Chambers (MWPCs) and Drift Chambers to a new family of gaseous detectors refer to as Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs). MPGDs combine the basic gas amplification principle with micro-structure printed circuits to provide detectors with excellent spatial and time resolution, high rate capability, low material budget and high radiation tolerance. Gas Electron Multiplier (GEMs) is a well-established MPGD technology invented by F. Sauli at CERN in 1997 and deployed various high energy physics (HEP) and nuclear NP experiment for tracking systems of current and future NP experiments. GEM detector combines an exceptional high rate capability (1 MHz / mm2) and robustness against harsh radiation environment with excellent position and timing resolution performances. Recent breakthroughs over the past decade have allowed the possibility for large area GEMs, making them cost effective and high-performance detector candidates to play pivotal role in current and future particle physics experiments. After a brief introduction of the basic principle of GEM technology, I will give a brief overview of the GEM detectors used in particle physics experiments over the past decades and especially in the NP community at Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory (JLab) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). I will follow by a review of state of the art of the new GEM development for the next generation of colliders such as Electron Ion Collider (EIC) or High Luminosity LHC and future Nuclear Physics experiments. I will conclude with a presentation of the CERN-based RD51 collaboration established in 2008 and its major achievements regarding technological developments and applications of MPGDs.

  7. Basic processes and trends in gaseous detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    Almost a century after the invention of the proportional counter, a large research effort is still devoted to better understand the basic properties of gaseous detectors, and to improve their performances and reliability, particularly in view of use at the high radiation levels expected at LHC. In the first part of the lectures, after a brief introduction on underlying physical phenomena, I will review modern sophisticated computational tools, as well as some classic "back of the envelope" analytical methods, available today for estimating the general performances of gaseous detectors. In the second part, I will analyze in more detail problems specific to the use of detectors at high rates (space charge, discharges, aging), and describe the recent development of powerful and perhaps more reliable devices, particularly in the field of position-sensitive micro-pattern detectors.

  8. Technological aspects of gaseous pixel detectors fabrication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanco Carballo, V.M.; Salm, Cora; Smits, Sander M.; Schmitz, Jurriaan; Melai, J.; Chefdeville, M.A.; van der Graaf, H.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated gaseous pixel detectors consisting of a metal punctured foil suspended in the order of 50μm over a pixel readout chip by means by SU-8 insulating pillars have been fabricated. SU-8 is used as sacrificial layer but metallization over uncrosslinked SU-8 presents adhesion and stress

  9. Micro-pattern gaseous detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Sauli, Fabio

    2002-01-01

    Micro-strip gas chambers, with their excellent localization properties, high rate capability and good granularity, have been adopted by many experiments in particle physics. Two recurrent problems however have been reported: a slow degradation under sustained irradiation (or aging), and the rare but devastating occurrence of discharges. New breeds of detectors aim at improving on these crucial points, the micro-dot, CAT, micromegas, the gas electron multiplier are examples. Very performing, they are moreover robust and reliable. Two-stage devices, making use of a gas electron multiplier as first element, permit larger gains in presence of high rates and heavily ionizing tracks. Possible promising future developments in the field are outlined.

  10. Trends and new developments in gaseous detectors

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2069485

    2004-01-01

    Almost one century ago the method of particle detection with gaseous detectors was invented. Since then they have been exploited successfully in many experiments using a wide variety of different applications. The development is still going on today. The underlying working principles are today well understood and with the help of modern simulation techniques, new configurations can be easily examined and optimized before a first experimental test. Traditional wire chamber ensembles demonstrate that they are still up to date and are well prepared to meet also the challenges of LHC. Applications will be discussed using TPCs in high multiplicity environments with standard Multi-Wire Proportional Chamber (MWPC) as readout as well as drift tubes in a muon spectrometer for a Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiment. Triggered by the evolving printed circuit technology, a new generation of gaseous detectors with very high position resolution and rate capability has emerged. Two representatives (MICROMEGAS, GEM) have p...

  11. Test Beam Measurements on Picosec Gaseous Detector.

    CERN Document Server

    Sohl, Lukas

    2017-01-01

    In the Picosec project micro pattern gaseous detectors with a time resolution of some ten picoseconds are developed. The detectors are based on Micromegas detectors. With a cherenkov window and a photocathode the time jitter from different position of the primary ionization clusters can be substituted. This reports describes the beam setup and measurements of different Picosec prototypes. A time resolution of under 30 ps has been measured during the test beam. This report gives an overview of my work as a Summer Student. I set up and operated a triple-GEM tracker and a trigger system for the beam. During the beam I measured different prototypes of Picosec detectors and analysed the data.

  12. Background reduction of a spherical gaseous detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fard, Ali Dastgheibi [Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane, France ali.dastgheibi-fard@lsm.in2p3.fr (France); Loaiza, Pia; Piquemal, Fabrice [Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane (France); Giomataris, Ioannis; Gray, David; Gros, Michel; Magnier, Patrick; Navick, Xavier-François [CEA Saclay - IRFU/SEDI - 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Savvidis, Ilias [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2015-08-17

    The Spherical gaseous detector (or Spherical Proportional Counter, SPC) is a novel type of detector. It consists of a large spherical volume filled with gas, using a single detection readout channel. The detector allows 100 % detection efficiency. SEDINE is a low background version of SPC installed at the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane (LSM) underground laboratory (4800 m.w.e) looking for rare events at very low energy threshold, below 100 eV. This work presents the details on the chemical cleaning to reduce internal {sup 210}Pb surface contamination on the copper vessel and the external radon reduction achieved via circulation of pure air inside anti-radon tent. It will be also show the radon measurement of pure gases (Ar, N, Ne, etc) which are used in the underground laboratory for the low background experiments.

  13. Software digitizer for high granular gaseous detector

    CERN Document Server

    Haddad, Y; Boudry, V

    2014-01-01

    A sampling calorimeter using gaseous sensor layers with digital readout [1] is near perfect for ``Particle Flow Algorithm'' [2,3] approach, since it is homogeneous over large surfaces, robust, cost efficient, easily segmentable to any readout pad dimension and size and almost insensitive to neutrons. Monte-Carlo (MC) programs such as GEANT4 [4] simulate with high precision the energy deposited by particles. The sensor and electronic response associated to a pad are calculated in a separate ``digitization'' process. We develop a general method for simulating the pad response using the spatial information from a simulation done at high granularity. The digitization method proposed here has been applied to gaseous detectors including Glass Resistive Plate Chambers (GRPC) and MicroMegas, and validated on test beam data. Experimental observable such as pad multiplicity and mean number of hits at different thresholds have been reproduced with high precision.

  14. Precision tracking with a single gaseous pixel detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsigaridas, S.; van Bakel, N.; Bilevych, Y.; Gromov, V.; Hartjes, F.; Hessey, N.P.; de Jong, P.; Kluit, R.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of micro-pattern gaseous detectors has grown over the past few years after successful usage in a large number of applications in physics experiments and medicine. We develop gaseous pixel detectors using micromegas-based amplification structures on top of CMOS pixel readout chips.

  15. Hybrid photon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ambrosio, C

    2003-01-01

    Hybrid photon detectors detect light via vacuum photocathodes and accelerate the emitted photoelectrons by an electric field towards inversely polarized silicon anodes, where they are absorbed, thus producing electron-hole pairs. These, in turn, are collected and generate electronic signals on their ohmic contacts. This review first describes the characteristic properties of the main components of hybrid photon detectors: light entrance windows, photocathodes, and silicon anodes. Then, essential relations describing the trajectories of photoelectrons in electric and magnetic fields and their backscattering from the silicon anodes are derived. Depending on their anode configurations, three families of hybrid photon detectors are presented: hybrid photomultiplier tubes with single anodes for photon counting with high sensitivity and for gamma spectroscopy; multi-anode photon detector tubes with anodes subdivided into square or hexagonal pads for position-sensitive photon detection; imaging silicon pixel array t...

  16. GEM - A novel gaseous particle detector

    CERN Document Server

    Meinschad, T

    2005-01-01

    The work carried out within the framework of this Ph.D. deals with the construction of gaseous prototype detectors using Gas Electron Multiplier electrodes for the amplification of charges released by ionizing particles. The Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) is a thin metal-clad polymer foil, etched with a high density of narrow holes, typically 50-100mm-2. On the application of a potential difference between the conductive top and bottom sides each hole acts as independent proportional counter. This new fast device permits to reach large amplification factors at high rates with a strong photon and ion-mediated feedback suppression due to the avalanche confinement in the GEM-holes. Here, in particular studies have been performed, which should prove, that the GEM-technology is applicable for an efficient measurement of single Cherenkov photons. These UV-photons can be detected in different ways. An elegant solution to develop large area RICH-detectors is to evaporate a pad-segmented readout-cathode of a multi-wire...

  17. Imaging gaseous detectors and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nappi, Eugenio

    2013-01-01

    Covers the detector and imaging technology and their numerous applications in nuclear and high energy physics, astrophysics, medicine and radiation measurements Foreword from G. Charpak, awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for this invention.

  18. Charge Transfer Properties Through Graphene for Applications in Gaseous Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Franchino, S.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Jackman, R.B.; Muller, H.; Nguyen, T.T.; de Oliveira, R.; Oliveri, E.; Pfeiffer, D.; Resnati, F.; Ropelewski, L.; Smith, J.; van Stenis, M.; Streli, C.; Thuiner, P.; Veenhof, R.

    2016-07-11

    Graphene is a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice with remarkable mechanical and electrical properties. Regarded as the thinnest and narrowest conductive mesh, it has drastically different transmission behaviours when bombarded with electrons and ions in vacuum. This property, if confirmed in gas, may be a definitive solution for the ion back-flow problem in gaseous detectors. In order to ascertain this aspect, graphene layers of dimensions of about 2x2cm$^2$, grown on a copper substrate, are transferred onto a flat metal surface with holes, so that the graphene layer is freely suspended. The graphene and the support are installed into a gaseous detector equipped with a triple Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM), and the transparency properties to electrons and ions are studied in gas as a function of the electric fields. The techniques to produce the graphene samples are described, and we report on preliminary tests of graphene-coated GEMs.

  19. Charge amplitude distribution of the Gossip gaseous pixel detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanco Carballo, V.M.; Chefdeville, M.A.; Colas, P.; Giomataris, Y.; van der Graaf, H.; Gromov, V.; Hartjes, F.; Kluit, R.; Koffeman, E.; Salm, Cora; Schmitz, Jurriaan; Smits, Sander M.; Timmermans, J.; Timmermans, J.; Visschers, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    The Gossip gaseous pixel detector is being developed for the detection of charged particles in extreme high radiation environments as foreseen close to the interaction point of the proposed super LHC. The detecting medium is a thin layer of gas. Because of the low density of this medium, only a few

  20. Gain stabilization in Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors: methodology and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaked Renous, D.; Roy, A.; Breskin, A.; Bressler, S.

    2017-09-01

    The phenomenon of avalanche-gain variations over time, particularly in Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGD) incorporating insulator materials, have been generally attributed to electric-field modifications resulting from "charging-up" effects of the insulator. A robust methodology for characterization of gain-transients in such detectors is presented. It comprises three guidelines: detector initialization, long gain-stabilization monitoring and imposing transients by applying abrupt changes in operation conditions. Using THWELL and RPWELL detectors, we validated the proposed methodology by assessing a charging-up/charging-down model describing the governing processes of gain stabilization. The results provide a deeper insight into these processes, reflected by different transients upon abrupt variations of detector gain or the irradiation rate. This methodology provides a handle for future investigations of the involved physics phenomena in MPGD detectors comprising insulating components.

  1. Simulation study of the parallax effect of gaseous detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Hu; Wu, Jun-Long; Li, Jiang-Bo

    2012-11-01

    A simulation study of the parallax effect of gaseous detectors using the Garfield program is reported. A method that mainly uses non-uniform cathode potentials to reduce the parallax error of planar type gas detectors is described. By applying it to MWPC and Micro-pattern gas detectors, the method reduces the parallax broadening with very good results. For a 13° incidence track, the width (FWHM) of the parallax broadening is reduced to less than 20% of the normal one after using the special cathode potentials.

  2. Resistive gaseous detectors designs, performance, and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Abbrescia, Marcello; Peskov, Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    This first book to critically summarize the latest achievements and emerging applications within this interdisciplinary topic focuses on one of the most important types of detectors for elementary particles and photons: resistive plate chambers (RPCs). In the first part, the outstanding, international team of authors comprehensively describes and presents the features and design of single and double-layer RPCs before covering more advanced multi-layer RPCs. The second part then focuses on the application of RPCs in high energy physics, materials science, medicine and security. Throughout, the experienced authors adopt a didactic approach, with each subject presented in a simple way, increasing in complexity step by step.

  3. Precision tracking with a single gaseous pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsigaridas, S.; van Bakel, N.; Bilevych, Y.; Gromov, V.; Hartjes, F.; Hessey, N. P.; de Jong, P.; Kluit, R.

    2015-09-01

    The importance of micro-pattern gaseous detectors has grown over the past few years after successful usage in a large number of applications in physics experiments and medicine. We develop gaseous pixel detectors using micromegas-based amplification structures on top of CMOS pixel readout chips. Using wafer post-processing we add a spark-protection layer and a grid to create an amplification region above the chip, allowing individual electrons released above the grid by the passage of ionising radiation to be recorded. The electron creation point is measured in 3D, using the pixel position for (x, y) and the drift time for z. The track can be reconstructed by fitting a straight line to these points. In this work we have used a pixel-readout-chip which is a small-scale prototype of Timepix3 chip (designed for both silicon and gaseous detection media). This prototype chip has several advantages over the existing Timepix chip, including a faster front-end (pre-amplifier and discriminator) and a faster TDC which reduce timewalk's contribution to the z position error. Although the chip is very small (sensitive area of 0.88 × 0.88mm2), we have built it into a detector with a short drift gap (1.3 mm), and measured its tracking performance in an electron beam at DESY. We present the results obtained, which lead to a significant improvement for the resolutions with respect to Timepix-based detectors.

  4. Breakdown Limit Studies in High Rate Gaseous Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Ivaniouchenkov, Yu; Peskov, Vladimir; Ramsey, B D

    1998-01-01

    We report results from a systematic study of breakdown limits for novel high rate gaseous detectors: MICROMEGAS, CAT and GEM, together with more conventional devices such as thin-gap parallel-mesh chambers and high-rate wire chambers. It was found that for all these detectors, the maximum achievable gain, before breakdown appears, drops dramatically with incident flux, and is sometimes inversely proportional to it. Further, in the presence of alpha particles, typical of the backgrounds in high-energy experiments, additional gain drops of 1-2 orders of magnitude were observed for many detectors. It was found that breakdowns at high rates occur through what we have termed an "accumulative" mechanism, which does not seem to have been previously reported in the literature. Results of these studies may help in choosing the optimum detector for given experimental conditions.

  5. A portable gas recirculation unit for gaseous detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, R.; Mandelli, B.

    2017-10-01

    The use of greenhouse gases (usually C2H2F4, CF4 and SF6) is sometimes necessary to achieve the required performance for some gaseous detectors. The consumption of these gases in the LHC systems is reduced by recycling the gas mixture thanks to a complex gas recirculation system. Beyond greenhouse gas consumption due to LHC systems, a considerable contribution is generated by setups used for LHC detector upgrade projects, R&D activities, detector quality assurance or longevity tests. In order to minimise this emission, a new flexible and portable gas recirculation unit has been developed. Thanks to its low price, flexibility and user-friendly operation it can be easily adapted for the different types of detector systems and set-ups.

  6. Angular resolution of the gaseous micro-pixel detector Gossip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilevych, Y.; Blanco Carballo, V.; Dijk, M. van; Fransen, M.; Graaf, H. van der; Hartjes, F.; Hessey, N.; Koppert, W.; Nauta, S. [Nikhef, P.O. Box 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rogers, M. [Radboud University, P.O. Box 9102, 6500HC Nijmegen (Netherlands); Romaniouk, A.; Veenhof, R. [CERN, CH-1211, Geneve 23 (Switzerland)

    2011-06-15

    Gossip is a gaseous micro-pixel detector with a very thin drift gap intended for a high rate environment like at the pixel layers of ATLAS at the sLHC. The detector outputs not only the crossing point of a traversing MIP, but also the angle of the track, thus greatly simplifying track reconstruction. In this paper we describe a testbeam experiment to examine the angular resolution of the reconstructed track segments in Gossip. We used here the low diffusion gas mixture DME/CO{sub 2} 50/50. An angular resolution of 20 mrad for perpendicular tracks could be obtained from a 1.5 mm thin drift volume. However, for the prototype detector used at the testbeam experiment, the resolution of slanting tracks was worsened by poor time resolution of the pixel chip used.

  7. Angular resolution of the gaseous micro-pixel detector Gossip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilevych, Y.; Blanco Carballo, V.; van Dijk, M.; Fransen, M.; van der Graaf, H.; Hartjes, F.; Hessey, N.; Koppert, W.; Nauta, S.; Rogers, M.; Romaniouk, A.; Veenhof, R.

    2011-06-01

    Gossip is a gaseous micro-pixel detector with a very thin drift gap intended for a high rate environment like at the pixel layers of ATLAS at the sLHC. The detector outputs not only the crossing point of a traversing MIP, but also the angle of the track, thus greatly simplifying track reconstruction. In this paper we describe a testbeam experiment to examine the angular resolution of the reconstructed track segments in Gossip. We used here the low diffusion gas mixture DME/CO 2 50/50. An angular resolution of 20 mrad for perpendicular tracks could be obtained from a 1.5 mm thin drift volume. However, for the prototype detector used at the testbeam experiment, the resolution of slanting tracks was worsened by poor time resolution of the pixel chip used.

  8. New developments in gaseous tracking and imaging detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Graaf, Harry; GridPix/Gossip Group

    2009-08-01

    This year we celebrate the 100th birthday of gaseous detectors: Hans Geiger operated the first gas-filled counter in Manchester in 1908. The thin wires, essential for obtaining gas amplification, have been replaced by Micro Pattern Gas Detectors (MPGDs): Micromegas (1995) and GEM (1996). In the GridPix detector, each of the grid holes of a MPGD is equipped with its own electronic readout channel in the form of an active pixel in suitable pixel CMOS chips. By means of chip technology, the grid has been integrated with the chip, forming a monolithic readout device for gas volumes. By applying a protection layer, the chips can be made spark proof. The issue of chamber ageing is addressed. The use of gas as detection material for trackers is compared to Si, and some new developments are set out.

  9. R&D on a new type of micropattern gaseous detector: The Fast Timing Micropattern detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbaneo, D.; Abbas, M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Abbrescia, M. [INFN Bari and University of Bari, Bari (Italy); Akl, M. Abi [Texas A& M University at Qatar, Doha (Qatar); Aboamer, O. [Academy of Scientific Research and Technology, Egyptian Network of High Energy Physics, ASRT-ENHEP, Cairo (Egypt); Acosta, D. [University of Florida, Gainesville (United States); Ahmad, A. [National Center for Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ahmed, W. [INFN Bari and University of Bari, Bari (Italy); Aleksandrov, A. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia (Bulgaria); Altieri, P. [INFN Bari and University of Bari, Bari (Italy); Asawatangtrakuldee, C. [Peking University, Beijing (China); Aspell, P. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Assran, Y. [Academy of Scientific Research and Technology, Egyptian Network of High Energy Physics, ASRT-ENHEP, Cairo (Egypt); Awan, I. [National Center for Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Islamabad (Pakistan); Bally, S. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Ban, Y. [Peking University, Beijing (China); Banerjee, S. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata (India); Barashko, V. [University of Florida, Gainesville (United States); Barria, P. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium); Bencze, G. [Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); and others

    2017-02-11

    This contribution introduces a new type of Micropattern Gaseous Detector, the Fast Timing Micropattern (FTM) detector, utilizing fully Resistive WELL structures. The structure of the prototype will be described in detail and the results of the characterization study performed with an X-ray gun will be presented, together with the first results on time resolution based on data collected with muon/pion test beams.

  10. Detectors and Concepts for sub-100 ps timing with gaseous detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Diaz, D.

    2017-01-01

    We give a short compendium of the main ongoing detectors and concepts capable of performing accurate sub-100 ps timing at high particle fluxes and on large areas, through technologies based on gaseous media. We briefly discuss the state-of-the-art, technological limitations and prospects, and a new bizarre idea.

  11. Development of a gaseous photon detector for Cherenkov imaging applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rocco, Elena; Dalla Torre, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to the R&D activity aiming at a novel micro pattern gaseous photon detector based on the THick Gas Electron Multiplier (THGEM). The goal application of the novel photon detector is the detection of single photon in Ring Imaging CHerenkov (RICH) counters. The THGEM principle is derived from the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) one, even if the material, the production technology and the size scale are different: a THGEM is a Circuit Printed Board (PCB) coated with thin copper layers on both faces, with holes obtained by drilling. Part of the THGEM features are similar to those of the GEMs, but a number of characteristics aspects result substantially different: in fact, if the geometrical parameters can be scaled from the GEM ones, the parameters related to the electrons multiplication, which is a microscopic physical phenomenon, do not. This is why, before starting the photon detector development, we have performed a systematic study of the THGEM multiplier. A photon detector is forme...

  12. A novel fast timing micropattern gaseous detector: FTM

    CERN Document Server

    De Oliveira, Rui; Maggi, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    In recent years important progress in micropattern gaseous detectors has been achieved in the use of resistive material to build compact spark-protected devices. The novel idea presented here consists of the polarisation of WELL structures using only resistive electrodes. This allows a new device to be built with an architecture based on a stack of several coupled layers where drift and WELL multiplication stages alternate in the structure. The signals from each multiplication stage can be read out from any external readout boards through the capacitive couplings. Each layer provides a signal with a gain of 10^4 - 10^5. The main advantage of this new device is the dramatic improvement of the timing provided by the competition of the ionisation processes in the different drift regions, which can be exploited for fast timing at the high luminosity accelerators (e.g. HL-LHC upgrade) as well as applications outside particle physics.

  13. A novel fast timing micropattern gaseous detector: FTM

    CERN Document Server

    De Oliveira, Rui; Sharma, Archana

    2015-01-01

    In recent years important progress in micropattern gaseous detectors has been achieved in the use of resistive material to build compact spark-protected devices. The novel idea presented here consists of the polarisation of WELL structures using only resistive coating. This allows a new device to be built with an architecture based on a stack of several coupled layers where drift and WELL multiplication stages alternate in the structure. The signals from each multiplication stage can be read out from any external readout boards through the capacitive couplings. Each layer provides a signal with a gain of 10^4-10^5. The main advantage of this new device is the dramatic improvement of the timing provided by the competition of the ionisation processes in the different drift regions, which can be exploited for fast timing at the high luminosity accelerators (e.g. HL-LHC upgrade) as well as far applications like medical imaging.

  14. Development of a fast gaseous detector: 'Micromegas'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barouch, G. [CEA/Saclay, DAPNIA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Bay, A. [Lausanne University, IPN, BSP, 1015 Dorigny (Switzerland); Bouchigny, S. [CEA/Saclay, DAPNIA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Charpak, G. [CERN/LHC, Geneva (Switzerland); Derre, J. [CEA/Saclay, DAPNIA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Didierjean, F. [EURISYS Mesures, 1 Chemin de la roseraie, Lingolsheim, 67834 Tanneries Cedex (France); Faivre, J.-C. [CEA/Saclay, DAPNIA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Giomataris, Y. [CEA/Saclay, DAPNIA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Kochowski, C. [CEA/Saclay, DAPNIA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Kunne, F. [CEA/Saclay, DAPNIA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Le Goff, J.-M. [CEA/Saclay, DAPNIA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Lehar, F. [CEA/Saclay, DAPNIA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Lemoigne, Y. [CEA/Saclay, DAPNIA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Loucatos, S. [CEA/Saclay, DAPNIA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Lugol, J.-C. [CEA/Saclay, DAPNIA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Magnon, A. [CEA/Saclay, DAPNIA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Mayer, B. [CEA/Saclay, DAPNIA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Perroud, J.-P. [Lausanne University, IPN, BSP, 1015 Dorigny (Switzerland); Platchkov, S. [CEA/Saclay, DAPNIA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Puill, G. [CEA/Saclay, DAPNIA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Rebourgeard, Ph. [CEA/Saclay, DAPNIA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Terrien, Y. [CEA/Saclay, DAPNIA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Thers, D. [CEA/Saclay, DAPNIA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Zaccone, H. [CEA/Saclay, DAPNIA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    1999-02-21

    Several 15x15 cm{sup 2} gaseous Micromegas chambers (MICROMEsh GAseous Structure) which consist of a conversion gap and an amplification gap separated by a thin grid have been extensively tested in low-intensity 10 GeV/c pion beam and high-intensity (up to 5x10{sup 5} Hz/mm{sup 2}) 100 GeV/c muon beam. The detector behaviour has been studied with respect to many parameters: conversion gaps of 1 and 3 mm, amplification gaps of 50 and 10 {mu}m, an external magnetic field and many different filling gases. So far no effect of the magnetic field up to 1.3 T has been observed. The gas mixture argon + cyclohexane appears to be very suitable with gains above 10{sup 5} and a full-efficiency plateau of 50 V at 340 V. With a conversion gap as small as 1 mm and an electronics with a threshold at 5000 electrons the efficiency reaches 96%. With the addition of CF{sub 4} a time resolution of 5 ns (RMS) has been obtained. A spatial resolution better than 60 {mu}m has been observed with anode strips of 317 {mu}m pitch and was explained by transverse diffusion in the gas. Simulations show that with a pitch of 100 {mu}m and the appropriate gas a resolution of 10 {mu}m is within reach. This development leads to a new generation of cheap position-sensitive detectors which would permit high-precision tracking or vertexing close to the interaction region, in very high-rate environments.

  15. The quest for a third generation of gaseous photon detectors for Cherenkov imaging counters

    CERN Document Server

    Alexeev, M

    2009-01-01

    RICH (Ring Imaging CHerenkov) counters for PID in the high momentum domain and in large acceptance experiments require photon detectors covering extended surface (several square meters) and able to accept Cherenkov photons in a wide angular range. An ideal approach is represented by gaseous photon detectors, which allow covering wide surfaces at affordable costs. The first generation of these detectors was based on the use of organic vapors. The second generation consists of CsI photocathodes and open geometry gaseous detectors (MWPC). In spite of the success of this approach, some limits of the technique arise from the bombardment of the photocathodes by the ions generated in the amplification process and by the photon feedback. A third generation of gaseous photon detectors using closed geometry, as those possible with multistage arrangements of micropattern gaseous detectors, can overcome the observed limitations. We have started an R&D programme to develop a Thick-GEM-based photon detector and we repo...

  16. The development of gaseous detectors with solid photocathodes for low temperature applications

    CERN Document Server

    Periale, L.; Iacobaeus, C.; Francke, T.; Lund-Jensen, B.; Pavlopoulos, N.; Picchi, P.; Pietropaolo, F.

    2004-01-01

    There are several applications and fundamental research areas which require the detection of VUV light at cryogenic temperatures. For these applications we have developed and successfully tested special designs of gaseous detectors with solid photocathodes able to operate at low temperatures: sealed gaseous detectors with MgF2 windows and windowless detectors. We have experimentally demonstrated, that both primary and secondary (due to the avalanche multiplication inside liquids) scintillation lights could be recorded by photosensitive gaseous detectors. The results of this work may allow one to significantly improve the operation of some noble liquid gas TPCs.

  17. CERN manufactured hybrid photon detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    These hybrid photon detectors (HPDs) produce an electric signal from a single photon. An electron is liberated from a photocathode and accelerated to a silicon pixel array allowing the location of the photon on the cathode to be recorded. The electronics and optics for these devices have been developed in close collaboration with industry. HPDs have potential for further use in astrophysics and medical imaging.

  18. Development of new sealed UV sensitive gaseous detectors and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Periale, L; Di Mauro, Antonio; Martinengo, P; Picchi, P; Pietropaolo, F; Sipilä, H; Peskov, A

    2007-01-01

    We have developed prototypes of sealed gaseous detectors combined with CsI photocathodes or filled with photosensitive vapors for commercial applications. The first results with these devices for the detection of flames in daylight conditions and of scintillation lights from noble liquids are presented. They show that sealed UV sensitive gaseous detectors can have better performance (higher practical quantum efficiency and a better signal to noise ratio) than existing commercial UV sensitive detectors at lower production cost.

  19. Current Challenges and Perspectives in Resistive Gaseous Detectors: a manifesto from RPC 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Diaz, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Resistive gaseous detectors can be broadly defined as those operated in conditions where virtually no field lines exist that connect any two metallic electrodes sitting at different potential. This condition can be operationally recognized as 'no gas gap being delimited by two metallic electrodes'. Since early 70's, Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) are the most successful implementation of this idea, that leads to fully spark-protected gaseous detectors, with solid state-like reliability at working fields beyond 100kV/cm, yet enjoying the general characteristics of gaseous detectors in terms of flexibility, optimization and customization. We present a summary of the status of the field of resistive gaseous detectors as discussed in a dedicated closing session that took place during the XI Workshop for Resistive Plate Chambers and Related Detectors celebrated in Frascati, and especially we review the perspectives and ambitions towards the XII Workshop to be celebrated in Beijing in year 2014. Due to the existen...

  20. Charge amplitude distribution of the Gossip gaseous pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco Carballo, V. M.; Chefdeville, M.; Colas, P.; Giomataris, Y.; van der Graaf, H.; Gromov, V.; Hartjes, F.; Kluit, R.; Koffeman, E.; Salm, C.; Schmitz, J.; Smits, S. M.; Timmermans, J.; Visschers, J. L.

    2007-12-01

    The Gossip gaseous pixel detector is being developed for the detection of charged particles in extreme high radiation environments as foreseen close to the interaction point of the proposed super LHC. The detecting medium is a thin layer of gas. Because of the low density of this medium, only a few primary electron/ion pairs are created by the traversing particle. To get a detectable signal, the electrons drift towards a perforated metal foil (Micromegas) whereafter they are multiplied in a gas avalanche to provide a detectable signal. The gas avalanche occurs in the high field between the Micromegas and the pixel readout chip (ROC). Compared to a silicon pixel detector, Gossip features a low material budget and a low cooling power. An experiment using X-rays has indicated a possible high radiation tolerance exceeding 10 16 hadrons/cm 2. The amplified charge signal has a broad amplitude distribution due to the limited statistics of the primary ionization and the statistical variation of the gas amplification. Therefore, some degree of inefficiency is inevitable. This study presents experimental results on the charge amplitude distribution for CO 2/DME (dimethyl-ether) and Ar/iC 4H 10 mixtures. The measured curves were fitted with the outcome of a theoretical model. In the model, the physical Landau distribution is approximated by a Poisson distribution that is convoluted with the variation of the gas gain and the electronic noise. The value for the fraction of pedestal events is used for a direct calculation of the cluster density. For some gases, the measured cluster density is considerably lower than given in literature.

  1. Charge amplitude distribution of the Gossip gaseous pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco Carballo, V.M. [Twente University, Enschede (Netherlands); Chefdeville, M. [NIKHEF, P.B. 41882, 1009DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Colas, P.; Giomataris, Y. [Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Graaf, H. van der; Gromov, V. [NIKHEF, P.B. 41882, 1009DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hartjes, F. [NIKHEF, P.B. 41882, 1009DB Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: F.Hartjes@nikhef.nl; Kluit, R.; Koffeman, E. [NIKHEF, P.B. 41882, 1009DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Salm, C.; Schmitz, J.; Smits, S.M. [Twente University, Enschede (Netherlands); Timmermans, J.; Visschers, J.L. [NIKHEF, P.B. 41882, 1009DB Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-12-11

    The Gossip gaseous pixel detector is being developed for the detection of charged particles in extreme high radiation environments as foreseen close to the interaction point of the proposed super LHC. The detecting medium is a thin layer of gas. Because of the low density of this medium, only a few primary electron/ion pairs are created by the traversing particle. To get a detectable signal, the electrons drift towards a perforated metal foil (Micromegas) whereafter they are multiplied in a gas avalanche to provide a detectable signal. The gas avalanche occurs in the high field between the Micromegas and the pixel readout chip (ROC). Compared to a silicon pixel detector, Gossip features a low material budget and a low cooling power. An experiment using X-rays has indicated a possible high radiation tolerance exceeding 10{sup 16} hadrons/cm{sup 2}. The amplified charge signal has a broad amplitude distribution due to the limited statistics of the primary ionization and the statistical variation of the gas amplification. Therefore, some degree of inefficiency is inevitable. This study presents experimental results on the charge amplitude distribution for CO{sub 2}/DME (dimethyl-ether) and Ar/iC{sub 4}H{sub 10} mixtures. The measured curves were fitted with the outcome of a theoretical model. In the model, the physical Landau distribution is approximated by a Poisson distribution that is convoluted with the variation of the gas gain and the electronic noise. The value for the fraction of pedestal events is used for a direct calculation of the cluster density. For some gases, the measured cluster density is considerably lower than given in literature.

  2. Building and commissioning of a setup to study ageing phenomena in gaseous detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abuhoza, A., E-mail: aabuhoza@kacst.edu.sa [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt 64291 (Germany); King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt (Germany); Schmidt, H.R. [Eberhard-Karls-Universität, Tübingen (Germany); Biswas, S. [School of Physical Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research, Jatni 752050 (India); Frankenfeld, U.; Hehner, J.; Schmidt, C.J. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt 64291 (Germany)

    2016-07-11

    In high-rate heavy-ion experiments, gaseous detectors encounter big challenges in terms of degradation of their performance due to a phenomenon called ageing. A setup for high precision ageing studies has been constructed and commissioned at the GSI detector laboratory. The setup as well as the gas system have been carefully optimized to reach a high sensitivity for ageing effects. Two different materials have been examined for their influence on gaseous detectors: RTV-3145 and Gerband 705. The details of the construction of the ageing test setup and the test results will be presented.

  3. Simulation of VUV electroluminescence in micropattern gaseous detectors: the case of GEM and MHSP

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, C.A.B.; Schindler, H.; Ferreira, A.L.; Monteiro, C.M.B.; dos Santos, J.M.F.; Biagi, S.; Veenhof, R.; Veloso, J.F.C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Electroluminescence produced during avalanche development in gaseous avalanche detectors is an useful information for triggering, calorimetry and tracking in gaseous detectors. Noble gases present high electroluminescence yields, emitting mainly in the VUV region. The photons can provide signal readout if appropriate photosensors are used. Micropattern gaseous detectors are good candidates for signal amplification in high background and/or low rate experiments due to their high electroluminescence yields and radiopurity. In this work, the VUV light responses of the Gas Electron Multiplier and of the Micro-Hole Strip Plate, working with pure xenon, are simulated and studied in detail using a new and versatile C++ toolkit. It is shown that the solid angle subtended by a photosensor placed bellow the microstructures depends on the operating conditions. The obtained absolute EL yields, determined for different gas pressures and as functions of the applied voltage, are compared with those determined experimentally...

  4. Detector for flow abnormalities in gaseous diffusion plant compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S.F.; Castleberry, K.N.

    1998-06-16

    A detector detects a flow abnormality in a plant compressor which outputs a motor current signal. The detector includes a demodulator/lowpass filter demodulating and filtering the motor current signal producing a demodulated signal, and first, second, third and fourth bandpass filters connected to the demodulator/lowpass filter, and filtering the demodulated signal in accordance with first, second, third and fourth bandpass frequencies generating first, second, third and fourth filtered signals having first, second, third and fourth amplitudes. The detector also includes first, second, third and fourth amplitude detectors connected to the first, second, third and fourth bandpass filters respectively, and detecting the first, second, third and fourth amplitudes, and first and second adders connected to the first and fourth amplitude detectors and the second and third amplitude detectors respectively, and adding the first and fourth amplitudes and the second and third amplitudes respectively generating first and second added signals. Finally, the detector includes a comparator, connected to the first and second adders, and comparing the first and second added signals and detecting the abnormal condition in the plant compressor when the second added signal exceeds the first added signal by a predetermined value. 6 figs.

  5. The gaseous microstrip detector Micromegas for the COMPASS experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Kunne, Fabienne; Ball, J; Bedfer, Y; Bernet, C; Delagnes, E; Giganon, Arnaud; Le Goff, J M; Magnon, A; Neyret, D; Pereira, H; Platchkov, S; Rebourgeard, P C; Tarte, Gérard; Thers, D

    2003-01-01

    The measurements foreseen in the COMPASS experiment at CERN, require high resolution tracking detectors, with low radiation length and high rate capability. For this purpose we have developed and optimized a gaseous microstrip detector 'Micromegas'. Twelve planes with 1024 strips each, assembled in 3 stations of 4 views XYUV, have been operated with success in the summer of 2002 in the COMPASS environment. We describe here the performances and results obtained. (3 refs).

  6. Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detector Technologies and RD51 Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, Maxim; Ropelewski, Leszek

    2013-04-01

    Discoveries in particle physics vitally depend on parallel advances in radiation-detector technologies. A true innovation in detector instrumentation concepts came in 1968, with the development of a fully parallel readout for a large array of sensing elements — the Multi-Wire Proportional Chamber (MWPC), which earned Georges Charpak a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1992. This invention revolutionized particle detection which moved from optical-readout devices (cloud chamber, emulsion or bubble chambers) to the electronics era. Over the past two decades advances in photo-lithography, microelectronics and printed-circuit board (PCB) techniques triggered a major transition in the field of gas detectors from wire structures to the Micro-Pattern Gas Detector (MPGD) concepts. The excellent spatial and time resolution, high rate capability, low mass, large active areas, and radiation hardness make them an invaluable tool to confront future detector challenges at the frontiers of research. The design of the new micro-pattern devices appears suitable for industrial production. Novel devices where MPGDs are directly coupled to the CMOS pixel readout serve as an "electronic bubble chamber" allowing to record space points and tracks in 3D. In 2008, the RD51 collaboration at CERN has been established to further advance technological developments of MPGDs and associated electronic-readout systems, for applications in basic and applied research. This review provides an overview of the state-of-the-art of the MPGD technologies and summarizes ongoing activities within the framework of the RD51 collaboration.

  7. The Successful Operation of Hole-type Gaseous Detectors at Cryogenic Temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Pereiale, L.; Iacobaeus, C.; Francke, T.; Lund-Jensen, B.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Picchi, P.; Pietropaolo, F.; Tokanai, F.

    2004-01-01

    We have demonstrated that hole-type gaseous detectors, GEMs and capillary plates, can operate up to 77 K. For example, a single capillary plate can operate at gains of above 10E3 in the entire temperature interval between 300 until 77 K. The same capillary plate combined with CsI photocathodes could operate perfectly well at gains (depending on gas mixtures) of 100-1000. Obtained results may open new fields of applications for capillary plates as detectors of UV light and charge particles at cryogenic temperatures: noble liquid TPCs, WIMP detectors or LXe scintillating calorimeters and cryogenic PETs.

  8. Development of Advanced Gaseous Detectors for Muon Tracking and Triggering in Collider Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Guan, Liang; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhu, Junjie

    High luminosity and high energy collider experiments impose big challenges to conventional gaseous detectors used for muon tracking and triggering. Stringent requirements, in terms of time and spatial resolutions, rate capabilities etc. are expected. In the context of ATLAS muon upgrade project, we present extensive researches and developments of advanced gas detectors for precision muon tracking and triggering in high rate environments. Particularly, this dissertation focuses on the studies of Micro-mesh Gaseous structure (Micromegas), thin gap Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) and small strip Thin Gap multi-wire Chambers (sTGC). In this dissertation, we first present a novel method, based on thermally bonding micro-meshes to anodes, to construct Micromegas detectors. Without employing the traditional photo-lithography process, it is a convenient alternative to build Micromegas. Both experimental and simulation studies of basic performance parameters of thermo-bonded Micromegas will be reported. Development...

  9. High resolution micro-pattern gaseous tracking detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bachmann, S; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio

    2000-01-01

    Micro-strip gas chambers have excellent localization properties, high rate capability and good granularity, and have been adopted for may experimental set-ups. Two recurrent problems hower have been reported: slow degradation under sustained irradiation, and damaging accidental discharges. New breeds of detectors aim at improving on these crucial points: CAT, micromegas, gas electron multiplier are examples. Very performing, they are more robust and reliable. Two- stage devices, making use of a gas electron multiplier as first element, permit to sustain larger gains in presence of high rates and heavily ionizing tracks. (16 refs).

  10. A Study to Improve the Radiation Hardness of Gaseous Detectors for Use at Very High Luminosities

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    A two-year project is proposed to study the ageing of gas filled proportional detectors under irradiation. The goal is to obtain experimentally a better understanding of the gas polymerisation processes appearing at high radiation doses, in order to extend the lifetime of detectors well above the MRad region. \\\\ \\\\ The wide range of reported lifetimes is symptomatic of our poor understanding of the ageing process: often, measurements supposedly done under identical conditions result in very different lifetimes.\\\\ \\\\ The aim of this project is, with the knowledge gained, to construct a full scale prototype chamber on which future designs can be based. This will ultimately check the validity of our findings and results under realistic experimental circumstances. \\\\ \\\\ The study of ageing processes in gaseous detectors should commence with the construction of reference chambers.\\\\ \\\\ These chambers will be tested for signs of ageing by examination of the $^5

  11. A micro-pattern gaseous detector for beam monitoring in ion-therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terakawa, A.; Ishii, K.; Matsuyama, S.; Kikuchi, Y.; Togashi, T.; Arikawa, J.; Yamashita, W.; Takahashi, Y.; Fujishiro, F.; Yamazaki, H.; Sakemi, Y.

    2015-12-01

    A micro-pattern gaseous detector based on gas electron multiplier technology (GEM detector) was developed as a new transmission beam monitor for charged-particle therapy to obtain real-time information about the parameters of a therapeutic beam. Feasibility tests for the GEM detector were performed using an 80-MeV proton beam to evaluate the lateral intensity distributions of a pencil beam and the dose delivered to a target. The beam intensity distributions measured with the GEM detector were in good agreement with those measured with an imaging plate while the charge output from the GEM detector was in proportion to that of a reference dose monitor of an ionization chamber design. These experimental results showed that the GEM detector can be used not only as a beam monitor for the position and two-dimensional intensity distribution but also as a dose monitor. Thus, it is possible to simultaneously measure these beam parameters for beam control in charged-particle therapy using a single GEM-based transmission monitor.

  12. Gaseous NO2 effects on stomatal behavior, photosynthesis and respiration of hybrid poplar leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we used poplar as a model plant and investigated the effects of gaseous nitrogen dioxide (NO2, 4 microliter per liter) on stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, dark- and photorespiration of Populus alba x Populus berolinensis hybrid leaves using the photosynthesis system and scanning...

  13. ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT): Straw Tube Gaseous Detectors at High Rates

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is the outermost of the three tracking subsystems of the ATLAS Inner Detector. The ATLAS detector is located at LHC/CERN. We report on how these gaseous detectors (“straw tubes”) are performing during the ATLAS 2011 and 2012 runs where the TRT experiences higher rates than previously encountered. The TRT contains ~300000 thin-walled proportional-mode drift tubes providing on average 30 two-dimensional space points with ~130 µm resolution for charged particle tracks with |η|  0.5 GeV. Along with continuous tracking, the TRT provides electron identification capability through the detection of transition radiation X-ray photons. During the ATLAS 2012 proton-proton data runs, the TRT is operating successfully while being subjected to the highest rates of incident particles ever experienced by a large scale gaseous tracking system. As of the submission date of this abstract, the TRT has collected data in an environment with instantaneous proton-proton luminosi...

  14. ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT): Straw Tube Gaseous Detectors at High Rates

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is the outermost of the three tracking subsystems of the ATLAS Inner Detector. The ATLAS detector is located at LHC/CERN. We report on how these gaseous detectors (“straw tubes”) are performing during the ATLAS 2011 and 2012 runs where the TRT experiences higher rates than previously encountered. The TRT contains ~300000 thin-walled proportional-mode drift tubes providing on average 30 two-dimensional space points with ~130 µm resolution for charged particle tracks with |η| 0.5 GeV. Along with continuous tracking, the TRT provides electron identification capability through the detection of transition radiation X-ray photons. During the ATLAS 2012 proton-proton data runs, the TRT is operating successfully while being subjected to the highest rates of incident particles ever experienced by a large scale gaseous tracking system. In the second half of 2012, the TRT has collected data in an environment with instantaneous proton-proton luminosity of ~0.8 × 10³�...

  15. Elsevier R&D on a new type of micropattern gaseous detector: The Fast Timing Micropattern detector

    CERN Document Server

    Abbaneo, D; Abbrescia, M; Abi Akl, M; Aboamer, O; Acosta, D; Ahmad, A; Ahmed, W; Aleksandrov, A; Altieri, P; Asawatangtrakuldee, C; Aspell, P; Assran, Y; Awan, I; Bally, S; Ban, Y; Banerjee, S; Barashko, V; Barria, P; Bencze, G; Beni, N; Benussi, L; Bhopatkar, V; Bianco, S; Bos, J; Bouhali, O; Braghieri, A; Braibant, S; Buontempo, S; Calabria, C; Caponero, M; Caputo, C; Cassese, F; Castaneda, A; Cauwenbergh, S; Cavallo, F R; Celik, A; Choi, M; Choi, S; Christiansen, J; Cimmino, A; Colafranceschi, S; Colaleo, A; Conde Garcia, A; Czellar, S; Dabrowski, M M; De Lentdecker, G; Oliveira, R De; De Robertis, G; Dildick, S; Dorney, B; Endroczi, G; Errico, F; Fallavollita, F; Fenyvesi, A; Ferry, S; Furic, I; Giacomelli, P; Gilmore, J; Golovtsov, V; Guiducci, L; Guilloux, F; Gutierrez, A; Hadjiiska, R M; Hauser, J; Hoepfner, K; Hohlmann, M; Hoorani, H; Iaydjiev, P; Jeng, Y G; Kamon, T; Karchin, P; Korytov, A; Krutelyov, S; Kumar, A; Kim, H; Lee, J; Lenzi, T; Litov, L; Loddo, F; Madorsky, A; Maerschalk, T; Maggi, M; Magnani, A; Mal, P K; Mandal, K; Marchioro, A; Marinov, A; Majumdar, N; Merlin, J A; Mitselmakher, G; Mohanty, A K; Mohapatra, A; Molnar, J; Muhammad, S; Mukhopadhyay, S; Naimuddin, M; Nuzzo, S; Oliveri, E; Pant, L M; Paolucci, P; Park, I; Passeggio, G; Pavlov, B; Philipps, B; Piccolo, D; Postema, H; Puig Baranac, A; Radi, A; Radogna, R; Raffone, G; Ranieri, A; Rashevski, G; Ressegotti, M; Riccardi, C; Rodozov, M; Rodrigues, A; Ropelewski, L; RoyChowdhury, S; Ryu, G; Ryu, M S; Safonov, A; Salva, S; Saviano, G; Sharma, A; Sharma, A; Sharma, R; Shah, A H; Shopova, M; Sturdy, J; Sultanov, G; Swain, S K; Szillasi, Z; Talvitie, J; Tatarinov, A; Tuuva, T; Tytgat, M; Vai, I; Van Stenis, M; Venditti, R; Verhagen, E; Verwilligen, P; Vitulo, P; Volkov, S; Vorobyev, A; Wang, D; Wang, M; Yang, U; Yang, Y; Yonamine, R; Zaganidis, N; Zenoni, F; Zhang, A

    2017-01-01

    Micropattern gaseous detectors (MPGD) underwent significant upgrades in recent years, introducing resistive materials to build compact spark-protected devices. Exploiting this technology further, various features such as space and time resolution, rate capability, sensitive area, operational stability and radiation hardness can be improved. This contribution introduces a new type of MPGD, namely the Fast Timing Micropattern (FTM) detector, utilizing a fully resistive WELL structure. It consists of a stack of several coupled layers where drift and WELL multiplication stages alternate in the structure, yielding a significant improvement in timing properties due to competing ionization processes in the different drift regions. Two FTM prototypes have been developed so far. The first one is uWELL-like, where multiplication takes place in the holes of a kapton foil covered on both sides with resistive material. The second one has a resistive Micromegas-like structure, with multiplication developing in a region del...

  16. Characterization of gaseous detectors at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility: GEM performance in presence of high background radiation

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2097588

    Muon detection is an efficient tool to recognize interesting physics events over the high background rate expected at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The muon systems of the LHC experiments are based on gaseous ionization detectors. In view of the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) upgrade program, the increasing of background radiation could affect the gaseous detector performance, especially decreasing the efficiency and shortening the lifetime through ageing processes. The effects of charge multiplication, materials and gas composition on the ageing of gaseous detectors have been studied for decades, but the future upgrade of LHC requires additional studies on this topic. At the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++), a radioactive source of cesium-137 with an activity of 14 TBq is used to reproduce reasonably well the expected background radiation at HL-LHC. A muon beam has been made available to study detector performance. The characterization of the beam trigger will be discussed in the present w...

  17. The Use of 3D Printing in the Development of Gaseous Radiation Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargher, Sam; Steer, Chris; Thompson, Lee

    2018-01-01

    Fused Deposition Modelling has been used to produce a small, single wire, Iarocci-style drift tube to demonstrate the feasibility of using the Additive Manufacturing technique to produce cheap detectors, quickly. Recent technological developments have extended the scope of Additive Manufacturing, or 3D printing, to the possibility of fabricating Gaseous Radiation Detectors, such as Single Wire Proportional Counters and Time Projection Chambers. 3D printing could allow for the production of customisable, modular detectors; that can be easily created and replaced and the possibility of printing detectors on-site in remote locations and even for outreach within schools. The 3D printed drift tube was printed using Polylactic acid to produce a gas volume in the shape of an inverted triangular prism; base length of 28 mm, height 24.25 mm and tube length 145 mm. A stainless steel anode wire was placed in the centre of the tube, mid-print. P5 gas (95% Argon, 5% Methane) was used as the drift gas and a circuit was built to capacitively decouple signals from the high voltage. The signal rate and average pulse height of cosmic ray muons were measured over a range of bias voltages to characterise and prove correct operation of the printed detector.

  18. Micromegas a high-granularity position-sensitive gaseous detector for high particle-flux environments

    CERN Document Server

    Giomataris, Ioanis; Robert, J P; Charpak, Georges

    1996-01-01

    We describe a novel structure for a gaseous detector that is under development at Saclay. It consists of a two-stage parallel-plate avalanche chamber of small amplification gap (100 microm) combined with a conversion-drift space. It allows a fast removal of positive ionsproduced during the avalanche development. Fast signals (3/4 1 ns) are obtained duirng the collection of the electron avalanche on the anode microstrip plane. The induced positive ion signal has a rise time of 100 ns. The fast evacuation of positive ions combined with the high granularity of the detector provide a high rate capability. Gas gains of up to $10^5$ have been achieved.

  19. A new design of the gaseous imaging detector: Micro Pixel Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Ochi, A; Koishi, S; Tanimori, T; Nagae, T; Nakamura, M

    2001-01-01

    The novel gaseous detector 'Micro Pixel Chamber (Micro PIC)' has been developed for X-ray, gamma-ray and charged particle imaging. This detector consists of double sided printing circuit board (PCB). The stable operation of Micro PIC is realized by thick substrate and wide anode strips. One of the most outstanding feature is the process of production and the cost. The base technology of producing Micro PIC is same as producing PCB, then detector with large detection area (more than 10 cmx10 cm) can be made by present technology. Our first tests were performed using a 3 cmx3 cm detection area with a readout of 0.4 mm pitch. The gas gain and stability were measured in these tests. The gas gain of 10 sup 4 was obtained using argon ethane (8:2) gas mixture. Also, there was no discharge between anodes and cathodes in the gain of 10 sup 3 during two days of continuous operation. Although some discharges occurred in the higher gain (approximately 10 sup 4), no critical damage on the detector was found.

  20. Evaluation of a computer aided neutron tomographic system incorporating a gaseous position sensitive detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvani, M. I.; Lopes, R. T.; de Jesus, E. F. O.; de Almeida, G. L.; Barbosa, A. F.

    2003-06-01

    A position sensitive gaseous detector, formerly designed to operate with X-rays, has been modified to equip a third generation tomographic system working with a parallel thermal neutron beam. For this purpose, the original filling-gas has been replaced by 3He-enriched helium, which plays simultaneously the role of filling-gas for the ionization process and converter of neutrons into charged particles. This paper describes the modifications done to the detector, the measurements carried out to evaluate its own performance and that of the tomographic system attached to it. Some tomographic images acquired using that system are presented as well. Tomographic systems equipped with this kind of detector should require substantially much less time than those conventional ones, where a sample translation is required. The Argonauta reactor operating at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-Brazil) has been utilized as the source of neutrons, furnishing a flux of 4.5×10 5 n cm -2 s -1 at its main irradiation channel where the tomographic system has been placed.

  1. Oxygen ingress study of 3D printed gaseous radiation detector enclosures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steer, Christopher A.; Durose, Aaron [AWE, Alderrnaston, Reading, Berkshire, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    As part of our ongoing studies into the potential application of 3D printing techniques to gaseous radiation detectors, we have studied the ability of 3D printed enclosures to resist environmental oxygen ingress. A set of cuboid and hexagonal prism shaped enclosures with wall thicknesses of 4 mm, 6 mm, 8 mm and 10 mm were designed and printed in nylon using a EOSINT P 730 Selective Laser Sintering 3D printer system These test enclosures provide a comparison of different environmental gas ingress for different 3D printing techniques. The rate of change of oxygen concentration was found to be linear, decreasing as the wall thickness increases. It was also found that the hexagonal prism geometry produced a lower rate of change of oxygen concentration compared with the cuboid shaped enclosures. Possible reasons as to why these results were obtained are discussed The implications for the this study for deployable systems are also discussed (authors)

  2. New Generation GridPix: Development and characterisation of pixelated gaseous detectors based on the Timepix3 chip

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2082958; Hessey, Nigel

    Due to the increasing demands of high energy physics experiments there is a need for particle detectors which enable high precision measurements. In this regard, the GridPix detector is a novel detector concept which combines the benefits of a pixel chip with an integrated gas amplification structure. The resulting unit is a detector sensitive to single electrons with a great potential for particle tracking and energy loss measurements. This thesis is focusing on the development of a new generation of GridPix detectors based on the Timepix3 chip, which implements a high resolution Time to Digital Converter (TDC) in each pixel. After an introductory chapter describing the motivation behind GridPix, the manuscript presents the physics of gaseous detectors in chapter 2 along with the gaseous detectors used for particle tracking in chapter 3. Chapters 4 and 5 are focusing on the tracking performance of GridPix detectors. Chapter 4 presents results obtained with a GridPix detector based on a small scale prototy...

  3. Development of innovative micro-pattern gaseous detectors with resistive electrodes and first results of their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Di Mauro, A; Martinengo, P; Nappi, E; Oliveira, R; Peskov, Vladimir; Periale, L; Picchi, P; Pietropaolo, F; Rodionov, I; Santiard, Jean-Claude

    2007-01-01

    The paper summarizes our latest progress in the development of newly introduced micro pattern gaseous detectors with resistive electrodes. These resistive electrodes protect the detector and the front-end electronics in case of occasional discharges and thus make the detectors very robust and reliable in operation. As an example, we describe in greater detail a new recently developed GEM-like detector, fully spark-protected with electrodes made of resistive kapton. We discovered that all resistive layers used in these studies (including kapton), that are coated with photosensitive layers, such as CsI, can be used as efficient photo cathodes for detectors operating in a pulse counting mode. We describe the first applications of such detectors combined with CsI or SbCs photo cathodes for the detection of UV photons at room and cryogenic temperatures.

  4. Development of a new generation of micropattern gaseous detectors for high energy physics, astrophysics and environmental applications

    CERN Document Server

    Peskov, V.; Fonte, P.; Martinengo, P.; Nappi, E.; Oliveira, R.; Pietropaolo, P.; Picchi, P.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a cost effective technology for manufacturing various layouts of micropattern gaseous detectors for a wide range of applications. Such devices feature resistive electrodes interfaced to a network of thin readout strips/electrodes. The following three examples of such innovative designs and their applications will be presented: a prototype of a novel double-phase LAr detector with a CsI photocathode immersed inside the LAr, a CsI-RICH detector prototype for ALICE upgrade and GEM-like sensors for environmental safety/security applications.

  5. Evaluation of various planar gaseous detectors with Cs1 photocathodes for the detection of primary scintillation light from noble gases

    CERN Document Server

    Periale, L; Carlson, Per J; Iacobaeus, C; Francke, T; Pavlopoulos, N; Pietropaoplo, F; Sokolova, T; Picchi, P

    2003-01-01

    Noble gases and liquids are excellent scintillators and this opens a unique opportunity to directly detect the primary scintillation light produced in these media by photons or particles. This signal can be used for several purposes, for example as a start signal for TPCs or for particle's identification. Usually photomultipliers (PMs) are used for the detection of the scintillation light. In our previous work we have demonstrated that costly PMs could be replaced by gaseous detectors with CsI photocathodes. Such detectors have the same quantum efficiency as the best PMs but at the same time are cheap, simple and have high position and time resolutions. The aim of this work is to evaluate various planar type gaseous detectors with CsI photocathodes in order to choose the best one for the detection of the primary scintillation light from noble gases and liquids. (10 refs).

  6. Summary and Outlook of the International Workshop on Aging Phenomena in Gaseous Detectors (DESY, Hamburg, October, 2001)

    CERN Document Server

    Titov, M L; Padilla, C; Tesch, N

    2002-01-01

    High Energy Physics experiments are currently entering a new era which requires the operation of gaseous particle detectors at unprecedented high rates and integrated particle fluxes. Full functionality of such detectors over the lifetime of an experiment in a harsh radiation environment is of prime concern to the involved experimenters. New classes of gaseous detectors such as large-scale straw-type detectors, Micro-pattern Gas Detectors and related detector types with their own specific aging effects have evolved since the first workshop on wire chamber aging was held at LBL, Berkeley in 1986. In light of these developments and as detector aging is a notoriously complex field, the goal of the workshop was to provide a forum for interested experimentalists to review the progress in understanding of aging effects and to exchange recent experiences. A brief summary of the main results and experiences reported at the 2001 workshop is presented, with the goal of providing a systematic review of aging effects in ...

  7. Hybrid photon detectors for the LHCb RICH

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenhardt, Stephan

    2006-01-01

    The LHCb Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) counters use the pixel Hybrid Photon Detector (HPD) as a photo-sensitive device. Photo-electrons are produced in semi-transparent multi-alkali photo-cathode (S20) and are accelerated by a voltage of 20 kV onto a pixelated silicon anode. The anode is bump-bonded to the LHCBPIX1 pixel readout chip which amplifies and digitises the anode signals at the LHC speed of 40 MHz. Using a demagnification of five, the effective pixel size at the HPD window is 2.5 x 2.5 mm$^2$. Over the course of 18 months, 550 HPSs will undergo a quality-assurance programme to verify the specifications and to characterise the tubes. The tested parameters include the threshold and noise behaviour of the chip, the response to light emitting diode (LED) light, the demagnification of the electron optics, the leakage current and the depletion of the silicon sensor, the quality of the vacuum, the signal efficiency and the dark count rate. Results of tests of the first nine HPDs of the final design are pr...

  8. Cu Hybrid 4 Channel Cosmic Ray Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas Torres, F. J.; Hernández Morquecho, M. A.; Arceo, L.; Félix, J.

    2017-10-01

    There are, in the universe, several sources that produce very energetic cosmic rays that interact with the Earth´s atmosphere and create new low energy particles. To detect them there are different methods, according to the interaction with a medium such as the ionization of a material and Cerenkov radiation, among others. In this work a hybrid cosmic ray detector of 4 channels was designed, built and tested at the Laboratorio de Partículas Elementales of the Universidad de Guanajuato. A Copper bar was used as detection material, both smaller area faces have an ionization and a Cerenkov radiation detection channel. To detect the Cerenkov radiation, Hamamatsu silicon photodiodes were used, and for the ionization channels an RC circuit was developed to measure the signal. The ionization channels were tested simultaneously, observing the analogic signal on an oscilloscope. The RC circuit and discriminator were designed to be on the same board; with the discriminator we can digitize the analogic signal. Details of the design, construction and testing of the ionization channel are presented.

  9. Small Pixel Hybrid CMOS X-ray Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Samuel; Bray, Evan; Burrows, David N.; Chattopadhyay, Tanmoy; Falcone, Abraham; Kern, Matthew; McQuaide, Maria; Wages, Mitchell

    2018-01-01

    Concepts for future space-based X-ray observatories call for a large effective area and high angular resolution instrument to enable precision X-ray astronomy at high redshift and low luminosity. Hybrid CMOS detectors are well suited for such high throughput instruments, and the Penn State X-ray detector lab, in collaboration with Teledyne Imaging Sensors, has recently developed new small pixel hybrid CMOS X-ray detectors. These prototype 128x128 pixel devices have 12.5 micron pixel pitch, 200 micron fully depleted depth, and include crosstalk eliminating CTIA amplifiers and in-pixel correlated double sampling (CDS) capability. We report on characteristics of these new detectors, including the best read noise ever measured for an X-ray hybrid CMOS detector, 5.67 e- (RMS).

  10. A Versatile Readout System for Small to Medium Scale Gaseous and Silicon Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, Denis

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents the design and performance of a readout system for gaseous and silicon detectors built for the Minos nuclear physics experiment. A major constraint was to provide a multi-thousand channel, high performance readout system with low manpower effort and tight cost. This was achieved by the re-use of some earlier ASIC and front-end card (FEC) developments, the design of a new digital readout card, called the Feminos, and the use of commercial off-the-shelf components. The proposed system fully exploits the capability of the existing 72-channel AFTER chip designed for the T2K experiment and allows seamless migration to the 64-channel AGET chip, a pin-compatible evolution under production by the GET collaboration. The Feminos is a low complexity card designed to read out a FEC equipped with four AFTER chips (T2K model) or a newly assembled FEC populated with four AGET chips. The trigger clock module (TCM) is a synchronization board that allows system scaling up to 6912 channels with 24 Feminos and FECs, a commercial Gigabit Ethernet switch, and a data acquisition PC. The design of the Feminos hardware, firmware and embedded software are detailed and it is explained how high performance, rapid development and low cost were reached. System operation and data acquisition throughput scaling with multiple Feminos are investigated.

  11. Abstract ID: 242 Simulation of a Fast Timing Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detector for TOF-PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radogna, Raffaella; Verwilligen, Piet

    2018-01-01

    Micro-Pattern Gas Detectors (MPGDs) are a new generation of gaseous detectors that have been developed thanks to advances in micro-structure technology. The main features of the MPGDs are: high rate capability (>50 MHz/cm2); excellent spatial resolution (down to 50 μm); good time resolution (down to 3 ns); reduced radiation length, affordable costs, and possible flexible geometries. A new detector layout has been recently proposed that aims at combining both the high spatial resolution and high rate capability (100 MHz/cm2) of the current state-of-the-art MPGDs with a high time resolution. This new type of MPGD is named the Fast Timing MPGD (FTM) detector [1,2]. The FTM developed for detecting charged particles can potentially reach sub-millimeter spatial resolution and 100 ps time resolution. This contribution introduces a Fast Timing MPGD technology optimized to detect photons, as an innovative PET imaging detector concept and emphases the importance of full detector simulation to guide the design of the detector geometry. The design and development of a new FTM, combining excellent time and spatial resolution, while exploiting the advantages of a reasonable energy resolution, will be a boost for the design of affordable TOF-PET scanner with improved image contrast. The use of such an affordable gas detector allows to instrument large areas in a cost-effective way, and to increase in image contrast for shorter scanning times (lowering the risk for the patient) and better diagnosis of the disease. In this report a dedicated simulation study is performed to optimize the detector design in the contest of the INFN project MPGD-Fatima. Results are obtained with ANSYS, COMSOL, GARFIELD++ and GEANT4 simulation tools. The final detector layout will be trade-off between fast time and good energy resolution. Copyright © 2017.

  12. Two-dimensional position-sensitive gaseous detectors for high-resolution neutron and X-ray diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Marmotti, M; Kampmann, R

    2002-01-01

    Two-dimensional position-sensitive gaseous detectors have been developed at the Geesthacht Neutron Facility (GeNF) for high-resolution neutron and X-ray diffractometry. They are multi-wire proportional counters with delay-line readout and sensitive areas of 300 mm x 300 mm or 500 mm x 500 mm. For detecting X-rays, neutrons and hard X-rays the counters are filled with Ar/CO sub 2 , sup 3 He/CF sub 4 and Xe/CO sub 2 , respectively. One neutron detector is used at the ARES diffractometer at GKSS, which is dedicated to the analysis of residual stresses. Further ones are used for analysing textures and residual stresses at the hard-X-ray beamline PETRA-2 at HASYLAB, and one detector is being developed for the neutron reflectometer REFSANS at the research reactor FRM-II in Munich, Germany. (orig.)

  13. Detection of the primary scintillation light from dense Ar, Kr and Xe with novel photosensitive gaseous detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Periale, L; Carlson, P J; Francke, T; Pavlopoulos, P; Picchi, P; Pietropaolo, F

    2002-01-01

    The detection of primary scintillation light in combination with the charge or secondary scintillation signals is an efficient technique to determine the events t=0 as well as particle / photon separation in large mass TPC detectors filled with noble gases and/or condensed noble gases. The aim of this work is to demonstrate that costly photo-multipliers could be replaced by cheap novel photosensitive gaseous detectors: wire counters, GEMs or glass capillary tubes coupled with CsI photocathodes. We have performed systematic measurements with Ar, Kr and Xe gas at pressures in the range of 1-50 atm as well as some preliminary measurements with liquid Xe and liquid Ar. With the gaseous detectors we succeeded in detecting scintillation light produced by 22 keV X-rays with an efficiency of close to 100%. We also detected the scintillation light produced by bs (5 keV deposit energy) with an efficiency close to 25%. Successful detection of scintillation from 22 keV gammas open new experimental possibilities not only ...

  14. Performance of the micro-PIC gaseous area detector in small-angle X-ray scattering experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Kaori; Tsuchiya, Ken'ichi; Ito, Kazuki; Okada, Yoko; Fujii, Kotaro; Kubo, Hidetoshi; Miuchi, Kentaro; Takata, Masaki; Tanimori, Toru; Uekusa, Hidehiro

    2009-03-01

    The application of a two-dimensional photon-counting detector based on a micro-pixel gas chamber (micro-PIC) to high-resolution small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and its performance, are reported. The micro-PIC is a micro-pattern gaseous detector fabricated by printed circuit board technology. This article describes the performance of the micro-PIC in SAXS experiments at SPring-8. A dynamic range of >10(5) was obtained for X-ray scattering from a polystyrene sphere solution. A maximum counting rate of up to 5 MHz was observed with good linearity and without saturation. For a diffraction pattern of collagen, weak peaks were observed in the high-angle region in one accumulation of photons.

  15. Gamma spectroscopy and optoelectronic imaging with hybrid photon detector

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ambrosio, C; Piedigrossi, D; Rosso, E; Cenceelli, V; De Notaristefani, F; Masini, Gérald; Puertolas, D; Cindolo, F; Mares, J A; Nikl, M; Abreu, M; Rato-Mendes, P; Sousa, P

    2003-01-01

    Hybrid Photon Detectors (HPD) detect light via photocathodes and accelerate the emitted photoelectrons by an electric field towards silicon PIN-anodes, where they are absorbed and generate electronic signals. We have developed two specific types of HPDs: (1) Hybrid photomultiplier tubes for photon counting and gamma spectroscopy; (2) Imaging silicon pixel array tubes for optoelectronic cameras. This paper will illustrate the main achievements, which we obtained in the last years, and will describe and discuss our present main R&D efforts, in particular, in the biomedical imaging field. (27 refs).

  16. GridPix: An integrated readout system for gaseous detectors with a pixel chip as anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graaf, Harry van der [NIKHEF, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: vdgraaf@nikhef.nl

    2007-10-01

    GridPix is a gas-filled detector in which a Micro Pattern Gas Detector is combined with a CMOS pixel chip. In a next step, a procedure to construct a grid onto a Si wafer, using chip production technology ('wafer post-processing'), has been developed. Protection against discharges are under study, and an ageing test of a Micromegas chamber has been carried out, after verifying the chamber's proportionality at a very high dose rate. The GridPix detector can be applied as X-ray imaging device. With a drift gap of only 1 mm, GridPix could be well applied as radiation hard, low power, (and therefore) low-mass vertex (track) detector. New developments in CMOS pixel chips, forming the core of the detector, are presented.

  17. GridPix: An integrated readout system for gaseous detectors with a pixel chip as anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Graaf, Harry

    2007-10-01

    GridPix is a gas-filled detector in which a Micro Pattern Gas Detector is combined with a CMOS pixel chip. In a next step, a procedure to construct a grid onto a Si wafer, using chip production technology ('wafer post-processing'), has been developed. Protection against discharges are under study, and an ageing test of a Micromegas chamber has been carried out, after verifying the chamber's proportionality at a very high dose rate. The GridPix detector can be applied as X-ray imaging device. With a drift gap of only 1 mm, GridPix could be well applied as radiation hard, low power, (and therefore) low-mass vertex (track) detector. New developments in CMOS pixel chips, forming the core of the detector, are presented.

  18. Imaging Hybrid Photon Detectors with a Reflective Photocathode

    CERN Document Server

    Ferenc, D

    2000-01-01

    Modern epitaxially grown photocathodes, like GaAsP, bring a very high inherent quantum efficiency, but are rather expensive due to the complicated manufacturing and mounting process. We argue that such photocathodes could be used in reflective mode, in order to avoid the risky and expensive removal of the epitaxial growth substrate. Besides that the quantum efficiency should increase considerably. In this paper we present results of the development of large imaging Hybrid Photon Detectors (HPDs), particularly designed for such reflective photocathodes.

  19. Characterisation of Hybrid Pixel Detectors with capacitive charge division

    CERN Document Server

    Caccia, M; Battaglia, Marco; Kucewicz, W; Palka, H; Zalewska-Bak, A; Domanski, K; Marczewski, J; Tomaszewski, D

    2001-01-01

    In order to fully exploit the physics potential of the future high energy e+ e- linear collider, a Vertex Tracker providing high resolution track reconstruction is required. Hybrid pixel sensors are an attractive technology due to their fast read-out capabilities and radiation hardness. A novel pixel detector layout with interleaved cells between the readout nodes has been developed to improve the single point resolution. The results of the characterisation of the first processed prototypes are reported.

  20. Energy Detector Using a Hybrid Threshold in Cognitive Radio Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Ho; Hwang, Seung-Hoon; Hwang, Deok-Kyu

    Cognitive radio systems offer the opportunity to improve the spectrum utilization by detecting unused frequency bands while avoiding interference to primary users. This paper proposes a new algorithm for spectrum sensing, which is an energy detector using a hybrid (adaptive and fixed) threshold, in order to compensate the weak points of the existing energy detector in the distorted communication channel environment. Simulation results are presented which show that the performance of the new proposed scheme is better than the existing scheme using a fixed threshold or an adaptive threshold. Additionally, the performance is investigated in terms of several parameters such as the mobile speed and the probability of false alarms. The simulation results also show that the proposed algorithm makes the detector highly robust against fading, shadowing, and interference.

  1. Characterizing Subpixel Spatial Resolution of a Hybrid CMOS Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Evan; Burrows, Dave; Chattopadhyay, Tanmoy; Falcone, Abraham; Hull, Samuel; Kern, Matthew; McQuaide, Maria; Wages, Mitchell

    2018-01-01

    The detection of X-rays is a unique process relative to other wavelengths, and allows for some novel features that increase the scientific yield of a single observation. Unlike lower photon energies, X-rays liberate a large number of electrons from the silicon absorber array of the detector. This number is usually on the order of several hundred to a thousand for moderate-energy X-rays. These electrons tend to diffuse outward into what is referred to as the charge cloud. This cloud can then be picked up by several pixels, forming a specific pattern based on the exact incident location. By conducting the first ever “mesh experiment" on a hybrid CMOS detector (HCD), we have experimentally determined the charge cloud shape and used it to characterize responsivity of the detector with subpixel spatial resolution.

  2. Pixel hybrid photon detector magnetic distortions characterization and compensation

    CERN Document Server

    Aglieri-Rinella, G; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Forty, Roger W; Gys, Thierry; Patel, Mitesh; Piedigrossi, Didier; Van Lysebetten, Ann

    2004-01-01

    The LHCb experiment requires positive kaon identification in the momentum range 2-100 GeV/c. This is provided by two ring imaging Cherenkov detectors. The stringent requirements on the photon detectors are fully satisfied by the novel pixel hybrid photon detector, HPD. The HPD is a vacuum tube with a quartz window, S20 photo-cathode, cross-focusing electron optics and a silicon anode encapsulated within the tube. The anode is a 32*256 pixels hybrid detector, with a silicon sensor bump-bonded onto a readout chip containing 8192 channels with analogue front-end and digital read-out circuitry. An external magnetic field influences the trajectory of the photoelectrons and could thereby degrade the inherent excellent space resolution of the HPD. The HPDs must be operational in the fringe magnetic field of the LHCb magnet. This paper reports on an extensive experimental characterization of the distortion effects. The characterization has allowed the development of parameterisations and of a compensation algorithm. ...

  3. Development of a novel micro pattern gaseous detector for cosmic ray muon tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biglietti, M. [INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Rome (Italy); Canale, V. [Università di Napoli Federico II, Naples (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy); Franchino, S. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Iengo, P. [INFN Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Iodice, M. [INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Rome (Italy); Petrucci, F., E-mail: petrucci@roma3.infn.it [INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Rome (Italy); Università Roma Tre, Rome (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    We propose a novel detector (Thick Groove Detector, TGD) designed for cosmic ray tomography with a spatial resolution of ~500 μm, trying to keep the construction procedure as simple as possible and to reduce the operating costs. The TGD belongs to the category of MPGDs with an amplification region less than 1 mm wide formed by alternate anode/cathode microstrips layers at different heights. A first 10×10 cm{sup 2} prototype has been built, divided in four sections with different test geometries. We present the construction procedure and the first results in terms of gain and stability. Preliminary studies with cosmic rays are also reported. - Highlights: • A new MPGD detector designed for cosmic ray tomography is presented. • With respect to existing detectors, the construction procedure is simpler and operating costs are lower. • Construction procedures and preliminary performance are shown.

  4. CsI-THGEM gaseous photomultipliers for RICH and noble-liquid detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Breskin, A; Cortesi, M; Budnik, R; Chechik, R; Duval, S; Thers, D; Coimbra, A E.C; dos Santos, J M.F; Lopes, J A.M; Azevedo, C D.R; Veloso, J F.C A

    2011-01-01

    The properties of UV-photon imaging detectors consisting of CsI-coated THGEM electron multipliers are summarized. New results related to detection of Cherenkov light (RICH) and scintillation photons in noble liquid are presented.

  5. Hybrid Pixel Detectors for gamma/X-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzistratis, D.; Theodoratos, G.; Zografos, V.; Kazas, I.; Loukas, D.; Lambropoulos, C. P.

    2015-09-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors are made by direct converting high-Z semi-insulating single crystalline material coupled to complementary-metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) readout electronics. They are attractive because direct conversion exterminates all the problems of spatial localization related to light diffusion, energy resolution, is far superior from the combination of scintillation crystals and photomultipliers and lithography can be used to pattern electrodes with very fine pitch. We are developing 2-D pixel CMOS ASICs, connect them to pixilated CdTe crystals with the flip chip and bump bonding method and characterize the hybrids. We have designed a series of circuits, whose latest member consists of a 50×25 pixel array with 400um pitch and an embedded controller. In every pixel a full spectroscopic channel with time tagging information has been implemented. The detectors are targeting Compton scatter imaging and they can be used for coded aperture imaging too. Hybridization using CMOS can overcome the limit put on pixel circuit complexity by the use of thin film transistors (TFT) in large flat panels. Hybrid active pixel sensors are used in dental imaging and other applications (e.g. industrial CT etc.). Thus X-ray imaging can benefit from the work done on dynamic range enhancement methods developed initially for visible and infrared CMOS pixel sensors. A 2-D CMOS ASIC with 100um pixel pitch to demonstrate the feasibility of such methods in the context of X-ray imaging has been designed.

  6. Development of a novel micro pattern gaseous detector for cosmic ray muon tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglietti, M.; Canale, V.; Franchino, S.; Iengo, P.; Iodice, M.; Petrucci, F.

    2016-07-01

    We propose a novel detector (Thick Groove Detector, TGD) designed for cosmic ray tomography with a spatial resolution of 500 μm, trying to keep the construction procedure as simple as possible and to reduce the operating costs. The TGD belongs to the category of MPGDs with an amplification region less than 1 mm wide formed by alternate anode/cathode microstrips layers at different heights. A first 10×10 cm2 prototype has been built, divided in four sections with different test geometries. We present the construction procedure and the first results in terms of gain and stability. Preliminary studies with cosmic rays are also reported.

  7. Moisture resistance of SU-8 and KMPR as structural material for integrated gaseous detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanco Carballo, V.M.; Melai, J.; Salm, Cora; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2008-01-01

    This paper treats the moisture resistance of SU-8 and KMPR, two photoresists considered as structural material in microsystems. Our experiments focus on the moisture resistance of newly developed radiation imaging detectors containing these resists. Since these microsystems will be used unpackaged,

  8. Characterization of a Compact, High Resolution Readout System for Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Liangliang; Mjörnmark, U

    2013-01-01

    For the electronics, the requirements on miniaturization, the data volume and transfer bandwidth, temperature stability, power consumption and radiation hardness, high density of integration have to be driven to the technical limits and the detector development towards this is going on for the linear collider experiment. To meet these needs, S-ALTRO16 c...

  9. Detection of secondary electrons with pixelated hybrid semiconductor detectors; Sekundaerelektronennachweis mit pixelierten hybriden Halbleiterdetektoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebert, Ulrike Sonja

    2011-09-14

    Within the scope of this thesis, secondary electrons were detected with a pixelated semiconductor detector named Timepix. The Timepix detector consists of electronics and a sensor made from a semiconductor material. The connection of sensor and electronics is done for each pixel individually using bump bonds. Electrons with energies above 3 keV can be detected with the sensor. One electron produces a certain amount of electron-hole pairs according to its energy. The charge then drifts along an electric field to the pixel electronics, where it induces an electric signal. Even without a sensor it is possible to detect an electric signal from approximately 1000 electrons directly in the pixel electronics. Two different detector systems to detect secondary electrons using the Timepix detector were investigated during this thesis. First of all, a hybrid photon detector (HPD) was used to detect single photoelectrons. The HPD consists of a vacuum vessel with an entrance window and a cesium iodine photocathode at the inner surface of the window. Photoelectrons are released from the photocathode by incident light and are accelerated in an electric field towards the Timepix detector, where the point of interaction and the arrival time of the electron is determined. With a proximity focusing setup, a time resolution of 12 ns (with an acceleration voltage of 20 kV between photocathode and Timepix detector) was obtained. The HPD examined in this thesis showed a strong dependence of the dark rate form the acceleration voltage and the pressure in the vacuum vessel. At a pressure of few 10{sup -5} mbar and an acceleration voltage of 20 kV, the dark rate was about 800 Hz per mm{sup 2} area of the read out photocathode. One possibility to reduce the dark rate is to identify ion feedback events. With a slightly modified setup it was possible to reduce the dark rate to 0.5 Hz/mm{sup 2}. To achieve this, a new photocathode was mounted in a shorter distance to the detector. The

  10. Electron imaging with Medipix2 hybrid pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    McMullan, G; Chen, S; Henderson, R; Llopart, X; Summerfield, C; Tlustos, L; Faruqi, A R

    2007-01-01

    The electron imaging performance of Medipix2 is described. Medipix2 is a hybrid pixel detector composed of two layers. It has a sensor layer and a layer of readout electronics, in which each 55 μm×55 μm pixel has upper and lower energy discrimination and MHz rate counting. The sensor layer consists of a 300 μm slab of pixellated monolithic silicon and this is bonded to the readout chip. Experimental measurement of the detective quantum efficiency, DQE(0) at 120 keV shows that it can reach 85% independent of electron exposure, since the detector has zero noise, and the DQE(Nyquist) can reach 35% of that expected for a perfect detector (4/π2). Experimental measurement of the modulation transfer function (MTF) at Nyquist resolution for 120 keV electrons using a 60 keV lower energy threshold, yields a value that is 50% of that expected for a perfect detector (2/π). Finally, Monte Carlo simulations of electron tracks and energy deposited in adjacent pixels have been performed and used to calculate expected v...

  11. Evaluation of various planar gaseous detectors with CsI photocathodes for the detection of primary scintillation light from noble gases

    CERN Document Server

    Periale, L; Carlson, P J; Francke, T; Iacobaeus, C; Pavlopoulos, P; Pietropaolo, F; Sokolova, T

    2003-01-01

    Noble gases and liquids are excellent scintillators and this opens a unique opportunity to directly detect the primary scintillation light produced in these media by photons or particles. This signal can be used for several purposes, for example as a start signal for TPCs or for particles identification. Usually photomultipliers (PMs) are used for the detection of the scintillation light. In our previous work we have demonstrated that costly PMs could be replaced by gaseous detectors with CsI photocathodes . Such detectors have the same quantum efficiency as the best PMs but at the same time are cheap, simple and have high position and time resolutions. The aim of this work is to evaluate various planar type gaseous detectors with CsI photocahodes in order to choose the best one for the detection of the primary scintillation light from noble gases and liquids.

  12. Pixel hybrid photon detectors for the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Somerville, L

    2005-01-01

    A Pixel Hybrid Photon Detector (pixel HPD) has been developed for the LHCb Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors. The pixel HPD is a vacuum tube with a multi-alkali photocathode, high-voltage cross- focused electron optics and an anode consisting of a silicon pixel detector bump-bonded to a CMOS readout chip; the readout chip is thus fully encapsulated in the device. The pixel HPD fulfils the stringent requirements for the RICH detectors of LHCb, combining single photon sensitivity, high signal-to-noise ratio and fast readout with an ~8cm diameter active area and an effective pixel size of 2.5mm 2.5mm at the photocathode. The performance and characteristics of two prototype pixel HPDs have been studied in laboratory measurements and in recent beam tests. The results of all measurements agree with expectations and fulfil the LHCb RICH requirements. In readiness for production of the ~500pixel HPDs for the RICH detectors, a test programme was designed and implemented to ensure component quality control at eac...

  13. Recent X-ray hybrid CMOS detector developments and measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Samuel V.; Falcone, Abraham D.; Burrows, David N.; Wages, Mitchell; Chattopadhyay, Tanmoy; McQuaide, Maria; Bray, Evan; Kern, Matthew

    2017-08-01

    The Penn State X-ray detector lab, in collaboration with Teledyne Imaging Sensors (TIS), have progressed their efforts to improve soft X-ray Hybrid CMOS detector (HCD) technology on multiple fronts. Having newly acquired a Teledyne cryogenic SIDECARTM ASIC for use with HxRG devices, measurements were performed with an H2RG HCD and the cooled SIDECARTM. We report new energy resolution and read noise measurements, which show a significant improvement over room temperature SIDECARTM operation. Further, in order to meet the demands of future high-throughput and high spatial resolution X-ray observatories, detectors with fast readout and small pixel sizes are being developed. We report on characteristics of new X-ray HCDs with 12.5 micron pitch that include in-pixel CDS circuitry and crosstalk-eliminating CTIA amplifiers. In addition, PSU and TIS are developing a new large-scale array Speedster-EXD device. The original 64 × 64 pixel Speedster-EXD prototype used comparators in each pixel to enable event driven readout with order of magnitude higher effective readout rates, which will now be implemented in a 550 × 550 pixel device. Finally, the detector lab is involved in a sounding rocket mission that is slated to fly in 2018 with an off-plane reflection grating array and an H2RG X-ray HCD. We report on the planned detector configuration for this mission, which will increase the NASA technology readiness level of X-ray HCDs to TRL 9.

  14. The Resistive-Plate WELL with Argon mixtures - a robust gaseous radiation detector

    CERN Document Server

    Moleri, Luca; Arazi, Lior; Rocha Azevedo, Carlos Davide; Oliveri, Eraldo; Pitt, Michael; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Shaked-Renous, Dan; Marques Ferreira dos Santos, Joaquim; Veloso, Joao Filipe Calapez de Albuquerque; Breskin, Amos; Bressler, Shikma

    2016-01-01

    A thin single-element THGEM-based, Resistive-Plate WELL (RPWELL) detector was operated with 150 GeV/c muon and pion beams in Ne/(5%CH$_4$), Ar/(5%CH$_4$) and Ar/(7%CO$_2$); signals were recorded with 1 cm$^2$ square pads and SRS/APV25 electronics. Detection efficiency values greater than 98% were reached in all the gas mixtures, at average pad multiplicity of 1.2. The use of the 10$^9${\\Omega}cm resistive plate resulted in a completely discharge-free operation also in intense pion beams. The efficiency remained essentially constant at 98-99% up to fluxes of $\\sim$10$^4$Hz/cm$^2$, dropping by a few % when approaching 10$^5$ Hz/cm$^2$. These results pave the way towards cost-effective, robust, efficient, large-scale detectors for a variety of applications in future particle, astro-particle and applied fields. A potential target application is digital hadron calorimetry.

  15. Super-Altro 16: a Front-End System on Chip for DSP Based Readout of Gaseous Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Aspell, P.; Franca, H.; Garcia Garcia, E.; Musa, L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the architecture, design and test results of an ASIC specifically designed for the readout of gaseous detectors. The primary application is the readout of the Linear Collider Time Projection Chamber. The small area available (4mm2/channel) requires an innovative design, where sensitive analog components and massive digital functionalities are integrated on the same chip. Moreover, shut down (power pulsing) features are necessary in order to reduce the power consumption. The Super-Altro is a 16-channel demonstrator ASIC involving analog and digital signal processing. Each channel contains a low noise Pre-Amplifier and Shaping Amplifier (PASA), a pipeline ADC, and a Digital Signal Processor (DSP). The PASA is programmable in terms of gain and shaping time and can operate with both positive and negative polarities of input charge. The 10-bit ADC samples the output of the PASA at a frequency up to 40MHz before providing the digitized signal to the DSP which performs baseline subtraction, signa...

  16. Super-Altro 16: A Front-End System on Chip for DSP Based Readout of Gaseous Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspell, Paul; De Gaspari, Massimiliano; França, Hugo; García, Eduardo García; Musa, Luciano

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents the architecture, design and test results of an ASIC specifically designed for the readout of gaseous detectors. The primary application is the readout of the Linear Collider Time Projection Chamber. The small area available (4 mm2 /channel) requires an innovative design, where sensitive analog components and massive digital functionalities are integrated on the same chip. Moreover, shut down (power pulsing) features are necessary in order to reduce the power consumption. The Super-Altro is a 16-channel demonstrator ASIC involving analog and digital signal processing. Each channel contains a low noise Pre-Amplifier and Shaping Amplifier (PASA), a pipeline ADC, and a Digital Signal Processor (DSP). The PASA is programmable in terms of gain and shaping time and can operate with both positive and negative polarities of input charge. The 10-bit ADC samples the output of the PASA at a frequency up to 40 MHz before providing the digitized signal to the DSP which performs baseline subtraction, signal conditioning, drift correction and zero suppression. The chip has been fabricated in a 130 nm CMOS technology. Test measurements show correct functionality of the full system, and demonstrate that, using appropriate design techniques, the extensive digital circuitries produce little or no degradation of analog performance (particularly noise).

  17. Capacitively coupled hybrid pixel assemblies for the CLIC vertex detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)734627; Benoit, Mathieu; Dannheim, Dominik; Dette, Karola; Hynds, Daniel; Kulis, Szymon; Peric, Ivan; Petric, Marko; Redford, Sophie; Sicking, Eva; Valerio, Pierpaolo

    2016-01-01

    The vertex detector at the proposed CLIC multi-TeV linear e+e- collider must have minimal material content and high spatial resolution, combined with accurate time-stamping to cope with the expected high rate of beam-induced backgrounds. One of the options being considered is the use of active sensors implemented in a commercial high-voltage CMOS process, capacitively coupled to hybrid pixel ASICs. A prototype of such an assembly, using two custom designed chips (CCPDv3 as active sensor glued to a CLICpix readout chip), has been characterised both in the lab and in beam tests at the CERN SPS using 120 GeV/c positively charged hadrons. Results of these characterisation studies are presented both for single and dual amplification stages in the active sensor. Pixel cross-coupling results are also presented, showing the sensitivity to placement precision and planarity of the glue layer.

  18. The Hybrid Emulsion Detector for MINOS R&D Proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, P.; Alexandrov, K. V.; Allison, W. W.M.; Alner, G. J.; Ambats, I.; Anderson, B.; Anderson, D. F.; Andreopoulos, C.; Antipov, Yu.; Arroyo, C.; Ayres, D. S. [et al.

    1999-04-01

    The MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search) experiment is designed to search for neutrino oscillations with a sensitivity significantly greater than has been achieved to date. The phenomenon of neutrino oscillations, whose existence has not been proven convincingly so far, allows neutrinos of one "flavor" (type) to slowly transform themselves into another flavor, and then back again to the original flavor, as they propagate through space or matter. The MINOS experiment is optimized to explore the region of neutrino oscillation "parameter space" suggested by previous investigations of atmospheric neutrinos: the Kamiokande, IMB, Super-Kamiokande and Soudan 2 experiments. The study of oscillations in this region with a neutrino beam from the Main Injector requires measurements of the beam after a very long flight path. This in turn requires an intense neutrino beam and a massive detector in order to have an adequate event rate at a great distance from the source. We propose to enhance significantly the physics capabilities of the MINOS experiment by the addition of a Hybrid Emulsion Detector at Soudan, capable of unambigous identification of the neutrino flavor. Recent developments in emulsion experiments make such a detector possible, although significant technological challenges must be overcome. We propose to initiate an R&D effort to identify major potential problems and to develop practical solutions to them. This proposal is meant to be a summary of the work we feel is needed before a credible conceptual design report can be produced. It summarizes both the tasks that need to be done and new incremental resources that are required to perform them. It is our expectation that various individual institutions (those currently in MINOS and others anticipating joining) will submit separate individual funding requests, to funding agencies in both US and abroad, to provide most of the resources listed in Chapter 5. We intend that the present proposal should

  19. Development of an external readout electronics for a hybrid photon detector

    CERN Document Server

    Uyttenhove, Simon; Tichon, Jacques; Garcia, Salvador

    The pixel hybrid photon detectors currently installed in the LHCb Cherenkov system encapsulate readout electronics in the vacuum tube envelope. The LHCb upgrade and the new trigger system will require their replacement with new photon detectors. The baseline photon detector candidate is the multi-anode photomultiplier. A hybrid photon detector with external readout electronics has been proposed as a backup option. This master thesis covers a R & D phase to investigate this latter concept. Extensive studies of the initial electronics system underlined the noise contributions from the Beetle chip used as front-end readout ASIC and from the ceramic carrier of the photon detector. New front-end electronic boards have been developed and made fully compatible with the existing LHCb-RICH infrastructure. With this compact readout system, Cherenkov photons have been successfully detected in a real particle beam environment. The proof-of-concept of a hybrid photon detector with external readout electronics was val...

  20. A new hybrid photomultiplier tube as detector for scintillating crystals

    CERN Document Server

    De Notaristefani, F; Vittori, F

    2002-01-01

    In this work, we have attentively studied the performance of a new hybrid photomultiplier tube (HPMT) as detector for photons from scintillating crystals. The HPMT is equipped with a YAP window in order to improve light collection and increase measured light response from scintillating crystals. Several measurements have been performed on BGO, LSO, CsI(Tl) and NaI(Tl) planar crystals having three different surface treatments as well as on YAP : Ce and CsI(Tl) matrices. Such crystals have been coupled to two HPMTs, one equipped with a YAP window (Y-HPMT) and the other with a conventional quartz window (Q-HPMT). Measurements on crystals coupled to the Y-HPMT have shown a consistent improvement of the light response, thanks to the presence of the YAP window. Indeed, the light response measured with the Y-HPMT was on average equal to 1.5, 2.1 and 2.6 times that obtained with the Q-HPMT for planar crystals with white painted (diffusive), fine ground and polished rear surfaces, respectively. With regards to crystal...

  1. Elemental mapping in a contemporary miniature by full-field X-ray fluorescence imaging with gaseous detector vs. scanning X-ray fluorescence imaging with polycapillary optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A. L. M.; Cirino, S.; Carvalho, M. L.; Manso, M.; Pessanha, S.; Azevedo, C. D. R.; Carramate, L. F. N. D.; Santos, J. P.; Guerra, M.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.

    2017-03-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray imaging can be used in several research fields and industrial applications. Elemental mapping through energy dispersive X-ray imaging technique has become a promising method to obtain positional distribution of specific elements in a non-destructive way. To obtain the elemental distribution of a sample it is necessary to use instruments capable of providing a precise positioning together with a good energy resolution. Polycapillary beams together with silicon drift chamber detectors are used in several commercial systems and are considered state-of-the-art spectrometers, however they are usually very costly. A new concept of large energy dispersive X-ray imaging systems based on gaseous radiation detectors emerged in the last years enabling a promising 2D elemental detection at a very reduced price. The main goal of this work is to analyze a contemporary Indian miniature with both X-ray fluorescence imaging systems, the one based on a gaseous detector 2D-THCOBRA and the state-of-the-art spectrometer M4 Tornado, from Bruker. The performance of both systems is compared and evaluated in the context of the sample's analysis.

  2. Testing of FE Hybrids and Si detector modules for the CMS Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Axer, M; Camps, C; Commichau, V; Flügge, G; Franke, T; Ilgin, C; Mnich, J; Niehusmann, J; Poettgens, M; Schorn, P; Schulte, R; Struczinski, W

    2002-01-01

    The innermost region of the CMS detector will consist of silicon pixel and silicon microstrip detectors. One microstrip detector module is essentially composed of three elements: a set of silicon sensors, a mechanical support structure and the Front End Electronics (FE hybrid). During the production phase of the CMS tracking device, various quality and functionality tests of each detector component have to be performed to assure a stable tracker performance for a time scale of about 10 years of LHC running. This demands a chain of testing procedures beginning at the Hybrid component level and ending at the assembled module level. Each production and assembly step needs a specific testing environment and procedure (e.g. long- or short-term tests and temperature cyclings). A compact, cost efficient test and diagnostic tool which is suited for the operation and characterization of hybrids and silicon detector modules will be presented. The test setup is mainly composed of two printed circuit boards, one interfac...

  3. Test-beam Results from a RICH Detector Prototype Using Aerogel Radiator and Pixel Hybrid Photon Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Aglieri-Rinella, G; Van Lysebetten, A; Piedigrossi, D; Wyllie, K; Bellunato, T F; Calvi, M; Matteuzzi, C; Musy, M; Perego, D L; Somerville, L P; Newby, C; Easo, S; Wotton, S

    2006-01-01

    A test-beam study was performed at CERN with a Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) prototype using three pixel Hybrid Photon Detectors. Results on the photon yield and Cherenkov angle resolution are presented here, for the Aerogel radiator and also for reference runs taken with Nitrogen radiator.

  4. Pixel-level Analog-To-Digital Converters for Hybrid Pixel Detectors with energy sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    San Segundo Bello, D.; Nauta, Bram; Visschers, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Single-photon counting hybrid pixel detectors have shown to be a valid alternative to other types of X-ray imaging devices due to their high sensitivity, low noise, linear behavior and wide dynamic range. One important advantage of these devices is the fact that detector and readout electronics are

  5. Design of pixel-level ADCs for energy-sensitive hybrid pixel detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    San Segundo Bello, D.; Nauta, Bram; Visschers, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Single-photon counting hybrid pixel detectors have shown to be a valid alternative to other types of X-ray imaging devices due to their high sensitivity, low noise, linear behavior and wide dynamic range. One important advantage of these devices is the fact that detector and readout electronics are

  6. Cherenkov-light detectors for LHCb an application for hybrid photodetectors

    CERN Document Server

    Websdale, David M

    1997-01-01

    The Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors proposed for the CERN LHC-B experiment will need photon detectors with challenging specifications. Single photon sensitivity, millimetre precision and timing resolution adequate to resolve the LHC bunch-crossing period of 25ns are required. The Hybrid Photodetector offers a promising solution

  7. LHCb: Quantum Efficiency of Hybrid Photon Detectors for the LHCb RICH

    CERN Multimedia

    Lambert, Robert W

    2007-01-01

    The production of 550 hybrid photon detectors to be used within the LHCb RICH detectors has recently finished. Photonis-DEP have succeeded in consistently improving the tube quantum efficiency, by a relative 27,% with respect to preseries and prototype tubes, when integrated over the energy spectrum.

  8. Position Sensitive Gaseous Photomultipliers

    CERN Document Server

    Martinengo, P; Peskov, V

    2010-01-01

    Advances in the technologies associated with position sensitive gaseous detectors especially featuring CsI as reflective photoconverters will be reviewed. These photodetectors represent the most effective solution for what concerns cost and performance in the case of large area Cherenkov imaging applications in relatively low rate (or low occupancy) high energy physics and astrophysics experiments. Moreover, they are the only choice when the Cherenkov detector is embedded in a magnetic field. Recently proposed single photon MPGDs (Micropattern Gaseous Detectors) will be also discussed in view of the successful efforts so far made to extend their sensitivity to visible light. With some modifications, photosensitive gaseous detectors can also be used in the imaging of X-rays and particles.

  9. Construction and performance study of the new Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors for future upgrades of the CMS muon high rate region at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Fallavollita, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    We have tested a new type position-sensitive gaseous proportional detector, called the Fast Timing Micropattern (FTM) detector, based on advanced printed circuit board technology, for fast timing applications. The construction feasibility has been demonstrated by building a first working prototype. We expect that this technique can be exploited for applications in high energy physics experiments, particularly for upgrades at LHC where sub nanosecond time resolutions are critical for particle identification and vertex separation. Other applications include X-ray diffraction studies and fast time-resolved measurements offer excellent medical imaging opportunities. In combination with an X-ray convertor and FTM and a visible photocathode shows great promise for use in digital mammography. Other applications include X-ray astronomy by exploiting time resolution of the FTM and selective sensitivity to soft X-rays.

  10. R and D studies of a RICH detector using pressurized C{sub 4}F{sub 8}O radiator gas and a CsI-based gaseous photon detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agócs, A.G. [Wigner RCP of the HAS, Budapest (Hungary); Barile, F. [INFN Sezione di Bari and Universitá degli Studi di Bari, Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica M. Merlin, Bari (Italy); Barnaföldi, G.G. [Wigner RCP of the HAS, Budapest (Hungary); Bellwied, R. [University of Houston, Houston (United States); Bencédi, G.; Bencze, G.; Berényi, D.; Boldizsár, L. [Wigner RCP of the HAS, Budapest (Hungary); Chattopadhyay, S. [Saha Institute, Kolkata (India); Chinellato, D.D. [University of Houston, Houston (United States); Cindolo, F. [University of Salerno, Salerno (Italy); Das, D.; Das, K.; Das-Bose, L. [Saha Institute, Kolkata (India); De Cataldo, G.; Di Bari, D. [INFN Sezione di Bari and Universitá degli Studi di Bari, Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica M. Merlin, Bari (Italy); Di Mauro, A., E-mail: antonio.di.mauro@cern.ch [CERN, CH1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Futó, E. [Wigner RCP of the HAS, Budapest (Hungary); Garcia, E. [Chicago State University, Chicago, IL (United States); Hamar, G. [Wigner RCP of the HAS, Budapest (Hungary); and others

    2013-12-21

    We report on studies of layout and performance of a new Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector using for the first time pressurized C{sub 4}F{sub 8}O radiator gas and a photon detector consisting of a MWPC equipped with a CsI photocathode. In particular, we present here the results of beam tests of a MWPC having an adjustable anode–cathode gap, aiming at the optimization of single photoelectron detection and Cherenkov angle resolution. This system was proposed as a Very High Momentum Particle Identification (VHMPID) upgrade for the ALICE experiment at LHC to provide charged hadron track-by-track identification in the momentum range 5–25 GeV/c. -- Highlights: •The concept and design of a novel RICH counter operated with pressurized gaseous Cherenkov radiator have been validated. •We used for the first time C{sub 4}F{sub 8}O gaseous Cherenkov radiator pressurized up to 3.5 atm in a RICH counter. •The refractive index of C{sub 4}F{sub 8}O in the UV range is similar to the per-mil level to that of C{sub 4}F{sub 10}. •A variable gap MWPC has been used to optimize the layout of the gaseous photon counter, based on CsI photocathodes and MWPC, for the detection of single photoelectrons.

  11. Computed tomography with thermal neutrons and gaseous position sensitive detector; Tomografia computadorizada com neutrons termicos e detetor a gas sensivel a posicao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Maria Ines Silvani

    2001-12-01

    A third generation tomographic system using a parallel thermal neutron beam and gaseous position sensitive detector has been developed along three discrete phases. At the first one, X-ray tomographic images of several objects, using a position sensitive detector designed and constructed for this purpose have been obtained. The second phase involved the conversion of that detector for thermal neutron detection, by using materials capable to convert neutrons into detectable charged particles, testing afterwards its performance in a tomographic system by evaluation the quality of the image arising from several test-objects containing materials applicable in the engineering field. High enriched {sup 3} He, replacing the argon-methane otherwise used as filling gas for the X-ray detection, as well as, a gadolinium foil, have been utilized as converters. Besides the pure enriched {sup 3} He, its mixture with argon-methane and later on with propane, have been also tested, in order to evaluate the detector efficiency and resolution. After each gas change, the overall performance of the tomographic system using the modified detector, has been analyzed through measurements of the related parameters. This was done by analyzing the images produced by test-objects containing several materials having well known attenuation coefficients for both thermal neutrons and X-rays. In order to compare the performance of the position sensitive detector as modified to detect thermal neutrons, with that of a conventional BF{sub 3} detector, additional tomographs have been conducted using the last one. The results have been compared in terms of advantages, handicaps and complementary aspects for different kinds of radiation and materials. (author)

  12. Hybrid tracking detector based on semiconductor and gas technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashindzhagyan, George; Korotkova, Natalia; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Sinev, Nikolai; Tikhomirov, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    New Silicon-Gas Pixel Detector (SiGPD) is the result of the further development already proposed Gas-Pixel Detector (GPD). The only disadvantage of GPD was the uncertainty of the particle arriving time. The problem can be solved by additional silicon pixels implementation inside existed electronic chip epitaxial layer during regular chip production. The cost of new Si-Gas Pixel Detector remains practically the same. The new detectors have self-triggering properties and can be used for a first level trigger generation in the particle physics experiments and for many other applications.

  13. Exotic Hybrid Meson Spectroscopy with the GlueX detector at Jlab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, David W. [JLAB

    2014-03-01

    The GlueX experiment is scheduled to begin taking data in 2015. The goal is to discover evidence for the existence of exotic hybrid mesons and to map out their spectrum in the light quark sector. Recent theoretical developments using Lattice QCD predict exotic hybrid states in a mass range accessible using the newly upgraded 12GeV electron accelerator at Jefferson Lab. Hybrid mesons, and in particular exotic hybrid mesons, provide the ideal laboratory for testing QCD in the confinement regime since these mesons explicitly manifest the gluonic degrees of freedom. The experiment will use 9 GeV linearly polarized photons produced via coherent bremsstrahlung to produce the exotic hybrids. The decay products will be detected in the solenoid-based GlueX detector currently under construction at Jefferson Lab. The status of the GlueX experiment including detector parameters will be presented along with theoretical motivation for the experiment.

  14. Exotic Hybrid Meson Spectroscopy with the GlueX detector at JLab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence David

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The GlueX experiment[1] is scheduled to begin taking data in 2015. The goal is to discover evidence for the existence of exotic hybrid mesons and to map out their spectrum in the light quark sector. Recent theoretical developments using Lattice QCD [2] predict exotic hybrid states in a mass range accessible using the newly upgraded 12GeV electron accelerator at Jefferson Lab. Hybrid mesons, and in particular exotic hybrid mesons, provide the ideal laboratory for testing QCD in the confinement regime since these mesons explicitly manifest the gluonic degrees of freedom. The experiment will use 9 GeV linearly polarized photons produced via coherent Bremsstrahlung to produce the exotic hybrids. The decay products will be detected in the solenoid-based GlueX detector currently under construction at Jefferson Lab. The status of the GlueX experiment including detector parameters will be presented along with theoretical motivation for the experiment.

  15. Investigation on the ability of an ultrasound bubble detector to deliver size measurements of gaseous bubbles in fluid lines by using a glass bead model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitschberger, S; Henseler, A; Krasenbrink, B; Oedekoven, B; Mottaghy, K

    2001-01-01

    Detectors based on ultrasonic principles are today's state of the art devices to detect gaseous bubbles that may be present in extracorporeal circuits (ECC) for various reasons. Referring to theoretical considerations and other studies, it also seems possible to use this technology to measure the size of detected bubbles, thus offering the chance to evaluate their potential hazardous effect if introduced into a patient's circulation. Based on these considerations, a commercially available ultrasound bubble detector has been developed by Hatteland Instrumentering, Norway, to deliver bubble size measurements by means of supplementary software. This device consists of an ultrasound sensor that can be clamped onto the ECC tubing, and the necessary electronic equipment to amplify and rectify the received signals. It is supplemented by software that processes these signals and presents them as specific data. On the basis of our knowledge and experience with bubble detection by ultrasound technology, we believe it is particularly difficult to meet all the requirements for size measurements, especially if these are to be achieved by using a mathematical procedure rather than exact devices. Therefore, we tried to evaluate the quality of the offered bubble detector in measuring bubble sizes. After establishing a standardized test stand, including a roller pump and a temperature sensor, we performed several sets of experiments using the manufacturers software and a program specifically designed at our department for this purpose. The first set revealed that the manufacturer's recommended calibration material did not meet essential requirements as established by other authors. Having solved that problem, we could actually demonstrate that the ultrasonic field, as generated by the bubble detector, has been correctly calculated by the manufacturer. Simply, it is a field having the strongest reflecting region in the center, subsequently losing strength toward the ECC tubing

  16. The development of Micromegas, a new gaseous position detector; Le developpement de micromegas, un nouveau detecteur gazeux de position a microgrille

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puill, G

    2000-06-01

    Micromegas (micro mesh gaseous structure) is a new detector based on a double structure, it is made of 2 different zones separated by a micro-grid. This detector is set in a tight container in which flows a mix of an inert gas with a few percents of a moderator gas that is needed for the right operating of the device. The part that is met by the incident particle is the conversion zone where the particle will lose a part of its energy by creating electron-ion pairs coming from the ionisation of the atoms of the gas mix. The other part is the amplifying zone, this zone is delimited by the micro-grid and the bottom of the detector and is about 100 microns broad, tracks are set on the bottom and each track is linked to an amplifying line. Micromegas detects charged particles but is not insensitive to other particles, its operating conditions are dependent on many parameters. The width of the conversion zone, the gas mix composition and the type of incident particles will determine the quantity of energy released and then its efficiency to detect all particles. The width of the conversion zone and the nature of the gas mix will have an influence on the spatial accuracy. The detector gain is dependent on the gas mix, the electric field, the gas pressure and the width of the amplifying zone. The nature of the gas mix is expected to have an effect on the spatial resolution. The signal lifetime will depend not only on the gas mix but also on the width of the amplifying zone. We have to notice that the grid mesh has to fit the width of the amplifying zone. This work is dedicated to the study of this detector, to determine its operating range, to evaluate the influence of all the parameters quoted above and to give a review of its performance. (A.C.)

  17. Preliminary test of an imaging probe for nuclear medicine using hybrid pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolucci, Ennio; Mettivier, G; Montesi, M C; Russo, P

    2002-01-01

    We are investigating the feasibility of an intraoperative imaging probe for lymphoscintigraphy with Tc-99m tracer, for sentinel node radioguided surgery, using the Medipix series of hybrid detectors coupled to a collimator. These detectors are pixelated semiconductor detectors bump-bonded to the Medipix1 photon counting read-out chip (64x64 pixel, 170 mu m pitch) or to the Medipix2 chip (256x256 pixel, 55 mu m pitch), developed by the European Medipix collaboration. The pixel detector we plan to use in the final version of the probe is a semi-insulating GaAs detector or a 1-2 mm thick CdZnTe detector. For the preliminary tests presented here, we used 300-mu m thick silicon detectors, hybridized via bump-bonding to the Medipix1 chip. We used a tungsten parallel-hole collimator (7 mm thick, matrix array of 64x64 100 mu m circular holes with 170 mu m pitch), and a 22, 60 and 122 keV point-like (1 mm diameter) radioactive sources, placed at various distances from the detector. These tests were conducted in order ...

  18. Development of hybrid photon detectors with integrated silicon pixel readout for the RICH counters of LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Alemi, M; Formenti, F; Gys, Thierry; Piedigrossi, D; Puertolas, D; Rosso, E; Snoeys, W; Wyllie, Ken H

    1999-01-01

    We report on the ongoing work towards a hybrid photon detector with integrated silicon pixel readout for the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The photon detector is based $9 on a cross-focussed image intensifier tube geometry where the image is de-magnified by a factor of 4. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array, bump-bonded to a fast, binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The $9 performance of a half-scale prototype is presented, together with the developments and tests of a full-scale tube with large active area. Specific requirements for pixel front-end and readout electronics in LHCb are outlined, and $9 recent results obtained from pixel chips applicable to hybrid photon detector design are summarized.

  19. The exposure of the hybrid detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-06-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is a detector for ultra-high energy cosmic rays. It consists of a surface array to measure secondary particles at ground level and a fluorescence detector to measure the development of air showers in the atmosphere above the array. The 'hybrid' detection mode combines the information from the two subsystems. We describe the determination of the hybrid exposure for events observed by the fluorescence telescopes in coincidence with at least one water-Cherenkov detector of the surface array. A detailed knowledge of the time dependence of the detection operations is crucial for an accurate evaluation of the exposure. We discuss the relevance of monitoring data collected during operations, such as the status of the fluorescence detector, background light and atmospheric conditions, that are used in both simulation and reconstruction.

  20. Results from prototypes of environmental and health alarm devices based on gaseous detectors operating in air in counting mode

    CERN Document Server

    Martinengo, P; Peskov, V; Benaben, P; Charpak, G; Breuil, P

    2011-01-01

    We have developed and successfully tested two prototypes of detectors of dangerous gases based on wire-type counters operating in air in avalanche mode: one is for radon (Rn) detection whereas the other one is for the detection of gases with an ionization potential less than the air components. Due to the operation in pulse counting mode these prototypes have sensitivities comparable to (in the case of the Rn detector) or much higher than (in the case of the detector for low ionization gases) the best commercial devices currently available on the market. We believe that due to their high sensitivity, simplicity and low cost such new detectors will find massive applications. One of them, discussed in this paper, could be the on-line monitoring of Rn for the prediction of earthquakes. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of Hybrid and Monolithic Silicon Micropattern Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Beker, H; Snoeys, W; Campbell, M; Lemeilleur, F; Ropotar, I

    2002-01-01

    %RD-19 \\\\ \\\\ In a collaborative effort between particle physics institutes and microelectronics industry we are undertaking the development of true 2-dimensional semiconductor particle detectors with on-chip signal processing and information extraction: the so-called micropattern detector. This detector is able to cope in a robust way with high multiplicity events at high rates, while allowing for a longer detector lifetime under irradiation and a thinner sensitive depletion region. Therefore, it will be ideally suited for the complicated events in the LHC p-p collider experiments. Following a $^{\\prime}$stepping stone$^{\\prime}$ approach several telescopes of pixel planes, totalling now 600 cm$^{2}$ with \\(>\\)~1~M elements have been used in the WA97, NA50 and NA57 lead ion experiments. This new technology has facilitated the tracking considerably (see Fig.1). Not only Si but also GaAs and possibly diamond matrices can be connected to the readout matrix. Tests with GaAs pixel detectors with the RD-19 readout ...

  2. Solution processable organic/inorganic hybrid ultraviolet photovoltaic detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Guo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV photodetector is a kind of important optoelectronic device which can be widely used in scientific and engineering fields including astronomical research, environmental monitoring, forest-fire prevention, medical analysis, and missile approach warning etc. The development of UV detector is hindered by the acquirement of stable p-type materials, which makes it difficult to realize large array, low-power consumption UV focal plane array (FPA detector. Here, we provide a novel structure (Al/Poly(9,9-di-n-octylfuorenyl-2,7-diyl(PFO/ZnO/ITO to demonstrate the UV photovoltaic (PV response. A rather smooth surface (RMS roughness: 0.28 nm may be reached by solution process, which sheds light on the development of large-array, light-weight and low-cost UV FPA detectors.

  3. Identification of potential regional sources of atmospheric total gaseous mercury in Windsor, Ontario, Canada using hybrid receptor modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Xu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Windsor (Ontario, Canada experiences trans-boundary air pollution as it is located on the border immediately downwind of industrialized regions of the United States of America. A study was conducted in 2007 to identify the potential regional sources of total gaseous mercury (TGM and investigate the effects of regional sources and other factors on seasonal variability of TGM concentrations in Windsor.

    TGM concentration was measured at the University of Windsor campus using a Tekran® 2537A Hg vapour analyzer. An annual mean of 2.02±1.63 ng/m3 was observed in 2007. The average TGM concentration was high in the summer (2.48±2.68 ng/m3 and winter (2.17±2.01 ng/m3, compared to spring (1.88±0.78 ng/m3 and fall (1.76±0.58 ng/m3. Hybrid receptor modeling potential source contribution function (PSCF was used by incorporating 72-h backward trajectories and measurements of TGM in Windsor. The results of PSCF were analyzed in conjunction with the Hg emissions inventory of North America (by state/province to identify regions affecting Windsor. In addition to annual modeling, seasonal PSCF modeling was also conducted. The potential source region was identified between 24–61° N and 51–143° W. Annual PSCF modeling identified major sources southwest of Windsor, stretching from Ohio to Texas. The emissions inventory also supported the findings, as Hg emissions were high in those regions. Results of seasonal PSCF modeling were analyzed to find the combined effects of regional sources, meteorological conditions, and surface re-emissions, on seasonal variability of Hg concentrations. It was found that the summer and winter highs of atmospheric Hg can be attributed to areas where large numbers of coal fired power plants are located in the USA. Weak atmospheric dispersion due to low winds and high re-emission from surfaces due to higher temperatures also contributed to high concentrations in

  4. Identification of potential regional sources of atmospheric total gaseous mercury in Windsor, Ontario, Canada using hybrid receptor modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X.; Akhtar, U. S.

    2009-11-01

    Windsor (Ontario) - the automotive capital of Canada does not have any significant mercury (Hg) sources. However, Windsor experiences trans-boundary air pollution as it is located immediately downwind of industrialized regions of the United States of America. A study was conducted in 2007 aimed to identify the potential regional sources of total gaseous mercury (TGM) and investigate the effects of regional sources and other factors on seasonal variability of TGM concentrations in Windsor. TGM concentration was measured at the University of Windsor campus using a Tekran® 2537A Hg vapour analyzer. An annual mean of 2.02±1.63 ng/m3 was observed in 2007. The average TGM concentration was high in the summer (2.48 ng/m3) and winter (2.17 ng/m3), compared to spring (1.88 ng/m3) and fall (1.76 ng/m3). Hybrid receptor modeling potential source contribution function (PSCF) was used by incorporating 72-h backward trajectories and measurements of TGM in Windsor. The results of PSCF were analyzed in conjunction with the Hg emissions inventory of North America (by state/province) to identify regions affecting Windsor. In addition to annual modeling, seasonal PSCF modeling was also conducted. The potential source region was identified between 24-61° N and 51-143° W. Annual PSCF modeling identified major sources southwest of Windsor, stretching from Ohio to Texas. The emissions inventory also supported the findings, as Hg emissions were high in those regions. Results of seasonal PSCF modeling were analyzed to find the combined effects of regional sources, meteorological conditions, and surface reemissions, on intra-annual variability of Hg concentrations. It was found that the summer and winter highs of atmospheric Hg can be attributed to areas where large numbers of coal fired power plants are located in the USA. Weak atmospheric dispersion due to low winds and high reemission from surfaces due to higher temperatures contributed to high concentrations in the summer. In the

  5. Investigating the Inverse Square Law with the Timepix Hybrid Silicon Pixel Detector: A CERN [at] School Demonstration Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyntie, T.; Parker, B.

    2013-01-01

    The Timepix hybrid silicon pixel detector has been used to investigate the inverse square law of radiation from a point source as a demonstration of the CERN [at] school detector kit capabilities. The experiment described uses a Timepix detector to detect the gamma rays emitted by an [superscript 241]Am radioactive source at a number of different…

  6. Developement of Hybrid Photo-detectors for the Hyper-Kamiokande Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirota, Seiko [Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto-city, Kyoto (Japan); Nishimura, Yasuhiro; Nakayama, Shoei; Kametani, Isao; Shiozawa, Masato; Suzuki, Yoichiro; Sekiya, Hiroyuki; Nakahata, Masayuki; Hayato, Yoshinari; Haga, Yuto; Miura, Makoto [ICRR, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa-sity, Chiba (Japan); Ichikawa, Atsuko; Ikeda, Motoyasu; Nakaya, Tsuyoshi; Minamino, Akihiro; Tateishi, Keiji [Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto-city, Kyoto (Japan); Aihara, Hiroaki; Suda, Yusuke; Yokoyama, Masashi [University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo (Japan); Omura, Takayuki [Hamamatsu K.K., Sunayama-cho, 325-6, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu-city, Shizuoka (Japan); and others

    2014-08-15

    We are developing a hybrid photo detector (HPD) for the Hyper-Kamiokande Project. Eight-inch HPDs were prepared to evaluate their performance. Based on the results from these measurements, HPDs achieve a better performance such as single photon separation than conventional PMTs. A verification study lasting a few years in a water tank is planned in 2013 to check their feasibility.

  7. 2D dose distribution images of a hybrid low field MRI-γ detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abril, A., E-mail: ajabrilf@unal.edu.co; Agulles-Pedrós, L., E-mail: lagullesp@unal.edu.co [Medical Physics Group, Physics department, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá (Colombia)

    2016-07-07

    The proposed hybrid system is a combination of a low field MRI and dosimetric gel as a γ detector. The readout system is based on the polymerization process induced by the gel radiation. A gel dose map is obtained which represents the functional part of hybrid image alongside with the anatomical MRI one. Both images should be taken while the patient with a radiopharmaceutical is located inside the MRI system with a gel detector matrix. A relevant aspect of this proposal is that the dosimetric gel has never been used to acquire medical images. The results presented show the interaction of the {sup 99m}Tc source with the dosimetric gel simulated in Geant4. The purpose was to obtain the planar γ 2D-image. The different source configurations are studied to explore the ability of the gel as radiation detector through the following parameters; resolution, shape definition and radio-pharmaceutical concentration.

  8. Position resolution limits in pure noble gaseous detectors for X-ray energies from 1 to 60 keV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D.R. Azevedo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The calculated position resolutions for X-ray photons (1–60 keV in pure noble gases at atmospheric pressure are presented. In this work we show the influence of the atomic shells and the detector dimensions on the intrinsic position resolution of the used noble gas. The calculated results were obtained by using a new software tool, Degrad, and compared to the available experimental data.

  9. Performance study of new pixel hybrid photon detector prototypes for the LHCb RICH counters

    CERN Document Server

    Moritz, M; Allebone, L; Campbell, M; Gys, Thierry; Newby, C; Pickford, A; Piedigrossi, D; Wyllie, K

    2004-01-01

    A pixel Hybrid Photon Detector was developed according to the specific requirements of the LHCb ring imaging Cerenkov counters. This detector comprises a silicon pixel detector bump-bonded to a binary readout chip to achieve a 25 ns fast readout and a high signal-to-noise ratio. The detector performance was characterized by varying the pixel threshold, the tube high voltage, the silicon bias voltage and by the determination of the photoelectron detection efficiency. Furthermore accelerated aging and high pixel occupancy tests were performed to verify the long term stability. The results were obtained using Cerenkov light and a fast pulsed light emitting diode. All measurements results are within the expectations and fulfill the design goals. (8 refs).

  10. The pixel hybrid photon detectors for the LHCb-RICH project

    CERN Document Server

    Gys, Thierry

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a hybrid photon detector with integrated silicon pixel readout to be used in the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment. The photon detector is based on a cross-focussed image intensifier tube geometry where the image is de-magnified by a factor of 5. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array, bump-bonded to a binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The paper starts with the general specification of the baseline option. Followed by a summary of the main results achieved so far during the R&D phase. It concludes with a description of the remaining work towards the final photon detector. (17 refs).

  11. R&D studies of a RICH detector using pressurized C$_{4}$F$_{8}$O radiator gas and a CsI-based gaseous photon detector

    CERN Document Server

    Agócs, A.G; Barnaföldi, G.G; Bellwied, R; Bencédi, G; Bencze, G; Berényi, D; Boldizsár, L; Chattopadhyay, S; Chinellato, D.D; Cindolo, F; Das-Bose, L; Das, D; Das, K; De Cataldo, G; Di Bari, D; Di Mauro, A; Futó, E; Garcia, E; Hamar, G; Harton, A; Jimenez, R.T; Kim, D.W; Kim, J.S; Knospe, A; Kovacs, L; Lévai, P; Markert, C; Martinengo, P; Molnar, L; Nappi, E; Olah, L; Paic, G; Pastore, C; Patino, M.E; Peskov, V; Pinsky, L; Piuz, F; Pochybova, S; Sgura, I; Sinha, T; Song, J; Timmins, A; Van Beelen, J.B; Varga, D; Volpe, G; Weber, M; Xaplanteris, L; Yi, J; Yoo, I.-K

    2013-01-01

    We report on studies of layout and performance of a new Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector using for the fi rst time pressurized C 4 F 8 O radiator gas and a photon detector consisting of a MWPC equipped with a CsI photocathode. In particular, we present here the results of beam tests of a MWPC having an adjustable anode – cathode gap, aiming at the optimization of single photoelectron detection and Cherenkov angle resolution. This system was proposed as a Very High Momentum Particle Identi fi cation (VHMPID) upgrade for the ALICE experiment at LHC to provide charged hadron track-by-track identi fi cation in the momentum range 5 – 25 GeV/c.

  12. R&D studies of a RICH detector using pressurized C4F8O radiator gas and a CsI-based gaseous photon detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agócs, A. G.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Bellwied, R.; Bencédi, G.; Bencze, G.; Berényi, D.; Boldizsár, L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chinellato, D. D.; Cindolo, F.; Das, D.; Das, K.; Das-Bose, L.; De Cataldo, G.; Di Bari, D.; Di Mauro, A.; Futó, E.; Garcia, E.; Hamar, G.; Harton, A.; Jimenez, R. T.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, J. S.; Knospe, A.; Kovacs, L.; Lévai, P.; Markert, C.; Martinengo, P.; Molnar, L.; Nappi, E.; Olah, L.; Paić, G.; Pastore, C.; Patino, M. E.; Peskov, V.; Pinsky, L.; Piuz, F.; Pochybová, S.; Sgura, I.; Sinha, T.; Song, J.; Timmins, A.; Van Beelen, J. B.; Varga, D.; Volpe, G.; Weber, M.; Xaplanteris, L.; Yi, J.; Yoo, I.-K.

    2013-12-01

    We report on studies of layout and performance of a new Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector using for the first time pressurized C4F8O radiator gas and a photon detector consisting of a MWPC equipped with a CsI photocathode. In particular, we present here the results of beam tests of a MWPC having an adjustable anode-cathode gap, aiming at the optimization of single photoelectron detection and Cherenkov angle resolution. This system was proposed as a Very High Momentum Particle Identification (VHMPID) upgrade for the ALICE experiment at LHC to provide charged hadron track-by-track identification in the momentum range 5-25 GeV/c.

  13. X-ray Imaging Using a Hybrid Photon Counting GaAs Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, C; Göppert, R; Heijne, Erik H M; Ludwig, J; Meddeler, G; Mikulec, B; Pernigotti, E; Rogalla, M; Runge, K; Smith, K M; Snoeys, W; Söldner-Rembold, S; Watt, J

    1999-01-01

    The performance of hybrid GaAs pixel detectors as X-ray imaging sensors were investigated at room temperature. These hybrids consist of 300 mu-m thick GaAs pixel detectors, flip-chip bonded to a CMOS Single Photon Counting Chip (PCC). This chip consists of a matrix of 64 x 64 identical square pixels (170 mu-m x 170 mu-m) and covers a total area of 1.2 cm**2. The electronics in each cell comprises a preamplifier, a discriminator with a 3-bit threshold adjust and a 15-bit counter. The detector is realized by an array of Schottky diodes processed on semi-insulating LEC-GaAs bulk material. An IV-charcteristic and a detector bias voltage scan showed that the detector can be operated with voltages around 200 V. Images of various objects were taken by using a standard X-ray tube for dental diagnostics. The signal to noise ratio (SNR) was also determined. The applications of these imaging systems range from medical applications like digital mammography or dental X-ray diagnostics to non destructive material testing (...

  14. Measurement of Radiation Damage to 130nm Hybrid Pixel Detector Readout Chips

    CERN Document Server

    Plackett, R; Ballabriga, R; Campbell, M; Tlustos, L; Wong, W

    2009-01-01

    We present the first measurements of the performance of the Medipix3 hybrid pixel readout chip after exposure to significant x-ray flux. Specifically the changes in performance of the mixed mode pixel architecture, the digital periphery, digital to analogue converters and the e-fuse technology were characterised. A high intensity, calibrated x- ray source was used to incrementally irradiate the separate regions of the detector whilst it was powered. This is the first total ionizing dose study of a large area pixel detector fabricated using the 130nm CMOS technology.

  15. Performance Studies of Pixel Hybrid Photon Detectors for the LHCb RICH Counters

    CERN Document Server

    Aglieri Rinella, G; Piedigrossi, D; Van Lysebetten, A

    2004-01-01

    The Pixel Hybrid Photon Detector is a vacuum tube with a multi-alkali photo cathode, high voltage cross-focused electron optics and an anode consisting of a silicon pixel detector bump-bonded to a readout CMOS electronic chip fully encapsulated in the device. The Pixel HPD fulfils the requirements of the Ring Imaging Cherenkov counters of the LHCb experiment at LHC. The performances of the Pixel HPD will be discussed with reference to laboratory measurements, Cherenkov light imaging in recent beam tests, image distortions due to a magnetic field.

  16. Performance studies of pixel hybrid photon detectors for the LHCb RICH counters

    CERN Document Server

    Aglieri-Rinella, G; Piedigrossi, D; Van Lysebetten, A

    2006-01-01

    The Pixel Hybrid Photon Detector is a vacuum tube with a multi-alkali photo cathode, high voltage cross-focused electron optics and an anode consisting of a silicon pixel detector bump-bonded to a readout CMOS electronic chip fully encapsulated in the device. The Pixel HPD fulfils the requirements of the Ring Imaging Cherenkov counters of the LHCb experiment at LHC. The performances of the Pixel HPD will be discussed with reference to laboratory measurements, Cherenkov light imaging in recent beam tests, image distortions due to a magnetic field.

  17. Advanced numerical modeling and hybridization techniques for third-generation infrared detector pixel arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Jonathan

    to their final hybridization onto expensive silicon read-out integrated circuit (ROIC) chips. The approach is to temporarily hybridize each candidate HgCdTe detector array to a standard reusable ROIC for complete screen testing. We tested the technique by temporarily hybridizing LPE grown HgCdTe test chips to fan-out boards and characterizing their performance.

  18. Identification of potential regional sources of atmospheric total gaseous mercury in Windsor, Ontario, Canada using hybrid receptor modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, X.; U. S. Akhtar

    2009-01-01

    Windsor (Ontario) – the automotive capital of Canada does not have any significant mercury (Hg) sources. However, Windsor experiences trans-boundary air pollution as it is located immediately downwind of industrialized regions of the United States of America. A study was conducted in 2007 aimed to identify the potential regional sources of total gaseous mercury (TGM) and investigate the effects of regional sources and other factors on seasonal variability of TGM concentrations in Windsor. <...

  19. Development of a custom on-line ultrasonic vapour analyzer/flowmeter for the ATLAS inner detector, with application to gaseous tracking and Cherenkov detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bates, R.; Berry, S.; Berthoud, J.; Bitadze, A.; Bonneau, P.; Botelho-Direito, J.; Bousson, N.; Boyd, G.; Bozza, G.; Da Riva, E.; Degeorge, C.; DiGirolamo, B.; Doubek, M.; Godlewski, J.; Hallewell, G.; Katunin, S.; Lombard, D.; Mathieu, M.; McMahon, S.; Nagai, K.; Perez-Rodriguez, E.; Rossi, C.; Rozanov, A.; Vacek, V.; Vitek, M.; Zwalinski, L.

    2013-01-01

    Precision sound velocity measurements can simultaneously determine binary gas composition and flow. We have developed an analyzer with custom electronics, currently in use in the ATLAS inner detector, with numerous potential applications. The instrument has demonstrated ~0.3% mixture precision for C3F8/C2F6 mixtures and < 10-4 resolution for N2/C3F8 mixtures. Moderate and high flow versions of the instrument have demonstrated flow resolutions of +/- 2% F.S. for flows up to 250 l.min-1, and +/- 1.9% F.S. for linear flow velocities up to 15 ms-1; the latter flow approaching that expected in the vapour return of the thermosiphon fluorocarbon coolant recirculator being built for the ATLAS silicon tracker.

  20. H2RG Hybrid CMOS Detector Characterization for the WRX-R Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    WAGES, MITCHELL; Anderson, Tyler; Bray, Evan; Burrows, David N.; Chattopadhyay, Tanmoy; Falcone, Abraham; Hull, Samuel; Kern, Matthew; McQuaide, Maria

    2018-01-01

    We report on recent characterization measurements for a H2RG Hybrid CMOS Detector including temperature dependency of read noise, energy resolution, and gain variation. These measurements were done in preparation for the Water Recovery X-ray Rocket mission, which will launch in April of 2018. With a new vacuum chamber and test setup having been built for the sounding rocket mission, proper characterization was necessary in order to fully ready the system for launch.

  1. Hybrid metal organic scintillator materials system and particle detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Christina A.; Allendorf, Mark D.; Doty, F. Patrick; Simmons, Blake A.

    2011-07-26

    We describe the preparation and characterization of two zinc hybrid luminescent structures based on the flexible and emissive linker molecule, trans-(4-R,4'-R') stilbene, where R and R' are mono- or poly-coordinating groups, which retain their luminescence within these solid materials. For example, reaction of trans-4,4'-stilbenedicarboxylic acid and zinc nitrate in the solvent dimethylformamide (DMF) yielded a dense 2-D network featuring zinc in both octahedral and tetrahedral coordination environments connected by trans-stilbene links. Similar reaction in diethylformamide (DEF) at higher temperatures resulted in a porous, 3-D framework structure consisting of two interpenetrating cubic lattices, each featuring basic to zinc carboxylate vertices joined by trans-stilbene, analogous to the isoreticular MOF (IRMOF) series. We demonstrate that the optical properties of both embodiments correlate directly with the local ligand environments observed in the crystal structures. We further demonstrate that these materials produce high luminescent response to proton radiation and high radiation tolerance relative to prior scintillators. These features can be used to create sophisticated scintillating detection sensors.

  2. Study of long-term sustained operation of gaseous detectors for the high rate environment in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00366989; Sharma, Archana

    The muon system of CMS aims to provide an efficient and fast identification of the muons produced in the proton-proton collisions. However, the forward region of the end-caps is only instrumented with Cathode Strip Chambers. This lack of redundancy will be problematic after the high-luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC), for which the increase of the background rate would degrade the Level-1 trigger performance and thus the selection of interesting physics channels. The goal of the CMS muon upgrade is to maintain the L1 trigger rate with maximum selection efficiency in order to fully exploit the HL-LHC. The CMS GEM Collaboration has proposed to instrument the vacant high-eta region of the muon end-caps with Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors, called GE1/1 chambers. The Ph.D. subject proposed by the CMS GEM Collaboration aims to demonstrate that the GE1/1 technology is the most suitable choice for the upgrade of the muon end-caps. Three main research projects were conducted in this context. The first pro...

  3. 3D track reconstruction capability of a silicon hybrid active pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Benedikt; Pichotka, Martin; Pospisil, Stanislav; Vycpalek, Jiri; Burian, Petr; Broulim, Pavel; Jakubek, Jan

    2017-06-01

    Timepix3 detectors are the latest generation of hybrid active pixel detectors of the Medipix/Timepix family. Such detectors consist of an active sensor layer which is connected to the readout ASIC (application specific integrated circuit), segmenting the detector into a square matrix of 256 × 256 pixels (pixel pitch 55 μm). Particles interacting in the active sensor material create charge carriers, which drift towards the pixelated electrode, where they are collected. In each pixel, the time of the interaction (time resolution 1.56 ns) and the amount of created charge carriers are measured. Such a device was employed in an experiment in a 120 GeV/c pion beam. It is demonstrated, how the drift time information can be used for "4D" particle tracking, with the three spatial dimensions and the energy losses along the particle trajectory (dE/dx). Since the coordinates in the detector plane are given by the pixelation ( x, y), the x- and y-resolution is determined by the pixel pitch (55 μm). A z-resolution of 50.4 μm could be achieved (for a 500 μm thick silicon sensor at 130 V bias), whereby the drift time model independent z-resolution was found to be 28.5 μm.

  4. 3D track reconstruction capability of a silicon hybrid active pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, Benedikt; Pichotka, Martin; Pospisil, Stanislav; Vycpalek, Jiri [Czech Technical University in Prague, Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Praha (Czech Republic); Burian, Petr; Broulim, Pavel [Czech Technical University in Prague, Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Praha (Czech Republic); University of West Bohemia, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Pilsen (Czech Republic); Jakubek, Jan [Advacam s.r.o., Praha (Czech Republic)

    2017-06-15

    Timepix3 detectors are the latest generation of hybrid active pixel detectors of the Medipix/Timepix family. Such detectors consist of an active sensor layer which is connected to the readout ASIC (application specific integrated circuit), segmenting the detector into a square matrix of 256 x 256 pixels (pixel pitch 55 μm). Particles interacting in the active sensor material create charge carriers, which drift towards the pixelated electrode, where they are collected. In each pixel, the time of the interaction (time resolution 1.56 ns) and the amount of created charge carriers are measured. Such a device was employed in an experiment in a 120 GeV/c pion beam. It is demonstrated, how the drift time information can be used for ''4D'' particle tracking, with the three spatial dimensions and the energy losses along the particle trajectory (dE/dx). Since the coordinates in the detector plane are given by the pixelation (x,y), the x- and y-resolution is determined by the pixel pitch (55 μm). A z-resolution of 50.4 μm could be achieved (for a 500 μm thick silicon sensor at 130 V bias), whereby the drift time model independent z-resolution was found to be 28.5 μm. (orig.)

  5. Status and progress of novel photon detectors based on THGEM and hybrid MPGD architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeev, M.; Birsa, R.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Büchele, M.; Chiosso, M.; Ciliberti, P.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O.; Duic, V.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Fischer, H.; Giorgi, M.; Gobbo, B.; Gregori, M.; Herrmann, F.; Königsmann, K.; Levorato, S.; Maggiora, A.; Martin, A.; Menon, G.; Novakova, K.; Novy, J.; Panzieri, D.; Pereira, F. A.; Santos, C. A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schopferer, S.; Slunecka, M.; Sozzi, F.; Steiger, L.; Sulc, M.; Takekawa, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.

    2013-12-01

    Recent progress in the development of THGEM-based photon detectors confirm the validity of this novel technology. Detectors made of THGEMs, arranged in a three layer architecture, with a CsI coating on the first layer (acting as a reflective photocathode), have been produced and operated in laboratory and during test beam runs: they provide a gain of 105 and a time resolution better than 10 ns. Improvements in the production of THGEMs with 300 × 300 mm2 active area have recently been introduced leading to a uniform gain response and performance similar to that provided by the small area THGEMs. Promising results have been obtained by combining THGEM and Micromegas technologies to form a hybrid MPGD-based photon detector: the first prototype has proved to stably operate at large gain in a variety of gas mixtures, including pure CH4 and to provide a low ion backflow rate. The RICH-1 detector of the COMPASS Experiment at CERN SPS will be equipped with a set of MPGD-based photon detectors replacing MWPC-based ones.

  6. Low mass hybrid pixel detectors for the high luminosity LHC upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonella, Laura

    2013-10-15

    Reducing material in silicon trackers is of major importance for a good overall detector performance, and poses severe challenges to the design of the tracking system. To match the low mass constraints for trackers in High Energy Physics experiments at high luminosity, dedicated technological developments are required. This dissertation presents three technologies to design low mass hybrid pixel detectors for the high luminosity upgrades of the LHC. The work targets specifically the reduction of the material from the detector services and modules, with novel powering schemes, flip chip and interconnection technologies. A serial powering scheme is prototyped, featuring a new regulator concept, a control and protection element, and AC-coupled data transmission. A modified flip chip technology is developed for thin, large area Front-End chips, and a via last Through Silicon Via process is demonstrated on existing pixel modules. These technologies, their developments, and the achievable material reduction are discussed using the upgrades of the ATLAS pixel detector as a case study.

  7. Nuclear Characteristics of SPNDs and Preliminary Calculation of Hybrid Fixed Incore Detector with Monte Carlo Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Bon Seung; Lee, Kyung Hoon; Song, Jae Seung; Park, Sang Yoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this paper, the basic nuclear characteristics of major emitter materials were surveyed. In addition, preliminary calculations of Cobalt-Vanadium fixed incore detector were performed using the Monte Carlo code. Calculational results were cross-checked by KARMA. KARMA is a two-dimensional multigroup transport theory code developed by the KAERI and approved by Korean regularity agency to be employed as a nuclear design tool for a Korean commercial pressurizer water reactor. The nuclear characteristics of the major emitter materials were surveyed, and preliminary calculations of the hybrid fixed incore detector were performed with the MCNP code. The eigenvalue and pin-by-pin fission power distributions were calculated and showed good agreement with the KARMA calculation results. As future work, gamma power distributions as well as several types of XS of the emitter, insulator, and collector regions for a Co-V ICI assembly will be evaluated and compared.

  8. Development and Performance Evaluation of Large-Aperture Hybrid Photo-Detector for Hyper-Kamiokande

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Tianmeng; Hyper-Kamiokande Proto-Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    We have been developing the 50 cm Hybrid Photo-Detector (HPD) for Hyper-Kamiokande, a next generation underground large water Cherenkov detector, to improve the detection capability of the Cherenkov photons compared to Photo-Multiplier Tube used in Super-Kamiokande (SK PMT). A 20 mm diameter size is required for an avalanche diode (AD) to reach a sufficient collection efficiency. By developing segmented and low capacitance ADs, we successfully suppressed a noise accompanied with the large junction capacitance of the AD. Compared with the SK PMT, the HPD has three times better single photo-electron resolution of 10∼15% and twice better timing resolution of 1.5 ns with bias voltage of 570V.

  9. TSV last for hybrid pixel detectors: Application to particle physics and imaging experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Henry, D; Berthelot, A; Cuchet, R; Chantre, C; Campbell, M

    Hybrid pixel detectors are now widely used in particle physics experiments and at synchrotron light sources. They have also stimulated growing interest in other fields and, in particular, in medical imaging. Through the continuous pursuit of miniaturization in CMOS it has been possible to increase the functionality per pixel while maintaining or even shrinking pixel dimensions. The main constraint on the more extensive use of the technology in all fields is the cost of module building and the difficulty of covering large areas seamlessly [1]. On another hand, in the field of electronic component integration, a new approach has been developed in the last years, called 3D Integration. This concept, based on using the vertical axis for component integration, allows improving the global performance of complex systems. Thanks to this technology, the cost and the form factor of components could be decreased and the performance of the global system could be enhanced. In the field of radiation imaging detectors the a...

  10. Quality Assurance of Pixel Hybrid Photon Detectors for the LHCb Ring Imaging Cherenkov Counters

    CERN Document Server

    Carson, Laurence

    Pion/kaon discrimination in the LHCb experiment will be provided by two Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) counters. These use arrays of 484 Hybrid Photon Detectors (HPDs) to detect the Cherenkov photons emitted by charged particles traversing the RICH. The results from comprehensive quality assurance tests on the 550 HPDs manufactured for LHCb are described. Leakage currents, dead channel probabilities, dark count rates and ion feedback rates are reported. Furthermore, measurements carried out on a sample of tubes to determine the efficiency of the HPD pixel chip by measuring the summed analogue response from the backplane of the silicon sensor are described.

  11. Gaseous Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    aseous Matter focuses on the many important discoveries that led to the scientific interpretation of matter in the gaseous state. This new, full-color resource describes the basic characteristics and properties of several important gases, including air, hydrogen, helium, oxygen, and nitrogen. The nature and scope of the science of fluids is discussed in great detail, highlighting the most important scientific principles upon which the field is based. Chapters include:. Gaseous Matter An Initial Perspective. Physical Characteristics of Gases. The Rise of the Science of Gases. Kinetic Theory of

  12. Assessment of the spectral performance of hybrid photon counting x-ray detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueb, Peter; Zambon, Pietro; Broennimann, Christian

    2017-09-01

    Hybrid Photon Counting (HPC) detectors profoundly improved x-ray diffraction experiments at third generation synchrotron facilities. Enabling the simultaneous measurement of x-ray intensities in multiple energy bins, they also have many potential applications in the field of medical imaging. A prerequisite for this is a clean spectral response. To quantify how efficiently HPC detectors are able to assign photons to the correct energy bin, a quantity called Spectral Efficiency (SE) is introduced. This figure of merit measures the number of x-rays with correctly assigned energy normalized to the number of incoming photons. A prototype HPC detector has been used to perform precision measurements of x-ray spectra at the BESSY synchrotron. The detector consists of a novel ASIC with pixels of 75 × 75 μm2 size and a 750 μm thick CdTe sensor. The experimental data are complemented by the results of a Monte-Carlo (MC) simulation, which not only includes the physical detection process but also pulse pile-up at high photon fluxes. The spectra and the measured photon flux are used to infer the Spectral Efficiency. In the energy range from 10 to 60 keV, both the Quantum Efficiency and the Spectral Efficiency were precisely measured and simulated. Good agreement between simulation and experiment has been achieved. For the small pixels of the prototype detector, a SE between 15% and 77% has been determined. The MC simulation is used to predict the SE for various pixel sizes at different photon fluxes. For a typical flux of 5∙107  photons/mm2 /s used in human Computed Tomography (CT), the highest SE is achieved for pixel sizes in the range between 150 × 150 μm2 and 300 × 300 μm2 . The Spectral Efficiency turns out to be a useful figure of merit to quantify the spectral performance of HPC detectors. It allows a quantitative comparison of detectors with different sensor and ASIC configurations over a broad range of x-ray energies and fluxes. The maximization of

  13. Design and Analysis of a Collision Detector for Hybrid Robotic Machine Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan ZHANG

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Capacitive sensing depends on the physical parameter changing either the spacing between the two plates or the dielectric constant. Based on this idea, a capacitive based collision detection sensor is proposed and designed in this paper for the purpose of detecting any collision between the end effector and peripheral equipment (e.g., fixture for the three degrees of freedom hybrid robotic machine tools when it is in operation. One side of the finger-like capacitor is attached to the moving platform of the hybrid robotic manipulator and the other side of the finger-like capacitor is attached to the tool. When the tool accidently hits the peripheral equipment, the vibration will make the distance of the capacitor change and therefore trigger the machine to stop. The new design is illustrated and modelled. The capacitance, sensitivity and frequency response of the detector are analyzed in detail, and finally, the fabrication process is presented. The proposed collision detector can also be applied to other machine tools.

  14. Response of a hybrid pixel detector (MEDIPIX3) to different radiation sources for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chumacero, E. Miguel; De Celis Alonso, B.; Martínez Hernández, M. I.; Vargas, G.; Moreno Barbosa, E., E-mail: emoreno.emb@gmail.com [Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Av. San Claudio y Rio Verde, Puebla (Mexico); Moreno Barbosa, F. [Hospital General del Sur Hospital de la Mujer, Puebla (Mexico)

    2014-11-07

    The development in semiconductor CMOS technology has enabled the creation of sensitive detectors for a wide range of ionizing radiation. These devices are suitable for photon counting and can be used in imaging and tomography X-ray diagnostics. The Medipix[1] radiation detection system is a hybrid silicon pixel chip developed for particle tracking applications in High Energy Physics. Its exceptional features (high spatial and energy resolution, embedded ultra fast readout, different operation modes, etc.) make the Medipix an attractive device for applications in medical imaging. In this work the energy characterization of a third-generation Medipix chip (Medipix3) coupled to a silicon sensor is presented. We used different radiation sources (strontium 90, iron 55 and americium 241) to obtain the response curve of the hybrid detector as a function of energy. We also studied the contrast of the Medipix as a measure of pixel noise. Finally we studied the response to fluorescence X rays from different target materials (In, Pd and Cd) for the two data acquisition modes of the chip; single pixel mode and charge summing mode.

  15. Performance of hybrid photon detector prototypes with 80% active area for the RICH counters of LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, E; Barber, G J; Bibby, J H; Campbell, M; Duane, A; Gys, Thierry; Montenegro, J; Piedigrossi, D; Schomaker, R; Snoeys, W; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, Ken H

    2000-01-01

    We report on the ongoing work towards a hybrid photon detector with integrated Si pixel readout for the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The photon detector is based on an electrostatically focussed image intensifier tube geometry where the image is de-magnified by a factor of ~5. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array, bump-bonded to a binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The performance of full-scale prototypes equipped with 61-pixel anodes and external analogue readout is presented. The average signal-to-noise ratio is ~11 with a peaking time of 1.2 mu s. The tube active-to-total surface ratio is 81.7%, which meets the LHCb requirements. The spatial precision is measured to be better than 90 mu m. A cluster of three such tubes has been installed in the LHCb RICH 1 prototype where Cherenkov gas rings have been successfully detected. Progress towards the encapsulation of new pixel electronics into a tube is also reported. In pa...

  16. LHCb Hybrid Photon Detectors and Sensitivity to Flavour Specific Asymmetry in Neutral B-Meson Mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Lambert, Robert W

    2009-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider started operation this year, 2008. LHCb is a precision heavy-flavour experiment at this collider. The precision of LHCb is greatly aided by the LHCb Ring Imaging Cherenkov system for the separation and identification of charged hadrons. This system uses pixel Hybrid Photon Detectors, an innovative new technology for single photon imaging. The simulation and testing of these photon detectors are reported and discussed. The photodetectors were measured to have reached or exceeded the specifications in key areas. In particular, the detector quantum efficiencies far exceed expectations, by a relative 27 %. The precision of LHCb will be used to examine CP-violation and rare decays of B-mesons. A key part of the physics programme will be a measurement of the CP-violating flavour specific asymmetry in neutral B-meson mixing. This asymmetry is expected to bevery small in the Standard Model, of order 10-4, however it is very sensitive to new physics, which can increase the asymmetry dramatica...

  17. Recent Results with a segmented Hybrid Photon Detector for a novel parallax-free PET Scanner for Brain Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Braem, André; Joram, Christian; Mathot, Serge; Séguinot, Jacques; Weilhammer, Peter; Ciocia, F; De Leo, R; Nappi, E; Vilardi, I; Argentieri, A; Corsi, F; Dragone, A; Pasqua, D

    2007-01-01

    We describe the design, fabrication and test results of a segmented Hybrid Photon Detector with integrated auto-triggering front-end electronics. Both the photodetector and its VLSI readout electronics are custom designed and have been tailored to the requirements of a recently proposed novel geometrical concept of a Positron Emission Tomograph. Emphasis is laid on the PET specific features of the device. The detector has been fabricated in the photocathode facility at CERN.

  18. A segmented Hybrid Photon Detector with integrated auto-triggering front-end electronics for a PET scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Chesi, Enrico Guido; Joram, C; Mathot, S; Séguinot, Jacques; Weilhammer, P; Ciocia, F; De Leo, R; Nappi, E; Vilardi, I; Argentieri, A; Corsi, F; Dragone, A; Pasqua, D

    2006-01-01

    We describe the design, fabrication and test results of a segmented Hybrid Photon Detector with integrated auto-triggering front-end electronics. Both the photodetector and its VLSI readout electronics are custom designed and have been tailored to the requirements of a recently proposed novel geometrical concept of a Positron Emission Tomograph. Emphasis is put on the PET specific features of the device. The detector has been fabricated in the photocathode facility at CERN.

  19. Gossip: Gaseous pixels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffeman, E. N.

    2007-12-01

    Several years ago a revolutionary miniature TPC was developed using a pixel chip with a Micromegas foil spanned over it. To overcome the mechanical stability problems and improve the positioning accuracy while spanning a foil on top of a small readout chip a process has been developed in which a Micromegas-like grid is applied on a CMOS wafer in a post-processing step. This aluminum grid is supported on insulating pillars that are created by etching after the grid has been made. The energy resolution (measured on the absorption of the X-rays from a 55Fe source) was remarkably good. Several geometries have since been tested and we now believe that a Gas On Slimmed Silicon Pixel chip' (Gossip) may be realized. The drift region of such a gaseous pixel detector would be reduced to a millimeter. Such a detector is potentially very radiation hard (SLHC vertexing) but aging and sparking must be eliminated.

  20. Gossip: Gaseous pixels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koffeman, E.N. [Nikhef, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: d77@nikhef.nl

    2007-12-01

    Several years ago a revolutionary miniature TPC was developed using a pixel chip with a Micromegas foil spanned over it. To overcome the mechanical stability problems and improve the positioning accuracy while spanning a foil on top of a small readout chip a process has been developed in which a Micromegas-like grid is applied on a CMOS wafer in a post-processing step. This aluminum grid is supported on insulating pillars that are created by etching after the grid has been made. The energy resolution (measured on the absorption of the X-rays from a {sup 55}Fe source) was remarkably good. Several geometries have since been tested and we now believe that a Gas On Slimmed Silicon Pixel chip' (Gossip) may be realized. The drift region of such a gaseous pixel detector would be reduced to a millimeter. Such a detector is potentially very radiation hard (SLHC vertexing) but aging and sparking must be eliminated.

  1. X-ray-sensitive hybrid photon detectors with Be-windows

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Leutz, Heinrich; Puertolas, D; Rosso, Ettore

    2005-01-01

    A 0.3-mm thin YAlO/sub 3/(Ce) scintillating crystal plate of 22 mm diameter was mounted inside an electrostatic-focussed hybrid photomultiplier tube (HPMT). The photocathode was evaporated directly on this scintillating plate opposite to the HPMT-anode. The HPMT was vacuum-sealed with a 1-mm thick Be radiation entrance window. Photoelectron numbers at their peak energies of photoabsorption and energy resolutions were measured between 3.69 and 59.6 keV. The average number of photoelectrons produced per keV radiation energy was determined to be 4.457 phel/keV and the energy resolution at 59.6 keV was 17%. Introducing in the same way such a thin YAlO/sub 3/(Ce) plate inside an imaging silicon pixel array (ISPA) tube would improve its spatial resolution, since it depends on the thickness of the X- ray detector.

  2. Visualisation of Radioactivity in Real-Time on a Tablet Measured by a Hybrid Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)749233; Bantel, Michael; Grünhaupt, Ulrich

    This work explores a method to visualise and interact with radioactivity over time and space by means of augmented reality on a screen. A prototype, iPadPix, was built to demonstrate use as an intuitive new tool for educative and training purposes. Measured by a hybrid pixel detector, Timepix, traces of radioactive decays are displayed in real- time on a mobile device. Its detection principle and properties are detailed as well as the calibration of the sensor. An embedded board is used to process and forward the sensor data to a tablet over a wireless network connection. Software was developed to processes and overlay signatures of ionising radiation and particles on a live camera feed. It is described here and published as open source.

  3. FLIM and FCS detection in laser-scanning microscopes: increased efficiency by GaAsP hybrid detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, W; Su, B; Holub, O; Weisshart, K

    2011-09-01

    Photon counting detectors currently used in fluorescence lifetime microscopy have a number of deficiencies that result in less-than-ideal signal-to-noise ratio of the lifetimes obtained: either the quantum efficiency is unsatisfactory or the active area is too small, and afterpulsing or tails in the temporal response contribute to overall timing inaccuracy. We have therefore developed a new FLIM detector based on a GaAsP hybrid photomultiplier. Compared with conventional PMTs and SPADs, GaAsP hybrid detectors have a number of advantages: The detection quantum efficiency reaches or surpasses the efficiency of fast SPADs, and the active area is on the order of 5 mm², compared with 2.5 10⁻³ mm² for a SPAD. The TCSPC response is clean, without the bumps and the diffusion tails typical for PMTs and SPADs. Most important, the hybrid detector is intrinsically free of afterpulsing. FLIM results are therefore free of signal-dependent background, and FCS curves are free of the known afterpulsing peak. We demonstrate the performance of the new detector for multiphoton NDD FLIM and for FCS. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Calibration of ultra-thin hybrid pixel detector assemblies with Timepix readout ASICs

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)734627; Arfaoui, Samir; Benoit, Mathieu; Celeste, Damiano; Dannheim, Dominik; Pfleger, Florentina; Redford, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of vertex detector R&D for a future Compact Linear Collider, the charac- terisation of ultra-thin hybrid pixel detector assemblies comprising 50 − 300 μm thick silicon sensors and Timepix readout ASICs is underway through beam tests at DESY and CERN. The work presented here supports the beam test data analysis by providing an energy calibra- tion of certain assemblies, so giving access to energy measurements in addition to recorded Time Over Threshold counts. Photons from a variety of radioactive sources and X-ray fluorescence are used to measure the response of the assemblies in the region of 3 − 60 keV. Threshold measurements are also performed. Global and pixel-by-pixel calibrations of the assemblies are parametrised and the uniformity of the response of the pixel matrices are discussed. Data samples recorded in beam tests are calibrated and the resulting energy spectra presented. For the first time calibration parameters are estimated for two 50 μm thick sensors which are forese...

  5. Gaseous NO2 effects on epidermis and stomata related physiochemical characteristics of hybrid poplar leaves: chemical elements composition, stomatal functions, photosynthesis and respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechanisms controlling effects of gaseous nitrogen dioxide on epidermis and stomata dynamics, and photosynthesis and respirations processes are still not fully understood. In this study, we used poplar as a model plant and investigated the effects of gaseous nitrogen dioxide (4 microliters per lite...

  6. Prototyping of hybrids and modules for the forward silicon strip tracking detector for the ATLAS Phase-II upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, S.; Benítez, V.; Fernández-Tejero, J.; Fleta, C.; Lozano, M.; Ullán, M.; Lacker, H.; Rehnisch, L.; Sperlich, D.; Ariza, D.; Bloch, I.; Díez, S.; Gregor, I.; Keller, J.; Lohwasser, K.; Poley, L.; Prahl, V.; Zakharchuk, N.; Hauser, M.; Jakobs, K.; Mahboubi, K.; Mori, R.; Parzefall, U.; Bernabéu, J.; Lacasta, C.; Marco-Hernandez, R.; Santoyo, D.; Solaz Contell, C.; Soldevila Serrano, U.; Affolder, T.; Greenall, A.; Gallop, B.; Phillips, P. W.

    2017-05-01

    For the High-Luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider an increased instantaneous luminosity of up to 7.5 ṡ 1034 cm-2 s-1, leading to a total integrated luminosity of up to 3000 fb-1, is foreseen. The current silicon and transition radiation tracking detectors of the ATLAS experiment will be unable to cope with the increased track densities and radiation levels, and will need to be replaced. The new tracking detector will consist entirely of silicon pixel and strip detectors. In this paper, results on the development and tests of prototype components for the new silicon strip detector in the forward regions (end-caps) of the ATLAS detector are presented. Flex-printed readout boards with fast readout chips, referred to as hybrids, and silicon detector modules are investigated. The modules consist of a hybrid glued onto a silicon strip sensor. The channels on both are connected via wire-bonds for readout and powering. Measurements of important performance parameters and a comparison of two possible readout schemes are presented. In addition, the assembly procedure is described and recommendations for further prototyping are derived.

  7. The LDC detector concept

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ), the large detector concept (LDC) is being developed. The main points of the LDC are a large volume gaseous tracking system, combined with high precision vertex detector and an extremely granular calorimeter. The main design force ...

  8. Position-sensitive gaseous photomultipliers research and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Francke, Tom; Peskov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Gaseous photomultipliers are defined as gas-filled devices capable of recording single ultraviolet (UV) and visible photons with high position resolution. Used in a variety of research areas, these detectors can be paired with computers to treat and store imaging information of UV-light. Position-Sensitive Gaseous Photomultipliers: Research and Applications explores the advancement of gaseous detectors as applied for single photon detection. Emphasizing emerging perspectives and new ways to apply gaseous detectors across research fields, this research-based publication is an essential reference source for engineers, physicists, graduate-level students, and researchers.

  9. A support note for the use of pixel hybrid photon detectors in the RICH counters of LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Gys, Thierry

    2001-01-01

    This document is a proposal for the use of a hybrid photon detector with integrated silicon pixel readout in the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment. The photon detector is based on a cross-focussed image intensifier tube geometry where the image is de-magnified by a factor of 5. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array, bump-bonded to a binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The document starts with the general specification of the baseline option, followed by a summary of the main results achieved so far during the R&D phase. A future R&D programme and its related time table is also presented. The document concludes with the description of a photon detector production scheme and time schedule.

  10. X-ray Hybrid CMOS Detectors : Recent progress in development and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanmoy; Falcone, Abraham; Burrows, David N.

    2017-08-01

    PennState high energy astronomy laboratory has been working on the development and characterization of Hybrid CMOS Detectors (HCDs) for last few years in collaboration with Teledyne Imaging Sensors (TIS). HCDs are preferred over X-ray CCDs due to their higher and flexible read out rate, radiation hardness and low power which make them more suitable for next generation large area X-ray telescopic missions. An H2RG detector with 36 micron pixel pitch and 18 micron ROIC, has been selected for a sounding rocket flight in 2018. The H2RG detector provides ~2.5 % energy resolution at 5.9 keV and ~7 e- read noise when coupled to a cryo-SIDECAR. We could also detect a clear Oxygen line (~0.5 keV) from the detector implying a lower energy threshold of ~0.3 keV. Further improvement in the energy resolution and read noise is currently under progress. We have been working on the characterization of small pixel HCDs (12.5 micron pixel; smallest pixel HCDs developed so far) which is important for the development of next generation high resolution X-ray spectroscopic instrument based on HCDs. Event recognition in HCDs is another exciting prospect which have been successfully shown to work with a 64 X 64 pixel prototype SPEEDSTAR-EXD which use comparators at each pixel to read out only those pixels having detectable signal, thereby providing an order of magnitude improvement in the read out rate. Currently, we are working on the development of a large area SPEEDSTAR-EXD array for the development of a full fledged instrument. HCDs due to their fast read out, can also be explored as a large FOV instrument to study GRB afterglows and variability and spectroscopic study of other astrophysical transients. In this context, we are characterizing a Lobster-HCD system at multiple energies and multiple off-axis angles for future rocket or CubeSate experiments. In this presentation, I will briefly present these new developments and experiments with HCDs and the analysis techniques.

  11. Evaluation of Polarization Effects of e(-) Collection Schottky CdTe Medipix3RX Hybrid Pixel Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Astromskas, V; Gimenez, EN; Lohstroh, A; Tartoni, N

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the evaluation of operational conditions such as temperature, exposure time and flux on the polarization of a Schottky electron collection CdTe detector. A Schottky e- collection CdTe Medipix3RX hybrid pixel detector was developed as a part of the CALIPSO-HIZPAD2 EU project. The 128 ×128 pixel matrix and 0.75 mm thick CdTe sensor bump-bonded to Medipix3RX readout chips enabled the study of the polarization effects. Single and quad module Medipix3RX chips were used which ...

  12. Development of a high-efficiency gaseous detector for the localization of photons from scintillators and new generation of Cherenkov counters

    CERN Document Server

    Braem, André; Peskov, Vladimir; Sauli, Fabio; Giomataris, Ioanis; Joseph, C L; Perroud, Jean-Pierre; Tran, M T; Miné, P; Dominik, Wojciech; CERN. Geneva. Detector Research and Development Committee

    1991-01-01

    We propose to pursue the development of condensed photocathodes in gaseous parallel plate chambers with the following aims: - improvement of the photocathode formation technology on medium and large surfaces, with the requirement to resist in air for short term as is the case for CsI protected by exposure to TMAE; - study of gas mixtures transparent at VUV wavelenghts and allowing to obtain high gains in parallel plate chamber with condensed photocathode, in view of detection of photons for fast Cherenkov and RICH counters; - development of suitable electronics to exploit the intrinsic time resolution of the device, in the nanosecond region.

  13. Electrical measurements of a multi-mode hybrid pixel detector ASIC for radiation detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, W. S.; Anton, G.; Ballabriga, R.; Blaj, G.; Böhnel, M.; Campbell, M.; Gabor, T.; Heijne, E.; Llopart, X.; Michel, T.; Ritter, I.; Poikela, T.; Sievers, P.; Tlustos, L.; Valerio, P.

    2012-01-01

    We present the first electrical measurements of an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) to be used in a hybrid pixel detector intended for dosimetry and radiation detection. The dosimeter has three programmable modes of operation: photon counting mode, energy integration mode, and dosimetry mode. The ASIC comprises a matrix of 16 by 16 (256 total) square pixels of 220 μm pitch, providing 12.4 mm2 of segmented active area. Each pixel can be configured to operate in one of the three radiation measurement modes, with programmable-depth counters and shift registers to tailor the data word size and optimise the readout frame-rate in a given mode. The individual energies of impinging photons are determined through programmable analogue energy threshold discrimination, time over threshold measurement, or a combination thereof. Furthermore, the dosimetry mode contains 16 digital energy thresholds and automatically sorts data into 16 corresponding energy bin registers. The chip's output is therefore pre-processed charge spectra of the radiation field. This paper discusses results from measurements taken using programmable test-pulses to inject controlled stimuli into the pixel circuits.

  14. Studies of a hybrid avalanche photo-detector in magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Šantelj, L., E-mail: luka.santelj@kek.jp [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) (Japan); Adachi, I. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) (Japan); Sokendai University (Japan); Hataya, K. [Tokyo Metropolitan University (Japan); Iori, S. [Toho University (Japan); Iwata, S.; Kakuno, H. [Tokyo Metropolitan University (Japan); Kataura, R. [Niigata University (Japan); Kawai, H. [Chiba University (Japan); Kindo, H. [Sokendai University (Japan); Korpar, S. [University of Maribor (Slovenia); Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Križan, P. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mrvar, M. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Nath, K. [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati (India); Nishida, S. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) (Japan); Sokendai University (Japan); Ogawa, S. [Niigata University (Japan); Pestotnik, R.; Stanovnik, A.; Seljak, A. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Sumiyoshi, T. [Tokyo University of Science, Tokyo (Japan); Tabata, M. [Chiba University (Japan); and others

    2017-02-11

    For the Belle II spectrometer a proximity focusing RICH counter with an aerogel radiator (ARICH) will be employed as a PID system in the forward endcap region of the spectrometer. The main challenge was the development of a reliable multichannel sensor for single photons that operates in the high magnetic field of the spectrometer (1.5 T) and withstands the radiation levels expected at the experiment. A 144-channel Hybrid Avalanche Photo-Detector (HAPD) was developed with Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. and the mass production of ∼480 HAPDs was completed recently. While our first tests of HAPD performance in the magnetic field (before mass production) showed no issues, we lately observed a presence of very large signal pulses (∼5000× single photon signal), generated internally within about 20% of HAPDs, while operating in the magnetic field. The rate of these pulses varies from sample to sample. These pulses impact the HAPD performance in two ways: they introduce periods of dead time and, in some cases, damage to the front-end electronics was observed. Here we present conditions under which such large pulses are generated, their properties and impact on HAPD performance, and discuss possible mechanism of their origin.

  15. Development of large area hybrid photodiodes for the LHCb ring imaging Cherenkov detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Braem, André; Dulinski, W; Filthaut, Frank; Go, A; Joram, C; Lion, G; Séguinot, Jacques; Weilhammer, Peter; Wicht, P; Ypsilantis, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    We report on the development of large area hybrid photodiodes (HPD) which are one of the proposed photodetectors for the RICH counters of the LHCb experiment. The HPD's consist of a cylindrical vacuum envelope of 127 mm diameter capped with a spherical borosilicate UV- glass entrance window. Focusing electrodes demagnify the image on a silicon detector of 50 mm diameter comprising 2048 pads with a surface of 1 mm/sup 2/ each. The analogue readout electronics is integrated in the vacuum tube. As an intermediate step a HPD with a UV sensitive CsI photocathode has been produced which allowed to verify the electron optics of the HPD. A large UHV evaporation plant for the production of HPD's with visible light transmissive bialkali photocathodes (K/sub 2/CsSb) has been built and successfully operated. The evaporation process is optimized for maximum quantum efficiency and life time of the photocathodes. A cold indium sealing technique developed for a minimum thermal load of the photocathode and the silicon sensor ...

  16. Development of large area hybrid photodiodes for the LHCb ring imaging Cherenkov detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Chesi, Enrico Guido; Go, A; Joram, C; Séguinot, Jacques; Ypsilantis, Thomas; Ypsilantis, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    98-037 We report on the development of large area hybrid photo diodes (HPD) which are one of the proposed photodetectors for the RICH counters of the LHCb experiment. The HPD's consist of a cylindrical vacuum envelope of 127 mm diameter capped with a spherical borosilicate UV-glass entrance window. Focusing electrodes demagnify the image on a silicon detector of 50~mm diameter comprising 2048 pads with a surface of 1~mm$^2$ each. The analogue readout electronics is integrated in the vacuum tube. As an intermediate step a HPD with a UV sensitive CsI photocathode has been produced which allowed to verify the electron optics of the HPD. A large UHV evaporation plant for the production of HPD's with visible light transmittive bialkali photocathodes (K$_2$CsSb) has been built and successfully operated. The evaporation process is optimized for maximum quantum efficiency and life time of the photocathodes. A cold Indium sealing technique developed for a minimum thermal load of the photocathode and the silicon sensor...

  17. Spectral CT modeling and reconstruction with hybrid detectors in dynamic-threshold-based counting and integrating modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Chen, Zhiqiang; Cong, Wenxiang; Wang, Ge

    2015-03-01

    Spectral CT with photon counting detectors can significantly improve CT performance by reducing image noise and dose, increasing contrast resolution and material specificity, as well as enabling functional and molecular imaging with existing and emerging probes. However, the current photon counting detector architecture is difficult to balance the number of energy bins and the statistical noise in each energy bin. Moreover, the hardware support for multi-energy bins demands a complex circuit which is expensive. In this paper, we promote a new scheme known as hybrid detectors that combine the dynamic-threshold-based counting and integrating modes. In this scheme, an energy threshold can be dynamically changed during a spectral CT scan, which can be considered as compressive sensing along the spectral dimension. By doing so, the number of energy bins can be retrospectively specified, even in a spatially varying fashion. To establish the feasibility and merits of such hybrid detectors, we develop a tensor-based PRISM algorithm to reconstruct a spectral CT image from dynamic dual-energy data, and perform experiments with simulated and real data, producing very promising results.

  18. Success and failure of dead-time models as applied to hybrid pixel detectors in high-flux applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobott, B. A., E-mail: sbryn@physics.unimelb.edu.au [School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Broennimann, Ch. [DECTRIS Ltd, 5400 Baden (Switzerland); Schmitt, B. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Trueb, P.; Schneebeli, M. [DECTRIS Ltd, 5400 Baden (Switzerland); Lee, V.; Peake, D. J.; Elbracht-Leong, S.; Schubert, A. [School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Kirby, N.; Boland, M. J. [Australian Synchrotron, Clayton (Australia); Chantler, C. T.; Barnea, Z.; Rassool, R. P. [School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2013-03-01

    Detector response functionals are found to have useful but also limited application to synchrotron studies where bunched fills are becoming common. By matching the detector response function to the source temporal structure, substantial improvements in efficiency, count rate and linearity are possible. The performance of a single-photon-counting hybrid pixel detector has been investigated at the Australian Synchrotron. Results are compared with the body of accepted analytical models previously validated with other detectors. Detector functionals are valuable for empirical calibration. It is shown that the matching of the detector dead-time with the temporal synchrotron source structure leads to substantial improvements in count rate and linearity of response. Standard implementations are linear up to ∼0.36 MHz pixel{sup −1}; the optimized linearity in this configuration has an extended range up to ∼0.71 MHz pixel{sup −1}; these are further correctable with a transfer function to ∼1.77 MHz pixel{sup −1}. This new approach has wide application both in high-accuracy fundamental experiments and in standard crystallographic X-ray fluorescence and other X-ray measurements. The explicit use of data variance (rather than N{sup 1/2} noise) and direct measures of goodness-of-fit (χ{sub r}{sup 2}) are introduced, raising issues not encountered in previous literature for any detector, and suggesting that these inadequacies of models may apply to most detector types. Specifically, parametrization of models with non-physical values can lead to remarkable agreement for a range of count-rate, pulse-frequency and temporal structure. However, especially when the dead-time is near resonant with the temporal structure, limitations of these classical models become apparent. Further, a lack of agreement at extreme count rates was evident.

  19. Investigations of the response of hybrid particle detectors for the Space Environmental Viewing and Analysis Network (SEVAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chilingarian

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A network of particle detectors located at middle to low latitudes known as SEVAN (Space Environmental Viewing and Analysis Network is being created in the framework of the International Heliophysical Year (IHY-2007. It aims to improve the fundamental research of the particle acceleration in the vicinity of the Sun and space environment conditions. The new type of particle detectors will simultaneously measure the changing fluxes of most species of secondary cosmic rays, thus turning into a powerful integrated device used for exploration of solar modulation effects. Ground-based detectors measure time series of secondary particles born in cascades originating in the atmosphere by nuclear interactions of protons and nuclei accelerated in the galaxy. During violent solar explosions, sometimes additional secondary particles are added to this "background" flux. The studies of the changing time series of secondary particles shed light on the high-energy particle acceleration mechanisms. The time series of intensities of high energy particles can also provide highly cost-effective information on the key characteristics of interplanetary disturbances. The recent results of the detection of the solar extreme events (2003–2005 by the monitors of the Aragats Space-Environmental Center (ASEC illustrate the wide possibilities provided by new particle detectors measuring neutron, electron and muon fluxes with inherent correlations. We present the results of the simulation studies revealing the characteristics of the SEVAN networks' basic measuring module. We illustrate the possibilities of the hybrid particle detector to measure neutral and charged fluxes of secondary CR, to estimate the efficiency and purity of detection; corresponding median energies of the primary proton flux, the ability to distinguish between neutron and proton initiated GLEs and some other important properties of hybrid particle detectors.

  20. Equivalence of optical and electrical noise equivalent power of hybrid NbTiN-Al microwave kinetic inductance detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, R. M. J., E-mail: r.m.j.janssen@tudelft.nl [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628CJ Delft (Netherlands); Endo, A. [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628CJ Delft (Netherlands); Department of Microelectronics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science (EEMCS), Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 4, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Visser, P. J. de [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628CJ Delft (Netherlands); SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584CA Utrecht (Netherlands); Klapwijk, T. M. [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628CJ Delft (Netherlands); Physics Department, Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Baselmans, J. J. A. [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584CA Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2014-11-10

    We have measured and compared the response of hybrid NbTiN-Al Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) to changes in bath temperature and illumination by sub-mm radiation. We show that these two stimulants have an equivalent effect on the resonance feature of hybrid MKIDs. We determine an electrical noise equivalent power (NEP) from the measured temperature responsivity, quasiparticle recombination time, superconducting transition temperature, and noise spectrum, all of which can be measured in a dark environment. For the two hybrid NbTiN-Al MKIDs studied in detail, the electrical NEP is within a factor of two of the optical NEP, which is measured directly using a blackbody source.

  1. 18k Channels single photon counting readout circuit for hybrid pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maj, P.; Grybos, P.; Szczygiel, R.; Zoladz, M.; Sakumura, T.; Tsuji, Y.

    2013-01-01

    We have performed measurements of an integrated circuit named PXD18k designed for hybrid pixel semiconductor detectors used in X-ray imaging applications. The PXD18k integrated circuit, fabricated in CMOS 180 nm technology, has dimensions of 9.64 mm×20 mm and contains approximately 26 million transistors. The core of the IC is a matrix of 96×192 pixels with 100 μm×100 μm pixel size. Each pixel works in a single photon counting mode. A single pixel contains two charge sensitive amplifiers with Krummenacher feedback scheme, two shapers, two discriminators (with independent thresholds A and B) and two 16-bit ripple counters. The data are read out via eight low voltage differential signaling (LVDS) outputs with 100 Mbps rate. The power consumption is dominated by analog blocks and it is about 23 μW/pixel. The effective peaking time at the discriminator input is 30 ns and is mainly determined by the time constants of the charge sensitive amplifier (CSA). The gain is equal to 42.5 μV/e- and the equivalent noise charge is 168 e- rms (with bump-bonded silicon pixel detector). Thanks to the use of trim DACs in each pixel, the effective threshold spread at the discriminator input is only 1.79 mV. The dead time of the front end electronics for a standard setting is 172 ns (paralyzable model). In the standard readout mode (when the data collection time is separated from the time necessary to readout data from the chip) the PXD18k IC works with two energy thresholds per pixel. The PXD18k can also be operated in the continuous readout mode (with a zero dead time) where one can select the number of bits readout from each pixel to optimize the PXD18k frame rate. For example, for reading out 16 bits/pixel the frame rate is 2.7 kHz and for 4 bits/pixel it rises to 7.1 kHz.

  2. First operation of a hybrid photon detector prototype with electrostatic cross-focussing and integrated silicon pixel readout

    CERN Document Server

    Alemi, M; Gys, Thierry; Mikulec, B; Piedigrossi, D; Puertolas, D; Rosso, E; Schomaker, R; Snoeys, W; Wyllie, Ken H

    2000-01-01

    We report on the first operation of a hybrid photon detector prototype with integrated silicon pixel readout for the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment. The photon detector is based on a cross-focussed image intensifier tube geometry where the image is de-magnified by a factor of 4. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array, bump-bonded to a binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The prototype has been characterized using a low-intensity light-emitting diode operated in pulsed mode. Its performance in terms of single-photoelectron detection efficiency and imaging properties is presented. A model of photoelectron detection is proposed, and is shown to be in good agreement with the experimental data. It includes an estimate of the charge signal generated in the silicon detector, and the combined effects of the comparator threshold spread of the pixel readout chip, charge sharing at the pixel boundaries and back-scattering of the photoelectrons at the silicon detector surface...

  3. The performance of the LHCb Pixel Hybrid Photon Detectors in a 25ns structured test-beam

    CERN Document Server

    Perego, Davide Luigi

    2007-01-01

    Particle identification plays an important role in the challenging physics programme of the LHCb experiment. Pion-kaon separation in the wide momentum range 1-100 GeV/$c$ will be achieved by a pair of Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors, using three radiators. Cherenkov photons in the wavelength range 200-600 nm will be detected by pixel Hybrid Photon Detectors (HPDs) developed by LHCb in collaboration with industry. The HPDs and associated electronics have been designed to operate at 40 MHz, the bunch-crossing frequency of the LHC. Final production photon detectors and the full readout chain, coupled for the LHCb data handling system, have been tested for the first time in a particle beam, operating with the nominal 25 ns bunch spacing, in September 2006. A total of 48 HPDs mounted on three RICH columns have been installed inside a customised RICH detector using N$_2$ GeV/$c$ pion beam at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. The results of the tests demonstrate that the HPD is a reliable photon detector that meet...

  4. Shimming with permanent magnets for the x-ray detector in a hybrid x-ray∕MR system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhifei; Fahrig, Rebecca; Williams, Scott T.; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2008-01-01

    In this x-ray∕MR hybrid system an x-ray flat panel detector is placed under the patient cradle, close to the MR volume of interest (VOI), where the magnetic field strength is ∼0.5 T. Immersed in this strong field, several electronic components inside the detector become magnetized and create an additional magnetic field that is superimposed on the original field of the MR scanner. Even after linear shimming, the field homogeneity of the MR scanner remains disrupted by the detector. The authors characterize the field due to the detector with the field of two magnetic dipoles and further show that two sets of permanent magnets (NdFeB) can withstand the main magnetic field and compensate for the nonlinear components of the additional field. The ideal number of magnets and their locations are calculated based on a field map measured with the detector in place. Experimental results demonstrate great promise for this technique, which may be useful in many settings where devices with magnetic components need to be placed inside or close to an MR scanner. PMID:18841840

  5. Analysis of test-beam data with hybrid pixel detector prototypes for the Compact LInear Collider (CLIC) vertex detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Pequegnot, Anne-Laure

    2013-01-01

    The LHC is currently the most powerful accelerator in the world. This proton-proton collider is now stoppped to increase significantly its luminosity and energy, which would provide a larger discovery potential in 2014 and beyond. A high-energy $e^{+}e^{-}$ collider, such as CLIC, is an option to complement and to extend the LHC physics programme. Indeed, a lepton collider gives access to additional physics processes, beyond those observable at the LHC, and therefore provides new discovery potential. It can also provide complementary and/or more precise information about new physics uncovered at the LHC. Many essential features of a detector are required to deliver the full physics potential of this CLIC machine. In this present report, I present my work on the vertex detector R\\&D for this future linear collider, which aims at developping highly granular and ultra-thin position sensitive detection devices with very low power consumption and fast time-stamping capability. We tested here thin silicon pixel...

  6. The electronics hybrid of the ATLAS-SCT endcap detector modules

    CERN Document Server

    Ketterer, C

    2004-01-01

    An electronics hybrid has been developed for the ATLAS silicon microstrip tracker endcaps. The high-density interconnect board carries 12 readout ASICs, as well as ASICs for the optical data transmission. Special requirements are that this hybrid has to be double sided, radiation hard, and low mass. A six-layer flexible circuit in copper-polyimide technology has been chosen for this purpose. It is folded around a highly heat conducting carbon-carbon composite substrate to form the rigid double-sided hybrid. Adequate thermal, mechanical, and electrical performance of the hybrid has been demonstrated. The production of the hybrids started in May 2003. (12 refs).

  7. hybridMANTIS: a CPU-GPU Monte Carlo method for modeling indirect x-ray detectors with columnar scintillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Diksha; Badal, Andreu; Badano, Aldo

    2012-04-21

    The computational modeling of medical imaging systems often requires obtaining a large number of simulated images with low statistical uncertainty which translates into prohibitive computing times. We describe a novel hybrid approach for Monte Carlo simulations that maximizes utilization of CPUs and GPUs in modern workstations. We apply the method to the modeling of indirect x-ray detectors using a new and improved version of the code MANTIS, an open source software tool used for the Monte Carlo simulations of indirect x-ray imagers. We first describe a GPU implementation of the physics and geometry models in fastDETECT2 (the optical transport model) and a serial CPU version of the same code. We discuss its new features like on-the-fly column geometry and columnar crosstalk in relation to the MANTIS code, and point out areas where our model provides more flexibility for the modeling of realistic columnar structures in large area detectors. Second, we modify PENELOPE (the open source software package that handles the x-ray and electron transport in MANTIS) to allow direct output of location and energy deposited during x-ray and electron interactions occurring within the scintillator. This information is then handled by optical transport routines in fastDETECT2. A load balancer dynamically allocates optical transport showers to the GPU and CPU computing cores. Our hybridMANTIS approach achieves a significant speed-up factor of 627 when compared to MANTIS and of 35 when compared to the same code running only in a CPU instead of a GPU. Using hybridMANTIS, we successfully hide hours of optical transport time by running it in parallel with the x-ray and electron transport, thus shifting the computational bottleneck from optical tox-ray transport. The new code requires much less memory than MANTIS and, asa result, allows us to efficiently simulate large area detectors.

  8. Research and development of a gaseous detector PIM (parallel ionization multiplier) dedicated to particle tracking under high hadron rates; Recherche et developpement d'un detecteur gazeux PIM (Parallel Ionization Multiplier) pour la trajectographie de particules sous un haut flux de hadrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beucher, J

    2007-10-15

    PIM (Parallel Ionization Multiplier) is a multi-stage micro-pattern gaseous detector using micro-meshes technology. This new device, based on Micromegas (micro-mesh gaseous structure) detector principle of operation, offers good characteristics for minimum ionizing particles track detection. However, this kind of detectors placed in hadron environment suffers discharges which degrade sensibly the detection efficiency and account for hazard to the front-end electronics. In order to minimize these strong events, it is convenient to perform charges multiplication by several successive steps. Within the framework of a European hadron physics project we have investigated the multi-stage PIM detector for high hadrons flux application. For this part of research and development, a systematic study for many geometrical configurations of a two amplification stages separated with a transfer space operated with the gaseous mixture Ne + 10% CO{sub 2} has been performed. Beam tests realised with high energy hadrons at CERN facility have given that discharges probability could be strongly reduced with a suitable PIM device. A discharges rate lower to 10{sup 9} by incident hadron and a spatial resolution of 51 {mu}m have been measured at the beginning efficiency plateau (>96 %) operating point. (author)

  9. Evaluation of Polarization Effects of e- Collection Schottky CdTe Medipix3RX Hybrid Pixel Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astromskas, Vytautas; Gimenez, Eva N.; Lohstroh, Annika; Tartoni, Nicola

    2016-02-01

    This paper focuses on the evaluation of operational conditions such as temperature, exposure time and flux on the polarization of a Schottky electron collection CdTe detector. A Schottky e- collection CdTe Medipix3RX hybrid pixel detector was developed as a part of the CALIPSO-HIZPAD2 EU project. The 128 ×128 pixel matrix and 0.75 mm thick CdTe sensor bump-bonded to Medipix3RX readout chips enabled the study of the polarization effects. Single and quad module Medipix3RX chips were used which had 128 ×128 and 256 ×256 pixel matrices, respectively. This study reports the sensor-level and pixel-level polarization effects of the detector obtained from a laboratory X-ray source. We report that the sensor-level polarization is highly dependent on temperature, flux and exposure time. Furthermore, the study of pixel-level polarization effects led to identification of a new type of pixel behaviour that is characterised by three distinct phases and, thus, named “tri-phase” (3-P) pixels. The 3-P pixels were the dominant cause of degradation of the flat-field image uniformity under high flux operation. A new method of identifying the optimum operational conditions that utilises a criterion related to the 3-P pixels is proposed. A generated optimum operational conditions chart under the new method is reported. The criterion is used for bias voltage reset depolarization of the detector. The method successfully represented the dependency of polarization on temperature, flux and exposure time and was reproducible for multiple sensors. Operating the detector under the 3-P pixel criterion resulted in the total efficiency not falling below 95%.

  10. A detector insert based on continuous scintillators for hybrid MR–PET imaging of the human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rato Mendes, P., E-mail: pedro.rato@ciemat.es [CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Cuerdo, R.; Sarasola, I.; García de Acilu, P.; Navarrete, J.; Vela, O.; Oller, J.C.; Cela, J.M. [CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Núñez, L.; Pastrana, M. [Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro Majadahonda, Manuel de Falla 1, 28222 Majadahonda (Spain); Romero, L.; Willmott, C. [CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-02-21

    We are developing a positron emission tomography (PET) insert for existing magnetic resonance (MR) equipment, aiming at hybrid MR–PET imaging. Our detector block design is based on trapezoid-shaped LYSO:Ce monolithic scintillators coupled to magnetically compatible Hamamatsu S8550-02 silicon avalanche photodiode (APD) matrices with a dedicated ASIC front-end readout from GammaMedica-Ideas (Fornebu, Norway). The detectors are position sensitive, capable of determining the incidence point of 511 keV gammas with an intrinsic spatial resolution on the order of 2 mm by means of supervised learning neural-network (NN) algorithms. These algorithms, apart from providing continuous coordinates, are also intrinsically corrected for depth of interaction effects and thus parallax-free. Recently we have implemented an advanced prototype featuring two heads with four detector blocks each and final front-end and readout electronics, improving the spatial resolution of reconstructed point source images down to 1.7 mm full width at half maximum (FWHM). Presently we are carrying out operational tests of components and systems under magnetic fields using a 3 T MR scanner. In this paper we present a description of our project, a summary of the results obtained with laboratory prototypes, and the strategy to build and install the complete system at the nuclear medicine department of a collaborating hospital.

  11. A detector insert based on continuous scintillators for hybrid MR-PET imaging of the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rato Mendes, P.; Cuerdo, R.; Sarasola, I.; García de Acilu, P.; Navarrete, J.; Vela, O.; Oller, J. C.; Cela, J. M.; Núñez, L.; Pastrana, M.; Romero, L.; Willmott, C.

    2013-02-01

    We are developing a positron emission tomography (PET) insert for existing magnetic resonance (MR) equipment, aiming at hybrid MR-PET imaging. Our detector block design is based on trapezoid-shaped LYSO:Ce monolithic scintillators coupled to magnetically compatible Hamamatsu S8550-02 silicon avalanche photodiode (APD) matrices with a dedicated ASIC front-end readout from GammaMedica-Ideas (Fornebu, Norway). The detectors are position sensitive, capable of determining the incidence point of 511 keV gammas with an intrinsic spatial resolution on the order of 2 mm by means of supervised learning neural-network (NN) algorithms. These algorithms, apart from providing continuous coordinates, are also intrinsically corrected for depth of interaction effects and thus parallax-free. Recently we have implemented an advanced prototype featuring two heads with four detector blocks each and final front-end and readout electronics, improving the spatial resolution of reconstructed point source images down to 1.7 mm full width at half maximum (FWHM). Presently we are carrying out operational tests of components and systems under magnetic fields using a 3 T MR scanner. In this paper we present a description of our project, a summary of the results obtained with laboratory prototypes, and the strategy to build and install the complete system at the nuclear medicine department of a collaborating hospital.

  12. The TDCpix readout ASIC: A 75ps resolution timing front-end for the NA62 Gigatracker hybrid pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, A; Bonacini, S; Jarron, P; Kaplon, J; Morel, M; Noy, M; Perktold, L; Poltorak, K

    2013-01-01

    The TDCpix is a novel pixel readout ASIC for the NA62 Gigatracker detector. NA62 is a new experiment being installed at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. Its Gigatracker detector shall provide on-beam tracking and time stamping of individual particles with a time resolution of 150 ps rms. It will consist of three tracking stations, each with one hybrid pixel sensor. The peak fl ow of particles crossing the detector modules reaches 1.27 MHz/mm 2 for a total rate of about 0.75 GHz. Ten TDCpix chips will be bump-bonded to every silicon pixel sensor. Each chip shall perform time stamping of 100 M particle hits per second with a detection ef fi ciency above 99% and a timing accuracy better than 200 ps rms for an overall three-station-setup time resolution of better than 150 ps. The TDCpix chip has been designed in a 130 nm CMOS technology. It will feature 45 40 square pixels of 300 300 μ m 2 and a complex End of Column peripheral region including an array of TDCs based on DLLs, four high speed serializers, a low...

  13. The Design and Implementation in $0.13\\mu m$ CMOS of an Algorithm Permitting Spectroscopic Imaging with High Spatial Resolution for Hybrid Pixel Detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Ballabriga, Rafael; Campbell, Michael; Vilasís-Cardona, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    Advances in pixel detector technology are opening up new possibilities in many fields of science. Modern High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments use pixel detectors in tracking systems where excellent spatial resolution, precise timing and high signal-to-noise ratio are required for accurate and clean track reconstruction. Many groups are working worldwide to adapt the hybrid pixel technology to other fields such as medical X-ray radiography, protein structure analysis or neutron imaging. The M...

  14. Design and development of a vertex reconstruction for the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) data. Study of gaseous and silicon micro-strips detectors (MSGC); Conception d'un algorithme de reconstruction de vertex pour les donnees de CMS. Etude de detecteurs gazeux (MSGC) et silicium a micropistes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, St

    2002-12-01

    The work presented in this thesis has contributed to the development of the Compact Muon Solenoid detector (CMS) that will be installed at the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which will start running in summer 2007. This report is organised in three parts: the study of gaseous detectors and silicon micro-strips detectors, and a development of a software for the reconstruction and analysis of CMS data in the framework of ORCA. First, the micro-strips gaseous detectors (MSGC) study was on the ultimate critical irradiation test before their substitution in the CMS tracker. This test showed a really small number of lost anodes and a stable signal to noise ratio. This test proved that the described MSGC fulfill all the requirements to be integrated in the CMS tracker. The following contribution described a study of silicon micro-strips detectors and its electronics exposed to a 40 MHz bunched LHC like beam. These tests indicated a good behaviour of the data acquisition and control system. The signal to noise ratio, the bunch crossing identification and the cluster finding efficiency had also be analysed. The last study concern the design and the development of an ORCA algorithm dedicates to secondary vertex reconstruction. This iterative algorithm aims to be use for b tagging. This part analyse also primary vertex reconstruction in events without and with pile up. (author)

  15. Progress in GEM-based gaseous photomultipliers

    CERN Document Server

    Chechik, R; Breskin, Amos; Buzulutskov, A F; Guedes, G P; Mörmann, D; Singh, B K

    2003-01-01

    We discuss recent progress in gaseous photomultipliers (GPMTs) comprising UV-to-visible spectral range photocathodes (PCs) coupled to multiple Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM). The PCs may be either semitransparent or reflective ones directly deposited on the first-GEM surface. These detectors provide high gain, even in noble gases, are sensitive to single photons, have nanosecond time resolution, and offer good localization. The operation of CsI-based GPMTs in CF sub 4 opens new applications in Cherenkov detectors, where both the radiator and the photosensor operate in the same gas. The latest results on sealed visible-light detectors, combining bialkali PCs and Kapton-made GEMs are presented.

  16. Hybrid Pathogen DNA Detector:Users? Manual v1.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schikora, B; Hietala, S; Shi, L; Lee, L; Skowronski, E; Ardans, A

    2004-01-12

    The Hybrid Unit uses an advanced fluidic design to move very small reagent samples through many unit operations to complete complex molecular biology experiments. The primary use of this machine is to analyze a small liquid sample for the highly specific presence of select agents known to be used in bio-warfare. The Hybrid Unit is coupled with a Luminex bead detection unit for the multiplexing of many assays in one tube. Because of this, multiple controls can be included in each run to avoid false positives. The built-in flow through PCR unit amplifies specific DNA signatures and increases sensitivity, thereby limiting exposure of handlers to highly concentrated (and potentially hazardous, spore containing) sample volumes. The reproducible precision of the Hybrid Unit also gives confidence when a signal is given that detects an agent in a given sample.

  17. Future semiconductor detectors using advanced microelectronics with post-processing, hybridization and packaging technology

    CERN Document Server

    Heijne, Erik H M

    2005-01-01

    Several challenges for tracking with semiconductor detectors in the high rate environment of future elementary particle physics experiments are discussed, such as reduction of spurious hits and ambiguities and identification of short-lived 'messenger' particles inside jets. To meet these requirements the instrumentation increasingly calls on progress in microelectronics. Advanced silicon integration technology for 3D packaging now offers post-processing of CMOS such as wafer thinning to 50µm and through-wafer vias of <10µm. These technologies might be applied to create new tracking detectors which can handle vertexing under the difficult rate conditions. The sensor layers can be only ~50µm thick with low noise performance and better radiation hardness by using small volume pixels. Multi-layer sensors with integrated coincidence signal processing could discriminate real tracks from various sources of background. Even in a ~400µm thick 3D assembly the vectors of tracks can be determined in ~10 degree bin...

  18. Development of a hybrid MSGC detector for thermal neutron imaging with a MHz data acquisition and histogramming system

    CERN Document Server

    Gebauer, B; Richter, G; Levchanovsky, F V; Nikiforov, A

    2001-01-01

    For thermal neutron imaging at the next generation of high-flux pulsed neutron sources a large area and fourfold segmented, hybrid, low-pressure, two-dimensional position sensitive, microstrip gas chamber detector, fabricated in a multilayer technology on glass substrates, is presently being developed, which utilizes a thin composite sup 1 sup 5 sup 7 Gd/CsI neutron converter. The present article focusses on the readout scheme and the data acquisition (DAQ) system. For position encoding, interpolating and fast multihit delay line based electronics is applied with up to eightfold sub-segmentation per geometrical detector segment. All signals, i.e. position, time-of-flight and pulse-height signals, are fed into deadtime-less 8-channel multihit TDC chips with 120 ps LSB via constant fraction and time-over-threshold discriminators, respectively. The multihit capability is utilized to raise the count rate limit in combination with a sum check algorithm for disentangling pulses from different events. The first vers...

  19. Performance of a 256 pad hybrid photon detector for ring imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesi, E.; Martinengo, P.; Weilhammer, P.; Roe, S.; Jobez, J. P.; Seguinot, J.; Ypsilantis, T.; Dulinski, W.; Zichichi, A.

    1997-02-01

    We report a detailed experimental investigation of a proximity focused HPD with 256 pads of 4 × 4 mm 2 for applications to RICH detectors. A signal to noise ratio of 16 is obtained for single photoelectrons with a low noise (ENC ≤ 200 e) front-end electronics and 15.7 kV acceleration voltage. A single photoelectron detection efficiency of 95% is achieved with about 1% bias from electron back scattering.

  20. Performance of a 256 pad hybrid photon detector for ring imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Chesi, Enrico Guido; Roe, S; Weilhammer, Peter; Jobez, J P; Séguinot, Jacques; Ypsilantis, Thomas; Dulinski, W

    1997-01-01

    We report a detailed experimental investigation of a proximity focused JiIPD with 256 pads of 4 x 4 mm2 for applications on RICH detectors. A signal to noise ratio of 16 is obtained for single photoelectrons with a low noise (ENC I 200 e) front-end electronics and 15.7 kV acceleration voltage. A single photoelectron detection efficiency of 95% is achieved with about 1% bias from electron back scattering.

  1. Tests of a silica aerogel Cerenkov detector to be used in European Hybrid Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Carlson, P J; Kesteman, J; Norrby, J; Pingot, O; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Lancker, L

    1981-01-01

    An 18 module Cerenkov detector with a total sensitive area of 2.3 m /sup 2/ having silica aerogel as radiator is being tested in a particle beam at CERN PS. The modules having a sensitive area of 23*55 cm/sup 2/ give typically a Cerenkov signal for beta =1 particles of 12 photoelectrons for silica aerogel of refractive index 1.03 and a thickness of 15 cm. (0 refs).

  2. Positron imaging with multiwire proportional chamber-gamma converter hybrid detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, D.Y.H.

    1976-09-01

    A large area positron camera was developed using multiwire proportional chambers as detectors and electromagnetic delay lines for coordinate readout. Honeycomb structured gamma converters made of lead are coupled to the chambers for efficient gamma detection and good spatial resolution. Two opposing detectors, each having a sensitive area of 48 cm x 48 cm, are operated in coincidence for the detection of annihilation gammas (511 keV) from positron emitters. Detection efficiency of 4.2 percent per detector and spatial resolution of 6 to 7 mm FWHM at the mid-plane were achieved. The present camera operates at a maximum count rate of 24 K counts/min, limited by accidental coincidence. The theory for the gamma converter is presented along with a review of the operation of the multiwire proportional chamber and delay line readout. Calculated gamma converter efficiencies are compared with the measured results using a prototype test chamber. The characteristics of the positron camera system is evaluated, and the performance is shown to be consistent with calculation.

  3. Radiation Hard Hybrid Pixel Detectors, and a bbbar Cross Section Measurement at the CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Sibille, Jennifer Ann; Rohe, Tilman Volker

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of heavy flavor quark production at hadron colliders provide agood test of the perturbative quantum chromodynamics (pQCD) theory. Itis also essential to have a good understanding of the heavy quark productionin the search for new physics. Heavy quarks contribute to backgrounds andsignals in measurements of higher mass objects, such as the Higgs boson. Akey component to each of these measurements is good vertex resolution. Inorder to ensure reliable operation of the pixel detector, as well as confidencein the results of analyses utilizing it, it is important to study the effects ofthe radiation on the detector.In the first part of this dissertation, the design of the CMS silicon pixeldetector is described. Emphasis is placed on the effects of the high radiation environment on the detector operation. Measurements of the chargecollection efficiency, interpixel capacitance, and other properties of the pixelsensors as a function of the radiation damage are presented.In the second part, a measurem...

  4. Similarities and differences of recent hybrid pixel detectors for X-ray and high energy physics developed at the Paul Scherrer Institut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinti, G.; Bergamaschi, A.; Cartier, S.; Dinapoli, R.; Greiffenberg, D.; Horisberger, R.; Johnson, I.; Jungmann-Smith, J. H.; Mezza, D.; Mozzanica, A.; Schmitt, B.; Shi, X.

    2015-04-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors are being developed for both photon science and high energy physics. The article will cover similarities and differences in pixel detectors for both applications using two of the pixel detectors developed at the Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland) as examples: the EIGER photon counting detector and the psi46dig chip, which has been developed for the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) tracking pixel detector upgrade. EIGER is a single photon counting hybrid pixel detector for applications at synchrotron light sources in the energy range from a few to 25 keV. It is characterized by a small pixel size (75 × 75 μm2), high count rate capability (106 counts/pixel/s) and very high data rate, which reaches 6 Gb/s for a 256 × 256 pixel chip. The CMS pixel detector is designed to provide charge information from the pixels in the harsh radiation environment at the Large Hadron Collider. The short time between bunches of 25 ns and the high event rate at luminosity up to 2 × 1034cm-2s-1 require a detector with high hit efficiency, with good timing resolution and the ability to retain timestamp information for the hits. The readout architecture is based on the transfer of hits from the pixels to the periphery, where the trigger validation is performed before data transfer. The data rates of the digitized output reach 160 Mb/s for a 52×80 pixel chip.The specific timing and rate requirements for the detectors, the analog performances (minimum threshold and noise), the power consumption and the radiation hardness will be compared. An overview on future developments based on mutual learning and common solutions will be discussed.

  5. Gaseous tracking at linear hadron collider: Pushing the limits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gaseous detectors have been pushed to the limits when required to operate in the ferocious and aggressive rate environment of the new generation of HEP experiments. A great effort has resulted in the optimization and construction of large systems of gas detectors, some operational and some due for installation.

  6. Performance of a hybrid photon detector prototype with electrostatic cross-focussing and integrated silicon Pixel readout for Cherenkov ring detection

    CERN Document Server

    Alemi, M; Bibby, J H; Campbell, M; Duane, A; Easo, S; Gys, Thierry; Halley, A W; Piedigrossi, D; Puertolas, D; Rosso, E; Simmons, B; Snoeys, W; Websdale, David M; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, Ken H

    1999-01-01

    We report on the first test beam performance of a hybrid photon detector prototype, using binary readout electronics, intended for use in the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The photon detector is based on a cross-focussed image intensifier tube geometry. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array bump-bonded to a binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The detector has been installed in a quarter-scale prototype vessel of the LHCb ring imaging Cherenkov system. Focussed ring images produced by 120 GeV/c negative pions traversing an air radiator have been recorded. The observed light yield and Cherenkov angle resolution are discussed.

  7. The LDC detector concept

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In preparation of the experimental program at the international linear collider. (ILC), the large detector concept (LDC) is being developed. The main points of the LDC are a large volume gaseous tracking system, combined with high precision vertex detector and an extremely granular calorimeter. The main design ...

  8. Test beam analysis of ultra-thin hybrid pixel detector assemblies with Timepix readout ASICs

    CERN Document Server

    Alipour Tehrani, Niloufar; Dannheim, Dominik; Firu, Elena; Kulis, Szymon; Redford, Sophie; Sicking, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The requirements for the vertex detector at the proposed Compact Linear Collider imply a very small material budget: less than 0.2% of a radiation length per detection layer including services and mechanical supports. We present here a study using Timepix readout ASICs hybridised to pixel sensors of 50 − 500 μm thickness, including assemblies with 100 μm thick sensors bonded to thinned 100μm thick ASICs. Sensors from three producers (Advacam, Micron Semiconductor Ltd, Canberra) with different edge termination technologies (active edge, slim edge) were bonded to Timepix ASICs. These devices were characterised with the EUDET telescope at the DESY II test beam using 5.6 GeV electrons. Their performance for the detection and tracking of minimum ionising particles was evaluated in terms of charge sharing, detection efficiency, single-point resolution and energy deposition.

  9. Characterisation of a GaAs(Cr) Medipix2 hybrid pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Tlustos, L; Shelkov, G

    2011-01-01

    A semi-insulating GaAs(Cr) sensor of 300 pm thickness with a bulk resistivity of 10(9) Omega cm and no guard ring structures has been bump bonded to a Medipix2 readout chip. The room temperature spectroscopic response of this device to fluorescence photons in the energy range from 8 to 28 key at different sensor biases is measured and compared to the response of a reference detector with a 300 mu m thick Si sensor. The measured responses show that the full volume of the GaAs(Cr) is active and indicate a charge collection efficiency of 90\\%. The spatial resolution if this device is 8 lp/mm. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A hybrid method for coupled neutron-ion transport calculations for {sup 10}B and {sup 6}LiF coated and perforated detector efficiencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, C.J. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)], E-mail: cjs8888@ksu.edu; Shultis, J.K.; McNeil, W.J.; Unruh, T.C.; Rice, B.B.; McGregor, D.S. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)

    2007-09-21

    A hybrid method for neutron-ion transport has been developed and applied to modeling coated and perforated neutron semiconductor detectors. The method couples the MCNP transport code developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory and a specialized ion transport code. Output from MCNP is passed to the ion transport code to perform ion energy deposition calculations, and in this manner the two codes are married. The process is controlled by a PERL script. Angle dependent efficiency calculation results for perforated rod detectors are presented, and neutron absorption efficiencies are presented for channel and chevron type perforations to show how problems with rod perforations may be overcome.

  11. Flip chip assembly of thinned chips for hybrid pixel detector applications

    CERN Document Server

    Fritzsch, T; Woehrmann, M; Rothermund, M; Huegging, F; Ehrmann, O; Oppermann, H; Lang, K.D

    2014-01-01

    There is a steady trend to ultra-thin microelectronic devices. Especially for future particle detector systems a reduced readout chip thickness is required to limit the loss of tracking precision due to scattering. The reduction of silicon thickness is performed at wafer level in a two-step thinning process. To minimize the risk of wafer breakage the thinned wafer needs to be handled by a carrier during the whole process chain of wafer bumping. Another key process is the flip chip assembly of thinned readout chips onto thin sensor tiles. Besides the prevention of silicon breakage the minimization of chip warpage is one additional task for a high yield and reliable flip chip process. A new technology using glass carrier wafer will be described in detail. The main advantage of this technology is the combination of a carrier support during wafer processing and the chip support during flip chip assembly. For that a glass wafer is glue-bonded onto the backside of the thinned readout chip wafer. After the bump depo...

  12. In situ micro-focused X-ray beam characterization with a lensless camera using a hybrid pixel detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachatkou, Anton; Marchal, Julien; van Silfhout, Roelof

    2014-03-01

    Results of studies on micro-focused X-ray beam diagnostics using an X-ray beam imaging (XBI) instrument based on the idea of recording radiation scattered from a thin foil of a low-Z material with a lensless camera are reported. The XBI instrument captures magnified images of the scattering region within the foil as illuminated by the incident beam. These images contain information about beam size, beam position and beam intensity that is extracted during dedicated signal processing steps. In this work the use of the device with beams for which the beam size is significantly smaller than that of a single detector pixel is explored. The performance of the XBI device equipped with a state-of-the-art hybrid pixel X-ray imaging sensor is analysed. Compared with traditional methods such as slit edge or wire scanners, the XBI micro-focused beam characterization is significantly faster and does not interfere with on-going experiments. The challenges associated with measuring micrometre-sized beams are described and ways of optimizing the resolution of beam position and size measurements of the XBI instrument are discussed.

  13. A hybrid ultrovilet detector based on polystyrene sulfate modified TiO2 nanocrystalline film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wenji; Dong, Yanan; Yan, Xiaoming; Ding, Rui; He, Gaohong

    2017-08-01

    A hybrid polystyrene sulfate (PSS) modified TiO2 nanocrystalline (NC) composite film based ultrovilet (UV) photodetector (PD) was proposed in this study. TiO2 NC film with uniform size distribution was deposited on FTO glass by doctor blading P25 TiO2 nanoparticles. Through layer-by-layer self-assembly, PSS/TiO2 composite film was prepared and it exhibits a high responsivity of 602 AW-1, a large photo-to-dark current ratio of 193200% and a low dark current of 7 nA at only 0.1 V bias. The obtained high responsivity is almost 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than that of mostly reported TiO2 NC film based UV PDs. The reason is attributed to the injection of electrons from PSS into conduction band of TiO2 and the separation improvement of photogenerated electrons and holes by the rutile/anatase junction in the TiO2 NC film. Considering the high responsive performances and facile low-cost fabrication, the proposed PSS/TiO2 composite film based UV PD shows a bright prospect in large-area UV detection application.

  14. Trends in the development of large area photon detectors for Cherenkov light imaging applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nappi, E

    2003-01-01

    Since the successful operations of hi-tech devices at OMEGA, DELPHI and SLD, the technique of Cherenkov light imaging has gone through an impressive and fruitful evolution driven by the conception of novel large area photon detectors. The well-assessed potentialities of thin CsI films, employed as reflective photoconverters in gas counters operated at atmospheric pressure, will be compared with the promising features of hybrid and multianode vacuum photomultipliers. Recently proposed single-photon gaseous detectors based on GEMs will also be reviewed.

  15. The Design and Implementation in $0.13\\mu m$ CMOS of an Algorithm Permitting Spectroscopic Imaging with High Spatial Resolution for Hybrid Pixel Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Ballabriga, Rafael; Vilasís-Cardona, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    Advances in pixel detector technology are opening up new possibilities in many fields of science. Modern High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments use pixel detectors in tracking systems where excellent spatial resolution, precise timing and high signal-to-noise ratio are required for accurate and clean track reconstruction. Many groups are working worldwide to adapt the hybrid pixel technology to other fields such as medical X-ray radiography, protein structure analysis or neutron imaging. The Medipix3 chip is a 256x256 channel hybrid pixel detector readout chip working in Single Photon Counting Mode. It has been developed with a new front-end architecture aimed at eliminating the spectral distortion produced by charge diffusion in highly segmented semiconductor detectors. In the new architecture neighbouring pixels communicate with one another. Charges can be summed event-by-event and the incoming quantum can be assigned as a single hit to the pixel with the biggest charge deposit. In the case where incoming X-...

  16. Hybrid PET/MRI insert: B0 field optimization by applying active and passive shimming on PET detector level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehner, Jakob [Department of Physics of Molecular Imaging Systems, Institute for Experimental Molecular Imaging, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Weissler, Bjoern [Philips Research Europe, Aachen (Germany); Schulz, Volkmar [Department of Physics of Molecular Imaging Systems, Institute for Experimental Molecular Imaging, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Philips Research Europe, Aachen (Germany)

    2014-07-29

    Combining PET and MRI into a hybrid device is challenging since both systems might influence each other. A typical interference problem of such a combined device is the distortion of the MRI’s B{sub 0} field distribution due to the material brought inside the MRI’s FOV which is in particular challenging for small-bore PET-systems. High field homogeneity is needed for a good MRI acquisition in general as well as in certain applications. Typically, active shimming using dedicated coils is applied to improve the field homogeneity. However, these techniques are limited especially for localized distortion profiles with higher-order characteristics caused by PET/MRI inserts. As a consequence, we are exploring the potential application of shimming on PET detector level (for the Hyperion-II{sup D} PET/MRI insert), meaning that the distortion profile caused by PET modules is compensated using additional magnetic materials (passive shimming) and DC coils (active shimming). To explore the technique, B{sub 0} field measurements have been performed using a whole-body phantom in combination with the MRI body coil. An FFE sequence was used to measure distortion maps of DC loops and small magnetic objects (capacitors, ferrites). These distortion maps served as input for a software framework which has been written to perform the field optimization. The implementation was verified by measurements and fits were performed to extract characteristic parameters of the tested objects. Finally, the implemented software framework was used to homogenize a measured distortion map produced by a single PET module by superimposing distortion corrections from additional simulated materials. The resulting superimposed distortion map showed a significantly improved B{sub 0} field map quality (reduced spectral width and improved homogeneity). The simulated susceptibility distribution will be applied on PET module level and tested in experiments. Results and details about this study will be

  17. Conceptual design of a hybrid neutron-gamma detector for study of β-delayed neutrons at the RIB facility of RIKEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarifeño-Saldivia, A.; Tain, J. L.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Calviño, F.; Cortés, G.; Phong, V. H.; Riego, A.; Agramunt, J.; Algora, A.; Brewer, N.; Caballero-Folch, R.; Coleman-Smith, P. J.; Davinson, T.; Dillmann, I.; Estradé, A.; Griffin, C. J.; Grzywacz, R.; Harkness-Brennan, L. J.; Kiss, G. G.; Kogimtzis, M.; Labiche, M.; Lazarus, I. H.; Lorusso, G.; Matsui, K.; Miernik, K.; Montes, F.; Morales, A. I.; Nishimura, S.; Page, R. D.; Podolyák, Z. S.; Pucknell, V. F. E.; Rasco, B. C.; Regan, P.; Rubio, B.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Saito, Y.; Sakurai, H.; Simpson, J.; Sokol, E.; Surman, R.; Svirkhin, A.; Thomas, S. L.; Tolosa, A.; Woods, P.

    2017-04-01

    The conceptual design of the BRIKEN neutron detector at the radioactive ion beam factory (RIBF) of the RIKEN Nishina Center is reported. The BRIKEN setup is a complex system aimed at detecting heavy-ion implants, β particles, γ rays and β-delayed neutrons. The whole setup includes the Advanced Implantation Detection Array (AIDA), two HPGe Clover detectors and up to 166 3He-filled counters embedded in a high-density polyethylene moderator. The design is quite complex due to the large number and different types of 3He-tubes involved and the additional constraints introduced by the ancillary detectors for charged particles and γ rays. This article reports on a novel methodology developed for the conceptual design and optimisation of the 3He-counter array, aiming for the best possible performance in terms of neutron detection. The algorithm is based on a geometric representation of two selected detector parameters of merit, namely, the average neutron detection efficiency and the efficiency flatness as a function of a reduced number of geometric variables. The response of the neutron detector is obtained from a systematic Monte Carlo simulation implemented in GEANT4. The robustness of the algorithm allowed us to design a versatile detection system, which operated in hybrid mode includes the full neutron counter and two clover detectors for high-precision gamma spectroscopy. In addition, the system can be reconfigured into a compact mode by removing the clover detectors and re-arranging the 3He tubes in order to maximize the neutron detection performance. Both operation modes shows a rather flat and high average efficiency. In summary, we have designed a system which shows an average efficiency for hybrid mode (3He tubes + clovers) of 68.6% and 64% for neutron energies up to 1 and 5 MeV, respectively. For compact mode (only 3He tubes), the average efficiency is 75.7% and 71% for neutron energies up to 1 and 5 MeV, respectively. The performance of the BRIKEN

  18. A concise quantum efficiency measurement system for gaseous photomultipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriya, Toru [Department of Physics, Yamagata University, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Tokanai, Fuyuki, E-mail: tokanai@sci.kj.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Yamagata University, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Okazaki, Keisuke; Sakurai, Hirohisa; Gunji, Shuichi [Department of Physics, Yamagata University, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Kawabata, Hironobu; Sohtome, Takayuki [BUNKOUKEIKI Co., Ltd., Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0033 (Japan); Sumiyoshi, Takayuki [Graduate School of the Faculty of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Sugiyama, Hirioyuki; Okada, Teruyuki; Ohishi, Noboru [Electron Tube Division, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Shizuoka 438-0193 (Japan); Kishimoto, Syunji [Institute of Material Structure Science, KEK, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)

    2013-12-21

    We have been developing gaseous photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) with a bialkali photocathode combined with micropattern gas detectors (MPGDs). The sensitivity of a PMT is described in terms of its quantum efficiency (QE). The QE is very important in many experiments, particularly when dealing with low photon statistics. A concise QE measurement system has been developed to evaluate the characteristics of a sealed gaseous PMT with a bialkali photocathode. This QE measurement system consists of a Xe arc lamp source, reflective optics and filters, a monochromator, and a reference Si photodiode detector. Using the system, we evaluated the QE, gain, and long-term stability of the gaseous PMT. Here, we report the results of our evaluation.

  19. Gaseous fuel reactor research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, K.; Schneider, R. T.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reviews studies dealing with the concept of a gaseous fuel reactor and describes the structure and plans of the current NASA research program of experiments on uranium hexafluoride systems and uranium plasma systems. Results of research into the basic properties of uranium plasmas and fissioning gases are reported. The nuclear pumped laser is described, and the main results of experiments with these devices are summarized.

  20. Performance of a radiation hard 128 channel analogue front-end chip for the readout of a silicon-based hybrid photon detector

    CERN Document Server

    Lacasta, C; Dulinski, W; Chesi, Enrico Guido; Joram, C; Kaplon, J; Lozano-Bahilo, J; Séguinot, Jacques; Szczygiel, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Ypsilantis, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    The performance is described of a front-end chip, the SCT128A-LC chip, originally developed for the readout of a silicon based Hybrid Photon Detector (HPD), which is part of an RICH detector to be run in an LHC experimental environment. The relatively low signal charge from single photoelectrons, impinging on the silicon pad sensor, put very stringent requirements on the noise performance of the front-end chip. An absolute noise calibration using X-ray sources and a **2**4**1Am gamma source was performed. It is demonstrated that sufficiently good signal over noise ratio can be obtained to use this chip for the read-out of an HPD in LHC experiments.

  1. Registration procedure for spatial correlation of physical energy deposition of particle irradiation and cellular response utilizing cell-fluorescent ion track hybrid detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, M.; Zimmermann, F.; Schlegel, J.; Schwager, C.; Debus, J.; Jäkel, O.; Abdollahi, A.; Greilich, S.

    2016-09-01

    The hybrid technology cell-fluorescent ion track hybrid detector (Cell-Fit-HD) enables the investigation of radiation-related cellular events along single ion tracks on the subcellular scale in clinical ion beams. The Cell-Fit-HD comprises a fluorescent nuclear track detector (FNTD, the physical compartment), a device for individual particle detection and a substrate for viable cell-coating, i.e. the biological compartment. To date both compartments have been imaged sequentially in situ by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). This is yet in conflict with a functional read-out of the Cell-Fit-HD utilizing a fast live-cell imaging of the biological compartment with low phototoxicity on greater time scales. The read-out of the biological from the physical compartment was uncoupled. A read-out procedure was developed to image the cell layer by conventional widefield microscopy whereas the FNTD was imaged by CLSM. Point mapping registration of the confocal and widefield imaging data was performed. Non-fluorescent crystal defects (spinels) visible in both read-outs were used as control point pairs. The accuracy achieved was on the sub-µm scale. The read-out procedure by widefield microscopy does not impair the unique ability of spatial correlation by the Cell-Fit-HD. The uncoupling will enlarge the application potential of the hybrid technology significantly. The registration allows for an ultimate correlation of microscopic physical beam parameters and cell kinetics on greater time scales. The method reported herein will be instrumental for the introduction of a novel generation of compact detectors facilitating biodosimetric research towards high-throughput analysis.

  2. Pixel Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Wermes, Norbert

    2005-01-01

    Pixel detectors for precise particle tracking in high energy physics have been developed to a level of maturity during the past decade. Three of the LHC detectors will use vertex detectors close to the interaction point based on the hybrid pixel technology which can be considered the state of the art in this field of instrumentation. A development period of almost 10 years has resulted in pixel detector modules which can stand the extreme rate and timing requirements as well as the very harsh radiation environment at the LHC without severe compromises in performance. From these developments a number of different applications have spun off, most notably for biomedical imaging. Beyond hybrid pixels, a number of monolithic or semi-monolithic developments, which do not require complicated hybridization but come as single sensor/IC entities, have appeared and are currently developed to greater maturity. Most advanced in terms of maturity are so called CMOS active pixels and DEPFET pixels. The present state in the ...

  3. Experimental MRI-SPECT insert system with Hybrid Semiconductor detectors Timepix for MR animal scanner Bruker 47/20

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zajíček, J.; Burian, M.; Soukup, P.; Novák, Vladimír; Macko, M.; Jakůbek, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, January (2017), č. článku P01015. ISSN 1748-0221 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : Gamma camera * SPECT * PET PET/CT * coronary CT angiography (CTA) * Gamma detectors (scintillators, CZT, HPG, HgI etc) * multi-modality systems * pixelated detectors and associated VLSI electronics Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-0221/12/01/P01015

  4. Characterisation of the UFXC32k hybrid pixel detector for time-resolved pump-probe diffraction experiments at Synchrotron SOLEIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawiec, A.; Maj, P.; Ciavardini, A.; Gryboś, P.; Laulhé, C.; Menneglier, C.; Szczygieł, R.

    2017-03-01

    The experimental set-up for time-resolved studies of ultra-fast photo-induced structural dynamics at the Synchrotron SOLEIL is based on a general pump-probe scheme that has been developed and implemented on the CRISTAL hard X-ray diffraction beamline [1,2]. In a so-called pump-probe cycle, the sample is excited with an ultra-short laser pulse of ≈40 fs duration (the pump), and induced changes in its atomic structure are studied by measuring, with a precisely controlled delay, a diffraction pattern from a single pulse of synchrotron radiation (the probe) with a 2-D pixel detector. An improvement to the classical scheme is proposed, where the sample's response is probed at two different delays after each laser excitation. The first measurement at short delays allows studying the photo-induced dynamics. The second one is a reference measurement taken after sample's relaxation, which permits detection of drifts in the experimental conditions (e.g. beam misalignment, sample degradation). A hybrid pixel detector with a very fast readout time, a high dynamic range and extended linearity was tested to achieve the experiment objectives. In this paper, the first results obtained with the UFXC32k single photon counting detector are presented.

  5. Gaseous fuel injection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, W.M.

    1997-12-18

    A fuel injection method and apparatus, suitable for use with an internal combustion engine operated on LPG, has a reservoir for LPG with an outlet connected via a pump and a non-return valve to a heating chamber which is preferably heated by hot air or hot water, and then via a gas pressure regulator to an injector. The apparatus operates such that LPG is pumped by the pump through the non-return valve to the heating chamber where the LPG is heated to allow gaseous LPG to be transmitted to the injector once a predetermined pressure set on the regulator has been reached, whereupon the injector injects the LPG into the crankcase, transfer ports, carburettor or cylinders of the internal combustion engine. The internal combustion engine may be a two-stroke engine, and lubricant may be injected into the engine along with the gaseous LPG using lubricant injection means that are arranged to adjust the amount of lubricant in accordance with engine speed, preferably by drawing the lubricant into the fuel flow by use of the venturi effect.(author) figs.

  6. P.I.X.S.C.A.N.: a micro-CT scanner for small animal based on hybrid pixel detectors; PIXSCAN: micro-tomodensitrometre a pixels hybrides pour le petit animal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoury, R

    2008-03-15

    Since more than a dozen years, efforts were led in the field of X-ray tomography for small animals, principally for the improvement of spatial resolution and the diminution of the absorbed dose. The C.P.P.M. developed the micro-CT P.I.X.S.C.A.N. based on the hybrid pixel detector X.P.A.D.2. In this context, my thesis work consists in studying the demonstrator P.I.X.S.C.A.N./X.P.A.D.2 and the contribution of the hybrid pixels in the imaging of small animals. A fast analytical simulation, FastSimu, was developed. An extrapolation of the performance of the demonstrator P.I.X.S.C.A.N, as well as the validation of the results obtained with the measured data, were led by means of the analytical simulator FastSimu. The demonstrator P.I.X.S.C.A.N./X.P.A.D.2 allowed to obtain reconstructed images with a rather good quality for a relatively weak absorbed dose. Its spatial resolution is degraded by the high number of defective pixels of the detector X.P.A.D.2. Beyond this study, a new version of the demonstrator P.I.X.S.C.A.N./X.P.A.D.2 is under construction. This latter, characterized by two and a half times smaller pixels and about no defective pixels will bring a considerable improvement on spatial resolution. (author)

  7. Nanoimprinted Hybrid Metal-Semiconductor Plasmonic Multilayers with Controlled Surface Nano Architecture for Applications in NIR Detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Khosroabadi, Akram A.; Gangopadhyay, Palash; Hernandez, Steven; Kim, Kyungjo; Peyghambarian, Nasser; Norwood, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    We present a proof of concept for tunable plasmon resonance frequencies in a core shell nano-architectured hybrid metal-semiconductor multilayer structure, with Ag as the active shell and ITO as the dielectric modulation media. Our method relies on the collective change in the dielectric function within the metal semiconductor interface to control the surface. Here we report fabrication and optical spectroscopy studies of large-area, nanostructured, hybrid silver and indium tin oxide (ITO) st...

  8. Development of a Schottky CdTe Medipix3RX hybrid photon counting detector with spatial and energy resolving capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimenez, E.N., E-mail: Eva.Gimenez@diamond.ac.uk [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Campus, Oxforshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Astromskas, V. [University of Surrey (United Kingdom); Horswell, I.; Omar, D.; Spiers, J.; Tartoni, N. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Campus, Oxforshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-11

    A multichip CdTe-Medipix3RX detector system was developed in order to bring the advantages of photon-counting detectors to applications in the hard X-ray range of energies. The detector head consisted of 2×2 Medipix3RX ASICs bump-bonded to a 28 mm×28 mm e{sup −} collection Schottky contact CdTe sensor. Schottky CdTe sensors undergo performance degrading polarization which increases with temperature, flux and the longer the HV is applied. Keeping the temperature stable and periodically refreshing the high voltage bias supply was used to minimize the polarization and achieve a stable and reproducible detector response. This leads to good quality images and successful results on the energy resolving capabilities of the system. - Highlights: • A high atomic number (CdTe sensor based) photon-counting detector was developed. • Polarization effects affected the image were minimized by regularly refreshing the bias voltage and stabilizing the temperature. • Good spatial resolution and image quality was achieved following this procedure.

  9. GASEOUS DISCHARGE DEVICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, J.D.

    1961-01-10

    An extremely compact two-terminal gaseous discharge device is described that is capable of producing neutrons in copious quantities, relatively high energy ions, intense x rays, and the like. Principal novelty resides in the provision of a crossed electric-magnetic field region in the discharge envelope that traps electrons and accelerates them to very high energies to provide an intense ionizing medium adjacent the anode of the device for ionizing gas therein with extremely high efficiency. In addition, the crossed-field trapping region holds the electrons close to the anode whereby the acceleration of ions to the cathode is not materially effected by the electron sheath and the ions assume substantially the full energy of the anodecathode potential drop. (auth)

  10. Study and making of a quick system used for the localisation of X-rays in gaseous detectors; Etude et realisation d`un systeme rapide pour la localisation des rayons X dans les detecteurs gazeux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chemloul, M.

    1995-02-01

    The project comprises the design of an X-ray detection and position-sensitive system for diffraction experiments at the ERSF synchrotron. The two detectors constructed are gas-filled multiwire proportional chambers. The readout of the ID detector is performed through a 500 ns delay line. In the 2D detector, the centroid of the first coordinate is determined by a RLC line which is a combination of a delay line and the charge division one. This method is a result of an investigation of a delay balance based method. Besides, a parallel readout of the anode wires provides the second coordinate. The signal processing is performed by a common electronics. However, both methods used here require a fast and high resolution time measurement. Hence, a time-to-digital converter was developed and dedicated to the experiment. The data acquisition system is based on a PC board driven by a software developed under Windows system. (author). 39 refs., 80 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Simulation results for PLATO: a prototype hybrid X-ray photon counting detector with a low energy threshold for fusion plasma diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, A.; Menouni, M.; Pangaud, P.; Fenzi, C.; Colledani, G.; Moureau, G.; Escarguel, A.; Morel, C.

    2017-01-01

    PLATO is a prototype hybrid X-ray photon counting detector that has been designed to meet the specifications for plasma diagnostics for the WEST tokamak platform (Tungsten (W) Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) in southern France, with potential perspectives for ITER. PLATO represents a customized solution that fulfills high sensitivity, low dispersion and high photon counting rate. The PLATO prototype matrix is composed of 16 × 18 pixels with a 70 μm pixel pitch. New techniques have been used in analog sensitive blocks to minimize noise coupling through supply rails and substrate, and to suppress threshold dispersion across the matrix. The PLATO ASIC is designed in CMOS 0.13 μm technology and was submitted for a fabrication run in June 2016. The chip is designed to be bump-bonded to a silicon sensor. This paper presents pixel architecture as well as simulation results while highlighting novel solutions.

  12. In-house time-resolved photocrystallography on the millisecond timescale using a gated X-ray hybrid pixel area detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaretto, Nicolas; Schaniel, Dominik; Alle, Paul; Wenger, Emmanuel; Parois, Pascal; Fournier, Bertrand; Bendeif, El Eulmi; Palin, Cyril; Pillet, Sébastien

    2017-08-01

    With the remarkable progress of accelerator-based X-ray sources in terms of intensity and brightness, the investigation of structural dynamics from time-resolved X-ray diffraction methods is becoming widespread in chemistry, biochemistry and materials science applications. Diffraction patterns can now be measured down to the femtosecond time-scale using X-ray free electron lasers or table-top laser plasma X-ray sources. On the other hand, the recent developments in photon counting X-ray area detectors offer new opportunities for time-resolved crystallography. Taking advantage of the fast read-out, the internal stacking of recorded images, and the gating possibilities (electronic shutter) of the XPAD hybrid pixel detector, we implemented a laboratory X-ray diffractometer for time-resolved single-crystal X-ray diffraction after pulsed laser excitation, combined with transient optical absorption measurement. The experimental method and instrumental setup are described in detail, and validated using the photoinduced nitrosyl linkage isomerism of sodium nitroprusside, Na2[Fe(CN)5NO]·2H2O, as proof of principle. Light-induced Bragg intensity relative variations ΔI(hkl)/I(hkl) of the order of 1%, due to the photoswitching of the NO ligand, could be detected with a 6 ms acquisition window. The capabilities of such a laboratory time-resolved experiment are critically evaluated.

  13. Cool gaseous nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Shaver, P A; Pottasch, S R

    1979-01-01

    The electron temperatures of diffuse gaseous nebulae have long been thought to be close to 10/sup 4/K. Much lower temperatures were derived from some of the early radio continuum and recombination line work, but these were generally considered to be wrong for a variety of reasons. While there is little doubt that the bright nebulae do indeed have temperatures of approximately 8000-9000K, there are strong indications that some nebulae of lower densities have much lower temperatures,

  14. Detector and System Developments for LHC Detector Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Mandelli, Beatrice; Guida, Roberto; Rohne, Ole; Stapnes, Steinar

    2015-05-12

    The future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Physics program and the consequent improvement of the LHC accelerator performance set important challenges to all detector systems. This PhD thesis delineates the studies and strategies adopted to improve two different types of detectors: the replacement of precision trackers with ever increasingly performing silicon detectors, and the improvement of large gaseous detector systems by optimizing their gas mixtures and operation modes. Within the LHC tracker upgrade programs, the ATLAS Insertable B-layer (IBL) is the first major upgrade of a silicon-pixel detector. Indeed the overall ATLAS Pixel Detector performance is expected to degrade with the increase of luminosity and the IBL will recover the performance by adding a fourth innermost layer. The IBL Detector makes use of new pixel and front-end electronics technologies as well as a novel thermal management approach and light support and service structures. These innovations required complex developments and Quality Ass...

  15. High-performance direct conversion X-ray detectors based on sintered hybrid lead triiodide perovskite wafers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Shreetu; Fischer, René; Matt, Gebhard J.; Feldner, Patrick; Michel, Thilo; Osvet, Andres; Levchuk, Ievgen; Merle, Benoit; Golkar, Saeedeh; Chen, Haiwei; Tedde, Sandro F.; Schmidt, Oliver; Hock, Rainer; Rührig, Manfred; Göken, Mathias; Heiss, Wolfgang; Anton, Gisela; Brabec, Christoph J.

    2017-07-01

    Lead halide perovskite semiconductors are in general known to have an inherently high X-ray absorption cross-section and a significantly higher carrier mobility than any other low-temperature solution-processed semiconductor. So far, the processing of several-hundred-micrometres-thick high-quality crystalline perovskite films over a large area has been unresolved for efficient X-ray detection. In this Article, we present a mechanical sintering process to fabricate polycrystalline methyl ammonium lead triiodide perovskite (MAPbI3) wafers with millimetre thickness and well-defined crystallinity. Benchmarking of the MAPbI3 wafers against state-of-the-art CdTe detectors reveals competitive conversion efficiencies of 2,527 µC Gyair-1 cm-2 under 70 kVp X-ray exposure. The high ambipolar mobility-lifetime product of 2 × 10-4 cm2 V-1 is suggested to be responsible for this exceptionally high sensitivity. Our findings inform a new generation of highly efficient and low-cost X-ray detectors based on perovskite wafers.

  16. Nanoimprinted Hybrid Metal-Semiconductor Plasmonic Multilayers with Controlled Surface Nano Architecture for Applications in NIR Detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosroabadi, Akram A; Gangopadhyay, Palash; Hernandez, Steven; Kim, Kyungjo; Peyghambarian, Nasser; Norwood, Robert A

    2015-08-07

    We present a proof of concept for tunable plasmon resonance frequencies in a core shell nano-architectured hybrid metal-semiconductor multilayer structure, with Ag as the active shell and ITO as the dielectric modulation media. Our method relies on the collective change in the dielectric function within the metal semiconductor interface to control the surface. Here we report fabrication and optical spectroscopy studies of large-area, nanostructured, hybrid silver and indium tin oxide (ITO) structures, with feature sizes below 100 nm and a controlled surface architecture. The optical and electrical properties of these core shell electrodes, including the surface plasmon frequency, can be tuned by suitably changing the order and thickness of the dielectric layers. By varying the dimensions of the nanopillars, the surface plasmon wavelength of the nanopillar Ag can be tuned from 650 to 690 nm. Adding layers of ITO to the structure further shifts the resonance wavelength toward the IR region and, depending on the sequence and thickness of the layers within the structure, we show that such structures can be applied in sensing devices including enhancing silicon as a photodetection material.

  17. Nanoimprinted Hybrid Metal-Semiconductor Plasmonic Multilayers with Controlled Surface Nano Architecture for Applications in NIR Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram A. Khosroabadi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a proof of concept for tunable plasmon resonance frequencies in a core shell nano-architectured hybrid metal-semiconductor multilayer structure, with Ag as the active shell and ITO as the dielectric modulation media. Our method relies on the collective change in the dielectric function within the metal semiconductor interface to control the surface. Here we report fabrication and optical spectroscopy studies of large-area, nanostructured, hybrid silver and indium tin oxide (ITO structures, with feature sizes below 100 nm and a controlled surface architecture. The optical and electrical properties of these core shell electrodes, including the surface plasmon frequency, can be tuned by suitably changing the order and thickness of the dielectric layers. By varying the dimensions of the nanopillars, the surface plasmon wavelength of the nanopillar Ag can be tuned from 650 to 690 nm. Adding layers of ITO to the structure further shifts the resonance wavelength toward the IR region and, depending on the sequence and thickness of the layers within the structure, we show that such structures can be applied in sensing devices including enhancing silicon as a photodetection material.

  18. iPadPix—A novel educational tool to visualise radioactivity measured by a hybrid pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, O; Müller, A; Benoit, M

    2016-01-01

    With the ability to attribute signatures of ionising radiation to certain particle types, pixel detectors offer a unique advantage over the traditional use of Geiger-Müller tubes also in educational settings. We demonstrate in this work how a Timepix readout chip combined with a standard 300 μ m pixelated silicon sensor can be used to visualise radioactivity in real-time and by means of augmented reality. The chip family is the result of technology transfer from High Energy Physics at CERN and facilitated by the Medipix Collaboration. This article summarises the development of a prototype based on an iPad mini and open source software detailed in ref. [1]. Appropriate experimental activities that explore natural radioactivity and everyday objects are given to demonstrate the use of this new tool in educational settings.

  19. Novel Photon Detectors for RICH Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Va' vra, Jaroslav

    2003-01-08

    The paper describes recent developments in Photon Detectors useful for the Cherenkov Ring Imaging Applications (RICH). We discuss the Multi-anode PMTs, HPDs with PIN and APD diode readout, APDs working in a Geiger mode, and the gaseous multi-pattern detectors. The paper emphasizes their timing properties. We give equal chance to fragile, not yet entirely proven ideas.

  20. Simulation of single-event energy-deposition spreading in a hybrid pixellated detector for gamma imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Manach, E

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of the Medipix2 Collaboration, a new photon-counting chip is being developed made of a 256x256 array of 55 mu m-side square pixels. Although the chip was primarily developed for semiconductor X-ray imagers, we think that this type of device could be used in applications such as decommissioning of nuclear facilities where typical sources have gamma-ray energies in the range of a few hundred keV. In order to enhance the detection efficiency in this energy range, we envisage connecting the Medipix2 chip to a CdTe or CdZnTe substrate (at least 1 mm thick). The small pixel size, the thickness of the Cd(Zn)Te substrate and the high photon energy motivate us to estimate first the spatial energy spreading following a photon interaction inside the detector. Estimations were made using the MCNP Monte Carlo package by simulating the individual energy distribution for each primary photon interaction. As an illustration of our results, simulating a 660 keV gamma source, we found that there are two pixels ...

  1. Monitoring of absolute mirror alignment at COMPASS RICH-1 detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexeev, M.; Birsa, R.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Chiosso, M.; Ciliberti, P.; Dalla Torre, S.; Denisov, O.; Duic, V.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Gayde, J. Ch; Giorgi, M.; Gobbo, B.; Levorato, S.; Maggiora, A.; Martin, A.; Menon, G.; Panzieri, D.; Pesaro, G.; Polak, J.; Rocco, E.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Slunecka, M.; Sozzi, F.; Steiger, L.; Sulc, M.; Takekawa, S.; Tessarotto, F.

    2014-01-01

    The gaseous COMPASS RICH-1 detector uses two spherical mirror surfaces, segmented into 116 individual mirrors, to focus the Cherenkov photons onto the detector plane. Any mirror misalignment directly affects the detector resolution. The on-line Continuous Line Alignment and Monitoring (CLAM)

  2. Design and Characterization of a Gradient-Transparent RF Copper Shield for PET Detector Modules in Hybrid MR-PET Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berneking, Arne; Trinchero, Riccardo; Ha, YongHyun; Finster, Felix; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Lerche, Christoph; Shah, Nadim Jon

    2017-05-01

    This paper focuses on the design and the characterization of a frequency-selective shield for positron emission tomography (PET) detector modules of hybrid magnetic resonance-PET scanners, where the shielding of the PET cassettes is located close to the observed object. The proposed shielding configuration is designed and optimized to guarantee a high shielding effectiveness (SE) of up to 60 dB for B1-fields at the Larmor frequency of 64 MHz, thus preventing interactions between the radio-frequency (RF) coil and PET electronics. On the other hand, the shield is transparent to the gradient fields with the consequence that eddy-current artifacts in the acquired EPI images are significantly reduced with respect to the standard solid-shield configuration. The frequency-selective behavior of the shield is characterized and validated via simulation studies with CST MICROWAVE STUDIO in the megahertz and kilohertz range. Bench measurements with an RF coil built in-house demonstrated the high SE at the Larmor frequency. Moreover, measurements on a 4-T human scanner confirmed the abolishment of eddy current artifact and also provided an understanding of where the eddy currents occur with respect to the sequence parameters. Simulations and measurements for the proposed shielding concept were compared with a solid copper shielding configuration.

  3. A detector for neutron imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Britton, C L; Wintenberg, A L; Warmack, R J; McKnight, T E; Frank, S S; Cooper, R G; Dudney, N J; Veith, G M; Stephan, A C

    2004-01-01

    A bright neutron source such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) places extreme requirements on detectors including excellent 2-D spatial imaging and high dynamic range. Present imaging detectors have either shown position resolutions that are less than acceptable or they exhibit excessive paralyzing dead times due to the brightness of the source. High neutron detection efficiency with good neutron- gamma discrimination is critical for applications in neutron scattering research where the usefulness of the data is highly dependent on the statistical uncertainty associated with each detector pixel.. A detector concept known as MicroMegas (MicroMEsh GAseous Structure) has been developed at CERN in Geneva for high- energy physics charged-particle tracking applications and has shown great promise for handling high data rates with a rather low-cost structure. We are attempting to optimize the MicroMegas detector concept for thermal neutrons and have designed a 1-D neutron strip detector which we have tested In ...

  4. Improved performance of photoconductive gain hybrid UV detector by trap state engineering of ZnO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadinia, M.; Fathollahi, M. R.; Mosadegh, M.; Boroumand, F. A.; Mohajerani, E.

    2017-10-01

    With the purpose of examining the impact of donor polymer on the performance of nanocomposite photodetectors (PDs) and to better understand the underlying physics, different wide-bandgap semiconducting polymers, poly(N-vinylcarbazole), poly(9, 9-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2, 7-diyl) , and [9,9'-dioctyl-fluorene-2,7-diyl]-copoly[diphenyl-p-tolyl-amine-4,4'-diyl] (BFE), are mixed with ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) to fabricate hybrid UV PDs. Three different polymer matrix nanocomposites were investigated that differ in the electron-trap depth in the nanocomposite and also the carrier tunneling energy at the interface. All the fabricated PDs exhibit strong photoconductive gain characteristics which can be attributed to trapped electron accumulation and band bending at the cathode interface. Experimental results show that the manipulation of the photoactive nanocomposite improves the PD properties simultaneously, namely, the external quantum efficiency (EQE, ˜104%), the maximum detectivity (D*, ˜1013 Jones), and the linear dynamic range (LDR, ˜85 dB). In addition, the gain bandwidth product of the device improves more than 50 times. Furthermore, the effect of the photogenerated carrier profile within the active layer is investigated experimentally by changing the direction of the incident light using a transparent cathode. Interestingly, under illumination through the Al cathode, faster photocurrent response, wider spectral range toward the deep UV region, and higher EQE in relatively low voltages are observed. These considerations might provide a general strategy to fabricate low-cost photoconductive PDs with a reasonably good combination of gain, response speed, LDR, and selectivity.

  5. Gaseous fuel nuclear reactor research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, F. C.; Thom, K.

    1975-01-01

    Gaseous-fuel nuclear reactors are described; their distinguishing feature is the use of fissile fuels in a gaseous or plasma state, thereby breaking the barrier of temperature imposed by solid-fuel elements. This property creates a reactor heat source that may be able to heat the propellant of a rocket engine to 10,000 or 20,000 K. At this temperature level, gas-core reactors would provide the breakthrough in propulsion needed to open the entire solar system to manned and unmanned spacecraft. The possibility of fuel recycling makes possible efficiencies of up to 65% and nuclear safety at reduced cost, as well as high-thrust propulsion capabilities with specific impulse up to 5000 sec.

  6. Cesium iodide photon converter performance in a gaseous RICH detector

    CERN Document Server

    Gernhäuser, R; Homolka, J; Kastenmüller, A; Kienle, P; Körner, H J; Maier-Komor, P; Peter, M; Zeitelhack, K

    1999-01-01

    The performance of a 48x48 cm sup 2 multi-wire proportional chamber for VUV photon detection in a RICH setup is reported. The MWPC pad cathode was covered with a solid CsI photo converter layer of 230 mu g/cm sup 2 thickness deposited on a resin-stabilized graphite (RSG) coating. Cherenkov light radiated from cosmic muons was detected in the wavelength region 160 nm95% and a constant long-term stability of the photo cathode were observed.

  7. A new gaseous detector for tracking: The blade chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosi, G.; Battiston, R.; Levi, G. (Perugia Univ. (Italy) Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Perugia (Italy)); Barillari, T.; Susinno, G. (Calabria Univ., Cosenza (Italy) Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Cosenza (Italy)); Bergsma, F.; Contin, A.; Labbe, J.C.; Laurenti, G.; Mattern, D.; Simonet, G.; Williams, M.C.S.; Zichichi, A. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)); Boscherini, D.; Bruni, G.; De Pasquale, S.; Giusti, P.; Maccarrone, G.; Nania, R.; O' Shea, V. (Bologna Univ. (Italy) Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna (Italy)); Castro, H.; Galvez, J.; Rivera, F.; Schioppa, M.; Sharma, A. (World Lab., Geneva (Switzerland)); LAA-LAD Group

    1990-04-15

    As part of the LAA project at CERN a prototype of a streamer-chamber in which a blade, instead of a wire, is used as the amplification electrode has been built. A big advantage is that the blade can be bent to follow a curve so that a chamber can be built with cells ideally matched to the geometry of the experiment. Moreover, a blade is very rugged, it can withstand severe mechanical shocks and it is also resistant to damage by sparks. The drift time has been measured and a spatial resolution of 250{mu}m has been achieved. Left-right ambiguity can be solved by measuring the charge asymmetry on the walls. The coordinate along the blade is read by external pickup strips. (orig.).

  8. Hydrogen and Gaseous Fuel Safety and Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee C. Cadwallader; J. Sephen Herring

    2007-06-01

    Non-traditional motor fuels are receiving increased attention and use. This paper examines the safety of three alternative gaseous fuels plus gasoline and the advantages and disadvantages of each. The gaseous fuels are hydrogen, methane (natural gas), and propane. Qualitatively, the overall risks of the four fuels should be close. Gasoline is the most toxic. For small leaks, hydrogen has the highest ignition probability and the gaseous fuels have the highest risk of a burning jet or cloud.

  9. Optimized differential energy loss estimation for tracker detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Sikler, Ferenc

    2012-01-01

    The estimation of differential energy loss for charged particles in tracker detectors is studied. The robust truncated mean method can be generalized to the linear combination of the energy deposit measurements. The optimized weights in case of arithmetic and geometric means are obtained using a detailed simulation. The results show better particle separation power for both semiconductor and gaseous detectors.

  10. Gaseous emissions from waste combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werther, Joachim

    2007-06-18

    An overview is given on methods and technologies for limiting the gaseous emissions from waste combustion. With the guideline 2000/76/EC recent European legislation has set stringent limits not only for the mono-combustion of waste in specialized incineration plants but also for co-combustion in coal-fired power plants. With increased awareness of environmental issues and stepwise decrease of emission limits and inclusion of more and more substances into the network of regulations a multitude of emission abatement methods and technologies have been developed over the last decades. The result is the state-of-the-art waste incinerator with a number of specialized process steps for the individual components in the flue gas. The present work highlights some new developments which can be summarized under the common goal of reducing the costs of flue gas treatment by applying systems which combine the treatment of several noxious substances in one reactor or by taking new, simpler routes instead of the previously used complicated ones or - in the case of flue gas desulphurisation - by reducing the amount of limestone consumption. Cost reduction is also the driving force for new processes of conditioning of nonhomogenous waste before combustion. Pyrolysis or gasification is used for chemical conditioning whereas physical conditioning means comminution, classification and sorting processes. Conditioning yields a fuel which can be used in power plants either as a co-fuel or a mono-fuel and which will burn there under much better controlled conditions and therefore with less emissions than the nonhomogeneous waste in a conventional waste incinerator. Also for cost reasons, co-combustion of wastes in coal-fired power stations is strongly pressing into the market. Recent investigations reveal that the co-firing of waste can also have beneficial effects on the operating behavior of the boiler and on the gaseous emissions.

  11. Aging and materials Lessons for detectors and gas systems

    CERN Document Server

    Capéans-Garrido, M

    2003-01-01

    Aging of gaseous detectors is known as the degradation of their performance under the exposure to ionizing radiation. It is a complex phenomenon that depends on many parameters. Among others, aging depends on the gas mixture and may be enhanced by the presence of pollutants in the gas. The origin of the impurities is diverse and includes outgassing from assembly materials, contamination of the detector during the assembly process and the gas system itself. Systematic studies on this topic have been carried out. The methods used to ascertain the outgassing properties of materials are described and compared. Materials that might be used for assembling gaseous detectors and associated gas systems are catalogued according to their outgassing rate. Some factors affecting the aging rate of some fast gases are presented. Finally, a set of recommendations to build and operate gaseous detectors in high-luminosity experiments is given.

  12. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Paolucci

    2012-01-01

    The RPC system is operating with a very high uptime, an average chamber efficiency of about 95% and an average cluster size around 1.8. The average number of active channels is 97.7%. Eight chambers are disconnected and forty are working in single-gap mode due to high-voltage problems. The total luminosity lost due to RPCs in 2012 is 88.46 pb–1. One of the main goals of 2012 was to improve the stability of the endcap trigger that is strongly correlated to the performances of the detector, due to the 3-out-3 trigger logic. At beginning of 2011 the instability of the detector efficiency was about 10%. Detailed studies found that this was mainly due to the strong correlation between the performance of the detector and the atmospheric pressure (P). Figure XXY shows the linear correlation between the average cluster size of the endcap chamber versus P. This effect is expected for gaseous detectors and can be reduced by correcting the applied high-voltage working point (HVapp) according to the followi...

  13. Alternative gaseous fuels safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupka, M.C.; Laquer, H.L.; Peaslee, A.T.

    1983-12-01

    Public acceptance of alternative transportation fuels in the United States is contingent not only upon the requisite technical, environmental, and economic factors but also upon demonstration through adequate assessment, testing, and operational experience that the intrinsic risk is either equivalent to or less than that associated with energy carriers presently in common use. In support of work sponsored by the Office of Vehicle and Engine R and D of the Department of Energy, a relative safety assessment of alternative gaseous and reference liquid fuels utilized for light automotive transportation in the public sector was completed. The specific fuels considered were compressed natural gas (CNG); liquefied natural gas (LNG); liquefied petroleum gas (LPG); and the liquid fuels, gasoline and diesel. The assessment methodology describes and develops the relative hazards of these fuels from an integrated generic physicochemical property and accident scenario point of view. A technique involving a method of eliciting expert judgment combined with a comparative scoring methodology was applied in establishing fuel relative safety rankings.

  14. STYX. Bringing new life into old detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarkh, Elena [Physikalisches Institut, Bonn Univ. (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    STYX stands for Straw Tube Young student eXperiment and is a part of the master laboratory course at the University of Bonn. The experiment use muons from the secondary cosmic rays and aims to provide a basic understanding of the cosmic radiation, gas detectors, tracking of charged particles, readout electronics and computer-based data analysis. The heart of the experiment is a gaseous straw tube detector, built from the decommissioned ZEUS detector at DESY, and as a trigger system two photomultipliers are used. The setup of the experiment and recent developments are presented.

  15. X-ray imaging detectors for synchrotron and XFEL sources

    OpenAIRE

    Takaki Hatsui; Heinz Graafsma

    2015-01-01

    Current trends for X-ray imaging detectors based on hybrid and monolithic detector technologies are reviewed. Hybrid detectors with photon-counting pixels have proven to be very powerful tools at synchrotrons. Recent developments continue to improve their performance, especially for higher spatial resolution at higher count rates with higher frame rates. Recent developments for X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) experiments provide high-frame-rate integrating detectors with both high sensitivit...

  16. Development and preliminary tests of resistive microdot and microstrip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Peskov, V; Nappi, E; Martinengo, P; Oliveira, R; Pietropaolo, F; Picchi, P

    2012-01-01

    In the last few years our group have focused on developing various designs of spark-protected micropattern gaseous detectors featuring resistive electrodes instead of the traditional metallic ones: resistive microstrip counters, resistive GEM, resistive MICROMEGAS. These detectors combine in one design the best features of RPCs (spark-protection) and micropattern detectors (a high position resolution). In this paper we report the progress so far made in developing other types of resistive micropattern detectors: a microdot-microhole detector and a microgap-microstrip detector. The former detector is an optimal electron amplifier for some special designs of dual phase noble liquid TPCs, for example with a CsI photocathode immersed inside the noble liquid. Preliminary tests of such a detector, for the first time built and investigated, are reported in this paper. The latter detector is mainly orientated towards medical imaging applications such as X-ray scanners. However, we believe that after a proper gas opti...

  17. Luminescence quenching of the triplet excimer state by air traces in gaseous argon

    OpenAIRE

    Amsler, C.; Boccone, V.; Büchler, A.; Chandrasekharan, R; Regenfus, C.; Rochet, J

    2007-01-01

    While developing a liquid argon detector for dark matter searches we investigate the influence of air contamination on the VUV scintillation yield in gaseous argon at atmospheric pressure. We determine with a radioactive alpha-source the photon yield for various partial air pressures and different reflectors and wavelength shifters. We find for the fast scintillation component a time constant tau1= 11.3 +- 2.8 ns, independent of gas purity. However, the decay time of the slow component depend...

  18. Particle detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    1999-01-01

    Introduction, interaction of radiation with matter measurement of momentum of charged particles, of energy of e/gamma, hadrons, identification of particles. Design of HEP detectors. Principle of operation and performance of tracking sub-detectors, calorimeters and muon system.

  19. Detector Unit

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Original detector unit of the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) BOL project. This detector unit shows that silicon detectors for nuclear physics particle detection were already developed and in use in the 1960's in Amsterdam. Also the idea of putting 'strips' onto the silicon for high spatial resolution of a particle's impact on the detector were implemented in the BOL project which used 64 of these detector units. The IKO BOL project with its silicon particle detectors was designed, built and operated from 1965 to roughly 1977. Detector Unit of the BOL project: These detectors, notably the ‘checkerboard detector’, were developed during the years 1964-1968 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, by the Natuurkundig Laboratorium of the N.V. Philips Gloeilampen Fabrieken. This was done in close collaboration with the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) where the read-out electronics for their use in the BOL Project was developed and produced.

  20. Electronic detectors for electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruqi, A R; Henderson, R

    2007-10-01

    Due to the increasing popularity of electron cryo-microscopy (cryoEM) in the structural analysis of large biological molecules and macro-molecular complexes and the need for simple, rapid and efficient readout, there is a persuasive need for improved detectors. Commercial detectors, based on phosphor/fibre optics-coupled CCDs, provide adequate performance for many applications, including electron diffraction. However, due to intrinsic light scattering within the phosphor, spatial resolution is limited. Careful measurements suggest that CCDs have superior performance at lower resolution while all agree that film is still superior at higher resolution. Consequently, new detectors are needed based on more direct detection, thus avoiding the intermediate light conversion step required for CCDs. Two types of direct detectors are discussed in this review. First, there are detectors based on hybrid technology employing a separate pixellated sensor and readout electronics connected with bump bonds-hybrid pixel detectors (HPDs). Second, there are detectors, which are monolithic in that sensor and readout are all in one plane (monolithic active pixel sensor, MAPS). Our discussion is centred on the main parameters of interest to cryoEM users, viz. detective quantum efficiency (DQE), resolution or modulation transfer function (MTF), robustness against radiation damage, speed of readout, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the number of independent pixels available for a given detector.

  1. 7th International Symposium on Gaseous Dielectrics

    CERN Document Server

    James, David

    1994-01-01

    The Seventh International Symposium on Gaseous Dielectrics was held in Knoxville, Tennessee, U. S. A. , on April 24-28, 1994. The symposium continued the interdisciplinary character and comprehensive approach of the preceding six symposia. Gaseous DielecIries VII is a detailed record of the symposium proceedings. It covers recent advances and developments in a wide range of basic, applied and industrial areas of gaseous dielectrics. It is hoped that Gaseous DielecIries VII will aid future research and development in, and encourage wider industrial use of, gaseous dielectrics. The Organizing Committee of the Seventh International Symposium on Gaseous Dielectrics consisted of G. Addis (U. S. A. ), L. G. Christophorou (U. S. A. ), F. Y. Chu (Canada), A. H. Cookson (U. S. A. ), O. Farish (U. K. ), I. Gallimberti (Italy) , A. Garscadden (U. S. A. ), D. R. James (U. S. A. ), E. Marode (France), T. Nitta (Japan), W. Pfeiffer (Germany), Y. Qiu (China), I. Sauers (U. S. A. ), R. J. Van Brunt (U. S. A. ), and W. Zaengl...

  2. Infrared detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Rogalski, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    This second edition is fully revised and reorganized, with new chapters concerning third generation and quantum dot detectors, THz detectors, cantilever and antenna coupled detectors, and information on radiometry and IR optics materials. Part IV concerning focal plane arrays is significantly expanded. This book, resembling an encyclopedia of IR detectors, is well illustrated and contains many original references … a really comprehensive book.-F. Sizov, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences, Kiev, Ukraine

  3. Real time /spl beta/-imaging with silicon hybrid pixel detectors: kinetic measurements with C-14 amino acids and P-32 nucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolucci, E.; Conti, M.; Di Cosmo, A.; Maiorino, M.; Mettivier, G.; Montesi, M. C.; Paolella, G.; Pecorella, T.; Russo, P.; Scognamiglio, R.

    2002-10-01

    We present some additional results obtained with the BETAview system, a digital system for real time /spl beta/-imaging based on semiconductor pixel detectors and on a single photon counting read-out chip. We describe the system assembled with a Si detector, 300-/spl mu/m thick, segmented into 64 /spl times/64 square pixels with 170-/spl mu/m pitch. The solid-state pixel array detector is bump-bonded pixel by pixel to a low threshold, single particle counting electronics, the photon counting chip (PCC) developed by the Medipix1 Collaboration for biomedical applications. Each cell (corresponding to a detector pixel) of the front-end chip has a maximum count rate of 2 MHz, a minimum nominal threshold of 1400 e/sup -/ (corresponding about 5 keV in Si), and contains a 15-bit counter. The detector sensitive area is about 1 cm/sup 2/, but several detectors could be assembled in arrays. The measured background counts were about 3.5/spl times/10/sup -2/ cps/cm/sup 2/, which implies a very high sensitivity of the device. The detection threshold used in this experiment was /spl sim/15 keV. We show the results obtained in the real-time monitoring of two biological dynamic processes: an amino acid uptake by living cells and the thermal denaturation process of oligonucleotides. Specifically, we have followed over time the accumulation of a marked amino acid ([/sup 14/C]L-Leucine) into Octopus vulgaris eggs cells. The results, described in Section III-B, show that after about 20 min from the beginning of the uptake process, the radioactively marked eggs become clearly visible over the background culture radioactive medium. In Sections III-C and III-D, we also describe the successful performance of the /spl beta/-imaging system in genetic studies involving the real time reconstruction of denaturation and kinetics curves for two different /sup 32/P-radiolabeled nucleotides.

  4. Development of Micro-Pattern Gas Detectors Technologies

    CERN Multimedia

    Richer, J; Santos, D; Barsuk, S; Hamar, G; Shah, M K; Catanesi, M G; Colaleo, A; Maggi, M; Loddo, F; Berardi, V; Bagliesi, M; Menon, G; Richter, R; Lahonde-hamdoun, C; Dris, M; Chechik, R; Ochi, A; Hartjes, F; Lopes, I M; Deshpande, A; Franz, A; Dabrowski, W; Fiutowski, T A; Ferreira, A; Bastos de oliveira, C A; Miller, B W; Monrabal-capilla, F; Liubarsky, I; Plazas de pinzon, M C; Tsarfati, T; Voss, B J R; Carmona martinez, J M; Stocchi, A; Dinu, N; Semeniouk, I; Giebels, B; Marton, K; De leo, R; De lucia, E; Alviggi, M; Bellerive, A; Herten, L G; Zimmermann, S U; Giomataris, I; Peyaud, A; Schune, P; Delagnes, E; Delbart, A; Charles, G; Wang, W; Markou, A; Arazi, L; Cibinetto, G; Edo, Y; Neves, F F; Solovov, V; Stoll, S; Sampsonidis, D; Mindur, B; Zielinska, A Z; Sauli, F; Calapez de albuquerque veloso, J F; Kahlaoui, N; Sharma, A; Zenker, K; Cebrian guajardo, S V; Luzon marco, G M; Guillaudin, O J H; Cornebise, P; Lounis, A; Bruel, P J; Laszlo, A; Mukerjee, K; Nappi, E; Nuzzo, S V; Bencivenni, G; Tessarotto, F; Levorato, S; Dixit, M S; Riallot, M; Jeanneau, F; Nizery, F G; Maltezos, S; Kyriakis, A; Lyashenko, A; Van der graaf, H; Ferreira marques, R; Alexa, C; Liyanage, N; Dehmelt, K; Hemmick, T K; Polychronakos, V; Cisbani, E; Garibaldi, F; Koperny, S Z; Das neves dias carramate, L F; Munoz-vidal, J; Gutierrez, R; Fuentes, F; Van stenis, M; Resnati, F; Lupberger, M; Desch, K K; Soyk, D; Adloff, C J; Chefdeville, M; Vouters, G; Ranieri, A; Lami, S; Shekhtman, L; Dolgov, A; Bamberger, A; Landgraf, U; Kortner, O; Ferrero, A; Aune, S; Attie, D M; Bakas, G; Tsigaridas, S; Surrow, B; Gnanvo, K A K; Feege, N M; Woody, C L; Bhattacharya, S; Capogni, M; Veenhof, R J; Tapan, I; Dangendorf, V; Monteiro bernades, C M; Castro serrato, H F; De oliveira, R; Ropelewski, L; Behnke, T; Boudry, V; Radicioni, E; Lai, A; Shemyakina, E; Giganon, A E; Titov, M; Papakrivopoulos, I; Komai, H; Van bakel, N A; Tchepel, V; Repond, J O; Li, Y; Kourkoumelis, C; Tzamarias, S; Majumdar, N; Kowalski, T; Da rocha azevedo, C D; Serra diaz cano, L; Alvarez puerta, V; Trabelsi, A; Riegler, W; Ketzer, B F; Rosemann, C G; Herrera munoz, D C; Drancourt, C; Mayet, F; Geerebaert, Y; De robertis, G; Felici, G; Scribano memoria, A; Cecchi, R; Dalla torre, S; Gregori, M; Buzulutskov, A; Schwegler, P; Sanchez nieto, F J; Colas, P M A; Gros, M; Neyret, D; Zito, M; Ferrer ribas, E; Breskin, A; Martoiu, V S; Purschke, M L; Loomba, D; Gasik, P J; Petridou, C; Kordas, K; Mukhopadhyay, S; Bucciantonio, M; Bhopatkar, V S; Biagi, S F; Ji, X; Kanaki, K; Zavazieva, D; Capeans garrido, M D M; Schindler, H; Kaminski, J; Krautscheid, T; Lippmann, C; Arora, R; Dafni, T; Garcia irastorza, I; Puill, V; Wicek, F B; Burmistrov, L; Singh, K P; Pugliese, G; Kroha, H; Kunne, F; Alexopoulos, T; Daskalakis, G; Geralis, T; Bettoni, D; Heijhoff, K; Xiao, Z; Tzanakos, G; Leisos, A; Frullani, S; Sahin, O; Kalkan, Y; Giboni, K; Krieger, C; Breton, D R; Bhattacharyya, S; Abbrescia, M; Erriquez, O; Paticchio, V; Cardini, A; Aloisio, A; Turini, N; Bressan, A; Tikhonov, Y; Schumacher, M; Simon, F R; Nowak, S; Herlant, S; Chaus, A; Fanourakis, G; Bressler, S; Homma, Y; Timmermans, J; Fonte, P; Underwood, D G; Azmoun, B; Fassouliotis, D; Wiacek, P; Dos santos covita, D; Monteiro da silva, A L; Yahlali haddou, N; Marques ferreira dos santos, J; Domingues amaro, F

    The proposed R&D collaboration, RD51, aims at facilitating the development of advanced gas-avalanche detector technologies and associated electronic-readout systems, for applications in basic and applied research. Advances in particle physics have always been enabled by parallel advances in radiation-detector technology. Radiation detection and imaging with gas-avalanche detectors, capable of economically covering large detection volumes with a low material budget, have been playing an important role in many fields. Besides their widespread use in particle-physics and nuclear-physics experiments, gaseous detectors are employed in many other fields: astro-particle research and applications such as medical imaging, material science, and security inspection. While extensively employed at the LHC, RHIC, and other advanced HEP experiments, present gaseous detectors (wire-chambers, drift-tubes, resistive-plate chambers and others) have limitations which may prevent their use in future experiments. Present tec...

  5. Signal Formation Processes in Micromegas Detectors and Quality Control for large size Detector Construction for the ATLAS New Small Wheel

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00387450; Rembser, Christoph

    2017-08-04

    The Micromegas technology is one of the most successful modern gaseous detector concepts and widely utilized in nuclear and particle physics experiments. Twenty years of R & D rendered the technology sufficiently mature to be selected as precision tracking detector for the New Small Wheel (NSW) upgrade of the ATLAS Muon spectrometer. This will be the first large scale application of Micromegas in one of the major LHC experiments. However, many of the fundamental microscopic processes in these gaseous detectors are still not fully understood and studies on several detector aspects, like the micromesh geometry, have never been addressed systematically. The studies on signal formation in Micromegas, presented in the first part of this thesis, focuses on the microscopic signal electron loss mechanisms and the amplification processes in electron gas interaction. Based on a detailed model of detector parameter dependencies, these processes are scrutinized in an iterating comparison between exper- imental result...

  6. Análise de compostos sulfurados em efluentes gasosos de refinaria de petróleo Analysis of sulfur compounds in petroleum refinery gaseous effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Carlos Afonso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work discusses an analytical procedure for analysis of sulfur compounds in treated petroleum refinery gaseous effluents using a sulfur chemiluminescence detector with dual plasma burner (SCD-DP. Calibration was accomplished by using standards and gaseous streams of known concentration of sulfur compounds. The response factors agree with the calibration table of ASTM standard D 5504 (2008. The detection range for sulfur compounds is in μg m-3. The analytical procedure allowed the construction of a chromatographic chart of sulfur compounds present in several refinery gaseous effluents. SO2 was the most difficult compound to be determined because of its high reactivity.

  7. Optimization of the performance of a CsI(Tl) scintillator + Si pin photodiode detector for medium energy light charged particle hybride array

    CERN Document Server

    Kalinka, G; Gál, J; Hegyesi, G; Molnár, J; Elekes, Z; Motobayashi, T; Yanagisawa, Y; Saito, A

    2003-01-01

    NaI(TI), BGO and CsI(TI) crystals in compact arrays will be used at RIKEN RI Beam Factory in the near future to detect gamma-rays from fast moving nuclei produced in nuclear reactions with radioactive beams, and among them CsI(TI) for light charged particle identification as well. The latter system will consist of 312 Cs(TI) crystals coupled to silicon photodiodes in a hemispherical arrangement, four detectors packed together with their own preamplifiers in each of the 78 parallelepipedic thin walled aluminum containers. (R.P.)

  8. Gaseous insulators for high voltage electrical equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophorou, Loucas G.; James, David R.; Pace, Marshall O.; Pai, Robert Y.

    1979-01-01

    Gaseous insulators comprise compounds having high attachment cross sections for electrons having energies in the 0-1.3 electron volt range. Multi-component gaseous insulators comprise compounds and mixtures having overall high electron attachment cross sections in the 0-1.3 electron volt range and moderating gases having high cross sections for inelastic interactions with electrons of energies 1-4 electron volts. Suitable electron attachment components include hexafluorobutyne, perfluorobutene-2, perfluorocyclobutane, perfluorodimethylcyclobutane, perfluorocyclohexene, perfluoromethylcyclohexane, hexafluorobutadiene, perfluoroheptene-1 and hexafluoroazomethane. Suitable moderating gases include N.sub.2, CO, CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2. The gaseous insulating mixture can also contain SF.sub.6, perfluoropropane and perfluorobenzene.

  9. Integrability detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-10-29

    Oct 29, 2015 ... Abstract. In this short review, we present some applications and historical facts about the integrability detectors: Painlevé analysis, singularity confinement and algebraic entropy.

  10. Gaseous Electronics Tables, Atoms, and Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Raju, Gorur Govinda

    2011-01-01

    With the constant emergence of new research and application possibilities, gaseous electronics is more important than ever in disciplines including engineering (electrical, power, mechanical, electronics, and environmental), physics, and electronics. The first resource of its kind, Gaseous Electronics: Tables, Atoms, and Molecules fulfills the author's vision of a stand-alone reference to condense 100 years of research on electron-neutral collision data into one easily searchable volume. It presents most--if not all--of the properly classified experimental results that scientists, researchers,

  11. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    CERN Multimedia

    Marco Dallavalle

    2013-01-01

    The DT group is undertaking substantial work both for detector maintenance and for detec-tor upgrade. Maintenance interventions on chambers and minicrates require close collaboration between DT, RPC and HO, and are difficult because they depend on the removal of thermal shields and cables on the front and rear of the chambers in order to gain access. The tasks are particularly critical on the central wheel due to the presence of fixed services. Several interventions on the chambers require extraction of the DT+RPC package: a delicate operation due to the very limited space for handling the big chambers, and the most dangerous part of the DT maintenance campaign. The interventions started in July 2013 and will go on until spring 2014. So far out of the 16 chambers with HV problems, 13 have been already repaired, with a global yield of 217 recovered channels. Most of the observed problems were due to displacement of impurities inside the gaseous volume. For the minicrates and FE, repairs occurred on 22 chambe...

  12. GEM Detectors in the Experiments at e+e- Colliders in BINP

    CERN Document Server

    Maltsev, T V

    2017-01-01

    Micro-pattern gaseous detectors possess a high spatial resolution in tens micron scale together with high rate capability up to 107 cm-2s-1. In addition, they have all advantages of gaseous detectors, such as relatively low costs per unit area, the possibility to equip a large area as well as a high uniformity. Cascaded Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) based detectors are used in the collider experiments at Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP), and they are being developed for a number of new projects. In this article the review of GEM based detectors for the tagging system of the KEDR experiment at the VEPP-4M collider and for the DEUTERON facility at the VEPP-3 storage ring is presented. The GEM detector application of the CMD-3 detector upgrade at the VEPP-2000 collider and the Super τ Factory detector are discussed.

  13. Optical Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbert, Bernd; Goushcha, Alexander

    Optical detectors are applied in all fields of human activities from basic research to commercial applications in communication, automotive, medical imaging, homeland security, and other fields. The processes of light interaction with matter described in other chapters of this handbook form the basis for understanding the optical detectors physics and device properties.

  14. Vapor Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, H. M.; Garrard, G. C.; Houston, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    Detector eliminates need for removing covers to take samples. Detector is canister consisting of screw-in base and clear plastic tube that contains two colors of silica gel. Monoethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide vapors are visually monitored with canister containing color-changing gels.

  15. Quality tests for SM1 MicroMegas detector module

    CERN Document Server

    Del Gaudio, M

    2016-01-01

    The Phase-I ATLAS upgrade (2018) aims to improve the detector performance at high luminosity (2 × 10$^{34}$ cm$^{−2}s$^{−1}$). In particular, the upgrade of the muon spectrometer focuses on the Small Wheels (SW) in the end-cap region, which cover 1.3 < |η| < 2.7. The SW will be replaced by the New Small Wheels (NSW), which is a set of precision tracking and trigger detectors able to work at high rates with excellent real-time spatial and time resolution. Each NSW will be constituted by multiplet of planar gaseous detectors, with trapezoidal shape: smallstrip Thin Gap Chamber (sTGC) and Micro-MEsh Gaseous Structure (MM). This paper describes some of the quality controls that the MM detectors must comply: planarity, thickness and gas tightness.

  16. Advanced Alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Stahlman, JM; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The primary goal of the ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) is to measure the trajectories of charged particles in the high particle density environment of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) collisions. This is achieved using a combination of different technologies, including silicon pixels, silicon microstrips, and gaseous drift-tubes, all immersed in a 2 Tesla magnetic field. With over one million alignable degrees of freedom, it is crucial that an accurate model of the detector positions be produced using an automated and robust algorithm in order to achieve good tracking performance. This has been accomplished using a variety of alignment techniques resulting in near optimal hit and momentum resolutions.

  17. Advanced Alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Stahlman, JM; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The primary goal of the ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) is to accurately measure the trajectories of charged particles in the high particle density environment of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) collisions. This is achieved using a combination of different technologies, including silicon pixels, silicon microstrips, and gaseous drift-tubes, all immersed in a 2 Tesla magnetic field. With over one million alignable degrees of freedom, it is crucial that an accurate model of the detector positions be produced using an automated and robust algorithm in order to achieve good tracking performance. This has been accomplished using a variety of alignment techniques resulting in near optimal hit and momentum resolutions.

  18. Gaseous material capacity of open plasma jet in plasma spray-physical vapor deposition process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei-Jun; Zhang, Meng; Zhang, Qiang; Yang, Guan-Jun; Li, Cheng-Xin; Li, Chang-Jiu

    2018-01-01

    Plasma spray-physical vapor deposition (PS-PVD) process, emerging as a highly efficient hybrid approach, is based on two powerful technologies of both plasma spray and physical vapor deposition. The maximum production rate is affected by the material feed rate apparently, but it is determined by the material vapor capacity of transporting plasma actually and essentially. In order to realize high production rate, the gaseous material capacity of plasma jet must be fundamentally understood. In this study, the thermal characteristics of plasma were measured by optical emission spectrometry. The results show that the open plasma jet is in the local thermal equilibrium due to a typical electron number density from 2.1 × 1015 to 3.1 × 1015 cm-3. In this condition, the temperature of gaseous zirconia can be equal to the plasma temperature. A model was developed to obtain the vapor pressure of gaseous ZrO2 molecules as a two dimensional map of jet axis and radial position corresponding to different average plasma temperatures. The overall gaseous material capacity of open plasma jet, take zirconia for example, was further established. This approach on evaluating material capacity in plasma jet would shed light on the process optimization towards both depositing columnar coating and a high production rate of PS-PVD.

  19. The LHC Luminosity Upgrade and Related ATLAS Detector Plans

    CERN Document Server

    Hartjes, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    3rd draft of the proposed talk about Atlas Upgrade for MPGD2009 (Instrumentation conference on gaseous pixel detectors) on Friday June 12, 2009. I concentrated my presentation on the upgrade plans and schedule of the LHC and on detector technologies for the new Inner Tracker, putting less emphasis on other subdetectors. Compared to the 2nd draft I modified and clarified a few items about trigger, muon detection and calorimetry and did a number of cosmetic adaptions.

  20. The CLIC Vertex Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Dannheim, D

    2015-01-01

    The precision physics needs at TeV-scale linear electron-positron colliders (ILC and CLIC) require a vertex-detector system with excellent flavour-tagging capabilities through a meas- urement of displaced vertices. This is essential, for example, for an explicit measurement of the Higgs decays to pairs of b-quarks, c-quarks and gluons. Efficient identification of top quarks in the decay t → W b will give access to the ttH-coupling measurement. In addition to those requirements driven by physics arguments, the CLIC bunch structure calls for hit tim- ing at the few-ns level. As a result, the CLIC vertex-detector system needs to have excellent spatial resolution, full geometrical coverage extending to low polar angles, extremely low material budget, low occupancy facilitated by time-tagging, and sufficient heat removal from sensors and readout. These considerations challenge current technological limits. A detector concept based on hybrid pixel-detector technology is under development for the CLIC ver- tex det...

  1. Assessment of SCD-DP calibration to quantify traces of sulfur compounds in gaseous streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Pereira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the calibration of a gas chromatograph equipped with a sulfur chemiluminescent detector with dual plasma (GC-SCD-DP for analysis of sulfur-containing petroleum refinery gaseous streams. A packed column in an inert tube (Sulfinert and an inlet system resistant to reactive sulfur compounds were used. The behavior of the calibration procedure over time depended on the sulfur compound: hydrogen sulfide (H2S, carbonyl sulfide (COS, methanethiol (MeSH and dimethylsulfide (DMS gave constant responses, whereas SO2 presented a systematic increase and dimethyldisulfide (DMDS showed a systematic decrease of their response factors. In all cases, the response factors were lower than the ones found in the ASTM D 5504-08 method. The GC-SCD-DP technique proved to be a suitable tool for quantification of sulfur compounds (including SO2 at µg.m-3 levels in several petroleum refinery gaseous streams.

  2. On the localization properties of an RPWELL gas-avalanche detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moleri, L.; Bhattacharya, P.; Coimbra, A. E. C.; Breskin, A.; Bressler, S.

    2017-10-01

    A study of the localization properties of a single-element Resistive Plate WELL (RPWELL) detector is presented. The detector comprises of a single-sided THick Gaseous Electron Multiplier (THGEM) coupled to a segmented readout anode through a doped silicate-glass plate of 1010 Ωṡcm bulk resistivity. Operated in ambient \

  3. A CMOS compatible Microbulk Micromegas-like detector using silicon oxide as spacer material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanco Carballo, V.M.; Fransen, M.; van der Graaf, H.; Lu, J.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2010-01-01

    We present a new Micro Pattern Gaseous Detector (MPGD) fabricated with non polymeric materials. The device structure is similar to a Microbulk Microme gas design, consisting of a punctured metalgrid supported by a continuous perforate dinsulating structure. In this detector, the supporting structure

  4. arXiv On the localization properties of an RPWELL gas-avalanche detector

    CERN Document Server

    Moleri, Luca; Coimbra, Artur E. C.; Breskin, Amos; Bressler, Shikma

    2017-10-23

    A study of the localization properties of a single-element Resistive Plate WELL (RPWELL) detector is presented. The detector comprises of a single-sided THick Gaseous Electron Multiplier (THGEM) coupled to a segmented readout anode through a doped silicate-glass plate of 10(10) Ω⋅cm bulk resistivity. Operated in ambient \

  5. Hybrid analysis for the Telescope Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stokes B.T.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Telescope Array (TA experiment is the largest Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray (UHECR hybrid detector which consists of three stations of Fluorescence Detectors (FDs and 507 Surface Detectors (SDs. The coincidence events which observed both by FD and SD is referred as hybrid event. The geometry and energy of each extensive air shower observed by hybrid mode are reconstructed with much more accurate resolution than monocular reconstruction alone. The hybrid event candidates were searched for by comparison of the trigger times between FD and SD in the good weather days from May 2008 to September 2010. By this search, we found 1306 hybrid events for BR, 1051 events for LR and 905 events for MD. In this paper, the performance of the hybrid technique and the energy spectra measured by using hybrid events are presented.

  6. Low temperature gaseous nitriding and carburising of stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A.J.

    2005-01-01

    The response of various austenitic and duplex stainless steel grades to low temperature gaseous nitriding and carburising was investigated. Gaseous nitriding was performed in ammonia/hydrogen mixtures at temperatures ,723 K; gaseous carburising was carried out in carbon monoxide/hydrogen mixtures...

  7. Particle Identification with the Cherenkov imaging technique using MPGD based Photon Detectors for Physics at COMPASS Experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2070220; Martin, Anna

    A novel technology for the detection of single photons has been developed and implemented in 2016 in the Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector of the COMPASS Experiment at CERN SPS. Some basic knowledge in the field of particle identification and RICH counters, Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs) in general and their development for photon detection applications are provided. The characteristics of the COMPASS setup are summarized and the COMPAS RICH-1 detector is described and shown to provide hadron identification in the momentum range between 3 and 55 GeV/c. The THGEM technology is discussed illustrating their characterization as gas multipliers and as reflective photocathodes: large gains and efficient photodetection collections are achieved when using optimized parameters and conditions (hole diameter = THGEM thickness = 0.4 mm; hole pitch = 0.8 mm and no rim; CH4-rich gas mixtures and electric field values > 1 kV/cm at the CsI surface). The intense R\\&D program leading to the choice of a hybrid...

  8. DUMAND detector

    CERN Multimedia

    This object is one of the 256 other detectors of the DUMAND (Deep Underwater Muon And Neutrino Detection) experiment. The goal of the experiment was the construction of the first deep ocean high energy neutrino detector, to be placed at 4800 m depth in the Pacific Ocean off Keahole Point on the Big Island of Hawaii. A few years ago, a European conference with Cosmic experiments was organized at CERN as they were projects like DUMAND in Hawaii. Along with the conference, a temporary exhibition was organised as well. It was a collaboration of institutions from Germany, Japan, Switzerland and the U.S.A. CERN had borrowed equipment and objects from different institutes around the world, including this detector of the DUMAND experiment. Most of the equipment were sent back to the institutes, however this detector sphere was offered to a CERN member of the personnel.

  9. MS Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koppenaal, David W.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Denton, M Bonner B.; Sperline, Roger P.; Hieftje, Gary M.; Schilling, G. D.; Andrade, Francisco J.; Barnes IV., James H.

    2005-11-01

    Good eyesight is often taken for granted, a situation that everyone appreciates once vision begins to fade with age. New eyeglasses or contact lenses are traditional ways to improve vision, but recent new technology, i.e. LASIK laser eye surgery, provides a new and exciting means for marked vision restoration and improvement. In mass spectrometry, detectors are the 'eyes' of the MS instrument. These 'eyes' have also been taken for granted. New detectors and new technologies are likewise needed to correct, improve, and extend ion detection and hence, our 'chemical vision'. The purpose of this report is to review and assess current MS detector technology and to provide a glimpse towards future detector technologies. It is hoped that the report will also serve to motivate interest, prompt ideas, and inspire new visions for ion detection research.

  10. Emission detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bolozdynya, Alexander I

    2010-01-01

    After decades of research and development, emission detectors have recently become the most successful instrumentation used in modern fundamental experiments searching for cold dark matter, and are also considered for neutrino coherent scattering and magnetic momentum neutrino measurement. This book is the first monograph exclusively dedicated to emission detectors. Properties of two-phase working media based on noble gases, saturated hydrocarbon, ion crystals and semiconductors are reviewed.

  11. Detectors course

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA

    2006-01-01

    This lecture series on detectors, will give a general, although somewhat compressed, introduction to particle interaction with matter and magnetic fields. Tracking detectors and calorimeters will also be covered as well as particle identification systems. The lectures will start out with a short review of particle interaction with fields and then we will discuss particle detection. At the end some common composite detection systems will be described.

  12. Correlation and prediction of gaseous diffusion coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, T. R.; Mason, E. A.

    1973-01-01

    A new correlation method for binary gaseous diffusion coefficients from very low temperatures to 10,000 K is proposed based on an extended principle of corresponding states, and having greater range and accuracy than previous correlations. There are two correlation parameters that are related to other physical quantities and that are predictable in the absence of diffusion measurements. Quantum effects and composition dependence are included, but high-pressure effects are not. The results are directly applicable to multicomponent mixtures.

  13. National Gas Survey. Synthesized gaseous hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    The supply-Technical Advisory Task Force-Synthesized Gaseous Hydrocarbon Fuels considered coal, hydrocarbon liquids, oil shales, tar sands, and bioconvertible materials as potential feedstocks for gaseous fuels. Current status of process technology for each feedstock was reviewed, economic evaluations including sensitivity analysis were made, and constraints for establishment of a synthesized gaseous hydrocarbon fuels industry considered. Process technology is presently available to manufacture gaseous hydrocarbon fuels from each of the feedstocks. In 1975 there were eleven liquid feedstock SNG plants in the United States having a capacity of 1.1 billion SCFD. There can be no contribution of SNG before 1982 from plants using feedstocks other than liquids because there are no plants in operation or under construction as of 1977. Costs for SNG are higher than current regulated prices for U.S. natural gas. Because of large reserves, coal is a prime feedstock candidate although there are major constraints in the area of coal leases, mining and water permits, and others. Commercial technology is available and several new gasification processes are under development. Oil shale is also a feedstock in large supply and commercial process technology is available. There are siting and permit constraints, and water availability may limit the ultimate size of an oil shale processing industry. Under projected conditions, bioconvertible materials are not expected to support the production of large quantities of pipeline quality gas during the next decade. Production of low or medium Btu gas from municipal solid wastes can be expected to be developed in urban areas in conjunction with savings in disposal costs. In the economic evaluations presented, the most significant factor for liquid feedstock plants is the anticipated cost of feedstock and fuel. The economic viability of plants using other feedstocks is primarily dependent upon capital requirements.

  14. Alternative gaseous-fuels safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupka, M.C.; Peaslee, A.T. Jr.; Laquer, H.L.

    1983-01-01

    A relative safety assessment of alternative gaseous and reference liquid fuels utilized for light automotive transportation in the public sector was completed. The specific fuels considered were compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and the liquid fuels, gasoline and diesel. The assessment methodology describes and develops the relative hazards of these fuels from an integrated generic physicochemical property and accident scenario point of view. A technique involving a method of eliciting expert judgment combined with a comparative scoring methodology was applied in establishing fuel relative safety rankings. Limitations of this type of assessment are discussed. Selected accident scenarios included fuel leakage in both residential and public garages; fueling line rupture at a refueling station in the presence of user vehicles or delivery vehicles; and vehicle collisions under rural, urban, and vehicular tunnel conditions. Overall, the results obtained demonstrate dependency upon the specific application or scenario. Gaseous fuels have increased relative risks in certain situations and are relatively safe in others. The results suggest that alternative gaseous fuels are not disqualified for public usage. The assessment also provides rationale for the development of selected safe handling criteria and recommendations.

  15. SU-8 as a Material for Microfabricated Particle Physics Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Maoddi, Pietro; Jiguet, Sebastien; Renaud, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Several recent detector te chnologies developed for particle physics applications are based on microfabricated structures. Dete ctors built with this approach generally exhibit the overall best performance in te rms of spatial and time resolution. Many properties of the SU-8 photoepoxy make it suitable for the manufacturing of microstructured particle detectors. This arti cle aims to review some emerging detector technologies making use of SU-8 microstructu ring, namely micropatte rn gaseous detectors and microfluidic scintillation detectors. Th e general working principle and main process steps for the fabrication of each device are reported, with a focus on the advantages brought to the device functionality by the us e of SU-8. A novel process based on multiple bonding steps for the fabrication of thin multila yer microfluidic scin tillation detectors developed by the authors is presented. Finally, a brief overview of the applications for the discussed devices is given.

  16. Novel Front-end Electronics for Time Projection Chamber Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    García García, Eduardo José

    This work has been carried out in the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and it was supported by the European Union as part of the research and development towards the European detector the (EUDET) project, specifically for the International Linear Collider (ILC). In particle physics there are several different categories of particle detectors. The presented design is focused on a particular kind of tracking detector called Time Projection Chamber (TPC). The TPC provides a three dimensional image of electrically charged particles crossing a gaseous volume. The thesis includes a study of the requirements for future TPC detectors summarizing the parameters that the front-end readout electronics must fulfill. In addition, these requirements are compared with respect to the readouts used in existing TPC detectors. It is concluded that none of the existing front-end readout designs fulfill the stringent requirements. The main requirements for future TPC detectors are high integration, an increased n...

  17. A double sided silicon strip detector as a DRAGON end detector

    CERN Document Server

    Wrede, C; Rogers, J G; D'Auria, J M

    2003-01-01

    The new DRAGON facility (detector of recoils and gammas of nuclear reactions), located at the TRlUMF-ISAC Radioactive Beams facility in Vancouver, Canada is now operational. This facility is used to study radiative proton capture reactions in inverse kinematics (heavy ion beam onto a light gaseous target) with both stable beams and radioactive beams of mass A=13-26 in the energy range 0.15-1.5 MeV/u. A double sided silicon strip detector (DSSSD) has been used to detect recoil ions. Tests have been performed to determine the performance of this DSSSD.

  18. Pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Passmore, M S

    2001-01-01

    positions on the detector. The loss of secondary electrons follows the profile of the detector and increases with higher energy ions. studies of the spatial resolution predict a value of 5.3 lp/mm. The image noise in photon counting systems is investigated theoretically and experimentally and is shown to be given by Poisson statistics. The rate capability of the LAD1 was measured to be 250 kHz per pixel. Theoretical and experimental studies of the difference in contrast for ideal charge integrating and photon counting imaging systems were carried out. It is shown that the contrast differs and that for the conventional definition (contrast = (background - signal)/background) the photon counting device will, in some cases, always give a better contrast than the integrating system. Simulations in MEDICI are combined with analytical calculations to investigate charge collection efficiencies (CCE) in semiconductor detectors. Different pixel sizes and biasing conditions are considered. The results show charge shari...

  19. Study of etching processes in the GEM detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Zavazieva, Darina

    2016-01-01

    Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors are known to operate stably at high gains and high particle fluxes. Though, at very high gains and fluxes it was observed that the insulating polyimide layer between the GEM electrodes gets etched, changing the original shape of the hole, and therefore varying the gain and the energy resolution of the detector. The idea of the project to observe degradation effect of the GEM foils during the Triple GEM detector operation in extreme conditions under X-ray radiation.

  20. A Cherenkov Detector for Monitoring ATLAS Luminosity

    CERN Document Server

    Sbrizzi, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    LUCID (LUminosity Cherenkov Integrating Detector) is the monitor of the luminosity delivered by the LHC accelerator to the ATLAS experiment. The detector is made of two symmetric arms deployed at about 17 m from the ATLAS interaction point. Each arm consists of an aluminum vessel containing 20 tubes, 15 mm diameter and 1500 mm length, and a Cherenkov gaseous radiator (C4F10) at about 1.1 bar absolute. The light generated by charged particles above the Cherenkov threshold is collected by photomultiplier tubes (PMT) directly placed at the tubes end. Thanks to an intrinsically fast response and to its custom readout electronics, LUCID estimates the number of interactions per LHC bunch crossing and provides an interaction trigger to the ATLAS experiment. The relevant details of the detector design and the expexted performance based on Monte Carlo simulations are presented, together with the first results obtained with pp collisions produced by LHC.

  1. Application of cascade lasers to detection of trace gaseous atmospheric pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miczuga, Marcin; Kopczyński, Krzysztof

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the impact of gaseous pollutants on the earth's atmosphere, as well as more and more felt by mankind negative effects of its contamination, result in increasing the level of environmental awareness and contribute to the intensification of actions aimed at reducing the emission of harmful gases into the atmosphere. At the same time, the extensive studies are conducted in order to continuously monitor the level of air contamination with harmful gases and the industry compliance with the standards limited the amount of emitted pollutants. Over recent years, there has been increasing use of cascade lasers and multi-pass cells in optical systems detecting the gaseous atmospheric pollutants and measuring the gas concentrations. The paper presents the use of a tunable quantum cascade laser as a source of the IR radiation in an advanced detection system enabling the trace gaseous atmospheric pollutants to be identified. Apart from the laser, the main elements of the system are: a multi-pass cell, an IR detector and a module for control and analysis. Operation of the system is exemplified by measuring the level of the air pollution with ammonia, carbon oxide and nitrous oxide.

  2. Combination of current-integrating/photon-counting detector modules for spectral CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jiyang; Cong, Wenxiang; Li, Liang; Wang, Ge

    2013-10-01

    Inspired by compressive sensing theory and spectral detection technology, here we propose a novel design of a CT detector array that uses current-integrating/photon-counting modules in an interlacing fashion so that strengths of each detector type can be synergistically combined. For geometrical symmetry, an evenly alternating pattern is initially assumed for these detector modules to form a hybrid detector array. While grayscale detector modules acquire regular raw data in a large dynamic range cost-effectively, spectral detector modules simultaneously sense energy-discriminative data in multiple energy bins. A split Bregman iterative algorithm is developed for spectral CT reconstruction from projection data of an object collected with the hybrid detector array. With mathematical phantoms, an optimal ratio of the number of the spectral elements over the number of grayscale elements is determined based on classic image quality evaluation. This hybrid detector array is capable of delivering a performance comparable with that of a full spectral detector array.

  3. X-ray imaging detectors for synchrotron and XFEL sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaki Hatsui

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Current trends for X-ray imaging detectors based on hybrid and monolithic detector technologies are reviewed. Hybrid detectors with photon-counting pixels have proven to be very powerful tools at synchrotrons. Recent developments continue to improve their performance, especially for higher spatial resolution at higher count rates with higher frame rates. Recent developments for X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL experiments provide high-frame-rate integrating detectors with both high sensitivity and high peak signal. Similar performance improvements are sought in monolithic detectors. The monolithic approach also offers a lower noise floor, which is required for the detection of soft X-ray photons. The link between technology development and detector performance is described briefly in the context of potential future capabilities for X-ray imaging detectors.

  4. Electrostatic Precipitation in Nearly Pure Gaseous Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhler, Charles; Calle, Carlos; Clements, Sid; Cox, Bobby; Ritz, Mindy

    2008-01-01

    Electrostatic precipitation was performed in a nearly pure gaseous nitrogen system as a possible remedy for black dust contaminant from high pressure 6000 psi lines at the NASA Kennedy Space Center. The results of a prototype electrostatic precipitator that was built and tested using nitrogen gas at standard atmospheric pressures is presented. High voltage pulsed waveforms are generated using a rotating spark gap system at 30 Hz. A unique dust delivery system utilizing the Venturi effect was devised that supplies a given amount of dust per unit time for testing purposes.

  5. Some gaseous pollutants in Nakorn Sri Thammarat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanatharana, P; Pahina, W

    1991-10-01

    Three gaseous pollutants, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide were studied in the Nakorn Sri Thammarat Province area (Thailand) during March-August 1987. Air samples were taken from 12 stations covering four districts, i.e., Tungsong, Pakpanang, Muang, and Kanoum. Five stations are located in areas of light traffic conditions and low human population and seven are in densely populated areas with heavy traffic conditions.In this study the concentrations of pollutants found were in the range of non-detectable-0.7 ppm for carbon monoxide, 0.6-7.4 pphm for nitrogen dioxide, and non-detectable-7.4 pphm for sulfur dioxide.

  6. Optical Link of the Atlas Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Gan, K.K.; Jackson, P.D.; Johnson, M.; Kagan, H.; Buchholz, P.; Holder, M.; Roggenbuck, A.; Schade, P.

    2007-01-01

    The on-detector optical link of the ATLAS pixel detector contains radiation-hard receiver chips to decode bi-phase marked signals received on PIN arrays and data transmitter chips to drive VCSEL arrays. The components are mounted on hybrid boards (opto-boards). We present results from the irradiation studies with 24 GeV protons up to 32 Mrad (1.2 x 10^15 p/cm^2) and the experience from the production.

  7. Avaliação de diferentes híbridos suínos submetidos à insensibilização elétrica e gasosa (CO2. Parte 1: mensuração de indicadores sanguíneos de estresse Evaluation of pig hybrids stunned with electrical and gaseous (co2 systems. Part 1: blood stress indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Bertoloni

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Suínos provenientes de três linhagens genéticas A, B e C comercializadas no Brasil, com peso vivo de 100 a 120 kg foram submetidos ao insensibilizador elétrico manual (Karl Schermer 220-230/250 volts, 45-60 Hz e 1,4 -1,5 A e ao sistema gasoso coletivo (COMBI-BUTINA 90% CO2. Alíquotas sanguíneas, para determinação dos níveis de creatina fosfoquinase (CPK, lactato e cortisol, assim como amostras do músculo semimembranosus (10 g para a determinação do gene halotano, foram coletadas. Comparando-se os sistemas de insensibilização elétrico e gasoso (CO2, o elétrico demonstrou ser mais estressante, proporcionando maiores concentrações plasmáticas de cortisol (p Pigs of three genetics lineages A, B and C marketed in Brazil, with alive weight from 100 to 120 kg were submitted to the manual electric stunning (Karl Schermer 220-230/250 volts, 45-60 Hz and 1.4 -1.5 A and to the collective gaseous system (COMBI-BUTINA 90% CO2. Blood samples, for levels determination of creatine phosphokinase (CPK, lactate and cortisol, as well as samples of the semimembranosus muscle (10 g for the determination of the gene halothane, were collected. Being compared the electric and gaseous stunning systems, the electric stunning did demonstrate to be more stressful providing larger plasmatic concentrations of cortisol ( p < 0.001 and lactate ( p < 0.001 for the genetic lineages A and C, in the studied conditions.However it didn't observe significant differences beween the sanguine indicators and stunning systems in subject when the lineage B was considered. Significant differences among the genetic lineages A, B and C were obtained being compared the plasmatic values of creatine phosphokinase (p < 0.001, lactate (p < 0.001 and cortisol (p < 0.001 when stunned with the gaseous system, however when the electric system was used only the cortisol values presented significant differences (p < 0.001. The presence of the gene halothane (Nn was only observed in the

  8. Innovative Monitoring of Atmospheric Gaseous Hydrogen Fluoride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Dugheri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen fluoride (HF is a basic raw material for a wide variety of industrial products, with a worldwide production capacity of more than three million metric tonnes. A novel method for determining particulate fluoride and gaseous hydrogen fluoride in air is presented herewith. Air was sampled using miniaturised 13 mm Swinnex two-stage filter holders in a medium-flow pumping system and through the absorption of particulate fluoride and HF vapours on cellulose ester filters uncoated or impregnated with sodium carbonate. Furthermore, filter desorption from the holders and the extraction of the pentafluorobenzyl ester derivative based on solid-phase microextraction were performed using an innovative robotic system installed on an xyz autosampler on-line with gas chromatography (GC/mass spectrometry (MS. After generating atmospheres of a known concentration of gaseous HF, we evaluated the agreement between the results of our sampling method and those of the conventional preassembled 37 mm cassette (±8.10%; correlation coefficient: 0.90. In addition, precision (relative standard deviation for n=10, 4.3%, sensitivity (0.2 μg/filter, and linearity (2.0–4000 μg/filter; correlation coefficient: 0.9913 were also evaluated. This procedure combines the efficiency of GC/MS systems with the high throughput (96 samples/day and the quantitative accuracy of pentafluorobenzyl bromide on-sample derivatisation.

  9. Electronic detectors for electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruqi, A R; McMullan, G

    2011-08-01

    Electron microscopy (EM) is an important tool for high-resolution structure determination in applications ranging from condensed matter to biology. Electronic detectors are now used in most applications in EM as they offer convenience and immediate feedback that is not possible with film or image plates. The earliest forms of electronic detector used routinely in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were charge coupled devices (CCDs) and for many applications these remain perfectly adequate. There are however applications, such as the study of radiation-sensitive biological samples, where film is still used and improved detectors would be of great value. The emphasis in this review is therefore on detectors for use in such applications. Two of the most promising candidates for improved detection are: monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) and hybrid pixel detectors (of which Medipix2 was chosen for this study). From the studies described in this review, a back-thinned MAPS detector appears well suited to replace film in for the study of radiation-sensitive samples at 300 keV, while Medipix2 is suited to use at lower energies and especially in situations with very low count rates. The performance of a detector depends on the energy of electrons to be recorded, which in turn is dependent on the application it is being used for; results are described for a wide range of electron energies ranging from 40 to 300 keV. The basic properties of detectors are discussed in terms of their modulation transfer function (MTF) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) as a function of spatial frequency.

  10. Comparative Investigation on the Heat Transfer Characteristics of Gaseous CO2 and Gaseous Water Flowing Through a Single Granite Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuanyuan; Bai, Bing; Li, Xiaochun

    2017-11-01

    CO2 and water are two commonly employed heat transmission fluids in several fields. Their temperature and pressure determine their phase states, thus affecting the heat transfer performance of the water/CO2. The heat transfer characteristics of gaseous CO2 and gaseous water flowing through fractured hot dry rock still need a great deal of investigation, in order to understand and evaluate the heat extraction in enhanced geothermal systems. In this work, we develop a 2D numerical model to compare the heat transfer performance of gaseous CO2 and gaseous water flowing through a single fracture aperture of 0.2 mm in a φ 50 × 50 mm cylindrical granite sample with a confining temperature of 200°C under different inlet mass flow rates. Our results indicate that: (1) the final outlet temperatures of the fluid are very close to the outer surface temperature under low inlet mass flow rate, regardless of the sample length. (2) Both the temperature of the fluid (gaseous CO2/gaseous water) and inner surface temperature rise sharply at the inlet, and the inner surface temperature is always higher than the fluid temperature. However, their temperature difference becomes increasingly small. (3) Both the overall heat transfer coefficient (OHTC) and local heat transfer coefficient (LHTC) of gaseous CO2 and gaseous water increase with increasing inlet mass flow rates. (4) Both the OHTC and LHTC of gaseous CO2 are lower than those of gaseous water under the same conditions; therefore, the heat mining performance of gaseous water is superior to gaseous CO2 under high temperature and low pressure.

  11. Neutron detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Andrew C [Knoxville, TN; Jardret,; Vincent, D [Powell, TN

    2011-04-05

    A neutron detector has a volume of neutron moderating material and a plurality of individual neutron sensing elements dispersed at selected locations throughout the moderator, and particularly arranged so that some of the detecting elements are closer to the surface of the moderator assembly and others are more deeply embedded. The arrangement captures some thermalized neutrons that might otherwise be scattered away from a single, centrally located detector element. Different geometrical arrangements may be used while preserving its fundamental characteristics. Different types of neutron sensing elements may be used, which may operate on any of a number of physical principles to perform the function of sensing a neutron, either by a capture or a scattering reaction, and converting that reaction to a detectable signal. High detection efficiency, an ability to acquire spectral information, and directional sensitivity may be obtained.

  12. A Recoil Detector for electron scattering experiments with internal targets

    CERN Document Server

    Sambeek, M J M V; Blok, H P; Borrius, W C; Botto, T; Dodge, G E; Heimberg, P; Jansweijer, P; Kormanyos, C M; Lange, D J; Lienen, J V; Mul, F A; Steenbakkers, M F M; Steijger, J J M; Sturm, F C; Verkooijen, J C; Welling, J J; Zwanenburg, J

    1999-01-01

    A Recoil Detector has been constructed for electron-scattering experiments with gas targets internal to the Amsterdam Pulse Stretcher and storage ring (AmPS) at NIKHEF. The detector was designed to detect low-energy (1-20 MeV/nucleon) and low-mass (A <= 4) recoiling nuclei emerging from electron-induced reactions. It consists of four sensitive elements: a low-pressure two-step avalanche chamber, two layers of silicon strip detectors of 100 and 475 mu m thickness, and a scintillator. The signals from the separate detector elements are processed by custom-made analog and digital electronics. The detector was operated successfully at the AmPS electron scattering facility with a gaseous helium target of 10 sup 1 sup 5 atoms cm sup - sup 2 internal to the storage ring and beam currents of up to 200 mA. (author)

  13. Alignment of the LHCb detector with Kalman filter fitted tracks

    CERN Document Server

    Amoraal, J M

    2009-01-01

    The LHCb detector, operating at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, is a single arm spectrometer optimised for the detection of forward b and anti-b production for b physics studies. The reconstruction of vertices and tracks is done by silicon micro-strip and gaseous straw-tube based detectors. To obtain excellent momentum, mass and vertex resolutions, the detectors need to be aligned well within the hit resolution for a given detector. We present a general and easy to configure alignment framework which uses the closed from method of alignment with Kalman filter fitted tracks to determine the alignment parameters. This allows us to use the standard LHCb track model and fit, and correctly take complexities such as multiple scattering and energy loss corrections into account. With this framework it is possible to align any detector for any degree of freedom.

  14. Future Atmospheric Neutrino Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Geiser, A

    2000-01-01

    Future experiments focusing on atmospheric neutrino detection are reviewed. One of the main goals of these experiments is the detection of an unambiguous oscillation pattern (nu_mu reappearance) to prove the oscillation hypothesis. Further goals include the discrimination of nu_mu - nu_tau and nu_mu - nu_sterile oscillations, and the detection of a potential small nu_mu - nu_e contribution. The search for matter effects in three or more flavour oscillations can be used to constrain hybrid oscillation models and potentially measure the sign of delta m^2. The detectors and measurement techniques proposed to achieve these goals are described, and their physics reach is discussed.

  15. 18th International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The International Workshops on Radiation Imaging Detectors are held yearly and provide an international forum for discussing current research and developments in the area of position sensitive detectors for radiation imaging, including semiconductor detectors, gas and scintillator-based detectors. Topics include processing and characterization of detector materials, hybridization and interconnect technologies, design of counting or integrating electronics, readout and data acquisition systems, and applications in various scientific and industrial fields. The workshop will have plenary sessions with invited and contributed papers presented orally and in poster sessions. The invited talks will be chosen to review recent advances in different areas covered in the workshop.

  16. Vertex-Detector R&D for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Dannheim, Dominik

    2014-03-19

    A detector concept based on hybrid planar pixel-detector technology is under development for the CLIC vertex detector. It comprises fast, low-power and small-pitch readout ASICs implemented in 65 nm CMOS technology (CLICpix) coupled to ultra-thin sensors via low-mass interconnects. The power dissipation of the readout chips is reduced by means of power pulsing, allowing for a cooling system based on forced gas flow. In this paper the CLIC vertex-detector requirements are reviewed and the current status of R&D on sensors, readout and detector integration is presented.

  17. Simulating Isotope Enrichment by Gaseous Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Cameron

    2015-04-01

    A desktop-computer simulation of isotope enrichment by gaseous diffusion has been developed. The simulation incorporates two non-interacting point-mass species whose members pass through a cascade of cells containing porous membranes and retain constant speeds as they reflect off the walls of the cells and the spaces between holes in the membranes. A particular feature is periodic forward recycling of enriched material to cells further along the cascade along with simultaneous return of depleted material to preceding cells. The number of particles, the mass ratio, the initial fractional abundance of the lighter species, and the time between recycling operations can be chosen by the user. The simulation is simple enough to be understood on the basis of two-dimensional kinematics, and demonstrates that the fractional abundance of the lighter-isotope species increases along the cascade. The logic of the simulation will be described and results of some typical runs will be presented and discussed.

  18. Gaseous Viscous Peeling of Linearly Elastic Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbaz, Shai; Jacob, Hila; Gat, Amir

    2017-11-01

    We study pressure-driven propagation of gas into a micron-scale gap between two linearly elastic substrates. Applying the lubrication approximation, the governing nonlinear evolution equation describes the interaction between elasticity and viscosity, as well as weak rarefaction and low-Mach-number compressibility, characteristic to gaseous microflows. Several physical limits allow simplification of the evolution equation and enable solution by self-similarity. During the peeling process the flow-field transitions between the different limits and the respective approximate solutions. The sequence of limits occurring during the propagation dynamics can be related to the thickness of the prewetting layer of the configuration at rest, yielding an approximate description of the entire peeling dynamics. The results are validated by numerical solutions of the evolution equation. Israel Science Foundation 818/13.

  19. Allis Prize Lecture: Gaseous Electronics Physics Inside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garscadden, Alan

    2002-10-01

    I was fortunate to enjoy the advice of K. G. Emeleus during my graduate studies and for many years afterwards. He introduced me to the papers of Will Allis and later I was privileged to correspond with Professor Allis. At this time I had moved from the Queens university environment to work at a large Air Force base. There I have worked with a lot of smart people, including several who also come to the GEC each year to be refreshed and calibrated. A personal overview is presented on a few of the many roles that atomic, molecular and optical physics, including gaseous electronics, play in programs of the Air Force Research Laboratory and subsequently on AF systems and operations. While there have been misses, overall there have been many successes with impacts that provide more effective systems, as recent experiences have demonstrated. Some example studies, involving primarily electron collision physics, successful and unsuccessful in being chosen for application, are discussed.

  20. The challenge of hybridization

    CERN Document Server

    Caccia, Massimo

    2000-01-01

    Hybridization of pixel detector systems has to satisfy tight requirements: high yield, long term reliability, mechanical stability, thermal compliance and robustness have to go together with low passive mass added to the system, radiation hardness, flexibility in the technology end eventually low cost. The current technologies for the interconnection of the front-end chips and the sensor are reviewed and compared, together with the solutions for the interface to the far-end electronics.

  1. Removing gaseous NH3 using biochar as an adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia is a major fugitive gas emitted from livestock operations and fertilization production. This study tested the potential of various biochars in removing gaseous ammonia via adsorption processes. Gaseous ammonia adsorption capacities of various biochars made from two different feedstocks (wood...

  2. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... VEHICLES § 538.8 Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels. The gallon equivalent of gaseous fuels, for purposes... Natural Gas 0.823 Liquefied Natural Gas 0.823 Liquefied Petroleum Gas (Grade HD-5)* 0.726 Hydrogen 0.259...

  3. Methods for reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons using electrical discharge

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2017-02-16

    Methods for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons are provided. The methods can include forming a bubble containing the gaseous hydrocarbon in a liquid. The bubble can be generated to pass in a gap between a pair of electrodes, whereby an electrical discharge is generated in the bubble at the gap between the electrodes. The electrodes can be a metal or metal alloy with a high melting point so they can sustain high voltages of up to about 200 kilovolts. The gaseous hydrocarbon can be combined with an additive gas such as molecular oxygen or carbon dioxide. The reformation of the gaseous hydrocarbon can produce mixtures containing one or more of H2, CO, H2O, CO2, and a lower hydrocarbon such as ethane or ethylene. The reformation of the gaseous hydrocarbon can produce low amounts of CO2 and H2O, e.g. about 15 mol-% or less.

  4. Blocked impurity band hybrid infrared focal plane arrays for astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, D. B.; Seib, D. H.; Stetson, S. B.; Herter, T.; Rowlands, N.

    1989-02-01

    High-performance infrared hybrid focal plane arrays using 10- x 50-element Si:As blocked-impurity-band (BIB) detectors (cutoff wavelength = 28 microns) and matching switched MOSFET multiplexers have been developed and characterized for space astronomy. Use of impurity-band-conduction technology provides detectors which are nuclear-radiation-hard and free of the many anomalies associated with conventional silicon photoconductive detectors. Emphasis in the present work is on recent advances in detector material quality which have led to significantly improved detector and hybrid characteristics. Results demonstrating increased quantum efficiency (particularly at short-wavelength infrared), obtained by varying the BIB detector properties (infrared active layer thickness and arsenic doping profile), are summarized. Measured read noise and dark current for different temperatures are reported. The hybrid array performance achieved demonstrates that BIB detectors are well suited for use in astronomical instrumentation.

  5. Micro-Pattern Gas Detectors: State of the Art and R&D

    CERN Document Server

    Cairo, Valentina Maria

    2013-01-01

    Gaseous detectors are radiation detection instruments designed to point out the presence of ionizing particles and to measure their properties. They use the ionizing effect produced by the incoming particle onto a gas-filled sensor. The classical wire chambers, that were one of the first gas detectors, have a lot of advantages, but have also a limited rate capabilities. Then, in the 1980s, were introduced the Micro Pattern Gas Detectors (MPGDs) that perform better than classic wire chambers. The aim of my work as Summer Student was simulate, optimize and produce two new kind of MPGD: conic Thick GEM (ThGEM) and Spiral Detector.

  6. CCD readout of GEM-based neutron detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Fraga, F A F; Fetal, S T G; Fraga, M; Guérard, B; Manzini, G; Margato, L M S; Oed, A; Policarpo, Armando; Vuure, T V

    2002-01-01

    We report on the optical readout of the gas electron multiplier (GEM) operated with a gaseous mixture suitable for the detection of thermal neutrons: sup 3 He-CF sub 4. A CCD system operating in the 400-1000 nm band was used to collect the light. Spectroscopic data on the visible and NIR scintillation of He-CF sub 4 are presented. Images of the tracks of the proton and triton recorded with a triple GEM detector are also shown.

  7. Charge Transfer Properties Through Graphene Layers in Gas Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Thuiner, P.; Jackman, R.B.; Müller, H.; Nguyen, T.T.; Oliveri, E.; Pfeiffer, D.; Resnati, F.; Ropelewski, L.; Smith, J.A.; van Stenis, M.; Veenhof, R.

    2016-01-01

    Graphene is a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice with remarkable mechanical, electrical and optical properties. For the first time graphene layers suspended on copper meshes were installed into a gas detector equipped with a gaseous electron multiplier. Measurements of low energy electron and ion transfer through graphene were conducted. In this paper we describe the sample preparation for suspended graphene layers, the testing procedures and we discuss the preliminary results followed by a prospect of further applications.

  8. Radiation detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taleyarkhan, Rusi P.

    2017-06-27

    Alpha particle detecting devices are disclosed that have a chamber that can hold a fluid in a tensioned metastable state. The chamber is tuned with a suitable fluid and tension such that alpha emitting materials such as radon and one or more of its decay products can be detected. The devices can be portable and can be placed in areas, such as rooms in dwellings or laboratories and used to measure radon in these areas, in situ and in real time. The disclosed detectors can detect radon at and below 4 pCi/L in air; also, at and below 4,000 pCi/L or 300 pCi/L in water.

  9. New pixelized Micromegas detector with low discharge rate for the COMPASS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Neyret, D.; Anfreville, M.; Bedfer, Y.; Burtin, E.; Coquelet, C.; d'Hose, N.; Desforge, D.; Giganon, A.; Jourde, D.; Kunne, F.; Magnon, A.; Makke, N.; Marchand, C.; Paul, B.; Platchkov, S.; Thibaud, F.; Usseglio, M.; Vandenbroucke, M.

    2012-01-01

    New Micromegas (Micro-mesh gaseous detectors) are being developed in view of the future physics projects planned by the COMPASS collaboration at CERN. Several major upgrades compared to present detectors are being studied: detectors standing five times higher luminosity with hadron beams, detection of beam particles (flux up to a few hundred of kHz/mm^{2}, 10 times larger than for the present Micromegas detectors) with pixelized read-out in the central part, light and integrated electronics, and improved robustness. Two solutions of reduction of discharge impact have been studied, with Micromegas detectors using resistive layers and using an additional GEM foil. Performance of such detectors has also been measured. A large size prototypes with nominal active area and pixelized read-out has been produced and installed at COMPASS in 2010. In 2011 prototypes featuring an additional GEM foil, as well as an resistive prototype, are installed at COMPASS and preliminary results from those detectors presented very go...

  10. A Novel UV Photon Detector with Resistive Electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Bidault, J M; Francke, T; Galy, P; Peskov, Vladimir; Rodionov, I

    2006-01-01

    In this study we present first results from a new detector of UV photons: a thick gaseous electron multiplier (GEM) with resistive electrodes, combined with CsI or CsTe/CsI photocathodes. The hole type structure considerably suppresses the photon and ion feedback, whereas the resistive electrodes protect the detector and the readout electronics from damage by any eventual discharges. This device reaches higher gains than a previously developed photosensitive RPC and could be used not only for the imaging of UV sources, flames or Cherenkov light, for example, but also for the detection of X-rays and charged particles.

  11. Using Backscattering to Enhance Efficiency in Neutron Detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kittelmann, T.; Kanaki, K.; Klinkby, Esben Bryndt

    2017-01-01

    The principle of using strongly scattering materials to recover efficiency in detectors for neutron instruments, via backscattering of unconverted thermal neutrons, is discussed in general. The feasibility of the method is illustrated through Geant4-based simulations involving thermal neutrons...... impinging on a specific setup with a layer of polyethylene placed behind a single-layered boron-10 thin-film gaseous detector. The results show that detection efficiencies can be as much as doubled in the most ideal scenario, but with associated adverse contributions to spatial and timing resolutions of...

  12. Development of silicon micropattern pixel detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heijne, E.H.M.; Antinori, F.; Beker, H.; Batignani, G.; Beusch, W.; Bonvicini, V.; Bosisio, L.; Boutonnet, C.; Burger, P.; Campbell, M.; Cantoni, P.; Catanesi, M.G.; Chesi, E.; Claeys, C.; Clemens, J.C.; Cohen Solal, M.; Darbo, G.; Da Via, C.; Debusscheere, I.; Delpierre, P.; Di Bari, D.; Di Liberto, S.; Dierickx, B.; Enz, C.C.; Focardi, E.; Forti, F.; Gally, Y.; Glaser, M.; Gys, T.; Habrard, M.C.; Hallewell, G.; Hermans, L.; Heuser, J.; Hurst, R.; Inzani, P.; Jaeger, J.J.; Jarron, P.; Karttaavi, T.; Kersten, S.; Krummenacher, F.; Leitner, R.; Lemeilluer, F.; Lenti, V.; Letheren, M.; Lokajicek, M.; Loukas, D.; Macdermott, M.; Maggi, G.; Manzari, V.; Martinengo, P.; Meddeler, G.; Meddi, F.; Mekkaoui, A.; Menetrey, A.; Middelkamp, P.; Morando, M.; Munns, A.; Musico, P.; Nava, P.; Navach, F.; Neyer, C.; Pellegrini, F.; Pengg, F.; Perego, R.; Pindo, M.; Pospisil, S.; Potheau, R.; Quercigh, E.; Redaelli, N.; Ridky, J.; Rossi, L.; Sauvage, D.; Segato, G.; Simone, S.; Sopko, B.; Stefanini, G.; CERN RD19 collaboration

    1994-09-01

    Successive versions of high speed, active silicon pixel detectors with integrated readout electronics have been developed for particle physics experiments using monolithic and hybrid technologies. Various matrices with binary output as well as a linear detector with analog output have been made. The hybrid binary matrix with 1024 cells (dimension 75 [mu]mx500 [mu]m) can capture events at similar 5 MHz and a selected event can then be read out in <10 [mu]s. In different beam tests at CERN a precision of 25 [mu]m has been achieved and the efficiency was better than 99.2%. Detector thicknesses of 300 [mu]m and 150 [mu]m of silicon have been used. In a test with a [sup 109]Cd source a noise level of 170 e[sup -]r.m.s. (1.4 keV fwhm) has been measured with a threshold non-uniformity of 750 e[sup -] r.m.s. Objectives of the development work are the increase of the size of detecting area without loss of efficiency, the design of an appropriate readout architecture for collider operation, the reduction of material thickness in the detector, understanding of the threshold non-uniformity, study of the sensitivity of the pixel matrices to light and low energy electrons for scintillating fiber detector readout and last but not least, the optimization of cost and yield of the pixel detectors in production. ((orig.))

  13. Growth of graphene films from non-gaseous carbon sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, James; Sun, Zhengzong; Yan, Zheng; Ruan, Gedeng; Peng, Zhiwei

    2015-08-04

    In various embodiments, the present disclosure provides methods of forming graphene films by: (1) depositing a non-gaseous carbon source onto a catalyst surface; (2) exposing the non-gaseous carbon source to at least one gas with a flow rate; and (3) initiating the conversion of the non-gaseous carbon source to the graphene film, where the thickness of the graphene film is controllable by the gas flow rate. Additional embodiments of the present disclosure pertain to graphene films made in accordance with the methods of the present disclosure.

  14. Vortex breakdown in gaseous swirling jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Antonio L.; Carpio, Jaime; Williams, Forman A.

    2017-11-01

    Numerical integrations of the axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations are employed to describe the structure of low-Mach-number gaseous swirling jets with jet-to-ambient density ratios ρj /ρa of order unity. The integrations consider moderately large values of the Reynolds number on the order of a few hundred and values of the swirl ratio S of order unity. Slender jets are found to exist for values of S below a critical value of order unity, at which vortex breakdown occurs. As in the case of constant density jets (Billant, Chomaz, and Huerre, JFM 1998), two different types of axisymmetric vortex breakdown are identified, namely, a bubble state and a cone configuration. The critical values of S characterizing the existence of the different solutions are determined as a function of ρj /ρa . Additional computations based on the quasicylindrical approximation are employed to describe slender subcritical jets. The results indicate that the breakdown of the quasicylindrical approximation provides an accurate prediction for the transition from the slender solution to the bubble state, whereas a prediction for the transition to the cone state can be obtained by consideration of the structure of the flow at small distances from the jet exit. This work was supported by the US AFOSR Grant No. FA9550-16-1-0443.

  15. First gaseous boronization during pulsed discharge cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, J., E-mail: jinseok@nfri.re.kr [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Den Hartog, D.J.; Goetz, J.A.; Weix, P.J.; Limbach, S.T. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2013-01-15

    The first successful gaseous boronization during a pulsed discharge is reported. Sublimation of o-carborane (C{sub 2}B{sub 10}H{sub 12}) combined with pulsed discharge plasmas with a repetition rate of 1 Hz is used to produce a hard boron-containing coating for reversed field pinch (RFP) plasmas in the Madison Symmetric Torus. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with Ar ion beam etching for silicon coupons installed at the plasma boundary shows about 60% boron concentration in the deposited layer. Both profilometer and scanning electron microscope analyses of the silicon coupons imply a strong toroidally non-uniform deposition depending on the location of the o-carborane injection. The layer thickness ranges from 50 to 300 nm. Ellipsometry calibrated with the profilometer results yields a refractive index of 2.2-2.3 for the films. The high refractive index implies that the coating is hard and has a well-ordered morphology. A reduction in wall recycling has consistently been observed after all boronization sessions. Comparison of the X-ray spectra in standard RFP plasmas before and after boronization indicates a slight decrease in the effective ionic charge.

  16. Gaseous Nitrogen Orifice Mass Flow Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritrivi, Charles

    2013-01-01

    The Gaseous Nitrogen (GN2) Orifice Mass Flow Calculator was used to determine Space Shuttle Orbiter Water Spray Boiler (WSB) GN2 high-pressure tank source depletion rates for various leak scenarios, and the ability of the GN2 consumables to support cooling of Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) lubrication during entry. The data was used to support flight rationale concerning loss of an orbiter APU/hydraulic system and mission work-arounds. The GN2 mass flow-rate calculator standardizes a method for rapid assessment of GN2 mass flow through various orifice sizes for various discharge coefficients, delta pressures, and temperatures. The calculator utilizes a 0.9-lb (0.4 kg) GN2 source regulated to 40 psia (.276 kPa). These parameters correspond to the Space Shuttle WSB GN2 Source and Water Tank Bellows, but can be changed in the spreadsheet to accommodate any system parameters. The calculator can be used to analyze a leak source, leak rate, gas consumables depletion time, and puncture diameter that simulates the measured GN2 system pressure drop.

  17. Action-FRET of a Gaseous Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Steven; Knight, Geoffrey; Halim, Mohamed Abdul; Kulesza, Alexander; Choi, Chang Min; Chirot, Fabien; MacAleese, Luke; Antoine, Rodolphe; Dugourd, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Mass spectrometry is an extremely powerful technique for analysis of biological molecules, in particular proteins. One aspect that has been contentious is how much native solution-phase structure is preserved upon transposition to the gas phase by soft ionization methods such as electrospray ionization. To address this question-and thus further develop mass spectrometry as a tool for structural biology-structure-sensitive techniques must be developed to probe the gas-phase conformations of proteins. Here, we report Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements on a ubiquitin mutant using specific photofragmentation as a reporter of the FRET efficiency. The FRET data is interpreted in the context of circular dichroism, molecular dynamics simulation, and ion mobility data. Both the dependence of the FRET efficiency on the charge state-where a systematic decrease is observed-and on methanol concentration are considered. In the latter case, a decrease in FRET efficiency with methanol concentration is taken as evidence that the conformational ensemble of gaseous protein cations retains a memory of the solution phase conformational ensemble upon electrospray ionization. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  18. Automated sampling and control of gaseous simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Ruoguan

    2013-05-04

    In this work, we describe a method that automates the sampling and control of gaseous fluid simulations. Several recent approaches have provided techniques for artists to generate high-resolution simulations based on a low-resolution simulation. However, often in applications the overall flow in the low-resolution simulation that an animator observes and intends to preserve is composed of even lower frequencies than the low resolution itself. In such cases, attempting to match the low-resolution simulation precisely is unnecessarily restrictive. We propose a new sampling technique to efficiently capture the overall flow of a fluid simulation, at the scale of user\\'s choice, in such a way that the sampled information is sufficient to represent what is virtually perceived and no more. Thus, by applying control based on the sampled data, we ensure that in the resulting high-resolution simulation, the overall flow is matched to the low-resolution simulation and the fine details on the high resolution are preserved. The samples we obtain have both spatial and temporal continuity that allows smooth keyframe matching and direct manipulation of visible elements such as smoke density through temporal blending of samples. We demonstrate that a user can easily configure a simulation with our system to achieve desired results. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  19. Validation of columnar CsI x-ray detector responses obtained with hybridMANTIS, a CPU-GPU Monte Carlo code for coupled x-ray, electron, and optical transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Diksha; Badano, Aldo

    2013-03-01

    hybridMANTIS is a Monte Carlo package for modeling indirect x-ray imagers using columnar geometry based on a hybrid concept that maximizes the utilization of available CPU and graphics processing unit processors in a workstation. The authors compare hybridMANTIS x-ray response simulations to previously published MANTIS and experimental data for four cesium iodide scintillator screens. These screens have a variety of reflective and absorptive surfaces with different thicknesses. The authors analyze hybridMANTIS results in terms of modulation transfer function and calculate the root mean square difference and Swank factors from simulated and experimental results. The comparison suggests that hybridMANTIS better matches the experimental data as compared to MANTIS, especially at high spatial frequencies and for the thicker screens. hybridMANTIS simulations are much faster than MANTIS with speed-ups up to 5260. hybridMANTIS is a useful tool for improved description and optimization of image acquisition stages in medical imaging systems and for modeling the forward problem in iterative reconstruction algorithms.

  20. Monitoring of absolute mirror alignment at COMPASS RICH-1 detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexeev, M. [INFN, Sezione di Torino and University of East Piemonte, Alessandria (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste and University of Bari, Bari (Italy); Birsa, R. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste and University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Chiosso, M. [INFN, Sezione di Torino and University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Ciliberti, P. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste and University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Dalla Torre, S. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Denisov, O. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Duic, V. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste and University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Ferrero, A. [INFN, Sezione di Torino and University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Finger, M.; Finger, M. [Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic); JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Gayde, J.Ch. [CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Giorgi, M. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste and University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Gobbo, B.; Levorato, S. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Maggiora, A. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Martin, A. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste and University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Menon, G. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Panzieri, D. [INFN, Sezione di Torino and University of East Piemonte, Alessandria (Italy); and others

    2014-12-01

    The gaseous COMPASS RICH-1 detector uses two spherical mirror surfaces, segmented into 116 individual mirrors, to focus the Cherenkov photons onto the detector plane. Any mirror misalignment directly affects the detector resolution. The on-line Continuous Line Alignment and Monitoring (CLAM) photogrammetry-based method has been implemented to measure the alignment of individual mirrors which can be characterized by the center of curvature. The mirror wall reflects a regular grid of retroreflective strips placed inside the detector vessel. Then, the position of each mirror is determined from the image of the grid reflection. The images are collected by four cameras. Any small mirror misalignment results in changes of the grid lines’ positions in the image. The accuracy limits of the CLAM method were checked by laser interferometry and are below 0.1 mrad.

  1. CLIC Detector Power Requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Gaddi, A

    2013-01-01

    An estimate for the CLIC detector power requirements is outlined starting from the available data on power consumptions of the four LHC experiments and considering the differences between a typical LHC Detector (CMS) and the CLIC baseline detector concept. In particular the impact of the power pulsing scheme for the CLIC Detector electronics on the overall detector consumption is considered. The document will be updated with the requirements of the sub-detector electronics once they are more defined.

  2. Computed tomography measurement of gaseous fuel concentration by infrared laser light absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawazoe, Hiromitsu; Inagaki, Kazuhisa; Emi, Y.; Yoshino, Fumio

    1997-11-01

    A system to measure gaseous hydrocarbon distributions was devised, which is based on IR light absorption by C-H stretch mode of vibration and computed tomography method. It is called IR-CT method in the paper. Affection of laser light power fluctuation was diminished by monitoring source light intensity by the second IR light detector. Calibration test for methane fuel was carried out to convert spatial data of line absorption coefficient into quantitative methane concentration. This system was applied to three flow fields. The first is methane flow with lifted flame which is generated by a gourd-shaped fuel nozzle. Feasibility of the IR-CT method was confirmed through the measurement. The second application is combustion field with diffusion flame. Calibration to determine absorptivity was undertaken, and measured line absorption coefficient was converted spatial fuel concentration using corresponding temperature data. The last case is modeled in cylinder gas flow of internal combustion engine, where gaseous methane was led to the intake valve in steady flow state. The fuel gas flow simulates behavior of gaseous gasoline which is evaporated at intake valve tulip. Computed tomography measurement of inner flow is essentially difficult because of existence of surrounding wall. In this experiment, IR laser beam was led to planed portion by IR light fiber. It is found that fuel convection by airflow takes great part in air-fuel mixture formation and the developed IR-CT system to measure fuel concentration is useful to analyze air-fuel mixture formation process and to develop new combustors.

  3. Gaseous Helium Reclamation at Rocket Test Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ability to restore large amounts of vented gaseous helium (GHe) at rocket test sites preserves the GHe and reduces operating cost. The used GHe is vented into...

  4. Heterogeneous Reaction gaseous chlorine nitrate and solid sodium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timonen, Raimo S.; Chu, Liang T.; Leu, Ming-Taun

    1994-01-01

    The heterogeneous reaction of gaseous chlorine nitrate and solid sodium chloride was investigated over a temperature range of 220 - 300 K in a flow-tube reactor interfaced with a differentially pumped quadrupole mass spectrometer.

  5. High resolution micro-pattern gas detectors for particle physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhtman, L.; Aulchenko, V.; Bobrovnikov, V.; Bondar, A.; Fedotovich, G.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Maltsev, T.; Nikolenko, D.; Rachek, I.; Zhilich, V.; Zhulanov, V.

    2017-07-01

    Micro-pattern gaseous detectors (MPGDs) allow operation at very high background particle flux with high efficiency and spatial resolution. This combination of parameters determines the main application of these detectors in particle physics experiments: precise tracking in the areas close to the beam and in the end-cap regions of general-purpose detectors. MPGDs of different configurations have been developed and are under development for several experiments in the Budker INP. The system of eight two-coordinate detectors based on a cascade of Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM) is working in the KEDR experiment at the VEPP-4M collider in the tagging system that detects electrons and positrons that lost their energy in two-photon interactions and left the equilibrium orbit due to a dedicated magnetic system. Another set of cascaded GEM detectors is developed for the almost-real Photon Tagging System (PTS) of the DEUTRON facility at the VEPP-3 storage ring. The PTS contains three very light detectors with very high spatial resolution (below 50 μm). Dedicated detectors based on cascaded GEMs are developed for the extracted electron beam facility at the VEPP-4M collider. These devices will allow precise particle tracking with minimal multiple scattering due to very low material content. An upgrade of the coordinate system of the CMD-3 detector at the VEPP-2000 collider is proposed on the basis of the resistive micro-WELL (μ-rWELL). A research activity on this subject has just started.

  6. MUON DETECTOR

    CERN Multimedia

    F. Gasparini

    DT As announced in the previous Bulletin MU DT completed the installation of the vertical chambers of barrel wheels 0, +1 and +2. 242 DT and RPC stations are now installed in the negative barrel wheels. The missing 8 (4 in YB-1 and 4 in YB-2) chambers can be installed only after the lowering of the two wheels into the UX cavern, which is planned for the last quarter of the year. Cabling on the surface of the negative wheels was finished in May after some difficulties with RPC cables. The next step was to begin the final commissioning of the wheels with the final trigger and readout electronics. Priority was giv¬en to YB0 in order to check everything before the chambers were covered by cables and services of the inner detectors. Commissioning is not easy since it requires both activity on the central and positive wheels underground, as well as on the negative wheels still on the surface. The DT community is requested to commission the negative wheels on surface to cope with a possible lack of time a...

  7. A Radiation Imaging Detector Made by Postprocessing a Standard CMOS Chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanco Carballo, V.M.; Chefdeville, M.A.; Fransen, Martin; van der Graaf, Harry; Melai, J.; Salm, Cora; Schmitz, Jurriaan; Timmermans, J.; Timmermans, Jan

    2008-01-01

    An unpackaged microchip is used as the sensing element in a miniaturized gaseous proportional chamber. Thisletter reports on the fabrication and performance of a complete radiation imaging detector based on this principle. Our fabrication schemes are based on wafer-scale and chip-scale

  8. XAMS - development of liquid xenon detector technology for dark matter searches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schön, R.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most promising detector technologies to directly detect weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter are time projection chambers (TPCs) filled with dual-phase (liquid and gaseous) xenon. The hypothetical WIMP could scatter with atoms in the liquid and the transferred recoil

  9. Euthanasia using gaseous agents in laboratory rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentim, A M; Guedes, S R; Pereira, A M; Antunes, L M

    2016-08-01

    Several questions have been raised in recent years about the euthanasia of laboratory rodents. Euthanasia using inhaled agents is considered to be a suitable aesthetic method for use with a large number of animals simultaneously. Nevertheless, its aversive potential has been criticized in terms of animal welfare. The data available regarding the use of carbon dioxide (CO2), inhaled anaesthetics (such as isoflurane, sevoflurane, halothane and enflurane), as well as carbon monoxide and inert gases are discussed throughout this review. Euthanasia of fetuses and neonates is also addressed. A table listing currently available information to ease access to data regarding euthanasia techniques using gaseous agents in laboratory rodents was compiled. Regarding better animal welfare, there is currently insufficient evidence to advocate banning or replacing CO2 in the euthanasia of rodents; however, there are hints that alternative gases are more humane. The exposure to a volatile anaesthetic gas before loss of consciousness has been proposed by some scientific studies to minimize distress; however, the impact of such a measure is not clear. Areas of inconsistency within the euthanasia literature have been highlighted recently and stem from insufficient knowledge, especially regarding the advantages of the administration of isoflurane or sevoflurane over CO2, or other methods, before loss of consciousness. Alternative methods to minimize distress may include the development of techniques aimed at inducing death in the home cage of animals. Scientific outcomes have to be considered before choosing the most suitable euthanasia method to obtain the best results and accomplish the 3Rs (replacement, reduction and refinement). © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Detector simulation needs for detector designers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, G.G.

    1987-11-01

    Computer simulation of the components of SSC detectors and of the complete detectors will be very important for the designs of the detectors. The ratio of events from interesting physics to events from background processes is very low, so detailed understanding of detector response to the backgrounds is needed. Any large detector for the SSC will be very complex and expensive and every effort must be made to design detectors which will have excellent performance and will not have to undergo major rebuilding. Some areas in which computer simulation is particularly needed are pattern recognition in tracking detectors and development of shower simulation code which can be trusted as an aid in the design and optimization of calorimeters, including their electron identification performance. Existing codes require too much computer time to be practical and need to be compared with test beam data at energies of several hundred GeV. Computer simulation of the processing of the data, including electronics response to the signals from the detector components, processing of the data by microprocessors on the detector, the trigger, and data acquisition will be required. In this report we discuss the detector simulation needs for detector designers.

  11. Impact of nitrate-enhanced leachate recirculation on gaseous releases from a landfill bioreactor cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallec, G; Bureau, C; Peu, P; Benoist, J C; Lemunier, M; Budka, A; Presse, D; Bouchez, T

    2009-07-01

    This study evaluates the impact of nitrate injection on a full scale landfill bioreactor through the monitoring of gaseous releases and particularly N(2)O emissions. During several weeks, we monitored gas concentrations in the landfill gas collection system as well as surface gas releases with a series of seven static chambers. These devices were directly connected to a gas chromatograph coupled to a flame ionisation detector and an electron capture detector (GC-FID/ECD) placed directly on the field. Measurements were performed before, during and after recirculation of raw leachate and nitrate-enhanced leachate. Raw leachate recirculation did not have a significant effect on the biogas concentrations (CO(2), CH(4) and N(2)O) in the gas extraction network. However, nitrate-enhanced leachate recirculation induced a marked increase of the N(2)O concentrations in the gas collected from the recirculation trench (100-fold increase from 0.2 ppm to 23 ppm). In the common gas collection system however, this N(2)O increase was no more detectable because of dilution by gas coming from other cells or ambient air intrusion. Surface releases through the temporary cover were characterized by a large spatial and temporal variability. One automated chamber gave limited standard errors over each experimental period for N(2)O releases: 8.1 +/- 0.16 mg m(-2) d(-1) (n = 384), 4.2 +/- 0.14 mg m(-2) d(-1) (n = 132) and 1.9 +/- 0.10 mg m(-2) d(-1) (n = 49), during, after raw leachate and nitrate-enhanced leachate recirculation, respectively. No clear correlation between N(2)O gaseous surface releases and recirculation events were evidenced. Estimated N(2)O fluxes remained in the lower range of what is reported in the literature for landfill covers, even after nitrate injection.

  12. Development of floating strip micromegas detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortfeldt, Jonathan

    2014-04-28

    Micromegas are high-rate capable, high-resolution micro-pattern gaseous detectors. Square meter sized resistive strip Micromegas are foreseen as replacement of the currently used precision tracking detectors in the Small Wheel, which is part of the forward region of the ATLAS muon spectrometer. The replacement is necessary to ensure tracking and triggering performance of the muon spectrometer after the luminosity increase of the Large Hadron Collider beyond its design value of 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} around 2020. In this thesis a novel discharge tolerant floating strip Micromegas detector is presented and described. By individually powering copper anode strips, the effects of a discharge are confined to a small region of the detector. This reduces the impact of discharges on the efficiency by three orders of magnitude, compared to a standard Micromegas. The physics of the detector is studied and discussed in detail. Several detectors are developed: A 6.4 x 6.4 cm{sup 2} floating strip Micromegas with exchangeable SMD capacitors and resistors allows for an optimization of the floating strip principle. The discharge behavior is investigated on this device in depth. The microscopic structure of discharges is quantitatively explained by a detailed detector simulation. A 48 x 50 cm{sup 2} floating strip Micromegas is studied in high energy pion beams. Its homogeneity with respect to pulse height, efficiency and spatial resolution is investigated. The good performance in high-rate background environments is demonstrated in cosmic muon tracking measurements with a 6.4 x 6.4 cm{sup 2} floating strip Micromegas under lateral irradiation with 550 kHz 20 MeV proton beams. A floating strip Micromegas doublet with low material budget is developed for ion tracking without limitations from multiple scattering in imaging applications during medical ion therapy. Highly efficient tracking of 20 MeV protons at particle rates of 550 kHz is possible. The reconstruction of the

  13. Degradation of gaseous formaldehyde via visible light photocatalysis using multi-element doped titania nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laciste, Maricris T; de Luna, Mark Daniel G; Tolosa, Nolan C; Lu, Ming-Chun

    2017-09-01

    This study developed a modified titanium dioxide photocatalyst doped with multi-element synthesized via sol-gel process to productize a novel photocatalyst. The study includes degradation of gaseous formaldehyde under visible light using the synthesized novel titanium dioxide photocatalyst. Varying molar ratios from 0 to 2 percent (% mole in titanium dioxide) of ammonium fluoride, silver nitrate and sodium tungstate as dopant precursors for nitrogen, fluorine, silver and tungsten were used. Photodegradation of gaseous formaldehyde was examined on glass tubular reactors illuminated with blue light emitting diodes (LEDs) using immobilized photocatalyst. The photocatalytic yield is analyzed based on the photocatalyst surface chemical properties via X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectrophotometry, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) characterization results. The applied modifications enhanced the visible light capability of the catalyst in comparison to the undoped catalyst and commercially available Degussa P-25, such that it photocatalytically degrades 88.1% of formaldehyde in 120 min. Synthesized titanium dioxide photocatalyst exhibits a unique spin orbital at 532.07 eV and 533.27 eV that came from the hybridization of unoccupied Ti d(t 2g ) levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination of non-gaseous and gaseous mercury fractions in unused fluorescent lamps: a study of different lamp types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figi, Renato; Nagel, Oliver; Schreiner, Claudia; Hagendorfer, Harald

    2015-03-01

    Since incandescent light bulbs have been phased out in the European Union from 2009, the use of fluorescent lamps has drastically increased as a reliable, more energy-efficient and cost-effective alternative. State-of-the-art fluorescent lamps are dependent on mercury/mercury alloys, posing a risk for the consumer and the environment, and appropriate waste management is challenging. Consequently analytical methods to determine possible mercury species (non-gaseous/gaseous) in these lamps are of need. Here, a straightforward and wet-chemistry-based analytical strategy for the determination of gaseous and non-gaseous mercury in commercially available fluorescent lamps is presented. It can be adapted in any analytical laboratory, without or with only minimum modifications of already installed equipment. The analytical figures of merit, as well as application of the method to a series of commercially available fluorescent lamps, are presented. Out of 14 analysed and commercially available lamp types, results from this study indicate that only one contains a slightly higher amount of mercury than set by the legislative force. In all new lamps the amount of gaseous mercury is negligible compared with the non-gaseous fraction (88%-99% of total mercury). © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. High-definition and low-noise muography of the Sakurajima volcano with gaseous tracking detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oláh, László; Tanaka, Hiroyuki K M; Ohminato, Takao; Varga, Dezső

    2018-02-16

    Muography is a novel method to highly resolve the internal structure of active volcanoes by taking advantage of the cosmic muon's strong penetration power. In this paper, we present the first high-definition image in the vicinity of craters of an erupting volcano called Sakurajima, Kyushu, Japan. The muography observation system based on the technique of multi-wire proportional chamber (mMOS) has been operated reliably during the data taking period of 157 days. The mMOS measured precisely the flux of muons up to the thickness of 5,000 meter-water-equivalent. It was shown that high-definition density maps around the Craters A, B and Showa could be determined with a precision of less than 7.5 × 7.5 m 2 which earlier had not yet been achieved. The observed density distribution suggests that the fall back deposits filled the magma pathway and increased their density underneath Craters A and B.

  16. Micro capillary glass plates as a gaseous detector of photons and particles

    CERN Document Server

    Giunji, S; Sakuraï, H; Silin, E; Sokolova, T; Radionov, I

    2002-01-01

    We demonstrate that Micro Capillary Glass Plate (MCGPs) can be combined with high efficiency SbCs and bialkali photocathodes. We also report the first results from tests of MCGP combined with solid converters of X-ray photons and with secondary electron emitters.

  17. Advances in vacuum ultraviolet detection with multistep gaseous detectors and application to Cherenkov ring imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Breskin, Amos; Charpak, Georges; Peisert, Anna; Policarpo, Armando; Sauli, Fabio

    1981-01-01

    The multistep avalanche chamber permits an efficient detection of VUV photons. In a two-step proportional mode charges higher than 1 pC are obtained from single electrons. By using as the final localization step a spark chamber viewed by a TV digitizer it is easy to have imaging of complex patterns. This is applied to Cherenkov ring imaging and (K, pi ) separation with 3 sigma up to 320 GeV is envisaged. The properties of various photoionizable vapours have been studied. By combining a scintillation xenon chamber with a photoionization wire chamber, a resolution of 8.3% (FWHM) has been obtained for 5.9 keV X- rays using tetrakis(dimethylamine)-ethylene vapour. (15 refs).

  18. Gaseous electron multiplier-based soft x-ray plasma diagnostics development: Preliminary tests at ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernyshova, M., E-mail: maryna.chernyshova@ipplm.pl; Malinowski, K.; Czarski, T.; Kowalska-Strzęciwilk, E. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Hery 23, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Wojeński, A.; Poźniak, K. T.; Kasprowicz, G.; Krawczyk, R.; Kolasiński, P.; Zabołotny, W.; Zienkiewicz, P. [Institute of Electronic Systems, Warsaw University of Technology, Nowowiejska 15/19, 00-665 Warsaw (Poland); Vezinet, D.; Herrmann, A. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Mazon, D.; Jardin, A. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2016-11-15

    A Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM)-based detector is being developed for soft X-ray diagnostics on tokamaks. Its main goal is to facilitate transport studies of impurities like tungsten. Such studies are very relevant to ITER, where the excessive accumulation of impurities in the plasma core should be avoided. This contribution provides details of the preliminary tests at ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) with a focus on the most important aspects for detector operation in harsh radiation environment. It was shown that both spatially and spectrally resolved data could be collected, in a reasonable agreement with other AUG diagnostics. Contributions to the GEM signal include also hard X-rays, gammas, and neutrons. First simulations of the effect of high-energy photons have helped understanding these contributions.

  19. Pixel detectors from fundamentals to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Leonardo; Rohe, Tilman; Wermes, Norbert

    2006-01-01

    Pixel detectors are a particularly important class of particle and radiation detection devices. They have an extremely broad spectrum of applications, ranging from high-energy physics to the photo cameras of everyday life. This book is a general purpose introduction into the fundamental principles of pixel detector technology and semiconductor-based hybrid pixel devices. Although these devices were developed for high-energy ionizing particles and radiation beyond visible light, they are finding new applications in many other areas. This book will therefore benefit all scientists and engineers working in any laboratory involved in developing or using particle detection.

  20. A Soft Detector with Good Performance/Complexity Trade-Off for a MIMO System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Liu

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a hybrid soft detector that has a good performance/complexity trade-off for a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO wireless communication system with known channel information. The new soft detector combines the merits of a simple unstructured least-squares (LS-based soft detector and a list sphere decoder (LSD-based soft detector for data bit detection. The former is computationally much more efficient than the latter at the cost of poorer performance. The poor performance of the former occurs mainly when the channel matrix is ill-conditioned. Whenever this happens, we use the LSD-based soft detector in the hybrid soft detector; otherwise, we use the LS-based one. Moreover, we provide a tight radius for a sphere decoder, a hard detector, via using the output of an LS-based hard detector. These two hard detectors are needed to determine if LS or LSD should be used in the hybrid soft detector. As an application example, we consider doubling the maximum data rate of the IEEE 802.11a conformable wireless local area networks by a MIMO system with two transmit and two receive antennas. For this application, the new soft detector is about 10 times faster than the LSD-based one and is about 10 times slower than the LS-based one. Yet the packet error rate due to using the new soft detector is quite close to that of using the LSD-based one.

  1. Operational Experience of the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker and Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Dave; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The tracking performance of the ATLAS detector relies critically on the silicon and gaseous tracking subsystems that form the ATLAS Inner Detector. Those subsystems have undergone significant hardware and software upgrades to meet the challenges imposed by the higher collision energy, pileup and luminosity that are being delivered by the LHC during Run2. The key status and performance metrics of the Pixel Detector and the Semi Conductor Tracker are summarised, and the operational experience and requirements to ensure optimum data quality and data taking efficiency are described.

  2. Transient combustion in hybrid rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabeyoglu, Mustafa Arif

    1998-09-01

    Hybrid rockets regained interest recently as an alternative chemical propulsion system due to their advantages over the solid and liquid systems that are currently in use. Development efforts on hybrids revealed two important problem areas: (1) low frequency instabilities and (2) slow transient response. Both of these are closely related to the transient behavior which is a poorly understood aspect of hybrid operation. This thesis is mainly involved with a theoretical study of transient combustion in hybrid rockets. We follow the methodology of identifying and modeling the subsystems of the motor such as the thermal lags in the solid, boundary layer combustion and chamber gasdynamics from a dynamic point of view. We begin with the thermal lag in the solid which yield the regression rate for any given wall heat flux variation. Interesting phenomena such as overshooting during throttling and the amplification and phase lead regions in the frequency domain are discovered. Later we develop a quasi-steady transient hybrid combustion model supported with time delays for the boundary layer processes. This is integrated with the thermal lag system to obtain the thermal combustion (TC) coupled response. The TC coupled system with positive delays generated low frequency instabilities. The scaling of the instabilities are in good agreement with actual motor test data. Finally, we formulate a gasdynamic model for the hybrid chamber which successfully resolves the filling/emptying and longitudinal acoustic behavior of the motor. The TC coupled system is later integrated to the gasdynamic model to obtain the overall response (TCG coupled system) of gaseous oxidizer motors with stiff feed systems. Low frequency instabilities were also encountered for the TCG coupled system. Apart from the transient investigations, the regression rate behavior of liquefying hybrid propellants such as solid cryogenic materials are also studied. The theory is based on the possibility of enhancement

  3. GADRAS Detector Response Function.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Dean J.; Harding, Lee; Thoreson, Gregory G; Horne, Steven M.

    2014-11-01

    The Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) applies a Detector Response Function (DRF) to compute the output of gamma-ray and neutron detectors when they are exposed to radiation sources. The DRF is fundamental to the ability to perform forward calculations (i.e., computation of the response of a detector to a known source), as well as the ability to analyze spectra to deduce the types and quantities of radioactive material to which the detectors are exposed. This document describes how gamma-ray spectra are computed and the significance of response function parameters that define characteristics of particular detectors.

  4. X-ray detectors of the CAST experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, S. C.

    2014-03-01

    CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is an experiment probing hypothetical particles: the axions, created in the solar core. Inside the transverse magnetic field of the CAST magnet, axions can be converted into x-rays, and be detected by four x-ray detectors at CAST. The expected x-ray signal in CAST is in 1-10 keV range, intensity depending strongly on the coupling constant of axion-photon conversion gaγ, which is expected to be low. This requires CAST to have detectors with very low background levels. The CAST Experiment makes use of three Micromesh Gaseous Structure (micromegas) detectors, which are gaseous detectors, derived from ideas of Multiwire Proportional Chambers (MWPC). CAST Micromegas detectors show perfect stability, good spatial and energy resolution. The intense study on Micromegas has enabled CAST to understand the nature of its background level, and improve it by a factor of 102 over ten years. New detector design, new readout system, better cosmic veto and addition of x-ray telescope will further improve the background in the next data taking of the experiment. The Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) of CAST is a pn-CCD detector with 200 × 64 pixels. The CAST CCD is coupled to an X-ray telescope, focusing all the parallel x-rays into a 9 mm diameter spot. The CCD will be replaced by the InGrid detector, a special manufactured micromegas detector. It is able to detect single electrons, and the low energy capabilities will open new frontiers on search of axions and other exotic particles. Another option is the Silicon Drift Detector (SDD), which is being tested in 2013, and has an energy threshold as low as 250 eV. The CAST experiment is the pioneering helioscope that excludes an important part of axion mass-coupling constant parameter space, and expects to exclude more in the following years. To succeed CAST, a new experiment, the International AXion Observatory (IAXO) is being designed and optimised, comprising the construction of a magnet specially built

  5. High-resolution pixel detectors for second generation digital mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tümer, Tümay O.; Yin, Shi; Cajipe, Victoria; Flores, Henry; Mainprize, James; Mawdsley, Gord; Rowlands, John A.; Yaffe, Martin J.; Gordon, Eli E.; Hamilton, William J.; Rhiger, David; Kasap, Safa O.; Sellin, Paul; Shah, Kanai S.

    2003-01-01

    Hybrid CdZnTe, CdTe, GaAs, selenium and PbI 2 pixel detector arrays with 50×50 μm 2 pixel sizes that convert X-rays directly into charge signals are under development at NOVA for application to digital mammography. These detectors have superior X-ray quantum efficiency compared to either emulsion-based film, phosphor-based detectors or other low-Z, solid-state detectors such as silicon. During this work, CdZnTe and CdTe pixel detectors gave the best results. The other detectors are at very early stages of development and need significant improvement. Among other detectors, selenium is showing the highest potential. The preliminary results show that single crystal CdZnTe detectors yield better results in Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE) as well as in images obtained from phantoms, compared to the polycrystalline CdZnTe detectors. This is due to the non-uniformities in the polycrystaline CdZnTe that degrade the charge transport properties. In this paper, preliminary results from thin (0.15 to 0.2 mm) CdZnTe and CdTe detectors will be presented in terms of MTF, DQE and phantom images. Because of the charge-coupling limitation of the readout Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) that was originally designed for Si detectors, the detector is biased to collect holes from the input. This charge collection mode limits the CdZnTe detector performance. Their DQE measurements yield 25% and 65% for the polycrystal and single-crystal CdZnTe detectors, respectively. Polycrystal CdTe test detectors were also hybridized to the same type charge readout chip. Since CdTe has much longer hole-propagation lengths compared to CdZnTe, it shows better performance in the hole-collecting mode. However, it suffers from polarization. Excellent images were also obtained from the CdTe detectors. Future work to redesign the readout ASIC and thus improve the detector performance will be discussed. These detectors can also be used for other medical radiography with increased thickness

  6. High-resolution pixel detectors for second generation digital mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuemer, T.O. E-mail: tumay.tumer@novarad.com; Yin, Shi; Cajipe, Victoria; Flores, Henry; Mainprize, James; Mawdsley, Gord; Rowlands, John A.; Yaffe, Martin J.; Gordon, Eli E.; Hamilton, William J.; Rhiger, David; Kasap, Safa O.; Sellin, Paul; Shah, Kanai S

    2003-01-21

    Hybrid CdZnTe, CdTe, GaAs, selenium and PbI{sub 2} pixel detector arrays with 50x50 {mu}m{sup 2} pixel sizes that convert X-rays directly into charge signals are under development at NOVA for application to digital mammography. These detectors have superior X-ray quantum efficiency compared to either emulsion-based film, phosphor-based detectors or other low-Z, solid-state detectors such as silicon. During this work, CdZnTe and CdTe pixel detectors gave the best results. The other detectors are at very early stages of development and need significant improvement. Among other detectors, selenium is showing the highest potential. The preliminary results show that single crystal CdZnTe detectors yield better results in Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE) as well as in images obtained from phantoms, compared to the polycrystalline CdZnTe detectors. This is due to the non-uniformities in the polycrystaline CdZnTe that degrade the charge transport properties. In this paper, preliminary results from thin (0.15 to 0.2 mm) CdZnTe and CdTe detectors will be presented in terms of MTF, DQE and phantom images. Because of the charge-coupling limitation of the readout Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) that was originally designed for Si detectors, the detector is biased to collect holes from the input. This charge collection mode limits the CdZnTe detector performance. Their DQE measurements yield 25% and 65% for the polycrystal and single-crystal CdZnTe detectors, respectively. Polycrystal CdTe test detectors were also hybridized to the same type charge readout chip. Since CdTe has much longer hole-propagation lengths compared to CdZnTe, it shows better performance in the hole-collecting mode. However, it suffers from polarization. Excellent images were also obtained from the CdTe detectors. Future work to redesign the readout ASIC and thus improve the detector performance will be discussed. These detectors can also be used for other medical radiography with

  7. Drift Chambers detectors; Detectores de deriva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, I.; Martinez laso, L.

    1989-07-01

    We present here a review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysed, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author) 115 refs.

  8. Electron impact phenomena and the properties of gaseous ions

    CERN Document Server

    Field, F H; Massey, H S W; Brueckner, Keith A

    1970-01-01

    Electron Impact Phenomena and the Properties of Gaseous Ions, Revised Edition deals with data pertaining to electron impact and to molecular gaseous ionic phenomena. This book discusses electron impact phenomena in gases at low pressure that involve low-energy electrons, which result in ion formation. The text also describes the use of mass spectrometers in electron impact studies and the degree of accuracy obtained when measuring electron impact energies. This book also reviews relatively low speed electrons and the transitions that result in the ionization of the atomic system. This text the

  9. Thermal kinetic inductance detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, Thomas; Gades, Lisa; Miceli, Antonio; Quaranta, Orlando

    2016-12-20

    A microcalorimeter for radiation detection that uses superconducting kinetic inductance resonators as the thermometers. The detector is frequency-multiplexed which enables detector systems with a large number of pixels.

  10. The COMPASS RICH-1 detector upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Abbon, P; Angerer, H; Apollonio, M; Birsa, R; Bordalo, P; Bradamante, F; Bressan, A; Busso, L; Chiosso, M; Ciliberti, P; Colantoni, M L; Costa, S; Dalla Torre, S; Dafni, T; Delagnes, E; Deschamps, H; Díaz, V; Dibiase, N; Duic, V; Eyrich, W; Faso, D; Ferrero, A; Finger, M; Finger, M Jr; Fischer, H; Gerassimov, S; Giorgi, M; Gobbo, B; Hagemann, R; Von Harrach, D; Heinsius, F H; Joosten, R; Ketzer, B; Königsmann, K C; Kolosov, V N; Konorov, I; Kramer, Daniel; Kunne, F; Lehmann, A; Levorato, S; Maggiora, A; Magnon, A; Mann, A; Martin, A; Menon, G; Mutter, A; Nähle, O; Nerling, F; Neyret, D; Pagano, P; Panebianco, S; Panzieri, D; Paul, S; Pesaro, G; Polak, J; Rebourgeard, P; Robinet, F; Rocco, E; Schiavon, P; Schill, C; Schröder, W; Silva, L; Slunecka, M; Sozzi, F; Steiger, L; Sulc, M; Svec, M; Tessarotto, F; Teufel, A; Wollny, H

    2008-01-01

    The COMPASS experiment at CERN provides hadron identification in a wide momentum range employing a large size gaseous Ring Imaging CHerenkov detector (RICH). The presence of large uncorrelated background in the COMPASS environment was limiting the efficiency of COMPASS RICH-1 in the very forward regime. A major upgrade of RICH-1 required a new technique for Cherenkov photon detection at count rates of several 10$^{6}$/s per channel in the central detector part, and a read-out system allowing for trigger rates of up to 100 kHz. To cope with these requirements, the photon detectors of the central region have been replaced with a fast photon detection system described here, while, in the peripheral regions, the existing multi-wire proportional chambers with CsI photo-cathodes have been equipped with a new read-out system based on APV preamplifiers and flash ADC chips. The new system consists of multi-anode photomultiplier tubes (MAPMTs) coupled to individual fused silica lens telescopes, and fast read-out electr...

  11. Hybrid III-V/SOI Resonant Cavity Photodetector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Learkthanakhachon, Supannee; Taghizadeh, Alireza; Park, Gyeong Cheol

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid III-V/SOI resonant cavity photo detector has been demonstrated, which comprises an InP grating reflectorand a Si grating reflector. It can selectively detects an incident light with 1.54-µm wavelength and TM polarization.......A hybrid III-V/SOI resonant cavity photo detector has been demonstrated, which comprises an InP grating reflectorand a Si grating reflector. It can selectively detects an incident light with 1.54-µm wavelength and TM polarization....

  12. Electronic technology and the SLD detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, J.D.; Dean, T.; Fox, M.J.; Freytag, D.; Gioumousis, A.; Haller, G.; Hoeflich, J.; Horelick, D.; Kang, H; Mazaheri, G.; Nelson, D.J.; Olsen, J.J.; Oxoby, G.; Paffrath, L.; Stiles, P.; Yim, A. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (USA)); Bacchetta, N. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padua (Italy)); Bilei, G.M. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Perugia (Italy)); Carpinelli, M.; Cast

    1990-06-01

    The SLD detector consists of five major subsystems, each with associated front-end electronics and an integrated FASTBUS control and data acquisition system. This paper highlights the choices among electronic technologies that have been developed for the SLD detector electronics. The common control, calibration, and data acquisition architectures are described. The functions of selected SLD integrated circuits, standard cells, gate arrays, and hybrids are summarized, and the integration of these functions into the common data acquisition path is described. Particular attention is directed to four areas of electronic technology developed for the SLD detector: the preamplifier hybrid designs are compared to their performance and implementation examined; the application of full custom CMOS digital circuits in SLD is compared to gate array and EPLD (electrically programmable logic device) implementations; the fiberoptic signal transmission techniques in SLD are examined and the data rates and link topology are presented; and finally, the packaging, power consumption, and cooling requirements for system functions resident inside the detector structure are explored. The rationale for the implementation choices in the SLD electronics is presented so that others might benefit from our experience.

  13. Type II superlattice technology for LWIR detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klipstein, P. C.; Avnon, E.; Azulai, D.; Benny, Y.; Fraenkel, R.; Glozman, A.; Hojman, E.; Klin, O.; Krasovitsky, L.; Langof, L.; Lukomsky, I.; Nitzani, M.; Shtrichman, I.; Rappaport, N.; Snapi, N.; Weiss, E.; Tuito, A.

    2016-05-01

    SCD has developed a range of advanced infrared detectors based on III-V semiconductor heterostructures grown on GaSb. The XBn/XBp family of barrier detectors enables diffusion limited dark currents, comparable with MCT Rule-07, and high quantum efficiencies. This work describes some of the technical challenges that were overcome, and the ultimate performance that was finally achieved, for SCD's new 15 μm pitch "Pelican-D LW" type II superlattice (T2SL) XBp array detector. This detector is the first of SCD's line of high performance two dimensional arrays working in the LWIR spectral range, and was designed with a ~9.3 micron cut-off wavelength and a format of 640 x 512 pixels. It contains InAs/GaSb and InAs/AlSb T2SLs, engineered using k • p modeling of the energy bands and photo-response. The wafers are grown by molecular beam epitaxy and are fabricated into Focal Plane Array (FPA) detectors using standard FPA processes, including wet and dry etching, indium bump hybridization, under-fill, and back-side polishing. The FPA has a quantum efficiency of nearly 50%, and operates at 77 K and F/2.7 with background limited performance. The pixel operability of the FPA is above 99% and it exhibits a stable residual non uniformity (RNU) of better than 0.04% of the dynamic range. The FPA uses a new digital read-out integrated circuit (ROIC), and the complete detector closely follows the interfaces of SCD's MWIR Pelican-D detector. The Pelican- D LW detector is now in the final stages of qualification and transfer to production, with first prototypes already integrated into new electro-optical systems.

  14. Silicon technologies for the CLIC vertex detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spannagel, S.

    2017-06-01

    CLIC is a proposed linear e+e- collider designed to provide particle collisions at center-of-mass energies of up to 3 TeV. Precise measurements of the properties of the top quark and the Higgs boson, as well as searches for Beyond the Standard Model physics require a highly performant CLIC detector. In particular the vertex detector must provide a single point resolution of only a few micrometers while not exceeding the envisaged material budget of around 0.2% X0 per layer. Beam-beam interactions and beamstrahlung processes impose an additional requirement on the timestamping capabilities of the vertex detector of about 10 ns. These goals can only be met by using novel techniques in the sensor and ASIC design as well as in the detector construction. The R&D program for the CLIC vertex detector explores various technologies in order to meet these demands. The feasibility of planar sensors with a thickness of 50-150 μm, including different active edge designs, are evaluated using Timepix3 ASICs. First prototypes of the CLICpix readout ASIC, implemented in 65 nm CMOS technology and with a pixel size of 25×25μm 2, have been produced and tested in particle beams. An updated version of the ASIC with a larger pixel matrix and improved precision of the time-over-threshold and time-of-arrival measurements has been submitted. Different hybridization concepts have been developed for the interconnection between the sensor and readout ASIC, ranging from small-pitch bump bonding of planar sensors to capacitive coupling of active HV-CMOS sensors. Detector simulations based on Geant 4 and TCAD are compared with experimental results to assess and optimize the performance of the various designs. This contribution gives an overview of the R&D program undertaken for the CLIC vertex detector and presents performance measurements of the prototype detectors currently under investigation.

  15. Infrared scintillation: a comparison between gaseous and liquid xenon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bressi, G; Carugno, G.; Conti, E; Del Noce, C; Iannuzzi, D

    2001-01-01

    Light yield and spectrum of infrared (IR) scintillation in Xe are different in gaseous and liquid phases. In gas, the spectrum consists mainly of a broad line centered at 1300 nm. In liquid, light is emitted primarily below 1200 nm and with a lower yield. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights

  16. Transmission environmental scanning electron microscope with scintillation gaseous detection device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danilatos, Gerasimos, E-mail: gerry@danilatos.com [ESEM Research Laboratory, 28 Wallis Parade, North Bondi, NSW 2026 (Australia); Kollia, Mary [Laboratory of Electron Microscopy and Microanalysis, School of Natural Sciences, University of Patras, GR-26504 Patras (Greece); Dracopoulos, Vassileios [Foundation for Research & Technology-Hellas (FORTH), Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences (ICE-HT), Stadiou Str., Platani P.O.Box 1414, GR-26504 Patras (Greece)

    2015-03-15

    A transmission environmental scanning electron microscope with use of a scintillation gaseous detection device has been implemented. This corresponds to a transmission scanning electron microscope but with addition of a gaseous environment acting both as environmental and detection medium. A commercial type of low vacuum machine has been employed together with appropriate modifications to the detection configuration. This involves controlled screening of various emitted signals in conjunction with a scintillation gaseous detection device already provided with the machine for regular surface imaging. Dark field and bright field imaging has been obtained along with other detection conditions. With a progressive series of modifications and tests, the theory and practice of a novel type of microscopy is briefly shown now ushering further significant improvements and developments in electron microscopy as a whole. - Highlights: • Novel scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) with an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) called TESEM. • Use of the gaseous detection device (GDD) in scintillation mode that allows high resolution bright and dark field imaging in the TESEM. • Novel approach towards a unification of both vacuum and environmental conditions in both bulk/surface and transmission mode of electron microscopy.

  17. Separation of gaseous air pollutants using membrane contactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverak, T.; Bulejko, P.; Ostrezi, J.; Kristof, O.; Kalivoda, J.; Kejik, P.; Mayerova, K.; Adamcik, M.

    2017-10-01

    This work deals with the separation of CO2 gaseous pollutant from gas mixtures to a water solution using the laboratory contactor. The laboratory set process parameters showed the rate of carbon dioxide transition through the interface in a so promising level the contactor separators can be considered as a very promising pathway to reduce the content of this greenhouse gas from the air.

  18. Low temperature gaseous surface hardening of stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2011-01-01

    The present contribtion gives an overview of some of the technological aspects of low temperature thermochemical treatment of stainless steel. Examples of low temperature gaseous nitriding, carburising and nitrocarburising of stainless steel are presented and discussed. In particular......, the morphology, microstructure and characteristics of so-called expanded austenite "layers" on stainless steel are addressed....

  19. Low temperature gaseous surface hardening of stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The present contribution gives an overview of some of the technological aspects of low temperature thermochemical treatment of stainless steel. Examples of low temperature gaseous nitriding, carburising and nitrocarburising of stainless steel are presented and discussed. In particular......, the morphology, microstructure and characteristics of so-called expanite “layers” on stainless steel are addressed....

  20. Nuclear waste disposal utilizing a gaseous core reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paternoster, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of a gaseous core nuclear reactor designed to produce power to also reduce the national inventories of long-lived reactor waste products through nuclear transmutation was examined. Neutron-induced transmutation of radioactive wastes is shown to be an effective means of shortening the apparent half life.

  1. Study of gaseous attenuation at tropical locations | Adedugbu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oxygen and Water Vapour are the principal absorbers of transmitted radio signals in the troposphere. This paper evaluates the specific gaseous attenuation due to Oxygen and Water Vapour at four tropical sites in the frequency range of 10-350 GHz using Liebe model. The isolated resonant absorption line of Oxygen was ...

  2. Relationship between epiphytic lichens, trace elements and gaseous atmospheric pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobben, van H.F.; Wamelink, G.W.W.; Braak, ter C.J.F.

    2001-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the joint effect of gaseous atmospheric pollutants and trace elements on epiphytic lichens. We used our data to test the hypothesis that lichens are generally insensitive to toxic effects of trace elements, and can therefore be used as accumulator organisms to

  3. gaseous fuel production by anaerobic fungal degradation of banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JANICO

    Production and Collection of Gaseous Fuel. The prepared slurry was placed in a Vuchner filter flask (as reactor). The reactor was made airtight using plastic stopper and the outlet of the reactor was connected to a balloon using PVC tube. The degradation temperature was maintained at 330C using water bath within which ...

  4. Microstructural and compositional Evolution of Compound Layers during Gaseous Nitrocarburizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Hong; Somers, Marcel A.J.; Ågren, John

    2000-01-01

    Compound layers developed at 848 K during gaseous nitrocarburizing of iron and iron-carbon specimens were investigated for several combinations of N and C activities imposed at the specimen surface by gas mixtures of NH3, N2, CO2 and CO. The microstructural evolution of the compound layer was stu...

  5. Chapter 4 Gaseous Elemental Mercury in the Ambient Atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariya, Parisa A.; Skov, Henrik; Grage, Mette M L

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the kinetics and mechanisms associated with the atmospheric chemistry of mercury is of great importance to protecting the environment. This review will focus on theoretical calculations to advance understanding of gas phase oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) by halogen spe...

  6. Low Temperature Gaseous Helium and very High Turbulence Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Pietropinto, S; Castaing, B; Chabaud, B; Gagne, Y; Hébral, B; Ladam, Y; Lebrun, P; Pirotte, O; Poulain, C; Roche, P E

    2002-01-01

    Cryogenic gaseous helium gives access to extreme turbulent experimental conditions. The very high cooling helium flow rates available at CERN have been used to reach Reynolds numbers up to Re ~ 10**7 in a round jet experiment. First results are discussed.

  7. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant expansion: final environmental statement. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-01

    Volume 1 is comprised of chapters on: background and description; environmental impacts of add-on gaseous diffusion plant; unavoidable adverse environmental effects; alternatives; relationship between short-term uses and long-term productivity; relationship of program to land-use plans, policies, and controls; irreversible and irretrievable commitments of resources; cost-benefit analysis; and response to comment letters. (LK)

  8. Academic Training: Particle Detectors - Principles and Techniques

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES FOR POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS 11, 12, 13, 14 & 15 April from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Particle Detectors - Principles and Techniques C. JORAM, L. ROPELEWSKI, M. MOLL, C. D'AMBROSIO, T. GYS / CERN-PH The lecture series presents an overview of the physical principles and basic techniques of particle detection, applied to current and future high energy physics experiments. Illustrating examples, chosen mainly from the field of collider experiments, demonstrate the performance and limitations of the various techniques. Main topics of the series are: interaction of particles and photons with matter; particle tracking with gaseous and solid state devices, including a discussion of radiation damage and strategies for improved radiation hardness; scintillation and photon detection; electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry; particle identification using specific energy loss dE/dx, time of flight, Cherenkov light and transition radi...

  9. Silicon tracking detectors in high-energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Frank, E-mail: Frank.Hartmann@cern.ch [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2012-02-21

    Since the fifties, semiconductors have been used as energy spectrometers, mainly in unsegmented ways. With the planar technique of processing silicon sensors in unprecedented precession, strip-like segmentation has allowed precise tracking and even vertexing, culminating in the early eighties with NA11 in the tagging of heavy flavor quarks - here the c-quark. With the later miniaturization of electronics, dense detector application was made possible, and large-scale systems were established in the heart of all LEP detectors, permitting vertexing in barrel-like detectors. At the time of LEP and the TEVATRON, tasks were still bifurcated. Small silicon detectors (up to three layers) did the vertexing and further out, gaseous detectors (e.g., drift chambers or time-projection chambers) with larger lever arms did the tracking. In RUN II of the CDF detector, larger silicon tracking devices, still complemented by a huge drift chamber, began to use a stand-alone tracking. At the LHC, ATLAS and CMS bifurcate in a slightly different way. Silicon pixel detectors are responsible for the vertexing, and large volume silicon strip detectors (up to 14 layers) are the main tracking devices. Silicon tracking systems are a fundamental part of modern multipurpose high-energy physics experiments. Despite the vertexing and thus the heavy quark tagging, silicon tracking detectors in combination with a strong B-field deliver the most accurate momentum measurement, and for a large range, also the best energy measurement. In this paper, the functionality of pixel and strip sensors will be introduced, and historical examples will be given to highlight the different implementations of the past 30 years.

  10. Silicon detectors at the ILC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brau, James E. [University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97405-1274 (United States)], E-mail: jimbrau@uoregon.edu; Breidenbach, Martin [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Baltay, Charles [Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8120 (United States); Frey, Raymond E.; Strom, David M. [University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97405-1274 (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Silicon detectors are being developed for several applications in ILC detectors. These include vertex detection, tracking, electromagnetic calorimetry, and forward detectors. The advantages of silicon detector technology have been incorporated into a full detector design, SiD (the Silicon Detector). A brief overview of this effort is presented.

  11. Applications of 'edge-on' illuminated porous plate detectors for diagnostic X-ray imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Shikhaliev, P M

    2002-01-01

    Scanning X-ray imaging systems for non-invasive diagnostics have several advantages over conventional imaging systems using area detectors. They significantly reduce the detected scatter radiation, cover large areas and potentially provide high spatial resolution. Applications of one-dimensional gaseous detectors and 'edge-on' illuminated silicon strip detectors for scanning imaging systems are currently under intensive investigation. The purpose of this work is to investigate 'edge-on' illuminated Porous Plate (PP) detectors for applications in diagnostic X-ray imaging. MicroChannel Plate (MCP), which is a common type of PP, has previously been investigated as a detector in surface-on illumination mode for medical X-ray imaging. However, its detection efficiency was too low for medical imaging applications. In the present study, the PP are used in the 'edge-on' illumination mode. Furthermore, the structural parameters of different PP types are optimized to improve the detection efficiency in the diagnostic X...

  12. Challenges for RPCs and resistive micropattern detectors in the next few years

    CERN Document Server

    Peskov, V

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays RPCs are in a booming phase: they are successfully used in many experiments, including LHC; there are ambitious plans to use them in several upgrade detectors and in some new experiments as well as in various applications. The aim of this paper is to highlight the main challenges which the RPC community may face in the next few years and which were addressed in talks presented at this conference. Examples could be: new and difficult requirements from experiments (and their upgrades) and applications, optimization and improvements of the existing traditional detector designs, improvement of their characteristics (timing /rate performance, aging, dark current and so on), implementation of new more sensitive electronics, investigation of new materials, development of large- area detectors. We will also review the fast and very promising developments of another type of resistive electrode gaseous detector -micropattern detectors having at least one of their electrodes made of resistive materials. These i...

  13. The CHARON detector an emulsion/counter hybrid set-up to measure the mean free path of near-elastic pion scattering in nuclear emulsion (white kink) at 2,3 and 5 GeV/c

    CERN Document Server

    Bülte, A; Litmaath, M; Gernitzky, Y; Goldberg, J; Grégoire, G; Niwa, W; Nakano, T; Komatsu, M; Itoh, K; Frekers, D; Bruski, N; Kuchmann, J

    2002-01-01

    White and grey kink events define a special class of soft hadron interactions in nuclear emulsion in which only one track (the scattered hadron) is leaving the interaction vertex. Due to their small and sometimes invisible activity at the scattering point, they represent a potential background source for all emulsion experiments hunting for decay topologies of short-lived particles like the lepton and charm mesons. For an extensive study of such hadronic kink signatures a dedicated experimental set-up has been built and exposed at the CERN PS hadron beam facility and it has collected about 300000 pions with a fixed momentum ranging from 2 to 5 GeV/c. Each particle was tracked by silicon strip detectors to connect it to the proper track in the nuclear emulsion located in between. Threshold Cherenkov detectors for electron discrimination, a muon counter and an MWPC- based magnetic spectrometer completed the experimental configuration. A total of 222 white and 271 grey kinks could be successfully located in the ...

  14. Characteristics and applications of small, portable gaseous air pollution monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKercher, Grant R; Salmond, Jennifer A; Vanos, Jennifer K

    2017-04-01

    Traditional approaches for measuring air quality based on fixed measurements are inadequate for personal exposure monitoring. To combat this issue, the use of small, portable gas-sensing air pollution monitoring technologies is increasing, with researchers and individuals employing portable and mobile methods to obtain more spatially and temporally representative air pollution data. However, many commercially available options are built for various applications and based on different technologies, assumptions, and limitations. A review of the monitor characteristics of small, gaseous monitors is missing from current scientific literature. A state-of-the-art review of small, portable monitors that measure ambient gaseous outdoor pollutants was developed to address broad trends during the last 5-10 years, and to help future experimenters interested in studying gaseous air pollutants choose monitors appropriate for their application and sampling needs. Trends in small, portable gaseous air pollution monitor uses and technologies were first identified and discussed in a review of literature. Next, searches of online databases were performed for articles containing specific information related to performance, characteristics, and use of such monitors that measure one or more of three criteria gaseous air pollutants: ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide. All data were summarized into reference tables for comparison between applications, physical features, sensing capabilities, and costs of the devices. Recent portable monitoring trends are strongly related to associated applications and audiences. Fundamental research requires monitors with the best individual performance, and thus the highest cost technology. Monitor networking favors real-time capabilities and moderate cost for greater reproduction. Citizen science and crowdsourcing applications allow for lower-cost components; however important strengths and limitations for each application must be addressed

  15. High-energy detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E [South Setauket, NY; Camarda, Giuseppe [Farmingville, NY; Cui, Yonggang [Upton, NY; James, Ralph B [Ridge, NY

    2011-11-22

    The preferred embodiments are directed to a high-energy detector that is electrically shielded using an anode, a cathode, and a conducting shield to substantially reduce or eliminate electrically unshielded area. The anode and the cathode are disposed at opposite ends of the detector and the conducting shield substantially surrounds at least a portion of the longitudinal surface of the detector. The conducting shield extends longitudinally to the anode end of the detector and substantially surrounds at least a portion of the detector. Signals read from one or more of the anode, cathode, and conducting shield can be used to determine the number of electrons that are liberated as a result of high-energy particles impinge on the detector. A correction technique can be implemented to correct for liberated electron that become trapped to improve the energy resolution of the high-energy detectors disclosed herein.

  16. Performance of B-10 based detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucher, Mathieu; Anderson, Tom; Johnson, Nathan; Mckinny, Kevin; Mcpheeters, Matthew [GE Measurement and Control - Reuter-Stokes, Twinsburg, Ohio (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Helium-3 gas-filled detectors have been used in nuclear safeguards applications, in homeland security neutron detection modules and in research for over 30 years. With the current shortage of {sup 3}He gas, GE's Reuter-Stokes business developed a {sup 10}B lined proportional counter and a {sup 10}B hybrid detector, in which a small amount of {sup 3}He is added to a 10B detector to enhance the neutron sensitivity. In 2010, GE's Reuter-Stokes successfully developed a commercial alternative to 3He gas-filled detectors for homeland security neutron detection modules based on 10B lined proportional counters. We will present the concept behind the {sup 10}B neutron detection modules, as drop-in replacement to existing 3He neutron detection modules deployed, and the timeline and development needed to get a fully commercial application. To ensure the highest quality, each {sup 10}B neutron detection unit is put through a series of tests: temperature cycles from -40 deg. C to +55 deg. C, vibration testing at levels up to 2.5 g from 10 Hz to 50 Hz in every direction, neutron sensitivity reaching up to 4.5 cps/(ng {sup 252}CF at 2 m), and gamma insensitivity with field reaching 1 Sv/hr. In 2013, GE's Reuter-Stokes developed the B10Plus+{sup R} detector, in which a small amount of {sup 3}He is added to a {sup 10}B lined proportional counter. Depending on the amount of {sup 3}He added, the B10Plus+{sup R} can more than double the neutron sensitivity compared to a {sup 10}B lined proportional counter. {sup 10}B lined proportional counters and B10Plus+{sup R} have excellent gamma rejection and excellent performance even at very high neutron flux. The gamma rejection and high neutron flux performance of these detectors are comparable, if not better, than traditional {sup 3}He proportional counters. GE's Reuter-Stokes business modelled, designed, built and tested prototype coincidence counters using the {sup 10}B lined detectors and the {sup 10}B hybrid

  17. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Darin P.

    2017-01-01

    Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD) technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID). In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM). Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with a spectral

  18. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darin P Clark

    Full Text Available Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID. In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM. Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with

  19. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Darin P; Badea, Cristian T

    2017-01-01

    Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD) technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID). In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM). Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with a spectral

  20. Status of QUPID, a novel photosensor for noble liquid detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantic, E., E-mail: emilija.pantic@googlemail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, 475 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Aharoni, D.; Arisaka, K.; Beltrame, P.; Brown, E.; Cline, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, 475 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Fukasawa, A. [Electron Tube Division, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 314-5 Shimokanzo, Iwata City 438-0193, Shizuoka (Japan); Ghag, C.; Lam, C.W.; Lim, T.; Lung, K.; Meng, Y. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, 475 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Muramatsu, S. [Electron Tube Division, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 314-5 Shimokanzo, Iwata City 438-0193, Shizuoka (Japan); Scovell, P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, 475 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Suyama, M. [Electron Tube Division, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 314-5 Shimokanzo, Iwata City 438-0193, Shizuoka (Japan); Teymourian, A.; Wang, H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, 475 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2012-12-11

    The discovery potential of experiments searching for rare events, such as dark matter interaction, relies heavily upon achieving a very low background environment. The current generation of noble liquid dark matter detectors is limited by the radioactivity in the detector materials, mostly from the photomultiplier tubes. Quartz Photon Intensifying Detector (QUPID) is a novel photosensor based upon hybrid APD technology and with intrinsic radioactivity at least an order of magnitude lower than the presently employed phototubes. The basic concept as well as the status and the prospect of the QUPID are reviewed. The performance of the QUPID as photosensor for the ultraviolet scintillation light of liquid xenon is presented.

  1. The RICH detector for CLAS12 at Jefferson Lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pappalardo L.L.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The CLAS12 spectrometer at JLab will offer unique possibilities to study the 3D nucleon structure in terms of TMDs and GPDs in the poorly explored valence region, and to perform high precision hadron spectroscopy. A large area ring-imaging Cherenkov detector has been designed to achieve the required hadron identification capability in the momentum range 3–8 GeV/c. The detector, based on a novel hybrid imaging design, foresees an aerogel radiator and an array of multi-anode photomultipliers. The detector concept and preliminary results of test-beams on a prototype are presented.

  2. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant expansion: final environmental statement. Volume 2. Appendices. [Appendices only

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liverman, James L.

    1977-09-01

    Volume 2 is comprised of appendices: Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Existing Facilities; Ecology; Civic Involvement; Social Analysis; Population Projections; Toxicity of Air Pollutants to Biota at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant; and Assessment of Noise Effects of an Add-On to the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. (LK)

  3. NOVEL TECHNOLOGIES FOR GASEOUS CONTAMINANTS CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.S. Turk; T. Merkel; A. Lopez-Ortiz; R.P. Gupta; J.W. Portzer; G.N. Krishnan; B.D. Freeman; G.K. Fleming

    2001-09-30

    The overall objective of this project is to develop technologies for cleaning/conditioning the syngas from an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) system to meet the tolerance limits for contaminants such as H{sub 2}S, COS, NH{sub 3}, HCN, HCl, and alkali for fuel cell and chemical production applications. RTI's approach is to develop a modular system that (1) removes reduced sulfur species to sub-ppm levels using a hybrid process consisting of a polymer membrane and a regenerable ZnO-coated monolith or a mixed metal oxide sorbent; (2) removes hydrogen chloride vapors to sub-ppm levels using an inexpensive, high-surface area material; and (3) removes NH{sub 3} with acidic adsorbents. RTI is working with MEDAL, Inc., and North Carolina State University (NCSU) to develop polymer membrane technology for bulk removal of H{sub 2}S from syngas. These membranes are being engineered to remove the acid gas components (H{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, and H{sub 2}O) from syngas by focusing on the ''solubility selectivity'' of the novel polymer compositions. The desirable components of the syngas (H{sub 2} and CO) are maintained at high-pressure conditions as a non-permeate stream while the impurities are transported across the membrane to the low pressure side. RTI tested commercially available and novel materials from MEDAL using a high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) permeation apparatus. H{sub 2}S/H{sub 2} selectivities >30 were achieved, although there was a strong negative dependence with temperature. MEDAL believes that all the polymer compositions tested so far can be prepared as hollow fiber membrane modules using the existing manufacturing technology. For fuel cell and chemical applications, additional sulfur removal (beyond that achievable with the membranes) is required. To overcome limitations of conventional ZnO pellets, RTI is testing a monolith with a thin coating of high surface area zinc-oxide based materials

  4. The LHCb RICH system; detector description and operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanestis, A., E-mail: antonis.papanestis@stfc.ac.uk

    2014-12-01

    Two RICH detectors provide positive charged hadron identification in the LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. RICH 1 covers the full acceptance of the spectrometer and contains two radiators: aerogel and C{sub 4}F{sub 10}. RICH 2 covers half the acceptance and uses CF{sub 4} as a Cherenkov radiator. Photon detection is performed by the Hybrid Photon Detectors (HPDs), with silicon pixel sensors and bump-bonded readout encapsulated in a vacuum tube for efficient, low-noise single photon detection. The LHCb RICH detectors form a complex system of three radiators, 120 mirrors and 484 photon detectors operating in the very challenging environment of the LHC. The high performance of the system in pion and kaon identification in the momentum range of 2–100 GeV/c is reached only after careful calibration of many parameters. Operational efficiency above 99% was achieved by a high level of automatization in the operation of the detectors, from switching-on to error recovery. The challenges of calibrating and operating such a system will be presented. - Highlights: • This paper describes the operation and calibration of the LHCb RICH detectors. • The scintillation of CF{sub 4} was successfully suppressed with CO{sub 2}. • The refractive index of the gas radiators was calibrated with data to an accuracy better than 0.1%. • The Hybrid Photons Detectors were calibrated for operation in a magnetic field without loss of resolution.

  5. MPGD-based photon detector upgrade for COMPASS RICH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamar, G.; Dalla Torre, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Levorato, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; Azevedo, C. D. R.

    2017-07-01

    The RICH detector of the COMPASS Experiment at CERN SPS is undergoing an important upgrade: the central MWPC-based photon detectors have been replaced with novel Micropattern detectors, to cope with the challenging efficiency and stability requirements of the new COMPASS measurements. The new hybrid MPGD detector consists of two layers of ThickGEMs and a capacitive bulk Micromegas. Photoconversion takes place on the CsI layer deposited onto the first ThickGEM, while position information and signals are read out from the pad-segmented anode via capacitive coupling by analog front-end electronics based on APV25 chips. The paper focuses on the main issues of production, detailed quality assessment technique, and the commissioning status of the first in-experiment MPGD-based photon detectors for RICH application.

  6. Design and prototype studies of the TOTEM Roman pot detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Oriunno, M; David, E; Guglielmini, P; Joram, C; Radermacher, E; Ruggiero, G; Wu, J; Vacek, V; Vins, V

    2007-01-01

    The Roman pots of the TOTEM experiment at LHC will be equipped with edgeless silicon micro-strip detectors. A detector package consists of 10 detector planes cooled at in vacuum. The detector resolution is , the overall alignment precision has to be better than . The detector planes are composed of a kapton hybrid glued on a substrate made of low expansion alloy, CE07 with 70% Si and 30% Al. An evaporative cooling system based on the fluorocarbon C3F8 with oil-free compressors has been adopted. The throttling of the fluid is done locally through capillaries. A thermo-mechanical prototype has been assembled. The results fully match the requirements and the expectations of calculations. They show a low thermal gradient on the cards and a uniform temperature distribution over the 10 planes.

  7. CLIC vertex detector R&D

    CERN Document Server

    Redford, S

    2014-01-01

    In order to achieve its primary objectives of heavy-flavour tagging and tau lepton identification, the CLIC vertex detector must precisely reconstruct displaced vertices. This re- quires accurate determination of the impact parameter and charge of tracks originating from the secondary vertex. Excellent spatial resolution must therefore be provided down to low polar angles, whilst maintaining low occupancy, low mass and low power dissipation. These requirements chal- lenge current technological limits, and demand a broad programme of R&D. A detector concept is currently under development, comprising a hybrid pixel detector of small-pitch readout ASICs implemented in 65nm CMOS technology (CLICpix) combined with ultra-thin sensors. The read- out chips are low-power, and power-pulsing is used to reduce further their power dissipation. This enables a forced gas cooling system in the vertex detector region. In this paper, the CLIC vertex detector requirements are reviewed and the current status of R&D on se...

  8. A bismuth germanate-shielded mercuric iodide X-ray detector for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallerga, J. V.; Ricker, G. R.; Schnepple, W. S.; Ortale, C.

    1982-01-01

    The development of HgI2 for solid state X-ray detector applications over the past decade was carried out in connection with the ability of the crystal to operate as a detector at room temperature. In order to achieve the lowest background possible for HgI2 detectors in a space-like environment (balloon and/or satellite altitudes), attention was given to the design of a shielding system which actively vetoes nonaperture events such as gamma rays and charged particles that can mimic signal X-rays by partial deposition of energy in the main detector. The detector system consists of two HgI2 detectors mounted back to back and operated in anticoincidence. The two detectors are placed inside a bismuth germanate scintillating shield along with two hybrid charge-sensitive preamps. Monte Carlo simulations of detector performance are discussed.

  9. Hybrid Metaheuristics

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to provide a state of the art of hybrid metaheuristics. The book provides a complete background that enables readers to design and implement hybrid metaheuristics to solve complex optimization problems (continuous/discrete, mono-objective/multi-objective, optimization under uncertainty) in a diverse range of application domains. Readers learn to solve large scale problems quickly and efficiently combining metaheuristics with complementary metaheuristics, mathematical programming, constraint programming and machine learning. Numerous real-world examples of problems and solutions demonstrate how hybrid metaheuristics are applied in such fields as networks, logistics and transportation, bio-medical, engineering design, scheduling.

  10. Noble Gas Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Aprile, Elena; Bolozdynya, Alexander I; Doke, Tadayoshi

    2006-01-01

    This book discusses the physical properties of noble fluids, operational principles of detectors based on these media, and the best technical solutions to the design of these detectors. Essential attention is given to detector technology: purification methods and monitoring of purity, information readout methods, electronics, detection of hard ultra-violet light emission, selection of materials, cryogenics etc.The book is mostly addressed to physicists and graduate students involved in the preparation of fundamental next generation experiments, nuclear engineers developing instrumentation

  11. Fast-neutron and gamma-ray imaging with a capillary liquid xenon converter coupled to a gaseous photomultiplier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelashvili, I.; Coimbra, A. E. C.; Vartsky, D.; Arazi, L.; Shchemelinin, S.; Caspi, E. N.; Breskin, A.

    2017-09-01

    Gamma-ray and fast-neutron imaging was performed with a novel liquid xenon (LXe) scintillation detector read out by a Gaseous Photomultiplier (GPM). The 100 mm diameter detector prototype comprised a capillary-filled LXe converter/scintillator, coupled to a triple-THGEM imaging-GPM, with its first electrode coated by a CsI UV-photocathode, operated in Ne/5%CH4 at cryogenic temperatures. Radiation localization in 2D was derived from scintillation-induced photoelectron avalanches, measured on the GPM's segmented anode. The localization properties of 60Co gamma-rays and a mixed fast-neutron/gamma-ray field from an AmBe neutron source were derived from irradiation of a Pb edge absorber. Spatial resolutions of 12± 2 mm and 10± 2 mm (FWHM) were reached with 60Co and AmBe sources, respectively. The experimental results are in good agreement with GEANT4 simulations. The calculated ultimate expected resolutions for our application-relevant 4.4 and 15.1 MeV gamma-rays and 1-15 MeV neutrons are 2-4 mm and ~ 2 mm (FWHM), respectively. These results indicate the potential applicability of the new detector concept to Fast-Neutron Resonance Radiography (FNRR) and Dual-Discrete-Energy Gamma Radiography (DDEGR) of large objects.

  12. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to summarize effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance results and compliance with environmental laws, regulations, and orders at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). Environmental monitoring at PGDP consists of two major activities: effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. Effluent monitoring is direct measurement or the collection and analysis of samples of liquid and gaseous discharges to the environment. Environmental surveillance is direct measurement or the collection and analysis of samples of air, water, soil, foodstuff, biota, and other media. Environmental monitoring is performed to characterize and quantify contaminants, assess radiation exposures of members of the public, demonstrate compliance with applicable standards and permit requirements, and detect and assess the effects (if any) on the local environment. Multiple samples are collected throughout the year and are analyzed for radioactivity, chemical content, and various physical attributes.

  13. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant environmental report for 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horak, C.M. [ed.] [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1993-09-01

    This two-part report, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Environmental Report for 1992, is published annually. It reflects the results of an environmental monitoring program designed to quantify potential increases in the concentration of contaminants and potential doses to the resident human population. The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) overall goal for environmental management is to protect the environment and PGDP`s neighbors and to maintain full compliance with all current regulations. The current environmental strategy is to identify any deficiencies and to develop a system to resolve them. The long-range goal of environmental management is to minimize the source of pollutants, reduce the generation of waste, and minimize hazardous waste by substitution of materials.

  14. Gaseous tracking at linear hadron collider: Pushing the limits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    periments, fulfilling three basic tasks: identification, trigger and momentum measurement. The muon spectrometers of ATLAS, CMS, ALICE and LHCb experiments comprise large arrays of several thousand m2 of active detector surface to cover a large rapidity interval. The challenge is the construction of sensitive detectors, ...

  15. The LHC detector challenge

    CERN Document Server

    Virdee, Tejinder S

    2004-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) from CERN, scheduled to come online in 2007, is a multi-TeV proton-proton collider with vast detectors. Two of the more significant detectors for LHC are ATLAS and CMS. Currently, both detectors are more than 65% complete in terms of financial commitment, and the experiments are being assembled at an increasing pace. ATLAS is being built directly in its underground cavern, whereas CMS is being assembled above ground. When completed, both detectors will aid researchers in determining what lies at the high-energy frontier, in particular the mechanism by which particles attain mass. (Edited abstract).

  16. ALFA Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS/LHC. The ALFA system is composed by two stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from each side of the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronic for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

  17. LHCb Detector Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Geraci, Angelo; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Moggi, Niccolò; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Pessina, Gianluigi; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skillicorn, Ian; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilschut, Hans; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander

    2015-03-05

    The LHCb detector is a forward spectrometer at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The experiment is designed for precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays of beauty and charm hadrons. In this paper the performance of the various LHCb sub-detectors and the trigger system are described, using data taken from 2010 to 2012. It is shown that the design criteria of the experiment have been met. The excellent performance of the detector has allowed the LHCb collaboration to publish a wide range of physics results, demonstrating LHCb's unique role, both as a heavy flavour experiment and as a general purpose detector in the forward region.

  18. ALFA Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus). The ALFA system is composed by four stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronics for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

  19. Process and composition for drying of gaseous hydrogen halides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Glenn M.; Brown, Duncan W.

    1989-08-01

    A process for drying a gaseous hydrogen halide of the formula HX, wherein X is selected from the group consisting of bromine, chlorine, fluorine, and iodine, to remove water impurity therefrom, comprising: contacting the water impurity-containing gaseous hydrogen halide with a scavenger including a support having associated therewith one or more members of the group consisting of: (a) an active scavenging moiety selected from one or more members of the group consisting of: (i) metal halide compounds dispersed in the support, of the formula MX.sub.y ; and (ii) metal halide pendant functional groups of the formula -MX.sub.y-1 covalently bonded to the support, wherein M is a y-valent metal, and y is an integer whose value is from 1 to 3; (b) corresponding partially or fully alkylated compounds and/or pendant functional groups, of the metal halide compounds and/or pendant functional groups of (a); wherein the alkylated compounds and/or pendant functional groups, when present, are reactive with the gaseous hydrogen halide to form the corresponding halide compounds and/or pendant functional groups of (a); and M being selected such that the heat of formation, .DELTA.H.sub.f of its hydrated halide, MX.sub.y.(H.sub.2 O).sub.n, is governed by the relationship: .DELTA.H.sub.f .gtoreq.n.times.10.1 kilocalories/mole of such hydrated halide compound wherein n is the number of water molecules bound to the metal halide in the metal halide hydrate. Also disclosed is an appertaining scavenger composition and a contacting apparatus wherein the scavenger is deployed in a bed for contacting with the water impurity-containing gaseous hydrogen halide.

  20. Removing Gaseous NH3 Using Biochar as an Adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung S. Ro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia is a major fugitive gas emitted from livestock operations and fertilization production. This study tested the potential of various biochars in removing gaseous ammonia via adsorption processes. Gaseous ammonia adsorption capacities of various biochars made from wood shaving and chicken litter with different thermal conditions and activation techniques were determined using laboratory adsorption column tests. Ammonia adsorption capacities of non-activated biochars ranged from 0.15 to 5.09 mg·N/g, which were comparable to that of other commercial activated carbon and natural zeolite. There were no significant differences in ammonia adsorption capacities of steam activated and non-activated biochars even if the surface areas of the steam activated biochars were about two orders of magnitude greater than that of non-activated biochars. In contrast, phosphoric acid activation greatly increased the biochar ammonia adsorption capacity. This suggests that the surface area of biochar did not readily control gaseous NH3 adsorption. Ammonia adsorption capacities were more or less linearly increased with acidic oxygen surface groups of non-activated and steam-activated biochars. Phosphoric acid bound to the acid activated biochars is suspected to contribute to the exceptionally high ammonia adsorption capacity. The sorption capacities of virgin and water-washed biochar samples were not different, suggesting the potential to regenerate spent biochar simply with water instead of energy- and capital-intensive steam. The results of this study suggest that non-activated biochars can successfully replace commercial activated carbon in removing gaseous ammonia and the removal efficiency will greatly increase if the biochars are activated with phosphoric acid.

  1. The Gaseous Explosive Reaction : The Effect of Inert Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, F W

    1928-01-01

    Attention is called in this report to previous investigations of gaseous explosive reactions carried out under constant volume conditions, where the effect of inert gases on the thermodynamic equilibrium was determined. The advantage of constant pressure methods over those of constant volume as applied to studies of the gaseous explosive reaction is pointed out and the possibility of realizing for this purpose a constant pressure bomb mentioned. The application of constant pressure methods to the study of gaseous explosive reactions, made possible by the use of a constant pressure bomb, led to the discovery of an important kinetic relation connecting the rate of propagation of the zone of explosive reaction within the active gases, with the initial concentrations of those gases: s = K(sub 1)(A)(sup n1)(B)(sup n2)(C)(sup n3)------. By a method analogous to that followed in determining the effect of inert gases on the equilibrium constant K, the present paper records an attempt to determine their kinetic effect upon the expression given above.

  2. Gas scintillation glass GEM detector for high-resolution X-ray imaging and CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, T., E-mail: fujiwara-t@aist.go.jp [Research Institute for Measurement and Analytical Instrumentation, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Mitsuya, Y. [Nuclear Professional School, The University of Tokyo, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Fushie, T. [Radiment Lab. Inc., Setagaya, Tokyo 156-0044 (Japan); Murata, K.; Kawamura, A.; Koishikawa, A. [XIT Co., Naruse, Machida, Tokyo 194-0045 (Japan); Toyokawa, H. [Research Institute for Measurement and Analytical Instrumentation, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Takahashi, H. [Institute of Engineering Innovation, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8654 (Japan)

    2017-04-01

    A high-spatial-resolution X-ray-imaging gaseous detector has been developed with a single high-gas-gain glass gas electron multiplier (G-GEM), scintillation gas, and optical camera. High-resolution X-ray imaging of soft elements is performed with a spatial resolution of 281 µm rms and an effective area of 100×100 mm. In addition, high-resolution X-ray 3D computed tomography (CT) is successfully demonstrated with the gaseous detector. It shows high sensitivity to low-energy X-rays, which results in high-contrast radiographs of objects containing elements with low atomic numbers. In addition, the high yield of scintillation light enables fast X-ray imaging, which is an advantage for constructing CT images with low-energy X-rays.

  3. Hybrid virtues

    OpenAIRE

    Prijić – Samaržija, Snježana

    2014-01-01

    The controversies about cases such us of epistemic injustice, epistemic paternalism and epistocracy indicate that knowledge needs to be considered as socially situated phenomena and, consequently, that epistemic attitudes, social practices and institutions require evaluation from both an epistemic and an ethical/political perspective. The project titled as ethics of knowing and, especially, promising concept of hybrid virtues or corresponding hybrid view provides a desirable framework for the...

  4. Hybrid intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Cetorelli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    I introduce the concept of hybrid intermediaries: financial conglomerates that control a multiplicity of entity types active in the "assembly line" process of modern financial intermediation, a system that has become known as shadow banking. The complex bank holding companies of today are the best example of hybrid intermediaries, but I argue that financial firms from the "nonbank" space can just as easily evolve into conglomerates with similar organizational structure, thus acquiring the cap...

  5. Detector Physics of Resistive Plate Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Lippmann, Christian; Riegler, W

    2003-01-01

    Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) are gaseous parallel plate avalanche detectors that implement electrodes made from a material with a high volume resistivity between 10^7 and 10^12 Ohm cm. Large area RPCs with 2mm single gaps operated in avalanche mode provide above 98% efficiency and a time resolution of around 1ns up to a flux of several kHz/cm2. These Trigger RPCs will, as an example, equip the muon detector system of the ATLAS experiment at CERN on an area of 3650m2 and with 355.000 independent read out channels. Timing RPCs with a gas gap of 0.2 to 0.3mm are widely used in multi gap configurations and provide 99% efficiency and time resolution down to 50ps. While their performance is comparable to existing scintillator-based Time-Of-Flight (TOF) technology, Timing RPCs feature a significantly, up to an order of magnitude, lower price per channel. They will for example equip the 176m2 TOF barrel of the ALICE experiment at CERN with 160.000 independent read out cells. RPCs were originally operated in stream...

  6. The ring imaging Cherenkov detector of DELPHI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; Anassontzis, E.G.; Albrecht, E.; Ambec, I.; Apeldoorn, G. van; Arnoud, Y.; Aubret, C.; Augustinus, A.; Baillon, P.; Barnoux, C.; Battaglia, M.; Berggren, M.; Bloch, D.; Botner, O.; Bourdarios, C.; Bruemmer, N.; Brunet, J.M.; Budziak, A.P.; Buys, A.; Caloba, L.P.; Carecchio, P.; Carrie, P.; Cavalli, P.; Cereseto, R.; Cerutti, G.; Chevry, M.; Christophel, E.; Dahl-Jensen, E.; D' Almagne, B.; Dam, P.; Dam, P. van; Damgaard, G.; Davenport, M.; Dolbeau, J.; Dracos, M.; Dris, M.; Koning, N. de; De la Vega, A.S.; Dimitriou, N.; Eek, L.O.; Ekeloef, T.; Erikson, J.; Engel, J.P.; Evers, G.; Fassouliotis, D.; Filippas, T.A.; Florek, A.; Florek, B.; Fokitis, E.; Fontanelli, F.; Fontenille, A.; Fraissard, D.; Galuszka, K.; Garcia, J.; Gaumann, E.; Gazis, E.; Goret, B.; Gracco, V.; Guglielmi, L.; Hahn, F.; Haider, S.; Hallgren, A.; Hao, W.; Henkes, T.; Honore, P.F.; Huet, K.; Ioannou, P.; Johansson, H.; Juillot, P.; Kalkanis, G.; Karvelas, E.; Katsanevas, S.; Katsoufis, E.; Kindblom, P.; Kj

    1994-04-01

    The ring imaging Cherenkov detector system in the DELPHI experiment at the Large Electron-Positron storage ring at CERN, is designed to do particle identification over most of the solid angle in the momentum range from [approx] 2 GeV/c to [approx] 40 GeV/c. Two radiator media are used to cover the momentum range; (i) a 1 cm layer of liquid C[sub 6]F[sub 14], and (ii) a volume filled with gaseous C[sub 5]F[sub 12] or C[sub 4]F[sub 10]. Photosensitive time projection chambers record the conversion points of the ultraviolet photons produced in both radiator systems. The total active area is [approx] 30 m[sup 2] in the barrel region and [approx] 8 m[sup 2] in the two endcaps. The design of the detector systems is described in this paper. We will also report performance figures and compare them to simulation studies. (orig.)

  7. On-detector Electronics for the LHCb VELO Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, S.

    2017-02-01

    The LHCb Experiment is designed for precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays of beauty and charm hadrons. The experiment will be upgraded to a trigger-less system reading out the full detector at a 40 MHz event rate with all selection algorithms executed in a CPU farm. The upgraded Vertex Locator will be a hybrid pixel detector read out by the VeloPix ASIC with on-chip zero-suppression. The overview of the system and the design of the VELO on-detector electronics that include the front-end hybrid, the opto-conversion and power distribution boards will be summarised. The results from the evaluation of these prototypes and further enhancement techniques will be discussed.

  8. Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy characterization of gaseous atmospheric pressure plasmas with 2 mm spatial resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laroche, G. [Laboratoire d' Ingenierie de Surface, Centre de Recherche sur les Materiaux Avances, Departement de genie des mines, de la metallurgie et des materiaux, Universite Laval, 1065, avenue de la Medecine, Quebec G1V 0A6 (Canada); Centre de recherche du CHUQ, Hopital St Francois d' Assise, 10, rue de l' Espinay, local E0-165, Quebec G1L 3L5 (Canada); Vallade, J. [Laboratoire Procedes, Materiaux et Energie Solaire, PROMES, CNRS, Technosud, Rambla de la Thermodynamique, F-66100 Perpignan (France); Agence de l' environnement et de la Ma Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I -carettrise de l' Energie, 20, avenue du Gresille, BP 90406, F-49004 Angers Cedex 01 (France); Bazinette, R.; Hernandez, E.; Hernandez, G.; Massines, F. [Laboratoire Procedes, Materiaux et Energie Solaire, PROMES, CNRS, Technosud, Rambla de la Thermodynamique, F-66100 Perpignan (France); Nijnatten, P. van [OMT Solutions bv, High Tech Campus 9, 5656AE Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2012-10-15

    This paper describes an optical setup built to record Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectra in an atmospheric pressure plasma with a spatial resolution of 2 mm. The overall system consisted of three basic parts: (1) optical components located within the FTIR sample compartment, making it possible to define the size of the infrared beam (2 mm Multiplication-Sign 2 mm over a path length of 50 mm) imaged at the site of the plasma by (2) an optical interface positioned between the spectrometer and the plasma reactor. Once through the plasma region, (3) a retro-reflector module, located behind the plasma reactor, redirected the infrared beam coincident to the incident path up to a 45 Degree-Sign beamsplitter to reflect the beam toward a narrow-band mercury-cadmium-telluride detector. The antireflective plasma-coating experiments performed with ammonia and silane demonstrated that it was possible to quantify 42 and 2 ppm of these species in argon, respectively. In the case of ammonia, this was approximately three times less than this gas concentration typically used in plasma coating experiments while the silane limit of quantification was 35 times lower. Moreover, 70% of the incoming infrared radiation was focused within a 2 mm width at the site of the plasma, in reasonable agreement with the expected spatial resolution. The possibility of reaching this spatial resolution thus enabled us to measure the gaseous precursor consumption as a function of their residence time in the plasma.

  9. Development of cryogenic installations for large liquid argon neutrino detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Adamowski, M; Geynisman, M; Hentschel, S; Montanari, D; Nessi, M; Norris, B

    2015-01-01

    A proposal for a very large liquid argon (68,000 kg) based neutrino detector is being studied. To validate the design principles and the detector technology, and to gain experience in the development of the cryostats and the cryogenic systems needed for such large experiments, several smaller scale installations will be developed and implemented, at Fermilab and CERN. The cryogenic systems for these installations will be developed, constructed, installed and commissioned by an international engineering team. These installations shall bring the required cooling power under specific conditions to the experiments for the initial cool-down and the long term operation, and shall also guarantee the correct distribution of the cooling power within the cryostats to ensure a homogeneous temperature distribution within the cryostat itself. The cryogenic systems shall also include gaseous and liquid phase argon purification devices to be used to reach and maintain the very stringent purity requirements needed for these...

  10. CMS GEM detector material study for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Muhammad, Saleh

    2017-01-01

    A study on the Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM) foil material is performed to determine the moisture diffusion rate and saturation level and the moisture effects on its mechanical properties. The study is focused on the foil contact with ambient air and moisture to determine the value of the diffusion coefficient of water in the detector polyimide. The presence of water inside the detector foil can determine the changes in its mechanical and electrical properties. A simulated model is developed by taking into account the real GEM foil (hole dimensions, shapes and material), which describes the adsorption on a sample. This work describes the model, its experimental verification, the water diffusion within the entire sheet geometry of the GEM foil, thus gaining concentration profiles and the time required to saturate the system and the effects on the mechanical properties.

  11. ALICE Photon Multiplicity Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Nayak, T

    2013-01-01

    Photon Multiplicity Detector (PMD) measures the multiplicity and spatial distribution of photons in the forward region of ALICE on a event-by-event basis. PMD is a pre-shower detector having fine granularity and full azimuthal coverage in the pseudo-rapidity region 2.3 < η < 3.9.

  12. ALICE Silicon Strip Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Nooren, G

    2013-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) constitutes the two outermost layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE Experiment. The SSD plays a crucial role in the tracking of the particles produced in the collisions connecting the tracks from the external detectors (Time Projection Chamber) to the ITS. The SSD also contributes to the particle identification through the measurement of their energy loss.

  13. Pixel detector readout chip

    CERN Multimedia

    1991-01-01

    Close-up of a pixel detector readout chip. The photograph shows an aera of 1 mm x 2 mm containing 12 separate readout channels. The entire chip contains 1000 readout channels (around 80 000 transistors) covering a sensitive area of 8 mm x 5 mm. The chip has been mounted on a silicon detector to detect high energy particles.

  14. Detector Systems at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider CLIC is designed to deliver e+e- collisions at a center of mass energy of up to 3 TeV. The detector systems at this collider have to provide highly efficient tracking and excellent jet energy resolution and hermeticity for multi-TeV final states with multiple jets and leptons. In addition, the detector systems have to be capable of distinguishing physics events from large beam-induced background at a crossing frequency of 2 GHz. Like for the detector concepts at the ILC, CLIC detectors are based on event reconstruction using particle flow algorithms. The two detector concepts for the ILC, ILD and SID, were adapted for CLIC using calorimeters with dense absorbers limiting leakage through increased compactness, as well as modified forward and vertex detector geometries and precise time stamping to cope with increased background levels. The overall detector concepts for CLIC are presented, with particular emphasis on the main detector and engineering challenges, such as: the ultra-thi...

  15. CMS Detector Posters

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    CMS Detector posters (produced in 2000): CMS installation CMS collaboration From the Big Bang to Stars LHC Magnetic Field Magnet System Trackering System Tracker Electronics Calorimetry Eletromagnetic Calorimeter Hadronic Calorimeter Muon System Muon Detectors Trigger and data aquisition (DAQ) ECAL posters (produced in 2010, FR & EN): CMS ECAL CMS ECAL-Supermodule cooling and mechatronics CMS ECAL-Supermodule assembly

  16. CHERENKOV RADIATION DETECTOR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    1981-03-01

    Mar 1, 1981 ... Most of Radiation detectors based on the Cherenkov Effect are essentially very bulky and expensive for schools and colleges. An inexpensive yet very compact radiation detector is designed, built and tested. It is used to measure the Cherenkov angles for natural radioactivity from sources as. Cs137.

  17. Unstable Roche-Lobe Overflow of Gaseous Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Brian

    The discoveries of more than 100 roughly Earth-sized bodies with orbital periods less than 1 day, ultra-short-period planets or candidates (USPs), have challenged planet formation theories, and evidence suggests USPs may be the remnants of gaseous planets that shed their atmospheres. Indeed, many hot Jupiters are near Roche-Lobe overflow (RLO), and tidal decay can push them the rest of the way in. Recent work has shown stable RLO (atmospheres lost via a steady outflow and thin accretion disk) probably cannot produce USPs on its own but suggested unstable RLO (atmospheres quickly shed on dynamical timescales) may. In fact, stable RLO may drive overflowing hot Jupiters into unstable RLO, and by analogy with the common-envelope binaries, the core that remains can drive off the gaseous envelope at the cost of its orbital energy. Wellestablished mass-radius relations for gaseous planets, coupled to simple energy and angular momentum considerations, provide a connection between the observed masses and periods for USPs and their putative progenitor gaseous planets, with few free parameters. We propose to investigate the hypothesis that USPs originate through tidal decay and a combination of stable and unstable Roche-lobe overflow of short-period gaseous planets through the following studies: -We will explore the planetary masses, orbital periods, etc. that produce unstable RLO using the Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA) suite. -We will relate the observed periods and masses of USPs to their putative progenitor masses and periods to see whether they are consistent with the unstable RLO hypothesis. This proposal is directly relevant to the Exoplanets Research Program since it seeks to "understand the ... physical processes of exoplanets" and "improve understanding of [their] origins" through "theoretical studies ... and modeling'". We also expect that it will have broad impacts on a variety of astrophysical topics: -Ultra-short period planets could

  18. Superconducting detectors in astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, F.

    2006-08-01

    Radiation detectors based on superconducting phenomena are becoming increasingly important for observational astronomy. Recent developments in this important field, together with relevant background, are described here. After a general introduction to superconductivity and the field of superconductor-based radiation sensors, the main detector types are examined with regard to their physical form, operating principles and principal advantages. All major forms of superconducting detectors used in contemporary research such as tunnelling detectors, mixers, hot-electron bolometers and transition edge sensitive devices are discussed with an emphasis on how more recent developments are overcoming the shortcomings of the previous device generations. Also, discussed are new ideas in superconducting detector technology that may find applications in the coming years.

  19. Nanomechanical resonance detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Jeffrey C; Zettl, Alexander K

    2013-10-29

    An embodiment of a nanomechanical frequency detector includes a support structure and a plurality of elongated nanostructures coupled to the support structure. Each of the elongated nanostructures has a particular resonant frequency. The plurality of elongated nanostructures has a range of resonant frequencies. An embodiment of a method of identifying an object includes introducing the object to the nanomechanical resonance detector. A resonant response by at least one of the elongated nanostructures of the nanomechanical resonance detector indicates a vibrational mode of the object. An embodiment of a method of identifying a molecular species of the present invention includes introducing the molecular species to the nanomechanical resonance detector. A resonant response by at least one of the elongated nanostructures of the nanomechanical resonance detector indicates a vibrational mode of the molecular species.

  20. ATLAS ITk Pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Gemme, Claudia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The high luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC) in 2026 will provide new challenge to the ATLAS tracker. The current inner detector will be replaced with a whole silicon tracker which will consist of a five barrel layer Pixel detector surrounded by a four barrel layer Strip detector. The expected high radiation level are requiring the development of upgraded silicon sensors as well as new a front-end chip. The dense tracking environment will require finer granularity detectors. The data rates will require new technologies for high bandwidth data transmission and handling. The current status of the HL-LHC ATLA Pixel detector developments as well as the various layout options will be reviewed.

  1. Common Framework Implementation for the Track-Based Alignment of the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    We present the ATLAS implementation of the generic track-based alignment framework. Being modular and highly configurable it is applicable to all tracking systems of ATLAS: silicon and drift tubes if the Inner Detector as well as the gaseous Muon System. The implementation of the common parts and virtual interfaces is separated from the detector system specific parts. We summarize the implemented formalism of the alignment based on the least squares principle and present the general layout of the software implementation within the Athena framework.

  2. The ALICE HMPID on-detector front-end and readout electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Santiard, Jean-Claude

    2004-01-01

    In the ALICE HMPID detector, Cherenkov photons are localised by measuring the charge induction on a MWPC cathode segmented into pads. Two ASICs have been developed: the Gassiplex07-3, which is an analogue 16-channels multiplexed front-end circuit dedicated to the readout of gaseous detector and the Dilogic-3, a sparse data scan digital processor. The combination of multiplexed and parallel- pipelined architecture allows to store several events between two L2 trigger and to transfer the 32-bits data words at a rate of 80 Mbytes per second through an optical data link.

  3. Neutron and X-ray Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carini, Gabriella [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Denes, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gruener, Sol [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Lessner, Elianne [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science Office of Basic Energy Sciences

    2012-08-01

    (and two computing hurdles that result from the corresponding increase in data volume) for the detector community to overcome in order to realize the full potential of BES neutron and X-ray facilities. Resolving these detector impediments will improve scientific productivity both by enabling new types of experiments, which will expand the scientific breadth at the X-ray and neutron facilities, and by potentially reducing the beam time required for a given experiment. These research priorities are summarized in the table below. Note that multiple, simultaneous detector improvements are often required to take full advantage of brighter sources. High-efficiency hard X-ray sensors: The fraction of incident particles that are actually detected defines detector efficiency. Silicon, the most common direct-detection X-ray sensor material, is (for typical sensor thicknesses) 100% efficient at 8 keV, 25%efficient at 20 keV, and only 3% efficient at 50 keV. Other materials are needed for hard X-rays. Replacement for 3He for neutron detectors: 3He has long been the neutron detection medium of choice because of its high cross section over a wide neutron energy range for the reaction 3He + n —> 3H + 1H + 0.764 MeV. 3He stockpiles are rapidly dwindling, and what is available can be had only at prohibitively high prices. Doped scintillators hold promise as ways to capture neutrons and convert them into light, although work is needed on brighter, more efficient scintillator solutions. Neutron detectors also require advances in speed and resolution. Fast-framing X-ray detectors: Today’s brighter X-ray sources make time-resolved studies possible. For example, hybrid X-ray pixel detectors, initially developed for particle physics, are becoming fairly mature X-ray detectors, with considerable development in Europe. To truly enable time-resolved studies, higher frame rates and dynamic range are required, and smaller pixel sizes are desirable. High-speed spectroscopic X-ray detectors

  4. Semiconductor radiation detectors. Device physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)]|[Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany). Semiconductor Lab.

    1999-07-01

    The following topics were dealt with: semiconductor radiation detectors, basic semiconductor structures, semiconductors, energy measurement, radiation-level measurement, position measurement, electronics of the readout function, detectors with intrinsic amplification, detector technology, device stability, radiation hardness and device simulation.

  5. Micromesh-selection for the ATLAS New Small Wheel Micromegas detectors

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00387450

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS New Small Wheels will be the first major upgrade to an LHC experiment utilizing the Micromegas technology. With an active detection area of 1280\\,m$^2$ and comprising more than 2 Million channels it is the largest and probably most ambitious system of Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs) currently under construction. The eponymous component of the Micromegas technology, the micromesh, is the detectors most precise component. Although a wide range of meshes, mesh geometries and -parameters can be used to build an operational Micromegas, it's properties can effect a range of detectors qualities, such as reconstruction efficiency, timing- and energy resolution. Conversely, the correct choice of this component will permit a wider range in operation parameters and optimize the detector performance.

  6. SINGLE ELECTRON AMPLIFICATION IN A 'SINGLE-MCP + MICROMEGAS + PADS' DETECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Va' vra, J

    2004-09-20

    We have tested a new gaseous detector structure based on a tandem of two parts, the first one is a single MCP plate (sometimes called the Microchannel plate or Capillary plates), and the second one is a Micromegas with pad readout. The new detector responds very well to a single electron signal, both in helium-based and Argon-based gases, and it can reach a very large gain. Our overall aim is to couple the proposed electrode structure to a Bialkali photocathode. The main advantage of this avenue of research is that such a detector would operate easily in a very large magnetic field, and it could achieve excellent position resolution and large pixelization, compared to existing vacuum-based MCP-PMT detectors.

  7. Development of the RICH detectors in LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Easo, S

    2003-01-01

    For particle identification, LHCb plans to use two RICH detectors, one covering the charged particle momentum range 1-65 GeV/c using aerogel and C//4F//1//0 radiators and the other covering up to 150 Ge V/c using CF//4 radiator. Hybrid photo diodes (HPD) with 80 mm photocathode diameter are being developed to detect the Cherenkov photons in the wavelength range 200-600 nm. The HPDs encapsulate silicon pixel anodes bump bonded to binary readout chips processed using 0.25 mum CMOS technology. Results obtained with prototype radiators and HPDs in test beams will be presented and the design and development of these RICH detectors will be reviewed.

  8. Hybrid rocket motor testing at Nammo Raufoss A/S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønningen, Jan-Erik; Kubberud, Nils

    2005-08-01

    Hybrid rocket motor technology and the use of hybrid rockets have gained increased interest in recent years in many countries. A typical hybrid rocket consists of a tank containing the oxidizer in either liquid or gaseous state connected to the combustion chamber containing an injector, inert solid fuel grain and nozzle. Nammo Raufoss A/S has for almost 40 years designed and produced high-performance solid propellant rocket motors for many military missile systems as well as solid propellant rocket motors for civil space use. In 2003 an in-house technology program was initiated to investigate and study hybrid rocket technology. On 23 September 2004 the first in-house designed hybrid test rocket motor was static test fired at Nammo Raufoss Test Center. The oxidizer was gaseous oxygen contained in a tank pressurized to 10MPa, flow controlled through a sonic orifice into the combustion chamber containing a multi port radial injector and six bore cartridge-loaded fuel grain containing a modified HTPB fuel composition. The motor was ignited using a non-explosive heated wire. This paper will present what has been achieved at Nammo Raufoss since the start of the program.

  9. Quantifying the Effectiveness of Muon Detector Purification Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mburu, Naomi; Guida, Roberto; Mandelli, Beatrice

    The experiments along the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) were developed to study the fundamental particles that govern our universe. These experiments utilize gaseous detectors to track muons in the outermost portion of the experiment. For example, in the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment three types of gaseous detectors are used as muon trackers: Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs), Drift Tubes (DTs) and Cathode Strip Chambers (CSCs). RPCs use a gas mixture of Freon (C2H2F4) , sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and isobutane (iC4H10) . The components of this gas mixture are both expensive and have high global warming potentials, so most of the gas mixture must be recycled and purified through a gas recirculation system. For this reason, RPCs employ purification systems that remove impurities due to the contamination and irradiation of the gas mixture that occur during normal operation of the LHC. Ion selective electrodes, gas chromatography, and mass spectrometry are set up and employed to study impurities produced in the RPCs and to quantify the ability of the purification systems to remove these impurities. National Science Foundation.

  10. The HERMES recoil detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, A. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Randall Laboratory of Physics; Aschenauer, E.C. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Belostotski, S. [B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Insitute, Gatchina (Russian Federation)] [and others; Collaboration: HERMES Recoil Detector Group

    2013-02-15

    For the final running period of HERA, a recoil detector was installed at the HERMES experiment to improve measurements of hard exclusive processes in charged-lepton nucleon scattering. Here, deeply virtual Compton scattering is of particular interest as this process provides constraints on generalised parton distributions that give access to the total angular momenta of quarks within the nucleon. The HERMES recoil detector was designed to improve the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the four-momentum of the recoiling particle. It consisted of three components: two layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors inside the HERA beam vacuum, a two-barrel scintillating fibre tracker, and a photon detector. All sub-detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnetic field with an integrated field strength of 1Tm. The recoil detector was installed in late 2005. After the commissioning of all components was finished in September 2006, it operated stably until the end of data taking at HERA end of June 2007. The present paper gives a brief overview of the physics processes of interest and the general detector design. The recoil detector components, their calibration, the momentum reconstruction of charged particles, and the event selection are described in detail. The paper closes with a summary of the performance of the detection system.

  11. The Belle II Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piilonen, Leo; Belle Collaboration, II

    2017-01-01

    The Belle II detector is now under construction at the KEK laboratory in Japan. This project represents a substantial upgrade of the Belle detector (and the KEKB accelerator). The Belle II experiment will record 50 ab-1 of data, a factor of 50 more than that recorded by Belle. This large data set, combined with the low backgrounds and high trigger efficiencies characteristic of an e+e- experiment, should provide unprecedented sensitivity to new physics signatures in B and D meson decays, and in τ lepton decays. The detector comprises many forefront subsystems. The vertex detector consists of two inner layers of silicon DEPFET pixels and four outer layers of double-sided silicon strips. These layers surround a beryllium beam pipe having a radius of only 10 mm. Outside of the vertex detector is a large-radius, small-cell drift chamber, an ``imaging time-of-propagation'' detector based on Cerenkov radiation for particle identification, and scintillating fibers and resistive plate chambers used to identify muons. The detector will begin commissioning in 2017.

  12. ATLAS Detector Interface Group

    CERN Multimedia

    Mapelli, L

    Originally organised as a sub-system in the DAQ/EF-1 Prototype Project, the Detector Interface Group (DIG) was an information exchange channel between the Detector systems and the Data Acquisition to provide critical detector information for prototype design and detector integration. After the reorganisation of the Trigger/DAQ Project and of Technical Coordination, the necessity to provide an adequate context for integration of detectors with the Trigger and DAQ lead to organisation of the DIG as one of the activities of Technical Coordination. Such an organisation emphasises the ATLAS wide coordination of the Trigger and DAQ exploitation aspects, which go beyond the domain of the Trigger/DAQ project itself. As part of Technical Coordination, the DIG provides the natural environment for the common work of Trigger/DAQ and detector experts. A DIG forum for a wide discussion of all the detector and Trigger/DAQ integration issues. A more restricted DIG group for the practical organisation and implementation o...

  13. Smile detectors correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Kivanc; Chang, Xin; Skarbek, Władysław

    2017-08-01

    The novel smile recognition algorithm is presented based on extraction of 68 facial salient points (fp68) using the ensemble of regression trees. The smile detector exploits the Support Vector Machine linear model. It is trained with few hundreds exemplar images by SVM algorithm working in 136 dimensional space. It is shown by the strict statistical data analysis that such geometric detector strongly depends on the geometry of mouth opening area, measured by triangulation of outer lip contour. To this goal two Bayesian detectors were developed and compared with SVM detector. The first uses the mouth area in 2D image, while the second refers to the mouth area in 3D animated face model. The 3D modeling is based on Candide-3 model and it is performed in real time along with three smile detectors and statistics estimators. The mouth area/Bayesian detectors exhibit high correlation with fp68/SVM detector in a range [0:8; 1:0], depending mainly on light conditions and individual features with advantage of 3D technique, especially in hard light conditions.

  14. The HERMES recoil detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airapetian, A.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Belostotski, S.; Borisenko, A.; Bowles, J.; Brodski, I.; Bryzgalov, V.; Burns, J.; Capitani, G. P.; Carassiti, V.; Ciullo, G.; Clarkson, A.; Contalbrigo, M.; De Leo, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Diefenthaler, M.; Di Nezza, P.; Düren, M.; Ehrenfried, M.; Guler, H.; Gregor, I. M.; Hartig, M.; Hill, G.; Hoek, M.; Holler, Y.; Hristova, I.; Jo, H. S.; Kaiser, R.; Keri, T.; Kisselev, A.; Krause, B.; Krauss, B.; Lagamba, L.; Lehmann, I.; Lenisa, P.; Lu, S.; Lu, X.-G.; Lumsden, S.; Mahon, D.; Martinez de la Ossa, A.; Murray, M.; Mussgiller, A.; Nowak, W.-D.; Naryshkin, Y.; Osborne, A.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Perez-Benito, R.; Petrov, A.; Pickert, N.; Prahl, V.; Protopopescu, D.; Reinecke, M.; Riedl, C.; Rith, K.; Rosner, G.; Rubacek, L.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salomatin, Y.; Schnell, G.; Seitz, B.; Shearer, C.; Shutov, V.; Statera, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, J.; Stinzing, F.; Trzcinski, A.; Tytgat, M.; Vandenbroucke, A.; Van Haarlem, Y.; Van Hulse, C.; Varanda, M.; Veretennikov, D.; Vilardi, I.; Vikhrov, V.; Vogel, C.; Yaschenko, S.; Ye, Z.; Yu, W.; Zeiler, D.; Zihlmann, B.

    2013-05-01

    For the final running period of HERA, a recoil detector was installed at the HERMES experiment to improve measurements of hard exclusive processes in charged-lepton nucleon scattering. Here, deeply virtual Compton scattering is of particular interest as this process provides constraints on generalised parton distributions that give access to the total angular momenta of quarks within the nucleon. The HERMES recoil detector was designed to improve the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the four-momentum of the recoiling particle. It consisted of three components: two layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors inside the HERA beam vacuum, a two-barrel scintillating fibre tracker, and a photon detector. All sub-detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnetic field with a field strength of 1T. The recoil detector was installed in late 2005. After the commissioning of all components was finished in September 2006, it operated stably until the end of data taking at HERA end of June 2007. The present paper gives a brief overview of the physics processes of interest and the general detector design. The recoil detector components, their calibration, the momentum reconstruction of charged particles, and the event selection are described in detail. The paper closes with a summary of the performance of the detection system.

  15. Microfluidic Scintillation Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Microfluidic scintillation detectors are devices of recent introduction for the detection of high energy particles, developed within the EP-DT group at CERN. Most of the interest for such technology comes from the use of liquid scintillators, which entails the possibility of changing the active material in the detector, leading to an increased radiation resistance. This feature, together with the high spatial resolution and low thickness deriving from the microfabrication techniques used to manufacture such devices, is desirable not only in instrumentation for high energy physics experiments but also in medical detectors such as beam monitors for hadron therapy.

  16. The Silicon Cube detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matea, I.; Adimi, N. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan - Universite Bordeaux 1 - UMR 5797, CNRS/IN2P3, Chemin du Solarium, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Blank, B. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan - Universite Bordeaux 1 - UMR 5797, CNRS/IN2P3, Chemin du Solarium, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France)], E-mail: blank@cenbg.in2p3.fr; Canchel, G.; Giovinazzo, J. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan - Universite Bordeaux 1 - UMR 5797, CNRS/IN2P3, Chemin du Solarium, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Borge, M.J.G.; Dominguez-Reyes, R.; Tengblad, O. [Insto. Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 113bis, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Thomas, J.-C. [GANIL, CEA/DSM - CNRS/IN2P3, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France)

    2009-08-21

    A new experimental device, the Silicon Cube detector, consisting of six double-sided silicon strip detectors placed in a compact geometry was developed at CENBG. Having a very good angular coverage and high granularity, it allows simultaneous measurements of energy and angular distributions of charged particles emitted from unbound nuclear states. In addition, large-volume Germanium detectors can be placed close to the collection point of the radioactive species to be studied. The setup is ideally suited for isotope separation on-line (ISOL)-type experiments to study multi-particle emitters and was tested during an experiment at the low-energy beam line of SPIRAL at GANIL.

  17. Directional radiation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowell, Jonathan L.

    2017-09-12

    Directional radiation detectors and systems, methods, and computer-readable media for using directional radiation detectors to locate a radiation source are provided herein. A directional radiation detector includes a radiation sensor. A radiation attenuator partially surrounds the radiation sensor and defines an aperture through which incident radiation is received by the radiation sensor. The aperture is positioned such that when incident radiation is received directly through the aperture and by the radiation sensor, a source of the incident radiation is located within a solid angle defined by the aperture. The radiation sensor senses at least one of alpha particles, beta particles, gamma particles, or neutrons.

  18. Layered semiconductor neutron detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Samuel S; Perry, Dale L

    2013-12-10

    Room temperature operating solid state hand held neutron detectors integrate one or more relatively thin layers of a high neutron interaction cross-section element or materials with semiconductor detectors. The high neutron interaction cross-section element (e.g., Gd, B or Li) or materials comprising at least one high neutron interaction cross-section element can be in the form of unstructured layers or micro- or nano-structured arrays. Such architecture provides high efficiency neutron detector devices by capturing substantially more carriers produced from high energy .alpha.-particles or .gamma.-photons generated by neutron interaction.

  19. A TPC-like readout method for high precision muon-tracking using GEM-detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flierl, Bernhard; Biebel, Otmar; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Hertenberger, Ralf; Klitzner, Felix; Loesel, Philipp; Mueller, Ralph [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Zibell, Andre [Julius-Maximilians-Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Gaseous electron multiplier (GEM) detectors are well suited for tracking of charged particles. Three dimensional tracking in a single layer can be achieved by application of a time-projection-chamber like readout mode (μTPC), if the drift time of the electrons is measured and the position dependence of the arrival time is used to calculate the inclination angle of the track. To optimize the tracking capabilities for ion tracks drift gas mixtures with low drift velocity have been investigated by measuring tracks of cosmic muons in a compact setup of four GEM-detectors of 100 x 100 x 6 mm{sup 3} active volume each and an angular acceptance of -25 to 25 . The setup consists of three detectors with two-dimensional strip readout layers of 0.4 mm pitch and one detector with a single strip readout layer of 0.25 mm pitch. All strips are readout by APV25 frontend boards and the amplification stage in the detectors consists of three GEM-foils. Tracks are reconstructed by the μTPC-method in one of the detectors and are then compared to the prediction from the other three detectors defined by the center of charge in every detector. We report our study of Argon and Helium based noble gas mixtures with carbon-dioxide as quencher.

  20. Radiocarbon measurements of small gaseous samples at CologneAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, A.; Dewald, A.; Altenkirch, R.; Herb, S.; Heinze, S.; Schiffer, M.; Feuerstein, C.; Müller-Gatermann, C.; Wotte, A.; Rethemeyer, J.; Dunai, T.

    2017-09-01

    A second SO-110 B (Arnold et al., 2010) ion source was installed at the 6 MV CologneAMS for the measurement of gaseous samples. For the gas supply a dedicated device from Ionplus AG was connected to the ion source. Special effort was devoted to determine optimized operation parameters for the ion source, which give a high carbon current output and a high 14C- yield. The latter is essential in cases when only small samples are available. Additionally a modified immersion lens and modified target pieces were tested and the target position was optimized.

  1. Two-stroke engine with gaseous and liquid fuel injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laursen, Rene Sejer [MAN Diesel and Turbo SE, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2012-08-15

    The need to lower emissions of CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x} and particulates as well as rising oil prices have increased engine operators' interest in alternative fuels and fuel flexibility. The low speed two-stroke ME-GI and ME-LGI dual-fuel engines with diesel pilot injection from MAN Diesel and Turbo offer the opportunity of utilising fuels such as LNG, LPG, and methanol in a wide range of liquid to gaseous fuel ratios. (orig.)

  2. Physics with the P¯ANDA detector at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    P¯Anda Collaboration

    2007-06-01

    The physics program of P¯ANDA covers a wide range of topics that address central issues of QCD. The P¯ANDA detector will make use of the antiprotons produced in the FAIR complex and stored in the high-energy synchrotron HESR for the study of strong interactions in collisions with protons and heavy targets. Central to the program and defining the guidelines for the detector development are the spectroscopy of charmonium states and open charm with unprecedented quality, the search for exotic objects such as glueballs and hybrids, investigation of the modification of meson properties in medium, and copious production of hypernuclei for high-resolution spectroscopy. Technical developments for the various detector components are ongoing. The detector properties required in order to cover the broad physics program pose challenges which need state-of-the-art technology and customized solutions.

  3. Spectroscopic X-ray imaging with photon counting pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Tlustos, L

    2010-01-01

    Single particle counting hybrid pixel detectors simultaneously provide low noise, high granularity and high readout speed and make it possible to build detector systems offering high spatial resolution paired with good energy resolution. A limiting factor for the spectroscopic performance of such detector systems is charge sharing between neighbouring pixels in the sensor part of the detector. The signal spectrum at the collection electrodes of the readout electronics deviates significantly from the photonic spectrum when planar segmented sensor geometries are used. The Medipix3 implements a novel, distributed signal processing architecture linking neighbouring pixels and aims at eliminating the spectral distortion produced in the sensor by charge sharing and at reducing the impact of fluorescence photons generated in the sensor itself. Preliminary results from the very first Medipix3 readouts bump bonded to 300 pm Si sensor are presented. Material reconstruction is a possible future application of spectrosco...

  4. Ground detectors for the study of cosmic ray showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, H [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, BUAP, Puebla, Pue., 72000 (Mexico); Villasenor, L [Instituto de Fisica y Matematicas, UMSNH, Morelia, Michoacan, 58040 (Mexico)], E-mail: villasen@ifm.umich.mx

    2008-06-01

    We describe the work that we have done over the last decade to design and construct instruments to measure properties of cosmic rays in Mexico. We describe the detection of decaying and crossing muons in a water Cherenkov detector and discuss an application of these results to calibrate water Cherenkov detectors. We also describe a technique to separate isolated isolated muons and electrons in water Cherenkov detector. Next we describe the design and performance of a hybrid extensive air shower detector array built on the Campus of the University of Puebla (19 deg. N, 90 deg. W, 800 g/cm{sup 2}) to measure the energy, arrival direction and composition of primary cosmic rays with energies around 1 PeV.

  5. The CLIC Detector Concept

    CERN Document Server

    Pitters, Florian Michael

    2016-01-01

    CLIC is a concept for a future linear collider that would provide e+e- collisions at up to 3 TeV. The physics aims require a detector system with excellent jet energy and track momentum resolution, highly efficient flavour-tagging and lepton identification capabilities, full geometrical coverage extending to low polar angles and timing information in the order of nanoseconds to reject beam-induced background. To deal with those requirements, an extensive R&D programme is in place to overcome current technological limits. The CLIC detector concept includes a low-mass all-silicon vertex and tracking detector system and fine-grained calorimeters designed for particle flow analysis techniques, surrounded by a 4 T solenoid magnet. An overview of the requirements and design optimisations for the CLIC detector concept is presented.

  6. Improved CO [lidar detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, P.L.; Busch, G.E.; Thompson, D.C.; Remelius, D.K.; Wells, F.D.

    1999-07-18

    A high sensitivity, CO{sub 2} lidar detector, based on recent advances in ultra-low noise, readout integrated circuits (ROIC), is being developed. This detector will combine a high speed, low noise focal plane array (FPA) with a dispersive grating spectrometer. The spectrometer will filter the large background flux, thereby reducing the limiting background photon shot noise. In order to achieve the desired low noise levels, the HgCdTe FPA will be cooled to {approximately}50K. High speed, short pulse operation of the lidar system should enable the detector to operate with the order of a few noise electrons in the combined detector/ ROIC output. Current receiver design concepts will be presented, along with their expected noise performance.

  7. Infrared Detectors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The end goal of this project is to develop proof-of-concept infrared detectors which can be integrated in future infrared instruments engaged in remote...

  8. Europe plans megaton detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2004-01-01

    A group of French and Italian particle physicists hopes to carry on the long tradition of building large underground detectors by constructing a device deep under the Alps containing a million tonnes of extremely pure water.

  9. ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) is part of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE experiment : . SPD Structure . Bump Bonding . Test beam . ALICE1LHCb Readout Chip . Chip Tests . Data from the SPD

  10. ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Christensen, C

    2013-01-01

    The Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) extends the coverage for multiplicity of charge particles into the forward regions - giving ALICE the widest coverage of the 4 LHC experiments for these measurements.

  11. Detector Control System for the ATLAS Forward Proton detector

    CERN Document Server

    Czekierda, Sabina; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) is a forward detector using a Roman Pot technique, recently installed in the LHC tunnel. It is aiming at registering protons that were diffractively or electromagnetically scattered in soft and hard processes. Infrastructure of the detector consists of hardware placed both in the tunnel and in the control room USA15 (about 330 meters from the Roman Pots). AFP detector, like the other detectors of the ATLAS experiment, uses the Detector Control System (DCS) to supervise the detector and to ensure its safe and coherent operation, since the incorrect detector performance may influence the physics results. The DCS continuously monitors the detector parameters, subset of which is stored in data bases. Crucial parameters are guarded by alarm system. A detector representation as a hierarchical tree-like structure of well-defined subsystems built with the use of the Finite State Machine (FSM) toolkit allows for overall detector operation and visualization. Every node in the hierarchy is...

  12. Hybrid Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    military vocabulary to describe these observed phenomena. After an intense focus on large-scale conventional conflicts during the Cold War, with episodic...requiring the mastery of both grammars.85 It follows that hybrid warfare requires the blending of both grammars. The Theoretical Lineage of

  13. Hybrid Thermochemical/Biological Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert C.

    The conventional view of biorefineries is that lignocellulosic plant material will be fractionated into cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and terpenes before these components are biochemically converted into market products. Occasionally, these plants include a thermochemical step at the end of the process to convert recalcitrant plant components or mixed waste streams into heat to meet thermal energy demands elsewhere in the facility. However, another possibility for converting high-fiber plant materials is to start by thermochemically processing it into a uniform intermediate product that can be biologically converted into a bio-based product. This alternative route to bio-based products is known as hybrid thermochemical/biological processing. There are two distinct approaches to hybrid processing: (a) gasification followed by fermentation of the resulting gaseous mixture of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H2), and carbon dioxide (CO2) and (b) fast pyrolysis followed by hydrolysis and/or fermentation of the anhydrosugars found in the resulting bio-oil. This article explores this "cart before the horse" approach to biorefineries.

  14. Fiber optic detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partin, J.K.; Ward, T.E.; Grey, A.E.

    1990-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a portable fiber optic detector that senses the presence of specific target chemicals by exchanging the target chemical for a fluorescently-tagged antigen that is bound to an antibody which is in turn attached to an optical fiber. Replacing the fluorescently-tagged antigen reduces the fluorescence so that a photon sensing detector records the reduced light level and activates an appropriate alarm or indicator.

  15. ATLAS Inner Detector (Pixel Detector and Silicon Tracker)

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Outreach

    2006-01-01

    To raise awareness of the basic functions of the Pixel Detector and Silicon Tracker in the ATLAS detector on the LHC at CERN. This colorful 3D animation is an excerpt from the film "ATLAS-Episode II, The Particles Strike Back." Shot with a bug's eye view of the inside of the detector. The viewer is taken on a tour of the inner workings of the detector, seeing critical pieces of the detector and hearing short explanations of how each works.

  16. Gamma ray detector modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capote, M. Albert (Inventor); Lenos, Howard A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A radiation detector assembly has a semiconductor detector array substrate of CdZnTe or CdTe, having a plurality of detector cell pads on a first surface thereof, the pads having a contact metallization and a solder barrier metallization. An interposer card has planar dimensions no larger than planar dimensions of the semiconductor detector array substrate, a plurality of interconnect pads on a first surface thereof, at least one readout semiconductor chip and at least one connector on a second surface thereof, each having planar dimensions no larger than the planar dimensions of the interposer card. Solder columns extend from contacts on the interposer first surface to the plurality of pads on the semiconductor detector array substrate first surface, the solder columns having at least one solder having a melting point or liquidus less than 120 degrees C. An encapsulant is disposed between the interposer circuit card first surface and the semiconductor detector array substrate first surface, encapsulating the solder columns, the encapsulant curing at a temperature no greater than 120 degrees C.

  17. Modelling semiconductor pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieson, K

    2001-01-01

    expected after 200 ps in most cases. The effect of reducing the charge carrier lifetime and examining the charge collection efficiency has been utilised to explore how these detectors would respond in a harsh radiation environment. It is predicted that over critical carrier lifetimes (10 ps to 0.1 ns) an improvement of 40 % over conventional detectors can be expected. This also has positive implications for fabricating detectors, in this geometry, from materials which might otherwise be considered substandard. An analysis of charge transport in CdZnTe pixel detectors has been performed. The analysis starts with simulation studies into the formation of contacts and their influence on the internal electric field of planar detectors. The models include a number of well known defect states and these are balanced to give an agreement with a typical experimental I-V curve. The charge transport study extends to the development of a method for studying the effect of charge sharing in highly pixellated detectors. The ...

  18. Theoretical investigation of chemical and physical properties of gaseous fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, Fredrik

    1999-12-01

    This thesis is discussing the chemical and physical properties of different gaseous fuels. A mapping of about seventy gaseous fuels resulted in eleven type gases, these gases have mainly five components (inerts, H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4} and higher order of hydrocarbons) of different quantities. Calculations of heating value and Wobbe number have been done. Dew point temperatures have been estimated by using three different programs. Flammability limits, laminar flame speed and auto ignition temperatures have been calculated by using a kinetic and chemical program developed by Mauss. Flammability limits have been compared with Le Chatelier's law and measurements. Problems related to combustion such as flash back, lift off and instability are closely connected with flame speed and flow patterns. These problems are discussed in terms of laminar flame speed and Reynolds' number. The main results of this study were: Auto ignition temperature for gas mixtures behavior is very complex and unpredictable. In general small quantities of hydrogen decrease the temperature of auto ignition. The calculations of flammability limits by the kinetic and chemical software showed good agreement to measurements. Low Btu gases requires large flow area in order to avoid large pressure drop.

  19. The use of gaseous fuels mixtures for SI engines propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flekiewicz, M.; Kubica, G.

    2016-09-01

    Paper presents results of SI engine tests, carried on for different gaseous fuels. Carried out analysis made it possible to define correlation between fuel composition and engine operating parameters. Tests covered various gaseous mixtures: of methane and hydrogen and LPG with DME featuring different shares. The first group, considered as low carbon content fuels can be characterized by low CO2 emissions. Flammability of hydrogen added in those mixtures realizes the function of combustion process activator. That is why hydrogen addition improves the energy conversion by about 3%. The second group of fuels is constituted by LPG and DME mixtures. DME mixes perfectly with LPG, and differently than in case of other hydrocarbon fuels consists also of oxygen makes the stoichiometric mixture less oxygen demanding. In case of this fuel an improvement in engine volumetric and overall engine efficiency has been noticed, when compared to LPG. For the 11% DME share in the mixture an improvement of 2% in the efficiency has been noticed. During the tests standard CNG/LPG feeding systems have been used, what underlines utility value of the research. The stand tests results have been followed by combustion process simulation including exhaust forming and charge exchange.

  20. Methane Recovery from Gaseous Mixtures Using Carbonaceous Adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczek, Bronisław

    2016-06-01

    Methane recovery from gaseous mixtures has both economical and ecological aspect. Methane from different waste gases like mine gases, nitrogenated natural gases and biogases can be treated as local source for production electric and heat energy. Also occurs the problem of atmosphere pollution with methane that shows over 20 times more harmful environmental effect in comparison to carbon dioxide. One of the ways utilisation such gases is enrichment of methane in the PSA technique, which requires appropriate adsorbents. Active carbons and carbon molecular sieve produced by industry and obtained in laboratory scale were examined as adsorbent for methane recuperation. Porous structure of adsorbents was investigated using densimetry measurements and adsorption of argon at 77.5K. On the basis of adsorption data, the Dubinin-Radushkevich equation parameters, micropore volume (Wo) and characteristics of energy adsorption (Eo) as well as area micropores (Smi) and BET area (SBET) were determined. The usability of adsorbents in enrichment of the methane was evaluated in the test, which simulate the basic stages of PSA process: a) adsorbent degassing, b) pressure raise in column by feed gas, c) cocurrent desorption with analysis of out flowing gas. The composition of gas phase was accepted as the criterion of the suitability of adsorbent for methane separation from gaseous mixtures. The relationship between methane recovery from gas mixture and texture parameters of adsorbents was found.

  1. Low energy consumption method for separating gaseous mixtures and in particular for medium purity oxygen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jujasz, Albert J.; Burkhart, James A.; Greenberg, Ralph

    1988-01-01

    A method for the separation of gaseous mixtures such as air and for producing medium purity oxygen, comprising compressing the gaseous mixture in a first compressor to about 3.9-4.1 atmospheres pressure, passing said compressed gaseous mixture in heat exchange relationship with sub-ambient temperature gaseous nitrogen, dividing the cooled, pressurized gaseous mixture into first and second streams, introducing the first stream into the high pressure chamber of a double rectification column, separating the gaseous mixture in the rectification column into a liquid oxygen-enriched stream and a gaseous nitrogen stream and supplying the gaseous nitrogen stream for cooling the compressed gaseous mixture, removing the liquid oxygen-enriched stream from the low pressure chamber of the rectification column and pumping the liquid, oxygen-enriched steam to a predetermined pressure, cooling the second stream, condensing the cooled second stream and evaporating the oxygen-enriched stream in an evaporator-condenser, delivering the condensed second stream to the high pressure chamber of the rectification column, and heating the oxygen-enriched stream and blending the oxygen-enriched stream with a compressed blend-air stream to the desired oxygen concentration.

  2. The ALICE forward multiplicity detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Christensen, Christian; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan; Sogaard, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) is a silicon strip detector with 51,200 strips arranged in 5 rings, covering the range $-3.4......The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) is a silicon strip detector with 51,200 strips arranged in 5 rings, covering the range $-3.4...

  3. Detectors for scanning video imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Robert H.; Hughes, George W.

    1993-11-01

    In scanning video imagers, a single detector sees each pixel for only 100 ns, so the bandwidth of the detector needs to be about 10 MHz. How this fact influences the choice of detectors for scanning systems is described here. Some important parametric quantities obtained from manufacturer specifications are related and it is shown how to compare detectors when specified quantities differ.

  4. Detectors and flux instrumentation for future neutrino facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, T.; Andreopoulos, C.; Ankowski, A.; Badertscher, A.; Battistoni, G.; Blondel, A.; Bouchez, J.; Bross, A.; Bueno, A.; Camilleri, L.; Campagne, Jean-Eric; Cazes, A.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; De Lellis, G.; Di Capua, F.; Ellis, Malcolm; Ereditato, A.; Esposito, L.S.; Fukushima, C.; Gschwendtner, E.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J.; Iwasaki, M.; Kaneyuki, K.; Karadzhov, Y.; Kashikhin, V.; Kawai, Y.; Komatsu, M.; Kozlovskaya, E.; Kudenko, Y.; Kusaka, A.; Kyushima, H.; Longhin, A.; Marchionni, A.; Marotta, A.; McGrew, C.; Menary, S.; Meregaglia, A.; Mezzeto, M.; Migliozzi, P.; Mondal, N.K.; Montanari, C.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakamura, M.; Nakumo, H.; Nakayama, H.; Nelson, J.; Nowak, J.; Ogawa, S.; Peltoniemi, J.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Ragazzi, S.; Rubbia, A.; Sanchez, F.; Sarkamo, J.; Sato, O.; Selvi, M.; Shibuya, H.; Shozawa, M.; Sobczyk, J.; Soler, F.J.P.; Strolin, Paolo Emilio; Suyama, M.; Tanak, M.; Terranova, F.; Tsenov, R.; Uchida, Y.; Weber, A.; Zlobin, A.

    2009-01-01

    This report summarises the conclusions from the detector group of the International Scoping Study of a future Neutrino Factory and Super-Beam neutrino facility. The baseline detector options for each possible neutrino beam are defined as follows: 1. A very massive (Megaton) water Cherenkov detector is the baseline option for a sub-GeV Beta Beam and Super Beam facility. 2. There are a number of possibilities for either a Beta Beam or Super Beam (SB) medium energy facility between 1-5 GeV. These include a totally active scintillating detector (TASD), a liquid argon TPC or a water Cherenkov detector. 3. A 100 kton magnetized iron neutrino detector (MIND) is the baseline to detect the wrong sign muon final states (golden channel) at a high energy (20-50 GeV) neutrino factory from muon decay. A 10 kton hybrid neutrino magnetic emulsion cloud chamber detector for wrong sign tau detection (silver channel) is a possible complement to MIND, if one needs to resolve degeneracies that appear in the $\\delta$-$\\theta_{13}$...

  5. New prototype scintillator detector for the Tibet ASγ experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Gou, Q.-B.; Cai, H.; Chen, T.-L.; Danzengluobu; Feng, C.-F.; Feng, Y.-L.; Feng, Z.-Y.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X.-J.; Guo, Y.-Q.; Guo, Y.-Y.; Hou, Y.-Y.; Hu, H.-B.; Jin, C.; Li, H.-J.; Liu, C.; Liu, M.-Y.; Qian, X.-L.; Tian, Z.; Wang, Z.; Xue, L.; Zhang, X.-Y.; Zhang, Xi-Ying

    2017-11-01

    The hybrid Tibet AS array was successfully constructed in 2014. It has 4500 m2 underground water Cherenkov pools used as the muon detector (MD) and 789 scintillator detectors covering 36900 m2 as the surface array. At 100 TeV, cosmic-ray background events can be rejected by approximately 99.99%, according to the full Monte Carlo (MC) simulation for γ-ray observations. In order to use the muon detector efficiently, we propose to extend the surface array area to 72900 m2 by adding 120 scintillator detectors around the current array to increase the effective detection area. A new prototype scintillator detector is developed via optimizing the detector geometry and its optical surface, by selecting the reflective material and adopting dynode readout. {This detector can meet our physics requirements with a positional non-uniformity of the output charge within 10% (with reference to the center of the scintillator), time resolution FWHM of ~2.2 ns, and dynamic range from 1 to 500 minimum ionization particles}.

  6. Detectors on the drawing board

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Linear collider detector developers inside and outside CERN are tackling the next generation of detector technology. While their focus has centred on high-energy linear collider detectors, their innovative concepts and designs will be applicable to any future detector.   A simulated event display in one of the new generation detectors. “While the LHC experiments remain the pinnacle of detector technology, you may be surprised to realise that the design and expertise behind them is well over 10 years old,” says Lucie Linssen, CERN’s Linear Collider Detector (LCD) project manager whose group is pushing the envelope of detector design. “The next generation of detectors will have to surpass the achievements of the LHC experiments. It’s not an easy task but, by observing detectors currently in operation and exploiting a decade’s worth of technological advancements, we’ve made meaningful progress.” The LCD team is curr...

  7. Progress in the development of a S RETGEM-based detector for an early forest fire warning system

    CERN Document Server

    Charpak, Georges; Breuil, P; Martinengo, P; Nappi, E; Peskov, V

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a prototype of a Strip Resistive Thick GEM photosensitive gaseous detector filled with Ne and ethylferrocene vapours at a total pressure of 1 atm for an early forest fire detection system. Tests show that it is one hundred times more sensitive than the best commercial ultraviolet flame detectors and therefore, it is able to reliably detect a flame of 1.5x1.5x1.5 m3 at a distance of about 1km. An additional and unique feature of this detector is its imaging capability, which in combination with other techniques, may significantly reduce false fire alarms when operating in an automatic mode. Preliminary results conducted with air filled photosensitive gaseous detectors are also presented. The approach main advantages include both the simplicity of manufacturing and affordability of construction materials such as plastics and glues specifically reducing detector production cost. The sensitivity of these air filled detectors at certain conditions may be as high as those filled with Ne and...

  8. Hybrid composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available conventional glass reinforced plastics with biocomposites that exhibit structural and functional stability during storage and use and yet are susceptible to environmental degradation upon disposal. An interesting approach in fabricating biocomposites... natural fibre / biofibre in a matrix. Hybridization with glass fibre provides a method to improve the mechanical properties of natural fibre composites and its effect in different modes of stress depends on the design and construction of the composites...

  9. High rate behavior and discharge limits in micro-pattern detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bressan, A; Pagano, P; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Biagi, S F; Buzulutskov, A F; Gruwé, M; De Lentdecker, G; Mörmann, D; Sharma, A

    1999-01-01

    We present and discuss a set of systematic measurements, carried out with gaseous proportional micro-pattern detectors, in order to assess their maximum gain when irradiated with high-rate soft X-rays and heavily ionizing alpha particles. The inventory of detectors tested includes: micro-strip micromegas, micro-dot, gas electron multiplier, CAT (compteur à trous), trench (or groove), micro-CAT (or WELL) detectors, as well as systems with two elements of gaseous amplification in cascade. We confirm the general trend of all single-stage detectors to follow Raether's criterion, i.e. a spontaneous transition from avalanche to streamer, followed by a discharge, when the avalanche size reaches a value of a few 10 7 ; a noticeable exception is the micro-dot counter holding more than 10 8. In multiple structures, where the gain under irradiation is increased by at least one order of magnitude; we speculate this to be a consequence of a voltage dependence of Raether's limit, larger for low operating potentials. Our c...

  10. Direct electrical arc ignition of hybrid rocket motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, Michael I., Jr.

    Hybrid rockets motors provide distinct safety advantages when compared to traditional liquid or solid propellant systems, due to the inherent stability and relative inertness of the propellants prior to established combustion. As a result of this inherent propellant stability, hybrid motors have historically proven difficult to ignite. State of the art hybrid igniter designs continue to require solid or liquid reactants distinct from the main propellants. These ignition methods however, reintroduce to the hybrid propulsion system the safety and complexity disadvantages associated with traditional liquid or solid propellants. The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of a novel direct electrostatic arc ignition method for hybrid motors. A series of small prototype stand-alone thrusters demonstrating this technology were successfully designed and tested using Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) plastic and Gaseous Oxygen (GOX) as propellants. Measurements of input voltage and current demonstrated that arc-ignition will occur using as little as 10 watts peak power and less than 5 joules total energy. The motor developed for the stand-alone small thruster was adapted as a gas generator to ignite a medium-scale hybrid rocket motor using nitrous oxide /and HTPB as propellants. Multiple consecutive ignitions were performed. A large data set as well as a collection of development `lessons learned' were compiled to guide future development and research. Since the completion of this original groundwork research, the concept has been developed into a reliable, operational igniter system for a 75mm hybrid motor using both gaseous oxygen and liquid nitrous oxide as oxidizers. A development map of the direct spark ignition concept is presented showing the flow of key lessons learned between this original work and later follow on development.

  11. A review of design considerations for the sensor matrix in semiconductor pixel detectors for tracking in particle physics experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, Sally E-mail: seidel@glueball.phys.unm.edu

    2001-06-11

    Methods have been developed to improve the reliability of silicon sensors, in particular for pixel detectors, and their resistance to radiation damage, as it is encountered in tracking detectors in particle physics experiments. The choice of wafer material, the processing techniques, and the sensor layout are discussed. Alternative semiconductor substrates and variations on the planar hybrid design are mentioned.

  12. ATLAS muon detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Muon detectors from the outer layer of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. Over a million individual detectors combine to make up the outer layer of ATLAS. All of this is exclusively to track the muons, the only detectable particles to make it out so far from the collision point. How the muon’s path curves in the magnetic field depends on how fast it is travelling. A fast muon curves only a very little, a slower one curves a lot. Together with the calorimeters, the muon detectors play an essential role in deciding which collisions to store and which to ignore. Certain signals from muons are a sure sign of exciting discoveries. To make sure the data from these collisions is not lost, some of the muon detectors react very quickly and trigger the electronics to record. The other detectors take a little longer, but are much more precise. Their job is to measure exactly where the muons have passed, calculating the curvature of their tracks in the magnetic field to the nearest five hundredths of a ...

  13. Detectors in Extreme Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaj, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Carini, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Carron, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Haller, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hart, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hasi, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Herrmann, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kenney, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Segal, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tomada, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-08-06

    Free Electron Lasers opened a new window on imaging the motion of atoms and molecules. At SLAC, FEL experiments are performed at LCLS using 120Hz pulses with 1012 - 1013 photons in 10 femtoseconds (billions of times brighter than the most powerful synchrotrons). This extreme detection environment raises unique challenges, from obvious to surprising. Radiation damage is a constant threat due to accidental exposure to insufficiently attenuated beam, focused beam and formation of ice crystals reflecting the beam onto the detector. Often high power optical lasers are also used (e.g., 25TW), increasing the risk of damage or impeding data acquisition through electromagnetic pulses (EMP). The sample can contaminate the detector surface or even produce shrapnel damage. Some experiments require ultra high vacuum (UHV) with strict design, surface contamination and cooling requirements - also for detectors. The setup is often changed between or during experiments with short turnaround times, risking mechanical and ESD damage, requiring work planning, training of operators and sometimes continuous participation of the LCLS Detector Group in the experiments. The detectors used most often at LCLS are CSPAD cameras for hard x-rays and pnCCDs for soft x-rays.

  14. Operating Instructions for the Cryogenics in the Liquid Argon Detector at CIEMAT; Operacion de la Criogenia del Detector de Argon Liquido del CIEMAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, L.; Leal, M. D.; Prado, M. del; Ramirez, J. L.

    2009-12-19

    Ciemat has wide experience in designing and developing gaseous particle detectors. It has taken part in the building of experiments for CERN accelerators, constructing shares of the muon chambers for L3 experiment in LEP and CMS experiment in LHC. Recently, new concepts for particle detectors have been developed, as a natural evolution from the ones built at Ciemat. These new radiation detectors use liquefied noble gases as active media. A testing system for these kind of liquefied argon detectors has been built at Ciemat, and includes a supporting cryogenic system for the liquefaction and maintenance of the liquid argon needed for operating the detector. This document describes the technical features of this cryogenic system. Besides the documentation of the cryogenic system, this technical report can be of help for the management and upgrading of the detector. As well as an introduction, the report includes the following chapters: The second one is a description of the cryogenics and gas systems. The third chapter shows the controlling electronics. The fourth chapter deals with the important topic that is security, its systems and protocols. The fifth describes the cryogenic operations possible in this equipment. The report is completed with diagrams, schemes, pictures and tables for the easier management of the setup. (Author)

  15. The AFP Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detector is one of the forward detectors of the ATLAS experiment at CERN aiming at measuring momenta and angles of diffractively scattered protons. Silicon Tracking and Time-of-Flight detectors are located inside Roman Pot stations inserted into beam pipe aperture. The AFP detector is composed of two stations on each side of the ATLAS interaction point and is under commissioning. The detector is provided with high and low voltage distribution systems. Each station has vacuum and cooling systems, movement control and all the required electronics for signal processing. Monitoring of environmental parameters, like temperature and radiation, is also available. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of the detector hardware and ensures the safe and reliable operation of the detector, assuring good data quality. Comparing with DCS systems of other detectors, the AFP DCS main challenge is to cope with the large variety of AFP equipment. This paper describes t...

  16. Purge Monitoring Technology for Gaseous Helium (GHe) Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Jonathan; Lansaw, John

    2010-01-01

    John C. Stennis Space Center provides rocket engine propulsion testing for the NASA space programs. Since the development of the Space Shuttle, every Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) has gone through acceptance testing before going to Kennedy Space Center for integration into the Space Shuttle. The SSME is a large cryogenic rocket engine that used Liquid Oxygen (LO2) and Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) as propellants. Due to the extremely cold cryogenic conditions of this environment, an inert gas, helium, is used as a purge for the engine and propellant lines since it can be used without freezing in the cryogenic environment. As NASA moves forward with the development of the new ARES V launch system, the main engines as well as the upper stage engine will use cryogenic propellants and will require gaseous helium during the development testing of each of these engines. The main engine for the ARES V will be similar in size to the SSME.

  17. Quantitative Thermochemical Measurements in High-Pressure Gaseous Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Jun J.; Fischer, David G.

    2012-01-01

    We present our strategic experiment and thermochemical analyses on combustion flow using a subframe burst gating (SBG) Raman spectroscopy. This unconventional laser diagnostic technique has promising ability to enhance accuracy of the quantitative scalar measurements in a point-wise single-shot fashion. In the presentation, we briefly describe an experimental methodology that generates transferable calibration standard for the routine implementation of the diagnostics in hydrocarbon flames. The diagnostic technology was applied to simultaneous measurements of temperature and chemical species in a swirl-stabilized turbulent flame with gaseous methane fuel at elevated pressure (17 atm). Statistical analyses of the space-/time-resolved thermochemical data provide insights into the nature of the mixing process and it impact on the subsequent combustion process in the model combustor.

  18. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant annual site environmental report for 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horak, C.M. [ed.

    1994-11-01

    This calendar year (CY) 1993 annual report on environmental monitoring of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Portsmouth) and its environs consists of three separate documents: a summary pamphlet for the general public; a more detail discussion and of compliance status, data, and environmental impacts (this document); and a volume of detailed data that is available on request. The objectives of this report are to report compliance status during 1993; provide information about the plant site and plant operations; report 1993 monitoring data for the installation and its environs that may have been affected by operations on the plant site; document information on input and assumptions used in calculations; provide trend analyses (where appropriate) to indicate increases and decreases in environmental impact, and provide general information on quality assurance for the environmental monitoring program.

  19. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant environmental report for 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, J.W. (ed.) (Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (USA))

    1990-10-01

    This two-part environmental report is published annually. It reflects the results of a comprehensive, year-round program to monitor the impact of operations at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) on the area's groundwater and surface waters, soil, air quality, vegetation, and wildlife. In addition, an assessment of the effect of PGDP effluents on the resident human population is made. PGDP's overall goal for environmental management is to protect the environment and PGDP's neighbors and to maintain full compliance with all current regulations. The current environmental strategy is to identify any deficiencies and to develop a system to resolve them. The long-range goal of environmental management is to minimize the source of pollutants, to reduce the formation of waste, and to minimize hazardous waste by substitution of materials. 36 refs.

  20. Maximal refraction and superluminal propagation in a gaseous nanolayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaveney, J; Hughes, I G; Sargsyan, A; Sarkisyan, D; Adams, C S

    2012-12-07

    We present an experimental measurement of the refractive index of high density Rb vapor in a gaseous atomic nanolayer. We use heterodyne interferometry to measure the relative phase shift between two copropagating laser beams as a function of the laser detuning and infer a peak index n=1.26±0.02, close to the theoretical maximum of 1.31. The large index has a concomitant large index gradient creating a region with steep anomalous dispersion where a subnanosecond optical pulse is advanced by >100 ps over a propagation distance of 390 nm, corresponding to a group index n(g)=-(1.0±0.1)×10(5), the largest negative group index measured to date.