WorldWideScience

Sample records for hybrid fusion technique

  1. Hybrid ultrasound imaging techniques (fusion imaging).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandulescu, Daniela Larisa; Dumitrescu, Daniela; Rogoveanu, Ion; Saftoiu, Adrian

    2011-01-07

    Visualization of tumor angiogenesis can facilitate non-invasive evaluation of tumor vascular characteristics to supplement the conventional diagnostic imaging goals of depicting tumor location, size, and morphology. Hybrid imaging techniques combine anatomic [ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)] and molecular (single photon emission CT and positron emission tomography) imaging modalities. One example is real-time virtual sonography, which combines ultrasound (grayscale, colour Doppler, or dynamic contrast harmonic imaging) with contrast-enhanced CT/MRI. The benefits of fusion imaging include an increased diagnostic confidence, direct comparison of the lesions using different imaging modalities, more precise monitoring of interventional procedures, and reduced radiation exposure.

  2. Hybrid ultrasound imaging techniques(fusion imaging)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniela Larisa Sandulescu; Daniela Dumitrescu; Ion Rogoveanu; Adrian Saftoiu

    2011-01-01

    Visualization of tumor angiogenesis can facilitate noninvasive evaluation of tumor vascular characteristics to supplement the conventional diagnostic imaging goals of depicting tumor location,size,and morphology.Hybrid imaging techniques combine anatomic [ultrasound,computed tomography(CT),and/or magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)] and molecular(single photon emission CT and positron emission tomography)imaging modalities.One example is real-time virtual sonography,which combines ultrasound(grayscale,colour Doppler,or dynamic contrast harmonic imaging)with contrast-enhanced CT/MRI.The benefits of fusion imaging include an increased diagnostic confidence,direct comparison of the lesions using different imaging modalities,more precise monitoring of interventional procedures,and reduced radiation exposure.

  3. Fusion techniques for hybrid ground-penetrating radar: electromagnetic induction landmine detection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffin, Matt; Mohamed, Magdi A.; Etebari, Ali; Hibbard, Mark

    2010-04-01

    Hybrid ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensors have advanced landmine detection far beyond the capabilities of a single sensing modality. Both probability of detection (PD) and false alarm rate (FAR) are impacted by the algorithms utilized by each sensing mode and the manner in which the information is fused. Algorithm development and fusion will be discussed, with an aim at achieving a threshold probability of detection (PD) of 0.98 with a low false alarm rate (FAR) of less than 1 false alarm per 2 square meters. Stochastic evaluation of prescreeners and classifiers is presented with subdivisions determined based on mine type, metal content, and depth. Training and testing of an optimal prescreener on lanes that contain mostly low metal anti-personnel mines is presented. Several fusion operators for pre-screeners and classifiers, including confidence map multiplication, will be investigated and discussed for integration into the algorithm architecture.

  4. Assessment of fusion facility dose rate map using mesh adaptivity enhancements of hybrid Monte Carlo/deterministic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Ahmad M., E-mail: ibrahimam@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Wilson, Paul P. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Dr., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Sawan, Mohamed E., E-mail: sawan@engr.wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Dr., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Mosher, Scott W.; Peplow, Douglas E.; Grove, Robert E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: •Calculate the prompt dose rate everywhere throughout the entire fusion energy facility. •Utilize FW-CADIS to accurately perform difficult neutronics calculations for fusion energy systems. •Develop three mesh adaptivity algorithms to enhance FW-CADIS efficiency in fusion-neutronics calculations. -- Abstract: Three mesh adaptivity algorithms were developed to facilitate and expedite the use of the CADIS and FW-CADIS hybrid Monte Carlo/deterministic techniques in accurate full-scale neutronics simulations of fusion energy systems with immense sizes and complicated geometries. First, a macromaterial approach enhances the fidelity of the deterministic models without changing the mesh. Second, a deterministic mesh refinement algorithm generates meshes that capture as much geometric detail as possible without exceeding a specified maximum number of mesh elements. Finally, a weight window coarsening algorithm decouples the weight window mesh and energy bins from the mesh and energy group structure of the deterministic calculations in order to remove the memory constraint of the weight window map from the deterministic mesh resolution. The three algorithms were used to enhance an FW-CADIS calculation of the prompt dose rate throughout the ITER experimental facility and resulted in a 23.3% increase in the number of mesh tally elements in which the dose rates were calculated in a 10-day Monte Carlo calculation. Additionally, because of the significant increase in the efficiency of FW-CADIS simulations, the three algorithms enabled this difficult calculation to be accurately solved on a regular computer cluster, eliminating the need for a world-class super computer.

  5. Cervical anterior hybrid technique with bi-level Bryan artificial disc replacement and adjacent segment fusion for cervical myelopathy over three consecutive segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiang; Xu, Lin; Jia, Yu-Song; Sun, Qi; Li, Jin-Yu; Zheng, Chen-Ying; Bai, Chun-Xiao; Yu, Qin-Sheng

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the preliminary clinical efficacy and feasibility of the hybrid technique for multilevel cervical myelopathy. Considering the many shortcomings of traditional treatment methods for multilevel cervical degenerative myelopathy, hybrid surgery (bi-level Bryan artificial disc [Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Memphis, TN, USA] replacement and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion) should be considered. Between March 2006 and November 2012, 108 patients (68 men and 40 women, average age 45years) underwent hybrid surgery. Based on the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score, Neck Disability Index (NDI), and Odom's criteria, the clinical symptoms and neurological function before and after surgery were evaluated. Mean surgery duration was 90minutes, with average blood loss of 30mL. Mean follow-up duration was 36months. At the final follow-up, the mean JOA (± standard deviation) scores were significantly higher compared with preoperative values (15.08±1.47 versus 9.18±1.22; P<0.01); meanwhile, NDI values were markedly decreased (12.32±1.03 versus 42.68±1.83; P<0.01). Using Odom's criteria, the clinical outcomes were rated as excellent (76 patients), good (22 patients), fair (six patients), and poor (four patients). These findings indicate that the hybrid method provides an effective treatment for cervical myelopathy over three consecutive segments, ensuring a good clinical outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fission Fusion Hybrids: a nearer term application of Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotschenreuther, M.; Valanju, P.; Mahajan, S.; Covele, B.

    2011-10-01

    Fission-fusion hybrids enjoy unique advantages for addressing long standing societal acceptability issues of nuclear fission power at a much lower level of technical development than a competitive fusion power plant. For waste incineration, hybrids burn intransigent transuranic residues (with the long lived biohazard) from light water reactors (LWRs). The number of hybrids needed is 5-10 times less than the corresponding number of fast reactors (FRs). The highly sub-critical hybrids, with a thermal/epithermal spectrum, incinerate > 95% of the waste in decades rather than the centuries needed for FRs. For fuel production, hybrids can produce fuel for 3-4 times as many LWRs with no fuel reprocessing. Thorium fuel rods exposed to neutrons in the hybrid reach fissile concentrations that enable efficient burning in LWR without the proliferation risks of reprocessing. The proliferation risks of this method are far less than other fuel breeding approaches, including today's gas centrifuge. With this cycle, US Thorium reserves could supply the entire US electricity supply for centuries. The centerpiece of the fuel cycle is a high power density Compact Fusion Neutron Source (major+minor radius ~ 2.5-3.5 m), which is made feasible by the super-X divertor.

  7. Hybrid Fusion for Biometrics: Combining Score-level and Decision-level Fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tao, Q.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2008-01-01

    A general framework of fusion at decision level, which works on ROCs instead of matching scores, is investigated. Under this framework, we further propose a hybrid fusion method, which combines the score-level and decision-level fusions, taking advantage of both fusion modes. The hybrid fusion

  8. Image fusion theories, techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, HB

    2010-01-01

    This text provides a comprehensive introduction to the theories, techniques and applications of image fusion. It examines in detail many real-life examples of image fusion, including panchromatic sharpening and ensemble color image segmentation.

  9. Lower Hybrid antennas for nuclear fusion experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Hillairet, Julien; Bae, Young-Soon; Bai, X; Balorin, C; Baranov, Y; Basiuk, V; Bécoulet, A; Belo, J; Berger-By, G; Brémond, S; Castaldo, C; Ceccuzzi, S; Cesario, R; Corbel, E; Courtois, X; Decker, J; Delmas, E; Delpech, L; Ding, X; Douai, D; Ekedahl, A; Goletto, C; Goniche, M; Guilhem, D; Hertout, P; Imbeaux, F; Litaudon, X; Magne, R; Mailloux, J; Mazon, D; Mirizzi, F; Mollard, P; Moreau, P; Oosako, T; Petrzilka, V; Peysson, Y; Poli, S; Preynas, M; Prou, M; Saint-Laurent, F; Samaille, F; Saoutic, B

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear fusion research goal is to demonstrate the feasibility of fusion power for peaceful purposes. In order to achieve the conditions similar to those expected in an electricity-generating fusion power plant, plasmas with a temperature of several hundreds of millions of degrees must be generated and sustained for long periods. For this purpose, RF antennas delivering multi-megawatts of power to magnetized confined plasma are commonly used in experimental tokamaks. In the gigahertz range of frequencies, high power phased arrays known as "Lower Hybrid" (LH) antennas are used to extend the plasma duration. This paper reviews some of the technological aspects of the LH antennas used in the Tore Supra tokamak and presents the current design of a proposed 20 MW LH system for the international experiment ITER.

  10. Axisymmetric Magnetic Mirror Fusion-Fission Hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Martovetsky, N. N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Molvik, A. W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ryutov, D. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Simonen, T. C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-05-13

    The achieved performance of the gas dynamic trap version of magnetic mirrors and today’s technology we believe are sufficient with modest further efforts for a neutron source for material testing (Q=Pfusion/Pinput~0.1). The performance needed for commercial power production requires considerable further advances to achieve the necessary high Q>>10. An early application of the mirror, requiring intermediate performance and intermediate values of Q~1 are the hybrid applications. The Axisymmetric Mirror has a number of attractive features as a driver for a fusion-fission hybrid system: geometrical simplicity, inherently steady-state operation, and the presence of the natural divertors in the form of end tanks. This level of physics performance has the virtue of low risk and only modest R&D needed and its simplicity promises economy advantages. Operation at Q~1 allows for relatively low electron temperatures, in the range of 4 keV, for the DT injection energy ~ 80 keV. A simple mirror with the plasma diameter of 1 m and mirror-to-mirror length of 35 m is discussed. Simple circular superconducting coils are based on today’s technology. The positive ion neutral beams are similar to existing units but designed for steady state. A brief qualitative discussion of three groups of physics issues is presented: axial heat loss, MHD stability in the axisymmetric geometry, microstability of sloshing ions. Burning fission reactor wastes by fissioning actinides (transuranics: Pu, Np, Am, Cm, .. or just minor actinides: Np, Am, Cm, …) in the hybrid will multiply fusion’s energy by a factor of ~10 or more and diminish the Q needed to less than 1 to overcome the cost of recirculating power for good economics. The economic value of destroying actinides by fissioning is rather low based on either the cost of long-term storage or even deep geologic disposal so most of the revenues of hybrids will come from electrical power. Hybrids that obtain revenues from

  11. Surgical techniques for lumbo-sacral fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropiano, P; Giorgi, H; Faure, A; Blondel, B

    2017-02-01

    Lumbo-sacral (L5-S1) fusion is a widely performed procedure that has become the reference standard treatment for refractory low back pain. L5-S1 is a complex transition zone between the mobile lordotic distal lumbar spine and the fixed sacral region. The goal is to immobilise the lumbo-sacral junction in order to relieve pain originating from this site. Apart from achieving inter-vertebral fusion, the main challenge lies in the preoperative determination of the fixed L5-S1 position that will be optimal for the patient. Many lumbo-sacral fusion techniques are available. Stabilisation can be achieved using various methods. An anterior, posterior, or combined approach may be used. Recently developed minimally invasive techniques are gaining in popularity based on their good clinical outcomes and high fusion rates. The objective of this conference is to resolve the main issues faced by spinal surgeons in their everyday practice.

  12. Optimization of the fission--fusion hybrid concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saltmarsh, M.J.; Grimes, W.R.; Santoro, R.T.

    1979-04-01

    One of the potentially attractive applications of controlled thermonuclear fusion is the fission--fusion hybrid concept. In this report we examine the possible role of the hybrid as a fissile fuel producer. We parameterize the advantages of the concept in terms of the performance of the fusion device and the breeding blanket and discuss some of the more troublesome features of existing design studies. The analysis suggests that hybrids based on deuterium--tritium (D--T) fusion devices are unlikely to be economically attractive and that they present formidable blanket technology problems. We suggest an alternative approach based on a semicatalyzed deuterium--deuterium (D--D) fusion reactor and a molten salt blanket. This concept is shown to emphasize the desirable features of the hybrid, to have considerably greater economic potential, and to mitigate many of the disadvantages of D--T-based systems.

  13. Hybrid manufacturing processes for fusion welding and friction stir welding of aerospace grade aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegesky, Megan Alexandra

    Friction stir welding and processing can provide for joints in aerospace grade aluminum alloys that have preferable material properties as compared to fusion welding techniques. Aerospace grade aluminum alloys such as AA2024-T3 and AA7075-T6 are considered non-weldable by traditional fusion welding techniques. Improved mechanical properties over previously used techniques are usually preferable for aerospace applications. Therefore, by combining traditional fusion welding and friction stir processing techniques, it could be plausible to create more difficult geometries in manufactured parts instead of using traditional techniques. While this combination of fusion welding and friction stir processing is not a new technology, its introduction to aerospace grade aluminum alloys as well as non-weldable alloys, is new. This is brought about by a lowered required clamping force required by adding a fusion weld before a friction stir processing technique. The changes in properties associated with joining techniques include: microstructural changes, changes in hardness, tensile strength, and corrosion resistance. This thesis illustrates these changes for the non-weldable AA2024-T351 and AA7075-T651 as well as the weldable alloy AA5052-H32. The microhardness, tensile strength and corrosion resistance of the four processing states: base material, fusion welded material, friction stir welded material, and friction stir processed fusion welded material is studied. The plausibility of this hybrid process for the three different materials is characterized, as well as plausible applications for this joining technique.

  14. Lineage development of cell fusion hybrids upon somatic reprogramming

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Tese de mestrado. Biologia (Biologia Molecular e Genética). Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2011 Somatic cell reprogramming has been extensively studied over the last years and opened new perspectives in the use of pluripotent cells for regenerative biomedical purposes. Spontaneous cell fusion has been suggested to be involved in regenerative processes in vivo. Strong evidences support the hypothesis that the reprogrammed hybrids resulting from the fusion between a pluripote...

  15. Multisensor image fusion techniques in remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Manfred

    Current and future remote sensing programs such as Landsat, SPOT, MOS, ERS, JERS, and the space platform's Earth Observing System (Eos) are based on a variety of imaging sensors that will provide timely and repetitive multisensor earth observation data on a global scale. Visible, infrared and microwave images of high spatial and spectral resolution will eventually be available for all parts of the earth. It is essential that efficient processing techniques be developed to cope with the large multisensor data volumes. This paper discusses data fusion techniques that have proved successful for synergistic merging of SPOT HRV, Landsat TM and SIR-B images. It is demonstrated that these techniques can be used to improve rectification accuracies, to depicit greater cartographic detail, and to enhance spatial resolution in multisensor image data sets.

  16. Image fusion techniques in permanent seed implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Polo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last twenty years major software and hardware developments in brachytherapy treatment planning, intraoperative navigation and dose delivery have been made. Image-guided brachytherapy has emerged as the ultimate conformal radiation therapy, allowing precise dose deposition on small volumes under direct image visualization. In thisprocess imaging plays a central role and novel imaging techniques are being developed (PET, MRI-MRS and power Doppler US imaging are among them, creating a new paradigm (dose-guided brachytherapy, where imaging is used to map the exact coordinates of the tumour cells, and to guide applicator insertion to the correct position. Each of these modalities has limitations providing all of the physical and geometric information required for the brachytherapy workflow.Therefore, image fusion can be used as a solution in order to take full advantage of the information from each modality in treatment planning, intraoperative navigation, dose delivery, verification and follow-up of interstitial irradiation.Image fusion, understood as the visualization of any morphological volume (i.e. US, CT, MRI together with an additional second morpholo gical volume (i.e. CT, MRI or functional dataset (functional MRI, SPECT, PET, is a well known method for treatment planning, verification and follow-up of interstitial irradiation. The term image fusion is used when multiple patient image datasets are registered and overlaid or merged to provide additional information. Fused images may be created from multiple images from the same imaging modality taken at different moments (multi-temporalapproach, or by combining information from multiple modalities. Quality means that the fused images should provide additional information to the brachythe rapy process (diagnosis and staging, treatment planning, intraoperative imaging, treatment delivery and follow-up that cannot be obtained in other ways. In this review I will focus on the role of

  17. Laser Intertial Fusion Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Kevin James [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-04-08

    This study investigates the neutronics design aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission energy system called the Laser Fusion-Fission Hybrid (LFFH). A LFFH combines current Laser Inertial Confinement fusion technology with that of advanced fission reactor technology to produce a system that eliminates many of the negative aspects of pure fusion or pure fission systems. When examining the LFFH energy mission, a significant portion of the United States and world energy production could be supplied by LFFH plants. The LFFH engine described utilizes a central fusion chamber surrounded by multiple layers of multiplying and moderating media. These layers, or blankets, include coolant plenums, a beryllium (Be) multiplier layer, a fertile fission blanket and a graphite-pebble reflector. Each layer is separated by perforated oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel walls. The central fusion chamber is surrounded by an ODS ferritic steel first wall. The first wall is coated with 250-500 μm of tungsten to mitigate x-ray damage. The first wall is cooled by Li17Pb83 eutectic, chosen for its neutron multiplication and good heat transfer properties. The Li17Pb83 flows in a jacket around the first wall to an extraction plenum. The main coolant injection plenum is immediately behind the Li17Pb83, separated from the Li17Pb83 by a solid ODS wall. This main system coolant is the molten salt flibe (2LiF-BeF2), chosen for beneficial neutronics and heat transfer properties. The use of flibe enables both fusion fuel production (tritium) and neutron moderation and multiplication for the fission blanket. A Be pebble (1 cm diameter) multiplier layer surrounds the coolant injection plenum and the coolant flows radially through perforated walls across the bed. Outside the Be layer, a fission fuel layer comprised of depleted uranium contained in Tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles

  18. Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Kevin James

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the neutronics design aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission energy system called the Laser Fusion-Fission Hybrid (LFFH). A LFFH combines current Laser Inertial Confinement fusion technology with that of advanced fission reactor technology to produce a system that eliminates many of the negative aspects of pure fusion or pure fission systems. When examining the LFFH energy mission, a significant portion of the United States and world energy production could be supplied by ...

  19. Performance Assessment of Hybrid Data Fusion and Tracking Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand, Stephan; Mensing, Christian; Laaraiedh, Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview on the performance of hybrid data fusion and tracking algorithms evaluated in the WHERE consortium. The focus is on three scenarios. For the small scale indoor scenario with ultra wideband (UWB) complementing cellular communication systems, the accuracy can vary in...

  20. Data Fusion Technique for Multibeam Echosoundings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    On the basis of an analysis of the error sources in multibeam echosounding system,a data processing method for compensating systematic errors in multibeam survey is proposed.In order to improve the accuracy of overall swath,a data fusion technique using single beam survey data as control information for single beam and multibeam echosounding is then presented.Some questions involved in solving the adjustment problem,such as its feasibility and the numerical stability,are discussed in detail,and a two-step adjustment method is suggested.Finally,a practical survey data set is used as a case study to prove the efficiency and reliability of the proposed methods.

  1. Urban Classification Techniques Using the Fusion of LiDAR and Spectral Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    probably be made to improve final results. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Fusion, Multi-Source, Hyperspectral , Multispectral, LiDAR, Urban Classification ...Landsat Thematic Mapper for 1986, 1991, 1998, and 2002. A hybrid supervised- unsupervised classification technique was developed that clustered the...The multispectral spectral resolution is not as high as that of a hyperspectral sensor. Using hyperspectral data, finer classifications could

  2. SABR Fusion-Fission Hybrid Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Chris

    2012-03-01

    The Subcritical Advanced Burner Reactor (SABR) concept is a fast reactor comprised of a tokamak fusion neutron source based on ITER surrounded by an annular fission core adapted from Integral Fast Reactor designs. Previous work has examined SABR used to help close the nuclear fuel cycle by fissioning the transuranics from spent nuclear fuel. One focus of the present work is a SABR Breeder Reactor to achieve tritium self-sufficieny and a Pu breeding ratio significantly above 1 in order to provide fuel for SABR as well as for MOX-fueled LWR's and other fast reactors. Another focus of this research is the dynamic safety simulation of lloss-of-flow loss-of-heat-sink, loss-of-power, and positive reactivity accidents in the TRU fuel SABR burner reactor. The reactivity effect of thermal-induced bowing of fuel pins has been modeled, which is expected to provide passive safety.

  3. Fusion-Fission Hybrid for Fissile Fuel Production without Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratoni, M; Moir, R W; Kramer, K J; Latkowski, J F; Meier, W R; Powers, J J

    2012-01-02

    Two scenarios are typically envisioned for thorium fuel cycles: 'open' cycles based on irradiation of {sup 232}Th and fission of {sup 233}U in situ without reprocessing or 'closed' cycles based on irradiation of {sup 232}Th followed by reprocessing, and recycling of {sup 233}U either in situ or in critical fission reactors. This study evaluates a third option based on the possibility of breeding fissile material in a fusion-fission hybrid reactor and burning the same fuel in a critical reactor without any reprocessing or reconditioning. This fuel cycle requires the hybrid and the critical reactor to use the same fuel form. TRISO particles embedded in carbon pebbles were selected as the preferred form of fuel and an inertial laser fusion system featuring a subcritical blanket was combined with critical pebble bed reactors, either gas-cooled or liquid-salt-cooled. The hybrid reactor was modeled based on the earlier, hybrid version of the LLNL Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE1) system, whereas the critical reactors were modeled according to the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) and the Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) design. An extensive neutronic analysis was carried out for both the hybrid and the fission reactors in order to track the fuel composition at each stage of the fuel cycle and ultimately determine the plant support ratio, which has been defined as the ratio between the thermal power generated in fission reactors and the fusion power required to breed the fissile fuel burnt in these fission reactors. It was found that the maximum attainable plant support ratio for a thorium fuel cycle that employs neither enrichment nor reprocessing is about 2. This requires tuning the neutron energy towards high energy for breeding and towards thermal energy for burning. A high fuel loading in the pebbles allows a faster spectrum in the hybrid blanket; mixing dummy carbon pebbles with fuel pebbles enables a softer spectrum in

  4. Laser Intertial Fusion Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Kevin James [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-04-08

    This study investigates the neutronics design aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission energy system called the Laser Fusion-Fission Hybrid (LFFH). A LFFH combines current Laser Inertial Confinement fusion technology with that of advanced fission reactor technology to produce a system that eliminates many of the negative aspects of pure fusion or pure fission systems. When examining the LFFH energy mission, a significant portion of the United States and world energy production could be supplied by LFFH plants. The LFFH engine described utilizes a central fusion chamber surrounded by multiple layers of multiplying and moderating media. These layers, or blankets, include coolant plenums, a beryllium (Be) multiplier layer, a fertile fission blanket and a graphite-pebble reflector. Each layer is separated by perforated oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel walls. The central fusion chamber is surrounded by an ODS ferritic steel first wall. The first wall is coated with 250-500 μm of tungsten to mitigate x-ray damage. The first wall is cooled by Li17Pb83 eutectic, chosen for its neutron multiplication and good heat transfer properties. The Li17Pb83 flows in a jacket around the first wall to an extraction plenum. The main coolant injection plenum is immediately behind the Li17Pb83, separated from the Li17Pb83 by a solid ODS wall. This main system coolant is the molten salt flibe (2LiF-BeF2), chosen for beneficial neutronics and heat transfer properties. The use of flibe enables both fusion fuel production (tritium) and neutron moderation and multiplication for the fission blanket. A Be pebble (1 cm diameter) multiplier layer surrounds the coolant injection plenum and the coolant flows radially through perforated walls across the bed. Outside the Be layer, a fission fuel layer comprised of depleted uranium contained in Tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles

  5. Plant protoplast fusion and growth of intergeneric hybrid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, K N; Constabel, F; Michayluk, M R; Gamborg, O L

    1974-01-01

    Interspecific and intergeneric fusions of plant protoplasts were induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG) 1540 or 4000. The frequency of heterokaryocyte formation (or rate of fusion) was much higher when PEG was eluted with a high pH-high Ca(2+) solution or a salt solution than when it was eluted with a protoplast culture medium. The frequency of heterokaryocyte formation was also affected by the types of enzymes used for wall degradation, duration of enzyme incubation and molality of the PEG solutions.The maximum frequency of heterokaryocyte formation was 23% for V. hajastana Grossh.-soybean (Glycine max L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)-soybean, 35% for pea (Pisum sativum L.)-soybean, 20% for pea-V. hajastana, 14% for corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean and 10% for V. villosa Roth-V. hajastana.40% of the barley-soybean, corn-soybean and pea-soybean heterokaryocytes divided at least once. Some divided many times and formed clusters of up to 100 cells in 2 weeks. The heterokaryocytes of soybean-V. hajastana, V. villosa-V. hajastana also divided. Of the PEG-treated protoplasts of N. langsdorffii and N. glauca 13.5% developed into tumor-like calli. The morphology of these calli was very much like that of the tumors produced on amphidiploid plants of N. langsdorffii x glauca.Nuclear staining indicated that heterokaryocytes of V. hajastana-soybean, pea-soybean, corn-soybean and barley-soybean could undergo mitosis. Nuclear divisions in a heterokaryocyte were usually synchronized or almost synchronized. Nuclear fusion and true hybrid formation usually occurred during the first mitotic division after protoplast fusion. A hybrid of barley-soybean in third cell division was observed. The frequency of heterokaryocytes which underwent nuclear fusion has not been determined. Multipole formation and chimeral cell colonies were also observed.

  6. Research on stellarator-mirror fission-fusion hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseenko, V. E.; Kotenko, V. G.; Chernitskiy, S. V.; Nemov, V. V.; Ågren, O.; Noack, K.; Kalyuzhnyi, V. N.; Hagnestål, A.; Källne, J.; Voitsenya, V. S.; Garkusha, I. E.

    2014-09-01

    The development of a stellarator-mirror fission-fusion hybrid concept is reviewed. The hybrid comprises of a fusion neutron source and a powerful sub-critical fast fission reactor core. The aim is the transmutation of spent nuclear fuel and safe fission energy production. In its fusion part, neutrons are generated in deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasma, confined magnetically in a stellarator-type system with an embedded magnetic mirror. Based on kinetic calculations, the energy balance for such a system is analyzed. Neutron calculations have been performed with the MCNPX code, and the principal design of the reactor part is developed. Neutron outflux at different outer parts of the reactor is calculated. Numerical simulations have been performed on the structure of a magnetic field in a model of the stellarator-mirror device, and that is achieved by switching off one or two coils of toroidal field in the Uragan-2M torsatron. The calculations predict the existence of closed magnetic surfaces under certain conditions. The confinement of fast particles in such a magnetic trap is analyzed.

  7. Surgical technique, fusion rates, and planovalgus foot deformity correction with naviculocuneiform fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajis, Adam; Geary, Nicholas

    2014-03-01

    Arthrodesis of the naviculocuneiform (NC) joints is not a common procedure, as it is perceived by many to be less reliable or less predictable than arthrodesis of proximal or distal joints in the medial column. There is a subset of patients with planovalgus feet, cavovarus feet, and degenerative arthritis who also have an apex of deformity at the NC joints in whom fusion is indicated. The surgical technique, fusion rates, and deformity correction data for NC fusion in planovalgus feet are evaluated in this report. Twenty-eight patients (33 feet) who underwent surgery between October 2008 and November 2012 were identified who had NC fusion as their only arthrodesis procedure. Medical records and radiographs were reviewed, and time to union was calculated. Twenty patients from that group underwent NC fusion for symptomatic planovalgus feet, and their preoperative and last postoperative weight-bearing radiographs were reviewed and compared for deformity correction. All patients were operated on by the senior author or a senior foot and ankle trainee during fellowship using the same surgical technique, and all patients followed a standardized postoperative rehabilitation protocol. Mean time to union for all 33 NC fusions was 21.7 ± 2 weeks (mean ± SEM). One patient underwent revision for nonunion, resulting in an arthrodesis rate of 97%. For NC fusions in those with planovalgus feet, an improvement in mean lateral talus-first metatarsal angle (Meary's line) from 12.3 ± 1.3 degrees to 5.2 ± 1.2 degrees (P treatment for their condition. NC fusion was a safe and predictable procedure for any of its indications, with a fusion rate similar to that of other joints in the foot albeit with a longer time to union. For patients with symptomatic and flexible planovalgus feet, NC fusion resulted in deformity correction in multiple planes and good symptomatic relief. Level IV, retrospective case series.

  8. Application of image fusion techniques in DSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Feng; Wu, Jian; Cui, Zhiming; Xu, Jing

    2007-12-01

    Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is an important technology in both medical diagnoses and interposal therapy, which can eliminate the interferential background and give prominence to blood vessels by computer processing. After contrast material is injected into an artery or vein, a physician produces fluoroscopic images. Using these digitized images, a computer subtracts the image made with contrast material from a series of post injection images made without background information. By analyzing the characteristics of DSA medical images, this paper provides a solution of image fusion which is in allusion to the application of DSA subtraction. We fuse the images of angiogram and subtraction, in order to obtain the new image which has more data information. The image that fused by wavelet transform can display the blood vessels and background information clearly, and medical experts gave high score on the effect of it.

  9. [Non-fusion techniques for treatment of pediatric scoliosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridderbusch, K; Rupprecht, M; Kunkel, P; Stücker, R

    2013-12-01

    The primary goal of treatment in children with early onset scoliosis (EOS) is to control the deformity and to allow spinal and chest wall growth to continue and improve pulmonary function. In skeletally immature children spondylodesis leads to fusion of the instrumented segments with associated nonsymmetrical growth and pulmonary insufficiency. Non-fusion, techniques such as growing rods, vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib® (VEPTR) and staples have evolved over the past years. Each technique has its different spectrum of indications which the surgeon has to follow accurately to prevent the patient from developing complications. A new trend started by using magnetically controlled growing rods to avoid the need for anesthesia and open surgery during adaptive growth. The intention of this article is to give the reader a synopsis about the three most important non-fusion techniques based on own experience and the current literature.

  10. Regeneration of intergeneric somatic hybrids by protoplast fusion between Onobrychis viciaefolia and Medicago sativa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐子勤; 贾敬芬

    1997-01-01

    Protoplast fusion was induced between sainfoin and alfalfa by an improved polyethyleneglycol (PEG) method. The intergeneric somatic calluses were selected based on complementation of hydroxyproline-resistance of sainfoin and hormone autonomy growth of alfalfa transformation cell line. 17 somatic hybrid plantlets were regenerat-ed. PEG could induce the tight agglutination of protoplasts. During diluting and washing process, cyclization of the linked membrane and formation of vesicle-like structures were observed, resulting in protoplast fusion. 5%-10% glycerol supplemented in the fusion inducing solution markedly increased the frequency of heterogeneous fusion. Better fusion results were obtained when mixed protoplast suspension was dripped in petri dishes in which PEG solution was previously placed. Chromosome number of regenerated hybrid buds varied from 30 to 60. The genome of hybrids in-cluded the small chromosome from sainfoin and two chromosomes with two clear constrictions from alfalfa. The hybrid

  11. IMAGE ENHANCEMENT USING IMAGE FUSION AND IMAGE PROCESSING TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    Arjun Nelikanti

    2015-01-01

    Principle objective of Image enhancement is to process an image so that result is more suitable than original image for specific application. Digital image enhancement techniques provide a multitude of choices for improving the visual quality of images. Appropriate choice of such techniques is greatly influenced by the imaging modality, task at hand and viewing conditions. This paper will provide a combination of two concepts, image fusion by DWT and digital image processing techniques. The e...

  12. A hybrid localization technique for patient tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionov, Denis; Kolev, George; Bushminkin, Kirill

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays numerous technologies are employed for tracking patients and assets in hospitals or nursing homes. Each of them has advantages and drawbacks. For example, WiFi localization has relatively good accuracy but cannot be used in case of power outage or in the areas with poor WiFi coverage. Magnetometer positioning or cellular network does not have such problems but they are not as accurate as localization with WiFi. This paper describes technique that simultaneously employs different localization technologies for enhancing stability and average accuracy of localization. The proposed algorithm is based on fingerprinting method paired with data fusion and prediction algorithms for estimating the object location. The core idea of the algorithm is technology fusion using error estimation methods. For testing accuracy and performance of the algorithm testing simulation environment has been implemented. Significant accuracy improvement was showed in practical scenarios.

  13. A novel technique using hydrophilic polymers to promote axonal fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Bamba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of traumatic peripheral nerve injury remains a considerable concern for clinicians. With minimal innovations in surgical technique and a limited number of specialists trained to treat peripheral nerve injury, outcomes of surgical intervention have been unpredictable. The inability to manipulate the pathophysiology of nerve injury (i.e., Wallerian degeneration has left scientists and clinicians depending on the slow and lengthy process of axonal regeneration (~1 mm/day. When axons are severed, the endings undergo calcium-mediated plasmalemmal sealing, which limits the ability of the axon to be primarily repaired. Polythethylene glycol (PEG in combination with a bioengineered process overcomes the inability to fuse axons. The mechanism for PEG axonal fusion is not clearly understood, but multiple studies have shown that a providing a calcium-free environment is essential to the process known as PEG fusion. The proposed mechanism is PEG-induced lipid bilayer fusion by removing the hydration barrier surrounding the axolemma and reducing the activation energy required for membrane fusion to occur. This review highlights PEG fusion, its past and current studies, and future directions in PEG fusion.

  14. A novel technique using hydrophilic polymers to promote axonal fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ravinder Bamba; D Colton Riley; Nathaniel D Kelm; Mark D Does; Richard D Dortch; Wesley P hTayer

    2016-01-01

    The management of traumatic peripheral nerve injury remains a considerable concern for clinicians. With minimal innovations in surgical technique and a limited number of specialists trained to treat peripheral nerve injury, outcomes of surgical intervention have been unpredictable. The inability to manipulate the pathophysiology of nerve injury (i.e., Wallerian degeneration) has left scientists and clinicians depending on the slow and lengthy process of axonal regeneration (~1 mm/day). When axons are severed, the endings undergo calcium-mediated plasmalemmal sealing, which limits the ability of the axon to be primarily re-paired. Polythethylene glycol (PEG) in combination with a bioengineered process overcomes the inability to fuse axons. The mechanism for PEG axonal fusion is not clearly understood, but multiple studies have shown that a providing a calcium-free environment is essential to the process known as PEG fusion. The proposed mechanism is PEG-induced lipid bilayer fusion by removing the hydration barrier surrounding the axolemma and reducing the activation energy required for membrane fusion to occur. This review highlights PEG fusion, its past and current studies, and future directions in PEG fusion.

  15. Characteristics of fertile somatic hybrids of G. hirsutum L. and G. trilobum generated via protoplast fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X S; Chu, B J; Liu, R E; Sun, J; Brian, Joseph Jones; Wang, H Z; Shuijin, Zhu; Sun, Y Q

    2012-11-01

    Fertile somatic hybrids between tetraploid upland cotton G. hirsutum L. cv. Coker 312 and wild cotton G. trilobum were generated by symmetric electrofusion. Comparisons of morphology, combined with flow cytometric, RAPD, SRAP and AFLP analyses confirmed the hybrid nature of the regenerated plants. The hybrids differed morphologically from the parent plants. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the hybrids had DNA similar in amount to the total combined DNA content of the two parents, and the use of molecular markers revealed that the hybrids contained genomic fragments from both fusion parents, further indicating the hybrid nature of the regenerated plants. The stability of the morphological features of the hybrids was examined in following generations. The hexaploid fusion plants showed strong photosynthesis and a high expression level of some photosystem-related genes. Our results suggest that novel traits may be incorporated in cotton breeding programs through the production of somatic hybrids and the backcrossing of these plants with elite cultivars.

  16. Ankle fusion using a 2-incision, 3-screw technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P.M. Hendrickx; G.M.M.J. Kerkhoffs; S.A.S. Stufkens; C.N. van Dijk; R.K. Marti

    2011-01-01

    Reliable fusion and optimal correction of the alignment of the ankle joint using a 2-incision, 3-screw technique. Symptomatic osteoarthritis of the ankle joint after insufficient other treatment, severe deformity of the osteoarthritic ankle joint, or salvation procedure after failed arthroplasty. Ac

  17. Technique for Measuring Hybrid Electronic Component Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, C.C.; Hernandez, C.L.; Hosking, F.M.; Robinson, D.; Rutherford, B.; Uribe, F.

    1999-01-01

    Materials compatibility studies of aged, engineered materials and hardware are critical to understanding and predicting component reliability, particularly for systems with extended stockpile life requirements. Nondestructive testing capabilities for component reliability would significantly enhance lifetime predictions. For example, if the detection of crack propagation through a solder joint can be demonstrated, this technique could be used to develop baseline information to statistically determine solder joint lifelengths. This report will investigate high frequency signal response techniques for nondestructively evaluating the electrical behavior of thick film hybrid transmission lines.

  18. Intelligent processing techniques for sensor fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Katherine A.; Smith, Bart; Allen, Doug; Morris, Norman; Bjork, Charles A., Jr.; Deal-Giblin, Kim; Rushing, John A.

    1998-03-01

    Intelligent processing techniques which can effectively combine sensor data from disparate sensors by selecting and using only the most beneficial individual sensor data is a critical element of exoatmospheric interceptor systems. A major goal of these algorithms is to provide robust discrimination against stressing threats in poor a priori conditions, and to incorporate adaptive approaches in off- nominal conditions. This paper summarizes the intelligent processing algorithms being developed, implemented and tested to intelligently fuse data from passive infrared and active LADAR sensors at the measurement, feature and decision level. These intelligent algorithms employ dynamic selection of individual sensors features and the weighting of multiple classifier decisions to optimize performance in good a priori conditions and robustness in poor a priori conditions. Features can be dynamically selected based on an estimate of the feature confidence which is determined from feature quality and weighting terms derived from the quality of sensor data and expected phenomenology. Multiple classifiers are employed which use both fuzzy logic and knowledge based approaches to fuse the sensor data and to provide a target lethality estimate. Target designation decisions can be made by fusing weighted individual classifier decisions whose output contains an estimate of the confidence of the data and the discrimination decisions. The confidence in the data and decisions can be used in real time to dynamically select different sensor feature data or to request additional sensor data on specific objects that have not been confidently identified as being lethal or non- lethal. The algorithms are implemented in C within a graphic user interface framework. Dynamic memory allocation and the sequentialy implementation of the feature algorithms are employed. The baseline set of fused sensor discrimination algorithms with intelligent processing are described in this paper. Example results

  19. Scientific Foundations of the Demining by Fusion of Techniques Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    The Nordic Demining Research Forum (NDRF) has initiated a pilot project Demining by Fusion of Techniques (DeFuse), which will investigate the correlation between different methods used in mine action. While the ultimate purpose is to suggest new mine clearance operation practices, DeFuse will foc...... on achieving scientific and general knowledge about the coherence between different methods. This talk provides the scientific foundations for the project.......The Nordic Demining Research Forum (NDRF) has initiated a pilot project Demining by Fusion of Techniques (DeFuse), which will investigate the correlation between different methods used in mine action. While the ultimate purpose is to suggest new mine clearance operation practices, DeFuse will focus...

  20. Gabor-based fusion technique for Optical Coherence Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, Jannick P; Meemon, Panomsak; Murali, Supraja; Thompson, Kevin P; Lee, Kye-sung

    2010-02-15

    We recently reported on an Optical Coherence Microscopy technique, whose innovation intrinsically builds on a recently reported - 2 microm invariant lateral resolution by design throughout a 2 mm cubic full-field of view - liquid-lens-based dynamic focusing optical probe [Murali et al., Optics Letters 34, 145-147, 2009]. We shall report in this paper on the image acquisition enabled by this optical probe when combined with an automatic data fusion method developed and described here to produce an in-focus high resolution image throughout the imaging depth of the sample. An African frog tadpole (Xenopus laevis) was imaged with the novel probe and the Gabor-based fusion technique, demonstrating subcellular resolution in a 0.5 mm (lateral) x 0.5 mm (axial) without the need, for the first time, for x-y translation stages, depth scanning, high-cost adaptive optics, or manual intervention. In vivo images of human skin are also presented.

  1. MICROSPOROGENESIS IN 3 TETRAPLOID SOMATIC HYBRIDS OF POTATO AND THEIR DI(HA)PLOID FUSION PARTNERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PIJNACKER, LP; FERWERDA, MA; MATTHEIJ, WM

    1992-01-01

    The microsporogenesis of three somatic hybrids of potato, i.e. one tetraploid Solanum tuberosum (+) S. phureja, one tetraploid and one hypertetraploid S. tuberosum (+) desynaptic mutant, has been examined and compared with the microsporogenesis of the di(ha)ploid fusion partners. The somatic hybrids

  2. Reflectometry techniques for density profile measurements on fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laviron, C. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Donne, A.J.H. [Associatie Euratom-FOM, Nieuwegein (Netherlands). FOM-Instituut voor Plasmafysica; Manso, M.E. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal). Lab. de Quimica Organica; Sanchez, J. [EURATOM-CIEMAT for Fusion Association, Madrid (Spain)

    1996-03-01

    Reflectometry applied to the measurement of density profiles on fusion plasmas has been subject to many recent developments. After a brief reminder of the principles of reflectometry, the theoretical accuracy of reflectometry measurements is discussed. The main difficulties limiting the performance, namely the plasma fluctuations and the quality of the transmission lines, are analysed. The different techniques used for reflectometry are then presented. The present status and achievements of actual implementations of these techniques are shown, with an analysis of their respective limitations and merits, as well as foreseen developments. (author). 70 refs.

  3. Laser inertial fusion-based energy: Neutronic design aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission nuclear energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Kevin James

    This study investigates the neutronics design aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission energy system called the Laser Fusion-Fission Hybrid (LFFH). A LFFH combines current Laser Inertial Confinement fusion technology with that of advanced fission reactor technology to produce a system that eliminates many of the negative aspects of pure fusion or pure fission systems. When examining the LFFH energy mission, a significant portion of the United States and world energy production could be supplied by LFFH plants. The LFFH engine described utilizes a central fusion chamber surrounded by multiple layers of multiplying and moderating media. These layers, or blankets, include coolant plenums, a beryllium (Be) multiplier layer, a fertile fission blanket and a graphite-pebble reflector. Each layer is separated by perforated oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel walls. The central fusion chamber is surrounded by an ODS ferritic steel first wall. The first wall is coated with 250-500 mum of tungsten to mitigate x-ray damage. The first wall is cooled by Li17Pb83 eutectic, chosen for its neutron multiplication and good heat transfer properties. The Li17Pb 83 flows in a jacket around the first wall to an extraction plenum. The main coolant injection plenum is immediately behind the Li17Pb83, separated from the Li17Pb83 by a solid ODS wall. This main system coolant is the molten salt flibe (2LiF-BeF2), chosen for beneficial neutronics and heat transfer properties. The use of flibe enables both fusion fuel production (tritium) and neutron moderation and multiplication for the fission blanket. A Be pebble (1 cm diameter) multiplier layer surrounds the coolant injection plenum and the coolant flows radially through perforated walls across the bed. Outside the Be layer, a fission fuel layer comprised of depleted uranium contained in Tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles having a packing fraction of 20% in 2 cm diameter fuel pebbles. The fission blanket is cooled by

  4. Comparative Analysis of Various Image Fusion Techniques For Biomedical Images: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayera Nahvi,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Image Fusion is a process of combining the relevant information from a set of images, into a single image, wherein the resultant fused image will be more informative and complete than any of the input images. This paper discusses implementation of DWT technique on different images to make a fused image having more information content. As DWT is the latest technique for image fusion as compared to simple image fusion and pyramid based image fusion, so we are going to implement DWT as the image fusion technique in our paper. Other methods such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA based fusion, Intensity hue Saturation (IHS Transform based fusion and high pass filtering methods are also discussed. A new algorithm is proposed using Discrete Wavelet transform and different fusion techniques including pixel averaging, min-max and max-min methods for medical image fusion. KEYWORDS:

  5. Data fusion techniques for incomplete measurement of trajectory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper focuses on data processing for incomplete measurementof trajectory (IMT) in aerospace mea- surement and control. The IMT means that the principal equipment loses the measured data during some intervals so that trajectory parameters (position, velocity, etc.) cannot be determined independently. Based on a joint model for trajectory estimation with reduced parameter, a fusion way is put forth by making full use of measured data from auxiliary equipment with lower precision. In the superposition intervals of measurement between principal and auxiliary equipment, the technique of diagnosing and estimating system errors is applied to improving the estimate precision of trajectory parameters (TP) and determining the precision after data fusion. In practical test, this method operates so successfully that it can not only provide complete TP but improve their precision remarkably. Meanwhile, this way is also applicable to other problems of incomplete measurement.

  6. Fission-suppressed hybrid reactor: the fusion breeder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Coops, M.S.

    1982-12-01

    Results of a conceptual design study of a /sup 233/U-producing fusion breeder are presented. The majority of the study was devoted to conceptual design and evaluation of a fission-suppressed blanket and to fuel cycle issues such as fuel reprocessing, fuel handling, and fuel management. Studies in the areas of fusion engineering, reactor safety, and economics were also performed.

  7. HYBRID INTERNET TRAFFIC CLASSIFICATION TECHNIQUE1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jun; Zhang Shunyi; Lu Yanqing; Yan Junrong

    2009-01-01

    Accurate and real-time classification of network traffic is significant to network operation and management such as QoS differentiation, traffic shaping and security surveillance. However, with many newly emerged P2P applications using dynamic port numbers, masquerading techniques, and payload encryption to avoid detection, traditional classification approaches turn to be ineffective. In this paper, we present a layered hybrid system to classify current Internet traffic, motivated by variety of network activities and their requirements of traffic classification. The proposed method could achieve fast and accurate traffic classification with low overheads and robustness to accommodate both known and unknown/encrypted applications. Furthermore, it is feasible to be used in the context of real-time traffic classification. Our experimental results show the distinct advantages of the proposed classification system, compared with the one-step Machine Learning (ML) approach.

  8. Hybrid Image Fusion for Sharpness Enhancement of Multi-Spectral Lunar Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awumah, Anna; Mahanti, Prasun; Robinson, Mark

    2016-10-01

    Image fusion enhances the sharpness of a multi-spectral (MS) image by incorporating spatial details from a higher-resolution panchromatic (Pan) image [1,2]. Known applications of image fusion for planetary images are rare, although image fusion is well-known for its applications to Earth-based remote sensing. In a recent work [3], six different image fusion algorithms were implemented and their performances were verified with images from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Camera. The image fusion procedure obtained a high-resolution multi-spectral (HRMS) product from the LRO Narrow Angle Camera (used as Pan) and LRO Wide Angle Camera (used as MS) images. The results showed that the Intensity-Hue-Saturation (IHS) algorithm results in a high-spatial quality product while the Wavelet-based image fusion algorithm best preserves spectral quality among all the algorithms. In this work we show the results of a hybrid IHS-Wavelet image fusion algorithm when applied to LROC MS images. The hybrid method provides the best HRMS product - both in terms of spatial resolution and preservation of spectral details. Results from hybrid image fusion can enable new science and increase the science return from existing LROC images.[1] Pohl, Cle, and John L. Van Genderen. "Review article multisensor image fusion in remote sensing: concepts, methods and applications." International journal of remote sensing 19.5 (1998): 823-854.[2] Zhang, Yun. "Understanding image fusion." Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens 70.6 (2004): 657-661.[3] Mahanti, Prasun et al. "Enhancement of spatial resolution of the LROC Wide Angle Camera images." Archives, XXIII ISPRS Congress Archives (2016).

  9. The SIGN nail for knee fusion: technique and clinical results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Duane Ray

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Evaluate the efficacy of using the SIGN nail for instrumented knee fusion. Methods: Six consecutive patients (seven knees, three males with an average age of 30.5 years (range, 18–50 years underwent a knee arthrodesis with SIGN nail (mean follow-up 10.7 months; range, 8–14 months. Diagnoses included tuberculosis (two knees, congenital knee dislocation in two knees (one patient, bacterial septic arthritis (one knee, malunited spontaneous fusion (one knee, and severe gout with 90° flexion contracture (one knee. The nail was inserted through an anteromedial entry point on the femur and full weightbearing was permitted immediately. Results: All knees had clinical and radiographic evidence of fusion at final follow-up and none required further surgery. Four of six patients ambulated without assistive device, and all patients reported improved overall physical function. There were no post-operative complications. Conclusion: The technique described utilizing the SIGN nail is both safe and effective for knee arthrodesis and useful for austere environments with limited fluoroscopy and implant options.

  10. Dynamical Safety Analysis of the SABR Fusion-Fission Hybrid Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Tyler; Stacey, Weston; Ghiaassian, Seyed

    2009-11-01

    A hybrid fusion-fission reactor for the transmutation of spent nuclear fuel is being developed at Georgia Tech. The Subcritical Advanced Burner Reactor (SABR) is a 3000 MWth sodium-cooled, metal TRU-Zr fueled fast reactor driven by a tokamak fusion neutron source based on ITER physics and technology. We are investigating the accident dynamics of SABR's coupled fission, fusion and heat removal systems to explore the safety characteristics of a hybrid reactor. Possible accident scenarios such as loss of coolant mass flow (LOFA), of power (LOPA) and of heat sink (LOHSA), as well as inadvertent reactivity insertions and fusion source excursion are being analyzed using the RELAP5-3D code, the ATHENA version of which includes liquid metal coolants.

  11. A New Generic Taxonomy on Hybrid Malware Detection Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Robiah, Y; Zaki, M Mohd; Shahrin, S; Faizal, M A; Marliza, R

    2009-01-01

    Malware is a type of malicious program that replicate from host machine and propagate through network. It has been considered as one type of computer attack and intrusion that can do a variety of malicious activity on a computer. This paper addresses the current trend of malware detection techniques and identifies the significant criteria in each technique to improve malware detection in Intrusion Detection System (IDS). Several existing techniques are analyzing from 48 various researches and the capability criteria of malware detection technique have been reviewed. From the analysis, a new generic taxonomy of malware detection technique have been proposed named Hybrid Malware Detection Technique (Hybrid MDT) which consists of Hybrid Signature and Anomaly detection technique and Hybrid Specification based and Anomaly detection technique to complement the weaknesses of the existing malware detection technique in detecting known and unknown attack as well as reducing false alert before and during the intrusion ...

  12. A new technique to determine fusion barrier heights using proximity potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari Raj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a new technique to calculate fusion barrier heights of any fixed target reaction series. We calculate the barrier heights for the fusion reactions of 119Sn and 197Au targets using this technique. This technique is simple and very useful for estimating the fusion barrier heights for those reactions for which empirical values are not available. A formula is derived by performing theoretical calculations using different versions of proximity potential. Using this formula, we can predict the barrier height for the fusion reaction of any projectile with 119Sn or 197Au target using the empirical barrier height for the fusion reaction of same projectile with 62Ni target. In order to check the accuracy of this technique, the fusion parameters calculated by this new technique are compared with the fusion parameters calculated by using parameterized formulae presented in a systematic study conducted by using double folding model.

  13. SABR fusion-fission hybrid transmutation reactor design concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Weston

    2009-11-01

    A conceptual design has been developed for a sub-critical advanced burner reactor (SABR) consisting of i) a sodium cooled fast reactor fueled with the transuranics (TRU) from spent nuclear fuel, and ii) a D-T tokamak fusion neutron source based on ITER physics and technology. Subcritical operation enables more efficient transmutation fuel cycles in TRU fueled reactors (without compromising safety), which may be essential for significant reduction in high-level waste repository requirements. ITER will serve as the prototype for the fusion neutron source, which means SABRs could be implemented to help close the nuclear fuel cycle during the 2^nd quarter of the century.

  14. Numerical modelling of liquid material flow in the fusion zone of hybrid welded joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kubiak

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns modelling of liquid metal motion in the fusion zone of laser-arc hybrid butt-welded plate. Velocity field in the fusion zone and temperature field in welded plate were obtained on the basis of the solution of mass, momentum and energy conservationsequations. Differential equations were solved using Chorin’s projection method and finite volume method. Melting and solidificationprocesses were taken into account in calculations assuming fuzzy solidification front where fluid flow is treated as a flow through porous medium. Double-ellipsoidal heat source model was used to describe electric arc and laser beam heat sources. On the basis of developed solution algorithms simulation of hybrid welding process was performed and the influence of liquid metal motion in the fusion zone on the results of calculations was analyzed.

  15. Wind Speed Forecasting Using Hybrid Wavelet Transform—ARMA Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diksha Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to develop a novel wind speed forecasting technique, which produces more accurate prediction. The Wavelet Transform (WT along with the Auto Regressive Moving Average (ARMA is chosen to form a hybrid whose combination is expected to give minimum Mean Absolute Prediction Error (MAPE. A simulation study has been conducted by comparing the forecasting results using the Wavelet-ARMA with the ARMA and Artificial Neural Network (ANN-Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF hybrid technique to verify the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid method. Results of the proposed hybrid show significant improvements in the forecasting error.

  16. Single or double-level anterior interbody fusion techniques for cervical degenerative disc disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Wilco; Willems, Paul C.; van Limbeek, Jacques; Bartels, Ronald; Pavlov, Paul; Anderson, Patricia G.; Oner, Cumhur

    2011-01-01

    Background The number of surgical techniques for decompression and solid interbody fusion as treatment for cervical spondylosis has increased rapidly, but the rationale for the choice between different techniques remains unclear. Objectives To determine which technique of anterior interbody fusion g

  17. The influence of distance between heat sources in hybrid welded plate on fusion zone geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Piekarska

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Results of numerical analysis into temperature field in hybrid laser-arc welding process with motion of liquid material taken intoaccount are presented in this study. On the basis of obtained results the influence of the distance between the arc foot point and the laserbeam focal point on the shape and size of fusion zone in hybrid butt welded plate. Temperature field was calculated on the basis ofsolution of transient heat transfer equation. The solution of Navier-Stokes equation allowed for simulation of fluid flow in the fusion zone.Fuzzy solidification front was assumed in calculations with linear approximation of solid fraction in solid-liquid region where liquidmaterial flow through porous medium is taken into consideration. Numerical solution algorithms were developed for three-dimensionalproblem. Established numerical model of hybrid welding process takes into account different electric arc and laser beam heat sourcespower distributions.

  18. Fusion-Fission Research Facility (FFRF) as a Practical Step Toward Hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Zakharov, J. Li and Y. Wu

    2010-11-18

    The project of ASIPP (with PPPL participation), called FFRF, (R/a=4/1 m/m, Ipl=5 MA, Btor=4-6 T, PDT=50-100 MW, Pfission=80-4000 MW, 1 m thick blanket) is outlined. FFRF stands for the Fusion-Fission Research Facility with a unique fusion mission and a pioneering mission of merging fusion and fission for accumulation of design, experimental, and operational data for future hybrid applications. The design of FFRF will use as much as possible the EAST and ITER design experience. On the other hand, FFRF strongly relies on new, Lithium Wall Fusion plasma regimes, the development of which has already started in the US and China.

  19. Neutron transport-burnup code MCORGS and its application in fusion fission hybrid blanket conceptual research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xue-Ming; Peng, Xian-Jue

    2016-09-01

    Fusion science and technology has made progress in the last decades. However, commercialization of fusion reactors still faces challenges relating to higher fusion energy gain, irradiation-resistant material, and tritium self-sufficiency. Fusion Fission Hybrid Reactors (FFHR) can be introduced to accelerate the early application of fusion energy. Traditionally, FFHRs have been classified as either breeders or transmuters. Both need partition of plutonium from spent fuel, which will pose nuclear proliferation risks. A conceptual design of a Fusion Fission Hybrid Reactor for Energy (FFHR-E), which can make full use of natural uranium with lower nuclear proliferation risk, is presented. The fusion core parameters are similar to those of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. An alloy of natural uranium and zirconium is adopted in the fission blanket, which is cooled by light water. In order to model blanket burnup problems, a linkage code MCORGS, which couples MCNP4B and ORIGEN-S, is developed and validated through several typical benchmarks. The average blanket energy Multiplication and Tritium Breeding Ratio can be maintained at 10 and 1.15 respectively over tens of years of continuous irradiation. If simple reprocessing without separation of plutonium from uranium is adopted every few years, FFHR-E can achieve better neutronic performance. MCORGS has also been used to analyze the ultra-deep burnup model of Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) from LLNL, and a new blanket design that uses Pb instead of Be as the neutron multiplier is proposed. In addition, MCORGS has been used to simulate the fluid transmuter model of the In-Zinerater from Sandia. A brief comparison of LIFE, In-Zinerater, and FFHR-E will be given.

  20. Computed tomography-ultrasound fusion brachytherapy: description and evolution of the technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Donald B; Jin, Haoran

    2007-01-01

    In this manuscript, we describe our computed tomography (CT)-ultrasound (US) fusion prostate brachytherapy method and report the updated dosimetry result and trend. This cohort of 132 consecutive patients received CT-US fusion prostate brachytherapy from the first author (DBF) from December 2002 to August 2006. The technique consists of a hybrid preplanned and intraoperative dynamic dosimetry method, which initially delivers a standard preplanned source distribution, and then uses interval CT-based source identification dosimetry, fused to an identically spaced intraoperative US volume study series, to direct remedial sources that correct initial dosimetry deficiencies. The median and minimum prostate Day 0 prostate volume of interest receiving 100% of prescribed dose (V(100)) results in this patient cohort measured 98.26% and 92.61%, respectively, with all Day 0 prostate dose received by 90% of the volume of interest (D(90)) results exceeding 100% of the prescribed dose, and the maximum Day 0 prostate D(90) value measuring 128% of the prescribed dose. During the period of this analysis, a trend to the decreased quantity of dynamic remedial millicuries per case was identified, with the total sources decreasing from 116% to 106% of the preplanned level, resulting in minimal V(100) and D(90) decreases, while continuing to exceed the minimum Day 0 dosimetry requirements. CT-US fusion dynamic prostate brachytherapy represents a consistent prostate brachytherapy dosimetry delivery mechanism, creating a tight lower and upper bound to the final Day 0 prostate V(100) and D(90) parameters. The practice and pitfalls of this technique are discussed in detail.

  1. A New Image Fusion Technique to Improve the Quality of Remote Sensing images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboubaker Milad Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Image fusion is a process of producing a single fused image from a set of input images. In this paper a new fusion technique based on the use of independent component analysis (ICA and IHS transformation is proposed. A comparison of this new technique with PCA, IHS, and ICA-based fusion techniques is given. Quick Bird data are used to test these techniques, the output was evaluated using subjective comparison, statistical correlation, information entropy, mean square error, and standard deviation. The results of the proposed technique show higher performance compared to the other techniques.

  2. Study on fission blanket fuel cycling of a fusion-fission hybrid energy generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z.; Yang, Y.; Xu, H.

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study on neutron physics characteristics of a light water cooled fission blanket for a new type subcritical fusion-fission hybrid reactor aiming at electric power generation with low technical limits of fission fuel. The major objective is to study the fission fuel cycling performance in the blanket, which may possess significant impacts on the feasibility of the new concept of fusion-fission hybrid reactor with a high energy gain (M) and tritium breeding ratio (TBR). The COUPLE2 code developed by the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University is employed to simulate the neutronic behaviour in the blanket. COUPLE2 combines the particle transport code MCNPX with the fuel depletion code ORIGEN2. The code calculation results show that soft neutron spectrum can yield M > 20 while maintaining TBR >1.15 and the conversion ratio of fissile materials CR > 1 in a reasonably long refuelling cycle (>five years). The preliminary results also indicate that it is rather promising to design a high-performance light water cooled fission blanket of fusion-fission hybrid reactor for electric power generation by directly loading natural or depleted uranium if an ITER-scale tokamak fusion neutron source is achievable.

  3. Reference mirror hybrid fusion-fission reactor design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, D.J.; Lee, J.D.; Neef, W.S.

    1977-06-08

    The status of the reference mirror hybrid reactor design being performed by LLL and General Atomic is summarized. The reactor parameters have been chosen to minimize the cost of producing fissile fuel for consumption in fission power reactors. The design draws on the experience developed at LLL in previous hybrid reactor conceptual designs and on GA expertise in gas-cooling technology and fission reactor mechanical design. As in the past, we have emphasized the use of existing technology where possible and a minimum extrapolation of technology otherwise. We consider our projections for the plasma physics parameters to be conservative, in that they are well-founded on the experiments in 2XIIB and the interpretation of these experiments.

  4. Fusion of PET and MRI for Hybrid Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Zang-Hee; Son, Young-Don; Kim, Young-Bo; Yoo, Seung-Schik

    Recently, the development of the fusion PET-MRI system has been actively studied to meet the increasing demand for integrated molecular and anatomical imaging. MRI can provide detailed anatomical information on the brain, such as the locations of gray and white matter, blood vessels, axonal tracts with high resolution, while PET can measure molecular and genetic information, such as glucose metabolism, neurotransmitter-neuroreceptor binding and affinity, protein-protein interactions, and gene trafficking among biological tissues. State-of-the-art MRI systems, such as the 7.0 T whole-body MRI, now can visualize super-fine structures including neuronal bundles in the pons, fine blood vessels (such as lenticulostriate arteries) without invasive contrast agents, in vivo hippocampal substructures, and substantia nigra with excellent image contrast. High-resolution PET, known as High-Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT), is a brain-dedicated system capable of imaging minute changes of chemicals, such as neurotransmitters and -receptors, with high spatial resolution and sensitivity. The synergistic power of the two, i.e., ultra high-resolution anatomical information offered by a 7.0 T MRI system combined with the high-sensitivity molecular information offered by HRRT-PET, will significantly elevate the level of our current understanding of the human brain, one of the most delicate, complex, and mysterious biological organs. This chapter introduces MRI, PET, and PET-MRI fusion system, and its algorithms are discussed in detail.

  5. Lumbar lordosis restoration following single-level instrumented fusion comparing 4 commonly used techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimar, John R; Glassman, Steven D; Vemuri, Venu M; Esterberg, Justin L; Howard, Jennifer M; Carreon, Leah Y

    2011-11-09

    A major sequelae of lumbar fusion is acceleration of adjacent-level degeneration due to decreased lumbar lordosis. We evaluated the effectiveness of 4 common fusion techniques in restoring lordosis: instrumented posterolateral fusion, translumbar interbody fusion, anteroposterior fusion with posterior instrumentation, and anterior interbody fusion with lordotic threaded (LT) cages (Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Memphis, Tennessee). Radiographs were measured preoperatively, immediately postoperatively, and a minimum of 6 months postoperatively. Parameters measured included anterior and posterior disk space height, lumbar lordosis from L3 to S1, and surgical level lordosis.No significant difference in demographics existed among the 4 groups. All preoperative parameters were similar among the 4 groups. Lumbar lordosis at final follow-up showed no difference between the anteroposterior fusion with posterior instrumentation, translumbar interbody fusion, and LT cage groups, although the posterolateral fusion group showed a significant loss of lordosis (-10°) (Plordosis and showed maintenance of anterior and posterior disk space height postoperatively compared with the other groups. Instrumented posterolateral fusion produces a greater loss of lordosis compared with anteroposterior fusion with posterior instrumentation, translumbar interbody fusion, and LT cages. Maintenance of lordosis and anterior and posterior disk space height is significantly better with anterior interbody fusion with LT cages. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Polar Fusion Technique Analysis for Evaluating the Performances of Image Fusion of Thermal and Visual Images for Human Face Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Bhowmik, Mrinal Kanti; Basu, Dipak Kumar; Nasipuri, Mita

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of two different methods, which are based on fusion and polar transformation of visual and thermal images. Here, investigation is done to handle the challenges of face recognition, which include pose variations, changes in facial expression, partial occlusions, variations in illumination, rotation through different angles, change in scale etc. To overcome these obstacles we have implemented and thoroughly examined two different fusion techniques through rigorous experimentation. In the first method log-polar transformation is applied to the fused images obtained after fusion of visual and thermal images whereas in second method fusion is applied on log-polar transformed individual visual and thermal images. After this step, which is thus obtained in one form or another, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is applied to reduce dimension of the fused images. Log-polar transformed images are capable of handling complicacies introduced by scaling and rotation. The main objec...

  7. Measurement of tritium production rate distribution for a fusion-fission hybrid conceptual reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin-Hua; GUO Hai-Ping; MOU Yun-Feng; ZHENG Pu; LIU Rong; YANG Xiao-Fei; YANG Jian

    2013-01-01

    A fusion-fission hybrid conceptual reactor is established.It consists of a DT neutron source and a spherical shell of depleted uranium and hydrogen lithium.The tritium production rate (TPR) distribution in the conceptual reactor was measured by DT neutrons using two sets of lithium glass detectors with different thicknesses in the hole in the vertical direction with respect to the D+ beam of the Cockcroft-Walton neutron generator in direct current mode.The measured TPR distribution is compared with the calculated results obtained by the threedimensional Monte Carlo code MCNP5 and the ENDF/B-Ⅵ data file.The discrepancy between the measured and calculated values can be attributed to the neutron data library of the hydrogen lithium lack S(α,β) thermal scattering model,so we show that a special database of low-energy and thermal neutrons should be established in the physics design of fusion-fission hybrid reactors.

  8. Hybrid fusion reactor for production of nuclear fuel with minimum radioactive contamination of the fuel cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikhov, E. P.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Azizov, E. A.; Ignatiev, V. V.; Subbotin, S. A.; Tsibulskiy, V. F.

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the results of the system research on the coordinated development of nuclear and fusion power engineering in the current century. Considering the increasing problems of resource procurement, including limited natural uranium resources, it seems reasonable to use fusion reactors as high-power neutron sources for production of nuclear fuel in a blanket. It is shown that the share of fusion sources in this structural configuration of the energy system can be relatively small. A fundamentally important aspect of this solution to the problem of closure of the fuel cycle is that recycling of highly active spent fuel can be abandoned. Radioactivity released during the recycling of the spent fuel from the hybrid reactor blanket is at least two orders of magnitude lower than during the production of the same number of fissile isotopes after the recycling of the spent fuel from a fast reactor.

  9. Image Fusion Techniques for Multispectral Palm Image Enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Rajashree Bhokare; Deepali Sale; Dr. (Mrs. ) M. A. Joshi; Dr. M. S. Gaikwad

    2013-01-01

    We proposed the multispectral image enhancement through image fusion by combining the data from the multiple spectrum to address the problem of accuracy and make the system robust against spoofing and to improve the accuracy of recognition, using more discriminating of palm images. Palm line features are clearer in the blue and green bands while red band can reveal some palm vein structure. The NIR band can show the palm vein structure as well as partial line information. Image fusion improve...

  10. Data Fusion Modeling for an RT3102 and Dewetron System Application in Hybrid Vehicle Stability Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Miao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available More and more hybrid electric vehicles are driven since they offer such advantages as energy savings and better active safety performance. Hybrid vehicles have two or more power driving systems and frequently switch working condition, so controlling stability is very important. In this work, a two-stage Kalman algorithm method is used to fuse data in hybrid vehicle stability testing. First, the RT3102 navigation system and Dewetron system are introduced. Second, a modeling of data fusion is proposed based on the Kalman filter. Then, this modeling is simulated and tested on a sample vehicle, using Carsim and Simulink software to test the results. The results showed the merits of this modeling.

  11. [Two interspecific somatic hybrid plants regenerated via protoplast electro-fusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, W W; Deng, X X

    2000-03-01

    Protoplasts isolated from cell suspension cultures of 'Bonnaza' navel orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) were electrically fused with mesophyll protoplasts of rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush) and Goutou orange (Citrus aurantium L.) respectively. Plants regenerated from both fusion combinations. Chromosome counting of randomly selected fifty two globular embryoids as well as all the regenerated seventy four plants from Bonnaza navel + rough lemon revealed that twenty six embryoids were tetraploids, and the rest were diploids while 100% regenerated plants were tetraploids. The results inferred that somatic hybrids were more competitive than parental genotypes in the process of plant regeneration. All the regenerated 14 plants from Bonnaza navel + Goutou orange were tetraploids as revealed by chromosome counting. POX isozyme and RAPD analysis verified that the plants from Bonnaza navel + rough lemon were hybrids, and RAPD analysis confirmed the hybridity of those from Bonnaza navel + Goutou orange.

  12. Review of the mathematical foundations of data fusion techniques in surface metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Leach, Richard K.; Jiang, X.

    2015-06-01

    The recent proliferation of engineered surfaces, including freeform and structured surfaces, is challenging current metrology techniques. Measurement using multiple sensors has been proposed to achieve enhanced benefits, mainly in terms of spatial frequency bandwidth, which a single sensor cannot provide. When using data from different sensors, a process of data fusion is required and there is much active research in this area. In this paper, current data fusion methods and applications are reviewed, with a focus on the mathematical foundations of the subject. Common research questions in the fusion of surface metrology data are raised and potential fusion algorithms are discussed.

  13. "Erussica", the intergeneric fertile somatic hybrid developed through protoplast fusion between Eruca sativa Lam. and Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikdar, S R; Chatterjee, G; Das, S; Sen, S K

    1990-04-01

    Hypocotyl calli-derived protoplasts of two cultivars of Brassica juncea (2n=36), a major oil-seed crop, were fused with normal as well as γ-irradiated mesophyll protoplasts of Eruca sativa (2n=22). The irradiation of the Eruca fusion partner increased the plating efficiency as well as the morphogenic potentiality of the fusion products over the normal fusion. Fertile plants could be regenerated from such fusion products. Analysis of 63 out of 181 plants regenerated showed that, indeed, 11 somatic hybrids (2n=58) and 10 partial somatic hybrids (chromosome number ranged between 50 and 56) had been obtained. Pollen viability (0%-82.9%) and seed set (0%-50%) of the hybrids indicated them to be useful for future studies.

  14. Ultra Wide Band localization and tracking hybrid technique using VRTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Shamian Zianal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This research presents hybrid radar tracking technique consisting of Time Of Arrival (TOA and Received Signal Strength (RSS techniques. This hybrid design increases efficiency, accuracy and sensitivity of radar system. The radar used in this research is multistatic radar with one transmitter and three receivers. One common drawback in RSS and TOA techniques is high level synchronization in transmitter and receivers. The hybrid design also suffers from transmitter-receiver synchronization. To overcome TX-RX synchronization problem Virtual Reference Tags (VRTs are used. These tags are virtually mapped over the surveillance area giving radar design different reference points from which it can accurately locate intruder and monitor its movements. Also four cases of different

  15. Hybrid fusion of linear, non-linear and spectral models for the dynamic modeling of sEMG and skeletal muscle force: an application to upper extremity amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potluri, Chandrasekhar; Anugolu, Madhavi; Schoen, Marco P; Subbaram Naidu, D; Urfer, Alex; Chiu, Steve

    2013-11-01

    Estimating skeletal muscle (finger) forces using surface Electromyography (sEMG) signals poses many challenges. In general, the sEMG measurements are based on single sensor data. In this paper, two novel hybrid fusion techniques for estimating the skeletal muscle force from the sEMG array sensors are proposed. The sEMG signals are pre-processed using five different filters: Butterworth, Chebychev Type II, Exponential, Half-Gaussian and Wavelet transforms. Dynamic models are extracted from the acquired data using Nonlinear Wiener Hammerstein (NLWH) models and Spectral Analysis Frequency Dependent Resolution (SPAFDR) models based system identification techniques. A detailed comparison is provided for the proposed filters and models using 18 healthy subjects. Wavelet transforms give higher mean correlation of 72.6 ± 1.7 (mean ± SD) and 70.4 ± 1.5 (mean ± SD) for NLWH and SPAFDR models, respectively, when compared to the other filters used in this work. Experimental verification of the fusion based hybrid models with wavelet transform shows a 96% mean correlation and 3.9% mean relative error with a standard deviation of ± 1.3 and ± 0.9 respectively between the overall hybrid fusion algorithm estimated and the actual force for 18 test subjects' k-fold cross validation data.

  16. Multimodality Image Fusion-Guided Procedures: Technique, Accuracy, and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abi-Jaoudeh, Nadine, E-mail: naj@mail.nih.gov [National Institutes of Health, Radiology and Imaging Sciences (United States); Kruecker, Jochen, E-mail: jochen.kruecker@philips.com [Philips Research North America (United States); Kadoury, Samuel, E-mail: samuel.kadoury@polymtl.ca [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Department of Computer and Software Engineering, Institute of Biomedical Engineering (Canada); Kobeiter, Hicham, E-mail: hicham.kobeiter@gmail.com [CHU Henri Mondor, UPEC, Departments of Radiology and d' imagrie medicale (France); Venkatesan, Aradhana M., E-mail: VenkatesanA@cc.nih.gov; Levy, Elliot, E-mail: levyeb@cc.nih.gov; Wood, Bradford J., E-mail: bwood@cc.nih.gov [National Institutes of Health, Radiology and Imaging Sciences (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Personalized therapies play an increasingly critical role in cancer care: Image guidance with multimodality image fusion facilitates the targeting of specific tissue for tissue characterization and plays a role in drug discovery and optimization of tailored therapies. Positron-emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) may offer additional information not otherwise available to the operator during minimally invasive image-guided procedures, such as biopsy and ablation. With use of multimodality image fusion for image-guided interventions, navigation with advanced modalities does not require the physical presence of the PET, MRI, or CT imaging system. Several commercially available methods of image-fusion and device navigation are reviewed along with an explanation of common tracking hardware and software. An overview of current clinical applications for multimodality navigation is provided.

  17. Conceptual Design of Low Fusion Power Hybrid System for Waste Transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Hee; Kim, Myung Hyun [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    DRUP (Direct Reuse of Used PWR) fuel has same process with DUPIC (Direct Use of spent PWR fuel Into CANDU reactor). There are 2 big benefits by using DRUP fuel in Hybrid system. One is fissile production during operating period. Required power is decreased by fissile production from DRUP fuel. When the fusion power is reduced, integrity of structure materials is not significantly weakened due to reduction of 14.1MeV high energy neutrons. In addition, required amount of tritium for self-sufficiency TBR (Tritium Breeding Ratio ≥ 1.1) is decreased. Therefore, it is possible to further loading the SNF as much as the amount of lithium decreased. It is effective in transmutation. The other one is that DRUP fuel is also SNF. Therefore, using DRUP fuel is reusing of SNF, as a result it makes reduction of SNF from PWR. However, thermal neutron system is suitable for using DRUP fuel compared to fast neutron system. Therefore, transmutation zone designed (U-TRU)Zr fuel and fissile production zone designed DRUP fuel are separated in this study. In this paper, using DRUP fuel for low fusion power in hybrid system is suggested. Fusion power is decreased by using DRUP fuel. As a result, TBR is satisfied design condition despite of using natural lithium. In addition, not only (U-TRU)Zr fuel but also DRUP fuel are transmuted.

  18. Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Mahaffey, James A

    2012-01-01

    As energy problems of the world grow, work toward fusion power continues at a greater pace than ever before. The topic of fusion is one that is often met with the most recognition and interest in the nuclear power arena. Written in clear and jargon-free prose, Fusion explores the big bang of creation to the blackout death of worn-out stars. A brief history of fusion research, beginning with the first tentative theories in the early 20th century, is also discussed, as well as the race for fusion power. This brand-new, full-color resource examines the various programs currently being funded or p

  19. ACCELERATING FUSION REACTOR NEUTRONICS MODELING BY AUTOMATIC COUPLING OF HYBRID MONTE CARLO/DETERMINISTIC TRANSPORT ON CAD GEOMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biondo, Elliott D [ORNL; Ibrahim, Ahmad M [ORNL; Mosher, Scott W [ORNL; Grove, Robert E [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Detailed radiation transport calculations are necessary for many aspects of the design of fusion energy systems (FES) such as ensuring occupational safety, assessing the activation of system components for waste disposal, and maintaining cryogenic temperatures within superconducting magnets. Hybrid Monte Carlo (MC)/deterministic techniques are necessary for this analysis because FES are large, heavily shielded, and contain streaming paths that can only be resolved with MC. The tremendous complexity of FES necessitates the use of CAD geometry for design and analysis. Previous ITER analysis has required the translation of CAD geometry to MCNP5 form in order to use the AutomateD VAriaNce reducTion Generator (ADVANTG) for hybrid MC/deterministic transport. In this work, ADVANTG was modified to support CAD geometry, allowing hybrid (MC)/deterministic transport to be done automatically and eliminating the need for this translation step. This was done by adding a new ray tracing routine to ADVANTG for CAD geometries using the Direct Accelerated Geometry Monte Carlo (DAGMC) software library. This new capability is demonstrated with a prompt dose rate calculation for an ITER computational benchmark problem using both the Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling (CADIS) method an the Forward Weighted (FW)-CADIS method. The variance reduction parameters produced by ADVANTG are shown to be the same using CAD geometry and standard MCNP5 geometry. Significant speedups were observed for both neutrons (as high as a factor of 7.1) and photons (as high as a factor of 59.6).

  20. Properties of the ion-ion hybrid resonator in fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, George J. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-10-06

    The project developed theoretical and numerical descriptions of the properties of ion-ion hybrid Alfvén resonators that are expected to arise in the operation of a fusion reactor. The methodology and theoretical concepts were successfully compared to observations made in basic experiments in the LAPD device at UCLA. An assessment was made of the excitation of resonator modes by energetic alpha particles for burning plasma conditions expected in the ITER device. The broader impacts included the generation of basic insight useful to magnetic fusion and space science researchers, defining new avenues for exploration in basic laboratory experiments, establishing broader contacts between experimentalists and theoreticians, completion of a Ph.D. dissertation, and promotion of interest in science through community outreach events and classroom instruction.

  1. Ion cyclotron and lower hybrid arrays applicable to current drive in fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosia, G.; Helou, W.; Goniche, M.; Hillaret, J.; Ragona, R.

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents concepts for Ion Cyclotron and Lower Hybrid Current Drive arrays applicable to fusion reactors and based on periodically loaded line power division. It is shown that, in large arrays, such as the ones proposed for fusion reactor applications, these schemes can offer, in principle, a number of practical advantages, compared with currently adopted ones, such as in-blanket operation at significantly reduced power density, lay out suitable for water cooling, single ended or balanced power feed, simple and load independent impedance matching In addition, a remote and accurate real time measurement of the complex impedance of all array elements as well as detection, location, and measurement of the complex admittance of a single arc occurring anywhere in the structure is possible.

  2. Clinical study of lumbar fusion by hybrid construct of stem cells technique and biodegradable material%干细胞技术结合新型可降解材料进行腰椎融合的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蒲; 干耀恺; 唐坚; 郝永强; 王友; 孙月华; 朱振安; 戴尅戎

    2008-01-01

    Objecfive To explorer the effectiveness of enriched bone marrow stem cells technique for lumbar fusion.Methods With the randomization and control principles,2 graft materials[Enrichment bone marrow mesenchymal stem ceHs hybriding with β-tri calcium phosphate(composite graft group),autologous iliac crest bone graft(autograft group)]were compared in posterior lumbar fusion procedures.56 patients with degenerative disc disease,lumbar instability or spinal stenosis,were included.The volume of cells suspension in pre-and post-enrichment and the number of nucleated eeBs(NCs)were identified.The number of osteoprogenitor cells was estimated by counting the colony-forming units which express alkaline phosphatase(CFUs/ALP+).Then the efficiency of the enrichment was evaluated.Clinical follow-up with roentgenogram and Oswestry scale scores was performed for outcome evaluation.Results (249±31)ml bone marrow per patient from bilateral iliac crests was aspirated peri-operatively. About(43±11)ml enriched bane marrow was collected.The number of NCs was concentrated from(15.9±3.3)×106/ml to(44.1±10.8)×106/ml,CFUs/ALP+ was significantly increased from(118±86)/ml to(486±305)/ml.The follow-up was about(26.3±7.5)months.There was no significant differences in age,gender,disease and fusion segments between the two groups.The fusion rate was 93.3% and 96.2% for composite graft group and autograft group,respectively(X2=0.2146,P=0.6432).There was no difference in operation time between the two group(t=0.5243,P=0.6022),but blood loss in composite graft group was more than that in autograft group(t=6.4664,P<0.01).Cell salvage for auto-transfusion could transfuse back half of the blood loss during operation.No hematoma or chronic soreness in the bone marrow donor sites of composite graft group occurred,but a little exudation or moderate swelling in the wound happened in 4 cases which disapeared under medical treatment.Meanwhile,15.4% patients had hematoma in the iliac bone donor

  3. New techniques for emulsion analysis in a hybrid experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodama, K. (Aichi University of Education, Kariya 448 (Japan)); Ushida, N. (Aichi University of Education, Kariya 448 (Japan)); Mokhtarani, A. (University of California (Davis), Davis, CA 95616 (United States)); Paolone, V.S. (University of California (Davis), Davis, CA 95616 (United States)); Volk, J.T. (University of California (Davis), Davis, CA 95616 (United States)); Wilcox, J.O. (University of California (Davis), Davis, CA 95616 (United States)); Yager, P.M. (University of California (Davis), Davis, CA 95616 (United States)); Edelstein, R.M. (Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)); Freyberger, A.P. (Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)); Gibaut, D.B. (Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)); Lipton, R.J. (Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)); Nichols, W.R. (Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)); Potter, D.M. (Carnegie-Mellon Univers

    1994-08-01

    A new method, called graphic scanning, was developed by the Nagoya University Group for emulsion analysis in a hybrid experiment. This method enhances both speed and reliability of emulsion analysis. Details of the application of this technique to the analysis of Fermilab experiment E653 are described. ((orig.))

  4. A Hybridized Centroid Technique for 3D Molodensky-Badekas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Richannan

    two new hybrid centroid techniques known as the harmonic-quadratic mean and arithmetic- ... was subsequently involved in triangulation nets with other trigonometric ..... The functional relation that is used to compute the TLS solution is given by ..... mathematical models is an approximation of reality, hence it is worth noting ...

  5. Fusion Techniques for the Oxidation of Refractory Actinide Oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudisill, T.S.

    1999-04-15

    Small-scale experiments were performed to demonstrate the feasibility of fusing refractory actinide oxides with a series of materials commonly used to decompose minerals, glasses, and other refractories as a pretreatment to dissolution and subsequent recovery operations. In these experiments, 1-2 g of plutonium or neptunium oxide (PuO2 or NpO2) were calcined at 900 degrees Celsius, mixed and heated with the fusing reagent(s), and dissolved. For refractory PuO2, the most effective material tested was a lithium carbonate (Li2CO3)/sodium tetraborate (Na2B4O7) mixture which aided in the recovery of 90 percent of the plutonium. The fused product was identified as a lithium plutonate (Li3PuO4) by x-ray diffraction. The use of a Li2CO3/Na2B4O7 mixture to solubilize high-fired NpO2 was not as effective as demonstrated for refractory PuO2. In a small-scale experiment, 25 percent of the NpO2 was oxidized to a neptunium (VI) species that dissolved in nitric acid. The remaining neptunium was then easily recovered from the residue by fusing with sodium peroxide (Na2O2). Approximately 70 percent of the neptunium dissolved in water to yield a basic solution of neptunium (VII). The remainder was recovered as a neptunium (VI) solution by dissolving the residue in 8M nitric acid. In subsequent experiments with Na2O2, the ratio of neptunium (VII) to (VI) was shown to be a function of the fusion temperature, with higher temperatures (greater than approximately 400 degrees C) favoring the formation of neptunium (VII). The fusion of an actual plutonium-containing residue with Na2O2 and subsequent dissolution was performed to demonstrate the feasibility of a pretreatment process on a larger scale. Sodium peroxide was chosen due

  6. A new ignition scheme using hybrid indirect-direct drive for inertial confinement fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Zhengfeng; Dai, Zhensheng; Cai, Hong-bo; Zhu, Shao-ping; Zhang, W Y; He, X T

    2013-01-01

    A new hybrid indirect-direct-drive ignition scheme is proposed for inertial confinement fusion: a cryogenic capsule encased in a hohlraum is first compressed symmetrically by indirect-drive x-rays, and then accelerated and ignited by both direct-drive lasers and x-rays. A steady high-density plateau newly formed between the radiation and electron ablation fronts suppresses the rarefaction at the radiation ablation front and greatly enhances the drive pressure. Meanwhile, multiple shock reflections at the fuel/hot-spot interface are prevented during capsule deceleration. Thus rapid ignition and burn are realized. In comparison with the conventional indirect drive, the hybrid drive implodes the capsule with a higher velocity ($\\sim4.3\\times10^7$ cm/s) and a much lower convergence ratio ($\\sim$25), and the growth of hydrodynamic instabilities is significantly reduced, especially at the fuel/hot-spot interface.

  7. Analysis of polyethylene glycol (PEG) fusion in cultured neuroblastoma cells via flow cytometry: Techniques & optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Ashley N; Bamba, Ravinder; Pollins, Alonda C; Thayer, Wesley P

    2017-02-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has long been used as a membrane fusogen, but recently it has been adopted as a technique for peripheral nerve repair. Vertebrate models using PEG fusion have shown improved outcomes when PEG is applied during repair of severed peripheral nerves. The cellular mechanism of PEG fusion in the peripheral nerve repair model has not previously been assessed via flow cytometry. PEG fusion was assessed in this experiment by dying B35 rat neuroblastoma cells with different color fluorescent labels. The different color cells were combined and PEG was applied in concentrations of 50%, 75% and 100%. The amount of cell fusion was assessed via flow cytometry as the percentage of double positive cells. Results showed increasing fusion and decreasing viability with increasing concentrations of PEG.

  8. Bonding techniques for hybrid active pixel sensors (HAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigas, M.; Cabruja, E.; Lozano, M.

    2007-05-01

    A hybrid active pixel sensor (HAPS) consists of an array of sensing elements which is connected to an electronic read-out unit. The most used way to connect these two different devices is bump bonding. This interconnection technique is very suitable for these systems because it allows a very fine pitch and a high number of I/Os. However, there are other interconnection techniques available such as direct bonding. This paper, as a continuation of a review [M. Lozano, E. Cabruja, A. Collado, J. Santander, M. Ullan, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 473 (1-2) (2001) 95-101] published in 2001, presents an update of the different advanced bonding techniques available for manufacturing a hybrid active pixel detector.

  9. Application of data fusion techniques to direct geographical traceability indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Michele; Bertacchini, Lucia; Durante, Caterina; Marchetti, Andrea; Salvatore, Elisa; Cocchi, Marina

    2013-03-26

    A hierarchical data fusion approach has been developed proposing multivariate curve resolution (MCR) as a variable reduction tool. The case study presented concerns the characterization of soil samples of the Modena District. It was performed in order to understand, at a pilot study stage, the geographical variability of the zone prior to planning a representative soils sampling to derive geographical traceability models for Lambrusco Wines. Soils samples were collected from four producers of Lambrusco Wines, located in in-plane and hill areas. Depending on the extension of the sampled fields the number of points collected varies from three to five and, for each point, five depth levels were considered. The different data blocks consisted of X-ray powder diffraction (XRDP) spectra, metals concentrations relative to thirty-four elements and the (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotopic abundance ratio, a very promising geographical traceability marker. A multi steps data fusion strategy has been adopted. Firstly, the metals concentrations dataset was weighted and concatenated with the values of strontium isotopic ratio and compressed. The resolved components described common patterns of variation of metals content and strontium isotopic ratio. The X-ray powder spectra profiles were resolved in three main components that can be referred to calcite, quartz and clays contributions. Then, a high-level data fusion approach was applied by combining the components arising from the previous data sets. The results show interesting links among the different components arising from XRDP, the metals pattern and to which of these (87)Sr/(86)Sr Isotopic Ratio variation is closer. The combined information allowed capturing the variability of the analyzed soil samples.

  10. Evaluation of tritium transport in the biomass-fusion hybrid system and its environmental impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namba, Kyosuke [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Kasada, Ryuta, E-mail: r-kasada@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Konishi, Satoshi [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Yamamoto, Yasushi [Faculty of Engineering Science, Kansai University, Osaka (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We assumed that tritium migrates from biomass hybrid fusion system to fuel cell vehicles. • We developed a seven-compartment model to describe the water flow and tritium in an urban area Osaka. • Tritium concentration of surface soil water run by 4 Bq/L level after 60 years later. • The tritium does not deserve health hazard but easily detectable in the environment. - Abstract: The behavior of tritium contained in the biofuel produced by the fusion energy is analyzed. Hydrogen product is contaminated with tritium from breeding blanket of fusion plant within the regulation limit and released to atmosphere when used for fuel cell vehicles. In the model city, Osaka, seven-compartment model describes the behavior of exhausted tritium by adapting the environment water flow and its migration was analyzed with STELLA system dynamics code. Tritium (HTO) with a concentration of 5000 Bq//m{sup 3} exhausted from the running vehicle increases decades and reaches steady state after about 50 years, at around 40 Bq/m{sup 3} in atmosphere and 4 Bq/L in surface soil water that does not deserve health hazard, however causes contamination of large populated area.

  11. A modified technique of four-bone fusion for advanced carpal collapse (SLAC/SNAC wrist).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-López, A; Perez-Ubeda, M J; Marco, F; Molina, M; López-Duran, L

    2001-08-01

    This study reports the outcome of 16 patients treated with a modified four-bone fusion for symptomatic stage II and III advanced carpal collapse. The technique is based on fusion of the capitate, lunate, hamate and triquetrum using an autogenous corticocancellous bone-graft fixed with screws. The void left behind after scaphoid excision was filled with an extensor carpi radialis longus anchovy. After an average follow up of 3 years; there were 13 excellent and three good outcomes. In every patient pain relief was achieved with preservation of joint motion and grip strength. All the patients were able to return to their previous activities and jobs. Radiographic evaluation showed bone fusion in all 16 patients with a slight decrease in carpal height but a well preserved radiolunate joint space. In conclusion, this technique provides immediate stable fixation and early mobilization and assures bone fusion.

  12. Hybrid-fusion SPECT/CT systems in parathyroid adenoma: Technological improvements and added clinical diagnostic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, K K; Chondrogiannis, S; Bowles, H; Fuster, D; Sánchez, N; Rampin, L; Rubello, D

    Nuclear medicine traditionally employs planar and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging techniques to depict the biodistribution of radiotracers for the diagnostic investigation of a range of disorders of endocrine gland function. The usefulness of combining functional information with anatomy derived from computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and high resolution ultrasound (US), has long been appreciated, either using visual side-by-side correlation, or software-based co-registration. The emergence of hybrid SPECT/CT camera technology now allows the simultaneous acquisition of combined multi-modality imaging, with seamless fusion of 3D volume datasets. Thus, it is not surprising that there is growing literature describing the many advantages that contemporary SPECT/CT technology brings to radionuclide investigation of endocrine disorders, showing potential advantages for the pre-operative locating of the parathyroid adenoma using a minimally invasive surgical approach, especially in the presence of ectopic glands and in multiglandular disease. In conclusion, hybrid SPECT/CT imaging has become an essential tool to ensure the most accurate diagnostic in the management of patients with hyperparathyroidism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  13. Joining and fabrication techniques for high temperature structures including the first wall in fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ho Jin; Lee, B. S.; Kim, K. B

    2003-09-01

    The materials for PFC's (Plasma Facing Components) in a fusion reactor are severely irradiated with fusion products in facing the high temperature plasma during the operation. The refractory materials can be maintained their excellent properties in severe operating condition by lowering surface temperature by bonding them to the high thermal conducting materials of heat sink. Hence, the joining and bonding techniques between dissimilar materials is considered to be important in case of the fusion reactor or nuclear reactor which is operated at high temperature. The first wall in the fusion reactor is heated to approximately 1000 .deg. C and irradiated severely by the plasma. In ITER, beryllium is expected as the primary armour candidate for the PFC's; other candidates including W, Mo, SiC, B4C, C/C and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}. Since the heat affected zones in the PFC's processed by conventional welding are reported to have embrittlement and degradation in the sever operation condition, both brazing and diffusion bonding are being considered as prime candidates for the joining technique. In this report, both the materials including ceramics and the fabrication techniques including joining technique between dissimilar materials for PFC's are described. The described joining technique between the refractory materials and the dissimilar materials may be applicable for the fusion reactor and Generation-4 future nuclear reactor which are operated at high temperature and high irradiation.

  14. Wind Speed Forecasting Using Hybrid Wavelet Transform—ARMA Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Diksha Kaur; Tek Tjing Lie; Nirmal K. C. Nair; Brice Vallès

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop a novel wind speed forecasting technique, which produces more accurate prediction. The Wavelet Transform (WT) along with the Auto Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) is chosen to form a hybrid whose combination is expected to give minimum Mean Absolute Prediction Error (MAPE). A simulation study has been conducted by comparing the forecasting results using the Wavelet-ARMA with the ARMA and Artificial Neural Network (ANN)-Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) hy...

  15. Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Robin

    1990-10-01

    The book abounds with fascinating anecdotes about fusion's rocky path: the spurious claim by Argentine dictator Juan Peron in 1951 that his country had built a working fusion reactor, the rush by the United States to drop secrecy and publicize its fusion work as a propaganda offensive after the Russian success with Sputnik; the fortune Penthouse magazine publisher Bob Guccione sank into an unconventional fusion device, the skepticism that met an assertion by two University of Utah chemists in 1989 that they had created "cold fusion" in a bottle. Aimed at a general audience, the book describes the scientific basis of controlled fusion--the fusing of atomic nuclei, under conditions hotter than the sun, to release energy. Using personal recollections of scientists involved, it traces the history of this little-known international race that began during the Cold War in secret laboratories in the United States, Great Britain and the Soviet Union, and evolved into an astonishingly open collaboration between East and West.

  16. Early Oscillation Detection Technique for Hybrid DC/DC Converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bright L.

    2011-01-01

    Oscillation or instability is a situation that must be avoided for reliable hybrid DC/DC converters. A real-time electronics measurement technique was developed to detect catastrophic oscillations at early stages for hybrid DC/DC converters. It is capable of identifying low-level oscillation and determining the degree of the oscillation at a unique frequency for every individual model of the converters without disturbing their normal operations. This technique is specially developed for space-used hybrid DC/DC converters, but it is also suitable for most of commercial and military switching-mode power supplies. This is a weak-electronic-signal detection technique to detect hybrid DC/DC converter oscillation presented as a specific noise signal at power input pins. It is based on principles of feedback control loop oscillation and RF signal modulations, and is realized by using signal power spectral analysis. On the power spectrum, a channel power amplitude at characteristic frequency (CPcf) and a channel power amplitude at switching frequency (CPsw) are chosen as oscillation level indicators. If the converter is stable, the CPcf is a very small pulse and the CPsw is a larger, clear, single pulse. At early stage of oscillation, the CPcf increases to a certain level and the CPsw shows a small pair of sideband pulses around it. If the converter oscillates, the CPcf reaches to a higher level and the CPsw shows more high-level sideband pulses. A comprehensive stability index (CSI) is adopted as a quantitative measure to accurately assign a degree of stability to a specific DC/DC converter. The CSI is a ratio of normal and abnormal power spectral density, and can be calculated using specified and measured CPcf and CPsw data. The novel and unique feature of this technique is the use of power channel amplitudes at characteristic frequency and switching frequency to evaluate stability and identify oscillations at an early stage without interfering with a DC/DC converter s

  17. Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 11: interbody techniques for lumbar fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mummaneni, Praveen V; Dhall, Sanjay S; Eck, Jason C; Groff, Michael W; Ghogawala, Zoher; Watters, William C; Dailey, Andrew T; Resnick, Daniel K; Choudhri, Tanvir F; Sharan, Alok; Wang, Jeffrey C; Kaiser, Michael G

    2014-07-01

    Interbody fusion techniques have been promoted as an adjunct to lumbar fusion procedures in an effort to enhance fusion rates and potentially improve clinical outcome. The medical evidence continues to suggest that interbody techniques are associated with higher fusion rates compared with posterolateral lumbar fusion (PLF) in patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis who demonstrate preoperative instability. There is no conclusive evidence demonstrating improved clinical or radiographic outcomes based on the different interbody fusion techniques. The addition of a PLF when posterior or anterior interbody lumbar fusion is performed remains an option, although due to increased cost and complications, it is not recommended. No substantial clinical benefit has been demonstrated when a PLF is included with an interbody fusion. For lumbar degenerative disc disease without instability, there is moderate evidence that the standalone anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) has better clinical outcomes than the ALIF plus instrumented, open PLF. With regard to type of interbody spacer used, frozen allograft is associated with lower pseudarthrosis rates compared with freeze-dried allograft; however, this was not associated with a difference in clinical outcome.

  18. Fast ion motion in the plasma part of a stellarator-mirror fission-fusion hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseenko, V. E.; Nemov, V. V.; Ågren, O.; Kasilov, S. V.; Garkusha, I. E.

    2016-06-01

    Recent developments of a stellarator-mirror (SM) fission-fusion hybrid concept are reviewed. The hybrid consists of a fusion neutron source and a powerful sub-critical fast fission reactor core. The aim is transmutation of spent nuclear fuel and safe fission energy production. In its fusion part, a stellarator-type system with an embedded magnetic mirror is used. The stellarator confines deuterium plasma with moderate temperature, 1-2 keV. In the magnetic mirror, a hot component of sloshing tritium ions is trapped. There, the fusion neutrons are generated. A candidate for a combined SM system is a DRACON magnetic trap. A basic idea behind an SM device is to maintain local neutron production in a mirror part, but at the same time eliminate the end losses by using a toroidal device. A possible drawback is that the stellarator part can introduce collision-free radial drift losses, which is the main topic for this study. For high energy ions of tritium with an energy of 70 keV, comparative computations of collisionless losses in the rectilinear part of a specific design of the DRACON type trap are carried out. Two versions of the trap are considered with different lengths of the rectilinear sections. Also the total number of current-carrying rings in the magnetic system is varied. The results predict that high energy ions from neutral beam injection can be satisfactorily confined in the mirror part during 0.1-1 s. The Uragan-2M experimental device is used to check key points of the SM concept. The magnetic configuration of a stellarator with an embedded magnetic mirror is arranged in this device by switching off one toroidal coil. The motion of particles magnetically trapped in the embedded mirror is analyzed numerically with use of motional invariants. It is found that without radial electric field particles quickly drift out of the SM, even if the particles initially are located on a nested magnetic surface. We will show that a weak radial electric field, which

  19. Using data mining techniques for building fusion models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongfei; Salerno, John J.; Regan, Maureen A.; Cutler, Debra A.

    2003-03-01

    Over the past decade many techniques have been developed which attempt to predict possible events through the use of given models or patterns of activity. These techniques work quite well given the case that one has a model or a valid representation of activity. However, in reality for the majority of the time this is not the case. Models that do exist, in many cases were hand crafted, required many man-hours to develop and they are very brittle in the dynamic world in which we live. Data mining techniques have shown some promise in providing a set of solutions. In this paper we will provide the details for our motivation, theory and techniques which we have developed, as well as the results of a set of experiments.

  20. Study of thorium-uranium based molten salt blanket in a fusion-fission hybrid reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Jing, E-mail: zhao_jing@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [INET, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yang Yongwei; Zhou Zhiwei [INET, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A molten salt blanket has been designed for the fusion-fission hybrid reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The use of Thorium in the molten salt fuels has been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The molten salt was consisted of F-Li-Be and with the thickness of 40 cm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The concentration of {sup 6}Li was chosen to be the natural enrichment ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The result shows that TBR is greater than 1, M is about 15-16. - Abstract: Not only solid fuels, but also liquid fuels can be used for the fusion-fission symbiotic reactor blanket. The operational record of the molten salt reactor with F-Li-Be was very successful, so the F-Li-Be blanket was chosen for research. The molten salt has several features which are suited for the fusion-fission applications. The fuel material uranium and thorium were dissolved in the F-Li-Be molten salt. A combined program, COUPLE, was used for neutronics analysis of the molten salt blanket. Several cases have been calculated and compared. Not only the influence of the different fuels have been studied, but also the thickness of the molten salt, and the concentration of the {sup 6}Li in the molten salt. Preliminary studies indicate that when thorium-uranium-plutonium fuels were added into a F-Li-Be molten salt blanket and with a component of 71% LiF-2% BeF{sub 2}-13.5% ThF{sub 4}-8.5% UF{sub 4}-5% PuF{sub 3}, and also with the molten salt thickness of 40 cm and natural concentration of {sup 6}Li, the appropriate blanket energy multiplication factor and TBR can be obtained. The result shows that thorium-uranium molten salt can be used in the blanket of a fusion-fission symbiotic reactor. The research on the molten salt blanket must be valuable for the design of fusion-fission symbiotic reactor.

  1. Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment: design studies based on superconducting and hybrid toroidal field coils. Design overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, C.A. (ed.)

    1984-10-01

    This document is a design overview that describes the scoping studies and preconceptual design effort performed in FY 1983 on the Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX) class of device. These studies focussed on devices with all-superconducting toroidal field (TF) coils and on devices with superconducting TF coils supplemented with copper TF coil inserts located in the bore of the TF coils in the shield region. Each class of device is designed to satisfy the mission of ignition and long pulse equilibrium burn. Typical design parameters are: major radius = 3.75 m, minor radius = 1.0 m, field on axis = 4.5 T, plasma current = 7.0 MA. These designs relay on lower hybrid (LHRH) current rampup and heating to ignition using ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF). A pumped limiter has been assumed for impurity control. The present document is a design overview; a more detailed design description is contained in a companion document.

  2. Comparison of Data Fusion Methods Using Crowdsourced Data in Creating a Hybrid Forest Cover Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myroslava Lesiv

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Data fusion represents a powerful way of integrating individual sources of information to produce a better output than could be achieved by any of the individual sources on their own. This paper focuses on the data fusion of different land cover products derived from remote sensing. In the past, many different methods have been applied, without regard to their relative merit. In this study, we compared some of the most commonly-used methods to develop a hybrid forest cover map by combining available land cover/forest products and crowdsourced data on forest cover obtained through the Geo-Wiki project. The methods include: nearest neighbour, naive Bayes, logistic regression and geographically-weighted logistic regression (GWR, as well as classification and regression trees (CART. We ran the comparison experiments using two data types: presence/absence of forest in a grid cell; percentage of forest cover in a grid cell. In general, there was little difference between the methods. However, GWR was found to perform better than the other tested methods in areas with high disagreement between the inputs.

  3. Resonant frequency calculations using a hybrid perturbation-Galerkin technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geer, James F.; Andersen, Carl M.

    1991-01-01

    A two-step hybrid perturbation Galerkin technique is applied to the problem of determining the resonant frequencies of one or several degrees of freedom nonlinear systems involving a parameter. In one step, the Lindstedt-Poincare method is used to determine perturbation solutions which are formally valid about one or more special values of the parameter (e.g., for large or small values of the parameter). In step two, a subset of the perturbation coordinate functions determined in step one is used in Galerkin type approximation. The technique is illustrated for several one degree of freedom systems, including the Duffing and van der Pol oscillators, as well as for the compound pendulum. For all of the examples considered, it is shown that the frequencies obtained by the hybrid technique using only a few terms from the perturbation solutions are significantly more accurate than the perturbation results on which they are based, and they compare very well with frequencies obtained by purely numerical methods.

  4. Hybrid Technique of Lamellar Keratoplasty (DMEK-S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Studeny

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes of the hybrid technique of posterior lamellar keratoplasty (DMEK-S. Materials and Methods: 71 eyes of 55 patients enrolled in a single-center study underwent posterior lamellar keratoplasty with a hybrid lamella DMEK-S implanted using a solution implantation technique, owing to endothelial dysfunction. The outcome measures studied were visual acuity and endothelial cell density. Results: The rate of endothelial cell loss caused by surgery was 43.8%. During followups, we observed the stabilization of postoperative findings, or at minimum a very low rate of corneal endothelial cell loss. The UCDVA and BCDVA dramatically improved postoperatively. The rebubbling rate in our group of patients was 61.9%. We replaced the lamella due to its failure or malfunction in 17 patients (23.9%. Conclusion: In summary, DMEK-S combines the advantages of DSEK/DSAEK and DMEK. The central zone of bare Descemet’s membrane and endothelium allows for very good visual outcomes, and the peripheral rim allows for better manipulation of the lamella during implantation. It is an effective method of treating the endothelial dysfunction of various etiologies, but the high complication rate needs to be addressed before widespread implementation of the technique in the future.

  5. ANALYSIS OF MULTIMODAL FUSION TECHNIQUES FOR AUDIO-VISUAL SPEECH RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Ivanko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with analytical review, covering the latest achievements in the field of audio-visual (AV fusion (integration of multimodal information. We discuss the main challenges and report on approaches to address them. One of the most important tasks of the AV integration is to understand how the modalities interact and influence each other. The paper addresses this problem in the context of AV speech processing and speech recognition. In the first part of the review we set out the basic principles of AV speech recognition and give the classification of audio and visual features of speech. Special attention is paid to the systematization of the existing techniques and the AV data fusion methods. In the second part we provide a consolidated list of tasks and applications that use the AV fusion based on carried out analysis of research area. We also indicate used methods, techniques, audio and video features. We propose classification of the AV integration, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches. We draw conclusions and offer our assessment of the future in the field of AV fusion. In the further research we plan to implement a system of audio-visual Russian continuous speech recognition using advanced methods of multimodal fusion.

  6. STUDY ON THE COAL-ROCK INTER-FACE RECOGNITION METHOD BASED ON MULTI-SENSOR DATA FUSION TECHNIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Fang; Yang Zhaojian; Xiong Shibo

    2003-01-01

    The coal-rock interface recognition method based on multi-sensor data fusion technique is put forward because of the localization of single type sensor recognition method. The measuring theory based on multi-sensor data fusion technique is analyzed, and hereby the test platform of recognition system is manufactured. The advantage of data fusion with the fuzzy neural network (FNN) technique has been probed. The two-level FNN is constructed and data fusion is carried out. The experiments show that in various conditions the method can always acquire a much higher recognition rate than normal ones.

  7. A borax fusion technique for quantitative X-ray fluorescence analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Willigen, J.H.H.G.; Kruidhof, H.; Dahmen, E.A.M.F.

    1971-01-01

    A borax fusion technique to cast glass discs for quantitative X-ray analysis is described in detail. The method is based on the “nonwetting” properties of a Pt/Au alloy towards molten borax, on the favourable composition of the flux and finally on the favourable form of the casting mould. The

  8. A borax fusion technique for quantitative X-ray fluorescence analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willigen, van J.H.H.G.; Kruidhof, H.; Dahmen, E.A.M.F.

    1971-01-01

    A borax fusion technique to cast glass discs for quantitative X-ray analysis is described in detail. The method is based on the “nonwetting” properties of a Pt/Au alloy towards molten borax, on the favourable composition of the flux and finally on the favourable form of the casting mould. The critic

  9. Citrus asymmetric somatic hybrids produced via fusion of gamma-irradiated and iodoacetamide-treated protoplasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bona, Claudine Maria de [Instituto Agronomico do Parana (IAPAR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: debona@iapar.br; Gould, Jean Howe [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Ecosystem Science and Management], e-mail: gould@tamu.edu; Miller Junior, J. Creighton [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Horticultural Sciences], e-mail: jcmillerjr@tamu.edu; Stelly, David [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Soil and Crop Sciences], e-mail: stelly@tamu.edu; Louzada, Eliezer Silva [Texas A and M University, Kingsville, TX (United States). Citrus Center], e-mail: e-louzada@tamu.edu

    2009-05-15

    The objective of this study was to produce citrus somatic asymmetric hybrids by fusing gamma.irradiated protoplasts with iodoacetamide-treated protoplasts. Protoplasts were isolated from embryogenic suspension cells of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfad.) cultivars Ruby Red and Flame, sweet oranges (C. sinensis Osbeck) 'Itaborai', 'Natal', Valencia', and 'Succari', from 'Satsuma' (C. unshiu Marcow.) and 'Changsha' mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco) and 'Murcott' tangor (C. reticulata x C. sinensis). Donor protoplasts were exposed to gamma rays and receptor protoplasts were treated with 3 mmol L{sup -1} iodoacetamide (IOA), and then they were fused for asymmetric hybridization. Asymmetric embryos were germinated, and the resulting shoots were either grafted onto sour orange, rough lemon or 'Swingle' (C. paradisi x Poncirus trifoliata) x 'Sunki' mandarin rootstock seedlings, or rooted after dipping their bases in indol.butyric acid (IBA) solution. The products were later acclimatized to greenhouse conditions. Ploidy was analyzed by flow cytometry, and hybridity was confirmed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis of plantlet DNA samples. The best treatment was the donor-recipient fusion combination of 80 Gy.irradiated 'Ruby Red' protoplasts with 20 min IOA.treated 'Succari' protoplasts. Tetraploid and aneuploid plants were produced. Rooting recalcitrance was solved by dipping shoots' stems in 3,000 mg L{sup -1} IBA solution for 10 min. (author)

  10. A hybrid data fusion method for GNSS/INS integration navigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ling; Li, Bofeng; Shen, Yunzhong; Li, Haojun

    2017-04-01

    coupled algorithms are equivalent when following conditions are satisfied: 1) there is enough redundancy on the GNSS raw measurements; 2) only pseudorange measurements are used; 3) If differential carrier phase measurements are used, only the float solutions of the ambiguities are considered; 4) the covariance of the loosely coupled measurement model should come from the GNSS standalone solution instead of conventional pre-determined values. Based on the equivalence proof, a dual-step loosely coupled procedure is proposed to regenerate the equal ambiguity fixing solutions in tightly coupled procedure. Accordingly, the tightly coupled differential carrier phase or pseudorange GNSS/INS integration can be simplified, which will degrade to an equivalent loosely coupled integration when there are enough measurement redundancy and recover to a tightly coupled integration when GNSS measurements are rank-deficient. By this hybrid data fusion method, both the optimality of the tightly coupled algorithm and the efficiency of the loosely coupled algorithm can be conserved. Field test results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. FEATURE FUSION TECHNIQUE FOR COLOUR TEXTURE CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM BASED ON GRAY LEVEL CO-OCCURRENCE MATRIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Shunmuganathan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an efficient feature fusion based technique for the classification of colour texture images in VisTex album is presented. Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM and its associated texture features contrast, correlation, energy and homogeneity are used in the proposed approach. The proposed GLCM texture features are obtained from the original colour texture as well as the first non singleton dimension of the same image. These features are fused at feature level to classify the colour texture image using nearest neighbor classifier. The results demonstrate that the proposed fusion of difference image GLCM features is much more efficient than the original GLCM features.

  12. Measuring fusion excitation functions with RIBs using the stacked target technique: Problems and possible solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisichella M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For measuring fusion excitation functions, the activation technique with a stack of targets offers the considerable advantage that several reaction energies may be simultaneously measured by using one beam energy. However, its main drawback is the degradation of the beam quality as it passes through the stack due to statistical nature of energy loss processes and any non-uniformity of the stacked targets. If not taken properly into account, this degradation can lead to a wrong determination of the fusion excitation function. In this contribution some results of the investigation of this problem are reported.

  13. 4D DATA FUSION TECHNIQUE IN URBAN WATERLOG-DRAINING DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper studies urban waterlog-draining decision support system based on the 4D data fusion technique.4D data includes DEM,DOQ,DLG and DRG.It supplies entire databases for waterlog forecast and analysis together with non-spatial fundamental database.Data composition and reasoning are two key steps of 4D data fusion.Finally,this paper gives a real case: Ezhou Waterlog-Draining Decision Support System (EWDSS) with two application models,i.e.,DEM application model,water generating and draining model.

  14. A hybrid sequential deposition fabrication technique for micro fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Kevin G.; Czyzewska, Eva K.; Vanderhoek, Tom P. K.; Fan, Lilian L. Y.; Abel, Keith A.; Wu, Q. M. Jonathan; Parameswaran, M. Ash

    2005-10-01

    Micro fuel cell systems have elicited significant interest due to their promise for instantly rechargeable, longer duration and portable power. Most micro fuel cell systems are either built as miniaturized plate-and-frame or silicon-based microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Plate-and-frame systems are difficult to fabricate smaller than 20 cm3. Existing micro fuel cell designs cannot meet the cost, scale and power requirements of some portable power markets. Traditional MEMS scaling advantages do not apply to fuel cells because the minimum area for the fuel cell is fixed by the catalyst area required for a given power output, and minimum volume set by mass transport limitations. We have developed a new hybrid technique that borrows from both micro and macro machining techniques to create fuel cells in the 1-20 cm3 range, suitable for cell phones, PDAs and smaller devices.

  15. An Adaptive Hybrid Multiprocessor technique for bioinformatics sequence alignment

    KAUST Repository

    Bonny, Talal

    2012-07-28

    Sequence alignment algorithms such as the Smith-Waterman algorithm are among the most important applications in the development of bioinformatics. Sequence alignment algorithms must process large amounts of data which may take a long time. Here, we introduce our Adaptive Hybrid Multiprocessor technique to accelerate the implementation of the Smith-Waterman algorithm. Our technique utilizes both the graphics processing unit (GPU) and the central processing unit (CPU). It adapts to the implementation according to the number of CPUs given as input by efficiently distributing the workload between the processing units. Using existing resources (GPU and CPU) in an efficient way is a novel approach. The peak performance achieved for the platforms GPU + CPU, GPU + 2CPUs, and GPU + 3CPUs is 10.4 GCUPS, 13.7 GCUPS, and 18.6 GCUPS, respectively (with the query length of 511 amino acid). © 2010 IEEE.

  16. A quartz-crystal-microbalance technique to investigate ion-induced erosion of fusion relevant surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golczewski, A. [Institut fuer Allgemeine Physik, TU Wien, Wiedner Hauptstr. 8-10/E134, Association EURATOM-OAW, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: golczewski@iap.tuwien.ac.at; Dobes, K.; Wachter, G.; Schmid, M. [Institut fuer Allgemeine Physik, TU Wien, Wiedner Hauptstr. 8-10/E134, Association EURATOM-OAW, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Aumayr, F. [Institut fuer Allgemeine Physik, TU Wien, Wiedner Hauptstr. 8-10/E134, Association EURATOM-OAW, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: aumayr@iap.tuwien.ac.at

    2009-02-15

    We describe a highly sensitive quartz-crystal-microbalance technique capable of determining erosion as well as implantation and retention rates for fusion relevant surfaces under ion bombardment. Total sputtering yields obtained with this technique for Ar ion impact on polycrystalline gold and tungsten surfaces are presented. The results compare well with existing experimental data as well as theoretical predictions and thus demonstrate the feasibility of the developed technique. Our setup is capable of detecting mass-changes as small as 10{sup -5} {mu}g/s, which corresponds to a removal of only 10{sup -4} W monolayers/s.

  17. Application of tridimensional intravertebral bone graft combined with AxiaLIF technique in lumbar interbody fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangdong Duan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "nLumbar interbody fusion techniques are becoming more and more minimally invasive. AxiaLIF technique can be used in low back pain caused by degenerative disc disease or minor spondylolisthesis, but there are risks for fusion failure. Intravertebral bone graft is performed in painful osteoporotic or posttraumatic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs. Until now, no attempt has been made to apply intravertebral bone graft with AxiaLIF technique."nSo first, we hypothesize a novel method for tridimensional intravertebral bone graft with a special designed bone grafting instrument and describe it vividly. The special instrument would mainly consist of a hollow tube and a rod, the distal parts of them would be shape into 45o slope, so the direction of grafting would be decided by the slope. By rotating the tube we can deliver cancellous bone granules in one plane, but by retreating the tube we can perform tridimensional intravertebral bone graft. Second, intravertebral bone graft is supposed to be performed combined with AxiaLIF technique in order to create biologic vertebral reconstruction and raise fusion rate. We believe this is the first description of such a method, future clinical studies are needed to validate these hypotheses.

  18. Hybrid Pixel-Based Method for Cardiac Ultrasound Fusion Based on Integration of PCA and DWT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Mazaheri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical image fusion is the procedure of combining several images from one or multiple imaging modalities. In spite of numerous attempts in direction of automation ventricle segmentation and tracking in echocardiography, due to low quality images with missing anatomical details or speckle noises and restricted field of view, this problem is a challenging task. This paper presents a fusion method which particularly intends to increase the segment-ability of echocardiography features such as endocardial and improving the image contrast. In addition, it tries to expand the field of view, decreasing impact of noise and artifacts and enhancing the signal to noise ratio of the echo images. The proposed algorithm weights the image information regarding an integration feature between all the overlapping images, by using a combination of principal component analysis and discrete wavelet transform. For evaluation, a comparison has been done between results of some well-known techniques and the proposed method. Also, different metrics are implemented to evaluate the performance of proposed algorithm. It has been concluded that the presented pixel-based method based on the integration of PCA and DWT has the best result for the segment-ability of cardiac ultrasound images and better performance in all metrics.

  19. Indirect-direct hybrid-drive work-dominated hotspot ignition for inertial confinement fusion

    CERN Document Server

    He, X T; Li, J W; Liu, J; Lan, K; Wu, J F; Wang, L F; Ye, W H

    2015-01-01

    An indirect-direct hybrid-drive work-dominated hotspot ignition scheme for inertial confinement fusion is proposed: a layered fuel capsule inside a spherical hohlraum with an octahedral symmetry is compressed first by indirect-drive soft-x rays (radiation) and then by direct-drive lasers in last pulse duration. In this scheme, an enhanced shock and a follow-up compression wave for ignition with pressure far greater than the radiation ablation pressure are driven by the direct-drive lasers, and provide large pdV work to the hotspot to perform the work-dominated ignition. The numerical simulations show that the enhanced shock stops the reflections of indirect-drive shock at the main fuel-hotspot interface, and therefore significantly suppresses the hydrodynamic instabilities and asymmetry. Based on the indirect-drive implosion dynamics the hotspot is further compressed and heated by the enhanced shock and follow-up compression wave, resulting in the work-dominated hotspot ignition and burn with a maximal implos...

  20. Online energy management strategy of fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles based on data fusion approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Daming; Al-Durra, Ahmed; Gao, Fei; Ravey, Alexandre; Matraji, Imad; Godoy Simões, Marcelo

    2017-10-01

    Energy management strategy plays a key role for Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles (FCHEVs), it directly affects the efficiency and performance of energy storages in FCHEVs. For example, by using a suitable energy distribution controller, the fuel cell system can be maintained in a high efficiency region and thus saving hydrogen consumption. In this paper, an energy management strategy for online driving cycles is proposed based on a combination of the parameters from three offline optimized fuzzy logic controllers using data fusion approach. The fuzzy logic controllers are respectively optimized for three typical driving scenarios: highway, suburban and city in offline. To classify patterns of online driving cycles, a Probabilistic Support Vector Machine (PSVM) is used to provide probabilistic classification results. Based on the classification results of the online driving cycle, the parameters of each offline optimized fuzzy logic controllers are then fused using Dempster-Shafer (DS) evidence theory, in order to calculate the final parameters for the online fuzzy logic controller. Three experimental validations using Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) platform with different-sized FCHEVs have been performed. Experimental comparison results show that, the proposed PSVM-DS based online controller can achieve a relatively stable operation and a higher efficiency of fuel cell system in real driving cycles.

  1. Bioethanol production by a flocculent hybrid, CHFY0321 obtained by protoplast fusion between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Gi-Wook; Kang, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Yule [Changhae Institute of Cassava and Ethanol Research, Changhae Ethanol Co., LTD, Palbok-Dong 829, Dukjin-Gu, Jeonju 561-203 (Korea); Um, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Mina; Kim, Yang-Hoon [Department of Microbiology, Chungbuk National University, 410 Sungbong-Ro, Heungduk-Gu, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea)

    2010-08-15

    Fusion hybrid yeast, CHFY0321, was obtained by protoplast fusion between non-flocculent-high ethanol fermentative Saccharomyces cerevisiae CHY1011 and flocculent-low ethanol fermentative Saccharomyces bayanus KCCM12633. The hybrid yeast was used together with the parental strains to examine ethanol production in batch fermentation. Under the conditions tested, the fusion hybrid CHFY0321 flocculated to the highest degree and had the capacity to ferment well at pH 4.5 and 32 C. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation for ethanol production was carried out using a cassava (Manihot esculenta) powder hydrolysate medium containing 19.5% (w v{sup -1}) total sugar in a 5 l lab scale jar fermenter at 32 C for 65 h with an agitation speed of 2 Hz. Under these conditions, CHFY0321 showed the highest flocculating ability and the best fermentation efficiency for ethanol production compared with those of the wild-type parent strains. CHFY0321 gave a final ethanol concentration of 89.8 {+-} 0.13 g l{sup -1}, a volumetric ethanol productivity of 1.38 {+-} 0.13 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1}, and a theoretical yield of 94.2 {+-} 1.58%. These results suggest that CHFY0321 exhibited the fermentation characteristics of S. cerevisiae CHY1011 and the flocculent ability of S. bayanus KCCM12633. Therefore, the strong highly flocculent ethanol fermentative CHFY0321 has potential for improving biotechnological ethanol fermentation processes. (author)

  2. Performance evaluation of multi-sensor data fusion technique for test range application

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shrabani Bhattacharya; R Appavu Raj

    2004-04-01

    We have adopted the state-vector fusion technique for fusing multiple sensors track data to provide complete and precise trajectory information about the flight vehicle under test, for the purpose of flight safety monitoring and decisionmaking at Test Range. The present paper brings out the performance of the algorithm for different process noise and measurement noise using simulated as well as real track data.

  3. Plasma diagnostic techniques in thermal-barrier tandem-mirror fusion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, E.H.; Clauser, J.F.; Carter, M.R.; Failor, B.H.; Foote, J.H.; Hornady, R.S.; James, R.A.; Lasnier, C.J.; Perkins, D.E.

    1986-08-29

    We review two classes of plasma diagnostic techniques used in thermal-barrier tandem-mirror fusion experiments. The emphasis of the first class is to study mirror-trapped electrons at the thermal-barrier location. The focus of the second class is to measure the spatial and temporal behavior of the plasma space potential at various axial locations. The design and operation of the instruments in these two categories are discussed and data that are representative of their performance is presented.

  4. FEATURE FUSION TECHNIQUE FOR COLOUR TEXTURE CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM BASED ON GRAY LEVEL CO-OCCURRENCE MATRIX

    OpenAIRE

    Shunmuganathan, K. L.; A. Suresh

    2012-01-01

    In this study, an efficient feature fusion based technique for the classification of colour texture images in VisTex album is presented. Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) and its associated texture features contrast, correlation, energy and homogeneity are used in the proposed approach. The proposed GLCM texture features are obtained from the original colour texture as well as the first non singleton dimension of the same image. These features are fused at feature level to classify the c...

  5. Speckle noise reduction in ultrasound images using a discrete wavelet transform-based image fusion technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun Ho; Lee, Ju Hwan; Kim, Sung Min; Park, Sung Yun

    2015-01-01

    Here, the speckle noise in ultrasonic images is removed using an image fusion-based denoising method. To optimize the denoising performance, each discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and filtering technique was analyzed and compared. In addition, the performances were compared in order to derive the optimal input conditions. To evaluate the speckle noise removal performance, an image fusion algorithm was applied to the ultrasound images, and comparatively analyzed with the original image without the algorithm. As a result, applying DWT and filtering techniques caused information loss and noise characteristics, and did not represent the most significant noise reduction performance. Conversely, an image fusion method applying SRAD-original conditions preserved the key information in the original image, and the speckle noise was removed. Based on such characteristics, the input conditions of SRAD-original had the best denoising performance with the ultrasound images. From this study, the best denoising technique proposed based on the results was confirmed to have a high potential for clinical application.

  6. A CYTOGENETIC AND PHENOTYPIC CHARACTERIZATION OF SOMATIC HYBRID PLANTS OBTAINED AFTER FUSION OF 2 DIFFERENT DIHAPLOID CLONES OF POTATO (SOLANUM-TUBEROSUM L)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WAARA, S; PIJNACKER, L; FERWERDA, MA; WALLIN, A; ERIKSSON, T

    1992-01-01

    Somatic hybrid plants of various ploidy levels obtained after chemical fusion between two dihaploid clones of potato Solanum tuberosum L. have been analysed by cytological, morphological and molecular methods. The hybrid nature of tetraploid and hexaploid plants and the genome dosage in hexaploid hy

  7. Color fusion of SAR and FLIR images using a natural color transfer technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaoyuan Sun; Zhongliang Jing; Zhenhua Li; Gang Liu

    2005-01-01

    Fusion of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and forward looking infrared (FLIR) images is an important subject for aerospace and sensor surveillance. This paper presents a scheme to achieve a natural color image based on the contours feature of SAR and the target region feature of FLIR so that the overall scene recognition and situational awareness can be improved. The SAR and FLIR images are first decomposed into steerable pyramids, and the contour maps in the SAR image and the region maps in the FLIR image are calculated. The contour and region features are fused at each level of the steerable pyramids. A color image is then formed by transferring daytime color to the monochromic image by using the natural color transfer technique. Experimental results show that the proposed method is effective in providing a color fusion of SAR and FLIR images.

  8. Coal ash fusion temperatures -- New characterization techniques, and associations with phase equilibria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, T.F.; Gupta, R.P.; Gupta, S. [Univ. of Newcastle, New South Wales (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Creelman, R.A. [R.A. Creelman and Associates, Epping, New South Wales (Australia); Coin, C. [ACIRL Ipswich, Booval, Queensland (Australia); Lowe, A. [Pacific Power, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    The well-documented shortcomings of the standard technique for estimating the fusion temperature of coal ash are its subjective nature and poor accuracy. Alternative measurements based on the shrinkage and electrical conductivity of heating samples are therefore examined with laboratory ash prepared at about 800 C in crucibles, as well as combustion ash sampled from power stations. Sensitive shrinkage measurements indicate temperatures of rapid change which correspond to the formation of liquid phases that can be identified on ternary phase diagrams. The existence and extent of formation of these phases, as quantified by the magnitude of peaks in the test, provide alternative ash fusion temperatures. The peaks from laboratory ashes and corresponding combustion ashes derived from the same coals show clear differences which may be related to the evaporation of potassium during combustion and the reactions of the mineral residues to form combustion ash.

  9. A hybrid-drive nonisobaric-ignition scheme for inertial confinement fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, X. T., E-mail: xthe@iapcm.ac.cn [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, P. O. Box 8009, Beijing 100094 (China); Center for Applied Physics and Technology, HEDPS, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center of MoE, Shanghai Jiao-Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Institute of Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Li, J. W.; Wang, L. F.; Liu, J.; Lan, K.; Ye, W. H. [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, P. O. Box 8009, Beijing 100094 (China); Center for Applied Physics and Technology, HEDPS, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center of MoE, Shanghai Jiao-Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Fan, Z. F.; Wu, J. F. [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, P. O. Box 8009, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2016-08-15

    A new hybrid-drive (HD) nonisobaric ignition scheme of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is proposed, in which a HD pressure to drive implosion dynamics increases via increasing density rather than temperature in the conventional indirect drive (ID) and direct drive (DD) approaches. In this HD (combination of ID and DD) scheme, an assembled target of a spherical hohlraum and a layered deuterium-tritium capsule inside is used. The ID lasers first drive the shock to perform a spherical symmetry implosion and produce a large-scale corona plasma. Then, the DD lasers, whose critical surface in ID corona plasma is far from the radiation ablation front, drive a supersonic electron thermal wave, which slows down to a high-pressure electron compression wave, like a snowplow, piling up the corona plasma into high density and forming a HD pressurized plateau with a large width. The HD pressure is several times the conventional ID and DD ablation pressure and launches an enhanced precursor shock and a continuous compression wave, which give rise to the HD capsule implosion dynamics in a large implosion velocity. The hydrodynamic instabilities at imploding capsule interfaces are suppressed, and the continuous HD compression wave provides main pdV work large enough to hotspot, resulting in the HD nonisobaric ignition. The ignition condition and target design based on this scheme are given theoretically and by numerical simulations. It shows that the novel scheme can significantly suppress implosion asymmetry and hydrodynamic instabilities of current isobaric hotspot ignition design, and a high-gain ICF is promising.

  10. A hybrid-drive nonisobaric-ignition scheme for inertial confinement fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, X. T.; Li, J. W.; Fan, Z. F.; Wang, L. F.; Liu, J.; Lan, K.; Wu, J. F.; Ye, W. H.

    2016-08-01

    A new hybrid-drive (HD) nonisobaric ignition scheme of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is proposed, in which a HD pressure to drive implosion dynamics increases via increasing density rather than temperature in the conventional indirect drive (ID) and direct drive (DD) approaches. In this HD (combination of ID and DD) scheme, an assembled target of a spherical hohlraum and a layered deuterium-tritium capsule inside is used. The ID lasers first drive the shock to perform a spherical symmetry implosion and produce a large-scale corona plasma. Then, the DD lasers, whose critical surface in ID corona plasma is far from the radiation ablation front, drive a supersonic electron thermal wave, which slows down to a high-pressure electron compression wave, like a snowplow, piling up the corona plasma into high density and forming a HD pressurized plateau with a large width. The HD pressure is several times the conventional ID and DD ablation pressure and launches an enhanced precursor shock and a continuous compression wave, which give rise to the HD capsule implosion dynamics in a large implosion velocity. The hydrodynamic instabilities at imploding capsule interfaces are suppressed, and the continuous HD compression wave provides main pdV work large enough to hotspot, resulting in the HD nonisobaric ignition. The ignition condition and target design based on this scheme are given theoretically and by numerical simulations. It shows that the novel scheme can significantly suppress implosion asymmetry and hydrodynamic instabilities of current isobaric hotspot ignition design, and a high-gain ICF is promising.

  11. OFF-LINE HANDWRITING RECOGNITION USING VARIOUS HYBRID MODELING TECHNIQUES AND CHARACTER N-GRAMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakensiek, A.; Rottland, J.; Kosmala, A.; Rigoll, G.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a system for on-line cursive handwriting recognition is described. The system is based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) using discrete and hybrid modeling techniques. Here, we focus on two aspects of the recognition system. First, we present different hybrid modeling techniques, whereas

  12. Coal ash fusion temperatures - new characterization techniques and implications for slagging and fouling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, T.F.; Creelman, R.A.; Gupta, R.P.; Gupta, S.K.; Coin, C.; Lowe, A. [University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia). CRC for Black Coal Utilisation

    1998-09-01

    The ash fusion test (AFT) is the accepted test for the propensity of coal ash to slag in the furnace. The well-documented shortcomings of this technique for estimating the fusion temperature of coal ash are its subjective nature and poor accuracy. Alternative measurements based on the shrinkage and electrical conductivity of heating samples are therefore examined here with laboratory ash prepared at about 800{degree}C in crucibles, as well as combustion ash samples from power stations. Sensitive shrinkage measurements indicate temperatures of rapid change which correspond to the formation of liquid phases that can be identified on ternary phase diagrams. The existence and extent of formation of these phases, as quantified by the magnitude of `peaks` in the test, provide alternative ash fusion temperatures. The peaks from laboratory ashes and corresponding combustion ashes derived from the same coals show clear differences which may be related to the evaporation of potassium during combustion and the reactions of the mineral residues to form combustion ash. A preliminary evaluation of data from nine power stations indicates that shrinkage measurements can provide an alternative approach to characterizing slagging. 15 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Analysis of Image Fusion Techniques for fingerprint Palmprint Multimodal Biometric System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Anu H Naira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The multimodal Biometric System using multiple sources of information has been widely recognized. However computational models for multimodal biometrics recognition have only recently received attention. In this paper the fingerprint and palmprint images are chosen and fused together using image fusion methods. The biometric features are subjected to modality extraction. Different fusion methods like average fusion, minimum fusion, maximum fusion, discrete wavelet transform fusion and stationary wavelet transformfusion are implemented for the fusion of extracting modalities. The best fused template is analyzed by applying various fusion metrics. Here the DWT fused image provided better results.

  14. Application of data fusion techniques and technologies for wearable health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Rachel C; Villeneuve, Emma; White, Ruth J; Sherratt, R Simon; Holderbaum, William; Harwin, William S

    2017-02-22

    Technological advances in sensors and communications have enabled discrete integration into everyday objects, both in the home and about the person. Information gathered by monitoring physiological, behavioural, and social aspects of our lives, can be used to achieve a positive impact on quality of life, health, and well-being. Wearable sensors are at the cusp of becoming truly pervasive, and could be woven into the clothes and accessories that we wear such that they become ubiquitous and transparent. To interpret the complex multidimensional information provided by these sensors, data fusion techniques are employed to provide a meaningful representation of the sensor outputs. This paper is intended to provide a short overview of data fusion techniques and algorithms that can be used to interpret wearable sensor data in the context of health monitoring applications. The application of these techniques are then described in the context of healthcare including activity and ambulatory monitoring, gait analysis, fall detection, and biometric monitoring. A snap-shot of current commercially available sensors is also provided, focusing on their sensing capability, and a commentary on the gaps that need to be bridged to bring research to market.

  15. Joining techniques for a reduced activation 12Cr steel for inertial fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, R.M., E-mail: hunt52@llnl.gov; El-Dasher, B., E-mail: eldasher2@llnl.gov; Choi, B.W., E-mail: choi3@llnl.gov; Torres, S.G., E-mail: torres4@llnl.gov

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We characterized joining techniques for a candidate material for inertial confinement fusion: reduced activation ferritic martensitic 12% chromium steel. • E-beam, TIG, and laser welds were completed with good quality without significant cracking or porosity. • A heat treatment of 950 °C for 1 h normalized the weld fusion zone and heat-affected zone to the base metal microstructure. • Diffusion bonding at 950 °C or greater for 2 h produced an interface with over 600 MPa tensile strength. - Abstract: At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we are developing a reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel that is based on the ferritic martensitic steel HT-9. As a part of the development of this steel, we tested a series of welding processes for characterization, including conventional welds (electron beam, tungsten inert gas, and laser) as well as solid-state welds (hot isostatic pressing). We also heat treated the joints at various temperatures between 750 °C and 1050 °C to find a suitable normalization scheme. The modified HT-9 reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel appears highly suitable to welding and diffusion bonding. All welds showed good quality fusion zones with insignificant cracking or porosity. Additionally, a heat treatment schedule of 950 °C for one hour caused minimal grain growth while still converging the hardness of the base metal with that of the fusion and heat-affected zones. Also, modified HT-9 diffusion bonds that were created at temperatures of at least 950 °C for two hours at 103 MPa had interface tensile strengths of greater than 600 MPa. The diffusion bonds showed no evidence of increased hardness nor void formation at the diffusion bonded interface.

  16. Study of lower hybrid current drive system in tokamak fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maebara, Sunao [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-01-01

    This report describes R and D of a high-power klystron, RF vacuum window, low-outgassing antenna and a front module for a plasma-facing antenna aiming the 5 GHz Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) system for the next Tokamak Fusion Device. 5 GHz klystron with a low-perveances of 0.7 {mu}P is designed for a high-power and a high-efficiency, the output-power of 715 kW and the efficiency of 63%, which are beyond the conventional design scaling of 450 kW-45%, are performed using the prototype klystron which operates at the pulse duration of 15 {mu}sec. A new pillbox window, which has an oversized length in both the axial and the radial direction, are designed to reduce the RF power density and the electric field strength at the ceramics. It is evaluated that the power capability by cooling edge of ceramics is 1 MW with continuous-wave operation. The antenna module using Dispersion Strengthened Copper which combines high mechanical property up to 500degC with high thermal conductivity, are developed for a low-outgassing antenna in a steady state operation. It is found that the outgassing rate is in the lower range of 4x10{sup -6} Pam{sup 3}/sm{sup 2} at the module temperature of 300degC, which requires no active vacuum pumping of the LHCD antenna. A front module using Carbon Fiber Composite (CFC) are fabricated and tested for a plasma facing antenna which has a high heat-resistive. Stationary operation of the CFC module with water cooling is performed at the RF power of 46 MWm{sup -2} (about 2 times higher than the design value) during 1000 sec, it is found that the outgassing rate is less than 10{sup -5} Pam{sup 3}/sm{sup 2} which is low enough for an antenna material. (author)

  17. Large-Scale, Multi-Sensor Atmospheric Data Fusion Using Hybrid Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, B. D.; Manipon, G.; Hua, H.; Fetzer, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) is an ambitious facility for studying global climate change. The mandate now is to combine measurements from the instruments on the "A-Train" platforms (AIRS, MODIS, MLS, and CloudSat) and other Earth probes to enable large-scale studies of climate change over decades. Moving to multi-sensor, long-duration presents serious challenges for large-scale data mining and fusion. For example, one might want to compare temperature and water vapor retrievals from one instrument (AIRS) to another (MODIS), and to a model (ECMWF), stratify the comparisons using a classification of the "cloud scenes" from CloudSat, and repeat the entire analysis over 10 years of data. HySDS is a Hybrid-Cloud Science Data System that has been developed and applied under NASA AIST, MEaSUREs, and ACCESS grants. HySDS uses the SciFlow workflow engine to partition analysis workflows into parallel tasks (e.g. segmenting by time or space) that are pushed into a durable job queue. The tasks are "pulled" from the queue by worker Virtual Machines (VM's) and executed in an on-premise Cloud (Eucalyptus or OpenStack) or at Amazon in the public Cloud or govCloud. In this way, years of data (millions of files) can be processed in a massively parallel way. Input variables (arrays) are pulled on-demand into the Cloud using OPeNDAP URLs or other subsetting services, thereby minimizing the size of the transferred data. We are using HySDS to automate the production of multiple versions of a ten-year A-Train water vapor climatology under a MEASURES grant. We will present the architecture of HySDS, describe the achieved "clock time" speedups in fusing datasets on our own nodes and in the Amazon Cloud, and discuss the Cloud cost tradeoffs for storage, compute, and data transfer. Our system demonstrates how one can pull A-Train variables (Levels 2 & 3) on-demand into the Amazon Cloud, and cache only those variables that are heavily used, so that any number of compute jobs can be

  18. Olive oil sensory defects classification with data fusion of instrumental techniques and multivariate analysis (PLS-DA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borràs, Eva; Ferré, Joan; Boqué, Ricard; Mestres, Montserrat; Aceña, Laura; Calvo, Angels; Busto, Olga

    2016-07-15

    Three instrumental techniques, headspace-mass spectrometry (HS-MS), mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIR) and UV-visible spectrophotometry (UV-vis), have been combined to classify virgin olive oil samples based on the presence or absence of sensory defects. The reference sensory values were provided by an official taste panel. Different data fusion strategies were studied to improve the discrimination capability compared to using each instrumental technique individually. A general model was applied to discriminate high-quality non-defective olive oils (extra-virgin) and the lowest-quality olive oils considered non-edible (lampante). A specific identification of key off-flavours, such as musty, winey, fusty and rancid, was also studied. The data fusion of the three techniques improved the classification results in most of the cases. Low-level data fusion was the best strategy to discriminate musty, winey and fusty defects, using HS-MS, MIR and UV-vis, and the rancid defect using only HS-MS and MIR. The mid-level data fusion approach using partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) scores was found to be the best strategy for defective vs non-defective and edible vs non-edible oil discrimination. However, the data fusion did not sufficiently improve the results obtained by a single technique (HS-MS) to classify non-defective classes. These results indicate that instrumental data fusion can be useful for the identification of sensory defects in virgin olive oils.

  19. Hybrid cells derived from breast epithelial cell/breast cancer cell fusion events show a differential RAF-AKT crosstalk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özel Cem

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biological phenomenon of cell fusion has been linked to several characteristics of tumour progression, including an enhanced metastatogenic capacity and an enhanced drug resistance of hybrid cells. We demonstrated recently that M13SV1-EGFP-Neo breast epithelial cells exhibiting stem cell characteristics spontaneously fused with MDA-MB-435-Hyg breast cancer cells, thereby giving rise to stable M13MDA435 hybrid cells, which are characterised by a unique gene expression profile and migratory behaviour. Here we investigated the involvement of the PLC-β/γ1, PI3K/AKT and RAS-RAF-ERK signal transduction cascades in the EGF and SDF-1α induced migration of two M13MDA435 hybrid cell clones in comparison to their parental cells. Results Analysis of the migratory behaviour by using the three-dimensional collagen matrix migration assay showed that M13SV1-EGFP-Neo cells as well as M13MDA435 hybrid cells, but not the breast cancer cell line, responded to EGF stimulation with an increased locomotory activity. By contrast, SDF-1α solely stimulated the migration of M13SV1-EGFP-Neo cells, whereas the migratory activity of the other cell lines was blocked. Analysis of signal transduction cascades revealed a putative differential RAF-AKT crosstalk in M13MDA435-1 and -3 hybrid cell clones. The PI3K inhibitor Ly294002 effectively blocked the EGF induced migration of M13MDA435-3 hybrid cells, whereas the EGF induced locomotion of M13MDA435-1 hybrid cells was markedly increased. Analysis of RAF-1 S259 phosphorylation, being a major mediator of the negative regulation of RAF-1 by AKT, showed decreased pRAF-1 S259 levels in LY294002 treated M13MDA435-1 hybrid cells. By contrast, pRAF-1 S259 levels remained unaltered in the other cell lines. Inhibition of PI3K/AKT signalling by Ly294002 relieves the AKT mediated phosphorylation of RAF-1, thereby restoring MAPK signalling. Conclusions Here we show that hybrid cells could evolve exhibiting a

  20. Fusion of CCL21 non-migratory active breast epithelial and breast cancer cells give rise to CCL21 migratory active tumor hybrid cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Berndt

    Full Text Available The biological phenomenon of cell fusion has been linked to tumor progression because several data provided evidence that fusion of tumor cells and normal cells gave rise to hybrid cell lines exhibiting novel properties, such as increased metastatogenic capacity and an enhanced drug resistance. Here we investigated M13HS hybrid cell lines, derived from spontaneous fusion events between M13SV1-EGFP-Neo breast epithelial cells exhibiting stem cell characteristics and HS578T-Hyg breast cancer cells, concerning CCL21/CCR7 signaling. Western Blot analysis showed that all cell lines varied in their CCR7 expression levels as well as differed in the induction and kinetics of CCR7 specific signal transduction cascades. Flow cytometry-based calcium measurements revealed that a CCL21 induced calcium influx was solely detected in M13HS hybrid cell lines. Cell migration demonstrated that only M13HS hybrid cell lines, but not parental derivatives, responded to CCL21 stimulation with an increased migratory activity. Knockdown of CCR7 expression by siRNA completely abrogated the CCL21 induced migration of hybrid cell lines indicating the necessity of CCL21/CCR7 signaling. Because the CCL21/CCR7 axis has been linked to metastatic spreading of breast cancer to lymph nodes we conclude from our data that cell fusion could be a mechanism explaining the origin of metastatic cancer (hybrid cells.

  1. Water consumption and biomass production of protoplast fusion lines of poplar hybrids under drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eHennig

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Woody crops such as poplars (Populus can contribute to meet the increasing energy demand of a growing human population and can therefore enhance the security of energy supply. Using energy from biomass increases ecological sustainability as biomass is considered to play a pivotal role in abating climate change. Because areas for establishing poplar plantations are often confined to marginal sites drought tolerance is one important trait for poplar genotypes cultivated in short rotation coppice. We tested nine-month-old plants of four tetraploid Populus tremula (L. x P. tremuloides (Michx. lines that were generated by protoplast fusion and their diploid counterpart for water consumption and drought stress responses in a greenhouse experiment. The fusion lines showed equivalent or decreased height growth, stem biomass and total leaf area compared to the diploid line. The relative height increment of the fusion lines was not reduced compared to the diploid line when the plants were exposed to drought. The fusion lines were distinguished from the diploid counterpart by stomatal characteristics such as increased size and lower density. The changes in the stomatal apparatus did not affect the stomatal conductance. When exposed to drought the carbohydrate concentrations increased more strongly in the fusion lines than in the diploid line. Two fusion lines consumed significantly less water with regard to height growth, producing equivalent or increased relative stem biomass under drought compared to their diploid relative. Therefore, these tetraploid fusion lines are interesting candidates for short rotation biomass plantation on dry sites.

  2. Water consumption and biomass production of protoplast fusion lines of poplar hybrids under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Anne; Kleinschmit, Jörg R G; Schoneberg, Sebastian; Löffler, Sonja; Janßen, Alwin; Polle, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Woody crops such as poplars (Populus) can contribute to meet the increasing energy demand of a growing human population and can therefore enhance the security of energy supply. Using energy from biomass increases ecological sustainability as biomass is considered to play a pivotal role in abating climate change. Because areas for establishing poplar plantations are often confined to marginal sites drought tolerance is one important trait for poplar genotypes cultivated in short rotation coppice. We tested 9-month-old plants of four tetraploid Populus tremula (L.) × P. tremuloides (Michx.) lines that were generated by protoplast fusion and their diploid counterpart for water consumption and drought stress responses in a greenhouse experiment. The fusion lines showed equivalent or decreased height growth, stem biomass and total leaf area compared to the diploid line. The relative height increment of the fusion lines was not reduced compared to the diploid line when the plants were exposed to drought. The fusion lines were distinguished from the diploid counterpart by stomatal characteristics such as increased size and lower density. The changes in the stomatal apparatus did not affect the stomatal conductance. When exposed to drought the carbohydrate concentrations increased more strongly in the fusion lines than in the diploid line. Two fusion lines consumed significantly less water with regard to height growth, producing equivalent or increased relative stem biomass under drought compared to their diploid relative. Therefore, these tetraploid fusion lines are interesting candidates for short rotation biomass plantation on dry sites.

  3. Coupling Turbulence in Hybrid LES-RANS Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Stephen L.

    2011-01-01

    A formulation is proposed for hybrid LES-RANS computations that permits accurate computations during resolution changes, so that resolution may be changed at will in order to employ only as much resolution in each subdomain as is required by the physics. The two components of this formulation, establishing the accuracy of a hybrid model at constant resolutions throughout the RANS-to-LES range and maintaining that accuracy when resolution is varied, are demonstrated for decaying, homogeneous, isotropic turbulence.

  4. An accurate automated technique for quasi-optics measurement of the microwave diagnostics for fusion plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianqiang; Liu, Ahdi; Zhou, Chu; Zhang, Xiaohui; Wang, Mingyuan; Zhang, Jin; Feng, Xi; Li, Hong; Xie, Jinlin; Liu, Wandong; Yu, Changxuan

    2017-08-01

    A new integrated technique for fast and accurate measurement of the quasi-optics, especially for the microwave/millimeter wave diagnostic systems of fusion plasma, has been developed. Using the LabVIEW-based comprehensive scanning system, we can realize not only automatic but also fast and accurate measurement, which will help to eliminate the effects of temperature drift and standing wave/multi-reflection. With the Matlab-based asymmetric two-dimensional Gaussian fitting method, all the desired parameters of the microwave beam can be obtained. This technique can be used in the design and testing of microwave diagnostic systems such as reflectometers and the electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostic systems of the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak.

  5. Hybrid estimation technique for predicting butene concentration in polyethylene reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Ali, Jarinah; Hussain, M. A.

    2016-03-01

    A component of artificial intelligence (AI), which is fuzzy logic, is combined with the so-called conventional sliding mode observer (SMO) to establish a hybrid type estimator to predict the butene concentration in the polyethylene production reactor. Butene or co-monomer concentration is another significant parameter in the polymerization process since it will affect the molecular weight distribution of the polymer produced. The hybrid estimator offers straightforward formulation of SMO and its combination with the fuzzy logic rules. The error resulted from the SMO estimation will be manipulated using the fuzzy rules to enhance the performance, thus improved on the convergence rate. This hybrid estimation is able to estimate the butene concentration satisfactorily despite the present of noise in the process.

  6. Biomechanical comparison of a two-level Maverick disc replacement with a hybrid one-level disc replacement and one-level anterior lumbar interbody fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkan, Serkan; Rivera, Yamil; Wu, Chunhui; Mehbod, Amir A; Transfeldt, Ensor E

    2009-10-01

    Multilevel lumbar disc disease (MLDD) is a common finding in many patients. Surgical solutions for MLDD include fusion or disc replacement. The hybrid model, combining fusion and disc replacement, is a potential alternative for patients who require surgical intervention at both L5-S1 and L4-L5. The indications for this hybrid model could be posterior element insufficiency, severe facet pathology, calcified ligamentum flavum, and subarticular disease confirming spinal stenosis at L5-S1 level, or previous fusion surgery at L5-S1 and new symptomatic pathology at L4-L5. Biomechanical data of the hybrid model with the Maverick disc and anterior fusion are not available in the literature. To compare the biomechanical properties of a two-level Maverick disc replacement at L4-L5, L5-S1, and a hybrid model consisting of an L4-L5 Maverick disc replacement with an L5-S1 anterior lumbar interbody fusion using multidirectional flexibility test. An in vitro human cadaveric biomechanical study. Six fresh human cadaveric lumbar specimens (L4-S1) were subjected to unconstrained load in axial torsion (AT), lateral bending (LB), flexion (F), extension (E), and flexion-extension (FE) using multidirectional flexibility test. Four surgical treatments-intact, one-level Maverick at L5-S1, two-level Maverick between L4 and S1, and the hybrid model (anterior fusion at L5-S1 and Maverick at L4-L5) were tested in sequential order. The range of motion of each treatment was calculated. The Maverick disc replacement slightly reduced intact motion in AT and LB at both levels. The total FE motion was similar to the intact motion. However, the E motion is significantly increased (approximately 50% higher) and F motion is significantly decreased (30%-50% lower). The anterior fusion using a cage and anterior plate significantly reduced spinal motion compared with the condition (pMaverick disc prosthesis and the hybrid model in terms of all motion types at L4-L5 level (p>.05). The Maverick disc

  7. Hybrid computer techniques for solving partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, J. L., Jr.; Odowd, W. M.

    1971-01-01

    Techniques overcome equipment limitations that restrict other computer techniques in solving trivial cases. The use of curve fitting by quadratic interpolation greatly reduces required digital storage space.

  8. Phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating inscription by fusion splicing technique and femtosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yajun; Yuan, Yuan; Xu, Jian; Yang, Dexing; Li, Dong; Wang, Meirong; Zhao, Jianlin

    2016-11-01

    A new method for phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating (PS-FBG) inscription in single mode fiber by fusion splicing technique and femtosecond laser is presented. The PS-FBG is produced by exposing the fusion spliced fiber with femtosecond laser through a uniform phase mask. The transmission spectrum of the PS-FBG shows a nonlinear red shift during the inscription process, and two or three main dips can be observed due to the formation of one or two FBG-based Fabry-Pérot structures by controlling the exposure intensity and time of the laser. For a peak power density of 4.8×1013 W/cm2, the induced refractive index modulation can reach to 6.3×10-4 in the fiber without sensitization. The PS-FBG's temperature, strain and pressure characteristics are also experimentally studied. These PS-FBGs can be potentially used for multiple wavelength fiber lasers, filters and optical fiber sensors.

  9. Parametric decay instability near the upper hybrid resonance in magnetically confined fusion plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren Kjer; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Salewski, Mirko

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we investigate parametric decay of an electromagnetic pump wave into two electrostatic daughter waves, particularly an X-mode pump wave decaying into a warm upper hybrid wave (a limit of an electron Bernstein wave) and a warm lower hybrid wave. We describe the general theory...

  10. Laser-MIG Arc Hybrid Brazing-Fusion Welding of Al Alloy to Galvanized Steel with Different Filler Metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shujun WANG; Guoliang QIN; Yuhu SU

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum alloy plates were joined to galvanized steel sheets with lap joint by laser-MIG arc hybrid brazingfusion welding with AlSi5,AlSi12,AlMg5 filler wires,respectively.The influences of Si and Mg on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the brazed-fusion welded joint were studied.The increase of Si element in the fusion weld can make the grain refined,and increase the microhardness of the fusion weld.Therefore,the microhardness in fusion weld made from AlSi12 and AlSi5 filler wires can be up to 98.4 HV0.01and 96.8 HV0.01,which is higher than that from AlMg5 filler wire of 70.4 HV0.01.The highest tensile strength can reach 178.9 MPa made with AlMg5 filler wire.The tensile strength is 172.43 MPa made with AlSi5 filler wire.However,the lowest tensile strength is 144 MPa made with AlSi12 filler wire.The average thicknesses of the intermetallic compounds (IMCs) layer with AlSi5,AlSi12,AlMg5 filler wires are 1.49-2.64 μm.The lMCs layer made from AlSi5,AlSi12 filler wires are identified as FeAl2,Fe2Als,Fe4Al13 and Al0.5Fe3Si0.5,that from AlMg5 filler wire are identified as FeAl2,Fe2Al5 and Fe4Al13.

  11. NIFS workshop on application of micro-indentation technique to evaluation of mechanical properties of fusion materials. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurishita, Hiroaki; Katoh, Yutai [eds.] [Tohoku Univ., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Branch, Inst. for Materials Research

    1996-11-01

    NIFS workshop on `Application of Micro-Indentation Technique to Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Fusion Materials` were help in Toki on October 9, 1996, as a part of the activity of NIFS collaborative research on `Advanced Technologies for Small-Volume Mechanical Property Testing of Fusion Reactor Materials`. The major topics at the workshop included the application of micro- (and nano-) indentation technique to evaluation of tensile stress-strain property, interfacial mechanical property of composite and joining materials and hardening of this layers in ion-irradiated materials. This report compiles the abstract and viewgraphs for each presentation. (author)

  12. In vitro evaluation of human hybrid cell lines generated by fusion of B-lymphoblastoid cells and ex vivo tumour cells as candidate vaccines for haematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Yehia S; Dunnion, Debbie; Teobald, Iryna; Walewska, Renata; Browning, Michael J

    2012-10-12

    Fusions of dendritic cells (DCs) and tumour cells have been shown to induce protective immunity to tumour challenge in animal models, and to represent a promising approach to cancer immunotherapy. The broader clinical application of this approach, however, is potentially constrained by the lack of replicative capacity and limited standardisation of fusion cell preparations. We show here that fusion of ex vivo tumour cells isolated from patients with a range of haematological malignancies with the human B-lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL), HMy2, followed by chemical selection of the hybridomas, generated stable, self-replicating human hybrid cell lines that grew continuously in tissue culture, and survived freeze/thawing cycles. The hybrid cell lines expressed HLA class I and class II molecules, and the major T-cell costimulatory molecules, CD80 and CD86. All but two of 14 hybrid cell lines generated expressed tumour-associated antigens that were not expressed by HMy2 cells, and were therefore derived from the parent tumour cells. The hybrid cell lines stimulated allogeneic T-cell proliferative responses and interferon-gamma release in vitro to a considerably greater degree than their respective parent tumour cells. The enhanced T-cell stimulation was inhibited by CTLA4-Ig fusion protein, and by blocking antibodies to MHC class I and class II molecules. Finally, all of five LCL/tumour hybrid cell lines tested induced tumour antigen-specific cytotoxic T-cell responses in vitro in PBL from healthy, HLA-A2+ individuals, as detected by HLA-A2-peptide pentamer staining and cellular cytotoxicity. These data show that stable hybrid cell lines, with enhanced immunostimulatory properties and potential for therapeutic vaccination, can be generated by in vitro fusion and chemical selection of B-LCL and ex vivo haematological tumour cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Hybrid Islanding Detection Technique Using Average Rate of Voltage Change and Real Power Shift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahat, Pukar; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    technique is proposed to solve this problem. An average rate of voltage change (passive technique) has been used to initiate a real power shift (active technique), which changes the eal power of distributed generation (DG), when the passive technique cannot have a clear discrimination between islanding......The mainly used islanding detection techniques may be classified as active and passive techniques. Passive techniques don't perturb the system but they have larger nondetection znes, whereas active techniques have smaller nondetection zones but they perturb the system. In this paper, a new hybrid...

  14. Green and Fast Laser Fusion Technique for Bulk Silicate Rock Analysis by Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenxi; Hu, Zhaochu; Zhang, Wen; Liu, Yongsheng; Zong, Keqing; Li, Ming; Chen, Haihong; Hu, Shenghong

    2016-10-18

    Sample preparation of whole-rock powders is the major limitation for their accurate and precise elemental analysis by laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). In this study, a green, efficient, and simplified fusion technique using a high energy infrared laser was developed for major and trace elemental analysis. Fusion takes only tens of milliseconds for each sample. Compared to the pressed pellet sample preparation, the analytical precision of the developed laser fusion technique is higher by an order of magnitude for most elements in granodiorite GSP-2. Analytical results obtained for five USGS reference materials (ranging from mafic to intermediate to felsic) using the laser fusion technique generally agree with recommended values with discrepancies of less than 10% for most elements. However, high losses (20-70%) of highly volatile elements (Zn and Pb) and the transition metal Cu are observed. The achieved precision is within 5% for major elements and within 15% for most trace elements. Direct laser fusion of rock powders is a green and notably simple method to obtain homogeneous samples, which will significantly accelerate the application of laser ablation ICPMS for whole-rock sample analysis.

  15. Technique for gray-scale visual light and infrared image fusion based on non-subsampled shearlet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Weiwei

    2014-03-01

    A novel image fusion technique based on NSST (non-subsampled shearlet transform) is presented, aiming at resolving the fusion problem of spatially gray-scale visual light and infrared images. NSST, as a new member of MGA (multi-scale geometric analysis) tools, possesses not only flexible direction features and optimal shift-invariance, but much better fusion performance and lower computational costs compared with several current popular MGA tools such as NSCT (non-subsampled contourlet transform). We specifically propose new rules for the fusion of low and high frequency sub-band coefficients of source images in the second step of the NSST-based image fusion algorithm. First, the source images are decomposed into different scales and directions using NSST. Then, the model of region average energy (RAE) is proposed and adopted to fuse the low frequency sub-band coefficients of the gray-scale visual light and infrared images. Third, the model of local directional contrast (LDC) is given and utilized to fuse the corresponding high frequency sub-band coefficients. Finally, the final fused image is obtained by using inverse NSST to all fused sub-images. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed technique, several current popular ones are compared over three different publicly available image sets using four evaluation metrics, and the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed technique performs better in both subjective and objective qualities.

  16. Satellite-based enhancement of archaeological marks through data fusion techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasaponara, Rosa; Masini, Nicola; Aiazzi, Bruno; Alparone, Luciano; Baronti, Stefano

    2008-10-01

    The application of space technology to archaeological research has been paid great attention worldwide, mainly because the current availability of very high resolution (VHR) satellite imagery, such as, IKONOS (1999) and QuickBird (2001), provide valuable data for searching large areas to find potential archaeological sites. Data from VHR satellite can be very useful for the identification, management and documentation of archaeological resources. Archaeological investigation based on the use of VHR satellite images may take benefits from the integration and synergic use of both panchromatic and multispectral data. This can be achieved by using pansharpening techniques, which allow multispectral and panchromatic images to be merged. The two basic frameworks of pansharpening techniques are Component Substitution (CS), such as Intensity-Hue-Saturation (IHS) Gram-Schmidt (GS), and multiresolution analysis (MRA), such as wavelets and Laplacian pyramids (LP). In this paper, both Gram-Schmidt and Laplacian pyramids with context adaptive (CA) detail injection models were used. QB images were processed for a relevant archaeological area in Southern Italy, the ancient Siris-Heraclea, a very significant test area because it is characterized by the presence of both surface and subsurface ancient remains. Outcomes of different pansharpening techniques have been qualitatively evaluated for both surface and subsurface remains. The visual inspection clearly suggests that the quantitative evaluation of the fusion performance for archaeological applications is a critical issue, and "ad hoc" local (i.e. context-adaptive) indices need to be developed.

  17. Direct detection of expanded trinucleotide repeats using DNA hybridization techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petronis, A.; Tatuch, Y.; Kennedy, J.L. [Univ. of Toronto (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Recently, unstable trinucleotide repeats have been shown to be the etiologic factor in several neuropsychiatric diseases, and they may play a similar role in other disorders. To our knowledge, a method that detects expanded trinucleotide sequences with the opportunity for direct localization and cloning has not been achieved. We have developed a set of hybridization-based methods for direct detection of unstable DNA expansion. Our analysis of myotonic dystrophy patients that possess different degrees of (CTG){sub n} expansion, versus unaffected controls, has demonstrated the identification of the trinucleotide instability site without any prior information regarding genetic map location. High stringency modified Southern blot hybridization with a PCR-generated trinucleotide repeat probe allowed us to detect the DNA fragment containing the expansion in myotonic dystrophy patients. The same probe was used for fluorescent in situ hybridization and several regions of (CTG){sub n}/(CAG){sub n} repeats in the human genome were detected, including the myotonic dystrophy locus on chromosome 19q. These strategies can be applied to directly clone genes involved in disorders caused by unstable DNA.

  18. Application of asymptotic waveform approximation technique to hybrid FE/BI method for 3D scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Zhen; SHENG XinQing

    2007-01-01

    The asymptotic waveform evaluation (AWE) technique is a rational function approximation method in computational mathematics, which is used in many applications in computational electromagnetics. In this paper, the performance of the AWE technique in conjunction with hybrid finite element/boundary integral (FE/BI) method is firstly investigated. The formulation of the AWE applied in hybrid FE/BI method is given in detail. The characteristic implementation of the application of the AWE to the hybrid FE/BI method is discussed. Numerical results demonstrate that the AWE technique can greatly speed up the hybrid FE/BI method to acquire wide-band and wide-angle backscatter radar-cross-section (RCS) by complex targets.

  19. Actinide incineration in fusion-fission hybrid-A model nuclear synergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taczanowski, Stefan

    2012-06-01

    The alliance of fusion with fission is a cause worthy of great efforts, as being able to ease (if not even to solve) serious problems that both these forms of nuclear energy are facing. Very high investment costs caused by tokamak enormous size, material consumption and difficult technology put in doubt whether alone the minute demand for fuel raw material (Li) and lack of danger of uncontrolled supercriticality prove sufficient for making it competitive. Preliminary evaluations demonstrated that a radical shift of energy production i.e. the energy gain from plasma to fission blanket is feasible [1]. A reduction in the fusion component to about 2% at given system power allows for a radical drop in plasma Q down to the values of ˜0.2-0.3 achievable in small systems [2] (e.g. mirrors) of sizes comparable to fission reactors. As a result in a Fusion-Driven Actinide Incinerator (FDI) both radiations from the plasma: corpuscular (i.e. neutrons and ions) and photons are drastically reduced. Thus are too, first of all - the neutron induced radiation damage: DPA and gas production, then plasma-wall interactions. The fundamental safety of the system has been proved by simulation of its collapse that has shown preservation its subcriticality. Summarizing, all the above problems may be solved with synergic union of fusion with fission embodied in the concept of FDI - small and less expensive.

  20. In situ hybridization analysis of isodicentric X-chromosomes with short arm fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, J E; Kølvraa, S; Hertz, Jens Michael;

    1990-01-01

    We present here an alternative approach to the study of mosaic cell lines containing dicentric chromosomes. The approach is based on chromosome-specific non-radioactive in situ hybridization with centromere (alpha satellite DNA) probes. The hybridization analysis may be used as an alternative...... it for the analysis of two cases of isodicentric X-chromosomes. The approach is expected to be generally applicable, so that it may be applied to the scoring of other types of chromosomal mosaicism as well....

  1. A simplified technique for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion using a screw-plate implanted over the Caspar distractor pins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, Patrick

    2010-08-01

    The author presents a simplified technique for midline screw-plate fixation in fusion procedures after anterior cervical discectomy, in which the plate is introduced over the Caspar distractor pins. The Uniplate system used, with a single screw in each vertebral body, minimizes bone damage to the vertebral body as the screws can be fixed in the holes previously used for the Caspar distractor pins. This simplified version of the classical anterior cervical fusion technique saves surgical time, facilitates screw insertion, and obviates the need for manipulations to stabilize the plate before the screws are inserted. It provides immediate stability comparable to other plate systems. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report on cervical fusion with the Uniplate system with the plate being introduced over the Caspar distractor pins.

  2. Learning curve of a complex surgical technique: minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS TLIF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kong Hwee; Yeo, William; Soeharno, Henry; Yue, Wai Mun

    2014-10-01

    Prospective cohort study. This study aimed to evaluate the learning curve of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS TLIF). Very few studies have evaluated the learning curve of this technically demanding surgery. We intend to evaluate the learning curve of MIS TLIF with a larger sample size and assess surgical competence based not only on operative time but with perioperative variables, clinical and radiologic outcomes, incidence of complications, and patient satisfaction. From 2005 to 2009, the first 90 single-level MIS TLIF, which utilized a consistent technique and spinal instrumentation, performed by a single surgeon at our tertiary institution were studied. Variables studied included operative time, perioperative variables, clinical (Visual Analogue Scores for back and leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index, North American Spine Society Scores for neurogenic symptoms) and radiologic outcomes, incidence of complications and patient rating of expectation met, and the overall result of surgery. The asymptote of the surgeon's learning curve for MIS TLIF was achieved at the 44th case. Comparing the early group of 44 patients to the latter 46, the demographics were similar. For operative parameters, only 3 variables showed differences between the 2 groups: mean operative duration, fluoroscopy duration, and usage of patient-controlled analgesia. At the final follow-up, for clinical outcome parameters, the 2 groups were different in 3 parameters: VAS scores for back, leg pain, and neurogenic symptom scores. For radiologic outcome, both groups showed similar good fusion rates. For complications, none of the MIS TLIF cases were converted to open TLIF intraoperatively. In the early group, there were 3 complications: 1 incidental durotomy and 2 asymptomatic cage migrations; and in the latter group, there was 1 asymptomatic cage migration. In our study, technical proficiency in MIS TLIF was achieved after 44 surgeries, and the latter patients benefited

  3. Hybrid Surgery Versus Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion in Multilevel Cervical Disc Diseases: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianfeng; Meng, Fanxin; Ding, Yan; Li, Jie; Han, Jian; Zhang, Xintao; Dong, Wei

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the outcomes and reliability of hybrid surgery (HS) versus anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) for the treatment of multilevel cervical spondylosis and disc diseases.Hybrid surgery, combining cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) with fusion, is a novel treatment to multilevel cervical degenerated disc disease in recent years. However, the effect and reliability of HS are still unclear compared with ACDF.To investigate the studies of HS versus ACDF in patients with multilevel cervical disease, electronic databases (Medline, Embase, Pubmed, Cochrane library, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) were searched. Studies were included when they compared HS with ACDF and reported at least one of the following outcomes: functionality, neck pain, arm pain, cervical range of motion (ROM), quality of life, and incidence of complications. No language restrictions were used. Two authors independently assessed the methodological quality of included studies and extracted the relevant data.Seven clinical controlled trials were included in this study. Two trials were prospective and the other 5 were retrospective. The results of the meta-analysis indicated that HS achieved better recovery of NDI score (P = 0.038) and similar recovery of VAS score (P = 0.058) compared with ACDF at 2 years follow-up. Moreover, the total cervical ROM (C2-C7) after HS was preserved significantly more than the cervical ROM after ACDF (P = 0.000) at 2 years follow-up. Notably, the compensatory increase of the ROM of superior and inferior adjacent segments was significant in ACDF groups at 2-year follow-up (P multilevel cervical spondylosis to preserve cervical ROM and reduce the risk of adjacent disc degeneration. Nonetheless, more well-designed studies with large groups of patients are required to provide further evidence for the benefit and reliability of HS for the treatment of cervical disk diseases.

  4. Multi-sensor fusion techniques for state estimation of micro air vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donavanik, Daniel; Hardt-Stremayr, Alexander; Gremillion, Gregory; Weiss, Stephan; Nothwang, William

    2016-05-01

    Aggressive flight of micro air vehicles (MAVs) in unstructured, GPS-denied environments poses unique challenges for estimation of vehicle pose and velocity due to the noise, delay, and drift in individual sensor measurements. Maneuvering flight at speeds in excess of 5 m/s poses additional challenges even for active range sensors; in the case of LIDAR, an assembled scan of the vehicles environment will in most cases be obsolete by the time it is processed. Multi-sensor fusion techniques which combine inertial measurements with passive vision techniques and/or LIDAR have achieved breakthroughs in the ability to maintain accurate state estimates without the use of external positioning sensors. In this paper, we survey algorithmic approaches to exploiting sensors with a wide range of nonlinear dynamics using filter and bundle-adjustment based approaches for state estimation and optimal control. From this foundation, we propose a biologically-inspired framework for incorporating the human operator in the loop as a privileged sensor in a combined human/autonomy paradigm.

  5. Treatment of congenital thoracic scoliosis with associated rib fusions using VEPTR expansion thoracostomy: a surgical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayer, Romain; Ceroni, Dimitri; Lascombes, Pierre

    2014-07-01

    Untreated growing patients with congenital scoliosis and fused ribs will develop finally thoracic insufficiency syndrome. The technique of expansion thoracoplasty with implantation of a vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib (VEPTR) was introduced initially to treat these children. This article attempts to provide an overview of the surgical technique of opening-wedge thoracostomy and VEPTR instrumentation in children with congenital thoracic scoliosis and fused ribs. Our modification of the surgical approach using a posterior midline incision rather than the modified thoracotomy incision initially described could potentially help to diminish wound dehiscence and secondary infection, while preserving a more acceptable esthetic appearance of the back. Vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib-based treatments should be undertaken only with a good knowledge of its numerous specific complications. Every aspect of the treatment should be oriented to minimize these complications. At the same time it should be kept in mind that the ultimate step of this long-term fusionless treatment strategy will be a technically demanding spine fusion.

  6. Data mining technique for fast retrieval of similar waveforms in Fusion massive databases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, J. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT Para Fusion, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: jesus.vega@ciemat.es; Pereira, A.; Portas, A. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT Para Fusion, Madrid (Spain); Dormido-Canto, S.; Farias, G.; Dormido, R.; Sanchez, J.; Duro, N. [Departamento de Informatica y Automatica, UNED, Madrid (Spain); Santos, M. [Departamento de Arquitectura de Computadores y Automatica, UCM, Madrid (Spain); Sanchez, E. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT Para Fusion, Madrid (Spain); Pajares, G. [Departamento de Arquitectura de Computadores y Automatica, UCM, Madrid (Spain)

    2008-01-15

    Fusion measurement systems generate similar waveforms for reproducible behavior. A major difficulty related to data analysis is the identification, in a rapid and automated way, of a set of discharges with comparable behaviour, i.e. discharges with 'similar' waveforms. Here we introduce a new technique for rapid searching and retrieval of 'similar' signals. The approach consists of building a classification system that avoids traversing the whole database looking for similarities. The classification system diminishes the problem dimensionality (by means of waveform feature extraction) and reduces the searching space to just the most probable 'similar' waveforms (clustering techniques). In the searching procedure, the input waveform is classified in any of the existing clusters. Then, a similarity measure is computed between the input signal and all cluster elements in order to identify the most similar waveforms. The inner product of normalized vectors is used as the similarity measure as it allows the searching process to be independent of signal gain and polarity. This development has been applied recently to TJ-II stellarator databases and has been integrated into its remote participation system.

  7. A Reliability-Based Multi-Algorithm Fusion Technique in Detecting Changes in Land Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangping Chen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Detecting land use or land cover changes is a challenging problem in analyzing images. Change-detection plays a fundamental role in most of land use or cover monitoring systems using remote-sensing techniques. The reliability of individual automatic change-detection algorithms is currently below operating requirements when considering the intrinsic uncertainty of a change-detection algorithm and the complexity of detecting changes in remote-sensing images. In particular, most of these algorithms are only suited for a specific image data source, study area and research purpose. Only a number of comprehensive change-detection methods that consider the reliability of the algorithm in different implementation situations have been reported. This study attempts to explore the advantages of combining several typical change-detection algorithms. This combination is specifically designed for a highly reliable change-detection task. Specifically, a fusion approach based on reliability is proposed for an exclusive land use or land cover change-detection. First, the reliability of each candidate algorithm is evaluated. Then, a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation is used to generate a reliable change-detection approach. This evaluation is a transformation between a one-way evaluation matrix and a weight vector computed using the reliability of each candidate algorithm. Experimental results reveal that the advantages of combining these distinct change-detection techniques are evident.

  8. Gabor fusion technique in a Talbot bands optical coherence tomography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchal, Petr; Bradu, Adrian; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh

    2012-02-27

    In this paper we show how to advantageously combine two effects to enhance the sensitivity with depth in Fourier domain (FD) optical coherence tomography (OCT): Talbot bands (TB) and Gabor-based fusion (GF) technique. TB operation is achieved by routing the two beams, from the object arm and from the reference arm in the OCT interferometer, along parallel separate paths towards the spectrometer. By adjusting the lateral gap between the two beams in their way towards the spectrometer, the position for the maximum of contrast variation of spectral modulation versus the optical path difference in the interferometer is adjusted. For five values of the focus position, the gap between the two beams is readjusted to reach maximum sensitivity. Then, similar to the procedure employed in the GF technique, a compound image is formed by stitching together the parts of the five images that exhibited maximum brightness. The smaller the diameters of the two beams, the narrower the visibility profile versus depth in Talbot bands, which brings advantages in terms of mirror terms attenuation. However, this leads to a larger spot on the linear camera, which introduces losses, therefore the combined procedure, TB/GF is investigated for four different values of the beam diameters of the two beams. Future cameras with larger pixel size may take full advantage of the TB/GF procedure proposed here.

  9. UW MCNP source patch for the EPFL Haefely source. EPFL (Swiss) fusion-fission hybrid experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinney, G; Woodruff, G L

    1986-06-01

    The development of a source patch which describes the Haefely neutron source for use in the MCNP Monte Carlo code has been described in progress reports of the EPFL (Swiss) Fusion Blanket Project at the University of Washington. The most recent of these reports dealing with the source patch was Progress Report No. 14. This report reviews some of the physical description included in the report, and also includes additional details of the patch as well as a listing of the patch itself.

  10. Resizing Technique-Based Hybrid Genetic Algorithm for Optimal Drift Design of Multistory Steel Frame Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Seon Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since genetic algorithm-based optimization methods are computationally expensive for practical use in the field of structural optimization, a resizing technique-based hybrid genetic algorithm for the drift design of multistory steel frame buildings is proposed to increase the convergence speed of genetic algorithms. To reduce the number of structural analyses required for the convergence, a genetic algorithm is combined with a resizing technique that is an efficient optimal technique to control the drift of buildings without the repetitive structural analysis. The resizing technique-based hybrid genetic algorithm proposed in this paper is applied to the minimum weight design of three steel frame buildings. To evaluate the performance of the algorithm, optimum weights, computational times, and generation numbers from the proposed algorithm are compared with those from a genetic algorithm. Based on the comparisons, it is concluded that the hybrid genetic algorithm shows clear improvements in convergence properties.

  11. Hierarchical hybrid testability modeling and evaluation method based on information fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xishan Zhang; Kaoli Huang; Pengcheng Yan; Guangyao Lian

    2015-01-01

    In order to meet the demand of testability analysis and evaluation for complex equipment under a smal sample test in the equipment life cycle, the hierarchical hybrid testability model-ing and evaluation method (HHTME), which combines the testabi-lity structure model (TSM) with the testability Bayesian networks model (TBNM), is presented. Firstly, the testability network topo-logy of complex equipment is built by using the hierarchical hybrid testability modeling method. Secondly, the prior conditional prob-ability distribution between network nodes is determined through expert experience. Then the Bayesian method is used to update the conditional probability distribution, according to history test information, virtual simulation information and similar product in-formation. Final y, the learned hierarchical hybrid testability model (HHTM) is used to estimate the testability of equipment. Compared with the results of other modeling methods, the relative deviation of the HHTM is only 0.52%, and the evaluation result is the most accurate.

  12. A Hybrid IMRT/VMAT Technique for the Treatment of Nasopharyngeal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid IMRT/VMAT technique which combined intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT was developed for the treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC. Two-full-arc VMAT (2ARC-VMAT, 9-field IMRT (9F-IMRT, and Hybrid IMRT/VMAT plans for NPC were compared in terms of the dosimetric quality, sparing of organs at risk (OARs, and delivery efficiency. The Hybrid IMRT/VMAT technique can improve the target dose homogeneity and conformity compared with 9F-IMRT and 2ARC-VMAT. It can reduce the dose delivered to the TMJ, mandible, temporal lobe, and unspecified tissue with fewer MUs compared with 9F-IMRT and dose delivered to parotids, brainstem, and spinal cord compared with 2ARC-VMAT technique. The mean delivery time of Hybrid plans was shorter than that of 9F-IMRT plans (408 s versus 812 s; P=0.00 and longer than that of 2ARC-VMAT plans (408 s versus 179 s; P=0.00. Hybrid IMRT/VMAT technique could be a viable radiotherapy technique with better plan quality.

  13. A hybrid IMRT/VMAT technique for the treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nan; Yang, Ruijie; Jiang, Yuliang; Tian, Suqing; Guo, Fuxin; Wang, Junjie

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid IMRT/VMAT technique which combined intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) was developed for the treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). Two-full-arc VMAT (2ARC-VMAT), 9-field IMRT (9F-IMRT), and Hybrid IMRT/VMAT plans for NPC were compared in terms of the dosimetric quality, sparing of organs at risk (OARs), and delivery efficiency. The Hybrid IMRT/VMAT technique can improve the target dose homogeneity and conformity compared with 9F-IMRT and 2ARC-VMAT. It can reduce the dose delivered to the TMJ, mandible, temporal lobe, and unspecified tissue with fewer MUs compared with 9F-IMRT and dose delivered to parotids, brainstem, and spinal cord compared with 2ARC-VMAT technique. The mean delivery time of Hybrid plans was shorter than that of 9F-IMRT plans (408 s versus 812 s; P=0.00) and longer than that of 2ARC-VMAT plans (408 s versus 179 s; P=0.00). Hybrid IMRT/VMAT technique could be a viable radiotherapy technique with better plan quality.

  14. A Hybrid IMRT/VMAT Technique for the Treatment of Nasopharyngeal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nan; Yang, Ruijie; Jiang, Yuliang; Tian, Suqing; Guo, Fuxin; Wang, Junjie

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid IMRT/VMAT technique which combined intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) was developed for the treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). Two-full-arc VMAT (2ARC-VMAT), 9-field IMRT (9F-IMRT), and Hybrid IMRT/VMAT plans for NPC were compared in terms of the dosimetric quality, sparing of organs at risk (OARs), and delivery efficiency. The Hybrid IMRT/VMAT technique can improve the target dose homogeneity and conformity compared with 9F-IMRT and 2ARC-VMAT. It can reduce the dose delivered to the TMJ, mandible, temporal lobe, and unspecified tissue with fewer MUs compared with 9F-IMRT and dose delivered to parotids, brainstem, and spinal cord compared with 2ARC-VMAT technique. The mean delivery time of Hybrid plans was shorter than that of 9F-IMRT plans (408 s versus 812 s; P = 0.00) and longer than that of 2ARC-VMAT plans (408 s versus 179 s; P = 0.00). Hybrid IMRT/VMAT technique could be a viable radiotherapy technique with better plan quality. PMID:25688371

  15. Test and numerical simulation of a new type of hybrid control technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Qingli; Zhang Minzheng; Cheng Dong

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a new hybrid control technique, based on a combination of base-isolation and semi-active variable stiffness/damping in a superstructure, is presented. To illustrate the efficiency of the proposed control system, model tests on a mini-electromagnetic shaking table and a numerical simulation were performed. The test and numerical calculation results indicate that this new hybrid control mode with additional damping and smaller additional stiffness can achieve a better control efficiency.

  16. Management of internal resorption of central incisor using hybrid technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayathri, Prabakaran; Pandey, Ramesh Kumar; Jain, Eesha

    2014-01-28

    Internal inflammatory root resorption is characterised by progressive destruction of intraradicular dentin and dentinal tubules along the root canal wall. A number of theories have been proposed as a possible cause for internal resorption. It is usually asymptomatic and detected during routine radiographic investigations. Prompt diagnosis and early management of such defects is essential to maintain the integrity of the tooth. Non-surgical and surgical methods are the two main strategies involved in the management of internal resorption. The non-surgical method is usually preferred, but in cases of extensive resorption with external root perforation, surgical intervention has been advocated. The present case illustrates repair of perforating internal resorption by hybrid method, using mineral trioxide aggregate and gutta-percha, following surgical exposure. After a 10-month follow-up, no clinical and radiographic abnormalities were observed. Additionally, there was also marked reduction in periodontal pocket depth.

  17. Evaluation of hybrid fusion 2+ approach for providing air-to-air situational awareness and threat assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kangjin David; Wiesenfeld, Eric; Colony, Mike

    2006-05-01

    Modern combat aircraft pilots increasingly rely on high-level fusion models (JDL Levels 2/3) to provide real-time engagement support in hostile situations. These models provide both Situational Awareness (SA) and Threat Assessment (TA) based on data and the relationships between the data. This information represents two distinct classes of uncertainty: vagueness and ambiguity. To address the needs associated with modeling both of these types of data uncertainty, an innovative hybrid approach was recently introduced, combining probability theory and possibility theory into a unified computational framework. The goal of this research is to qualitatively and quantitatively address the advantages and disadvantages of adopting this hybrid framework as well as identifying instances in which the combined model outperforms or is more appropriate than more classical inference approaches. To accomplish this task, domain specific models will be developed using different theoretical approaches and conventions, and then evaluated in comparison to situational ground truth to determine their accuracy and fidelity. Additionally, the performance tradeoff between accuracy and complexity will be examined in terms of computational cost to determine both the advantages and disadvantages of each approach.

  18. A novel technique combining laparoscopic and endovascular approaches using image fusion guidance for anterior embolization of type II endoleak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mujeeb Zubair, MD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Type II endoleak (T2E leading to aneurysm sac enlargement is one of the challenging complications associated with endovascular aneurysm repair. Recent guidelines recommend embolization of T2E associated with aneurysmal sac enlargement. Various percutaneous and endovascular techniques have been reported for embolization of T2E. We report a novel technique for T2E embolization combining laparoscopic and endovascular approaches using preoperative image fusion. We believe our technique provides a more direct access to the lumbar feeding vessels that is typically challenging with transarterial or translumbar embolization techniques.

  19. Posterior Selective Thoracic Fusion in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Patients: a Comparison of All Pedicle Screws versus Hybrid Instrumentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Yu; Jian-guo Zhang; Gui-xing Qiu; Yi-peng Wang; Yu Zhao; Jian-xiong Shen; Hong Zhao; Xin-yu Yang

    2009-01-01

    Objective To analyze the influence of segmental pedicle screws versus hybrid instrumentation on the correction results in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients undergoing posterior selective thoracic fusion. Methods By reviewing the medical records and roentgenograms of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients who underwent selective thoracic fusion from February 2000 to January 2007 in our hospital, the patients were divided into 2 groups according to different instrumentation fashions: Group A was hook-screw-rod (hybrid) internal fixation type, Group B was screw-rod (all pedicle screws) internal fixation type, and the screws were used in every segment on the concave side of the thoracic curve. The parameters of the scoliosis were measured and the correction results were analyzed. Results Totally, 48 patients (7 males, 41 females) were included, with an average age of 14.4 years old and a mean follow-up time of 12.3 months. Thirty and 18 patients were assigned to group A and group B, respectively. The mean preoperative coronal Cobb angles of the thoracic curve were 48.8° and 47.4°, respectively. After surgery, they were corrected to 13.7° and 6.8°, respectively. At final follow-up, they were 17.0° and 9.5°, with an average correction rate of 64.6% and 79.0%, respectively, and the correction rate of group B was significantly higher than that of group A (P = 0.003). The mean preoperative coronal Cobb angles of the lumbar curve were 32.6° and 35.2°, respectively. After surgery, they were corrected to 8.6° and 8.3°, respectively. At final follow-up, they were 10.3° and 11.1°, with an average correction rate of 66.8% and 69.9%, respectively, and the correction rate of group B was significantly higher than that of group A (P = 0.003). The correction loss of the thoracic curve and lumbar curve in the 2 groups were 3.1° and 1.8°, 2.4° and 2.4°, respectively. No significant difference was noted (both P > 0.05). The decompensation rate at final follow

  20. Measurements of fusion neutron yields by neutron activation technique: Uncertainty due to the uncertainty on activation cross-sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankunas, Gediminas, E-mail: gediminas.stankunas@lei.lt [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Laboratory of Nuclear Installation Safety, Breslaujos str. 3, LT-44403 Kaunas (Lithuania); EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Batistoni, Paola [ENEA, Via E. Fermi, 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Sjöstrand, Henrik; Conroy, Sean [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, PO Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-11

    The neutron activation technique is routinely used in fusion experiments to measure the neutron yields. This paper investigates the uncertainty on these measurements as due to the uncertainties on dosimetry and activation reactions. For this purpose, activation cross-sections were taken from the International Reactor Dosimetry and Fusion File (IRDFF-v1.05) in 640 groups ENDF-6 format for several reactions of interest for both 2.5 and 14 MeV neutrons. Activation coefficients (reaction rates) have been calculated using the neutron flux spectra at JET vacuum vessel, both for DD and DT plasmas, calculated by MCNP in the required 640-energy group format. The related uncertainties for the JET neutron spectra are evaluated as well using the covariance data available in the library. These uncertainties are in general small, but not negligible when high accuracy is required in the determination of the fusion neutron yields.

  1. Constrained Optimization Based on Hybrid Evolutionary Algorithm and Adaptive Constraint-Handling Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yong; Cai, Zixing; Zhou, Yuren

    2009-01-01

    A novel approach to deal with numerical and engineering constrained optimization problems, which incorporates a hybrid evolutionary algorithm and an adaptive constraint-handling technique, is presented in this paper. The hybrid evolutionary algorithm simultaneously uses simplex crossover and two...... mutation operators to generate the offspring population. Additionally, the adaptive constraint-handling technique consists of three main situations. In detail, at each situation, one constraint-handling mechanism is designed based on current population state. Experiments on 13 benchmark test functions...... and four well-known constrained design problems verify the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method. The experimental results show that integrating the hybrid evolutionary algorithm with the adaptive constraint-handling technique is beneficial, and the proposed method achieves competitive...

  2. Large-scale multi-zone optimal power dispatch using hybrid hierarchical evolution technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjaree Pandit

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A new hybrid technique based on hierarchical evolution is proposed for large, non-convex, multi-zone economic dispatch (MZED problems considering all practical constraints. Evolutionary/swarm intelligence-based optimisation techniques are reported to be effective only for small/medium-sized power systems. The proposed hybrid hierarchical evolution (HHE algorithm is specifically developed for solving large systems. The HHE integrates the exploration and exploitation capabilities of particle swarm optimisation and differential evolution in a novel manner such that the search efficiency is improved substantially. Most hybrid techniques export or exchange features or operations from one algorithm to the other, but in HHE their entire individual features are retained. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm has been verified on six-test systems having different sizes and complexity levels. Non-convex MZED solution for such large and complex systems has not yet been reported.

  3. Technique for infrared and visible image fusion based on non-subsampled shearlet transform and spiking cortical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Weiwei; Wang, Binghe; Lei, Yang

    2015-07-01

    Fusion of infrared and visible images is an active research area in image processing, and a variety of relevant algorithms have been developed. However, the existing techniques commonly cannot gain good fusion performance and acceptable computational complexity simultaneously. This paper proposes a novel image fusion approach that integrates the non-subsampled shearlet transform (NSST) with spiking cortical model (SCM) to overcome the above drawbacks. On the one hand, using NSST to conduct the decompositions and reconstruction not only consists with human vision characteristics, but also effectively decreases the computational complexity compared with the current popular multi-resolution analysis tools such as non-subsampled contourlet transform (NSCT). On the other hand, SCM, which has been considered to be an optimal neuron network model recently, is responsible for the fusion of sub-images from different scales and directions. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method is promising, and it does significantly improve the fusion quality in both aspects of subjective visual performance and objective comparisons compared with other current popular ones.

  4. Single Molecule Techniques for Advanced in situ Hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollars, C W; Stubbs, L; Carlson, K; Lu, X; Wehri, E

    2003-02-03

    One of the most significant achievements of modern science is completion of the human genome sequence, completed in the year 2000. Despite this monumental accomplishment, researchers have only begun to understand the relationships between this three-billion-nucleotide genetic code and the regulation and control of gene and protein expression within each of the millions of different types of highly specialized cells. Several methodologies have been developed for the analysis of gene and protein expression in situ, yet despite these advancements, the pace of such analyses is extremely limited. Because information regarding the precise timing and location of gene expression is a crucial component in the discovery of new pharmacological agents for the treatment of disease, there is an enormous incentive to develop technologies that accelerate the analytical process. Here we report on the use of plasmon resonant particles as advanced probes for in situ hybridization. These probes are used for the detection of low levels of gene-probe response and demonstrate a detection method that enables precise, simultaneous localization within a cell of the points of expression of multiple genes or proteins in a single sample.

  5. Parametric decay instability near the upper hybrid resonance in magnetically confined fusion plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, S. K.; Nielsen, S. K.; Salewski, M.; Stejner, M.; Stober, J.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we investigate parametric decay of an electromagnetic pump wave into two electrostatic daughter waves, particularly an X-mode pump wave decaying into a warm upper hybrid wave (a limit of an electron Bernstein wave) and a warm lower hybrid wave. We describe the general theory of the above parametric decay instability (PDI), unifying earlier treatments, and show that it may occur in underdense and weakly overdense plasmas. The PDI theory is used to explain anomalous sidebands observed in collective Thomson scattering (CTS) spectra at the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. The theory may also account for similar observations during CTS experiments in stellarators, as well as in some 1st harmonic electron cyclotron resonance and O-X-B heating experiments.

  6. The ion-ion hybrid Alfvén resonator in a fusion environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, W. A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Morales, G. J. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    An investigation is made of a shear Alfvén wave resonator for burning plasma conditions expected in the ITER device. For small perpendicular scale-lengths the shear mode, which propagates predominantly along the magnetic field direction, experiences a parallel reflection where the wave frequency matches the local ion-ion hybrid frequency. In a tokamak device operating with a deuterium–tritium fuel, this effect can form a natural resonator because of the variation in local field strength along a field line. The relevant kinetic dispersion relation is examined to determine the relative importance of Landau and cyclotron damping over the possible resonator parameter space. A WKB model based on the kinetic dispersion relation is used to determine the eigenfrequencies and the quality factors of modes trapped in the resonator. The lowest frequency found has a value slightly larger than the ion-ion hybrid frequency at the outboard side of a given flux surface. The possibility that the resonator modes can be driven unstable by energetic alpha particles is considered. It is found that within a bandwidth of roughly 600 kHz above the ion-ion hybrid frequency on the outboard side of the flux surface, the shear modes can experience significant spatial amplification. An assessment is made of the form of an approximate global eigenmode that possesses the features of a resonator. It is identified that magnetic field shear combined with large ion temperature can cause coupling to an ion-Bernstein wave, which can limit the instability.

  7. Gene fusion detection in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded benign fibrous histiocytomas using fluorescence in situ hybridization and RNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Charles; Hofvander, Jakob; Nilsson, Jenny; Magnusson, Linda; Domanski, Henryk A; Gisselsson, David; Tayebwa, Johnbosco; Doyle, Leona A; Fletcher, Christopher D M; Mertens, Fredrik

    2015-09-01

    Benign fibrous histiocytomas (FH) can be subdivided into several morphological and clinical subgroups. Recently, gene fusions involving either one of two protein kinase C genes (PRKCB and PRKCD) or the ALK gene were described in FH. We here wanted to evaluate the frequency of PRKCB and PRKCD gene fusions in FH. Using interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization on sections from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumors, 36 cases could be analyzed. PRKCB or PRKCD rearrangements were seen in five tumors: 1/7 regular, 0/3 aneurysmal, 0/6 cellular, 2/7 epithelioid, 0/1 atypical, 2/10 deep, and 0/2 metastatic lesions. We also evaluated the status of the ALK gene in selected cases, finding rearrangements in 3/7 epithelioid and 0/1 atypical lesions. To assess the gene fusion status of FH further, deep sequencing of RNA (RNA-Seq) was performed on FFPE tissue from eight cases with unknown gene fusion status, as well as on two FH and six soft tissue sarcomas with known gene fusions; of the latter eight positive controls, the expected fusion transcript was found in all but one, while 2/8 FH with unknown genetic status showed fusion transcripts, including a novel KIRREL/PRKCA chimera. Thus, also a third member of the PRKC family is involved in FH tumorigenesis. We conclude that gene fusions involving PRKC genes occur in several morphological (regular, cellular, aneurysmal, epithelioid) and clinical (cutaneous, deep) subsets of FH, but they seem to account for only a minority of the cases. In epithelioid lesions, however, rearrangements of PRKC or ALK were seen, as mutually exclusive events, in the majority (5/7) of cases. Finally, the study also shows that RNA-Seq is a promising tool for identifying gene fusions in FFPE tissues.

  8. A hybrid classifier using the parallelepiped and Bayesian techniques. [for multispectral image data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addington, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    A versatile classification scheme is developed which uses the best features of the parallelepiped algorithm and the Bayesian maximum likelihood algorithm. The parallelepiped technique has the advantage of being very fast, especially when implemented into a table look-up scheme; its disadvantage is its inability to distinguish and classify spectral signatures which are similar in nature. This disadvantage is eliminated by the Bayesian technique which is capable of distinguishing subtle differences very well. The hybrid algorithm developed reduces computer time by as much as 90%. A two- and n-dimensional description of the hybrid classifier is given.

  9. Brain tumor segmentation based on a hybrid clustering technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Abdel-Maksoud

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents an efficient image segmentation approach using K-means clustering technique integrated with Fuzzy C-means algorithm. It is followed by thresholding and level set segmentation stages to provide an accurate brain tumor detection. The proposed technique can get benefits of the K-means clustering for image segmentation in the aspects of minimal computation time. In addition, it can get advantages of the Fuzzy C-means in the aspects of accuracy. The performance of the proposed image segmentation approach was evaluated by comparing it with some state of the art segmentation algorithms in case of accuracy, processing time, and performance. The accuracy was evaluated by comparing the results with the ground truth of each processed image. The experimental results clarify the effectiveness of our proposed approach to deal with a higher number of segmentation problems via improving the segmentation quality and accuracy in minimal execution time.

  10. Research Needs for Fusion-Fission Hybrid Systems. Report of the Research Needs Workshop (ReNeW) Gaithersburg, Maryland, September 30 - October 2, 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-09-30

    Largely in anticipation of a possible nuclear renaissance, there has been an enthusiastic renewal of interest in the fusion-fission hybrid concept, driven primarily by some members of the fusion community. A fusion-fission hybrid consists of a neutron-producing fusion core surrounded by a fission blanket. Hybrids are of interest because of their potential to address the main long-term sustainability issues related to nuclear power: fuel supply, energy production, and waste management. As a result of this renewed interest, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), with the participation of the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES), Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), organized a three-day workshop in Gaithersburg, Maryland, from September 30 through October 2, 2009. Participants identified several goals. At the highest level, it was recognized that DOE does not currently support any R&D in the area of fusion-fission hybrids. The question to be addressed was whether or not hybrids offer sufficient promise to motivate DOE to initiate an R&D program in this area. At the next level, the workshop participants were asked to define the research needs and resources required to move the fusion-fission concept forward. The answer to the high-level question was given in two ways. On the one hand, when viewed as a standalone concept, the fusion-fission hybrid does indeed offer the promise of being able to address the sustainability issues associated with conventional nuclear power. On the other hand, when participants were asked whether these hybrid solutions are potentially more attractive than contemplated pure fission solutions (that is, fast burners and fast breeders), there was general consensus that this question could not be quantitatively answered based on the known technical information. Pure fission solutions are based largely on existing both fusion and nuclear technology, thereby prohibiting a fair side-by-side comparison

  11. Hybrid Motion Planning Method for Autonomous Robots Using Kinect Based Sensor Fusion and Virtual Plane Approach in Dynamic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doopalam Tuvshinjargal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new reactive motion planning method for an autonomous vehicle in dynamic environments is proposed. The new dynamic motion planning method combines a virtual plane based reactive motion planning technique with a sensor fusion based obstacle detection approach, which results in improving robustness and autonomy of vehicle navigation within unpredictable dynamic environments. The key feature of the new reactive motion planning method is based on a local observer in the virtual plane which allows the effective transformation of complex dynamic planning problems into simple stationary in the virtual plane. In addition, a sensor fusion based obstacle detection technique provides the pose estimation of moving obstacles by using a Kinect sensor and a sonar sensor, which helps to improve the accuracy and robustness of the reactive motion planning approach in uncertain dynamic environments. The performance of the proposed method was demonstrated through not only simulation studies but also field experiments using multiple moving obstacles even in hostile environments where conventional method failed.

  12. Fabrication of polystyrene hollow microspheres as laser fusion targets by optimized density-matched emulsion technique and characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K K Mishra; R K Khardekar; Rashmi Singh; H C Pant

    2002-07-01

    Inertial confinement fusion, frequently referred to as ICF, inertial fusion, or laser fusion, is a means of producing energy by imploding small hollow microspheres containing thermonuclear fusion fuel. Polymer microspheres, which are used as fuel containers, can be produced by solution-based micro-encapsulation technique better known as density-matched emulsion technique. The specifications of these microspheres are very rigorous, and various aspects of the emulsion hydrodynamics associated with their production are important in controlling the final product. This paper describes about the optimization of various parameters associated with density-matched emulsion method in order to improve the surface smoothness, wall thickness uniformity and sphericity of hollow polymer microspheres. These polymer microshells have been successfully fabricated in our lab, with 3–30 m wall thickness and 50–1600 m diameters. The sphericity and wall thickness uniformity are better than 99%. Elimination of vacuoles and high yield rate has been achieved by adopting the step-wise heating of W1/O/W2 emulsion for solvent removal.

  13. Next generation laser optics for a hybrid fusion-fission power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolz, C J; Latkowski, J T; Schaffers, K I

    2009-09-10

    The successful completion of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), followed by a campaign to achieve ignition, creates the proper conditions to begin exploring what development work remains to construct a power plant based on Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) technology. Fundamentally, two distinct NIF laser properties must be overcome. The repetition rate must increase from a shot every four hours to several shots per second. Additionally, the efficiency of converting electricity to laser light must increase by 20x to roughly 10 percent. Solid state diode pumped lasers, commercially available for table top applications, have adequate repetition rates and power conversion efficiencies, however, they operate at a tiny fraction of the required energy for an ICF power plant so would need to be scaled in energy and aperture. This paper describes the optics and coatings that would be needed to support this type of laser architecture.

  14. Comparison of hybrid volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT technique and double arc VMAT technique in the treatment of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaloo Christopher

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT has quickly become accepted as standard of care for the treatment of prostate cancer based on studies showing it is able to provide faster delivery with adequate target coverage and reduced monitor units while maintaining organ at risk (OAR sparing. This study aims to demonstrate the potential to increase dose conformality with increased planner control and OAR sparing using a hybrid treatment technique compared to VMAT.

  15. HybridArc: A novel radiation therapy technique combining optimized dynamic arcs and intensity modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robar, James L., E-mail: james.robar@cdha.nshealth.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dalhousie University, Halifax (Canada); Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax (Canada); Thomas, Christopher [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dalhousie University, Halifax (Canada)

    2012-01-01

    This investigation focuses on possible dosimetric and efficiency advantages of HybridArc-a novel treatment planning approach combining optimized dynamic arcs with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) beams. Application of this technique to two disparate sites, complex cranial tumors, and prostate was examined. HybridArc plans were compared with either dynamic conformal arc (DCA) or IMRT plans to determine whether HybridArc offers a synergy through combination of these 2 techniques. Plans were compared with regard to target volume dose conformity, target volume dose homogeneity, sparing of proximal organs at risk, normal tissue sparing, and monitor unit (MU) efficiency. For cranial cases, HybridArc produced significantly improved dose conformity compared with both DCA and IMRT but did not improve sparing of the brainstem or optic chiasm. For prostate cases, conformity was improved compared with DCA but not IMRT. Compared with IMRT, the dose homogeneity in the planning target volume was improved, and the maximum doses received by the bladder and rectum were reduced. Both arc-based techniques distribute peripheral dose over larger volumes of normal tissue compared with IMRT, whereas HybridArc involved slightly greater volumes of normal tissues compared with DCA. Compared with IMRT, cranial cases required 38% more MUs, whereas for prostate cases, MUs were reduced by 7%. For cranial cases, HybridArc improves dose conformity to the target. For prostate cases, dose conformity and homogeneity are improved compared with DCA and IMRT, respectively. Compared with IMRT, whether required MUs increase or decrease with HybridArc was site-dependent.

  16. A Hybrid Neural Network-Genetic Algorithm Technique for Aircraft Engine Performance Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a model-based diagnostic method, which utilizes Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithms, is investigated. Neural networks are applied to estimate the engine internal health, and Genetic Algorithms are applied for sensor bias detection and estimation. This hybrid approach takes advantage of the nonlinear estimation capability provided by neural networks while improving the robustness to measurement uncertainty through the application of Genetic Algorithms. The hybrid diagnostic technique also has the ability to rank multiple potential solutions for a given set of anomalous sensor measurements in order to reduce false alarms and missed detections. The performance of the hybrid diagnostic technique is evaluated through some case studies derived from a turbofan engine simulation. The results show this approach is promising for reliable diagnostics of aircraft engines.

  17. Hybrid inverse lithography techniques for advanced hierarchical memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Guangming; Hooker, Kevin; Irby, Dave; Zhang, Yunqiang; Ward, Brian; Cecil, Tom; Hall, Brett; Lee, Mindy; Kim, Dave; Lucas, Kevin

    2014-03-01

    Traditional segment-based model-based OPC methods have been the mainstream mask layout optimization techniques in volume production for memory and embedded memory devices for many device generations. These techniques have been continually optimized over time to meet the ever increasing difficulties of memory and memory periphery patterning. There are a range of difficult issues for patterning embedded memories successfully. These difficulties include the need for a very high level of symmetry and consistency (both within memory cells themselves and between cells) due to circuit effects such as noise margin requirements in SRAMs. Memory cells and access structures consume a large percentage of area in embedded devices so there is a very high return from shrinking the cell area as much as possible. This aggressive scaling leads to very difficult resolution, 2D CD control and process window requirements. Additionally, the range of interactions between mask synthesis corrections of neighboring areas can extend well beyond the size of the memory cell, making it difficult to fully take advantage of the inherent designed cell hierarchy in mask pattern optimization. This is especially true for non-traditional (i.e., less dependent on geometric rule) OPC/RET methods such as inverse lithography techniques (ILT) which inherently have more model-based decisions in their optimizations. New inverse methods such as model-based SRAF placement and ILT are, however, well known to have considerable benefits in finding flexible mask pattern solutions to improve process window, improve 2D CD control, and improve resolution in ultra-dense memory patterns. They also are known to reduce recipe complexity and provide native MRC compliant mask pattern solutions. Unfortunately, ILT is also known to be several times slower than traditional OPC methods due to the increased computational lithographic optimizations it performs. In this paper, we describe and present results for a methodology to

  18. A Robust Hybrid Video Watermarking Technique using Mosaicing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeebananda Panda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Video Watermarking is the technique by which some information is inserted in the video which can be extracted later. It provides protection against any kind of illegal manipulation by third party. In this paper , a non -blind watermarking scheme is proposed which is based on the combination of Discrete Wavelet Transform,(DWT, Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD.The watermark is embedded in the mosaic formed from the frames of the video by modifying the DCT coefficients of LL1 (low frequency sub-band obtained by applying 1-level DWT on the mosaic followed by diagonal based modification of singular value matrix which is obtained by SVD decomposition of LL2 (low frequency sub-band obtained by applying 2-level DWT on the modified LL1.The experimental values of PSNR, Correlation Factor show that the above proposed scheme is imperceptible, secure and robust against various types of attacks.

  19. New results and implications for lunar crustal iron distribution using sensor data fusion techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P. E.; McFadden, L. A.

    2000-02-01

    Remote measurements of the Moon have provided iron maps, and thus essential constraints for models of lunar crustal formation and mare basalt petrogenesis. A bulk crustal iron map was produced for the equatorial region from Apollo gamma-ray (AGR) spectrometer measurements, and a global iron variation map from recent Clementine spectral reflectance (CSR) measurements. Both iron maps show bimodal distribution, but have significantly different peak values and variations. In this paper, CSR data have been recalibrated to pyroxene in lunar landing site soils. A residual iron map is derived from the difference between AGR (bulk) and recalibrated CSR (pyroxene) iron abundances. The most likely interpretation is that the residual represents ferrous iron in olivine. This residual iron is anticorrelated to basin age, with older basins containing less olivine, suggesting segregation of basin basalt sources from a progressively fractionating underlying source region at the time of basin formation. Results presented here provide a quantitative basis for (1) establishing the relationship between direct geochemical (gamma-ray, X-ray) and mineralogical (near-IR) remote sensing data sets using sensor data fusion techniques to allow (2) simultaneous determination of elemental and mineralogical component distribution on remote targets and (3) meaningful interpretation of orbital and ground-based spectral reflectance measurements. When calibrated data from the Lunar Prospector mission are available, mapping of bulk crustal iron and iron-bearing soil components will be possible for the entire Moon. Similar analyses for data from the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) mission to asteroid 433 Eros will constrain models of asteroid formation.

  20. High performance technique for database applicationsusing a hybrid GPU/CPU platform

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.

    2012-07-28

    Many database applications, such as sequence comparing, sequence searching, and sequence matching, etc, process large database sequences. we introduce a novel and efficient technique to improve the performance of database applica- tions by using a Hybrid GPU/CPU platform. In particular, our technique solves the problem of the low efficiency result- ing from running short-length sequences in a database on a GPU. To verify our technique, we applied it to the widely used Smith-Waterman algorithm. The experimental results show that our Hybrid GPU/CPU technique improves the average performance by a factor of 2.2, and improves the peak performance by a factor of 2.8 when compared to earlier implementations. Copyright © 2011 by ASME.

  1. Self-consistent kinetic simulations of lower hybrid drift instability resulting in electron current driven by fusion products in tokamak plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, J W S; Dendy, R O

    2010-01-01

    We present particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of minority energetic protons in deuterium plasmas, which demonstrate a collective instability responsible for emission near the lower hybrid frequency and its harmonics. The simulations capture the lower hybrid drift instability in a regime relevant to tokamak fusion plasmas, and show further that the excited electromagnetic fields collectively and collisionlessly couple free energy from the protons to directed electron motion. This results in an asymmetric tail antiparallel to the magnetic field. We focus on obliquely propagating modes under conditions approximating the outer mid-plane edge in a large tokamak, through which there pass confined centrally born fusion products on banana orbits that have large radial excursions. A fully self-consistent electromagnetic relativistic PIC code representing all vector field quantities and particle velocities in three dimensions as functions of a single spatial dimension is used to model this situation, by evolving the in...

  2. Leakage of cerebrospinal fluid and secondary intracranial infection induced by Cloward technique of cervical discectomy and fusion: presentation and treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hong-bin; YANG Shu-xu; WANG Yi-rong

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cloward technique of cervical discectomy and fusion is a long and complex surgical proce dure and instrumentation, by which compli-cated infection is rare in an era of routine prophylactic antimicrobial agent, especially in procedures by anterior approach. A study in the journal of Spine suggested that the incidence of unintentional laceration of the dura mater during spinal surgery might be as high as 14%.

  3. Research on the Application of the Light-Energy Spectrum Fusion Technique to Land and Resources Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces how to use remote sensing images including Landsat (MSS and TM) and airborne radioactivity images to identify the type of rocks in the areas covered by vegetation. The relationship between light spectrum (Landsat MSS and TM) and energy spectrum (U, Th and K) is discussed on the basis of correlation analysis, and it is proven that there are correlations between the Landsat MSS or TM data and the U, Th and K data. By using the fusion technique, new images were generated, which contain both the light spectrum and the energy spectrum information.Taking the Lucong basin as the study area, the present paper demonstrates the successful identification of various types of rocks using the fusion technique. Different types of rocks are represented by different colours on the new light-energy spectrum images, so that volcanic rocks of the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods can be discriminated. Another example, in the Lingquan basin in Northeast China, not only the different types of rocks are successfully distinguished, but corrections and modifications are also made on the original geological map after some field investigation. Practice has proven that the light-energy spectrum fusion technique is a good way in lithologic identification.

  4. A Proposed Hybrid Technique for Recognizing Arabic Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S F Bahgat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Optical character recognition systems improve human-machine interaction and are urgently required for many governmental and commercial departments. A considerable progress in the recognition techniques of Latin and Chinese characters has been achieved. By contrast, Arabic Optical Character Recognition (AOCR is still lagging although the interest and research in this area is becoming more intensive than before. This is because the Arabic is a cursive language, written from right to left, each character has two to four different forms according to its position in the word, and most characters are associated with complementary parts above, below, or inside the character. The process of Arabic character recognition passes through several stages; the most serious and error-prone of which are segmentation, and feature extraction & classification. This research focuses on the feature extraction and classification stage, being as important as the segmentation stage. Features can be classified into two categories; Local features, which are usually geometric, and Global features, which are either topological or statistical. Four approaches related to the statistical category are to be investigated, namely: Moment Invariants, Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix, Run Length Matrix, and Statistical Properties of Intensity Histogram. The paper aims at fusing the features of these methods to get the most representative feature vector that maximizes the recognition rate.

  5. Particle-in-cell simulations of an alpha channeling scenario: electron current drive arising from lower hybrid drift instability of fusion-born ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, James; Chapman, Sandra; Dendy, Richard

    2010-11-01

    Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of fusion-born protons in deuterium plasmas demonstrate a key alpha channeling phenomenon for tokamak fusion plasmas. We focus on obliquely propagating modes at the plasma edge, excited by centrally born fusion products on banana orbits, known to be responsible for observations of ion cyclotron emission in JET and TFTR. A fully self-consistent electromagnetic 1D3V PIC code evolves a ring-beam distribution of 3MeV protons in a 10keV thermal deuterium-electron plasma with realistic mass ratio. A collective instability occurs, giving rise to electromagnetic field activity in the lower hybrid range of frequencies. Waves spontaneously excited by this lower hybrid drift instability undergo Landau damping on resonant electrons, drawing out an asymmetric tail in the distribution of electron parallel velocities, which constitutes a net current. These simulations demonstrate a key building block of some alpha channeling scenarios: the direct collisionless coupling of fusion product energy into a form which can help sustain the equilibrium of the tokamak.

  6. Radioactive waste transmutation in a fission-fusion hybrid system; Transmutacao de rejeitos radioativos em sistemas hibridos de fusao-fissao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera, Carlos Eduardo Velasquez

    2015-07-01

    A fission-fusion hybrid reactor is proposed for recycling and transmutation of highly radioactive waste. Two fusion systems were evaluated. A Tokamak, based on magnetic confinement, and another based on inertial confinement. These systems have been modified and designed to place a transmutation layer loaded with transuranic elements from spent fuel of nuclear power plants. The transmutation layer is the first presented in specific literature to be used with fuel reprocessed by the method UREX + and further spiked with depleted uranium or thorium to reduce the amount of fissile material in order to keep a subcritical system. The evaluations were carried out by varying geometric parameters such as the thickness of transmutation layer and the radius of the fuel rod. Depending on the case this variations increase the efficiency to reduce the transuranic contained in the fuel. The results show the possibility of reducing the transuranic for each model and transmutation efficiency compared to the initial amount of recycled fuel for each fusion reactor. Furthermore, a comparison of both hybrid fusion-fission systems is performed in order to find the best system to reduce transuranics efficiently. (author)

  7. Validation of break-apart and fusion MYC probes using a digital fluorescence in situ hybridization capture and imaging system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Liew

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Detection of MYC translocations using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH is important in the evaluation of lymphomas, in particular, Burkitt lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Our aim was to validate a digital FISH capture and imaging system for the detection of MYC 8q24 translocations using LSI-MYC (a break-apart probe and MYC 8;14 translocation using IGH-MYC (a fusion probe. Materials and Methods: LSI-MYC probe was evaluated using tissue sections from 35 patients. IGH-MYC probe was evaluated using tissue sections from forty patients. Sections were processed for FISH and analyzed using traditional methods. FISH slides were then analyzed using the GenASIs capture and analysis system. Results: Results for LSI-MYC had a high degree of correlation between traditional method of FISH analysis and digital FISH analysis. Results for IGH-MYC had a 100% concordance between traditional method of FISH analysis and digital FISH analysis. Conclusion: Annotated whole slide images of H and E and FISH sections can be digitally aligned, so that areas of tumor within a section can be matched and evaluated with a greater degree of accuracy. Images can be archived permanently, providing a means for examining the results retrospectively. Digital FISH imaging of the MYC translocations provides a better diagnostic tool compared to traditional methods for evaluating lymphomas.

  8. Validation of break-apart and fusion MYC probes using a digital fluorescence in situ hybridization capture and imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Michael; Rowe, Leslie; Clement, Parker W.; Miles, Rodney R.; Salama, Mohamed E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Detection of MYC translocations using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is important in the evaluation of lymphomas, in particular, Burkitt lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Our aim was to validate a digital FISH capture and imaging system for the detection of MYC 8q24 translocations using LSI-MYC (a break-apart probe) and MYC 8;14 translocation using IGH-MYC (a fusion probe). Materials and Methods: LSI-MYC probe was evaluated using tissue sections from 35 patients. IGH-MYC probe was evaluated using tissue sections from forty patients. Sections were processed for FISH and analyzed using traditional methods. FISH slides were then analyzed using the GenASIs capture and analysis system. Results: Results for LSI-MYC had a high degree of correlation between traditional method of FISH analysis and digital FISH analysis. Results for IGH-MYC had a 100% concordance between traditional method of FISH analysis and digital FISH analysis. Conclusion: Annotated whole slide images of H and E and FISH sections can be digitally aligned, so that areas of tumor within a section can be matched and evaluated with a greater degree of accuracy. Images can be archived permanently, providing a means for examining the results retrospectively. Digital FISH imaging of the MYC translocations provides a better diagnostic tool compared to traditional methods for evaluating lymphomas. PMID:27217970

  9. Locomotion training of legged robots using hybrid machine learning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, William E.; Doerschuk, Peggy I.; Zhang, Wen-Ran; Li, Andrew L.

    1995-01-01

    In this study artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic are used to control the jumping behavior of a three-link uniped robot. The biped locomotion control problem is an increment of the uniped locomotion control. Study of legged locomotion dynamics indicates that a hierarchical controller is required to control the behavior of a legged robot. A structured control strategy is suggested which includes navigator, motion planner, biped coordinator and uniped controllers. A three-link uniped robot simulation is developed to be used as the plant. Neurocontrollers were trained both online and offline. In the case of on-line training, a reinforcement learning technique was used to train the neurocontroller to make the robot jump to a specified height. After several hundred iterations of training, the plant output achieved an accuracy of 7.4%. However, when jump distance and body angular momentum were also included in the control objectives, training time became impractically long. In the case of off-line training, a three-layered backpropagation (BP) network was first used with three inputs, three outputs and 15 to 40 hidden nodes. Pre-generated data were presented to the network with a learning rate as low as 0.003 in order to reach convergence. The low learning rate required for convergence resulted in a very slow training process which took weeks to learn 460 examples. After training, performance of the neurocontroller was rather poor. Consequently, the BP network was replaced by a Cerebeller Model Articulation Controller (CMAC) network. Subsequent experiments described in this document show that the CMAC network is more suitable to the solution of uniped locomotion control problems in terms of both learning efficiency and performance. A new approach is introduced in this report, viz., a self-organizing multiagent cerebeller model for fuzzy-neural control of uniped locomotion is suggested to improve training efficiency. This is currently being evaluated for a possible

  10. Nonintrusive multibiometrics on a mobile device: a comparison of fusion techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allano, Lorene; Morris, Andrew C.; Sellahewa, Harin; Garcia-Salicetti, Sonia; Koreman, Jacques; Jassim, Sabah; Ly-Van, Bao; Wu, Dalei; Dorizzi, Bernadette

    2006-04-01

    In this article we test a number of score fusion methods for the purpose of multimodal biometric authentication. These tests were made for the SecurePhone project, whose aim is to develop a prototype mobile communication system enabling biometrically authenticated users to deal legally binding m-contracts during a mobile phone call on a PDA. The three biometrics of voice, face and signature were selected because they are all traditional non-intrusive and easy to use means of authentication which can readily be captured on a PDA. By combining multiple biometrics of relatively low security it may be possible to obtain a combined level of security which is at least as high as that provided by a PIN or handwritten signature, traditionally used for user authentication. As the relative success of different fusion methods depends on the database used and tests made, the database we used was recorded on a suitable PDA (the Qtek2020) and the test protocol was designed to reflect the intended application scenario, which is expected to use short text prompts. Not all of the fusion methods tested are original. They were selected for their suitability for implementation within the constraints imposed by the application. All of the methods tested are based on fusion of the match scores output by each modality. Though computationally simple, the methods tested have shown very promising results. All of the 4 fusion methods tested obtain a significant performance increase.

  11. Fusion of 3D models derived from TLS and image-based techniques for CH enhanced documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastonero, P.; Donadio, E.; Chiabrando, F.; Spanò, A.

    2014-05-01

    Recognizing the various advantages offered by 3D new metric survey technologies in the Cultural Heritage documentation phase, this paper presents some tests of 3D model generation, using different methods, and their possible fusion. With the aim to define potentialities and problems deriving from integration or fusion of metric data acquired with different survey techniques, the elected test case is an outstanding Cultural Heritage item, presenting both widespread and specific complexities connected to the conservation of historical buildings. The site is the Staffarda Abbey, the most relevant evidence of medieval architecture in Piedmont. This application faced one of the most topical architectural issues consisting in the opportunity to study and analyze an object as a whole, from twice location of acquisition sensors, both the terrestrial and the aerial one. In particular, the work consists in the evaluation of chances deriving from a simple union or from the fusion of different 3D cloudmodels of the abbey, achieved by multi-sensor techniques. The aerial survey is based on a photogrammetric RPAS (Remotely piloted aircraft system) flight while the terrestrial acquisition have been fulfilled by laser scanning survey. Both techniques allowed to extract and process different point clouds and to generate consequent 3D continuous models which are characterized by different scale, that is to say different resolutions and diverse contents of details and precisions. Starting from these models, the proposed process, applied to a sample area of the building, aimed to test the generation of a unique 3Dmodel thorough a fusion of different sensor point clouds. Surely, the describing potential and the metric and thematic gains feasible by the final model exceeded those offered by the two detached models.

  12. GA and PSO culled hybrid technique for economic dispatch problem with prohibited operating zones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUDHAKARAN M.; AJAY-D-VIMALRAJ P.; PALANIVELU T.G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient and reliable genetic algorithm (GA) based particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique (hybrid GAPSO) for solving the economic dispatch (ED) problem in power systems. The non-linear characteristics of the generators, such as prohibited operating zones, ramp rate limits and non-smooth cost functions of the practical generator operation are considered. The proposed hybrid algorithm is demonstrated for three different systems and the performance is compared with the GA and PSO in terms of solution quality and computation efficiency. Comparison of results proved that the proposed algorithm can obtain higher quality solutions efficiently in ED problems. A comprehensive software package is developed using MATLAB.

  13. Indirect porcelain veneers in periodontally compromised teeth. The hybrid technique: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Baeza, David; Saavedra, Carlos; Garcia-Adámez, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The loss of periodontal structure causes an esthetic problem for many patients, especially when the esthetic zone is compromised. Among the various types of solutions is the use of composite resins. While this procedure is not aggressive towards tooth structure, it does require the clinician to have a precise technique, and demands strict longterm maintenance. 1 Another way of treating the compromised teeth is with porcelain veneers. This procedure is especially difficult, however, if carried out on periodontal teeth, as it requires preparation along the roots. 2 The intention of the hybrid technique described in this article is to combine both of these procedures in order to obtain a less aggressive treatment with precise management of the soft tissue and an adequate esthetic outcome. The hybrid technique consists of enlarging the root portion of the teeth with composite resin to obtain a less aggressive tooth preparation, and thereafter placing porcelain veneers.

  14. An investigation of density measurement method for yarn-dyed woven fabrics based on dual-side fusion technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Xin, Binjie

    2016-08-01

    Yarn density is always considered as the fundamental structural parameter used for the quality evaluation of woven fabrics. The conventional yarn density measurement method is based on one-side analysis. In this paper, a novel density measurement method is developed for yarn-dyed woven fabrics based on a dual-side fusion technique. Firstly, a lab-used dual-side imaging system is established to acquire both face-side and back-side images of woven fabric and the affine transform is used for the alignment and fusion of the dual-side images. Then, the color images of the woven fabrics are transferred from the RGB to the CIE-Lab color space, and the intensity information of the image extracted from the L component is used for texture fusion and analysis. Subsequently, three image fusion methods are developed and utilized to merge the dual-side images: the weighted average method, wavelet transform method and Laplacian pyramid blending method. The fusion efficacy of each method is evaluated by three evaluation indicators and the best of them is selected to do the reconstruction of the complete fabric texture. Finally, the yarn density of the fused image is measured based on the fast Fourier transform, and the yarn alignment image could be reconstructed using the inverse fast Fourier transform. Our experimental results show that the accuracy of density measurement by using the proposed method is close to 99.44% compared with the traditional method and the robustness of this new proposed method is better than that of conventional analysis methods.

  15. Comparison of the Recently proposed Super Marx Generator Approach to Thermonuclear Ignition with the DT Laser Fusion-Fission Hybrid Concept (LIFE) by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterberg, Friedwardt

    2009-05-01

    The recently proposed Super Marx pure deuterium micro-detonation ignition concept [1] is compared to the Lawrence Livermore National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser DT fusion-fission hybrid concept (LIFE) [2]. A typical example of the LIFE concept is a fusion gain 30, and a fission gain of 10, making up for a total gain of 300, with about 10 times more energy released into fission as compared to fusion. This means a substantial release of fission products, as in fusion-less pure fission reactors. In the Super Marx approach for the ignition of a pure deuterium micro-detonation gains of the same magnitude can in theory be reached. If the theoretical prediction can be supported by more elaborate calculations, the Super Marx approach is likely to make lasers obsolete as a means for the ignition of thermonuclear micro-explosions. [1] ``Ignition of a Deuterium Micro-Detonation with a Gigavolt Super Marx Generator,'' Winterberg, F., Journal of Fusion Energy, Springer, 2008. http://www.springerlink.com/content/r2j046177j331241/fulltext.pdf. [2] ``LIFE: Clean Energy from Nuclear Waste,'' https://lasers.llnl.gov/missions/energy&_slash;for&_slash;the&_slash;future/life/

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Ultrasound Fusion-Guided Prostate Biopsy: Review of Technology, Techniques, and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongnyuy, Michael; George, Arvin K; Rastinehad, Ardeshir R; Pinto, Peter A

    2016-04-01

    Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided (12-14 core) systematic biopsy of the prostate is the recommended standard for patients with suspicion of prostate cancer (PCa). Advances in imaging have led to the application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the detection of PCa with subsequent development of software-based co-registration allowing for the integration of MRI with real-time TRUS during prostate biopsy. A number of fusion-guided methods and platforms are now commercially available with common elements in image and analysis and planning. Implementation of fusion-guided prostate biopsy has now been proven to improve the detection of clinically significant PCa in appropriately selected patients.

  17. 3D Printed PEG-Based Hybrid Nanocomposites Obtained by Sol-Gel Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappone, Annalisa; Fantino, Erika; Roppolo, Ignazio; Lorusso, Massimo; Manfredi, Diego; Fino, Paolo; Pirri, Candido Fabrizio; Calignano, Flaviana

    2016-03-02

    In this work, three-dimensional (3D) structured hybrid materials were fabricated combining 3D printing technology with in situ generation of inorganic nanoparticles by sol-gel technique. Those materials, consisting of silica nanodomains covalently interconnected with organic polymers, were 3D printed in complex multilayered architectures, incorporating liquid silica precursors into a photocurable oligomer in the presence of suitable photoinitiators and exposing them to a digital light system. A post sol-gel treatment in acidic vapors allowed the in situ generation of the inorganic phase in a dedicated step. This method allows to build hybrid structures operating with a full liquid formulation without meeting the drawbacks of incorporating inorganic powders into 3D printable formulations. The influence of the generated silica nanoparticle on the printed objects was deeply investigated at macro- and nanoscale; the resulting light hybrid structures show improved mechanical properties and, thus, have a huge potential for applications in a variety of advanced technologies.

  18. Closure technique for the hybrid girder cable stayed bridge of Edong Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Minghu; Tan Hao; Xu GuoPing; Zhao Canhui

    2012-01-01

    Based on Edong Yangtze River Bridge, which is the second longest hybrid girder cable stayed bridge with 926 m long main span, the influencing factors and crucial techniques of the main span closure method for long span hybrid girder cable stayed bridge are studied. After theoretical analysis, numerical evaluation and practical test, the loading assistant closure method is employed in Edong Yangtze River Bridge. The loading assistant closure method, with better thermal adaptability and less influence on bridge line and the forced status, can meet the requirements of the unstressed state control method. Based on the mentioned advantages, the loading assistant closure method is applicable to long span hybrid girder cable stayed bridges. The conclusion can provide a reference for the further design of the similar brid~es.

  19. A new hybrid jpeg image compression scheme using symbol reduction technique

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Bheshaj; Sinha, G R

    2012-01-01

    Lossy JPEG compression is a widely used compression technique. Normally the JPEG standard technique uses three process mapping reduces interpixel redundancy, quantization, which is lossy process and entropy encoding, which is considered lossless process. In this paper, a new technique has been proposed by combining the JPEG algorithm and Symbol Reduction Huffman technique for achieving more compression ratio. The symbols reduction technique reduces the number of symbols by combining together to form a new symbol. As a result of this technique the number of Huffman code to be generated also reduced. It is simple fast and easy to implement. The result shows that the performance of standard JPEG method can be improved by proposed method. This hybrid approach achieves about 20% more compression ratio than the Standard JPEG.

  20. Hybrid single-beam reconstruction technique for slow and fast varying wave fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falaggis, Konstantinos; Kozacki, Tomasz; Kujawinska, Malgorzata

    2015-06-01

    An iterative single-beam wave field reconstruction technique that employs both non-paraxial, wave propagation based and paraxial deterministic phase retrieval techniques is presented. This approach overcomes two major obstacles that exist in the current state of the art techniques: iterative methods do not reconstruct slowly varying wave fields due to slow convergence and stagnation, and deterministic methods have paraxial limits, making the reconstructions of quickly varying object features impossible. In this work, a hybrid approach is reported that uses paraxial wave field corrections within iterative phase retrieval solvers. This technique is suitable for cases ranging from slow to fast varying wave fields, and unlike the currently available methods, can also reconstruct measurement objects with different regions of both slowly and quickly varying object features. It is further shown that this technique gives a higher accuracy than current single-beam phase retrieval techniques, and in comparison to the iterative methods, has a higher convergence speed.

  1. Lateral Interbody Fusion for Treatment of Discogenic Low Back Pain: Minimally Invasive Surgical Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Marchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Low back pain is one of the most common ailments in the general population, which tends to increase in severity along with aging. While few patients have severe enough symptoms or underlying pathology to warrant surgical intervention, in those select cases treatment choices remain controversial and reimbursement is a substancial barrier to surgery. The object of this study was to examine outcomes of discogenic back pain without radiculopathy following minimally-invasive lateral interbody fusion. Twenty-two patients were treated at either one or two levels (28 total between L2 and 5. Discectomy and interbody fusion were performed using a minimallyinvasive retroperitoneal lateral transpsoas approach. Clinical and radiographic parameters were analyzed at standard pre- and postoperative intervals up to 24 months. Mean surgical duration was 72.1 minutes. Three patients underwent supplemental percutaneous pedicle screw instrumentation. Four (14.3% stand-alone levels experienced cage subsidence. Pain (VAS and disability (ODI improved markedly postoperatively and were maintained through 24 months. Segmental lordosis increased significantly and fusion was achieved in 93% of levels. In this series, isolated axial low back pain arising from degenerative disc disease was treated with minimally-invasive lateral interbody fusion in significant radiographic and clinical improvements, which were maintained through 24 months.

  2. Detection of anti-personnel land-mines using sensor-fusion techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremer, F.; Schavemaker, J.G.M.; Breejen, E. den; Schutte, K.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we present the sensor-fusion results based on the measurements obtained within the European research project GEODE (Ground Explosive Ordnance DEtection system) that strives for the realisation of a vehicle-mounted, multisensor, anti-personnel land-mine detection system for humanitarian

  3. Sample preparation and in situ hybridization techniques for automated molecular cytogenetic analysis of white blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rijke, F.M. van de; Vrolijk, H.; Sloos, W. [Leiden Univ. (Netherlands)] [and others

    1996-06-01

    With the advent in situ hybridization techniques for the analysis of chromosome copy number or structure in interphase cells, the diagnostic and prognostic potential of cytogenetics has been augmented considerably. In theory, the strategies for detection of cytogenetically aberrant cells by in situ hybridization are simple and straightforward. In practice, however, they are fallible, because false classification of hybridization spot number or patterns occurs. When a decision has to be made on molecular cytogenetic normalcy or abnormalcy of a cell sample, the problem of false classification becomes particularly prominent if the fraction of aberrant cells is relatively small. In such mosaic situations, often > 200 cells have to be evaluated to reach a statistical sound figure. The manual enumeration of in situ hybridization spots in many cells in many patient samples is tedious. Assistance in the evaluation process by automation of microscope functions and image analysis techniques is, therefore, strongly indicated. Next to research and development of microscope hardware, camera technology, and image analysis, the optimization of the specimen for the (semi)automated microscopic analysis is essential, since factors such as cell density, thickness, and overlap have dramatic influences on the speed and complexity of the analysis process. Here we describe experiments that have led to a protocol for blood cell specimen that results in microscope preparations that are well suited for automated molecular cytogenetic analysis. 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Biomechanical comparison of interference screw and cortical button with screw hybrid technique for distal biceps brachii tendon repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arianjam, Afshin; Camisa, William; Leasure, Jeremi M; Montgomery, William H

    2013-11-01

    Various fixation techniques have been described for ruptured distal biceps tendons. The authors hypothesized that no significant differences would be found between the mean failure strength, maximum strength, and stiffness of the interference screw and hybrid technique. Fourteen fresh-frozen human cadaveric elbows were prepared. Specimens were randomized to either interference screw or hybrid cortical button with screw fixation. The tendon was pulled at a rate of 4 mm/s until failure. Failure strength, maximum strength, and stiffness were measured and compared. Failure strength, maximum strength, and stiffness were 294±81.9 N, 294±82.1 N, and 64.4±40.5 N/mm, respectively, for the interference screw technique and 333±129 N, 383±121 N, and 56.2±40.5 N/mm, respectively, for the hybrid technique. No statistically significant difference existed between the screw and hybrid technique in failure strength, maximum strength, or stiffness (P>.05). The interference screws primarily failed by pullout of the screw and tendon, whereas in the hybrid technique, failure occurred with screw pullout followed by tearing of the biceps tendon. The results suggest that this hybrid technique is nearly as strong and stiff as the interference screw alone. Although the hybrid technique facilitates tensioning of the reconstructed tendon, the addition of the cortical button did not significantly improve the failure strength of the interference screw alone. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Spinal Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... results in predictable healing. Autograft is currently the “gold standard” source of bone for a fusion. The ... pump. With this technique, the patient presses a button that delivers a predetermined amount of narcotic pain ...

  6. A DG Implementation of a Novel Hybrid RANS/LES Technique With RANS Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Abbà, Antonella; Nini, Michele; Restelli, Marco

    2014-01-01

    A new hybrid RANS/LES technique, based on the hybrid filter proposed by Germano in 2004, has been studied. The novelty herein introduced is represented by the reconstruction of the Reynolds stress tensor. As a consequence, no explicit RANS model is needed. The RANS and LES terms are merged using a constant blending factor. The model is implemented in a numerical code based on a high order Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) finite element formulation. The test case considered for numerical simulations is the turbulent tur- bulent channel flow at Mach = 0.2. The comparison with available DNS data shows a good agreement and, in general, an improvement with re- spect to pure LES results, confirming that the technique herein proposed represents a promising approach to the numerical simulation of turbulent flows.

  7. FN-DFE: Fuzzy-Neural Data Fusion Engine for Enhanced State-Awareness of Resilient Hybrid Energy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ondrej Linda; Dumidu Wijayasekara; Milos Manic; Craig Rieger

    2014-11-01

    Resiliency and improved state-awareness of modern critical infrastructures, such as energy production and industrial systems, is becoming increasingly important. As control systems become increasingly complex, the number of inputs and outputs increase. Therefore, in order to maintain sufficient levels of state-awareness, a robust system state monitoring must be implemented that correctly identifies system behavior even when one or more sensors are faulty. Furthermore, as intelligent cyber adversaries become more capable, incorrect values may be fed to the operators. To address these needs, this paper proposes a Fuzzy-Neural Data Fusion Engine (FN-DFE) for resilient state-awareness of control systems. The designed FN-DFE is composed of a three-layered system consisting of: 1) traditional threshold based alarms, 2) anomalous behavior detector using self-organizing fuzzy logic system, and 3) artificial neural network based system modeling and prediction. The improved control system state-awareness is achieved via fusing input data from multiple sources and combining them into robust anomaly indicators. In addition, the neural network based signal predictions are used to augment the resiliency of the system and provide coherent state-awareness despite temporary unavailability of sensory data. The proposed system was integrated and tested with a model of the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL) hybrid energy system facility know as HYTEST. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed FN-DFE provides timely plant performance monitoring and anomaly detection capabilities. It was shown that the system is capable of identifying intrusive behavior significantly earlier than conventional threshold based alarm systems.

  8. Detection of chromosome aberrations in interphase nuclei using fluorescence in situ hybridization technique.

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    We report here several experiences of interphase cytogenetics, using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique, for the detection of chromosome aberrations. FISH, using alpha satellite specific probes of 18, X, Y chromosomes, was done in interphase nuclei from peripheral blood of patients with Edwards' syndrome, Klinefelter's syndrome and Turner's syndrome with healthy male and female controls, respectively. The distributions of fluorescent signals in 100 interphase nuclei were well...

  9. The Applications of Decision-Level Data Fusion Techniques in the Field of Multiuser Detection for DS-UWB Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yebo Gu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the decision-level data fusion techniques are extended to the multiuser detection (MUD field. Then two novel MUD algorithms, that is the chairman arbitrating decision-level fusion criterion (CA-DFC based MUD algorithm and the veto logic decision-level fusion criterion (VL-DFC based MUD algorithm, are proposed for DS-UWB communication systems. In CA-DFC based method, the chairman can make his arbitration among the preliminary decisions from sub-optimal detectors by his own rule. In the VL-DFC based method, the undetermined bits in these preliminary decisions are considered to construct a simplified solution space, and then the chairman can make his final decision within this space. Simulation results demonstrate that the performances of CA-DFC and VL-DFC based MUD algorithms are superior to those of other sub-optimal MUD algorithms, and even close to that of OMD. Moreover, both of these proposed algorithms have lower computational complexity than OMD, which reveals their efficiency. Compared with CA-DFC, VL-DFC based algorithm achieves a little improvement in its performance, at the cost of the increment in its computational complexity. Thus, they can be applied to different practical situations.

  10. A low-loss hybrid rectification technique for piezoelectric energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, A. D.; Fink, E.; Garcia, E.

    2013-09-01

    Embedded systems have decreased in size and increased in capability; however, small-scale energy storage technologies still significantly limit these advances. Energy neutral operation using small-scale energy harvesting technologies would allow for longer device operation times and smaller energy storage masses. Vibration energy harvesting is an attractive method due to the prevalence of energy sources in many environments. Losses in efficiency due to AC-DC rectification and conditioning circuits limit its application. This work presents a low-loss hybrid rectification technique for piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting using magnetically actuated reed switches and a passive semiconductor full-bridge rectifier. This method shows the capability to have higher efficiency levels and the rectification of low-voltage harvesters without the need for active electrical components. A theoretical model shows that the hybrid rectification technique performance is highly dependent on the proximity delay and the hysteresis behavior of the reed switches. Experimental results validate the model and support the hypothesis of increased performance using the hybrid rectification technique.

  11. A Comparison of Redundancy Techniques for Private and Hybrid Cloud Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Hernandez-Ramirez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available File redundancy techniques have been very useful mechanisms for offering fault tolerance and data availability in anykind of storage. Cloud storage is not the exception. This paper presents an evaluation of classical file redundancytechniques implemented in two cloud-storage deployment models, private and hybrid. A small prototype of a privateand hybrid cloud storage was implemented for this evaluation. The performance impact when file redundancy is onlyapplied in a private cloud versus when redundancy is also distributed in a public cloud (the hybrid model is analyzed.Additional to classical file redundancy techniques, an innovative method was evaluated for file redundancy based onan information dispersal algorithm (IDA. The usage of IDA represents a good option for managing sensitive data inhybrid cloud storage. In this technique, only parts of a file need to be sent to the public cloud, avoiding the completefile to be read from outside of the private zone. In this context, there is a trade-off between performance (forreconstructing the original file, it is first necessary to obtain all of its fragments and the security level that coulddetermine the viability of using IDA.

  12. Advanced data visualization and sensor fusion: Conversion of techniques from medical imaging to Earth science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Richard C.; Chen, Chin-Tu; Pelizzari, Charles; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran

    1993-01-01

    Hughes Aircraft Company and the University of Chicago propose to transfer existing medical imaging registration algorithms to the area of multi-sensor data fusion. The University of Chicago's algorithms have been successfully demonstrated to provide pixel by pixel comparison capability for medical sensors with different characteristics. The research will attempt to fuse GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite), AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer), and SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave Imager) sensor data which will benefit a wide range of researchers. The algorithms will utilize data visualization and algorithm development tools created by Hughes in its EOSDIS (Earth Observation SystemData/Information System) prototyping. This will maximize the work on the fusion algorithms since support software (e.g. input/output routines) will already exist. The research will produce a portable software library with documentation for use by other researchers.

  13. 合理使用脊柱非融合技术%Proper application of non-fusion technique in spine surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯树勋

    2013-01-01

      Spine fusion technique has been the most frequently used technique in the treatment of degenerative spinal diseases. However, various related complications force doctors to look for other substitutions. The proposing and application of non-fusion technique has changed the concept of traditional spine surgery. A great number of early and present researches have revealed good results, nevertheless, the results vary due to the deficiency of high-quality clinical researches. The definite conclusion can hardly be drawn, while the technique should be used cautiously.

  14. Preliminary comparing the toxicities of the hybrid cry1Acs fused with different heterogenous genes provided guidance for the fusion expression of Cry proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ying; Tong, Jinying; Zhang, Yunlei; Wang, Lei; Hu, Shengbiao; Li, Wenping; Lv, Yuan

    2012-01-01

    In order to provide guidance for selecting suitable heterogenous gene that can efficiently enhance toxicity or broaden insecticidal spectrum of Cry1Ac through fusion expression, two hybrid cry1Acs fused with chitinase-encoding gene tchiB and neurotoxin gene hwtx-1 respectively were constructed and their toxicities were compared. A Bacillus thuringiensis strain harboring the cry1Ac gene in vector pHT315 was used as control. Bioassay revealed that LC(50) (after 72 h) of Cry1Ac protoxin was 41.01 μg mL(-1), while the hybrid cry1Acs fused with tchiB and hwtx-1 were 4.89 and 23.14 μg mL(-1), which were 8.23- and 1.77-fold higher than Cry1Ac protoxin in terms of relative toxicity respectively. Both fusion crystals had a higher toxicity than the original Cry1Ac protein and the toxicity of hybrid cry1Acs fused with hwtx-1 experienced a more significant increase than that fused with tchiB.

  15. Comparison of the Recently proposed Super Marx Generator Approach to Thermonuclear Ignition with the DT Laser Fusion-Fission Hybrid Concept by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Winterberg, Friedwardt

    2009-01-01

    The recently proposed Super Marx generator pure deuterium micro-detonation ignition concept is compared to the Lawrence Livermore National Ignition Facility (NIF) Laser DT fusion-fission hybrid concept (LiFE) [1]. In a Super Marx generator a large number of ordinary Marx generators charge up a much larger second stage ultra-high voltage Marx generator, from which for the ignition of a pure deuterium micro-explosion an intense GeV ion beam can be extracted. A typical example of the LiFE concept is a fusion gain of 30, and a fission gain of 10, making up for a total gain of 300, with about 10 times more energy released into fission as compared to fusion. This means a substantial release of fission products, as in fusion-less pure fission reactors. In the Super Marx approach for the ignition of a pure deuterium micro-detonation a gain of the same magnitude can in theory be reached [2]. If feasible, the Super Marx generator deuterium ignition approach would make lasers obsolete as a means for the ignition of ther...

  16. Nanofluid Applied Numerical Analysis of Subchannel in Square Rod Bundle for Fusion-Fission Hybrid System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamim, Jubair Ahmed; Bhowmik, Palash Kumar; Suh, Kune Y. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Most of the traditional ways available in the literature to enhance heat transfer are mainly based on variation of structures like addition of heat surface area such as fins, vibration of heated surface, injection or suction of fluids, applying electrical or magnetic fields, and so forth. Application of these mechanical techniques to a fuel rod bundle will involve not only designing complex geometries but also using many additional mechanisms inside a nuclear reactor core which in turn will certainly increase the manufacturing cost as well as may hamper various safety features essential for sound and uninterrupted operation of a nuclear power reactor. On the other hand, traditional heat transfer fluids such as water, ethylene glycol and oils have inherently low thermal conductivity relative to metals and even metal oxides. In this study the coolant with suspended nano-sized particles in the base fluid is proposed as an alternative to increase heat transfer but minimize flow resistance inside a nuclear reactor core. Due to technical complexities most of the previous studies carried out on heat transfer of suspension of metal oxides in fluids were limited to suspensions with millimeter or micron-sized particles. Such outsized particles may lead to severe problems in heat transfer equipment including increased pressure drop and corrosion and erosion of components and pipe lines. Dramatic advancement in modern science has made it possible to produce ultrafine metallic or nonmetallic particles of nanometer dimension, which has brought a revolutionary change in the research of heat transfer enhancement methods. Due to very tiny particle size and their small volume fraction, problems such as clogging and increased pressure drop are insignificant for nanofluids. Moreover, the relatively large surface area of nanoparticles augments the stability of nanofluid solution and prevents the sedimentation of nanoparticles. Xuan and Roetzel considered two approaches to illustrate

  17. High capacity fiber optic sensor networks using hybrid multiplexing techniques and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qizhen; Li, Xiaolei; Zhang, Manliang; Liu, Qi; Liu, Hai; Liu, Deming

    2013-12-01

    Fiber optic sensor network is the development trend of fiber senor technologies and industries. In this paper, I will discuss recent research progress on high capacity fiber sensor networks with hybrid multiplexing techniques and their applications in the fields of security monitoring, environment monitoring, Smart eHome, etc. Firstly, I will present the architecture of hybrid multiplexing sensor passive optical network (HSPON), and the key technologies for integrated access and intelligent management of massive fiber sensor units. Two typical hybrid WDM/TDM fiber sensor networks for perimeter intrusion monitor and cultural relics security are introduced. Secondly, we propose the concept of "Microstructure-Optical X Domin Refecltor (M-OXDR)" for fiber sensor network expansion. By fabricating smart micro-structures with the ability of multidimensional encoded and low insertion loss along the fiber, the fiber sensor network of simple structure and huge capacity more than one thousand could be achieved. Assisted by the WDM/TDM and WDM/FDM decoding methods respectively, we built the verification systems for long-haul and real-time temperature sensing. Finally, I will show the high capacity and flexible fiber sensor network with IPv6 protocol based hybrid fiber/wireless access. By developing the fiber optic sensor with embedded IPv6 protocol conversion module and IPv6 router, huge amounts of fiber optic sensor nodes can be uniquely addressed. Meanwhile, various sensing information could be integrated and accessed to the Next Generation Internet.

  18. A HYBRID TECHNIQUE FOR FREQUENCY DOMAIN IDENTIFICATION OF SERVO SYSTEM WITH FRICTION FORCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAIK.RAFI KIRAN,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The system identification process in servo system with frictional force seems to be a complex task becauseof its non-linear nature. For such non-linear systems, a good choice is system identification in frequencydomain. However, most of the techniques are manual and are inappropriate for determination of systemparameters. This makes system identification ineffective for servo systems with frictional force. Toovercome this issue, a hybrid technique is proposed in this paper. The proposed technique exploits neuralnetwork and genetic algorithm to determine the system parameters of servo systems with friction. In theproposed technique, the target parameters are determined from the transfer function derived for thesystem. Subsequently, the system parameters are identified by a process formed by blending the neuralnetwork and genetic algorithm techniques. Prior to performing the identification procedure, backpropagation training is given to the neural network using a pre-examined dataset. Then with thecombined operation of neural network and genetic algorithm, the system parameters that are closer tothe target parameters for the servo system with frictional force are determined. The technique isimplemented and compared with the existing frequency domain identification technique. From thecomparative results, it is evident that the proposed technique outperforms the existing technique.

  19. Extreme lateral lumbar interbody fusion. Surgical technique, outcomes and complications after a minimum of one year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, I; Luque, R; Noriega, M; Rey, J; Alia, J; Marco-Martínez, F

    «Minimally invasive» techniques have been recently been developed in order to achieve good clinical results with a low incidence of complications. The extralateral interbody fusion or direct transpsoas is a minimally invasive anterior arthrodesis. A total of 97 patients with 138 segments received surgery between May 2012 and May 2015. The follow-up was from 12-44 months. The mean age was 68 years (41-86). The most common cause of intervention was the adjacent segment (30%), deformity (22%), and lumbar disc disease (21%). The interbody cage was implanted as: Single (stand-alone) in 33%, and additional fixation was used in the others: Screws, percutaneous unilateral (11%), bilateral (27%), or with a lateral plate (62%). The mean stay was 3.2 days (2-6). The score on a lumbar visual analogue scale decreased from 9 to 4.1, and dropped to 3 after one year. The improvement in disc height was from 8.4mm to 13.8mm, and a larger increase in the foramen diameter from 10.5 to 13.1mm, which were statistically significant. The early major complications recorded were, three motor femoral nerve injuries and retroperitoneal haematoma (4%), and the early minor were: two fractures (2%). As major late complications there was an abdominal hernia, a mobilization of 10mm and three radiculopathy (5%), and as minor late, three fracture, two mobilisations greater than 10mm, four mobilisations of less than 10mm, and one mobilisation of a screw plate (10%). The extralateral interbody fusion technique is a safe and reliable when performing a lumbar fusion by an alternative minimally invasive route.

  20. Investigation of a fusion technique for the determination of total sulfur in geological samples by ion chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stallings, E.A.; Candelaria, L.M.; Gladney, E.S.

    1988-06-01

    The authors have encountered the need for a rapid, accurate, precise, and sensitive method for measuring total sulfur in large numbers of geological samples. Numerous environmental studies of sulfur deposition due to sulfur dioxide emission from combustion and industry are currently under way. Several techniques for measuring total sulfur in soils and other silicate materials have been published including neutron activation analysis, thermal neutron capture prompt ..gamma..-ray spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, isotope dilution mass spectrometry, X-ray fluorescence, turbidimetry, ion chromatography (IC), iodimetric titration, and fluorometry. However, none of these methods is completely satisfactory for routine analysis of large numbers of samples. Many have levels of detection that are inadequate for measuring low levels of total sulfur (<100 ..mu..g/g) often encountered in soils. Several utilize only aqueous extracts of the soils and do not provide a total sulfur determination. Others require extensive sample preparation, are susceptible to loss of sulfur during oxidation, or produce incomplete conversion of sulfur species to sulfate. The objective of this work was to evaluate the accuracy of IC determination of sulfate for Na/sub 2/O/sub 2/ soil fusions by comparing the results obtained for reference materials with literature values reported for other techniques. They were also interested in determining if this fusion method would be rapid enough to handle large numbers of samples.

  1. Characterization of neurovascular compression in facial neuralgia patients by 3D high-resolution MRI and image fusion technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Chen; Xiang-Jun Han; Zi-Yi Guo; Guang Yang; Xiong Wang; Qing-Yu Tang; Yue-Qiong Cheng; Yi Guo; Shui-Xi Fu; Cai-Xiang Chen

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To describe the anatomical characteristics and patterns of neurovascular compression (NVC) in patients suffering trigeminal neuralgia (TN) by3D high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method and image fusion technique.Methods:The anatomic structure of trigeminal nerve, brain stem and blood vessel was observed in100 consecutiveTN patients by 3Dhigh resolutionMRI (3D SPGR, contrast-enhancedT1 3D MP-RAGE andT2/T1 3D FIESTA). The3D image sources were fused and visualized using3D DOCTOR software.Results:One or severalNVC sites, which usually appeared0-9.8 mm away from brain stem, were found on the symptomatic side in93% of theTN cases. Superior cerebellar artery was involved in76% (71/93) of these cases. The other vessels including antero-inferior cerebellar artery, vertebral artery, basilar artery and veins also contributed to the occurrence ofNVC. TheNVC sites were found to be located in the proximal segment in42%of these cases(39/93) and in the distal segment in45% (42/93). Nerve dislocation or distortion was observed in32% (30/93).Conclusions:Various3D high resolutionMRImethods combined with the image fusion technique could provide pathologic anatomic information for the diagnosis and treatment ofTN.

  2. Non-probabilistic information fusion technique for structural damage identification based on measured dynamic data with uncertainty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Jun Wang; Chen Yang; Zhi-Ping Qiu

    2013-01-01

    Based on measured natural frequencies and acceleration responses,a non-probabilistic information fusion technique is proposed for the structural damage detection by adopting the set-membership identification (SMI) and two-step model updating procedure.Due to the insufficiency and uncertainty of information obtained from measurements,the uncertain problem of damage identification is addressed with interval variables in this paper.Based on the first-order Taylor series expansion,the interval bounds of the elemental stiffness parameters in undamaged and damaged models are estimated,respectively.The possibility of damage existence (PoDE) in elements is proposed as the quantitative measure of structural damage probability,which is more reasonable in the condition of insufficient measurement data.In comparison with the identification method based on a single kind of information,the SMI method will improve the accuracy in damage identification,which reflects the information fusion concept based on the non-probabilistic set.A numerical example is performed to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  3. Recent Developments on Hybrid Time-Frequency Numerical Simulation Techniques for RF and Microwave Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge F. Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews some of the promising doors that functional analysis techniques have recently opened in the field of electronic circuit simulation. Because of the modulated nature of radio frequency (RF signals, the corresponding electronic circuits seem to operate in a slow time scale for the aperiodic information and another, much faster, time scale for the periodic carrier. This apparent multirate behavior can be appropriately described using partial differential equations (PDEs within a bivariate framework, which can be solved in an efficient way using hybrid time-frequency techniques. With these techniques, the aperiodic information dimension is treated in the discrete time domain, while the periodic carrier dimension is processed in the frequency domain, in which the solution is evaluated within a space of harmonically related sinusoidal functions. The objective of this paper is thus to provide a general overview on the most important hybrid time-frequency techniques, as the ones found in commercial tools or the ones recently published in the literature.

  4. Hybrid machine learning technique for forecasting Dhaka stock market timing decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banik, Shipra; Khodadad Khan, A F M; Anwer, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Forecasting stock market has been a difficult job for applied researchers owing to nature of facts which is very noisy and time varying. However, this hypothesis has been featured by several empirical experiential studies and a number of researchers have efficiently applied machine learning techniques to forecast stock market. This paper studied stock prediction for the use of investors. It is always true that investors typically obtain loss because of uncertain investment purposes and unsighted assets. This paper proposes a rough set model, a neural network model, and a hybrid neural network and rough set model to find optimal buy and sell of a share on Dhaka stock exchange. Investigational findings demonstrate that our proposed hybrid model has higher precision than the single rough set model and the neural network model. We believe this paper findings will help stock investors to decide about optimal buy and/or sell time on Dhaka stock exchange.

  5. Step Response Enhancement of Hybrid Stepper Motors Using Soft Computing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amged S. El-Wakeel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of different soft computing techniques for step response enhancement of Hybrid Stepper Motors. The basic differential equations of hybrid stepper motor are used to build up a model using MATLAB software package. The implementation of Fuzzy Logic (FL and Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID controllers are used to improve the motor performance. The numerical simulations by a PC-based controller show that the PID controller tuned by Genetic Algorithm (GA produces better performance than that tuned by Fuzzy controller. They show that, the Fuzzy PID-like controller produces better performance than the other linear Fuzzy controllers. Finally, the comparison between PID controllers tuned by genetic algorithm and the Fuzzy PID-like controller shows that, the Fuzzy PID-like controller produces better performance.

  6. Plasma Processes : A simple and efficient levitation technique for noncontact coating of inertial confinement fusion targets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K K Mishra; R K Khardekar; Rashmi Chouhan; R K Gupta

    2000-11-01

    A simple and very efficient gas jet levitation technique for levitating inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets has been developed. A low velocity gas jet through diverging nozzle generates precisely controlled low Reynolds number flow pattern, capable of levitating polymer microballoons up to 2500 m diameter. Different shaped diverging nozzle are investigated, satisfactory levitation is achieved with simple conical shapes. With this setup microballoon can be levitated for hours with excellent stability, continuous rotation and at the desired height (reproducible with in less than 100 m). The height of stabilization depends upon cone angle of diverging nozzle and velocity of levitating gas. This technique is very robust and highly insensitive to external disturbances like nonuniform temperature fields and vibrations. This setup is very economical to fabricate, easy to operate and can be used efficiently in various spray coating application involving plastic and metallic layers on microballoons.

  7. Development of a diagnostic technique based on Cherenkov effect for measurements of fast electrons in fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plyusnin, V. V.; Duarte, P.; Fernandes, H.; Silva, C. [Association Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Jakubowski, L.; Zebrowski, J.; Malinowski, K.; Rabinski, M.; Sadowski, M. J. [National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ), 7 Andrzeja Soltana Str., 05-400 Otwock (Poland)

    2012-08-15

    A diagnostic technique based on the Cherenkov effect is proposed for detection and characterization of fast (super-thermal and runaway) electrons in fusion devices. The detectors of Cherenkov radiation have been specially designed for measurements in the ISTTOK tokamak. Properties of several materials have been studied to determine the most appropriate one to be used as a radiator of Cherenkov emission in the detector. This technique has enabled the detection of energetic electrons (70 keV and higher) and the determination of their spatial and temporal variations in the ISTTOK discharges. Measurement of hard x-ray emission has also been carried out in experiments for validation of the measuring capabilities of the Cherenkov-type detector and a high correlation was found between the data of both diagnostics. A reasonable agreement was found between experimental data and the results of numerical modeling of the runaway electron generation in ISTTOK.

  8. Joining techniques for a reduced activation 12Cr steel for inertial fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, R. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); El-Dasher, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Choi, B. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Torres, S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-10-01

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we are developing a reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel that is based on the ferritic martensitic steel HT-9. As a part of the development of this steel, we tested a series of welding processes for characterization, including conventional welds (electron beam, tungsten inert gas, and laser) as well as solid-state welds (hot isostatic pressing). We also heat treated the joints at various temperatures between 750 °C and 1050 °C to find a suitable normalization scheme. The modified HT-9 reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel appears highly suitable to welding and diffusion bonding. All welds showed good quality fusion zones with insignificant cracking or porosity. Additionally, a heat treatment schedule of 950 °C for one hour caused minimal grain growth while still converging the hardness of the base metal with that of the fusion and heat-affected zones. Also, modified HT-9 diffusion bonds that were created at temperatures of at least 950 °C for two hours at 103 MPa had interface tensile strengths of greater than 600 MPa. The diffusion bonds showed no evidence of increased hardness nor void formation at the diffusion bonded interface.

  9. A New Fusion Technique of Remote Sensing Images for Land Use/Cover

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Lian-Xi; SUN Bo; ZHOU Sheng-Lu; HUANG Shu-E; ZHAO Qi-Guo

    2004-01-01

    In China,accelerating industrialization and urbanization following high-speed economic development and population increases have greatly impacted land use/cover changes,making it imperative to obtain accurate and up to date information on changes so as to evaluate their environmental effects. The major purpose of this study was to develop a new method to fuse lower spatial resolution multispectral satellite images with higher spatial resolution panchromatic ones to assist in land use/cover mapping. An algorithm of a new fusion method known as edge enhancement intensity modulation (EEIM) was proposed to merge two optical image data sets of different spectral ranges. The results showed that the EEIM image was quite similar in color to lower resolution multispectral images,and the fused product was better able to preserve spectral information. Thus,compared to conventional approaches,the spectral distortion of the fused images was markedly reduced. Therefore,the EEIM fusion method could be utilized to fuse remote sensing data from the same or different sensors,including TM images and SPOT5 panchromatic images,providing high quality land use/cover images.

  10. Improved prediction of drug-target interactions using regularized least squares integrating with kernel fusion technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Ming; Wang, Yanli, E-mail: ywang@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov; Bryant, Stephen H., E-mail: bryant@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

    2016-02-25

    Identification of drug-target interactions (DTI) is a central task in drug discovery processes. In this work, a simple but effective regularized least squares integrating with nonlinear kernel fusion (RLS-KF) algorithm is proposed to perform DTI predictions. Using benchmark DTI datasets, our proposed algorithm achieves the state-of-the-art results with area under precision–recall curve (AUPR) of 0.915, 0.925, 0.853 and 0.909 for enzymes, ion channels (IC), G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) and nuclear receptors (NR) based on 10 fold cross-validation. The performance can further be improved by using a recalculated kernel matrix, especially for the small set of nuclear receptors with AUPR of 0.945. Importantly, most of the top ranked interaction predictions can be validated by experimental data reported in the literature, bioassay results in the PubChem BioAssay database, as well as other previous studies. Our analysis suggests that the proposed RLS-KF is helpful for studying DTI, drug repositioning as well as polypharmacology, and may help to accelerate drug discovery by identifying novel drug targets. - Graphical abstract: Flowchart of the proposed RLS-KF algorithm for drug-target interaction predictions. - Highlights: • A nonlinear kernel fusion algorithm is proposed to perform drug-target interaction predictions. • Performance can further be improved by using the recalculated kernel. • Top predictions can be validated by experimental data.

  11. The Radiological and Thermal Characteristics of Fission Waste from a Deep-Burn Fusion-Fission Hybrid (LIFE) and Implications for Repository Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, H F; Blink, J; Farmer, J; Latkowski, J; Kramer, K

    2009-09-08

    We are studying the use of a Laser Inertial-confinement Fusion Engine (LIFE) to drive a hybrid fusion-fission system that can generate electrical power and/or burn nuclear waste. The system uses the neutrons from laser driven ICF to produce tritium and to drive nuclear reactions in a subcritical fission blanket. The fusion neutron source obviates the need for a self-sustaining chain reaction in the fission blanket. Either fissile or fertile could be used as fission fuel, thus eliminating the need for isotopic enrichment. The 'driven' system potentially allows very high levels of burnup to be reached, extracting a large fraction of the available energy in the fission fuel without the need for reprocessing. In this note, we discuss the radionuclide inventory of a depleted uranium (DU) fuel burned to greater than 95% FIMA (Fissions per Initial heavy Metal Atom), the implications for thermal management of the resulting waste, and the implications of this waste for meeting the dose standards for releases from a geological repository for high-level waste. The fission waste discussed here would be that produced by a LIFE hybrid with a 500-MW fusion source. The fusion neutrons are multiplied and moderated by a sequence of concentric shells of materials before encountering the fission fuel, and fission in this region is largely due to thermal neutrons. The fission blanket consists of 40 metric tons (MT) of DU, assumed to be in the form of TRISO-like UOC fuel particles embedded in 2-cm-diameter graphite pebbles. (It is recognized that TRISO-based fuel may not reach the high burnup of the fertile fuel considered here, and other fuel options are being investigated. We postulate the existence of a fuel that can reach >95% FIMA so that the waste disposal implications of high burnup can be assessed.) The engine and plant design considered here would receive one load of fission fuel and produce {approx}2 GWt of power (fusion + fission) over its 50- to 70-year lifetime

  12. Decisive factor in increase of loading at adjacent segments after lumbar fusion: operative technique, pedicle screws, or fusion itself: biomechanical analysis using finite element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joon-Hee; Kim, Ho-Joong; Kang, Kyoung-Tak; Kim, Ka-yeon; Chun, Heoung-Jae; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Lee, Hwan-Mo

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the change in biomechanical milieu following removal of pedicle screws or removal of spinous process with posterior ligament complex in instrumented single level lumbar arthrodesis. We developed and validated a finite element model (FEM) of the intact lumbar spine (L2-4). Four scenarios of L3-4 lumbar fusion were simulated: posterolateral fusion (PLF) at L3-4 using pedicle screw system with preservation of PLC (Pp WiP), L3-4 lumbar posterolateral fusion state after removal of pedicle screw system with preservation of PLC (Pp WoP), L3-4 using pedicle screw system without preservation PLC (Sp WiP), L3-4 lumbar posterolateral fusion state after removal of pedicle screw system without preservation of PLC (Sp WoP). For these models, we investigated the range of motion and maximal Von mises stress of disc in all segments under various moments. All fusion models demonstrated increase in range of motion at adjacent segments compared to the intact model.For the four fusion models, the WiP model s P had the largest increase in range of motion at each adjacent segment. This study demonstrated that removal of pedicle screw system and preservation of PLC after complete lumbar spinal fusion could reduce the stress of adjacent segments synergistically and might have beneficial effects in preventing ASD.

  13. Hybrid PIV-PTV technique for measuring blood flow in rat mesenteric vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Hojin; Nam, Kweon-Ho; Lee, Sang Joon

    2012-11-01

    The micro-particle tracking velocimetry (μ-PTV) technique is used to obtain the velocity fields of blood flow in the microvasculature under in vivo conditions because it can provide the blood velocity distribution in microvessels with high spatial resolution. The in vivo μ-PTV technique usually requires a few to tens of seconds to obtain a whole velocity profile across the vessel diameter because of the limited number density of tracer particles under in vivo conditions. Thus, the μ-PTV technique alone is limited in measuring unsteady blood flows that fluctuate irregularly due to the heart beating and muscle movement in surrounding tissues. In this study, a new hybrid PIV-PTV technique was established by combining PTV and particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques to resolve the drawbacks of the μ-PTV method in measuring blood flow in microvessels under in vivo conditions. Images of red blood cells (RBCs) and fluorescent particles in rat mesenteric vessels were obtained simultaneously. Temporal variations of the centerline blood velocity were monitored using a fast Fourier transform-based cross-correlation PIV method. The fluorescence particle images were analyzed using the μ-PTV technique to extract the spatial distribution of the velocity vectors. Data from the μ-PTV and PIV methods were combined to obtain a better estimate of the velocity profile in actual blood flow. This technique will be useful in investigating hemodynamics in microcirculation by measuring unsteady irregular blood flows more accurately.

  14. A Low Cost Vision Based Hybrid Fiducial Mark Tracking Technique for Mobile Industrial Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Y Aalsalem

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The field of robotic vision is developing rapidly. Robots can react intelligently and provide assistance to user activities through sentient computing. Since industrial applications pose complex requirements that cannot be handled by humans, an efficient low cost and robust technique is required for the tracking of mobile industrial robots. The existing sensor based techniques for mobile robot tracking are expensive and complex to deploy, configure and maintain. Also some of them demand dedicated and often expensive hardware. This paper presents a low cost vision based technique called “Hybrid Fiducial Mark Tracking” (HFMT technique for tracking mobile industrial robot. HFMT technique requires off-the-shelf hardware (CCD cameras and printable 2-D circular marks used as fiducials for tracking a mobile industrial robot on a pre-defined path. This proposed technique allows the robot to track on a predefined path by using fiducials for the detection of Right and Left turns on the path and White Strip for tracking the path. The HFMT technique is implemented and tested on an indoor mobile robot at our laboratory. Experimental results from robot navigating in real environments have confirmed that our approach is simple and robust and can be adopted in any hostile industrial environment where humans are unable to work.

  15. Design and Development of Hybrid Multilevel Inverter employing Dual Reference Modulation Technique for Fuel Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Seyezhai

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available MultiLevel Inverter (MLI has been recognized as an attractive topology for high voltage DC-AC conversion. This paper focuses on a new dual reference modulation technique for a hybrid multilevel inverter employing Silicon carbide (SiC switches for fuel cell applications. The proposed modulation technique employs two reference waveforms and a single inverted sine wave as the carrier waveform. This technique is compared with the conventional dual carrier waveform in terms of output voltage spectral quality and switching losses. An experimental five-level hybrid inverter test rig has been built using SiC switches to implement the proposed algorithm. Gating signals are generated using PIC microcontroller. The performance of the inverter has been analyzed and compared with the result obtained from theory and simulation. Simulation study of Proportional Integral (PI controller for the inverter employing the proposed modulation strategy has been done in MATLAB/SIMULINK. Keywords: Multilevel inverter, SiC , dual reference modulation, switching losses, PI

  16. Hardwood species classification with DWT based hybrid texture feature extraction techniques

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arvind R Yadav; R S Anand; M L Dewal; Sangeeta Gupta

    2015-12-01

    In this work, discrete wavelet transform (DWT) based hybrid texture feature extraction techniques have been used to categorize the microscopic images of hardwood species into 75 different classes. Initially, the DWT has been employed to decompose the image up to 7 levels using Daubechies (db3) wavelet as decomposition filter. Further, first-order statistics (FOS) and four variants of local binary pattern (LBP) descriptors are used to acquire distinct features of these images at various levels. The linear support vector machine (SVM), radial basis function (RBF) kernel SVM and random forest classifiers have been employed for classification. The classification accuracy obtained with state-of-the-art and DWT based hybrid texture features using various classifiers are compared. The DWT based FOS-uniform local binary pattern (DWTFOSLBPu2) texture features at the 4th level of image decomposition have produced best classification accuracy of 97.67 ± 0.79% and 98.40 ± 064% for grayscale and RGB images, respectively, using linear SVM classifier. Reduction in feature dataset by minimal redundancy maximal relevance (mRMR) feature selection method is achieved and the best classification accuracy of 99.00 ± 0.79% and 99.20 ± 0.42% have been obtained for DWT based FOS-LBP histogram Fourier features (DWTFOSLBP-HF) technique at the 5th and 6th levels of image decomposition for grayscale and RGB images, respectively, using linear SVM classifier. The DWTFOSLBP-HF features selected with mRMR method has also established superiority amongst the DWT based hybrid texture feature extraction techniques for randomly divided database into different proportions of training and test datasets.

  17. Using Geostatistical Data Fusion Techniques and MODIS Data to Upscale Simulated Wheat Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrignano, A.; Buttafuoco, G.; Matese, A.; Toscano, P.

    2014-12-01

    Population growth increases food request. Assessing food demand and predicting the actual supply for a given location are critical components of strategic food security planning at regional scale. Crop yield can be simulated using crop models because is site-specific and determined by weather, management, length of growing season and soil properties. Crop models require reliable location-specific data that are not generally available. Obtaining these data at a large number of locations is time-consuming, costly and sometimes simply not feasible. An upscaling method to extend coverage of sparse estimates of crop yield to an appropriate extrapolation domain is required. This work is aimed to investigate the applicability of a geostatistical data fusion approach for merging remote sensing data with the predictions of a simulation model of wheat growth and production using ground-based data. The study area is Capitanata plain (4000 km2) located in Apulia Region, mostly cropped with durum wheat. The MODIS EVI/NDVI data products for Capitanata plain were downloaded from the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LPDAAC) remote for the whole crop cycle of durum wheat. Phenological development, biomass growth and grain quantity of durum wheat were simulated by the Delphi system, based on a crop simulation model linked to a database including soil properties, agronomical and meteorological data. Multicollocated cokriging was used to integrate secondary exhaustive information (multi-spectral MODIS data) with primary variable (sparsely distributed biomass/yield model predictions of durum wheat). The model estimates looked strongly spatially correlated with the radiance data (red and NIR bands) and the fusion data approach proved to be quite suitable and flexible to integrate data of different type and support.

  18. Establishment of a Multi-color Genomic in situ Hybridization Technique to Simultaneously Discriminate the Three Interspecific Hybrid Genomes in Gossypium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing Guan; Kai Wang; Bao-Liang Zhou; Wang-Zhen Guo; Tian-Zhen Zhang

    2008-01-01

    To identify alien chromosomes in recipient progenies and to analyze genome components in polyploidy, a genomic In situ hybridization (GISH) technique that is suitable for cotton was developed using increased stringency conditions. The increased stringency conditions were a combination of the four factors in the following optimized state: 100:1 ratio of blocking DNA to probe, 60% formamide wash solution, 43 =C temperature wash and a 13 min wash. Under these specific conditions using gDNA from Gossypium sturtianurn (C1C1) as a probe, strong hybridization signals were only observed on chromosomes from the C1 genome in somatic cells of the hybrid F1 (G. hirsutum×G. sturtianum) (AtDtC1). Therefore, GISH was able to discriminate parental chromosomes in the hybrid. Further, we developed a multi-color GISH to simultaneously discriminate the three genomes of the above hybrid. The results repeatedly displayed the three genomes, At, Dt, and C1, and each set of chromosomes with a unique color, making them easy to identify. The power of the multi-color GISH was proven by analysis of the hexaploid hybrid F1 (G. hirsutum × G. australe) (AtAtDtDtG2G2). We believe that the powerful multi-color GISH technique could be applied extensively to analyze the genome component in polyploidy and to identify alien chromosomes in the recipient progenies.

  19. Multimodality Inferring of Human Cognitive States Based on Integration of Neuro-Fuzzy Network and Information Fusion Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bhattacharya

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available To achieve an effective and safe operation on the machine system where the human interacts with the machine mutually, there is a need for the machine to understand the human state, especially cognitive state, when the human's operation task demands an intensive cognitive activity. Due to a well-known fact with the human being, a highly uncertain cognitive state and behavior as well as expressions or cues, the recent trend to infer the human state is to consider multimodality features of the human operator. In this paper, we present a method for multimodality inferring of human cognitive states by integrating neuro-fuzzy network and information fusion techniques. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this method, we take the driver fatigue detection as an example. The proposed method has, in particular, the following new features. First, human expressions are classified into four categories: (i casual or contextual feature, (ii contact feature, (iii contactless feature, and (iv performance feature. Second, the fuzzy neural network technique, in particular Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK model, is employed to cope with uncertain behaviors. Third, the sensor fusion technique, in particular ordered weighted aggregation (OWA, is integrated with the TSK model in such a way that cues are taken as inputs to the TSK model, and then the outputs of the TSK are fused by the OWA which gives outputs corresponding to particular cognitive states under interest (e.g., fatigue. We call this method TSK-OWA. Validation of the TSK-OWA, performed in the Northeastern University vehicle drive simulator, has shown that the proposed method is promising to be a general tool for human cognitive state inferring and a special tool for the driver fatigue detection.

  20. Direct detection of expanded trinucleotide repeats using PCR and DNA hybridization techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petronis, A.; Tatuch, Y.; Klempan, T.A.; Kennedy, J.L. [Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada)] [and others

    1996-02-16

    Recently, unstable trinucleotide repeats have been shown to be the etiologic factor in seven neuropsychiatric diseases, and they may play a similar role in other genetic disorders which exhibit genetic anticipation. We have tested one polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based and two hybridization-based methods for direct detection of unstable DNA expansion in genomic DNA. This technique employs a single primer (asymmetric) PCR using total genomic DNA as a template to efficiently screen for the presence of large trinucleotide repeat expansions. High-stringency Southern blot hybridization with a PCR-generated trinucleotide repeat probe allowed detection of the DNA fragment containing the expansion. Analysis of myotonic dystrophy patients containing different degrees of (CTG){sub n} expansion demonstrated the identification of the site of trinucleotide instability in some affected individuals without any prior information regarding genetic map location. The same probe was used for fluorescent in situ hybridization and several regions of (CTG){sub n}/(CAG){sub n} repeats in the human genome were detected, including the myotonic dystrophy locus on chromosome 19q. Although limited at present to large trinucleotide repeat expansions, these strategies can be applied to directly clone genes involved in disorders caused by large expansions of unstable DNA. 33 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Biocompatibility improvement of titanium implants by coating with hybrid materials synthesized by sol-gel technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catauro, M; Bollino, F; Papale, F

    2014-12-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on zirconia and polyethylene glycol (PEG) have been synthesized via sol-gel method in the present study. Those materials, still in the sol phase, have been used to coat a titanium grade 4 (Ti-4) substrate to improve its biological properties. Dip-coating technique has been used to obtain thin films. PEG, a biocompatible polymer, used as the organic phase, has been incorporated with different percentages in an inorganic zirconium-based matrix. Those hybrids have been characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to detect interactions between the two phases. The films have been examined using SEM to detect morphological changes with PEG percentages. The potential applications of the hybrid coatings in biomedical field have been evaluated by bioactivity and cytotoxicity tests. The coated titanium was immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 21 days and the hydroxyapatite deposition on its surface was subsequently evaluated, as that feature can be used as an index of bone-bonding capability. SEM equipped with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) was used to examine hydroxyapatite formation. NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cells were seeded on specimens to evaluate cells-materials interactions and cell vitality was inspected using WST-8 Assay.

  2. Production of CaCO3/hyperbranched polyglycidol hybrid films using spray-coating technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinova, Kalina; Gunesch, Manfred; Montero Pancera, Sabrina; Wengeler, Robert; Rieger, Bernhard; Volkmer, Dirk

    2012-05-15

    Biomineralizing organisms employ macromolecules and cellular processing strategies in order to produce highly complex composite materials such as nacre. Bionic approaches translating this knowledge into viable technical production schemes for a large-scale production of biomimetic hybrid materials have met with limited success so far. Investigations presented here thus focus on the production of CaCO(3)/polymer hybrid coatings that can be applied to huge surface areas via reactive spray-coating. Technical requirements for simplicity and cost efficiency include a straightforward one-pot synthesis of low molecular weight hyperbranched polyglycidols (polyethers of 2,3-epoxy-1-propanol) as a simple mimic of biological macromolecules. Polymers functionalized with phosphate monoester, sulfate or carboxylate groups provide a means of controlling CaCO(3) particle density and morphology in the final coatings. We employ reactive spray-coating techniques to generate CaCO(3)/hybrid coatings among which vaterite composites can be prepared in the presence of sulfate-containing hyperbranched polyglycidol. These coatings show high stability and remained unchanged for periods longer than 9 months. By employing carboxylate-based hyperbranched polyglycidol, it is possible to deposit vaterite-calcite composites, whereas phosphate-ester-based hyperbranched polyglycidol leads to calcite composites. Nanoindentation was used to study mechanical properties, showing that coatings thus obtained are slightly harder than pure calcite. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Hybrid OPC modeling with SEM contour technique for 10nm node process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitomi, Keiichiro; Halle, Scott; Miller, Marshal; Graur, Ioana; Saulnier, Nicole; Dunn, Derren; Okai, Nobuhiro; Hotta, Shoji; Yamaguchi, Atsuko; Komuro, Hitoshi; Ishimoto, Toru; Koshihara, Shunsuke; Hojo, Yutaka

    2014-03-01

    Hybrid OPC modeling is investigated using both CDs from 1D and simple 2D structures and contours extracted from complex 2D structures, which are obtained by a Critical Dimension-Scanning Electron Microscope (CD-SEM). Recent studies have addressed some of key issues needed for the implementation of contour extraction, including an edge detection algorithm consistent with conventional CD measurements, contour averaging and contour alignment. Firstly, pattern contours obtained from CD-SEM images were used to complement traditional site driven CD metrology for the calibration of OPC models for both metal and contact layers of 10 nm-node logic device, developed in Albany Nano-Tech. The accuracy of hybrid OPC model was compared with that of conventional OPC model, which was created with only CD data. Accuracy of the model, defined as total error root-mean-square (RMS), was improved by 23% with the use of hybrid OPC modeling for contact layer and 18% for metal layer, respectively. Pattern specific benefit of hybrid modeling was also examined. Resist shrink correction was applied to contours extracted from CD-SEM images in order to improve accuracy of the contours, and shrink corrected contours were used for OPC modeling. The accuracy of OPC model with shrink correction was compared with that without shrink correction, and total error RMS was decreased by 0.2nm (12%) with shrink correction technique. Variation of model accuracy among 8 modeling runs with different model calibration patterns was reduced by applying shrink correction. The shrink correction of contours can improve accuracy and stability of OPC model.

  4. ENVIRONMENT INDEPENDENT DIRECTIONAL GESTURE RECOGNITION TECHNIQUE FOR ROBOTS USING MULTIPLE DATA FUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore Abishek

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A technique is presented here for directional gesture recognition by robots. The usual technique employed now is using camera vision and image processing. One major disadvantage with that is the environmental constrain. The machine vision system has a lot of lighting constrains. It is therefore only possible to use that technique in a conditioned environment, where the lighting is compatible with camera system used. The technique presented here is designed to work in any environment. It does not employ machine vision. It utilizes a set of sensors fixed on the hands of a human to identify the direction in which the hand is pointing. This technique uses cylindrical coordinate system to precisely find the direction. A programmed computing block in the robot identifies the direction accurately within the given range.

  5. Characterization of the Plasma Edge for Technique of Atomic Helium Beam in the CIEMAT Fusion Device; Caracterizacion del Borde del Plasma del Dispositivo de Fusion TJ-II del CIEMAT mediante el Diagnostico del Haz Supersonico de Helio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo, A.

    2003-07-01

    In this report, the measurement of Electron Temperature and Density in the Boundary Plasma of TJ-II with a Supersonic Helium Beam Diagnostic and work devoted to the upgrading of this technique are described. Also, simulations of Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) studies of level populations of electronically excited He atoms are shown. This last technique is now being installed in the CIEMAT fusion device. (Author ) 36 refs.

  6. SU-E-T-16: A Hybrid VMAT/IMRT Technique for the Treatment of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, N; Yang, R; Wang, J [Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, Beijing (China)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate a Hybrid VMAT/IMRT technique which combines volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: 2 full arcs VMAT, 9-field IMRT and Hybrid VMAT/IMRT plans were created for 10 patients with NPC. The Hybrid VMAT/IMRT technique consisted of 1 full VMAT arc and 7 IMRT fields. The dose distribution of planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OARs) for Hybrid VMAT/IMRT was compared with IMRT and VMAT. The monitor units (MUs) were also evaluated. Results: The Hybrid VMAT/IMRT technique significantly improved target dose homogeneity compared with IMRT and VMAT for PTV70 and PTV54. For PTV70 and PTV60, the Hybrid VMAT/IMRT technique significantly improved target dose conformity compared with IMRT (0.62 vs 0.47; p<0.05 and 0.64 vs 0.58; p<0.05, respectively) and VMAT (0.62 vs 0.43; p<0.05 and 0.64 vs 0.6; p<0.05, respectively). The near maximum dose (D2%) of temporomandibular joint (TMJ), temporal lobe and mandible for Hybrid plans were 5.5%, 7.9% and 5.2% lower than IMRT plans (p<0.05). The mean dose of TMJ, temporal lobe, mandible and unspecified tissue for Hybrid plans were 12.8%, 11.4%, 4.2% and 4.1% lower than IMRT plans (p<0.05). The mean dose of right parotid, mandible and unspecified tissue for Hybrid plans were 3.3%, 2.4% and 3.1% lower than VMAT plans (p<0.05). The mean MUs needed for IMRT, VMAT and Hybrid plans were 2256, 507 and 1394, respectively. Conclusion: Hybrid VMAT/IMRT technique significantly improved the target dose homogeneity and conformity compared with IMRT and VMAT and reduced the dose of OARs and unspecified tissue compared with IMRT with fewer MUs. Compared with VMAT, Hybrid VMAT/IMRT technique can better protect parotid gland, mandible and unspecified tissue. Ruijie Yang was funded by the grant project: National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81071237). Other authors have no competing interest for this work.

  7. [A feasibility research of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) using hybrid internal fixation for recurrent lumbar disc herniation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ke-ya; Wang, Yan; Xiao, Song-hua; Zhang, Yong-gang; Liu, Bao-wei; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Xi-Feng; Cui, Geng; Zhang, Xue-song; Li, Peng; Mao, Ke-zheng

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the feasibility of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) using hybrid internal fixation of pedicle screws and a translaminar facet screw for recurrent lumbar disc herniation. From January 2010 to December 2011, 16 recurrent lumbar disc herniation patients, 10 male and 6 female patients with an average age of 45 years (35-68 years) were treated with unilateral incision MIS-TLIF through working channel. After decompression, interbody fusion and fixation using unilateral pedicle screws, a translaminar facet screw was inserted from the same incision through spinous process and laminar to the other side facet joint. The results of perioperative parameters, radiographic images and clinical outcomes were assessed. The repeated measure analysis of variance was applied in the scores of visual analogue scale (VAS) and Oswestry disablity index (ODI). All patients MIS-TLIF were accomplished under working channel including decompression, interbody fusion and hybrid fixation without any neural complication. The average operative time was (148 ± 75) minutes, the average operative blood loss was (186 ± 226) ml, the average postoperative ambulation time was (32 ± 15) hours, and the average hospitalization time was (6 ± 4) days. The average length of incision was (29 ± 4) mm, and the average length of translaminar facets screw was (52 ± 6) mm. The mean follow-up was 16.5 months with a range of 12-24 months. The postoperative X-ray and CT images showed good position of the hybrid internal fixation, and all facets screws penetrate through facets joint. The significant improvement could be found in back pain VAS, leg pain VAS and ODI scores between preoperative 1 day and postoperative follow-up at all time-points (back pain VAS:F = 52.845, P = 0.000;leg pain VAS:F = 113.480, P = 0.000;ODI:F = 36.665, P = 0.000). Recurrent lumbar disc herniation could be treated with MIS-TLIF using hybrid fixation through unilateral incision, and the

  8. Techniques For Injection Of Pre-Charaterized Dust Into The Scrape Off Layer Of Fusion Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roquemore, A. L.; John, B.; Friesen, F.; Hartzfeld, K.; Mansfield, D. K.

    2011-07-21

    Introduction of micron-sized dust into the scrape-off layer (SOL) of a plasma has recently found many applications aimed primarily at determining dust behavior in future fusion reactors. The dust particles are typically composed of materials intrinsic to a fusion reactor. On DIII-D and TEXTOR carbon dust has been introduced into the SOL using a probe inserted from below into the divertor region. On NSTX, both Li and tungsten dust have been dropped from the top of the machine into the SOL throughout the duration of a discharge, by utilizing a vibrating piezoelectric based particle dropper. The original particle dropper was developed to inject passivated Li powder {approx} 40 {mu}m in diameter into the SOL to enhance plasma performance. A simplified version of the dropper was developed to introduce trace amounts of tungsten powder for only a few discharges, thus not requiring a large powder reservoir. The particles emit visible light from plasma interactions and can be tracked by either spectroscopic means or by fast frame rate visible cameras. This data can then be compared with dust transport codes such as DUSTT to make predictions of dust behavior in next-step devices such as ITER. For complete modeling results, it is desired to be able to inject pre-characterized dust particles in the SOL at various known poloidal locations, including near the vessel midplane. Purely mechanical methods of injecting particles are presently being studied using a modified piezoelectric-based powder dropper as a particle source and one of several piezo-based transducers to deflect the particles into the SOL. Vibrating piezo fans operating at 60 Hz with a deflection of {+-}2.5 cm can impart a significant horizontal boost in velocity. The highest injection velocities are expected from rotating paddle wheels capable of injecting particles at 10's of meters per second depending primarily on the rotation velocity and diameter of the wheel. Several injection concepts have been tested

  9. Manual-protocol inspired technique for improving automated MR image segmentation during label-fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Bhagwat

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in multi-atlas based algorithms address many of the previous limitations in model-based and probabilistic segmentation methods. However, at the label fusion stage, a majority of algorithms focus primarily on optimizing weight-maps associated with the atlas library based on a theoretical objective function that approximates the segmentation error. In contrast, we propose a novel method - Autocorrecting Walks over Localized Markov Random Fields (AWoL-MRF - that aims at mimicking the sequential process of manual segmentation, which is the gold-standard for virtually all the segmentation methods. AWoL-MRF begins with a set of candidate labels generated by a multi-atlas segmentation pipeline as an initial label distribution and refines low confidence regions based on a localized Markov random field (L-MRF model using a novel sequential inference process (walks. We show that AWoL-MRF produces state-of-the-art results with superior accuracy and robustness with a small atlas library compared to existing methods. We validate the proposed approach by performing hippocampal segmentations on three independent datasets: 1 Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Database (ADNI; 2 First Episode Psychosis patient cohort; and 3 A cohort of preterm neonates scanned early in life and at term-equivalent age. We assess the improvement in the performance qualitatively as well as quantitatively by comparing AWoL-MRF with majority vote, STAPLE, and Joint Label Fusion methods. AWoL-MRF reaches a maximum accuracy of 0.881 (dataset 1, 0.897 (dataset 2, and 0.807 (dataset 3 based on Dice similarity coefficient metric, offering significant performance improvements with a smaller atlas library (<10 over compared methods. We also evaluate the diagnostic utility of AWoL-MRF by analyzing the volume differences per disease category in the ADNI1: Complete Screening dataset. We have made the source code for AWoL-MRF public at: https://github.com/CobraLab/AWoL-MRF.

  10. Apical transportation of manual NiTi instruments and a hybrid technique in severely curved simulated canals

    OpenAIRE

    Aurenaila Nascimento Gonçalves; Matheus Franco da Frota; Emilio Carlos Sponchiado Júnior; Fredson Marcio Acris de Carvalho; Lucas da Fonseca Roberti Garcia; André Augusto Franco Marques

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the apical transportation induced by two instrumentation techniques in severely curved simulated canals. Materials and Methods: Forty simulated canals were divided into two groups (n = 20), according to the following instrumentation techniques: ProTaper Universal Manual System and a hybrid technique. The simulated canals in the ProTaper group were prepared following the technique recommended by the manufacturer: SX files in the cervical third of the root canal and S1, S2,...

  11. Enhancement in Seismic Imaging using Diffraction Studies and Hybrid Traveltime Technique for PSDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Y.; Ghosh, D. P.; Moussavi Alashloo, S. Y.; Sum, C. W.

    2016-07-01

    The accurate migration of seismic data is conditional on the parameters which are nominated. The effective velocity used in residual processing for migration is small compared to the original migration velocity. Considering traveltime computation is a significant part of seismic imaging algorithms. Conventional implementation of Kirchhoff migration is essential for precomputing a traveltime table from the categories involving traditional ray-tracing methods and finite difference eikonal solvers. In this paper, we examine the accuracy using, the eikonal solver and paraxial ray tracing traveltime computation in pre-stack Kirchhoff depth migration. This hybrid traveltime technique can be applied to a variety of problems related to faults, fractures, and complex region. To evaluate the relevance of this identical traveltime technique, we applied on a Marmousi data set.

  12. REVIEW OF HEART DISEASE PREDICTION SYSTEM USING DATA MINING AND HYBRID INTELLIGENT TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Chitra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Healthcare industry generally clinical diagnosis is done mostly by doctor’s expertise and experience. Computer Aided Decision Support System plays a major role in medical field. With the growing research on heart disease predicting system, it has become important to categories the research outcomes and provides readers with an overview of the existing heart disease prediction techniques in each category. Neural Networks are one of many data mining analytical tools that can be utilized to make predictions for medical data. From the study it is observed that Hybrid Intelligent Algorithm improves the accuracy of the heart disease prediction system. The commonly used techniques for Heart Disease Prediction and their complexities are summarized in this paper.

  13. Local tetrahedron modeling of microelectronics using the finite-volume hybrid-grid technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, D.J.; Turner, C.D.

    1995-12-01

    The finite-volume hybrid-grid (FVHG) technique uses both structured and unstructured grid regions in obtaining a solution to the time-domain Maxwell`s equations. The method is based on explicit time differencing and utilizes rectilinear finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) and nonorthogonal finite-volume time-domain (FVTD). The technique directly couples structured FDTD grids with unstructured FVTD grids without the need for spatial interpolation across grid interfaces. In this paper, the FVHG method is applied to simple planar microelectronic devices. Local tetrahedron grids are used to model portions of the device under study, with the remainder of the problem space being modeled with cubical hexahedral cells. The accuracy of propagating microstrip-guided waves from a low-density hexahedron region through a high-density tetrahedron grid is investigated.

  14. Enhancement of Twins Fetal ECG Signal Extraction Based on Hybrid Blind Extraction Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Kareem Abdullah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ECG machines are noninvasive system used to measure the heartbeat signal. It’s very important to monitor the fetus ECG signals during pregnancy to check the heat activity and to detect any problem early before born, therefore the monitoring of ECG signals have clinical significance and importance. For multi-fetal pregnancy case the classical filtering algorithms are not sufficient to separate the ECG signals between mother and fetal. In this paper the mixture consists of mixing from three ECG signals, the first signal is the mother ECG (M-ECG signal, second signal the Fetal-1 ECG (F1-ECG, and third signal is the Fetal-2 ECG (F2-ECG, these signals are extracted based on modified blind source extraction (BSE techniques. The proposed work based on hybridization between two BSE techniques to ensure that the extracted signals separated well. The results demonstrate that the proposed work very efficiently to extract the useful ECG signals

  15. Estimation of radon concentrations in coal mines using a hybrid technique calibration curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, K; Ali, S

    2001-01-01

    The results of epidemiological studies in various countries show that radon and its progeny cause carcinogenic effects on mine workers. Therefore, it becomes of paramount importance to monitor radon concentrations and consequently determine the radon dose rates in coal mines for the protection of coal miners. A new calibration curve was obtained for radon concentration estimation using hybrid techniques. A calibration curve was generated using 226Ra activity concentration measured by a HPGe detector-based gamma-ray spectrometer versus alpha-track-density rate due to radon and its progeny on CR-39 track detector. Using the slope of the experimentally determined curve in the units of Becqueral per kilogram (Bq kg-1) per unit alpha-track-density per hour (cm-2 h-1), radon concentrations (Bq m-3) were estimated using coal samples from various coal mines in two provinces of Pakistan, Punjab and Balochistan. Consequently, radon dose rates were computed in the simulated environment of the coal mines. Results of these computations may be considered with a caveat that the method developed in this paper provides only a screening method to indicate the radon dose in coal mines. It has been shown that the actual measurements of radon concentrations in the coal mines are in agreement with the estimated radon concentrations using the hybrid-technique calibration curve.

  16. Hybrid Model Testing Technique for Deep-Sea Platforms Based on Equivalent Water Depth Truncation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, an inner turret moored FPSO which works in the water of 320 m depth, is selected to study the so-called "passively-truncated + numerical-simulation" type of hybrid model testing technique while the truncated water depth is 160 m and the model scale λ=80. During the investigation, the optimization design of the equivalent-depth truncated system is performed by using the similarity of the static characteristics between the truncated system and the full depth one as the objective function. According to the truncated system, the corresponding physical test model is made. By adopting the coupling time domain simulation method, the truncated system model test is numerically reconstructed to carefully verify the computer simulation software and to adjust the corresponding hydrodynamic parameters. Based on the above work, the numerical extrapolation to the full depth system is performed by using the verified computer software and the adjusted hydrodynamic parameters. The full depth system model test is then performed in the basin and the results are compared with those from the numerical extrapolation. At last, the implementation procedure and the key technique of the hybrid model testing of the deep-sea platforms are summarized and printed. Through the above investigations, some beneficial conclusions are presented.

  17. Novel Hybrid Scheduling Technique for Sensor Nodes with Mixed Criticality Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai-Victor Micea

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sensor networks become increasingly a key technology for complex control applications. Their potential use in safety- and time-critical domains has raised the need for task scheduling mechanisms specially adapted to sensor node specific requirements, often materialized in predictable jitter-less execution of tasks characterized by different criticality levels. This paper offers an efficient scheduling solution, named Hybrid Hard Real-Time Scheduling (H2RTS, which combines a static, clock driven method with a dynamic, event driven scheduling technique, in order to provide high execution predictability, while keeping a high node Central Processing Unit (CPU utilization factor. From the detailed, integrated schedulability analysis of the H2RTS, a set of sufficiency tests are introduced and demonstrated based on the processor demand and linear upper bound metrics. The performance and correct behavior of the proposed hybrid scheduling technique have been extensively evaluated and validated both on a simulator and on a sensor mote equipped with ARM7 microcontroller.

  18. Paleochannel delineation using Landsat 8 OLI and Envisat ASAR image fusion techniques in Cholistan desert, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Zaheer Ul; Iqbal, Javed; Khan, Junaid Aziz; Qazi, Waqas A.

    2016-10-01

    Sustainability of desert ecosystem is highly dependent upon water availability from different sources. Paleochannels are important sources of groundwater, and exploiting such resources involves their identification/mapping and subsequent investigation for fresh groundwater. A study in which multisensor (optical/infrared Landsat 8 OLI and active microwave Envisat ASAR) images of the Cholistan desert of Pakistan were processed and analyzed to identify and map Hakra River paleochannels is presented. Radiometrically corrected optical and synthetic aperture radar datasets were fused using principal components image fusion method. The paleochannels were extracted from the analysis of this fused output, and normalized difference vegetative index analysis of Landsat 8 OLI atmospheric corrected images was used as supporting information. Identification and alignment of an identified paleochannel was validated with geophysical ground measurements (electrical resistivity and conductivity surveys) and historical records. The presence of high apparent electrical resistivity with corresponding low soil water conductivity values intersects well with the paleochannels identified from the remote sensing data. The results were also confirmed with historical evidence such as old wells beside forts and proposed ground water harvesting sites. The proposed methodology in this study could be adopted in other parts of the world for mapping of paleochannels.

  19. Skill Assessment of An Hybrid Technique To Estimate Quantitative Precipitation Forecast For Galicia (nw Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, A.; Taboada, J. J.

    Precipitation is the most obvious of the weather elements in its effects on normal life. Numerical weather prediction (NWP) is generally used to produce quantitative precip- itation forecast (QPF) beyond the 1-3 h time frame. These models often fail to predict small-scale variations of rain because of spin-up problems and their coarse spatial and temporal resolution (Antolik, 2000). Moreover, there are some uncertainties about the behaviour of the NWP models in extreme situations (de Bruijn and Brandsma, 2000). Hybrid techniques, combining the benefits of NWP and statistical approaches in a flexible way, are very useful to achieve a good QPF. In this work, a new technique of QPF for Galicia (NW of Spain) is presented. This region has a percentage of rainy days per year greater than 50% with quantities that may cause floods, with human and economical damages. The technique is composed of a NWP model (ARPS) and a statistical downscaling process based on an automated classification scheme of at- mospheric circulation patterns for the Iberian Peninsula (J. Ribalaygua and R. Boren, 1995). Results show that QPF for Galicia is improved using this hybrid technique. [1] Antolik, M.S. 2000 "An Overview of the National Weather Service's centralized statistical quantitative precipitation forecasts". Journal of Hydrology, 239, pp:306- 337. [2] de Bruijn, E.I.F and T. Brandsma "Rainfall prediction for a flooding event in Ireland caused by the remnants of Hurricane Charley". Journal of Hydrology, 239, pp:148-161. [3] Ribalaygua, J. and Boren R. "Clasificación de patrones espaciales de precipitación diaria sobre la España Peninsular". Informes N 3 y 4 del Servicio de Análisis e Investigación del Clima. Instituto Nacional de Meteorología. Madrid. 53 pp.

  20. A hybrid MAS/MoM technique for 2D impedance scatterers illuminated by closely positioned sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2005-01-01

    A hybrid technique for 2D scattering problems with impedance structures and closely positioned illuminating sources is presented. This technique combines the method of auxiliary sources (MAS) with a localized method of moments (MoM) region near the source. Significant improvements over standard MAS...

  1. Making sense of crowdsourced observations: Data fusion techniques for real-time mapping of urban air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Philipp; Castell, Nuria; Vogt, Matthias; Lahoz, William; Bartonova, Alena

    2015-04-01

    With an ever-increasing amount of environmental observations available through crowdsourcing, one of the major emerging challenges is how to best make sense of the vast amount of collected observations and how to provide citizens and other end-users with a relevant value-added product. Regarding air quality, a high-density network of low-cost sensors provided by crowdsourcing has significant potential for improving spatial mapping in general and in urban areas in particular. However, most datasets of observations made within a crowdsourcing framework contain substantial data gaps and the observations are generally point measurements, which are only representative of a relatively small area. This poses a significant challenge for mapping applications. One way to overcome these issues is to combine the crowdsourced data with spatially continuous data from a model. We present a novel data fusion-based technique for combining real-time crowdsourced observations with model output that allows to provide highly detailed, up-to-date maps of urban air quality. The EU-funded CITI-SENSE project is deploying a dense network of low-cost sensors measuring air quality in eight cities around Europe. These crowdsourced observations are used for mapping urban quality in real-time by fusing them with data obtained from statistical or deterministic air quality models. Data fusion techniques allow for combining observations with model data in a mathematically objective way and therefore provide a means of adding value to both the observations and the model. The observations are improved by filling spatio-temporal gaps in the data and the model is improved by constraining it with observations. The model further provides detailed spatial patterns in areas where no observations are available. As such, data fusion of observations from high-density low-cost sensor networks together with models can contribute to significantly improving urban-scale air quality mapping. The data fusion

  2. Experimental techniques for measuring Rayleigh-Taylor instability in inertial confinement fusion (ICF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smalyuk, V A

    2012-06-07

    Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability is one of the major concerns in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) because it amplifies target modulations in both acceleration and deceleration phases of implosion, which leads to shell disruption and performance degradation of imploding targets. This article reviews experimental results of the RT growth experiments performed on OMEGA laser system, where targets were driven directly with laser light. RT instability was studied in the linear and nonlinear regimes. The experiments were performed in acceleration phase, using planar and spherical targets, and in deceleration phase of spherical implosions, using spherical shells. Initial target modulations consisted of 2-D pre-imposed modulations, and 2-D and 3-D modulations imprinted on targets by the non-uniformities in laser drive. In planar geometry, the nonlinear regime was studied using 3-D modulations with broadband spectra near nonlinear saturation levels. In acceleration-phase, the measured modulation Fourier spectra and nonlinear growth velocities are in good agreement with those predicted by Haan's model [Haan S W 1989 Phys. Rev. A 39 5812]. In a real-space analysis, the bubble merger was quantified by a self-similar evolution of bubble size distributions [Oron D et al 2001 Phys. Plasmas 8, 2883]. The 3-D, inner-surface modulations were measured to grow throughout the deceleration phase of spherical implosions. RT growth rates are very sensitive to the drive conditions, therefore they can be used to test and validate drive physics in hydrodynamic codes used to design ICF implosions. Measured growth rates of pre-imposed 2-D target modulations below nonlinear saturation levels were used to validate non-local thermal electron transport model in laser-driven experiments.

  3. Novel fusion for hybrid optical/microcomputed tomography imaging based on natural light surface reconstruction and iterated closest point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Nannan; Tian, Jie; Liu, Xia; Deng, Kexin; Wu, Ping; Wang, Bo; Wang, Kun; Ma, Xibo

    2014-02-01

    In mathematics, optical molecular imaging including bioluminescence tomography (BLT), fluorescence tomography (FMT) and Cerenkov luminescence tomography (CLT) are concerned with a similar inverse source problem. They all involve the reconstruction of the 3D location of a single/multiple internal luminescent/fluorescent sources based on 3D surface flux distribution. To achieve that, an accurate fusion between 2D luminescent/fluorescent images and 3D structural images that may be acquired form micro-CT, MRI or beam scanning is extremely critical. However, the absence of a universal method that can effectively convert 2D optical information into 3D makes the accurate fusion challengeable. In this study, to improve the fusion accuracy, a new fusion method for dual-modality tomography (luminescence/fluorescence and micro-CT) based on natural light surface reconstruction (NLSR) and iterated closest point (ICP) was presented. It consisted of Octree structure, exact visual hull from marching cubes and ICP. Different from conventional limited projection methods, it is 360° free-space registration, and utilizes more luminescence/fluorescence distribution information from unlimited multi-orientation 2D optical images. A mouse mimicking phantom (one XPM-2 Phantom Light Source, XENOGEN Corporation) and an in-vivo BALB/C mouse with implanted one luminescent light source were used to evaluate the performance of the new fusion method. Compared with conventional fusion methods, the average error of preset markers was improved by 0.3 and 0.2 pixels from the new method, respectively. After running the same 3D internal light source reconstruction algorithm of the BALB/C mouse, the distance error between the actual and reconstructed internal source was decreased by 0.19 mm.

  4. WRHT: A Hybrid Technique for Detection of Wormhole Attack in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupinder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wormhole attack is a challenging security threat to wireless sensor networks which results in disrupting most of the routing protocols as this attack can be triggered in different modes. In this paper, WRHT, a wormhole resistant hybrid technique, is proposed, which can detect the presence of wormhole attack in a more optimistic manner than earlier techniques. WRHT is based on the concept of watchdog and Delphi schemes and ensures that the wormhole will not be left untreated in the sensor network. WRHT makes use of the dual wormhole detection mechanism of calculating probability factor time delay probability and packet loss probability of the established path in order to find the value of wormhole presence probability. The nodes in the path are given different ranking and subsequently colors according to their behavior. The most striking feature of WRHT consists of its capacity to defend against almost all categories of wormhole attacks without depending on any required additional hardware such as global positioning system, timing information or synchronized clocks, and traditional cryptographic schemes demanding high computational needs. The experimental results clearly indicate that the proposed technique has significant improvement over the existing wormhole attack detection techniques.

  5. Hybrid Clustering-GWO-NARX neural network technique in predicting stock price

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Debashish; Safa Sadiq, Ali; Mirjalili, Seyedali; Noraziah, A.

    2017-09-01

    Prediction of stock price is one of the most challenging tasks due to nonlinear nature of the stock data. Though numerous attempts have been made to predict the stock price by applying various techniques, yet the predicted price is not always accurate and even the error rate is high to some extent. Consequently, this paper endeavours to determine an efficient stock prediction strategy by implementing a combinatorial method of Grey Wolf Optimizer (GWO), Clustering and Non Linear Autoregressive Exogenous (NARX) Technique. The study uses stock data from prominent stock market i.e. New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), NASDAQ and emerging stock market i.e. Malaysian Stock Market (Bursa Malaysia), Dhaka Stock Exchange (DSE). It applies K-means clustering algorithm to determine the most promising cluster, then MGWO is used to determine the classification rate and finally the stock price is predicted by applying NARX neural network algorithm. The prediction performance gained through experimentation is compared and assessed to guide the investors in making investment decision. The result through this technique is indeed promising as it has shown almost precise prediction and improved error rate. We have applied the hybrid Clustering-GWO-NARX neural network technique in predicting stock price. We intend to work with the effect of various factors in stock price movement and selection of parameters. We will further investigate the influence of company news either positive or negative in stock price movement. We would be also interested to predict the Stock indices.

  6. Improved Framework for Breast Cancer Detection using Hybrid Feature Extraction Technique and FFNN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mohamed Jaber Alamin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Breast Cancer early detection using terminologies of image processing is suffered from the less accuracy performance in different automated medical tools. To improve the accuracy, still there are many research studies going on different phases such as segmentation, feature extraction, detection, and classification. The proposed framework is consisting of four main steps such as image preprocessing, image segmentation, feature extraction and finally classification. This paper presenting the hybrid and automated image processing based framework for breast cancer detection. For image preprocessing, both Laplacian and average filtering approach is used for smoothing and noise reduction if any. These operations are performed on 256 x 256 sized gray scale image. Output of preprocessing phase is used at efficient segmentation phase. Algorithm is separately designed for preprocessing step with goal of improving the accuracy. Segmentation method contributed for segmentation is nothing but the improved version of region growing technique. Thus breast image segmentation is done by using proposed modified region growing technique. The modified region growing technique overcoming the limitations of orientation as well as intensity. The next step we proposed is feature extraction, for this framework we have proposed to use combination of different types of features such as texture features, gradient features, 2D-DWT features with higher order statistics (HOS. Such hybrid feature set helps to improve the detection accuracy. For last phase, we proposed to use efficient feed forward neural network (FFNN. The comparative study between existing 2D-DWT feature extraction and proposed HOS-2D-DWT based feature extraction methods is proposed.

  7. Potentials of Optical Damage Assessment Techniques in Automotive Crash-Concepts composed of FRP-Steel Hybrid Material Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugosch, M.; Spiegelhalter, B.; Soot, T.; Lukaszewicz, D.; Fritsch, J.; Hiermaier, S.

    2017-05-01

    With car manufacturers simultaneously facing increasing passive safety and efficiency requirements, FRP-metal hybrid material systems are one way to design lightweight and crashworthy vehicle structures. Generic automotive hybrid structural concepts have been tested under crash loading conditions. In order to assess the state of overall damage and structural integrity, and primarily to validate simulation data, several NDT techniques have been assessed regarding their potential to detect common damage mechanisms in such hybrid systems. Significant potentials were found particularly in combining 3D-topography laser scanning and X-Ray imaging results. Ultrasonic testing proved to be limited by the signal coupling quality on damaged or curved surfaces.

  8. Hydrophobicity control by a supercritical drying technique in a sol–gel process with hybrid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Hongbo; Qiao, Zemin; Liu, Xiao; Cui, Xudong, E-mail: xudcui@gmail.com

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Sol–gel route is combined with polymerization without using modifier. • Supercritical drying control is the key to obtain super-hydrophobic surfaces. • The whole fabrication is technologically controllable and with low costs. • The production rate is higher than 90%. • The method provides a cost-effective way for industry applications. - Abstract: We successfully synthesized one type of cheap super-hydrophobic hybrid porous materials in a sol–gel process. In this route, hydrophilic polymers and TEOS-base sol are used as precursors, the ultraviolet ray-initiated polymerization and supercritical fluid drying techniques are combined together to fulfill this task. All fabricated samples exhibit lotus-leaf-like surface structures with super-hydrophobicity. The underlying mechanisms are carefully investigated using a field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). We found that a well-controlled drying process is crucial to the formation of such super-hydrophobic surfaces. As high as 90% production rate is obtained in our route and thus, it might provide a cost-effective way to produce super-hydrophobic hybrid materials for industry applications.

  9. Adaptation of Hybrid FSO/RF Communication System Using Puncturing Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Khan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Spectrum of radio frequency (RF communications is limited and expensive to install new applications. Free space optical (FSO communication is a viable technology which offers enormous bandwidth, license free installation, inexpensive deployment and error prone links. The FSO links degrade significantly due to the varying atmospheric and weather conditions (fog, cloud, snow, haze and combination of these. We propose a hybrid FSO/RF communication system which adapts the varying nature of atmosphere and weather. For the adaption of varying atmosphere and weather scenarios, we develop a novel optimization algorithm. The proposed algorithm is based on the well-known puncturing technique. We provide an extrinsic information transfer (EXIT chart for the binary and quaternary mapping scheme for the proposed communication system. We simulate the proposed algorithm for the hybrid communication system and analyze the system performance. The proposed algorithm is computationally less expensive and provide better performance gains over varying atmosphere and weather conditions. The algorithm is suitable for fast speed applications.

  10. Biomechanical analysis of Goel technique for C1-2 fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jon; Scheer, Justin K; Lim, T Jesse; Deviren, Vedat; Ames, Christopher P

    2011-05-01

    The Goel technique, in which C1-2 intraarticular spacers are used, may be performed to restore stability to a disrupted atlantoaxial complex in conjunction with the Harms technique of placing polyaxial screws and bilateral rods. However, it has yet to be determined biomechanically whether the addition of the C1-2 joint spacers increases the multiaxial rigidity of the fixation construct. The goal of this study was to quantify changes in multiaxial rigidity of the combined Goel-Harms technique with the addition of C1-2 intraarticular spacers. Seven cadaveric cervical spines (occiput-C2) were submitted to nondestructive flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation tests in a material testing machine spine tester. The authors applied 1.5 Nm at a rate of 0.1 Nm/second and held it constant for 10 seconds. The specimens were loaded 3 times, and data were collected on the third cycle. Testing of the specimens was performed for the following groups: 1) intact (I); 2) with the addition of C-1 lateral mass/C-2 pedicle screws and rod system (I+SR); 3) with C1-2 joint capsule incision, decortication (2 mm on top and bottom of each joint [that is, the C-1 and C-2 surface) and addition of bilateral C1-2 intraarticular spacers at C1-2 junction to the screws and rods (I+SR+C); 4) after removal of the posterior rods and only the bilateral spacers in place (I+C); 5) after removal of spacers and further destabilization with simulated odontoidectomy for a completely destabilized case (D); 6) with addition of posterior rods to the destabilized case (D+SR); and 7) with addition of bilateral C1-2 intraarticular spacers at C1-2 junction to the destabilized case (D+SR+C). The motion of C-1 was measured by a 3D motion tracking system and the motion of C-2 was measured by the rotational sensor of the testing system. The range of motion (ROM) and neutral zone (NZ) across C-1 and C-2 were evaluated. For the intact spine test groups, the addition of screws/rods (I+SR) and screws

  11. Incidence of vascular complications during lateral lumbar interbody fusion: an examination of the mini-open access technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueper, Janina; Fantini, Gary A; Walker, Brendon R; Aichmair, Alexander; Hughes, Alexander P

    2015-04-01

    This article examines the incidence and management of vascular injury during Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion (LLIF). The details of the mini-open access technique are presented. A total of 900 patients who underwent a LLIF at an average 1.94 levels (range: 1-5 levels) by one of six fellowship trained surgeons on 1,754 levels from 2006 to 2013 were identified. The incidence of intraoperative vascular injury was retrospectively determined from the Operative Records. The management of vascular injury was evaluated. The mini-open access adapted by our institution for LLIF is described. The incidence of major vascular complication in our series was 1/900. The incidence of minor vascular injury was 4/900. The overall incidence of vascular injury was calculated to be 0.056 % per case and 0.029 % per level. All minor vascular injuries were identified to be segmental vessel lacerations, which were readily ligated under direct visualization without further extension of the incision with no clinical sequelae. The laceration of the abdominal aorta, the major vascular complication of this series, was emergently repaired through an exploratory laparotomy. None of the patients suffered long-term sequelae from their intraoperative vascular injuries. The mini-open lateral access technique for LLIF provides for minimal risk of vascular injury to the lumbar spine. In the rare event of minor vascular injury, the mini-open access approach allows for immediate visualization, confirmation and repair of the vessel with no long-term sequelae.

  12. Automated double-cone-beam CT fusion technique. Enhanced evaluation of glue distribution in cases of spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) embolisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farago, Giuseppe [Foundation Neurological Institute ' ' C. Besta' ' , Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Milan (Italy); Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Milan (Italy); Caldiera, V. [Foundation Neurological Institute ' ' C. Besta' ' , Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Milan (Italy); Antozzi, C.; Bellino, A. [Foundation Neurological Institute ' ' C. Besta' ' , Department of Neuroimmunology and Neuromuscular Diseases, Milan (Italy); Innocenti, A. [Foundation Neurological Institute ' ' C. Besta' ' , Department of Neuro-Oncology, Milan (Italy); Ciceri, E. [Foundation Neurological Institute ' ' C. Besta' ' , Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Milan (Italy); Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata Borgo Trento, Department of Neuroradiology, Verona (Italy)

    2017-05-15

    Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (SDAVFs) are acquired diseases that represent the majority of all arteriovenous spinal shunts, leading to progressive and disabling myelopathy. Treatment is focused on accurately disconnecting the fistula point. We present our experience with the double-cone-beam CT fusion technique successfully applied to evaluate treatment results in a series of SDAVFs. Between November 2011 and December 2015 we performed double-DynaCT acquisition (pre- and post-embolisation) in 12 cases of SDAVF. A successful DynaCT fusion technique was only achieved in the group of patients with pre- and post-treatment images acquired at the same time as the treatment session, under general anaesthesia (4/12). DynaCT performed on different days proved to be inadequate for the automated fusion technique because of changes in the body position (8/12). A pre-treatment flat-panel cone-beam CT with contrast, at the time of diagnostic angiography, can be very helpful to detect the correct level of the fistula and the relationship between the fistula and the surrounding structures. In case of the endovascular approach, additional post-treatment native acquisition merged with the pre-treatment acquisition (double-cone-beam CT fusion technique) permits to immediately evaluate the distribution of the glue cast and to confirm the success of the procedure. (orig.)

  13. A millisecond micro-RNA separation technique by a hybrid structure of nanopillars and nanoslits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Kaji, Noritada; Yasui, Takao; Rahong, Sakon; Yanagida, Takeshi; Kanai, Masaki; Nagashima, Kazuki; Tokeshi, Manabu; Kawai, Tomoji; Baba, Yoshinobu

    2017-03-08

    A millisecond micro-RNA separation of a mixture of total RNA and genomic DNA, extracted from cultured HeLa cells, was successfully achieved using a hybrid structure of nanopillars and nanoslits contained inside a microchannel. The nanopillars, 250-nm in diameter and 100-nm in height, were fabricated with a 750-nm space inside the nanoslits, which were 100-nm in height and 25-μm in width; the nanopillars were then applied as a new sieve matrix. This ultra-fast technique for the separation of miRNA can be an effective pretreatment for semiconductor nanopore DNA sequencing, which has an optimum reading speed of 1 base/ms to obtain effective signal-to-noise ratio and discriminate each base by ion or tunneling current during the passage of nucleic acids.

  14. Modified Genetic Algorithm for DNA Sequence Assembly by Shotgun and Hybridization Sequencing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof.Narayan Kumar Sahu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the advent of rapid DNA sequencing methods in 1976, scientists have had the problem of inferring DNA sequences from sequenced fragments. Shotgun sequencing is a well-established biological and computational method used in practice. Many conventional algorithms for shotgun sequencing are based on the notion of pair wise fragment overlap. While shotgun sequencing infers a DNA sequence given the sequences of overlapping fragments, a recent and complementary method, called sequencing by hybridization (SBH, infers a DNA sequence given the set of oligomers that represents all sub words of some fixed length, k. In this paper, we propose a new computer algorithm for DNA sequence assembly that combines in a novel way the techniques of both shotgun and SBH methods. Based on our preliminary investigations, the algorithm promises- to be very fast and practical for DNA sequence assembly [1].

  15. Dual Fixation of Calcaneal Tuberosity Avulsion with Concomitant Achilles Tendon Rupture: A Novel Hybrid Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautham Prabhakar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fracture of the calcaneal tuberosity with a concomitant Achilles tendon rupture presents a difficult challenge for the treating surgeon. The ultimate goal of treatment is to restore function of both the gastrocnemius-soleus complex and the Achilles tendon. This particular subset of fractures occurs often in diabetics and elderly patients with osteoporosis making fixation of the displaced fragment rather complex. If the Achilles tendon disruption is only discovered later once the fracture is healed, subsequent management is difficult with surgical treatment being more morbid. While this is a rare injury, the consequences of a missed chronic Achilles tendon disruption are severe with significant dysfunction. It is therefore important to have a high index of suspicion for concomitant injury and to be prepared for dual fixation. We present a novel hybrid surgical fixation technique, which may be used in this instance.

  16. Estimation of radon concentrations in coal mines using a hybrid technique calibration curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamil, K.; Ali, S. [PINSTECH, Islamabad (Pakistan). Radiation Physics Division, Environmental Radiation Group

    2001-07-01

    A calibration curve was generated using Ra-226 activity concentration measured by a HPGe detector-based gamma-ray spectrometer versus alpha-track-density rate due to radon and its progeny on CR-39 track detector. Using the slops of the experimentally determined curve in the units of Becquerel per kilogram (Bq kg{sup -1}) per unit alpha -track-density per hour (cm{sup -2}h{sup -1}), radon concentrations (Bq m{sup -3}) were estimated using coal samples from various coal mines in two provinces of Pakistan, Punjab and Balochistan. Consequently, radon dose rates were computed in the simulated environment of the coal mines. These results provide only a screening method to indicate the radon dose in coal mines, It was shown that the actual measurements of radon concentrations in the coal mines are in agreement with the estimated radon concentrations using the hybrid-technique calibration curve.

  17. A millisecond micro-RNA separation technique by a hybrid structure of nanopillars and nanoslits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Kaji, Noritada; Yasui, Takao; Rahong, Sakon; Yanagida, Takeshi; Kanai, Masaki; Nagashima, Kazuki; Tokeshi, Manabu; Kawai, Tomoji; Baba, Yoshinobu

    2017-01-01

    A millisecond micro-RNA separation of a mixture of total RNA and genomic DNA, extracted from cultured HeLa cells, was successfully achieved using a hybrid structure of nanopillars and nanoslits contained inside a microchannel. The nanopillars, 250-nm in diameter and 100-nm in height, were fabricated with a 750-nm space inside the nanoslits, which were 100-nm in height and 25-μm in width; the nanopillars were then applied as a new sieve matrix. This ultra-fast technique for the separation of miRNA can be an effective pretreatment for semiconductor nanopore DNA sequencing, which has an optimum reading speed of 1 base/ms to obtain effective signal-to-noise ratio and discriminate each base by ion or tunneling current during the passage of nucleic acids. PMID:28272420

  18. Cell fusion in tumor progression: the isolation of cell fusion products by physical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincitorio Massimo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell fusion induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG is an efficient but poorly controlled procedure for obtaining somatic cell hybrids used in gene mapping, monoclonal antibody production, and tumour immunotherapy. Genetic selection techniques and fluorescent cell sorting are usually employed to isolate cell fusion products, but both procedures have several drawbacks. Results Here we describe a simple improvement in PEG-mediated cell fusion that was obtained by modifying the standard single-step procedure. We found that the use of two PEG undertreatments obtains a better yield of cell fusion products than the standard method, and most of these products are bi- or trinucleated polykaryocytes. Fusion rate was quantified using fluorescent cell staining microscopy. We used this improved cell fusion and cell isolation method to compare giant cells obtained in vitro and giant cells obtained in vivo from patients with Hodgkin's disease and erythroleukemia. Conclusions In the present study we show how to improve PEG-mediated cell fusion and that cell separation by velocity sedimentation offers a simple alternative for the efficient purification of cell fusion products and to investigate giant cell formation in tumor development.

  19. Development of a fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique for visualizing CGMMV in plant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shargil, D; Zemach, H; Belausov, E; Lachman, O; Kamenetsky, R; Dombrovsky, A

    2015-10-01

    Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV), which belongs to the genus Tobamovirus, is a major pathogen of cucurbit crops grown indoors and in open fields. Currently, immunology (e.g., ELISA) and molecular amplification techniques (e.g., RT-PCR) are employed extensively for virus detection in plant tissues and commercial seed lots diagnostics. In this study, a fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique, using oligonucleotides whose 5'-terminals were labeled with red cyanine 3 (Cy3) or green fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), was developed for the visualization of the pathogen in situ. This simple and reliable method allows detection and localization of CGMMV in the vegetative and reproductive tissues of cucumber and melon. When this technique was applied in male flowers, anther tissues were found to be infected; whereas the pollen grains were found to be virus-free. These results have meaningful epidemiological implications for the management of CGMMV, particularly with regard to virus transfer via seed and the role of insects as CGMMV vectors.

  20. A hybrid technique for private location-based queries with database protection

    KAUST Repository

    Ghinita, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    Mobile devices with global positioning capabilities allow users to retrieve points of interest (POI) in their proximity. To protect user privacy, it is important not to disclose exact user coordinates to un-trusted entities that provide location-based services. Currently, there are two main approaches to protect the location privacy of users: (i) hiding locations inside cloaking regions (CRs) and (ii) encrypting location data using private information retrieval (PIR) protocols. Previous work focused on finding good trade-offs between privacy and performance of user protection techniques, but disregarded the important issue of protecting the POI dataset D. For instance, location cloaking requires large-sized CRs, leading to excessive disclosure of POIs (O(|D|) in the worst case). PIR, on the other hand, reduces this bound to , but at the expense of high processing and communication overhead. We propose a hybrid, two-step approach to private location-based queries, which provides protection for both the users and the database. In the first step, user locations are generalized to coarse-grained CRs which provide strong privacy. Next, a PIR protocol is applied with respect to the obtained query CR. To protect excessive disclosure of POI locations, we devise a cryptographic protocol that privately evaluates whether a point is enclosed inside a rectangular region. We also introduce an algorithm to efficiently support PIR on dynamic POI sub-sets. Our method discloses O(1) POI, orders of magnitude fewer than CR- or PIR-based techniques. Experimental results show that the hybrid approach is scalable in practice, and clearly outperforms the pure-PIR approach in terms of computational and communication overhead. © 2009 Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  1. Cardiac hybrid imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaemperli, Oliver [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Nuclear Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Kaufmann, Philipp A. [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Alkadhi, Hatem [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-05-15

    Hybrid cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT imaging allows combined assessment of anatomical and functional aspects of cardiac disease. In coronary artery disease (CAD), hybrid SPECT/CT imaging allows detection of coronary artery stenosis and myocardial perfusion abnormalities. The clinical value of hybrid imaging has been documented in several subsets of patients. In selected groups of patients, hybrid imaging improves the diagnostic accuracy to detect CAD compared to the single imaging techniques. Additionally, this approach facilitates functional interrogation of coronary stenoses and guidance with regard to revascularization procedures. Moreover, the anatomical information obtained from CT coronary angiography or coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) adds prognostic information over perfusion data from SPECT. The use of cardiac hybrid imaging has been favoured by the dissemination of dedicated hybrid systems and the release of dedicated image fusion software, which allow simple patient throughput for hybrid SPECT/CT studies. Further technological improvements such as more efficient detector technology to allow for low-radiation protocols, ultra-fast image acquisition and improved low-noise image reconstruction algorithms will be instrumental to further promote hybrid SPECT/CT in research and clinical practice. (orig.)

  2. Solid dispersion matrix tablet comprising indomethacin-PEG-HPMC fabricated with fusion and mold technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesnukul A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to fabricate the polyethylene glycol matrix tablet by mold technique. Indomethacin and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose were used as model drug and polymer, respectively, in PEG matrix system. The physical and drug release characteristics of developed matrix tablet were studied. This inert carrier system comprising 7:3 polyethylene glycol 4000: polyethylene glycol 400 could effectively enhance the solubility of indomethacin and an addition of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose could sustain the drug release. Scanning electron microscope photomicrograph indicated the drug diffusion outward through the porous network of this developed matrix tablet into the dissolution fluid. Least square fitting the experimental dissolution data to the mathematical expressions (power law, first-order, Higuchi′s and zero-order indicated the drug release kinetics primarily as Fickian diffusion. Both the enhancement of drug dissolution and the prolongation of the drug release could be achieved for aqueous insoluble drug such as, indomethacin, by using polyethylene glycol-hydroxypropylmethylcellulose matrix system prepared with melting and mold technique.

  3. An Alternate Vista in Rehabilitation of Cranial Defects: Combining Digital and Manual Techniques to Fabricate a Hybrid Cranioplast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Harsimran; Nanda, Aditi; Koli, Dheeraj; Verma, Mahesh; Singh, Hukum; Bishnoi, Ishu; Pathak, Pooja; Gupta, Ankur

    2015-06-01

    The desired features of a cranioplast include providing an acceptable contour, continuity with the remaining skull (marginal adaptation), improvising the aesthetic outcome, providing a strengthened prosthesis to avoid fracture in case of repeat trauma, and protecting the remaining neurological structures. Combining digital and manual techniques to fabricate a hybrid polymethylmethacrylate cranioplast during the rehabilitation of a pediatric patient with cranial defect has been described. Utilization of digital techniques (rapid prototyping to obtain skull analog) and manual (hand) sculpting of the prosthesis strengthened with glass fiber enabled the authors to fabricate a hybrid cranioplast. Satisfactory outcome was achieved.

  4. Genetic variability available through cell fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, H.H.; Mastrangelo-Hough, I.A.

    1977-01-01

    Results are reported for the following studies: plant hybridization through protoplast fusion using species of Nicotiana and Petunia; chromosome instability studies on culture-induced chromosome changes and chromosome elimination; chloroplast distribution in parasexual hybrids; chromosomal introgression following fusion; plant-animal fusion; and microcell-mediated chromosome transfer and chromosome-mediated gene transfer. (HLW)

  5. Thermal characterisation of ceramic/metal joining techniques for fusion applications using X-ray tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Ll.M., E-mail: llion.evans@ccfe.ac.uk [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Grosvenor Street, Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom); Margetts, L. [School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Williamson Building, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Casalegno, V. [Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Torino (Italy); Leonard, F.; Lowe, T.; Lee, P.D. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Grosvenor Street, Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom); Schmidt, M.; Mummery, P.M. [School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering (MACE), University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-15

    This work investigates the thermal performance of four novel CFC–Cu joining techniques. Two involve direct casting and brazing of Cu onto a chromium modified CFC surface, the other two pre-coat a brazing alloy with chromium using galvanisation and sputtering processes. The chromium carbide layer at the interface has been shown to improve adhesion. Thermal conductivity across the join interface was measured by laser flash analysis. X-ray tomography was performed to investigate micro-structures that might influence the thermal behaviour. It was found that thermal conductivity varied by up to 72%. Quantification of the X-ray tomography data showed that the dominant feature in reducing thermal conductivity was the lateral spread of voids at the interface. Correlations were made to estimate the extent of this effect.

  6. Evaluating the role of large earthquakes on aquifer dynamics using data fusion and knowledge discovery techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Michael; Cox, Simon; Williams, Charles; Holden, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    Artificial adaptive systems are evaluated for their usefulness in modeling earthquake hydrology of the Canterbury region, NZ. For example, an unsupervised machine-learning technique, self-organizing map, is used to fuse about 200 disparate and sparse data variables (such as, well pressure response, ground acceleration, intensity, shaking, stress and strain; aquifer and well characteristics) associated with the M7.1 Darfield earthquake in 2010 and the M6.3 Christchurch earthquake in 2011. The strength of correlations, determined using cross-component plots, varied between earthquakes with pressure changes more strongly related to dynamic- than static stress-related variables during the M7.1 earthquake, and vice versa during the M6.3. The method highlights the importance of data distribution and that driving mechanisms of earthquake-induced pressure change in the aquifers are not straight forward to interpret. In many cases, data mining revealed that confusion and reduction in correlations are associated with multiple trends in the same plot: one for confined and one for unconfined earthquake response. The autocontractive map and minimum spanning tree techniques are used for grouping variables of similar influence on earthquake hydrology. K-means clustering of neural information identified 5 primary regions influenced by the two earthquakes. The application of genetic doping to a genetic algorithm is used for identifying optimal subsets of variables in formulating predictions of well pressures. Predictions of well pressure changes are compared and contrasted using machine-learning network and symbolic regression models with prediction uncertainty quantified using a leave-one-out cross-validation strategy. These preliminary results provide impetus for subsequent analysis with information from another 100 earthquakes that occurred across the South Island.

  7. A novel fluorescent in situ hybridization technique for detection of Rickettsia spp. in archival samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Claus Bo; Boye, Mette; Struve, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    A novel, sensitive and specific method for detecting Rickettsia spp. in archival samples is described. The method involves the use of fluorescently marked oligonucleotide probes for in situ hybridization. Specific hybridization of Ricekttsia was found without problems of cross-reactions with bact......A novel, sensitive and specific method for detecting Rickettsia spp. in archival samples is described. The method involves the use of fluorescently marked oligonucleotide probes for in situ hybridization. Specific hybridization of Ricekttsia was found without problems of cross...

  8. Wastewater quality monitoring system using sensor fusion and machine learning techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xusong; Gao, Furong; Chen, Guohua

    2012-03-15

    A multi-sensor water quality monitoring system incorporating an UV/Vis spectrometer and a turbidimeter was used to monitor the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Suspended Solids (TSS) and Oil & Grease (O&G) concentrations of the effluents from the Chinese restaurant on campus and an electrocoagulation-electroflotation (EC-EF) pilot plant. In order to handle the noise and information unbalance in the fused UV/Vis spectra and turbidity measurements during the calibration model building, an improved boosting method, Boosting-Iterative Predictor Weighting-Partial Least Squares (Boosting-IPW-PLS), was developed in the present study. The Boosting-IPW-PLS method incorporates IPW into boosting scheme to suppress the quality-irrelevant variables by assigning small weights, and builds up the models for the wastewater quality predictions based on the weighted variables. The monitoring system was tested in the field with satisfactory results, underlying the potential of this technique for the online monitoring of water quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Organic Scintillators in Nonproliferation Applications With a Hybridized Double-Pulse Rejection Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Mark Mitchell

    Alternative detection technologies are crucial to meeting demand for neutron detectors, for the current production of He-3, which has been the classical neutron choice, is insufficient. Organic scintillators are a strong candidate as a He-3 alternative due to their high efficiency, fast timing properties, and capabilities for separately identifying gamma-rays and neutrons through pulse shape discrimination (PSD). However, the use of organic scintillators in environments with numerous gamma rays can be limited because overlapping gamma-ray events can be misclassified as neutron events during PSD. To solve this problem, a new, hybridized double-pulse cleaning technique, consisting of three separate cleaning algorithms, was developed. The technique removes gamma-ray double pulses while preserving as many neutron pulses as possible. This technique was applied to separate experiments of Cf-252 and a gamma-ray source when measuring at a 100-kHz count rate and a field of 1000 incident gamma rays per incident neutron. It was found that stilbene scintillators were capable of intrinsic neutron efficiencies between 15-19% when measuring bare Cf-252 and 13-17% when exposed to the gamma-ray field. Misclassification rates ranged from 10-6-10-5, a factor-of-5 better than both the EJ-309 liquid and BB3-5 plastic. Next, plutonium experiments were performed with stilbene to determine which cleaning algorithm was best for each sample. A clear correlation was found that related the correct method of cleaning to the measured gamma ray-to-neutron ratio. When the measured gamma ray-to-neutron ratio is 10 or below, the template cleaning algorithm is preferred, while the fractional and hybrid cleaning algorithms are preferred when the gamma ray-to-neutron ratio is 100 or greater. Discriminating neutron sources such as Cf-252 or AmLi from SNM samples such as plutonium is a top priority in nonproliferation. We demonstrate that time-correlated experiments, utilizing both PSD-capable plastic

  10. A Discrete Wavelet Based Feature Extraction and Hybrid Classification Technique for Microarray Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaison Bennet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer classification by doctors and radiologists was based on morphological and clinical features and had limited diagnostic ability in olden days. The recent arrival of DNA microarray technology has led to the concurrent monitoring of thousands of gene expressions in a single chip which stimulates the progress in cancer classification. In this paper, we have proposed a hybrid approach for microarray data classification based on nearest neighbor (KNN, naive Bayes, and support vector machine (SVM. Feature selection prior to classification plays a vital role and a feature selection technique which combines discrete wavelet transform (DWT and moving window technique (MWT is used. The performance of the proposed method is compared with the conventional classifiers like support vector machine, nearest neighbor, and naive Bayes. Experiments have been conducted on both real and benchmark datasets and the results indicate that the ensemble approach produces higher classification accuracy than conventional classifiers. This paper serves as an automated system for the classification of cancer and can be applied by doctors in real cases which serve as a boon to the medical community. This work further reduces the misclassification of cancers which is highly not allowed in cancer detection.

  11. Development of design technique for vacuum insulation in large size multi-aperture multi-grid accelerator for nuclear fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, A.; Hanada, M.; Tobari, H.; Nishikiori, R.; Hiratsuka, J.; Kashiwagi, M.; Umeda, N.; Yoshida, M.; Ichikawa, M.; Watanabe, K.; Yamano, Y.; Grisham, L. R.

    2016-02-01

    Design techniques for the vacuum insulation have been developed in order to realize a reliable voltage holding capability of multi-aperture multi-grid (MAMuG) accelerators for fusion application. In this method, the nested multi-stage configuration of the MAMuG accelerator can be uniquely designed to satisfy the target voltage within given boundary conditions. The evaluation of the voltage holding capabilities of each acceleration stages was based on the previous experimental results about the area effect and the multi-aperture effect. Since the multi-grid effect was found to be the extension of the area effect by the total facing area this time, the total voltage holding capability of the multi-stage can be estimated from that per single stage by assuming the stage with the highest electric field, the total facing area, and the total apertures. By applying these consideration, the analysis on the 3-stage MAMuG accelerator for JT-60SA agreed well with the past gap-scan experiments with an accuracy of less than 10% variation, which demonstrated the high reliability to design MAMuG accelerators and also multi-stage high voltage bushings.

  12. Development of design technique for vacuum insulation in large size multi-aperture multi-grid accelerator for nuclear fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, A., E-mail: kojima.atsushi@jaea.go.jp; Hanada, M.; Tobari, H.; Nishikiori, R.; Hiratsuka, J.; Kashiwagi, M.; Umeda, N.; Yoshida, M.; Ichikawa, M.; Watanabe, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Yamano, Y. [Saitama University, Saitama, Saitama-ken 338-8570 (Japan); Grisham, L. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Design techniques for the vacuum insulation have been developed in order to realize a reliable voltage holding capability of multi-aperture multi-grid (MAMuG) accelerators for fusion application. In this method, the nested multi-stage configuration of the MAMuG accelerator can be uniquely designed to satisfy the target voltage within given boundary conditions. The evaluation of the voltage holding capabilities of each acceleration stages was based on the previous experimental results about the area effect and the multi-aperture effect. Since the multi-grid effect was found to be the extension of the area effect by the total facing area this time, the total voltage holding capability of the multi-stage can be estimated from that per single stage by assuming the stage with the highest electric field, the total facing area, and the total apertures. By applying these consideration, the analysis on the 3-stage MAMuG accelerator for JT-60SA agreed well with the past gap-scan experiments with an accuracy of less than 10% variation, which demonstrated the high reliability to design MAMuG accelerators and also multi-stage high voltage bushings.

  13. Development of design technique for vacuum insulation in large size multi-aperture multi-grid accelerator for nuclear fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, A; Hanada, M; Tobari, H; Nishikiori, R; Hiratsuka, J; Kashiwagi, M; Umeda, N; Yoshida, M; Ichikawa, M; Watanabe, K; Yamano, Y; Grisham, L R

    2016-02-01

    Design techniques for the vacuum insulation have been developed in order to realize a reliable voltage holding capability of multi-aperture multi-grid (MAMuG) accelerators for fusion application. In this method, the nested multi-stage configuration of the MAMuG accelerator can be uniquely designed to satisfy the target voltage within given boundary conditions. The evaluation of the voltage holding capabilities of each acceleration stages was based on the previous experimental results about the area effect and the multi-aperture effect. Since the multi-grid effect was found to be the extension of the area effect by the total facing area this time, the total voltage holding capability of the multi-stage can be estimated from that per single stage by assuming the stage with the highest electric field, the total facing area, and the total apertures. By applying these consideration, the analysis on the 3-stage MAMuG accelerator for JT-60SA agreed well with the past gap-scan experiments with an accuracy of less than 10% variation, which demonstrated the high reliability to design MAMuG accelerators and also multi-stage high voltage bushings.

  14. A Polar Fuzzy Control Scheme for Hybrid Power System Using Vehicle-To-Grid Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Elsayed Lotfy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel polar fuzzy (PF control approach for a hybrid power system is proposed in this research. The proposed control scheme remedies the issues of system frequency and the continuity of demand supply caused by renewable sources’ uncertainties. The hybrid power system consists of a wind turbine generator (WTG, solar photovoltaics (PV, a solar thermal power generator (STPG, a diesel engine generator (DEG, an aqua-electrolyzer (AE, an ultra-capacitor (UC, a fuel-cell (FC, and a flywheel (FW. Furthermore, due to the high cost of the battery energy storage system (BESS, a new idea of vehicle-to-grid (V2G control is applied to use the battery of the electric vehicle (EV as equivalent to large-scale energy storage units instead of small batteries to improve the frequency stability of the system. In addition, EV customers’ convenience is taken into account. A minimal-order observer is used to estimate the supply error. Then, the area control error (ACE signal is calculated in terms of the estimated supply error and the frequency deviation. ACE is considered in the frequency domain. Two PF approaches are utilized in the intended system. The mission of each controller is to mitigate one frequency component of ACE. The responsibility for ACE compensation is shared among all parts of the system according to their speed of response. The performance of the proposed control scheme is compared to the conventional fuzzy logic control (FLC. The effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control technique are verified by numerical simulations under various scenarios.

  15. Simulations of fusion chamber dynamics and first wall response in a Z-pinch driven fusion–fission hybrid power reactor (Z-FFR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, J.M., E-mail: qjm06@sina.com [Laboratory of Advanced Nuclear Energy (LANE), Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621999 (China); Center for Fusion Energy Science and Technology (CFEST), China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621999 (China); Wang, Z., E-mail: wangz_es@caep.cn [Laboratory of Advanced Nuclear Energy (LANE), Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621999 (China); Center for Fusion Energy Science and Technology (CFEST), China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621999 (China); Chu, Y.Y., E-mail: chuyanyun@caep.cn [Laboratory of Advanced Nuclear Energy (LANE), Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621999 (China); Center for Fusion Energy Science and Technology (CFEST), China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621999 (China); Li, Z.H., E-mail: lee_march@sina.com [Laboratory of Advanced Nuclear Energy (LANE), Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621999 (China)

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Z-FFR utilizes DT neutrons to drive a sub-critical fission blanket to produce energy. • A metal shell and Ar gas are employed in the fusion chamber for shock mitigation. • Massive materials can effectively mitigate the thermal heats on the chamber wall. • The W-coated Zr-alloy first wall exhibits good viability as a long-lived component. - Abstract: In a Z-pinch driven fusion–fission hybrid power reactor (Z-FFR), the fusion target will produce enormous energy of ∼1.5 GJ per pulse at a frequency of 0.1 Hz. Almost 20% of the fusion energy yield, approximately 300 MJ, is released in forms of pulsed X-rays. To prevent the first wall from fatal damages by the intense X-rays, a thin spherical metal shell and rare Ar buffer gas are introduced to mitigate the transient X-ray bursts. Radiation hydrodynamics in the fusion chamber were investigated by MULTI-1D simulations, and the corresponding thermal and mechanical loads on the first wall were also obtained. The simulations indicated that by optimizing the design parameters of the metal shell and Ar buffer gas, peak power flux of the thermal heats on the first wall could be mitigated to less than 10{sup 4} W/cm{sup 2} within a time scale of several milliseconds, while peak overpressures of the mechanical loads varying from 0.6 to 0.7 MPa. In addition, the thermomechanical response in a W–coated Zr-alloy first wall was performed by FWDR1D calculations using the derived thermal and mechanical loads as inputs. The temperature and stress fields were analyzed, and the corresponding elastic strains were conducted for primary lifetime estimations by using the Coffin–Manson relationships of both W and Zr-alloy. It was shown that the maximum temperature rises and stresses in the first wall were less than 50 K and 130 MPa respectively, and lifetime of the first wall would be in excess of 10{sup 9} cycles. The chamber exhibits good viability as a long-lived component to sustain the Z-FFR conceptual

  16. Diagnostic accuracy: theoretical models for preimplantation genetic testing of a single nucleus using the fluorescence in situ hybridization technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.N. Scriven; P.M.M. Bossuyt

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and use theoretical models to investigate the accuracy of the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique in testing a single nucleus from a preimplantation embryo without the complicating effect of mosaicism. Mathematical models were constructed for thre

  17. Silica/polyacrylonitrile hybrid nanofiber membrane separators via sol-gel and electrospinning techniques for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanilmaz, Meltem; Lu, Yao; Zhu, Jiadeng; Zhang, Xiangwu

    2016-05-01

    Silica/polyacrylonitrile (SiO2/PAN) hybrid nanofiber membranes were fabricated by using sol-gel and electrospinning techniques and their electrochemical performance was evaluated for use as separators in lithium-ion batteries. The aim of this study was to design high-performance separator membranes with enhanced electrochemical performance and good thermal stability compared to microporous polyolefin membranes. In this study, SiO2 nanoparticle content up to 27 wt% was achieved in the membranes by using sol-gel technique. It was found that SiO2/PAN hybrid nanofiber membranes had superior electrochemical performance with good thermal stability due to their high SiO2 content and large porosity. Compared with commercial microporous polyolefin membranes, SiO2/PAN hybrid nanofiber membranes had larger liquid electrolyte uptake, higher electrochemical oxidation limit, and lower interfacial resistance with lithium. SiO2/PAN hybrid nanofiber membranes with different SiO2 contents (0, 16, 19 and 27 wt%) were also assembled into lithium/lithium iron phosphate cells, and high cell capacities and good cycling performance were demonstrated at room temperature. In addition, cells using SiO2/PAN hybrid nanofiber membranes with high SiO2 contents showed superior C-rate performance compared to those with low SiO2 contents and commercial microporous polyolefin membrane.

  18. A novel hybrid meta-heuristic technique applied to the well-known benchmark optimization problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abtahi, Amir-Reza; Bijari, Afsane

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a hybrid meta-heuristic algorithm, based on imperialistic competition algorithm (ICA), harmony search (HS), and simulated annealing (SA) is presented. The body of the proposed hybrid algorithm is based on ICA. The proposed hybrid algorithm inherits the advantages of the process of harmony creation in HS algorithm to improve the exploitation phase of the ICA algorithm. In addition, the proposed hybrid algorithm uses SA to make a balance between exploration and exploitation phases. The proposed hybrid algorithm is compared with several meta-heuristic methods, including genetic algorithm (GA), HS, and ICA on several well-known benchmark instances. The comprehensive experiments and statistical analysis on standard benchmark functions certify the superiority of the proposed method over the other algorithms. The efficacy of the proposed hybrid algorithm is promising and can be used in several real-life engineering and management problems.

  19. A novel hybrid meta-heuristic technique applied to the well-known benchmark optimization problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abtahi, Amir-Reza; Bijari, Afsane

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a hybrid meta-heuristic algorithm, based on imperialistic competition algorithm (ICA), harmony search (HS), and simulated annealing (SA) is presented. The body of the proposed hybrid algorithm is based on ICA. The proposed hybrid algorithm inherits the advantages of the process of harmony creation in HS algorithm to improve the exploitation phase of the ICA algorithm. In addition, the proposed hybrid algorithm uses SA to make a balance between exploration and exploitation phases. The proposed hybrid algorithm is compared with several meta-heuristic methods, including genetic algorithm (GA), HS, and ICA on several well-known benchmark instances. The comprehensive experiments and statistical analysis on standard benchmark functions certify the superiority of the proposed method over the other algorithms. The efficacy of the proposed hybrid algorithm is promising and can be used in several real-life engineering and management problems.

  20. Fusion of protoplasts with irradiated micro protoplasts as a tool for radiation hybrid panel in citrus;Fusao de protoplastos com microprotoplastos irradiados como ferramenta para painel hibrido de radiacao em citros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bona, Claudine Maria de, E-mail: debona@iapar.b [Instituto Agronomico do Parana (IAPAR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Administrativo do Governo do Estado; Stelly, David, E-mail: stelly@tamu.ed [Texas A and M University (Tamu), College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Soil and Crop Sciences; Miller Junior, J. Creighton, E-mail: jcmillerjr@tamu.ed [Texas A and M University (Tamu), College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Horticultural Sciences; Louzada, Eliezer Silva, E-mail: elouzada@ag.tamu.ed [Texas A and M University, (Tamuk), Weslaco, TX (United States)

    2009-12-15

    The objective of this work was to combine asymmetric somatic hybridization (donor-recipient fusion or gamma fusion) to microprotoplast-mediated chromosome transfer, as a tool to be used for chromosome mapping in Citrus. Swinglea glutinosa micro protoplasts were irradiated either with 50, 70, 100 or 200 gamma rays and fused to cv. Ruby Red grapefruit or Murcott tangor protoplasts. Cell colonies were successfully formed and AFLP analyses confirmed presence of S. glutinosa in both 'Murcott' tangor and 'Ruby Red' grapefruit genomes. (author)

  1. A hybrid PSO technique for procuring VAR ancillary service in the deregulated electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Araby, E.E. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Suez Canal University (Egypt); Yorino, Naoto [Department of Artificial Complex Systems Engineering, Hiroshima University (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    This paper develops a new market-based technique for acquiring VAR ancillary service in the electricity market. The main objective of the developed market is to enable transmission operator ''TO'' to procure VAR service in a long term contract from the critical VAR providers that satisfy minimum VAR service payment while maintaining system security. Reactive power control problem for voltage stability is introduced into the VAR market problem in an explicit manner for normal and emergency states. An integration of particle swarm optimization ''PSO'' is presented with successive linear programming ''SLP'' for dealing with the VAR ancillary service problem. The problem is formulated as a large-scale nonlinear constrained optimization problem with a non-differentiable objective function representing VAR payment and operational costs. This type of problem is hard to be treated straightforwardly by the classical optimization methods. Therefore, we propose here a two-layer hybrid PSO/SLP approach, which is suited for carrying out the difficulties associated with non-differentiable and discontinuous objective functions. The proposed method has been examined on the standard IEEE 57 bus-system and compared with GA/SLP method to demonstrate its capability. (author)

  2. Optimization of RF power absorption by optimization techniques using the lower hybrid current drive of FTU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Centioli, C. [Associazione Euratom/ENEA Sulla Fusione, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, CP 65, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Iannone, F. [Associazione Euratom/ENEA Sulla Fusione, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, CP 65, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Mazza, G. [Associazione Euratom/ENEA Sulla Fusione, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, CP 65, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Panella, M. [Associazione Euratom/ENEA Sulla Fusione, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, CP 65, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Pangione, L. [Dipartimento di Informatica, Sistemi e Produzione, Universita di Roma, Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: pangione@frascati.enea.it; Podda, S. [Associazione Euratom/ENEA Sulla Fusione, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, CP 65, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Tuccillo, A. [Associazione Euratom/ENEA Sulla Fusione, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, CP 65, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Vitale, V. [Associazione Euratom/ENEA Sulla Fusione, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, CP 65, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Zaccarian, L. [Dipartimento di Informatica, Sistemi e Produzione, Universita di Roma, Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2005-11-15

    In this paper, we will report on the experimental results arising from the implementation of optimization techniques to maximize the RF power coupling versus the plasma conditions in the FTU experimental facility. These experiments are carried out by employing the open-source Linux-RTAI control system currently running on the FTU digital feedback loop. The RF power source under consideration is a lower hybrid system (LH) based on six gyrotrons with a nominal power output capability of 1.1 MW each. The optimization of the coupling level between the plasma and the emitting antenna reduces the reflected power, thus maximizing the heating effects in addition to avoiding danger to the emitter (equivalently, annoying safety shutdowns of the system). To this aim, the plasma displacement is modified by suitably adjusting the reference input to the stabilizing feedback, according to a steepest descent algorithm. It will be shown in the paper how this algorithm achieves a satisfactory level of robustness with respect to measurement errors and well performs both in simulation and in experimental tests, thus leading to an improved effectiveness of the RF heating system.

  3. Hybrid LS-LMMSE Channel Estimation Technique for LTE Downlink Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Khlifi, Abdelhakim; 10.5121/ijngn.2011.3401

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose to improve the performance of the channel estimation for LTE Downlink systems under the effect of the channel length. As LTE Downlink system is a MIMO-OFDMA based system, a cyclic prefix (CP) is inserted at the beginning of each transmitted OFDM symbol in order to mitigate both inter-carrier interference (ICI) and inter-symbol interference (ISI). The inserted CP is usually equal to or longer than the channel length. However, the cyclic prefix can be shorter because of some unforeseen channel behaviour. Previous works have shown that in the case where the cyclic prefix is equal to or longer than the channel length, LMMSE performs better than LSE but at the cost of computational complexity .In the other case, LMMSE performs also better than LS only for low SNR values. However, LS shows better performance for LTE Downlink systems for high SNR values. Therefore, we propose a hybrid LS-LMMSE channel estimation technique robust to the channel length effect. MATLAB Monte-Carlo simulations a...

  4. Power Management Based Current Control Technique for Photovoltaic-Battery Assisted Wind-Hydro Hybrid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram Prabhakar, J.; Ragavan, K.

    2013-07-01

    This article proposes new power management based current control strategy for integrated wind-solar-hydro system equipped with battery storage mechanism. In this control technique, an indirect estimation of load current is done, through energy balance model, DC-link voltage control and droop control. This system features simpler energy management strategy and necessitates few power electronic converters, thereby minimizing the cost of the system. The generation-demand (G-D) management diagram is formulated based on the stochastic weather conditions and demand, which would likely moderate the gap between both. The features of management strategy deploying energy balance model include (1) regulating DC-link voltage within specified tolerances, (2) isolated operation without relying on external electric power transmission network, (3) indirect current control of hydro turbine driven induction generator and (4) seamless transition between grid-connected and off-grid operation modes. Furthermore, structuring of the hybrid system with appropriate selection of control variables enables power sharing among each energy conversion systems and battery storage mechanism. By addressing these intricacies, it is viable to regulate the frequency and voltage of the remote network at load end. The performance of the proposed composite scheme is demonstrated through time-domain simulation in MATLAB/Simulink environment.

  5. Prospective conceptual qualification of hybrid centrifugation/distillatory for {sup 6}LI nuclear fusion technology scaled supply demands; Calificacion conceptual prospectiva de centrifugador/destilador hibrido para produccion de {sup 6}Li a demanda de la tecnologia Nuclear Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedano, L.; Herranz, J. L.; Casado, J. L.; Castro, P.; Xiberta, J.

    2013-07-01

    The change in the demand for exploitation of lithium as a resource appears during the last decade, related to the development of the ion-Li batteries market and with the requirements of Nuclear Fusion fuels (deuterium and lithium) as coming energy option. A prospective analysis of synergistic demands of both markets, in its technical and in its economic aspects appears of prospective interest. The civil market {sup 6}Li/{sup 7}Li enrichment demand is analyzed. Specific technological developments permitting on-line production according to demand is discussed. A [centrifugation /thermal diffusion / combined distillation] technique is selected and qualified as technologically viable option for scaled production of litiated-forms. A conceptual design of a production plant is finally proposed according to the new technical capability.

  6. Dependence between fusion temperatures and chemical components of a certain type of coal using classical, non-parametric and bootstrap techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Manteiga, W.; Prada-Sanchez, J.M.; Fiestras-Janeiro, M.G.; Garcia-Jurado, I. (Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Dept. de Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa)

    1990-11-01

    A statistical study of the dependence between various critical fusion temperatures of a certain kind of coal and its chemical components is carried out. As well as using classical dependence techniques (multiple, stepwise and PLS regression, principal components, canonical correlation, etc.) together with the corresponding inference on the parameters of interest, non-parametric regression and bootstrap inference are also performed. 11 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Performance improvement of hybrid subcarrier multiplexing optical spectrum code division multiplexing system using spectral direct decoding detection technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahbudin, R. K. Z.; Abdullah, M. K.; Mokhtar, M.

    2009-06-01

    This paper proposes a hybrid subcarrier multiplexing/optical spectrum code division multiplexing (SCM/OSCDM) system for the purpose of combining the advantages of both techniques. Optical spectrum code division multiple-access (OSCDMA) is one of the multiplexing techniques that is becoming popular because of the flexibility in the allocation of channels, ability to operate asynchronously, enhanced privacy and increased capacity in bursty nature networks. On the other hand, subcarrier multiplexing (SCM) technique is able to enhance the channel data rate of OSCDMA systems. In this paper, a newly developed detection technique for the OSCDM called spectral direct decoding (SDD) detection technique is compared mathematically with the AND subtraction detection technique. The system utilizes a new unified code construction named KS (Khazani-Syed) code. The results characterizing the bit-error-rate (BER) show that SDD offers a significant improved performance at BER of 10 -9.

  8. Towards Real-Time Detection and Tracking of Blob-Filaments in Fusion Plasma Big Data

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Lingfei; Sim, Alex; Churchill, Michael; Choi, Jong Y; Stathopoulos, Andreas; Chang, Cs; Klasky, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic fusion could provide an inexhaustible, clean, and safe solution to the global energy needs. The success of magnetically-confined fusion reactors demands steady-state plasma confinement which is challenged by the blob-filaments driven by the edge turbulence. Real-time analysis can be used to monitor the progress of fusion experiments and prevent catastrophic events. However, terabytes of data are generated over short time periods in fusion experiments. Timely access to and analyzing this amount of data demands properly responding to extreme scale computing and big data challenges. In this paper, we apply outlier detection techniques to effectively tackle the fusion blob detection problem on extremely large parallel machines. We present a real-time region outlier detection algorithm to efficiently find blobs in fusion experiments and simulations. In addition, we propose an efficient scheme to track the movement of region outliers over time. We have implemented our algorithms with hybrid MPI/OpenMP and ...

  9. A hybrid conformal planning technique with solitary dynamic portal for postmastectomy radiotherapy with regional nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Mohamathu Rafic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study focuses on incorporation of a solitary dynamic portal (SDP in conformal planning for postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT with nodal regions with an intention to overcome the treatment planning limitations imposed by conventional techniques. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four patients who underwent surgical mastectomy followed by PMRT were included in this study. Initially, a treatment plan comprising tangential beams fitted to beam's-eye-view (BEV of chest wall (CW and a direct anterior field fitted to BEV of nodal region, both sharing a single isocenter was generated using Eclipse treatment planning system. Multiple field-in-fields with optimum beam weights (5% per field were added primarily from the medial tangent, fitted to BEV of entire target volume, and finally converted into a dynamic portal. Dosimetric analysis for the treatment plans and fluence verification for the dynamic portals were performed. Results and Discussion: Conformal plans with SDP showed excellent dose coverage (V95%>95%, higher degree of tumor dose conformity (≤1.25 and homogeneity (≤0.12 without compromising the organ at risk sparing for PMRT with nodal region. Treatment plans with SDP considerably reduced the lower isodose spread to the ipsilateral lung, heart, and healthy tissue without affecting the dose homogeneity. Further, gamma evaluation showed more than 96% pixel pass rate for standard 3%/3 mm dose difference and distance-to-agreement criteria. Moreover, this plan offers less probability of “geometrical miss” at the highly irregular CW with regional nodal radiotherapy. Conclusion: Hybrid conformal plans with SDP would facilitate improved dose distribution and reduced uncertainty in delivery and promises to be a suitable treatment option for complex postmastectomy CW with regional nodal irradiation.

  10. Passive hybrid technique for the vibration mitigation of systems of interconnected stays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracoglia, Luca; Jones, Nicholas P.

    2007-11-01

    The problem of stay oscillation mitigation in cable-stayed bridges, usually induced by wind or wind and rain, may require the introduction of passive devices, such as dampers on individual stays or the use of transverse restrainers (cross-ties). The damper performance is often affected by the geometrical constraints of the bridge deck that limit the installation of such devices to locations very close to the end of the cable. On the other hand, cross-ties are generally incapable of direct energy dissipation. Therefore, the authors have proposed and analyzed a hybrid passive system in which the advantages of both techniques are applied to the oscillation mitigation of complex interconnected systems with multiple external dampers at the deck level, in correspondence with the cross-tie lines. This paper summarizes the relevant findings of a research program involving the authors' efforts focused on the in-plane free-vibration analysis of stay-cable systems. This research is also based upon some recent results associated with the analytical solution of a taut-cable with two attached viscous dampers. These findings are initially extended to a simplified network with reduced number of connectors and one damper, for which the derivation of analytical solution is still possible. Subsequently, an existing multistay multidamped arrangement on a real bridge is considered, in which a fully numerical approach is required. The modal behavior is compared to the simplified examples, also enabling the interpretation of the results in the context of more general guidelines for potential future application.

  11. Prediction of monthly regional groundwater levels through hybrid soft-computing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fi-John; Chang, Li-Chiu; Huang, Chien-Wei; Kao, I.-Feng

    2016-10-01

    Groundwater systems are intrinsically heterogeneous with dynamic temporal-spatial patterns, which cause great difficulty in quantifying their complex processes, while reliable predictions of regional groundwater levels are commonly needed for managing water resources to ensure proper service of water demands within a region. In this study, we proposed a novel and flexible soft-computing technique that could effectively extract the complex high-dimensional input-output patterns of basin-wide groundwater-aquifer systems in an adaptive manner. The soft-computing models combined the Self Organized Map (SOM) and the Nonlinear Autoregressive with Exogenous Inputs (NARX) network for predicting monthly regional groundwater levels based on hydrologic forcing data. The SOM could effectively classify the temporal-spatial patterns of regional groundwater levels, the NARX could accurately predict the mean of regional groundwater levels for adjusting the selected SOM, the Kriging was used to interpolate the predictions of the adjusted SOM into finer grids of locations, and consequently the prediction of a monthly regional groundwater level map could be obtained. The Zhuoshui River basin in Taiwan was the study case, and its monthly data sets collected from 203 groundwater stations, 32 rainfall stations and 6 flow stations during 2000 and 2013 were used for modelling purpose. The results demonstrated that the hybrid SOM-NARX model could reliably and suitably predict monthly basin-wide groundwater levels with high correlations (R2 > 0.9 in both training and testing cases). The proposed methodology presents a milestone in modelling regional environmental issues and offers an insightful and promising way to predict monthly basin-wide groundwater levels, which is beneficial to authorities for sustainable water resources management.

  12. Hybrid fusion-fission reactor with a thorium blanket: Its potential in the fuel cycle of nuclear reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmelev, A. N.; Kulikov, G. G.; Kurnaev, V. A.; Salahutdinov, G. H.; Kulikov, E. G.; Apse, V. A.

    2015-12-01

    Discussions are currently going on as to whether it is suitable to employ thorium in the nuclear fuel cycle. This work demonstrates that the 231Pa-232U-233U-Th composition to be produced in the thorium blanket of a hybrid thermonuclear reactor (HTR) as a fuel for light-water reactors opens up the possibility of achieving high, up to 30% of heavy metals (HM), or even ultrahigh fuel burnup. This is because the above fuel composition is able to stabilize its neutron-multiplying properties in the process of high fuel burnup. In addition, it allows the nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) to be better protected against unauthorized proliferation of fissile materials owing to an unprecedentedly large fraction of 232U (several percent!) in the uranium bred from the Th blanket, which will substantially hamper the use of fissile materials in a closed NFC for purposes other than power production.

  13. 数据融合技术在空气动力学研究中的应用%Application of data fusion technique in aerodynamics studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何开锋; 钱炜祺; 汪清; 孔轶男; 王文正

    2014-01-01

    气动力数据通常通过风洞试验、数值计算和飞行试验三种途径获得,三者各有优缺点,为了得到更加完善准确的气动数据,可采用数据融合技术对不同来源的数据进行深加工和利用。针对数据融合技术在空气动力学中的应用进行讨论和探索,首先介绍了数据融合技术在空气动力学中的应用背景、发展现状及数据融合的基本思想,此后综合提出了建立气动数据融合准则的基本思路和两种具有应用价值的融合算法:基于不确定度的数据融合方法和基于气动力建模的数据融合方法,并给出了部分研究应用结果。最后,文章对气动数据融合技术在气动领域的应用前景进行了展望。研究发现,采用数据融合技术后,可以进一步提高气动数据的完整性和准确性,但由于气动数据融合工作不仅需要进行算法研究,同时还需要工作人员的大量经验,融合结果包含较多的人为因素,因此具体采用何种融合方法要根据具体情况而定。%Aerodynamic data usually can be obtained through three ways:wind tunnel test,numerical calculation and flight test,each method have both advantages and disadvantages.To achieve more complete and more accurate aerodynamic data,deep comparison and acquisition of data from different ways,together with data fusion technique could be used.In the first part of this paper,the background,development,pres-ent situation and basic idea of data fusion in aerodynamics research field was introduced.Secondly,the meth-od to establish data fusion rules was given,and two kinds of practical data fusion algorithms were presented, i.e.,the fusion algorithm based on uncertainty bounds analysis and the algorithm based on aerodynamic mathematical modeling.And some engineering applications of these two algorithms were also introduced.At the last part of this paper,the application prospect of aerodynamic data fusion was

  14. A Transient Fault Recognition Method for an AC-DC Hybrid Transmission System Based on MMC Information Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jikai Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, the research is still in the primary stage in the process of fault disturbance energy transfer in the multilevel modular converter based high voltage direct current (HVDC-MMC. An urgent problem is how to extract and analyze the fault features hidden in MMC electrical information in further studies on the HVDC system. Aiming at the above, this article analyzes the influence of AC transient disturbance on electrical signals of MMC. At the same time, it is found that the energy distribution of electrical signals in MMC is different for different arms in the same frequency bands after the discrete wavelet packet transformation (DWPT. Renyi wavelet packet energy entropy (RWPEE and Renyi wavelet packet time entropy (RWPTE are proposed and applied to AC transient fault feature extraction from electrical signals in MMC. Using the feature extraction results of Renyi wavelet packet entropy (RWPE, a novel recognition method is put forward to recognize AC transient faults using the information fusion technology. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the proposed method is available to recognize transient AC faults.

  15. A review of the hybrid techniques for the fabrication of hard magnetic microactuators based on bonded magnetic powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallapa, M.; Yeow, J. T. W.

    2015-02-01

    Polymer composites based on permanent magnetic bonded powders exhibit immense potential for applications in microactuators and sensors with magnetic performances comparable to their fully dense counterparts. While fabrication and integration of magnetic devices based on bonded magnetic powders is challenging via conventional deposition and electrochemical growth techniques, hybrid fabrication offers a promising alternative. This paper presents the evolution of permanent magnetic materials into bonded magnetic powders, the magnetic performance figures of merit of permanent magnetic materials significant for the design and manufacture of polymer based sensors and actuators. A review of the hybrid fabrication techniques such as replica molding, squeegee coating, spin casting etc are reported. Critical factors affecting the fabrication of polymer magnetic composites such as filler particle size and effect of magnetic field during fabrication are discussed. Prior art based on polymer magnetic composites for the fabrication of hard magnetic films and hard magnetic actuators are presented.

  16. Mixed potential integral equation technique for hybrid microstrip-slotline multilayered circuits using a mixed rectangular-triangular mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sercu, Jeannick; Fache, Niels; Libbrecht, Frank; Lagasse, Paul

    1995-05-01

    In this paper, a mixed potential integral equation (MPIE) formulation for hybrid microstrip-slotline multilayered circuits is presented. This integral equation is solved with the method of moments (MoM) in combination with Galerkin's method. The vector-valued rooftop functions defined over a mixed rectangular-triangular mesh are used to model the electric and magnetic currents on the microstrip and slotline structures. An efficient calculation technique for the quadruple interaction integrals between two cells in the system matrix equation is presented. Two examples of hybrid microstrip-slotline circuits are discussed. The first example compares the simulation results for a microstrip-slotline transition with measured data. The second example illustrates the use of the simulation technique in the design process of a broadband slot-coupled microstrip line transition.

  17. A 3D hybrid grid generation technique and a multigrid/parallel algorithm based on anisotropic agglomeration approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Laiping; Zhao Zhong; Chang Xinghua; He Xin

    2013-01-01

    A hybrid grid generation technique and a multigrid/parallel algorithm are presented in this paper for turbulence flow simulations over three-dimensional (3D) complex geometries.The hybrid grid generation technique is based on an agglomeration method of anisotropic tetrahedrons.Firstly,the complex computational domain is covered by pure tetrahedral grids,in which anisotropic tetrahedrons are adopted to discrete the boundary layer and isotropic tetrahedrons in the outer field.Then,the anisotropic tetrahedrons in the boundary layer are agglomerated to generate prismatic grids.The agglomeration method can improve the grid quality in boundary layer and reduce the grid quantity to enhance the numerical accuracy and efficiency.In order to accelerate the convergence history,a multigrid/parallel algorithm is developed also based on anisotropic agglomeration approach.The numerical results demonstrate the excellent accelerating capability of this multigrid method.

  18. Structural studies of the protein endostatin in fusion with BAX BH3 death domain, a hybrid that presents enhanced antitumoral activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chura-Chambi, Rosa Maria; Arcuri, Helen Andrade; Lino, Felipe; Versati, Natan; Palma, Mario Sergio; Favaro, Denize C; Morganti, Ligia

    2017-05-01

    Endostatin (ES) is an antiangiogenic protein that exhibits antitumor activity in animal models. However, the activity observed in animals was not observed in human clinical trials. ES-BAX is a fusion protein composed of two functional domains: ES, which presents specificity and is internalized by activated endothelial cells and the proapoptotic BH3 domain of the protein BAX, a peptide inductor of cellular death when internalized. We have previously shown (Chura-Chambi et al., Cell Death Dis, 5, e1371, 2014) that ES-BAX presents improved antitumor activity in relation to wild-type ES. Secondary and tertiary structures of ES-BAX are similar to ES, as indicated by homology-modeling studies and molecular dynamics simulations. Tryptophan intrinsic fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy corroborate these data. (15) N HSQC NMR indicates that ES-BAX is structured, but some ES residues have suffered chemical shift perturbations, suggesting that the BH3 peptide interacts with some parts of the ES protein. ES and ES-BAX present similar stability to thermal denaturation. The production of stable hybrid proteins can be a new approach to the development of therapeutic agents presenting specificity for tumoral endothelium and improved antitumor effect. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Staging of recurrent and advanced lung cancer with 18F-FDG PET in a coincidence technique (hybrid PET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, R A; Hautmann, H; Poellinger, B; Kellner, W; Moisseev, A; Brinkbaeumer, K; Weiss, M; Hahn, K; Dresel, S

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ( F-FDG) imaging of recurrent or inoperable lung cancer using a hybrid positron emission tomography (PET) device of the third generation. Examinations were compared with the results of conventional staging. Thirty-six patients suffering from recurrent or primarily inoperable lung cancer (29 men, seven women; age 64.8+/-12.0 years) were examined using hybrid PET (Marconi Axis gamma-PET ) 60 min after injection of 370 MBq F-FDG. The data obtained were reconstructed iteratively. All patients received a computed tomography (CT) scan using either the spiral or multislice technique. All lesions suspicious for primary or recurrent tumour were verified by biopsy; mediastinal lymph nodes were considered as malignant, when positive histology or a small axis diameter of greater than 1 cm measured with CT in addition to progression of clinical course was found. Distant metastases were diagnosed by CT and bone scintigraphy. Using hybrid PET all lesions showed a focally elevated glucose metabolism. Lymph node involvement of the ipsilateral peribronchial and hilar station (N1) was identified in 24/26 cases (92%), in 26/29 cases (90%) of ipsilateral central manifestation (N2) and in 11/13 (85%) cases of central contralateral or supraclavicular lymphatic infestation (N3). Pulmonary spread in hybrid PET was found in 4/8 cases (50%), whereas mainly lung metastases with a diameter of 1.5 cm and smaller were missed. Pleural involvement diagnosed by CT was verified in 4/5 patients. All four patients with bony metastases in conventional staging also presented with positive findings in hybrid PET (8/9 lesions). Concordance with conventional staging was found in 28/36 of patients (78%). In 4/36 patients (11%) unknown sites of tumour were detected leading to therapeutic consequences in three patients after radiological confirmation. Hybrid PET would have led to an understaging in four cases (11%), resulting theoretically in

  20. Ecophysiological Analysis of Microorganisms in Complex Microbial Systems by Combination of Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization with Extracellular Staining Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Kragelund, Caroline; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    Ecophysiological analysis and functions of single cells in complex microbial systems can be examined by simple combinations of Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for identification with various staining techniques targeting functional phenotypes. In this chapter, we describe methods and protocols optimized for the study of extracellular enzymes, surface hydrophobicity and specific surface structures. Although primarily applied to the study of microbes in wastewater treatment (activated sludge and biofilms), the methods may also be used with minor modifications in several other ecosystems.

  1. Progress in physics design of fusion-fission hybrid energy reactor%次临界能源堆物理设计进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李茂生; 贾建平; 程和平; 蒋洁琼; 栗再新; 杨永伟; 吴宏春; 师学明; 刘荣; 鹿心鑫; 朱通华; 王新华; 余泳; 严钧; 唐涛

    2014-01-01

    聚变-裂变混合能源堆包括聚变中子源和次临界能源堆,主要目标是生产电能。回顾了国内外混合堆的发展历史,给出混合能源堆设计的边界条件和约束条件,说明次临界能源堆以铀锆合金为燃料、水为冷却剂的设计思想。利用输运燃耗耦合程序 MCORGS 计算了混合能源的燃耗,给出了中子有效增殖因数、能量放大倍数和氚增殖比等物理量随时间的变化。通过分析能谱和重要核素随燃耗时间的变化,说明混合能源堆与核燃料增殖、核废料嬗变混合堆的不同特点。论述了混合堆的热工设计并进行了安全分析。对于燃耗数值模拟程序,通过多家对算,保证其计算结果的可信性。针对次临界能源堆的特点,利用贫铀球壳建立了贫铀聚乙烯装置和贫铀 LiH 装置,并且专门设计加工了天然铀装置,开展铀裂变率、造钚率、产氚率等中子学积分实验,验证了数值模拟的可靠性。%In this paper,we propose a preliminary design for a fusion-fission hybrid energy reactor (FFHER),based on cur-rent fusion science and technology and well-developed fission technology.Design rules are listed and a primary concept blanket with uranium alloy as fuel and water as coolant is put forward.The uranium fuel can be natural uranium,LWR spent fuel,or de-pleted uranium.The FFHER design can increase the utilization rate of uranium in a comparatively simple way to sustain the de-velopment of nuclear energy.The interaction between the fusion neutron and the uranium fuel with the aim of achieving greater energy multiplication and tritium sustainability is studied.Other concept hybrid reactor designs are also reviewed.Integral neu-tron experiments were carried out to verify the credibility of our proposed physical design.The combination of the physical design with the related thermal hydraulic design,alloy fuel manufacture,and nuclear fuel cycle programs provides the

  2. POWER OPTIMIZED DATAPATH UNITS OF HYBRID EMBEDDED CORE ARCHITECTURE USING CLOCK GATING TECHNIQUE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    T.Subhashini; M.Kamaraju

    2015-01-01

    ...% of the total power dissipation. The main goal of this work is to implement a prototype power optimized datapath unit and ALU of Hybrid Embedded Controller Architecture targeted on to the FPGA chip and analyze the power consumption...

  3. RAPD Technique Used to Determine the Purity of Hybrid Hot Pepper Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Two hybrid hot pepper varieties Xiangyan 5 and Xiangyan 10, and their parents were analyzed the polymerase chain reaction with MJ /PT 200 Peltrier Themal Cycler and DS 800 White-ultravilot Transilluminator to set up a RAPD system adaptable to the purity determination of the hybrid seeds. Among the 39 random primers, 2 and 4 primers were found to be used effectively in Xiangyan 5 and Xiangyan 10 respectively.

  4. Optimisation Sizing of Hybrid Wind-Diesel Systems using Linear Programming Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Gan, Leong Kit; Shek, Jonathan; Mueller, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Despite the great potential of hybrid wind-diesel system in supplying energy to remote or island communities, sizing the system components have been a challenging problem for many project managers due to the reliance on various factors. This work considers utilising a fixed speed wind turbine (induction generator) in the hybrid system. It requires energy for start-up operation and this work takes into account for sizing the battery storage. In addition, the trade-off between the number of bat...

  5. Development of laser-based techniques for in situ characterization of the first wall in ITER and future fusion devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philipps, V.; Malaquias, A.; Hakola, A.; Karhunen, J.; Maddaluno, G.; Almaviva, S.; Caneve, L.; Colao, F.; Fortuna, E.; Gasior, P.; Kubkowska, M.; Czarnecka, A.; Laan, M.; Lissovski, A.; Paris, P.; van der Meiden, H. J.; Petersson, P.; Rubel, M.; Huber, A.; Zlobinski, M.; Schweer, B.; Gierse, N.; Xiao, Q.; Sergienko, G.

    2013-01-01

    Analysis and understanding of wall erosion, material transport and fuel retention are among the most important tasks for ITER and future devices, since these questions determine largely the lifetime and availability of the fusion reactor. These data are also of extreme value to improve the understan

  6. Development of laser-based techniques for in situ characterization of the first wall in ITER and future fusion devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philipps, V.; Malaquias, A.; Hakola, A.; Karhunen, J.; Maddaluno, G.; Almaviva, S.; Caneve, L.; Colao, F.; Fortuna, E.; Gasior, P.; Kubkowska, M.; Czarnecka, A.; Laan, M.; Lissovski, A.; Paris, P.; van der Meiden, H. J.; Petersson, P.; Rubel, M.; Huber, A.; Zlobinski, M.; Schweer, B.; Gierse, N.; Xiao, Q.; Sergienko, G.

    2013-01-01

    Analysis and understanding of wall erosion, material transport and fuel retention are among the most important tasks for ITER and future devices, since these questions determine largely the lifetime and availability of the fusion reactor. These data are also of extreme value to improve the

  7. PET/MRI: a novel hybrid imaging technique. Major clinical indications and preliminary experience in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitor, Taise; Martins, Karine Minaif; Ionescu, Tudor Mihai; Cunha, Marcelo Livorsi da; Baroni, Ronaldo Hueb; Garcia, Marcio Ricardo Taveira; Wagner, Jairo; Campos, Guilherme de Carvalho; Nogueira, Solange Amorim; Guerra, Elaine Gonçalves; Amaro, Edson

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, medical imaging with hybrid techniques has widely accepted and employed in clinical routine. PET/MRI offers significant advantages, including excellent contrast and resolution and reduced ionizing radiation, as compared to well-established PET/CT. Therefore, PET/MRI is a promising modality for oncologic imaging of some regions, such as brain, head and neck, liver and pelvis. This article set out to analyze clinical conditions that could benefit from PET/MRI imaging based on our caseload. The potential of PET/MRI to become the imaging modality of choice for assessment of neurologic and oncologic conditions associated with soft tissues is highlighted. Clinical aspects of PET/MRI and its application to clinical cases are illustrated with examples extracted from the authors' preliminary experience. RESUMO Nos últimos anos, imagens médicas com tecnologias híbridas tornaram-se amplamente aceitas e utilizadas na prática clínica. O PET/RM possui vantagens importantes, incluindo excelentes contrastes e resolução, e menor radiação ionizante, em comparação ao PET/TC. Por isto, é uma modalidade promissora para exames de imagem de pacientes oncológicos, para avaliar o cérebro, cabeça e pescoço, o fígado e a pelve. O objetivo deste artigo foi analisar as situações clínicas que se beneficiariam de exames de PET/RM a partir de uma casuística. Destacamos o potencial desta técnica se tornar o método de imagem de escolha para doenças neurológicas e oncológicas que envolvam partes moles. Os aspectos clínicos de PET/RM e sua aplicação aos casos clínicos são ilustrados com exemplos da experiência inicial dos autores.

  8. Novel fabrication technique of hybrid structure lens array for 3D images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junsik; Kim, Junoh; Kim, Cheoljoong; Shin, Dooseub; Koo, Gyohyun; Won, Yong Hyub

    2016-03-01

    Tunable liquid lens arrays can produce three dimensional images by using electrowetting principle that alters surface tensions by applying voltage. This method has advantages of fast response time and low power consumption. However, it is challenging to fabricate a high fill factor liquid lens array and operate three dimensional images which demand high diopter. This study describes a hybrid structure lens array which has not only a liquid lens array but a solid lens array. A concave-shape lens array is unavoidable when using only the liquid lens array and some voltages are needed to make the lens flat. By placing the solid lens array on the liquid lens array, initial diopter can be positive. To fabricate the hybrid structure lens array, a conventional lithographic process in semiconductor manufacturing is needed. A negative photoresist SU-8 was used as chamber master molds. PDMS and UV adhesive replica molding are done sequentially. Two immiscible liquids, DI water and dodecane, are injected in the fabricated chamber, followed by sealing. The fabricated structure has a 20 by 20 pattern of cylindrical shaped circle array and the aperture size of each lens is 1mm. The thickness of the overall hybrid structure is about 2.8mm. Hybrid structure lens array has many advantages. Solid lens array has almost 100% fill factor and allow high efficiency. Diopter can be increased by more than 200 and negative diopter can be shifted to the positive region. This experiment showed several properties of the hybrid structure and demonstrated its superiority.

  9. HybridSPE: A novel technique to reduce phospholipid-based matrix effect in LC-ESI-MS Bioanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shafeeque; Kalra, Harsh; Gupta, Amit; Raut, Bharat; Hussain, Arshad; Rahman, Md Akhlaquer

    2012-10-01

    When complex biological materials are analyzed without an adequate sample preparation technique, MS signal and response undergo significant alteration and result in poor quantification and assay. This problem generally takes place due to the presence of several endogenous materials component in samples. One of the major causes of ion suppression in bioanalysis is the presence of phospholipids during LC-MS analysis. The phospholipid-based matrix effect was investigated with a commercially available electro spray ionization (ESI) source coupled with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. HybridSPE dramatically reduced the levels of residual phospholipids in biological samples, leading to significant reduction in matrix effects. This new procedure that combines the simplicity of precipitation with the selectivity of SPE allows obtaining much cleaner extracts than with conventional procedures. HybridSPE-precipitation procedure provides significant improvement in bioanalysis and a practical and fast way to ensure the avoidance of phospholipids-based matrix effects. The present review outlines the HybridSPE technique to minimize phospholipids-based matrix effects on LC-ESI-MS bioanalysis.

  10. HybridSPE: A novel technique to reduce phospholipid-based matrix effect in LC-ESI-MS Bioanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafeeque Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When complex biological materials are analyzed without an adequate sample preparation technique, MS signal and response undergo significant alteration and result in poor quantification and assay. This problem generally takes place due to the presence of several endogenous materials component in samples. One of the major causes of ion suppression in bioanalysis is the presence of phospholipids during LC-MS analysis. The phospholipid-based matrix effect was investigated with a commercially available electro spray ionization (ESI source coupled with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. HybridSPE dramatically reduced the levels of residual phospholipids in biological samples, leading to significant reduction in matrix effects. This new procedure that combines the simplicity of precipitation with the selectivity of SPE allows obtaining much cleaner extracts than with conventional procedures. HybridSPE-precipitation procedure provides significant improvement in bioanalysis and a practical and fast way to ensure the avoidance of phospholipids-based matrix effects. The present review outlines the HybridSPE technique to minimize phospholipids-based matrix effects on LC-ESI-MS bioanalysis.

  11. New progress of non-fusion technique in spine surgery%脊柱非融合技术新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宇鹏

    2013-01-01

      Spinal fusion has been the golden standard in the treatment of spinal degenerative disease. However, varied related complications make surgeons look for alternative methods. The proposal and application of the concept of non-fusion technique have made a great effect on the development of spine surgery, which includes prosthetic disc nucleus replacement, total disc replacement, pedicle fixation-based dynamic stabilization devices, interspinous process spacers and facet joint replacement devices. This article has retrospectively summarized the latest research. Prosthetic disc nucleus replacement is not recommended due to the early complications. Total disc replacement can be used to restore the intervertebral height to some extent so as to avoid complications related to spine fusion operation, whereas high-quality clinical research is lacked. Pedicle fixation-based dynamic stabilization devices have been focused on, including the Graf ligament system and Dynesys system, and earlier research has shown good clinical results. However, recently more attention is paid to the complications, and the research conclusions vary, furthermore, even are opposite. Until now the definite conclusion can hardly be drawn. Interspinous process spacers mainly include X-STOP and Wallis, which can lower the occurrence rate of adjacent segment degeneration to some extent. However, the latest research has pointed many complications, and interspinous process spacers should be used carefully. As to facet joint replacement devices, the lack of laboratory research and the difficulties in revision have limited their usages.

  12. Hybrid approach to AAA: bilateral "banana" technique to preserve hypogastric artery in complex anatomy aorto-biiliac aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera Arochena, N; Molina Herrero, F; Carbalho Fernandez, C; Rodriguez Feijoo, G; Fernandez Lebrato, R; Barrios Castro, A; Garcia Fernandez, I

    2011-01-01

    The surgical approach for hypogastric preservation in aorto-iliac aneurysm (AAA) open repair (OR) has been described and performed with different techniques but all of them represent a higher mortality and potencial complications to the procedure; this is even more critical in bilateral disease. Since the introduction of the first endograft, a continuous development has occurred, such as the stent graft with specific branch designed for preserving antegrade flow in the hypogastric artery. On highly angulated and tortuous iliac anatomies, the use of Sandwich-Graft technique, as described by Armando Lobato, represents a valid alternative to iliac branch. The hybrid approach could be a good treatment option in young patients with AAA affecting hypogastric arteries. We present the technical description and a case report of bilateral "banana" technique perfor- med with flexible covered stent (Viabahn(®) WL Gore) to preserve both hypogastric arteries combined with open repair in a 52 years old patient. Technical report and Results: A bilateral retrograde endograft was implanted from both external ilac arteries to hypo- gastric artery excluding bilateral common iliac aneurysms followed by an open repair to the AAA (aneurismectomy + aorto bifemoral by-pass) with good inmediate and short-midterm follow up (12 months) This hybrid technique could be a good approach to hypogastric preservation in low risk and young patients reducing potencial complications of hypogastric artery oclusion.

  13. N-doped ZnO films grown from hybrid target by the pulsed laser deposition technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Tovar, E. A.; Chan y Díaz, E.; Acosta, M.; Castro-Rodríguez, R.; Iribarren, A.

    2016-10-01

    ZnO thin films were grown by the pulsed laser deposition technique on glass substrate using a hybrid target composed of ZnO powder embedded into a poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate) matrix. The resulting thin film presented ZnO wurtzite structure with very low stress and diffractogram very similar to that of the powder pattern. From comparing with ZnO thin films grown from traditional sintered target, it is suggested that the use of this hybrid target with a soft matrix led to ejection of ZnO clusters that conveniently disposed and adhered to substrate and previous deposited layers. Chemical measurements showed the presence of Zn-N bonds, besides Zn-O ones. Optical absorption profile confirmed the presence of low-polymerized zinc oxynitride molecular subunits, besides ZnO.

  14. Dielectric property determination of hybrid Al2O3-filled MWCNT buckypaper by the rectangular cavity perturbation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Hsin-Yuan; Liu, Jih-Hsin; Saravanan, L.; Tsao, Che-Wei; Pan, Jui-Wen

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the complex dielectric permittivity of freestanding multiwalled carbon nanotube buckypaper (MWCNT-BP) and a synthesized hybrid alumina-filled buckypaper (Al2O3-BP) composite with different alumina loadings (5-30 wt%). The non-destructive microwave transmission technique for complex permittivity determination involving cavity perturbation was employed to characterize a set of Al2O3-BP sheets. This was done by filling a rectangular cavity resonator with a standard dielectric Teflon sample and then performing permittivity measurements for the buckypaper (BP) samples in the X-band frequency range (7-12 GHz). Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) was used to analyze the morphology of the MWCNT-BP and the alumina-loaded BP composites. DC electrical resistivity measurements clearly demonstrated conductor-insulator transition. The effect of alumina loadings on the dielectric properties of the synthesized hybrid Al2O3-BP sheet is discussed.

  15. Minimally Invasive Anterior Decompression Technique without Instrumented Fusion for Huge Ossification of the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament in the Thoracic Spine: Technical Note And Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jae Won; Yun, Sang-O; Hsieh, Chang-Sheng; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2017-09-01

    Several surgical methods have been reported for treatment of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) in the thoracic spine. Despite rapid innovation of instruments and techniques for spinal surgery, the postoperative outcomes are not always favorable. This article reports a minimally invasive anterior decompression technique without instrumented fusion, which was modified from the conventional procedure. The authors present 2 cases of huge beak-type OPLL. Patients underwent minimally invasive anterior decompression without fusion. This method created a space on the ventral side of the OPLL without violating global thoracic spinal stability. Via this space, the OPLL and anterior lateral side of the dural sac can be seen and manipulated directly. Then, total removal of the OPLL was accomplished. No orthosis was needed. In this article, we share our key technique and concepts for treatment of huge thoracic OPLL. Case 1. 51-year-old female was referred to our hospital with right lower limb radiating pain and paresis. Thoracic OPLL at T6-7 had been identified at our hospital, and conservative treatment had been tried without success. Case 2. This 54-year-old female with a 6-month history of progressive gait disturbance and bilateral lower extremity radiating pain (right>left) was admitted to our institute. She also had hypoesthesia in both lower legs. Her symptoms had been gradually progressing. Computed tomography scans showed massive OPLL at the T9-10 level. Magnetic resonance imaging of the thoracolumbar spine demonstrated ventral bony masses with severe anterior compression of the spinal cord at the same level. We used this surgical method in 2 patients with a huge beaked-type OPLL in the thoracic level. Complete removal of the OPLL via anterior decompression without instrumented fusion was accomplished. The 1st case had no intraoperative or postoperative complications, and the 2nd case had 1 intraoperative complication (dural tear) and no

  16. TRISO Fuel Performance: Modeling, Integration into Mainstream Design Studies, and Application to a Thorium-fueled Fusion-Fission Hybrid Blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Jeffrey James [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-11-30

    This study focused on creating a new tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel performance model and demonstrating the integration of this model into an existing system of neutronics and heat transfer codes, creating a user-friendly option for including fuel performance analysis within system design optimization and system-level trade-off studies. The end product enables both a deeper understanding and better overall system performance of nuclear energy systems limited or greatly impacted by TRISO fuel performance. A thorium-fueled hybrid fusion-fission Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) blanket design was used for illustrating the application of this new capability and demonstrated both the importance of integrating fuel performance calculations into mainstream design studies and the impact that this new integrated analysis had on system-level design decisions. A new TRISO fuel performance model named TRIUNE was developed and verified and validated during this work with a novel methodology established for simulating the actual lifetime of a TRISO particle during repeated passes through a pebble bed. In addition, integrated self-consistent calculations were performed for neutronics depletion analysis, heat transfer calculations, and then fuel performance modeling for a full parametric study that encompassed over 80 different design options that went through all three phases of analysis. Lastly, side studies were performed that included a comparison of thorium and depleted uranium (DU) LIFE blankets as well as some uncertainty quantification work to help guide future experimental work by assessing what material properties in TRISO fuel performance modeling are most in need of improvement. A recommended thorium-fueled hybrid LIFE engine design was identified with an initial fuel load of 20MT of thorium, 15% TRISO packing within the graphite fuel pebbles, and a 20cm neutron multiplier layer with beryllium pebbles in flibe molten salt coolant. It operated

  17. Hybrid models for hydrological forecasting: integration of data-driven and conceptual modelling techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corzo Perez, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    This book presents the investigation of different architectures of integrating hydrological knowledge and models with data-driven models for the purpose of hydrological flow forecasting. The models resulting from such integration are referred to as hybrid models. The book addresses the following top

  18. A hybrid method for flood simulation in small catchments combining hydrodynamic and hydrological techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellos, Vasilis; Tsakiris, George

    2016-09-01

    The study presents a new hybrid method for the simulation of flood events in small catchments. It combines a physically-based two-dimensional hydrodynamic model and the hydrological unit hydrograph theory. Unit hydrographs are derived using the FLOW-R2D model which is based on the full form of two-dimensional Shallow Water Equations, solved by a modified McCormack numerical scheme. The method is tested at a small catchment in a suburb of Athens-Greece for a storm event which occurred in February 2013. The catchment is divided into three friction zones and unit hydrographs of 15 and 30 min are produced. The infiltration process is simulated by the empirical Kostiakov equation and the Green-Ampt model. The results from the implementation of the proposed hybrid method are compared with recorded data at the hydrometric station at the outlet of the catchment and the results derived from the fully hydrodynamic model FLOW-R2D. It is concluded that for the case studied, the proposed hybrid method produces results close to those of the fully hydrodynamic simulation at substantially shorter computational time. This finding, if further verified in a variety of case studies, can be useful in devising effective hybrid tools for the two-dimensional flood simulations, which are lead to accurate and considerably faster results than those achieved by the fully hydrodynamic simulations.

  19. Hybrid models for hydrological forecasting: Integration of data-driven and conceptual modelling techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corzo Perez, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    This book presents the investigation of different architectures of integrating hydrological knowledge and models with data-driven models for the purpose of hydrological flow forecasting. The models resulting from such integration are referred to as hybrid models. The book addresses the following top

  20. Role of hybrid forecasting techniques for transportation planning of broiler meat under uncertain demand in thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thoranin Sujjaviriyasup

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of numerous problems experiencing in supply chain management is the demand. Most demands are appeared in terms of uncertainty. The broiler meat industry is inevitably encountering the same problem. In this research, hybrid forecasting model of ARIMA and Support Vector Machine (SVMs are developed to forecast broiler meat export. In addition, ARIMA, SVMs, and Moving Average (MA are chosen for comparing the forecasting efficiency. All the forecasting models are tested and validated using the data of Brazil’s export, Canada’s export, and Thailand’s export. The hybrid model provides accuracy of the forecasted values that are 98.71%, 97.50%, and 93.01%, respectively. In addition, the hybrid model presents the least error of all MAE, RMSE, and MAPE comparing with other forecasting models. As forecasted data are applied to transportation planning, the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE of optimal value of forecasted value and actual value is 14.53%. The hybrid forecasting model shows an ability to reduce risk of total cost of transportation when broiler meat export is forecasted by using MA(2, MA(3, ARIMA, and SVM are 50.59%, 60.18%, 68.01%, and 46.55%, respectively. The results indicate that the developed forecasting model is recommended to broiler meat industries’ supply chain decision.

  1. Hybrid and Model-Based Iterative Reconstruction Techniques for Pediatric CT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Harder, Annemarie M.; Willemink, Martin J.; Budde, Ricardo P. J.; Schilham, Arnold M. R.; Leiner, Tim; de Jong, Pim A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Radiation exposure from CT examinations should be reduced to a minimum in children. Iterative reconstruction (IR) is a method to reduce image noise that can be used to improve CT image quality, thereby allowing radiation dose reduction. This article reviews the use of hybrid and model-bas

  2. Hybrid models for hydrological forecasting: integration of data-driven and conceptual modelling techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corzo Perez, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    This book presents the investigation of different architectures of integrating hydrological knowledge and models with data-driven models for the purpose of hydrological flow forecasting. The models resulting from such integration are referred to as hybrid models. The book addresses the following

  3. Hybrid models for hydrological forecasting: Integration of data-driven and conceptual modelling techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corzo Perez, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    This book presents the investigation of different architectures of integrating hydrological knowledge and models with data-driven models for the purpose of hydrological flow forecasting. The models resulting from such integration are referred to as hybrid models. The book addresses the following

  4. Biological evaluation of zirconia/PEG hybrid materials synthesized via sol-gel technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catauro, M; Papale, F; Bollino, F; Gallicchio, M; Pacifico, S

    2014-07-01

    The objective of the following study has been the synthesis via sol-gel and the characterization of novel organic-inorganic hybrid materials to be used in biomedical field. The prepared materials consist of an inorganic zirconia matrix containing as organic component the polyethylene glycol (PEG), a water-soluble polymer used in medical and pharmaceutical fields. Various hybrids have been synthesized changing the molar ratio between the organic and inorganic parts. Fourier transform spectroscopy suggests that the structure of the interpenetrating network is realized by hydrogen bonds between the Zr-OH group in the sol-gel intermediate species and both the terminal alcoholic group and ethereal oxygen atoms in the repeating units of polymer The amorphous nature of the gels has been ascertained by X-ray diffraction analysis. The morphology observation has been carried out by using the Scanning Electron Microscope and has confirmed that the obtained materials are nanostructurated hybrids. The bioactivity of the synthesized system has been shown by the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of samples soaked in a fluid simulating the human blood plasma. The potential biocompatibility of hybrids has been assessed as performing indirect MTT cytotoxicity assay towards 3T3 cell line at 24, 48, and 72 h exposure times. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Rapid high-throughput genotyping of HBV DNA using a modified hybridization-extension technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Han; Zhao, Wenliang; Ruan, Banjun; Wang, Qing; Zhao, Jinrong; Lei, Xiaoying; Wang, Weihua; Liu, Yonglan; Sun, Jianbing; Xiang, An; Guo, Yanhai; Yan, Zhen

    2013-11-07

    China has the highest incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection worldwide. HBV genotypes have variable impacts on disease pathogenesis and drug tolerance. We have developed a technically simple and accurate method for HBV genotyping that will be applicable to pre-treatment diagnosis and individualized treatment. Multiple sequence alignments of HBV genomes from GenBank were used to design primers and probes for genotyping of HBV A through H. The hybridization was carried out on nitrocellulose (NC) membranes with probes fixed in an array format, which was followed by hybrid amplification by an extension step with DNA polymerase to reinforce the double-stranded DNA hybrids on the NC membrane and subsequent visualization using an avidin-biotin system. Genotyping results were confirmed by DNA sequencing and bioinformatics analysis using the National Center for Biotechnology Information genotyping database, and compared with results from the line probe assay. The data show that multiple sequence alignment defined a 630 bp region in the HBV PreS and S regions that was suitable for genotyping. All genotyping significant single nucleotides in the region were defined. Two-hundred-and-ninety-one HBV-positive serum samples from Northwest Chinese patients were genotyped, and the genotyping rate from the new modified hybridization-extension method was 100% compared with direct sequencing. Compared with line probe assay, the newly developed method is superior, featuring reduced reaction time, lower risk of contamination, and increased accuracy for detecting single nucleotide mutation. In conclusion, a novel hybridization-extension method for HBV genotyping was established, which represents a new tool for accurate and rapid SNP detection that will benefit clinical testing.

  6. Technique for image fusion based on non-subsampled contourlet transform domain improved ICM%基于NSCT域I2CM的图像融合方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔韦韦; 雷阳

    2012-01-01

    To overcome the multi-sensor image fusion problem, a technique for image fusion based on Non-Subsampled Contourlet Transform (NSCT) domain improved Intersecting Cortical Model (ICM) has been proposed. To begin with, multi-scale and multi-directional sparse decompositions of source images are performed by NSCT. Then, the basic ICM is improved to be I2CM, which has not only fewer parameters, but the ability to determine the iteration times adaptively. Finally, the fusion scheme of sub-images is carried out by I2CM and the final fused image can be obtained by utilizing inverse NSCT to all fused sub-images. Experimental results show that the technique proposed has good performance.%针对多传感器图像融合问题,提出一种基于非下采样轮廓波变换域改进型交叉视觉皮层模型的图像融合方法.首先,采用非下采样轮廓波变换对源图像进行多尺度、多方向稀疏分解;然后对经典交叉视觉皮层模型进行改进,改进后的模型不仅待定参数更少,而且可以自适应地确定迭代次数;最后利用其实现对各子图像的融合并进行非下采样轮廓波逆变换获得最终融合图像.实验结果验证了该方法的有效性.

  7. Simulation results for PLATO: a prototype hybrid X-ray photon counting detector with a low energy threshold for fusion plasma diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, A.; Menouni, M.; Pangaud, P.; Fenzi, C.; Colledani, G.; Moureau, G.; Escarguel, A.; Morel, C.

    2017-01-01

    PLATO is a prototype hybrid X-ray photon counting detector that has been designed to meet the specifications for plasma diagnostics for the WEST tokamak platform (Tungsten (W) Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) in southern France, with potential perspectives for ITER. PLATO represents a customized solution that fulfills high sensitivity, low dispersion and high photon counting rate. The PLATO prototype matrix is composed of 16 × 18 pixels with a 70 μm pixel pitch. New techniques have been used in analog sensitive blocks to minimize noise coupling through supply rails and substrate, and to suppress threshold dispersion across the matrix. The PLATO ASIC is designed in CMOS 0.13 μm technology and was submitted for a fabrication run in June 2016. The chip is designed to be bump-bonded to a silicon sensor. This paper presents pixel architecture as well as simulation results while highlighting novel solutions.

  8. EEG/fMRI fusion based on independent component analysis: integration of data-driven and model-driven methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xu; Valdes-Sosa, Pedro A; Yao, Dezhong

    2012-09-01

    Simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provide complementary noninvasive information of brain activity, and EEG/fMRI fusion can achieve higher spatiotemporal resolution than each modality separately. This focuses on independent component analysis (ICA)-based EEG/fMRI fusion. In order to appreciate the issues, we first describe the potential and limitations of the developed fusion approaches: fMRI-constrained EEG imaging, EEG-informed fMRI analysis, and symmetric fusion. We then outline some newly developed hybrid fusion techniques using ICA and the combination of data-/model-driven methods, with special mention of the spatiotemporal EEG/fMRI fusion (STEFF). Finally, we discuss the current trend in methodological development and the existing limitations for extrapolating neural dynamics.

  9. Energy Spectrum of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays Observed with the Telescope Array Using a Hybrid Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Abu-Zayyad, T; Allen, M; Anderson, R; Azuma, R; Barcikowski, E; Belz, J W; Bergman, D R; Blake, S A; Cady, R; Cheon, B G; Chiba, J; Chikawa, M; Cho, E J; Cho, W R; Fujii, H; Fujii, T; Fukuda, T; Fukushima, M; Hanlon, W; Hayashi, K; Hayashi, Y; Hayashida, N; Hibino, K; Hiyama, K; Honda, K; Iguchi, T; Ikeda, D; Ikuta, K; Inoue, N; Ishii, T; Ishimori, R; Ito, H; Ivanov, D; Iwamoto, S; Jui, C C H; Kadota, K; Kakimoto, F; Kalashev, O; Kanbe, T; Kasahara, K; Kawai, H; Kawakami, S; Kawana, S; Kido, E; Kim, H B; Kim, H K; Kim, J H; Kitamoto, K; Kitamura, S; Kitamura, Y; Kobayashi, K; Kobayashi, Y; Kondo, Y; Kuramoto, K; Kuzmin, V; Kwon, Y J; Lan, J; Lim, S I; Lundquist, J P; Machida, S; Martens, K; Matsuda, T; Matsuura, T; Matsuyama, T; Matthews, J N; Minamino, M; Miyata, K; Murano, Y; Myers, I; Nagasawa, K; Nagataki, S; Nakamura, T; Nam, S W; Nonaka, T; Ogio, S; Ohnishi, M; Ohoka, H; Oki, K; Oku, D; Okuda, T; Ono, M; Oshima, A; Ozawa, S; Park, I H; Pshirkov, M S; Rodriguez, D C; Roh, S Y; Rubtsov, G; Ryu, D; Sagawa, H; Sakurai, N; Sampson, A L; Scott, L M; Shah, P D; Shibata, F; Shibata, T; Shimodaira, H; Shin, B K; Shin, J I; Shirahama, T; Smith, J D; Sokolsky, P; Springer, R W; Stokes, B T; Stratton, S R; Stroman, T; Suzuki, S; Takahashi, Y; Takeda, M; Taketa, A; Takita, M; Tameda, Y; Tanaka, H; Tanaka, K; Tanaka, M; Thomas, S B; Thomson, G B; Tinyakov, P; Tkachev, I; Tokuno, H; Tomida, T; Troitsky, S; Tsunesada, Y; Tsutsumi, K; Tsuyuguchi, Y; Uchihori, Y; Udo, S; Ukai, H; Urban, F; Vasiloff, G; Wada, Y; Wong, T; Yamakawa, Y; Yamane, R; Yamaoka, H; Yamazaki, K; Yang, J; Yoneda, Y; Yoshida, S; Yoshii, H; Zhou, X; Zollinger, R; Zundel, Z

    2013-01-01

    We measure the spectrum of cosmic rays with energies greater than $10^{18.2}$ eV with the Fluorescence Detectors (FDs) and the Surface Detectors (SDs) of the Telescope Array Experiment using the data taken in our first 2.3-year observation from May 27 2008 to September 7 2010. A hybrid air shower reconstruction technique is employed to improve accuracies in determination of arrival directions and primary energies of cosmic rays using both FD and SD data. The energy spectrum presented here is in agreement with our previously published spectra and the HiRes results.

  10. ADAPTING HYBRID MACHINE TRANSLATION TECHNIQUES FOR CROSS-LANGUAGE TEXT RETRIEVAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. ISWARYA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research work aims in developing Tamil to English Cross - language text retrieval system using hybrid machine translation approach. The hybrid machine translation system is a combination of rule based and statistical based approaches. In an existing word by word translation system there are lot of issues and some of them are ambiguity, Out-of-Vocabulary words, word inflections, and improper sentence structure. To handle these issues, proposed architecture is designed in such a way that, it contains Improved Part-of-Speech tagger, machine learning based morphological analyser, collocation based word sense disambiguation procedure, semantic dictionary, and tense markers with gerund ending rules, and two pass transliteration algorithm. From the experimental results it is clear that the proposed Tamil Query based translation system achieves significantly better translation quality over existing system, and reaches 95.88% of monolingual performance.

  11. Application of hybrid microwave thermal extraction techniques for mulberry root bark

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Cheng-Chi; Yau Her-Terng

    2013-01-01

    The main focus of this paper is the extraction of compounds from the mulberry root bark using a hybrid microwave thermal process. The shearing mechanism and an integrated circulation system, which increases the rate of contact between the solvent and extractive, are studied. The results are analyzed by the Taguchi method and verified by high performance liquid chromatography. Furthermore, the optimal operating parameters of the extraction of mulberry root b...

  12. Development and Application of Nucleic Acid Hybridization Techniques to Arbovirus Surveillance and Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-04

    The pVV9 and pWV7 probes were more specific for dengue-2 RNA, but-o ::e cross reaction with other dengue serotypes was noted. ,PdUc1biLity Codes S...contained dengue specific inserts that strongly hybridized to dengue-2 RMA and to the RNA of other dengue serotypes to varying degrees (Figure 6). The pVVl

  13. FPGA Techniques Based New Hybrid Modulation Strategies for Voltage Source Inverters

    OpenAIRE

    Sudha, L. U.; J. Baskaran; Elankurisil, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper corroborates three different hybrid modulation strategies suitable for single-phase voltage source inverter. The proposed method is formulated using fundamental switching and carrier based pulse width modulation methods. The main tale of this proposed method is to optimize a specific performance criterion, such as minimization of the total harmonic distortion (THD), lower order harmonics, switching losses, and heat losses. The proposed method is articulated using fundamental switch...

  14. Application of DNA hybridization techniques in the assessment of diarrheal disease among refugess in Thailand. [Shigella; Escherichia coli; Campylobacter; Cryptosporidium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, D.N.; Echeverria, P.; Pitarangsi, C.; Seriwatana, J.; Sethabutr, O.; Bodhidatta, L.; Brown, C.; Herrmann, J.E.; Blacklow, N.R.

    1988-01-01

    The epidemiology and etiology of acute diarrheal disease were determined in a Hmong refugee camp on the Thai-Laotian border from April 11 to May 14, 1985. DNA hybridization techniques were used to detect Shigella species, enteroinvasive Escherichia coli, and enterotoxigenic E. coli. A monoclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect rotavirus, and standard microbiology was used to detect other enteropathogens. The age-specific diarrheal disease rates were 47 episodes per month per 1000 children less than five years old and 113 episodes per month per 1000 children less than one year old. Rotavirus, enterotoxigenic E. coli, Campylobacter, and Cryptosporidium were the predominant pathogens in children less than two years old. The DNA probe hybridized with 94% of 31 specimens identified as enterotoxigenic E. coli by the standard assays and with none of the specimens in which the standard assays were negative. The probe for Shigella and enteroinvasive E. coli hybridized in eight of 10 stools that contained Shigella and four of 314 stools from which Shigella and enteroinvasive E. coli were not isolated. The use of DNA probes allows specimens to be collected in remote areas with a minimum amount of equipment and technical expertise so that they can be easily transported to a central laboratory for further processing.

  15. Screening of FOXP3-interacted proteins by yeast two-hybrid technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Lina; Wu Jun; Luo Gaoxing; He Weifeng; Chen Xiwei; Bo Ganping; Yuan Shunzong; Zhang Xiaorong; Hu Xiaohong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To screen the proteins interacting with the Treg specification factor forkhead box protein P3 (FOXP3) by yeast two-hybrid system. Methods: Human FOXP3 gene was amplified by nest RT-PCR from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and inserted into plasmid pGBKT7 to construct the bait vector, then the self-activation and toxicity of the bait vector in host yeast strain AH109 were observed. Thereafter, a human liver cDNA library was screened by the bait vector. The positive clones were selected out by nutrient-deficient culture and back-hybridizing. The sequences from the candidate positive clones were blasted and analyzed by bioinformatics methods. Results: The constructed bait vector encoding FOXP3 was found no self-activation and toxicity in yeast AH109. Three proteins which interacted with FOXP3, including tumor protein D52, splicing factor 3b subunit 1 and hypothetical protein, were identified. Conclusion: Three new candidate proteins interacting with FOXP3 are selected out by this yeast two-hybrid system and library, which may facilitate the further study of FOXP3 in Treg.

  16. Flow Cytometric Immunobead Assay for Detection of BCR-ABL1 Fusion Proteins in Chronic Myleoid Leukemia: Comparison with FISH and PCR Techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Grazia Recchia

    Full Text Available Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML is characterized by a balanced translocation juxtaposing the Abelson (ABL and breakpoint cluster region (BCR genes. The resulting BCR-ABL1 oncogene leads to increased proliferation and survival of leukemic cells. Successful treatment of CML has been accompanied by steady improvements in our capacity to accurately and sensitively monitor therapy response. Currently, measurement of BCR-ABL1 mRNA transcript levels by real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR defines critical response endpoints. An antibody-based technique for BCR-ABL1 protein recognition could be an attractive alternative to RQ-PCR. To date, there have been no studies evaluating whether flow-cytometry based assays could be of clinical utility in evaluating residual disease in CML patients. Here we describe a flow-cytometry assay that detects the presence of BCR-ABL1 fusion proteins in CML lysates to determine the applicability, reliability, and specificity of this method for both diagnosis and monitoring of CML patients for initial response to therapy. We show that: i CML can be properly diagnosed at onset, (ii follow-up assessments show detectable fusion protein (i.e. relative mean fluorescent intensity, rMFI%>1 when BCR-ABL1IS transcripts are between 1-10%, and (iii rMFI% levels predict CCyR as defined by FISH analysis. Overall, the FCBA assay is a rapid technique, fully translatable to the routine management of CML patients.

  17. Flow Cytometric Immunobead Assay for Detection of BCR-ABL1 Fusion Proteins in Chronic Myleoid Leukemia: Comparison with FISH and PCR Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Anna Grazia; Caruso, Nadia; Bossio, Sabrina; Pellicanò, Mariavaleria; De Stefano, Laura; Franzese, Stefania; Palummo, Angela; Abbadessa, Vincenzo; Lucia, Eugenio; Gentile, Massimo; Vigna, Ernesto; Caracciolo, Clementina; Agostino, Antolino; Galimberti, Sara; Levato, Luciano; Stagno, Fabio; Molica, Stefano; Martino, Bruno; Vigneri, Paolo; Di Raimondo, Francesco; Morabito, Fortunato

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) is characterized by a balanced translocation juxtaposing the Abelson (ABL) and breakpoint cluster region (BCR) genes. The resulting BCR-ABL1 oncogene leads to increased proliferation and survival of leukemic cells. Successful treatment of CML has been accompanied by steady improvements in our capacity to accurately and sensitively monitor therapy response. Currently, measurement of BCR-ABL1 mRNA transcript levels by real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) defines critical response endpoints. An antibody-based technique for BCR-ABL1 protein recognition could be an attractive alternative to RQ-PCR. To date, there have been no studies evaluating whether flow-cytometry based assays could be of clinical utility in evaluating residual disease in CML patients. Here we describe a flow-cytometry assay that detects the presence of BCR-ABL1 fusion proteins in CML lysates to determine the applicability, reliability, and specificity of this method for both diagnosis and monitoring of CML patients for initial response to therapy. We show that: i) CML can be properly diagnosed at onset, (ii) follow-up assessments show detectable fusion protein (i.e. relative mean fluorescent intensity, rMFI%>1) when BCR-ABL1IS transcripts are between 1-10%, and (iii) rMFI% levels predict CCyR as defined by FISH analysis. Overall, the FCBA assay is a rapid technique, fully translatable to the routine management of CML patients.

  18. Collision avoidance for a mobile robot based on radial basis function hybrid force control technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Shu-Huan

    2009-01-01

    Collision avoidance is always difficult in the planning path for a mobile robot. In this paper, the virtual force field between a mobile robot and an obstacle is formed and regulated to maintain a desired distance by hybrid force control algorithm. Since uncertainties from robot dynamics and obstacle degrade the performance of a collision avoidance task, intelligent control is used to compensate for the uncertainties. A radial basis function (RBF) neural network is used to regulate the force field of an accurate distance between a robot and an obstacle in this paper and then simulation studies are conducted to confirm that the proposed algorithm is effective.

  19. GENERAL: Collision avoidance for a mobile robot based on radial basis function hybrid force control technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shu-Huan

    2009-10-01

    Collision avoidance is always difficult in the planning path for a mobile robot. In this paper, the virtual force field between a mobile robot and an obstacle is formed and regulated to maintain a desired distance by hybrid force control algorithm. Since uncertainties from robot dynamics and obstacle degrade the performance of a collision avoidance task, intelligent control is used to compensate for the uncertainties. A radial basis function (RBF) neural network is used to regulate the force field of an accurate distance between a robot and an obstacle in this paper and then simulation studies are conducted to confirm that the proposed algorithm is effective.

  20. An alternative hybrid evolutionary technique focused on allocating machines and sequencing operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Frutos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present here a hybrid algorithm for the Flexible Job-Shop Scheduling Problem (FJSSP. This problem involves the optimal use of resources in a flexible production environment in which each operation can be carried out by more than a single machine. Our algorithm allocates, in a first step, the machines to operations and in a second stage it sequences them by integrating a Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm (MOEA and a path-dependent search algorithm (Multi-Objective Simulated Annealing, which is enacted at the genetic phase of the procedure. The joint interaction of those two components yields a very efficient procedure for solving the FJSSP. An important step in the development of the algorithm was the selection of the right MOEA. Candidates were tested on problems of low, medium and high complexity. Further analyses showed the relevance of the search algorithm in the hybrid structure. Finally, comparisons with other algorithms in the literature indicate that the performance of our alternative is good.

  1. STUDY OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BANANA-COIR HYBRID COMPOSITE USING EXPERIMENTAL AND FEM TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hariprasad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of natural fibers as reinforcement in polymers has gained importance in recent years due to their eco-friendly nature. Thus, an investigation has been undertaken on banana-coir, which is a natural fiber abundantly available in India. Natural fibers are not only strong and lightweight, but also relatively very cheap. Composite plates were prepared with resin 392 g, coir 54 g, and banana 69 g. The purpose of this work is to establish the tensile, flexural, and impact properties of banana-coir reinforced composite materials with a thermo set for treated and untreated fibers. The resin used was epoxy (EP306. The tensile and impact tests showed that treated banana-coir epoxy hybrid composites have higher tensile strength and impact strength than untreated composites. However, untreated fiber composites have greater flexural strength than the treated fiber composites. The finite element analysis (FEA software ANSYS has been employed successfully to evaluate the properties. The stresses at the interface of the banana-coir and matrix, induced by the different loading conditions, were applied to predict the tensile, impact, and flexural properties by using the FEA models. The model output was compared with the experimental results and found to be close. This analysis is useful for realizing the advantages of hybrid fiber reinforced composites in structural applications and for identifying where the stresses are critical and damage the interface under varying loading conditions.

  2. Improved performance of hybrid error control techniques for real-time digital communications over noisy channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Charlie Qing

    1993-06-01

    Delay-related performance characteristics are investigated for asynchronous time division multiplexing links. Two methods based on an imbedded Markov chain model are developed and applied to the system with a noisy feedback channel yielding analytical expressions for the buffer occupancy and the block delay. A recursive expression for packet loss probability for systems with a finite transmitter buffer is obtained. The concept of delay limited error control coding is introduced for real-time communications. Performance improvement by truncation of a type-2 hybrid automatic repeat-request (ARQ) protocol with one retransmission is examined showing that the truncated protocol has a bounded delay and bounded queue length under typical conditions. The error performance of the truncated protocol is further analyzed for various mobile fading channels. Matched rate hybrid error control coding for both adaptive and non-adaptive cases is also studied. A new adaptive error control protocol using Reed-Solomon codes is proposed using novel feedback transmissions to achieve faster estimation of channel states. Numerical optimization is carried out by introducing overall and modified throughput as efficiency criteria. Based on channel bit error rate measurement, optimum overall throughput is obtained with minimum implementation complexity.

  3. Hybrid technique coil embolisation for intrahepatic arterioportal fistula in a cat: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Uemura

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 13-month-old, female, mixed breed, 4.0 kg cat was referred with a 6 month history of decreased appetite, loss of vigour and intermittent vomiting. Physical examination revealed no cyanosis or wasting, and no audible heart murmur was auscultated. Blood profile revealed mild anaemia and mildly elevated postprandial serum ammonia (109 µg/dl. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed dilation of an intrahepatic portal vein branch and an intrahepatic aneurysm, with splenomegaly and ascites. Hepatic arteriovenous fistula/hepatic artery–portal vein fistula with multiple acquired portosystemic shunts was strongly suspected. Medical control was achieved using antibiotics, liver-protecting agents, a low-protein diet and blood transfusions. However, because medical treatment proved ineffective, coil embolisation was performed on day 11, using a hybrid approach via the mesenteric vein. Subsequent follow-up showed good appetite, with no signs of diarrhoea or ascites. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed that the mosaic pattern around the site of coil placement in the portal vein branch had improved and pulsatility had disappeared. Relevance and novel information Intrahepatic arterioportal fistula involves a circulatory shunt between the hepatic artery and the hepatic or portal vein within the liver, and may be congenital or acquired. Both forms have been reported in humans, but most cases in cats have been congenital. Few reports have described treatment methods or prognosis in cats. We report here that coil embolisation using a hybrid approach is a procedure offering easy, effective treatment by blocking hepatofugal blood flow.

  4. DRYING OF EMPTY FRUIT BUNCHES AS WASTED BIOMASS BY HYBRID SOLAR–THERMAL DRYING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. Al-Kayiem

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Solar drying of EFB is highly feasible and economic, but the solar drying process is interrupted during cloudy or rainy days and also at night. In the present paper, a combined solar, as the main heat input, and biomass burner, as an auxiliary source of thermal energy, has been investigated experimentally to dry EFB. An experimental model consisting of a solar dryer integrated with a thermal backup unit was designed and fabricated. A series of experimental measurements were carried out in four different drying modes, namely, open sun, mixed direct and indirect solar, thermal backup, and hybrid. The results from the four modes used to dry 2.5 kg of EFB were summarized and compared. The results indicated that the solar drying mode required around 52 to 80 hours to dry the EFB, while the open sun drying mode required 100 hours. Usage of the thermal backup as heat source reduced the drying time to 48–56 hours. With the hybrid mode, the drying time was considerably reduced to 24–32 hours. The results demonstrate that the combined solar and thermal backup effectively enhanced the drying performance. The application of a solar dryer with a biomass burner is practical for massive production of solid fuels from EFB.

  5. Catalytically-relevant electron transfer between two hemes bL in the hybrid cytochrome bc1-like complex containing a fusion of Rhodobacter sphaeroides and capsulatus cytochromes b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czapla, Monika; Cieluch, Ewelina; Borek, Arkadiusz; Sarewicz, Marcin; Osyczka, Artur

    2013-06-01

    To address mechanistic questions about the functioning of dimeric cytochrome bc1 new genetic approaches have recently been developed. They were specifically designed to enable construction of asymmetrically-mutated variants suitable for functional studies. One approach exploited a fusion of two cytochromes b that replaced the separate subunits in the dimer. The fusion protein, built from two copies of the same cytochrome b of purple bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus, served as a template to create a series of asymmetrically-mutated cytochrome bc1-like complexes (B-B) which, through kinetic studies, disclosed several important principles of dimer engineering. Here, we report on construction of another fusion protein complex that adds a new tool to investigate dimeric function of the enzyme through the asymmetrically mutated forms of the protein. This complex (BS-B) contains a hybrid protein that combines two different cytochromes b: one coming from R. capsulatus and the other - from a closely related species, R. sphaeroides. With this new fusion we addressed a still controversial issue of electron transfer between the two hemes bL in the core of dimer. Kinetic data obtained with a series of BS-B variants provided new evidence confirming the previously reported observations that electron transfer between those two hemes occurs on a millisecond timescale, thus is a catalytically-relevant event. Both types of the fusion complexes (B-B and BS-B) consistently implicate that the heme-bL-bL bridge forms an electronic connection available for inter-monomer electron transfer in cytochrome bc1. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 1D Burnup Calculation of Fusion-Fission Hybrid Energy Reactor%聚变-裂变混合能源堆一维计算模型燃耗分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李茂生; 师学明; 伊炜伟

    2012-01-01

    Fusion-fission hybrid energy reactor is driven by Tokamak fusion source for energy production. Its subcritical zone uses the natural uranium as fuel and water as coolant. The neutron multiplication constant keff, energy multiplication factor M and tritium breeding ratio TBR of the ID hybrid energy reactor model were calculated by transport burnup code MCORGS. The neutron spectrum and nuclear density changing as a function of time show the characteristics of the hybrid energy reactors, which differs from the hybrid reactor for breed nuclear fuel and for spent fuel transmutation. The definition and results may be a reference to the other conceptual analysis.%聚变-裂变混合能源堆包括聚变中子源和以天然铀为燃料、水为冷却剂的次临界包层,主要目标是生产电力.利用输运燃耗耦合程序系统MCORGS计算了混合能源堆一维模型的燃耗,给出了中子有效增殖因数keff、能量放大倍数M、氚增殖比TBR等物理量随时间的变化.通过分析能谱和重要核素随燃耗时间的变化,说明混合能源堆与核燃料增殖、核废料嬗变混合堆的不同特点.本文给出的结果可作为混合堆中子输运、燃耗分析程序校验的参考数据,为混合堆概念研究提供了基础数据.

  7. Active control of broadband sound transmission through an airplane trim panel using hybrid feedforward and feedback techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yun-Ren

    This thesis presents a method of actively controlling the sound transmission through two designs of aircraft trim panels using a hybrid feedforward and feedback control technique. The active trim panels are designed for a high stiffness to mass ratio to allow only rigid body modal vibration in the frequency range of interest, thus simplifying the control technique, which is developed to minimize the vibration of a panel and therefore minimize the sound transmission. The hybrid controller consists of an adaptive feedforward (filtered-X LMS algorithm) controller in conjunction with a linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) feedback controller. The LQG feedback controller is designed to alter the dynamics of the estimated plant model of the filtered-x LMS algorithm, improving control performance for both steady state and transient disturbances. Numerical simulations indicate that the hybrid controller is a more effective method of reducing the vibrations of the panels (and therefore the sound transmission) when compared to using only a feedforward or feedback controller. Experiments were carried out by using two trim panel designs, the first exhibiting only an out-of-plane piston mode, and the second exhibiting three rigid body modes and the first bending mode in control frequency range. For the first trim panel, the implementation of the active control experiment showed that a 5 to 20 dB reduction in both the vibration level and sound pressure level could be achieved over 50 to 500 Hz under a plane acoustic wave excitation. For the second trim panel, the hybrid controller achieved a 5 to 20 dB vibration reduction over the 50 to 400 Hz frequency band under structure-borne excitation. For air-borne excitation, the control scheme produced a 5 to 15 dB vibration reduction over the 70 to 400 Hz bandwidth with a reference microphone attached on the center of the fuselage skin and facing the sound source. In the near field (50 cm from the panel), the sound pressure levels measured

  8. Hybrid Neural-Network: Genetic Algorithm Technique for Aircraft Engine Performance Diagnostics Developed and Demonstrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2002-01-01

    As part of the NASA Aviation Safety Program, a unique model-based diagnostics method that employs neural networks and genetic algorithms for aircraft engine performance diagnostics has been developed and demonstrated at the NASA Glenn Research Center against a nonlinear gas turbine engine model. Neural networks are applied to estimate the internal health condition of the engine, and genetic algorithms are used for sensor fault detection, isolation, and quantification. This hybrid architecture combines the excellent nonlinear estimation capabilities of neural networks with the capability to rank the likelihood of various faults given a specific sensor suite signature. The method requires a significantly smaller data training set than a neural network approach alone does, and it performs the combined engine health monitoring objectives of performance diagnostics and sensor fault detection and isolation in the presence of nominal and degraded engine health conditions.

  9. Enhancement of the mechanical properties of an aluminum metal matrix nanocomposite by the hybridization technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalidindi Sita Rama Raju

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A uniform distribution of nanoparticles in the matrix plays a prominent role in improving the composite strength. In the present investigation, two types of launching vehicles, such as aluminum powder (primary and CNTs (secondary, are considered to uniformly carry and launch ultra-fine nanoparticles (13 nm into molten metal. The use of a secondary launching vehicle is identified to promote strengthening compared to a regular primary vehicle, as indicated by the good distribution observed from electron micrographs. CNTs are responsible for hybridizing the composite and also assist strengthening by anchoring to the matrix through the destroyed outer-walls and their axial orientation with the matrix. These results help us in attaining a strength of 197 MPa and a hardness of 93 BHN, with a minimal loss in ductility for the H-3 sample.

  10. FPGA techniques based new hybrid modulation strategies for voltage source inverters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, L U; Baskaran, J; Elankurisil, S A

    2015-01-01

    This paper corroborates three different hybrid modulation strategies suitable for single-phase voltage source inverter. The proposed method is formulated using fundamental switching and carrier based pulse width modulation methods. The main tale of this proposed method is to optimize a specific performance criterion, such as minimization of the total harmonic distortion (THD), lower order harmonics, switching losses, and heat losses. The proposed method is articulated using fundamental switching and carrier based pulse width modulation methods. Thus, the harmonic pollution in the power system will be reduced and the power quality will be augmented with better harmonic profile for a target fundamental output voltage. The proposed modulation strategies are simulated in MATLAB r2010a and implemented in a Xilinx spartan 3E-500 FG 320 FPGA processor. The feasibility of these modulation strategies is authenticated through simulation and experimental results.

  11. Technique of performing construction works by machines with hybrid: manual and remote control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevryugina Nadezhda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses issues dealing with efficiency of construction work mechanization. It offers a mathematical model for assessment of mutual influence between the members of the ‘construction site-machine-operator’ system triad, that can give a quantitative assessment of how the efficiency of a technological task varies with more comprehensive use of operational capacities of the machine, while lower effect that limiting parameters of production environment and technical condition of the machine have on the operator. The article contains a constructive remote control solution for upgrade of the base machine. It describes the conditions for using the machines with hybrid: manual and remote control at construction sites. There is also an imitation model of operator’s scanning pattern and data experimental research that prove the efficiency of remotely controlled technological operations. The article proves that lower psychological load on the operator and better comfort contribute to positive economic effect and higher quality of the construction process.

  12. Wind Power Forecasting techniques in complex terrain: ANN vs. ANN-CFD hybrid approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, Francesco; Astolfi, Davide; Mana, Matteo; Burlando, Massimiliano; Meißner, Cathérine; Piccioni, Emanuele

    2016-09-01

    Due to technology developments, renewable energies are becoming competitive against fossil sources and the number of wind farms is growing, which have to be integrated into power grids. Therefore, accurate power forecast is needed and often operators are charged with penalties in case of imbalance. Yet, wind is a stochastic and very local phenomenon, and therefore hard to predict. It has a high variability in space and time and wind power forecast is challenging. Statistical methods, as Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), are often employed for power forecasting, but they have some shortcomings: they require data sets over several years and are not able to capture tails of wind power distributions. In this work a pure ANN power forecast is compared against a hybrid method, based on the combination of ANN and a physical method using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The validation case is a wind farm sited in southern Italy in a very complex terrain, with a wide spread turbine layout.

  13. A hybrid fringe analysis technique for the elimination of random noise in interferometric wrapped phase maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Gopalakrishna K.

    1994-10-01

    A fringe analysis technique, which makes use of the spatial filtering property of the Fourier transform method, for the elimination of random impulsive noise in the wrapped phase maps obtained using the phase stepping technique, is presented. Phase noise is converted into intensity noise by transforming the wrapped phase map into a continuous fringe pattern inside the digital image processor. Fourier transform method is employed to filter out the intensity noise and recover the clean wrapped phase map. Computer generated carrier fringes are used to preserve the sign information. This technique makes the two dimensional phase unwrapping process less involved, because it eliminates the local phase fluctuations, which act as pseudo 2π discontinuities. The technique is applied for the elimination of noise in a phase map obtained using electro-optic holography.

  14. Prediction of daily rainfall by a hybrid wavelet-season-neuro technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunkaynak, Abdusselam; Nigussie, Tewodros Assefa

    2015-10-01

    Accurate daily rainfall prediction is required for accurate streamflow prediction, flooding risk analysis, constructing a reliable flood control and early warning system. However, because of its nonlinearity, prediction of daily rainfall with high accuracy and long prediction lead time is difficult. There are many daily rainfall prediction methods in the literature, but they are known to yield inaccurate predictions with short lead time, require many physical parameters and involve complicated mathematical equations with huge computational burden. Recently, artificial neural network has been used for predicting rainfall with the objective of addressing the above mentioned problems. But still, the accuracy has not been satisfactory and predictions are with short lead time. In this study, two methods called combined season-multilayer perceptron (SAS-MP) and hybrid wavelet-season-multilayer perceptron (W-SAS-MP) were developed to enhance prediction accuracy and extend prediction lead time of daily rainfall up to 5 days by using data from two stations in Turkey. These two models were compared with the stand-alone multilayer perceptron and another most commonly used method called combined wavelet-multilayer perceptron (W-MP). The performances of the models were evaluated by using coefficient of determination, coefficient of efficiency and root mean squared error. The SAS-MP model was found to be better than W-MP in most cases, except lead time day 1, where W-MP performed better. Throughout all the lead times, however, the hybrid W-SAS-MP model performed best with CE values of 0.911 and 0.909, respectively, for prediction lead time of 1 day and 0.588 and 0.570, respectively, for prediction lead time of 5 days at Stations 17836 and 17837, respectively, at the model testing (validation) phase. Therefore, W-SAS-MP can be an appropriate tool for enhancing daily rainfall prediction accuracy and extend prediction lead time.

  15. Distributed-parameter problem solved on a hybrid computer by a modified function storage technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, N.J.

    1969-01-01

    Describes a method which is based on a function storage technique improved by a number of modifications; it fulfils the two main demands: the solution is based directly on the physical equations, and is accurate within 1%......Describes a method which is based on a function storage technique improved by a number of modifications; it fulfils the two main demands: the solution is based directly on the physical equations, and is accurate within 1%...

  16. A Low Cost Vision Based Hybrid Fiducial Mark Tracking Technique for Mobile Industrial Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Y Aalsalem; Wazir Zada Khan; Quratul Ain Arshad

    2012-01-01

    The field of robotic vision is developing rapidly. Robots can react intelligently and provide assistance to user activities through sentient computing. Since industrial applications pose complex requirements that cannot be handled by humans, an efficient low cost and robust technique is required for the tracking of mobile industrial robots. The existing sensor based techniques for mobile robot tracking are expensive and complex to deploy, configure and maintain. Also some of them demand dedic...

  17. Evaluation of different genetic procedures for the generation of artificial hybrids in Saccharomyces genus for winemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Través, Laura; Lopes, Christian A; Barrio, Eladio; Querol, Amparo

    2012-05-15

    Several methods based on recombinant DNA techniques have been proposed for yeast strain improvement; however, the most relevant oenological traits depend on a multitude of loci, making these techniques difficult to apply. In this way, hybridization techniques involving two complete genomes became interesting. Natural hybrid strains between different Saccharomyces species have been detected in diverse fermented beverages including wine, cider and beer. These hybrids seem to be better adapted to fluctuating situations typically observed in fermentations due to the acquisition of particular physiological properties of both parental strains. In this work we evaluated the usefulness of three different hybridization methods: spore to spore mating, rare-mating and protoplast fusion for the generation of intra- and inter-specific stable hybrids, being the first report about the comparison of different methods to obtain artificial hybrids to be used in fermentations. Spore to spore mating is an easy but time-consuming method; hybrids generated with this technique could lack some of the industrially relevant traits present in the parental strains because of the segregation occurred during meiosis and spore generation prior to hybridization. Hybrids obtained by protoplast fusion get the complete information of both parents but they are currently considered as genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Finally, hybrids obtained by rare-mating are easily obtained by the optimized methodology described in this work, they originally contain a complete set of chromosomes of both parents and they are not considered as GMOs. Hybrids obtained by means of the three methodological approaches showed a high genetic variability; however, a loss of genetic material was detected in most of them. Based on these results, it became evident that a last crucial aspect to be considered in every hybridization program is the genetic stabilization of recently generated hybrids that guarantee its

  18. Applying Subtractive Hybridization Technique to Enrich and Amplify Tumor-Specific Transcripts of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudian, Reihaneh Alsadat; Abbaszadegan, Mohammad Reza; Gholamin, Mehran

    2017-04-01

    Subtractive hybridization (SH) as an efficient and powerful approach can be applied to isolate differentially expressed transcripts as well as detect of involved mRNAs in various cellular processes, particularly diseases and malignancies. This procedure leads to the enrichment of specific low copy transcripts of tumor cells. Having developed a new approach for SH to isolate tumor specific transcripts, we facilitated discovery of uniquely expressed genes in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Total RNA was extracted from the fresh tumoral and their adjacent normal tissues, and purified using the Switch Mechanism At the 5' end of Reverse Transcript (SMART) method. Following cDNA synthesis of normal mRNAs using magnetic beads, it was hybridized with tumor mRNAs. To enhance efficiency of subtraction, hybridization was repeated three rounds. Finally, amplification of subtracted tumor-specific transcripts was carried out using in vitro transcription. The subtracted tumoral mRNAs was analyzed quantitatively using real-time PCR for both tumor-specific and housekeeping genes. The subtracted mRNA was confirmed as tumor-specific mRNA pool using RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR assessment. The elevated level of tumor-specific transcripts such as MAGE-A4 and CD44 as well as declined copy number of housekeeping genes such as GAPDH, β actin and β2-microglobulin, were confirmed in subtracted tumoral mRNA. The presence of tumor genes was confirmed after the SH procedure. The designed SH method in combination with SMART technique can isolate and amplify high quality tumor-specific transcripts even from small amount of tumor tissues. Removal of common transcripts from the extracted tumoral mRNAs using SH, leads to the enrichment of tumor-specific transcripts. The isolated transcripts are of interest because of their probable roles in ESCC progression and development. In addition, these tumor-specific mRNAs can be applied for future vaccine cancer studies.

  19. Donor site morbidity following iliac crest bone harvesting for cervical fusion: a comparison between minimally invasive and open techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Raymond; Bhatia, Chandra; Chuter, Graham; Lingutla, Kiran; Budithi, Chakravarty; Krishna, Manoj

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the occurrence of donor site morbidity, cosmesis and overall satisfaction with graft procedure in 76 patients who had undergone iliac crest bone harvesting for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). Totally 24 patients underwent an open procedure and 52 a minimally invasive trephine harvesting method. Although our study demonstrated substantial donor site pain and its effect on ambulation in both groups, this was of limited duration. Two patients, one in each group, suffered long-term pain that was eventually resolved. Totally 8.3% of patients in the open group suffered minor complications and 11.5% in the trephine group. There were two cases of meralgia parasthetica. There were no major complications in either group. There was no statistically significant difference in morbidity between the open and trephine groups. There was a trend towards significance (P = 0.076) for pain at the donor site, with less pain reported by patients who underwent the trephine procedure for harvesting. PMID:18389294

  20. Using a GFP-gene fusion technique to study the cell cycle-dependent distribution of calmodulin in living cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李朝军; 吕品; 张东才

    1999-01-01

    In this study, a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-calmodulin (CaM) fusion gene method was used to examine the distribution of calmodulin during various stages of cell cycle. First, it was found that the distribution of CaM in living cells changes with the cell cycle. CaM was found mainly in the cytoplasm during G1 phase. It began to move into the nucleus when the cell entered S phase. At G2 phase, CaM became more concentrated in the nucleus than in cytoplasm. Second, the accumulation of CaM in the nucleus during G2 phase appeared to be related to the onset of mitosis, since inhibiting the activation of CaM at this stage resulted in blocking the nuclear membrane breakdown and chromatin condensation. Finally, after the cell entered mitosis, a high concentration of CaM was found at the polar regions of the mitotic spindle. At this time, inhibiting the activity of CaM would cause a disruption of the spindle structure. The relationship between the stage-specific distribution of CaM and its function in regulat

  1. 聚变-裂变混合能源堆球模型参数敏感性分析%Sensitivity Analysis on Parameters of Spherical Model of Fusion-Fission Hybrid Energy Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国明; 程和平; 邵增

    2012-01-01

    在聚变-裂变混合能源堆球模型基础上,使用蒙特卡罗方法中子学程序对中子源、铀水体积比、产氚区等相关参数进行了中子学的敏感性计算.分析了各参数对混合能源堆能量放大倍数M和氚增殖比TBR的影响,并总结其基本规律,为开展进一步的混合能源堆概念设计提供了重要参考.%The sensitivity analysis on neutronics parameters related to neutron source, uranium-water ratio and tritium breeding layers for spherical blanket model of fusion-fission hybrid reactor were presented. By using a Monte-Carlo method based neutron transport code, the effects of the parameters on energy multiplication factor M and tritium breeding ratio TBR were analyzed, and the general various laws of M and TBR were summarized, which were significant for the further conceptual design of fusion-fission hybrid energy reactor.

  2. Ultrahigh field magnetic resonance and colour Doppler real-time fusion imaging of the orbit - a hybrid tool for assessment of choroidal melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Uwe [University of Rostock, Department of Neurology, Rostock (Germany); Niendorf, Thoralf; Rieger, Jan [Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility, Max-Delbrueck-Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin (Germany); MRI.TOOLS GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Graessl, Andreas [Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility, Max-Delbrueck-Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin (Germany); Krueger, Paul-Christian; Langner, Soenke [University of Greifswald, Institute for Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology, Greifswald (Germany); Guthoff, Rudolf F.; Stachs, Oliver [University of Rostock, Department of Ophthalmology, Rostock (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    A combination of magnetic resonance images with real-time high-resolution ultrasound known as fusion imaging may improve ophthalmologic examination. This study was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of orbital high-field magnetic resonance and real-time colour Doppler ultrasound image fusion and navigation. This case study, performed between April and June 2013, included one healthy man (age, 47 years) and two patients (one woman, 57 years; one man, 67 years) with choroidal melanomas. All cases underwent 7.0-T magnetic resonance imaging using a custom-made ocular imaging surface coil. The Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine volume data set was then loaded into the ultrasound system for manual registration of the live ultrasound image and fusion imaging examination. Data registration, matching and then volume navigation were feasible in all cases. Fusion imaging provided real-time imaging capabilities and high tissue contrast of choroidal tumour and optic nerve. It also allowed adding a real-time colour Doppler signal on magnetic resonance images for assessment of vasculature of tumour and retrobulbar structures. The combination of orbital high-field magnetic resonance and colour Doppler ultrasound image fusion and navigation is feasible. Multimodal fusion imaging promises to foster assessment and monitoring of choroidal melanoma and optic nerve disorders. (orig.)

  3. Electromagnetic self-consistent field initialization and fluid advance techniques for hybrid-kinetic PWFA code Architect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimo, F.; Marocchino, A.; Rossi, A. R.

    2016-09-01

    The realization of Plasma Wakefield Acceleration experiments with high quality of the accelerated bunches requires an increasing number of numerical simulations to perform first-order assessments for the experimental design and online-analysis of the experimental results. Particle in Cell codes are the state-of-the-art tools to study the beam-plasma interaction mechanism, but due to their requirements in terms of number of cores and computational time makes them unsuitable for quick parametric scans. Considerable interest has been shown thus in methods which reduce the computational time needed for the simulation of plasma acceleration. Such methods include the use of hybrid kinetic-fluid models, which treat the relativistic bunches as in a PIC code and the background plasma electrons as a fluid. A technique to properly initialize the bunch electromagnetic fields in the time explicit hybrid kinetic-fluid code Architect is presented, as well the implementation of the Flux Corrected Transport scheme for the fluid equations integrated in the code.

  4. Model Predictive Control techniques with application to photovoltaic, DC Microgrid, and a multi-sourced hybrid energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadmand, Mohammad Bagher

    Renewable energy sources continue to gain popularity. However, two major limitations exist that prevent widespread adoption: availability and variability of the electricity generated and the cost of the equipment. The focus of this dissertation is Model Predictive Control (MPC) for optimal sized photovoltaic (PV), DC Microgrid, and multi-sourced hybrid energy systems. The main considered applications are: maximum power point tracking (MPPT) by MPC, droop predictive control of DC microgrid, MPC of grid-interaction inverter, MPC of a capacitor-less VAR compensator based on matrix converter (MC). This dissertation firstly investigates a multi-objective optimization technique for a hybrid distribution system. The variability of a high-penetration PV scenario is also studied when incorporated into the microgrid concept. Emerging (PV) technologies have enabled the creation of contoured and conformal PV surfaces; the effect of using non-planar PV modules on variability is also analyzed. The proposed predictive control to achieve maximum power point for isolated and grid-tied PV systems speeds up the control loop since it predicts error before the switching signal is applied to the converter. The low conversion efficiency of PV cells means we want to ensure always operating at maximum possible power point to make the system economical. Thus the proposed MPPT technique can capture more energy compared to the conventional MPPT techniques from same amount of installed solar panel. Because of the MPPT requirement, the output voltage of the converter may vary. Therefore a droop control is needed to feed multiple arrays of photovoltaic systems to a DC bus in microgrid community. Development of a droop control technique by means of predictive control is another application of this dissertation. Reactive power, denoted as Volt Ampere Reactive (VAR), has several undesirable consequences on AC power system network such as reduction in power transfer capability and increase in

  5. All-optical delay technique for supporting multiple antennas in a hybrid optical - wireless transmission system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prince, Kamau; Chiuchiarelli, A; Presi, M

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a novel continuously-variable optical delay technique to support beam-forming wireless communications systems using antenna arrays. We demonstrate delay with 64-QAM modulated signals at a rate of 15 Msymbol/sec with 2.5 GHz carrier frequency.......We introduce a novel continuously-variable optical delay technique to support beam-forming wireless communications systems using antenna arrays. We demonstrate delay with 64-QAM modulated signals at a rate of 15 Msymbol/sec with 2.5 GHz carrier frequency....

  6. A Hybrid VLM Preceded SLM Technique Using Clipping and Filtering Method for PAPR Reduction in MIMO-OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available MIMO-OFDM is an attractive interface for the next generation WLANs, WMAN, 4G and 5G mobile cellular systems. However the performance of the MIMO-OFDM systems is affected by Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR. PAPR is the main disadvantage associated with the MIMO-OFDM systems. So far, many techniques have been proposed to reduce the value of PAPR but high PAPR for MIMO-OFDM systems is still a demanding area and a different issue.In this paper, a hybrid VLM precoded SLM scheme using Clipping & Filtering has been proposed to reduce PAPR in MIMO-OFDM systems. And it has been observed that the proposed scheme has achieved a significant gain in PAPR reduction without increasing the system complexity and affecting the error performance of the system

  7. Therapeutic efficacy of a hybrid mandibular advancement device in the management of obstructive sleep apnea assessed with acoustic reflection technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Agarwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is one of the most common forms of sleep-disordered breathing. Various treatment modalities include behavior modification therapy, nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP, oral appliance therapy, and various surgical modalities. Oral appliances are noninvasive and recommended treatment modality for snoring, mild to moderate OSA cases and severe OSA cases when patient is not compliant to CPAP therapy and unwilling for surgery. Acoustic reflection technique (ART is a relatively new modality for three-dimensional assessment of airway caliber in various clinical situations. The accuracy and reproducibility of acoustic rhinometry and acoustic pharyngometry assessment are comparable to computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. This case report highlights the therapeutic efficacy of an innovative customized acrylic hybrid mandibular advancement device in the management of polysomnography diagnosed OSA cases, and the treatment results were assessed by ART.

  8. Hybrid vapor phase-solution phase growth techniques for improved CZT(S,Se) photovoltaic device performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Liang-Yi; Gershon, Talia S.; Haight, Richard A.; Lee, Yun Seog

    2016-12-27

    A hybrid vapor phase-solution phase CZT(S,Se) growth technique is provided. In one aspect, a method of forming a kesterite absorber material on a substrate includes the steps of: depositing a layer of a first kesterite material on the substrate using a vapor phase deposition process, wherein the first kesterite material includes Cu, Zn, Sn, and at least one of S and Se; annealing the first kesterite material to crystallize the first kesterite material; and depositing a layer of a second kesterite material on a side of the first kesterite material opposite the substrate using a solution phase deposition process, wherein the second kesterite material includes Cu, Zn, Sn, and at least one of S and Se, wherein the first kesterite material and the second kesterite material form a multi-layer stack of the absorber material on the substrate. A photovoltaic device and method of formation thereof are also provided.

  9. Hybrid vapor phase-solution phase growth techniques for improved CZT(S,Se) photovoltaic device performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Liang-Yi; Gershon, Talia S.; Haight, Richard A.; Lee, Yun Seog

    2016-12-27

    A hybrid vapor phase-solution phase CZT(S,Se) growth technique is provided. In one aspect, a method of forming a kesterite absorber material on a substrate includes the steps of: depositing a layer of a first kesterite material on the substrate using a vapor phase deposition process, wherein the first kesterite material includes Cu, Zn, Sn, and at least one of S and Se; annealing the first kesterite material to crystallize the first kesterite material; and depositing a layer of a second kesterite material on a side of the first kesterite material opposite the substrate using a solution phase deposition process, wherein the second kesterite material includes Cu, Zn, Sn, and at least one of S and Se, wherein the first kesterite material and the second kesterite material form a multi-layer stack of the absorber material on the substrate. A photovoltaic device and method of formation thereof are also provided.

  10. Treatment of breast cancer with simultaneous integrated boost in hybrid plan technique. Influence of flattening filter-free beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahrainy, Marzieh; Kretschmer, Matthias; Joest, Vincent; Kasch, Astrid; Wuerschmidt, Florian; Dahle, Joerg; Lorenzen, Joern [Radiologische Allianz, Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    The present study compares in silico treatment plans using hybrid plan technique during hypofractionated radiation of mammary carcinoma with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB). The influence of 6 MV photon radiation in flattening filter free (FFF) mode against the clinical standard flattening filter (FF) mode is to be examined. RT planning took place with FF and FFF radiation plans for 10 left-sided breast cancer patients. Hybrid plans were realised with two tangential IMRT fields and one VMAT field. The dose prescription was in line with the guidelines in the ARO-2010-01 study. The dosimetric verification took place with a manufacturer-independent measurement system. Required dose prescriptions for the planning target volumes (PTV) were achieved for both groups. The average dose values of the ipsi- and contralateral lung and the heart did not differ significantly. The overall average incidental dose to the left anterior descending artery (LAD) of 8.24 ± 3.9 Gy in the FFF group and 9.05 ± 3.7 Gy in the FF group (p < 0.05) were found. The dosimetric verifications corresponded to the clinical requirements. FFF-based RT plans reduced the average treatment time by 17 s/fraction. In comparison to the FF-based hybrid plan technique the FFF mode allows further reduction of the average LAD dose for comparable target volume coverage without adverse low-dose exposure of contralateral structures. The combination of hybrid plan technique and 6 MV photon radiation in the FFF mode is suitable for use with hypofractionated dose schemes. The increased dose rate allows a substantial reduction of treatment time and thus beneficial application of the deep inspiration breath hold technique. (orig.) [German] Vergleich der ''In-silico''-Bestrahlungsplaene der klinisch etablierten Hybridplan-Technik bei hypofraktionierter Bestrahlung des Mammakarzinoms mit simultan integriertem Boost (SIB). Untersucht wird der Einfluss von 6MV-Photonenstrahlung im Flattening

  11. Osteoclast Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marie Julie Møller, Anaïs; Delaissé, Jean-Marie; Søe, Kent

    2017-01-01

    suggesting that fusion partners may specifically select each other and that heterogeneity between the partners seems to play a role. Therefore, we set out to directly test the hypothesis that fusion factors have a heterogenic involvement at different stages of nuclearity. Therefore, we have analyzed...... on the nuclearity of fusion partners. While CD47 promotes cell fusions involving mono-nucleated pre-osteoclasts, syncytin-1 promotes fusion of two multi-nucleated osteoclasts, but also reduces the number of fusions between mono-nucleated pre-osteoclasts. Furthermore, CD47 seems to mediate fusion mostly through......Investigations addressing the molecular keys of osteoclast fusion are primarily based on end-point analyses. No matter if investigations are performed in vivo or in vitro the impact of a given factor is predominantly analyzed by counting the number of multi-nucleated cells, the number of nuclei per...

  12. Comparison and performance analysis of closed loop controlled nonlinear system connected PWM inverter based on hybrid technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Deshmukh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed closed loop control of nonlinear system connected inverter based on the optimal neural controller (ONC. The novelty of the proposed method rests on the hybrid technique which is the combined performance of both, particle swarm optimization (PSO technique and Radial basis function neural network (RBFNN. It effectively optimizes the feasible solutions by updating the generations, by taking lesser time with greater reliability. In the proposed method, the PSO generates the dataset according to different loading conditions. The RBFNN is trained by using the target control signals along with the corresponding input load voltage error and change in error. Depending on the load variations, the RBFNN predicts the exact control signals of the inverter during the testing time. Since experimentation and comparison of such inverter models on hardware being relatively expensive, the proposed method is implemented in the MATLAB/Simulink platform and the performance has been validated through the comparison analysis with the conventional techniques. The comparison results have proved the superiority of the proposed method.

  13. 3D printing of high-resolution PLA-based structures by hybrid electrohydrodynamic and fused deposition modeling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Seong, Baekhoon; Nguyen, VuDat; Byun, Doyoung

    2016-02-01

    Recently, the three-dimensional (3D) printing technique has received much attention for shape forming and manufacturing. The fused deposition modeling (FDM) printer is one of the various 3D printers available and has become widely used due to its simplicity, low-cost, and easy operation. However, the FDM technique has a limitation whereby its patterning resolution is too low at around 200 μm. In this paper, we first present a hybrid mechanism of electrohydrodynamic jet printing with the FDM technique, which we name E-FDM. We then develop a novel high-resolution 3D printer based on the E-FDM process. To determine the optimal condition for structuring, we also investigated the effect of several printing parameters, such as temperature, applied voltage, working height, printing speed, flow-rate, and acceleration on the patterning results. This method was capable of fabricating both high resolution 2D and 3D structures with the use of polylactic acid (PLA). PLA has been used to fabricate scaffold structures for tissue engineering, which has different hierarchical structure sizes. The fabrication speed was up to 40 mm/s and the pattern resolution could be improved to 10 μm.

  14. Real-time hybrid simulation technique for performance evaluation of full-scale sloshing dampers in wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zili; Basu, Biswajit; Nielsen, Saren R. K.

    2016-09-01

    As a variation of the pseudodynamic testing technique, the real-time hybrid simulation (RTHS) technique is executed in real time, thus allowing investigation of structural systems with rate-dependent components. In this paper, the RTHS is employed for performance evaluation of full-scale liquid sloshing dampers in multi-megawatt wind turbines, where the tuned liquid damper (TLD) is manufactured and tested as the physical substructure while the wind turbine is treated as the numerical substructure and modelled in the computer using a 13-degree-of-freedom (13-DOF) aeroelastic model. Wind turbines with 2 MW and 3 MW capacities have been considered under various turbulent wind conditions. Extensive parametric studies have been performed on the TLD, e.g., various tuning ratios by changing the water level, TLD without and with damping screens (various mesh sizes of the screen considered), and TLD with flat and sloped bottoms. The present study provides useful guidelines for employing sloshing dampers in large wind turbines, and indicates huge potentials of applying RTHS technique in the area of wind energy.

  15. Screening for cardiac HERG potassium channel interacting proteins using the yeast two-hybrid technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingyan; Yu, Hong; Lin, Jijin; Sun, Yifan; Shen, Xinyuan; Ren, Li

    2014-02-01

    The human ERG protein (HERG or Kv 11.1) encoded by the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (herg) is the pore-forming subunit of the cardiac delayed rectifier potassium current (IKr) responsible for action potential (AP) repolarization. Mutations in HERG lead to long-QT syndrome, a major cause of arrhythmias. Protein-protein interactions are fundamental for ion channel trafficking, membrane localization, and functional modulation. To identify proteins involved in the regulation of the HERG channel, we conducted a yeast two-hybrid screen of a human heart cDNA library using the C-terminus or N-terminus of HERG as bait. Fifteen proteins were identified as HERG amino terminal (HERG-NT)-interacting proteins, including Caveolin-1 (a membrane scaffold protein with multiple interacting partners, including G-proteins, kinases and NOS), the zinc finger protein, FHL2 and PTPN12 (a non-receptor tyrosine phosphatase). Eight HERG carboxylic terminal (HERG-CT)-interacting proteins were also identified, including the NF-κB-interacting protein myotrophin, We have identified multiple potential interacting proteins that may regulate cardiac IKr through cytoskeletal interactions, G-protein modulation, phosphorylation and downstream second messenger and transcription cascades. These findings provide further insight into dynamic modulation of HERG under physiological conditions and arrhythmogenesis.

  16. Speeding-up the hybrid video watermarking techniques in the DWT domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chammem, A.; Mitrea, M.; Preteux, F.

    2010-01-01

    The watermarking state of the art exhibits the hybrid methods combining spread spectrum and side information principles. The present study is focussed on speeding up such an algorithm (jointly patented by SFR - Vodafone Group and Institut Telecom). The dead lock on the reference method is first identified: the embedding module accounts for 90% of the whole watermarking chain and that more than 99% of this time is spent on applying an attack procedure (required in order to grant a good robustness to this method). The main issue of the present study is to deploy Monte Carlo generators accurately representing the watermarking attacks. In this respect, two difficulties should be overcome. First, accurate statistical models for the watermarking attacks should be obtained. Secondly, efficient Monte Carlo simulators should be deployed for these models. The last part of the study was devoted to the experimental validations. The mark is inserted in the (9,7) DWT representation of video sequence. Several types of attacks have been considered (linear and non-linear filters, geometrical transformations, ...). The quantitative results proved that the data payload, transparency and robustness properties have been inherited from the reference method. However, the watermarking speed was increased by a factor of 80.

  17. Entrapment of glucoamylase by sol-gel technique in PhTES/TEOS hybrid matrixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Vlad-Oros

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous silica particles were prepared by the sol-gel method from different alkoxysilane precursors and used as a host matrix for encapsulation of glucoamylase, an enzyme widely used in fermentative industry. The aim was to investigate the physico-chemical properties of the different silica powders and their effect on the enzyme kinetics. The encapsulated enzymes followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The Michaelis constant (KM and the maximum rate of starch hydrolysis reaction (Vmax were calculated according to the Michaelis-Menten and Lineweaver-Burke plots. The values of the Michaelis constant (KM of the encapsulated enzymes were higher than those of the free enzyme. The temperature and pH infl uence on the activity of free and immobilized glucoamylase were also compared. The results of this study show that the enzymes immobilized in organic/inorganic hybrid silica matrixes (obtained by the sol-gel method, allowing the entrapped glucoamylase to retain its biological activity, are suitable for many different applications, (medicinal, clinical, analytical.

  18. Prediction of peak ground acceleration of Iran's tectonic regions using a hybrid soft computing technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Gandomi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new model is derived to predict the peak ground acceleration (PGA utilizing a hybrid method coupling artificial neural network (ANN and simulated annealing (SA, called SA-ANN. The proposed model relates PGA to earthquake source to site distance, earthquake magnitude, average shear-wave velocity, faulting mechanisms, and focal depth. A database of strong ground-motion recordings of 36 earthquakes, which happened in Iran's tectonic regions, is used to establish the model. For more validity verification, the SA-ANN model is employed to predict the PGA of a part of the database beyond the training data domain. The proposed SA-ANN model is compared with the simple ANN in addition to 10 well-known models proposed in the literature. The proposed model performance is superior to the single ANN and other existing attenuation models. The SA-ANN model is highly correlated to the actual records (R = 0.835 and ρ = 0.0908 and it is subsequently converted into a tractable design equation.

  19. Fast hybrid CPU- and GPU-based CT reconstruction algorithm using air skipping technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byeonghun; Lee, Ho; Shin, Yeong Gil

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a fast hybrid CPU- and GPU-based CT reconstruction algorithm to reduce the amount of back-projection operation using air skipping involving polygon clipping. The algorithm easily and rapidly selects air areas that have significantly higher contrast in each projection image by applying K-means clustering method on CPU, and then generates boundary tables for verifying valid region using segmented air areas. Based on these boundary tables of each projection image, clipped polygon that indicates active region when back-projection operation is performed on GPU is determined on each volume slice. This polygon clipping process makes it possible to use smaller number of voxels to be back-projected, which leads to a faster GPU-based reconstruction method. This approach has been applied to a clinical data set and Shepp-Logan phantom data sets having various ratio of air region for quantitative and qualitative comparison and analysis of our and conventional GPU-based reconstruction methods. The algorithm has been proved to reduce computational time to half without losing any diagnostic information, compared to conventional GPU-based approaches.

  20. A novel reconstruction method for giant incisional hernia: Hybrid laparoscopic technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Ozturk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Laparoscopic reconstruction of ventral hernia is a popular technique today. Patients with large defects have various difficulties of laparoscopic approach. In this study, we aimed to present a new reconstruction technique that combines laparoscopic and open approach in giant incisional hernias. Materials and Methods: Between January 2006 and August 2012, 28 patients who were operated consequently for incisional hernia with defect size over 10 cm included in this study and separated into two groups. Group 1 (n = 12 identifies patients operated with standard laparoscopic approach, whereas group 2 (n = 16 labels laparoscopic technique combined with open approach. Patients were evaluated in terms of age, gender, body mass index (BMI, mean operation time, length of hospital stay, surgical site infection (SSI and recurrence rate. Results: There are 12 patients in group 1 and 16 patients in group 2. Mean length of hospital stay and SSI rates are similar in both groups. Postoperative seroma formation was observed in six patients for group 1 and in only 1 patient for group 2. Group 1 had 1 patient who suffered from recurrence where group 2 had no recurrence. Discussion: Laparoscopic technique combined with open approach may safely be used as an alternative method for reconstruction of giant incisional hernias.

  1. Hybrid Decompression and Fixation Technique Versus Plated 3-Vertebra Corpectomy for 4-Segment Cervical Myelopathy: Analysis of 81 Cases With a Minimum 2-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odate, Seiichi; Shikata, Jitsuhiko; Kimura, Hiroaki; Soeda, Tsunemitsu

    2016-07-01

    A retrospective comparative study. The purpose of this study was to compare the stability and outcomes of a hybrid technique with those of a 3-vertebra corpectomy in the management of 4-segment cervical myelopathy. Patients with primarily ventral disease and loss of cervical lordosis are considered good candidates for anterior surgery. Cervical corpectomy is commonly performed in patients with multilevel cervical myelopathy. Corpectomies including >3 vertebraes entail an extremely high risk of reconstruction failure. To avoid the need to perform a 3-vertebra corpectomy, we use a hybrid decompression and fixation technique. This hybrid technique is a technique to obtain optimum decompression and fixation in patients with multilevel cervical myelopathy. A total of 81 patients with multilevel cervical myelopathy who underwent 4-segment cervical fixation with a minimum 2-year follow-up were included. The hybrid technique involved combining a plated 2-vertebra corpectomy and single-level discectomy with stand-alone cage fixation. This technique was performed in 39 patients, and the plated 3-vertebra corpectomy was performed in 42 patients. Nine patients (21%) who underwent the plated 3-vertebra corpectomy were treated with halo immobilization, but no patient in the hybrid group required this treatment (P=0.002). There were fewer instances of reconstruction failure in the hybrid group than in the 3-vertebra corpectomy group (0% vs. 10%, respectively; P=0.048) and fewer instances of C5 palsy (3% vs. 17%, respectively; P vertebra corpectomy for 4-segment cervical fixation: a shorter graft bone and plate are required; the fixed segment has greater initial stability; postoperative external immobilization is simplified; and the risk of reconstruction failure and postoperative C5 palsy is reduced markedly.

  2. Hybrid microelectronic technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, P.

    Various areas of hybrid microelectronic technology are discussed. The topics addressed include: basic thick film processing, thick film pastes and substrates, add-on components and attachment methods, thin film processing, and design of thick film hybrid circuits. Also considered are: packaging hybrid circuits, automating the production of hybrid circuits, application of hybrid techniques, customer's view of hybrid technology, and quality control and assurance in hybrid circuit production.

  3. Analysis of the sEMG/force relationship using HD-sEMG technique and data fusion: A simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Harrach, Mariam; Carriou, Vincent; Boudaoud, Sofiane; Laforet, Jeremy; Marin, Frederic

    2017-04-01

    The relationship between the surface Electromyogram (sEMG) signal and the force of an individual muscle is still ambiguous due to the complexity of experimental evaluation. However, understanding this relationship should be useful for the assessment of neuromuscular system in healthy and pathological contexts. In this study, we present a global investigation of the factors governing the shape of this relationship. Accordingly, we conducted a focused sensitivity analysis of the sEMG/force relationship form with respect to neural, functional and physiological parameters variation. For this purpose, we used a fast generation cylindrical model for the simulation of an 8×8 High Density-sEMG (HD-sEMG) grid and a twitch based force model for the muscle force generation. The HD-sEMG signals as well as the corresponding force signals were simulated in isometric non-fatiguing conditions and were based on the Biceps Brachii (BB) muscle properties. A total of 10 isometric constant contractions of 5s were simulated for each configuration of parameters. The Root Mean Squared (RMS) value was computed in order to quantify the sEMG amplitude. Then, an image segmentation method was used for data fusion of the 8×8 RMS maps. In addition, a comparative study between recent modeling propositions and the model proposed in this study is presented. The evaluation was made by computing the Normalized Root Mean Squared Error (NRMSE) of their fitting to the simulated relationship functions. Our results indicated that the relationship between the RMS (mV) and muscle force (N) can be modeled using a 3rd degree polynomial equation. Moreover, it appears that the obtained coefficients are patient-specific and dependent on physiological, anatomical and neural parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Hybrid dynamic radioactive particle tracking (RPT) calibration technique for multiphase flow systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khane, Vaibhav; Al-Dahhan, Muthanna H.

    2017-04-01

    The radioactive particle tracking (RPT) technique has been utilized to measure three-dimensional hydrodynamic parameters for multiphase flow systems. An analytical solution to the inverse problem of the RPT technique, i.e. finding the instantaneous tracer positions based upon instantaneous counts received in the detectors, is not possible. Therefore, a calibration to obtain a counts-distance map is needed. There are major shortcomings in the conventional RPT calibration method due to which it has limited applicability in practical applications. In this work, the design and development of a novel dynamic RPT calibration technique are carried out to overcome the shortcomings of the conventional RPT calibration method. The dynamic RPT calibration technique has been implemented around a test reactor with 1foot in diameter and 1 foot in height using Cobalt-60 as an isotopes tracer particle. Two sets of experiments have been carried out to test the capability of novel dynamic RPT calibration. In the first set of experiments, a manual calibration apparatus has been used to hold a tracer particle at known static locations. In the second set of experiments, the tracer particle was moved vertically downwards along a straight line path in a controlled manner. The obtained reconstruction results about the tracer particle position were compared with the actual known position and the reconstruction errors were estimated. The obtained results revealed that the dynamic RPT calibration technique is capable of identifying tracer particle positions with a reconstruction error between 1 to 5.9 mm for the conditions studied which could be improved depending on various factors outlined here.

  5. Membrane fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    At Stanford University, Boxer lab, I worked on membrane fusion of small unilamellar lipid vesicles to flat membranes tethered to glass surfaces. This geometry closely resembles biological systems in which liposomes fuse to plasma membranes. The fusion mechanism was studied using DNA zippering...... between complementary strands linked to the two apposing membranes closely mimicking the zippering mechanism of SNARE fusion complexes....

  6. Somatic hybridization in higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constabel, F

    1976-11-01

    Somatic hybridization in higher plants has come into focus since methods have been established for protoplast fusion and uptake of foreign DNA and organelles by protoplasts. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was an effective agent for inducing fusion. Treatment of protoplasts with PEG resulted in 5 to 30% heterospecific fusion products. Protoplasts of different species, genera and even families were compatible when fused. A number of protoplast combinations (soybean + corn, soybean + pea, soybean + tobacco, carrot + barley, etc.) provided fusion products which underwent cell division and callus formation. Fusion products initially were heterokaryocytes. In dividing heterokaryocytes, random distribution of mitotic nuclei was observed to be accompanied by multiple wall formation and to result in chimeral callus. Juxtaposition of mitotic nuclei suggested nuclear fusion and hybrid formation. Fusion of heterospecific interphase nuclei was demonstrated in soybean + pea and carrot + barley heterokaryons. Provided parental protoplasts carry suitable markers, the fusion products can be recognized. For the isolation and cloning of hybrid cells, fusion experiments must be supplemented with a selective system. Complementation of two non-allelic genes that prevent or inhibit growth under special culture conditions appears as the principle on which to base the selection of somatic hybrids. As protoplasts of some species have been induced to regenerate entire plants, the development of hybrid plants from protoplast fusion products is feasible and has already been demonstrated for tobacco.

  7. Establishment of Relationships between Material Design and Product Design Domains by Hybrid FEM-ANN Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Prakash, K Soorya; Raj, M Joseph Malvin

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, research on AI based modeling technique to optimize development of new alloys with necessitated improvements in properties and chemical mixture over existing alloys as per functional requirements of product is done. The current research work novels AI in lieu of predictions to establish association between material and product customary. Advanced computational simulation techniques like CFD, FEA interrogations are made viable to authenticate product dynamics in context to experimental investigations. Accordingly, the current research is focused towards binding relationships between material design and product design domains. The input to feed forward back propagation prediction network model constitutes of material design features. Parameters relevant to product design strategies are furnished as target outputs. The outcomes of ANN shows good sign of correlation between material and product design domains. The study enriches a new path to illustrate material factors at the time of new product d...

  8. On Potentials and Limitations of a Hybrid WLAN-RFID Indoor Positioning Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silverio C. Spinella

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the important issue of position estimation in indoor environments. Starting point of the research is positioning techniques that exploit the knowledge of power levels of RF signals from multiple 802.11 WLAN APs (Access Points. In particular, the key idea in this paper is to enhance the performance of a WLAN fingerprinting approach by coupling it to a RFID-based procedure. WLAN and RFID technologies are synergistically used to provide a platform for a more performing positioning process, in which the very strong identification capabilities of the RFID technology allow to increase the accuracy of positioning systems via WLAN fingerprinting. The algorithm performance is assessed through general and repeatable experimental campaigns, during which the main algorithm parameters are dimensioned. The results testify both to the feasibility of the solution and to its higher accuracy (attainable at very reduced costs compared to traditional positioning techniques.

  9. Evaluation and Optimization Study on a Hybrid EOR Technique Named as Chemical-Alternating-Foam Floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Xingguang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a novel Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR method called Chemical-Alternating-Foam (CAF floods in order to overcome the drawbacks of the conventional foam flooding such as insufficient amount of in-situ foams, severe foam collapse and surfactant retention. The first part of this research focused on the comparison of conventional foam floods and CAF floods both of which had the same amount of gas and chemicals. It showed that: (1 CAF floods possessed the much greater Residual Resistance Factor (RRF at elevated temperature; (2 the accumulative oil recovery of the CAF floods was 10%-15% higher than that of the conventional foam flooding. After 1.8 Pore Volume (PV injection, the oil recovery reached the plateau for both methods; (3 CAF floods yielded the most amount of incremental oil at the 98% water cut (water content in the effluent, while the continuous foam floods achieved the best performance at 60% water cut. The second part of this work determined the optimal foam quality (gas/liquid ratio or the volume percent gas within foam, chemical/foam slug size ratio, cycle number and injection sequence for the CAF floods. It was found that the CAF was endowed with the peak performance if the foam quality, chemical/foam slug size ratio, cycle number was fixed at 80%, 1:1 and 3 respectively with the chemical slug being introduced ahead of the foam slug. Through systematic and thorough research, the proposed hybrid process has been approved to be a viable and effective method significantly strengthening the conventional foam flooding.

  10. High process yield rates of thermoplastic nanofluidic devices using a hybrid thermal assembly technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uba, Franklin I; Hu, Bo; Weerakoon-Ratnayake, Kumuditha; Oliver-Calixte, Nyote; Soper, Steven A

    2015-02-21

    Over the past decade, thermoplastics have been used as alternative substrates to glass and Si for microfluidic devices because of the diverse and robust fabrication protocols available for thermoplastics that can generate high production rates of the desired structures at low cost and with high replication fidelity, the extensive array of physiochemical properties they possess, and the simple surface activation strategies that can be employed to tune their surface chemistry appropriate for the intended application. While the advantages of polymer microfluidics are currently being realized, the evolution of thermoplastic-based nanofluidic devices is fraught with challenges. One challenge is assembly of the device, which consists of sealing a cover plate to the patterned fluidic substrate. Typically, channel collapse or substrate dissolution occurs during assembly making the device inoperable resulting in low process yield rates. In this work, we report a low temperature hybrid assembly approach for the generation of functional thermoplastic nanofluidic devices with high process yield rates (>90%) and with a short total assembly time (16 min). The approach involves thermally sealing a high T(g) (glass transition temperature) substrate containing the nanofluidic structures to a cover plate possessing a lower T(g). Nanofluidic devices with critical feature sizes ranging between 25-250 nm were fabricated in a thermoplastic substrate (T(g) = 104 °C) and sealed with a cover plate (T(g) = 75 °C) at a temperature significantly below the T(g) of the substrate. Results obtained from sealing tests revealed that the integrity of the nanochannels remained intact after assembly and devices were useful for fluorescence imaging at high signal-to-noise ratios. The functionality of the assembled devices was demonstrated by studying the stretching and translocation dynamics of dsDNA in the enclosed thermoplastic nanofluidic channels.

  11. Development of a wireless bridge monitoring system for condition assessment using hybrid techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Matthew J.; Fuchs, Michael P.; Gangone, Michael V.; Janoyan, Kerop D.

    2007-04-01

    The introduction and development of wireless sensor network technology has resulted in rapid growth within the field of structural health monitoring (SHM), as the dramatic cable costs associated with instrumentation of large civil structures is potentially alleviated. Traditionally, condition assessment of bridge structures is accomplished through the use of either vibration measurements or strain sensing. One approach is through quantifying dynamic characteristics and mode shapes developed through the use of relatively dense arrays of accelerometers. Another widely utilized method of condition assessment is bridge load rating, which is enabled through the use of strain sensors. The Wireless Sensor Solution (WSS) developed specifically for diagnostic bridge monitoring provides a hybrid system that interfaces with both accelerometers and strain sensors to facilitate vibration-based bridge evaluation as well as load rating and static analysis on a universal platform. This paper presents the development and testing of a wireless bridge monitoring system designed within the Laboratory for Intelligent Infrastructure and Transportation Technologies (LIITT) at Clarkson University. The system interfaces with low-cost MEMS accelerometers using custom signal conditioning for amplification and filtering tailored to the spectrum of typical bridge vibrations, specifically from ambient excitation. Additionally, a signal conditioning and high resolution ADC interface is provided for strain gauge sensors. To permit compensation for the influence of temperature, thermistor-based temperature sensing is also enabled. In addition to the hardware description, this paper presents features of the software applications and host interface developed for flexible, user-friendly in-network control of and acquisition from the sensor nodes. The architecture of the software radio protocol is also discussed along with results of field deployments including relatively large-scale networks and

  12. Hybrid Machine Learning Technique for Forecasting Dhaka Stock Market Timing Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Shipra Banik; Khodadad Khan, A. F. M.; Mohammad Anwer

    2014-01-01

    Forecasting stock market has been a difficult job for applied researchers owing to nature of facts which is very noisy and time varying. However, this hypothesis has been featured by several empirical experiential studies and a number of researchers have efficiently applied machine learning techniques to forecast stock market. This paper studied stock prediction for the use of investors. It is always true that investors typically obtain loss because of uncertain investment purposes and unsigh...

  13. A HYBRID TECHNIQUE FOR PAPR REDUCTION OF OFDM USING DHT PRECODING WITH PIECEWISE LINEAR COMPANDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thammana Ajay

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM is a fascinating approach for wireless communication applications which require huge amount of data rates. However, OFDM signal suffers from its large Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR, which results in significant distortion while passing through a nonlinear device, such as a transmitter high power amplifier (HPA. Due to this high PAPR, the complexity of HPA as well as DAC also increases. For the reduction of PAPR in OFDM many techniques are available. Among them companding is an attractive low complexity technique for the OFDM signal’s PAPR reduction. Recently, a piecewise linear companding technique is recommended aiming at minimizing companding distortion. In this paper, a collective piecewise linear companding approach with Discrete Hartley Transform (DHT method is expected to reduce peak-to-average of OFDM to a great extent. Simulation results shows that this new proposed method obtains significant PAPR reduction while maintaining improved performance in the Bit Error Rate (BER and Power Spectral Density (PSD compared to piecewise linear companding method.

  14. Fusion development and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, D.B.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following: superconducting magnet technology; high field superconductors; advanced magnetic system and divertor development; poloidal field coils; gyrotron development; commercial reactor studies--aries; ITER physics: alpha physics and alcator R D for ITER; lower hybrid current drive and heating in the ITER device; ITER superconducting PF scenario and magnet analysis; ITER systems studies; and safety, environmental and economic factors in fusion development.

  15. Intense fusion neutron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-04-01

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 1015-1021 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 1020 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  16. Well-defined functional mesoporous silica/polymer hybrids prepared by an ICAR ATRP technique integrated with bio-inspired polydopamine chemistry for lithium isotope separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuekun; Liu, Xuegang; Ye, Gang; Song, Yang; Liu, Fei; Huo, Xiaomei; Chen, Jing

    2017-05-09

    Mesoporous silica/polymer hybrids with well-preserved mesoporosity were prepared by integrating the initiators for continuous activator regeneration (ICAR) atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) technique with the bio-inspired polydopamine (PDA) chemistry. By manipulating the auto-oxidative polymerization of dopamine, uniform PDA layers were deposited on the surfaces and pore walls of ordered mesoporous silicas (OMSs), thereby promoting the immobilization of ATRP initiators. Poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) brushes were then grown from the OMSs by using the ICAR ATRP technique. The evolution of the mesoporous silica/polymer hybrids during synthesis, in terms of morphology, structure, surface and porous properties, was detailed. And, parameters influencing the controlled growth of polymer chains in the ICAR ATRP system were studied. Taking advantage of the abundant epoxy groups in the PGMA platform, post-functionalization of the mesoporous silica/polymer hybrids by the covalent attachment of macrocyclic ligands for the adsorptive separation of lithium isotopes was realized. Adsorption behavior of the functionalized hybrids toward lithium ions was fully investigated, highlighting the good selectivity, and effects of temperature, solvent and counter ions. The ability for lithium isotope separation was evaluated. A higher separation factor could be obtained in systems with softer counter anions and lower polarity solvents. More importantly, due to the versatility of the ICAR ATRP technique, combined with the non-surface specific PDA chemistry, the methodology established in this work would provide new opportunities for the preparation of advanced organic-inorganic porous hybrids for broadened applications.

  17. Image computing techniques to extrapolate data for dust tracking in case of an experimental accident simulation in a nuclear fusion plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camplani, M; Malizia, A; Gelfusa, M; Barbato, F; Antonelli, L; Poggi, L A; Ciparisse, J F; Salgado, L; Richetta, M; Gaudio, P

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a preliminary shadowgraph-based analysis of dust particles re-suspension due to loss of vacuum accident (LOVA) in ITER-like nuclear fusion reactors has been presented. Dust particles are produced through different mechanisms in nuclear fusion devices, one of the main issues is that dust particles are capable of being re-suspended in case of events such as LOVA. Shadowgraph is based on an expanded collimated beam of light emitted by a laser or a lamp that emits light transversely compared to the flow field direction. In the STARDUST facility, the dust moves in the flow, and it causes variations of refractive index that can be detected by using a CCD camera. The STARDUST fast camera setup allows to detect and to track dust particles moving in the vessel and then to obtain information about the velocity field of dust mobilized. In particular, the acquired images are processed such that per each frame the moving dust particles are detected by applying a background subtraction technique based on the mixture of Gaussian algorithm. The obtained foreground masks are eventually filtered with morphological operations. Finally, a multi-object tracking algorithm is used to track the detected particles along the experiment. For each particle, a Kalman filter-based tracker is applied; the particles dynamic is described by taking into account position, velocity, and acceleration as state variable. The results demonstrate that it is possible to obtain dust particles' velocity field during LOVA by automatically processing the data obtained with the shadowgraph approach.

  18. Image computing techniques to extrapolate data for dust tracking in case of an experimental accident simulation in a nuclear fusion plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camplani, M. [Visual Information Laboratory, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Grupo de Tratamiento de Imágenes, E.T.S.I de Telecomunicación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Malizia, A.; Gelfusa, M.; Poggi, L. A.; Ciparisse, J. F.; Richetta, M.; Gaudio, P. [Associazione EUROFUSION-ENEA, Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Rome “Tor Vergata,” Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Barbato, F. [Associazione EUROFUSION-ENEA, Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Rome “Tor Vergata,” Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); EPMA, Materials Science and Technology, Uberlandstrasse 129, Dubendorf CH-8600 (Switzerland); Antonelli, L. [Associazione EUROFUSION-ENEA, Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Rome “Tor Vergata,” Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze di base e applicate per l’Ingegneria, Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Roma (Italy); Salgado, L. [Grupo de Tratamiento de Imágenes, E.T.S.I de Telecomunicación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Video Processing and Understanding Laboratory, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-01-15

    In this paper, a preliminary shadowgraph-based analysis of dust particles re-suspension due to loss of vacuum accident (LOVA) in ITER-like nuclear fusion reactors has been presented. Dust particles are produced through different mechanisms in nuclear fusion devices, one of the main issues is that dust particles are capable of being re-suspended in case of events such as LOVA. Shadowgraph is based on an expanded collimated beam of light emitted by a laser or a lamp that emits light transversely compared to the flow field direction. In the STARDUST facility, the dust moves in the flow, and it causes variations of refractive index that can be detected by using a CCD camera. The STARDUST fast camera setup allows to detect and to track dust particles moving in the vessel and then to obtain information about the velocity field of dust mobilized. In particular, the acquired images are processed such that per each frame the moving dust particles are detected by applying a background subtraction technique based on the mixture of Gaussian algorithm. The obtained foreground masks are eventually filtered with morphological operations. Finally, a multi-object tracking algorithm is used to track the detected particles along the experiment. For each particle, a Kalman filter-based tracker is applied; the particles dynamic is described by taking into account position, velocity, and acceleration as state variable. The results demonstrate that it is possible to obtain dust particles’ velocity field during LOVA by automatically processing the data obtained with the shadowgraph approach.

  19. Fusion rings and fusion ideals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Troels Bak

    by the so-called fusion ideals. The fusion rings of Wess-Zumino-Witten models have been widely studied and are well understood in terms of precise combinatorial descriptions and explicit generating sets of the fusion ideals. They also appear in another, more general, setting via tilting modules for quantum...

  20. Hybrid optical acoustic seafloor mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Gabrielle

    The oceanographic research and industrial communities have a persistent demand for detailed three dimensional sea floor maps which convey both shape and texture. Such data products are used for archeology, geology, ship inspection, biology, and habitat classification. There are a variety of sensing modalities and processing techniques available to produce these maps and each have their own potential benefits and related challenges. Multibeam sonar and stereo vision are such two sensors with complementary strengths making them ideally suited for data fusion. Data fusion approaches however, have seen only limited application to underwater mapping and there are no established methods for creating hybrid, 3D reconstructions from two underwater sensing modalities. This thesis develops a processing pipeline to synthesize hybrid maps from multi-modal survey data. It is helpful to think of this processing pipeline as having two distinct phases: Navigation Refinement and Map Construction. This thesis extends existing work in underwater navigation refinement by incorporating methods which increase measurement consistency between both multibeam and camera. The result is a self consistent 3D point cloud comprised of camera and multibeam measurements. In map construction phase, a subset of the multi-modal point cloud retaining the best characteristics of each sensor is selected to be part of the final map. To quantify the desired traits of a map several characteristics of a useful map are distilled into specific criteria. The different ways that hybrid maps can address these criteria provides justification for producing them as an alternative to current methodologies. The processing pipeline implements multi-modal data fusion and outlier rejection with emphasis on different aspects of map fidelity. The resulting point cloud is evaluated in terms of how well it addresses the map criteria. The final hybrid maps retain the strengths of both sensors and show significant improvement

  1. Fusion neutronics

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yican

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a systematic and comprehensive introduction to fusion neutronics, covering all key topics from the fundamental theories and methodologies, as well as a wide range of fusion system designs and experiments. It is the first-ever book focusing on the subject of fusion neutronics research. Compared with other nuclear devices such as fission reactors and accelerators, fusion systems are normally characterized by their complex geometry and nuclear physics, which entail new challenges for neutronics such as complicated modeling, deep penetration, low simulation efficiency, multi-physics coupling, etc. The book focuses on the neutronics characteristics of fusion systems and introduces a series of theories and methodologies that were developed to address the challenges of fusion neutronics, and which have since been widely applied all over the world. Further, it introduces readers to neutronics design’s unique principles and procedures, experimental methodologies and technologies for fusion systems...

  2. A sixth order hybrid finite difference scheme based on the minimized dispersion and controllable dissipation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhen-sheng; Luo, Lei; Ren, Yu-xin; Zhang, Shi-ying

    2014-08-01

    The dispersion and dissipation properties of a scheme are of great importance for the simulation of flow fields which involve a broad range of length scales. In order to improve the spectral properties of the finite difference scheme, the authors have previously proposed the idea of optimizing the dispersion and dissipation properties separately and a fourth order scheme based on the minimized dispersion and controllable dissipation (MDCD) technique is thus constructed [29]. In the present paper, we further investigate this technique and extend it to a sixth order finite difference scheme to solve the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. The dispersion properties of the scheme is firstly optimized by minimizing an elaborately designed integrated error function. Then the dispersion-dissipation condition which is newly derived by Hu and Adams [30] is introduced to supply sufficient dissipation to damp the unresolved wavenumbers. Furthermore, the optimized scheme is blended with an optimized Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillation (WENO) scheme to make it possible for the discontinuity-capturing. In this process, the approximation-dispersion-relation (ADR) approach is employed to optimize the spectral properties of the nonlinear scheme to yield the true wave propagation behavior of the finite difference scheme. Several benchmark test problems, which include broadband fluctuations and strong shock waves, are solved to validate the high-resolution, the good discontinuity-capturing capability and the high-efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  3. A Hybrid Approach for Detecting Suspicious Accounts in Money Laundering Using Data Mining Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Suresh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Money laundering is a criminal activity to disguise black money as white money. It is a process by which illegal funds and assets are converted into legitimate funds and assets. Money Laundering occurs in three stages: Placement, Layering, and Integration. It leads to various criminal activities like Political corruption, smuggling, financial frauds, etc. In India there is no successful Anti Money laundering techniques which are available. The Reserve Bank of India (RBI, has issued guidelines to identify the suspicious transactions and send it to Financial Intelligence Unit (FIU. FIU verifies if the transaction is actually suspicious or not. This process is time consuming and not suitable to identify the illegal transactions that occurs in the system. To overcome this problem we propose an efficient Anti Money Laundering technique which can able to identify the traversal path of the Laundered money using Hash based Association approach and successful in identifying agent and integrator in the layering stage of Money Laundering by Graph Theoretic Approach.

  4. Simultaneous determination of major to ultratrace elements in geological samples by fusion-dissolution and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madinabeitia, S. Garcia de [Servicio de Geocronologia y Geoquimica Isotopica, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco/EHU, Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa (Spain); Lorda, M.E. Sanchez [Servicio de Geocronologia y Geoquimica Isotopica, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco/EHU, Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa (Spain); Departamento de Mineralogia-Petrologia, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco/EHU, Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa (Spain); Ibarguchi, J.I. Gil [Servicio de Geocronologia y Geoquimica Isotopica, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco/EHU, Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa (Spain)], E-mail: josei.gil@ehu.es

    2008-09-12

    A method has been developed for the simultaneous quantification of major to ultratrace elements in geological samples using quadrupole ICP-MS techniques. The sample preparation involves fusion with LiBO{sub 2} and dilution in HNO{sub 3}-HF which allows complete decomposition of refractory minerals and quantification of the elements of interest. The effects of high Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and Li in the solution are minimized using a matrix-tolerant interface and conditioning the instrument with LiBO{sub 2} solution. The signal drift is moreover controlled using conventional internal standards and specific Drift Correction Standards (DCS). A key issue of the technique is the external calibration using selected Certified Reference Materials (CRM). Depending on the sample type and analytes of interest three optimized programmable modes are used sequentially: Standard, Collision Cell (CCT) and Kinetic Energy Discrimination (KED) mode. The method allows to quantify more than 40 elements in concentrations from tens-of-percent to <0.1 ppm levels during a single experiment. The method has been validated through the analysis of different CRMs with recovery factors of ca. 100% and typical 2{sigma} errors of <10%.

  5. Development and validation of a hybrid simulation technique for cone beam CT: application to an oral imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G.; Pauwels, R.; Marshall, N.; Shaheen, E.; Nuyts, J.; Jacobs, R.; Bosmans, H.

    2011-09-01

    This paper proposes a hybrid technique to simulate the complete chain of an oral cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) system for the study of both radiation dose and image quality. The model was developed around a 3D Accuitomo 170 unit (J Morita, Japan) with a tube potential range of 60-90 kV. The Monte Carlo technique was adopted to simulate the x-ray generation, filtration and collimation. Exact dimensions of the bow-tie filter were estimated iteratively using experimentally acquired flood images. Non-flat radiation fields for different exposure settings were mediated via 'phase spaces'. Primary projection images were obtained by ray tracing at discrete energies and were fused according to the two-dimensional energy modulation templates derived from the phase space. Coarse Monte Carlo simulations were performed for scatter projections and the resulting noisy images were smoothed by Richardson-Lucy fitting. Resolution and noise characteristics of the flat panel detector were included using the measured modulation transfer function (MTF) and the noise power spectrum (NPS), respectively. The Monte Carlo dose calculation was calibrated in terms of kerma free-in-air about the isocenter, using an ionization chamber, and was subsequently validated by comparison against the measured air kerma in water at various positions of a cylindrical water phantom. The resulting dose discrepancies were found <10% for most cases. Intensity profiles of the experimentally acquired and simulated projection images of the water phantom showed comparable fractional increase over the common area as changing from a small to a large field of view, suggesting that the scatter was accurately accounted. Image validation was conducted using two small phantoms and the built-in quality assurance protocol of the system. The reconstructed simulated images showed high resemblance on contrast resolution, noise appearance and artifact pattern in comparison to experimentally acquired images, with <5

  6. A novel technique to neutralize the Yawing moment due to asymmetric thrust in a hybrid buoyant aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Anwar U.; Asrar, Waqar; Omar, Ashraf A.; Sulaeman, Erwin; J. S Ali, Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    Dorsal fin is used in swimming animals like shark for the generation of thrust as well as to meet the requirement of the lateral stability. In the case of aircraft, rudders are normally used for the said requirement. In the present work, this nature inspired idea is explored for its application to neutralize the unavoidable asymmetric thrust produced by the twin engines of a hybrid buoyant aircraft. First, the estimation of asymmetric thrust is obtained with the help of analytical techniques for maximum thrust condition at 4 degree angle of attack. The moment generated by it is utilized for the sizing of a dorsal fin which looks similar to a tapered wing and is placed aft of the center of gravity. Wind tunnel testing at subsonic speed is carried out to explore the design features of this rotatable dorsal fin. It is found that a small rotation of 5 degree can generate the required moment. However, such rotation requires a complete pneumatic/electro-mechanical system and an alternative of it is to use a cambered airfoil for the dorsal fin installed at fixed location. Such a flow controlling device can also be used as an antenna mast, which is commonly installed out the fuselage of the aircraft for communication purposes. Moreover, by incorporating this technique, a pilot doesn't have to put an extra effort to make the aircraft stable in the presence of side wind.

  7. Research on Theories and Techniques of Irrigation for Safeguarding Seed Production of Two-Line Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Jiang-shi; L(U) Chuan-gen; YAO Ke-min; HU Ning; XIA Shi-jian

    2006-01-01

    By inducing frequency, intensity and duration of lower temperature in the middle and last ten-day periods in August in the rice-growing areas of southern China, increasing temperature for safe seed production was defined as 2℃. During the sensitive period of fertility, characters of panicle height and canopy structure of TGMS rice, Pei'ai64S, were measured.Results showed that temperature changes caused by irrigation in fields were below 40 cm of rice plant, and heating effect was significant at 20 cm when the temperature was increased by 3.1℃. For the present study, the following irrigation techniques were put forth: the water depth of 15-20 cm, current water used, irrigating after 17:00 and bailing at 10:00 in sunny or cloudy weather, irrigating on whole day, in shady or rainy weather, increasing inflows and outflows in large fields. In the present experiment, pollen fertility and self-fertilized seed setting rate accepted that the techniques were feasible and effective for against lower temperature and safeguarding seed production of two-line hybrid rice.

  8. A novel technique to neutralize the Yawing moment due to asymmetric thrust in a hybrid buoyant aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haque Anwar U

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dorsal fin is used in swimming animals like shark for the generation of thrust as well as to meet the requirement of the lateral stability. In the case of aircraft, rudders are normally used for the said requirement. In the present work, this nature inspired idea is explored for its application to neutralize the unavoidable asymmetric thrust produced by the twin engines of a hybrid buoyant aircraft. First, the estimation of asymmetric thrust is obtained with the help of analytical techniques for maximum thrust condition at 4 degree angle of attack. The moment generated by it is utilized for the sizing of a dorsal fin which looks similar to a tapered wing and is placed aft of the center of gravity. Wind tunnel testing at subsonic speed is carried out to explore the design features of this rotatable dorsal fin. It is found that a small rotation of 5 degree can generate the required moment. However, such rotation requires a complete pneumatic/electro-mechanical system and an alternative of it is to use a cambered airfoil for the dorsal fin installed at fixed location. Such a flow controlling device can also be used as an antenna mast, which is commonly installed out the fuselage of the aircraft for communication purposes. Moreover, by incorporating this technique, a pilot doesn’t have to put an extra effort to make the aircraft stable in the presence of side wind.

  9. Optimizing an Industrial Scale Naphtha Catalytic Reforming Plant Using a Hybrid Artificial Neural Network and Genetic Algorithm Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepehr Sadighi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a hybrid model for estimating the activity of a commercial Pt-Re/Al2O3 catalyst in an industrial scale heavy naphtha catalytic-reforming unit (CRU is presented. This model is also capable of predicting research octane number (RON and yield of gasoline. In the proposed model, called DANN, the decay function of heterogeneous catalysts is combined with a recurrent-layer artificial neural network. During a life cycle (919 days, fifty-eight points are selected for building and training the DANN (60%, nineteen data points for testing (20%, and the remained ones for validating steps. Results show that DANN can acceptably estimate the activity of catalyst during its life in consideration of all process variables. Moreover, it is confirmed that the proposed model is capable of predicting RON and yield of gasoline for unseen (validating data with AAD% (average absolute deviation of 0.272% and 0.755%, respectively. After validating the model, the octane barrel level (OCB of the plant is maximized by manipulating the inlet temperature of reactors, and hydrogen to hydrocarbon molar ratio whilst all process limitations are taken into account. During a complete life cycle results show that the decision variables, generated by the optimization program, can increase the RON, process yield and OCB of CRU to about 1.15%, 3.21%, and 4.56%, respectively. © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.Received: 27th July 2014; Revised: 31st May 2015; Accepted: 31th May 2015 How to Cite: Sadighi, S., Mohaddecy, R.S., Norouzian, A. (2015. Optimizing an Industrial Scale Naphtha Catalytic Reforming Plant Using a Hybrid Artificial Neural Network and Genetic Algorithm Technique. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 10(2: 210-220. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.10.2.7171.210-220 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.10.2.7171.210-220  

  10. Recent advances in knowledge-based paradigms and applications enhanced applications using hybrid artificial intelligence techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi

    2014-01-01

    This book presents carefully selected contributions devoted to the modern perspective of AI research and innovation. This collection covers several areas of applications and motivates new research directions. The theme across all chapters combines several domains of AI research , Computational Intelligence and Machine Intelligence including an introduction to  the recent research and models. Each of the subsequent chapters reveals leading edge research and innovative solution that employ AI techniques with an applied perspective. The problems include classification of spatial images, early smoke detection in outdoor space from video images, emergent segmentation from image analysis, intensity modification in images, multi-agent modeling and analysis of stress. They all are novel pieces of work and demonstrate how AI research contributes to solutions for difficult real world problems that benefit the research community, industry and society.

  11. Rapid full Mueller matrix imaging polarimetry based on the hybrid phase modulation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chien-Yuan; Du, Cheng-You; Jhou, Jhe-Yi

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we present a novel method of Mueller matrix imaging polarimetry, which comprises dual liquid crystal variable retarders at the polarization generation portion and a photoelastic modulator at the polarization analysis portion. The light source can be operated either in the continuous mode, which provides an in-situ calibration process for the liquid crystal variable retarders, or in the pulse mode to deduce the full two-dimensional Mueller matrix with 16 images from the camera. We measured the Mueller matrix images of air as a standard test, as well as a quarter wave plate to determine its azimuthal angle and phase retardation by the polar decomposition technique. Finally, the decomposed Mueller matrix images of a biopolymer specimen with the conformational change produced by heat treatment are presented.

  12. MULTILEVEL APPROACH OF CBIR TECHNIQUES FOR VEGETABLE CLASSIFICATION USING HYBRID IMAGE FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Latha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available CBIR is a technique to retrieve images semantically relevant to query image from an image database. The challenge in CBIR is to develop a method that should increase the retrieval accuracy and reduce the retrieval time. In order to improve the retrieval accuracy and runtime, a multilevel CBIR approach is proposed in this paper. In the first level, the color attributes like mean and standard deviations are proposed to calculate on HSV color space to retrieve the images with minimum disparity distance from the database. In order to minimize search area, in the second level Local Ternary Pattern is proposed on images which were selected from the first level. Experimental results and comparisons demonstrate the superiority of the proposed approach.

  13. A Hybrid Model for the Mid-Long Term Runoff Forecasting by Evolutionary Computaion Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Xiu-fen; Kang Li-shan; Cae Hong-qing; Wu Zhi-jian

    2003-01-01

    The mid-long term hydrology forecasting is one of most challenging problems in hydrological studies. This paper proposes an efficient dynamical system prediction model using evolutionary computation techniques. The new model overcomes some disadvantages of conventional hydrology fore casting ones. The observed data is divided into two parts: the slow "smooth and steady" data, and the fast "coarse and fluctuation" data. Under the divide and conquer strategy, the behavior of smooth data is modeled by ordinary differential equations based on evolutionary modeling, and that of the coarse data is modeled using gray correlative forecasting method. Our model is verified on the test data of the mid-long term hydrology forecast in tbe northeast region of China. The experimental results show that the model is superior to gray system prediction model (GSPM).

  14. Integrating Internet Video Conferencing Techniques and Online Delivery Systems with Hybrid Classes to Enhance Student Interaction and Learning in Accelerated Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwith, E. George; Cunniff, Daniel T.

    2009-01-01

    Online course enrollment has increased dramatically over the past few years. The authors cite the reasons for this rapid growth and the opportunities open for enhancing teaching/learning techniques such as video conferencing and hybrid class combinations. The authors outlined an example of an accelerated learning, eight-class session course…

  15. Fabrication of 2×2 Thermo-Optic Switches with Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Materials Prepared by Sol-Gel Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    2×2 Mach-Zehnder interferometric thermo-optic switch was fabricated with organic/inorganic hybrid materials by sol-gel technique and direct UV patterning. The switching time of device was measured to be 4.2 ms and switching power 9.3 mW.

  16. In vitro and in vivo study of pluripotency in intraspecific hybrid cells obtained by fusion of murine embryonic stem cells with splenocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveeva, N M; Shilov, A G; Kaftanovskaya, E M; Maximovsky, L P; Zhelezova, A I; Golubitsa, A N; Bayborodin, S I; Fokina, M M; Serov, O L

    1998-06-01

    Hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase-deficient (HPRT-) mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, HM-1 cells (genotype XY), were fused with adult female DD/c mouse spleen cells. As a result, a set of HAT-resistant clones was isolated. Four hybrid clones most similar in morphology and growth characteristics to the HM-1 cells were studied in detail with respect to their pluripotency. Of these, three clones contained 41-43 chromosomes, and one clone was nearly tetraploid. All the clones had the XXY set of sex chromosomes and expressed the HPRT of the somatic partner only. The hybrid clones shared features with the HM-1 cells, indicating that they retained their pluripotent properties: (1) embryonic ECMA-7 antigen, not TROMA-1 antigen, was present in most cells; (2) the hybrid cells showed high activity of endogenous alkaline phosphatase (AP); (3) all the hybrid clones were able to form complex embryoid bodies containing derivatives of all the embryonic germinal layers; (4) the hybrid cells contained synchronously replicating X chromosomes, indicating that they were in an active state; and (5) a set of chimeric animals was generated by injecting hybrid cells into BALB/c and C57BL/6J mouse blastocysts. Evidence for chimerism was provided by the spotted coat derived from 129/Ola mice and identification of 129/Ola glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI) in many organs. Thus the results obtained demonstrated that the hybrid cells retain their high pluripotency level despite the close contact of the "pluripotent" HM-1 genome with the "somatic" spleen cell genome during hybrid cell formation and the presence of the "somatic" X chromosome during many cell generations. The presence of HPRT of the somatic partner in many organs and tissues, including the testes in chimeric animals, shows that the "somatic" X chromosome segregates weakly, if at all, during development of the chimeras. There were no individuals with the 129/Ola genotype among the more than 50 offspring from chimeric mice. The

  17. A Geostatistical Data Fusion Technique for Merging Remote Sensing and Ground-Based Observations of Aerosol Optical Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Abhishek; Michalak, Anna M.; Kahn, Ralph A.; Paradise, Susan R.; Braverman, Amy J.; Miller, Charles E.

    2010-01-01

    Particles in the atmosphere reflect incoming sunlight, tending to cool the Earth below. Some particles, such as soot, also absorb sunlight, which tens to warm the ambient atmosphere. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) is a measure of the amount of particulate matter in the atmosphere, and is a key input to computer models that simulate and predict Earth's changing climate. The global AOD products from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) and the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), both of which fly on the NASA Earth Observing System's Terra satellite, provide complementary views of the particles in the atmosphere. Whereas MODIS offers global coverage about four times as frequent as MISR, the multi-angle data makes it possible to separate the surface and atmospheric contributions to the observed top-of-atmosphere radiances, and also to more effectively discriminate particle type. Surface-based AERONET sun photometers retrieve AOD with smaller uncertainties than the satellite instruments, but only at a few fixed locations. So there are clear reasons to combine these data sets in a way that takes advantage of their respective strengths. This paper represents an effort at combining MISR, MODIS and AERONET AOD products over the continental US, using a common spatial statistical technique called kriging. The technique uses the correlation between the satellite data and the "ground-truth" sun photometer observations to assign uncertainty to the satellite data on a region-by-region basis. The larger fraction of the sun photometer variance that is duplicated by the satellite data, the higher the confidence assigned to the satellite data in that region. In the Western and Central US, MISR AOD correlation with AERONET are significantly higher than those with MODIS, likely due to bright surfaces in these regions, which pose greater challenges for the single-view MODIS retrievals. In the east, MODIS correlations are higher, due to more frequent sampling

  18. Contrast-Enhanced MR Angiography (CEMRA) in Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease (PAOD): conventional moving table technique versus hybrid technique; Kontrastverstaerkte MR-Angiographie (CEMRA) bei peripherer AVK (pAVK): konventionelle Tischverschiebetechnik versus Hybrid-Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalle, T. von; Gerlach, A.; Hatopp, A.; Klinger, S.; Prodehl, P.; Arlat, I.P. [Katharinenhospital, Stuttgart (Germany). Radiologisches Inst.

    2004-01-01

    Patients and Methods: 80 patients (males n = 60, females n = 20, median age = 70 years, diabetics n = 27) with PAOD were examined with a 1,5T system (40 mT/m) using a dedicated phased array peripheral vascular coil. Protocol A consisted of a single injection of Gd-BOPTA with consecutive craniocaudal image acquisition and protocol B of two injections, with the first injection of Gd-BOPTA followed by image acquisition of the popliteocrural and pedal segments and the second injection followed by acquiring the aortoiliac and femoral segments (hybrid technique). The evaluation of the arterial system was directed to the iliac, femoral, popliteocrural and pedal arteries. Results: The visualization of the entire aortopedal vascular system was of diagnostically good or satisfactory quality in 16 of 40 patients using protocol A and in 29 of 40 patients using protocol B (iliac 40 vs. 37, femoral 40 vs. 40, popliteocrural 35 vs. 37, pedal 16 vs. 29); without the pedal station the number increased to 35 of 40 patients for both protocols. The reason of diagnostic limitations was an arteriovenous overlap in 24 of 80 cases, with 19 of 40 cases for protocol A and 5 of 40 for protocol B, located exclusively in the cruropedal region. Conclusion: Moving table hybrid CEMRA is superior to conventional technique in craniocaudal direction by producing less venous overlap of arteries and is especially more suitable for the diagnostic evaluation of the cruropedal region. (orig.) [German] Patienten und Methodik: Untersucht wurden 80 Patienten (maennl. n = 60, weibl. n = 20, mittl. Alter 70 J., Diabetiker n = 27) mit pAVK an einem 1,5-Tesla-Geraet (40 mT/m) mit dedizierter Phased-Array-Oberflaechen-Gefaessspule. Protokoll A beinhaltete eine Kontrastmittel-Injektion (Gd-BOPTA) mit konsekutiver kraniokaudaler Bildakquisition. In Protokoll B erfolgte die Akquisition zunaechst der Unterschenkel- und Fussetage mittels einer ersten, anschliessend der Abdomen-Becken- und Oberschenkeletage mittels

  19. Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Alexander; Girardi, Federico; Sama, Andrew; Lebl, Darren; Cammisa, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) is a relatively new technique that allows the surgeon to access the intervertebral space from a direct lateral approach either anterior to or through the psoas muscle. This approach provides an alternative to anterior lumbar interbody fusion with instrumentation, posterior lumbar interbody fusion, and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for anterior column support. LLIF is minimally invasive, safe, better structural support from the apophyseal ring, potential for coronal plane deformity correction, and indirect decompression, which have has made this technique popular. LLIF is currently being utilized for a variety of pathologies including but not limited to adult de novo lumbar scoliosis, central and foraminal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, and adjacent segment degeneration. Although early clinical outcomes have been good, the potential for significant neurological and vascular vertebral endplate complications exists. Nevertheless, LLIF is a promising technique with the potential to more effectively treat complex adult de novo scoliosis and achieve predictable fusion while avoiding the complications of traditional anterior surgery and posterior interbody techniques. PMID:26713134

  20. 19/2 sup minus g factor in sup 39 K using a transient field-fusion reaction technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakou, A.A. (Department of Physics, The University of Ioannina, Ioannina (Greece) Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Padova (Italy) Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padova (Italy)); Brandolini, F.; Bazzacco, D.; Pavan, P.; Rossi-Alvarez, C.; Maglione, E. (Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Padova (Italy) Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padova (Italy)); DePoli, M.; Ribas, R. (Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nationali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy))

    1992-01-01

    The magnetic moment of the 19/2{sup {minus}} state in {sup 39}K has been measured by the transient field technique. The state was excited by the inverse reaction {sup 12}C({sup 32}S,{ital p}{alpha}){sup 39}K and the recoil nucleus traversed a thin Gd foil. Its absolute {ital g} factor, {ital g}=0.35(3), was obtained by an internal calibration, which makes use of the magnetic moment of the 15/2{sup +} state in {sup 41}Ca also excited in the same reaction. A mean {ital g} factor for the states 3{sup {minus}}, 5{sup {minus}} in {sup 36}Ar, {ital g}=0.52(6), determined in a simultaneous measurement is consistent with the self-conjugate nature of the nucleus, giving further support to the validity of the field calibration. The experimental result agrees with shell-model predictions.

  1. Oral cancer/endothelial cell fusion experiences nuclear fusion and acquisition of enhanced survival potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kai [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Shandong Province (China); The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Song, Yong [The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Department of Stomatology, Liu Zhou People' s Hospital, Guangxi (China); Zhao, Xiao-Ping; Shen, Hui; Wang, Meng; Yan, Ting-lin [The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Liu, Ke, E-mail: liuke.1999@aliyun.com [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial-Head and Neck oncology, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079 (China); The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Shang, Zheng-jun, E-mail: shangzhengjun@hotmail.com [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial-Head and Neck oncology, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079 (China); The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China)

    2014-10-15

    Most previous studies have linked cancer–macrophage fusion with tumor progression and metastasis. However, the characteristics of hybrid cells derived from oral cancer and endothelial cells and their involvement in cancer remained unknown. Double-immunofluorescent staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed to confirm spontaneous cell fusion between eGFP-labeled human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and RFP-labeled SCC9, and to detect the expression of vementin and cytokeratin 18 in the hybrids. The property of chemo-resistance of such hybrids was examined by TUNEL assay. The hybrid cells in xenografted tumor were identified by FISH and GFP/RFP dual-immunofluoresence staining. We showed that SCC9 cells spontaneously fused with cocultured endothelial cells, and the resultant hybrid cells maintained the division and proliferation activity after re-plating and thawing. Such hybrids expressed markers of both parental cells and became more resistant to chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin as compared to the parental SCC9 cells. Our in vivo data indicated that the hybrid cells contributed to tumor composition by using of immunostaining and FISH analysis, even though the hybrid cells and SCC9 cells were mixed with 1:10,000, according to the FACS data. Our study suggested that the fusion events between oral cancer and endothelial cells undergo nuclear fusion and acquire a new property of drug resistance and consequently enhanced survival potential. These experimental findings provide further supportive evidence for the theory that cell fusion is involved in cancer progression. - Highlights: • The fusion events between oral cancer and endothelial cells undergo nuclear fusion. • The resulting hybrid cells acquire a new property of drug resistance. • The resulting hybrid cells express the markers of both parental cells (i.e. vimentin and cytokeratin 18). • The hybrid cells contribute to tumor repopulation in vivo.

  2. A hybrid stock trading framework integrating technical analysis with machine learning techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajashree Dash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel decision support system using a computational efficient functional link artificial neural network (CEFLANN and a set of rules is proposed to generate the trading decisions more effectively. Here the problem of stock trading decision prediction is articulated as a classification problem with three class values representing the buy, hold and sell signals. The CEFLANN network used in the decision support system produces a set of continuous trading signals within the range 0–1 by analyzing the nonlinear relationship exists between few popular technical indicators. Further the output trading signals are used to track the trend and to produce the trading decision based on that trend using some trading rules. The novelty of the approach is to engender the profitable stock trading decision points through integration of the learning ability of CEFLANN neural network with the technical analysis rules. For assessing the potential use of the proposed method, the model performance is also compared with some other machine learning techniques such as Support Vector Machine (SVM, Naive Bayesian model, K nearest neighbor model (KNN and Decision Tree (DT model.

  3. A Hybrid Technique for Real Time License Plate Localization with the aid of FFBPNNAPSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reji PI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle License Plate Recognition (VLPR is an imperative constituent in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS, which encircles three foremost phases essentially License Plate Localization (LPL, Character Segmentation (CS, Character Recognition (CR. In this paper, we have intended to introduce a novel License Plate Localization algorithm subjected to Artificial Neural Networks (ANN. This proposed scheme involves distinct phases of pre-processing, image de-noising and enhancement, feature extraction, Neural Network training and License Plate detection. Followed by the mining of assorted statistical features, geometrical features, edge features and texture features from the vehicular image, they are given as the input to Feed Forward Back Propagation Neural Network (FFBPNN in order to localize the License Plate. During the training process, the parameters of the FFBPNN will be optimized using the eminent Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization (APSO algorithm in order to improve the Neural Network convergence performance. The License Plate Localization of our proposed technique is analyzed with simple Feed Forward Back propagation Neural Network (FFBPNN in terms of accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. The experimental outcomes demonstrate that the proposed procedure proficiently accomplishes an extremely high localization rate with elevated specificity (91.3%.

  4. Flexible Riser Monitoring Using Hybrid Magnetic/Optical Strain Gage Techniques through RLS Adaptive Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pipa Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible riser is a class of flexible pipes which is used to connect subsea pipelines to floating offshore installations, such as FPSOs (floating production/storage/off-loading unit and SS (semisubmersible platforms, in oil and gas production. Flexible risers are multilayered pipes typically comprising an inner flexible metal carcass surrounded by polymer layers and spiral wound steel ligaments, also referred to as armor wires. Since these armor wires are made of steel, their magnetic properties are sensitive to the stress they are subjected to. By measuring their magnetic properties in a nonintrusive manner, it is possible to compare the stress in the armor wires, thus allowing the identification of damaged ones. However, one encounters several sources of noise when measuring electromagnetic properties contactlessly, such as movement between specimen and probe, and magnetic noise. This paper describes the development of a new technique for automatic monitoring of armor layers of flexible risers. The proposed approach aims to minimize these current uncertainties by combining electromagnetic measurements with optical strain gage data through a recursive least squares (RLSs adaptive filter.

  5. Heart dose reduction in breast cancer treatment with simultaneous integrated boost. Comparison of treatment planning and dosimetry for a novel hybrid technique and 3D-CRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joest, Vincent; Kretschmer, Matthias; Sabatino, Marcello; Wuerschmidt, Florian; Dahle, Joerg; Lorenzen, Joern [Radiological Alliance, Hamburg (Germany); Ueberle, Friedrich [University of Applied Sciences, Faculty Life Sciences, Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    The present study compares in silico treatment plans of clinically established three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) with a hybrid technique consisting of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) during normally fractionated radiation of mammary carcinomas with simultaneous integrated boost on the basis of dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters. Radiation treatment planning was performed with a hybrid and a 3D-CRT treatment plan for 20 patients. Hybrid plans were implemented with two tangential IMRT fields and a VMAT field in the angular range of the tangents. Verification of the plan was performed with a manufacturer-independent measurement system consisting of a detector array and rotation unit. The mean values of the heart dose for the entire patient collective were 3.6 ± 2.5 Gy for 3D-CRT and 2.9 ± 2.1 Gy for the hybrid technique (p < 0.01). For the left side (n = 10), the mean values for the left anterior descending artery were 21.8 ± 7.4 Gy for 3D-CRT and 17.6 ± 7.4 Gy for the hybrid technique (p < 0.01). The mean values of the ipsilateral lung were 11.9 ± 1.6 Gy for 3D-CRT and 10.5 ± 1.3 Gy for the hybrid technique (p < 0.01). Calculated dose distributions in the hybrid arm were in good accordance with measured dose (on average 95.6 ± 0.5 % for γ < 1 and 3 %/3 mm). The difference of the mean treatment time per fraction was 7 s in favor of 3D-CRT. Compared with the established 3D-CRT technique, the hybrid technique allows for a decrease in dose, particularly of the mean heart and lung dose with comparable target volume acquisition and without disadvantageous low-dose load of contralateral structures. Uncomplicated implementation of the hybrid technique was demonstrated in this context. The hybrid technique combines the advantages of tangential IMRT with the superior sparing of organs at risk by VMAT. (orig.) [German] Die vorliegende Studie vergleicht ''in silico

  6. Chitosan-pectin hybrid nanoparticles prepared by coating and blending techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampino, A; Borgogna, M; Bellich, B; Blasi, P; Virgilio, F; Cesàro, A

    2016-03-10

    The preparation of chitosan nanoparticles in combination with pectins, as additional mucoadhesive biopolymers, was investigated. Pectins from apple and from citrus fruit were considered; polygalacturonic acid was taken as a reference. Tripolyphosphate was used as an anionic cross-linker. Two different techniques were compared, namely the coating and the blending. Coated nanoparticles (NPs) in the ratio pectin:NPs from 2:1 to 5:1 evidenced that the size of NPs increased as the amount of pectin (both from apple and citrus fruit) was increased. In particular, for NPs coated with pectin from citrus fruit the size ranges from 200 to 260nm; while for NPs coated with pectin from apple the size ranges from 330 to 450nm. A minimum value of Z-potential around -35mV was obtained for the ratio pectin:NPs 4:1, while further addition of pectin did not decrease the Z-potential. Also blended NPs showed a dependence of the size on the ratio of the components: for a given ratio pectin:tripolyphosphate the size increases as the fraction of chitosan increases; for a low ratio chitosan:pectin a high amount of tripolyphosphate was needed to obtain a compact structure. The effect of the additional presence of loaded proteins in chitosan-pectin nanoparticles was also investigated, since proteins contribute to alter the electrostatic interactions among charged species. FT-IR and DSC characterization are presented to confirm the interactions between biopolymers. Finally, the biocompatibility of the used materials was assessed by the chorioallantoic membrane assay, confirming the safety of the materials.

  7. Fusion Revisits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    It's going to be a hot summer at CERN. At least in the Main Building, where from 13 July to 20 August an exhibition is being hosted on nuclear fusion, the energy of the Stars. Nuclear fusion is the engine driving the stars but also a potential source of energy for mankind. The exhibition shows the different nuclear fusion techniques and research carried out on the subject in Europe. Inaugurated at CERN in 1993, following collaboration between Lausanne's CRPP-EPFL and CERN, with input from Alessandro Pascolini of Italy's INFN, this exhibition has travelled round Europe before being revamped and returning to CERN. 'Fusion, Energy of the Stars', from 13 July onwards, Main Building

  8. Optical Fiber Fusion Splicing

    CERN Document Server

    Yablon, Andrew D

    2005-01-01

    This book is an up-to-date treatment of optical fiber fusion splicing incorporating all the recent innovations in the field. It provides a toolbox of general strategies and specific techniques that the reader can apply when optimizing fusion splices between novel fibers. It specifically addresses considerations important for fusion splicing of contemporary specialty fibers including dispersion compensating fiber, erbium-doped gain fiber, polarization maintaining fiber, and microstructured fiber. Finally, it discusses the future of optical fiber fusion splicing including silica and non-silica based optical fibers as well as the trend toward increasing automation. Whilst serving as a self-contained reference work, abundant citations from the technical literature will enable readers to readily locate primary sources.

  9. Simulation on advanced operation mode for the compact fusion-fission hybrid reactor%紧凑型聚变裂变混合堆先进运行模式的数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈美霞; 刘成岳; 吴斌

    2012-01-01

    Reversed shear (RS) operation mode is simulated with Jsolver and TSC codes on some important issues, such as RS Plasma configuration, bootstrap current fraction and RS operation mode discharge simulation etc.. To some degree, the modeling results show that the RS operation mode is advanced and feasible for the compact Fusion-fission hybrid reactor.%使用Jsolver程序及托卡马克模拟程序TSC对紧凑型聚变裂变混合堆系统的反剪切平衡位形、自举电流份额及放电模拟进行数值模拟研究,以此探讨该混合堆的可行性和先进性.

  10. 紧凑型聚变裂变混合堆自举电流的数值模拟研究%Simulation on bootstrap current for the compact fusion-fission hybrid reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈美霞; 刘成岳; 舒双宝

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of the equilibrium code Jsolver, the compact fusion-fission hybrid reactor’s advanced equilibrium configuration design is carried out, especially for the reversed shear operation mode. And the calculation, distribution and fraction of bootstrap current are also simulated.%以平衡程序Jsolver为基础开展了紧凑型聚变裂变混合堆先进等离子体平衡位形设计,重点研究了反剪切运行模式,并在此位形下研究了自举电流的计算、分布及份额。

  11. Posterior spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis using a convex pedicle screw technique: a novel concept of deformity correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirikos, A I; Mataliotakis, G; Bounakis, N

    2017-08-01

    We present the results of correcting a double or triple curve adolescent idiopathic scoliosis using a convex segmental pedicle screw technique. We reviewed 191 patients with a mean age at surgery of 15 years (11 to 23.3). Pedicle screws were placed at the convexity of each curve. Concave screws were inserted at one or two cephalad levels and two caudal levels. The mean operating time was 183 minutes (132 to 276) and the mean blood loss 0.22% of the total blood volume (0.08% to 0.4%). Multimodal monitoring remained stable throughout the operation. The mean hospital stay was 6.8 days (5 to 15). The mean post-operative follow-up was 5.8 years (2.5 to 9.5). There were no neurological complications, deep wound infection, obvious nonunion or need for revision surgery. Upper thoracic scoliosis was corrected by a mean 68.2% (38% to 48%, p scoliosis was corrected by a mean 71% (43.5% to 8.9%, p scoliosis was corrected by a mean 72.3% (41% to 90%, p Scoliosis Research Society Outcomes Questionnaire score improved from a mean 3.6 to 4.6 (2.4 to 4, p scoliosis, an improved thoracic kyphosis and normal global sagittal balance. Both patient satisfaction and functional outcomes were excellent. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:1080-7. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  12. A fast and robust new pore-network extraction method based on hybrid median axis and maximal inscribed ball techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofey, Sizonenko; Karsanina, Marina; Byuk, Irina; Gerke, Kirill

    2016-04-01

    To characterize pore structure relevant to single and multi-phase flow modelling it is of special interest to extract topology of the pore space. This is usually achieved using so-called pore-network models. Such models are useful not only to characterize pore space and pore size distributions, but also provide means to simulate flow and transport with very limited computational resources compared to other pore-scale modelling techniques. The main drawback of the pore-network approach is that they have first to simplify the pore space geometry. This crucial step is both time consuming and prone to numerous errors. Two most popular methods based on median axis or inscribed maximal balls have their own strong sides and disadvantages. To address aforementioned problems related to pore-network extraction here we propose a novel method utilizing the advantages of both popular approaches. Combining two algorithms resulted in much faster and robust extraction methodology. Moreover, we have found that accurate topology representation requires extension of the conventional pore-body and pore-throat classification. We test our new methodology using pore structures with "analytical solutions" such as different sphere packs. In addition, we rigorously compare it against inscribed maximal balls methodology's results using numerous 3D images of sandstone and carbonate rocks, soils and some other porous materials. Another verification includes permeability calculations which are also compared both against lab data and voxel based pore-scale modelling simulations. This work was partially supported by RFBR grant 15-34-20989 (X-ray tomography and image fusion) and RSF grant 14-17-00658 (image segmentation and pore-scale modelling).

  13. 非融合技术在老年退变性腰椎疾病中的应用%Non-fusion motion preservation stabilization techniques for degenerative lumbar diseases in the elderly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍骥; 文偃伍; 黄蓉蓉

    2012-01-01

    腰椎非融合外科技术因不固定脊柱节段,也许较融合术具有更多的优势.本文讨论了对于适合的老年患者,腰椎非融合术的主要类型、进展、适应证及禁忌证、存在的优势与不足.并对非融合技术在老年退变性腰椎疾病中的应用前景进行了展望.我们认为,各主要非融合技术在延缓治疗节段椎间盘退变的速度、保留该节段的运动功能、预防相邻节段的退变、减轻临床症状及改善生活质量等方面都显示出较融合术所具有的更多优势和更少的负面影响.%The non-fusion dynamic stabilization techniques maintain the motion of the lumbar vertebrae without fusion spinal segments, so it may have more advantages than fusion surgery. In this review, we discussed the main types, advance, indications and contraindications, advantages and disadvantages of the lumbar non-fusion surgical treatment for the eligible elderly patients. We believed that major non-fusion techniques had more advantages and less disadvantages in delaying the process of disc degeneration of the targeted segment, preserving the motion of segment, preventing degeneration of adjacent segments, alleviating clinical symptoms, and improving quality of life. There would be great prospect of the lumbar non-fusion surgery in the treatment of degenerative lumbar diseases.

  14. Fusion of protoplasts with irradiated microprotoplasts as a tool for radiation hybrid panel in citrus Fusão de protoplastos com microprotoplastos irradiados como ferramenta para painel híbrido de radiação em citros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine Maria de Bona

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to combine asymmetric somatic hybridization (donor-recipient fusion or gamma fusion to microprotoplast-mediated chromosome transfer, as a tool to be used for chromosome mapping in Citrus. Swinglea glutinosa microprotoplasts were irradiated either with 50, 70, 100 or 200 gamma rays and fused to cv. Ruby Red grapefruit or Murcott tangor protoplasts. Cell colonies were successfully formed and AFLP analyses confirmed presence of S. glutinosa in both 'Murcott' tangor and 'Ruby Red' grapefruit genomes.O objetivo deste trabalho foi combinar hibridação somática assimétrica (fusão doador-recipiente ou fusão gama e transferência cromossômica mediada por microprotoplastos como uma ferramenta para o mapeamento cromossômico em Citrus. Microprotoplastos de Swinglea glutinosa foram irradiados com doses de 50, 70, 100 ou 200 raios gama e fusionados com protoplastos de pomelo cv. Ruby Red ou de tangor Murcott. Houve sucesso na formação de colônias de células, e a análise AFLP confirmou a presença de S. glutinosa nos genomas do tangor 'Murcott' e do pomelo 'Ruby Red'.

  15. 基于混合云的融合媒体实践教学平台设计%Design for Fusion Media Practice Teaching Platform Based on Hybrid Cloud

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡一梁; 江月明子

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the business demand of hybrid cloud fusion media practice teaching platform, analyzes the basic composition and function of the platform, proposed the non functional design of the system business requirements, and media cloud platform for seamless integration, realize an end-to -end fusion media teaching service, in the integration of the media practice teaching activities, cloud, IP and other aspects has carried on the significant exploration and the practice.%描述了基于混合云的融合媒体实践教学平台需求,分析了平台的基本组成与功能,提出了系统非功能业务设计要求,与融合媒体云平台无缝对接,实现了端到端的融合媒体教学业务服务,并在融合媒体实践教学活动云化、IP化等方面进行了有意义的探索与实践。

  16. Novel RNA hybridization method for the in situ detection of ETV1, ETV4, and ETV5 gene fusions in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunju, Lakshmi P; Carskadon, Shannon; Siddiqui, Javed; Tomlins, Scott A; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; Palanisamy, Nallasivam

    2014-09-01

    The genetic basis of 50% to 60% of prostate cancer (PCa) is attributable to rearrangements in E26 transformation-specific (ETS) (ERG, ETV1, ETV4, and ETV5), BRAF, and RAF1 genes and overexpression of SPINK1. The development and validation of reliable detection methods are warranted to classify various molecular subtypes of PCa for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. ETS gene rearrangements are typically detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction methods. Recently, monoclonal antibodies against ERG have been developed that detect the truncated ERG protein in immunohistochemical assays where staining levels are strongly correlated with ERG rearrangement status by fluorescence in situ hybridization. However, specific antibodies for ETV1, ETV4, and ETV5 are unavailable, challenging their clinical use. We developed a novel RNA in situ hybridization-based assay for the in situ detection of ETV1, ETV4, and ETV5 in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from prostate needle biopsies, prostatectomy, and metastatic PCa specimens using RNA probes. Further, with combined RNA in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry we identified a rare subset of PCa with dual ETS gene rearrangements in collisions of independent tumor foci. The high specificity and sensitivity of RNA in situ hybridization provides an alternate method enabling bright-field in situ detection of ETS gene aberrations in routine clinically available PCa specimens.

  17. Hybrid approach combining multiple characterization techniques and simulations for microstructural analysis of proton exchange membrane fuel cell electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinbas, Firat C.; Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Kariuki, Nancy; De Andrade, Vincent; Fongalland, Dash; Smith, Linda; Sharman, Jonathan; Ferreira, Paulo; Rasouli, Somaye; Myers, Deborah J.

    2017-03-01

    The cost and performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells strongly depend on the cathode electrode due to usage of expensive platinum (Pt) group metal catalyst and sluggish reaction kinetics. Development of low Pt content high performance cathodes requires comprehensive understanding of the electrode microstructure. In this study, a new approach is presented to characterize the detailed cathode electrode microstructure from nm to μm length scales by combining information from different experimental techniques. In this context, nano-scale X-ray computed tomography (nano-CT) is performed to extract the secondary pore space of the electrode. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is employed to determine primary C particle and Pt particle size distributions. X-ray scattering, with its ability to provide size distributions of orders of magnitude more particles than TEM, is used to confirm the TEM-determined size distributions. The number of primary pores that cannot be resolved by nano-CT is approximated using mercury intrusion porosimetry. An algorithm is developed to incorporate all these experimental data in one geometric representation. Upon validation of pore size distribution against gas adsorption and mercury intrusion porosimetry data, reconstructed ionomer size distribution is reported. In addition, transport related characteristics and effective properties are computed by performing simulations on the hybrid microstructure.

  18. Recovery and reuse of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions by a hybrid technique of electrodialysis and ion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gayathri, R. [Sengunthar Engineering College, Tiruchengode (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering], e-mail: gay3civil@gmail.com; Senthil Kumar, P. [SSN College of Engineering, Chennai (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering], E-mail: senthilkumarp@ssn.edu.in

    2010-01-15

    The chrome plating industry is one of the highly polluting industries whose effluent mainly consists of chromium(VI). This compound is highly toxic to aquatic life and human health. The rinse water constituents reflect the chrome plating bath characteristics; generally dead tank wash water contains about 1% of the plating bath concentration. Other metals and metal compounds usually considered as toxic can be precipitated out by suitably adjusting the pH of the wastewaters. However, Cr(VI) is soluble in almost all pH ranges and therefore an efficient treatment is required for the removal and recovery of chromium, and also for the reuse of wastewaters. The present study aims to recover the chromium by a hybrid technique of electrodialysis and ion exchange for the removal and concentration of chromate ions from the effluent. The different modes of operation like batch recirculation process, batch recirculation process with continuous dipping and continuous process were carried out to remove and recover the chromium from the effluent and the percentage reductions of chromium were found to be 98.69%, 99.18% and 100%, respectively. (author)

  19. A hybrid experimental-numerical technique for determining 3D velocity fields from planar 2D PIV data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, A.; Sigurdson, M.; Mezić, I.; Meinhart, C. D.

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge of 3D, three component velocity fields is central to the understanding and development of effective microfluidic devices for lab-on-chip mixing applications. In this paper we present a hybrid experimental-numerical method for the generation of 3D flow information from 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV) experimental data and finite element simulations of an alternating current electrothermal (ACET) micromixer. A numerical least-squares optimization algorithm is applied to a theory-based 3D multiphysics simulation in conjunction with 2D PIV data to generate an improved estimation of the steady state velocity field. This 3D velocity field can be used to assess mixing phenomena more accurately than would be possible through simulation alone. Our technique can also be used to estimate uncertain quantities in experimental situations by fitting the gathered field data to a simulated physical model. The optimization algorithm reduced the root-mean-squared difference between the experimental and simulated velocity fields in the target region by more than a factor of 4, resulting in an average error less than 12% of the average velocity magnitude.

  20. Degradation of Tectilon Yellow 2G by hybrid technique: combination of sonolysis and biodegradation using mutant Pseudomonas putida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Raman; Kathiravan, Mathur Nadarajan; Gopinath, Kannappan Panchamoorthy

    2011-02-01

    Degradation of Tectilon Yellow 2G (TY2G), an azo dye has been studied by hybrid technique involving pretreatment by sonochemical method and further biological treatment by Pseudomonas putida mutant. Pretreatment experiments were carried out by sonolysis of the dye solution at different concentrations (100-1000 mg/L). Wild type Gram-negative P. putida species isolated from the textile effluent contaminated soil, which was found to be effective towards dye degradation, has been acclimatized so as to consume TY2G as the sole source of nutrition. Mutant strain was obtained from the acclimatized species by random mutagenesis using the chemical mutagen ethidium bromide for various time intervals (6-30 min). The optimum mutagenesis exposure time for obtaining the most efficient species for dye degradation was found to be 18 min. An efficient mutant strain P. putida ACT 1 has been isolated and was used for growth experiments. The mutant strain showed a better growth compared to the wild strain. The substrate utilization kinetics has been modeled using Monod and Haldane model equations of which the Haldane model provided a better fit. The enzyme kinetics of the mutant and wild species was obtained using Michaelis-Menten equation. The mutated species showed better enzyme kinetics towards the degradation of TY2G.

  1. Hybrid evolutionary techniques in feed forward neural network with distributed error for classification of handwritten Hindi `SWARS'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Somesh; Pratap Singh, Manu; Goel, Rajkumar; Lavania, Rajesh

    2013-12-01

    In this work, the performance of feedforward neural network with a descent gradient of distributed error and the genetic algorithm (GA) is evaluated for the recognition of handwritten 'SWARS' of Hindi curve script. The performance index for the feedforward multilayer neural networks is considered here with distributed instantaneous unknown error i.e. different error for different layers. The objective of the GA is to make the search process more efficient to determine the optimal weight vectors from the population. The GA is applied with the distributed error. The fitness function of the GA is considered as the mean of square distributed error that is different for each layer. Hence the convergence is obtained only when the minimum of different errors is determined. It has been analysed that the proposed method of a descent gradient of distributed error with the GA known as hybrid distributed evolutionary technique for the multilayer feed forward neural performs better in terms of accuracy, epochs and the number of optimal solutions for the given training and test pattern sets of the pattern recognition problem.

  2. Heat Treatment Parameters to Optimize Friction and Wear behavior of Novel Hybrid Aluminium Composites Using Taguchi Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.C.Uvaraja

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an Al 7075 alloy is used as the matrix and varying weight percentage of Silicon Carbide (SiC and constant weight percentage of Boron Carbide (B4C as the reinforcing material. The composite is produced using stir casting technique. The composite thus formed is termed as hybrid composite. The samples are prepared for heat treatment process by subjecting to solutionizing temperature of 530o C for 1 hr followed by quenching in water. Further the specimens are subjected to artificial aging for durations of 4, 6 and 8 hr at a temperature of 175°C. The mechanical and tribological properties of composites before and after heat treatment are examined by Vickers hardness test machine and pin-on-disc test machine respectively. The wear rate and friction co-efficient of heat treatment parameters are evaluated based on Taguchi technique. The analysis is further extended to the optimization of test parameters using Design of Experiment (DoE based on L9 orthogonal array. The developed Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and the regression equations is obtained through MINITAB R16 are used to investigate the influence of parameters like sliding speed, applied load, sliding time, and percentage of reinforcement on the dry sliding wear and friction co-efficient of the composites. The wear surface morphology and wear mechanism of the pins are investigated using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and are correlated them with wear test results. Finally, confirmation tests are carried out to verify the experimental results.

  3. The application of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH technique for studying the microbial communities in intestinal tissues of white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supamattaya, K.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ hybridization technique is very useful for the evaluation of microbial communities in various environments. It is possible to apply this technique to study the intestinal microflora in white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei. Different fixatives and storage temperature were tested in this technique. It was found that fixation with 10% buffered formalin for 12 hours and changed to 70% ethanol shown positive results when compared to the fixation with Davidson's fixative or RF fixative. The best signaling was obtainedfrom the samples which were stored in -20ºC. By using the DNA probe targeted to the Eubacteria domain (EUB338 probe, 5′-GCT GCC TCC CGT AGG AGT-3′ labeled with fluorescein as a hybridizing probe, it was found that most intestinal microflora were aggregated with the intestinal contents, or dispersed in the lumen. There was not evidence of the attachment of the microflora with the intestinal epithelium in this study.

  4. Oral cancer/endothelial cell fusion experiences nuclear fusion and acquisition of enhanced survival potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kai; Song, Yong; Zhao, Xiao-Ping; Shen, Hui; Wang, Meng; Yan, Ting-Lin; Liu, Ke; Shang, Zheng-Jun

    2014-10-15

    Most previous studies have linked cancer-macrophage fusion with tumor progression and metastasis. However, the characteristics of hybrid cells derived from oral cancer and endothelial cells and their involvement in cancer remained unknown. Double-immunofluorescent staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed to confirm spontaneous cell fusion between eGFP-labeled human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and RFP-labeled SCC9, and to detect the expression of vementin and cytokeratin 18 in the hybrids. The property of chemo-resistance of such hybrids was examined by TUNEL assay. The hybrid cells in xenografted tumor were identified by FISH and GFP/RFP dual-immunofluoresence staining. We showed that SCC9 cells spontaneously fused with cocultured endothelial cells, and the resultant hybrid cells maintained the division and proliferation activity after re-plating and thawing. Such hybrids expressed markers of both parental cells and became more resistant to chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin as compared to the parental SCC9 cells. Our in vivo data indicated that the hybrid cells contributed to tumor composition by using of immunostaining and FISH analysis, even though the hybrid cells and SCC9 cells were mixed with 1:10,000, according to the FACS data. Our study suggested that the fusion events between oral cancer and endothelial cells undergo nuclear fusion and acquire a new property of drug resistance and consequently enhanced survival potential. These experimental findings provide further supportive evidence for the theory that cell fusion is involved in cancer progression.

  5. A Melanoma Brain Metastasis with a Donor-Patient Hybrid Genome following Bone Marrow Transplantation: First Evidence for Fusion in Human Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossitza Lazova

    Full Text Available Tumor cell fusion with motile bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs has long been posited as a mechanism for cancer metastasis. While there is much support for this from cell culture and animal studies, it has yet to be confirmed in human cancer, as tumor and marrow-derived cells from the same patient cannot be easily distinguished genetically.We carried out genotyping of a metastatic melanoma to the brain that arose following allogeneic bone-marrow transplantation (BMT, using forensic short tandem repeat (STR length-polymorphisms to distinguish donor and patient genomes. Tumor cells were isolated free of leucocytes by laser microdissection, and tumor and pre-transplant blood lymphocyte DNAs were analyzed for donor and patient alleles at 14 autosomal STR loci and the sex chromosomes.All alleles in the donor and patient pre-BMT lymphocytes were found in tumor cells. The alleles showed disproportionate relative abundances in similar patterns throughout the tumor, indicating the tumor was initiated by a clonal fusion event.Our results strongly support fusion between a BMDC and a tumor cell playing a role in the origin of this metastasis. Depending on the frequency of such events, the findings could have important implications for understanding the generation of metastases, including the origins of tumor initiating cells and the cancer epigenome.

  6. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc A.; Doi, Roy H.

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  7. FISH技术在儿童ALL常见融合基因检测中的应用价值%Value of fluorescence in situ hybridization in Identification of fusion gene in pediatric cases with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐雪琴; 林小玲; 谢番妮; 郑昭科; 唐少华

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the role of interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (I-FISH) in TELAML1 and BCR/ABL fusion gene detection in pediatric cases with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.Methods:Dual color I-FISH and conventional cytogenetic analysis (CCA) were combined to detect t(12;21) TEL/AML1 and t(9;22) BCR/ABL fusion gene in bone marrow mononuclear cells from 35 newly and 4 oddly pediatric ALL patients.Results:Twelve cases were found the TEL/AML1 fusion gene by FISH (30.8%).But no dubious t (12; 21) gene was detected by CCA.Four cases were found the BCR/ABL fusion gene by FISH (10.3%).Only 1 case was found dubious t (9;22) gene by CCA,the incidence was 2.5%.TEL/AML1 fusion gene was more than BCR/ABL fusion gene in pediatric ALL patients and showed lower peripheral tumor load in diagnosis.Conclusion:Dual color IFISH is more sensitive and specific than conventional,cytogenetic analysis (CCA)in the identification of TELAML1 and BCP/ABL fusion gene.So it is playing a significant role in diagnosis and therapy of pediatric cases with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.%目的:探讨双色间期荧光原位杂交(I-FISH)技术在儿童急性淋巴细胞白血病TEL/AML1和BCR/ABL融合基因检测中的应用价值.方法:联合双色间期荧光原位杂交(I-FISH)技术和常规染色体核型分析技术(CCA)对35例儿童初治ALL和4例儿童复发ALL的骨髓有核细胞进行t(12;21) TEL/AML1和t(9;22)BCR/ABL融合基因进行检测.结果:12例患几经FISH检测发现TEL/AML1融合基因,占总病例的30.8%;而CCA检测均未发现有可疑t(12;21).4例患儿经FISH检测发现BCR/ABL融合基因,占总病例的10.3%;而CCA检测发现1例可疑t(9;22),占总病例的2.5%.TEL/AML1在儿童ALL中阳性率较BCR/ABL高,该融合基因阳性的患儿病情较轻.结论:FISH技术较常规染色体核型分析技术特异性强、敏感度高,可以有效检测出TEL/AML1和BCR/ABL融合基因,从而为儿童ALL的诊断和个体化治疗方案提供重要的依据.

  8. Influence of the polymer amount on bioactivity and biocompatibility of SiO{sub 2}/PEG hybrid materials synthesized by sol–gel technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catauro, M., E-mail: michelina.catauro@unina2.it [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Bollino, F.; Papale, F. [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Gallicchio, M.; Pacifico, S. [Department of Environmental Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy)

    2015-03-01

    SiO{sub 2}/PEG organic–inorganic hybrid materials, which differ in polyethylene glycol (PEG) content, were synthesized by sol–gel technique and the characterization of their structure and biological properties was carried out in order to evaluate the possible use in biomedical field. FT-IR spectroscopy detected that the two components of the hybrids (SiO{sub 2} and PEG) are linked by hydrogen bonds between the Si–OH groups of the inorganic phase and the terminal alcoholic groups and/or the ethereal oxygen atoms in the repeating units of polymer. X-ray diffraction analysis ascertained the amorphous nature of the gels and the observation of their morphology by SEM microscopy confirmed that the interpenetration of the two phases (organic and inorganic) occurs on nanometric scale. The biological characterization was carried out as a function of the polymer amount to study its influence on material behavior. The results showed that the synthesized materials were bioactive and biocompatible. The formation of a hydroxyapatite layer, indeed, was observed on their surface by SEM/EDX analysis after soaking in simulated body fluid. Moreover, the biocompatibility of SiO{sub 2}/PEG hybrids was assessed performing MTT and SRB cytotoxicity tests on fibroblast cell NIH 3T3 after 24 and 48 h of exposure, as well as Trypan Blue dye exclusion test. The response to the presence of the investigated materials was positive. The cell growth and proliferation showed dependence on polymer amount and time of exposure to the material extracts. Therefore, the obtained results are encouraging for the use of the obtained hybrids in dental or orthopedic applications. - Highlights: • SiO{sub 2}/PEG hybrid biomaterials synthesized by sol–gel method at various PEG percentages • Chemical and morphological characterization of hybrid materials • Chemical interactions between inorganic and organic components • Biological characterizations with MTT and SRB cytotoxicity tests

  9. Hybrid-SAR Technique: Joint Analysis Using Phase-Based and Amplitude-Based Methods for the Xishancun Giant Landslide Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengteng Qu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Early detection and early warning are of great importance in giant landslide monitoring because of the unexpectedness and concealed nature of large-scale landslides. In China, the western mountainous areas are prone to landslides and feature many giant complex landslides, especially following the Wenchuan Earthquake in 2008. This work concentrates on a new technique, known as the “hybrid-SAR technique”, that combines both phase-based and amplitude-based methods to detect and monitor large-scale landslides in Li County, Sichuan Province, southwestern China. This work aims to develop a robust methodological approach to promptly identify diverse landslides with different deformation magnitudes, sliding modes and slope geometries, even when the available satellite data are limited. The phase-based and amplitude-based techniques are used to obtain the landslide displacements from six TerraSAR-X Stripmap descending scenes acquired from November 2014 to March 2015. Furthermore, the application circumstances and influence factors of hybrid-SAR are evaluated according to four aspects: (1 quality of terrain visibility to the radar sensor; (2 landslide deformation magnitude and different sliding mode; (3 impact of dense vegetation cover; and (4 sliding direction sensitivity. The results achieved from hybrid-SAR are consistent with in situ measurements. This new hybrid-SAR technique for complex giant landslide research successfully identified representative movement areas, e.g., an extremely slow earthflow and a creeping region with a displacement rate of 1 cm per month and a typical rotational slide with a displacement rate of 2–3 cm per month downwards and towards the riverbank. Hybrid-SAR allows for a comprehensive and preliminary identification of areas with significant movement and provides reliable data support for the forecasting and monitoring of landslides.

  10. Attitude Fusion Techniques for Spacecraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnø, Jonas Bækby

    Spacecraft platform instability constitutes one of the most significant limiting factors in hyperacuity pointing and tracking applications, yet the demand for accurate, timely and reliable attitude information is ever increasing. The PhD research project described within this dissertation has...... served to investigate the solution space for augmenting the DTU μASC stellar reference sensor with a miniature Inertial Reference Unit (IRU), thereby obtaining improved bandwidth, accuracy and overall operational robustness of the fused instrument. Present day attitude determination requirements are met...... of the instrument, and affecting operations during agile and complex spacecraft attitude maneuvers. As such, there exists a theoretical foundation for augmenting the high frequency performance of the μASC instrument, by harnessing the complementary nature of optical stellar reference and inertial sensor technology...

  11. Attomolar electrochemical detection of the BCR/ABL fusion gene based on an amplifying self-signal metal nanoparticle-conducting polymer hybrid composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelino, Karen Y P S; Frias, Isaac A M; Lucena-Silva, Norma; Gomes, Renan G; de Melo, Celso P; Oliveira, Maria D L; Andrade, César A S

    2016-12-01

    In the last ten years, conjugated polymers started to be used in the immobilization of nucleic acids via non-covalent interactions. In the present study, we describe the construction and use of an electrochemical DNA biosensor based on a nanostructured polyaniline-gold composite, specifically developed for the detection of the BCR/ABL chimeric oncogene. This chromosome translocation is used as a biomarker to confirm the clinical diagnosis of both chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). The working principle of the biosensor rests on measuring the conductivity resulting from the non-covalent interactions between the hybrid nanocomposite and the DNA probe. The nanostructured platform exhibits a large surface area that enhances the conductivity. Positive cases, which result from the hybridization between DNA probe and targeted gene, induce changes in the amperometric current and in the charge transfer resistance (RCT) responses. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images showed changes in the genosensor surface after exposure to cDNA sample of patient with leukemia, evidencing the hybridization process. This new hybrid sensing-platform displayed high specificity and selectivity, and its detection limit is estimated to be as low as 69.4 aM. The biosensor showed excellent analytical performance for the detection of the BCR/ABL oncogene in clinical samples of patients with leukemia. Hence, this electrochemical sensor appears as a simple and attractive tool for the molecular diagnosis of the BCR/ABL oncogene even in early-stage cases of leukemia and for the monitoring of minimum levels of residual disease.

  12. Analysis, control and optimal operations in hybrid power systems advanced techniques and applications for linear and nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bizon, Nicu; Mahdavi Tabatabaei, Naser

    2014-01-01

    This book explains and analyzes the dynamic performance of linear and nonlinear systems, particularly for Power Systems including Hybrid Power Sources. Offers a detailed description of system stability using state space energy conservation principle, and more.

  13. 混合堆增殖钍基燃料组件中子学分析%Neutronics Calculation of Fusion-Fission Hybrid Breeding Thorium Fuel Assemb