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Sample records for hybrid fuel blends

  1. Improved hybrid rocket fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, David L.

    1995-01-01

    McDonnell Douglas Aerospace, as part of its Independent R&D, has initiated development of a clean burning, high performance hybrid fuel for consideration as an alternative to the solid rocket thrust augmentation currently utilized by American space launch systems including Atlas, Delta, Pegasus, Space Shuttle, and Titan. It could also be used in single stage to orbit or as the only propulsion system in a new launch vehicle. Compared to solid propellants based on aluminum and ammonium perchlorate, this fuel is more environmentally benign in that it totally eliminates hydrogen chloride and aluminum oxide by products, producing only water, hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon oxides, and trace amounts of nitrogen oxides. Compared to other hybrid fuel formulations under development, this fuel is cheaper, denser, and faster burning. The specific impulse of this fuel is comparable to other hybrid fuels and is between that of solids and liquids. The fuel also requires less oxygen than similar hybrid fuels to produce maximum specific impulse, thus reducing oxygen delivery system requirements.

  2. Fuel and fuel blending components from biomass derived pyrolysis oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Michael J.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2012-12-11

    A process for the conversion of biomass derived pyrolysis oil to liquid fuel components is presented. The process includes the production of diesel, aviation, and naphtha boiling point range fuels or fuel blending components by two-stage deoxygenation of the pyrolysis oil and separation of the products.

  3. Thermal characterizations of the paraffin wax/low density polyethylene blends as a solid fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soojong; Moon, Heejang; Kim, Jinkon, E-mail: jkkim@kau.ac.kr

    2015-08-10

    Highlights: • Regression rate of blends fuel is higher than polymer fuel. • LDPE is an effective mixing ingredient for the combustion efficiency. • Blends fuel is a uniform mixture with two degradation steps. • LDPE plays a positive role for the low sensitivity to the thermal deformation • Blends with low LDPE content can be an effective fuel for hybrid rocket application. - Abstract: Thermal characterizations of a novel solid fuel for hybrid rocket application, based on the paraffin wax blends with low density polyethylene (LDPE) concentration of 5% (SF-5) and 10% (SF-10) were conducted. Both the increased regression rate in comparison with the polymeric fuel, and the improved combustion efficiency in comparison with the pure paraffin fuel reveal that the blend fuels achieve higher combustion performance. The morphology of the shape stabilized paraffin wax/LDPE blends was characterized by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Although the SEM observation indicated the blends have uniform mixtures, they showed two degradation steps confirming the immiscibility of components in the crystalline phase from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) results showed that the melting temperature of LDPE in the blends decreased with an increase of paraffin wax content. The decreasing total specific melting enthalpy of blended fuels with decreasing paraffin wax content is in fairly good agreement with the additive rule. In thermomechanical analysis (TMA), the linear coefficient of thermal expansion (LCTE) seems to decrease with an increase of LDPE loading, however, the loaded LDPE do merely affect the LCTE in case of the blends with low LDPE concentration. It was found that a blend of low concentration of LDPE with a relatively high concentration of paraffin wax can lead to a potential novel fuel for rocket application, a contrary case with respect to the field of phase change materials (PCM) where a blend of high concentration

  4. Special Issue: Bio-blended Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Andersen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available There are indications that blending biofuels into fossil fuels make the exhaust more toxic, in comparison with exhaust from pure fuels. The basis for this is not known, but research points to the creation of new types of emission components, facilitating easier entry of carcinogens(e.g. PAHsinto lung cells. It is urgent to provide new knowledge of this unintended consequence of the much adhered to policy of bio-blending for implementation of renewable energy in the transport sector. This reason for the urgency is that this policy is likely to violate the precautionary principle.

  5. Refining and blending of aviation turbine fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R D

    1999-02-01

    Aviation turbine fuels (jet fuels) are similar to other petroleum products that have a boiling range of approximately 300F to 550F. Kerosene and No.1 grades of fuel oil, diesel fuel, and gas turbine oil share many similar physical and chemical properties with jet fuel. The similarity among these products should allow toxicology data on one material to be extrapolated to the others. Refineries in the USA manufacture jet fuel to meet industry standard specifications. Civilian aircraft primarily use Jet A or Jet A-1 fuel as defined by ASTM D 1655. Military aircraft use JP-5 or JP-8 fuel as defined by MIL-T-5624R or MIL-T-83133D respectively. The freezing point and flash point are the principle differences between the finished fuels. Common refinery processes that produce jet fuel include distillation, caustic treatment, hydrotreating, and hydrocracking. Each of these refining processes may be the final step to produce jet fuel. Sometimes blending of two or more of these refinery process streams are needed to produce jet fuel that meets the desired specifications. Chemical additives allowed for use in jet fuel are also defined in the product specifications. In many cases, the customer rather than the refinery will put additives into the fuel to meet their specific storage or flight condition requirements.

  6. Hybrid reactors. [Fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-09-09

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of /sup 233/U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m/sup -2/, and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid.

  7. Alcohol-to-Jet (ATJ) Fuel Blending Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Synthetic Fuel, JP-8, diesel engine , combustion 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF...stock into JP-8 in order to understand the effect ATJ fuel blends will have on ground vehicle engines and support equipment. This subtask under Work...paraffinic ATJ blending stock into JP-8 in order to understand the effect ATJ fuel blends will have on ground vehicle engines and support equipment. This

  8. Hybrid Fuel Cell Technology Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None available

    2001-05-31

    For the purpose of this STI product and unless otherwise stated, hybrid fuel cell systems are power generation systems in which a high temperature fuel cell is combined with another power generating technology. The resulting system exhibits a synergism in which the combination performs with an efficiency far greater than can be provided by either system alone. Hybrid fuel cell designs under development include fuel cell with gas turbine, fuel cell with reciprocating (piston) engine, and designs that combine different fuel cell technologies. Hybrid systems have been extensively analyzed and studied over the past five years by the Department of Energy (DOE), industry, and others. These efforts have revealed that this combination is capable of providing remarkably high efficiencies. This attribute, combined with an inherent low level of pollutant emission, suggests that hybrid systems are likely to serve as the next generation of advanced power generation systems.

  9. Fuel briquettes from biomass-lignite blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaman, S.; Haykiri-Acma, H.; Sesen, K.; Kuecuekbayrak, S. [Chemical Engineering Department, Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty, Istanbul Technical University, Maslak, 80626 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2001-08-01

    In this study, a western Turkish lignite (Kuetahya-Seyitoemer) was blended with some biomass samples such as molasses, pine cone, olive refuse, sawdust, paper mill waste, and cotton refuse, and these blends was used in the production of fuel briquettes. Blends were subjected to briquetting pressures between 50 and 250 MPa; the ratio of biomass to lignite was changed between 0 and 30 wt.%. The mechanical strength of obtained briquettes was investigated considering shatter index and compressive strength. Effects of the ratio of biomass to lignite and applied pressure on the strength of the briquettes were examined. This study indicated that the mechanical strength of the briquettes produced from Kuetahya-Seyitoemer lignite can be improved by adding some biomass samples. For example, the presence of paper mill waste increased the shatter index of the briquettes obtained. Similarly, sawdust and paper mill waste increased compressive strength of the briquettes. Water resistance of the briquettes can be augmented by adding olive refuse, cotton refuse, pine cone or paper mill waste.

  10. Characterization of an Experimental Referee Broadened Specification (ERBS) aviation turbine fuel and ERBS fuel blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, G. T.

    1982-01-01

    Characterization data and comparisons of these data are presented for three individual lots of a research test fuel designated as an Experimental Referee Broadened Specification (ERBS) aviation turbine fuel. This research fuel, which is a blend of kerosene and hydrotreated catalytic gas oil, is a representation of a kerojet fuel with broadened properties. To lower the hydrogen content of the ERBS fuel, a blending stock, composed of xylene bottoms and hydrotreated catalytic gas oil, was developed and employed to produce two different ERBS fuel blends. The ERBS fuel blends and the blending stock were also characterized and the results for the blends are compared to those of the original ERBS fuel. The characterization results indicate that with the exception of the freezing point for ERBS lot 2, which was slightly high, the three lots, produced over a 2 year period, met all general fuel requirements. However, although the properties of the fuels were found to be fairly consistent, there were differences in composition. Similarly, all major requirements for the ERBS fuel blends were met or closely approached, and the properties of the blended fuels were found to generally reflect those expected for the proportions of ERBS fuel and blending stock used in their production.

  11. INVESTIGATION OF LAMINAR FLAME SPEED OF ALTERNATIVE LIQUID FUEL BLENDS

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The rapid fluctuation in oil prices and increased demand of clean fuels to reduce emissions has forced the researchers to find alternative fuels that can give the same or better overall fuel characteristics. This thesis aims at looking into the prospects of Gas to Liquid (GTL) fuel as an alternative fuel for Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs), by investigating the flame speed of GTL fuel and its 50/50 (by volume) blend with conventional diesel. The tests were conducted in a new...

  12. Characterization of particle size distribution from diesel engines fueled with palm-biodiesel blends and paraffinic fuel blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Chia-Fon; Fang, Tiegang

    Biodiesels are promoted as alternative fuels and their applications in diesel engines have been investigated by many researchers. However, the particle size distribution emitted from heavy-duty diesel engines fueled with palm-biodiesel blended with premium diesel fuel and paraffinic fuel blended with palm-biodiesel has seldom been addressed. Thus, five test fuels were used in this work to study the particle size distribution: D100 (premium diesel fuel), B100 (100% palm-biodiesel), B20 (20 vol% palm-biodiesel+80 vol% D100), BP9505 (95 vol% paraffinic fuel+5 vol% palm-biodiesel) and BP8020 (80 vol% paraffinic fuel+20 vol% palm-biodiesel). A Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) equipped with aluminum filters was used to collect size-resolved samples. Experimental results indicated that palm-biodiesel blends and paraffinic fuel blends could improve combustion efficiency in diesel engines, but pure palm-biodiesel could cause incomplete combustion. Adding palm-biodiesel to diesel fuel would slightly increase particles with diameter matter of BP9505 and BP8020 existed in coarse particles (diameter: 2.5-10 μm). Energy efficiency also increases significantly by 12.3-15.1% with the introduction of paraffinic fuel blends into the engine. Nevertheless, paraffinic fuel blends also reduce the emission of particulate matters by 36.0-38.4%. Carbon monoxide was decreased by 36.8-48.5%. Total hydrocarbon is 39.6-41.7% less than diesel fuel combustion. Nitrogen oxides emission is about 5% lower for paraffinic fuel. These results show that paraffinic fuel can be very competitive and replaced diesel fuels in the future.

  13. Preparation and emission characteristics of ethanol-diesel fuel blends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Run-duo; HE Hong; SHI Xiao-yan; ZHANG Chang-bin; HE Bang-quan; WANG Jian-xin

    2004-01-01

    The preparation of ethanol-diesel fuel blends and their emission characteristics were investigated. Results showed the absolute ethanol can dissolve in diesel fuel at an arbitrary ratio and a small quantity of water(0.2%) addition can lead to the phase separation of blends. An organic additive was synthesized and it can develop the ability of resistance to water and maintain the stability of ethanol-diesel-trace amounts of water system. The emission characteristics of 10%, 20%, and 30% ethanol-diesel fuel blends, with or without additives, were compared with those of diesel fuel in a direct injection(DI) diesel engine. The experimental results indicated that the blend of ethanol with diesel fuel significantly reduced the concentrations of smoke, hydrocarbon(HC), and carbon monoxide(CO) in exhaust gas. Using 20% ethanol-diesel fuel blend with the additive of 2% of the total volume, the optimum mixing ratio was achieved, at which the bench diesel engine testing showed a significant decrease in exhaust gas. Bosch smoke number was reduced by 55%, HC emission by 70%, and CO emission by 45%, at 13 kW/1540 r/min. However, ethanol-diesel fuel blends produced a few ppm acetaldehydes and more ethanol in exhaust gas.

  14. Systematic Methodology for Design of Tailor-Made Blended Products: Fuels and Other Blended Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yunus, Nor Alafiza Binti

    A tailor-made blended liquid product is defined as a formulation of various chemicals in the liquid state to obtain a liquid mixture with a specific set of desired characteristics and qualities. Examples of blended liquid products are synthetic fuels and lubricants. This type of products is very ...... methodology and tools was tested through two case studies. In the first case study, two different gasoline blend problems have been solved. In the second case study, four different lubricant design problems have been solved....

  15. Antimisting kerosene: Base fuel effects, blending and quality control techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavrouian, A. H.; Ernest, J.; Sarohia, V.

    1984-01-01

    The problems associated with blending of the AMK additive with Jet A, and the base fuel effects on AMK properties are addressed. The results from the evaluation of some of the quality control techniques for AMK are presented. The principal conclusions of this investigation are: significant compositional differences for base fuel (Jet A) within the ASTM specification DI655; higher aromatic content of the base fuel was found to be beneficial for the polymer dissolution at ambient (20 C) temperature; using static mixer technology, the antimisting additive (FM-9) is in-line blended with Jet A, producing AMK which has adequate fire-protection properties 15 to 20 minutes after blending; degradability of freshly blended and equilibrated AMK indicated that maximum degradability is reached after adequate fire protection is obtained; the results of AMK degradability as measured by filter ratio, confirmed previous RAE data that power requirements to decade freshly blended AMK are significantly higher than equilibrated AMK; blending of the additive by using FM-9 concentrate in Jet A produces equilibrated AMK almost instantly; nephelometry offers a simple continuous monitoring capability and is used as a real time quality control device for AMK; and trajectory (jet thurst) and pressure drop tests are useful laboratory techniques for evaluating AMK quality.

  16. Effects of biomass type, blend composition, and co-pyrolysis temperature on hybrid coal quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasongko, Dwiwahju; Wulandari, Winny; Rubani, Inga Shaffira; Rusydiansyah, Rifqi

    2017-01-01

    An experimental study on co-pyrolysis of coal with biomass wastes to produce hybrid coal was conducted to investigate the effects of important process variables, namely biomass type (rice husk and sawdust), blend composition, and co-pyrolysis temperature on the quality of hybrid coal. The experiments were carried out using a vertical tubular furnace equipped with temperature controller to maintain the co-pyrolysis reactor at a given temperature. Nitrogen gas was introduced into the furnace to create an inert environment preventing the sample from burning. A known mass of solid sample consisting of manually granulated blend of coal and biomass with binder in spherical shape was contained in a basket made of stainless sieve. After a given residence time, the sample was taken from the furnace. The blend sample prior to experiment and the produced hybrid coal were then characterized for its proximate analysis, ultimate analysis and calorific value. Experimental findings suggested that by increasing co-pyrolysis temperature from 200 to 400 °C, the calorific value of hybrid coal will increase by 14.5-17.7% to be 5585-7060 kcal/kg. It was also showed that 30% increase in the biomass content in the fuel blend would produce a hybrid coal that emitting up to 25.9% less in CO2 when used for combustion, although its calorific value decreased down to 8% compared to the biomass blend. It is shown that hybrid coal obtained from this study is comparable in calorific value to bituminous coal, thus suitable for power plant while being more environmentally friendly.

  17. Heterogeneous fuel for hybrid rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickler, David B. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    Heterogeneous fuel compositions suitable for use in hybrid rocket engines and solid-fuel ramjet engines, The compositions include mixtures of a continuous phase, which forms a solid matrix, and a dispersed phase permanently distributed therein. The dispersed phase or the matrix vaporizes (or melts) and disperses into the gas flow much more rapidly than the other, creating depressions, voids and bumps within and on the surface of the remaining bulk material that continuously roughen its surface, This effect substantially enhances heat transfer from the combusting gas flow to the fuel surface, producing a correspondingly high burning rate, The dispersed phase may include solid particles, entrained liquid droplets, or gas-phase voids having dimensions roughly similar to the displacement scale height of the gas-flow boundary layer generated during combustion.

  18. Investigation of Lubrication Properties of Petroleum Fuel and Biohydrocarbon Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawron Bartosz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper covers issues regarding lubricity of petroleum fuels used in piston and turbine engines, containing hydrocarbon biocomponents. Basing on available literature it can be said that the most prospective fuel components are biohydrocarbons. The paper describes effect of biohydrocarbons included in aviation fuel and diesel fuel on lubricity of such blends. The analysis covers two processes for obtaining biohydrocarbons, the HVO and the Fischer-Tropsch process. Due to problems with actual products acquiring, biohydrocarbons models representing chemically the actual ones from specific process. Lubricity testing was carried out according to standard test methods.

  19. Regulated and unregulated emissions from a diesel engine fueled with diesel fuel blended with diethyl adipate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ruijun; Cheung, C. S.; Huang, Zuohua; Wang, Xibin

    2011-04-01

    Experiments were carried out on a four-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine operating on Euro V diesel fuel blended with diethyl adipate (DEA). The blended fuels contain 8.1%, 16.4%, 25% and 33.8% by volume fraction of DEA, corresponding to 3%, 6%, 9% and 12% by mass of oxygen in the blends. The engine performance and exhaust gas emissions of the different fuels were investigated at five engine loads at a steady speed of 1800 rev/min. The results indicated an increase of brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency when the engine was fueled with the blended fuels. In comparison with diesel fuel, the blended fuels resulted in an increase in hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO), but a decrease in particulate mass concentrations. The nitrogen oxides (NO x) emission experienced a slight variation among the test fuels. In regard to the unregulated gaseous emissions, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde increased, while 1,3-butadiene, ethene, ethyne, propylene and BTX (benzene, toluene and xylene) in general decreased. A diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) was found to reduce significantly most of the investigated unregulated pollutants when the exhaust gas temperature was sufficiently high.

  20. 76 FR 78290 - Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Usage of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Within Marine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Usage of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Within... technology enhancements, performance, costs, and other issues associated with using biodiesel fuel blends in... notice (investigating the use of biodiesel fuel blends in marine inboard engines) must reach the...

  1. Comparison of hybrid blends for solar cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lechmann, M. C.; Gutmann, J. S. [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Mainz (Germany); Institute for Physical Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz (Germany); Koll, D.; Tremel, W. [Institute for Inorganic Chemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz (Germany); Kessler, D. [Institute for Organic Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz (Germany); Theato, P. [Institute for Organic Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz (Germany); School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, WCU program of Chemical Convergence for Energy and Environment (C2E2), College of Engineering, Seoul National University, 151-744 Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    In blended hybrid systems distinct micro- or nanostructured materials can be formed by phase separation. Network structures of particles or rods in a polymer matrix can be developed via self-assembly. We use this blending approach to compare active materials for application in solar cell devices. Blends were fabricated from either poly(hexylthiophene) P3HT or poly(triphenylamine) PTPA mixed with nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} rods. In this manner, we compare two different hole conducting polymers in their performance in photovoltaic devices, while experimental conditions are kept identical. We find that the choice of solvent and photovoltaic characterization conducted in inert atmosphere is of importance for blends prepared from P3HT/TiO{sub 2} blends, but not for PTPA/TiO{sub 2} blends. Even though prepared with the same TiO{sub 2} rods, solar cells prepared from PTPA blends showed an enhanced efficiency when measured under ambient conditions. Furthermore, the PTPA/TiO{sub 2} showed higher long-term stability. (author)

  2. Comparison of Hybrid Blends for Solar Cell Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. Lechmann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In blended hybrid systems distinct micro- or nanostructured materials can be formed by phase separation. Network structures of particles or rods in a polymer matrix can be developed via self-assembly. We use this blending approach to compare active materials for application in solar cell devices. Blends were fabricated from either poly(hexylthiophene P3HT or poly(triphenylamine PTPA mixed with nanocrystalline TiO2 rods. In this manner, we compare two different hole conducting polymers in their performance in photovoltaic devices, while experimental conditions are kept identical. We find that the choice of solvent and photovoltaic characterization conducted in inert atmosphere is of importance for blends prepared from P3HT/TiO2 blends, but not for PTPA/TiO2 blends. Even though prepared with the same TiO2 rods, solar cells prepared from PTPA blends showed an enhanced efficiency when measured under ambient conditions. Furthermore, the PTPA/TiO2 showed higher long-term stability.

  3. Assessments of Fuels for Military Use Preparation and Distribution of Synthetic Fuel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Kerosene (SPK), Hydrotreated Renewable Jet Fuel, JP-8 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME...Cylinder Lubricity Evaluator cSt Centistokes DCN Derived Cetane Number HFRR High Frequency Reciprocating Test Rig HRJ Hydrotreated Renewable Jet...3.3 HEFA-SPK (HRJ) BLENDS TFLRF prepared several 50/50 % blends of hydrotreated renewable jet fuel (HRJ) and JP-8. Both HRJ-8 and HRJ-5 were

  4. Low-Temperature Miscibility of Ethanol-Gasoline-Water Blends in Flex Fuel Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T.; Schramm, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    The miscibility of blends of gasoline and hydrous ethanol was investigated experimentally at - 25 degrees C and - 2 degrees C. Furthermore, the maximum water content was found for ethanol in flex fuel blends. The results strongly indicate that blends containing ethanol with a water content above...... that of the ethanol/water azeotrope (4.4% water by mass) can be used as Flex Fuel blends together with gasoline at ambient temperatures of 25 degrees C and 2 degrees C, without phase separation occurring. Additionally, it was shown that the ethanol purity requirement of ethanol-rich flex fuel blends falls...... with increasing ethanol content in the gasoline-rich flex fuel blend....

  5. Fuel consumption of gasoline ethanol blends at different engine rotational

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Barakat

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fuel consumption (mf kg/h was estimated for two hydrocarbon gasolines (BG1-OE and BG2-OE and their ethanol blends which contain from 4 to 20 vol.% of ethanol. Fuel consumption experiments for sixteen fuel samples (5 L each, were conducted on a four cylinder, four stroke spark ignition test vehicle Sahin car, Type 1.45, model 2001. The engine has a swept volume of 1400 c.c., a compression ratio of 8.3:1 and a maximum power of 78 HP at 5500 rpm. The obtained data reveal that the relation between fuel consumption and ethanol concentration is linear. Six linear equations for BG1-ethanol blends and BG2-ethanol ones at the investigated rotational speeds, were developed. Fuel consumption values of the first set of gasoline-ethanol blends are lower than that of the second set. This may be attributed to the difference in the chemical composition of base gasolines BG1 in the first set which is enriched in the less volatile reformate if compared with the second set which is more enriched in isomerate, the more volatile refinery stream.

  6. Performance, emission and economic assessment of clove stem oil-diesel blended fuels as alternative fuels for diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbarawa, Makame [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)

    2008-05-15

    In this study the performance, emission and economic evaluation of using the clove stem oil (CSO)-diesel blended fuels as alternative fuels for diesel engine have been carried out. Experiments were performed to evaluate the impact of the CSO-diesel blended fuels on the engine performance and emissions. The societal life cycle cost (LCC) was chosen as an important indicator for comparing alternative fuel operating modes. The LCC using the pure diesel fuel, 25% CSO and 50% CSO-diesel blended fuels in diesel engine are analysed. These costs include the vehicle first cost, fuel cost and exhaust emissions cost. A complete macroeconomic assessment of the effect of introducing the CSO-diesel blended fuels to the diesel engine is not included in the study. Engine tests show that performance parameters of the CSO-diesel blended fuels do not differ greatly from those of the pure diesel fuel. Slight power losses, combined with an increase in fuel consumption, were experienced with the CSO-diesel blended fuels. This is due to the low heating value of the CSO-diesel blended fuels. Emissions of CO and HC are low for the CSO-diesel blended fuels. NO{sub x} emissions were increased remarkably when the engine was fuelled with the 50% CSO-diesel blended fuel operation mode. A remarkable reduction in the exhaust smoke emissions can be achieved when operating on the CSO-diesel blended fuels. Based on the LCC analysis, the CSO-diesel blended fuels would not be competitive with the pure diesel fuel, even though the environmental impact of emission is valued monetarily. This is due to the high price of the CSO. (author)

  7. INVESTIGATION ON THE FLAME EXTINCTION LIMIT OF FUEL BLENDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahsan R. Choudhuri

    2005-02-01

    Lean flame extinction limits of binary fuel mixtures of methane (CH{sub 4}), propane (C{sub 3}H{sub 8}), and ethane (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}) were measured using a twin-flame counter-flow burner. Experiments were conducted to generate an extinction equivalence ratio vs. global stretch rate plot and an extrapolation method was used to calculate the equivalence ratio corresponding to an experimentally unattainable zero-stretch condition. The foregoing gases were selected because they are the primary constitutes of natural gas, which is the primary focus of the present study. To validate the experimental setup and methodology, the flame extinction limit of pure fuels at zero stretch conditions were also estimated and compared with published values. The lean flame extinction limits of methane (f{sub ext} = 4.6%) and propane (f{sub ext} = 2.25%) flames measured in the present study agreed with the values reported in the literature. It was observed that the flame extinction limit of fuel blends have a polynomial relation with the concentration of component fuels in the mixture. This behavior contradicts with the commonly used linear Le Chatelier's approximation. The experimentally determined polynomial relations between the flame extinction limits of fuel blends (i.e. methane-propane and methane-ethane) and methane concentration are as follows: (1) Methane-Propane--%f{sub ext} = (1.05 x 10{sup -9}) f{sup 5}-(1.3644 x 10{sup -7}) f{sup 4}+(6.40299 x 10{sup -6}) f{sup 3}-(1.2108459 x 10{sup -4}) f{sup 2}+(2.87305329 x 10{sup -3}) f+2.2483; (2) Methane-Ethane--%f{sub ext} = (2.1 x 10{sup -9})f{sup 5}-(3.5752 x 10{sup -7}) f{sup 4}+(2.095425 x 10{sup -5}) f{sup 3}-(5.037353 x 10{sup -4}) f{sup 2} + 6.08980409 f + 2.8923. Where f{sub ext} is the extinction limits of methane-propane and methane-ethane fuel blends, and f is the concentration (% volume) of methane in the fuel mixture. The relations were obtained by fitting fifth order curve (polynomial regression) to

  8. A hybrid multi-criteria decision modeling approach for the best biodiesel blend selection based on ANP-TOPSIS analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sakthivel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The ever increasing demand and depletion of fossil fuels had an adverse impact on environmental pollution. The selection of appropriate source of biodiesel and proper blending of biodiesel plays a major role in alternate energy production. This paper describes an application of hybrid Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM technique for the selection of optimum fuel blend in fish oil biodiesel for the IC engine. The proposed model, Analytical Network Process (ANP is integrated with Technique for Order Performance by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS and VlseKriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje (in Serbian (VIKOR to evaluate the optimum blend. Evaluation of suitable blend is based on the exploratory analysis of the performance, emission and combustion parameters of the single cylinder, constant speed direct injection diesel engine at different load conditions. Here the ANP is used to determine the relative weights of the criteria, whereas TOPSIS and VIKOR are used for obtaining the final ranking of alternative blends. An efficient pair-wise comparison process and ranking of alternatives can be achieved for optimum blend selection through the integration of ANP with TOPSIS and VIKOR. The obtained preference order of the blends for ANP-VIKOR and ANP-TOPSIS are B20 > Diesel > B40 > B60 > B80 > B100 and B20 > B40 > Diesel > B60 > B80 > B100 respectively. Hence by comparing both these methods, B20 is selected as the best blend to operate the internal combustion engines. This paper highlights a new insight into MCDM techniques to evaluate the best fuel blend for the decision makers such as engine manufactures and R& D engineers to meet the fuel economy and emission norms to empower the green revolution.

  9. Blend Concepts for Fuel Cell Membranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Kerres

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) are an alternative to lithium ion batteries as energy supply for mobile applications such as laptops, PDA's and cellphones. It would be advantageous if pure or highly concentrated methanol could be used as the fuel in these DMFC, due to the high energy density of meOH. However, most of the ionomer membranes used up to now as proton conductor in DMFC can not withstand pure or highly concentrated methanol due to extreme swelling or even dissolution under these conditions. Therefore it is required to prepare H+ -conducting membranes which remain dimensionally stable in pure or highly concentrated methanol. One way to approach this goal is to cross-link the ionomer membranes so that the swelling under the desired methanol-rich conditions is limited.

  10. Evaluation of Cetane Improver Additive in Alternative Jet Fuel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    release: distribution unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The cetane number of aviation fuel remains a top concern to the U.S. Army as...ground equipment due to their low cetane values and are of particular interest in this study. The ATJ/Jet A and IPK/Jet A blends displayed increased...Measurements taken IAW ASTM D7668 showed a minor decrease in DCN, the largest decrease was 0.11 DCN. This measured difference is within the

  11. Effects of Biodiesel Blend on Marine Fuel Characteristics for Marine Vessels

    OpenAIRE

    Cherng-Yuan Lin

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel produced from vegetable oils, animal fats and algae oil is a renewable, environmentally friendly and clean alternative fuel that reduces pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions in marine applications. This study investigates the influence of biodiesel blend on the characteristics of residual and distillate marine fuels. Adequate correlation equations are applied to calculate the fuel properties of the blended marine fuels with biodiesel. Residual marine fuel RMA has inferior fuel ch...

  12. Rheological Properties of Vegetable Oil-Diesel Fuel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Z.; Nguyen, Q. D.

    2008-07-01

    Straight vegetable oils provide cleaner burning and renewable alternatives to diesel fuels, but their inherently high viscosities compared to diesel are undesirable for diesel engines. Lowering the viscosity can be achieved by either increasing the temperature of the oil or by blending it with diesel fuel, or both. In this work the viscosity of diesel fuel and vegetable oil mixtures at differing compositions is measured as a function of temperature to determine a viscosity-temperature-composition relationship for use in design and optimization of heating and fuel injection systems. The oils used are olive, soybean, canola and peanut oils which are commercially available. All samples tested between 20°C and 80°C exhibit time-independent Newtonian behaviour. A modified Arrhenius relationship has been developed to predict the viscosity of the mixtures as functions of temperature and composition.

  13. Identification and quantification of organic chemicals in supplemental fuel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salter, F. [Continental Cement Co., Inc., Hannibal, MO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Continental Cement Company, Inc. (Continental) burns waste fuels to supplement coal in firing the kiln. It is to be expected that federal and state agencies want an accounting of the chemicals burned. As rules and regulations become more plentiful, a company such as Continental must demonstrate that it has made a reasonable attempt to identify and quantify many specific organic compounds. The chemicals on the SARA 313 list can change frequently. Also the number and concentrations of compounds that can disqualify a material from consideration as a supplemental fuel at Continental continues to change. A quick and reliable method of identifying and quantifying organics in waste fuel blends is therefore crucial. Using a Hewlett-Packard 5972 GC/MS system Continental has developed a method of generating values for the total weight of compounds burned. A similar procedure is used to verify that waste streams meet Continental`s acceptance criteria.

  14. Fuel Savings from Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, K.; Thornton, M.

    2009-03-01

    NREL's study shows that hybrid electric vehicles can significantly reduce oil imports for use in light-duty vehicles, particularly if drivers switch to smaller, more fuel-efficient vehicles overall.

  15. Liquid fuel utilization in SOFC hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santin, Marco; Traverso, Alberto; Magistri, Loredana [TPG-DIMSET, University of Genoa, Via Montallegro 1, 16145 Genoa (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    The interest in solid oxide fuel cell systems comes from their capability of converting the chemical energy of traditional fuels into electricity, with high efficiency and low pollutant emissions. In this paper, a study of the design space of solid oxide fuel cell and gas turbine hybrids fed by methanol and kerosene is presented for stationary power generation in isolated areas (or transportation). A 500 kW class hybrid system was analysed using WTEMP original software developed by the Thermochemical Power Group of the University of Genoa. The choice of fuel-processing strategy and the influence of the main design parameters on the thermoeconomic characteristics of hybrid systems were investigated. The low capital and fuel cost of methanol systems make them the most attractive solutions among those investigated here. (author)

  16. Developing a Blended Type Course of Introduction to Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Zhu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An innovative course of introduction to hybrid vehicles is developed for both associate and bachelor degree programs for engineering technology with automotive/mechanical concentration. The hybrid vehicle course content includes several topics, such as the rational of pure electric vehicle and hybrid vehicle, hybrid vehicle propulsion systems, fundamentals of motor/generator systems, fundamentals of battery and energy management system, and introduction to various configurations of hybrid vehicle systems available in market and under development. Hybrid vehicle technology is a new area and developed rapidly in the field of automotive and mechanical engineering. Students need not only the fundamentals and concepts from college, but also the ability to keep up with the latest technology after their graduation. Therefore, a blended course type is employed to help students have a better understanding of the fundamentals of hybrid vehicle and developing their self-studying ability. Topics in the course have three steps of learning. Firstly, on-ground lecture is given in class, where the instructor explains basic knowledge, such as principles, equations, and design rules.  In this way, the students will have enough background knowledge and be able to conduct further self-reading and research work. Secondly, students are required to go to university’s desire to learn (D2L online system and finish the online part of the topic. In the D2L system, students will find a quiz and its supporting materials. Thirdly, students come back to the on-ground lecture and discuss the quiz in groups with instructor. After the discussion, the instructor gives students a conclusion of the topic and moves forward to the next topic. A computer simulation class is also given to help student better understand the operation strategies of the hybrid vehicle systems and have a trial of design of hybrid vehicle.

  17. Fuel property enhancement of biodiesel fuels from common and alternative feedstocks via complementary blending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel) prepared from field pennycress and meadowfoam seed oils were blended with methyl esters from camelina, cottonseed, palm, and soybean oils in an effort to ameliorate technical deficiencies inherent to these biodiesel fuels. For instance, camelina, cottonseed, and ...

  18. IMPACT OF DME-DIESEL FUEL BLEND PROPERTIES ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elana M. Chapman; Andre Boehman; Kimberly Wain; Wallis Lloyd; Joseph M. Perez; Donald Stiver; Joseph Conway

    2004-04-01

    The objectives of this research program are to develop information on lubricity and viscosity improvers and their impact on the wear mechanisms in fuel injectors operating on blends of dimethyl ether (DME) and diesel fuel. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In the shuttle bus project, we have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Our strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. In this project, we have sought to develop methods for extending the permissible DME content in the DME-diesel blends without experiencing rapid injector failure due to wear. Our activities have covered three areas: examination of the impact of lubricity additives on the viscosity of DME, development of a high-pressure lubricity test apparatus for studies of lubricity and viscosity improvers and development of an injector durability stand for evaluation of wear rates in fuel injectors. The first two of these areas have resulted in valuable information about the limitations of lubricity and viscosity additives that are presently available in terms of their impact on the viscosity of DME and on wear rates on injector hardware. The third area, that of development of an injector durability test stand, has not resulted in a functioning experiment. Some information is provided in this report to identify the remaining tasks that need to be performed to make the injector stand operational. The key observations from the work are that when blended at 25 wt.% in either diesel fuel or Biodiesel fuel, DME requires more than 5 wt

  19. Effects of Biodiesel Blend on Marine Fuel Characteristics for Marine Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherng-Yuan Lin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel produced from vegetable oils, animal fats and algae oil is a renewable, environmentally friendly and clean alternative fuel that reduces pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions in marine applications. This study investigates the influence of biodiesel blend on the characteristics of residual and distillate marine fuels. Adequate correlation equations are applied to calculate the fuel properties of the blended marine fuels with biodiesel. Residual marine fuel RMA has inferior fuel characteristics compared with distillate marine fuel DMA and biodiesel. The flash point of marine fuel RMA could be increased by 20% if blended with 20 vol% biodiesel. The sulfur content of residual marine fuel could meet the requirement of the 2008 MARPOL Annex VI Amendment by blending it with 23.0 vol% biodiesel. In addition, the kinematic viscosity of residual marine fuel could be reduced by 12.9% and the carbon residue by 23.6% if 20 vol% and 25 vol% biodiesel are used, respectively. Residual marine fuel blended with 20 vol% biodiesel decreases its lower heating value by 1.9%. Moreover, the fuel properties of residual marine fuel are found to improve more significantly with biodiesel blending than those of distillate marine fuel.

  20. IMPACT OF DME-DIESEL FUEL BLEND PROPERTIES ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elana M. Chapman; Andre Boehman; Kimberly Wain; Wallis Lloyd; Joseph M. Perez; Donald Stiver; Joseph Conway

    2003-06-01

    The objectives of this research program are to develop information on lubricity and viscosity improvers and their impact on the wear mechanisms in fuel injectors operating on blends of dimethyl ether (DME) and diesel fuel. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In the shuttle bus project, we have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Our strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. In this project, we have sought to develop methods for extending the permissible DME content in the DME-diesel blends without experiencing rapid injector failure due to wear. To date, our activities have covered three areas: examination of the impact of lubricity additives on the viscosity of DME, development of a high-pressure lubricity test apparatus for studies of lubricity and viscosity improvers and development of an injector durability stand for evaluation of wear rates in fuel injectors. This report provides summaries of the progress toward evaluation of the viscosity impacts of lubricity additives, completion of both experimental systems and a summary of the plan for completion of the project objectives.

  1. Fuel cell hybrid drive train test facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bruinsma; Edwin Tazelaar; Bram Veenhuizen; I. Zafina; H. Bosma

    2009-01-01

    Fuel cells are expected to play an important role in the near future as prime energy source on board of road-going vehicles. In order to be able to test all important functional aspects of a fuel cell hybrid drive train, the Automotive Institute of the HAN University has decided to realize a

  2. Fuel cell hybrid drive train test facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bruinsma; Edwin Tazelaar; Bram Veenhuizen; I. Zafina; H. Bosma

    2009-01-01

    Fuel cells are expected to play an important role in the near future as prime energy source on board of road-going vehicles. In order to be able to test all important functional aspects of a fuel cell hybrid drive train, the Automotive Institute of the HAN University has decided to realize a station

  3. Applying TSOI Hybrid Learning Model to Enhance Blended Learning Experience in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoi, Mun Fie

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Research on the nature of blended learning and its features has led to a variety of approaches to the practice of blended learning. The purpose of this paper is to provide an alternative practice model, the TSOI hybrid learning model (HLM) to enhance the blended learning experiences in science education. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  4. Performance and emissions analysis on using acetone–gasoline fuel blends in spark-ignition engine

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In this study, new blended fuels were formed by adding 3–10 vol. % of acetone into a regular gasoline. According to the best of the author's knowledge, it is the first time that the influence of acetone blends has been studied in a gasoline-fueled engine. The blended fuels were tested for their energy efficiencies and pollutant emissions using SI (spark-ignition) engine with single-cylinder and 4-stroke. Experimental results showed that the AC3 (3 vol.% acetone + 97 vol.% gasoline) blended fu...

  5. Hybrid and Blended Learning: Modifying Pedagogy across Path, Pace, Time, and Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, W. Ian; Pytash, Kristine E.

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid or blended learning is defined as a pedagogical approach that includes a combination of face-to-face instruction with computer-mediated instruction. The terms "blended learning", "hybrid learning", and "mixed-mode learning" are used interchangeably in current research; however, in the United States,…

  6. Blended/Hybrid Courses: A Review of the Literature and Recommendations for Instructional Designers and Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Samuel A.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores some of the literature on blended/hybrid learning and identifies recommendations for instructional designers and faculty. Terminology and definitions are discussed first including the debate between the words "blended" and "hybrid." A working definition for the article is discussed but the article does not…

  7. Fuel economy of hybrid fuel-cell vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.; Rousseau, A.

    The potential improvement in fuel economy of a mid-size fuel-cell vehicle by combining it with an energy storage system has been assessed. An energy management strategy is developed and used to operate the direct hydrogen, pressurized fuel-cell system in a load-following mode and the energy storage system in a charge-sustaining mode. The strategy places highest priority on maintaining the energy storage system in a state where it can supply unanticipated boost power when the fuel-cell system alone cannot meet the power demand. It is found that downsizing a fuel-cell system decreases its efficiency on a drive cycle which is compensated by partial regenerative capture of braking energy. On a highway cycle with limited braking energy the increase in fuel economy with hybridization is small but on the stop-and-go urban cycle the fuel economy can improve by 27%. On the combined highway and urban drive cycles the fuel economy of the fuel-cell vehicle is estimated to increase by up to 15% by hybridizing it with an energy storage system.

  8. Reducing Fuel Volatility. An Additional Benefit From Blending Bio-fuels?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailis, R. [Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, 195 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Koebl, B.S. [Utrecht University, Science Technology and Society, Budapestlaan 6, 3584 CD Utrecht (Netherlands); Sanders, M. [Utrecht University, Utrecht School of Economics, Janskerkhof 12, 3512 BL Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-02-15

    Oil price volatility harms economic growth. Diversifying into different fuel types can mitigate this effect by reducing volatility in fuel prices. Producing bio-fuels may thus have additional benefits in terms of avoided damage to macro-economic growth. In this study we investigate trends and patterns in the determinants of a volatility gain in order to provide an estimate of the tendency and the size of the volatility gain in the future. The accumulated avoided loss from blending gasoline with 20 percent ethanol-fuel estimated for the US economy amounts to 795 bn. USD between 2010 and 2019 with growing tendency. An amount that should be considered in cost-benefit analysis of bio-fuels.

  9. Experimental investigation of spray characteristics of kerosene and ethanol-blended kerosene using a gas turbine hybrid atomizer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AMLAN GARAI; SUBHADIP PAL; SUDEEPTA MONDAL; SHINJAN GHOSH; SWARNENDU SEN; ACHINTYA MUKHOPADHYAY

    2017-04-01

    Gas turbines have wide application as prime movers in transportation and power generating sectors,most of which are driven by fossil fuels like kerosene. The conventional fuels are associated with problems of air pollution, and the fuel reserves are getting depleted gradually. Addition of ethanol in kerosene leads to better spraying characteristics. The present work deals with the spray characteristics of pure kerosene and 10%-ethanol-blended (by volume) kerosene using a novel gas-turbine hybrid atomizer. Here the inner air and outer airenter in the same and opposite directions, respectively, with respect to the fuel flow direction into the atomizer and a high swirling effect occurs outside the nozzle. The fuel stream is sandwiched between two annular air streams and the flow rate of inner and outer air is varied continuously. Various spray stages like distorted pencil,onion, tulip and fully developed spray regimes have been observed. The breakup length, cone angle and sheet width of the fuel stream are analysed directly from backlit imaging for different fuel and air flow rates. From the image processing, it is observed that breakup occurs at an early stage for 10%-ethanol-blended kerosene due to low viscosity of ethanol. It is also observed that at higher air flow rate, breakup occurs at an early stage due toturbulent nature of the fuel stream.

  10. Effect on Particulate and Gas Emissions by Combusting Biodiesel Blend Fuels Made from Different Plant Oil Feedstocks in a Liquid Fuel Burner

    OpenAIRE

    Norwazan Abdul Rahim; Mohammad Nazri Mohd Jaafar; Syazwan Sapee; Hazir Farouk Elraheem

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the combustion performance of various blends of biodiesel fuels and diesel fuel from lean to rich mixtures. The biodiesel blend fuel combustion experiments were carried out using a liquid fuel burner and biodiesel fuel made from various plant oil feedstocks, including jatropha, palm and coconut oils. The results show that jatropha oil methyl ester blend 25 (JOME B25) and coconut oil methyl ester blend 25 (COME B25) blended at 25% by volume in diesel fuel produced lower c...

  11. Combustion behaviors of a compression-ignition engine fueled with diesel/methanol blends under various fuel delivery advance angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zuohua; Lu, Hongbing; Jiang, Deming; Zeng, Ke; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Junqiang; Wang, Xibin

    2004-12-01

    A stabilized diesel/methanol blend was described and the basic combustion behaviors based on the cylinder pressure analysis was conducted in a compression-ignition engine. The study showed that increasing methanol mass fraction of the diesel/methanol blends would increase the heat release rate in the premixed burning phase and shorten the combustion duration of the diffusive burning phase. The ignition delay increased with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle for both the diesel fuel and the diesel/methanol blends. For a specific fuel delivery advance angle, the ignition delay increased with the increase of the methanol mass fraction (oxygen mass fraction) in the fuel blends and the behaviors were more obvious at low engine load and/or high engine speed. The rapid burn duration and the total combustion duration increased with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle. The centre of the heat release curve was close to the top-dead-centre with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle. Maximum cylinder gas pressure increased with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle, and the maximum cylinder gas pressure of the diesel/methanol blends gave a higher value than that of the diesel fuel. The maximum mean gas temperature remained almost unchanged or had a slight increase with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle, and it only slightly increased for the diesel/methanol blends compared to that of the diesel fuel. The maximum rate of pressure rise and the maximum rate of heat release increased with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle of the diesel/methanol blends and the value was highest for the diesel/methanol blends.

  12. Ignition delay time measurements of primary reference fuel blends

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbad, Mohammed

    2017-02-07

    Ignition delay times of four different primary reference fuels (PRF), mixtures of n-heptane and iso-octane, were measured behind reflected shock waves in a high-pressure shock tube facility. The PRFs were formulated to match the RON of two high-octane gasolines (RON 95 and 91) and two prospective low-octane naphtha fuels (RON 80 and 70). Experiments were carried out over a wide range of temperatures (700–1200K), pressures (10, 20, and 40bar) and equivalence ratios (0.5 and 1). Kinetic modeling predictions from four chemical kinetic mechanisms are compared with the experimental data. Ignition delay correlations are developed to reproduce the measured ignition delay times. Brute force sensitivity analyses are carried out to identify reactions that affect ignition delay times at specific temperature, pressure and equivalence ratio. The large experimental data set provided in the current work will serve as a benchmark for the validation of chemical kinetic mechanisms of primary reference fuel blends.

  13. Modeling of hybrid vehicle fuel economy and fuel engine efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei

    "Near-CV" (i.e., near-conventional vehicle) hybrid vehicles, with an internal combustion engine, and a supplementary storage with low-weight, low-energy but high-power capacity, are analyzed. This design avoids the shortcoming of the "near-EV" and the "dual-mode" hybrid vehicles that need a large energy storage system (in terms of energy capacity and weight). The small storage is used to optimize engine energy management and can provide power when needed. The energy advantage of the "near-CV" design is to reduce reliance on the engine at low power, to enable regenerative braking, and to provide good performance with a small engine. The fuel consumption of internal combustion engines, which might be applied to hybrid vehicles, is analyzed by building simple analytical models that reflect the engines' energy loss characteristics. Both diesel and gasoline engines are modeled. The simple analytical models describe engine fuel consumption at any speed and load point by describing the engine's indicated efficiency and friction. The engine's indicated efficiency and heat loss are described in terms of several easy-to-obtain engine parameters, e.g., compression ratio, displacement, bore and stroke. Engine friction is described in terms of parameters obtained by fitting available fuel measurements on several diesel and spark-ignition engines. The engine models developed are shown to conform closely to experimental fuel consumption and motored friction data. A model of the energy use of "near-CV" hybrid vehicles with different storage mechanism is created, based on simple algebraic description of the components. With powertrain downsizing and hybridization, a "near-CV" hybrid vehicle can obtain a factor of approximately two in overall fuel efficiency (mpg) improvement, without considering reductions in the vehicle load.

  14. Development And Testing Of Biogas-Petrol Blend As An Alternative Fuel For Spark Ignition Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awogbemi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research is on the development and testing of a biogas-petrol blend to run a spark ignition engine. A2080 ratio biogaspetrol blend was developed as an alternative fuel for spark ignition engine test bed. Petrol and biogas-petrol blend were comparatively tested on the test bed to determine the effectiveness of the fuels. The results of the tests showed that biogas petrol blend generated higher torque brake power indicated power brake thermal efficiency and brake mean effective pressure but lower fuel consumption and exhaust temperature than petrol. The research concluded that a spark ignition engine powered by biogas-petrol blend was found to be economical consumed less fuel and contributes to sanitation and production of fertilizer.

  15. Regulated and unregulated emissions from a diesel engine fueled with biodiesel and biodiesel blended with methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, C. S.; Zhu, Lei; Huang, Zhen

    Experiments were carried out on a diesel engine operating on Euro V diesel fuel, pure biodiesel and biodiesel blended with methanol. The blended fuels contain 5%, 10% and 15% by volume of methanol. Experiments were conducted under five engine loads at a steady speed of 1800 rev min -1 to assess the performance and the emissions of the engine associated with the application of the different fuels. The results indicate an increase of brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency when the diesel engine was operated with biodiesel and the blended fuels, compared with the diesel fuel. The blended fuels could lead to higher CO and HC emissions than biodiesel, higher CO emission but lower HC emission than the diesel fuel. There are simultaneous reductions of NO x and PM to a level below those of the diesel fuel. Regarding the unregulated emissions, compared with the diesel fuel, the blended fuels generate higher formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and unburned methanol emissions, lower 1,3-butadiene and benzene emissions, while the toluene and xylene emissions not significantly different.

  16. Bioethanol/gasoline blends for fuelling conventional and hybrid scooter. Regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costagliola, Maria Antonietta; Prati, Maria Vittoria; Murena, Fabio

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this experimental activity was to evaluate the influence of ethanol fuel on the pollutant emissions measured at the exhaust of a conventional and a hybrid scooter. Both scooters are 4-stroke, 125 cm3 of engine capacity and Euro 3 compliant. They were tested on chassis dynamometer for measuring gaseous emissions of CO, HC, NOx, CO2 and some toxic micro organic pollutants, such as benzene, 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. The fuel consumption was estimated throughout a carbon balance on the exhaust species. Moreover, total particles number with diameter between 20 nm up to 1 μm was measured. Worldwide and European test cycles were carried out with both scooters fuelled with gasoline and ethanol/gasoline blends (10/90, 20/80 and 30/70% vol). According to the experimental results relative to both scooter technologies, the addiction of ethanol in gasoline reduces CO and particles number emissions. The combustion of conventional scooter becomes unstable when a percentage of 30%v of bioethanol is fed; as consequence a strong increasing of hydrocarbon is monitored, including carcinogenic species. The negative effects of ethanol fuel are related to the increasing of fuel consumption due to the less carbon content for volume unit and to the increasing of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde due to the higher oxygen availability. Almost 70% of Ozone Formation Potential is covered by alkenes and aromatics.

  17. Improvement of engine emissions with conventional diesel fuel and diesel-biodiesel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Md Nurun; Akhter, Md Shamim; Zaglul Shahadat, Mhia Md

    2006-02-01

    In this report combustion and exhaust emissions with neat diesel fuel and diesel-biodiesel blends have been investigated. In the investigation, firstly biodiesel from non-edible neem oil has been made by esterification. Biodiesel fuel (BDF) is chemically known as mono-alkyl fatty acid ester. It is renewable in nature and is derived from plant oils including vegetable oils. BDF is non-toxic, biodegradable, recycled resource and essentially free from sulfur and carcinogenic benzene. In the second phase of this investigation, experiment has been conducted with neat diesel fuel and diesel-biodiesel blends in a four stroke naturally aspirated (NA) direct injection (DI) diesel engine. Compared with conventional diesel fuel, diesel-biodiesel blends showed lower carbon monoxide (CO), and smoke emissions but higher oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission. However, compared with the diesel fuel, NOx emission with diesel-biodiesel blends was slightly reduced when EGR was applied.

  18. Compatibility Studies of Hydrogen Peroxide and a New Hypergolic Fuel Blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldridge, Jennifer; Villegas, Yvonne

    2002-01-01

    Several preliminary materials compatibility studies have been conducted to determine the practicality of a new hypergolic fuel system. Hypergolic fuel ignites spontaneously as the oxidizer decomposes and releases energy in the presence of the fuel. The bipropellant system tested consists of high-test hydrogen peroxide (HTP) and a liquid fuel blend consisting of a hydrocarbon fuel, an ignition enhancer and a transition metal catalyst. In order for further testing of the new fuel blend to take place, some basic materials compatibility and HTP decomposition studies must be accomplished. The thermal decomposition rate of HTP was tested using gas evolution and isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC). Materials were analyzed for compatibility with hydrogen peroxide including a study of the affect welding has on stainless steel elemental composition and its relation to HTP decomposition. Compatibility studies of valve materials in the fuel blend were performed to determine the corrosion resistance of the materials.

  19. A study on emission characteristics of an EFI engine with ethanol blended gasoline fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bang-Quan; Wang, Jian-Xin; Hao, Ji-Ming; Yan, Xiao-Guang; Xiao, Jian-Hua

    The effect of ethanol blended gasoline fuels on emissions and catalyst conversion efficiencies was investigated in a spark ignition engine with an electronic fuel injection (EFI) system. The addition of ethanol to gasoline fuel enhances the octane number of the blended fuels and changes distillation temperature. Ethanol can decrease engine-out regulated emissions. The fuel containing 30% ethanol by volume can drastically reduce engine-out total hydrocarbon emissions (THC) at operating conditions and engine-out THC, CO and NO x emissions at idle speed, but unburned ethanol and acetaldehyde emissions increase. Pt/Rh based three-way catalysts are effective in reducing acetaldehyde emissions, but the conversion of unburned ethanol is low. Tailpipe emissions of THC, CO and NO x have close relation to engine-out emissions, catalyst conversion efficiency, engine's speed and load, air/fuel equivalence ratio. Moreover, the blended fuels can decrease brake specific energy consumption.

  20. Test Record of Flight Tests Using Alcohol-to-Jet/JP-8 Blended Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    2. Fuel Storage Tank: The fuel storage tanker was completely drained and returned to BakerCorp IAW the lease agreement . 3. Aircraft: The...tests, use of the JP-8/ATJ blend was transparent to all fuel wetted systems including the engines. REFERENCES. 1. Test Record, Alcohol-to-Jet/JP-8

  1. Combustion parameters of spark ignition engine using waste potato bioethanol and gasoline blended fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobadian, B.; Najafi, G.; Abasian, M.; Mamat, R.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the combustion parameters of a SI engine operating on bioethanol-gasoline blends (E0-E20: 20% bioethanol and 80% gasoline by volume). A reactor was designed, fabricated and evaluated for bioethanol production from potato wastes. The results showed that increasing the bioethanol content in the blend fuel will decrease the heating value of the blended fuel and increase the octane number. Combustion parameters were evaluated and analyzed at different engine speeds and loads (1000-5000 rpm). The results revealed that using bioethanol-gasoline blended fuels will increase the cylinder pressure and its 1st and 2nd derivatives (P(θ), P•(θ) and P••(θ)). Moreover, using bioethanol- gasoline blends will increase the heat release (Q•(θ)) and worked of the cycle. This improvement was due to the high oxygen percentage in the ethanol.

  2. Combustion Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Using Propanol Diesel Fuel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthaiyan, Pugazhvadivu; Gomathinayagam, Sankaranarayanan

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the work is to study the use of propanol diesel blends as alternative fuel in a single cylinder diesel engine. In this work, four different propanol diesel blends containing 10, 15, 20 and 25 % propanol in diesel by volume were used as fuels. Load tests were conducted on the diesel engine and the combustion parameters such as cylinder gas pressure, ignition delay, rate of heat release and rate of pressure rise were investigated. The engine performance and emission characteristics were also studied. The propanol diesel blends showed longer ignition delay, higher rates of heat release and pressure rise. The thermal efficiency of the engine decreased marginally with the use of fuel blends. The propanol diesel blends decreased the CO, NOX and smoke emissions of the engine considerably.

  3. [Preparation of ethanol-diesel fuel blends and exhausts emission characteristics in diesel engine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Runduo; He, Hong; Zhang, Changbin; Shi, Xiaoyan

    2003-07-01

    The technology that diesel oil is partly substituted by ethanol can reduce diesel engine exhausts emission, especially fuel soot. This research is concentrated on preparation of ethanol-diesel blend fuel and exhausts emission characteristics using diesel engine bench. Absolute ethanol can dissolve into diesel fuel at an arbitrary ratio. However, a trace of water (0.2%) addition can lead to the phase separation of blends. Organic additive synthesized during this research can develop the ability of resistance to water and maintain the stability of ethanol-diesel-trace amounts of water system. The effects of 10%, 20%, and 30% ethanol-diesel fuel blends on exhausts emission, were compared with that of diesel fuel in direct injection (DI) diesel engine. The optimum ethanol percentage for ethanol-diesel fuel blends was 20%. Using 20% ethanol-diesel fuel blend with 2% additive of the total volume, bench diesel engine showed a large amount decrease of exhaust gas, e.g. 55% of Bosch smoke number, 70% of HC emission, and 45% of CO emission at 13 kW and 1540 r/min. Without the addition of additive, the blend of ethanol produced new organic compounds such as ethanol and acetaldehyde in tail gas. However, the addition of additive obviously reduced the emission of ethanol and acetaldehyde.

  4. Exhaust emissions and fuel properties of partially hydrogenated soybean oil methyl esters blended with ultra low sulfur diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Bryan R. [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, 1815 N University St, Peoria, IL 61604 (United States); Williams, Aaron; McCormick, Robert L. [United States Department of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, ReFUEL Laboratory, 1617 Cole Blvd, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Haas, Michael J. [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center, 600 E Mermaid Ln, Wyndmoor, PA 19038 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    Important fuel properties and emission characteristics of blends (20 vol.%) of soybean oil methyl esters (SME) and partially hydrogenated SME (PHSME) in ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD) were determined and compared with neat ULSD. The following changes were observed for B20 blends of SME and PHSME versus neat ULSD: improved lubricity, higher kinematic viscosity and cetane number, lower sulfur content, and inferior low-temperature properties and oxidative stability. With respect to exhaust emissions, B20 blends of PHSME and SME exhibited lower PM and CO emissions in comparison to those of neat ULSD. The PHSME blend also showed a significant reduction in THC emissions. Both SME and PHSME B20 blends yielded small increases in NO{sub x} emissions. The reduction in double bond content of PHSME did not result in a statistically significant difference in NO{sub x} emissions versus SME at the B20 blend level. The test engine consumed a greater amount of fuel operating on the SME and PHSME blends than on neat ULSD, but the increase was smaller for the PHSME blend. (author)

  5. Exhaust gas emissions and mutagenic effects of modern diesel fuels, GTL, biodiesel and biodiesel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munack, Axel; Ruschel, Yvonne; Schroeder, Olaf [Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries, Braunschweig (Germany)], E-mail: axel.munack@vti.bund.de; Krahl, Juergen [Coburg Univ. of Applied Sciences (Germany); Buenger, Juergen [University of Bochum (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Biodiesel can be used alone (B100) or blended with petroleum diesel in any proportion. The most popular biodiesel blend in the U.S.A. is B20 (20% biodiesel, 80% diesel fuel), which can be used for Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) compliance. In the European Union, the use of biofuel blends is recommended and was introduced by federal regulations in several countries. In Germany, biodiesel is currently blended as B5 (5% biodiesel) to common diesel fuel. In 2008, B7 plus three percent hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) as well is intended to become mandatory in Germany. To investigate the influence of blends on the emissions and possible health effects, we performed a series of studies with several engines (Euro 0, III and IV) measuring regulated and non-regulated exhaust compounds and determining their mutagenic effects. Emissions of blends showed an approximate linear dependence on the blend composition, in particular when regulated emissions are considered. However, a negative effect of blends was observed with respect to mutagenicity of the exhaust gas emissions. In detail, a maximum of the mutagenic potency was found in the range of B20. From this point of view, B20 must be considered as a critical blend, in case diesel fuel and biodiesel are used as binary mixtures. (author)

  6. Brazilian hybrid electric fuel cell bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, P.E.V.; Carreira, E.S. [Coppe-Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Hydrogen Lab.

    2010-07-01

    The first prototype of a hybrid electric fuel cell bus developed with Brazilian technology is unveiled. It is a 12 m urban-type, low-floor, air-conditioned bus that possesses three doors, air suspension, 29 seats and reversible wheelchair site. The bus body was built based on a double-deck type monoblock vehicle that is able to sustain important load on its roof. This allowed positioning of the type 3 hydrogen tanks and the low weight traction batteries on the roof of the vehicles without dynamic stabilization problems. A novel hybrid energy configuration was designed in such a way that the low-power (77 kWe) fuel cell works on steady-state operation mode, not responding directly to the traction motor load demand. The rate of kinetic energy regeneration upon breaking was optimized by the use of an electric hybrid system with predominance of batteries and also by utilizing supercapacitors. The electric-electronic devices and the security control softwares for the auxiliary and traction systems were developed in-house. The innovative hybrid-electric traction system configuration led to the possibility to decrease the fuel cell power, with positive impact on weight and system volume reduction, as well as to significantly decrease the hydrogen consumption. (orig.)

  7. Impacts of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Oil Dilution on Light-Duty Diesel Engine Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, M. J.; Alleman, T. L.; Luecke, J.; McCormick, R. L.

    2009-08-01

    Assesses oil dilution impacts on a diesel engine operating with a diesel particle filter, NOx storage, a selective catalytic reduction emission control system, and a soy-based 20% biodiesel fuel blend.

  8. Nitrous Oxide Fuel Blend-Continuous Operation Lunar Thruster (NOFB-COLT) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose conducting further development for a Nitrous Oxide Fuel Blend (NOFB) propulsion system. Phase I activities will concentrate on a revising a previous 5 lbf...

  9. Nitrous Oxide Fuel Blend-Continuous Operation Lunar Thruster (NOFB-COLT) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Firestar Engineering has developed a set of Nitrous Oxide Fuel Blend monopropellants that are: 1) Non-toxic, 2) Specific Impulse> 310 s, 3) Freezing point <...

  10. Analysis of Performance and Emmissions in a Diesel Engine Fueled with Biodiesel and Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Necati ÖZSEZEN

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the performance and emission characteristics of biodiesel based waste palm oil and its blends with petroleum based diesel fuel (PBDF was analyzed by means of three dimensional maps. In order to determine the engine performance and exhaust emission characteristics, the engine was exposed with full load and varied speed tests. In the result of analyze, it was seen that the brake specific fuel consumptions increased with the increase of biodiesel percentage in the fuel blend, but brake torque decreased depending upon biodiesel percentage in the fuel. In the result of emission analyze, it has determined that biodiesel and its blends has provided significant improvements in HC, CO and smoke opacity emissions. However, the stable behaviors in NOx and CO2 emissions of biodiesel and its blends did not seen in terms of the engine speed.

  11. Spontaneously Igniting Hybrid Fuel-Oxidiser Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Jain

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available After briefly outlining the recent developments in hybrid rockets, the work carried out by the author on self-igniting (hypergolic solid fuel-liquid oxidiser systems has been reviewed. A major aspect relates to the solid derivatives of hydrazines, which have been conceived as fuels for hybrid rockets. Many of these N-N bonded compounds ignite readily, with very short ignition delays, on coming into contact with liquid oxidisers, like HNO/sub 3/ and N/sub 2/ O/sub 4/. The ignition characteristics have been examined as a function of the nature of the functional group in the fuel molecule, in an attempt to establish a basis for the hypergolic ignition in terms of chemical reactivity of the fuel-oxidiser combination. Important chemical reactions occurring in the pre-ignition stage have been identified by examining the quenched reaction products. Hybrid systems exhibiting synergistic hypergolicity in the presence of metal powders have investigated. An estimation of the rocket performance parameters, experimental determination of the heats of combustion in HNO/sub 3/, thermal decomposition characteristics, temperature profile by thin film thermometry and product identification by the rapid scan FT-IR, are among the other relevant studies made on these systems. A significant recent development has been the synthesis of new N-N bonded viscous binders, capable of rataining the hypergolicity of the fuel powders embedded therein as well as providing the required mechanical strength to the grain. Several of these resins have been characterised. Metallised fuel composites of these resins having high loading of magnesium are found to have short ignition delays and high performance parameters.

  12. High Energy Density Additives for Hybrid Fuel Rockets to Improve Performance and Enhance Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a conceptual study of prototype strained hydrocarbon molecules as high energy density additives for hybrid rocket fuels to boost the performance of these rockets without compromising safety and reliability. Use of these additives could extend the range of applications for which hybrid rockets become an attractive alternative to conventional solid or liquid fuel rockets. The objectives of the study were to confirm and quantify the high enthalpy of these strained molecules and to assess improvement in rocket performance that would be expected if these additives were blended with conventional fuels. We confirmed the chemical properties (including enthalpy) of these additives. However, the predicted improvement in rocket performance was too small to make this a useful strategy for boosting hybrid rocket performance.

  13. Corrosion Behaviour of Carbon Steel in Biodiesel–Diesel–Ethanol (BDE Fuel Blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangavelu Saravana Kannan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The biodiesel–diesel–ethanol blend represents an important alternative fuel for diesel engines; however, changes in the fuel composition and the introduction of new alternative fuel often results in corrosion and degradation of the automobile fuel system parts. In this present study, the corrosion behavior of carbon steel in B20D70E10 (biodiesel 20%, diesel 70% and ethanol 10% fuel blend was studied by static immersion at room temperature and 60 °C. The effect of B20D70E10 fuel blend on corrosion rate, morphology of corrosion products, and chemical structure of carbon steel were studied. In addition, the change of fuel properties, namely, total acid number, density, viscosity, calorific value, flash point, and color changes were also investigated. Moreover, fuel compositional changes, such as water content and oxidation product level in the fuel blends were examined. The results showed that the degradation of fuel properties and corrosion rate of carbon steel in B20D70E10 are lower than neat biodiesel (B100, whereas slightly higher than petro-diesel (B0

  14. Experimental investigation of particulate emissions from a diesel engine fueled with ultralow-sulfur diesel fuel blended with diglyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Yage; Cheung, C. S.; Huang, Zuohua

    2010-01-01

    Experiments are conducted on a 4-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine using ultralow-sulfur diesel as the base fuel and diglyme as the oxygenate component to investigate the particulate emissions of the engine under five engine loads at two engine speeds of 1800 rev min -1 and 2400 rev min -1. Blended fuels containing 5%, 10.1%, 15.2%, 20.4%, 25.7% and 53% by volume of diglyme, corresponding to 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10% and 20% by mass of oxygen, are studied. The study shows that with the increase of oxygen in the fuel blends, smoke opacity, particulate mass concentration, NO x concentration and brake specific particulate emission are reduced at the two engine speeds. However, the proportion of soluble organic fraction is increased. For each blended fuel, the total particle number concentration is higher while the geometric mean diameter is smaller, compared with that of ultralow-sulfur diesel, though the particle number decreases with the oxygen content of the blended fuel. Furthermore, the blended fuels also increase the number concentrations of particles smaller than 100 nm.

  15. Evaluation of 25-Percent ATJ Fuel Blends in the John Deere 4045HF 280 Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    advertising or product endorsement purposes. Contracted Author As the author(s) is(are) not a Government employee(s), this document was only...ABSTRACT A 25% blend of Alcohol to Jet (ATJ) and JP8 fuel was evaluated in the mechanically fuel injected John Deere 4045HF280 engine. Pre and post...TERMS Alcohol to Jet (ATJ), JP8, Alternative Fuels, Stanadyne, Rotary Fuel Injection Pump, John Deere 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF

  16. Experimental investigation on CRDI engine using butanol-biodiesel-diesel blends as fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divakar Shetty, A. S.; Dineshkumar, L.; Koundinya, Sandeep; Mane, Swetha K.

    2017-07-01

    In this research work an experimental investigation of butanol-biodisel-diesel blends on combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a direct injection (DI) diesel engine is carried out. The blends are prepared at different proportions and fuel properties such as calorific value, viscosity, flash point and fire point, cloud point, pour point of butanol (B), biodiesel (B), diesel (D), biodiesel-diesel (BD) blends and butanol-biodiesel-diesel (BBD) blends are determined. The engine test is conducted at different speed and load. From the results obtained for fuel properties we can observe that the flash, fire and pour point, viscosity and density are decreasing by increasing the percentage of butanol in BBD blends. It is also observed that the performance parameters such as brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and exhaust gas temperature increases with increase in the proportion of butanol in BBD blend. However, the brake specific fuel consumption (BFSC) decreases with increase in the proportion of butanol in BBD blend. The increase of butanol in BBD blends also influence to increase on emission characteristic such as carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx).

  17. Analysis of fuel cell hybrid locomotives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Arnold R.; Peters, John; Smith, Brian E.; Velev, Omourtag A.

    Led by Vehicle Projects LLC, an international industry-government consortium is developing a 109 t, 1.2 MW road-switcher locomotive for commercial and military railway applications. As part of the feasibility and conceptual-design analysis, a study has been made of the potential benefits of a hybrid power plant in which fuel cells comprise the prime mover and a battery or flywheel provides auxiliary power. The potential benefits of a hybrid power plant are: (i) enhancement of transient power and hence tractive effort; (ii) regenerative braking; (iii) reduction of capital cost. Generally, the tractive effort of a locomotive at low speed is limited by wheel adhesion and not by available power. Enhanced transient power is therefore unlikely to benefit a switcher locomotive, but could assist applications that require high acceleration, e.g. subway trains with all axles powered. In most cases, the value of regeneration in locomotives is minimal. For low-speed applications such as switchers, the available kinetic energy and the effectiveness of traction motors as generators are both minimal. For high-speed heavy applications such as freight, the ability of the auxiliary power device to absorb a significant portion of the available kinetic energy is low. Moreover, the hybrid power plant suffers a double efficiency penalty, namely, losses occur in both absorbing and then releasing energy from the auxiliary device, which result in a net storage efficiency of no more than 50% for present battery technology. Capital cost in some applications may be reduced. Based on an observed locomotive duty cycle, a cost model shows that a hybrid power plant for a switcher may indeed reduce capital cost. Offsetting this potential benefit are the increased complexity, weight and volume of the power plant, as well as 20-40% increased fuel consumption that results from lower efficiency. Based on this analysis, the consortium has decided to develop a pure fuel cell road-switcher locomotive

  18. Evaluation of performance and emission features of Jatropha biodiesel -turpentine blend as green fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loganathan Karikalan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was conducted to measure the suitability of jatropha biodiesel-wood turpentine blend as a replacement for diesel fuel in a compression ignition engine. Tests were performed in a 4-stroke, single cylinder, air cooled Diesel engine. The results show that the performance factors for various blends were found to be near to diesel, emission features were improved and combustion characteristics were found to be comparable with diesel. The brake thermal efficiency of the blends establishes 9.2% lower than that of diesel at 75% load. Brake specific fuel consumption increases for blends at part load and remains same at full load. The CO, HC, and smoke emissions were reduced by 75, 64-78, and 33-66%, respectively, compared to diesel at 75% load. Nitric oxides were increased. Jatropha biodiesel-wood turpentine blends offered comparable performance and combustion features, reduced emissions and it is capable of replacing standard diesel in compression ignition engines.

  19. Identification and Quantification of Processes Affecting the Fate of Ethanol-Blended Fuel in the Subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, J. M.; Mayer, K. U.

    2015-12-01

    At present, the oil and gas industry distributes gasoline with an ethanol content of up to 10% (E10) to the consumer. However, ethanol advocates are promoting gasoline blends with higher ethanol content to be introduced into the market (e.g., E20, corresponding to an ethanol content of 20%). The likelihood of unintended fuel releases with elevated ethanol concentrations through surficial spills or from underground storage systems will therefore increase. A particular concern is the increased rate of CH4 and CO2 production as the spill biodegrades, which is believed to be associated with the increased ethanol content in the fuel. Consequently, high gas generation rates associated with ethanol-blended fuels may amplify the risk of vapor intrusion of CH4 and BTEX into basements or other subsurface structures that may be nearby. A comprehensive and comparative study on the fate of higher concentration ethanol-blended fuels in the subsurface has not been conducted to date. The present study focuses on determining the fate of ethanol blended fuels in the subsurface through a series of controlled and instrumented laboratory column experiments. The experiments compare the behavior of pure gasoline with that of ethanol-blended fuels for different soil types (sand and silt) in columns 2 meters tall and 30cm in diameter. The column experiments focus on the quantification of gas generation by volatilization and biodegradation and 1-D vertical fate and transport of CO2, CH4, benzene and toluene through the vadose zone. The fuel blends have been injected into the lower third of the columns and gas composition and fluxes within the column are being monitored over time. The goal of this study is to contribute to the scientific foundation that will allow gauging the level of risk and the need for remediation at fuel spill sites with higher ethanol blends.

  20. Hybrid two fuel system nozzle with a bypass connecting the two fuel systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varatharajan, Balachandar [Cincinnati, OH; Ziminsky, Willy Steve [Simpsonville, SC; Yilmaz, Ertan [Albany, NY; Lacy, Benjamin [Greer, SC; Zuo, Baifang [Simpsonville, SC; York, William David [Greer, SC

    2012-05-29

    A hybrid fuel combustion nozzle for use with natural gas, syngas, or other types of fuels. The hybrid fuel combustion nozzle may include a natural gas system with a number of swozzle vanes and a syngas system with a number of co-annular fuel tubes.

  1. Property Analysis of Ethanol--Natural Gasoline--BOB Blends to Make Flex Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alleman, Teresa L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yanowitz, Janet [Ecoengineering, Inc., Sharonville, OH (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Ten natural gasolines were analyzed for a wide range of properties, including Reid vapor pressure (RVP), benzene, sulfur, distillation, stability, metals, and aromatic content, to determine their quality. Benzene and sulfur content were sufficiently low in all but one of the samples that they could be blended without further upgrading. Four of these samples were selected to blend with blendstock for oxygenate blending (BOB) and ethanol to produce E51, E70, and E83 blends, targeting 7.8 and 9.0-psi finished fuels. The volume of each component in the blend was estimated using the Reddy model, with the assumption that the BOB and natural gasoline blend linearly and behave as a single component in the model calculations. Results show that the Reddy model adequately predicts the RVP of the finished blend for E51 and E70, but significantly underpredicts the RVP of E83 blends by nearly 2 psi. It is hypothesized that the underprediction is a function of the very low aromatic content of the E83 blends, even compared to the E51 and E70 blends.

  2. Chemical and biological characterization of exhaust emissions from ethanol and ethanol blended diesel fuels in comparison with neat diesel fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerholm, R.; Christensen, Anders [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry; Toernqvist, M. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry; Ehrenberg, L. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Radiobiology; Haupt, D. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden)

    1997-12-01

    This report presents results from a project with the aim of investigating the potential environmental and health impact of emissions from ethanol, ethanol blended diesel fuels and to compare these with neat diesel fuels. The exhaust emissions were characterized regarding regulated exhaust components, particulate and semivolatile Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds (PAC) and with bioassays. The bioassays were mutagenicity and TCDD receptor affinity tests. Results: Neat ethanol fuels are `low emission` fuels, while European diesel fuel quality (EDF) and an ethanol blended EDF are `high emission` fuels. Other fuels, such as Swedish Environmental Class one (MK1) and an ethanol blended MK1, are `intermediate` fuels regarding emissions. When using an oxidizing catalyst exhaust after-treatment device a reduction of harmful substances in the exhaust emissions with respect to determined exhaust parameters was found. The relatively low emission of PAH from ethanol fuelled engines would indicate a lower cancer risk from ethanol than from diesel fuels due to this class of compounds. However, the data presented emphasize the importance of considering the PAH profile 27 refs, 3 figs, 19 tabs

  3. Evaluation of safety, performance and emissions of synthetic fuel blends in a Cessna Citation II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, T.A.; Melkert, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Prior to being used in aviation, alternative fuels have to be tested thoroughly to ensure safe operation. At Delft University of Technology, a test programme was performed to evaluate the safety, performance and emissions of synthetic fuel blends. During test preparations, compatibility of the synth

  4. Exhaust Gas Analysis and Parametric Study of Ethanol Blended Gasoline Fuel in Spark Ignition Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra kumar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the future availability of energy resources, as well as the need for reducing CO2 emissions from the fuels used has increased the need for the utilization of regenerative fuels. This research is done taking commercial gasoline as reference which is originally blended with 5% ethanol. Hence 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% ethanol blended with Gasoline initially was tested in SI engines. Physical properties relevant to the fuel were determined for the four blends of gasoline. A four cylinder, four stroke, varying rpm, Petrol (MPFI engine was tested on blends containing 5%,10%,15%,20% ethanol and performance characteristics, and exhaust emissions were evaluated. Even though higher blends can replace gasoline in a SI engine, results showed that there is a reduction in exhaust gases, such as HC, O2, CO, CO2 and increase in Brake Thermal Efficiency on blending. Hence we can conclude from the result that using 10% ethanol blend is most effective and we can utilize it for further use in SI engines with little constraint on material used to sustain little increase in pressure.

  5. Fuel Maps for the GEP 6.5LT Engine When Operating on at J/JP-8 Fuel Blends at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED FUEL MAPS FOR THE GEP 6.5LT ENGINE WHEN OPERATING ON ATJ/JP-8 FUEL BLENDS AT AMBIENT AND ELEVATED TEMPERATURES...INTERIM REPORT TFLRF No. 464 By Douglas M. Yost Edwin A. Frame U.S. Army TARDEC Fuels and Lubricants Research Facility Southwest... FUEL MAPS FOR THE GEP 6.5LT ENGINE WHEN OPERATING ON ATJ/JP-8 FUEL BLENDS AT AMBIENT AND ELEVATED TEMPERATURES INTERIM REPORT TFLRF No. 464

  6. Development of high performance hybrid rocket fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaseck, Christopher R.

    In this document I discuss paraffin fuel combustion and investigate the effects of additives on paraffin entrainment and regression. In general, hybrid rockets offer an economical and safe alternative to standard liquid and solid rockets. However, slow polymeric fuel regression and low combustion efficiency have limited the commercial use of hybrid rockets. Paraffin is a fast burning fuel that has received significant attention in the 2000's and 2010's as a replacement for standard fuels. Paraffin regresses three to four times faster than polymeric fuels due to the entrainment of a surface melt layer. However, further regression rate enhancement over the base paraffin fuel is necessary for widespread hybrid rocket adoption. I use a small scale opposed flow burner to investigate the effect of additives on the combustion of paraffin. Standard additives such as aluminum combust above the flame zone where sufficient oxidizer levels are present. As a result no heat is generated below the flame itself. In small scale opposed burner experiments the effect of limited heat feedback is apparent. Aluminum in particular does not improve the regression of paraffin in the opposed burner. The lack of heat feedback from additive combustion limits the applicability of the opposed burner. In turn, the results obtained in the opposed burner with metal additive loaded hybrid fuels do not match results from hybrid rocket experiments. In addition, nano-scale aluminum increases melt layer viscosity and greatly slows the regression of paraffin in the opposed flow burner. However, the reactive additives improve the regression rate of paraffin in the opposed burner where standard metals do not. At 5 wt.% mechanically activated titanium and carbon (Ti-C) improves the regression rate of paraffin by 47% in the opposed burner. The mechanically activated Ti C likely reacts in or near the melt layer and provides heat feedback below the flame region that results in faster opposed burner regression

  7. INFLUENCE OF FUEL TEMPERATURE ON DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE OPERATING WITH BIODIESEL BLEND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafidah Rahim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the study of the effect of temperature on diesel engine performance using a 5% biodiesel blend. A one-dimensional numerical analysis is used to simulate the four-cylinder diesel engine. The diesel engine simulation is used to study the characteristics of engine performance when the engine is operating with a fuel blend as an alternative fuel. The simulations are conducted at full load conditions where the temperature varies from 300 to 500 K. The results show that the maximum brake power and brake torque reduction was 1.39% and 1.13%, respectively for an engine operating with a fuel blend. It is shown that the insignificant different due to the small gap between energy content values. A decrease in the lower heating value caused an increase in the brake specific fuel consumption and thus, a reduction in the brake thermal efficiency of the engine performance at full load.

  8. High Burn Rate Hybrid Fuel for Improved Grain Design Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel type of fuel providing high burning rate for hybrid rocket applications is proposed. This fuel maintains a hydrodynamically rough surface to...

  9. Impact of 50% Alcohol to Jet Blends on Aviation Turbine Fuel Coalescence - Navy Coalescence Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-17

    Aviation Turbine Fuels5 are not feasible. The total water concentration of three samples from the influent and effluent of the filter-separator...International. ASTM D3240-11: Standard Test Method for Undissolved Water in Aviation Turbine Fuel, March 2011 6. MIL-DTL-5624V, Detail Specification...Impact of 50% Alcohol to Jet Blends on Aviation Turbine Fuel Coalescence - Navy Coalescence Test NF&LCFT REPORT 441/15-001 17 October 2014

  10. Efficient powder blending in support of plutonium conversion for mixed oxide fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennison, D.K.; Brucker, J.P.; Martinez, H.E.

    1999-06-07

    This paper describes a unique system that is used to mix and blend multiple batches of plutonium oxide powder of various consistencies into an equivalent number of identical and homogeneously mixed batches. This system is being designed and built to support the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) at the Los Alamos TA-55 Plutonium Facility. The ARIES program demonstrates dismantlement of nuclear pits, retrieval of the plutonium components, and conversion of the plutonium into an oxide for eventual use in mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for nuclear reactors. The purpose of this powder blending work is to assure that ARIES oxide is converted into an unclassified homogeneous mixture and that consistent feed material is available for MOX fuel assembly. This blending system is being assembled in a selected glovebox a TA-55 using an LANL designed split/combine apparatus, a commercial Turbula blending unit, and several additional supporting hardware components.

  11. Performance and emissions analysis on using acetone–gasoline fuel blends in spark-ignition engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Elfasakhany

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, new blended fuels were formed by adding 3–10 vol. % of acetone into a regular gasoline. According to the best of the author's knowledge, it is the first time that the influence of acetone blends has been studied in a gasoline-fueled engine. The blended fuels were tested for their energy efficiencies and pollutant emissions using SI (spark-ignition engine with single-cylinder and 4-stroke. Experimental results showed that the AC3 (3 vol.% acetone + 97 vol.% gasoline blended fuel has an advantage over the neat gasoline in exhaust gases temperature, in-cylinder pressure, brake power, torque and volumetric efficiency by about 0.8%, 2.3%, 1.3%, 0.45% and 0.9%, respectively. As the acetone content increases in the blends, as the engine performance improved where the best performance obtained in this study at the blended fuel of AC10. In particular, exhaust gases temperature, in-cylinder pressure, brake power, torque and volumetric efficiency increase by about 5%, 10.5%, 5.2%, 2.1% and 3.2%, respectively, compared to neat gasoline. In addition, the use of acetone with gasoline fuel reduces exhaust emissions averagely by about 43% for carbon monoxide, 32% for carbon dioxide and 33% for the unburnt hydrocarbons. The enhanced engine performance and pollutant emissions are attributed to the higher oxygen content, slight leaning effect, lower knock tendency and high flame speeds of acetone, compared to the neat gasoline. Finally the mechanism of acetone combustion in gasoline-fueled engines is proposed in this work; two main pathways for acetone combustion are highlighted; furthermore, the CO, CO2 and UHC (unburnt hydrocarbons mechanisms of formation and oxidation are acknowledged. Such acetone mechanism is employed for further understanding acetone combustion in spark-ignition engines.

  12. Emission Characteristics and Egr Application of Blended Fuels with Bdf and Oxygenate (dmm) in a Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Hun; Oh, Young-Taig

    In this study, the possibility of biodiesel fuel and oxygenated fuel (dimethoxy methane ; DMM) was investigated as an alternative fuel for a naturally aspirated direct injection diesel engine. The smoke emission of blending fuel (biodiesel fuel 90vol-% + DMM 10vol-%) was reduced approximately 70% at 2500rpm, full load in comparison with the diesel fuel. But, engine power and brake specific energy consumption showed no significant differences. But, NOx emission of biodiesel fuel and DMM blended fuel increased compared with commercial diesel fuel due to the oxygen component in the fuel. It was needed a NOx reduction counter plan that EGR method was used as a countermeasure for NOx reduction. It was found that simultaneous reduction of smoke and NOx emission was achieved with BDF (95 vol-%) and DMM (5 vol-%) blended fuel and cooled EGR method (15%).

  13. The Effect of Bio-Fuel Blends and Fuel Injection Pressure on Diesel Engine Emission for Sustainable Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandasamy Muralidharan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Diesel engine emits more pollutants to atmosphere causing air pollution. This necessitates the search of a renewable alternate fuel which is environment friendly. The objective of this research was to investigate the environmental aspects of pongamia bio-fuel in a single cylinder diesel engine with the influence of fuel injection pressure. Approach: Bio-fuel was prepared from non-edible Pongamia pinnata oil by transesterification and used as a fuel in C.I engine. The effect of fuel injection pressure on the engine emission characteristics of a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine has been experimentally investigated using pongamia pinnata methyl ester and its blends with diesel fuel from 0-30% with an increment of 5% at full load. The tests were conducted at five different injection pressures (190, 200, 210, 220 and 230 KN m-2 by means of adjusting injector spring tension. Results: Compared to diesel, blend B5 exhibits lower engine emissions of unburnt hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen and carbon di oxide at full load. The High injection pressure of 220 KN m-2 shows lesser emissions of unburnt hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide while oxides of nitrogen and carbon dioxide are found to be slightly higher than diesel and blends at full load. Conclusion: From the test results, it was found that a high injection pressure of 220 KN m-2 causes better atomization with improved engine emission characteristics for diesel and blends at full load. Moreover blend B5 showed best results at 220 KN m-2 injection pressure.

  14. Experimental investigations on mixing of two biodiesels blended with diesel as alternative fuel for diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Srithar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The world faces the crises of energy demand, rising petroleum prices and depletion of fossil fuel resources. Biodiesel has obtained from vegetable oils that have been considered as a promising alternate fuel. The researches regarding blend of diesel and single biodiesel have been done already. Very few works have been done with the combination of two different biodiesel blends with diesel and left a lot of scope in this area. The present study brings out an experiment of two biodiesels from pongamia pinnata oil and mustard oil and they are blended with diesel at various mixing ratios. The effects of dual biodiesel works in engine and exhaust emissions were examined in a single cylinder, direct injection, air cooled and high speed diesel engine at various engine loads with constant engine speed of 3000 rpm. The influences of blends on CO, CO2, HC, NOx and smoke opacity were investigated by emission tests. The brake thermal efficiency of blend A was found higher than diesel. The emissions of smoke, hydro carbon and nitrogen oxides of dual biodiesel blends were higher than that of diesel. But the exhaust gas temperature for dual biodiesel blends was lower than diesel.

  15. Ignition delay time correlation of fuel blends based on Livengood-Wu description

    KAUST Repository

    Khaled, Fathi

    2017-08-17

    In this work, a universal methodology for ignition delay time (IDT) correlation of multicomponent fuel mixtures is reported. The method is applicable over wide ranges of temperatures, pressures, and equivalence ratios. n-Heptane, iso-octane, toluene, ethanol and their blends are investigated in this study because of their relevance to gasoline surrogate formulation. The proposed methodology combines benefits from the Livengood-Wu integral, the cool flame characteristics and the Arrhenius behavior of the high-temperature ignition delay time to suggest a simple and comprehensive formulation for correlating the ignition delay times of pure components and blends. The IDTs of fuel blends usually have complex dependences on temperature, pressure, equivalence ratio and composition of the blend. The Livengood-Wu integral is applied here to relate the NTC region and the cool flame phenomenon. The integral is further extended to obtain a relation between the IDTs of fuel blends and pure components. Ignition delay times calculated using the proposed methodology are in excellent agreement with those simulated using a detailed chemical kinetic model for n-heptane, iso-octane, toluene, ethanol and blends of these components. Finally, very good agreement is also observed for combustion phasing in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) predictions between simulations performed with detailed chemistry and calculations using the developed ignition delay correlation.

  16. Jatropha oil methyl ester and its blends used as an alternative fuel in diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarrapathruni Rao Hanumantha Venkata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass derived vegetable oils are quite promising alternative fuels for agricultural diesel engines. Use of vegetable oils in diesel engines leads to slightly inferior performance and higher smoke emissions due to their high viscosity. The performance of vegetable oils can be improved by modifying them through the transesterification process. In this present work, the performance of single cylinder water-cooled diesel engine using methyl ester of jatropha oil as the fuel was evaluated for its performance and exhaust emissions. The fuel properties of biodiesel such as kinematic viscosity, calorific value, flash point, carbon residue, and specific gravity were found. Results indicate that B25 has closer performance to diesel and B100 has lower brake thermal efficiency mainly due to its high viscosity compared to diesel. The brake thermal efficiency for biodiesel and its blends was found to be slightly higher than that of diesel fuel at tested load conditions and there was no difference of efficiency between the biodiesel and its blended fuels. For jatropha biodiesel and its blended fuels, the exhaust gas temperature increased with the increase of power and amount of biodiesel. However, its diesel blends showed reasonable efficiency, lower smoke, and CO2 and CO emissions.

  17. Developing a Blended Type Course of Introduction to Hybrid Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Na Zhu

    2016-01-01

    An innovative course of introduction to hybrid vehicles is developed for both associate and bachelor degree programs for engineering technology with automotive/mechanical concentration. The hybrid vehicle course content includes several topics, such as the rational of pure electric vehicle and hybrid vehicle, hybrid vehicle propulsion systems, fundamentals of motor/generator systems, fundamentals of battery and energy management system, and introduction to various configurations of hybrid veh...

  18. Long Term Performance Study of a Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Fed with Alcohol Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleuterio Mora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of alcohol blends in direct alcohol fuel cells may be a more environmentally friendly and less toxic alternative to the use of methanol alone in direct methanol fuel cells. This paper assesses the behaviour of a direct methanol fuel cell fed with aqueous methanol, aqueous ethanol and aqueous methanol/ethanol blends in a long term experimental study followed by modelling of polarization curves. Fuel cell performance is seen to decrease as the ethanol content rises, and subsequent operation with aqueous methanol only partly reverts this loss of performance. It seems that the difference in the oxidation rate of these alcohols may not be the only factor affecting fuel cell performance.

  19. Techno-economic comparison of series hybrid, plug-in hybrid, fuel cell and regular cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, O.P.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/288519361; Kruithof, T.; Turkenburg, W.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073416355; Faaij, A.P.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X

    2010-01-01

    We examine the competitiveness of series hybrid compared to fuel cell, parallel hybrid, and regular cars. We use public domain data to determine efficiency, fuel consumption, total costs of ownership and greenhouse gas emissions resulting from drivetrain choices. The series hybrid drivetrain can be

  20. Techno-economic comparison of series hybrid, plug-in hybrid, fuel cell and regular cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, O.P.R.; Kruithof, T.; Turkenburg, W.C.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2010-01-01

    We examine the competitiveness of series hybrid compared to fuel cell, parallel hybrid, and regular cars. We use public domain data to determine efficiency, fuel consumption, total costs of ownership and greenhouse gas emissions resulting from drivetrain choices. The series hybrid drivetrain can be

  1. Measuring the Effect of Fuel Structures and Blend Distribution on Diesel Emissions Using Isotope Tracing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, A S; Mueller, C J; Buchholz, B A; Dibble, R W

    2004-02-10

    Carbon atoms occupying specific positions within fuel molecules can be labeled and followed in emissions. Renewable bio-derived fuels possess a natural uniform carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) tracer several orders of magnitude above petroleum-derived fuels. These fuels can be used to specify sources of carbon in particulate matter (PM) or other emissions. Differences in emissions from variations in the distribution of a fuel component within a blend can also be measured. Using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS), we traced fuel components with biological {sup 14}C/C levels of 1 part in 10{sup 12} against a {sup 14}C-free petroleum background in PM and CO{sub 2}. Different carbon atoms in the ester structure of the diesel oxygenate dibutyl maleate displayed far different propensities to produce PM. Homogeneous cosolvent and heterogeneous emulsified ethanol-in-diesel blends produced significantly different PM despite having the same oxygen content in the fuel. Emulsified blends produced PM with significantly more volatile species. Although ethanol-derived carbon was less likely to produce PM than diesel fuel, it formed non-volatile structures when it resided in PM. The contribution of lubrication oil to PM was determined by measuring an isotopic difference between 100% bio-diesel and the PM it produced. Data produced by the experiments provides validation for combustion models.

  2. Effect on Particulate and Gas Emissions by Combusting Biodiesel Blend Fuels Made from Different Plant Oil Feedstocks in a Liquid Fuel Burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norwazan Abdul Rahim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the combustion performance of various blends of biodiesel fuels and diesel fuel from lean to rich mixtures. The biodiesel blend fuel combustion experiments were carried out using a liquid fuel burner and biodiesel fuel made from various plant oil feedstocks, including jatropha, palm and coconut oils. The results show that jatropha oil methyl ester blend 25 (JOME B25 and coconut oil methyl ester blend 25 (COME B25 blended at 25% by volume in diesel fuel produced lower carbon monoxide (CO and unburned hydrocarbon (UHC emissions due to more complete combustion. Overall, JOME B25 had the highest CO emission reduction, at about 42.25%, followed by COME B25 at 26.44% emission reduction relative to pure diesel fuel. By contrast, the palm oil methyl ester blend 25 (POME B25 showed a 48.44% increase in these emissions. The results showed that the nitrogen oxides (NOx emissions were slightly higher for all biodiesel blend fuels compared with pure diesel fuel combustion. In case of sulphur dioxide (SO2 and UHC emissions, all biodiesel blends fuels have significantly reduced emissions. In the case of SO2 emission, the POME B25, JOME B25 and COME B25 emissions were reduced 14.62%, 14.45% and 21.39%, respectively, relative to SO2 emission from combusting pure diesel fuel. UHC emissions of POME B25, JOME B25 and COME B25 showed 51%, 71% and 70% reductions, respectively, compared to diesel fuel. The conclusion from the results is that all the biodiesel blend fuels are suitable and can be recommended for use in liquid fuel burners in order to get better and ‘greener’ environmental outcomes.

  3. Legacy Vehicle Fuel System Testing with Intermediate Ethanol Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, G. W.; Hoff, C. J.; Borton, Z.; Ratcliff, M. A.

    2012-03-01

    The effects of E10 and E17 on legacy fuel system components from three common mid-1990s vintage vehicle models (Ford, GM, and Toyota) were studied. The fuel systems comprised a fuel sending unit with pump, a fuel rail and integrated pressure regulator, and the fuel injectors. The fuel system components were characterized and then installed and tested in sample aging test rigs to simulate the exposure and operation of the fuel system components in an operating vehicle. The fuel injectors were cycled with varying pulse widths during pump operation. Operational performance, such as fuel flow and pressure, was monitored during the aging tests. Both of the Toyota fuel pumps demonstrated some degradation in performance during testing. Six injectors were tested in each aging rig. The Ford and GM injectors showed little change over the aging tests. Overall, based on the results of both the fuel pump testing and the fuel injector testing, no major failures were observed that could be attributed to E17 exposure. The unknown fuel component histories add a large uncertainty to the aging tests. Acquiring fuel system components from operational legacy vehicles would reduce the uncertainty.

  4. Legacy Vehicle Fuel System Testing with Intermediate Ethanol Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, G. W.; Hoff, C. J.; Borton, Z.; Ratcliff, M. A.

    2012-03-01

    The effects of E10 and E17 on legacy fuel system components from three common mid-1990s vintage vehicle models (Ford, GM, and Toyota) were studied. The fuel systems comprised a fuel sending unit with pump, a fuel rail and integrated pressure regulator, and the fuel injectors. The fuel system components were characterized and then installed and tested in sample aging test rigs to simulate the exposure and operation of the fuel system components in an operating vehicle. The fuel injectors were cycled with varying pulse widths during pump operation. Operational performance, such as fuel flow and pressure, was monitored during the aging tests. Both of the Toyota fuel pumps demonstrated some degradation in performance during testing. Six injectors were tested in each aging rig. The Ford and GM injectors showed little change over the aging tests. Overall, based on the results of both the fuel pump testing and the fuel injector testing, no major failures were observed that could be attributed to E17 exposure. The unknown fuel component histories add a large uncertainty to the aging tests. Acquiring fuel system components from operational legacy vehicles would reduce the uncertainty.

  5. Focus on blends. An analysis of the bunker fuel chain; Blends in beeld. Een analyse van de bunkerolieketen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Buck, A.; Smit, M.E.; Faber, J.; Van Grinsven, A.

    2011-05-15

    Bunker oil is an important activity in the Dutch economy: annual more than 20,000 ships 'bunker' fuel oil in the port of Rotterdam. Because of a number of incidents there are questions about possible blending of hazardous waste into fuel oil. This report aims to provide insight into bunker oil, blend materials, parties involved in the chain and risks of blending hazardous waste. It was commissioned by the VROM Inspectorate, for its role as supervisor of waste flows in the Netherlands. [Dutch] Bunkerolie staat voor een belangrijke activiteit in de Nederlandse economie: jaarlijks 'bunkeren' meer dan 20.000 zeeschepen in de Rotterdamse haven stookolie. Vanwege een aantal incidenten zijn er vragen over mogelijke bijmenging van gevaarlijk afval in stookolie. Dit rapport beoogt inzicht te geven in bunkerolie, blendmaterialen, partijen in de keten en risico's op bijmenging van gevaarlijk afval. Het is opgesteld in opdracht van de VROM-Inspectie, ten behoeve van haar rol als toezichthouder op ketens van afvalstromen.

  6. Finding synergies in fuels properties for the design of renewable fuels--hydroxylated biodiesel effects on butanol-diesel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukjit, E; Herreros, J M; Piaszyk, J; Dearn, K D; Tsolakis, A

    2013-04-02

    This article describes the effects of hydroxylated biodiesel (castor oil methyl ester - COME) on the properties, combustion, and emissions of butanol-diesel blends used within compression ignition engines. The study was conducted to investigate the influence of COME as a means of increasing the butanol concentration in a stable butanol-diesel blend. Tests were compared with baseline experiments using rapeseed methyl esters (RME). A clear benefit in terms of the trade-off between NOX and soot emissions with respect to ULSD and biodiesel-diesel blends with the same oxygen content was obtained from the combination of biodiesel and butanol, while there was no penalty in regulated gaseous carbonaceous emissions. From the comparison between the biodiesel fuels used in this work, COME improved some of the properties (for example lubricity, density and viscosity) of butanol-diesel blends with respect to RME. The existence of hydroxyl group in COME also reduced further soot emissions and decreased soot activation energy.

  7. Alcohols/Ethers as Oxygenates in Diesel Fuel: Properties of Blended Fuels and Evaluation of Practiacl Experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nylund, N.; Aakko, P. [TEC Trans Energy Consulting Ltd (Finland); Niemi, S.; Paanu, T. [Turku Polytechnic (Finland); Berg, R. [Befri Konsult (Sweden)

    2005-03-15

    Oxygenates blended into diesel fuel can serve at least two purposes. Components based on renewable feedstocks make it possible to introduce a renewable component into diesel fuel. Secondly, oxygenates blended into diesel fuel might help to reduce emissions. A number of different oxygenates have been considered as components for diesel fuel. These oxygenates include various alcohols, ethers, esters and carbonates. Of the oxygenates, ethanol is the most common and almost all practical experiences have been generated from the use of diesel/ethanol blends (E-diesel). Biodiesel was not included in this study. Adding ethanol to diesel will reduce cetane, and therefore, both cetane improver and lubricity additives might be needed. Diesel/ethanol emulsions obtained with emulsifiers or without additives are 'milky' mixtures. Micro-emulsions of ethanol and diesel can be obtained using additives containing surfactants or co-solvents. The microemulsions are chemically and thermodynamically stable, they are clear and bright blends, unlike the emulsions. Storage and handling regulations for fuels are based on the flash point. The problem with, e.g., ethanol into diesel is that ethanol lowers the flash point of the blend significantly even at low concentrations. Regarding safety, diesel-ethanol blends fall into the same category as gasoline. Higher alcohols are more suitable for diesel blending than ethanol. Currently, various standards and specifications set rather tight limits for diesel fuel composition and properties. It should be noted that, e.g., E-diesel does not fulfil any current diesel specification and it cannot, thus, be sold as general diesel fuel. Some blends have already received approvals for special applications. The critical factors of the potential commercial use of these blends include blend properties such as stability, viscosity and lubricity, safety and materials compatibility. The effect of the fuel on engine performance, durability and emissions

  8. Fuel Property Determination of Biodiesel-Diesel Blends By Terahertz Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Zhao, Kun; Bao, Rima

    2012-05-01

    The frequency-dependent absorption characteristics of biodiesel and its blends with conventional diesel fuel have been researched in the spectral range of 0.2-1.5 THz by the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The absorption coefficient presented a regular increasing with biodiesel content. A nonlinear multivariate model that correlating cetane number and solidifying point of bio-diesel blends with absorption coefficient has been established, making the quantitative analysis of fuel properties simple. The results made the cetane number and solidifying point prediction possible by THz-TDS technology and indicated a bright future in practical application.

  9. Experimental assessment of non-edible candlenut biodiesel and its blend characteristics as diesel engine fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imdadul, H K; Zulkifli, N W M; Masjuki, H H; Kalam, M A; Kamruzzaman, M; Rashed, M M; Rashedul, H K; Alwi, Azham

    2017-01-01

    Exploring new renewable energy sources as a substitute of petroleum reserves is necessary due to fulfilling the oncoming energy needs for industry and transportation systems. In this quest, a lot of research is going on to expose different kinds of new biodiesel sources. The non-edible oil from candlenut possesses the potential as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The present study aims to produce biodiesel from crude candlenut oil by using two-step transesterification process, and 10%, 20%, and 30% of biodiesel were mixed with diesel fuel as test blends for engine testing. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and gas chromatography (GC) were performed and analyzed to characterize the biodiesel. Also, the fuel properties of biodiesel and its blends were measured and compared with the specified standards. The thermal stability of the fuel blends was measured by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scan calorimetry (DSC) analysis. Engine characteristics were measured in a Yanmar TF120M single cylinder direct injection (DI) diesel engine. Biodiesel produced from candlenut oil contained 15% free fatty acid (FFA), and two-step esterification and transesterification were used. FTIR and GC remarked the biodiesels' existing functional groups and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) composition. The thermal analysis of the biodiesel blends certified about the blends' stability regarding thermal degradation, melting and crystallization temperature, oxidative temperature, and storage stability. The brake power (BP), brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), and brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of the biodiesel blends decreased slightly with an increasing pattern of nitric oxide (NO) emission. However, the hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxides (CO) of biodiesel blends were found decreased.

  10. Numerical modeling on homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion engine fueled by diesel-ethanol blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanafi H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the performance and emission characteristics of HCCI engines fueled with oxygenated fuels (ethanol blend. A modeling study was conducted to investigate the impact of ethanol addition on the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI engine fueled by diesel. One dimensional simulation was conducted using the renowned commercial software for diesel and its blend fuels with 5% (E5 and 10% ethanol (E10 (in vol. under full load condition at variable engine speed ranging from 1000 to 2750 rpm with 250 rpm increment. The model was then validated with other researcher’s experimental result. Model consists of intake and exhaust systems, cylinder, head, valves and port geometries. Performance tests were conducted for volumetric efficiency, brake engine torque, brake power, brake mean effective pressure, brake specific fuel consumption, and brake thermal efficiency, while exhaust emissions were analyzed for carbon monoxide (CO and unburned hydrocarbons (HC. The results showed that blending diesel with ethanol increases the volumetric efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency, while it decreases brake engine torque, brake power and brake mean effective pressure. In term of emission characteristics, the CO emissions concentrations in the engine exhaust decrease significantly with ethanol as additive. But for HC emission, its concentration increase when apply in high engine speed. In conclusion, using Ethanol as fuel additive blend with Diesel operating in HCCI shows a good result in term of performance and emission in low speed but not recommended to use in high speed engine. Ethanol-diesel blends need to researched more to make it commercially useable.

  11. Preliminary Investigation for Engine Performance by Using Tire-Derived Pyrolysis Oil-Diesel Blended Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofiqul, Islam M.; Haniu, Hiroyuki; Alam, Beg R.; Takai, Kazunori

    In the first phase of the present study, the pyrolysis oil derived from light automotive tire waste has been characterized including fuel properties, elemental analyses, FT-IR, 1H-NMR, GC-MS and distillation. The studies on the oil show that it can be used as liquid fuel with a gross calorific value (GCV) of 42.00 MJ/kg and empirical formula of CH1.27O0.025N0.006. In the second phase of the investigation, the performance of a diesel engine was studied blending the pyrolysis oil with diesel fuel in different ratios. The experimental results show that the bsfc of pyrolysis oil-diesel blended fuels slightly increases and hence the brake thermal efficiency decreases compared to those of neat diesel. The pyrolysis oil-diesel blends show lower carbon monoxide (CO) emission but higher oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions than those of neat diesel. However, NOx emissions with pyrolysis oil-diesel blended fuels reduced when EGR was applied.

  12. A quasi-direct methanol fuel cell system based on blend polymer membrane electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingfeng; Hjuler, Hans Aage; Hasiotis, C.

    2002-01-01

    , compared to less than 100 ppm CO for the Nafion-based technology at 80degrees C. The high CO tolerance makes it possible to use the reformed hydrogen directly from a simple methanol reformer without further CO removal. That both the fuel cell and the methanol reformer operate at temperatures around 200......On the basis of blend polymer electrolytes of polybenzimidazole and sulfonated polysulfone, a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell was developed with an operational temperature up to 200degrees C. Due to the high operational temperature, the fuel cell can tolerate 1.0-3.0 vol % CO in the fuel...

  13. Pyrolytic Waste Plastic Oil and Its Diesel Blend: Fuel Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, M.; Al-Mamun, M. R.; Hasan, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    The authors introduced waste plastic pyrolysis oil (WPPO) as an alternative fuel characterized in detail and compared with conventional diesel. High density polyethylene, HDPE, was pyrolyzed in a self-designed stainless steel laboratory reactor to produce useful fuel products. HDPE waste was completely pyrolyzed at 330–490°C for 2-3 hours to obtain solid residue, liquid fuel oil, and flammable gaseous hydrocarbon products. Comparison of the fuel properties to the petrodiesel fuel standards ASTM D 975 and EN 590 revealed that the synthetic product was within all specifications. Notably, the fuel properties included a kinematic viscosity (40°C) of 1.98 cSt, density of 0.75 gm/cc, sulphur content of 0.25 (wt%), and carbon residue of 0.5 (wt%), and high calorific value represented significant enhancements over those of conventional petroleum diesel fuel. PMID:27433168

  14. Pyrolytic Waste Plastic Oil and Its Diesel Blend: Fuel Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Z. H. Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors introduced waste plastic pyrolysis oil (WPPO as an alternative fuel characterized in detail and compared with conventional diesel. High density polyethylene, HDPE, was pyrolyzed in a self-designed stainless steel laboratory reactor to produce useful fuel products. HDPE waste was completely pyrolyzed at 330–490°C for 2-3 hours to obtain solid residue, liquid fuel oil, and flammable gaseous hydrocarbon products. Comparison of the fuel properties to the petrodiesel fuel standards ASTM D 975 and EN 590 revealed that the synthetic product was within all specifications. Notably, the fuel properties included a kinematic viscosity (40°C of 1.98 cSt, density of 0.75 gm/cc, sulphur content of 0.25 (wt%, and carbon residue of 0.5 (wt%, and high calorific value represented significant enhancements over those of conventional petroleum diesel fuel.

  15. COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF CI ENGINE USING KARANJA BIODIESEL BLENDS AS FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. PHADTARE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Karanja based bio-diesel is a non-edible, biodegradable fuel suitable for diesel engines. Karanja biodiesel has been prepared by transesterification method. Biodiesel-diesel blends have been prepared on volume basis. Physical properties of Karanja biodiesel, diesel and its blends have been determined. An experimentalinvestigation has been carried out to analyze combustion characteristics of a single cylinder, VCR diesel engine fuelled with Karanja biodiesel and its blends (10%, 20%, 30%, 50% and 75% with neat diesel. A series of engine tests, with CR 16.5, 17.5 and 18.5 have been conducted using each of the above blends for comparativeevaluation. Combustion parameters such as ignition delay, peak pressure development, heat release rate analysis of engine have been studied. The results of the experiment in each case have been compared with baseline data of neat diesel. Ignition delays of bio-diesel blends are lower than that of diesel; peak pressure takes place definitely after TDC for safe and efficient operation. Comparable rate of pressure rise obtained is indicative of stable and noise free operation of CI engines with karanja biodiesel blends. B10 is suitable alternative fuel for diesel at slightly higher CR can be used without any engine modifications.

  16. Role of a biodiesel blend in sustaining the energy and environment as a CI engine fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Saravanan, G.Nagarajan, G.Lakshmi Narayana rao, S.Sampath

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, biodiesel derived from high free fatty acid (FFA crude rice bran oil, (CRBO a non-edible vegetable oil was tested as a fuel in a compression ignition engine in blended form to test its suitability and also its ability to create a sustainable environment. A 4.4 kW direct injection stationary diesel engine was used for experimentation. Biodiesel (crude rice bran oil methyl ester blend was prepared by mixing 20 % crude rice bran oil methyl ester (CRBME with 80 % diesel on volume basis. An enhanced thermal oxidation was observed for the CRBME blend which oxidizes most of the UBHC into CO and CO2. As a result of this, UBHC emission and smoke density were reduced by 28 % and 35 % respectively with a marginal increase in CO and NOx emission than diesel. It was also observed that by blending CRBME with diesel, the brake thermal efficiency of the engine decreased only marginally which ensures the suitability of CRBME blend as a CI engine fuel. Experimental results show almost similar performance in CRBME blend when compared to diesel which strengthens its ability to have a sustainable environment. This research work can be extended to improve the thermal oxidation process which may result in further reduction in CO, UBHC and particulate emission than that of the emissions reported in this paper.

  17. Antimisting Kerosene: Base Fuel Effects; Blending and Quality Control Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    applications of static mixer in the chemical, refining, poly- mer, food and other major processing industries. 3.3.2 Development of the Blending Process Since...filter. Hold stopper steady until removal. Excess motion may induce gelation in the filter. 5. Tilt apparatus to diagonal and pour the reference jet A

  18. HYBRID FUEL CELL-SOLAR CELL SPACE POWER SUBSYSTEM CAPABILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report outlines the capabilities and limitations of a hybrid solar cell- fuel cell space power subsystem by comparing the proposed hybrid system...to conventional power subsystem devices. The comparisons are based on projected 1968 capability in the areas of primary and secondary battery, fuel ... cell , solar cell, and chemical dynamic power subsystems. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the relative merits of a hybrid power

  19. Full Load Performance of a Spark Ignition Engine Fueled with Gasoline-Isobutanol Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Irimescu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available With fossil fuels reserves coming ever closer to depletion and the issue of air pollution caused by automotive transport becoming more and more important, mankind has looked for various solutions in the field of internal combustion engines. One of these solutions is using biofuels, and while the internal combustion engine will most likely disappear along with the last fossil fuel source, studying biofuels and their impact on automotive power-trains is a necessity even if only on a the short term basis. While engines built to run on alcohol-gasoline blends offer good performance levels even at high concentrations of alcohol, unmodified engines fueled with blends of biofuels and fossil fuels can exhibit a drop in power. The object of this study is evaluating such phenomena when a spark ignition engine is operated at full load.

  20. Experimental and simulation studies of combustion of blended fuel oil for use in industrial gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, A.; Ani, F.N. [Teknologi Malaysia Univ., Johor (Malaysia). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering; Mamat, Z.A.; Zardi, Z. [TNB Research, Selangor (Malaysia); Aziz, A. [Prai Power Station, Penang (Malaysia)

    2006-07-01

    This paper described a preliminary investigation of the combustion properties of palm olein distillate blended with diesel in a combustion chamber. The aim of the study was to examine the efficacy of the fuel for use in industrial gas turbines with an unmodified gas system. Experiments were conducted for 100 per cent diesel and blends of diesel with 20, 40, and 50 per cent palm olein distillate. Combustion firing experiments were also conducted for 100 per cent palm olein distillates. Results of the study demonstrated that nitroge oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions ranged from between 30 and 55 ppm. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling was conducted in order to compare the performance of the various blends. Results showed that flow and temperature contours for fuels with lower palm olein percentages had a more uniform combustion process due to a higher rate of fuel vaporization. It was concluded that palm olein distillate blends of more than 40 per cent are not recommended, as the soot particles of higher blends cause damage to turbine casings. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  1. Techno-economic comparison of series hybrid, plug-in hybrid, fuel cell and regular cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Oscar P. R.; Kruithof, Thomas; Turkenburg, Wim C.; Faaij, André P. C.

    We examine the competitiveness of series hybrid compared to fuel cell, parallel hybrid, and regular cars. We use public domain data to determine efficiency, fuel consumption, total costs of ownership and greenhouse gas emissions resulting from drivetrain choices. The series hybrid drivetrain can be seen both as an alternative to petrol, diesel and parallel hybrid cars, as well as an intermediate stage towards fully electric or fuel cell cars. We calculate the fuel consumption and costs of four diesel-fuelled series hybrid, four plug-in hybrid and four fuel cell car configurations, and compared these to three reference cars. We find that series hybrid cars may reduce fuel consumption by 34-47%, but cost €5000-12,000 more. Well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced to 89-103 g CO 2 km -1 compared to reference petrol (163 g km -1) and diesel cars (156 g km -1). Series hybrid cars with wheel motors have lower weight and 7-21% lower fuel consumption than those with central electric motors. The fuel cell car remains uncompetitive even if production costs of fuel cells come down by 90%. Plug-in hybrid cars are competitive when driving large distances on electricity, and/or if cost of batteries come down substantially. Well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced to 60-69 g CO 2 km -1.

  2. Cathode-supported hybrid direct carbon fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil, Vanesa; Gurauskis, Jonas; Deleebeeck, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The direct conversion of coal to heat and electricity by a hybrid direct carbon fuel cell (HDCFC) is a highly efficient and cleaner technology than the conventional combustion power plants. HDCFC is defined as a combination of solid oxide fuel cell and molten carbonate fuel cell. This work...

  3. Systematic Approach to Design Tailor Made Fuel Blends That Meets ASTM Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Intikhab, S.; Kalakul, Sawitree; H., Choudhury

    2015-01-01

    to solve them [2]. Two tailor-made liquid fuels viz., model gasoline and model diesel were formulated by our collaborator at the Technical University of Denmark conducting the MINLP program [3]. Different set of target properties were calculated for each type of fuel in order to design a set of suitable...... blend. The target properties calculated for tailor-made gasoline were flash point (Tf), Reid vapor pressure (RVP) and kinematic viscosity (n). Target properties calculated for tailor-made diesel were high heating value (HHV), dynamic viscosity ( h), lethal concentration ( -logLC50), weight percent...... of oxygen (WtO2), density (r) and Reid vapor pressure (RVP). Model gasoline blend (main ingredient) designed using MINLP, comprised of six different chemicals viz. n-pentane, n-heptane, iso-octane, 1-pentene, methyl cyclopentane and toluene in different volumetric ratios. Similarly, model diesel blend (main...

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL SCENARIOS FOR MANDATORY BIO-FUEL BLENDING TARGETS: AN APPLICATION OF INTUITIVE LOGICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Conejero

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Scenarios depicting targets concerning mandatory bio-fuel blending are critical to the strategic planning of food and bio-energy production chains and their design is the purpose of this paper. Each scenario tells a story about how various elements might interact under given conditions. The method herein utilized is primarily based on Schoemaker´s (1995 and Schwartz´s (1991 earlier proposals. A six step framework is followed: i identify the focal issue; ii summarize current mandatory blending targets; iii identify the driving forces as of a macro-environmental analysis; iv validate driving forces with specialists; v rank such key forces by importance before uncertainties, building a correlation matrix; vi design the scenarios. Finally, three alternative scenarios, relative to the adoption on behalf of countries, by the year 2020, of mandatory bio-fuel blending targets, are proposed which might guide these countries’ decision makers when planning production systems.

  5. Superheater fouling in a BFB boiler firing wood-based fuel blends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, A.F.; Haasnoot, K.; Brem, G.

    2014-01-01

    Four different fuel blends have been fired in a 28 MWel BFB. Wood pellets (test 0) were not problematic for about ten years, contrary to a mixture of demolition wood, wood cuttings, compost overflow, paper sludge and roadside grass (test 1) which caused excessive fouling at a superheater bundle afte

  6. Bed agglomeration in fluidized combustor fueled by wood and rice straw blends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thy, P.; Jenkins, B.M.; Williams, R.B.; Lesher, C.E.; Bakker, R.R.

    2010-01-01

    Petrographic techniques have been used to examine bed materials from fluidized bed combustion experiments that utilized wood and rice straw fuel blends. The experiments were conducted using a laboratory-scale combustor with mullite sand beds, firing temperatures of 840 to 1030 °C, and run durations

  7. Bed agglomeration in fluidized combustor fueled by wood and rice straw blends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thy, Peter; Jenkins, Brian; Williams, R.B.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Petrographic techniques have been used to examine bed materials from fluidized bed combustion experiments that utilized wood and rice straw fuel blends. The experiments were conducted using a laboratory-scale combustor with mullite sand beds, firing temperatures of 840 to 1030 °C, and run...

  8. Effects of Ethanol-Gasoline Blended Fuels on Learning and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential toxicity of ethanol-gasoline blended fuels to the developing nervous system is of concern. We previously reported an absence of effect on learning and memory as seen in a trace fear conditioning task and water maze task in offspring of dams exposed prenatally to the...

  9. Experimental evaluation of diesel engine performance and emission using blends of jojoba oil and diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huzayyin, A.S.; Rady, M.A.; Dawood, A. [Benha High Inst. of Technology (Egypt). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Technology; Bawady, A.H. [University of Ain Shams, Cairo (Egypt). Faculty of Engineering

    2004-08-01

    An experimental evaluation of using jojoba oil as an alternate diesel engine fuel has been conducted in the present work. Measurements of jojoba oil chemical and physical properties have indicated a good potential of using jojoba oil as an alternative diesel engine fuel. Blending of jojoba oil with gas oil has been shown to be an effective method to reduce engine problems associated with the high viscosity of jojoba oil. Experimental measurements of different performance parameters of a single cylinder, naturally aspirated, direct injection, diesel engine have been performed using gas oil and blends of gas oil with jojoba oil. Measurements of engine performance parameters at different load conditions over the engine speed range have generally indicated a negligible loss of engine power, a slight increase in brake specific fuel consumption and a reduction in engine NO{sub x} and soot emission using blends of jojoba oil with gas oil as compared to gas oil. The reduction in engine soot emission has been observed to increase with the increase of jojoba oil percentage in the fuel blend. (Author)

  10. Carbonaceous Aerosols Emitted from Light-Duty Vehicles Operating on Gasoline and Ethanol Fuel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examines the chemical properties of carbonaceous aerosols emitted from three light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDVs) operating on gasoline (e0) and ethanol-gasoline fuel blends (e10 and e85). Vehicle road load simulations were performed on a chassis dynamometer using the t...

  11. Carbonaceous Aerosols Emitted from Light-Duty Vehicles Operating on Ethanol Fuel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is among the many environmental and public health concerns associated with increased ethanol use in vehicles. Jacobson [2007] showed for the U.S. market that full conversion to e85 ([85% ethanol, 15% gasoline]—the maximum standard blend used in modern dual fuel veh...

  12. Bed agglomeration in fluidized combustor fueled by wood and rice straw blends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thy, P.; Jenkins, B.M.; Williams, R.B.; Lesher, C.E.; Bakker, R.R.

    2010-01-01

    Petrographic techniques have been used to examine bed materials from fluidized bed combustion experiments that utilized wood and rice straw fuel blends. The experiments were conducted using a laboratory-scale combustor with mullite sand beds, firing temperatures of 840 to 1030 °C, and run durations

  13. Experimental study on particulate and NOx emissions of a diesel engine fueled with ultra low sulfur diesel, RME-diesel blends and PME-diesel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Wugao; Liu, Wei; Huang, Zhen

    2010-02-01

    Ultra low sulfur diesel and two different kinds of biodiesel fuels blended with baseline diesel fuel in 5% and 20% v/v were tested in a Cummins 4BTA direct injection diesel engine, with a turbocharger and an intercooler. Experiments were conducted under five engine loads at two steady speeds (1500 rpm and 2500 rpm). The study aims at investigating the engine performance, NO(x) emission, smoke opacity, PM composition, PM size distribution and comparing the impacts of low sulfur content of biodiesel with ULSD on the particulate emission. The results indicate that, compared to base diesel fuel, the increase of biodiesel in blends could cause certain increase in both brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency. Compared with baseline diesel fuel, the biodiesel blends bring about more NO(x) emissions. With the proportion of biodiesel increase in blends, the smoke opacity decreases, while total particle number concentration increases. Meanwhile the ULSD gives lower NO(x) emissions, smoke opacity and total number concentration than those of baseline diesel fuel. In addition, the percentages of SOF and sulfate in particulates increase with biodiesel in blends, while the dry soot friction decreases obviously. Compared with baseline diesel fuel, the biodiesel blends increase the total nucleation number concentration, while ULSD reduces the total nucleation number concentration effectively, although they all have lower sulfur content. It means that, for ULSD, the lower sulfur content is the dominant factor for suppressing nucleation particles formation, while for biodiesel blends, lower volatile, lower aromatic content and higher oxygen content of biodiesel are key factors for improving the nucleation particles formation. The results demonstrate that the higher NO(x) emission and total nucleation number concentration are considered as the big obstacles of the application of biodiesel in diesel engine.

  14. NMOG Emissions Characterizations and Estimation for Vehicles Using Ethanol-Blended Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluder, Scott [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

    2011-10-01

    Ethanol is a biofuel commonly used in gasoline blends to displace petroleum consumption; its utilization is on the rise in the United States, spurred by the biofuel utilization mandates put in place by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has the statutory responsibility to implement the EISA mandates through the promulgation of the Renewable Fuel Standard. EPA has historically mandated an emissions certification fuel specification that calls for ethanol-free fuel, except for the certification of flex-fuel vehicles. However, since the U.S. gasoline marketplace is now virtually saturated with E10, some organizations have suggested that inclusion of ethanol in emissions certification fuels would be appropriate. The test methodologies and calculations contained in the Code of Federal Regulations for gasoline-fueled vehicles have been developed with the presumption that the certification fuel does not contain ethanol; thus, a number of technical issues would require resolution before such a change could be accomplished. This report makes use of the considerable data gathered during the mid-level blends testing program to investigate one such issue: estimation of non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emissions. The data reported in this paper were gathered from over 600 cold-start Federal Test Procedure (FTP) tests conducted on 68 vehicles representing 21 models from model year 2000 to 2009. Most of the vehicles were certified to the Tier-2 emissions standard, but several older Tier-1 and national low emissions vehicle program (NLEV) vehicles were also included in the study. Exhaust speciation shows that ethanol, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde dominate the oxygenated species emissions when ethanol is blended into the test fuel. A set of correlations were developed that are derived from the measured non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions and the ethanol blend level in the fuel. These correlations were

  15. Direct hydrogen fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.

    Hybridizing a fuel cell system with an energy storage system offers an opportunity to improve the fuel economy of the vehicle through regenerative braking and possibly to increase the specific power and decrease the cost of the combined energy conversion and storage systems. Even in a hybrid configuration it is advantageous to operate the fuel cell system in a load-following mode and use the power from the energy storage system when the fuel cell alone cannot meet the power demand. This paper discusses an approach for designing load-following fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles and illustrates it by applying it to pressurized, direct hydrogen, polymer-electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems for a mid-size family sedan. The vehicle level requirements relative to traction power, response time, start-up time and energy conversion efficiency are used to select the important parameters for the PEFC stack, air management system, heat rejection system and the water management system.

  16. Novel Blend Membranes Based on Acid-Base Interactions for Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzhu Fu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fuel cells hold great promise for wide applications in portable, residential, and large-scale power supplies. For low temperature fuel cells, such as the proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs, proton-exchange membranes (PEMs are a key component determining the fuel cells performance. PEMs with high proton conductivity under anhydrous conditions can allow PEMFCs to be operated above 100 °C, enabling use of hydrogen fuels with high-CO contents and improving the electrocatalytic activity. PEMs with high proton conductivity and low methanol crossover are critical for lowering catalyst loadings at the cathode and improving the performance and long-term stability of DMFCs. This review provides a summary of a number of novel acid-base blend membranes consisting of an acidic polymer and a basic compound containing N-heterocycle groups, which are promising for PEMFCs and DMFCs.

  17. Intermediate Alcohol-Gasoline Blends, Fuels for Enabling Increased Engine Efficiency and Powertrain Possibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Splitter, Derek A [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The present study experimentally investigates spark-ignited combustion with 87 AKI E0 gasoline in its neat form and in mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends with 24% vol./vol. iso-butanol-gasoline (IB24) and 30% vol./vol. ethanol-gasoline (E30). A single-cylinder research engine is used with a low and high compression ratio of 9.2:1 and 11.85:1 respectively. The engine is equipped with hydraulically actuated valves, laboratory intake air, and is capable of external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All fuels are operated to full-load conditions with =1, using both 0% and 15% external cooled EGR. The results demonstrate that higher octane number bio-fuels better utilize higher compression ratios with high stoichiometric torque capability. Specifically, the unique properties of ethanol enabled a doubling of the stoichiometric torque capability with the 11.85:1 compression ratio using E30 as compared to 87 AKI, up to 20 bar IMEPg at =1 (with 15% EGR, 18.5 bar with 0% EGR). EGR was shown to provide thermodynamic advantages with all fuels. The results demonstrate that E30 may further the downsizing and downspeeding of engines by achieving increased low speed torque, even with high compression ratios. The results suggest that at mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends, engine and vehicle optimization can offset the reduced fuel energy content of alcohol-gasoline blends, and likely reduce vehicle fuel consumption and tailpipe CO2 emissions.

  18. Microbial contamination in diesel fuel. Are new problems arising from biodiesel blends?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegert, Wolfgang [Schuelke und Mayr GmbH, Norderstedt (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    Standard diesel fuel is allowed to contain only 0.2 cm{sup 3} water per litre of fuel from which a third of this is dissolved. The rest of the water settles at the tank bottom and is sufficient to serve as a biosphere for the microorganisms. Microbial products of decomposition form an emulsion of water and fuel and make separation of the water more difficult. Microbes are the cause for operational problems like fouling of tanks, pipes, filters and tank corrosion. These microbial problems in mineral diesel have been known for over 70 years. But nowadays the diesel fuel is a blend with biodiesel such as fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). Since the widespread of biodiesel blends an increase of operational problems is observed. Does the addition of FAME increase the risk of microbial contamination? Is it enhancing microbial growth? The fatty acid esters, such as FAME, produce an environment in mineral diesel in which microbial growth is encouraged due to the ability of microorganisms to degrade natural fat and oil to yield energy for growth. The microbial growth can be enhanced at every stage in production, storage, distribution and in end users vehicles. Good housekeeping, monitoring and proper usage of an effective biocide are crucial measures for an anti-microbial strategy. A tailor-made fuel biocide for mineral diesel I FAME blends is introduced. (orig.)

  19. Biodiesel fuels from palm oil, palm oil methylester and ester-diesel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.A.O. Martins

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Because of increasing cost and environmental pollution effects of fossil fuels, palm oil, its methylester and ester-diesel blends were analyzed comparatively with diesel for their fuel properties that will make them serve as alternatives to diesel in diesel engines. Equally, the samples were comparatively analyzed for their trace metal composition in relation to corrosion. Also the bond structure/stability of the samples in relation to diesel were monitored with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Results confirmed that most methylester blends with diesel fell within the grade 2D while the oil, methylester and 90:10 blend fell into 4D grade diesel fuels. From bond structure/stability comparison, all the samples were stable at 28 oC and had similarity in structure with diesel. All samples are commercializable. The trace metal composition of most samples was below that of the diesel with exception of Mn, Pb and Zn. The total acid numbers of all samples were below that of diesel and would not cause corrosion. It is recommended that processing of these samples should be done to conserve fossil fuel and as alternative diesel fuels in diesel engines.

  20. Biodegradation test of SPS-LS blends as polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putri, Zufira, E-mail: zufira.putri@gmail.com, E-mail: arcana@chem.itb.ac.id; Arcana, I Made, E-mail: zufira.putri@gmail.com, E-mail: arcana@chem.itb.ac.id [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Research Groups, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) can be applied as a proton exchange membrane fuel cell due to its fairly good chemical stability. In order to be applied as polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), membrane polymer should have a good ionic conductivity, high proton conductivity, and high mechanical strength. Lignosulfonate (LS) is a complex biopolymer which has crosslinks and sulfonate groups. SPS-LS blends with addition of SiO{sub 2} are used to increase the proton conductivity and to improve the mechanical properties and thermal stability. However, the biodegradation test of SPS-LS blends is required to determine whether the application of these membranes to be applied as an environmentally friendly membrane. In this study, had been done the synthesis of SPS, biodegradability test of SPS-LS blends with variations of LS and SiO{sub 2} compositions. The biodegradation test was carried out in solid medium of Luria Bertani (LB) with an activated sludge used as a source of microorganism at incubation temperature of 37°C. Based on the results obtained indicated that SPS-LS-SiO{sub 2} blends are more decomposed by microorganism than SPS-LS blends. This result is supported by analysis of weight reduction percentage, functional groups with Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, and morphological surface with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)

  1. Biodegradation test of SPS-LS blends as polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Zufira; Arcana, I. Made

    2014-03-01

    Sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) can be applied as a proton exchange membrane fuel cell due to its fairly good chemical stability. In order to be applied as polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), membrane polymer should have a good ionic conductivity, high proton conductivity, and high mechanical strength. Lignosulfonate (LS) is a complex biopolymer which has crosslinks and sulfonate groups. SPS-LS blends with addition of SiO2 are used to increase the proton conductivity and to improve the mechanical properties and thermal stability. However, the biodegradation test of SPS-LS blends is required to determine whether the application of these membranes to be applied as an environmentally friendly membrane. In this study, had been done the synthesis of SPS, biodegradability test of SPS-LS blends with variations of LS and SiO2 compositions. The biodegradation test was carried out in solid medium of Luria Bertani (LB) with an activated sludge used as a source of microorganism at incubation temperature of 37°C. Based on the results obtained indicated that SPS-LS-SiO2 blends are more decomposed by microorganism than SPS-LS blends. This result is supported by analysis of weight reduction percentage, functional groups with Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, and morphological surface with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).

  2. INVESTIGATION OF FOSSIL FUEL AND LIQUID BIOFUEL BLEND PROPERTIES USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Najafi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Gasoline fuel is the baseline fuel in this research, to which bioethanol, biodiesel and diesel are additives. The fuel blends were prepared based on different volumes and following which, ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials test methods analysed some of the important properties of the blends, such as: density, dynamic viscosity, kinematic viscosity and water and sediment. Experimental data were analysed by means of Matlab software. The results obtained from artificial neural network analysis of the data showed that the network with feed forward back propagation of the Levenberg-Marquardt train LM function with 10 neurons in the hidden layer was the best for predicting the parameters, including: Water and sediment (W, dynamic viscosity (DV, kinematic viscosity (KV and density (De. The experimental data had a good correlation with ANN-predicted values according to 0.96448 for regression.

  3. The effect of biodiesel and bioethanol blended diesel fuel on nanoparticles and exhaust emissions from CRDI diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hwanam [Automobile Research Center, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea); Choi, Byungchul [School of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea)

    2010-01-15

    Biofuel (biodiesel, bioethanol) is considered one of the most promising alternative fuels to petrol fuels. The objective of the work is to study the characteristics of the particle size distribution, the reaction characteristics of nanoparticles on the catalyst, and the exhaust emission characteristics when a common rail direct injection (CRDI) diesel engine is run on biofuel-blended diesel fuels. In this study, the engine performance, emission characteristics, and particle size distribution of a CRDI diesel engine that was equipped with a warm-up catalytic converters (WCC) or a catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) were examined in an ECE (Economic Commission Europe) R49 test and a European stationary cycle (ESC) test. The engine performance under a biofuel-blended diesel fuel was similar to that under D100 fuel, and the high fuel consumption was due to the lowered calorific value that ensued from mixing with biofuels. The use of a biodiesel-diesel blend fuel reduced the total hydrocarbon (THC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions but increased nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions due to the increased oxygen content in the fuel. The smoke emission was reduced by 50% with the use of the bioethanol-diesel blend. Emission conversion efficiencies in the WCC and CPF under biofuel-blended diesel fuels were similar to those under D100 fuel. The use of biofuel-blended diesel fuel reduced the total number of particles emitted from the engine; however, the use of biodiesel-diesel blends resulted in more emissions of particles that were smaller than 50 nm, when compared with the use of D100. The use of a mixed fuel of biodiesel and bioethanol (BD15E5) was much more effective for the reduction of the particle number and particle mass, when compared to the use of BD20 fuel. (author)

  4. Fuel properties of loofah (Luffa cylindrica L.) biofuel blended with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl6

    American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. ... engines. Key words: Loofah ethyl esters, biodiesel, compression ignition engine, automotive gas oil (AGO). ... research interests in the use of vegetable oil fuels and.

  5. Combustion of Microalgae Oil and Ethanol Blended with Diesel Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saddam H. Al-lwayzy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Using renewable oxygenated fuels such as ethanol is a proposed method to reduce diesel engine emission. Ethanol has lower density, viscosity, cetane number and calorific value than petroleum diesel (PD. Microalgae oil is renewable, environmentally friendly and has the potential to replace PD. In this paper, microalgae oil (10% and ethanol (10% have been mixed and added to (80% diesel fuel as a renewable source of oxygenated fuel. The mixture of microalgae oil, ethanol and petroleum diesel (MOE20% has been found to be homogenous and stable without using surfactant. The presence of microalgae oil improved the ethanol fuel demerits such as low density and viscosity. The transesterification process was not required for oil viscosity reduction due to the presence of ethanol. The MOE20% fuel has been tested in a variable compression ratio diesel engine at different speed. The engine test results with MOE20% showed a very comparable engine performance of in-cylinder pressure, brake power, torque and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC to that of PD. The NOx emission and HC have been improved while CO and CO2 were found to be lower than those from PD at low engine speed.

  6. Emission comparison of urban bus engine fueled with diesel oil and 'biodiesel' blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrio-Baldassarri, Luigi; Battistelli, Chiara L; Conti, Luigi; Crebelli, Riccardo; De Berardis, Barbara; Iamiceli, Anna Laura; Gambino, Michele; Iannaccone, Sabato

    2004-07-05

    The chemical and toxicological characteristics of emissions from an urban bus engine fueled with diesel and biodiesel blend were studied. Exhaust gases were produced by a turbocharged EURO 2 heavy-duty diesel engine, operating in steady-state conditions on the European test 13 mode cycle (ECE R49). Regulated and unregulated pollutants, such as carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrated derivatives (nitro-PAHs), carbonyl compounds and light aromatic hydrocarbons were quantified. Mutagenicity of the emissions was evaluated by the Salmonella typhimurium/mammalian microsome assay. The effect of the fuels under study on the size distribution of particulate matter (PM) was also evaluated. The use of biodiesel blend seems to result in small reductions of emissions of most of the aromatic and polyaromatic compounds; these differences, however, have no statistical significance at 95% confidence level. Formaldehyde, on the other hand, has a statistically significant increase of 18% with biodiesel blend. In vitro toxicological assays show an overall similar mutagenic potency and genotoxic profile for diesel and biodiesel blend emissions. The electron microscopy analysis indicates that PM for both fuels has the same chemical composition, morphology, shape and granulometric spectrum, with most of the particles in the range 0.06-0.3 microm.

  7. BLEND MEMBRANES FOR DIRECT METHANOL AND PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Perurnal Bhavani; Dharmalingam Sangeetha

    2012-01-01

    Sulphonated polystyrene ethylene butylene polystyrene (SPSEBS) prepared with 35% sulphonation was found to be highly elastic and enlarged up to 300%-400% of its initial length.It absorbed over 110% of water by weight.A major drawback of this membrane is its poor mechanical properties which are not adequate for use as polymer electrolytes in fuel cells.To overcome this,SPSEBS was blended with poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF),a hydrophobic polymer.The blend membranes showed better mechanical properties than the base polymer.The effect of PVDF content on water uptake,ion exchange capacity and proton conductivity of the blend membranes was investigated.This paper presents the results of recent studies applied to develop an optimized in-house membrane electrode assembly (MEA) preparation technique combining catalyst ink spraying and assembly hot pressing.Easy steps were chosen in this preparation technique in order to simplify the method,aiming at cost reduction.The open circuit voltage for the cell with SPSEBS is 0.980 V which is higher compared to that of the cell with Nafion 117 (0.790 V).From this study,it is concluded that a polymer electrolyte membrane suitable for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) application can be obtained by blending SPSEBS and PVDF in appropriate proportions.The methanol permeability and selectivity showed a strong influence on DMFC performance.

  8. Butanol/diesel blends as a CI engine fuel. Physico-chemical and engine performance characteristics evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, M.K.; Thakre, G.D.; Saxena, R.C.; Sharma, Y.K.; Jain, A.K.; Singal, S.K. [CSIR - Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehradun, Uttrakhand (India)

    2013-06-01

    Recently, butanol produced by fermentation, known as bio-butanol has emerged as a new alternative fuel for CI engines. However, very little work has been carried out on its use in C.I. engine. In this context current paper deals with the characteristic properties and performance evaluation of butanol as a blending additive in diesel fuels. The butanol-diesel blends are prepared in varying concentrations of 5-l 0% and have been studied for their Corrosion, Tribology, distillation and Physico-chemical characteristics. These characteristics properties are then compared with those of diesel. The study reveals that the butanol-diesel blends offer better cetane number, improved corrosion behaviour and comparable distillation and tribological properties. The engine performance evaluation revealed comparable performance in terms of fuel economy as compared with diesel fuel. Hence, Butanol-diesel blends can be successfully used as an alternative fuel for CI engines. (orig.)

  9. Vehicle conversion to hybrid gasoline/alternative fuel operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donakowski, T. D.

    1982-01-01

    The alternative fuels considered are compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and methanol; vehicles were required to operate in a hybrid or dual-fuel gasoline/alternative fuel mode. Economic feasibility was determined by comparing the costs of continued use of gasoline fuel with the use of alternative fuel and retrofitted equipment. Differences in the amounts of future expenditures are adjusted by means of a total life-cycle costing. All fuels studied are technically feasible to allow a retrofit conversion to hybrid gasoline/alternative fuel operation except for methanol. Conversion to LPG is not recommended for vehicles with more than 100,000 km (60,000 miles) of prior use. Methanol conversion is not recommended for vehicles with more than 50,00 km (30,000 miles).

  10. Coconut Oil Based Hybrid Fuels as Alternative Fuel for Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranil Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The use of vegetable oils as a fuel in diesel engines causes some problems due to their high viscosity compared with diesel. Various techniques and methods are used to solve the problems resulting from high viscosity. Approach: One of the techniques is the preparation of a microemulsion fuel, called a hybrid fuel. In this study, hybrid fuels consisting of coconut oil, ethanol and octan-1-ol were prepared with an aim to test their suitability as a fuel for diesel engines. Density, viscosity and gross calorific values of these fuels were determined and the fuels were used to run a direct injection diesel engine. The engine performance and exhaust emissions were investigated and compared with that of diesel and coconut oil. Results: The experimental results show that the engine efficiency of the hybrid fuels is comparable to that of diesel. As the percentage of ethanol and/or octan-1-ol increased, the viscosity of the hybrid fuels decreased and the engine efficiency increased. The exhaust emissions were lower than those for diesel, except carbon monoxide, which increased. Conclusion/Recommendations: Hence, it is concluded that these hybrid fuels can be used successfully as an alternative fuel in diesel engines without any modifications. Their completely renewable nature ensures that they are environmentally friendly.

  11. Use of hazelnut kernel oil methyl ester and its blends as alternative fuels in diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guemues, M.; Atmaca, M. [Marmara Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Mechanical Department

    2008-09-30

    Interest in vegetable oil as an alternative to diesel fuel in diesel engines has increased during the last few decades because reserves of petroleum fuel and its derivatives are diminishing rapidly, and because they have harmful effects on the environment. Numerous vegetable oil esters have been tried as alternatives to diesel fuel. Many researchers have reported that with the use of vegetable oil ester as a fuel in diesel engiens there is a decrease in harmful exhaust emissions and engine performance that is the equivalent of diesel fuel. Several studies have found that biodiesel emits far less of the most regulated pollutants than standard diesel fuel. Decreasing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions by using biodiesel contributes to reducing the greenhouse effect. Furthermore, diminishing carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and smoke density improves air quality. Essential oils that have been tested in diesel engines are soybean, sunflower, corn, safflower, cottonseed, and rapeseed, which are categorized as edible oils; however, some edible oils, such as neat hazelnut kernel oil, have not been comprehensively tested as alternative fuel in diesel engines. In this study, hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) kernel oil was evaluated as an alternative fuel in diesel engines. Firstly, the optimum transesteri.cation reaction conditions for hazelnut kernel oil, with respect to reaction temperature, volumetric ratio of reactants, and catalyst, were investigated. Secondly, an experimental investigation was carried out to examine performance and emissions of a direct injection diesel engine running on hazelnut kernel oil methyl ester and its blends with diesel fuel. Results showed that hazelnut kernel oil methyl ester and its blends with diesel fuel are generally comparable to diesel fuel, according to engine performance and emissions.

  12. Hot Hole Transfer Increasing Polaron Yields in Hybrid Conjugated Polymer/PbS Blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strein, Elisabeth; deQuilettes, Dane W; Hsieh, Stephen T; Colbert, Adam E; Ginger, David S

    2014-01-01

    We use quasi-steady-state photoinduced absorption (PIA) to study charge generation in blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) with PbS nanocrystal quantum dots as a function of excitation energy. We find that, per photon absorbed, the yield of photogenerated holes present on the conjugated polymer increases with pump energy, even at wavelengths where only the quantum dots absorb. We interpret this result as direct evidence for transfer of hot holes in these conjugated polymer/quantum dot blends. These results help understand the operation of hybrid organic/inorganic photovoltaics.

  13. A NMR-Based Carbon-Type Analysis of Diesel Fuel Blends From Various Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bays, J. Timothy; King, David L.

    2013-05-10

    spectroscopy for the detailed characterization and comparison of fuels and fuel blends.

  14. Impact of methanol-gasoline fuel blend on the fuel consumption and exhaust emission of a SI engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifal, Mohamad; Sinaga, Nazaruddin

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the effect of methanol-gasoline fuel blend (M15, M30 and M50) on the fuel consumption and exhaust emission of a spark ignition engine (SI) were investigated. In the experiment, an engine four-cylinder, four stroke injection system (engine of Toyota Kijang Innova 1TR-FE) was used. Test were did to know the relation of fuel consumption and exhaust emission (CO, CO2, HC) were analyzed under the idle throttle operating condition and variable engine speed ranging from 1000 to 4000 rpm. The experimental result showed that the fuel consumption decrease with the use of methanol. It was also shown that the CO and HC emission were reduced with the increase methanol content while CO2 were increased.

  15. Effects of different mixing ratios on emissions from passenger cars fueled with methanol/gasoline blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong; Ge, Yunshan; Tan, Jianwei; Yin, Hang; Guo, Jiadong; Zhao, Wei; Dai, Peipei

    2011-01-01

    Regulated and unregulated emissions from four passenger cars fueled with methanol/gasoline blends at different mixing ratios (M15, M20, M30, M50, M85 and M100) were tested over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were sampled by Tenax TA and analyzed by thermal desorption-gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (TD-GC/MS). Carbonyls were trapped on dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) cartridges and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that total emissions of VOCs and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p, m, o-xylene) from all vehicles fueled with methanol/gasoline blends were lower than those from vehicles fueled with only gasoline. Compared to the baseline, the use of M85 decreased BTEX emissions by 97.4%, while the use of M15 decreased it by 19.7%. At low-to-middle mixing ratios (M15, M20, M30 and M50), formaldehyde emissions showed a slight increase while those of high mixing ratios (M85 and M100) were three times compared with the baseline gasoline only. When the vehicles were retrofitted with new three-way catalytic converters (TWC), emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbon (THC), and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) were decreased by 24%-50%, 10%-35%, and 24%-58% respectively, compared with the cars using the original equipment manufacture (OEM) TWC. Using the new TWC, emissions of formaldehyde and BTEX were decreased, while those of other carbonyl increased. It is necessary that vehicles fueled with methanol/gasoline blends be retrofitted with a new TWC. In addition, the specific reactivity of emissions of vehicles fueled with M15 and retrofitted with the new TWC was reduced from 4.51 to 4.08 compared to the baseline vehicle. This indicates that the use of methanol/gasoline blend at a low mixing ratio may have lower effect on environment than gasoline.

  16. Fusion-Fission Hybrid for Fissile Fuel Production without Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratoni, M; Moir, R W; Kramer, K J; Latkowski, J F; Meier, W R; Powers, J J

    2012-01-02

    Two scenarios are typically envisioned for thorium fuel cycles: 'open' cycles based on irradiation of {sup 232}Th and fission of {sup 233}U in situ without reprocessing or 'closed' cycles based on irradiation of {sup 232}Th followed by reprocessing, and recycling of {sup 233}U either in situ or in critical fission reactors. This study evaluates a third option based on the possibility of breeding fissile material in a fusion-fission hybrid reactor and burning the same fuel in a critical reactor without any reprocessing or reconditioning. This fuel cycle requires the hybrid and the critical reactor to use the same fuel form. TRISO particles embedded in carbon pebbles were selected as the preferred form of fuel and an inertial laser fusion system featuring a subcritical blanket was combined with critical pebble bed reactors, either gas-cooled or liquid-salt-cooled. The hybrid reactor was modeled based on the earlier, hybrid version of the LLNL Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE1) system, whereas the critical reactors were modeled according to the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) and the Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) design. An extensive neutronic analysis was carried out for both the hybrid and the fission reactors in order to track the fuel composition at each stage of the fuel cycle and ultimately determine the plant support ratio, which has been defined as the ratio between the thermal power generated in fission reactors and the fusion power required to breed the fissile fuel burnt in these fission reactors. It was found that the maximum attainable plant support ratio for a thorium fuel cycle that employs neither enrichment nor reprocessing is about 2. This requires tuning the neutron energy towards high energy for breeding and towards thermal energy for burning. A high fuel loading in the pebbles allows a faster spectrum in the hybrid blanket; mixing dummy carbon pebbles with fuel pebbles enables a softer spectrum in

  17. Synthetic Fuel Blend Demonstration Program at Fort Bliss, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Iso -Paraffinic Kerosene JP-8 Aviation Turbine Fuel LMTV Light Medium Tactical Vehicle MPG Miles per Gallon MTV Medium Tactical Vehicle POL...12508 12559 12667 12677 689 212 TRK CGO LMTV TON M1078 B70T 13421 0 0 13459 13485 13560 0 139 36 TRK CGO LMTV TON M1078 B72 T 11743 11880 11919 11937

  18. Site Characterization of Ethanol-Blended Fuel Releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    There has been an increasing use of biofuels (ethanol in particular) in the fuel supply nationwide, and an increase in the number of stations that sell gasoline that contains more than 10% ethanol. The U.S. EPA needs to understand the fate of these materials if they are released ...

  19. Influence of Chemical Blends on Palm Oil Methyl Esters’ Cold Flow Properties and Fuel Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obed M. Ali

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Alternative fuels, like biodiesel, are being utilized as a renewable energy source and an effective substitute for the continuously depleting supply of mineral diesel as they have similar combustion characteristics. However, the use of pure biodiesel as a fuel for diesel engines is currently limited due to problems relating to fuel properties and its relatively poor cold flow characteristics. Therefore, the most acceptable option for improving the properties of biodiesel is the use of a fuel additive. In the present study, the properties of palm oil methyl esters with increasing additive content were investigated after addition of ethanol, butanol and diethyl ether. The results revealed varying improvement in acid value, density, viscosity, pour point and cloud point, accompanied by a slight decrease in energy content with an increasing additive ratio. The viscosity reductions at 5% additive were 12%, 7%, 16.5% for ethanol, butanol and diethyl ether, respectively, and the maximum reduction in pour point was 5 °C at 5% diethyl ether blend. Engine test results revealed a noticeable improvement in engine brake power and specific fuel consumption compared to palm oil biodiesel and the best performance was obtained with diethyl ether. All the biodiesel-additive blend samples meet the requirements of ASTM D6751 biodiesel fuel standards for the measured properties.

  20. Properties, degradation and high temperature fuel cell test of different types of PBI and PBI blend membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingfeng; Rudbeck, Hans Christian; Chromik, Andreas;

    2010-01-01

    Polybenzimidazoles (PBIs) with synthetically modified structures and their blends with a partially fluorinated sulfonated aromatic polyether have been prepared and characterized for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Significant improvement in the polymer chemical stability in ...

  1. Effect of biomass blending on coal ignition and burnout during oxy-fuel combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Arias; C. Pevida; F. Rubiera; J.J. Pis [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Oviedo (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    Oxy-fuel combustion is a GHG abatement technology in which coal is burned using a mixture of oxygen and recycled flue gas, to obtain a rich stream of CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. An entrained flow reactor was used in this work to study the ignition and burnout of coals and blends with biomass under oxy-fuel conditions. Mixtures of CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} of different concentrations were used and compared with air as reference. A worsening of the ignition temperature was detected in CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} mixtures when the oxygen concentration was the same as that of the air. However, at an oxygen concentration of 30% or higher, an improvement in ignition was observed. The blending of biomass clearly improves the ignition properties of coal in air. The burnout of coals and blends with a mixture of 79%CO{sub 2}-21%O{sub 2} is lower than in air, but an improvement is achieved when the oxygen concentration is 30 or 35%. The results of this work indicate that coal burnout can be improved by blending biomass in CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} mixtures. 26 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  2. New Analysis Methods Estimate a Critical Property of Ethanol Fuel Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    To date there have been no adequate methods for measuring the heat of vaporization of complex mixtures. This research developed two separate methods for measuring this key property of ethanol and gasoline blends, including the ability to estimate heat of vaporization at multiple temperatures. Methods for determining heat of vaporization of gasoline-ethanol blends by calculation from a compositional analysis and by direct calorimetric measurement were developed. Direct measurement produced values for pure compounds in good agreement with literature. A range of hydrocarbon gasolines were shown to have heat of vaporization of 325 kJ/kg to 375 kJ/kg. The effect of adding ethanol at 10 vol percent to 50 vol percent was significantly larger than the variation between hydrocarbon gasolines (E50 blends at 650 kJ/kg to 700 kJ/kg). The development of these new and accurate methods allows researchers to begin to both quantify the effect of fuel evaporative cooling on knock resistance, and exploit this effect for combustion of hydrocarbon-ethanol fuel blends in high-efficiency SI engines.

  3. GEP 6.5LT Engine Cetane Window Evaluation for ATJ/JP-8 Fuel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Engine Products H/C Hydrogen Atom to Carbon Atom Ratio HC Hydrocarbon HCCI Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition HRJ8 Hydro Treated Renewable Jet...UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED GEP 6.5LT ENGINE CETANE WINDOW EVALUATION FOR ATJ/JP-8 FUEL BLENDS INTERIM REPORT TFLRF No. 470 by...Destroy this report when no longer needed. Do not return it to the originator. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED GEP 6.5LT ENGINE CETANE WINDOW

  4. Use of Palm oil Biodiesel Blends as a Fuel for Compression Ignition Engine

    OpenAIRE

    B. Deepanraj; C. Dhanesh; Senthil, R.; M. Kannan; Santhoshkumar, A.; P. Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: The increasing awareness of the environmental hazards and the alarming levels of air pollution have led to more restrictive regulations on engines emission control in recent years. Approach: The dwindling resources and rising cost of crude oil have resulted in an intensified search for alternate fuels. In the present study biodiesel (palm oil methyl ester) blends with diesel was investigated in a direct injection stationary diesel engine. The stationary engine test bed used...

  5. Bed agglomeration in fluidized combustor fueled by wood and rice straw blends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thy, Peter; Jenkins, Brian; Williams, R.B.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Petrographic techniques have been used to examine bed materials from fluidized bed combustion experiments that utilized wood and rice straw fuel blends. The experiments were conducted using a laboratory-scale combustor with mullite sand beds, firing temperatures of 840 to 1030 °C, and run...... straw ash particles appear to have mostly been passively incorporated into the adhesive melt without melting or reaction....

  6. Color matching of fabric blends: hybrid Kubelka-Munk + artificial neural network based method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furferi, Rocco; Governi, Lapo; Volpe, Yary

    2016-11-01

    Color matching of fabric blends is a key issue for the textile industry, mainly due to the rising need to create high-quality products for the fashion market. The process of mixing together differently colored fibers to match a desired color is usually performed by using some historical recipes, skillfully managed by company colorists. More often than desired, the first attempt in creating a blend is not satisfactory, thus requiring the experts to spend efforts in changing the recipe with a trial-and-error process. To confront this issue, a number of computer-based methods have been proposed in the last decades, roughly classified into theoretical and artificial neural network (ANN)-based approaches. Inspired by the above literature, the present paper provides a method for accurate estimation of spectrophotometric response of a textile blend composed of differently colored fibers made of different materials. In particular, the performance of the Kubelka-Munk (K-M) theory is enhanced by introducing an artificial intelligence approach to determine a more consistent value of the nonlinear function relationship between the blend and its components. Therefore, a hybrid K-M+ANN-based method capable of modeling the color mixing mechanism is devised to predict the reflectance values of a blend.

  7. Fuel consumption of the Autark hybrid in test rig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehn, B.R. [VDI (Germany); Pflaum, H.; Guttenberg, P.

    2002-07-01

    The Autark Hybrid of the Technical University Munich is a parallel hybrid concept for passenger cars with the aims of saving fuel and reducing exhaust gas emissions. The drive line consists of an electric engine supplied by a 120V-Ni/MH-battery and a diesel engine. Both engines use the same gearbox, a specially developed i{sup 2}-gearbox with continuously variable transmission and wide spreading. In the meantime the concept has been realised and fuel consumption is investigated in a drive line test rig. The paper presents the actual state of fuel measurements along with energetic analysis of drive line operation. (orig.)

  8. An experimental study on the spray characteristics of diesel-dimethyl ether (DME) blended fuels by phase doppler anemometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study on the spray characteristics of diesel-dimethyl ether (DME) blended fuels by phase doppler anemometry (PDA). Blended fuels with DME mass fractions of 15%, 30% and pure diesel fuel were used to evaluate the effect of the DME concentration on the spray pattern, droplet size and velocity. The data for spray velocity vector and droplet size field were obtained. The experimental results reveal that the micro-explosive function exists in the jet of diesel-dimethyl ether (DME) blended fuels and the radial velocity of the blended fuels spray is larger than that of conventional diesel fuel spray near the nozzle exit. At the downstream part of the spray, the radial velocity and its attenuation rate of blended fuels are much more uniform and smaller than those of pure diesel spray. At the centerline of the spray, the attenuation rates of all spray axial velocities are similar. With the in- crease of DME concentration in the fuel, the spray angle and the exit velocity increase and the droplet size deceases.

  9. An experimental study on the spray characteristics of diesel-dimethyl ether (DME) blended fuels by phase doppler anemometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Jin; HUANG Zhen; QIAO XinQi

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study on the spray characteristics of diesel-dimethyl ether (DME) blended fuels by phase doppler anemometry (PDA). Blended fuels with DME mass fractions of 15%,30% and pure diesel fuel were used to evaluate the effect of the DME concentration on the spray pattern,droplet size and velocity. The data for spray velocity vector and droplet size field were obtained. The experimental results reveal that the micro-explosive function exists in the jet of diesel-dimethyl ether (DME) blended fuels and the radial velocity of the blended fuels spray is larger than that of conventional diesel fuel spray near the nozzle exit. At the downstream part of the spray, the radial velocity and its attenuation rate of blended fuels are much more uniform and smaller than those of pure diesel spray. At the centerline of the spray, the attenuation rates of all spray axial velocities are similar. With the increase of DME concentration in the fuel, the spray angle and the exit velocity increase and the droplet size deceases.

  10. PAH emissions and energy efficiency of palm-biodiesel blends fueled on diesel generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Hou, Hsiao-Chung

    This study investigated the emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), carcinogenic potencies (BaP eq) and particulate matter (PM), fuel consumption and energy efficiency from the generator under steady state for seven test fuels: P0 (Premium Diesel Fuel), P10 (10% palm biodiesel+90% P0), P20, P30, P50, P75 and P100. Experimental results indicated that PAH emission decreased with increasing palm-biodiesel blends due to small PAH content in biodiesel. The mean reduction fraction of total PAHs emission factor (P0=1110 μg L -1) from the exhaust of diesel generator were 13.2%, 28.0%, 40.6%, 54.4%, 61.89% and 98.8% for P10, P20, P30, P50, P75 and P100, respectively, compared with P0. The mean reduction fraction of total BaP eq (P0=1.65 μg L -1) from the exhaust of diesel generator were 15.2%, 29.1%, 43.3%, 56.4%, 58.2% and 97.6% for P10, P20, P30, P50, P75 and P100, respectively, compared with P0. PM emission decreased as the palm-biodiesel blends increased from 0% to 10%, and increased as the palm-biodiesel blends increased from 10% to 100% because the soluble organic fraction of PM emission was high in blends with high palm-biodiesel content. The brake specific fuel consumption rose with rising palm-biodiesel blends due to the low gross heat value of palm-biodiesel. The increasing fraction of BSFC of palm-biodiesel was lower than those of soy-, soapstock-, brassica-carinate and rapeseed-biodiesel. Palm-biodiesel seems to be the most feasible biodiesel. The best energy efficiency occurred between P10 and P20, close to P15. The curve dropped as the palm-biodiesel content rose above P20. Above results revealed that palm-biodiesel was an oxygenated fuel appropriate for use in diesel engines to promote combustion efficiency and decrease PAH emission. However, adding an excess of palm-biodiesel to P0 leaded to incomplete combustion in the diesel-engine generator and inhibited the release of energy in the fuel.

  11. Impact of 50% Alcohol to Jet Blends on Aviation Turbine Fuel Filtration and Coalescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-20

    50% Alcohol to Jet Blends on Aviation Turbine Fuel Filtration and Coalescence NF&LCFT REPORT 441/14-015 20 June 2014 Prepared By...Aviation Turbine Fuel Filtration and Coalescence 1.0 BACKGROUND In October 2009, Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus directed the Navy to decrease its...0 ɛ 1 Existent Gum (mg/100 mL) D381 7.0 5.0 Particulate Matter (mg/L) D5452 1.0 0.2 Filtration Time (minutes) MIL-DTL- 5624V 15 6 Micro

  12. Chemical Processing of Non-Crop Plants for Jet Fuel Blends Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulis, M. J.; Hepp, A. F.; McDowell, M.; Ribita, D.

    2009-01-01

    The use of Biofuels has been gaining in popularity over the past few years due to their ability to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels. Biofuels as a renewable energy source can be a viable option for sustaining long-term energy needs if they are managed efficiently. We describe our initial efforts to exploit algae, halophytes and other non-crop plants to produce synthetics for fuel blends that can potentially be used as fuels for aviation and non-aerospace applications. Our efforts have been dedicated to crafting efficient extraction and refining processes in order to extract constituents from the plant materials with the ultimate goal of determining the feasibility of producing biomass-based jet fuel from the refined extract. Two extraction methods have been developed based on communition processes, and liquid-solid extraction techniques. Refining procedures such as chlorophyll removal and transesterification of triglycerides have been performed. Gas chromatography in tandem with mass spectroscopy is currently being utilized in order to qualitatively determine the individual components of the refined extract. We also briefly discuss and compare alternative methods to extract fuel-blending agents from alternative biofuels sources.

  13. Production and Testing of Coconut Oil Biodiesel Fuel and its Blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguntola J ALAMU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers have successfully worked on generating energy from different alternative sources including solar and biological sources such as the conversion of trapped energy from sunlight to electricity and conversion of some renewable agricultural products to fuel. This work considers the use of coconut oil for the production of alternative renewable and environmental friendly biodiesel fuel as an alternative to conventional diesel fuel. Test quantities of coconut oil biodiesel were produced through transesterification reaction using 100g coconut oil, 20.0% ethanol (wt% coconut oil, 0.8% potassium hydroxide catalyst at 65°C reaction temperature and 120 min. reaction time. The experiment was carried out three times and average results evaluated. Low yield of the biodiesel (10.4% was obtained. The coconut oil biodiesel produced was subsequently blended with petroleum diesel and characterized as alternative diesel fuel through some ASTM standard fuel tests. The products were further evaluated by comparing specific gravity and viscosity of the biodiesel blend, the raw coconut oil and conventional petroleum diesel.

  14. Using Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells in a Hybrid Surface Ship Propulsion Plant to Increase Fuel Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Using Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells in a Hybrid Surface Ship Propulsion Plant to Increase Fuel Efficiency by Douglas M. Kroll B.S...Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells in a Hybrid Surface Ship Propulsion Plant to Increase Fuel Efficiency 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Using Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells in a Hybrid Surface Ship Propulsion Plant to Increase

  15. Experimental combustion analysis of a hsdi diesel engine fuelled with palm oil biodiesel-diesel fuel blends

    OpenAIRE

    JOHN AGUDELO; ELKIN GUTIÉRREZ; PEDRO BENJUMEA

    2010-01-01

    Differences in the chemical nature between petroleum diesel fuels and vegetable oils-based fuels lead to differences in their physical properties affecting the combustion process inside the engine. In this work a detailed combustion diagnosis was applied to a turbocharged automotive diesel engine operating with neat palm oil biodiesel (POB), No. 2 diesel fuel and their blends at 20 and 50% POB by volume (B20 and B50 respectively). To isolate the fuel effect, tests were executed at constant po...

  16. New hybrid model of proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Rui-min; CAO Guang-yi; ZHU Xin-jian

    2007-01-01

    Model and simulation are good tools for design optimization of fuel cell systems. This paper proposes a new hybrid model of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The hybrid model includes physical component and black-box component. The physical component represents the well-known part of PEMFC, while artificial neural network (ANN) component estimates the poorly known part of PEMFC. The ANN model can compensate the performance of the physical model. This hybrid model is implemented on Matlab/Simulink software. The hybrid model shows better accuracy than that of the physical model and ANN model. Simulation results suggest that the hybrid model can be used as a suitable and accurate model for PEMFC.

  17. Investigation on the gaseous and particulate emissions of a compression ignition engine fueled with diesel-dimethyl carbonate blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, C S; Zhu, Ruijun; Huang, Zuohua

    2011-01-01

    The effect of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) on the gaseous and particulate emissions of a diesel engine was investigated using Euro V diesel fuel blended with different proportions of DMC. Combustion analysis shows that, with the blended fuel, the ignition delay and the heat release rate in the premixed combustion phase increase, while the total combustion duration and the fuel consumed in the diffusion combustion phase decrease. Compared with diesel fuel, with an increase of DMC in the blended fuel, the brake thermal efficiency is slightly improved but the brake specific fuel consumption increases. On the emission side, CO increases significantly at low engine load but decreases at high engine load while HC decreases slightly. NO(x) reduces slightly but the reduction is not statistically significant, while NO(2) increases slightly. Particulate mass and number concentrations decrease upon using the blended fuel while the geometric mean diameter of the particles shifts towards smaller size. Overall speaking, diesel-DMC blends lead to significant improvement in particulate emissions while the impact on CO, HC and NO(x) emissions is small.

  18. Simulating HCCI Blending Octane Number of Primary Reference Fuel with Ethanol

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Eshan

    2017-03-28

    The blending of ethanol with primary reference fuel (PRF) mixtures comprising n-heptane and iso-octane is known to exhibit a non-linear octane response; however, the underlying chemistry and intermolecular interactions are poorly understood. Well-designed experiments and numerical simulations are required to understand these blending effects and the chemical kinetic phenomenon responsible for them. To this end, HCCI engine experiments were previously performed at four different conditions of intake temperature and engine speed for various PRF/ethanol mixtures. Transfer functions were developed in the HCCI engine to relate PRF mixture composition to autoignition tendency at various compression ratios. The HCCI blending octane number (BON) was determined for mixtures of 2-20 vol % ethanol with PRF70. In the present work, the experimental conditions were considered to perform zero-dimensional HCCI engine simulations with detailed chemical kinetics for ethanol/PRF blends. The simulations used the actual engine geometry and estimated intake valve closure conditions to replicate the experimentally measured start of combustion (SOC) for various PRF mixtures. The simulated HCCI heat release profiles were shown to reproduce the experimentally observed trends, specifically on the effectiveness of ethanol as a low temperature chemistry inhibitor at various concentrations. Detailed analysis of simulated heat release profiles and the evolution of important radical intermediates (e.g., OH and HO) were used to show the effect of ethanol blending on controlling reactivity. A strong coupling between the low temperature oxidation reactions of ethanol and those of n-heptane and iso-octane is shown to be responsible for the observed blending effects of ethanol/PRF mixtures.

  19. [Multi-objectives optimization on life cycle pollutants emission of cassava-based ethanol blended gasoline fuels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Geng-qiang; Hu, Zhi-yuan; Wang, Cheng-tao

    2004-09-01

    An optimization model on life cycle pollutants emission of cassava-based ethanol blended gasoline fuels, including single and multi-objectives, was carried out in this paper. And, the single and multi-objectives optimization of cassava-based ethanol blended gasoline fuels were done, using the life cycle CO, NOx, PM, HC, SOx, CO2 emissions as objectives. Moreover, sensitivity analysis of design variables was done. The multi-objectives results shown that the blend ratio between cassava-based ethanol and gasoline was 63%. Compare with the initial value, multi-objective optimization of cassava-based ethanol blended gasoline fuels achieved a little more life cycle CO, NOx and PM emissions, about 1%, 15% and 19% respectively, and reduced life cycle HC, SOx and CO2 emissions, 8%, 50%, and 21% respectively.

  20. Ignition delay and soot oxidative reactivity of MTBE blended diesel fuel

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Seung Yeon

    2014-04-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was added to diesel fuel to investigate the effect on ignition delay and soot oxidative reactivity. An ignition quality tester (IQT) was used to study the ignition propensity of MTBE blended diesel fuels in a reactive spray environment. The IQT data showed that ignition delay increases linearly as the MTBE fraction increases in the fuel. A four-stroke single cylinder diesel engine was used to generate soot samples for a soot oxidation study. Soot samples were pre-treated using a tube furnace in a nitrogen environment to remove any soluble organic fractions and moisture content. Non-isothermal oxidation of soot samples was conducted using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). It was observed that oxidation of \\'MTBE soot\\' started began at a lower temperature and had higher reaction rate than \\'diesel soot\\' across a range of temperatures. Several kinetic analyses including an isoconversional method and a combined model fitting method were carried out to evaluate kinetic parameters. The results showed that Diesel and MTBE soot samples had similar activation energy but the pre-exponential factor of MTBE soot was much higher than that of the Diesel soot. This may explain why MTBE soot was more reactive than Diesel soot. It is suggested that adding MTBE to diesel fuel is better for DPF regeneration since an MTBE blend can significantly influence the ignition characteristics and, consequently, the oxidative reactivity of soot. Copyright © 2014 SAE International.

  1. Storage tank materials for biodiesel blends; the analysis of fuel property changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Komariah Leily

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuel stability is one of major problem in biodiesel application. Some of the physical properties of biodiesel are commonly changed during storage. The change in physico-chemical properties is strongly correlated to the stability of the fuel. This study is objected to observe the potential materials for biodiesel storage. The test was conducted in three kinds of tank materials, such as glass, HDPE, and stainless steel. The fuel properties are monitored in 12 weeks, while the sample was analyzed every week. Biodiesel used is palm oil based. The storage tanks were placed in a confined indoor space with range of temperature 27–34 °C. The relative humidity and sunshine duration on the location was also evaluated. The observed properties of the fuel blends were density, viscosity and water content. During 12 weeks of storage, the average density of B20 was changed very slightly in all tanks, while the viscosity was tend to increase sharply, especially in polimerics tank. Water content of B20 was increased by the increase of storage time especially in HDPE tank. In short period of storage, the biodiesel blends is found more stable in glass tank due to its versatility to prohibit oxidation, degradation, and its chemical resistance.

  2. Study of Rapid-Regression Liquefying Hybrid Rocket Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilliac, Greg; DeZilwa, Shane; Karabeyoglu, M. Arif; Cantwell, Brian J.; Castellucci, Paul

    2004-01-01

    A report describes experiments directed toward the development of paraffin-based hybrid rocket fuels that burn at regression rates greater than those of conventional hybrid rocket fuels like hydroxyl-terminated butadiene. The basic approach followed in this development is to use materials such that a hydrodynamically unstable liquid layer forms on the melting surface of a burning fuel body. Entrainment of droplets from the liquid/gas interface can substantially increase the rate of fuel mass transfer, leading to surface regression faster than can be achieved using conventional fuels. The higher regression rate eliminates the need for the complex multi-port grain structures of conventional solid rocket fuels, making it possible to obtain acceptable performance from single-port structures. The high-regression-rate fuels contain no toxic or otherwise hazardous components and can be shipped commercially as non-hazardous commodities. Among the experiments performed on these fuels were scale-up tests using gaseous oxygen. The data from these tests were found to agree with data from small-scale, low-pressure and low-mass-flux laboratory tests and to confirm the expectation that these fuels would burn at high regression rates, chamber pressures, and mass fluxes representative of full-scale rocket motors.

  3. Hybrid rocket fuel combustion and regression rate study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, L. D.; Ray, R. L.; Anderson, F. A.; Cohen, N. S.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to develop hybrid fuels (1) with higher regression rates and reduced dependence on fuel grain geometry and (2) that maximize potential specific impulse using low-cost materials. A hybrid slab window motor system was developed to screen candidate fuels - their combustion behavior and regression rate. Combustion behavior diagnostics consisted of video and high speed motion pictures coverage. The mean fuel regression rates were determined by before and after measurements of the fuel slabs. The fuel for this initial investigation consisted of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene binder with coal and aluminum fillers. At low oxidizer flux levels (and corresponding fuel regression rates) the filled-binder fuels burn in a layered fashion, forming an aluminum containing binder/coal surface melt that, in turn, forms into filigrees or flakes that are stripped off by the crossflow. This melt process appears to diminish with increasing oxidizer flux level. Heat transfer by radiation is a significant contributor, producing the desired increase in magnitude and reduction in flow dependency (power law exponent) of the fuel regression rate.

  4. Reducing Fuel Volatility - An Additional Benefit From Blending Bio-fuels?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bailis, R.E.; Koeb, B.S.; Sanders, M.W.J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Oil price volatility harms economic growth. Diversifying into different fuel types can mitigate this effect by reducing volatility in fuel prices. Producing bio-fuels may thus have additional benefits in terms of avoided damage to macro-economic growth. In this study we investigate trends and patter

  5. Investigation of emissions characteristics of secondary butyl alcohol-gasoline blends in a port fuel injection spark ignition engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusri I.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exhaust emissions especially from light duty gasoline engine are a major contributor to air pollution due to the large number of vehicles on the road. The purpose of this study is to experimentally analyse the exhaust pollutant emissions of a four-stroke port fuel spark ignition engines operating using secondary butyl alcohol–gasoline blends by percentage volume of 5% (GBu5, 10% (GBu10 and 15% (GBu15 of secondary butyl- alcohol (2-butanol additives in gasoline fuels at 50% of wide throttle open. The exhaust emissions characteristics of the engine using blended fuels was compared to the exhaust emissions of the engine with gasoline fuels (G100 as a reference fuels. Exhaust emissions analysis results show that all of the blended fuels produced lower CO by 8.6%, 11.6% and 24.8% for GBu5, GBu10 and GBu15 respectively from 2500 to 4000 RPM, while for HC, both GBu10 and GBu15 were lower than that G100 fuels at all engine speeds. In general, when the engine was operated using blended fuels, the engine produced lower CO and HC, but higher CO2.

  6. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faress Rahman; Nguyen Minh

    2004-01-04

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the July 2003 to December 2003 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a micro-turbine. In addition, an activity included in this program focuses on the development of an integrated coal gasification fuel cell system concept based on planar SOFC technology. Also, another activity included in this program focuses on the development of SOFC scale up strategies.

  7. Combustion characteristics of SI engine fueled with methanol-gasoline blends during cold start

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruizhi SONG; Tiegang HU; Shenghua LIU; Xiaoqiang LIANG

    2008-01-01

    A 3-cylinder port fuel injection (PFI) engine fueled with methanol-gasoline blends was used to study combustion and emission characteristics. Cylinder pres-sure analysis indicates that engine combustion is improved when methanol is added to gasoline. With the increase of methanol, the flame developing period and the rapid combustion period are shortened, and the indicated mean effective pressure increases during the first 50 cycles. Meanwhile, a novel quasi-instantaneous sampling system was designed to measure engine emissions during cold start and warm-up. The results at 5℃ show that unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) decrease remarkably. Hydrocarbon (HC) reduces by 40% and CO by 70% when fueled with M30 (30% methanol in volume). The exhaust gas temperature is about 140℃ higher at 200 s after operation compared with that of gasoline.

  8. Catalytic Enhancement of Carbon Black and Coal-Fueled Hybrid Direct Carbon Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Ippolito, Davide; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid direct carbon fuel cells (HDCFCs) consisting of a solid carbon (carbon black)-molten carbonate ((62–38 wt% Li-K)2CO3) mixtures in the anode chamber of an anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell type full-cell are tested for their electrochemical performance between 700 and 800°C. Performance...

  9. A hybrid sequential deposition fabrication technique for micro fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Kevin G.; Czyzewska, Eva K.; Vanderhoek, Tom P. K.; Fan, Lilian L. Y.; Abel, Keith A.; Wu, Q. M. Jonathan; Parameswaran, M. Ash

    2005-10-01

    Micro fuel cell systems have elicited significant interest due to their promise for instantly rechargeable, longer duration and portable power. Most micro fuel cell systems are either built as miniaturized plate-and-frame or silicon-based microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Plate-and-frame systems are difficult to fabricate smaller than 20 cm3. Existing micro fuel cell designs cannot meet the cost, scale and power requirements of some portable power markets. Traditional MEMS scaling advantages do not apply to fuel cells because the minimum area for the fuel cell is fixed by the catalyst area required for a given power output, and minimum volume set by mass transport limitations. We have developed a new hybrid technique that borrows from both micro and macro machining techniques to create fuel cells in the 1-20 cm3 range, suitable for cell phones, PDAs and smaller devices.

  10. Performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine with COME-Triacetin additive blends as fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Venkateswara Rao, B. V. Appa Rao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Triacetin [C9H14O6] additive is used an anti-knocking agent along with the bio-diesel in DI- diesel engine. In the usage of diesel fuel and neat bio-diesel knocking can be detected to some extent. The T- additive usage in the engine suppressed knocking, improved the performance and reduced tail pipe emissions. Comparative study is conducted using petro-diesel, bio-diesel, and with various additive blends of bio-diesel on DI- diesel engine. Coconut oil methyl ester (COME is used with additive Triacetin (T at various percentages by volume for all loads (No load, 25%, 50%, 75% and full load. The performance of engine is compared with neat diesel in respect of engine efficiency, exhaust emissions and combustion knock. Of the five Triacetin- biodiesel blends tried, 10% Triacetin combination with biodiesel proved encouraging in all respects of performance of the engine.

  11. Performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine with COME-Triacetin additive blends as fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkateswara Rao, P. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, K I T S, Warangal- 506015, A. P. (India); Appa Rao, B.V. [Dept. of Marine Engineering, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530003, A. P. (India)

    2012-07-01

    The Triacetin [C9H14O6] additive is used an anti-knocking agent along with the bio-diesel in DI- diesel engine. In the usage of diesel fuel and neat bio-diesel knocking can be detected to some extent. The T- additive usage in the engine suppressed knocking, improved the performance and reduced tail pipe emissions. Comparative study is conducted using petro-diesel, bio-diesel, and with various additive blends of bio-diesel on DI- diesel engine. Coconut oil methyl ester (COME) is used with additive Triacetin (T) at various percentages by volume for all loads (No load, 25%, 50%, 75% and full load). The performance of engine is compared with neat diesel in respect of engine efficiency, exhaust emissions and combustion knock. Of the five Triacetin- biodiesel blends tried, 10% Triacetin combination with biodiesel proved encouraging in all respects of performance of the engine.

  12. Effects of High Octane Ethanol Blends on Four Legacy Flex-Fuel Vehicles, and a Turbocharged GDI Vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, John F [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); West, Brian H [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Huff, Shean P [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting engine and vehicle research to investigate the potential of high-octane fuels to improve fuel economy. Ethanol has very high research octane number (RON) and heat of vaporization (HoV), properties that make it an excellent spark ignition engine fuel. The prospects of increasing both the ethanol content and the octane number of the gasoline pool has the potential to enable improved fuel economy in future vehicles with downsized, downsped engines. This report describes a small study to explore the potential performance benefits of high octane ethanol blends in the legacy fleet. There are over 17 million flex-fuel vehicles (FFVs) on the road today in the United States, vehicles capable of using any fuel from E0 to E85. If a future high-octane blend for dedicated vehicles is on the horizon, the nation is faced with the classic chicken-and-egg dilemma. If today’s FFVs can see a performance advantage with a high octane ethanol blend such as E25 or E30, then perhaps consumer demand for this fuel can serve as a bridge to future dedicated vehicles. Experiments were performed with four FFVs using a 10% ethanol fuel (E10) with 88 pump octane, and a market gasoline blended with ethanol to make a 30% by volume ethanol fuel (E30) with 94 pump octane. The research octane numbers were 92.4 for the E10 fuel and 100.7 for the E30 fuel. Two vehicles had gasoline direct injected (GDI) engines, and two featured port fuel injection (PFI). Significant wide open throttle (WOT) performance improvements were measured for three of the four FFVs, with one vehicle showing no change. Additionally, a conventional (non-FFV) vehicle with a small turbocharged direct-injected engine was tested with a regular grade of gasoline with no ethanol (E0) and a splash blend of this same fuel with 15% ethanol by volume (E15). RON was increased from 90.7 for the E0 to 97.8 for the E15 blend. Significant wide open throttle and thermal efficiency performance

  13. Performance and emission evaluation of a CI engine fueled with preheated raw rapeseed oil (RRO)-diesel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazar, Hanbey [Department of Automotive, Faculty of Technical Education, Firat University, Elazig 23119 (Turkey); Aydin, Hueseyin [Department of Automotive, Faculty of Technical Education, Batman University, Batman 72060 (Turkey)

    2010-03-15

    Many studies are still being carried out to find out surplus information about how vegetable based oils can efficiently be used in compression ignition engines. Raw rapeseed oil (RRO) was used as blended with diesel fuel (DF) by 50% oil-50% diesel fuel in volume (O50) also as blended with diesel fuel by 20% oil-80% diesel fuel in volume (O20). The test fuels were used in a single cylinder, four stroke, naturally aspirated, direct injection compression ignition engine. The effects of fuel preheating to 100 C on the engine performance and emission characteristics of a CI engine fueled with rapeseed oil diesel blends were clarified. Results showed that preheating of RRO was lowered RRO's viscosity and provided smooth fuel flow Heating is necessary for smooth flow and to avoid fuel filter clogging. It can be achieved by heating RRO to 100 C. It can also be concluded that preheating of the fuel have some positive effects on engine performance and emissions when operating with vegetable oil. (author)

  14. Diesel engine performance and exhaust emission analysis using diesel-organic germanium fuel blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafiq Zulkifli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative fuels such as biodiesel, bio-alcohol and other biomass sources have been extensively research to find its potential as an alternative sources to fossil fuels. This experiment compared the performance of diesel (D, biodiesel (BD and diesel-organic germanium blend (BG5 at five different speeds ranging from 1200-2400 rpm. BG5 shows significant combustion performance compared to BD. No significant changes of power observed between BG5 and BD at a low speed (1200 rpm. On the contrary, at higher speeds (1800 rpm and 2400 rpm, BG5 blend fuel shows increased engine power of 12.2 % and 9.2 %, respectively. Similarly, torque shows similar findings as engine power, whereby the improvement could be seen at higher speeds (1800 rpm and 2400 rpm when torque increased by 7.3 % and 2.3 %, respectively. In addition, the emission results indicated that for all speeds, CO2, and NO had reduced at an average of 2.1 % and 177 %, respectively. Meanwhile, CO emission had slightly increased compared to BD at low speeds by 0.04 %. However, the amount of CO released had decreased at an average of 0.03 % as the engine speed increased. Finally, measurement of O2 shows an increment at 16.4 % at all speed range.

  15. Carbonyl compound emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with diesel fuel and ethanol-diesel blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chonglin; Zhao, Zhuang; Lv, Gang; Song, Jinou; Liu, Lidong; Zhao, Ruifen

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the carbonyl emissions from a direct injection heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with pure diesel fuel (DF) and blended fuel containing 15% by volume of ethanol (E/DF). The tests have been conducted under steady-state operating conditions at 1200, 1800, 2600 rpm and idle speed. The experimental results show that acetaldehyde is the most predominant carbonyl, followed by formaldehyde, acrolein, acetone, propionaldehyde and crotonaldehyde, produced from both fuels. The emission factors of total carbonyls vary in the range 13.8-295.9 mg(kWh)(-1) for DF and 17.8-380.2mg(kWh)(-1) for E/DF, respectively. The introduction of ethanol into diesel fuel results in a decrease in acrolein emissions, while the other carbonyls show general increases: at low engine speed (1200 rpm), 0-55% for formaldehyde, 4-44% for acetaldehyde, 38-224% for acetone, and 5-52% for crotonaldehyde; at medium engine speed (1800 rpm), 106-413% for formaldehyde, 4-143% for acetaldehyde, 74-113% for acetone, 114-1216% for propionaldehyde, and 15-163% for crotonaldehyde; at high engine speed (2600 rpm), 36-431% for formaldehyde, 18-61% for acetaldehyde, 22-241% for acetone, and 6-61% for propionaldehyde. A gradual reduction in the brake specific emissions of each carbonyl compound from both fuels is observed with increase in engine load. Among three levels of engine speed employed, both DF and E/DF emit most CBC emissions at high engine speed. On the whole, the presence of ethanol in diesel fuel leads to an increase in aldehyde emissions.

  16. Conceptual design of a commercial tokamak hybrid reactor fueling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matney, K.D.; Donnert, H.J.; Yang, T.F.

    1979-12-01

    A conceptual design of a fuel injection system for CTHR (Commercial Tokamak Hybrid Reactor) is discussed. Initially, relative merits of the cold-fueling concept are compared with those of the hot-fueling concept; that is, fueling where the electron is below 1 eV is compared with fueling where the electron temperature exceeds 100 eV. It is concluded that cold fueling seems to be somewhat more free of drawbacks than hot fueling. Possible implementation of the cold-fueling concept is exploited via frozen-pellet injection. Several methods of achieving frozen-pellet injection are discussed and the light-gas-gun approach is chosen from these possibilities. A modified version of the ORNL Neutral Gas Shielding Model is used to simulate the pellet injection process. From this simulation, the penetration-depth dependent velocity requirement is determined. Finally, with the velocity requirement known, a gas-pressure requirement for the proposed conceptual design is established. The cryogenic fuel-injection and fuel-handling systems are discussed. A possible way to implement the conceptual device is examined along with the attendant effects on the total system.

  17. Conceptual design of a commercial tokamak hybrid reactor fueling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matney, K D; Donnert, H J; Yang, T F

    1979-12-01

    A conceptual design of a fuel injection system for CTHR (Commercial Tokamak Hybrid Reactor) is discussed. Initially, relative merits of the cold-fueling concept are compared with those of the hot-fueling concept; that is, fueling where the electron temperature is below 1 eV is compared with fueling where the electron temperature exceeds 100 eV. It is concluded that cold fueling seems to be somewhat more free of drawbacks than hot fueling. Possible implementation of the cold-fueling concept is exploited via frozen-pellet injection. Several methods of achieving frozen-pellet injection are discussed and the light-gas-gun approach is chosen from these possibilities. A modified version of the ORNL Neutral Gas Shielding Model is used to simulate the pellet injection process. From this simulation, the penetration-depth dependent velocity requirement is determined. Finally, with the velocity requirement known, a gas-pressure requirement for the proposed conceptual design is established. The cryogenic fuel-injection and fuel-handling systems are discussed. A possible way to implement the conceptual device is examined along with the attendant effects on the total system.

  18. Performance and emissions assessment of n-butanol–methanol–gasoline blends as a fuel in spark-ignition engi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Elfasakhany

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The sleek of using alternatives to gasoline fuel in internal combustion engines becomes a necessity as the environmental problems of fossil fuels as well as their depleted reserves. This research presents an experimental investigation into a new blended fuel; the effects of n-butanol–methanol–gasoline fuel blends on the performance and pollutant emissions of an SI (spark-ignition engine were examined. Four test fuels (namely 0, 3, 7 and 10 volumetric percent of n-butanol–methanol blends at equal rates, e.g., 0%, 1.5%, 3.5% and 5% for n-butanol and methanol, in gasoline were investigated in an engine speed range of 2600–3400 r/min. In addition, the dual alcohol (methanol and n-butanol–gasoline blends were compared with single alcohol (n-butanol–gasoline blends (for the first time as well as with the neat gasoline fuel in terms of performance and emissions. The experimental results showed that the addition of low content rates of n-butanol–methanol to neat gasoline adversely affects the engine performance and exhaust gas emissions as compared to the results of neat gasoline and single alcohol–gasoline blends; in particular, a reduction in engine volumetric efficiency, brake power, torque, in-cylinder pressure, exhaust gas temperature and CO2 emissions and an increase in concentrations of CO and UHC (unburned hydrocarbons emissions were observed for the dual alcohols. However, higher rates of n-butanol–methanol blended in gasoline were observed to improve the SI engine performance parameters and emission concentration. Oppositely the higher rates of single alcohol–gasoline blends were observed to provide adverse results, e.g., higher emissions and lower performance than those of lower rates of single alcohol. Finally, dual alcohol–gasoline blends could exceed (i.e. provide higher performance and lower emissions single alcohol–gasoline blends and pure gasoline at higher rates (>10 vol.% in the blend and, in turn, it is

  19. Modeling, analysis and control of fuel cell hybrid power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Kyung Won

    Transient performance is a key characteristic of fuel cells, that is sometimes more critical than efficiency, due to the importance of accepting unpredictable electric loads. To fulfill the transient requirement in vehicle propulsion and portable fuel cell applications, a fuel cell stack is typically coupled with a battery through a DC/DC converter to form a hybrid power system. Although many power management strategies already exist, they all rely on low level controllers that realize the power split. In this dissertation we design controllers that realize various power split strategies by directly manipulating physical actuators (low level commands). We maintain the causality of the electric dynamics (voltage and current) and investigate how the electric architecture affects the hybridization level and the power management. We first establish the performance limitations associated with a stand-alone and power-autonomous fuel cell system that is not supplemented by an additional energy storage and powers all its auxiliary components by itself. Specifically, we examine the transient performance in fuel cell power delivery as it is limited by the air supplied by a compressor driven by the fuel cell itself. The performance limitations arise from the intrinsic coupling in the fluid and electrical domain between the compressor and the fuel cell stack. Feedforward and feedback control strategies are used to demonstrate these limitations analytically and with simulations. Experimental tests on a small commercial fuel cell auxiliary power unit (APU) confirm the dynamics and the identified limitations. The dynamics associated with the integration of a fuel cell system and a DC/DC converter is then investigated. Decentralized and fully centralized (using linear quadratic techniques) controllers are designed to regulate the power system voltage and to prevent fuel cell oxygen starvation. Regulating these two performance variables is a difficult task and requires a compromise

  20. Evaporate prediction and compensation of intake port wall-wetting fuel film for spark ignition engines fueled with ethanol-gasoline blends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-wei YAO; Xin-chen LING; Feng WU

    2012-01-01

    The fuel dynamic transfer process,including fuel injection,fuel film deposition and evaporation in the intake port,was analyzed for spark ignition (SI) engines with port fuel injection (PFI).The influence of wall-wetting fuel film,especially its evaporation rate,upon the air-fuel ratio of in-cylinder mixtures was also discussed.According to the similarity principle,Fick's law,the ideal gas equation and the Gilliland correlation,an evaporate prediction model of wall-wetting fuel film was set up and an evaporate prediction based dynamic fuel film compensator was designed.Through engine cold start tests,the wall-wetting temperature,which is the key input of the fuel film evaporate prediction model,was also modeled and predicted.Combined with the experimental data of the evaporation characteristics of ethanol-gasoline blends and engine calibration tests,all the parameters of the wall-wetting fuel film evaporate prediction model used in the fuel film compensator were identified.Square-wave disturbance tests of fuel injection showed that with the help of the fuel film compensator the response of the in-cylinder air-fuel ratio was significantly improved and the real air-fuel ratio always closely matched the expected ratio.The fuel film compensator was then integrated into the final air-fuel ratio controller,and the engine tests showed that the air-fuel ratio control error was less than 2% in steady-state conditions,and less than 4%in transient conditions.The fuel film compensator also showed good adaptability to different ethanol-gasoline blends.

  1. The determination of regulated and some unregulated exhaust gas components from ethanol blended diesel fuels in comparison with neat diesel and ethanol fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haupt, D.; Nordstroem, F.; Niva, M.; Bergenudd, L.; Hellberg, S. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden)

    1999-02-01

    Investigations that have been carried out at Luleaa University of Technology (LTU) show how exhaust gas emissions and engine performance are affected by the composition of the fuels. The fuels that have been tested and compared are two different ethanol blended diesel fuels, `neat` diesel fuels and neat ethanol fuels. Two different, heavy-duty engines were used for the investigations; one for the neat ethanol fuels and the other for the ethanol blended diesel fuels and neat diesel fuels. The investigation also includes some tests with two oxidizing catalysts. Results from the investigation show that none of the fuels produce emissions exceeding the values of the 13-mode test (ECE R-49, 1997). Lowest HC-emission levels were found for the two `neat` ethanol fuels although the difference between the HC-emissions can be considered negligible for the studied fuels. An effective reduction in the hydrocarbon emissions was achieved by using a catalyst. The investigation also shows that the NO{sub x} emissions were much lower for the neat ethanol fuels than for the other fuels. Even if the CO emissions from the two ethanol fuels were approximately three times higher than for the other investigated fuels the use of a catalyst equalize the CO emissions from the studied fuels. The formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions were clearly higher for the neat ethanol fuels than for the other investigated fuels. However, by using a catalyst the formaldehyde emission from the ethanol fuels could be decreased. Unfortunately, the use of a catalyst also resulted in an increase in the emission of acetaldehyde from the ethanol fuelled engine 10 refs, 11 figs, 5 tabs, 6 appendixes

  2. Combustion system for hybrid solar fossil fuel receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehos, Mark S.; Anselmo, Kenneth M.; Moreno, James B.; Andraka, Charles E.; Rawlinson, K. Scott; Corey, John; Bohn, Mark S.

    2004-05-25

    A combustion system for a hybrid solar receiver comprises a pre-mixer which combines air and fuel to form an air-fuel mixture. The mixture is introduced tangentially into a cooling jacket. A burner plenum is fluidically connected to the cooling jacket such that the burner plenum and the cooling jacket are arranged in thermal contact with one another. The air-fuel mixture flows through the cooling jacket cooling the burner plenum to reduce pre-ignition of the air-fuel mixture in the burner plenum. A combustion chamber is operatively associated with and open to the burner plenum to receive the air-fuel mixture from the burner plenum. An igniter is operatively positioned in the combustion chamber to combust the air-fuel mixture, releasing heat. A recuperator is operatively associated with the burner plenum and the combustion chamber and pre-heats the air-fuel mixture in the burner plenum with heat from the combustion chamber. A heat-exchanger is operatively associated and in thermal contact with the combustion chamber. The heat-exchanger provides heat for the hybrid solar receiver.

  3. Preparation and properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride nanocomposites blended with graphene oxide coated silica hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Fu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Graphene oxide coated silica hybirds (SiO2-GO were fabricated through electrostatic assembly in this work, then blended with poly(vinylidene fluoride (PVDF by solution mixing to make PVDF nanocomposites. The interfacial interaction was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, polarized optical microscopy (POM and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The results showed that the interfacial interaction was enhanced by adding of SiO2-GO and strong hydrogen bonds were observed. The as-made nanocomposites were investigated using standard tensile test and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA measurements, mechanical properties of PVDF with SiO2-GO hybrids showed limited improvement.

  4. Bismaleimide/Preceramic Polymer Blends for Hybrid Material Transition Regions. Part 1. Processing and Characterization (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    polymer matrix composite to a ceramic matrix composite. Thermal and elemental analysis, and morphology characterization of RD-730 preceramic polymer blends, which convert to silicon carbide upon pyrolysis, and Matrimid A/B polymer (a bismaleimide), were carried out as a function of cure cycle. Cure cycles were chosen to vary the resin viscosity during processing in order to affect the amount of phase separation observed. The results were then used to associate processing parameters with the miscibility of the two resins and the likelihood of producing a hybrid

  5. Screening of tank-to-wheel efficiencies for CNG, DME and methanol-ethanol fuel blends in road transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappel, J.; Vad Mathiesen, B.

    2013-04-15

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the fuel efficiency of selected alternative fuels based on vehicle performance in a standardised drive cycle test. All studies reviewed are either based on computer modelling of current or future vehicles or tests of just one alternative fuel, under different conditions and concentrations against either petrol or diesel. No studies were found testing more than one type of alternative fuel in the same setup. Due to this one should be careful when comparing results on several alternative fuels. Only few studies have been focused on vehicle energy efficiency. This screening indicates methanol, methanol-ethanol blends and CNG to be readily availability, economic feasible and with the introduction of the DISI engine not technologically challenging compared to traditional fuels. Studies across fuel types indicate a marginally better fuel utilization for methanol-ethanol fuel mixes. (Author)

  6. Simulation and Test of a Fuel Cell Hybrid Golf Cart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingming Liang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes the simulation model of fuel cell hybrid golf cart (FCHGC, which applies the non-GUI mode of the Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR and the genetic algorithm (GA to optimize it. Simulation of the objective function is composed of fuel consumption and vehicle dynamic performance; the variables are the fuel cell stack power sizes and the battery numbers. By means of simulation, the optimal parameters of vehicle power unit, fuel cell stack, and battery pack are worked out. On this basis, GUI mode of ADVISOR is used to select the rated power of vehicle motor. In line with simulation parameters, an electrical golf cart is refitted by adding a 2 kW hydrogen air proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC stack system and test the FCHGC. The result shows that the simulation data is effective but it needs improving compared with that of the real cart test.

  7. Plasma-Enhanced Combustion of Hydrocarbon Fuels and Fuel Blends Using Nanosecond Pulsed Discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappelli, Mark; Mungal, M Godfrey

    2014-10-28

    This project had as its goals the study of fundamental physical and chemical processes relevant to the sustained premixed and non-premixed jet ignition/combustion of low grade fuels or fuels under adverse flow conditions using non-equilibrium pulsed nanosecond discharges.

  8. A Comparative Study of Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions Characteristics of Linseed Oil Biodiesel Blends with Diesel Fuel in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, B. L.; Jindal, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is aimed at study of the performance and emissions characteristics of direct injection diesel engine fueled with linseed oil biodiesel blends and diesel fuel. The comparison was done with base fuel as diesel and linseed oil biodiesel blends. The experiments were conducted with various blends of linseed biodiesel at different engine loads. It was found that comparable mass fraction burnt, better rate of pressure rise and BMEP, improved indicated thermal efficiency (8-11 %) and lower specific fuel consumption (3.5-6 %) were obtained with LB10 blend at full load. The emissions of CO, un-burnt hydrocarbon and smoke were less as compared to base fuel, but with slight increase in the emission of NOx. Since, linseed biodiesel is renewable in nature, so practically negligible CO2 is added to the environment. The linseed biodiesel can be one of the renewable alternative fuels for transportation vehicles and blend LB10 is preferable for better efficiency.

  9. Parametric Study of Jatropha Blended Gasoline Fuel In Compression Ignition Engine Of A Small Capacity Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Ternenge Abur

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Jatropha Biodiesel was tested in a single cylinder direct-injection diesel engine to investigate the operational parameters of a small capacity diesel engine under six engine loads. Here the jatropha oil is used as a non edible oil to produce the biodiesel. The investigated blends were 40/60%, 30/70%, 20/80% and 100% jatropha biodiesel at various loads. The jatropha biodiesel was obtained from National Research Institute for Chemical Technology Zaria-Nigeria and was within EN, BIS and Brazil specifications for biodiesel. Each blend was tested on a short term basis of three hours. The result shows that the brake thermal efficiency increased for all tested blends at lower engine loads and decreases at higher engine loads. The specific fuel consumption (S.F.C increased for lower blends compared to neat jatropha oil while higher engine powers were obtained for lower blends compared to neat jatropha oil. In all the investigated operational parameters, the diesel reference fuel had better performance to jatropha biodiesel blends except in the percentage heat loss to the exhaust where jatropha biodiesel blends had better performance.

  10. Investigations on Effect of Fuel Injection Pressure on Performance and Emissions of Linseed Blends in a Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AkkarajuH. Kiran Theja

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ever increasing demand on fossil fuels and environmental degradation with their use concern the global utilization of internal combustion engines in industrial, automotive and power sectors.An alternate to high pollutant diesel derived from renewable energy sources should be environment friendly, economically cheaper, technically feasible without compromising the engine performance and should provide energy security. Non-edible oils such as linseed oil, karanja, jatropha, and mahua etc., are mostly preferable. In this study, linseed oil derived from flax seed plant is chosen and blended it with diesel in proportions of 10%, 20% and 30%. Performance and emission characteristics of linseed oil blends (L10,v L20 and L30 and the diesel are investigated at constant speed in a diesel engine with nozzle opening pressure of 200 bar. The experiment is repeated for different injection pressures (220 and 240 bar and the results are compared with baseline diesel. Brake specific energy consumption (BSEC for biodiesel blends is comparable to diesel fuel at all loads and fuel injection pressures (FIPs. Brake thermal efficiency (BTE is optimum for biodiesel blends at injection pressure of 200 bar. Diesel has shown high mechanical efficiency than biodiesel blends at FIPs 220 and 240 bar. Carbon emissions are less with diesel compared to biodiesel blends.

  11. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Deangelis; Rich Depuy; Debashis Dey; Georgia Karvountzi; Nguyen Minh; Max Peter; Faress Rahman; Pavel Sokolov; Deliang Yang

    2004-09-30

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the April to October 2004 reporting period in Task 2.3 (SOFC Scaleup for Hybrid and Fuel Cell Systems) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems for central power generation application based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by natural gas. The main objective of this task is to develop credible scale up strategies for large solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine systems. System concepts that integrate a SOFC with a gas turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 20 MW. A 25 MW plant configuration was selected with projected system efficiency of over 65% and a factory cost of under $400/kW. The plant design is modular and can be scaled to both higher and lower plant power ratings. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

  12. Fuel cell hybrid taxi life cycle analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Patricia, E-mail: patricia.baptista@ist.utl.pt [IDMEC-Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ribau, Joao; Bravo, Joao; Silva, Carla [IDMEC-Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Adcock, Paul; Kells, Ashley [Intelligent Energy, Charnwood Building, HolywellPark, Ashby Road, Loughborough, LE11 3GR (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15

    A small fleet of classic London Taxis (Black cabs) equipped with hydrogen fuel cell power systems is being prepared for demonstration during the 2012 London Olympics. This paper presents a Life Cycle Analysis for these vehicles in terms of energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions, focusing on the impacts of alternative vehicle technologies for the Taxi, combining the fuel life cycle (Tank-to-Wheel and Well-to-Tank) and vehicle materials Cradle-to-Grave. An internal combustion engine diesel taxi was used as the reference vehicle for the currently available technology. This is compared to battery and fuel cell vehicle configurations. Accordingly, the following energy pathways are compared: diesel, electricity and hydrogen (derived from natural gas steam reforming). Full Life Cycle Analysis, using the PCO-CENEX drive cycle, (derived from actual London Taxi drive cycles) shows that the fuel cell powered vehicle configurations have lower energy consumption (4.34 MJ/km) and CO{sub 2} emissions (235 g/km) than both the ICE Diesel (9.54 MJ/km and 738 g/km) and the battery electric vehicle (5.81 MJ/km and 269 g/km). - Highlights: > A Life Cycle Analysis of alternative vehicle technologies for the London Taxi was performed. > The hydrogen powered vehicles have the lowest energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions results. > A hydrogen powered solution can be a sustainable alternative in a full life cycle framework.

  13. Negative Valve Overlap Mode of HCCI Operation Using Gasoline and Diesel Blended Fuels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Shaohua; CHEN Yongdong; Miroslaw Lech Wyszynski; XU Hongming

    2007-01-01

    The negative valve overlap (NVO) strategy of HCCI operation was experimentally investigated on a gasoline HCCI engine operated with variable valve timing in association with the addition of diesel fuel. The experimental results show that, by using gasoline and diesel blended fuels, the required NVO interval for suitable HCCI combustion under a given engine speed and a moderate compression ratio condition could be reduced, and the HCCI combustion region was extended remarkably without substantial increase in NO, , emissions under a given inlet and exhaust valve timing due to the improvement of charge ignitability. In addition, the possible scale of NVO was extended. A substantial increase in the lean limit of excess air ratio and the upper limit of load range can be achieved because of higher volumetric efficiency, resulting from the decrease in the required NVO and the presence of less residual gases in cylinder.

  14. EXPERIMENTAL COMBUSTION ANALYSIS OF A HSDI DIESEL ENGINE FUELLED WITH PALM OIL BIODIESEL-DIESEL FUEL BLENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOHN AGUDELO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences in the chemical nature between petroleum diesel fuels and vegetable oils-based fuels lead to differences in their physical properties affecting the combustion process inside the engine. In this work a detailed combustion diagnosis was applied to a turbocharged automotive diesel engine operating with neat palm oil biodiesel (POB, No. 2 diesel fuel and their blends at 20 and 50% POB by volume (B20 and B50 respectively. To isolate the fuel effect, tests were executed at constant power output without carrying out any modification of the engine or its fuel injection system. As the POB content in the blend increased, there was a slight reduction in the fuel/air equivalence ratio from 0.39 (B0 to 0.37 (B100, an advance of injection timing and of start of combustion. Additionally, brake thermal efficiency, combustion duration, maximum mean temperature, temperature at exhaust valve opening and exhaust gas efficiency decreased; while the peak pressure, exergy destruction rate and specific fuel consumption increased. With diesel fuel and the blends B20 and B50 the same combustion stages were noticed. However, as a consequence of the differences pointed out, the thermal history of the process was affected. The diffusion combustion stage became larger with POB content. For B100 no premixed stage was observed.

  15. Analysis of power tiller noise using diesel-biodiesel fuel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Keramat Siavash

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are several sources of noise in an industrial and agriculture environment. Machines with rotating or reciprocating engines are sound-producing sources. Also, the audio signal can be analyzed to discover how well a machine operates. Diesel engines complex noise SPL and sound frequency content both strongly depend on fuel combustion, which produces the so-called combustion noise. Actually, the unpleasant sound signature of diesel engines is due to the harsh and irregular self-ignition of the fuel. Therefore, being able to extract combustion noise from the overall noise would be of prime interest. This would allow engineers to relate the sound quality back to the combustion parameters. The residual noise produced by various sources, is referred to as mechanical noise. Since diesel engine noise radiation is associated with the operators’ and pedestrians’ discomfort, more and more attention to being paid to it. The main sources of noise generation in a diesel engine are exhaust system, mechanical processes such as valve train and combustion that prevail over the other two. In the present work, experimental tests were conducted on a single cylinder diesel engine in order to investigate the combustion noise radiation during stationary state for various diesel and biodiesel fuel blends. Materials and Methods: The engine used in the current study is an ASHTAD DF120-RA70 that is a single cylinder 4 stroke water cooled diesel engine and its nominal power is 7.5 hp at 2200 rpm. The experiment has been done at three positions (Left ear of operator, 1.5 and 7.5 meter away from exhaust based on ISO-5131 and SAE-J1174 standards. For engine speed measurement the detector Lurton 2364 was utilized with a measurement accuracy of 0.001 rpm. To obtain the highest accuracy, contact mode of detector was used. The engine noise was measured by HT157 sound level meter and was digitalized and saved with Sound View software. HT157 uses alow impedance

  16. Performance and emission parameters of single cylinder diesel engine using castor oil bio-diesel blended fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, A.; Ghobadian, B.; Najafi, G.; Jaliliantabar, F.; Mamat, R.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance and emission parameters of a CI single cylinder diesel engine operating on biodiesel-diesel blends (B0, B5, B10, B15 and E20: 20% biodiesel and 80% diesel by volume). A reactor was designed, fabricated and evaluated for biodiesel production. The results showed that increasing the biodiesel content in the blend fuel will increase the performance parameters and decrease the emission parameters. Maximum power was detected for B0 at 2650 rpm and maximum torque was belonged to B20 at 1600 rpm. The experimental results revealed that using biodiesel-diesel blended fuels increased the power and torque output of the engine. For biodiesel blends it was found that the specific fuel consumption (sfc) was decreased. B10 had the minimum amount for sfc. The concentration of CO2 and HC emissions in the exhaust pipe were measured and found to be decreased when biodiesel blends were introduced. This was due to the high oxygen percentage in the biodiesel compared to the net diesel fuel. In contrast, the concentration of CO and NOx was found to be increased when biodiesel is introduced.

  17. System design of a large fuel cell hybrid locomotive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A. R.; Hess, K. S.; Barnes, D. L.; Erickson, T. L.

    Fuel cell power for locomotives combines the environmental benefits of a catenary-electric locomotive with the higher overall energy efficiency and lower infrastructure costs of a diesel-electric. A North American consortium, a public-private partnership, is developing a prototype hydrogen-fueled fuel cell-battery hybrid switcher locomotive for urban and military-base rail applications. Switcher locomotives are used in rail yards for assembling and disassembling trains and moving trains from one point to another. At 127 tonnes (280,000 lb), continuous power of 250 kW from its (proton exchange membrane) PEM fuel cell prime mover, and transient power well in excess of 1 MW, the hybrid locomotive will be the heaviest and most powerful fuel cell land vehicle yet. This fast-paced project calls for completion of the vehicle itself near the end of 2007. Several technical challenges not found in the development of smaller vehicles arise when designing and developing such a large fuel cell vehicle. Weight, center of gravity, packaging, and safety were design factors leading to, among other features, the roof location of the lightweight 350 bar compressed hydrogen storage system. Harsh operating conditions, especially shock loads during coupling to railcars, require component mounting systems capable of absorbing high energy. Vehicle scale-up by increasing mass, density, or power presents new challenges primarily related to issues of system layout, hydrogen storage, heat transfer, and shock loads.

  18. System design of a large fuel cell hybrid locomotive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, A.R.; Hess, K.S.; Barnes, D.L.; Erickson, T.L. [Vehicle Projects LLC, 621 17th Street, Suite 2131, Denver, CO 80293 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    Fuel cell power for locomotives combines the environmental benefits of a catenary-electric locomotive with the higher overall energy efficiency and lower infrastructure costs of a diesel-electric. A North American consortium, a public-private partnership, is developing a prototype hydrogen-fueled fuel cell-battery hybrid switcher locomotive for urban and military-base rail applications. Switcher locomotives are used in rail yards for assembling and disassembling trains and moving trains from one point to another. At 127 tonnes (280,000 lb), continuous power of 250 kW from its (proton exchange membrane) PEM fuel cell prime mover, and transient power well in excess of 1 MW, the hybrid locomotive will be the heaviest and most powerful fuel cell land vehicle yet. This fast-paced project calls for completion of the vehicle itself near the end of 2007. Several technical challenges not found in the development of smaller vehicles arise when designing and developing such a large fuel cell vehicle. Weight, center of gravity, packaging, and safety were design factors leading to, among other features, the roof location of the lightweight 350 bar compressed hydrogen storage system. Harsh operating conditions, especially shock loads during coupling to railcars, require component mounting systems capable of absorbing high energy. Vehicle scale-up by increasing mass, density, or power presents new challenges primarily related to issues of system layout, hydrogen storage, heat transfer, and shock loads. (author)

  19. Fuel blends: Enhanced electro-oxidation of formic acid in its blend with methanol at platinum nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Deab, Mohamed S.; El-Nagar, Gumaa A.; Mohammad, Ahmad M.; El-Anadouli, Bahgat E.

    2015-07-01

    The current study addresses, for the first time, the enhanced direct electro-oxidation of formic acid (FA) at platinum-nanoparticles modified glassy carbon (nano-Pt/GC) electrode in the presence of methanol (MeOH) as a blending fuel. This enhancement is probed by: (i) the increase of the direct oxidation current of FA to CO2 (Ipd, dehydrogenation pathway), (ii) suppressing the dehydration pathway (Ipind, producing the poisoning intermediate CO) and (iii) a favorable negative shift of the onset potential of Ipd with increasing the mole fraction of MeOH in the blend. Furthermore, the charge of the direct FA oxidation in 0.3 M FA + 0.3 M MeOH blend is by 14 and 21times higher than that observed for 0.3 M FA and 0.3 M MeOH, respectively. MeOH is believed to adsorb at the Pt surface sites and thus disfavor the "non-faradaic" dissociation of FA (which produces the poisoning CO intermediate), i.e., MeOH induces a high CO tolerance of the Pt catalyst. The enhanced oxidation activity indicates that FA/MeOH blend is a promising fuel system.

  20. Carbonyl compound emissions from passenger cars fueled with methanol/gasoline blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong; Ge, Yunshan; Hao, Chunxiao; Han, Xiukun; Fu, Mingliang; Yu, Linxiao; Shah, Asad Naeem

    2010-08-01

    Carbonyl compound emissions from two passenger cars fueled with different methanol/gasoline blends (M15 and M100) and operated with three-way catalytic converters (TWC) were investigated. The tests were performed on a chassis dynamometer with constant volume sampling over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Carbonyls were trapped on dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) cartridges. The hydrazones formed on the cartridge were analyzed by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and detected with a variable wavelength detector. The results show that when cars were fueled with methanol/gasoline blends, carbon monoxide (CO) and total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions decreased by 9-21% and 1-55% respectively, while nitrogen oxide (NO(x)) emissions increased by 175-233%. Compared with gasoline vehicles, formaldehyde emissions with M15 and M100 were two and four times higher respectively, and total carbonyls with M15 and M100 increased by 3% and 104% respectively. With the use of the new TWC, both regulated gas pollutants and formaldehyde decreased. The new TWC caused a decrease of 5% and 31% in formaldehyde concentration for M15 and M100, respectively. Specific reactivity (SR) with the new TWC was reduced from 5.92 to 5.72 for M15 and from 7.00 to 6.93 for M100, indicating that M15 and M100 with the new TWC were friendlier to the environment. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Development and characterization of acid-doped polybenzimidazole/sulfonated polysulfone blend polymer electrolytes for fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasiotis, C.; Li, Qingfeng; Deimede, V.

    2001-01-01

    Polymeric membranes from blends of sulfonated polysulfones (SPSF) and polybenzimidazole (PBI) doped with phosphoric acid were developed as potential high-temperature polymer electrolytes for fuel cells and other electrochemical applications. The water uptake and acid doping of these polymeric...... it was found to be higher than 10/sup -2/ S cm/sup -1/. Much improvement in the mechanical strength is observed for the blend polymer membranes, especially at higher temperatures. Preliminary work has demonstrated the feasibility of these polymeric membranes for fuel-cell applications...

  2. Geometric effects of fuel regression rate in hybrid rocket motors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI GuoBiao; ZHANG YuanJun; WANG PengFei; HUI Tian; ZHAO Sheng; YU NanJia

    2016-01-01

    The geometric configuration of the solid fuel is a key parameter affecting the fuel regression rate in hybrid rocket motors.In this paper,a semi-empirical regression rate model is developed to investigate the geometric effect on the fuel regression rate by incorporating the hydraulic diameter into the classical model.The semi-empirical model indicates that the fuel regression rate decreases with increasing hydraulic diameter and is proportional to dh-0.2 when convective heat transfer is dominant.Then a numerical model considering turbulence,combustion,solid fuel pyrolysis,and a solid-gas coupling model is established to further investigate the geometric effect.Eight motors with different solid fuel grains are simulated,and four methods of scaling the regression rate between different solid fuel grains are compared.The results indicate that the solid fuel regression rates are approximate the same when the hydraulic diameters are equal.The numerical results verify the accuracy of the semi-empirical model.

  3. Real life testing of a Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkesson, Anders; Andersson, Christian; Alvfors, Per; Alaküla, Mats; Overgaard, Lars

    Fuel cells produce low quantities of local emissions, if any, and are therefore one of the most promising alternatives to internal combustion engines as the main power source in future vehicles. It is likely that urban buses will be among the first commercial applications for fuel cells in vehicles. This is due to the fact that urban buses are highly visible for the public, they contribute significantly to air pollution in urban areas, they have small limitations in weight and volume and fuelling is handled via a centralised infrastructure. Results and experiences from real life measurements of energy flows in a Scania Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Concept Bus are presented in this paper. The tests consist of measurements during several standard duty cycles. The efficiency of the fuel cell system and of the complete vehicle are presented and discussed. The net efficiency of the fuel cell system was approximately 40% and the fuel consumption of the concept bus is between 42 and 48% lower compared to a standard Scania bus. Energy recovery by regenerative braking saves up 28% energy. Bus subsystems such as the pneumatic system for door opening, suspension and brakes, the hydraulic power steering, the 24 V grid, the water pump and the cooling fans consume approximately 7% of the energy in the fuel input or 17% of the net power output from the fuel cell system. The bus was built by a number of companies in a project partly financed by the European Commission's Joule programme. The comprehensive testing is partly financed by the Swedish programme "Den Gröna Bilen" (The Green Car). A 50 kW el fuel cell system is the power source and a high voltage battery pack works as an energy buffer and power booster. The fuel, compressed hydrogen, is stored in two high-pressure stainless steel vessels mounted on the roof of the bus. The bus has a series hybrid electric driveline with wheel hub motors with a maximum power of 100 kW. Hybrid Fuel Cell Buses have a big potential, but there are

  4. Engine performance and emission characteristics of plastic oil produced from waste polyethylene and its blends with diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Sudong; Tan, Zhongchao [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo (Canada)], Email: tanz@uwaterloo.ca

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes an experiment to determine the possibility of transforming waste plastics into a potential source of diesel fuel. Experiments were done on the use of various blends of plastic oil produced from waste polyethylene (WPE) with diesel fuel (D) at different volumetric ratios and the results were reviewed. WPE was thermally degraded with catalysis of sodium aluminum silicate at optimum conditions (414-480 degree celsius range and 1 h reaction time) and the collected oil was fractionated at various temperatures. The properties of the fuel blends at different volumetric ratios were measured in this study. It was shown that these blends can be used as fuel in compression ignition engines without any modification. With respect to engine performance and exhaust emission, it was found that using a 5% WPE-D (WPE5) blend instead of diesel fuel reduced carbon monoxide (CO) emission. However, the results of experiment showed that carbon dioxide (CO2) emission and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission rose.

  5. Technoeconomy of different solid oxide fuel cell based hybrid cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Gas turbine, steam turbine and heat engine (Stirling engine) is used as bottoming cycle for a solid oxide fuel cell plant to compare different plants efficiencies, CO2 emissionsand plants cost in terms of $/kW. Each plant is then integrated with biomass gasification and finally six plants...... configurations are compared with each other. Technoeconomy is used when calculating the cost if the plants. It is found that when a solid oxide fuel cell plant is combined with a gas turbine cycle then the plant efficiency will be the highest one while if a biomass gasification plant is integrated...... with these hybrid cycles then integrated biomass gasification with solid oxide fuel cell and steam cycle will have the highest plant efficiency. The cost of solid oxide fuel cell with steam plant is found to be the lowest one with a value of about 1030$/kW....

  6. Effects of the biodiesel blend fuel on aldehyde emissions from diesel engine exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chiung-Yu; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Lan, Cheng-Hang; Chien, Shu-Mei

    Interest in use of biodiesel fuels derived from vegetable oils or animal fats as alternative fuels for petroleum-based diesels has increased due to biodiesels having similar properties of those of diesels, and characteristics of renewability, biodegradability and potential beneficial effects on exhaust emissions. Generally, exhaust emissions of regulated pollutants are widely studied and the results favor biodiesels on CO, HC and particulate emissions; however, limited and inconsistent data are showed for unregulated pollutants, such as carbonyl compounds, which are also important indicators for evaluating available vehicle fuels. For better understanding biodiesel, this study examines the effects of the biodiesel blend fuel on aldehyde chemical emissions from diesel engine exhausts in comparison with those from the diesel fuel. Test engines (Mitsubishi 4M40-2AT1) with four cylinders, a total displacement of 2.84 L, maximum horsepower of 80.9 kW at 3700 rpm, and maximum torque of 217.6 N m at 2000 rpm, were mounted and operated on a Schenck DyNAS 335 dynamometer. Exhaust emission tests were performed several times for each fuel under the US transient cycle protocol from mileages of 0-80,000 km with an interval of 20,000 km, and two additional measurements were carried out at 40,000 and 80,000 km after maintenance, respectively. Aldehyde samples were collected from diluted exhaust by using a constant volume sampling system. Samples were extracted and analyzed by the HPLC/UV system. Dominant aldehydes of both fuels' exhausts are formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. These compounds together account for over 75% of total aldehyde emissions. Total aldehyde emissions for B20 (20% waste cooking oil biodiesel and 80% diesel) and diesel fuels are in the ranges of 15.4-26.9 mg bhp-h -1 and 21.3-28.6 mg bhp-h -1, respectively. The effects of increasing mileages and maintenance practice on aldehyde emissions are insignificant for both fuels. B20 generates slightly less emission than

  7. Particulate matter emissions reduction with CETANER{sup T}M as a blend component for diesel fuels with low cetane levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waller, F. J.; Tijm, P. J. A. [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Allentown, PA (United States); Wilcox, A. S.; Gray, C. D.; Webster, G. D. [Advanced Engine Technology Ltd., Nepean, ON (Canada); Vertin, K. D. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States); Pigeon, R. [Natural Resources Canada, CANMET, Ottawa, On (canada); Beaujean, M. [Lambiotte and Cie SA, Brussels (BElgium); Mitchell, K. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Tremblay, B. [Societe Generale de Financement du Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    1999-08-01

    This study investigated the the effect of the oxygen content of CETANER{sup T}M on regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions when blended with two different test fuels, one from conventionally derived (CD) crude sources, the other from oil sands derived (OSD) sources. Results for the blended test fuels with CETANER{sup T}M were compared with results from a reference fuel. Exhaust emissions were determined at steady state speed/load conditions. The test fuels blended with CETANER{sup T}M led to a reduction of the average particulate matter (PM) emissions of the research engine by 13 per cent for the CD blended fuel and by 16 per cent for the OSD blended fuel. At other than low speed/load conditions PM emissions of the blended fuels were not significantly different from that of the reference fuel. This suggests that CETANER{sup T}M, with its increased oxygen content would substantially reduce PM emissions for many diesel engine applications at low loads and speeds. The addition of CETANER{sup T}M reduced the sulphur content of the OSD blend by 27 ppm, low enough to permit use of an exhaust oxidation catalytic converter. CETANER{sup T}M`s effect on increased compressibility on injection timing, its lower viscosity effect on injection/combustion characteristics, and its minimal effect on fuel lubricity are also discussed. 12 refs., 6 tabs., 9 figs.

  8. Effects of Canola Oil Biodiesel Fuel Blends on Combustion, Performance, and Emissions Reduction in a Common Rail Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Ki Yoon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the effects of canola oil biodiesel (BD to improve combustion and exhaust emissions in a common rail direct injection (DI diesel engine using BD fuel blended with diesel. Experiments were conducted with BD blend amounts of 10%, 20%, and 30% on a volume basis under various engine speeds. As the BD blend ratio increased, the combustion pressure and indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP decreased slightly at the low engine speed of 1500 rpm, while they increased at the middle engine speed of 2500 rpm. The brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC increased at all engine speeds while the carbon monoxide (CO and particulate matter (PM emissions were considerably reduced. On the other hand, the nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions only increased slightly. When increasing the BD blend ratio at an engine speed of 2000 rpm with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR rates of 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%, the combustion pressure and IMEP tended to decrease. The CO and PM emissions decreased in proportion to the BD blend ratio. Also, the NOx emissions decreased considerably as the EGR rate increased whereas the BD blend ratio only slightly influenced the NOx emissions.

  9. Improving Vegetable Oil Fueled CI Engine Characteristics Through Diethyl Ether Blending

    KAUST Repository

    Vedharaj, S.

    2016-12-01

    In this research, the flow and ignition properties of vegetable oil (VO) are improved by blending it with diethyl ether (DEE). DEE, synthesized from ethanol, has lower viscosity than diesel and VO. When DEE is blended with VO, the resultant DEEVO mixtures have favorable properties for compression ignition (CI) engine operation. As such, DEEVO20 (20% DEE + 80% VO) and DEEVO40 (40% DEE + 60% VO) were initially considered in the current study. The viscosity of VO is 32.4*10−6 m2/s; the viscosity is reduced with the increase of DEE in VO. In this study, our blends were limited to a maximum of 40% DEE in VO. The viscosity of DEEVO40 is 2.1*10−6 m2/s, which is comparable to that of diesel (2.3*10−6 m2/s). The lower boiling point and flash point of DEE improves the fuel spray and evaporation for DEEVO mixtures. In addition to the improvement in physical properties, the ignition quality of DEEVO mixtures is also improved, as DEE is a high cetane fuel (DCN = 139). The ignition characteristics of DEEVO mixtures were studied in an ignition quality tester (IQT). There is an evident reduction in ignition delay time (IDT) for DEEVO mixtures compared to VO. The IDT of VO (4.5 ms), DEEVO20 (3.2 ms) and DEEVO40 (2.7 ms) was measured in IQT. Accordingly, the derived cetane number (DCN) of DEEVO mixtures increased with the increase in proportion of DEE. The reported mixtures were also tested in a single cylinder CI engine. The start of combustion (SOC) was advanced for DEEVO20 and DEEVO40 compared to diesel, which is attributed to the high DCN of DEEVO mixtures. On the other hand, the peak heat release rate decreased for DEEVO mixtures compared to diesel. Gaseous emissions such as nitrogen oxide (NOX), total hydrocarbon (THC) and smoke were reduced for DEEVO mixtures compared to diesel. The physical and ignition properties of VO are improved by the addition of DEE, and thus, the need for the trans-esterification process is averted. Furthermore, this blending strategy is simpler

  10. The effect of clove oil and diesel fuel blends on the engine performance and exhaust emissions of a compression-ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbarawa, Makame [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)

    2010-11-15

    Diesel engines provide the major power source for transportation in the world and contribute to the prosperity of the worldwide economy. However, recent concerns over the environment, increasing fuel prices and the scarcity of fuel supplies have promoted considerable interest in searching for alternatives to petroleum based fuels. Based on this background, the main purpose of this investigation is to evaluate clove stem oil (CSO) as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. To this end, an experimental investigation was performed on a four-stroke, four-cylinder water-cooled direct injection diesel engine to study the performance and emissions of an engine operated using the CSO-diesel blended fuels. The effects of the CSO-diesel blended fuels on the engine brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), specific energy consumption (SEC), exhaust gas temperatures and exhaust emissions were investigated. The experimental results reveal that the engine brake thermal efficiency and BSFC of the CSO-diesel blended fuels were higher than the pure diesel fuel while at the same time they exhibited a lower SEC than the latter over the entire engine load range. The variations in exhaust gas temperatures between the tested fuels were significant only at medium speed operating conditions. Furthermore, the HC emissions were lower for the CSO-diesel blended fuels than the pure diesel fuel whereas the NO{sub x} emissions were increased remarkably when the engine was fuelled with the 50% CSO-diesel blended fuel. (author)

  11. Assessment of Mexico's program to use ethanol as transportation fuel: impact of 6% ethanol-blended fuel on emissions of light-duty gasoline vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifter, Isaac; Díaz, Luis; Rodríguez, Rene; Salazar, Lucia

    2011-02-01

    Recently, the Mexican government launched a national program encouraging the blending of renewable fuels in engine fuel. To aid the assessment of the environmental consequences of this move, the effect of gasoline fuel additives, ethanol and methyl tert-butyl ether, on the tailpipe and the evaporative emissions of Mexico sold cars was investigated. Regulated exhaust and evaporative emissions, such as carbon monoxide, non-methane hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides, and 15 unregulated emissions were measured under various conditions on a set of 2005-2008 model light-duty vehicles selected based on sales statistics for the Mexico City metropolitan area provided by car manufacturers. The selected car brands are also frequent in Canada, the USA, and other parts of the world. This paper provides details and results of the experiment that are essential for evaluation of changes in the emission inventory, originating in the low-blend ethanol addition in light vehicle fuel.

  12. Hybrid fusion reactor for production of nuclear fuel with minimum radioactive contamination of the fuel cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikhov, E. P.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Azizov, E. A.; Ignatiev, V. V.; Subbotin, S. A.; Tsibulskiy, V. F.

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the results of the system research on the coordinated development of nuclear and fusion power engineering in the current century. Considering the increasing problems of resource procurement, including limited natural uranium resources, it seems reasonable to use fusion reactors as high-power neutron sources for production of nuclear fuel in a blanket. It is shown that the share of fusion sources in this structural configuration of the energy system can be relatively small. A fundamentally important aspect of this solution to the problem of closure of the fuel cycle is that recycling of highly active spent fuel can be abandoned. Radioactivity released during the recycling of the spent fuel from the hybrid reactor blanket is at least two orders of magnitude lower than during the production of the same number of fissile isotopes after the recycling of the spent fuel from a fast reactor.

  13. Dispersion states and surface characteristics of physically blended polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane/polymer hybrid nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Rahul

    Control of dispersion and segregation states of nanostructured additives is one of the biggest challenges in realizing the optimum potential of high performance hybrid polymer nanocomposites. Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) nanostructured chemicals, with their hybrid organic-inorganic nature and flexible functionalization with a variety of organic substituents, yield possibilities to control dispersion and tune compatibility in a wide range of polymer systems. The overall goal of this research is to investigate the fundamental parameters that influence the dispersion and segregation states of POSS nanostructured chemicals, and to understand chain dynamics and conformations in physically blended POSS hybrid polymer nanocomposites (HPNC's). Multiple structural and mechanical factors influencing macro to nano scale surface and bulk properties were successfully investigated and correlated. A strategy based on thermodynamic principles for selective control of POSS dispersion states in a given polymer matrix is developed and discussed. This dissertation consists of eight chapters. Chapter 1 provides a detailed introduction about the development and current research interest in POSS/polymer nanocomposites. This chapter also discusses limitations of current advanced nanoprobe techniques. Chapter 2 establishes the overall goal of this research and specific research ii objectives. Chapter 3 establishes the preferential surface migration behavior of physically dispersed, non-reactive, closed cage octaisobutyl POSS (Oib-POSS) in a non-polar polypropylene matrix. Furthermore, influence of POSS surface segregation on the surface properties, especially nano-tribomechanical behavior is also discussed. Chapter 4 expands the studies by melt blending two different types of POSS molecules, a non-reactive, closed cage Oib-POSS and an open cage trisilanolphenyl POSS (Tsp-POSS), in a nylon 6 matrix. This chapter discusses the morphology, nano-dispersion and macro- to

  14. Carbonaceous PM2.5 emitted from light-duty vehicles operating on low-level ethanol fuel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aims to examine carbonaceous aerosol emissions from three Tier 2-certified 2008 model year LDVs burning e0, e10, and e85 fuel blends at -7°C and 24°C. The LDVs were tested on an electric chasis dynamometer using the LA-92 Urban Driving Cycle (UDC). Exhaust was ...

  15. Approaches to Low Fuel Regression Rate in Hybrid Rocket Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Dario Pastrone

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid rocket engines are promising propulsion systems which present appealing features such as safety, low cost, and environmental friendliness. On the other hand, certain issues hamper the development hoped for. The present paper discusses approaches addressing improvements to one of the most important among these issues: low fuel regression rate. To highlight the consequence of such an issue and to better understand the concepts proposed, fundamentals are summarized. Two approaches are pre...

  16. Multi-objective optimization of fuel oil blending using the jumping gene adaptation of genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khosla, Dinesh K.; Gupta, Santosh K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India); Saraf, Deoki N. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun 248007 (India)

    2007-01-15

    Production and marketing of heavy fuel oil (HFO) are an easy, effective and economical way to dispose off certain very heavy refinery streams such as short residue (SR, available from the bottom of vacuum distillation units) and clarified liquid oil (CLO, available from the bottom of the main fractionators of fluidized-bed catalytic crackers). Certain lighter streams such as heavy cycle oil (HCO), light cycle oil (LCO) and kerosene, are added to the heavy residual stock to improve its quality in terms of fluidity, combustibility, etc., to be marketed as fuel oil. The present study aims at optimization of the fuel oil blending process to maximize profit, minimize quality give-away, maximize production, minimize use of lighter products such as LCO and kerosene, and maximize the calorific value, etc. Several multi-objective optimization problems have been formulated comprising of two and three-objective functions and solved using the elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II). This evolutionary technique produces a set of non-dominating (equally good) Pareto optimal solutions from which the operator can choose the one that is most suitable (preferred point). Also, a fixed-length macro-macro mutation operator, inspired by jumping genes in natural genetics, has been used with NSGA-II to solve this problem. This modified algorithm leads to a significant reduction in the computational effort. Indeed, this adaptation can be of immense use in reducing the computational effort for other problems in chemical engineering. (author)

  17. Performance of hybrid ball bearings in oil and jet fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Stephen M.; Pfaffenberger, Eugene E.

    1992-07-01

    A 308-size hybrid ball bearing, with ceramic balls and steel rings, was tested using a diester oil and gas turbine fuel as lubricants at several speeds and loads. Heat generation data from this test work was then correlated with the heat generation model from a widely used computer code. The ability of this hybrid split inner ring bearing design to endure thrust reversals, which are expected in many turbine applications, was demonstrated. Finally, the bearing was successfully endurance tested in JP-10 fuel for 25 hours at 7560 N axial load and 36,000 rpm. This work has successfully demonstrated the technology necessary to use fuel-lubricated hybrid bearings in limited-life gas turbine engine applications such as missiles, drones, and other unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). In addition, it has provided guidance for use in designing such bearing systems. As a result, the benefits of removing the conventional oil lubricant system, i.e., design simplification and reduced maintenance, can be realized.

  18. Effects of MTBE blended diesel fuel on diesel combustion and emissions; MTBE kongo keiyu ga diesel nensho haiki ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shundo, S.; Yokota, H.; Kakegawa, T. [Hino Motors, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The effects of MTBE (Methyl-t-butyl ether) blended diesel fuel on diesel combustion and emissions were studied. In conventional diesel combustion, the testing mode was carried out in conformity with the Japanese 13 mode. Furthermore, this fuel was applied to a new combustion system (Homogeneous Charge Intelligent Multiple Injection). MTBE blended diesel fuel is more effective in the case of new combustion system and very low NOx, PM capability is suggested. 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of biodiesel fuels blend surrogate.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2009-07-21

    Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were developed and used to study the oxidation of two large unsaturated esters: methyl-5-decenoate and methyl-9-decenoate. These models were built from a previous methyl decanoate mechanism and were compared with rapeseed oil methyl esters oxidation experiments in a jet stirred reactor. A comparative study of the reactivity of these three oxygenated compounds was performed and the differences in the distribution of the products of the reaction were highlighted showing the influence of the presence and the position of a double bond in the chain. Blend surrogates, containing methyl decanoate, methyl-5-decenoate, methyl-9-decenoate and n-alkanes, were tested against rapeseed oil methyl esters and methyl palmitate/n-decane experiments. These surrogate models are realistic kinetic tools allowing the study of the combustion of biodiesel fuels in diesel and homogeneous charge compression ignition engines.

  20. A novel supercapacitor-fuel cell hybrid cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Y; ZHENG Jim P

    2006-01-01

    A monolithic hybrid fuel cell (MHFC) with a novel configuration was proposed in an effort to improve the fuel cell performance during instantaneous power changes. A modified direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) with a layer of hydrous ruthenium dioxide (RuO2·xH2O) sandwiched between the anode catalyst layer and membrane was used to demonstrate the principle of the MHFC. Experimental results indicate that the RuO2·xH2O layer is equivalent to a resistor-capacitor transmission line and functions similar to a capacitor in parallel with the anode electrode. The improvement in dynamic response of the MHFC was experimentally confirmed under step current change and square current pulse operating. The ionic conductivity of the RuO2·xH2O layer was also obtained.

  1. Approaches to Low Fuel Regression Rate in Hybrid Rocket Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Pastrone

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid rocket engines are promising propulsion systems which present appealing features such as safety, low cost, and environmental friendliness. On the other hand, certain issues hamper the development hoped for. The present paper discusses approaches addressing improvements to one of the most important among these issues: low fuel regression rate. To highlight the consequence of such an issue and to better understand the concepts proposed, fundamentals are summarized. Two approaches are presented (multiport grain and high mixture ratio which aim at reducing negative effects without enhancing regression rate. Furthermore, fuel material changes and nonconventional geometries of grain and/or injector are presented as methods to increase fuel regression rate. Although most of these approaches are still at the laboratory or concept scale, many of them are promising.

  2. Emissions of aldehydes and ketones from a two-stroke engine using ethanol and ethanol-blended gasoline as fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Roger; Nilsson, Calle; Andersson, Barbro

    2002-04-15

    Besides aliphatic gasoline, ethanol-blended gasoline intended for use in small utility engines was recently introduced on the Swedish market. For small utility engines, little data is available showing the effects of these fuels on exhaust emissions, especially concerning aldehydes and ketones (carbonyls). The objective of the present investigation was to study carbonyl emissions and regulated emissions from a two-stroke chain saw engine using ethanol, gasoline, and ethanol-blended gasoline as fuel (0%, 15%, 50%, 85%, and 100% ethanol). The effects of the ethanol-blending level and mechanical changes of the relative air/fuel ratio, lambda, on exhaust emissions was investigated, both for aliphatic and regular gasoline. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and aromatic aldehydes were the most abundant carbonyls in the exhaust. Acetaldehyde dominated for all ethanol-blended fuels (1.2-12 g/kWh, depending on the fuel and lambda), and formaldehyde dominated for gasoline (0.74-2.3 g/kWh, depending on the type of gasoline and lambda). The main effects of ethanol blending were increased acetaldehyde emissions (30-44 times for pure ethanol), reduced emissions of all other carbonyls exceptformaldehyde and acrolein (which showed a more complex relation to the ethanol content), reduced carbon monoxide (CO) and ntirogen oxide (NO) emissions, and increased hydrocarbon (HC) and nitrogen dixodie (NO2) emissions. The main effects of increasing lambda were increased emissions of carbonyls and nitrogen oxides (NOx) and reduced CO and HC emissions. When the two types of gasoline are considered, benzaldehyde and tolualdehyde could be directly related to the gasoline content of aromatics or olefins, but also acrolein, propanal, crotonaldehyde, and methyl ethyl ketone mainly originated from aromatics or olefins, while the main source for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, methacrolein, and butanal was saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons.

  3. Impact of a Diesel High Pressure Common Rail Fuel System and Onboard Vehicle Storage on B20 Biodiesel Blend Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Earl; McCormick, Robert L.; Sigelko, Jenny; Johnson, Stuart; Zickmann, Stefan; Lopes, Shailesh; Gault, Roger; Slade, David

    2016-04-01

    Adoption of high-pressure common-rail (HPCR) fuel systems, which subject diesel fuels to higher temperatures and pressures, has brought into question the efficacy of ASTM International specifications for biodiesel and biodiesel blend oxidation stability, as well as the lack of any stability parameter for diesel fuel. A controlled experiment was developed to investigate the impact of a light-duty diesel HPCR fuel system on the stability of 20% biodiesel (B20) blends under conditions of intermittent use and long-term storage in a relatively hot and dry climate. B20 samples with Rancimat induction periods (IPs) near the current 6.0-hour minimum specification (6.5 hr) and roughly double the ASTM specification (13.5 hr) were prepared from a conventional diesel and a highly unsaturated biodiesel. Four 2011 model year Volkswagen Passats equipped with HPCR fuel injection systems were utilized: one on B0, two on B20-6.5 hr, and one on B20-13.5 hr. Each vehicle was operated over a one-hour drive cycle in a hot running loss test cell to initially stress the fuel. The cars were then kept at Volkswagen's Arizona Proving Ground for two (35 degrees C average daily maximum) to six months (26 degrees C average daily maximum). The fuel was then stressed again by running a portion of the one-hour dynamometer drive cycle (limited by the amount of fuel in the tank). Fuel rail and fuel tank samples were analyzed for IP, acid number, peroxide content, polymer content, and ester profile. The HPCR fuel pumps were removed, dismantled, and inspected for deposits or abnormal wear. Analysis of fuels collected during initial dynamometer tests showed no impact of exposure to HPCR conditions. Long-term storage with intermittent use showed that IP remained above 3 hours, acid number below 0.3 mg KOH/g, peroxides low, no change in ester profile, and no production of polymers. Final dynamometer tests produced only small changes in fuel properties. Inspection of the HPCR fuel pumps revealed no

  4. Bio-derived Fuel Blend Dilution of Marine Engine Oil and Imapct on Friction and Wear Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajayi, Oyelayo O.; Lorenzo-Martin, Cinta; Fenske, George R.; Corlett, John; Murphy, Chris; Przesmitzki, Steve

    2016-04-01

    To reduce the amount of petroleum-derived fuel used in vehicles and vessels powered by internal combustion engines, the addition of bio-derived fuel extenders is a common practice. Ethanol is perhaps the most common bio-derived fuel used for blending, and butanol is being evaluated as a promising alternative. The present study determined the fuel dilution rate of three lubricating oils (E0, E10, and i-B16) in a marine engine operating in on-water conditions with a start-and-stop cycle protocol. The level of fuel dilution increased with the number of cycles for all three fuels. The most dilution was observed with i-B16 fuel, and the least with E10 fuel. In all cases, fuel dilution substantially reduced the oil viscosity. The impacts of fuel dilution and the consequent viscosity reduction on the lubricating capability of the engine oil in terms of friction, wear, and scuffing prevention were evaluated by four different tests protocols. Although the fuel dilution of the engine oil had minimal effect on friction, because the test conditions were under the boundary lubrication regime, significant effects were observed on wear in many cases. Fuel dilution also was observed to reduce the load-carrying capacity of the engine oils in terms of scuffing load reduction.

  5. Sizing stack and battery of a fuel cell hybrid distribution truck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bram Veenhuizen; P.P.J. van den Bosch; Y. Shen; T. Hofman; Edwin Tazelaar

    2012-01-01

    Fuel cell hybrid vehicles are believed to provide a solution to cut down emissions in the long term. They provide local zero-emission propulsion and when the hydrogen as fuel is derived from renewable energy sources, fuel cell hybrids enable well-to-wheel zero-emission transportation,

  6. Numerical analysis of fuel regression rate distribution characteristics in hybrid rocket motors with different fuel types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; XinTian; TIAN; Hui; CAI; GuoBiao

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents three-dimensional numerical simulations of the hybrid rocket motor with hydrogen peroxide (HP) and hy-droxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) propellant combination and investigates the fuel regression rate distribution charac-teristics of different fuel types. The numerical models are established to couple the Navier-Stokes equations with turbulence,chemical reactions, solid fuel pyrolysis and solid-gas interfacial boundary conditions. Simulation results including the temper-ature contours and fuel regression rate distributions are presented for the tube, star and wagon wheel grains. The results demonstrate that the changing trends of the regression rate along the axis are similar for all kinds of fuel types, which decrease sharply near the leading edges of the fuels and then gradually increase with increasing axial locations. The regression rates of the star and wagon wheel grains show apparent three-dimensional characteristics, and they are higher in the regions of fuel surfaces near the central core oxidizer flow. The average regression rates increase as the oxidizer mass fluxes rise for all of the fuel types. However, under same oxidizer mass flux, the average regression rates of the star and wagon wheel grains are much larger than that of the tube grain due to their lower hydraulic diameters.

  7. Experimental investigation on regulated and unregulated emissions of a diesel engine fueled with ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel blended with biodiesel from waste cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Yage; Cheung, C S; Huang, Zuohua

    2009-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on a 4-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine using ultra-low sulfur diesel, bi oesel and their blends, to investigate the regulated and unregulated emissions of the engine under five engine loads at an engine speed of 1800 rev/min. Blended fuels containing 19.6%, 39.4%, 59.4% and 79.6% by volume of biodiesel, corresponding to 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% by mass of oxygen in the blended fuel, were used. Biodiesel used in this study was converted from waste cooking oil. The following results are obtained with an increase of biodiesel in the fuel. The brake specific fuel consumption and the brake thermal efficiency increase. The HC and CO emissions decrease while NO(x) and NO(2) emissions increase. The smoke opacity and particulate mass concentrations reduce significantly at high engine load. In addition, for submicron particles, the geometry mean diameter of the particles becomes smaller while the total number concentration increases. For the unregulated gaseous emissions, generally, the emissions of formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, toluene, xylene decrease, however, acetaldehyde and benzene emissions increase. The results indicate that the combination of ultra-low sulfur diesel and biodiesel from waste cooking oil gives similar results to those in the literature using higher sulfur diesel fuels and biodiesel from other sources.

  8. An experimental study on usage of plastic oil and B20 algae biodiesel blend as substitute fuel to diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesha, D K; Kumara, G Prema; Lalsaheb; Mohammed, Aamir V T; Mohammad, Haseeb A; Kasma, Mufteeb Ain

    2016-05-01

    Usage of plastics has been ever increasing and now poses a tremendous threat to the environment. Millions of tons of plastics are produced annually worldwide, and the waste products have become a common feature at overflowing bins and landfills. The process of converting waste plastic into value-added fuels finds a feasible solution for recycling of plastics. Thus, two universal problems such as problems of waste plastic management and problems of fuel shortage are being tackled simultaneously. Converting waste plastics into fuel holds great promise for both the environmental and economic scenarios. In order to carry out the study on plastic wastes, the pyrolysis process was used. Pyrolysis runs without oxygen and in high temperature of about 250-300 °C. The fuel obtained from plastics is blended with B20 algae oil, which is a biodiesel obtained from microalgae. For conducting the various experiments, a 10-HP single-cylinder four-stroke direct-injection water-cooled diesel engine is employed. The engine is made to run at 1500 rpm and the load is varied gradually from 0 to 100 %. The performance, emission and combustion characteristics are observed. The BTE was observed to be higher with respect to diesel for plastic-biodiesel blend and biodiesel blend by 15.7 and 12.9 %, respectively, at full load. For plastic-biodiesel blend, the emission of UBHC and CO decreases with a slight increase in NO x as compared to diesel. It reveals that fuel properties are comparable with petroleum products. Also, the process of converting plastic waste to fuel has now turned the problems into an opportunity to make wealth from waste.

  9. Emissions from diesel engines using fatty acid methyl esters from different vegetable oils as blends and pure fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, O.; Munack, A.; Schaak, J.; Pabst, C.; Schmidt, L.; Bünger, J.; Krahl, J.

    2012-05-01

    Biodiesel is used as a neat fuel as well as in blends with mineral diesel fuel. Because of the limited availability of fossil resources, an increase of biogenic compounds in fuels is desired. To achieve this goal, next to rapeseed oil, other sustainably produced vegetable oils can be used as raw materials. These raw materials influence the fuel properties as well as the emissions. To investigate the environmental impact of the exhaust gas, it is necessary to determine regulated and non-regulated exhaust gas components. In detail, emissions of aldehydes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), as well as mutagenicity in the Ames test are of special interest. In this paper emission measurements on a Euro III engine OM 906 of Mercedes-Benz are presented. As fuel vegetable oil methyl esters from various sources and reference diesel fuel were used as well as blends of the vegetable oil methyl esters with diesel fuel. PAH were sampled according to VDI Guideline 3872. The sampling procedure of carbonyls was accomplished using DNPH cartridges coupled with potassium iodide cartridges. The carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions of the tested methyl esters show advantages over DF. The particle mass emissions of methyl esters were likewise lower than those of DF, only linseed oil methyl ester showed higher particle mass emissions. A disadvantage is the use of biodiesel with respect to emissions of nitrogen oxides. They increased depending on the type of methyl ester by 10% to 30%. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the results of mutagenicity tests correlate with those of the PM measurements, at which for palm oil methyl ester next to coconut oil methyl ester the lowest emissions were detected. From these results one can formulate a clear link between the iodine number of the ester and the emission behaviour. For blends of biodiesel and diesel fuel, emissions changed linearly with the proportion of biodiesel. However, especially in the non

  10. Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Variable Compression Ignition Engine Fueled with Jatropha curcas Ethyl Ester Blends at Different Compression Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajneesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Engine performance and emission characteristics of unmodified biodiesel fueled diesel engines are highly influenced by their ignition and combustion behavior. In this study, emission and combustion characteristics were studied when the engine operated using the different blends (B10, B20, B30, and B40 and normal diesel fuel (B0 as well as when varying the compression ratio from 16.5 : 1 to 17.5 : 1 to 18.5 : 1. The change of compression ratio from 16.5 : 1 to 18.5 : 1 resulted in 27.1%, 27.29%, 26.38%, 28.48%, and 34.68% increase in cylinder pressure for the blends B0, B10, B20, B30, and B40, respectively, at 75% of rated load conditions. Higher peak heat release rate increased by 23.19%, 14.03%, 26.32%, 21.87%, and 25.53% for the blends B0, B10, B20, B30, and B40, respectively, at 75% of rated load conditions, when compression ratio was increased from16.5 : 1 to 18.5 : 1. The delay period decreased by 21.26%, CO emission reduced by 14.28%, and NOx emission increased by 22.84% for B40 blends at 75% of rated load conditions, when compression ratio was increased from 16.5 : 1 to 18.5 : 1. It is concluded that Jatropha oil ester can be used as fuel in diesel engine by blending it with diesel fuel.

  11. Fuzzy linear programming based optimal fuel scheduling incorporating blending/transloading facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djukanovic, M.; Babic, B.; Milosevic, B. [Electrical Engineering Inst. Nikola Tesla, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Sobajic, D.J. [EPRI, Palo Alto, CA (United States). Power System Control; Pao, Y.H. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)]|[AI WARE, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1996-05-01

    In this paper the blending/transloading facilities are modeled using an interactive fuzzy linear programming (FLP), in order to allow the decision-maker to solve the problem of uncertainty of input information within the fuel scheduling optimization. An interactive decision-making process is formulated in which decision-maker can learn to recognize good solutions by considering all possibilities of fuzziness. The application of the fuzzy formulation is accompanied by a careful examination of the definition of fuzziness, appropriateness of the membership function and interpretation of results. The proposed concept provides a decision support system with integration-oriented features, whereby the decision-maker can learn to recognize the relative importance of factors in the specific domain of optimal fuel scheduling (OFS) problem. The formulation of a fuzzy linear programming problem to obtain a reasonable nonfuzzy solution under consideration of the ambiguity of parameters, represented by fuzzy numbers, is introduced. An additional advantage of the FLP formulation is its ability to deal with multi-objective problems.

  12. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Minh

    2005-12-01

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC2601NT40779 for the US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DoE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a gas turbine. A conceptual hybrid system design was selected for analysis and evaluation. The selected system is estimated to have over 65% system efficiency, a first cost of approximately $650/kW, and a cost of electricity of 8.4 cents/kW-hr. A control strategy and conceptual control design have been developed for the system. A number of SOFC module tests have been completed to evaluate the pressure impact to performance stability. The results show that the operating pressure accelerates the performance degradation. Several experiments were conducted to explore the effects of pressure on carbon formation. Experimental observations on a functioning cell have verified that carbon deposition does not occur in the cell at steam-to-carbon ratios lower than the steady-state design point for hybrid systems. Heat exchanger design, fabrication and performance testing as well as oxidation testing to support heat exchanger life analysis were also conducted. Performance tests of the prototype heat exchanger yielded heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics consistent with the heat exchanger specification. Multicell stacks have been tested and performance maps were obtained under hybrid operating conditions. Successful and repeatable fabrication of large (>12-inch diameter) planar SOFC cells was demonstrated using the tape calendering process. A number of large area cells and stacks were successfully performance tested at ambient and pressurized conditions. A 25 MW plant configuration was

  13. Influence of ethanol-gasoline blended fuel on emission characteristics from a four-stroke motorcycle engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Li-Wei; Shen, Mei-Qing; Wang, Jun; Lin, Man-Qun

    2005-08-31

    Emission characteristics from a four-stroke motorcycle engine using 10% (v/v) ethanol-gasoline blended fuel (E10) were investigated at different driving modes on the chassis dynamometers. The results indicate that CO and HC emissions in the engine exhaust are lower with the operation of E10 as compared to the use of unleaded gasoline, whereas the effect of ethanol on NO(X) emission is not significant. Furthermore, species of both unburned hydrocarbons and their ramifications were analyzed by the combination of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC/FID). This analysis shows that aromatic compounds (benzene, toluene, xylene isomers (o-xylene, m-xylene and p-xylene), ethyltoluene isomers (o-ethyltoluene, m-ethyltoluene and p-ethyltoluene) and trimethylbenzene isomers (1,2,3-trimethylbenzene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene)) and fatty group ones (ethylene, methane, acetaldehyde, ethanol, butene, pentane and hexane) are major compounds in motorcycle engine exhaust. It is found that the E10-fueled motorcycle engine produces more ethylene, acetaldehyde and ethanol emissions than unleaded gasoline engine does. The no significant reduction of aromatics is observed in the case of ethanol-gasoline blended fuel. The ethanol-gasoline blended fuel can somewhat improve emissions of the rest species.

  14. Preparation, characterisation, engine performance and emission characteristics of coconut oil based hybrid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Pranil J.; Singh, Anirudh [Division of Physics, School of Engineering and Physics, Faculty of Science, Technology and Environment, University of the South Pacific, 325 Fletcher Road, Suva (Fiji); Khurma, Jagjit [Division of Chemistry, School of Biological, Chemical and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Technology and Environment, University of the South Pacific, Suva (Fiji)

    2010-09-15

    In this study, hybrid fuels consisting of coconut oil, aqueous ethanol and a surfactant (butan-1-ol) were prepared and tested as a fuel in a direct injection diesel engine. After determining fuel properties such as the density, viscosity and gross calorific values of these fuels, they were used to run a diesel engine. The engine performance and exhaust emissions were investigated and compared with that of diesel. The experimental results show that the efficiency of the hybrid fuels is comparable to that of diesel. As the viscosity of the hybrid fuels decreased and approached that of diesel, the efficiency increased progressively towards that of diesel. The exhaust emissions were lower than those for diesel, except carbon monoxide emissions, which increased. Hence, it is concluded that these hybrid fuels can be used successfully as an alternative fuel in diesel engines without any modifications. Their completely renewable nature ensures that they are environmentally friendly with regard to their emissions characteristics. (author)

  15. Comparative spectral analysis of commercial fuel-ethanol blends using a low-cost prototype FT-Raman spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega Clavero, Valentin; Weber, Andreas; Schröder, Werner; Meyrueis, Patrick; Javahiraly, Nicolas

    2012-06-01

    The use of bio-fuels and fuel blends, specially in automotive industry, has been increasing substantially in recent years due to market prices and trends on sustainable development policies. Different spectral analysis techniques for quality control, production, purity, and counterfeit detection have been reported as non-invasive, fast, and price accessible. Raman spectra from three different commercial binary E10 fuel-ethanol blends has been obtained by using a low-cost Fourier-Transform Raman spectrometer (FT-Raman). Qualitative comparison between the commercial fuel blends and a laboratory-prepared fuel blend have been performed. The characteristic Raman lines from some additives contained in the commercial gasoline have been also observed. The spectral information is presented in the range of 0 cm-1 to 3500 cm-1 with a resolution of 1.66 cm-1. These Raman spectra shows reduced frequency deviation (less than 0.4 cm-1 when compared to standard Raman spectra from cyclohexane and toluene without compensation for instrumental response). Higher resolution values are possible, since the greater optical path lengths of the FT-Raman are achievable before the instrumental physical effects appear. The robust and highly flexible FT-Raman prototype proposed for the spectral analysis, consisting mainly of a Michelson interferometer and a self-designed photon counter, is able to deliver high resolution and precise Raman spectra with no additional complex hardware or software control. The mechanical and thermal disturbances affecting the FT-Raman system are mathematically compensated by extracting the optical path information from the generated interference pattern of a λ=632.8 nm Helium-Neon laser (HeNe laser), which is used at the spectrum evaluation.

  16. Combustion characteristics of diesel engine using producer gas and blends of Jatropha methyl ester with diesel in mixed fuel mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hifjur Raheman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation was performed to study the combustion characteristics of diesel engine fuelled with producer gas-biodiesel in dual fuel mode. Three different fuel blends of Jatropha methyl ester with high speed diesel (HSD (B10, B20 and B100 were used with producer gas obtained from the gasification of briquettes made from de-oiled Jatropha seed cake. The increments in load on the engine increased the brake thermal efficiency, exhaust gas temperature and lowered the brake specific energy consumption. The ignition delays in dual-fuel mode of operation for both the fuels were longer than for single-fuel mode of operation. Combustion pressure and heat release rate (HRR patterns at different engine loads were found to be similar for biodiesel and HSD. In dual-fuel mode, the peak pressure and HRR for producer gas–biodiesel dual-fuel were slightly lower than those of producer gas–diesel combustion at full load condition. Significantly lower NOx emissions were obtained under the dual fuel mode of operation for both pilot fuels compared to the single-fuel mode especially HSD under all test conditions.

  17. Evaluation of fuel properties for microalgae Spirulina platensis bio-diesel and its blends with Egyptian petro-diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soha S.M. Mostafa

    2017-05-01

    In this study, the feasibility of biodiesel production from microalga Spirulina platensis has been investigated. The physico–chemical characteristics of the produced biodiesel were studied according to the standards methods of analysis (ASTM and evaluated according to their fuel properties as compared to Egyptian petro-diesel. Blends of microalgae biodiesel and petro-diesel (B2, B5, B10 and B20 were prepared on a volume basis and their physico–chemical characteristics have been also studied. The obtained results showed that; with the increase of biodiesel concentration in the blends; the viscosity, density, total acid number, initial boiling point, calorific value, flash point, cetane number and diesel index increase. While the pour point, cloud point, carbon residue and sulfur, ash and water contents decrease. The observed properties of the blends were within the recommended petro-diesel standard specifications and they are in favor of better engine performance.

  18. Optimisation for the Blending of MOX Fuel%MOX燃料混料过程的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李怀林; 李文埮

    2001-01-01

    本文采用Householder变换法对MOX燃料混料过程中Pu同位素均一化问题进行优化计算,并用轨迹求解法对球磨中的转速问题进行了初步探讨。%The blending of UO2 and PuO2 powders is the key technology in theMOX fuel manufactor. The Pu isotopic homogeneous, blending of UO2 and PuO2 and ball milling will be done in the blending process. In the paper, the House holder transform is applied to calculate the Pu isotopic homogeneous, and the track method is adopted to calculate speed of ball milling. All of the calculated results are accordance with the those from reference.

  19. Hybrid proton-conducting membranes for polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Romero, Pedro [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC), Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain)]. E-mail: pedro.gomez@icmab.es; Asensio, Juan Antonio [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC), Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Institut Quimic de Sarria, Universitat Ramon Llull, Via Augusta 390, E-08017 Barcelona (Spain); Borros, Salvador [Institut Quimic de Sarria, Universitat Ramon Llull, Via Augusta 390, E-08017 Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-08-30

    The synthesis and characterization of a novel hybrid organic-inorganic material formed by phosphomolybdic acid H{sub 3}PMo{sub 12}O{sub 40} (PMo{sub 12}) and poly(2,5-benzimidazole) (ABPBI) is reported. This material, composed of two proton-conducting components, can be cast in the form of membranes from methanesulfonic acid (MSA) solutions. Upon impregnation with phosphoric acid, the hybrid membranes present higher conductivity than the best ABPBI polymer membranes impregnated in the same conditions. These electrolyte membranes are stable up to 200 deg. C, and have a proton conductivity of 3 x 10{sup -2} S cm{sup -1} at 185 deg. C without humidification. These properties make them very good candidates as membranes for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) at temperatures of 100-200 deg. C.

  20. Gas Turbine Engine Nonvolatile Particulate Matter Mass Emissions: Correlation with Smoke Number for Conventional and Alternative Fuel Blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Simon; Lobo, Prem; Lee, David; Raper, David

    2017-01-17

    This study evaluates the relationship between the emissions parameters of smoke number (SN) and mass concentration of nonvolatile particulate matter (nvPM) in the exhaust of a gas turbine engine for a conventional Jet A-1 and a number of alternative fuel blends. The data demonstrate the significant impact of fuel composition on the emissions and highlight the magnitude of the fuel-induced uncertainty for both SN within the Emissions Data Bank as well as nvPM mass within the new regulatory standard under development. Notwithstanding these substantial differences, the data show that correlation between SN and nvPM mass concentration still adheres to the first order approximation (FOA3), and this agreement is maintained over a wide range of fuel compositions. Hence, the data support the supposition that the FOA3 is applicable to engines burning both conventional and alternative fuel blends without adaptation or modification. The chemical composition of the fuel is shown to impact mass and number concentration as well as geometric mean diameter of the emitted nvPM; however, the data do not support assertions that the emissions of black carbon with small mean diameter will result in significant deviations from FOA3.

  1. Biochemical and physical kernel properties of a standard maize hybrid in different TopCross™ Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Vancetovic

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A pilot experiment was undertaken in order to examine high oil populations of maize (Zea mays L. to be used as pollinators in TopCross blends with commercial ZP341 standard hybrid. Five high oil populations (HOPs from the Maize Research Institute (MRI gene bank were chosen for this research, according to their high grain oil content, synchrony between silking of ZP341 and anthesis of the populations and good agronomic performances in 2012. Selfing of ZP341 and HOPs, as well as crosses of ZP341 cmsS sterile × HOPs were carried out in 2013. Oil content, fatty acid composition, protein and tryptophan content, and physical characteristics of the obtained kernels were measured. Four HOPs showed significant positive influence on the oil content in the TopCrosses (TC, 16.85 g kg−1 on average. Oleic acid, which is the principal monounsaturated fatty acid, was significantly lower in all HOPs and all TCs, while selfed ZP341 had almost twice the average value typical for standard maize. However, this decrease in TCs was in a narrow range from 1 % (in TC-3 to 5 % (in TC-4 and the oleic content of TCs was on average higher by 60 % compared to the typical standard maize. Different favorable and unfavorable significant changes were detected in fatty acid compositions, protein and tryptophan contents and physical kernel properties for each potential TC combination. Results indicate differences in gene effects present in different TC combinations and underscore the need to examine each potential TC blend by conducting similar simple experiments.

  2. Bridged polysilsesquioxanes: Hybrid organic-inorganic materials as fuel cell polyelectrolyte membranes and functional nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiterer, Mariya

    2007-05-01

    This dissertation describes the design, fabrication, and characterization of organic-inorganic hybrid materials. Several classes of bridged polysilsesquioxanes are presented. The first class is a membrane material suitable for fuel cell technology as a proton conducting polyelectrolyte. The second class includes hybrid nanoparticles for display device applications and chromatographic media. Chapter 1 is an introduction to hybrid organic-inorganic materials. Sol-gel chemistry is discussed, followed by a survey of prominent examples of silica hybrids. Examples of physical organic-silica blends and covalent organo-silicas, including ORMOCERSRTM, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes, and bridged polysilsesquioxanes are discussed. Bridged polysilsesquioxanes are described in great detail. Monomer synthesis, sol-gel chemistry, processing, characterization, and physical properties are included. Chapter 2 describes the design of polyelectrolyte bridged polysilsesquioxane membranes. The materials contain covalently bound sulfonic acid groups originating from the corresponding disulfides. These organic-inorganic hybrid materials integrate a network supporting component which is systematically changed to fine-tune their physical properties. The membranes are characterized as PEM fuel cell electrolytes, where proton conductivities of 4-6 mS cm-1 were measured. In Chapter 3 techniques for the preparation of bridged polysilsesquioxane nanoparticles are described. An inverse water-in-oil microemulsion polymerization method is developed to prepare cationic nanoparticles, including viologen-bridged materials with applications in electrochromic display devices. An aqueous ammonia system is used to prepare neutral nanoparticles containing hydrocarbon bridging groups, which have potential applications as chromatographic media. Chapter 4 describes electrochromic devices developed in collaboration with the Heflin group of Virginia Tech, which incorporate viologen bridged nanoparticles

  3. Antibacterial Nanocomposites Based on Fe3O4–Ag Hybrid Nanoparticles and Natural Rubber-Polyethylene Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Dung Ngo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the vulcanized natural rubber (NR, incorporation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs into the NR matrix did not exhibit the bactericidal property against Escherichia coli (E. coli. However, incorporation of AgNPs into polyethylene (PE matrix showed good antibacterial activities to both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. In the present work, NR/PE (85/15 blends have been prepared by melt blending with presence of compatibilizer in an internal mixer. To possess antibacterial property, AgNPs (5–10 nm or Fe3O4–Ag hybrid nanoparticles (FAgNPs, 8 nm/16 nm were added into PE matrix before its blending with NR component. The tensile test indicated that the presence of compatibilizer in NR/PE blend significantly enhanced the tensile strength and elongation at break (up to 35% and 38% increases, resp.. The antibacterial activity test was performed by monitoring of the bacterial lag-log growth phases with the presence of nanocomposites in the E. coli cell culture reactor. The antibacterial test showed that the presence of FAgNPs in NR/PE blend had a better antibacterial activity than that obtained with the lone AgNPs. Two similar reasons were proposed: (i the faster Ag+ release rate from the Fe3O4–Ag hybrid nanoparticles due to the electron transfer from AgNP to Fe3O4 nanoparticle and (ii the fact that the ionization of AgNPs in hybrid nanostructure might be accelerated by Fe3+ ions.

  4. Performance and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine Fueled with Ethanol-Diesel Blends in Different Altitude Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilin Lei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects ethanol-diesel blends and altitude on the performance and emissions of diesel engine, the comparative experiments were carried out on the bench of turbo-charged diesel engine fueled with pure diesel (as prototype and ethanol-diesel blends (E10, E15, E20 and E30 under different atmospheric pressures (81 kPa, 90 kPa and 100 kPa. The experimental results indicate that the equivalent brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC of ethanol-diesel blends are better than that of diesel under different atmospheric pressures and that the equivalent BSFC gets great improvement with the rise of atmospheric pressure when the atmospheric pressure is lower than 90 kPa. At 81 kPa, both HC and CO emissions rise greatly with the increasing engine speeds and loads and addition of ethanol, while at 90 kPa and 100 kPa their effects on HC and CO emissions are slightest. The changes of atmospheric pressure and mix proportion of ethanol have no obvious effect on NOx emissions. Smoke emissions decrease obviously with the increasing percentage of ethanol in blends, especially atmospheric pressure below 90 kPa.

  5. Antioxidant Effect on Oxidation Stability of Blend Fish Oil Biodiesel with Vegetable Oil Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hossain

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Two different phenolic synthetic antioxidants were used to improve the oxidation stability of fish oil biodiesel blends with vegetable oil biodiesel and petroleum diesel. Butylhydroxytoluene (BHT most effective for improvement of the oxidation stability of petro diesel, whereas  tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ showed good performance in fish oil biodiesel. Fish oil/Rapeseed oil biodiesel mixed showed some acceptable results in higher concentration ofantioxidants. TBHQ showed better oxidation stability than BHT in B100 composition. In fish oil biodiesel/diesel mixed fuel, BHT was more effective antioxidant than TBHQ to increase oxidationstability because BHT is more soluble than TBHQ. The stability behavior of biodiesel/diesel blends with the employment of the modified Rancimat method (EN 15751. The performance ofantioxidants was evaluated for treating fish oil biodiesel/Rapeseed oil biodiesel for B100, and blends with two type diesel fuel (deep sulfurization diesel and automotive ultra-low sulfur or zero sulfur diesels. The examined blends were in proportions of 5, 10, 15, and 20% by volume of fish oilbiodiesel.

  6. Certain investigation in a compression ignition engine using rice bran methyl ester fuel blends with ethanol additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Arumugam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study and analysis, the physical properties such as calorific value, viscosity, flash, and fire point temperatures of rice bran oil methyl ester were found. The rice bran oil biodiesel has been prepared by transesterification process from pure rice bran oil in the presence of methanol and NaOH. Moreover, property enhancement of rice bran oil methyl ester was also made by adding different additives such as ethanol in various proportions. Rice bran oil methyl ester with 1, 3, and 5% ethanol were analyzed for its fuel properties. The effects of diesel-B20ROME blends with ethanol additive of 1, 3, and 5% on a compression ignition engine were examined considering its emissions. It is found that the increase in biodiesel concentration in the fuel blend influences CO2 and NOx emissions. On the other hand CO and HC emissions are reduced. It is interesting to observe the emission as ethanol-B20ROME blends, reduces CO2 and NOx which are the major contributors to global warming. As the NOx and CO2 can be reduced drastically by the proposed blends, the global warming can be reduced considerably.

  7. Performance and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine Fueled with Ethanol-Diesel Blends in Different Altitude Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jilin; Bi, Yuhua; Shen, Lizhong

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects ethanol-diesel blends and altitude on the performance and emissions of diesel engine, the comparative experiments were carried out on the bench of turbo-charged diesel engine fueled with pure diesel (as prototype) and ethanol-diesel blends (E10, E15, E20 and E30) under different atmospheric pressures (81 kPa, 90 kPa and 100 kPa). The experimental results indicate that the equivalent brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of ethanol-diesel blends are better than that of diesel under different atmospheric pressures and that the equivalent BSFC gets great improvement with the rise of atmospheric pressure when the atmospheric pressure is lower than 90 kPa. At 81 kPa, both HC and CO emissions rise greatly with the increasing engine speeds and loads and addition of ethanol, while at 90 kPa and 100 kPa their effects on HC and CO emissions are slightest. The changes of atmospheric pressure and mix proportion of ethanol have no obvious effect on NOx emissions. Smoke emissions decrease obviously with the increasing percentage of ethanol in blends, especially atmospheric pressure below 90 kPa. PMID:21234367

  8. Performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine fueled with ethanol-diesel blends in different altitude regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jilin; Bi, Yuhua; Shen, Lizhong

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects ethanol-diesel blends and altitude on the performance and emissions of diesel engine, the comparative experiments were carried out on the bench of turbo-charged diesel engine fueled with pure diesel (as prototype) and ethanol-diesel blends (E10, E15, E20 and E30) under different atmospheric pressures (81 kPa, 90 kPa and 100 kPa). The experimental results indicate that the equivalent brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of ethanol-diesel blends are better than that of diesel under different atmospheric pressures and that the equivalent BSFC gets great improvement with the rise of atmospheric pressure when the atmospheric pressure is lower than 90 kPa. At 81 kPa, both HC and CO emissions rise greatly with the increasing engine speeds and loads and addition of ethanol, while at 90 kPa and 100 kPa their effects on HC and CO emissions are slightest. The changes of atmospheric pressure and mix proportion of ethanol have no obvious effect on NO(x) emissions. Smoke emissions decrease obviously with the increasing percentage of ethanol in blends, especially atmospheric pressure below 90 kPa.

  9. Co-combustion of bituminous coal and biomass fuel blends: Thermochemical characterization, potential utilization and environmental advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuncai; Liu, Guijian; Wang, Xudong; Qi, Cuicui

    2016-10-01

    The thermochemical characteristics and gaseous trace pollutant behaviors during co-combustion medium-to-low ash bituminous coal with typical biomass residues (corn stalk and sawdust) were investigated. Lowering of ignition index, burnout temperature and activation energy in the major combustion stage are observed in the coal/biomass blends. The blending proportion of 20% and 30% are regarded as the optimum blends for corn stalk and sawdust, respectively, in according the limitations of heating value, activation energy, flame stability and base/acid ratio. The reductions of gaseous As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) were 4.5%, 7.8%, 6.3%, 9.8%, 9.4% and 17.4%, respectively, when co-combustion coal with 20% corn stalk. The elevated capture of trace elements were found in coal/corn stalk blend, while the coal/sawdust blend has the better PAHs control potential. The reduction mechanisms of gaseous trace pollutants were attributed to the fuel property, ash composition and relative residence time during combustion.

  10. THE EFFECT OF BIODIESEL AND BIOETHANOL BLENDED DIESEL FUEL ON THE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF A DIRECT INJECTION DIESEL ENGINE

    OpenAIRE

    G. Venkata Subbaiah; Dr. K. Raja Gopal; Syed Altaf Hussain

    2010-01-01

    History has seen fuel innovations being driven majorly by transportation needs rather than the overall need to revolutionize the energy needs of the society. Biofuels such as biodiesel and bioethanol are now receiving the impetus required for becoming a fuel source for the future. One of the ways to reduce the dependence on fossil diesel is the blending of bioethanol with conventional diesel. However, an emulsifier or a co-solvent is required to stabilize the blend. The ricebran oil biodiesel...

  11. Fuel-Cell-Powered Vehicle with Hybrid Power Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2010-01-01

    Figure 1 depicts a hybrid electric utility vehicle that is powered by hydrogenburning proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cells operating in conjunction with a metal hydride hydrogen-storage unit. Unlike conventional hybrid electric vehicles, this vehicle utilizes ultracapacitors, rather than batteries, for storing electric energy. This vehicle is a product of continuing efforts to develop the technological discipline known as hybrid power management (HPM), which is oriented toward integration of diverse electric energy-generating, energy-storing, and energy- consuming devices in optimal configurations. Instances of HPM were reported in five prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, though not explicitly labeled as HPM in the first three articles: "Ultracapacitors Store Energy in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle" (LEW-16876), Vol. 24, No. 4 (April 2000), page 63; "Photovoltaic Power Station With Ultracapacitors for Storage" (LEW- 17177), Vol. 27, No. 8 (August 2003), page 38; "Flasher Powered by Photovoltaic Cells and Ultracapacitors" (LEW-17246), Vol. 27, No. 10 (October 2003), page 37; "Hybrid Power Management" (LEW-17520), Vol. 29, No. 12 (December 2005), page 35; and "Ultracapacitor-Powered Cordless Drill" (LEW-18116-1), Vol. 31, No. 8 (August 2007), page 34. To recapitulate from the cited prior articles: The use of ultracapacitors as energy- storage devices lies at the heart of HPM. An ultracapacitor is an electrochemical energy-storage device, but unlike in a conventional rechargeable electrochemical cell or battery, chemical reactions do not take place during operation. Instead, energy is stored electrostatically at an electrode/electrolyte interface. The capacitance per unit volume of an ultracapacitor is much greater than that of a conventional capacitor because its electrodes have much greater surface area per unit volume and the separation between the electrodes is much smaller.

  12. System Modeling and Diagnostics for Liquefying-Fuel Hybrid Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poll, Scott; Iverson, David; Ou, Jeremy; Sanderfer, Dwight; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    2003-01-01

    A Hybrid Combustion Facility (HCF) was recently built at NASA Ames Research Center to study the combustion properties of a new fuel formulation that burns approximately three times faster than conventional hybrid fuels. Researchers at Ames working in the area of Integrated Vehicle Health Management recognized a good opportunity to apply IVHM techniques to a candidate technology for next generation launch systems. Five tools were selected to examine various IVHM techniques for the HCF. Three of the tools, TEAMS (Testability Engineering and Maintenance System), L2 (Livingstone2), and RODON, are model-based reasoning (or diagnostic) systems. Two other tools in this study, ICS (Interval Constraint Simulator) and IMS (Inductive Monitoring System) do not attempt to isolate the cause of the failure but may be used for fault detection. Models of varying scope and completeness were created, both qualitative and quantitative. In each of the models, the structure and behavior of the physical system are captured. In the qualitative models, the temporal aspects of the system behavior and the abstraction of sensor data are handled outside of the model and require the development of additional code. In the quantitative model, less extensive processing code is also necessary. Examples of fault diagnoses are given.

  13. Experimental investigation of regulated and unregulated emissions from a diesel engine fueled with ultralow-sulfur diesel fuel blended with ethanol and dodecanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, C. S.; Di, Yage; Huang, Zuohua

    Experiments were conducted on a four-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine using ultralow-sulfur diesel as the main fuel, ethanol as the oxygenate additive and dodecanol as the solvent, to investigate the regulated and unregulated emissions of the engine under five engine loads at an engine speed of 1800 rev min -1. Blended fuels containing 6.1%, 12.2%, 18.2% and 24.2% by volume of ethanol, corresponding to 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% by mass of oxygen in the blended fuel, were used. The results indicate that with an increase in ethanol in the fuel, the brake specific fuel consumption becomes higher while there is little change in the brake thermal efficiency. Regarding the regulated emissions, HC and CO increase significantly at low engine load but might decrease at high engine load, NO x emission slightly decreases at low engine load but slightly increases at high engine load, while particulate mass decreases significantly at high engine load. For the unregulated gaseous emissions, unburned ethanol and acetaldehyde increase but formaldehyde, ethene, ethyne, 1,3-butadiene and BTX (benzene, toluene and xylene) in general decrease, especially at high engine load. A diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) is found to reduce significantly most of the pollutants, including the air toxics.

  14. Two-zone modeling of diesel / biodiesel blended fuel operated ceramic coated direct injection diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rajendra Prasath, P. Tamil Porai, Mohd. F. Shabir

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive computer code using ”C” language was developed for compression ignition (C.I engine cycle and modified in to low heat rejection (LHR engine through wall heat transfer model. Combustion characteristics such as cylinder pressure, heat release, heat transfer and performance characteristics such as work done, specific fuel consumption (SFC and brake thermal efficiency (BTE were analysed. On the basis of first law of thermodynamics the properties at each degree crank angle was calculated. Preparation and reaction rate model was used to calculate the instantaneous heat release rate. The effect of coating on engine heat transfer was analysed using a gas-wall heat transfer calculations and total heat transfer was based on ANNAND’s combined heat transfer model. The predicted results are validated through the experiments on the test engine under identical operating conditions on a turbocharged D.I diesel engine. In this analysis 20% of biodiesel (derived from Jatropha seed oil blended with diesel was used in both conventional and LHR engine. The simulated combustion and performance characteristics are found satisfactory with the experimental results.

  15. The effects of neat biodiesel and biodiesel and HVO blends in diesel fuel on exhaust emissions from a light duty vehicle with a diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopowicz, Adam; Zaciera, Marzena; Sobczak, Andrzej; Bielaczyc, Piotr; Woodburn, Joseph

    2015-06-16

    The influence of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) diesel blends on the exhaust emissions from a passenger car was examined. The impact of FAME for the cold urban phase (UDC) was increased CO and HC emissions, probably due to blend physical properties promoting incomplete combustion. The HVO blend caused the lowest CO and HC emissions for the UDC. NOx emissions did not change significantly with the fuel used, however the UDC was characterized by lower NOx emission for FAME blends. Particle emissions were highest with standard diesel. Emissions of carbonyl compounds increased as fuel biodiesel content increased, especially during the UDC. HVO in diesel fuel decreased carbonyl emissions. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were the most abundant carbonyl compounds in the exhaust gas. Total particle-bound PAH emissions were variable, the emission of heavier PAHs increased with blend biodiesel content. The HVO blend increased emission of lighter PAHs. Nitro-PAHs were identified only during the UDC and not for all blends; the highest emissions were measured for pure diesel. The results showed that emission of nitro-PAHs may be decreased to a greater extent by using biodiesel than using a HVO blend.

  16. In-use fuel economy of hybrid-electric school buses in Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmark, Shauna; Sperry, Bob; Mudgal, Abhisek

    2011-05-01

    Although it is much safer and more fuel-efficient to transport children to school in buses than in private vehicles, school buses in the United States still consume 822 million gal of diesel fuel annually, and school transportation costs can account for a significant portion of resource-constrained school district budgets. Additionally, children in diesel-powered school buses may be exposed to higher levels of particulates and other pollutants than children in cars. One solution to emission and fuel concerns is use of hybrid-electric school buses, which have the potential to reduce emissions and overall lifecycle costs compared with conventional diesel buses. Hybrid-electric technologies are available in the passenger vehicle market as well as the transit bus market and have a track record indicating fuel economy and emissions benefits. This paper summarizes the results of an in-use fuel economy evaluation for two plug-in hybrid school buses deployed in two different school districts in Iowa. Each school district selected a control bus with a route similar to that of the hybrid bus. Odometer readings, fuel consumption, and maintenance needs were recorded for each bus. The buses were deployed in 2008 and data were collected through May 2010. Fuel consumption was calculated for each school district. In Nevada, IA, the overall average fuel economy was 8.23 mpg for the hybrid and 6.35 mpg for the control bus. In Sigourney, IA, the overall average fuel economy was 8.94 mpg for the hybrid and 6.42 mpg for the control bus. The fuel consumption data were compared for the hybrid and control buses using a Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results indicate that fuel economy for the Nevada hybrid bus was 29.6% better than for the Nevada control bus, and fuel economy for the Sigourney hybrid bus was 39.2% higher than for the Sigourney control bus. Both differences were statistically significant.

  17. Sensitivity of hazardous air pollutant emissions to the combustion of blends of petroleum diesel and biodiesel fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magara-Gomez, Kento T.; Olson, Michael R.; Okuda, Tomoaki; Walz, Kenneth A.; Schauer, James J.

    2012-04-01

    Emission rates and composition of known hazardous air pollutants in the exhaust gas from a commercial agriculture tractor, burning a range of biodiesel blends operating at two different load conditions were investigated to better understand the emission characteristics of biodiesel fuel. Ultra-Low Sulfur Petroleum Diesel (ULSD) fuel was blended with soybean oil and beef tallow based biodiesel to examine fuels containing 0% (B0), 50% (B50) and 100% (B100) soybean oil based biodiesel, and 50% (B50T) and 100% (B100T) beef tallow biodiesel. Samples were collected using a dilution source sampler to simulate atmospheric dilution. Particulate matter and exhaust gases were analyzed for carbonyls, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) to determine their respective emission rates. This analysis is focused on the emissions of organic compounds classified by the US EPA as air toxics and include 2,2,4 trimethylpentane, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-, p- and o-xylene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and methylethyl ketone. Emission rates of 2,2,4 trimethylpentane, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-, p- and o-xylene decreased more than 90% for B50, B100 and B100T blends; decreases in emission rates of benzene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were more modest, producing values between 23 and 67%, and methyl ethyl ketone showed decreases not exceeding 7% for the studied biodiesel blends. PAHs emission rates were reduced by 66% for B50, 84% for B100, and by 89% for B100T. The overall emissions of toxic organic compounds were calculated and expressed as benzene equivalents. The largest contributors of toxic risk were found to be formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Reductions in formaldehyde emissions were 23% for B50 and 42% for B100 soybean, and 40% for B100T beef tallow compared to B0. Similarly, acetaldehyde reductions were 34% for B50 and 53% for B100 soybean biodiesel and 42% for B100T beef tallow biodiesel.

  18. The influence of high-octane fuel blends on the performance of a two-stroke SI engine with knock-limited-compression ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poola, Ramesh B.; Bhasker, T.; Nagalingam, B.; Gopalakrishnan, K. V.

    The use of alcohol-gasoline blends enables the favorable features of alcohols to be utilized in spark ignition (SI) engines while avoiding the shortcomings of their application as straight fuels. Eucalyptus and orange oils possess high octane values and are also good potential alternative fuels for SI engines. The high octane value of these fuels can enhance the octane value of the fuel when it is blended with low-octane gasoline. In the present work, 20 percent by volume of orange oil, eucalyptus oil, methanol and ethanol were blended separately with gasoline, and the performance, combustion and exhaust emission characteristics were evaluated at two different compression ratios. The phase separation problems arising from the alcohol-gasoline blends were minimized by adding eucalyptus oil as a cosolvent. Test results indicate that the compression ratio can be raised from 7.4 to 9 without any detrimental effect, due to the higher octane rating of the fuel blends. Knock-limited maximum brake output also increases due to extension of the knock limit. The knock limit is extended by methanol-eucalyptus-ethanol-orange oil blends, in descending order.

  19. A comparative study of hybrid electric vehicle fuel consumption over diverse driving cycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Environmental pollution and declining resources of fossil fuels in recent years,have increased demand for better fuel economy and less pollution for ground transportation.Among the alternative solutions provided by researchers in recent decades,hybrid electric vehicles consisted of an internal combustion engine and an electric motor have been considered as a promising solution in the short-term.In the present study,fuel economy characteristics of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle are investigated by using ...

  20. The emission analysis of an IDI diesel engine fueled with methyl ester of waste frying palm oil and its blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozsezen, Ahmet Necati; Canakci, Mustafa [Department of Automotive Engineering Technology, Kocaeli University, 41380, Izmit (Turkey); Alternative Fuels R and D Center, Kocaeli University, 41275, Izmit (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    In this study, the exhaust emissions of an unmodified diesel engine fueled with methyl ester of waste frying palm-oil (biodiesel) and its blends with petroleum based diesel fuel (PBDF) were investigated at the full load-variable speed condition. The relationships between the fuel properties and the air-fuel equivalence ratio, fuel line pressure, start of injection (SOI) timing, and ignition delay were also discussed to explain their effects on the emissions. The obtained test results were compared with the reference values which were determined by using PBDF. The results showed that when biodiesel was used in the test engine, the fuel line pressure increased while air-fuel equivalence ratio and ignition delay decreased. These behaviors affected the combustion phenomena of biodiesel which caused to reduction 57% in carbon monoxide (CO) emission, about 40% in unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emission and about 23% in smoke opacity when compared with PBDF. However, NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} emissions of the biodiesel have showed different behaviors in terms of the engine speed. (author)

  1. Continual Energy Management System of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current research status in energy management of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM fuel cell hybrid power electric vehicles are first described in this paper, and then build the PEMFC/ lithium-ion battery/ ultra-capacitor hybrid system model. The paper analysis the key factors of the continuous power available in PEM fuel cell hybrid power electric vehicle and hybrid power system working status under different driving modes. In the end this paper gives the working flow chart of the hybrid power system and concludes the three items of the system performance analysis.

  2. Fuel properties and precipitate formation at low temperature in soy-, cottonseed-, and poultry fat-based biodiesel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haiying Tang; Steven O. Salley; K.Y. Simon Ng [Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science

    2008-10-15

    The formation of precipitates in biodiesel blends may have serious implications for diesel engine fuel delivery systems. Precipitates were observed in Soybean oil (SBO-), cottonseed oil (CSO-), and poultry fat (PF-) based biodiesel blends after storage at 4{sup o}C. CSO- and PF-based biodiesel had a lower mass of precipitates observed than the SBO-based. Moreover, different rates of precipitate formation were observed for the B20 versus the B100. These suggested that the formation of precipitate during cold temperature storage was dependent on the feedstock and blend concentration. The solvency effects of biodiesel blends were more pronounced at low temperature than at room temperature leading to a higher amount of precipitates formed. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) chromatograms indicated that steryl glucosides are the major cause of precipitate formation in SBO-based biodiesel; while for PF-based biodiesel, the precipitates are due to mono-glycerides. However, the precipitates from CSO-based biodiesel are due to both steryl glucosides and mono-glycerides. 45 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Investigation of emissions and combustion characteristics of a CI engine fueled with waste cooking oil methyl ester and diesel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nantha Gopal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel has been identified as a potential alternative fuel for CI engines because use of biodiesel can reduce petroleum diesel consumption as well as engine out emissions. Out of many biodiesel derived from various resources, biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil (WCO can be prepared economically using usual transesterification process. In the present study, in-depth research and comparative study of blends of biodiesel made from WCO and diesel is carried out to bring out the benefits of its extensive usage in CI engines. The experimental results of the study reveal that the WCO biodiesel has similar characteristics to that of diesel. The brake thermal efficiency, carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbon and smoke opacity are observed to be lower in the case of WCO biodiesel blends than diesel. On the other hand specific energy consumption and oxides of nitrogen of WCO biodiesel blends are found to be higher than diesel. In addition combustion characteristics of all biodiesel blends showed similar trends when compared to that of conventional diesel.

  4. Dynamic Simulation of Carbonate Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine Hybrid Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R.A. (U. of California, Irvine, CA); Brouwer, J. (U. of California, Irvine, CA); Liese, E.A.; Gemmen, R.S.

    2006-04-01

    Hybrid fuel cell/gas turbine systems provide an efficient means of producing electricity from fossil fuels with ultra low emissions. However, there are many significant challenges involved in integrating the fuel cell with the gas turbine and other components of this type of system. The fuel cell and the gas turbine must maintain efficient operation and electricity production while protecting equipment during perturbations that may occur when the system is connected to the utility grid or in stand-alone mode. This paper presents recent dynamic simulation results from two laboratories focused on developing tools to aid in the design and dynamic analyses of hybrid fuel cell systems. The simulation results present the response of a carbonate fuel cell/gas turbine, or molten carbonate fuel cell/gas turbine, (MCFC/GT) hybrid system to a load demand perturbation. Initial results suggest that creative control strategies will be needed to ensure a flexible system with wide turndown and robust dynamic operation.

  5. Fuel optimal control of parallel hybrid electric vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinhuan PU; Chenliang YIN; Jianwu ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    A mathematical model for fuel optimal control and its corresponding dynamic programming (DP) recurs-ive equation were established for an existing parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). Two augmented cost func-tions for gear shifting and engine stop-starting were designed to limit their frequency. To overcome the prob-lem of numerical DP dimensionality, an algorithm to restrict the exploring region was proposed. The algorithm significantly reduced the computational complexity. The system model was converted into real-time simulation code by using MATLAB/RTW to improve computation efficiency. Comparison between the results of a chassis dynamometer test, simulation, and DP proves that the proposed method can compute the performance limita-tion of the HEV within an acceptable time period and can be used to evaluate and optimize the control strategy.

  6. Impacts of using reformulated and oxygenated fuel blends on the regional air quality of the upper Rhine valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-F. Vinuesa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of using three alternative gasoline fuel blends on regional air quality of the upper Rhine valley have been investigated. The first of the tested fuels is oxygenated by addition of ethyl-tertio-butyl ether (ETBE, the second is based on a reformulation of its composition and the third on is both oxygenated and reformulated. The upper Rhine valley is a very sensitive region for pollution episodes and several meteorological and air quality studies have already been performed. High temporal and spatial emission inventories are available allowing relevant and realistic modifications of the emission inventories. The calculation period, i.e., 11 May 1998, corresponds to a regional photochemical ozone pollution episode during which ozone concentrations exceeded several times the information threshold of the ozone directive of the European Union (180 μg m-3 as 1 hourly average. New emission inventories are set up using specific emission factors related to the alternative fuels by varying the fraction of gasoline passenger cars (from 50% to 100% using the three fuel blends. Then air quality modeling simulations are performed using these emission inventories over the upper Rhine valley. The impact of alternative fuels on regional air quality is evaluated by comparing these simulations with the one using a reference emission inventory, e.g., where no modifications of the fuel composition are included. The results are analyzed by focusing on peak levels and daily averaged concentrations. The use of the alternative fuels leads to general reductions of ozone and volatile organic compounds (VOC and increases of NOx levels. We found different behaviors related to the type of the area of concern i.e. rural or urban. The impacts on ozone are enhanced in urban areas where 15% reduction of the ozone peak and daily averaged concentrations can be reached. This behavior is similar for the NOx for which, in addition, an increase of the levels can be noted

  7. Experimental and Modeling Study of the Flammability of Fuel Tank Headspace Vapors from Ethanol/Gasoline Fuels; Phase 3: Effects of Winter Gasoline Volatility and Ethanol Content on Blend Flammability; Flammability Limits of Denatured Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardiner, D. P.; Bardon, M. F.; Clark, W.

    2011-07-01

    This study assessed differences in headspace flammability for summertime gasolines and new high-ethanol content fuel blends. The results apply to vehicle fuel tanks and underground storage tanks. Ambient temperature and fuel formulation effects on headspace vapor flammability of ethanol/gasoline blends were evaluated. Depending on the degree of tank filling, fuel type, and ambient temperature, fuel vapors in a tank can be flammable or non-flammable. Pure gasoline vapors in tanks generally are too rich to be flammable unless ambient temperatures are extremely low. High percentages of ethanol blended with gasoline can be less volatile than pure gasoline and can produce flammable headspace vapors at common ambient temperatures. The study supports refinements of fuel ethanol volatility specifications and shows potential consequences of using noncompliant fuels. E85 is flammable at low temperatures; denatured ethanol is flammable at warmer temperatures. If both are stored at the same location, one or both of the tanks' headspace vapors will be flammable over a wide range of ambient temperatures. This is relevant to allowing consumers to splash -blend ethanol and gasoline at fueling stations. Fuels compliant with ASTM volatility specifications are relatively safe, but the E85 samples tested indicate that some ethanol fuels may produce flammable vapors.

  8. Airbreathing Propulsion Fuels and Energy Exploratory Research and Development (APFEERD) Sub Task: Review of Bulk Physical Properties of Synthesized Hydrocarbon:Kerosenes and Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Exploratory Research and Development (APFEERD) Subtask: Review of Bulk Physical Properties of Synthesized Hydrocarbon: Kerosenes and Blends Clifford...AEROSPACE SYSTEMS DIRECTORATE (R4RQ) Delivery Order 0006: Airbreathing Propulsion Fuels and Energy Exploratory Research and Development (APFEERD) Sub...Acronym Description AFRL Air Force Research Laboratory APFEERD Airbreathing Propulsion Fuels and Energy Exploratory Research and Development

  9. Enhanced Activated Carbon Cathode Performance for Microbial Fuel Cell by Blending Carbon Black

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan

    2014-02-04

    Activated carbon (AC) is a useful and environmentally sustainable catalyst for oxygen reduction in air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs), but there is great interest in improving its performance and longevity. To enhance the performance of AC cathodes, carbon black (CB) was added into AC at CB:AC ratios of 0, 2, 5, 10, and 15 wt % to increase electrical conductivity and facilitate electron transfer. AC cathodes were then evaluated in both MFCs and electrochemical cells and compared to reactors with cathodes made with Pt. Maximum power densities of MFCs were increased by 9-16% with CB compared to the plain AC in the first week. The optimal CB:AC ratio was 10% based on both MFC polarization tests and three electrode electrochemical tests. The maximum power density of the 10% CB cathode was initially 1560 ± 40 mW/m2 and decreased by only 7% after 5 months of operation compared to a 61% decrease for the control (Pt catalyst, 570 ± 30 mW/m2 after 5 months). The catalytic activities of Pt and AC (plain or with 10% CB) were further examined in rotating disk electrode (RDE) tests that minimized mass transfer limitations. The RDE tests showed that the limiting current of the AC with 10% CB was improved by up to 21% primarily due to a decrease in charge transfer resistance (25%). These results show that blending CB in AC is a simple and effective strategy to enhance AC cathode performance in MFCs and that further improvement in performance could be obtained by reducing mass transfer limitations. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  10. Fuel cycle analysis based evaluation of the fuel and emissions reduction potential of adapting the hybrid technology to tricycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biona, J.B.M. [Don Bosco Technical College, Mandaluyong City (Philippines); De La Salle University, Center for Engineering and Sustainable Development Research, Manila (Philippines); Culaba, A.B. [De La Salle University, Center for Engineering and Sustainable Development Research, Manila (Philippines); Purvis, M.R.I. [University of Portsmouth, Department of Mechanical Design and Engineering, Portsmouth (United Kingdom)

    2008-02-15

    A preliminary analysis has been conducted to investigate the fuel use and emissions reduction potential of incorporating hybrid systems to two stroke powered tricycles in Metro Manila. Carbureted and direct injection two stroke engine hybrid systems were investigated and compared with the impact of shifting to four stroke engines. Results showed that hybridized direct injection retrofitted two stroke powered systems would be able to provide far better environmental and fuel reduction benefits than the shift to new four strokes tricycles. It is thus recommended that the development of such technology specifically for tricycles be seriously pursued. (orig.)

  11. Hybrid Composites for LH2 Fuel Tank Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsley, Brian W.; Cano, Roberto J.; Johnston, Norman J.; Loos, Alfred C.; McMahon, William M.

    2001-01-01

    The application of lightweight carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) as structure for cryogenic fuel tanks is critical to the success of the next generation of Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV). The recent failure of the X-33 composite fuel tank occurred in part due to microcracking of the polymer matrix, which allowed cryogen to permeate through the inner skin to the honeycomb core. As part of an approach to solve these problems, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) are working to develop and investigate polymer films that will act as a barrier to the permeation of LH2 through the composite laminate. In this study two commercially available films and eleven novel LaRC films were tested in an existing cryogenics laboratory at MSFC to determine the permeance of argon at room temperature. Several of these films were introduced as a layer in the composite to form an interleaved, or hybrid, composite to determine the effects on permeability. In addition, the effects of the interleaved layer thickness, number, and location on the mechanical properties of the composite laminate were investigated. In this initial screening process, several of the films were found to exhibit lower permeability to argon than the composite panels tested.

  12. Is K-12 Blended Learning Disruptive? An Introduction to the Theory of Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Clayton M.; Horn, Michael B.; Staker, Heather

    2013-01-01

    The Clayton Christensen Institute for Disruptive Innovation, formerly the Innosight Institute, has published three papers describing the rise of K-12 blended learning--that is, formal education programs that combine online learning and brick-and-mortar schools. This fourth paper is the first to analyze blended learning through the lens of…

  13. ESEMISSION ANALYSIS OF SINGLE CYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE FUELED WITH PYROLYSIS OIL DIESEL AND IT’S BLEND WITH ETHANOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Hirenkumar M. Patel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Around the world, initiatives are being taken to replace gasoline and diesel fuel due to the impact of the fossil fuel crisis, increase in oil price, and the adoption of stringent emission norms. Increase in energy demand, stringent emission norms and depletion of oil resources led the researchers to find alternative fuels for internalcombustion engines. Many alternate fuels like Alcohols, Biodiesel, methanol, ethanol, LPG, CNG etc have been already commercialized in the transport sector. In this context, pyrolysis of solid waste is currently receiving renewed interest. Tests have been carried out to evaluate the emission analysis of a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine fueled with 10%, 15%, and 20% of tyre pyrolysis oil (TPO blended with diesel fuel (DF. The TPO was derived from waste automobile tires through vacuum pyrolysis. HC and CO emissions werefound to be higher at all loads due to the high aromatic content. Ethanol was added in concentration of 5%, 10% and 15% to reduce emission characteristics. Results show that CO and HC both reduced due to the addition of ethanol because ethanol is an oxygenated additives.

  14. The Effect of Bio-Fuel Blends and Engine Load on Diesel Engine Smoke Density for Sustainable Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. R. K. Mandloi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The diesel engine is a major contributor to air pollution especially within cities and along urban traffic routes. Therefore it has become very essential to develop the technology of IC engines, which will reduce the consumption of petroleum fuels and exhaust gas emissions. In fact, agricultural and transport sectors are almost diesel dependent. The various alternative fuel options researched for diesel are mainly biogas, producer gas, ethanol, methanol and vegetable oils. Out of all these, vegetable oils offer an advantage because of its comparable fuel properties with diesel and can be substituted between 20%-100%depending upon its processing. But as India stillimports huge quantity of edible oils, therefore, the use of non-edible oils of minor oilseeds like Karanji oil has been tested as a diesel fuel extender. The problems have been mitigated by developing vegetable oil derivatives that approximate the properties and performance and make them compatible with the hydrocarbon-based diesel fuels through the pyrolysis, micro emulsification, dilution and transesterification. The various fuel blends of karanji oil were tested on different engine loads to evaluate it smoke density.

  15. Performance Characteristics and Analysis of 4-Stroke Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Blend With 50% of Honne Oil at Various Fuel Injection Pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bhaskar Reddy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In future demand for fossil fuels and environmental effects, a number of renewable sources of energy have been studied in worldwide. An attempt is made to apt of vegetable oil for diesel engine operation, without any change in its old construction. One of the important factors which influence the performance and emission characteristics of D.I diesel engine is fuel injection pressure. In this project honne oil has to be investigated in a constant speed, on D.I diesel engine with different fuel injection pressures. The scope of the project is to investigate the effect of injection pressures on a blend of 50% honne oil with 50% diesel and compare with pure diesel on performance and emission characteristics of the diesel engine. Two tested fuels were used during experiments like 100 % diesel and a blend of 50% honne oil mixing in the diesel. The performance tests were conducted at constant speed with variable loads. From experiment results it was found that with honne oil- diesel blend the performance of the engine is better compared with diesel. The break thermal efficiency and mechanical efficiencies were found to be maximum at 200 bar injection pressure with both honne oil- diesel blend, compared with 180 bar and 220 bar. The brake specific fuel consumption was to be minimum at 220bar compared with 180 bar and 200 bar. Hydro carbon emissions of honne oil-diesel operation were less than the diesel fuel mode at all fuel injection pressures.

  16. Energy management strategy based on fuzzy logic for a fuel cell hybrid bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dawei; Jin, Zhenhua; Lu, Qingchun

    Fuel cell vehicles, as a substitute for internal-combustion-engine vehicles, have become a research hotspot for most automobile manufacturers all over the world. Fuel cell systems have disadvantages, such as high cost, slow response and no regenerative energy recovery during braking; hybridization can be a solution to these drawbacks. This paper presents a fuel cell hybrid bus which is equipped with a fuel cell system and two energy storage devices, i.e., a battery and an ultracapacitor. An energy management strategy based on fuzzy logic, which is employed to control the power flow of the vehicular power train, is described. This strategy is capable of determining the desired output power of the fuel cell system, battery and ultracapacitor according to the propulsion power and recuperated braking power. Some tests to verify the strategy were developed, and the results of the tests show the effectiveness of the proposed energy management strategy and the good performance of the fuel cell hybrid bus.

  17. Optimal design of a hybridization scheme with a fuel cell using genetic optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Marco A.

    Fuel cell is one of the most dependable "green power" technologies, readily available for immediate application. It enables direct conversion of hydrogen and other gases into electric energy without any pollution of the environment. However, the efficient power generation is strictly stationary process that cannot operate under dynamic environment. Consequently, fuel cell becomes practical only within a specially designed hybridization scheme, capable of power storage and power management functions. The resultant technology could be utilized to its full potential only when both the fuel cell element and the entire hybridization scheme are optimally designed. The design optimization in engineering is among the most complex computational tasks due to its multidimensionality, nonlinearity, discontinuity and presence of constraints in the underlying optimization problem. this research aims at the optimal utilization of the fuel cell technology through the use of genetic optimization, and advance computing. This study implements genetic optimization in the definition of optimum hybridization rules for a PEM fuel cell/supercapacitor power system. PEM fuel cells exhibit high energy density but they are not intended for pulsating power draw applications. They work better in steady state operation and thus, are often hybridized. In a hybrid system, the fuel cell provides power during steady state operation while capacitors or batteries augment the power of the fuel cell during power surges. Capacitors and batteries can also be recharged when the motor is acting as a generator. Making analogies to driving cycles, three hybrid system operating modes are investigated: 'Flat' mode, 'Uphill' mode, and 'Downhill' mode. In the process of discovering the switching rules for these three modes, we also generate a model of a 30W PEM fuel cell. This study also proposes the optimum design of a 30W PEM fuel cell. The PEM fuel cell model and hybridization's switching rules are postulated

  18. Performance, Efficiency, and Emissions Characterization of Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines Fueled with Hydrogen/Natural Gas Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby S. Chapman; Amar Patil

    2007-06-30

    Hydrogen is an attractive fuel source not only because it is abundant and renewable but also because it produces almost zero regulated emissions. Internal combustion engines fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) are operated throughout a variety of industries in a number of mobile and stationary applications. While CNG engines offer many advantages over conventional gasoline and diesel combustion engines, CNG engine performance can be substantially improved in the lean operating region. Lean operation has a number of benefits, the most notable of which is reduced emissions. However, the extremely low flame propagation velocities of CNG greatly restrict the lean operating limits of CNG engines. Hydrogen, however, has a high flame speed and a wide operating limit that extends into the lean region. The addition of hydrogen to a CNG engine makes it a viable and economical method to significantly extend the lean operating limit and thereby improve performance and reduce emissions. Drawbacks of hydrogen as a fuel source, however, include lower power density due to a lower heating value per unit volume as compared to CNG, and susceptibility to pre-ignition and engine knock due to wide flammability limits and low minimum ignition energy. Combining hydrogen with CNG, however, overcomes the drawbacks inherent in each fuel type. Objectives of the current study were to evaluate the feasibility of using blends of hydrogen and natural gas as a fuel for conventional natural gas engines. The experiment and data analysis included evaluation of engine performance, efficiency, and emissions along with detailed in-cylinder measurements of key physical parameters. This provided a detailed knowledge base of the impact of using hydrogen/natural gas blends. A four-stroke, 4.2 L, V-6 naturally aspirated natural gas engine coupled to an eddy current dynamometer was used to measure the impact of hydrogen/natural gas blends on performance, thermodynamic efficiency and exhaust gas emissions

  19. Combustion, Performance, and Emission Evaluation of a Diesel Engine with Biodiesel Like Fuel Blends Derived From a Mixture of Pakistani Waste Canola and Waste Transformer Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Qasim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the combustion, performance, and emission characteristics of a 5.5 kW four-stroke single-cylinder water-cooled direct-injection diesel engine operated with blends of biodiesel-like fuel (BLF15, BLF20 & BLF25 obtained from a 50:50 mixture of transesterified waste transformer oil (TWTO and waste canola oil methyl esters (WCOME with petroleum diesel. The mixture of the waste oils was named as biodiesel-like fuel (BLF.The engine fuelled with BLF blends was evaluated in terms of combustion, performance, and emission characteristics. FTIR analysis was carried out to know the functional groups in the BLF fuel. The experimental results revealed the shorter ignition delay and marginally higher brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC, brake thermal efficiency (BTE and exhaust gas temperature (EGT values for BLF blends as compared to diesel. The hydrocarbon (HC and carbon monoxide (CO emissions were decreased by 10.92–31.17% and 3.80–6.32%, respectively, as compared to those of diesel fuel. Smoke opacity was significantly reduced. FTIR analysis has confirmed the presence of saturated alkanes and halide groups in BLF fuel. In comparison to BLF20 and BLF25, the blend BLF15 has shown higher brake thermal efficiency and lower fuel consumption values. The HC, CO, and smoke emissions of BLF15 were found lower than those of petroleum diesel. The fuel blend BLF15 is suggested to be used as an alternative fuel for diesel engines without any engine modification.

  20. Intelligent Power Management of hybrid Wind/ Fuel Cell/ Energy Storage Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hajizadeh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an intelligent power management strategy for hybrid wind/ fuel cell/ energy storage power generation system. The dynamic models of wind turbine, fuel cell and energy storage have been used for simulation of hybrid power system. In order to design power flow control strategy, a fuzzy logic control has been implemented to manage the power between power sources. The optimal operation of the hybrid power system is a main goal of designing power management strategy. The hybrid power system is simulated in MATLAB/ SIMIULINK environment and different operating conditions have been considered to evaluate the response of power management strategy.

  1. High-Energy-Density Fuel Blending Strategies and Drop Dispersion for Fuel Cost Reduction and Soot Propensity Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellan, J.; Harstad, K.

    1998-01-01

    The idea that low soot propensity of high-energy-density (HED) liquid sooting fuels and cost reduction of a multicomponent energetic fuel can be achieved by doping a less expensive, less sooting liquid fuel with HED is tested through numerical simulations.

  2. Modeling and control of a small solar fuel cell hybrid energy system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei; ZHU Xin-jian; CAO Guang-yi

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a solar photovoltaic fuel cell (PVEC) hybrid generation system consisting of a photovoltaic (PV) generator, a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), an electrolyser, a supercapacitor, a storage gas tank and power conditioning unit (PCU). The load is supplied from the PV generator with a fuel cell working in parallel. Excess PV energy when available is converted to hydrogen using an electrolyser for later use in the fuel cell. The individual mathematical model for each component is presented. Control strategy for the system is described. MATLAB/Simulink is used for the simulation of this highly nonlinear hybrid energy system. The simulation results are shown in the paper.

  3. Design and Comparison of Power Systems for a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2008-01-01

    In a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle (FCHEV) the fuel cell stack is assisted by one or more energy storage devices. Thereby the system cost, mass, and volume can be decreased, and a significant better performance can be obtained. Two often used energy storage devices are the battery...... ultracapacitors are the only energy storage device the system becomes too big and heavy. A fuel cell/battery/ultracapacitor hybrid provides the longest life time of the batteries. If the fuel cell stack power is too small, the system will be big, heavy, and have a poor efficiency....

  4. Simultaneous determination of hydrocarbon renewable diesel, biodiesel and petroleum diesel contents in diesel fuel blends using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Julio Cesar Laurentino; Poppi, Ronei Jesus

    2013-11-07

    Highly polluting fuels based on non-renewable resources such as fossil fuels need to be replaced with potentially less polluting renewable fuels derived from vegetable or animal biomass, these so-called biofuels, are a reality nowadays and many countries have started the challenge of increasing the use of different types of biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel (fatty acid alkyl esters), often mixed with petroleum derivatives, such as gasoline and diesel, respectively. The quantitative determination of these fuel blends using simple, fast and low cost methods based on near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods has been reported. However, advanced biofuels based on a mixture of hydrocarbons or a single hydrocarbon molecule, such as farnesane (2,6,10-trimethyldodecane), a hydrocarbon renewable diesel, can also be used in mixtures with biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel and the use of NIR spectroscopy for the quantitative determination of a ternary fuel blend of these two hydrocarbon-based fuels and biodiesel can be a useful tool for quality control. This work presents a development of an analytical method for the quantitative determination of hydrocarbon renewable diesel (farnesane), biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel blends using NIR spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods, such as partial least squares (PLS) and support vector machines (SVM). This development leads to a more accurate, simpler, faster and cheaper method when compared to the standard reference method ASTM D6866 and with the main advantage of providing the individual quantification of two different biofuels in a mixture with petroleum diesel fuel. Using the developed PLS model the three fuel blend components were determined simultaneously with values of root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.25%, 0.19% and 0.38% for hydrocarbon renewable diesel, biodiesel and petroleum diesel, respectively, the values obtained were in agreement with those suggested by

  5. Natural Gas and Cellulosic Biomass: A Clean Fuel Combination? Determining the Natural Gas Blending Wall in Biofuel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Wright, Mark; Seifkar, Navid; Green, William H; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy

    2015-07-07

    Natural gas has the potential to increase the biofuel production output by combining gas- and biomass-to-liquids (GBTL) processes followed by naphtha and diesel fuel synthesis via Fischer-Tropsch (FT). This study reflects on the use of commercial-ready configurations of GBTL technologies and the environmental impact of enhancing biofuels with natural gas. The autothermal and steam-methane reforming processes for natural gas conversion and the gasification of biomass for FT fuel synthesis are modeled to estimate system well-to-wheel emissions and compare them to limits established by U.S. renewable fuel mandates. We show that natural gas can enhance FT biofuel production by reducing the need for water-gas shift (WGS) of biomass-derived syngas to achieve appropriate H2/CO ratios. Specifically, fuel yields are increased from less than 60 gallons per ton to over 100 gallons per ton with increasing natural gas input. However, GBTL facilities would need to limit natural gas use to less than 19.1% on a LHV energy basis (7.83 wt %) to avoid exceeding the emissions limits established by the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS2) for clean, advanced biofuels. This effectively constitutes a blending limit that constrains the use of natural gas for enhancing the biomass-to-liquids (BTL) process.

  6. Three-dimensional morphology of CuInS2:P3HT hybrid blends for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Christopher; Scheunemann, Dorothea; Parisi, Jürgen; Borchert, Holger

    2015-11-01

    Despite potential advantages, the performance of hybrid solar cells with colloidal nanocrystals remains low compared to pure organic solar cells, in particular, when Cd- and Pb-free nanocrystals are employed. To understand this discrepancy, we analyzed possible limiting factors of the performance of hybrid solar cells with CuInS2 nanoparticles and the polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). Optimizing the thickness of the active layer indicated that charge transport limits the performance of the solar cells. Since charge transport is among others influenced by the morphology of the bulk heterojunction layer, we performed a detailed analysis of the blend morphology. Therefore, we used electron tomography which provides three-dimensional information on the interpenetrating network formed by the hybrid CuInS2:P3HT system. Using statistical methods, we analyzed the distribution of the nanoparticles inside the polymer matrix and the structure of the percolation paths. We found that the morphology appears well suited for application in hybrid solar cells, meaning that other factors must be the bottleneck. Therefore, we investigated in a second step the influence of a post-deposition ligand exchange with acetic acid. This strategy resulted in a strong relative improvement of the solar cell performance, although absolute performance parameters remain low in comparison to hybrid solar cells with colloidal cadmium or lead chalcogenide nanocrystals.

  7. Three-dimensional morphology of CuInS{sub 2}:P3HT hybrid blends for photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Christopher; Scheunemann, Dorothea, E-mail: dorothea.scheunemann@uni-oldenburg.de; Parisi, Jürgen; Borchert, Holger [Institute of Physics, Energy and Semiconductor Research Laboratory, Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg, 26111 Oldenburg (Germany)

    2015-11-28

    Despite potential advantages, the performance of hybrid solar cells with colloidal nanocrystals remains low compared to pure organic solar cells, in particular, when Cd- and Pb-free nanocrystals are employed. To understand this discrepancy, we analyzed possible limiting factors of the performance of hybrid solar cells with CuInS{sub 2} nanoparticles and the polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). Optimizing the thickness of the active layer indicated that charge transport limits the performance of the solar cells. Since charge transport is among others influenced by the morphology of the bulk heterojunction layer, we performed a detailed analysis of the blend morphology. Therefore, we used electron tomography which provides three-dimensional information on the interpenetrating network formed by the hybrid CuInS{sub 2}:P3HT system. Using statistical methods, we analyzed the distribution of the nanoparticles inside the polymer matrix and the structure of the percolation paths. We found that the morphology appears well suited for application in hybrid solar cells, meaning that other factors must be the bottleneck. Therefore, we investigated in a second step the influence of a post-deposition ligand exchange with acetic acid. This strategy resulted in a strong relative improvement of the solar cell performance, although absolute performance parameters remain low in comparison to hybrid solar cells with colloidal cadmium or lead chalcogenide nanocrystals.

  8. Hardware-Based Simulation of a Fuel Cell Turbine Hybrid Response to Imposed Fuel Cell Load Transients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T.P. (Georgia Inst. of Technology); Tucker, D.A.; Haynes, C.L. (Georgia Inst. of Technology); Liese, E.A.; Wepfer, W.J. (Georgia Inst. of Technology)

    2006-11-01

    Electrical load transients imposed on the cell stack of a solid oxide fuel cell/gas turbine hybrid power system are studied using the Hybrid Performance (HyPer) project. The hardware simulation facility is located at the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). A computational fuel cell model capable of operating in real time is integrated with operating gas turbine hardware. The thermal output of a modeled 350 kW solid oxide fuel cell stack is replicated in the facility by a natural gas fired burner in a direct fired hybrid configuration. Pressure vessels are used to represent a fuel cell stack's cathode flow and post combustion volume and flow impedance. This hardware is used to simulate the fuel cell stack and is incorporated with a modified turbine, compressor, and 120 kW generator on a single shaft. For this study, a simulation was started with a simulated current demand of 307 A on the fuel cell at approximately 0.75 V and an actual 45 kW electrical load on the gas turbine. An open loop response, allowing the turbine rotational speed to respond to thermal transients, was successfully evaluated for a 5% current reduction on the fuel cell followed by a 5% current increase. The impact of the fuel cell load change on system process variables is presented. The test results demonstrate the capabilities of the hardware-in-the-loop simulation approach in evaluating hybrid fuel cell turbine dynamics and performance.

  9. TRISO-Fuel Element Performance Modeling for the Hybrid LIFE Engine with Pu Fuel Blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMange, P; Marian, J; Caro, M; Caro, A

    2010-02-18

    A TRISO-coated fuel thermo-mechanical performance study is performed for the hybrid LIFE engine to test the viability of TRISO particles to achieve ultra-high burnup of a weapons-grade Pu blanket. Our methodology includes full elastic anisotropy, time and temperature varying material properties for all TRISO layers, and a procedure to remap the elastic solutions in order to achieve fast fluences up to 30 x 10{sup 25} n {center_dot} m{sup -2} (E > 0.18 MeV). In order to model fast fluences in the range of {approx} 7 {approx} 30 x 10{sup 25} n {center_dot} m{sup -2}, for which no data exist, careful scalings and extrapolations of the known TRISO material properties are carried out under a number of potential scenarios. A number of findings can be extracted from our study. First, failure of the internal pyrolytic carbon (PyC) layer occurs within the first two months of operation. Then, the particles behave as BISO-coated particles, with the internal pressure being withstood directly by the SiC layer. Later, after 1.6 years, the remaining PyC crumbles due to void swelling and the fuel particle becomes a single-SiC-layer particle. Unrestrained by the PyC layers, and at the temperatures and fluences in the LIFE engine, the SiC layer maintains reasonably-low tensile stresses until the end-of-life. Second, the PyC creep constant, K, has a striking influence on the fuel performance of TRISO-coated particles, whose stresses scale almost inversely proportional to K. Obtaining more reliable measurements, especially at higher fluences, is an imperative for the fidelity of our models. Finally, varying the geometry of the TRISO-coated fuel particles results in little differences in the scope of fuel performance. The mechanical integrity of 2-cm graphite pebbles that act as fuel matrix has also been studied and it is concluded that they can reliable serve the entire LIFE burnup cycle without failure.

  10. Impact of Blending on Strength Distribution of Ambient Cured Metakaolin and Palm Oil Fuel Ash Based Geopolymer Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taliat Ola Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of blending of metakaolin with silica rich palm oil fuel ash (POFA on the strength distribution of geopolymer mortar. The broadness of strength distribution of quasi-brittle to brittle materials depends strongly on the existence of flaws such as voids, microcracks, and impurities in the material. Blending of materials containing alumina and silica with the objective of improving the performance of geopolymer makes comprehensive characterization necessary. The Weibull distribution is used to study the strength distribution and the reliability of geopolymer mortar specimens prepared from 100% metakaolin, 50% and 70% palm and cured under ambient condition. Mortar prisms and cubes were used to test the materials in flexure and compression, respectively, at 28 days and the results were analyzed using Weibull distribution. In flexure, Weibull modulus increased with POFA replacement, indicating reduced broadness of strength distribution from an increased homogeneity of the material. Modulus, however, decreased with increase in replacement of POFA in the specimens tested under compression. It is concluded that Weibull distribution is suitable for analyses of the blended geopolymer system. While porous microstructure is mainly responsible for flexural failure, heterogeneity of reaction relics is responsible for the compression failure.

  11. Characteristics of particulate emissions from a diesel generator fueled with varying blends of biodiesel and fossil diesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jen-Hsiung; Chen, Shui-Jen; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Kuo, Wen-Chien; Lin, Wen-Yinn

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the particulate matter (PM), particle-bound carbons, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from a diesel-engine generator fuelled with blends of pure fossil diesel oil (D100) and varying percentages of waste-edible-oil biodiesel (W10, 10 vol %; W20, 20 vol %; W30, 30 vol %; and W50, 50 vol %) under generator loads of 0, 1.5, and 3 kW. On average, the PM emission factors of all blends was 30.5 % (range, 13.7-52.3 %) lower than that of D100 under the tested loads. Substituting pure fossil diesel oil with varying percentages of waste-edible-oil biodiesel reduced emissions of particle-bound total carbon (TC) and elemental carbon (EC). The W20 blend had the lowest particle-bound organic carbon (OC) emissions. Notably, W10, W20, and W30 also had lower Total-PAH emissions and lower total equivalent toxicity (Total-BaP(eq)) compared to D100. Additionally, the brake-specific fuel consumption of the generator correlated positively with the ratio of waste-edible-oil biodiesel to pure fossil diesel. However, generator energy efficiency correlated negatively with the ratio of waste-edible-oil biodiesel to pure fossil diesel.

  12. Do biofuel blending mandates reduce gasoline consumption? Implications of state-level renewable fuel standards for energy security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Shinling

    In an effort to keep America's addiction to oil under control, federal and state governments have implemented a variety of policy measures including those that determine the composition of motor gasoline sold at the pump. Biofuel blending mandates known as Renewable Fuel Standards (RFS) are designed to reduce the amount of foreign crude oil needed to be imported as well as to boost the local ethanol and corn industry. Yet beyond looking at changes in gasoline prices associated with increased ethanol production, there have been no empirical studies that examine effects of state-level RFS implementation on gasoline consumption. I estimate a Generalized Least Squares model for the gasoline demand for the 1993 to 2010 period with state and time fixed effects controlling for RFS. States with active RFS are Minnesota, Hawaii, Missouri, Florida, Washington, and Oregon. I find that, despite the onset of federal biofuel mandates across states in 2007 and the lower energy content of blended gasoline, being in a state that has implemented RFS is associated with 1.5% decrease in gasoline consumption (including blended gasoline). This is encouraging evidence for efforts to lessen dependence on gasoline and has positive implications for energy security.

  13. High regression rate hybrid rocket fuel grains with helical port structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Sean D.

    Hybrid rockets are popular in the aerospace industry due to their storage safety, simplicity, and controllability during rocket motor burn. However, they produce fuel regression rates typically 25% lower than solid fuel motors of the same thrust level. These lowered regression rates produce unacceptably high oxidizer-to-fuel (O/F) ratios that produce a potential for motor instability, nozzle erosion, and reduced motor duty cycles. To achieve O/F ratios that produce acceptable combustion characteristics, traditional cylindrical fuel ports are fabricated with very long length-to-diameter ratios to increase the total burning area. These high aspect ratios produce further reduced fuel regression rate and thrust levels, poor volumetric efficiency, and a potential for lateral structural loading issues during high thrust burns. In place of traditional cylindrical fuel ports, it is proposed that by researching the effects of centrifugal flow patterns introduced by embedded helical fuel port structures, a significant increase in fuel regression rates can be observed. The benefits of increasing volumetric efficiencies by lengthening the internal flow path will also be observed. The mechanisms of this increased fuel regression rate are driven by enhancing surface skin friction and reducing the effect of boundary layer "blowing" to enhance convective heat transfer to the fuel surface. Preliminary results using additive manufacturing to fabricate hybrid rocket fuel grains from acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) with embedded helical fuel port structures have been obtained, with burn-rate amplifications up to 3.0x than that of cylindrical fuel ports.

  14. Intrinsic borohydride fuel cell/battery hybrid power sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jian; Fang, Bin; Wang, Chunsheng; Currie, Kenneth [Center for Manufacturing Research, Department of Chemical Engineering, Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, TN 38505 (United States)

    2006-10-27

    The electrochemical oxidation behaviors of NaBH{sub 4} on Zn, Zn-MH, and MH (metal-hydride) electrodes were investigated, and an intrinsic direct borohydride fuel cell (DBFC)/battery hybrid power source using MH (or Zn-MH) as the anode and MnO{sub 2} as the cathode was tested. Borohydride cannot be effectively oxidized on Zn electrodes at the Zn oxidation potential because of the poor electrocatalytic ability of Zn for borohydride oxidation and the high overpotential, even though borohydride has the same oxidation potential of Zn in an alkaline solution. The borohydride can be electrochemically oxidized on Ni and MH electrodes through a 4e reaction at a high overpotential. Simply adding borohydride into an alkaline electrolyte of a Zn/air or MH/air battery can greatly increase the capacity, while an intrinsic DBFC/MH(or Zn)-MnO{sub 2} battery can deliver a higher peak power than regular DBFCs. (author)

  15. Power Management Optimization of an Experimental Fuel Cell/Battery/Supercapacitor Hybrid System

    OpenAIRE

    Farouk Odeim; Jürgen Roes; Angelika Heinzel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an experimental fuel cell/battery/supercapacitor hybrid system is investigated in terms of modeling and power management design and optimization. The power management strategy is designed based on the role that should be played by each component of the hybrid power source. The supercapacitor is responsible for the peak power demands. The battery assists the supercapacitor in fulfilling the transient power demand by controlling its state-of-energy, whereas the fuel cell system, ...

  16. Study of fuel cell and gas turbine hybrid power systems

    OpenAIRE

    Basurto, M. T.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental awareness and the interest in distributed generation caused by electricity market de-regulation are factors that promote research on renewable energies. Fuel cells transform the chemical energy stored in fuel into electricity by means of electrochemical reactions. Among the different fuel cell types, high temperature fuel cells (HTFCS) have many advantages: high efficiency, low emissions, fuel flexibility, modularity and high quality waste heat. The main disadvant...

  17. UC Davis Fuel Cell, Hydrogen, and Hybrid Vehicle (FCH2V) GATE Center of Excellence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, Paul

    2012-05-31

    This is the final report of the UC Davis Fuel Cell, Hydrogen, and Hybrid Vehicle (FCH2V) GATE Center of Excellence which spanned from 2005-2012. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) established the Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program, to provide a new generation of engineers and scientists with knowledge and skills to create advanced automotive technologies. The UC Davis Fuel Cell, Hydrogen, and Hybrid Vehicle (FCH2V) GATE Center of Excellence established in 2005 is focused on research, education, industrial collaboration and outreach within automotive technology. UC Davis has had two independent GATE centers with separate well-defined objectives and research programs from 1998. The Fuel Cell Center, administered by ITS-Davis, has focused on fuel cell technology. The Hybrid-Electric Vehicle Design Center (HEV Center), administered by the Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, has focused on the development of plug-in hybrid technology using internal combustion engines. The merger of these two centers in 2005 has broadened the scope of research and lead to higher visibility of the activity. UC Davis's existing GATE centers have become the campus's research focal points on fuel cells and hybrid-electric vehicles, and the home for graduate students who are studying advanced automotive technologies. The centers have been highly successful in attracting, training, and placing top-notch students into fuel cell and hybrid programs in both industry and government.

  18. Biological toxicities of emissions from an unmodified engine fueled with diesel and biodiesel blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Yin; Lin, Ta-Chang; Wang, Ying-Jan; Ho, Wei-Lun

    2008-12-01

    Conventional diesel and palm oil methyl esters were blended in 6 ratios (0, 10, 30, 50, 75 and 100% of biodiesel by volume) and fed into an unmodified 4-stroke engine with a constant output power. The semi-volatile and particulate products in the exhaust were collected separately and their biological toxicities evaluated by both Microtox test and the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The Microtox test indicates that the TUVs (toxicity unit per liter exhaust sampled, TU/L-exhaust) in the semi-volatile extracts were 3 to 5 times those of the particulate extracts. Diesel particulates had the highest unit toxicity, TUW (toxicity unit per microg soluble organic fraction of particulate, TU/microg particle SOF) of all of the other biodiesel blends. According to the Microtox tests results, the effect of biodiesel blending in MTT assay demonstrated higher toxicity in the semi-volatile products than the particulates.

  19. Carbonyl emission and toxicity profile of diesel blends with an animal-fat biodiesel and a tire pyrolysis liquid fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, R; Guillén-Flores, J; Martínez, J D

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, two diesel fuels, an animal-fat biodiesel and two diesel blends with the animal-fat biodiesel (50vol.%) and with a tire pyrolysis liquid (TPL) fuel (5vol.%) have been tested in a 4-cylinder, 4-stroke, turbocharged, intercooled, 2.0L Nissan diesel automotive engine (model M1D) with common-rail injection system and diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). Carbonyl emissions have been analyzed both before and after DOC and specific reactivity of carbonyl profile has been calculated. Carbonyl sampling was carried out by means of a heated line, trapping the gas in 2,4-DNPH cartridges. The eluted content was then analyzed in an HPLC system, with UV-VIS detection. Results showed, on the one hand, an increase in carbonyl emissions with the biodiesel fraction in the fuel. On the other hand, the addition of TPL to diesel also increased carbonyl emissions. These trends were occasionally different if the emissions were studied after the DOC, as it seems to be selectivity during the oxidation process. The specific reactivity was also studied, finding a decrease with the oxygen content within the fuel molecule, although the equivalent ozone emissions slightly increased with the oxygen content. Finally, the emissions toxicity was also studied, comparing them to different parameters defined by different organizations. Depending on the point of study, emissions were above or below the established limits, although acrolein exceeded them as it has the least permissive values. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of polymer blends PES/SPSf and PES/SPEEK for direct methanol fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manea, G.C.; Mulder, M.H.V.

    2002-01-01

    Existing polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) applied for hydrogen fuel cells are frequently not suitable for direct methanol fuel cells due to the high methanol permeability. Therefore, new materials are required and in order to avoid laborious fuel cell experiments with a so-called membrane–electr

  1. Amino-Functional Polybenzimidazole Blends with Enhanced Phosphoric Acid Mediated Proton Conductivity as Fuel Cell Electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aili, David; Javakhishvili, Irakli; Han, Junyoung;

    2016-01-01

    A new amino-functional polybenzimidazole copolymer is synthesized by homogeneous solution condensation polymerization from a novel monomer, N,N′-bis (2,4-diaminophenyl)-1,3-diaminopropane. The copolymer readily dissolves in organic solvents and shows good film forming characteristics. To balance...... the phosphoric acid uptake and to obtain mechanically robust membranes, the amino-functional polybenzimidazole derivative is blended with high molecular weight poly [2,2′-(m-phenylene)-5,5′-bisbenzimidazole] at different ratios. Due to the high acid uptake, the homogenous blend membranes show enhanced proton...

  2. Using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography for the analysis of oxygenates in middle distillates I. Determination of the nature of biodiesels blend in diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Frédérick; Bertoncini, Fabrice; Coupard, Vincent; Charon, Nadège; Thiébaut, Didier; Espinat, Didier; Hennion, Marie-Claire

    2008-04-04

    In the current energetic context (increasing consumption of vehicle fuels, greenhouse gas emission etc.) government policies lead to mandatory introduction in fossil fuels of fuels resulting from renewable sources of energy such as biomass. Blending of fatty acid alkyl esters from vegetable oils (also known as biodiesel) with conventional diesel fuel is one of the solutions technologically available; B5 blends (up to 5%w/w esters in fossil fuel) are marketed over Europe. Therefore, for quality control as well as for forensic reasons, it is of major importance to monitor the biodiesel origin (i.e. the fatty acid ester distribution) and its content when it is blend with petroleum diesel. This paper reports a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) method that was developed for the individual quantitation of fatty acid esters in middle distillates matrices. Several first and the second dimension columns have been investigated and their performances to achieve (i) a group type separation of hydrocarbons and (ii) individual identification and quantitation of fatty acid ester blend with diesel are reported and discussed. Finally, comparison of quantitative GC x GC results with reference methods demonstrates the benefits of GC x GC approach which enables fast and reliable individual quantitation of fatty acid esters in one single run. Results show that under developed chromatographic conditions, quantitative group type analysis of hydrocarbons is also possible, meaning that simultaneous quantification of hydrocarbons and fatty acid esters can be achieved in one single run.

  3. Effect of CeO2 Addition on Hybrid Direct Carbon Fuel Cell Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ippolito, Davide; Deleebeeck, Lisa; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2017-01-01

    The effect of CeO2 infiltration into the anode or CeO2 mixed with the carbon-fuel on the performance of a Hybrid Direct Carbon Fuel Cell (HDCFC) was studied through the use of polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The use CeO2 in both ways helped to increase the cell...

  4. Effect of CeO2 Infiltration on Hybrid Direct Carbon Fuel Cell Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ippolito, Davide; Deleebeeck, Lisa; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2014-01-01

    The effect of CeO2 infiltration into the anode or CeO2 mixed with the carbon-fuel on the performance of a Hybrid Direct Carbon Fuel Cell (HDCFC) was studied through the use of polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The use CeO2 in both ways helped to increase the cell...

  5. Experimental assessment of an energy management strategy on a fuel cell hybrid vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edwin Tazelaar; Bram Veenhuizen

    2012-01-01

    Fuel cell hybrid power trains comprise an energy storage to supply peaks in the power demand and to facilitate regenerative braking. In terms of control systems, the presence of storage provides additional freedom to minimize the vehicle’s fuel consumption. In a previous paper [1] an analytical

  6. Investigation of engine performance and emissions of a diesel engine with a blend of marine gas oil and synthetic diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Md Nurun; Hustad, Johan Einar

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions with marine gas oil (MGO) and a blend of MGO and synthetic diesel fuel. Ten per cent by volume of Fischer-Tropsch (FT), a synthetic diesel fuel, was added to MGO to investigate its influence on the diesel engine performance and emissions. The blended fuel was termed as FT10 fuel, while the neat (100 vol%) MGO was termed as MGO fuel. The experiments were conducted with a fourstroke, six-cylinder, turbocharged, direct injection, Scania DC 1102 diesel engine. It is interesting to note that all emissions including smoke (filter smoke number), total particulate matter (TPM), carbon monoxide (CO), total unburned hydrocarbon (THC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and engine noise were reduced with FT10 fuel compared with the MGO fuel. Diesel fine particle number and mass emissions were measured with an electrical low pressure impactor. Like other exhaust emissions, significant reductions in fine particles and mass emissions were observed with the FT10 fuel. The reduction was due to absence of sulphur and aromatic compounds in the FT fuel. In-cylinder gas pressure and engine thermal efficiency were identical for both FT10 and MGO fuels.

  7. Investigating the engine vibration in MF285 tractor effected by different blends of biodiesel fuel using statistical methods and ANFIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Safrangian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Vibrations include a wide range of engineering sciences and discuss from different aspects. One of the aspects is related to various types of engines vibrations, which are often used as power sources in agriculture. The created vibrations can cause lack of comfort and reduce effective work and have bad influence on the health and safety. One of the important parameters of the diesel engine that has the ability to create vibration and knocking is the type of fuel. In this study, the effects of different blends of biodiesel, bioethanol and diesel on the engine vibration were investigated. As a result, a blend of fuels such as synthetic fuel that creates less vibration engine can be identified and introduced. Materials and Methods In this study, canola oil and methanol alcohol with purity of 99.99% and the molar ratio of 6:1 and sodium hydroxide catalyst with 1% by weight of oil were used for biodiesel production. Reactor configurations include: maintaining the temperature at 50 ° C, the reaction time of 5 minutes and the intensity of mixing (8000 rpm, and pump flow, 0.83 liters per minute. A Massey Ferguson (MF 285 tractor with single differential (2WD, built in 2012 at Tractor factory of Iran was used for the experiment. To measure the engine vibration signals, an oscillator with model of VM120 British MONITRAN was used. Vibration signals were measured at three levels of engine speed (2000, 1600, 1000 rpm in three directions (X, Y, Z. The analysis performed by two methods in this study: statistical data analysis and data analysis using Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS. Statistical analysis of data: a factorial experiment of 10×3 based on completely randomized design with three replications was used in each direction of X, Y and Z that conducted separately. Data were compiled and analyzed by SPSS 19 software. Ten levels of fuel were including of biodiesel (5, 15 and 25% and bioethanol (2, 4 and 6%, and diesel fuel. Data

  8. Experimental investigation of fuel regression rate in a HTPB based lab-scale hybrid rocket motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xintian; Tian, Hui; Yu, Nanjia; Cai, Guobiao

    2014-12-01

    The fuel regression rate is an important parameter in the design process of the hybrid rocket motor. Additives in the solid fuel may have influences on the fuel regression rate, which will affect the internal ballistics of the motor. A series of firing experiments have been conducted on lab-scale hybrid rocket motors with 98% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidizer and hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) based fuels in this paper. An innovative fuel regression rate analysis method is established to diminish the errors caused by start and tailing stages in a short time firing test. The effects of the metal Mg, Al, aromatic hydrocarbon anthracene (C14H10), and carbon black (C) on the fuel regression rate are investigated. The fuel regression rate formulas of different fuel components are fitted according to the experiment data. The results indicate that the influence of C14H10 on the fuel regression rate of HTPB is not evident. However, the metal additives in the HTPB fuel can increase the fuel regression rate significantly.

  9. Research on Fuel Consumption of Hybrid Bulldozer under Typical Duty Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qiang; Wang, Wen-Jun; Jia, Chao; Yao, You-Liang; Wang, Sheng-Bo

    The hybrid drive bulldozer adopts a dual-motor independent drive system with engine-generator assembly as its power source. The mathematical model of the whole system is constructed on the software platform of MATLAB/Simulink. And then according to the velocity data gained from a real test experiment, a typical duty cycle is build up. Finally the fuel consumption of the bulldozer is calculated under this duty-cycle. Simulation results show that, compared with the traditional mechanical one, the hybrid electric drive system can save fuel up to 16% and therefore indicates great potential for lifting up fuel economy.

  10. Fuzzy energy management for hybrid fuel cell/battery systems for more electric aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcau, Jenica-Ileana; Dinca, Liviu; Grigorie, Teodor Lucian; Tudosie, Alexandru-Nicolae

    2017-06-01

    In this paper is presented the simulation and analysis of a Fuzzy Energy Management for Hybrid Fuel cell/Battery Systems used for More Electric Aircraft. The fuel cell hybrid system contains of fuel cell, lithium-ion batteries along with associated dc to dc boost converters. In this configuration the battery has a dc to dc converter, because it is an active in the system. The energy management scheme includes the rule based fuzzy logic strategy. This scheme has a faster response to load change and is more robust to measurement imprecisions. Simulation will be provided using Matlab/Simulink based models. Simulation results are given to show the overall system performance.

  11. Nuclear fuels for hybrid reactors; Combustiveis para reatores hibridos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Antonio T. e; Souza, Ubiratan C. de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Reatores. E-mail: teixeira@net.ipen.br

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents thermal and thermal-hydraulics analysis for two core types proposed for a Fast Energy Amplifier utilizing, respectively, mixed oxides and metallic fuels. The mixed oxide fuels is of type ThO{sub 2} + 0,1{sup 233} U, and the metallic fuel is of type {sup 232} Th + 30% TRU. The analysis results permit to establish the necessary design parameters to be utilized in an irradiation performance analysis of these fuels. (author)

  12. Fuel cell-gas turbine hybrid system design part II: Dynamics and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLarty, Dustin; Brouwer, Jack; Samuelsen, Scott

    2014-05-01

    Fuel cell gas turbine hybrid systems have achieved ultra-high efficiency and ultra-low emissions at small scales, but have yet to demonstrate effective dynamic responsiveness or base-load cost savings. Fuel cell systems and hybrid prototypes have not utilized controls to address thermal cycling during load following operation, and have thus been relegated to the less valuable base-load and peak shaving power market. Additionally, pressurized hybrid topping cycles have exhibited increased stall/surge characteristics particularly during off-design operation. This paper evaluates additional control actuators with simple control methods capable of mitigating spatial temperature variation and stall/surge risk during load following operation of hybrid fuel cell systems. The novel use of detailed, spatially resolved, physical fuel cell and turbine models in an integrated system simulation enables the development and evaluation of these additional control methods. It is shown that the hybrid system can achieve greater dynamic response over a larger operating envelope than either individual sub-system; the fuel cell or gas turbine. Results indicate that a combined feed-forward, P-I and cascade control strategy is capable of handling moderate perturbations and achieving a 2:1 (MCFC) or 4:1 (SOFC) turndown ratio while retaining >65% fuel-to-electricity efficiency, while maintaining an acceptable stack temperature profile and stall/surge margin.

  13. Reversible energy storage on a fuel cell-supercapacitor hybrid device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerpa Unda, Jesus Enrique

    2011-02-18

    A new concept of energy storage based on hydrogen which operates reversibly near ambient conditions and without important energy losses is investigated. This concept involves the hybridization between a proton exchange membrane fuel cell and a supercapacitor. The main idea consists in the electrochemical splitting of hydrogen at a PEM fuel cell-type electrode into protons and electrons and then in the storage of these two species separately in the electrical double layer of a supercapacitor-type electrode which is made of electrically conductive large-surface area carbon materials. The investigation of this concept was performed first using a two-electrode fuel cell-supercapacitor hybrid device. A three-electrode hybrid cell was used to explore the application of this concept as a hydrogen buffer integrated inside a PEM fuel cell to be used in case of peak power demand. (orig.)

  14. Characterization of LWRS Hybrid SiC-CMC-Zircaloy-4 Fuel Cladding after Gamma Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isabella J van Rooyen

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of the gamma irradiation tests conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was to obtain a better understanding of chemical interactions and potential changes in microstructural properties of a mock-up hybrid nuclear fuel cladding rodlet design (unfueled) in a simulated PWR water environment under irradiation conditions. The hybrid fuel rodlet design is being investigated under the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program for further development and testing of one of the possible advanced LWR nuclear fuel cladding designs. The gamma irradiation tests were performed in preparation for neutron irradiation tests planned for a silicon carbide (SiC) ceramic matrix composite (CMC) zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) hybrid fuel rodlet that may be tested in the INL Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) if the design is selected for further development and testing

  15. A Novel Hybrid-Fuel Storage System of Compressed Air Energy for China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyi Liu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Compressed air energy storage (CAES is a large-scale technology that provides long-duration energy storage. It is promising for balancing the large-scale penetration of intermittent and dispersed sources of power, such as wind and solar power, into electric grids. The existing CAES plants utilize natural gas (NG as fuel. However, China is rich in coal but is deficient in NG; therefore, a hybrid-fuel CAES is proposed and analyzed in this study. Based on the existing CAES plants, the hybrid-fuel CAES incorporates an external combustion heater into the power generation subsystem to heat the air from the recuperator and the air from the high-pressure air turbine. Coal is the fuel for the external combustion heater. The overall efficiency and exergy efficiency of the hybrid-fuel CAES are 61.18% and 59.84%, respectively. Given the same parameters, the cost of electricity (COE of the hybrid-fuel CAES, which requires less NG, is $5.48/MW∙h less than that of the gas-fuel CAES. Although the proposed CAES requires a relatively high investment in the current electricity system in North China, the proposed CAES will be likely to become competitive in the market, provided that the energy supplies are improved and the large scale grid-connection of wind power is realized.

  16. Compatibility Study for Plastic, Elastomeric, and Metallic Fueling Infrastructure Materials Exposed to Aggressive Formulations of Ethanol-blended Gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Pawel, Steven J [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Janke, Christopher James [ORNL

    2012-07-01

    In 2008 Oak Ridge National Laboratory began a series of experiments to evaluate the compatibility of fueling infrastructure materials with intermediate levels of ethanol-blended gasoline. Initially, the focus was elastomers, metals, and sealants, and the test fuels were Fuel C, CE10a, CE17a and CE25a. The results of these studies were published in 2010. Follow-on studies were performed with an emphasis on plastic (thermoplastic and thermoset) materials used in underground storage and dispenser systems. These materials were exposed to test fuels of Fuel C and CE25a. Upon completion of this effort, it was felt that additional compatibility data with higher ethanol blends was needed and another round of experimentation was performed on elastomers, metals, and plastics with CE50a and CE85a test fuels. Compatibility of polymers typically relates to the solubility of the solid polymer with a solvent. It can also mean susceptibility to chemical attack, but the polymers and test fuels evaluated in this study are not considered to be chemically reactive with each other. Solubility in polymers is typically assessed by measuring the volume swell of the polymer exposed to the solvent of interest. Elastomers are a class of polymers that are predominantly used as seals, and most o-ring and seal manufacturers provide compatibility tables of their products with various solvents including ethanol, toluene, and isooctane, which are components of aggressive oxygenated gasoline as described by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J1681. These tables include a ranking based on the level of volume swell in the elastomer associated with exposure to a particular solvent. Swell is usually accompanied by a decrease in hardness (softening) that also affects performance. For seal applications, shrinkage of the elastomer upon drying is also a critical parameter since a contraction of volume can conceivably enable leakage to occur. Shrinkage is also indicative of the removal of one or more

  17. Power and temperature control of fluctuating biomass gas fueled solid oxide fuel cell and micro gas turbine hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, T.; Brouwer, J.; Samuelsen, G. S.

    This paper addresses how the power and temperature are controlled in a biomass gas fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and micro gas turbine (MGT) hybrid system. A SOFC and MGT dynamic model are developed and used to simulate the hybrid system performance operating on biomass gas. The transient behavior of both the SOFC and MGT are discussed in detail. An unstable power output is observed when the system is fed biomass gas. This instability is due to the fluctuation of gas composition in the fuel. A specially designed fuel controller succeeded not only in allowing the hybrid system to follow a step change of power demand from 32 to 35 kW, but also stably maintained the system power output at 35 kW. In addition to power control, fuel cell temperature is controlled by introduction and use of a bypass valve around the recuperator. By releasing excess heat to the exhaust, the bypass valve provided the control means to avoid the self-exciting behavior of system temperature and stabilized the temperature of SOFC at 850 °C.

  18. Influence of ethanol-diesel blended fuels on diesel exhaust emissions and mutagenic and genotoxic activities of particulate extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chong-Lin; Zhou, Ying-Chao; Huang, Rui-Jing; Wang, Yu-Qiu; Huang, Qi-Fei; Lü, Gang; Liu, Ke-Ming

    2007-10-22

    This study was aimed at evaluating the influence of ethanol addition on diesel exhaust emissions and the toxicity of particulate extracts. The experiments were conducted on a heavy-duty diesel engine and five fuels were used, namely: E0 (base diesel fuel), E5 (5%), E10 (10%), E15 (15%) and E20 (20%), respectively. The regulated emissions (THC, CO, NOx, PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions were measured, and Ames test and Comet assay, respectively, were used to investigate the mutagenicity and genotoxicity of particulate extracts. From the point of exhaust emissions, the introduction of ethanol to diesel fuel could result in higher brake specific THC (BSTHC) and CO (BSCO) emissions and lower smoke emissions, while the effects on the brake specific NOx (BSNOx) and particulate matters (BSPM) were not obvious. The PAH emissions showed an increasing trend with a growth of ethanol content in the ethanol-diesel blends. As to the biotoxicity, E20 always had the highest brake specific revertants (BSR) in both TA98 and TA100 with or without metabolizing enzymes (S9), while the lowest BSR were found in E5 except that of TA98-S9. DNA damage data showed a lower genotoxic potency of E10 and E15 as a whole.

  19. Study of molten carbonate fuel cell—microturbine hybrid power cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Francisco

    The interaction realized by fuel cell—microturbine hybrids derive primarily from using the rejected thermal energy and combustion of residual fuel from a fuel cell in driving the gas turbine. This leveraging of thermal energy makes the high temperature molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) ideal candidates for hybrid systems. Use of a recuperator contributes to thermal efficiency by transferring heat from the gas turbine exhaust to the fuel and air used in the system. Traditional control design approaches, consider a fixed operating point in the hope that the resulting controller is robust enough to stabilize the system for different operating conditions. On the other hand, adaptive control incorporates the time-varying dynamical properties of the model (a new value of gas composition) and considers the disturbances acting at the plant (load power variation).

  20. Design and Comparison of Power Systems for a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2008-01-01

    In a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle (FCHEV) the fuel cell stack is assisted by one or more energy storage devices. Thereby the system cost, mass, and volume can be decreased, and a significant better performance can be obtained. Two often used energy storage devices are the battery...... and ultracapacitor. In this paper a design method to design the power system of a FCHEV is presented. 10 cases of combining the fuel stack with either the battery, ultracapacitor, or both are investigated. The system volume, mass, efficiency, and battery lifetime are also compared. It is concluded that when...... ultracapacitors are the only energy storage device the system becomes too big and heavy. A fuel cell/battery/ultracapacitor hybrid provides the longest life time of the batteries. If the fuel cell stack power is too small, the system will be big, heavy, and have a poor efficiency....

  1. Fundamental phenomena on fuel decomposition and boundary layer combustion processes with applications to hybrid rocket motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Kenneth K.; Lu, Y. C.; Chiaverini, Martin J.; Harting, George C.

    1994-11-01

    An experimental study on the fundamental processes involved in fuel decomposition and boundary layer combustion in hybrid rocket motors is being conducted at the High Pressure Combustion Laboratory of the Pennsylvania State University. This research should provide a useful engineering technology base in the development of hybrid rocket motors as well as a fundamental understanding of the complex processes involved in hybrid propulsion. A high pressure slab motor has been designed and manufactured for conducting experimental investigations. Oxidizer (LOX or GOX) supply and control systems have been designed and partly constructed for the head-end injection into the test chamber. Experiments using HTPB fuel, as well as fuels supplied by NASA designated industrial companies will be conducted. Design and construction of fuel casting molds and sample holders have been completed. The portion of these items for industrial company fuel casting will be sent to the McDonnell Douglas Aerospace Corporation in the near future. The study focuses on the following areas: observation of solid fuel burning processes with LOX or GOX, measurement and correlation of solid fuel regression rate with operating conditions, measurement of flame temperature and radical species concentrations, determination of the solid fuel subsurface temperature profile, and utilization of experimental data for validation of a companion theoretical study (Part 2) also being conducted at PSU.

  2. Fundamental phenomena on fuel decomposition and boundary layer combustion processes with applications to hybrid rocket motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Kenneth K.; Lu, Y. C.; Chiaverini, Martin J.; Harting, George C.

    1994-01-01

    An experimental study on the fundamental processes involved in fuel decomposition and boundary layer combustion in hybrid rocket motors is being conducted at the High Pressure Combustion Laboratory of the Pennsylvania State University. This research should provide a useful engineering technology base in the development of hybrid rocket motors as well as a fundamental understanding of the complex processes involved in hybrid propulsion. A high pressure slab motor has been designed and manufactured for conducting experimental investigations. Oxidizer (LOX or GOX) supply and control systems have been designed and partly constructed for the head-end injection into the test chamber. Experiments using HTPB fuel, as well as fuels supplied by NASA designated industrial companies will be conducted. Design and construction of fuel casting molds and sample holders have been completed. The portion of these items for industrial company fuel casting will be sent to the McDonnell Douglas Aerospace Corporation in the near future. The study focuses on the following areas: observation of solid fuel burning processes with LOX or GOX, measurement and correlation of solid fuel regression rate with operating conditions, measurement of flame temperature and radical species concentrations, determination of the solid fuel subsurface temperature profile, and utilization of experimental data for validation of a companion theoretical study (Part 2) also being conducted at PSU.

  3. Hybrid direct carbon fuel cells and their reaction mechanisms - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2014-01-01

    with carbon capture and storage (CCS) due to the high purity of CO2 emitted in the exhaust gas. Direct carbon (or coal) fuel cells (DCFCs) are directly fed with solid carbon to the anode chamber. The fuel cell converts the carbon at the anode and the oxygen at the cathode into electricity, heat and reaction...... is discussed on the fuel cell stack and system levels. The range of DCFC types can be roughly broken down into four fuel cell types: aqueous hydroxide, molten hydroxide, molten carbonate and solid oxide fuel cells. Emphasis is placed on the electrochemical reactions occurring at the anode and the proposed...... mechanism(s) of these reactions for molten carbonate, solid oxide and hybrid direct carbon fuel cells. Additionally, the criteria of choosing the ‘best’ DCFC technology is explored, including system design (continuous supply of solid fuel), performance (power density, efficiency), environmental burden...

  4. Control strategy of fuel cell/supercapacitors hybrid power sources for electric vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thounthong, Phatiphat; Raeel, Stephane; Davat, Bernard [Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine (INPL), GREEN, CNRS (UMR 7037) 2, Avenue de la Foret de Haye, 54516 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2006-07-14

    This paper presents a control principle for utilizing PEM fuel cell as main power source and supercapacitors as auxiliary power source for electric vehicle applications. The strategy is based on dc link voltage regulation, and fuel cell is simply operating in almost steady state conditions in order to minimize the mechanical stresses of fuel cell and to ensure a good synchronization between fuel flow and fuel cell current. Supercapacitors are functioning during transient energy delivery or transient energy recovery. To authenticate control algorithms, the system structure is realized by analogical current loops and digital voltage loops (dSPACE). The experimental results with a 500W PEM fuel cell point out the fuel cell starvation problem when operating with dynamic load, and also confirm that the supercapacitor can improve system performance for hybrid power sources. (author)

  5. Evaluation of a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Powered Blended-Wing-Body Aircraft Concept for Reduced Noise and Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Freh, Joshua E.; Olson, Erik D.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the analytical modeling and evaluation of an unconventional commercial transport aircraft concept designed to address aircraft noise and emission issues. A blended-wing-body configuration with advanced technology hydrogen fuel cell electric propulsion is considered. Predicted noise and emission characteristics are compared to a current technology conventional configuration designed for the same mission. The significant technology issues which have to be addressed to make this concept a viable alternative to current aircraft designs are discussed. This concept is one of the "Quiet Green Transport" aircraft concepts studied as part of NASA's Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts (RASC) Program. The RASC Program was initiated to develop revolutionary concepts that address strategic objectives of the NASA Enterprises, such as reducing aircraft noise and emissions, and to identify advanced technology requirements for the concepts.

  6. Fuel cell-gas turbine hybrid system design part I: Steady state performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLarty, Dustin; Brouwer, Jack; Samuelsen, Scott

    2014-07-01

    The hybridization of gas turbine technology with high temperature fuel cells represents an ultra-high efficiency, ultra-low emission, fuel flexible power generation platform. The performance of past prototypes has been limited by marginal compatibility of the two primary sub-systems. This paper addresses the challenge of selecting compatible hardware by presenting a simple and robust method for bespoke hybrid system design and off-the-shelf component integration. This is the first application of detailed, spatially resolved, physical models capable of resolving off-design performance to the integration analysis of FC-GT hybrids. Static maps are produced for both turbine and fuel cell sub-systems that readily evaluate the compatibility and hybrid performance. Molten carbonate and solid oxide fuel cells are considered for hybridization with recuperated micro-turbines and larger axial flow gas turbine systems. Current state-of-the-art molten carbonate technology is shown to pair well with present micro-turbine technology in an FC bottoming cycle design achieving 74.4% LHV efficiency. Solid oxide technology demonstrates remarkable potential for integration with larger scale axial turbo-machinery to achieve greater than 75% LHV efficiency. This performance map technique closely matches results from detailed integrated hybrid system analyses, and enables quick determination of performance requirements for balance of plant design and optimization.

  7. The Fuel Economy of Hybrid Buses: The Role of Ancillaries in Real Urban Driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bottiglione

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present context of the global economic crisis and environmental emergency, transport science is asked to find innovative solutions to turn traditional vehicles into fuel-saving and eco-friendly devices. In the last few years, hybrid vehicles have been shown to have potential benefits in this sense. In this paper, the fuel economy of series hybrid-electric and hybrid-mechanical buses is simulated in two real driving situations: cold and hot weather driving in the city of Taranto, in Southern Italy. The numerical analysis is carried out by an inverse dynamic approach, where the bus speed is given as a velocity pattern measured in the field tests performed on one of the city bus routes. The city of Taranto drive schedule is simulated in a typical tempered climate condition and with a hot temperature, when the air conditioning system must be switched on for passenger comfort. The fuel consumptions of hybrid-electric and hybrid-mechanical buses are compared to each other and with a traditional bus powered by a diesel engine. It is shown that the series hybrid-electric vehicle outperforms both the traditional and the mechanical hybrid vehicles in the cold weather driving simulation, reducing the fuel consumption by about 35% with respect to the traditional diesel bus. However, it is also shown that the performance of the hybrid-electric bus gets dramatically worse when the air-cooling system is continuously turned on. In this situation, the fuel consumption of the three different technologies for city buses under investigation is comparable.

  8. TG-FTIR characterization of coal and biomass single fuels and blends under slow heating rate conditions: Partitioning of the fuel-bound nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Nola, G.; de Jong, W.; Spliethoff, H. [Energy Technology Section, Process and Energy Department, Faculty 3me, Delft University of Technology, Leeghwaterstraat 44, 2628 CA Delft (Netherlands)

    2010-01-15

    The devolatilization behavior of a bituminous coal and different biomass fuels currently applied in the Dutch power sector for co-firing was experimentally investigated. The volatile composition during single fuel pyrolysis as well as during co-pyrolysis was studied using TG-FTIR characterization with the focus on the release patterns and quantitative analysis of the gaseous bound nitrogen species. It was shown that all investigated biomass fuels present more or less similar pyrolysis behavior, with a maximum weight loss between 300 and 380 C. Woody and agricultural biomass materials show higher devolatilization rates than animal waste. When comparing different fuels, the percentage of fuel-bound nitrogen converted to volatile bound-N species (NH{sub 3}, HCN, HNCO) does not correlate with the initial fuel-N content. Biomass pyrolysis resulted in higher volatile-N yields than coal, which potentially indicates that NO{sub x} control during co-firing might be favored. No significant interactions occurred during the pyrolysis of coal/biomass blends at conditions typical of TG analysis (slow heating rate). Evolved gas analysis of volatile species confirmed the absence of mutual interactions during woody biomass co-pyrolysis. However, non-additive behavior of selected gas species was found during slaughter and poultry litter co-pyrolysis. Higher CH{sub 4} yields between 450 and 750 C and higher ammonia and CO yields between 550 and 900 C were measured. Such a result is likely to be attributed to catalytic effects of alkali and alkaline earth metals present in high quantity in animal waste ash. The fact that the co-pyrolysis of woody and agricultural biomass is well modeled by simple addition of the individual behavior of its components permits to predict the mixture's behavior based on experimental data available for single fuels. On the other hand, animal waste co-pyrolysis presented in some cases synergistic effects in gas products although additive behavior

  9. Evaluation of alkyl esters from Camelina sativa oil as biodiesel and as blend components in ultra low-sulfur diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Bryan R; Vaughn, Steven F

    2010-01-01

    Methyl and ethyl esters were prepared from camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz] oil by homogenous base-catalyzed transesterification for evaluation as biodiesel fuels. Camelina oil contained high percentages of linolenic (32.6 wt.%), linoleic (19.6 wt.%), and oleic (18.6 wt.%) acids. Consequently, camelina oil methyl and ethyl esters (CSME and CSEE) exhibited poor oxidative stabilities and high iodine values versus methyl esters prepared from canola, palm, and soybean oils (CME, PME, and SME). Other fuel properties of CSME and CSEE were similar to CME, PME, and SME, such as low temperature operability, acid value, cetane number, kinematic viscosity, lubricity, sulfur and phosphorous contents, as well as surface tension. As blend components in ultra low-sulfur diesel fuel, CSME and CSEE were essentially indistinguishable from SME and soybean oil ethyl ester blends with regard to low temperature operability, kinematic viscosity, lubricity, and surface tension.

  10. Solid amine-boranes as high performance hypergolic hybrid rocket fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeil, Mark A.

    Hypergolic hybrid rockets have the potential of providing systems that are simple, reliable, have high performance, and allow for energy management. Such a propulsion system can be applied to fields that need a single tactical motor with flexible mission requirements of either high speed to target or extended loitering. They also provide the possibility for alternative fast response dynamic altitude control systems if ignition delays are sufficiently short. Amines are the traditional fuel of choice when selecting a hypergolic combination as these tend to react readily with both nitric acid and dinitrogen tertroxide based oxidizers. It has been found that the addition of a borane adduct to an amine fuel tends to reduce the ignition delay by up to an order of magnitude with white fuming nitric acid (WFNA). The borane addition has resulted in fuels with very short ignition delays between 2-10 ms - the fastest times for an amine based fuel reacting with nitric acid based oxidizers. The incorporation of these amine-boranes, specifically ethylenediamine bisborane (EDBB), into various fuel binders has also been found to result in ignition delays between 3-10 ms - the fastest times again for amine based fuels. It was found that the addition of a borane to an amine increased theoretical performance of the amine resulting in high performance fuels. The amine-borane/fuel binder combinations also produced higher theoretical performance values than previously used hypergolic hybrid rockets. Some of the theoretical values are on par or higher than the current toxic liquid hypergolic fuels, making amine boranes an attractive replacement. The higher performing amine-borane/fuel binder combinations also have higher performance values than the traditional rocket fuels, excluding liquid hydrogen. Thus, amine-borane based fuels have the potential to influence various area in the rocket field. An EDBB/ferrocene/epoxy fuel was tested in a hypergolic hybrid with pure nitric acid as the

  11. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine Hybrid Cycle Technology for Auxiliary Aerospace Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Christopher J., Jr.; Freeh, Joshua E.; Larosiliere, Louis M.

    2005-01-01

    A notional 440 kW auxiliary power unit has been developed for 300 passenger commercial transport aircraft in 2015AD. A hybrid engine using solid-oxide fuel cell stacks and a gas turbine bottoming cycle has been considered. Steady-state performance analysis during cruise operation has been presented. Trades between performance efficiency and system mass were conducted with system specific energy as the discriminator. Fuel cell performance was examined with an area specific resistance. The ratio of fuel cell versus turbine power was explored through variable fuel utilization. Area specific resistance, fuel utilization, and mission length had interacting effects upon system specific energy. During cruise operation, the simple cycle fuel cell/gas turbine hybrid was not able to outperform current turbine-driven generators for system specific energy, despite a significant improvement in system efficiency. This was due in part to the increased mass of the hybrid engine, and the increased water flow required for on-board fuel reformation. Two planar, anode-supported cell design concepts were considered. Designs that seek to minimize the metallic interconnect layer mass were seen to have a large effect upon the system mass estimates.

  12. Metal hydride and pyrophoric fuel additives for dicyclopentadiene based hybrid propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shark, Steven C.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of reactive energetic fuel additives that have the potential to increase the combustion performance of hybrid rocket propellants in terms of solid fuel regression rate and combustion efficiency. Additives that can augment the combustion flame zone in a hybrid rocket motor by means of increased energy feedback to the fuel grain surface are of great interest. Metal hydrides have large volumetric hydrogen densities, which gives these materials high performance potential as fuel additives in terms of specifc impulse. The excess hydrogen and corresponding base metal may also cause an increase in the hybrid rocket solid fuel regression rate. Pyrophoric additives also have potential to increase the solid fuel regression rate by reacting more readily near the burning fuel surface providing rapid energy feedback. An experimental performance evaluation of metal hydride fuel additives for hybrid rocket motor propulsion systems is examined in this study. Hypergolic ignition droplet tests and an accelerated aging study revealed the protection capabilities of Dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) as a fuel binder, and the ability for unaided ignition. Static hybrid rocket motor experiments were conducted using DCPD as the fuel. Sodium borohydride (NabH4) and aluminum hydride (AlH3) were examined as fuel additives. Ninety percent rocket grade hydrogen peroxide (RGHP) was used as the oxidizer. In this study, the sensitivity of solid fuel regression rate and characteristic velocity (C*) efficiency to total fuel grain port mass flux and particle loading is examined. These results were compared to HTPB combustion performance as a baseline. Chamber pressure histories revealed steady motor operation in most tests, with reduced ignition delays when using NabH4 as a fuel additive. The addition of NabH4 and AlH3 produced up to a 47% and 85% increase in regression rate over neat DCPD, respectively. For all test conditions examined C* efficiency ranges

  13. Design of a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle Drive System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik

    Fuel cells achieve more and more attention due to their potential of replacing the traditional internal combustion engine (ICE) used in the area of transportation. In this PhD thesis a fuel cell shaft power pack (FCSPP) is designed and implemented in a small truck. The FCSPP replaces the original...

  14. Effects of Biodiesel Blend on Marine Fuel Characteristics for Marine Vessels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cherng-Yuan Lin

    2013-01-01

      Biodiesel produced from vegetable oils, animal fats and algae oil is a renewable, environmentally friendly and clean alternative fuel that reduces pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions in marine applications...

  15. Modeling the Fate of Groundwater Contaminants Resulting from Leakage of Butanol-blended Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    can lead to significant consequences. As an example, consider methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). MTBE was added to gasoline as a replacement for...formulations of gasoline and alcohol products available in the market, most commonly, gasoline and ethyl alcohol (also known as ethanol) mixture. However...engines ( kerosene /jet fuel). Table 2-1 presents the difference in properties between distillates for gasoline and jet fuel (Bartis et al., 2008

  16. Stripping ethanol from ethanol-blended fuels for use in NO.sub.x SCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Michael Delos; Graves, Ronald Lee; Storey, John Morse Elliot; Lewis, Sr., Samuel Arthur; Sluder, Charles Scott; Thomas, John Foster

    2007-08-21

    A method to use diesel fuel alchohol micro emulsions (E-diesel) to provide a source of reductant to lower NO.sub.x emissions using selective catalytic reduction. Ethanol is stripped from the micro emulsion and entered into the exhaust gasses upstream of the reducing catalyst. The method allows diesel (and other lean-burn) engines to meet new, lower emission standards without having to carry separate fuel and reductant tanks.

  17. Bioethanol-gasoline fuel blends: exhaust emissions and morphological characterization of particulate from a moped engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seggiani, Maurizia; Prati, M Vittoria; Costagliola, M Antonietta; Puccini, Monica; Vitolo, Sandra

    2012-08-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of gasoline-ethanol blends on the exhaust emissions in a catalyst-equipped four-stroke moped engine. The ethanol was blended with unleaded gasoline in at percentages (10, 15, and 20% v/v). The regulated pollutants and the particulate matter emissions were evaluated over the European ECE R47 driving cycle on the chassis dynamometer bench. Particulate matter was characterized in terms of total mass collected on filters and total number ofparticles in the range 7 nm-10 microm measured by electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI). In addition, particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emissions were evaluated to assess the health impact of the emitted particulate. Finally, an accurate morphological analysis was performed on the particulate by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with a digital image-processing/data-acquisition system. In general, CO emission reductions of 60-70% were obtained with 15 and 20% v/v ethanol blends, while the ethanol use did not reduce hydrocarbon (HC) and NOx emissions. No evident effect of ethanol on the particulate mass emissions and associated PAHs emissions was observed. Twenty-one PAHs were quantified in the particulate phase with emissions ranging from 26 to 35 microg/km and benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) emission factors from 2.2 to 4.1 microg/km. Both particulate matter and associated PAHs with higher carcinogenic risk were mainly emitted in the submicrometer size range (<0.1 microm). On the basis of the TEM observations, no relevant effect of the ethanol use on the particulate morphology was evidenced, showing aggregates composed ofprimary particles with mean diameters in the range 17.5-32.5 nm.

  18. Polyamide/Polystyrene blend compatibilisation by montmorillonite nanoclay and its effect on macroporosity of gas diffusion layers for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deyrail, Y.; Mighri, F. [Center for Applied Research on Polymers and Composites, CREPEC, Laval University, Que. (Canada); Department of Chemical Engineering, Laval University, Que. (Canada); Bousmina, M. [Center for Applied Research on Polymers and Composites, CREPEC, Laval University, Que. (Canada); Department of Chemical Engineering, Laval University, Que. (Canada); Canada Research Chair on Polymer Physics and Nanomaterials, Laval University, Que. (Canada); Hassan II Academy of Science and Technology, Rabat (Morocco); Kaliaguine, S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Laval University, Que. (Canada)

    2007-12-15

    This work deals with a new route to modify polymer blend morphology in order to improve the porosity of gas diffusion layers (GDLs) for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). First, electrically conductive polymer-based blends were carefully formulated using a twin-screw extrusion process. Blend electrical conductivity was ensured by the addition of high specific surface area carbon black and synthetic graphite flakes. Final GDL porosity, in particular its macroporosity, was generated by melt blending polyamide 11 (PA11) matrix with polystyrene (PS) followed by PS extraction with tetrahydrofuran (THF) solvent at room temperature. In order to improve GDL porosity by the optimisation of PS dispersion in the PA11 matrix, PA11/PS blends were compatibilised by the addition of 2 wt.-% of clay. It was observed that both macroporosity and pore size distribution were beneficially modified after blend compatibilisation. Final GDL conductivity of about 1.25 S cm{sup -1}, a porosity of 53% and a specific pore surface area of 75 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} were achieved. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  19. Texas Hydrogen Highway Fuel Cell Hybrid Bus and Fueling Infrastructure Technology Showcase - Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, David

    2012-06-29

    The Texas Hydrogen Highway project has showcased a hydrogen fuel cell transit bus and hydrogen fueling infrastructure that was designed and built through previous support from various public and private sector entities. The aim of this project has been to increase awareness among transit agencies and other public entities on these transportation technologies, and to place such technologies into commercial applications, such as a public transit agency. The initial project concept developed in 2004 was to show that a skid-mounted, fully-integrated, factory-built and tested hydrogen fueling station could be used to simplify the design, and lower the cost of fueling infrastructure for fuel cell vehicles. The approach was to design, engineer, build, and test the integrated fueling station at the factory then install it at a site that offered educational and technical resources and provide an opportunity to showcase both the fueling station and advanced hydrogen vehicles. The two primary technology components include: Hydrogen Fueling Station: The hydrogen fueling infrastructure was designed and built by Gas Technology Institute primarily through a funding grant from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. It includes hydrogen production, clean-up, compression, storage, and dispensing. The station consists of a steam methane reformer, gas clean-up system, gas compressor and 48 kilograms of hydrogen storage capacity for dispensing at 5000 psig. The station is skid-mounted for easy installation and can be relocated if needed. It includes a dispenser that is designed to provide temperaturecompensated fills using a control algorithm. The total station daily capacity is approximately 50 kilograms. Fuel Cell Bus: The transit passenger bus built by Ebus, a company located in Downey, CA, was commissioned and acquired by GTI prior to this project. It is a fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle which is ADA compliant, has air conditioning sufficient for Texas operations

  20. Effect of cooled EGR on performance and exhaust gas emissions in EFI spark ignition engine fueled by gasoline and wet methanol blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohadi, Heru; Syaiful, Bae, Myung-Whan

    2016-06-01

    Fuel needs, especially the transport sector is still dominated by fossil fuels which are non-renewable. However, oil reserves are very limited. Furthermore, the hazardous components produced by internal combustion engine forces many researchers to consider with alternative fuel which is environmental friendly and renewable sources. Therefore, this study intends to investigate the impact of cooled EGR on the performance and exhaust gas emissions in the gasoline engine fueled by gasoline and wet methanol blends. The percentage of wet methanol blended with gasoline is in the range of 5 to 15% in a volume base. The experiment was performed at the variation of engine speeds from 2500 to 4000 rpm with 500 intervals. The re-circulated exhaust gasses into combustion chamber was 5%. The experiment was performed at the constant engine speed. The results show that the use of cooled EGR with wet methanol of 10% increases the brake torque up to 21.3%. The brake thermal efficiency increases approximately 39.6% using cooled EGR in the case of the engine fueled by 15% wet methanol. Brake specific fuel consumption for the engine using EGR fueled by 10% wet methanol decreases up to 23% at the engine speed of 2500 rpm. The reduction of CO, O2 and HC emissions was found, while CO2 increases.

  1. Formulation and Testing of Paraffin-Based Solid Fuels Containing Energetic Additives for Hybrid Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Daniel B.; Boyer, Eric; Wachs,Trevor; Kuo, Kenneth K.; Story, George

    2012-01-01

    Many approaches have been considered in an effort to improve the regression rate of solid fuels for hybrid rocket applications. One promising method is to use a fuel with a fast burning rate such as paraffin wax; however, additional performance increases to the fuel regression rate are necessary to make the fuel a viable candidate to replace current launch propulsion systems. The addition of energetic and/or nano-sized particles is one way to increase mass-burning rates of the solid fuels and increase the overall performance of the hybrid rocket motor.1,2 Several paraffin-based fuel grains with various energetic additives (e.g., lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4) have been cast in an attempt to improve regression rates. There are two major advantages to introducing LiAlH4 additive into the solid fuel matrix: 1) the increased characteristic velocity, 2) decreased dependency of Isp on oxidizer-to-fuel ratio. The testing and characterization of these solid-fuel grains have shown that continued work is necessary to eliminate unburned/unreacted fuel in downstream sections of the test apparatus.3 Changes to the fuel matrix include higher melting point wax and smaller energetic additive particles. The reduction in particle size through various methods can result in more homogeneous grain structure. The higher melting point wax can serve to reduce the melt-layer thickness, allowing the LiAlH4 particles to react closer to the burning surface, thus increasing the heat feedback rate and fuel regression rate. In addition to the formulation of LiAlH4 and paraffin wax solid-fuel grains, liquid additives of triethylaluminum and diisobutylaluminum hydride will be included in this study. Another promising fuel formulation consideration is to incorporate a small percentage of RDX as an additive to paraffin. A novel casting technique will be used by dissolving RDX in a solvent to crystallize the energetic additive. After dissolving the RDX in a solvent chosen for its compatibility

  2. Caterpillar C7 and GEP 6.5L (T) Fuel System Durability Using 25% ATJ Fuel Blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    torsional vibration coupling to a Midwest model 1519 ( eddy current ) 500hp wet gap dynamometer. o Engine speed was controlled through dynamometer...comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE...UNCLASSIFIED x ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ATJ – alcohol to jet BSFC – brake specific fuel consumption CAT – Caterpillar CI/LI – corrosion inhibitor

  3. Cell toxicity and oxidative potential of engine exhaust particles: impact of using particulate filter or biodiesel fuel blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E; Totlandsdal, Annike I; Tzamkiozis, Theodoros; Leseman, Daan L A C; Samaras, Zissis; Låg, Marit; Schwarze, Per; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Cassee, Flemming R

    2013-06-01

    The link between emissions of vehicular particulate matter (PM) and adverse health effects is well established. However, the influence of new emission control technologies and fuel types on both PM emissions and health effects has been less well investigated. We examined the health impact of PM emissions from two vehicles equipped with or without a diesel particulate filter (DPF). Both vehicles were powered either with diesel (B0) or a 50% v/v biodiesel blend (B50). The DPF effectively decreased PM mass emissions (∼85%), whereas the fuel B50 without DPF lead to less reduction (∼50%). The hazard of PM per unit distance driven was decreased for the DPF-equipped vehicle as indicated by a reduced cytotoxicity, oxidative, and pro-inflammatory potential. This was not evident and even led to an increase when the hazard was expressed on a per unit of mass basis. In general, the PM oxidative potential was similar or reduced for the B50 compared to the B0 powered vehicle. However, the use of B50 resulted in increased cytotoxicity and IL-6 release in BEAS-2B cells irrespective of the expression metric. This study shows that PM mass reduction achieved by the use of B50 will not necessarily decrease the hazard of engine emissions, while the application of a DPF has a beneficial effect on both PM mass emission and PM hazard.

  4. Wavelet analysis of cyclic variability in a spark ignition engine powered by gasoline-hydrogen fuel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Asok K. [Richard G. Lugar Centre for Renewable Energy, and Department of Mathematical Sciences, Indiana University, (United States)], email: asen@iupui.edu; Akif Ceviz, M.; Volkan Oner, I. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ataturk (Turkey)], email: aceviz@atauni.edu.tr

    2011-07-01

    The cycle-to-cycle variations (CCV) of the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) in a spark ignition engine fuelled by gasoline and gasoline-hydrogen blends is investigated. CCVs are estimated by using the coefficient of variation (COV) and the overall spectral power given by the global wavelet spectrum (GWS). It was found that the addition of hydrogen reduces the CCV of the IMEP. Analysis of the wavelet can also identify the dominant modes of variability and delineate the engine cycles over which these modes can persist. Air-fuel ratio was varied from 1.0 to 1.3, and hydrogen was added up to 7.74% by volume. The engine was operated at 2000 rpm. Results demonstrate that subject to air-fuel ratio and % of hydrogen added, IMEP time series can exhibit multiscale dynamics consisting of persistent oscillations and intermittent fluctuations. These results can help develop effective control strategies to reduce cyclic variability in a spark ignition engine fuelled by gasoline-hydrogen mixtures.

  5. Estimating Impacts of Diesel Fuel Reformulation with Vector-based Blending

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadder, G.R.

    2003-01-23

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model has been used to study the refining cost, investment, and operating impacts of specifications for reformulated diesel fuel (RFD) produced in refineries of the U.S. Midwest in summer of year 2010. The study evaluates different diesel fuel reformulation investment pathways. The study also determines whether there are refinery economic benefits for producing an emissions reduction RFD (with flexibility for individual property values) compared to a vehicle performance RFD (with inflexible recipe values for individual properties). Results show that refining costs are lower with early notice of requirements for RFD. While advanced desulfurization technologies (with low hydrogen consumption and little effect on cetane quality and aromatics content) reduce the cost of ultra low sulfur diesel fuel, these technologies contribute to the increased costs of a delayed notice investment pathway compared to an early notice investment pathway for diesel fuel reformulation. With challenging RFD specifications, there is little refining benefit from producing emissions reduction RFD compared to vehicle performance RFD. As specifications become tighter, processing becomes more difficult, blendstock choices become more limited, and refinery benefits vanish for emissions reduction relative to vehicle performance specifications. Conversely, the emissions reduction specifications show increasing refinery benefits over vehicle performance specifications as specifications are relaxed, and alternative processing routes and blendstocks become available. In sensitivity cases, the refinery model is also used to examine the impact of RFD specifications on the economics of using Canadian synthetic crude oil. There is a sizeable increase in synthetic crude demand as ultra low sulfur diesel fuel displaces low sulfur diesel fuel, but this demand increase would be reversed by requirements for diesel fuel reformulation.

  6. A Novel Hybrid-Fuel Storage System of Compressed Air Energy for China

    OpenAIRE

    Wenyi Liu; Linzhi Liu; Gang Xu; Feifei Liang; Yongping Yang; Weide Zhang; Ying Wu

    2014-01-01

    Compressed air energy storage (CAES) is a large-scale technology that provides long-duration energy storage. It is promising for balancing the large-scale penetration of intermittent and dispersed sources of power, such as wind and solar power, into electric grids. The existing CAES plants utilize natural gas (NG) as fuel. However, China is rich in coal but is deficient in NG; therefore, a hybrid-fuel CAES is proposed and analyzed in this study. Based on the existing CAES plants, the hybrid-f...

  7. Development of integrated fuel cell hybrid power source for electric forklift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keränen, T. M.; Karimäki, H.; Viitakangas, J.; Vallet, J.; Ihonen, J.; Hyötylä, P.; Uusalo, H.; Tingelöf, T.

    A hybrid drivetrain comprising a 16 kW polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell system, ultracapacitor modules and a lead-acid battery was constructed and experimentally tested in a real counterweight forklift application. A scaled-down version of the hybrid system was assembled and tested in a controlled laboratory environment using a controllable resistive load. The control loops were operating in an in-house developed embedded system. The software is designed for building generic control applications, and the source code has been released as open source and made available on the internet. The hybrid drivetrain supplied the required 50 kW peak power in a typical forklift work cycle consisting of both loaded and unloaded driving, and lifting of a 2.4 tonne load. Load variations seen by the fuel cell were a fraction of the total current drawn by the forklift, with the average fuel cell power being 55% of nominal rating. A simple fuel cell hybrid model was also developed to further study the effects of energy storage dimensioning. Simulation results indicate that while a battery alone significantly reduces the load variations of the fuel cell, an ultracapacitor reduces them even further. Furthermore, a relatively small ultracapacitor is enough to achieve most of the potential benefit.

  8. Improved dynamic performance of hybrid PEM fuel cells and ultracapacitors for portable applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yalcinoz, T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688 (United States); Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nigde University, Nigde 51200 (Turkey); Alam, M.S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688 (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Transient power demand fluctuations and maintaining high energy density are important for many portable devices. Small fuel cells are potentially good candidates as alternative energy sources for portable applications. Hybrid power sources have some inherent properties which may be effectively utilized to improve the efficiency and dynamic response of the system. In this paper, an improved dynamic model considering the characteristics of the temperature and equivalent internal resistance is presented for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. The dynamic behavior of a system with hybrid PEM fuel cells and an ultracapacitor bank is simulated. The hybrid PEM fuel cell/ultracapacitor bank system is used for powering a portable device (such as a laptop computer). The power requirement of a laptop computer varies significantly under different operation conditions. The analytical models of the hybrid system with PEM fuel cells and an ultracapacitor bank are designed and simulated by developing a detailed simulation software using Matlab, Simulink and SimPowerSystems Blockset for portable applications. (author)

  9. Comparative study of fuel cell, battery and hybrid buses for renewable energy constrained areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempien, J. P.; Chan, S. H.

    2017-02-01

    Fuel cell- and battery-based public bus technologies are reviewed and compared for application in tropical urban areas. This paper scrutinizes the reported literature on fuel cell bus, fuel cell electric bus, battery electric bus, hybrid electric bus, internal combustion diesel bus and compressed natural gas bus. The comparison includes the capital and operating costs, fuel consumption and fuel cycle emissions. To the best of authors knowledge, this is the first study to holistically compare hydrogen and battery powered buses, which is the original contribution of this paper. Moreover, this is the first study to focus on supplying hydrogen and electricity from fossil resources, while including the associated emissions. The study shows that compressed natural gas and hybrid electric buses appear to be the cheapest options in terms of total cost of ownership, but they are unable to meet the EURO VI emissions' standard requirement. Only fuel cell based buses have the potential to achieve the emissions' standard when the fuel cycle based on fossil energy was considered. Fuel cell electric buses are identified as a technology allowing for the largest CO2 emission reduction, making ∼61% decrease in annual emissions possible.

  10. Simulation of the PEM fuel cell hybrid power train of an automated guided vehicle and comparison with experimental results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bram Veenhuizen; J.C.N. Bosma

    2009-01-01

    At HAN University research has been started into the development of a PEM fuel cell hybrid power train to be used in an automated guided vehicle. For this purpose a test facility is used with the possibility to test all important functional aspects of a PEM fuel cell hybrid power train. In this

  11. Simulation of the PEM fuel cell hybrid power train of an automated guided vehicle and comparison with experimental results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhuizen, Bram; Bosma, J.C.N.

    2009-01-01

    At HAN University research has been started into the development of a PEM fuel cell hybrid power train to be used in an automated guided vehicle. For this purpose a test facility is used with the possibility to test all important functional aspects of a PEM fuel cell hybrid power train. In this pape

  12. Effect of Additives and Fuel Blending on Emissions and Ash-Related Problems from Small-Scale Combustion of Reed Canary Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Fournel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural producers are interested in using biomass available on farms to substitute fossil fuels for heat production. However, energy crops like reed canary grass contain high nitrogen (N, sulfur (S, potassium (K and other ash-forming elements which lead to increased emissions of gases and particulate matter (PM and ash-related operational problems (e.g., melting during combustion. To address these problematic behaviors, reed canary grass was blended with wood (50 wt% and fuel additives (3 wt% such as aluminum silicates (sewage sludge, calcium (limestone and sulfur (lignosulfonate based additives. When burned in a top-feed pellet boiler (29 kW, the four blends resulted in a 17%–29% decrease of PM concentrations compared to pure reed canary grass probably because of a reduction of K release to flue gas. Nitrogen oxides (NOx and sulfur dioxide (SO2 emissions varied according to fuel N and S contents. This explains the lower NOx and SO2 levels obtained with wood based products and the higher SO2 generation with the grass/lignosulfonate blend. The proportion of clinkers found in combustion ash was greatly lessened (27%–98% with the use of additives, except for lignosulfonate. The positive effects of some additives may allow agricultural fuels to become viable alternatives.

  13. Heating and Efficiency Comparison of a Fischer-Tropsch (FT) Fuel, JP-8+100, and Blends in a Three-Cup Combustor Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Anna E.; Shouse, Dale T.; Neuroth, Craig; Lynch, Amy; Frayne, Charles W.; Stutrud, Jeffrey S.; Corporan, Edwin; Hankins, Terry; Saxena, Nikita T.; Hendricks, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    In order to realize alternative fueling for military and commercial use, the industry has set forth guidelines that must be met by each fuel. These aviation fueling requirements are outlined in MIL-DTL-83133F(2008) or ASTM D 7566-Annex standards and are classified as drop-in fuel replacements. This paper provides combustor performance data for synthetic-paraffinic-kerosene- (SPK-) type (Fisher-Tropsch (FT)) fuel and blends with JP-8+100, relative to JP-8+100 as baseline fueling. Data were taken at various nominal inlet conditions: 75 psia (0.52 MPa) at 500 aF (533 K), 125 psia (0.86 MPa) at 625 aF (603 K), 175 psia (1.21 MPa) at 725 aF (658 K), and 225 psia (1.55 MPa) at 790 aF (694 K). Combustor performance analysis assessments were made for the change in flame temperatures, combustor efficiency, wall temperatures, and exhaust plane temperatures at 3%, 4%, and 5% combustor pressure drop (% P) for fuel:air ratios (F/A) ranging from 0.010 to 0.025. Significant general trends show lower liner temperatures and higher flame and combustor outlet temperatures with increases in FT fueling relative to JP-8+100 fueling. The latter affects both turbine efficiency and blade/vane life. In general, 100% SPK-FT fuel and blends with JP-8+100 produce less particulates and less smoke and have lower thermal impact on combustor hardware.

  14. Exhaust and evaporative emissions from motorcycles fueled with ethanol gasoline blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lan; Ge, Yunshan; Wang, Mingda; Peng, Zihang; Song, Yanan; Zhang, Liwei; Yuan, Wanli

    2015-01-01

    The emission characteristics of motorcycles using gasoline and E10 (90% gasoline and 10% ethanol by volume) were investigated in this article. Exhaust and evaporative emissions of three motorcycles were investigated on the chassis dynamometer over the Urban Driving Cycle (UDC) and in the Sealed Housing for Evaporative Determination (SHED) including regulated and unregulated emissions. The regulated emissions were detected by an exhaust gas analyzer directly. The unregulated emissions including carbonyls and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were sampled through battery-operated air pumps using tubes coated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and Tenax TA, respectively. The experimental results showed that the emission factors of total hydrocarbons (THC) and carbon monoxide (CO) from E10 fueling motorcycles decreased by 26%-45% and 63%-73%, while the emission factor of NOx increased by 36%-54% compared with those from gasoline fueling motorcycles. For unregulated emissions, the emission amount of VOCs from motorcycles fueled with E10 decreased by 18%-31% while total carbonyls were 2.6-4.5 times higher than those for gasoline. For evaporative emissions of THC and VOCs, for gasoline or E10, the diurnal breathing loss (DBL) was higher than hot soak loss (HSL). Using E10 as a fuel does not make much difference in the amount of evaporative THC, while resulted in a slightly growth of 14%-17% for evaporative BETX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of Blending Canola, Palm, Soybean, and Sunflower Oil Methyl Esters on Fuel Properties of Bioiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Single, binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures of canola (low erucic acid rapeseed), palm, soybean, and sunflower (high oleic acid) oil methyl esters (CME, PME, SME, and SFME, respectively) were prepared and important fuel properties measured, such as oil stability index (OSI), cold filter pluggin...

  16. Multivariable Robust Control of a Simulated Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Gas Turbine Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai A, Banta L, Tucker D

    2010-08-01

    This work presents a systematic approach to the multivariable robust control of a hybrid fuel cell gas turbine plant. The hybrid configuration under investigation built by the National Energy Technology Laboratory comprises a physical simulation of a 300kW fuel cell coupled to a 120kW auxiliary power unit single spool gas turbine. The public facility provides for the testing and simulation of different fuel cell models that in turn help identify the key difficulties encountered in the transient operation of such systems. An empirical model of the built facility comprising a simulated fuel cell cathode volume and balance of plant components is derived via frequency response data. Through the modulation of various airflow bypass valves within the hybrid configuration, Bode plots are used to derive key input/output interactions in transfer function format. A multivariate system is then built from individual transfer functions, creating a matrix that serves as the nominal plant in an H{sub {infinity}} robust control algorithm. The controller’s main objective is to track and maintain hybrid operational constraints in the fuel cell’s cathode airflow, and the turbo machinery states of temperature and speed, under transient disturbances. This algorithm is then tested on a Simulink/MatLab platform for various perturbations of load and fuel cell heat effluence. As a complementary tool to the aforementioned empirical plant, a nonlinear analytical model faithful to the existing process and instrumentation arrangement is evaluated and designed in the Simulink environment. This parallel task intends to serve as a building block to scalable hybrid configurations that might require a more detailed nonlinear representation for a wide variety of controller schemes and hardware implementations.

  17. Digital Control of a power conditioner for fuel cell/super-capacitor hybrid system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero, Juan C Trujillo; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol; Montesinos-Miracle, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a digital control scheme to operate a proton exchange membrane fuel cell module of 1.2 kW and a super-capacitor through a DC/DC hybrid converter. A fuel cell has been proposed as a primary source of energy, and a super-capacitor has been proposed as an auxiliary source...... of energy. Experimental validation of the system implemented in the laboratory is provided. Several tests have been performed to verify that the system achieves excellent output voltage (V0) regulation and super-capacitor voltage (V SC) control under disturbances from fuel cell power (PFC) and output power...

  18. A Two-stage DC-DC Converter for the Fuel Cell-Supercapacitor Hybrid System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2009-01-01

    A wide input range multi-stage converter is proposed with the fuel cells and supercapacitors as a hybrid system. The front-end two-phase boost converter is used to optimize the output power and to reduce the current ripple of fuel cells. The supercapacitor power module is connected by push......-pull-forward half bridge (PPFHB) converter with coupled inductors in the second stage to handle the slow transient response of the fuel cells and realize the bidirectional power flow control. Moreover, this cascaded structure simplifies the power management. The control strategy for the whole system is analyzed...

  19. Digital Control of a power conditioner for fuel cell/super-capacitor hybrid system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero, Juan C Trujillo; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol; Montesinos-Miracle, Daniel;

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a digital control scheme to operate a proton exchange membrane fuel cell module of 1.2 kW and a super-capacitor through a DC/DC hybrid converter. A fuel cell has been proposed as a primary source of energy, and a super-capacitor has been proposed as an auxiliary source...... of energy. Experimental validation of the system implemented in the laboratory is provided. Several tests have been performed to verify that the system achieves excellent output voltage (V0) regulation and super-capacitor voltage (V SC) control under disturbances from fuel cell power (PFC) and output power...

  20. Hybrid Direct Carbon Fuel Cell Performance with Anode Current Collector Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the current collector on the performance of a hybrid direct carbon fuel cell (HDCFC), consisting of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a molten carbonate-carbon slurry in contact with the anode, has been investigated using current-voltage curves. Four different anode current...... collectors were studied: Au, Ni, Ag, and Pt. It was shown that the performance of the direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) is dependent on the current collector materials, Ni and Pt giving the best performance, due to their catalytic activity. Gold is suggested to be the best material as an inert current collector...

  1. Chitosan-pectin hybrid nanoparticles prepared by coating and blending techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampino, A; Borgogna, M; Bellich, B; Blasi, P; Virgilio, F; Cesàro, A

    2016-03-10

    The preparation of chitosan nanoparticles in combination with pectins, as additional mucoadhesive biopolymers, was investigated. Pectins from apple and from citrus fruit were considered; polygalacturonic acid was taken as a reference. Tripolyphosphate was used as an anionic cross-linker. Two different techniques were compared, namely the coating and the blending. Coated nanoparticles (NPs) in the ratio pectin:NPs from 2:1 to 5:1 evidenced that the size of NPs increased as the amount of pectin (both from apple and citrus fruit) was increased. In particular, for NPs coated with pectin from citrus fruit the size ranges from 200 to 260nm; while for NPs coated with pectin from apple the size ranges from 330 to 450nm. A minimum value of Z-potential around -35mV was obtained for the ratio pectin:NPs 4:1, while further addition of pectin did not decrease the Z-potential. Also blended NPs showed a dependence of the size on the ratio of the components: for a given ratio pectin:tripolyphosphate the size increases as the fraction of chitosan increases; for a low ratio chitosan:pectin a high amount of tripolyphosphate was needed to obtain a compact structure. The effect of the additional presence of loaded proteins in chitosan-pectin nanoparticles was also investigated, since proteins contribute to alter the electrostatic interactions among charged species. FT-IR and DSC characterization are presented to confirm the interactions between biopolymers. Finally, the biocompatibility of the used materials was assessed by the chorioallantoic membrane assay, confirming the safety of the materials.

  2. Ancient hybridization fuels rapid cichlid fish adaptive radiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Joana I.; Marques, David A.; Mwaiko, Salome; Wagner, Catherine E.; Excoffier, Laurent; Seehausen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    Understanding why some evolutionary lineages generate exceptionally high species diversity is an important goal in evolutionary biology. Haplochromine cichlid fishes of Africa's Lake Victoria region encompass >700 diverse species that all evolved in the last 150,000 years. How this ‘Lake Victoria Region Superflock' could evolve on such rapid timescales is an enduring question. Here, we demonstrate that hybridization between two divergent lineages facilitated this process by providing genetic variation that subsequently became recombined and sorted into many new species. Notably, the hybridization event generated exceptional allelic variation at an opsin gene known to be involved in adaptation and speciation. More generally, differentiation between new species is accentuated around variants that were fixed differences between the parental lineages, and that now appear in many new combinations in the radiation species. We conclude that hybridization between divergent lineages, when coincident with ecological opportunity, may facilitate rapid and extensive adaptive radiation. PMID:28186104

  3. Turbomachinery for the air management and energy recovery in fuel cell gas turbine hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traverso, A.; Magistri, L.; Massardo, A.F. [DIMSET (TPG), University of Genoa, Via Montallegro 1, 16145, Genoa (Italy)

    2010-02-15

    High temperature fuel cells (MCFCs and SOFCs) can operate at atmospheric or pressurised conditions. In both cases, system performance can be significantly improved when the fuel cells are integrated with proper devices, which are designed to provide the necessary air inlet conditions and to recover the exhaust gas energy. This paper presents a review of modelling and design issues for the integration of turbomachinery with the fuel cell system, because turbomachinery is the most promising technology for coping with the high temperature fuel cell requirements. Since the gas turbine expander performance is significantly influenced by exhausts compositions, analytical approach is undertaken for properly modelling composition influence on expander performance, and results are presented to demonstrate the quantitative influence of the system parameters on the performance. The analysis covers the three main aspects of performance evaluation: the on-design, the off-design and, as a final mention, the control of the fuel cell hybrid systems. (author)

  4. Texas Hydrogen Highway Fuel Cell Hybrid Bus and Fueling Infrastructure Technology Showcase - Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, David

    2012-06-29

    The Texas Hydrogen Highway project has showcased a hydrogen fuel cell transit bus and hydrogen fueling infrastructure that was designed and built through previous support from various public and private sector entities. The aim of this project has been to increase awareness among transit agencies and other public entities on these transportation technologies, and to place such technologies into commercial applications, such as a public transit agency. The initial project concept developed in 2004 was to show that a skid-mounted, fully-integrated, factory-built and tested hydrogen fueling station could be used to simplify the design, and lower the cost of fueling infrastructure for fuel cell vehicles. The approach was to design, engineer, build, and test the integrated fueling station at the factory then install it at a site that offered educational and technical resources and provide an opportunity to showcase both the fueling station and advanced hydrogen vehicles. The two primary technology components include: Hydrogen Fueling Station: The hydrogen fueling infrastructure was designed and built by Gas Technology Institute primarily through a funding grant from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. It includes hydrogen production, clean-up, compression, storage, and dispensing. The station consists of a steam methane reformer, gas clean-up system, gas compressor and 48 kilograms of hydrogen storage capacity for dispensing at 5000 psig. The station is skid-mounted for easy installation and can be relocated if needed. It includes a dispenser that is designed to provide temperaturecompensated fills using a control algorithm. The total station daily capacity is approximately 50 kilograms. Fuel Cell Bus: The transit passenger bus built by Ebus, a company located in Downey, CA, was commissioned and acquired by GTI prior to this project. It is a fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle which is ADA compliant, has air conditioning sufficient for Texas operations

  5. Theoretical Studies of Ionic Liquids and Nanoclusters as Hybrid Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-17

    Engines & Motors  Satellite Propulsion  Combustion Devices  Fuels and Propellants  System Analysis  R&D Rocket Testing RQ-East (WPAFB, OH)  Air...Vehicle Structures  Controls  Turbine Engines  Ramjet Engines  Hypersonic Engines  Aircraft Power  Thermal Management  Fuels and Propellants...bonds is exothermic (6-11 kcal/mol) • Fragmentation of terminal B-H bonds is endothermic (2-6 kcal/mol) • B-H fragmentation barriers are 20-26 kcal

  6. Sizing stack and battery of a fuel cell hybrid distribution truck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tazelaar, Edwin; Shen, Y.; Veenhuizen, Bram; Hofman, T.; Bosch, P. van den

    2012-01-01

    An existing fuel cell hybrid distribution truck, built for demonstration purposes, is used as a case study to investigate the effect of stack (kW) and battery (kW, kWh) sizes on the hydrogen consumption of the vehicle. Three driving cycles, the NEDC for Low Power vehicles, CSC and JE05 cycle, define

  7. Hybrid direct carbon fuel cell anode processes investigated using a 3-electrode half-cell setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Arenillas, A.; Menendez, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    A 3-electrode half-cell setup consisting of a yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte support was employed to investigate the chemical and electrochemical processes occurring in the vicinity of a model hybrid direct carbon fuel cell (HDCFC) anode (Ni-YSZ) in contact with a molten carbon...

  8. Sizing stack and battery of a fuel cell hybrid distribution truck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Shen; P. van den Bosch; Edwin Tazelaar; Bram Veenhuizen; T. Hofman

    2012-01-01

    An existing fuel cell hybrid distribution truck, built for demonstration purposes, is used as a case study to investigate the effect of stack (kW) and battery (kW, kWh) sizes on the hydrogen consumption of the vehicle. Three driving cycles, the NEDC for Low Power vehicles, CSC and JE05 cycle, define

  9. An investigation on the fuel savings potential of hybrid hydraulic refuse collection vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Frank A; Bosse, Thomas; Sawodny, Oliver

    2014-09-01

    Refuse trucks play an important role in the waste collection process. Due to their typical driving cycle, these vehicles are characterized by large fuel consumption, which strongly affects the overall waste disposal costs. Hybrid hydraulic refuse vehicles offer an interesting alternative to conventional diesel trucks, because they are able to recuperate, store and reuse braking energy. However, the expected fuel savings can vary strongly depending on the driving cycle and the operational mode. Therefore, in order to assess the possible fuel savings, a typical driving cycle was measured in a conventional vehicle run by the waste authority of the City of Stuttgart, and a dynamical model of the considered vehicle was built up. Based on the measured driving cycle and the vehicle model including the hybrid powertrain components, simulations for both the conventional and the hybrid vehicle were performed. Fuel consumption results that indicate savings of about 20% are presented and analyzed in order to evaluate the benefit of hybrid hydraulic vehicles used for refuse collection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Modeling and Nonlinear Control of Fuel Cell / Supercapacitor Hybrid Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Fadil, Hassan; Giri, Fouad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of controlling hybrid energy storage system (HESS) for electric vehicle. The storage system consists of a fuel cell (FC), serving as the main power source, and a supercapacitor (SC), serving as an auxiliary power source. It also contains a power block for energy...

  11. Optimization of Biodiesel-Diesel Blended Fuel Properties and Engine Performance with Ether Additive Using Statistical Analysis and Response Surface Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obed M. Ali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the fuel properties and engine performance of blended palm biodiesel-diesel using diethyl ether as additive have been investigated. The properties of B30 blended palm biodiesel-diesel fuel were measured and analyzed statistically with the addition of 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% (by volume diethyl ether additive. The engine tests were conducted at increasing engine speeds from 1500 rpm to 3500 rpm and under constant load. Optimization of independent variables was performed using the desirability approach of the response surface methodology (RSM with the goal of minimizing emissions and maximizing performance parameters. The experiments were designed using a statistical tool known as design of experiments (DoE based on RSM.

  12. Knock-Limited Performance of Triptane and Xylidines Blended with 28-R Aviation Fuel at High Compression Ratios and Maximum-Economy Spark Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Louis F.; Pritchard, Ernest I.

    1946-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to evaluate the possibilities of utilizing the high-performance characteristics of triptane and xylidines blended with 28-R fuel in order to increase fuel economy by the use of high compression ratios and maximum-economy spark setting. Full-scale single-cylinder knock tests were run with 20 deg B.T.C. and maximum-economy spark settings at compression ratios of 6.9, 8.0, and 10.0, and with two inlet-air temperatures. The fuels tested consisted of triptane, four triptane and one xylidines blend with 28-R, and 28-R fuel alone. Indicated specific fuel consumption at lean mixtures was decreased approximately 17 percent at a compression ratio of 10.0 and maximum-economy spark setting, as compared to that obtained with a compression ratio of 6.9 and normal spark setting. When compression ratio was increased from 6.9 to 10.0 at an inlet-air temperature of 150 F, normal spark setting, and a fuel-air ratio of 0.065, 55-percent triptane was required with 28-R fuel to maintain the knock-limited brake power level obtained with 28-R fuel at a compression ratio of 6.9. Brake specific fuel consumption was decreased 17.5 percent at a compression ratio of 10.0 relative to that obtained at a compression ratio of 6.9. Approximately similar results were noted at an inlet-air temperature of 250 F. For concentrations up through at least 20 percent, triptane can be more efficiently used at normal than at maximum-economy spark setting to maintain a constant knock-limited power output over the range of compression ratios tested.

  13. Cooling Performance Evaluation of the Hybrid Heat Pipe for Spent Nuclear Fuel Dry Storage Cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yeong Shin; Bang, In Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    To evaluate the concept of the cooling device, 2-step CFD analysis was conducted for the cooling performance of hybrid heat pipe, which consists of single fuel assembly model and full scope dry cask model. As a passive cooling device of the metal cask for dry storage of spent nuclear fuel, hybrid heat pipe was applied to DPC developed in Korea. Hybrid heat pipe is the heat pipe containing neutron absorber can be used as a passive cooling in nuclear application with both decay heat removal and control the reactivity. In this study, 2-step CFD analysis was performed to find to evaluate the heat pipe-based passive cooling system for the application to the dry cask. Only spent fuel pool cannot satisfy the demands for high burnup fuel and large amount of spent fuel. Therefore, it is necessary to prepare supplement of the storage facilities. As one of the candidate of another type of storage, dry storage method have been preferred due to its good expansibility of storage capacity and easy long-term management. Dry storage uses the gas or air as coolant with passive cooling and neutron shielding materials was used instead of water in wet storage system. It is relatively safe and emits little radioactive waste for the storage. As short term actions for the limited storage capacity of spent fuel pool, it is considered to use dry interim/long term storage method to increase the capacity of spent nuclear fuel storage facilities. For 10-year cooled down spent fuel in the pool storage, fuel rod temperature inside metal cask is expected over 250 .deg. C in simulation. Although it satisfied the criteria that cladding temperature of the spent fuel should keep under 400 .deg. C during storage period, high temperature inside cask can accelerate the thermal degradation of the structural materials consisting metal cask and fuel assembly as well as limitation of the storage capacity of metal cask. In this paper, heat pipe-based cooling device for the dry storage cask was suggested for

  14. Organic nanoparticles from different fuel blends: in vitro toxicity and inflammatory potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, Maurizio; Capasso, Laura; D'Anna, Andrea; Camatini, Marina

    2014-11-01

    Despite the well-established link between particulate vehicle emissions and adverse health effects, the biological effects produced by ultrafine particles generated from fuel combustion need to be investigated. The biological impact of nano-sized organic carbon particles in the size range 3-7 nm, obtained from an engine fuelled with a standard diesel and four diesel fuels doped with additives of commercial interest is reported. Our data showed that the number of particles < 10 nm is to a very small extent reduced by diesel particle filters, despite its ability to trap micrometric and submicrometric particulates, and that there is a correlation between the additives used and the chemical characteristics of the nanoparticles sampled. The results show that the different nano-sized organic carbon particles induce cytotoxic and proinflammatory effects on the in vitro systems A549 (epithelial cells) and BEAS-2B (bronchial cells). All the fuels tested are able to induce the release of proinflammatory interleukins 8 and 6; moreover, the IC50 values show that the additives can increase the toxic potential of particles 10 times. Further analyses are therefore needed to better define the potential impact of organic ultrafine particles on human health.

  15. An Energy Management System of a Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid Boat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingang Han

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available All-electric ships are now a standard offering for energy/propulsion systems in boats. In this context, integrating fuel cells (FCs as power sources in hybrid energy systems can be an interesting solution because of their high efficiency and low emission. The energy management strategy for different power sources has a great influence on the fuel consumption, dynamic performance and service life of these power sources. This paper presents a hybrid FC/battery power system for a low power boat. The hybrid system consists of the association of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC and battery bank. The mathematical models for the components of the hybrid system are presented. These models are implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment. Simulations allow analyzing the dynamic performance and power allocation according to a typical driving cycle. In this system, an efficient energy management system (EMS based on operation states is proposed. This EMS strategy determines the operating point of each component of the system in order to maximize the system efficiency. Simulation results validate the adequacy of the hybrid power system and the proposed EMS for real ship driving cycles.

  16. Comparative study of two different powertrains for a fuel cell hybrid bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dawei; Jin, Zhenhua; Zhang, Junzhi; Li, Jianqiu; Ouyang, Minggao

    2016-07-01

    The powertrain plays an essential role in improving the tractive performance and the fuel consumption of fuel cell hybrid vehicles. This paper presents a comparative study of two different powertrains for fuel cell hybrid buses. The significant difference between the two powertrains lies in the types and arrangements of the electrical motor. One powertrain employs an induction motor to drive the vehicle, while the other powertrain adopts two permanent magnetic synchronous motors for near-wheel propulsion. Besides, the tiny difference between the proposed powertrain is the supply path of the fuel cell accessories, which can have an effect on the powertrain efficiency. The component parameters and energy management strategies for the two powertrain are determined. The fuel cell hybrid buses equipped with the two powertrains are developed, and some road tests are achieved, according to the chosen procedures or driving cycles. The paper focuses on the tractive performance and energy analysis of the powertrains based on the testing results. Finally, the paper summarizes the relative merits of the proposed powertrains.

  17. Thermoeconomic analysis of SOFC-GT hybrid systems fed by liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santin, Marco; Traverso, Alberto; Magistri, Loredana; Massardo, Aristide [TPG-DIMSET, University of Genoa, Via Montallegro 1, 16145 Genoa (Italy)

    2010-02-15

    In the distributed power generation market, Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine (SOFC-GT) hybrids are an attractive option. Prototypes are being tested around the world with different types of fuel, but mainly natural gas. In this publication, a study of SOFC-GT hybrids for operation with liquid fuels is presented. Two liquid fuels were investigated, methanol and kerosene, in four layouts, taking into account different fuel processing strategies. A 500 kW class hybrid system (HS) was analysed. Web-based ThermoEconomic Modular Program (WTEMP) software, developed by the Thermochemical Power Group of the University of Genoa, was used for the thermodynamic and investment analysis. Performance was calculated based on zero-dimensional component models. The economic assessment was performed with a through-life cost analysis approach. The cost of the conventional components was calculated with WTEMP cost equations. As a final result, methanol-fuelled HSs are shown to stand out for both their thermodynamic and economic performance. (author)

  18. Comparative Studies on Performance Characteristics of CI Engine Fuelled with Neem Methyl Ester and Mahua Methyl Ester and Its Respective Blends with Diesel Fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragit, S S; Mohapatra, S K; Kundu, K

    2014-01-01

    In the present investigation, neem and mahua methyl ester were prepared by transesterification using potassium hydroxide as a catalyst and tested in 4-stroke single cylinder water cooled diesel engine. Tests were carried out at constant speed of 1500 rev/min at different brake mean effective pressures. A series of tests were conducted which worked at different brake mean effective pressures, OkPa, 1kPa, 2kPa, 3kPa, 4kPa, 5kPa, 6kPa and 6.5kPa. The performance and exhaust emission characteristics of the diesel engine were analyzed and compared with diesel fuel. Results showed that BTE of NME was comparable with diesel and it was noted that the BTE of N0100 is 63.11% higher than that of diesel at part load whereas it reduces 11.2% with diesel fuel at full load. In case of full load, NME showed decreasing trend with diesel fuel. BTE of diesel was 15.37% and 36.89% at part load and full load respectively. The observation indicated that BTE for MME 100 was slightly higher than diesel at part loads. The specific fuel consumption (SFC) was more for almost all blends at all loads, compared to diesel. At part load, the EGT of MME and its blends were showing similar trend to diesel fuel and at full load, the exhaust gas temperature of MME and blends were higher than diesel. Based on this study, NME could be a substitute for diesel fuel in diesel engine.

  19. Well-to-Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emission Analysis of High-Octane Fuels with Ethanol Blending: Phase II Analysis with Refinery Investment Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Elgowainy, Amgad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; DiVita, Vincent [Jacobs Consultancy Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Higher-octane gasoline can enable increases in an internal combustion engine’s energy efficiency and a vehicle’s fuel economy by allowing an increase in the engine compression ratio and/or by enabling downspeeding and downsizing. Producing high-octane fuel (HOF) with the current level of ethanol blending (E10) could increase the energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions intensity of the fuel product from refinery operations. Alternatively, increasing the ethanol blending level in final gasoline products could be a promising solution to HOF production because of the high octane rating and potentially low blended Reid vapor pressure (RVP) of ethanol at 25% and higher of the ethanol blending level by volume. In our previous HOF well-to-wheels (WTW) report (the so-called phase I report of the HOF WTW analysis), we conducted WTW analysis of HOF with different ethanol blending levels (i.e., E10, E25, and E40) and a range of vehicle efficiency gains with detailed petroleum refinery linear programming (LP) modeling by Jacobs Consultancy and showed that the overall WTW GHG emission changes associated with HOFVs were dominated by the positive impact associated with vehicle efficiency gains and ethanol blending levels, while the refining operations to produce gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending (BOB) for various HOF blend levels had a much smaller impact on WTW GHG emissions (Han et al. 2015). The scope of the previous phase I study, however, was limited to evaluating PADDs 2 and 3 operation changes with various HOF market share scenarios and ethanol blending levels. Also, the study used three typical configuration models of refineries (cracking, light coking, and heavy coking) in each PADD, which may not be representative of the aggregate response of all refineries in each PADD to various ethanol blending levels and HOF market scenarios. Lastly, the phase I study assumed no new refinery expansion in the existing refineries, which limited E10 HOF production to the

  20. Ethanol dehydration via azeotropic distillation with gasoline fractions as entrainers: A pilot-scale study of the manufacture of an ethanol–hydrocarbon fuel blend

    OpenAIRE

    Gomis Yagües, Vicente; Pedraza Berenguer, Ricardo; Saquete Ferrándiz, María Dolores; Font, Alicia; García Cano, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    We establish experimentally and through simulations the economic and technical viability of dehydrating ethanol by means of azeotropic distillation, using a hydrocarbon as entrainer. The purpose of this is to manufacture a ready-to-use ethanol–hydrocarbon fuel blend. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of this proposition, we have tested an azeotropic water–ethanol feed mixture, using a hydrocarbon as entrainer, in a semi pilot-plant scale distillation column. Four different hydrocarbons ...

  1. Bismaleimide/Preceramic Polymer Blends for Hybrid Material Transition Regions. Part 2. Incorporating Compatibilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    temperature hybrids, a silicon carbide ( SiC ) outer layer rather than silicon dioxide is desired especially for rocket propulsion and turbine engine...Among the precursors of SiC , the allylhydridopolycarbosilane class of polymers is known to be available in ultrahigh purity forms yielding a near...viewpoint of fabricating high -performance SiC composites.8As a precursor of thermally stable SiC , allylhydrido-phenylpolycarbosilane (trade name: Starfire

  2. Intermittent use of a low-cost alkaline fuel cell-hybrid system for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordesch, Karl; Gsellmann, Josef; Cifrain, Martin; Voss, Susanne; Hacker, Victor; Aronson, Robert R.; Fabjan, Christoph; Hejze, Thomas; Daniel-Ivad, Josef

    Alkaline fuel cell (AFC) hybrids with the capability to shut down completely between uses (by draining the circulating KOH electrolyte) can expect an operating life of about 4000 h, which is equivalent to 200,000 km of driving, They should be able to compete on cost with heat engines (US50 to US100 per kW). An early model is the hydrogen/air fuel cell lead-acid hybrid car, built by K. Kordesch in the 1970s. Improved air electrodes plus new variations of the bipolar stack assembly developed in Graz, make success probable. In cooperation with Electric Auto (EAC), an ammonia cracker is also in development. A RAM™ battery-AFC hybrid combination has been optimized.

  3. A study of performance and emission characteristics of computerized CI engine with composite biodiesel blends as fuel at various injection pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogish, H.; Chandarshekara, K.; Pramod Kumar, M. R.

    2013-09-01

    Transesterified vegetable oils are becoming increasingly important as alternative fuels for diesel engines due to several advantages. Biodiesel is a renewable, inexhaustible and green fuel. This paper presents the various properties of the oils derived from Jatropha and Pongamia, their mixes and biodiesels derived from the mixes. An innovative lab scale reactor was designed and developed for biodiesel production from mixed vegetable oils and used for the study of optimization of biodiesel yield [1]. Also, the analysis of data of experimental investigations carried out on a 3.75 kW computerized CI engine at injection pressures of 160 and 180 bar with methyl esters of mixed Jatropha and Pongamia in various proportions are also presented. The brake thermal efficiency for biodiesel blends was found to be higher than that of petrodiesel at various loading conditions. In case of Composite biodiesel blended fuels, the exhaust gas temperature increased with increase in load and the amount of composite biodiesel. The highest exhaust gas temperature was observed as 213 °C for biodiesel among the five loading conditions. When petrodiesel was used the exhaust gas temperature was observed to be 220 °C. The CO2, CO, HC and NOx emissions from the biodiesel blends were lower than that of petrodiesel.

  4. Effects of Pilot Injection Timing and EGR on Combustion, Performance and Exhaust Emissions in a Common Rail Diesel Engine Fueled with a Canola Oil Biodiesel-Diesel Blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cong Ge

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel as a clean energy source could reduce environmental pollution compared to fossil fuel, so it is becoming increasingly important. In this study, we investigated the effects of different pilot injection timings from before top dead center (BTDC and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR on combustion, engine performance, and exhaust emission characteristics in a common rail diesel engine fueled with canola oil biodiesel-diesel (BD blend. The pilot injection timing and EGR rate were changed at an engine speed of 2000 rpm fueled with BD20 (20 vol % canola oil and 80 vol % diesel fuel blend. As the injection timing advanced, the combustion pressure, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC, and peak combustion pressure (Pmax changed slightly. Carbon monoxide (CO and particulate matter (PM emissions clearly decreased at BTDC 20° compared with BTDC 5°, but nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions increased slightly. With an increasing EGR rate, the combustion pressure and indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP decreased slightly at BTDC 20° compared to other injection timings. However, the Pmax showed a remarkable decrease. The BSFC and PM emissions increased slightly, but the NOx emission decreased considerably.

  5. Preliminary Compatibility Assessment of Metallic Dispenser Materials for Service in Ethanol Fuel Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, Steven J [ORNL; Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Janke, Christopher James [ORNL

    2009-11-01

    The compatibility of selected metals representative of those commonly used in dispensing systems was evaluated in an aggressive E20 formulation (CE20a) and in synthetic gasoline (Reference Fuel C) in identical testing to facilitate comparison of results. The testing was performed at modestly elevated temperature (nominally 60 C) and with constant fluid flow in an effort to accelerate potential interactions in the screening test. Based on weight change, the general corrosion of all individual coupons exposed in the vapor phase above Reference Fuel C and CE20a as well as all coupons immersed in Reference Fuel C was essentially nil (<0.3 {micro}m/y), with no evidence of localized corrosion such as pitting/crevice corrosion or selective leaching at any location. Modest discoloration was observed on the copper-based alloys (cartridge brass and phosphor bronze), but the associated corrosion films were quite thin and apparently protective. For coupons immersed in CE20a, four different materials exhibited net weight loss over the entire course of the experiment: cartridge brass, phosphor bronze, galvanized steel, and terne-plated steel. None of these exhibited substantial incompatibility with the test fluid, with the largest general corrosion rate calculated from coupon weight loss to be approximately 4 {micro}m/y for the cartridge brass specimens. Selective leaching of zinc (from brass) and tin (from bronze) was observed, as well as the presence of sulfide surface films rich in these elements, suggesting the importance of the role of sulfuric acid in the CE20a formulation. Analysis of weight loss data for the slightly corroded metals indicated that the corrosivity of the test environment decreased with exposure time for brass and bronze and increased for galvanized and terne-plated steel. Other materials immersed in CE20a - type 1020 mild steel, type 1100 aluminum, type 201 nickel, and type 304 stainless steel - each appeared essentially immune to corrosion at the test

  6. Thermodynamic analysis of SOFC (solid oxide fuel cell) - Stirling hybrid plants using alternative fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    . Simulations of the proposed system were conducted using different fuels, which should facilitate the use of a variety of fuels depending on availability. Here, the results for natural gas (NG), ammonia, di-methyl ether (DME), methanol and ethanol are presented and analyzed. The system behavior is further...

  7. Multi-objective optimization for hybrid fuel cells power system under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanyan, Karthik; Diwekar, Urmila M.; Goyal, Amit

    One of the major applications of fuel cells is as onsite stationary electric power plants. Several types of configurations have been hypothesized and tested for these kinds of applications at the conceptual level but hybrid power plants are one of the most efficient. These are designs that combine a fuel cell cycle with other thermodynamic cycles to provide higher efficiency. Generally, the heat rejected by the fuel cell at a higher temperature is used in a bottoming cycle to generate steam. In this work we are considering a conceptual design of a solid oxide fuel cell-proton exchange membrane (SOFC-PEM) fuel cell hybrid power plant [R. Geisbrecht, Compact Electrochemical Reformer Based on SOFC Technology, AIChE Spring National Meeting, Atlanta, GA, 2000] in which the high temperature SOFC fuel cell acts both as electricity producer and fuel reformer for the low temperature PEM fuel cell (PEMFC). The exhaust from the PEM fuel cell goes to a waste hydrogen burner and heat recovery steam generator that produces steam for further utilizations. Optimizing this conceptual design involves consideration of a number of objectives. The process should have low pollutant emissions as well as cost competitive with the existing technology. The solution of a multi-objective optimization problem is not a single solution but a complete non-dominated or Pareto set, which includes the alternatives representing potential compromise solutions among the objectives. This makes a range of choice available to decision makers and provides them with the trade-off information among the multiple objectives effectively. This paper presents the optimal trade-off design solutions or the Pareto set for this hybrid power plant through a multi-objective optimization framework. This hybrid technology is new and the system level models used for fuel cells performance have significant uncertainties in them. In this paper, we characterize these uncertainties and study the effect of these uncertainties

  8. EFFECTS OF ETHANOL BLENDED DIESEL FUEL ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM A DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özer CAN

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engine emissions can be improved by adding organic oxygenated compounds to the No. 2 diesel fuel. In this study, effects of 10 % and 15 % (in volume ethanol addition to Diesel No. 2 on exhaust emissions from an indirect injection turbocharged diesel engine running at different engine speeds and loads were investigated. Experimental results showed that the ethanol addition reduced CO, soot and SO2 emissions, although it caused some increase in NOx emission and some power reductions due to lower heating value of ethanol. Improvements on emissions were more significant at full load rather than at partial loads.

  9. Modeling and energy management control design for a fuel cell hybrid passenger bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Kyle; Guezennec, Yann; Onori, Simona

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling and supervisory energy management design of a hybrid fuel cell/battery-powered passenger bus. With growing concerns about petroleum usage and greenhouse gas emissions in the transportation sector, finding alternative methods for vehicle propulsion is necessary. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems are viable possibilities for energy converters due to their high efficiencies and zero emissions. It has been shown that the benefits of PEM fuel cell systems can be greatly improved through hybridization. In this work, the challenge of developing an on-board energy management strategy with near-optimal performance is addressed by a two-step process. First, an optimal control based on Pontryagin's Minimum Principle (PMP) is implemented to find the global optimal solution which minimizes fuel consumption, for different drive cycles, with and without grade. The optimal solutions are analyzed in order to aid in development of a practical controller suitable for on-board implementation, in the form of an Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) regulator. Simulation results show that the ARMA controller is capable of achieving fuel economy within 3% of the PMP controller while being able to limit the transient demand on the fuel cell system.

  10. Metal membrane-type 25-kW methanol fuel processor for fuel-cell hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jaesung; Lee, Seok-Min; Chang, Hyuksang

    A 25-kW on-board methanol fuel processor has been developed. It consists of a methanol steam reformer, which converts methanol to hydrogen-rich gas mixture, and two metal membrane modules, which clean-up the gas mixture to high-purity hydrogen. It produces hydrogen at rates up to 25 N m 3/h and the purity of the product hydrogen is over 99.9995% with a CO content of less than 1 ppm. In this fuel processor, the operating condition of the reformer and the metal membrane modules is nearly the same, so that operation is simple and the overall system construction is compact by eliminating the extensive temperature control of the intermediate gas streams. The recovery of hydrogen in the metal membrane units is maintained at 70-75% by the control of the pressure in the system, and the remaining 25-30% hydrogen is recycled to a catalytic combustion zone to supply heat for the methanol steam-reforming reaction. The thermal efficiency of the fuel processor is about 75% and the inlet air pressure is as low as 4 psi. The fuel processor is currently being integrated with 25-kW polymer electrolyte membrane fuel-cell (PEMFC) stack developed by the Hyundai Motor Company. The stack exhibits the same performance as those with pure hydrogen, which proves that the maximum power output as well as the minimum stack degradation is possible with this fuel processor. This fuel-cell 'engine' is to be installed in a hybrid passenger vehicle for road testing.

  11. Spent Nuclear Fuel Option Study on Hybrid Reactor for Waste Transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Hee; Kim, Myung Hyun [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    DUPIC nuclear fuel can be used in hybrid reactor by compensation of subcritical level through (U-10Zr) fuel. Energy production performance of Hyb-WT with DUPIC is grateful because it has high EM factor and performs waste transmutation at the same time. However, waste transmutation performance should be improved by different fissile fuel instead of (U-10Zr) fuel. SNF (Spent Nuclear Fuel) disposal is one of the problems in the nuclear industry. FFHR (Fusion-Fission Hybrid Reactor) is one of the most attractive option on reuse of SNF as a waste transmutation system. Because subcritical system like FFHR has some advantages compared to critical system. Subcritical systems have higher safety potential than critical system. Also, there is suppressed excess reactivity at BOC (Beginning of Cycle) in critical system, on the other hand there is no suppressed reactivity in subcritical system. Our research team could have designed FFHR for waste transmutation; Hyb-WT. Various researches have been conducted on fuel and coolant option for optimization of transmutation performance. However, Hyb-WT has technical disadvantage. It is required fusion power (Pfus) which is the key design parameter in FFHR is increased for compensation of decreasing subcritical level. As a result, structure material integrity is damaged under high irradiation condition by increasing Pfus. Also, deep burn of reprocessed SNF is limited by weakened integrity of structure material. Therefore, in this research, SNF option study will be conducted on DUPIC (Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactor) fuel, TRU fuel and DUPIC + TRU mixed fuel for optimization of Hyb-WT performance. Goal of this research is design check for low required fusion power and high waste transmutation. In this paper, neutronic analysis is conducted on Hyb-WT with DUPIC nuclear fuel. When DUPIC nuclear fuel is loaded in fast neutron system, supplement fissile materials need to be loaded together for compensation of low criticality

  12. M1078 Hybrid Hydraulic Vehicle Fuel Economy Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 28-09-2012 2. REPORT TYPE Interim Report 3. DATES COVERED (From...system shakedown and developmental testing. During developmental testing, a hydraulic motor failure occurred. Although not catastrophic, the motor...main hydraulic hybrid system control module to request the TCM to shift the transmission. Clutch Operation with engine- off (hydraulic-only power) or

  13. Storable Hypergolic Solid Fuel for Hybrid Rocket Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Singh

    1976-07-01

    Full Text Available A solid fuel was synthesised by condensing aniline with furfuraldehyde. The product was directly cast in the rocket motor casing. After curing a hard solid mass was obtained. This was found to have good hypergolicity with RFNA (Red Fuming Nitric Acid, good storability at room temperature and the mechanical properties. The paper presented the techniques of casting, ignition delay measurements and indicates the future programme for this study.

  14. Optimal Battery Utilization Over Lifetime for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle to Maximize Fuel Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Chinmaya; Naghshtabrizi, Payam; Verma, Rajeev; Tang, Zhijun; Smith, Kandler; Shi, Ying

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a control strategy to maximize fuel economy of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle over a target life of the battery. Many approaches to maximizing fuel economy of parallel hybrid electric vehicle do not consider the effect of control strategy on the life of the battery. This leads to an oversized and underutilized battery. There is a trade-off between how aggressively to use and 'consume' the battery versus to use the engine and consume fuel. The proposed approach addresses this trade-off by exploiting the differences in the fast dynamics of vehicle power management and slow dynamics of battery aging. The control strategy is separated into two parts, (1) Predictive Battery Management (PBM), and (2) Predictive Power Management (PPM). PBM is the higher level control with slow update rate, e.g. once per month, responsible for generating optimal set points for PPM. The considered set points in this paper are the battery power limits and State Of Charge (SOC). The problem of finding the optimal set points over the target battery life that minimize engine fuel consumption is solved using dynamic programming. PPM is the lower level control with high update rate, e.g. a second, responsible for generating the optimal HEV energy management controls and is implemented using model predictive control approach. The PPM objective is to find the engine and battery power commands to achieve the best fuel economy given the battery power and SOC constraints imposed by PBM. Simulation results with a medium duty commercial hybrid electric vehicle and the proposed two-level hierarchical control strategy show that the HEV fuel economy is maximized while meeting a specified target battery life. On the other hand, the optimal unconstrained control strategy achieves marginally higher fuel economy, but fails to meet the target battery life.

  15. Numerical and experimental studies of the hybrid rocket motor with multi-port fuel grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hui; Li, Xintian; Zeng, Peng; Yu, Nanjia; Cai, Guobiao

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents three-dimensional numerical simulations and experimental studies of the hybrid rocket motor with multi-port fuel grain. The numerical model is established based on the Navier-Stokes equations with turbulence, chemical reactions, fuel pyrolysis, and solid-gas boundary interactions. The simulation is performed based on the 98% hydrogen peroxide (HP) and hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) propellant combination. The results indicate that the flow field and fuel regression rate distributions present apparent three-dimensional characteristics. The fuel regression rates decrease first and then gradually increase with the axial location increasing. At a certain cross section, the fuel regression rates are lower in the points on arcs with smaller radius of curvature when the fuel port is a derivable convex figure. Two experiments are carried out on a full scale motor with the simulation one. The working process of the motor is steady and no evident oscillatory combustion is observed. The fuel port profiles before and after tests indicate that the fuel regression rate distributions at the cross section match well with the numerical simulation results.

  16. The Pneumatic Hybrid Vehicle - A New Concept for Fuel Consumption Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trajkovic, Sasa

    2010-07-01

    Urban traffic involves frequent acceleration and deceleration. During deceleration, the energy previously used to accelerate the vehicle is mainly wasted on heat generated by the friction brakes. If this energy that is wasted in traditional internal combustion engines (ICE) could be saved, the fuel economy would improve. Today there are several solutions to meet the demand for better fuel economy and one of them is the pneumatic hybrids. The idea with pneumatic hybridization is to reduce the fuel consumption by taking advantage of the, otherwise lost, brake energy. In the work presented in this study heavy duty Scania engines were converted to operate as pneumatic hybrid engines. During pneumatic hybrid operation the engine can be used as a 2-stroke compressor for generation of compressed air during vehicle deceleration (compressor mode) and during vehicle acceleration the engine can be operated as an air-motor driven by the previously stored pressurized air (air-motor mode). The compressed air is stored in a pressure tank connected to one of the inlet ports. One of the engine inlet valves has been modified to work as a tank valve in order to control the pressurized air flow to and from the pressure tank. In order to switch between different modes of engine operation there is a need for a fully variable valve actuation (FVVA) system. The engines used in this study are equipped with pneumatic valve actuators that use compressed air in order to drive the valves and the motion of the valves is controlled by a combination of electronics and hydraulics. Initial testing concerning the different pneumatic hybrid engine modes of operation was conducted. Both compressor mode (CM) and air-motor mode (AM) were executed successfully. Optimization of CM and AM with regards to valve timing and valve geometry has been done with great improvements in regenerative efficiency which is defined as the ratio between the energy extracted during AM and the energy consumed during CM. A

  17. A Better Blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demski, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    In May 2009, the US Department of Education released a meta-analysis of effectiveness studies of online, face-to-face, and blended learning models. The analysis found that online learning produced better student outcomes than face-to-face classes, and that blended learning offered an even "larger advantage" over face-to-face. The hybrid approach…

  18. Distributed energy resources management using plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as a fuel-shifting demand response resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago; Soares, J.

    2015-01-01

    In the smart grids context, distributed energy resources management plays an important role in the power systems' operation. Battery electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles should be important resources in the future distribution networks operation. Therefore, it is important...... to develop adequate methodologies to schedule the electric vehicles' charge and discharge processes, avoiding network congestions and providing ancillary services.This paper proposes the participation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in fuel shifting demand response programs. Two services are proposed......, namely the fuel shifting and the fuel discharging. The fuel shifting program consists in replacing the electric energy by fossil fuels in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles daily trips, and the fuel discharge program consists in use of their internal combustion engine to generate electricity injecting...

  19. Design and modeling of power system for a fuel cell hybrid switcher locomotive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Liping, E-mail: lguo@niu.ed [Department of Engineering Technology, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States); Yedavalli, Karthik; Zinger, Donald [Department of Electrical Engineering, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    This paper discusses the design and modeling of power system for a fuel cell hybrid locomotive. Different types of fuel cells for appropriate application to locomotives were compared, fuel cell and auxiliary storage devices were modeled, and a control strategy for the overall system was developed in this paper. By using the proposed control strategy, the power control system regulates the sharing of power demand between fuel cell and auxiliary storage units including batteries and ultracapacitors. Experimental data of the power duty cycle of a typical switcher locomotive is analyzed. The proposed control system is tested using the experimental data. Results show that the control system is able to maintain output voltage from different power sources within a certain range, keep the state of charge of the batteries within an optimal range and meet power demand of the locomotive at a high efficiency.

  20. Design and modeling of power system for a fuel cell hybrid switcher locomotive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Liping [Department of Engineering Technology, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States); Yedavalli, Karthik; Zinger, Donald [Department of Electrical Engineering, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    This paper discusses the design and modeling of power system for a fuel cell hybrid locomotive. Different types of fuel cells for appropriate application to locomotives were compared, fuel cell and auxiliary storage devices were modeled, and a control strategy for the overall system was developed in this paper. By using the proposed control strategy, the power control system regulates the sharing of power demand between fuel cell and auxiliary storage units including batteries and ultracapacitors. Experimental data of the power duty cycle of a typical switcher locomotive is analyzed. The proposed control system is tested using the experimental data. Results show that the control system is able to maintain output voltage from different power sources within a certain range, keep the state of charge of the batteries within an optimal range and meet power demand of the locomotive at a high efficiency. (author)

  1. Economic and environmental comparison of conventional, hybrid, electric and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granovskii, Mikhail; Dincer, Ibrahim; Rosen, Marc A.

    Published data from various sources are used to perform economic and environmental comparisons of four types of vehicles: conventional, hybrid, electric and hydrogen fuel cell. The production and utilization stages of the vehicles are taken into consideration. The comparison is based on a mathematical procedure, which includes normalization of economic indicators (prices of vehicles and fuels during the vehicle life and driving range) and environmental indicators (greenhouse gas and air pollution emissions), and evaluation of an optimal relationship between the types of vehicles in the fleet. According to the comparison, hybrid and electric cars exhibit advantages over the other types. The economic efficiency and environmental impact of electric car use depends substantially on the source of the electricity. If the electricity comes from renewable energy sources, the electric car is advantageous compared to the hybrid. If electricity comes from fossil fuels, the electric car remains competitive only if the electricity is generated on board. It is shown that, if electricity is generated with an efficiency of about 50-60% by a gas turbine engine connected to a high-capacity battery and an electric motor, the electric car becomes advantageous. Implementation of fuel cells stacks and ion conductive membranes into gas turbine cycles permits electricity generation to increase to the above-mentioned level and air pollution emissions to decrease. It is concluded that the electric car with on-board electricity generation represents a significant and flexible advance in the development of efficient and ecologically benign vehicles.

  2. Experimental Evaluation of Supercapacitor-Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Source for HY-IEL Scooter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bujlo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of development of a hybrid fuel cell supercapacitor power system for vehicular applications that was developed and investigated at the Energy Sources Research Section of the Wroclaw Division of Electrotechnical Institute (IEL/OW. The hybrid power source consists of a polymer exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC stack and an energy-type supercapacitor that supports the system in time of peak power demands. The developed system was installed in the HY-IEL electric scooter. The vehicle was equipped with auxiliary components (e.g., air compressor, hydrogen tank, and electromagnetic valves needed for proper operation of the fuel cell stack, as well as electronic control circuits and a data storage unit that enabled on-line recording of system and vehicle operation parameters. Attention is focused on the system energy flow monitoring. The experimental part includes field test results of a vehicle powered with the fuel cell-supercapacitor system. Values of currents and voltages recorded for the system, as well as the vehicle’s velocity and hydrogen consumption rate, are presented versus time of the experiment. Operation of the hybrid power system is discussed and analysed based on the results of measurements obtained.

  3. MODELING, SIMULATON AND SIZING OF PHOTOVOLTAIC/WIND/FUEL CELL HYBRID GENERATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.S.LATHA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The depleting fossil fuel reserves and increasing concern towards global warming have created the need to surge for the alternative power generation options. Renewable energy sources like Wind, Solar-PV, Biomass and fuel cells are gaining prominence nowadays, as they are more energy efficient, reduce pollution and also they serveas a promising solution to the toughest energy crisis faced during the recent years. This paper focuses on the modeling and simulation of solar – photovoltaic, wind and fuel cell hybrid energy systems using MATLAB/Simulink software. The intermittent nature of solar and wind energy sources make them unreliable. Hence Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT is used to extract maximum power from the wind and sunwhen it is available. The standard perturb and observe method of MPPT is used for the PV system and for the wind generation system. The simulation results of the PV/Wind /Fuel cell hybrid system are presented in graph showing the effectiveness of the proposed system model. Also, hardware implementation of microcontroller based MPPT for solar-PV alone and unit sizing of the hybrid system for the PG simulation lab in EEE Dept. of Thiagarajar College of Engineering is depicted in the paper.

  4. Fuel decomposition and boundary-layer combustion processes of hybrid rocket motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaverini, Martin J.; Harting, George C.; Lu, Yeu-Cherng; Kuo, Kenneth K.; Serin, Nadir; Johnson, David K.

    1995-01-01

    Using a high-pressure, two-dimensional hybrid motor, an experimental investigation was conducted on fundamental processes involved in hybrid rocket combustion. HTPB (Hydroxyl-terminated Polybutadiene) fuel cross-linked with diisocyanate was burned with GOX under various operating conditions. Large-amplitude pressure oscillations were encountered in earlier test runs. After identifying the source of instability and decoupling the GOX feed-line system and combustion chamber, the pressure oscillations were drastically reduced from +/-20% of the localized mean pressure to an acceptable range of +/-1.5% Embedded fine-wire thermocouples indicated that the surface temperature of the burning fuel was around 1000 K depending upon axial locations and operating conditions. Also, except near the leading-edge region, the subsurface thermal wave profiles in the upstream locations are thicker than those in the downstream locations since the solid-fuel regression rate, in general, increases with distance along the fuel slab. The recovered solid fuel slabs in the laminar portion of the boundary layer exhibited smooth surfaces, indicating the existence of a liquid melt layer on the burning fuel surface in the upstream region. After the transition section, which displayed distinct transverse striations, the surface roughness pattern became quite random and very pronounced in the downstream turbulent boundary-layer region. Both real-time X-ray radiography and ultrasonic pulse-echo techniques were used to determine the instantaneous web thickness burned and instantaneous solid-fuel regression rates over certain portions of the fuel slabs. Globally averaged and axially dependent but time-averaged regression rates were also obtained and presented.

  5. Evaluation of the hydrogen-fueled rotary engine for hybrid vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salanki, P.A.; Wallace, J.S. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-09-01

    The hydrogen-fueled engine has been identified as a viable power unit for ultra-low emission series-hybrid vehicles. The Wankel engine is particularly well suited to the use of hydrogen fuel, since its design minimizes most of the combustion difficulties. In order to evaluate the possibilities offered by the hydrogen fueled rotary engine, dynamometer tests were conducted with a small (2.2 kW) Wankel engine fueled with hydrogen. Preliminary results show an absence of the combustion difficulties present with hydrogen-fueled homogeneous charge piston engines. The engine was operated unthrottled and power output was controlled by quality governing, i.e. by varying the fuel-air equivalence ratio on the lean side of stoichiometric. The ability to operate with quality governing is made possible by the wide flammability limits of hydrogen-air mixtures. NO{sub x} emissions are on the order of 5 ppm for power outputs up to 70% of the maximum attainable on hydrogen fuel. Thus, by operating with very lean mixtures, which effectively derates the engine, very low NO{sub x} emissions can be achieved. Since the rotary engine has a characteristically high power to weight ratio and a small volume per unit power compared to the piston engine, operating a rotary engine on hydrogen and derating the power output could yield an engine with extremely low emissions which still has weight and volume characteristics comparable to a gasoline-fueled piston engine. Finally, since engine weight and volume affect vehicle design, and consequently in-use vehicle power requirements, those factors, as well as engine efficiency, must be taken into account in evaluating overall hybrid vehicle efficiency.

  6. Performance study of sugar-yeast-ethanol bio-hybrid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Justin P.; Mackie, David M.; Benyamin, Marcus; Ganguli, Rahul; Sumner, James J.

    2015-05-01

    Renewable alternatives to fossil hydrocarbons for energy generation are of general interest for a variety of political, economic, environmental, and practical reasons. In particular, energy from biomass has many advantages, including safety, sustainability, and the ability to be scavenged from native ecosystems or from waste streams. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can take advantage of microorganism metabolism to efficiently use sugar and other biomolecules as fuel, but are limited by low power densities. In contrast, direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs) take advantage of proton exchange membranes (PEMs) to generate electricity from alcohols at much higher power densities. Here, we investigate a novel bio-hybrid fuel cell design prepared using commercial off-the-shelf DAFCs. In the bio-hybrid fuel cells, biomass such as sugar is fermented by yeast to ethanol, which can be used to fuel a DAFC. A separation membrane between the fermentation and the DAFC is used to purify the fermentate while avoiding any parasitic power losses. However, shifting the DAFCs from pure alcohol-water solutions to filtered fermented media introduces complications related to how the starting materials, fermentation byproducts, and DAFC waste products affect both the fermentation and the long-term DAFC performance. This study examines the impact of separation membrane pore size, fermentation/fuel cell byproducts, alcohol and salt concentrations, and load resistance on fuel cell performance. Under optimized conditions, the performance obtained is comparable to that of a similar DAFC run with a pure alcohol-water mixture. Additionally, the modified DAFC can provide useable amounts of power for weeks.

  7. Hydrogen Fueled Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine (SOFC-GT) System for Long-Haul Rail Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Justin Jeff

    Freight movement of goods is the artery for America's economic health. Long-haul rail is the premier mode of transport on a ton-mile basis. Concerns regarding greenhouse gas and criteria pollutant emissions, however, have motivated the creation of annually increasing locomotive emissions standards. Health issues from diesel particulate matter, especially near rail yards, have also been on the rise. These factors and the potential to raise conventional diesel-electric locomotive performance warrants the investigation of using future fuels in a more efficient system for locomotive application. This research evaluates the dynamic performance of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine (SOFC-GT) Hybrid system operating on hydrogen fuel to power a locomotive over a rail path starting from the Port of Los Angeles and ending in the City of Barstow. Physical constraints, representative locomotive operation logic, and basic design are used from a previous feasibility study and simulations are performed in the MATLAB Simulink environment. In-house controls are adapted to and expanded upon. Results indicate high fuel-to-electricity efficiencies of at least 54% compared to a conventional diesel-electric locomotive efficiency of 35%. Incorporation of properly calibrated feedback and feed-forward controls enables substantial load following of difficult transients that result from train kinematics while maintaining turbomachinery operating requirements and suppressing thermal stresses in the fuel cell stack. The power split between the SOFC and gas turbine is deduced to be a deterministic factor in the balance between capital and operational costs. Using hydrogen results in no emissions if renewable and offers a potential of 24.2% fuel energy savings for the rail industry.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of polyurethane ionomers, blends and urethane-urea aerogel hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingzhe

    polyurethane ionomers synthesized in this work were combined with, sulfonated polystyrene, and poly(ethylene-co-acrylic or methacrylic acid) polymers, their partially neutralized ionomers, and thermoplastic polyurethanes. It was found that polyurethane anionomers synthesized by the new method were miscible with these polymers through the composition range. Several series of these blends were studied using mid- and far-infrared spectroscopy to investigate molecular interactions that lead to the miscibility. Isocyanate-containing molecules were reacted with chitosan silica aerogels. It was discovered that -NCO groups of the diisocyanate HMDI reacted selectively with amine groups in the presence of large excesses of -OH groups from alcohol, silica, and water. This study leads to the possibility of attaching nanoscale aerogel particles to substrates, to one another, and to additional molecules of interest.

  9. Cycle Analysis of Micro Gas Turbine-Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Hybrid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimijima, Shinji; Kasagi, Nobuhide

    A hybrid system based on a micro gas turbine (µGT) and a high-temperature fuel cell, i.e., molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) or solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), is expected to achieve a much higher efficiency than conventional distributed power generation systems. In this study, a cycle analysis method and the performance evaluation of a µGT-MCFC hybrid system, of which the power output is 30kW, are investigated to clarify its feasibility. We developed a general design strategy in which a low fuel input to a combustor and higher MCFC operating temperature result in a high power generation efficiency. A high recuperator temperature effectiveness and a moderate steam-carbon ratio are the requirements for obtaining a high material strength in a turbine. In addition, by employing a combustor for complete oxidation of MCFC effluents without additional fuel input, i.e., a catalytic combustor, the power generation efficiency of a µGT-MCFC is achieved at over 60%(LHV).

  10. Adaptive Second Order Sliding Mode Control of a Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Electric Vehicle Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxing Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an adaptive-gain second order sliding mode (SOSM control applied to a hybrid power system for electric vehicle applications. The main advantage of the adaptive SOSM is that it does not require the upper bound of the uncertainty. The proposed hybrid system consists of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC with a unidirectional DC/DC converter and a Li-ion battery stack with a bidirectional DC/DC converter, where the PEMFC is employed as the primary energy source and the battery is employed as the second energy source. One of the main limitations of the FC is its slow dynamics mainly due to the air-feed system and fuel-delivery system. Fuel starvation phenomenon will occur during fast load demand. Therefore, the second energy source is required to assist the main source to improve system perofrmance. The proposed energy management system contains two cascade control structures, which are used to regulate the fuel cell and battery currents to track the given reference currents and stabilize the DC bus voltage while satisfying the physical limitations. The proposed control strategy is evaluated for two real driving cycles, that is, Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS and Highway Fuel Economy Driving Schedule (HWFET.

  11. Modeling, simulation, and concept studies of a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle powertrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezbek, Markus

    2010-03-29

    This thesis focuses on the development of a fuel cell-based hybrid electric powertrain for smaller (2 kW) hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). A Hardware-in-the-Loop test rig is designed and built with the possibility to simulate any load profile for HEVs in a realistic environment, whereby the environment is modeled. Detailed simulation models of the test rig are developed and validated to real physical components and control algorithms are designed for the DC/DC-converters and the fuel cell system. A state-feedback controller is developed for the DC/DC-converters where the state-space averaging method is used for the development. For the fuel cells, a gain-scheduling controller based on state feedback is developed and compared to two conventional methods. The design process of an HEV with regard to a given load profile is introduced with comparison between SuperCaps and batteries. The HEV is also evaluated with an introduction to different power management concepts with regard to fuel consumption, dynamics, and fuel cell deterioration rate. The power management methods are implemented in the test rig and compared. (orig.)

  12. Modeling and control of a hybrid-electric vehicle for drivability and fuel economy improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprubasi, Kerem

    The gradual decline of oil reserves and the increasing demand for energy over the past decades has resulted in automotive manufacturers seeking alternative solutions to reduce the dependency on fossil-based fuels for transportation. A viable technology that enables significant improvements in the overall tank-to-wheel vehicle energy conversion efficiencies is the hybridization of electrical and conventional drive systems. Sophisticated hybrid powertrain configurations require careful coordination of the actuators and the onboard energy sources for optimum use of the energy saving benefits. The term optimality is often associated with fuel economy, although other measures such as drivability and exhaust emissions are also equally important. This dissertation focuses on the design of hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) control strategies that aim to minimize fuel consumption while maintaining good vehicle drivability. In order to facilitate the design of controllers based on mathematical models of the HEV system, a dynamic model that is capable of predicting longitudinal vehicle responses in the low-to-mid frequency region (up to 10 Hz) is developed for a parallel HEV configuration. The model is validated using experimental data from various driving modes including electric only, engine only and hybrid. The high fidelity of the model makes it possible to accurately identify critical drivability issues such as time lags, shunt, shuffle, torque holes and hesitation. Using the information derived from the vehicle model, an energy management strategy is developed and implemented on a test vehicle. The resulting control strategy has a hybrid structure in the sense that the main mode of operation (the hybrid mode) is occasionally interrupted by event-based rules to enable the use of the engine start-stop function. The changes in the driveline dynamics during this transition further contribute to the hybrid nature of the system. To address the unique characteristics of the HEV

  13. A review and design of power electronics converters for fuel cell hybrid system applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Pittini, Riccardo; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of most promising power electronics topologies for a fuel cell hybrid power conversion system which can be utilized in many applications such as hybrid electrical vehicles (HEV), distributed generations (DG) and uninterruptible-power-supply (UPS) systems. Then......, a multiple-input power conversion system including a decoupled dual-input converter and a three-phase neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverter is proposed. The system can operate in both stand-alone and grid-connected modes. Simulation and experimental results are provided to show the feasibility of the proposed...

  14. LQR-Based Power Train Control Method Design for Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Haitao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the mathematical model of fuel cell hybrid vehicle (FCHV proposed in our previous study, a multistate feedback control strategy of the hybrid power train is designed based on the linear quadratic regulator (LQR algorithm. A Kalman Filter (KF observer is introduced to estimate state of charge (SOC of the battery firstly, and then a linear quadratic regulator is constructed to compute the state feedback gain matrix of the closed-loop control system. At last, simulation and actual test are utilized to demonstrate this new approach.

  15. Analysis of the Fuel Efficiency of a Hybrid Electric Drive with an Electric Power Splitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Čundev

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an analysis of the fuel efficiency of a hybrid electric car drive, with an electric power splitter based on a double rotor synchronous permanent magnet generator. The results have been obtained through a precisely determined mathematical model and by simulating the characteristics of all essential values for the entire drive. This work is related to the experimental working stand for electric and hybrid car drive research, which has been developed at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering (FEE at CTU in Prague. 

  16. Catalytic phosphonation of high performance polymers and POSS. Novel components for polymer blend and nanocomposite fuel cell membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bock, T.R.

    2006-10-15

    Aim of this thesis was the preparation and evaluation of phosphonated high performance (HP) polyelectrolytes and polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) for polyelectrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) application. Brominated derivatives of the commercial high performance (HP) polymers poly(ethersulfone) (PES), poly(etheretherketone) (PEEK), poly(phenylsulfone) (PPSu), poly(sulfone) (PSU) and of octaphenyl-POSS of own production were phosphonated by Ni-catalysed Arbuzov reaction. Phosphonated PSU was cast into pure and blend films with sulfonated PEEK (s-PEEK) to investigate H+-conductivity, water uptake and film morphology. Blend films' properties were referenced to films containing unmodified blend partners. Solution-compounding of phosphonated octaphenyl-POSS and s-PEEK was used to produce novel nanocomposite films. An in-situ zirconisation method was assessed as convenient strategy for novel ionically crosslinked membranes of enhanced swelling resistance. Dibromo isocyanuric acid (DBI) and N-bromo succinimide (NBS) as brominating agents allowed polymer analogous preparation of the novel brominated PES and PEEK with precise reaction control. A random distribution of functional groups, i.e. polyelectrolytes' microstructural homogeneity was revealed as decisive factor concerning solubility of phosphonated PSU. Brominated phT8 was prepared with Br2 by a high temperature approach in tetrachloroethane (TCE). Brominated polymers were phosphonated by Ni-catalysis in non-coordinating high temperature solvents, such as diphenylether, benzophenone and diphenylsulfone without notable solvent influence. The lack of solvent - catalyst complexes and high reaction temperatures of 180-200 C led to halogen-free phosphonates with unprecedented high functionalities. Polymer analogous application of P(OSiMe3)3 offered a novel direct access to easily cleavable disilyl ester derivatives. These were obtained from PEEK and PSU in near quantitative yields at NiCl2-loads as

  17. Enhancing hybrid direct carbon fuel cell anode performance using Ag2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Ippolito, Davide; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid-direct carbon fuel cell (HDCFC), consisting of a molten slurry of solid carbon black and (Li-K)2CO3 added to the anode chamber of a solid oxide fuel cell, was characterized using current-potential-power density curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. Two...... types of experimental setups were employed in this study, an anode-supported full cell configuration (two electrodes, two atmospheres setup) and a 3-electrode electrolyte-supported half-cell setup (single atmosphere). Anode processes with and without catalysts were investigated as a function...

  18. Hybrid membranes for selective carbon dioxide separation from fuel gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Luebke; Christina Myers; Henry Pennline [United States Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2006-10-15

    The potential of hybrid membranes as a CO{sub 2} capture technology for integrated gasification combined cycle applications was evaluated. Commercial {gamma}-alumina supports were modified with a variety of trichlorosilanes intended to enhance the surface adsorption of CO{sub 2}. The resulting hybrids were characterized using X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and tested for performance in the separation of He and CO{sub 2}. The silanization temperature was determined to be important because membranes fabricated at 273 K had substantially different performance properties than those fabricated at room temperature. Specifically, the permeances of membranes modified with alkyltrichlorosilanes at reduced temperatures were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than those of membranes fabricated at room temperature, and the selectivities of these low-temperature silanized membranes were relatively similar to those expected from Knudsen diffusion. Supports modified with silanes containing one of a variety of functionalities were tested for CO{sub 2}/He selectivity. Membranes modified with 2-acetoxyethyl, 2-carbomethoxyethyl, and 3-aminopropyl groups exhibited CO{sub 2} selectivity, with the highest values approaching 7 for 2-carbomethoxyethyl-silated membranes at 50{sup o}C. Temperature dependences resulted in selectivity maxima for the 2-acetoxyethyl and 2-carbomethoxyethyl membranes. Mixed-gas selectivities were slightly higher than pure-gas selectivities because of a decrease in He permeance with a relatively minor reduction in CO{sub 2} permeance. Transport in the selective membranes is believed to occur by a combination of activated and solution diffusion for He and a combination of activated and surface diffusion for CO{sub 2}. 25 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Fuel-Cell Electrolytes Based on Organosilica Hybrid Proton Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Sri R.; Yen, Shiao-Pin S.

    2008-01-01

    A new membrane composite material that combines an organosilica proton conductor with perfluorinated Nafion material to achieve good proton conductivity and high-temperature performance for membranes used for fuel cells in stationary, transportation, and portable applications has been developed. To achieve high proton conductivities of the order of 10(exp -1)S/cm over a wide range of temperatures, a composite membrane based on a new class of mesoporous, proton-conducting, hydrogen-bonded organosilica, used with Nafion, will allow for water retention and high proton conductivity over a wider range of temperatures than currently offered by Nafion alone. At the time of this reporting, this innovation is at the concept level. Some of the materials and processes investigated have shown good proton conductivity, but membranes have not yet been prepared and demonstrated.

  20. The role of the deformational entropy in the miscibility of polymer blends investigated using a hybrid statistical mechanics and molecular dynamics model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, Tarek M; Salem, Sarah A; Miller, Stephen A

    2013-04-28

    To fully understand the thermodynamic nature of polymer blends and accurately predict their miscibility on a microscopic level, a hybrid model employing both statistical mechanics and molecular dynamics techniques was developed to effectively predict the total free energy of mixing. The statistical mechanics principles were used to derive an expression for the deformational entropy of the chains in the polymeric blends that could be evaluated from molecular dynamics trajectories. Evaluation of the entropy loss due to the deformation of the polymer chains in the case of coiling as a result of the repulsive interactions between the blend components or in the case of swelling due to the attractive interactions between the polymeric segments predicted a negative value for the deformational entropy resulting in a decrease in the overall entropy change upon mixing. Molecular dynamics methods were then used to evaluate the enthalpy of mixing, entropy of mixing, the loss in entropy due to the deformation of the polymeric chains upon mixing and the total free energy change for a series of polar and non-polar, poly(glycolic acid), PGA, polymer blends.

  1. Effect on Mechanical Properties of Hybrid Blended Coconut Coir/Paraffin Wax/LDPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannan Rassiah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of natural fibers as the fillers for plastic has been rapidly expanding, especially wood fibers. This is due to materials of wood offers many advantages as inorganic fillers (such as low price, biodegradability, renewability, recycle-ability, low density and others. In addition, this is also due to the dramatic increasing of interest of using biomass materials as the replacements for glass fiber into reinforced thermoplastic composites. In this study, wood plastic composites used are the filled thermoplastics which primarily consisted of wood fiber and thermoplastic polymer. While, the purpose of this research is to find out the optimum conditions of the wax and coconut coir produced by inducing LDPE. The experiment carried out is by mixing the wax, coconut coir and LDPE into eight new polymer compositions, in which the higher value of the tensile strength and hardness are obtained by mixing between 6 wt. % coconut coir with 4 wt. % wax, rather than to pure LDPE, that is 9.236 MPa and 3HV. Although the strength impact is decreased with value as much as 60.95 % compared to original conditions, the SEM analysis proved that the composition of 90 wt. % LDPE, 4 wt. % wax and 6 wt. % coconut coir is the best weight ratios for mechanical characteristics and bonding between reinforced material and matrix material. Here, the LDPE, wax and coconut coir mixture produces a new hybrid polymer and alters the properties of pure LDPE.

  2. Experimental investigation of paraffin-based fuels for hybrid rocket propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galfetti, L.; Merotto, L.; Boiocchi, M.; Maggi, F.; DeLuca, L. T.

    2013-03-01

    Solid fuels for hybrid rockets were characterized in the framework of a research project aimed to develop a new generation of solid fuels, combining at the same time good mechanical and ballistic properties. Original techniques were implemented in order to improve paraffin-based fuels. The first strengthening technique involves the use of a polyurethane foam (PUF); a second technique is based on thermoplastic polymers mixed at molecular level with the paraffin binder. A ballistic characterization of paraffin-based hybrid rocket solid fuels was performed, considering pure wax-based fuels and fuels doped with suitable metal additives. Nano-Al powders and metal hydrides (magnesium hydride (MgH2), lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4 )) were used as fillers in paraffin matrices. The results of this investigation show a strong correlation between the measured viscosity of the melted paraffin layer and the regression rate: a decrease of viscosity increases the regression rate. This trend is due to the increasing development of entrainment phenomena, which strongly increase the regression rate. Addition of LiAlH4 (mass fraction 10%) can further increase the regression rate up to 378% with respect to the pure HTPB regression rate, taken as baseline reference fuel. The highest regression rates were found for the Solid Wax (SW) composition, added with 5% MgH2 mass fraction; at 350 kg/(m2s) oxygen mass flux, the measured regression rate, averaged in space and time, was 2.5 mm/s, which is approximately five times higher than that of the pure HTPB composition. Compositions added with nanosized aluminum powders were compared with those added with MgH2, using gel or solid wax.

  3. Design, Modeling and Energy Management of a PEM Fuel Cell / Supercapacitor Hybrid Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahib Andari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work concerns the study and the modeling of hybrid Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM Fuel Cell electric vehicle. In fact, the paper deals with the model description of the powertrain which includes two energy sources: a PEM Fuel Cell as a primary source and a supercapacitor as a secondary source. The architecture is two degrees of freedom permitting a stability of the DC bus voltage. The hybridation of primary source with an energy storage system can improve vehicle dynamic response during transients and hydrogen consumption. The proposed energy management algorithm allows us to have a minimum hydrogen consumption. This algorithm is based on supercapacitor state of charge (SOC control and acceleration/deceleration phases making possible braking energy recovery. The proposed model is simulated and tested using Matlab/Simulink software allowing rapid transitions between sources. The obtained results with the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC cycle demonstrate a 22% gain in hydrogen consumption.

  4. Performance simulation and analysis of a fuel cell/battery hybrid forklift truck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham; Rokni, Masoud; Advani, Suresh G.

    2013-01-01

    The performance of a forklift truck powered by a hybrid system consisting of a PEM fuel cell and a lead acid battery is modeled and investigated by conducting a parametric study. Various combinations of fuel cell size and battery capacity are employed in conjunction with two distinct control...... strategies to study their effect on hydrogen consumption and battery state-of-charge for two drive cycles characterized by different operating speeds and forklift loads. The results show that for all case studies, the combination of a 110 cell stack with two strings of 55 Ah batteries is the most economical...... choice for the hybrid system based on system size and hydrogen consumption. In addition, it is observed that hydrogen consumption decreases by about 24% when the maximum speed of the drive cycle is decreased from 4.5 to 3 m/s. Similarly, by decreasing the forklift load from 2.5 to 1.5 ton, the hydrogen...

  5. Substantial improvements of fuel economy. Potentials of electric and hybrid electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, K. [Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark); Nielsen, L.H. [Forskningscenter Risoe (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This paper evaluates the scope for improvement of the energy and environmental impacts of road traffic by means of electrical and hybrid electric propulsion. These technologies promise considerable improvements of the fuel economy of vehicles compared to the present vehicle types as well as beneficial effects for the energy and traffic system. The paper - based on work carried out in the project `Transportation fuel based on renewable energy`, funded by the National Energy Agency of Denmark and carried out by Department of Buildings and Energy, Technical University of Denmark and System Analysis Department, Risoe National Laboratory - assesses the potentials for reduction of the primary energy consumption and emissions, and points to the necessary technical development to reap these benefits. A case study concerning passenger cars is analysed by means of computer simulations, comparing electric and hybrid electric passenger car to an equivalent reference vehicle (a conventional gasoline passenger car). (au) 10 refs.

  6. Electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles: what in the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maggetto, G.; Van Mierlo, J. [Vrije Universiteit, Brussel (Belgium)

    2000-07-01

    In urban area, due to their beneficial effect on environment, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles are an important factor for improvement of traffic and more particular for a healthier environment. Moreover, the need for alternative energy source is growing and the price competition of alternatives against oil is becoming more and more realistic. Electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles are offering the best possibility for the use of new energy sources, because electricity can result from a transformation with high efficiency of these sources and is always used with the highest possible efficiency in systems with electric drives or components. Some basic considerations about the situation today and in a mid and long-term perspective, are presented together with the infrastructure developments.

  7. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Turbine Hybrid Power System for Advanced Aero-propulsion and Power Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)/ gas turbine hybrid power systems (HPSs) have been recognized by federal agencies and other entities as having the potential to operate...

  8. PEMFC Optimization Strategy with Auxiliary Power Source in Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinton Dwi Atmaja

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Page HeaderOpen Journal SystemsJournal HelpUser You are logged in as...aulia My Journals My Profile Log Out Log Out as UserNotifications View (27 new ManageJournal Content SearchBrowse By Issue By Author By Title Other JournalsFont SizeMake font size smaller Make font size default Make font size largerInformation For Readers For Authors For LibrariansKeywords CBPNN Displacement FLC LQG/LTR Mixed PMA Ventilation bottom shear stress direct multiple shooting effective fuzzy logic geoelectrical method hourly irregular wave missile trajectory panoramic image predator-prey systems seawater intrusion segmentation structure development pattern terminal bunt manoeuvre Home About User Home Search Current Archives ##Editorial Board##Home > Vol 23, No 1 (2012 > AtmajaPEMFC Optimization Strategy with Auxiliary Power Source in Fuel Cell Hybrid VehicleTinton Dwi Atmaja, Amin AminAbstractone of the present-day implementation of fuel cell is acting as main power source in Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle (FCHV. This paper proposes some strategies to optimize the performance of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC implanted with auxiliary power source to construct a proper FCHV hybridization. The strategies consist of the most updated optimization method determined from three point of view i.e. Energy Storage System (ESS, hybridization topology and control system analysis. The goal of these strategies is to achieve an optimum hybridization with long lifetime, low cost, high efficiency, and hydrogen consumption rate improvement. The energy storage system strategy considers battery, supercapacitor, and high-speed flywheel as the most promising alternative auxiliary power source. The hybridization topology strategy analyzes the using of multiple storage devices injected with electronic components to bear a higher fuel economy and cost saving. The control system strategy employs nonlinear control system to optimize the ripple factor of the voltage and the current

  9. Co-production of acetone and ethanol with molar ratio control enables production of improved gasoline or jet fuel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Zachary C; Bormann, Sebastian; Sreekumar, Sanil; Grippo, Adam; Toste, F Dean; Blanch, Harvey W; Clark, Douglas S

    2016-10-01

    The fermentation of simple sugars to ethanol has been the most successful biofuel process to displace fossil fuel consumption worldwide thus far. However, the physical properties of ethanol and automotive components limit its application in most cases to 10-15 vol% blends with conventional gasoline. Fermentative co-production of ethanol and acetone coupled with a catalytic alkylation reaction could enable the production of gasoline blendstocks enriched in higher-chain oxygenates. Here we demonstrate a synthetic pathway for the production of acetone through the mevalonate precursor hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA. Expression of this pathway in various strains of Escherichia coli resulted in the co-production of acetone and ethanol. Metabolic engineering and control of the environmental conditions for microbial growth resulted in controllable acetone and ethanol production with ethanol:acetone molar ratios ranging from 0.7:1 to 10.0:1. Specifically, use of gluconic acid as a substrate increased production of acetone and balanced the redox state of the system, predictively reducing the molar ethanol:acetone ratio. Increases in ethanol production and the molar ethanol:acetone ratio were achieved by co-expression of the aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhE) from E. coli MG1655 and by co-expression of pyruvate decarboxylase (Pdc) and alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhB) from Z. mobilis. Controlling the fermentation aeration rate and pH in a bioreactor raised the acetone titer to 5.1 g L(-1) , similar to that obtained with wild-type Clostridium acetobutylicum. Optimizing the metabolic pathway, the selection of host strain, and the physiological conditions employed for host growth together improved acetone titers over 35-fold (0.14-5.1 g/L). Finally, chemical catalysis was used to upgrade the co-produced ethanol and acetone at both low and high molar ratios to higher-chain oxygenates for gasoline and jet fuel applications. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2079-2087. © 2016 Wiley

  10. System Study on Hydrothermal Gasification Combined with a Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Gas Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Toonssen, Richard; Aravind, P.V.; Smit, Gerton; Woudstra, Nico; Verkooijen, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The application of wet biomass in energy conversion systems is challenging, since in most conventional systems the biomass has to be dried. Drying can be very energy intensive especially when the biomass has a moisture content above 50 wt% on a wet basis. The combination of hydrothermal biomass gasification and a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) gas turbine (GT) hybrid system could be an efficient way to convert very wet biomass into electricity. Therefore, thermodynamic evalu...

  11. Crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol)/sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) blend membranes for fuel cell applications - Surface energy characteristics and proton conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanakasabai, P.; Vijay, P.; Deshpande, Abhijit P.; Varughese, Susy [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India)

    2011-02-01

    Ionic polymers, their blends and composites are considered potential candidates for application as electrolytes in fuel cells. While developing new materials for membranes, it is important to understand the interactions of these electrolytic materials with electrodes/catalysts and with reactants/products. Some of these interactions can be understood by estimating the surface energy and wettability of the membrane materials. In this work, polyvinyl alcohol with varying degrees of sulfonation and its blend with sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) are prepared and studied for their wettability characteristics using goniometry. The surface energy and its components are estimated using different approaches and compared. Properties such as the ion-exchange capacity, the proton conductivity and the water sorption/desorption behaviour are also investigated to understand the relationship with wettability and surface energy and its components. Among the different methods, the van Oss acid-base and the modified Berthelot approaches yield comparable estimates for the total surface energy. (author)

  12. Acid-base blend membranes based on 2-amino-benzimidazole and sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) for direct methanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Yongzhu; Manthiram, Arumugam [Materials Science and Engineering Program, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Guiver, Michael D. [Institute for Chemical Process and Environmental Technology, National Research Council of (Canada)

    2007-05-15

    Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) are attractive for portable and automobile power needs, but their commercialization is hampered by high methanol permeability and the high cost of the currently used Nafion membrane. We report here a novel, low-cost blend membrane consisting of polysulfone-2-amide-benzimidazole (a basic polymer) and sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (an acidic polymer), which facilitates proton conduction through acid-base interactions while preserving excellent chemical and mechanical stabilities. The blend membrane exhibits performance in DMFC much higher than that of Nafion 115 and similar to that of Nafion 112, but with a remarkably superior long-term performance than Nafion 112 due to significantly reduced methanol crossover, enhancing the commercialization prospects of DMFC. (author)

  13. Experimental Study on a Passive Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Song Chen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory-scale passive hybrid power system for transportation applications is constructed and tested in this study. The hybrid power system consists of a fuel cell stack connected with a diode, a lithium-ion battery pack connected with a DC/DC power converter and another diode. The power converter is employed to regulate the output voltage of the battery pack. The dynamic responses of current and voltage of the stack to the start-up and acceleration of the load are experimentally investigated at two different selected output voltages of the DC/DC converter in the battery line. The power sharing of each power source and efficiency are also analyzed and discussed. Experimental results show that the battery can compensate for the shortage of supplied power for the load demand during the start-up and acceleration. The lowest operating voltage of the fuel cell stack is limited by the regulated output voltage of the DC/DC converter. The major power loss in the hybrid power system is attributed to the diodes. The power train efficiency can be improved by lowering the ratio of forward voltage drop of the diode to the operating voltage of the fuel cell stack.

  14. Hybrid microfluidic fuel cell based on Laccase/C and AuAg/C electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-González, B; Dector, A; Cuevas-Muñiz, F M; Arjona, N; Cruz-Madrid, C; Arana-Cuenca, A; Guerra-Balcázar, M; Arriaga, L G; Ledesma-García, J

    2014-12-15

    A hybrid glucose microfluidic fuel cell composed of an enzymatic cathode (Laccase/ABTS/C) and an inorganic anode (AuAg/C) was developed and tested. The enzymatic cathode was prepared by adsorption of 2,2'-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and Laccase on Vulcan XC-72, which act as a redox mediator, enzymatic catalyst and support, respectively. The Laccase/ABTS/C composite was characterised by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, streaming current measurements (Zeta potential) and cyclic voltammetry. The AuAg/C anode catalyst was characterised by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cyclic voltammetry. The hybrid microfluidic fuel cell exhibited excellent performance with a maximum power density value (i.e., 0.45 mW cm(-2)) that is the highest reported to date. The cell also exhibited acceptable stability over the course of several days. In addition, a Mexican endemic Laccase was used as the biocathode electrode and evaluated in the hybrid microfluidic fuel cell generating 0.5 mW cm(-2) of maximum power density.

  15. Study on fission blanket fuel cycling of a fusion-fission hybrid energy generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z.; Yang, Y.; Xu, H.

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study on neutron physics characteristics of a light water cooled fission blanket for a new type subcritical fusion-fission hybrid reactor aiming at electric power generation with low technical limits of fission fuel. The major objective is to study the fission fuel cycling performance in the blanket, which may possess significant impacts on the feasibility of the new concept of fusion-fission hybrid reactor with a high energy gain (M) and tritium breeding ratio (TBR). The COUPLE2 code developed by the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University is employed to simulate the neutronic behaviour in the blanket. COUPLE2 combines the particle transport code MCNPX with the fuel depletion code ORIGEN2. The code calculation results show that soft neutron spectrum can yield M > 20 while maintaining TBR >1.15 and the conversion ratio of fissile materials CR > 1 in a reasonably long refuelling cycle (>five years). The preliminary results also indicate that it is rather promising to design a high-performance light water cooled fission blanket of fusion-fission hybrid reactor for electric power generation by directly loading natural or depleted uranium if an ITER-scale tokamak fusion neutron source is achievable.

  16. Enhanced performance of microbial fuel cell with a bacteria/multi-walled carbon nanotube hybrid biofilm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Liu, Jia; Qu, Youpeng; Zhang, Jian; Zhong, Yingjuan; Feng, Yujie

    2017-09-01

    The biofilm on the anode of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a vital component in system, and its formation and characteristic determines the performance of the system. In this study, a bacteria/Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube (MWCNT) hybrid biofilm is fabricated by effectively inserting the MWCNTs into the anode biofilm via an adsorption-filtration method. This hybrid biofilm has been demonstrated to be an efficient structure for improving an anode biofilm performance. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results show that the hybrid biofilm takes advantage of the conductivity and structure of MWCNT to enhance the electron transfer and substrate diffusion of the biofilm. With this hybrid biofilm, the current density, power density and coulombic efficiency are increased by 46.2%, 58.8% and 84.6%, respectively, relative to naturally grown biofilm. Furthermore, the start-up time is reduced by 53.8% compared with naturally grown biofilm. The perturbation test demonstrates that this type of hybrid biofilm exhibits strong adsorption ability and enhances the biofilm's resistance to a sudden change of substrate concentration. The superior performance of the hybrid biofilm with MWCNT ;nanowire; matrix compared with naturally grown biofilm demonstrates its great potential for boosting the performance of MFCs.

  17. Feasibility of Thorium Fuel Cycles in a Very High Temperature Pebble-Bed Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.P. Rodriguez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear energy presents key challenges to be successful as a sustainable energy source. Currently, the viability of the use thorium-based fuel cycles in an innovative nuclear energy generation system is being investigated in order to solve these key challenges. In this work, the feasibility of three thorium-based fuel cycles (232Th-233U, 232Th-239Pu, and 232Th-U in a hybrid system formed by a Very High Temperature Pebble-Bed Reactor (VHTR and two Pebble-Bed Accelerator Driven Systems (ADSs was evaluated using parameters related to the neutronic behavior such as nuclear fuel breeding, minor actinide stockpile, the energetic contribution of each fissile isotope, and the radiotoxicity of the long lived wastes. These parameters were used to compare the fuel cycles using the well-known MCNPX ver. 2.6e computational code. The results obtained confirm that the 232Th-233U fuel cycle is the best cycle for minimizing the production of plutonium isotopes and minor actinides. Moreover, the inclusion of the second stage in the ADSs demonstrated the possibility of extending the burnup cycle duration and reducing the radiotoxicity of the discharged fuel from the VHTR.

  18. Hybrid life-cycle assessment of natural gas based fuel chains for transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strømman, Anders Hammer; Solli, Christian; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2006-04-15

    This research compares the use of natural gas, methanol, and hydrogen as transportation fuels. These three fuel chains start with the extraction and processing of natural gas in the Norwegian North Sea and end with final use in Central Europe. The end use is passenger transportation with a sub-compact car that has an internal combustion engine for the natural gas case and a fuel cell for the methanol and hydrogen cases. The life cycle assessment is performed by combining a process based life-cycle inventory with economic input-output data. The analysis shows that the potential climate impacts are lowest for the hydrogen fuel scenario with CO2 deposition. The hydrogen fuel chain scenario has no significant environmental disadvantage compared to the other fuel chains. Detailed analysis shows that the construction of the car contributes significantly to most impact categories. Finally, it is shown how the application of a hybrid inventory model ensures a more complete inventory description compared to standard process-based life-cycle assessment. This is particularly significant for car construction which would have been significantly underestimated in this study using standard process life-cycle assessment alone.

  19. Modeling the reaction kinetics of a hydrogen generator onboard a fuel cell -- Electric hybrid motorcycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Karthik

    Owing to the perceived decline of the fossil fuel reserves in the world and environmental issues like pollution, conventional fuels may be replaced by cleaner alternative fuels. The potential of hydrogen as a fuel in vehicular applications is being explored. Hydrogen as an energy carrier potentially finds applications in internal combustion engines and fuel cells because it is considered a clean fuel and has high specific energy. However, at 6 to 8 per kilogram, not only is hydrogen produced from conventional methods like steam reforming expensive, but also there are storage and handling issues, safety concerns and lack of hydrogen refilling stations across the country. The purpose of this research is to suggest a cheap and viable system that generates hydrogen on demand through a chemical reaction between an aluminum-water slurry and an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution to power a 2 kW fuel cell on a fuel cell hybrid motorcycle. This reaction is essentially an aluminum-water reaction where sodium hydroxide acts as a reaction promoter or catalyst. The Horizon 2000 fuel cell used for this purpose has a maximum hydrogen intake rate of 28 lpm. The study focuses on studying the exothermic reaction between the reactants and proposes a rate law that best describes the rate of generation of hydrogen in connection to the surface area of aluminum available for the certain reaction and the concentration of the sodium hydroxide solution. Further, the proposed rate law is used in the simulation model of the chemical reactor onboard the hybrid motorcycle to determine the hydrogen flow rate to the fuel cell with time. Based on the simulated rate of production of hydrogen from the chemical system, its feasibility of use on different drive cycles is analyzed. The rate of production of hydrogen with a higher concentration of sodium hydroxide and smaller aluminum powder size was found to enable the installation of the chemical reactor on urban cycles with frequent stops and starts

  20. Analysis of a model of fuel cell - gas turbine hybrid power system for enhanced energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calay, Rajnish K.; Mustafa, Mohamad Y.; Virk, Mohammad S.; Mustafa, Mahmoud F.

    2012-11-01

    A simple mathematical model to evaluate the performance of FC-GT hybrid system is presented in this paper. The model is used to analyse the influence of various parameters on the performance of a typical hybrid system, where excess heat rejected from the solid-oxide fuel cell stack is utilised to generate additional power through a gas turbine system and to provide heat energy for space heating. The model is based on thermodynamic analysis of various components of the plant and can be adapted for various configurations of the plant components. Because there are many parameters defining the efficiency and work output of the hybrid system, the technique is based on mathematical and graphical optimisation of various parameters; to obtain the maximum efficiency for a given plant configuration.

  1. DC Smart Grid Connected with Fuel Charging Station and AC Load by Hybrid MLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the Solar (photo voltaic power Plant and Windmill plant with DC Smart Grid connected with an DC Fuel Charging Station For Electric Vehicle (EV, Plug in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV and converted to AC load for Consumer single or Three phase ac load by means of Hybrid Multilevel Inverter (MLI. Solar Energy which store energy in lithium-ion battery and connected to Smart Grid .Wind Energy which get stored in Lithium-ion battery that Fixed DC Voltage connected with DC Smart Grid. Smart Grid which are Connected with DC Fuel Charging Station in Ring Topology with a certain distance for charging of Electric Vehicle (EV and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle with On-Board (Integrated Charger for faster charging of EV. In Power demand for Consumer the DC load from smart grid converted into an ac load by Hybrid Multilevel Inverter. In Consumers Place the small wind mill and PV panel are installed that energy can be used for consumers load at peak time or power Shutdown .Other than the power shutdown or peak time in the consumers place, stored DC Energy can be fed to Smart Grid. A major development in distribution automation is deployment of smart meters as a gateway between the utility and customer. With such capabilities the smart meter becomes not only a point of measurement of consumed kWh but also a controller capable of bidirectional communications with both the customer and utility.

  2. Testing of Paraffin-based Hybrid Rocket Fuel using Gaseous Oxygen Oxidiser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yash Pal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of paraffin-based hybrid rocket fuel has been studied experimentally in a laboratory-scale motor. To enhance the regression rate of paraffin solid fuel, three types of grain configurations: Cylindrical, star, and helical grain configurations of paraffin wax have been developed and tested with gaseous oxygen. The helical fuel grain presented best performance among all the test ports. About 40.2 per cent and 20.6 per cent regression rates are increased by burning paraffin fuel with helical and star grain configuration respectively, as compared to cylindrical grain configuration at Gox=0.0191 g/mm2s. The regression rates were significantly influenced by the oxygen injection pressure varied between 344.7 kPa and 620.5 kPa. Furthermore, the experimentally obtained exponents of oxidizer mass flux for all three grain configurations have been found to be significantly different from those of the classical hybrid system. Finally, thrust-time traces for all three grain configurations were also studied. The result shown no significant increase or decrease in the amplitude of the thrust oscillations.Defence Science Journal, 2012, 62(5, pp.277-283, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.62.2346

  3. Testing of Paraffin-based Hybrid Rocket Fuel using Gaseous Oxygen Oxidiser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yash Pal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A series of paraffin-based hybrid rocket fuel has been studied experimentally in a laboratory-scale motor. To enhance the regression rate of paraffin solid fuel, three types of grain configurations: Cylindrical, star, and helical grain configurations of paraffin wax have been developed and tested with gaseous oxygen. The helical fuel grain presented best performance among all the test ports. About 40.2 per cent and 20.6 per cent regression rates are increased by burning paraffin fuel with helical and star grain configuration respectively, as compared to cylindrical grain configuration at Gox=0.0191 g/mm2s. The regression rates were significantly influenced by the oxygen injection pressure varied between 344.7 kPa and 620.5 kPa. Furthermore, the experimentally obtained exponents of oxidizer mass flux for all three grain configurations have been found to be significantly different from those of the classical hybrid system. Finally, thrust-time traces for all three grain configurations were also studied. The result shown no significant increase or decrease in the amplitude of the thrust oscillations.

  4. Development of a hybrid photovoltaic-liquid fueled thermoelectric generator for Arctic locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolb, H. (Global Thermoelectric Power Systems Ltd., Bassano, AB (Canada))

    1988-08-01

    The solar irradiation levels in arctic and antarctic regions vary dramatically from summer to winter. It was the objective of this project to develop a photovoltaic-liquid fueled thermoelectric hybrid power system that will take advantage of the available solar irradiation during the period during which the levels are high and switch to a liquid fueled thermoelectric generator during periods when the solar irradiation levels are low. In addition, the system is to provide heating to keep electronics and batteries above a preset minimum temperature. A remote start feature was designed and built into an existing liquid fueled thermoelectric generator. A prototype system was then assembled with a panel factor of about 4.88. Arctic summer conditions of solar irradiation were simulated by adjustment of the panel tilt angle. The performance of the liquid fueled generator was disappointing, numerous failures of the generator were a major impediment to the complete success of the project. It was found that the panel factor should be increased by about 15 to 20% and that the constant voltage battery recharge method is not efficient for this type of system. A cost comparison of the hybrid versus two other alternative remote power systems indicates that it is a cost-effective system. 2 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Control strategy of hybrid fuel cell/battery distributed generation system for grid-connected operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masoud Aliakbar GOLKAR; Amin HAJIZADEH

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a control strategy of a hybrid fuel cell/battery distributed generation (HDG) system in distribution systems. The overall structure of the HDG system is given, dynamic models for the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power plant,battery bank and its power electronic interfacing are briefly described, and controller design methodologies for the power conditioning units and fuel cell to control the power flow from the hybrid power plant to the utility grid are presented. To distribute the power between the fuel cell power plant and the battery energy storage, a neuro-fuzzy controller has been developed. Also, for controlling the active and reactive power independently in distribution systems, the current control strategy based on two fuzzy logic controllers has been presented. A Matlab/Simulink simulation model is developed for the HDG system by combining the individual component models and their controllers. Simulation results show the overall system performance including load-following and power management of the HDG system.

  6. Microbial-enzymatic-hybrid biological fuel cell with optimized growth conditions for Shewanella oneidensis DSP-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Jared N; Luckarift, Heather R; Sizemore, Susan R; Farrington, Karen E; Lau, Carolin; Johnson, Glenn R; Atanassov, Plamen

    2013-07-10

    In this work we present a biological fuel cell fabricated by combining a Shewanella oneidensis microbial anode and a laccase-modified air-breathing cathode. This concept is devised as an extension to traditional biochemical methods by incorporating diverse biological catalysts with the aim of powering small devices. In preparing the biological fuel cell anode, novel hierarchical-structured architectures and biofilm configurations were investigated. A method for creating an artificial biofilm based on encapsulating microorganisms in a porous, thin film of silica was compared with S. oneidensis biofilms that were allowed to colonize naturally. Results indicate comparable current and power densities for artificial and natural biofilm formations, based on growth characteristics. As a result, this work describes methods for creating controllable and reproducible bio-anodes and demonstrates the versatility of hybrid biological fuel cells.

  7. Accelerated Degradation for Hardware in the Loop Simulation of Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine Hybrid System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abreu-Sepulveda, Maria A.; Harun, Nor Farida; Hackett, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) in Morgantown, WV has developed the hybrid performance (HyPer) project in which a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) one-dimensional (1D), real-time operating model is coupled to a gas turbine hardware system by utilizing...... hardware-in-the-loop simulation. To assess the long-term stability of the SOFC part of the system, electrochemical degradation due to operating conditions such as current density and fuel utilization have been incorporated into the SOFC model and successfully recreated in real time. The mathematical...... expression for degradation rate was obtained through the analysis of empirical voltage versus time plots for different current densities and fuel utilizations....

  8. Utilization of diesel fuel, anhydrous ethanol and additives blend of a stationary diesel engine with rotatory pump; Utilizacao de mistura ternaria alcool, diesel e aditivo em motores do ciclo diesel com bomba de injecao rotativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes Cruz, Yordanka; Cavado Osorio, Alberto [Centro de Pesquisas de Petroleo (CEINPET), Havana (Cuba); Belchior, Carlos Rodrigues Pereira; Pereira, Pedro P.; Pinto, Nauberto Rodrigues [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Dept. de Engenharia Naval e Mecanica; Aranda, Donato A. Gomes [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    In this paper is analyzed the performance and fuel consumption of a stationary Diesel engine, with rotary diesel fuel injection pump, using (diesel fuel + anhydrous ethanol + 0.5% additive) blend. The engine performance parameters and fuel consumption tests were performed at the Termic Machine Laboratory, located in Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, and evaluated using a MWM Series 10 model 4.10 TCA. Two test cycles were used for this test program: the tests were carried out starting from the base diesel S-500, used as a reference; the engine operated with (diesel fuel S-500 - 8% anhydrous ethanol - DIOLEFECT additive (0,5% SPAN80 + 0,1% Biomix-D)) blend. The results indicate that: the reduction levels in power and torque of engine are approximately the same which is (2,55{+-}2%), the brake specific fuel consumption increased in 1,8%. (author)

  9. Optimal control of a fuel cell/wind/PV/grid hybrid system with thermal heat pump load

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sichilalu, S

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimal energy management strategy for a grid-tied photovoltaic–wind-fuel cell hybrid power supply system. The hybrid system meets the load demand consisting of an electrical load and a heat pump water heater supplying thermal...

  10. Exergy and economic comparison between kW-scale hybrid and stand-alone solid oxide fuel cell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiston, Michael M.; Collinge, William O.; Bilec, Melissa M.; Schaefer, Laura A.

    2017-06-01

    Although hybrid solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) microturbine systems generate power more efficiently than stand-alone SOFC systems, hybrid systems remain in the demonstration phase. This study compares a hybrid system's exergetic and economic performance with that of a stand-alone system. Both systems meet a university building's kW-scale power demand. The hybrid system operates at 66% exergetic efficiency, and the stand-alone system operates at 59% exergetic efficiency. Increasing the fuel cell's operating voltage increases the systems' exergetic efficiencies, and varying the fuel cell's temperature, pressure, and fuel utilization influences the systems' exergetic performances, though to a lesser extent. This study calculates the systems' life cycle costs. We find that the systems' life cycle costs depend significantly on the systems' operation. During baseline operation, the hybrid system costs less than the stand-alone system. After optimizing the systems during cogeneration operation, the hybrid system costs slightly more than the stand-alone system. Overall, our findings support hybrid systems' continued research and development; it is recommended that future work simulate hybrid and stand-alone systems under a range of thermal-to-electric ratios to reflect different building types and operation.

  11. A new topology of fuel cell hybrid power source for efficient operation and high reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizon, Nicu

    2011-03-01

    This paper analyzes a new fuel cell Hybrid Power Source (HPS) topology having the feature to mitigate the current ripple of the fuel cell inverter system. In the operation of the inverter system that is grid connected or supplies AC motors in vehicle application, the current ripple normally appears at the DC port of the fuel cell HPS. Consequently, if mitigation measures are not applied, this ripple is back propagated to the fuel cell stack. Other features of the proposed fuel cell HPS are the Maximum Power Point (MPP) tracking, high reliability in operation under sharp power pulses and improved energy efficiency in high power applications. This topology uses an inverter system directly powered from the appropriate fuel cell stack and a controlled buck current source as low power source used for ripple mitigation. The low frequency ripple mitigation is based on active control. The anti-ripple current is injected in HPS output node and this has the LF power spectrum almost the same with the inverter ripple. Consequently, the fuel cell current ripple is mitigated by the designed active control. The ripple mitigation performances are evaluated by indicators that are defined to measure the mitigation ratio of the low frequency harmonics. In this paper it is shown that good performances are obtained by using the hysteretic current control, but better if a dedicated nonlinear controller is used. Two ways to design the nonlinear control law are proposed. First is based on simulation trials that help to draw the characteristic of ripple mitigation ratio vs. fuel cell current ripple. The second is based on Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC). The ripple factor is up to 1% in both cases.

  12. Laminar Burning Velocities of Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) Gasoline and Gasoline Surrogates with and without Ethanol Blending Associated with Octane Rating

    KAUST Repository

    Mannaa, Ossama A.

    2016-05-04

    Laminar burning velocities of fuels for advanced combustion engines (FACE) C gasoline and of several blends of surrogate toluene reference fuels (TRFs) (n-heptane, iso-octane, and toluene mixtures) of the same research octane number are presented. Effects of ethanol addition on laminar flame speed of FACE-C and its surrogate are addressed. Measurements were conducted using a constant volume spherical combustion vessel in the constant pressure, stable flame regime at an initial temperature of 358 K and initial pressures up to 0.6 MPa with the equivalence ratios ranging from 0.8 to 1.6. Comparable values in the laminar burning velocities were measured for the FACE-C gasoline and the proposed surrogate fuel (17.60% n-heptane + 77.40% iso-octane + 5% toluene) over the range of experimental conditions. Sensitivity of flame propagation to total stretch rate effects and thermo-diffusive instability was quantified by determining Markstein length. Two percentages of an oxygenated fuel of ethanol as an additive, namely, 60 vol% and 85 vol% were investigated. The addition of ethanol to FACE-C and its surrogate TRF-1 (17.60% n-heptane + 77.40% iso-octane + 5% toluene) resulted in a relatively similar increase in the laminar burning velocities. The high-pressure measured values of Markstein length for the studied fuels blended with ethanol showed minimal influence of ethanol addition on the flame’s response to stretch rate and thermo-diffusive instability. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.

  13. Penalty for Fuel Economy - System Level Perspectives on the Reliability of Hybrid Electric Vehicles During Normal and Graceful Degradation Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-27

    the issue of system level reliability in hybrid electric vehicles from a quantitative point of view. It also introduces a quantitative meaning to the...internal combustion engine based vehicle and later transition of those to hybrid electric vehicles . The paper intends to drive the point that in HEV...Generally people tend to think only in terms of fuel economy and additional cost premium on vehicle price while discussing about hybrid electric

  14. Medium-speed diesel engineers: part I-design trends and the use of residual/blended fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, F.J.; Ahluwalia, J.S.; Shamah, E.

    1984-10-01

    Fuel costs can exceed 50 percent of the total diesel plant's operational expenditures. To reduce fuel costs, medium-speed engines are now available with improved fuel consumption and ability to burn residual fuels. Part I of this paper reviews these engine and design changes needed for both improved fuel consumption and the ability to burn poorer quality fuels. Characteristics of these fuels and international fuel specifications are discussed. Ignition quality of residual fuels by a modified ASTM D 613 procedure are presented and correlation shown to calculated diesel index and calculated carbon aromaticity index (CCAI). Residual fuel ignition delay effects on combustion pressure rise, fuel consumption, and piston temperature in a laboratory single-cylinder diesel engine are shown.

  15. Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid System Economic Basis for Electricity, Fuel, and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Forsberg; Steven Aumeier

    2014-04-01

    Concerns about climate change and altering the ocean chemistry are likely to limit the use of fossil fuels. That implies a transition to a low-carbon nuclear-renewable electricity grid. Historically variable electricity demand was met using fossil plants with low capital costs, high operating costs, and substantial greenhouse gas emissions. However, the most easily scalable very-low-emissions generating options, nuclear and non-dispatchable renewables (solar and wind), are capital-intensive technologies with low operating costs that should operate at full capacities to minimize costs. No combination of fully-utilized nuclear and renewables can meet the variable electricity demand. This implies large quantities of expensive excess generating capacity much of the time. In a free market this results in near-zero electricity prices at times of high nuclear renewables output and low electricity demand with electricity revenue collapse. Capital deployment efficiency—the economic benefit derived from energy systems capital investment at a societal level—strongly favors high utilization of these capital-intensive systems, especially if low-carbon nuclear renewables are to replace fossil fuels. Hybrid energy systems are one option for better utilization of these systems that consumes excess energy at times of low prices to make some useful product.The economic basis for development of hybrid energy systems is described for a low-carbon nuclear renewable world where much of the time there are massivequantities of excess energy available from the electric sector.Examples include (1) high-temperature electrolysis to generate hydrogen for non-fossil liquid fuels, direct use as a transport fuel, metal reduction, etc. and (2) biorefineries.Nuclear energy with its concentrated constant heat output may become the enabling technology for economically-viable low-carbon electricity grids because hybrid nuclear systems may provide an economic way to produce dispatachable variable

  16. Impact of fuel composition on emissions and performance of GTL kerosene blends in a Cessna Citation II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, T.A.; Melkert, J.A.; Bogers, P.F.; Bauldreay, J...; Wahl, C.R.M.; Kapernaum, M.G.

    2011-01-01

    International jet fuel specifications permit up to 50% volume Fischer-Tropsch synthetic paraffinic kerosines (FT-SPKs), such as Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) Kerosine, in Jet A-1. Higher SPK-content fuels could, however, produce desirable fuels: lower density, higher SPK-content fuels may have benefits for

  17. Impact of fuel composition on emissions and performance of GTL kerosene blends in a Cessna Citation II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, T.A.; Melkert, J.A.; Bogers, P.F.; Bauldreay, J...; Wahl, C.R.M.; Kapernaum, M.G.

    2011-01-01

    International jet fuel specifications permit up to 50% volume Fischer-Tropsch synthetic paraffinic kerosines (FT-SPKs), such as Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) Kerosine, in Jet A-1. Higher SPK-content fuels could, however, produce desirable fuels: lower density, higher SPK-content fuels may have benefits for P

  18. Fuel cell-hybrid switch locomotive for Los Angeles : test results (part 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, A.R.; Hess, K.S.; Erickson, T.L.; Dippo, J.L. [Vehicle Projects LLC, Golden, CO (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This paper described the development of a prototype fuel cell-powered shunt locomotive for urban rail use. The prototype was funded by a public-private partnership involving the BNSF Railway Company and the United States Department of Defense in an effort to reduce air pollution in urban railyards; increase energy security of the rail transport system by using hydrogen as fuel; reduce atmospheric greenhouse-gas emissions; and serve as a mobile backup power source for critical infrastructure on military bases. Railyard demonstrations were performed at the Commerce and Hobart railyards in the Los Angeles metro area. The hybrid locomotive is the heaviest and most powerful fuel cell land vehicle built today. It weighs 127 tonnes and gets continuous net power of 250 kW from its PEM fuel cell prime mover. Its transient power is well in excess of 1 MW. Its fourteen carbon-fiber composite compressed-hydrogen storage tanks, located at the roofline, have a combined storage of 70 kg at 350 bar. The system provides fuel for a rigorous 8-10 hour shunt-locomotive duty cycle. This paper focused on test results for this locomotive which was scheduled for completion by the end of 2008.

  19. Performance Analysis of a MCFC/MGT Hybrid Power System Bi-Fueled by City Gas and Biogas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Huang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the performance of a molten carbonate fuel cell and micro gas turbine (MCFC/MGT hybrid power system bi-fueled by city gas and biogas. The performance of the MCFC/MGT hybrid power system and MFCF/MGT hybrid power system response have been investigated experimentally and numerically. Results show that the MCFC, steam reformer, and catalytic combustor models are in agreement with the experimental results of the system fueled by city gas only and the system bi-fueled by city gas and biogas. The MFCF/MGT hybrid power system can have manifest operation with the addition of biogas at a flow rate of up to 150.0 Nm3·h−1, which is about 50% of the overall input heat value. In addition, the MCFC and MGT outputs decrease with the increase in the flow rate of added biogas, with an overall power generation efficiency ranging from 39.0% to 42.0%. Furthermore, the MCFC/MGT hybrid power system can be operated stably both at low amplitude with slow current change and large amplitude with rapid power conditions. Finally, the MCFC/MGT hybrid system bi-fueled by city gas and biogas may be applicable to the energy supply of the micro–grid network.

  20. Performance evaluation and parametric optimization of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell/heat-driven heat pump hybrid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.; Chen, J. [Department of Physics, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2012-06-15

    With the help of the current models of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells and three-heat-source heat pumps, a generic model of a PEM fuel cell/heat-driven heat pump hybrid system is established, so that the waste heat produced in the PEM fuel cell may be availably utilized. Based on the theory of electrochemistry and non-equilibrium thermodynamics, expressions for the efficiency and power output of the PEM fuel cell, the coefficient of performance and rate of pumping heat of the heat-driven heat pump, and the equivalent efficiency and power output of the hybrid system are derived. The curves of the equivalent efficiency and power output of the hybrid system varying with the electric current density and the equivalent power output versus efficiency curves are represented through numerical calculation. The general performance characteristics of the hybrid system are analyzed. The optimally operating regions of some important parameters of the hybrid system are determined. The influence of some main irreversible losses on the performance of the hybrid system is discussed in detail. The advantages of the hybrid system are revealed. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Power sources for portable electronics and hybrid cars: lithium batteries and fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrosati, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    The activities in progress in our laboratory for the development of batteries and fuel cells for portable electronics and hybrid car applications are reviewed and discussed. In the case of lithium batteries, the research has been mainly focused on the characterization of new electrode and electrolyte materials. Results related to disordered carbon anodes and improved, solvent-free, as well as gel-type, polymer electrolytes are particularly stressed. It is shown that the use of proper gel electrolytes, in combination with suitable electrode couples, allows the development of new types of safe, reliable, and low-cost lithium ion batteries which appear to be very promising power sources for hybrid vehicles. Some of the technologies proven to be successful in the lithium battery area are readapted for use in fuel cells. In particular, this approach has been followed for the preparation of low-cost and stable protonic membranes to be proposed as an alternative to the expensive, perfluorosulfonic membranes presently used in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Copyright 2005 The Japan Chemical Journal Forum and Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  2. Numerical Research on Hybrid Fuel Locking Device for Upward Flow Core-Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Hyung; Cho, Yeong-Garp; Yoo, Yeon-Sik; Ryu, Jeong-Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The assembly must be held firmly against these forces, but cannot be permanently attached to the support stand because periodic refueling of the reactor requires removal or relocation of each assembly. There are so many kinds of fuel locking device, but they are operated manually. As a part of a new project, we have investigated a hybrid fuel locking device (HFLD) for research reactor which is operated automatically. Prior method of holding down the fuel assembly includes a hybrid zero electromagnet consisting of an electromagnet and a permanent magnet. The role of an electromagnet is converged to zero power for overcoming the lifting power of a permanent magnet by controlling the coil current. At this time, a HFLD is an unlocking state. On the contrary, it is locking state that only a permanent magnet works when the power of an electromagnet is off. The results of a FEM in this work lead to the following conclusions: (1) It is possible that an electromagnet is converged to zero power for overcoming the lifting power of a permanent magnet by remote controlling the coil current. (2) At this time, it is able to detect remotely using proximity sensor whether a HFLD is latched or not.

  3. Power Management Optimization of an Experimental Fuel Cell/Battery/Supercapacitor Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farouk Odeim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an experimental fuel cell/battery/supercapacitor hybrid system is investigated in terms of modeling and power management design and optimization. The power management strategy is designed based on the role that should be played by each component of the hybrid power source. The supercapacitor is responsible for the peak power demands. The battery assists the supercapacitor in fulfilling the transient power demand by controlling its state-of-energy, whereas the fuel cell system, with its slow dynamics, controls the state-of-charge of the battery. The parameters of the power management strategy are optimized by a genetic algorithm and Pareto front analysis in a framework of multi-objective optimization, taking into account the hydrogen consumption, the battery loading and the acceleration performance. The optimization results are validated on a test bench composed of a fuel cell system (1.2 kW, 26 V, lithium polymer battery (30 Ah, 37 V, and a supercapacitor (167 F, 48 V.

  4. Hybrid solar cells based on blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and surface dye-modified, ultrathin linear- and branched-TiO{sub 2} nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Jie [Department of Chemistry, William Mong Institute of Nano Science and Technology, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Experimental Teaching Center, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Liu, Chenmin; Yang, Shihe [Department of Chemistry, William Mong Institute of Nano Science and Technology, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Cao, Yong [Institute of Polymer Optoelectronic Materials and Devices, Key Laboratory of Special Functional Materials and Advanced Manufacturing Technology, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2010-03-15

    We report on a comparative study of hybrid solar cells based on blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and TiO{sub 2} nanorods. Two types of ultrathin TiO{sub 2} nanorods, linear and branched, have been synthesized for the first time, and surface modified with different dyes before blending with P3HT. Using pristine P3HT as a reference, the short-circuit current and energy conversion efficiency of poly(3-hexylthiophene)/pyridine-HgBrRed-modified branched-TiO{sub 2} solar cells were increased by over an order of magnitude, which were also 2-3 times those of the corresponding linear-TiO{sub 2} cells. Our results indicate that the branching and the surface dye modification of TiO{sub 2} nanorods could effectively facilitate charge transport in the nanostructured network and exciton dissociation at the inorganic/organic interfaces. Thermal treatment of the blend films was found to further increase the efficiency up to 0.16%. (author)

  5. EVALUATION OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM TWO-STROKE MARINE DIESEL ENGINE FUELED WITH BIODIESEL PRODUCED FROM VARIOUS WASTE OILS AND DIESEL BLENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Nikolić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Shipping represents a significant source of diesel emissions, which affects global climate, air quality and human health. As a solution to this problem, biodiesel could be used as marine fuel, which could help in reducing the negative impact of shipping on environment and achieve lower carbon intensity in the sector. In Southern Europe, some oily wastes, such as wastes from olive oil production and used frying oils could be utilized for production of the second-generation biodiesel. The present research investigates the influence of the second-generation biodiesel on the characteristics of gaseous emissions of NOx, SO2, and CO from marine diesel engines. The marine diesel engine that was used, installed aboard a ship, was a reversible low-speed two-stroke engine, without any after-treatment devices installed or engine control technology for reducing pollutant emission. Tests were carried out on three regimes of engine speeds, 150 rpm, 180 rpm and 210 rpm under heavy propeller condition, while the ship was berthed in the harbor. The engine was fueled by diesel fuel and blends containing 7% and 20% v/v of three types of second-generation biodiesel made of olive husk oil, waste frying sunflower oil, and waste frying palm oil. A base-catalyzed transesterification was implemented for biodiesel production. According to the results, there are trends of NOx, SO2, and CO emission reduction when using blended fuels. Biodiesel made of olive husk oil showed better gaseous emission performances than biodiesel made from waste frying oils.

  6. Conversion of a micro, glow-ignition, two-stroke engine from nitromethane-methanol blend fuel to military jet propellant (JP-8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Andrew L.

    The goal of the thesis "Conversion of a Micro, Glow-Ignition, Two-Stroke Engine from Nitromethane-Methanol Blend Fuel to Military Jet Propellant (JP-8)" was to demonstrate the ability to operate a small engine on JP-8 and was completed in two phases. The first phase included choosing, developing a test stand for, and baseline testing a nitromethane-methanol-fueled engine. The chosen engine was an 11.5 cc, glow-ignition, two-stroke engine designed for remote-controlled helicopters. A micro engine test stand was developed to load and motor the engine. Instrumentation specific to the low flow rates and high speeds of the micro engine was developed and used to document engine behavior. The second phase included converting the engine to operate on JP-8, completing JP-8-fueled steady-state testing, and comparing the performance of the JP-8-fueled engine to the nitromethane-methanol-fueled engine. The conversion was accomplished through a novel crankcase heating method; by heating the crankcase for an extended period of time, a flammable fuel-air mixture was generated in the crankcase scavenged engine, which greatly improved starting times. To aid in starting and steady-state operation, yttrium-zirconia impregnated resin (i.e. ceramic coating) was applied to the combustion surfaces. This also improved the starting times of the JP-8-fueled engine and ultimately allowed for a 34-second starting time. Finally, the steady-state data from both the nitromethane-methanol and JP-8-fueled micro engine were compared. The JP-8-fueled engine showed signs of increased engine friction while having higher indicated fuel conversion efficiency and a higher overall system efficiency. The minimal ability of JP-8 to cool the engine via evaporative effects, however, created the necessity of increased cooling air flow. The conclusion reached was that JP-8-fueled micro engines could be viable in application, but not without additional research being conducted on combustion phenomenon and

  7. Medium-speed diesel engines Part I: Design trends and the use of residual/blended fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, F.J.; vander Horst, G.W.; Ahluwalia, J.S.; Shamah, E.

    1984-02-01

    Fuel costs can exceed 50% of the total diesel plant's operational expenditures. To reduce fuel costs, medium-speed engines are now available with improved fuel consumption and ability to burn residual fuels. Part 1 reviews these engine and design changes needed for both improved fuel consumption and ability to burn poorer quality fuels. Characteristics of these fuels and international fuel specifications are discussed. Ignition quality of residual fuels by a modified ASTM D 613 procedure are presented and correlation shown to calculated diesel index and calculated carbon aromaticity index (CCAI). Residual fuel ignition delay effects on combustion pressure rise, fuel consumption, and piston temperature in a laboratory single-cylinder diesel engine are shown. Part 2 reviews characteristics of lubricants suitable for use with residual fuels in medium-speed engines. Examples are shown of how lubricants and their additives control engine wear, deposits, and oxidation, and how fuel consumption is affected by viscosity. Control of insolubles and the purification of lubricants are discussed.

  8. Hybrid Dynamic Modeling and Control of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Stack Shutdown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong; CAO Guang-yi; ZHU Xin-jian

    2007-01-01

    A hybrid automaton modeling approach that incorporates state space partitioning, phase dynamic modeling and control law synthesis by control strategy is utilized to develop a hybrid automaton model of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) stack shutdown. The shutdown operation is divided into several phases and their boundaries are decided according to a control strategy, which is a set of specifications about the dynamics of MCFC stack during shutdown. According to the control strategy, the specification of increasing stack temperature is satisfied in a phase that can be modeled accurately. The model for phase that has complex dynamic is approximated. The duration of this kind of phase is decreased to minimize the error caused by model approximation.

  9. Development of a Hybrid Compressor/Expander Module for Automotive Fuel Cell Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McTaggart, Paul

    2004-12-31

    In this program TIAX LLC conducted the development of an advanced technology compressor/expander for supplying compressed air to Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells in transportation applications. The overall objective of this program was to develop a hybrid compressor/expander module, based on both scroll and high-speed turbomachinery technologies, which will combine the strengths of each technology to create a concept with superior performance at minimal size and cost. The resulting system was expected to have efficiency and pressure delivery capability comparable to that of a scroll-only machine, at significantly reduced system size and weight when compared to scroll-only designs. Based on the results of detailed designs and analyses of the critical system elements, the Hybrid Compressor/Expander Module concept was projected to deliver significant improvements in weight, volume and manufacturing cost relative to previous generation systems.

  10. Testing and Modeling Fuel Regression Rate in a Miniature Hybrid Burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Fanton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ballistic characterization of an extended group of innovative HTPB-based solid fuel formulations for hybrid rocket propulsion was performed in a lab-scale burner. An optical time-resolved technique was used to assess the quasisteady regression history of single perforation, cylindrical samples. The effects of metalized additives and radiant heat transfer on the regression rate of such formulations were assessed. Under the investigated operating conditions and based on phenomenological models from the literature, analyses of the collected experimental data show an appreciable influence of the radiant heat flux from burnt gases and soot for both unloaded and loaded fuel formulations. Pure HTPB regression rate data are satisfactorily reproduced, while the impressive initial regression rates of metalized formulations require further assessment.

  11. Energy management of fuel cell/solar cell/supercapacitor hybrid power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thounthong, Phatiphat; Sethakul, Panarit [Department of Teacher Training in Electrical Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology North Bangkok, 1518, Piboolsongkram Road, Bangsue, Bangkok 10800 (Thailand); Chunkag, Viboon [Department of Electrical Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology North Bangkok, 1518, Piboolsongkram Road, Bangsue, Bangkok 10800 (Thailand); Sikkabut, Suwat [Thai-French Innovation Institute, King Mongkut' s University of Technology North Bangkok, 1518, Piboolsongkram Road, Bangsue, Bangkok 10800 (Thailand); Pierfederici, Serge; Davat, Bernard [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy (GREEN: UMR 7037), Nancy Universite, INPL-ENSEM, 2, Avenue de la Foret de Haye, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy, Lorraine 54516 (France)

    2011-01-01

    This study presents an original control algorithm for a hybrid energy system with a renewable energy source, namely, a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and a photovoltaic (PV) array. A single storage device, i.e., a supercapacitor (ultracapacitor) module, is in the proposed structure. The main weak point of fuel cells (FCs) is slow dynamics because the power slope is limited to prevent fuel starvation problems, improve performance and increase lifetime. The very fast power response and high specific power of a supercapacitor complements the slower power output of the main source to produce the compatibility and performance characteristics needed in a load. The energy in the system is balanced by d.c.-bus energy regulation (or indirect voltage regulation). A supercapacitor module functions by supplying energy to regulate the d.c.-bus energy. The fuel cell, as a slow dynamic source in this system, supplies energy to the supercapacitor module in order to keep it charged. The photovoltaic array assists the fuel cell during daytime. To verify the proposed principle, a hardware system is realized with analog circuits for the fuel cell, solar cell and supercapacitor current control loops, and with numerical calculation (dSPACE) for the energy control loops. Experimental results with small-scale devices, namely, a PEMFC (1200 W, 46 A) manufactured by the Ballard Power System Company, a photovoltaic array (800 W, 31 A) manufactured by the Ekarat Solar Company and a supercapacitor module (100 F, 32 V) manufactured by the Maxwell Technologies Company, illustrate the excellent energy-management scheme during load cycles. (author)

  12. Intelligent uninterruptible power supply system with back-up fuel cell/battery hybrid power source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yuedong; Guo, Youguang; Zhu, Jianguo; Wang, Hua

    2008-05-01

    This paper presents the development of an intelligent uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system with a hybrid power source that comprises a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and a battery. Attention is focused on the architecture of the UPS hybrid system and the data acquisition and control of the PEMFC. Specifically, the hybrid UPS system consists of a low-cost 60-cell 300 W PEMFC stack, a 3-cell lead-acid battery, an active power factor correction ac-dc rectifier, a half-bridge dc-ac inverter, a dc-dc converter, an ac-dc charger and their control units based on a digital signal processor TMS320F240, other integrated circuit chips, and a simple network management protocol adapter. Experimental tests and theoretical studies are conducted. First, the major parameters of the PEMFC are experimentally obtained and evaluated. Then an intelligent control strategy for the PEMFC stack is proposed and implemented. Finally, the performance of the hybrid UPS system is measured and analyzed.

  13. PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF SPAES-TiO_2 HYBRID MEMBRANES FOR DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘惠玲

    2009-01-01

    Sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone)(SPAES) copolymer with degree of sulfonation of 1.0 was synthesized and characterized.A series of SPAES-TiO_2 hybrid membranes with various contents of nano-sized TiO_2 particles were prepared and characterized through sol-gel reactions.Scanning electron microscopy(SEM) images indicated the TiO_2 particles were well dispersed within polymer matrix.These composite membranes were evaluated for proton exchange membranes(PEMs) in direct methanol fuel cell(DMFC).These mem...

  14. Planar Integrated Magnetics (PIM) Module in Hybrid Bidirectional DC-DC Converter for Fuel Cell Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouyang, Ziwei; Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius

    2011-01-01

    , hereby increasing the power density of converters. In this paper, a new planar integrated magnetics (PIM) module for a phase-shift plus duty cycle controlled hybrid bi-directional dc-dc converter is proposed, which assembles one boost inductor and two transformers into an E-I-E core geometry, reducing...... and theoretical analysis, a lab prototype employing the PIM module is implemented for a fuel cell application with 20~40 V input voltage and 400 V output voltage. Detailed results from the experimental comparisons demonstrate that the PIM module is fully functional and electromagnetically equivalent...

  15. Neutronic behavior of thorium fuel cycles in a very high temperature hybrid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Garcia, Lorena; Milian Perez, Daniel; Garcia Hernandez, Carlos; Milian Lorenzo, Daniel, E-mail: dperez@instec.cu, E-mail: cgh@instec.cu, E-mail: dmilian@instec.cu [Higher Institute of Technologies and Applied Sciences, Havana (Cuba); Velasco, Abanades, E-mail: abanades@etsii.upm.es [Department of Simulation of Thermo Energy Systems, Polytechnic University of Madrid (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear energy needs to guarantee four important issues to be successful as a sustainable energy source: nuclear safety, economic competitiveness, proliferation resistance and a minimal production of radioactive waste. Pebble bed reactors (PBR), which are very high temperature systems together with fuel cycles based in Thorium, they could offer the opportunity to meet the sustainability demands. Thorium is a potentially valuable energy source since it is about three to four times as abundant as Uranium. It is also a widely distributed natural resource readily accessible in many countries. This paper shows the main advantages of the use of a hybrid system formed by a Pebble Bed critical nuclear reactor and two Pebble Bed Accelerator Driven Systems (ADSs) using a variety of fuel cycles with Thorium (Th+U{sup 233}, Th+Pu{sup 239} and Th+U). The parameters related to the neutronic behavior like deep burn, nuclear fuel breeding, Minor Actinide stockpile, power density profiles and other are used to compare the fuel cycles using the well-known MCNPX computational code. (author)

  16. Energy Management Strategies based on efficiency map for Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feroldi, Diego; Serra, Maria; Riera, Jordi [Institut de Robotica i Informatica Industrial (CSIC-UPC), C. Llorens i Artigas 4, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-05-15

    The addition of a fast auxiliary power source like a supercapacitor bank in fuel cell-based vehicles has a great potential because permits a significant reduction of the hydrogen consumption and an improvement of the vehicle efficiency. The Energy Management Strategies, commanding the power split between the power sources in the hybrid arrangement to fulfil the power requirement, perform a fundamental role to achieve this objective. In this work, three strategies based on the knowledge of the fuel cell efficiency map are proposed. These strategies are attractive due to the relative simplicity of the r