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Sample records for hybrid force-position control

  1. Toward hybrid force/position control for the Cerberus epicardial robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, Macauley S; Costanza, Adam D; Wood, Nathan A; Passineau, Michael J; Riviere, Cameron N

    2015-01-01

    Gene therapies have emerged as a promising treatment for congestive heart failure, yet they lack a method for minimally invasive, uniform delivery. To address this need we developed Cerberus, a minimally invasive parallel wire robot for cardiac interventions. Prior work on Cerberus was limited to controlling the device using only position feedback. In order to ensure safety for both the patient and the device, as well as to improve the performance of the device, this paper presents work on enhancing the existing system with force feedback capabilities. By modeling the statics of the system and developing a tension distribution optimization technique, existing position control schemes were modified to a hybrid force/position controller. Experimental results show that using a hybrid force-position control scheme as opposed to position decreases positioning error by 38%.

  2. A hybrid Force Position Control for a Upper Limb Rehabilitation Robot of Series Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Yali; Ji Linhong

    2016-01-01

    Interactive rehabilitation robot which has better interaction is one main method to improve the patients’ motion performance. The rehabilitation robot developed by Tsinghua University UECM for patients having weakness with shoulder and elbow should be improved by increasing interactive parts to adapt to patients’ state. This paper described one control strategy to increase the interaction between robot and patients. The hybrid force position control for the upper limb rehabilitation robot UEC...

  3. Passive hybrid force-position control for tele-operation based on real-time simulation of a virtual mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, L.; Andriot, C.

    1995-12-31

    Hybrid force-position control aims at controlling position and force in separate directions. It is particularly useful to perform certain robotic tasks. In tele-operation context, passivity is important because it ensures stability when the system interacts with any passive environment. In this paper, we propose an original approach to hybrid force-position control of a force reflecting tele-robot system. It is based on real-time simulation of a virtual mechanism corresponding to the task. the resulting control law is passive. Experiments on a 6 degrees of freedom tele-operation system consisting in following a bent pipe under several control modes validate the approach. (authors). 12 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Evaluation of three force-position hybrid control methods for a robot-based biological joint-testing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hong-Jung; Hu, Chih-Chung; Lu, Tung-Wu; Lu, Hsuan-Lun; Kuo, Mei-Ying; Kuo, Chien-Chung; Hsu, Horng-Chaung

    2016-06-07

    Robot-based joint-testing systems (RJTS) can be used to perform unconstrained laxity tests, measuring the stiffness of a degree of freedom (DOF) of the joint at a fixed flexion angle while allowing the other DOFs unconstrained movement. Previous studies using the force-position hybrid (FPH) control method proposed by Fujie et al. (J Biomech Eng 115(3):211-7, 1993) focused on anterior/posterior tests. Its convergence and applicability on other clinically relevant DOFs such as valgus/varus have not been demonstrated. The current s1tudy aimed to develop a 6-DOF RJTS using an industrial robot, to propose two new force-position hybrid control methods, and to evaluate the performance of the methods and FPH in controlling the RJTS for anterior/posterior and valgus/varus laxity tests of the knee joint. An RJTS was developed using an industrial 6-DOF robot with a 6-component load-cell attached at the effector. The performances of FPH and two new control methods, namely force-position alternate control (FPA) and force-position hybrid control with force-moment control (FPHFM), for unconstrained anterior/posterior and valgus/varus laxity tests were evaluated and compared with traditional constrained tests (CT) in terms of the number of control iterations, total time and the constraining forces and moments. As opposed to CT, the other three control methods successfully reduced the constraining forces and moments for both anterior/posterior and valgus/varus tests, FPHFM being the best followed in order by FPA and FPH. FPHFM had root-mean-squared constraining forces and moments of less than 2.2 N and 0.09 Nm, respectively at 0° flexion, and 2.3 N and 0.14 Nm at 30° flexion. The corresponding values for FPH were 8.5 N and 0.33 Nm, and 11.5 N and 0.45 Nm, respectively. Given the same control parameters including the compliance matrix, FPHFM and FPA reduced the constraining loads of FPH at the expense of additional control iterations, and thus increased total time, FPA

  5. Toward Hybrid Force/Position Control for the Cerberus Epicardial Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Breault, Macauley S.; Costanza, Adam D.; Wood, Nathan A.; Passineau, Michael J.; Riviere, Cameron N.

    2015-01-01

    Gene therapies have emerged as a promising treatment for congestive heart failure, yet they lack a method for minimally invasive, uniform delivery. To address this need we developed Cerberus, a minimally invasive parallel wire robot for cardiac interventions. Prior work on Cerberus was limited to controlling the device using only position feedback. In order to ensure safety for both the patient and the device, as well as to improve the performance of the device, this paper presents work on en...

  6. 飞机大部件调姿平台力位混合控制系统设计%Design on hybrid force position control of large aircraft components posture alignment platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗中海; 孟祥磊; 巴晓甫; 费少华; 方强

    2015-01-01

    In order to solve the problem that perpendicularity and parallelism error of three‐axis localizers cause posture alignment error and internal force of aircraft components ,the paper introduces a hybrid force position control system for posture alignment platform of large aircraft components . Error model of posture alignment was established to explain the problem .Then the strategy to select axes under position control and axes under force control was proposed based on condition number of mechanism’s Jacobian matrix .Static error calculation indicates that hybrid control strategy may improve posture accuracy and reduce internal force significantly under the given posture alignment condition w hen 0 .05 mm/m perpendicularity error exists on each localizer and the maximum parallelism error was 0 .1 mm/m and the averaged parallelism error was 0 .07 mm/m between localizers .The experiment indicates that the torque controller follows the desire torque signal properly with disturbing position signal and the dynamic torque error is below 0 .03 N · m ,w hich is applicable on real posture alignment platform .%为了解决调姿平台中,由于三坐标定位器自身各轴垂直度和相互各轴平行度误差引起的调姿误差以及对飞机大部件造成内力的问题,提出一种飞机大部件调姿平台的力/位置混合控制方法.通过建立调姿误差模型,分析三坐标定位器自身垂直度和相互平行度误差对姿态控制以及部件内力的影响;根据机构雅可比矩阵条件数,提出调姿平台力控制轴和位置控制轴分配策略;通过静态误差计算得到,在三坐标定位器垂直度误差为0.05 m m/m ,同向轴两两之间最大平行度误差为0.1 mm/m且平均平行度误差为0.07 mm/m时,在给定的部件尺寸和调姿轨迹下,力/位置混合控制方法的调姿精度优于全位置控制方法,并且显著降低了调姿部件内力.实验结果表明,力控

  7. An Approach to Simultaneous Force/Position Control of Robot Manipulators

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Filaretov; Alexander Zuev

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the new approach to high-quality simultaneous force/position control for robot manipulators is proposed based on the division of actuator's total torque of manipulator for each degree of freedom onto two components: position (which provides the position and orientation of the end-effector) and force (which provides the force and moment from end-effector on environment), and on the further simultaneous minimization of the errors of this two component with the help of the quadr...

  8. Force/position control of a robot manipulator for human-robot interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neranon Paramin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With regard to both human and robot capabilities, human-robot interaction provides several benefits, and this will be significantly developed and implemented. This work focuses on the development of real-time external force/position control used for human-robot interaction. The force-controlled robotic system integrated with proportional integral control was performed and evaluated to ensure its reliably and timely operational characteristics, in which appropriate proportional integral gains were experimentally adopted using a set of virtual crank-turning tests. The designed robotic system is made up of a robot manipulator arm, an ATI Gamma multi-axis force/torque sensor and a real-time external PC based control system. A proportional integral controller has been developed to provide stable and robust force control on unknown environmental stiffness and motion. To quantify its effectiveness, the robotic system has been verified through a comprehensive set of experiments, in which force measurement and ALTER real-time path control systems were evaluated. In summary, the results indicated satisfactorily stable performance of the robot force/position control system. The gain tuning for proportional plus integral control algorithm was successfully implemented. It can be reported that the best performance as specified by the error root mean square method of the radial force is observed with proportional and integral gains of 0.10 and 0.005 respectively.

  9. Radial Basis Functional Link Network and Hamilton Jacobi Issacs for Force/Position Control in Robotic Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhuan Wen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper works on hybrid force/position control in robotic manipulation and proposes an improved radial basis functional (RBF neural network, which is a robust relying on the Hamilton Jacobi Issacs principle of the force control loop. The method compensates uncertainties in a robot system by using the property of RBF neural network. The error approximation of neural network is regarded as an external interference of the system, and it is eliminated by the robust control method. Since the conventionally fixed structure of RBF network is not optimal, resource allocating network (RAN is proposed in this paper to adjust the network structure in time and avoid the underfit. Finally the advantage of system stability and transient performance is demonstrated by the numerical simulations.

  10. A Comparison between Two Force-Position Controllers with Gravity Compensation Simulated on a Humanoid Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Gerardo Muscolo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors propose a comparison between two force-position controllers with gravity compensation simulated on the DEXTER bioinspired robotic arm. The two controllers are both constituted by an internal proportional-derivative (PD closed-loop for the position control. The force control of the two systems is composed of an external proportional (P closed-loop for one system (P system and an external proportional-integrative (PI closed-loop for the other system (PI system. The simulation tests performed with the two systems on a planar representation of the DEXTER, an eight-DOF bioinspired arm, showed that by varying the stiffness of the environment, with a correct setting of parameters, both systems ensure the achievement of the desired force regime and with great precision the desired position. The two controllers do not have large differences in performance when interacting with a lower stiffness environment. In case of an environment with greater rigidity, the PI system is more stable. The subsequent implementation of these control systems on the DEXTER robotic bioinspired arm gives guidance on the design and control optimisation of the arms of the humanoid robot named SABIAN.

  11. Impact Effect Analysis of Dual-arm Space Robot Capturing a Non-cooperative Target and Force/Position Robust Stabilization Control for Closed-chain Hybrid System%双臂空间机器人捕获非合作目标冲击效应分析及闭链混合系统力/位形鲁棒镇定控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董楸煌; 陈力

    2015-01-01

    分析漂浮基双臂空间机器人捕获非合作目标所受的冲击影响效应,及捕获后空间机器人和目标组成的闭链混合系统对目标夹持内力和位形的鲁棒镇定控制。将捕获目标过程视为两机械臂末端与目标碰撞前、碰撞过程和碰撞后三个阶段。在碰撞前空间机器人和目标是分离的两分体系统,利用第二类拉格朗日方程建立漂浮基双臂空间机器人系统的动力学模型。在机械臂末端与目标碰撞阶段,基于空间机器人与目标总动量守恒,利用动量定理计算翻滚目标对空间机器人运动状态的冲击影响效应。在碰撞后,双臂空间机器人已捕获翻滚目标并组成闭链混合系统,针对混合系统在碰撞阶段受冲击影响而产生不稳定运动,提出一种鲁棒控制算法对其进行镇定控制,以实现双臂对目标夹持内力和空间机器人位形的协调控制,并达到期望的稳定状态。数值仿真验证了上述控制算法的有效性。%The impact effect of a free-floating dual-arm space robot to capture a non-cooperative target is analyzed, and during the post-capture the space robot and the target compose a closed-chaln hybrid system, then a clamp force and position robust stabilization control is discussed. The target capture process is considered as pre-impact phase,impact phase and post-impact phase. The space robot and target are separated subsystem in the pre-impact phase, and the dynamics model of free-floating space robot is derived by the second Lagrange equation. In the impact phase, base on the total momentum conservation of space robot and target, the impact effect for the space robot motion is calculated by momentum theorem. In the post-impact phase, the dual-arm space robot has captured the target and formed a closed-chaln hybrid system, considering the unstable motion which is caused by the impact effect in the impact phase, a robust control algorithm is proposed

  12. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  13. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstra, J. A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of hybrid automata as timed transition systems. We also relate the synchronized product operator on hybrid automata to the parallel composition operator of the process algebra. It turns out that the f...

  14. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  15. Continuity controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  16. 非球面数控研抛力-位-姿解耦控制研究%Research on Force-position-posture Decoupling Control for NC Polishing of Aspheric Parts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史永杰; 郑堤; 詹建明; 王龙山

    2011-01-01

    In order to resolve the problem of force-position-posture coupling in automatic polishing systems and improve the polishing quality of aspheric part surface, a new decoupling control method for NC polishing based on magnetorheological torque servo (MRT) is proposed. Theoretical and experimental studies on the principle and model of this method are carried out. After a deep investigation into the coupling mechanism, the model of force-position-posture coupling is established based on Preston equation and Hertz theory, the principle of force-position-posture decoupling based on the MRT is introduced, the control models of polishing force and rotational speed of aspheric parts are deduced, and a corresponding experimental system is developed. Experiments are carried out, and mirror-like aspheric part surface with a roughness of Ra≤0.030 μm as well as constant material removal rates are obtained.Research results show that the MRT-based decoupling method can effectively resolve the problem of force-position-posture coupling,and provides a new way to achieve NC polishing of aspheric parts with high quality and efficiency and low cost.%为解决自动研抛系统中研抛力-研抛头位置-研抛头姿态之间的耦合问题,提高非球面表面的研抛质量,提出一种基于磁流变力矩伺服装置(Magnetorheologicalfluidtorque servo,MRT)的力-位-姿解耦控制方法,并对该方法的原理和模型进行理论和试验研究.通过分析自动研抛系统中力-位-姿之间的耦合机理,以Preston方程和Hertz接触理论为基础,建立力-位-姿耦合模型,探讨基于MRT的力-位-姿解耦原理,推导出基于MRT的研抛力控制模型和数控机床转速控制模型,研制相应的试验系统,并通过研抛试验得到表面粗糙度Ra≤0.030μm的镜面表面和均匀的材料去除率.研究结果表明,基于MRT的力-位-姿解耦控制方法,能够有效地解决研抛系统中力-位-姿耦合难题,是实现非球面高精度、

  17. Hybrid spacecraft attitude control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuganth Varatharajoo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.

  18. Optimal control of hybrid vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Jager, Bram; Kessels, John

    2013-01-01

    Optimal Control of Hybrid Vehicles provides a description of power train control for hybrid vehicles. The background, environmental motivation and control challenges associated with hybrid vehicles are introduced. The text includes mathematical models for all relevant components in the hybrid power train. The power split problem in hybrid power trains is formally described and several numerical solutions detailed, including dynamic programming and a novel solution for state-constrained optimal control problems based on Pontryagin’s maximum principle.   Real-time-implementable strategies that can approximate the optimal solution closely are dealt with in depth. Several approaches are discussed and compared, including a state-of-the-art strategy which is adaptive for vehicle conditions like velocity and mass. Two case studies are included in the book: ·        a control strategy for a micro-hybrid power train; and ·        experimental results obtained with a real-time strategy implemented in...

  19. Hybrid vehicle control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shallvari, Iva; Velnati, Sashidhar; DeGroot, Kenneth P.

    2015-07-28

    A method and apparatus for heating a catalytic converter's catalyst to an efficient operating temperature in a hybrid electric vehicle when the vehicle is in a charge limited mode such as e.g., the charge depleting mode or when the vehicle's high voltage battery is otherwise charge limited. The method and apparatus determine whether a high voltage battery of the vehicle is incapable of accepting a first amount of charge associated with a first procedure to warm-up the catalyst. If it is determined that the high voltage battery is incapable of accepting the first amount of charge, a second procedure with an acceptable amount of charge is performed to warm-up the catalyst.

  20. Hybrid vehicle control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallvari, Iva; Velnati, Sashidhar; DeGroot, Kenneth P.

    2015-07-28

    A method and apparatus for heating a catalytic converter's catalyst to an efficient operating temperature in a hybrid electric vehicle when the vehicle is in a charge limited mode such as e.g., the charge depleting mode or when the vehicle's high voltage battery is otherwise charge limited. The method and apparatus determine whether a high voltage battery of the vehicle is incapable of accepting a first amount of charge associated with a first procedure to warm-up the catalyst. If it is determined that the high voltage battery is incapable of accepting the first amount of charge, a second procedure with an acceptable amount of charge is performed to warm-up the catalyst.

  1. Hybrid Systems: Computation and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    elbow) and a pinned first joint (shoul- der) (see Figure 2); it is termed an underactuated system since it is a mechanical system with fewer...Montreal, PQ, Canada, 1998. [10] M. W. Spong. Partial feedback linearization of underactuated mechanical systems . In Proceedings, IROS󈨢, pages 314-321...control mechanism and search for optimal combinations of control variables. Besides the nonlinear and hybrid nature of powertrain systems , hardware

  2. Hybrid force-velocity sliding mode control of a prosthetic hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeberg, Erik D; Meek, Sanford G; Minor, Mark A

    2008-05-01

    Four different methods of hand prosthesis control are developed and examined experimentally. Open-loop control is shown to offer the least sensitivity when manipulating objects. Force feedback substantially improves upon open-loop control. However, it is shown that the inclusion of velocity and/or position feedback in a hybrid force-velocity control scheme can further improve the functionality of hand prostheses. Experimental results indicate that the sliding mode controller with force, position, and velocity feedback is less prone to unwanted force overshoot when initially grasping objects than the other controllers.

  3. IMPULSE CONTROL HYBRID ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lobaty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the recently introduced approach for modeling and solving the optimal control problem of fixedswitched mode DC-DC power converter. DCDC converters are a class of electric power circuits that used extensively in regulated DC power supplies, DC motor drives of different types, in Photovoltaic Station energy conversion and other applications due to its advantageous features in terms of size, weight and reliable performance. The main problem in controlling this type converters is in their hybrid nature as the switched circuit topology entails different modes of operation, each of it with its own associated linear continuous-time dynamics.This paper analyses the modeling and controller synthesis of the fixed-frequency buck DC-DC converter, in which the transistor switch is operated by a pulse sequence with constant frequency. In this case the regulation of the DC component of the output voltage is via the duty cycle. The optimization of the control system is based on the formation of the control signal at the output.It is proposed to solve the problem of optimal control of a hybrid system based on the formation of the control signal at the output of the controller, which minimizes a given functional integral quality, which is regarded as a linear quadratic Letov-Kalman functional. Search method of optimal control depends on the type of mathematical model of control object. In this case, we consider a linear deterministic model of the control system, which is common for the majority of hybrid electrical systems. For this formulation of the optimal control problem of search is a problem of analytical design of optimal controller, which has the analytical solution.As an example of the hybrid system is considered a step-down switching DC-DC converter, which is widely used in various electrical systems: as an uninterruptible power supply, battery charger for electric vehicles, the inverter in solar photovoltaic power plants.. A

  4. Control for a class of hybrid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. van Schuppen (Jan)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractA hybrid control system is a control theoretic model for a computer controlled engineering system. A definition of a hybrid control system is formulated that consists of a product of a finite state automaton and of a family of continuous control systems. An example of a transportation

  5. Intraply Hybrid Composites Would Contain Control Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Shiao, Chi-Yu

    1996-01-01

    "Smart" structural components with sensors and/or actuators distributed throughout their volumes made of intraply hybrid composite materials, according to proposal. Strips of hybrid control material interspersed with strips of ordinary (passive) composite material in some layers, providing distributed control capability. For example, near and far edges of plate bent upward by commanding bottom control strips to expand and simultaneously commanding upper control strips to contract.

  6. Fault tolerant control design for hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hao; Jiang, Bin [Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing (China); Cocquempot, Vincent [Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2010-07-01

    This book intends to provide the readers a good understanding on how to achieve Fault Tolerant Control goal of Hybrid Systems. The book can be used as a reference for the academic research on Fault Tolerant Control and Hybrid Systems or used in Ph.D. study of control theory and engineering. The knowledge background for this monograph would be some undergraduate and graduate courses on Fault Diagnosis and Fault Tolerant Control theory, linear system theory, nonlinear system theory, Hybrid Systems theory and Discrete Event System theory. (orig.)

  7. HYBRID CONTROL APPROACH FOR CONTAINER CRANES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiaojun; Shao Huihe

    2005-01-01

    A hybrid control approach is proposed to achieve the desired performance. Firstly a robust input shaper is designed to reduce the transient vibration and residual vibration of the container efficiently. Then a simple fuzzy logic controller is designed to eliminate the residual vibration completely in order to guarantee the positioning precision. Such a hybrid approach is simple in structure and readily realizable. Simulation results verify the fine performance of this hybrid control approach. It can achieve perfect elimination of residual vibration and concise positioning of the container load, and it is robust to parameter variations (mainly for cable length) and external disturbances.

  8. Analysis and design of hybrid control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmborg, J.

    1998-05-01

    Different aspects of hybrid control systems are treated: analysis, simulation, design and implementation. A systematic methodology using extended Lyapunov theory for design of hybrid systems is developed. The methodology is based on conventional control designs in separate regions together with a switching strategy. Dynamics are not well defined if the control design methods lead to fast mode switching. The dynamics depend on the salient features of the implementation of the mode switches. A theorem for the stability of second order switching together with the resulting dynamics is derived. The dynamics on an intersection of two sliding sets are defined for two relays working on different time scales. The current simulation packages have problems modeling and simulating hybrid systems. It is shown how fast mode switches can be found before or during simulation. The necessary analysis work is a very small overhead for a modern simulation tool. To get some experience from practical problems with hybrid control the switching strategy is implemented in two different software environments. In one of them a time-optimal controller is added to an existing PID controller on a commercial control system. Successful experiments with this hybrid controller shows the practical use of the method 78 refs, 51 figs, 2 tabs

  9. Modular supervisory controller for hybrid power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos Pereira, A. de

    2000-06-01

    The power supply of remote places has been commonly provided by thermal power plants, usually diesel generators. Although hybrid power systems may constitute the most economical solution in many applications their widespread application to the electrification schemes of remote areas still depends on improvements in the issues of design and operation control. The main limitations of the present hybrid power systems technology, which are identified in this work, are related to the control and supervision of the power system. Therefore this thesis focuses on the modularity of supervisory controllers in order to design cost-competitive and reliable hybrid power systems. The modular supervisory controller created in this project is considered an important part of a system design approach that aims to overcome the technical difficulties of the current engineering practice and contribute to open the market of hybrid power systems. The term modular refers to a set of design characteristics that allows the use of basically the same supervisory controller in different projects. The modularization and standardisation of the controller include several issues such as interfacing components, communication protocols, modelling, programming and control strategies. The modularity can reduce the highly specialised system engineering related to the integration of components, operation and control. It can also avoid the high costs for installation, service and maintenance. A modular algorithm for supervisory controllers has been developed (a Matlab program called SuperCon) using an object-oriented design and it has been tested through several simulations using different hybrid system configurations and different control strategies. This thesis presents a complete control system design process which can be used as the basis for the development and implementation of intelligent and autonomous supervisory controllers for hybrid power systems with modular characteristics. (au)

  10. Evolved Finite State Controller For Hybrid System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupuis, Jean-Francois; Fan, Zhun; Goodman, Erik

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an evolutionary methodology to automatically generate nite state automata (FSA) controllers to control hybrid systems. FSA controllers for a case study of two-tank system have been successfully obtained using the proposed evolutionary approach. Experimental results show...

  11. Full Gradient Solution to Adaptive Hybrid Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Jacob; Schiller, Noah H.; Fuller, Chris

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the adaptation mechanisms in adaptive hybrid controllers. Most adaptive hybrid controllers update two filters individually according to the filtered reference least mean squares (FxLMS) algorithm. Because this algorithm was derived for feedforward control, it does not take into account the presence of a feedback loop in the gradient calculation. This paper provides a derivation of the proper weight vector gradient for hybrid (or feedback) controllers that takes into account the presence of feedback. In this formulation, a single weight vector is updated rather than two individually. An internal model structure is assumed for the feedback part of the controller. The full gradient is equivalent to that used in the standard FxLMS algorithm with the addition of a recursive term that is a function of the modeling error. Some simulations are provided to highlight the advantages of using the full gradient in the weight vector update rather than the approximation.

  12. Hybrid Predictive Control for Dynamic Transport Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Núñez, Alfredo A; Cortés, Cristián E

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid Predictive Control for Dynamic Transport Problems develops methods for the design of predictive control strategies for nonlinear-dynamic hybrid discrete-/continuous-variable systems. The methodology is designed for real-time applications, particularly the study of dynamic transport systems. Operational and service policies are considered, as well as cost reduction. The control structure is based on a sound definition of the key variables and their evolution. A flexible objective function able to capture the predictive behaviour of the system variables is described. Coupled with efficient algorithms, mainly drawn from the area of computational intelligence, this is shown to optimize performance indices for real-time applications. The framework of the proposed predictive control methodology is generic and, being able to solve nonlinear mixed-integer optimization problems dynamically, is readily extendable to other industrial processes. The main topics of this book are: ●hybrid predictive control (HPC) ...

  13. Hybrid dynamical systems observation and control

    CERN Document Server

    Defoort, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This book is a collection of contributions defining the state of current knowledge and new trends in hybrid systems – systems involving both continuous dynamics and discrete events – as described by the work of several well-known groups of researchers. Hybrid Dynamical Systems presents theoretical advances in such areas as diagnosability, observability and stabilization for various classes of system. Continuous and discrete state estimation and self-triggering control of nonlinear systems are advanced. The text employs various methods, among them, high-order sliding modes, Takagi–Sugeno representation and sampled-data switching to achieve its ends. The many applications of hybrid systems from power converters to computer science are not forgotten; studies of flexible-joint robotic arms and – as representative biological systems – the behaviour of the human heart and vasculature, demonstrate the wide-ranging practical significance of control in hybrid systems. The cross-disciplinary origins of study ...

  14. A "Hybrid" Approach for Synthesizing Optimal Controllers of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Hengjun; Zhan, Naijun; Kapur, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    We propose an approach to reduce the optimal controller synthesis problem of hybrid systems to quantifier elimination; furthermore, we also show how to combine quantifier elimination with numerical computation in order to make it more scalable but at the same time, keep arising errors due...... to discretization manageable and within bounds. A major advantage of our approach is not only that it avoids errors due to numerical computation, but it also gives a better optimal controller. In order to illustrate our approach, we use the real industrial example of an oil pump provided by the German company HYDAC...

  15. Locomotion control of hybrid cockroach robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Carlos J.; Chiu, Chen-Wei; Zhou, Yan; González, Jorge M.; Vinson, S. Bradleigh; Liang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Natural systems retain significant advantages over engineered systems in many aspects, including size and versatility. In this research, we develop a hybrid robotic system using American (Periplaneta americana) and discoid (Blaberus discoidalis) cockroaches that uses the natural locomotion and robustness of the insect. A tethered control system was firstly characterized using American cockroaches, wherein implanted electrodes were used to apply an electrical stimulus to the prothoracic ganglia. Using this approach, larger discoid cockroaches were engineered into a remotely controlled hybrid robotic system. Locomotion control was achieved through electrical stimulation of the prothoracic ganglia, via a remotely operated backpack system and implanted electrodes. The backpack consisted of a microcontroller with integrated transceiver protocol, and a rechargeable battery. The hybrid discoid roach was able to walk, and turn in response to an electrical stimulus to its nervous system with high repeatability of 60%. PMID:25740855

  16. Hybrid Intelligent Control for Submarine Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Wang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available While sailing near the sea surface, submarines will often undergo rolling motion caused by wave disturbance. Fierce rolling motion seriously affects their normal operation and even threatens their security. We propose a new control method for roll stabilization. This paper studies hybrid intelligent control combining a fuzzy control, a neural network and extension control technology. Every control strategy can achieve the ideal control effect within the scope of its effective control. The neuro‐fuzzy control strategy is used to improve the robustness of the controller. The speed control strategy and the course control strategy are conducted to extend the control range. The paper also proposes the design of the controller and carries out the simulation experiment in different sea conditions. The simulation results show that the control method proposed can indeed effectively improve the control performance of submarine stabilization.

  17. Hybrid Intelligent Control for Submarine Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Wang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract While sailing near the sea surface, submarines will often undergo rolling motion caused by wave disturbance. Fierce rolling motion seriously affects their normal operation and even threatens their security. We propose a new control method for roll stabilization. This paper studies hybrid intelligent control combining a fuzzy control, a neural network and extension control technology. Every control strategy can achieve the ideal control effect within the scope of its effective control. The neuro-fuzzy control strategy is used to improve the robustness of the controller. The speed control strategy and the course control strategy are conducted to extend the control range. The paper also proposes the design of the controller and carries out the simulation experiment in different sea conditions. The simulation results show that the control method proposed can indeed effectively improve the control performance of submarine stabilization.

  18. Infinite Dimensional Differential Games with Hybrid Controls

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A J Shaiju; Sheetal Dharmatti

    2007-05-01

    A two-person zero-sum infinite dimensional differential game of infinite duration with discounted payoff involving hybrid controls is studied. The minimizing player is allowed to take continuous, switching and impulse controls whereas the maximizing player is allowed to take continuous and switching controls. By taking strategies in the sense of Elliott–Kalton, we prove the existence of value and characterize it as the unique viscosity solution of the associated system of quasi-variational inequalities.

  19. MERCURY CONTROL WITH ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller

    2005-05-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addressed Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and has been marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas--solid contactor. The objective of the project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included bench-scale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW (9000-acfm) scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control

  20. Robust scheme of global parallel force/position regulators for robot manipulators under environment uncertainty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunqing HUANG; Lisang LIU; Xinggui WANG; Songjiao SHI

    2007-01-01

    A simple robust scheme of parallel force/position control is proposed in this paper to deal with two problems for non-planar constraint surface and nonlinear mechanical feature of environment: i) uncertainties in environment that are usually not available or difficult to be determined in most practical situations; ii) stability problem or/and integrator windup due to the integration of force error in the force dominance rule in parallel force/position control. It shows that this robust scheme is a good alternative for anti-windup. In the presence of environment uncertainties, global asymptotic stability of the resulting closed-loop system is guaranteed; it also shows robustness of the proposed controller to uncertain environment with complex characteristics. Finally, numerical simulation verifies results via contact task of a two rigid-links robot manipulator.

  1. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockelmann, Thomas R [Battle Creek, MI; Hope, Mark E [Marshall, MI; Zou, Zhanjiang [Battle Creek, MI; Kang, Xiaosong [Battle Creek, MI

    2009-02-10

    A battery control system for hybrid vehicle includes a hybrid powertrain battery, a vehicle accessory battery, and a prime mover driven generator adapted to charge the vehicle accessory battery. A detecting arrangement is configured to monitor the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge. A controller is configured to activate the prime mover to drive the generator and recharge the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a first predetermined level, or transfer electrical power from the hybrid powertrain battery to the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a second predetermined level. The invention further includes a method for controlling a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  2. Modelling supervisory controller for hybrid power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, A.; Bindner, H.; Lundsager, P. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Jannerup, O. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Automation, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Supervisory controllers are important to achieve optimal operation of hybrid power systems. The performance and economics of such systems depend mainly on the control strategy for switching on/off components. The modular concept described in this paper is an attempt to design standard supervisory controllers that could be used in different applications, such as village power and telecommunication applications. This paper presents some basic aspects of modelling and design of modular supervisory controllers using the object-oriented modelling technique. The functional abstraction hierarchy technique is used to formulate the control requirements and identify the functions of the control system. The modular algorithm is generic and flexible enough to be used with any system configuration and several goals (different applications). The modularity includes accepting modification of system configuration and goals during operation with minor or no changes in the supervisory controller. (au)

  3. Hybrid Genetic Algorithms with Fuzzy Logic Controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a new implementation of genetic algorithms (GAs) is developed for the machine scheduling problem, which is abundant among the modern manufacturing systems. The performance measure of early and tardy completion of jobs is very natural as one's aim, which is usually to minimize simultaneously both earliness and tardiness of all jobs. As the problem is NP-hard and no effective algorithms exist, we propose a hybrid genetic algorithms approach to deal with it. We adjust the crossover and mutation probabilities by fuzzy logic controller whereas the hybrid genetic algorithm does not require preliminary experiments to determine probabilities for genetic operators. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the GAs method proposed in the paper.``

  4. Hybrid upconversion nanomaterials for optogenetic neuronal control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shreyas; Liu, Jing-Jing; Pasquale, Nicholas; Lai, Jinping; McGowan, Heather; Pang, Zhiping P.; Lee, Ki-Bum

    2015-10-01

    Nanotechnology-based approaches offer the chemical control required to develop precision tools suitable for applications in neuroscience. We report a novel approach employing hybrid upconversion nanomaterials, combined with the photoresponsive ion channel channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), to achieve near-infrared light (NIR)-mediated optogenetic control of neuronal activity. Current optogenetic methodologies rely on using visible light (e.g. 470 nm blue light), which tends to exhibit high scattering and low tissue penetration, to activate ChR2. In contrast, our approach enables the use of 980 nm NIR light, which addresses the short-comings of visible light as an excitation source. This was facilitated by embedding upconversion nanomaterials, which can convert NIR light to blue luminescence, into polymeric scaffolds. These hybrid nanomaterial scaffolds allowed for NIR-mediated neuronal stimulation, with comparable efficiency as that of 470 nm blue light. Our platform was optimized for NIR-mediated optogenetic control by balancing multiple physicochemical properties of the nanomaterial (e.g. size, morphology, structure, emission spectra, concentration), thus providing an early demonstration of rationally-designing nanomaterial-based strategies for advanced neural applications.Nanotechnology-based approaches offer the chemical control required to develop precision tools suitable for applications in neuroscience. We report a novel approach employing hybrid upconversion nanomaterials, combined with the photoresponsive ion channel channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), to achieve near-infrared light (NIR)-mediated optogenetic control of neuronal activity. Current optogenetic methodologies rely on using visible light (e.g. 470 nm blue light), which tends to exhibit high scattering and low tissue penetration, to activate ChR2. In contrast, our approach enables the use of 980 nm NIR light, which addresses the short-comings of visible light as an excitation source. This was facilitated by

  5. Hybrid adaptive control of a dragonfly model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couceiro, Micael S.; Ferreira, Nuno M. F.; Machado, J. A. Tenreiro

    2012-02-01

    Dragonflies show unique and superior flight performances than most of other insect species and birds. They are equipped with two pairs of independently controlled wings granting an unmatchable flying performance and robustness. In this paper, it is presented an adaptive scheme controlling a nonlinear model inspired in a dragonfly-like robot. It is proposed a hybrid adaptive ( HA) law for adjusting the parameters analyzing the tracking error. At the current stage of the project it is considered essential the development of computational simulation models based in the dynamics to test whether strategies or algorithms of control, parts of the system (such as different wing configurations, tail) as well as the complete system. The performance analysis proves the superiority of the HA law over the direct adaptive ( DA) method in terms of faster and improved tracking and parameter convergence.

  6. CVT shift control for a hybrid driveline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, C. [VDI (Germany); Schroeder, D.

    2002-07-01

    In this contribution, chain drive CVTs will be investigated. Pushing belt CVTs are characterized by a different construction, but some basic concepts can be partly transferred. The identification results refer to the drive train of a parallel hybrid passenger car which is discussed as an example for application. It is equipped with a special CVT based gearbox. A set of clutches allows the squaring of the single CVT range of possible gear ratios. A detailed description of the system is given in [2]. CVT models discussed in literature [15],[10] focus primarily on component strain in order to support the design process. These models are usually rather complex and are not well-suited for control purposes. In the following, a short system description will be given. Properties relevant for control will be outlined. (orig.)

  7. Intelligent Control Scheme of Engineering Machinery of Cluster Hybrid System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Qiang; WANG Hongli

    2005-01-01

    In a hybrid system, the subsystems with discrete dynamics play a central role in a hybrid system. In the course of engineering machinery of cluster construction, the discrete control law is hard to obtain because the construction environment is complex and there exist many affecting factors. In this paper, hierarchically intelligent control, expert control and fuzzy control are introduced into the discrete subsystems of engineering machinery of cluster hybrid system, so as to rebuild the hybrid system and make the discrete control law easily and effectively obtained. The structures, reasoning mechanism and arithmetic of intelligent control are replanted to discrete dynamic, conti-nuous process and the interface of the hybrid system. The structures of three types of intelligent hybrid system are presented and the human experiences summarized from engineering machinery of cluster are taken into account.

  8. Hybrid optimization schemes for quantum control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerz, Michael H.; Koch, Christiane P. [Universitaet Kassel, Theoretische Physik, Kassel (Germany); Whaley, K. Birgitta [University of California, Department of Chemistry, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Optimal control theory is a powerful tool for solving control problems in quantum mechanics, ranging from the control of chemical reactions to the implementation of gates in a quantum computer. Gradient-based optimization methods are able to find high fidelity controls, but require considerable numerical effort and often yield highly complex solutions. We propose here to employ a two-stage optimization scheme to significantly speed up convergence and achieve simpler controls. The control is initially parametrized using only a few free parameters, such that optimization in this pruned search space can be performed with a simplex method. The result, considered now simply as an arbitrary function on a time grid, is the starting point for further optimization with a gradient-based method that can quickly converge to high fidelities. We illustrate the success of this hybrid technique by optimizing a geometric phase gate for two superconducting transmon qubits coupled with a shared transmission line resonator, showing that a combination of Nelder-Mead simplex and Krotov's method yields considerably better results than either one of the two methods alone. (orig.)

  9. Hybrid systems, optimal control and hybrid vehicles theory, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Böhme, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    This book assembles new methods showing the automotive engineer for the first time how hybrid vehicle configurations can be modeled as systems with discrete and continuous controls. These hybrid systems describe naturally and compactly the networks of embedded systems which use elements such as integrators, hysteresis, state-machines and logical rules to describe the evolution of continuous and discrete dynamics and arise inevitably when modeling hybrid electric vehicles. They can throw light on systems which may otherwise be too complex or recondite. Hybrid Systems, Optimal Control and Hybrid Vehicles shows the reader how to formulate and solve control problems which satisfy multiple objectives which may be arbitrary and complex with contradictory influences on fuel consumption, emissions and drivability. The text introduces industrial engineers, postgraduates and researchers to the theory of hybrid optimal control problems. A series of novel algorithmic developments provides tools for solving engineering pr...

  10. Control of aggregation-induced emission by DNA hybridization

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shaoguang; Langenegger, Simon Matthias; Häner, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Aggregation-induced emission (AIE) was studied by hybridization of dialkynyl-tetraphenylethylene (DATPE) modified DNA strands. Molecular aggregation and fluorescence of DATPEs are controlled by duplex formation.

  11. DSP Control of Line Hybrid Active Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dan, Stan George; Benjamin, Doniga Daniel; Magureanu, R.;

    2005-01-01

    Active Power Filters have been intensively explored in the past decade. Hybrid active filters inherit the efficiency of passive filters and the improved performance of active filters, and thus constitute a viable improved approach for harmonic compensation. In this paper a parallel hybrid filter ...

  12. A hybrid electromechanical solid state switch for ac power control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Bidirectional thyristor coupled to a series of actuator driven electromechanical contacts generates hybrid electromechanical solid state switch for ac power control. Device is useful in power control applications where zero crossover switching is required.

  13. Controllable hybrid shape of correlation and squeezing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdisa, Garuma; Ahmed, Irfan; Wang, Xiuxiu; Liu, Zongchen; Wang, Hongxing; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2016-08-01

    Two- and three-mode correlation and squeezing of spontaneous parametric four-wave mixing (SPFWM) and fourth-order fluorescence (FL) composite signals are investigated theoretically and experimentally in both homonuclear (two-level) and heteronuclearlike (V-type level) molecular systems of P r3 + :YSO. By selecting different time positions, changing the power, and changing the frequency detuning of the laser field, the competition between the composite signals is demonstrated. It is found that as the laser parameters change, the signal evolves from a nonlinear χ(4 ) process resulting in a FL signal to a SPFWM signal (χ(3 ) process). In addition, the competition effect between the signals determines the evolution of the shape of the correlation from a pure sharp to a two-stage (mixed) shape and finally to a pure broad peak amplitude. Furthermore, the signal evolution determines the magnitude of squeezing, which can control the noise level. Such progress may find potential applications in optical hybrid communication and information processing.

  14. Review of hybrid laminar flow control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, K. S. G.; Bertram, O.; Seibel, O.

    2017-08-01

    The aeronautic community always strived for fuel efficient aircraft and presently, the need for ecofriendly aircraft is even more, especially with the tremendous growth of air traffic and growing environmental concerns. Some of the important drivers for such interests include high fuel prices, less emissions requirements, need for more environment friendly aircraft to lessen the global warming effects. Hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) technology is promising and offers possibility to achieve these goals. This technology was researched for decades for its application in transport aircraft, and it has achieved a new level of maturity towards integration and safety and maintenance aspects. This paper aims to give an overview of HLFC systems research and associated flight tests in the past years both in the US and in Europe. The review makes it possible to distinguish between the successful approaches and the less successful or outdated approaches in HLFC research. Furthermore, the technology status shall try to produce first estimations regarding the mass, power consumption and performance of HLFC systems as well as estimations regarding maintenance requirements and possible subsystem definitions.

  15. Hybrid Dislocated Control and General Hybrid Projective Dislocated Synchronization for Memristor Chaotic Oscillator System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junwei Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some important dynamical properties of the memristor chaotic oscillator system have been studied in the paper. A novel hybrid dislocated control method and a general hybrid projective dislocated synchronization scheme have been realized for memristor chaotic oscillator system. The paper firstly presents hybrid dislocated control method for stabilizing chaos to the unstable equilibrium point. Based on the Lyapunov stability theorem, general hybrid projective dislocated synchronization has been studied for the drive memristor chaotic oscillator system and the same response memristor chaotic oscillator system. For the different dimensions, the memristor chaotic oscillator system and the other chaotic system have realized general hybrid projective dislocated synchronization. Numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of these methods.

  16. Control system for a hybrid powertrain system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, Ali K.; Demirovic, Besim; Gupta, Pinaki; Kaminsky, Lawrence A.

    2014-09-09

    A vehicle includes a powertrain with an engine, first and second torque machines, and a hybrid transmission. A method for operating the vehicle includes operating the engine in an unfueled state, releasing an off-going clutch which when engaged effects operation of the hybrid transmission in a first continuously variable mode, and applying a friction braking torque to a wheel of the vehicle to compensate for an increase in an output torque of the hybrid transmission resulting from releasing the off-going clutch. Subsequent to releasing the off-going clutch, an oncoming clutch which when engaged effects operation of the hybrid transmission in a second continuously variable mode is synchronized. Subsequent to synchronization of the oncoming clutch, the oncoming clutch is engaged.

  17. Active and Progressive Exoskeleton Rehabilitation Using Multisource Information Fusion From EMG and Force-Position EPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yuanjie; Yin, Yuehong

    2013-12-01

    Although exoskeletons have received enormous attention and have been widely used in gait training and walking assistance in recent years, few reports addressed their application during early poststroke rehabilitation. This paper presents a healthcare technology for active and progressive early rehabilitation using multisource information fusion from surface electromyography and force-position extended physiological proprioception. The active-compliance control based on interaction force between patient and exoskeleton is applied to accelerate the recovery of the neuromuscular function, whereby progressive treatment through timely evaluation contributes to an effective and appropriate physical rehabilitation. Moreover, a clinic-oriented rehabilitation system, wherein a lower extremity exoskeleton with active compliance is mounted on a standing bed, is designed to ensure comfortable and secure rehabilitation according to the structure and control requirements. Preliminary experiments and clinical trial demonstrate valuable information on the feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of the progressive exoskeleton-assisted training.

  18. Dopamine-induced silica-polydopamine hybrids with controllable morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chia-Che; Ding, Shinn-Jyh

    2014-04-01

    Novel silica-polydopamine hybrids, with controllable morphology, are facilely fabricated in an emulsion system consisting of tetraethyl orthosilicate, dopamine, water, and NaOH under weakly basic conditions (pH 8.5-10). An increase in initial pH favors the formation of nano-structured spherical silica-PDA hybrids from a flocculated structure.

  19. Investigating Transgenic Corn Hybrids as a Method for Mycotoxin Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic Bt corn hybrids have been available for more than 10 years and are known to control specific insects. More recently, so-called “stacked-gene” hybrids, have been released with multiple insect resistance genes and genes for herbicide resistance, resulting in up to 6 traits per plant. Beca...

  20. Supermarket Refrigeration System - Benchmark for Hybrid System Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Lars Finn; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a supermarket refrigeration system as a benchmark for development of new ideas and a comparison of methods for hybrid systems' modeling and control. The benchmark features switch dynamics and discrete valued input making it a hybrid system, furthermore the outputs are subjected...

  1. Hybrid viscous damper with filtered integral force feedback control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, Jan; Brodersen, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    In hybrid damper systems active control devices are usually introduced to enhance the performance of otherwise passive dampers. In the present paper a hybrid damper concept is comprised of a passive viscous damper placed in series with an active actuator and a force sensor. The actuator motion...

  2. Hybrid Testing of Composite Structures with Single-Axis Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldbjørn, Jacob Paamand; Høgh, Jacob Herold; Stang, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    a hybrid testing platform is introduced for single-component hybrid testing. In this case, the boundary between the numerical model and experimental setup is defined by multiple Degrees-Of-Freedoms (DOFs) which highly complicate the transferring of response between the two substructures. Digital Image......Hybrid testing is a substructuring technique where a structure is emulated by modelling a part of it in a numerical model while testing the remainder experimentally. Previous research in hybrid testing has been performed on multi-component structures e.g. damping fixtures, however in this paper...... Correlation (DIC) is therefore implemented for displacement control of the experimental setup. The hybrid testing setup was verified on a multicomponent structure consisting of a beam loaded in three point bending and a numerical structure of a frame. Furthermore, the stability of the hybrid testing loop...

  3. Hybrid Force Motion Synchronization Control of Robot Manipulators

    OpenAIRE

    Fikkan, Kristoffer

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis was to combine the theory on synchronization of robot manipulators with the concept of hybrid force/motion control; resulting in a controller capable of following both the trajectory of another robot and a desired force trajectory at the same time. This report includes a short introduction to synchronization theory for robot manipulators, and a more thorough summary of existing hybrid control schemes. An intuitive method for describing constraints caused...

  4. High Precision Motion Control of Hybrid Five-Bar Mechanism with an Intelligent Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ke; WANG Sheng-ze

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid mechanism is a new type of planar controllable mechanism. Position control accuracy of system determines the output acctracy of the mechanism In order to achieve the desired high accuracy, nonlinear factors as friction must be accurately compensated in the real-time servo control algarithm. In this paper, the model of a hybrid flve-bar mechanism is introduced In terms of the characteristics of the hybrid mechanism, a hybrid intelligent control algorithm based on proportional-integral-derivative(PID) control and cerebellar model articulation control techniques was presented and used to perform control of hybrid five-bar mechanism for the first time. The simulation results show that the hybrid control method can improve the control effect remarkably, compared with the traditional PID control strategy.

  5. Evolutionary design of discrete controllers for hybrid mechatronic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupuis, Jean-Francois; Fan, Zhun; Goodman, Erik

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the issue of evolutionary design of controllers for hybrid mechatronic systems. Finite State Automaton (FSA) is selected as the representation for a discrete controller due to its interpretability, fast execution speed and natural extension to a statechart, which is very...... popular in industrial applications. A case study of a two-tank system is used to demonstrate that the proposed evolutionary approach can lead to a successful design of an FSA controller for the hybrid mechatronic system, represented by a hybrid bond graph. Generalisation of the evolved FSA controller...... of the evolutionary design of controllers for hybrid mechatronic systems. Finally, some important future research directions are pointed out, leading to the major work of the succeeding part of the research....

  6. Design of Magnetic Flux Feedback Controller in Hybrid Suspension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqing Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid suspension system with permanent magnet and electromagnet consumes little power consumption and can realize larger suspension gap. But realizing stable suspension of hybrid magnet is a tricky problem in the suspension control sphere. Considering from this point, we take magnetic flux signal as a state variable and put this signal back to suspension control system. So we can get the hybrid suspension mathematical model based on magnetic flux signal feedback. By application of MIMO feedback linearization theory, we can further realize linearization of the hybrid suspension system. And then proportion, integral, differentiation, magnetic flux density B (PIDB controller is designed. Some hybrid suspension experiments have been done on CMS04 magnetic suspension bogie of National University of Defense Technology (NUDT in China. The experiments denote that the new hybrid suspension control algorithm based on magnetic flux signal feedback designed in this paper has more advantages than traditional position-current double cascade control algorithm. Obviously, the robustness and stability of hybrid suspension system have been enhanced.

  7. Control approach for comfortable power shifting in hybrid transmissions - ML 450 hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saenger Zetina, Siegfried; Neiss, Konstantin [Daimler AG, Hybrid Development Center, Troy, MI (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The comfortable shifting control in a luxury class vehicle is extremely important, due to competitive automatic transmissions with torque converters; clutch automated manual transmissions and dual clutch transmissions. Hybrid transmissions play a key role in comfort and performance enhancement while at the same time being fuel efficient with the aid of electric machines and battery packs. Here, the alternative to conventional add-on hybrid power head transmissions: the power split hybrid transmission is studied. As a practical example, the Two Mode of the Hybrid Development Center is used within the ML450 Hybrid. For achieving a smooth shifting, there are model based algorithms needed. As objective measure to evaluate the shifting the VDV (Vibration Dose Value) is used. (orig.)

  8. HYBRID FUZZY CONTROL FOR ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC ACTIVE DAMPING SUSPENSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new control scheme, the hybrid fuzzy control method, for active damping suspension system is presented. The scheme is the result of effective combination of the statistical optimal control method based on the statistical property of suspension system, with the bang-bang control method based on the real-time characteristics of suspension system. Computer simulations are performed to compare the effectiveness of hybrid fuzzy control scheme with that of optimal damping control, bang-bang control, and passive suspension. It takes the effects of time-variant factors into full account. The superiority of the proposed hybrid fuzzy control scheme for active damping suspension to the passive suspension is verified in the experiment study.

  9. Stochastic Optimal Control for Series Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Increasing demand for improving fuel economy and reducing emissions has stimulated significant research and investment in hybrid propulsion systems. In this paper, we address the problem of optimizing online the supervisory control in a series hybrid configuration by modeling its operation as a controlled Markov chain using the average cost criterion. We treat the stochastic optimal control problem as a dual constrained optimization problem. We show that the control policy that yields higher probability distribution to the states with low cost and lower probability distribution to the states with high cost is an optimal control policy, defined as an equilibrium control policy. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the efficiency of the proposed controller in a series hybrid configuration and compare it with a thermostat-type controller.

  10. Hybrid stabilizing control on a real mobile robot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oelen, Wilco; Berghuis, Harry; Nijmeijer, Henk; Canudas de Wit, Carlos

    1995-01-01

    To establish empirical verification of a stabilizing controller for nonholonomic systems, the authors implement a hybrid control concept on a 2-DOF mobile robot. Practical issues of velocity control are also addressed through a velocity controller which transforms the mobile robot to a new system wi

  11. Control of DNA hybridization by photoswitchable molecular glue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohno, Chikara; Nakatani, Kazuhiko

    2011-12-01

    Hybridization of DNA is one of the most intriguing events in molecular recognition and is essential for living matter to inherit life beyond generations. In addition to the function of DNA as genetic material, DNA hybridization is a key to control the function of DNA-based materials in nanoscience. Since the hybridization of two single stranded DNAs is a thermodynamically favorable process, dissociation of the once formed DNA duplex is normally unattainable under isothermal conditions. As the progress of DNA-based nanoscience, methodology to control the DNA hybridization process has become increasingly important. Besides many reports using the chemically modified DNA for the regulation of hybridization, we focused our attention on the use of a small ligand as the molecular glue for the DNA. In 2001, we reported the first designed molecule that strongly and specifically bound to the mismatched base pairs in double stranded DNA. Further studies on the mismatch binding molecules provided us a key discovery of a novel mode of the binding of a mismatch binding ligand that induced the base flipping. With these findings we proposed the concept of molecular glue for DNA for the unidirectional control of DNA hybridization and, eventually photoswitchable molecular glue for DNA, which enabled the bidirectional control of hybridization under photoirradiation. In this tutorial review, we describe in detail how we integrated the mismatch binding ligand into photoswitchable molecular glue for DNA, and the application and perspective in DNA-based nanoscience.

  12. Predictive cruise control in hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, T. van; Naus, M.J.G.; Jager, B. de; Molengraft, G.J.L. van de; Steinbuch, M.; Aneke, N.P.I.

    2009-01-01

    Deceleration rates have considerable influence on the fuel economy of hybrid electric vehicles. Given the vehicle characteristics and actual/measured operating conditions, as well as upcoming route information, optimal velocity trajectories can be constructed that maximize energy recovery. To suppor

  13. Novel hybrid adaptive controller for manipulation in complex perturbation environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex M C Smith

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a hybrid control scheme, combining the advantages of task-space and joint-space control. The controller is based on a human-like adaptive design, which minimises both control effort and tracking error. Our novel hybrid adaptive controller has been tested in extensive simulations, in a scenario where a Baxter robot manipulator is affected by external disturbances in the form of interaction with the environment and tool-like end-effector perturbations. The results demonstrated improved performance in the hybrid controller over both of its component parts. In addition, we introduce a novel method for online adaptation of learning parameters, using the fuzzy control formalism to utilise expert knowledge from the experimenter. This mechanism of meta-learning induces further improvement in performance and avoids the need for tuning through trial testing.

  14. Novel Hybrid Adaptive Controller for Manipulation in Complex Perturbation Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alex M. C.; Yang, Chenguang; Ma, Hongbin; Culverhouse, Phil; Cangelosi, Angelo; Burdet, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a hybrid control scheme, combining the advantages of task-space and joint-space control. The controller is based on a human-like adaptive design, which minimises both control effort and tracking error. Our novel hybrid adaptive controller has been tested in extensive simulations, in a scenario where a Baxter robot manipulator is affected by external disturbances in the form of interaction with the environment and tool-like end-effector perturbations. The results demonstrated improved performance in the hybrid controller over both of its component parts. In addition, we introduce a novel method for online adaptation of learning parameters, using the fuzzy control formalism to utilise expert knowledge from the experimenter. This mechanism of meta-learning induces further improvement in performance and avoids the need for tuning through trial testing. PMID:26029916

  15. Fitting method for hybrid temperature control in smart home environment

    OpenAIRE

    CHENG, Zhuo; TAN, Yasuo; Lim, Azman Osman

    2014-01-01

    The design of control system is crucial for improving the comfort level of home environment. Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) can offer numerous opportunities to design high efficient control systems. In this paper, we focus on the design of temperature control systems. By using the idea of CPS, a hybrid temperature control (HTC) system is proposed. It combines supervisory and proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers. Through an energy efficient temperature control (EETC) algorithm, HT...

  16. ADОPTIVE CONTROL OF THE HYBRID VEHICLE POWER UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Serikov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The problem of adaptive control of the hybrid vehicle power unit, which makes it possible to minimize the quality criterion under constraints on the state parameters and the control vector is considered. A formal statement of the optimization problem is given. The solution of this problem by the method of neural network control based on the adaptive criticism is considered.

  17. Military Hybrid Vehicle Optimization and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    and energy security, as well as reduce overall energy u ’C the concept of a microgrid has been introduced [7 ]. A microgricl is defined as an...vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology has been show to have the ability to upport the microgrid ru a source, but also a storage device for excess energy [9...understood. The scope of this proposal includes introducing the concept of regarding a military hybrid vehicle as a microgrid and utilizing battery state

  18. A hybrid adaptive control strategy for a smart prosthetic hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Hung; Naidu, D Subbaram; Perez-Gracia, Alba; Schoen, Marco P

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid of a soft computing technique of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and a hard computing technique of adaptive control for a two-dimensional movement of a prosthetic hand with a thumb and index finger. In particular, ANFIS is used for inverse kinematics, and the adaptive control is used for linearized dynamics to minimize tracking error. The simulations of this hybrid controller, when compared with the proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller showed enhanced performance. Work is in progress to extend this methodology to a five-fingered, three-dimensional prosthetic hand.

  19. Robust spacecraft attitude tracking control using hybrid actuators with uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xibin; Wu, Baolin

    2017-07-01

    The problem of spacecraft attitude tracking using hybrid actuators with uncertainties is addressed in this paper. A hybrid actuators configuration that combines reaction wheels for fine pointing and single gimbal control moment gyros for rapid maneuvering is employed for agile spacecraft. A robust control algorithm for the spacecraft attitude tracking problem when the torque axis direction and/or input scaling of the actuators are uncertain is developed. Furthermore, a torque allocation method is proposed for the hybrid actuator configuration to allow a smooth switch between single gimbal control moment gyros and reaction wheels. With this method, single gimbal control moment gyros are used for the phase of rapid maneuvering, while reaction wheels are used for the phase of fine pointing. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  20. Filtering and control of stochastic jump hybrid systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Xiuming; Zheng, Wei Xing

    2016-01-01

    This book presents recent research work on stochastic jump hybrid systems. Specifically, the considered stochastic jump hybrid systems include Markovian jump Ito stochastic systems, Markovian jump linear-parameter-varying (LPV) systems, Markovian jump singular systems, Markovian jump two-dimensional (2-D) systems, and Markovian jump repeated scalar nonlinear systems. Some sufficient conditions are first established respectively for the stability and performances of those kinds of stochastic jump hybrid systems in terms of solution of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Based on the derived analysis conditions, the filtering and control problems are addressed. The book presents up-to-date research developments and novel methodologies on stochastic jump hybrid systems. The contents can be divided into two parts: the first part is focused on robust filter design problem, while the second part is put the emphasis on robust control problem. These methodologies provide a framework for stability and performance analy...

  1. Hybrid Control Design for a Wheeled Mobile Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Thomas; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2003-01-01

    We present a hybrid systems solution to the problem of trajectory tracking for a four-wheel steered four-wheel driven mobile robot. The robot is modelled as a non-holonomic dynamic system subject to pure rolling, no-slip constraints. Under normal driving conditions, a nonlinear trajectory trackin....... The stability of the hybrid control scheme is finally analyzed using Lyapunov-like arguments....

  2. Viability of Hybrid Systems A Controllability Operator Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Labinaz, G

    2012-01-01

    The problem of viability of hybrid systems is considered in this work. A model for a hybrid system is developed including a means of including three forms of uncertainty: transition dynamics, structural uncertainty, and parametric uncertainty. A computational basis for viability of hybrid systems is developed and applied to three control law classes. An approach is developed for robust viability based on two extensions of the controllability operator. The three-tank example is examined for both the viability problem and robust viability problem. The theory is applied through simulation to an active magnetic bearing system and to a batch polymerization process showing that viability can be satisfied in practice. The problem of viable attainability is examined based on the controllability operator approach introduced by Nerode and colleagues. Lastly, properties of the controllability operator are presented.

  3. Viewing hybrid systems as products of control systems and automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, R. L.; Larson, R. G.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to show how hybrid systems may be modeled as products of nonlinear control systems and finite state automata. By a hybrid system, we mean a network of consisting of continuous, nonlinear control system connected to discrete, finite state automata. Our point of view is that the automata switches between the control systems, and that this switching is a function of the discrete input symbols or letters that it receives. We show how a nonlinear control system may be viewed as a pair consisting of a bialgebra of operators coding the dynamics, and an algebra of observations coding the state space. We also show that a finite automata has a similar representation. A hybrid system is then modeled by taking suitable products of the bialgebras coding the dynamics and the observation algebras coding the state spaces.

  4. Energy-Efficient Building HVAC Control Using Hybrid System LBMPC

    CERN Document Server

    Aswani, Anil; Taneja, Jay; Krioukov, Andrew; Culler, David; Tomlin, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Improving the energy-efficiency of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems has the potential to realize large economic and societal benefits. This paper concerns the system identification of a hybrid system model of a building-wide HVAC system and its subsequent control using a hybrid system formulation of learning-based model predictive control (LBMPC). Here, the learning refers to model updates to the hybrid system model that incorporate the heating effects due to occupancy, solar effects, outside air temperature (OAT), and equipment, in addition to integrator dynamics inherently present in low-level control. Though we make significant modeling simplifications, our corresponding controller that uses this model is able to experimentally achieve a large reduction in energy usage without any degradations in occupant comfort. It is in this way that we justify the modeling simplifications that we have made. We conclude by presenting results from experiments on our building HVAC testbed, which s...

  5. NASA Workshop on Hybrid (Mixed-Actuator) Spacecraft Attitude Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Kunz, Nans

    2014-01-01

    At the request of the Science Mission Directorate Chief Engineer, the NASA Technical Fellow for Guidance, Navigation & Control assembled and facilitated a workshop on Spacecraft Hybrid Attitude Control. This multi-Center, academic, and industry workshop, sponsored by the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC), was held in April 2013 to unite nationwide experts to present and discuss the various innovative solutions, techniques, and lessons learned regarding the development and implementation of the various hybrid attitude control system solutions investigated or implemented. This report attempts to document these key lessons learned with the 16 findings and 9 NESC recommendations.

  6. Hybrid Control Design for a Wheeled Mobile Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Thomas; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2003-01-01

    We present a hybrid systems solution to the problem of trajectory tracking for a four-wheel steered four-wheel driven mobile robot. The robot is modelled as a non-holonomic dynamic system subject to pure rolling, no-slip constraints. Under normal driving conditions, a nonlinear trajectory tracking...... feedback control law based on dynamic feedback linearization is sufficient to stabilize the system and ensure asymptotically stable tracking. Transitions to other modes are derived systematically from this model, whenever the configuration space of the controlled system has some fundamental singular points....... The stability of the hybrid control scheme is finally analyzed using Lyapunov-like arguments....

  7. Hybrid-impulsive second order sliding mode control: Lyapunov approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shtessel, Y.; Glumineau, A.; Plestan, F.; Weiss, M.

    2013-01-01

    A perturbed nonlinear system of relative degree two controlled by discontinuous-impulsive feedbacks is studied. The hybrid-impulsive terms serve to drive instantaneously the system trajectories to the origin or to its small vicinity. In particular, impulsive-twisting control exhibits an uniform exac

  8. Spontaneous emission control in a tunable hybrid photonic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frimmer, M.; Koenderink, A.F.

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate control of the rate of spontaneous emission in a tunable hybrid photonic system that consists of two canonical building blocks for spontaneous emission control, an optical antenna and a mirror, each providing a modification of the local density of optical states (LDOS).

  9. Study of optimal control problems for hybrid dynamical systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Rui; Wang Lei; Wang Yuzhen

    2006-01-01

    From the viewpoint of continuous systems, optimal control problem is proposed for a class of controlled Hybrid dynamical systems. Then a mathematical method- HDS minimum principle is put forward, which can solve the above problem. The HDS minimum principle is proved by means of Ekeland's variational principle.

  10. Hybrid-impulsive second order sliding mode control: Lyapunov approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shtessel, Y.; Glumineau, A.; Plestan, F.; Weiss, M.

    2013-01-01

    A perturbed nonlinear system of relative degree two controlled by discontinuous-impulsive feedbacks is studied. The hybrid-impulsive terms serve to drive instantaneously the system trajectories to the origin or to its small vicinity. In particular, impulsive-twisting control exhibits an uniform

  11. Route-Based Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J. D.

    2008-01-01

    Today's hybrid electric vehicle controls cannot always provide maximum fuel savings over all drive cycles. Route-based controls could improve HEV fuel efficiency by 2%-4% and help save nearly 6.5 million gallons of fuel annually.

  12. Real Time Energy Management Control Strategies for Hybrid Powertrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaher, Mohamed Hegazi Mohamed

    In order to improve fuel efficiency and reduce emissions of mobile vehicles, various hybrid power-train concepts have been developed over the years. This thesis focuses on embedded control of hybrid powertrain concepts for mobile vehicle applications. Optimal robust control approach is used to develop a real time energy management strategy for continuous operations. The main idea is to store the normally wasted mechanical regenerative energy in energy storage devices for later usage. The regenerative energy recovery opportunity exists in any condition where the speed of motion is in opposite direction to the applied force or torque. This is the case when the vehicle is braking, decelerating, or the motion is driven by gravitational force, or load driven. There are three main concepts for regernerative energy storing devices in hybrid vehicles: electric, hydraulic, and flywheel. The real time control challenge is to balance the system power demand from the engine and the hybrid storage device, without depleting the energy storage device or stalling the engine in any work cycle, while making optimal use of the energy saving opportunities in a given operational, often repetitive cycle. In the worst case scenario, only engine is used and hybrid system completely disabled. A rule based control is developed and tuned for different work cycles and linked to a gain scheduling algorithm. A gain scheduling algorithm identifies the cycle being performed by the machine and its position via GPS, and maps them to the gains.

  13. Novel hybrid method: pulse CO2 laser-TIG hybrid welding by coordinated control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yanbin; Lei Zhenglong; Li Liqun; Wu Lin; Xie Cheng

    2006-01-01

    In continuous wave CO2 laser-TIG hybrid welding process, the laser energy is not fully utilized because of the absorption and defocusing by plasma in the arc space. Therefore, the optimal welding result can only be achieved in a limited energy range. In order to improve the welding performance further, a novel hybrid welding method-pulse CO2 laser-TIG arc hybrid welding by coordinated control is proposed and investigated. The experimental results indicate that, compared with continuous wave CO2 laser-TIG hybrid welding, the absorption and defocusing of laser energy by plasma are decreased further, and at the same time, the availability ratio of laser and arc energy can be increased when a coordinated frequency is controlled. As a result, the weld appearance is also improved as well as the weld depth is deepened. Furthermore, the effect of frequency and phase of pulse laser and TIG arc on the arc images and welding characteristics is also studied. However, the novel hybrid method has great potentials in the application of industrials from views of techniques and economy.

  14. Adaptive powertrain control for plugin hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedar-Dongarkar, Gurunath; Weslati, Feisel

    2013-10-15

    A powertrain control system for a plugin hybrid electric vehicle. The system comprises an adaptive charge sustaining controller; at least one internal data source connected to the adaptive charge sustaining controller; and a memory connected to the adaptive charge sustaining controller for storing data generated by the at least one internal data source. The adaptive charge sustaining controller is operable to select an operating mode of the vehicle's powertrain along a given route based on programming generated from data stored in the memory associated with that route. Further described is a method of adaptively controlling operation of a plugin hybrid electric vehicle powertrain comprising identifying a route being traveled, activating stored adaptive charge sustaining mode programming for the identified route and controlling operation of the powertrain along the identified route by selecting from a plurality of operational modes based on the stored adaptive charge sustaining mode programming.

  15. Adaptive powertrain control for plugin hybrid electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kedar-Dongarkar, Gurunath; Weslati, Feisel

    2013-10-15

    A powertrain control system for a plugin hybrid electric vehicle. The system comprises an adaptive charge sustaining controller; at least one internal data source connected to the adaptive charge sustaining controller; and a memory connected to the adaptive charge sustaining controller for storing data generated by the at least one internal data source. The adaptive charge sustaining controller is operable to select an operating mode of the vehicle's powertrain along a given route based on programming generated from data stored in the memory associated with that route. Further described is a method of adaptively controlling operation of a plugin hybrid electric vehicle powertrain comprising identifying a route being traveled, activating stored adaptive charge sustaining mode programming for the identified route and controlling operation of the powertrain along the identified route by selecting from a plurality of operational modes based on the stored adaptive charge sustaining mode programming.

  16. Hybrid dislocated control and general hybrid projective dislocated synchronization for the modified Lue chaotic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Yuhua [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China) and Department of Maths, Yunyang Teacher' s College, Hubei 442000 (China)], E-mail: yuhuaxu2004@163.com; Zhou Wuneng [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)], E-mail: wnzhou@163.com; Fang Jianan [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2009-11-15

    This paper introduces a modified Lue chaotic system, and some basic dynamical properties are studied. Based on these properties, we present hybrid dislocated control method for stabilizing chaos to unstable equilibrium and limit cycle. In addition, based on the Lyapunov stability theorem, general hybrid projective dislocated synchronization (GHPDS) is proposed, which includes complete dislocated synchronization, dislocated anti-synchronization and projective dislocated synchronization as its special item. The drive and response systems discussed in this paper can be strictly different dynamical systems (including different dimensional systems). As examples, the modified Lue chaotic system, Chen chaotic system and hyperchaotic Chen system are discussed. Numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of these methods.

  17. A hybrid Jacobian control for uncalibrated robot visual servoing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qizhi; GE Xinsheng; TEO Chee-Leong; LIM Siak-Piang

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on the visual servo control of an uncalibrated robotic arm with an eye-in-hand camera. Without a prior knowledge of the kinematics of the robotic arm or camera calibration, the proposed hybrid Jacobian controller can track a moving object using visual feedback and joint-space velocity feedback. The proposed hybrid control method is a combination of the uncalibrated visual servoing and approximate Jacobian feedback control. First, the Jacobian matrix from joint-space to image-space is estimated by recursive leastsquares (RLS) algorithm, and then the approximate Jacobian feedback controller is designed by using visual feedback and joint-space velocity feedback. The performances of the proposed control methods are illustrated by computer simulations.

  18. Fast Algorithms for Hybrid Control System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Controls for Petri Nets with Unobservable Transitions", Proceedings of the 1997 American Control Conference, pp. 2354- 2358, Albuquerque, New Mexico , June...Automation Conference, April 20-25, 1997, 1997, Albuquerque New Mexico . - Invited Speaker at special session on "Intelligent Control Systems" at the 3rd...0 (11) Moreover, if either (hence, both) of these statements hold, then one controller that renders iVa (Ji(P, K)) < 7 is ffiven by A + B2J- aYaC2

  19. Hybrid active vibration control of rotorbearing systems using piezoelectric actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzolo, A. B.; Jagannathan, S.; Kascak, A. F.; Montague, G. T.; Kiraly, L. J.

    1993-01-01

    The vibrations of a flexible rotor are controlled using piezoelectric actuators. The controller includes active analog components and a hybrid interface with a digital computer. The computer utilizes a grid search algorithm to select feedback gains that minimize a vibration norm at a specific operating speed. These gains are then downloaded as active stillnesses and dampings with a linear fit throughout the operating speed range to obtain a very effective vibration control.

  20. A hybrid approach to space power control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholdston, E. W.; Janik, D. F.; Newton, K. A.

    1990-01-01

    Conventional control systems have traditionally been utilized for space-based power designs. However, the use of expert systems is becoming important for NASA applications. Rocketdyne has been pursuing the development of expert systems to aid and enhance control designs of space-based power systems. The need for integrated expert systems is vital for the development of autonomous power systems.

  1. Hybrid Feedforward-Feedback Noise Control Using Virtual Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Jacob; Fuller, Chris; Schiller, Noah

    2016-01-01

    Several approaches to active noise control using virtual sensors are evaluated for eventual use in an active headrest. Specifically, adaptive feedforward, feedback, and hybrid control structures are compared. Each controller incorporates the traditional filtered-x least mean squares algorithm. The feedback controller is arranged in an internal model configuration to draw comparisons with standard feedforward control theory results. Simulation and experimental results are presented that illustrate each controllers ability to minimize the pressure at both physical and virtual microphone locations. The remote microphone technique is used to obtain pressure estimates at the virtual locations. It is shown that a hybrid controller offers performance benefits over the traditional feedforward and feedback controllers. Stability issues associated with feedback and hybrid controllers are also addressed. Experimental results show that 15-20 dB reduction in broadband disturbances can be achieved by minimizing the measured pressure, whereas 10-15 dB reduction is obtained when minimizing the estimated pressure at a virtual location.

  2. Hybrid adaptive ascent flight control for a flexible launch vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Brian D.

    For the purpose of maintaining dynamic stability and improving guidance command tracking performance under off-nominal flight conditions, a hybrid adaptive control scheme is selected and modified for use as a launch vehicle flight controller. This architecture merges a model reference adaptive approach, which utilizes both direct and indirect adaptive elements, with a classical dynamic inversion controller. This structure is chosen for a number of reasons: the properties of the reference model can be easily adjusted to tune the desired handling qualities of the spacecraft, the indirect adaptive element (which consists of an online parameter identification algorithm) continually refines the estimates of the evolving characteristic parameters utilized in the dynamic inversion, and the direct adaptive element (which consists of a neural network) augments the linear feedback signal to compensate for any nonlinearities in the vehicle dynamics. The combination of these elements enables the control system to retain the nonlinear capabilities of an adaptive network while relying heavily on the linear portion of the feedback signal to dictate the dynamic response under most operating conditions. To begin the analysis, the ascent dynamics of a launch vehicle with a single 1st stage rocket motor (typical of the Ares 1 spacecraft) are characterized. The dynamics are then linearized with assumptions that are appropriate for a launch vehicle, so that the resulting equations may be inverted by the flight controller in order to compute the control signals necessary to generate the desired response from the vehicle. Next, the development of the hybrid adaptive launch vehicle ascent flight control architecture is discussed in detail. Alterations of the generic hybrid adaptive control architecture include the incorporation of a command conversion operation which transforms guidance input from quaternion form (as provided by NASA) to the body-fixed angular rate commands needed by the

  3. Hybrid systems: a real-time interface to control engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Thomas Juul; Heilmann, Søren; Holdgaard, Michael

    1996-01-01

    are usually investigated by control engineers that base their work on the theory of dynamic systems. The mathematical tool for this work is thus mathematical analysis, in particular the theory of differential equations. The paper gives an introduction to a general hybrid systems model for definition of system...

  4. Real-Time Energy Management Control for Hybrid Electric Powertrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Zaher

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on embedded control of a hybrid powertrain concepts for mobile vehicle applications. Optimal robust control approach is used to develop a real-time energy management strategy. The main idea is to store the normally wasted mechanical regenerative energy in energy storage devices for later usage. The regenerative energy recovery opportunity exists in any condition where the speed of motion is in the opposite direction to the applied force or torque. This is the case when the vehicle is braking, decelerating, the motion is driven by gravitational force, or load driven. There are three main concepts for energy storing devices in hybrid vehicles: electric, hydraulic, and mechanical (flywheel. The real-time control challenge is to balance the system power demands from the engine and the hybrid storage device, without depleting the energy storage device or stalling the engine in any work cycle. In the worst-case scenario, only the engine is used and the hybrid system is completely disabled. A rule-based control algorithm is developed and is tuned for different work cycles and could be linked to a gain scheduling algorithm. A gain scheduling algorithm identifies the cycle being performed by the work machine and its position via GPS and maps both of them to the gains.

  5. 7 CFR 201.78 - Pollen control for hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pollen control for hybrids. 201.78 Section 201.78... REGULATIONS Additional Requirements for the Certification of Plant Materials of Certain Crops § 201.78 Pollen... branches, or any combination thereof, shedding pollen. (c) Sorghum. Shedders in the seed parent, at any...

  6. Impulsive and hybrid dynamical systems stability, dissipativity, and control

    CERN Document Server

    Haddad, Wassim M; Nersesov, Sergey G

    2014-01-01

    This book develops a general analysis and synthesis framework for impulsive and hybrid dynamical systems. Such a framework is imperative for modern complex engineering systems that involve interacting continuous-time and discrete-time dynamics with multiple modes of operation that place stringent demands on controller design and require implementation of increasing complexity--whether advanced high-performance tactical fighter aircraft and space vehicles, variable-cycle gas turbine engines, or air and ground transportation systems. Impulsive and Hybrid Dynamical Systems goes beyond similar

  7. Controllable proximity effect in superconducting hybrid devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakurskiy, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study of controllable proximity effects in superconductors, both in terms of fundamental aspects and applications. As a part of this thesis theoretical description was suggested for a number of structures with superconducting electrodes and multiple interlayers. These s

  8. Engagement and Floor Control in Hybrid Meetings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Devanthéry, V.; Zwiers, Jakob; Hondorp, G.H.W.; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Kulyk, Olga Anatoliyivna; Hofs, D.H.W.; Nijholt, Antinus; Reidsma, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The Human Media Interaction group of the University of Twente has developed a User Engagment and Floor Control Demonstrator, a system that uses modules for online speech recognition, real-time visual focus of attention as well as a module that signals who is being addressed by the speaker. A

  9. Hybrid control of the distributed refrigeration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, L.; Wisniewski, R.

    2010-01-01

    The supermarket refrigeration system typically has a distributed control structure, which neglects interactions between its subsystems. These interactions from time to time lead to a synchronization operation of the display-cases which causes an inferior control performance and increased energy...... or a chaotic behavior, the system is considered away from the synchronization. Therefore, the paper proposes a concept that the system may be de-synchronized by making it chaotic. A de-synchronization scheme is developed. It includes a synchronization-early-monitoring detector by calculating the maximum...... consumption. The paper focuses on synchronization dynamics of the refrigeration system modeled as a piecewise-affine switched system. System behaviors are analyzed using chaos theory. The synchronization phenomenon is interpreted as a stable low-period orbit; if the system has a high-order periodic orbit...

  10. Feedback controlled hybrid fast ferrite tuners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remsen, D.B.; Phelps, D.A.; deGrassie, J.S.; Cary, W.P.; Pinsker, R.I.; Moeller, C.P. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Arnold, W.; Martin, S.; Pivit, E. [ANT-Bosch, Backnang (Germany)

    1993-09-01

    A low power ANT-Bosch fast ferrite tuner (FFT) was successfully tested into (1) the lumped circuit equivalent of an antenna strap with dynamic plasma loading, and (2) a plasma loaded antenna strap in DIII-D. When the FFT accessible mismatch range was phase-shifted to encompass the plasma-induced variation in reflection coefficient, the 50 {Omega} source was matched (to within the desired 1.4 : 1 voltage standing wave ratio). The time required to achieve this match (i.e., the response time) was typically a few hundred milliseconds, mostly due to a relatively slow network analyzer-computer system. The response time for the active components of the FFT was 10 to 20 msec, or much faster than the present state-of-the-art for dynamic stub tuners. Future FFT tests are planned, that will utilize the DIII-D computer (capable of submillisecond feedback control), as well as several upgrades to the active control circuit, to produce a FFT feedback control system with a response time approaching 1 msec.

  11. Controlling Chaos of Hybrid Systems by Variable Threshold Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Daisuke; Ueta, Tetsushi; Kousaka, Takuji; Imura, Jun'ichi; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    We try to stabilize unstable periodic orbits embedded in a given chaotic hybrid dynamical system by a perturbation of a threshold value. In conventional chaos control methods, a control input is designed by state-feedback, which is proportional to the difference between the target orbit and the current state, and it is applied to a specific system parameter or the state as a small perturbation. During a transition state, the control system consumes a certain control energy given by the integration of such perturbations. In our method, we change the threshold value dynamically to control the chaotic orbit. Unlike the OGY method and the delayed feedback control, no actual control input is added into the system. The state-feedback is utilized only to determine the dynamic threshold value, thus the orbit starting from the current threshold value reaches the next controlled threshold value without any control energy. We obtain the variation of the threshold value from the composite Poincaré map, and the controller is designed by the linear feedback theory with this variation. We demonstrate this method in simple hybrid chaotic systems and show its control performances by evaluating basins of attraction.

  12. Chaotic attractor transforming control of hybrid Lorenz-Chen system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Dong-Lian; Wang Qiao; Gu Hong

    2008-01-01

    Based on passive theory, this paper studies a hybrid chaotic dynamical system from the mathematics perspective to implement the control of system stabilization.According to the Jacobian matrix of the nonlinear system, the stabilization control region is gotten.The controller is designed to stabilize fast the minimum phase Lorenz-Chen chaotic system after equivalently transforming from chaotic system to passive system. The simulation results show that the system not only can be controlled at the different equilibria, but also can be transformed between the different chaotic attractors.

  13. Nonholonomic Mobile Robot Trajectory Tracking using Hybrid Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Safwan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A control scheme is being presented for the trajectory tracking of a nonholonomic kinematic model of mobile robots. As a kinematic model of mobile robots is nonlinear in nature, therefore, it is controlling is always being a difficult task. Thus, a control hybrid scheme comprises of fuzzy logic and PID (Proportional Integral Derivative is being proposed, in which adaptive gains of PID controller is being tuned by a fuzzy logic controller. Moreover, the effectiveness of this innovative technique is also proved using the simulations by adding model uncertainties and external disturbances in the system. Besides, the fuzzy logic control system is also being compared by the proposed control system. Resultsattained shows that the fuzzy based PID controller drivesimproved results than fuzzy logic controller.

  14. Adaptive Current Control Method for Hybrid Active Power Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Minh Thuyen

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes an adaptive current control method for Hybrid Active Power Filter (HAPF). It consists of a fuzzy-neural controller, identification and prediction model and cost function. The fuzzy-neural controller parameters are adjusted according to the cost function minimum criteria. For this reason, the proposed control method has a capability on-line control clings to variation of the load harmonic currents. Compared to the single fuzzy logic control method, the proposed control method shows the advantages of better dynamic response, compensation error in steady-state is smaller, able to online control is better and harmonics cancelling is more effective. Simulation and experimental results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

  15. Backstepping and sliding mode control hybridized for a prosthetic hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeberg, Erik D; Meek, Sanford G

    2009-02-01

    Open loop and force controllers are compared experimentally with three robust parallel force-velocity controllers that are developed for a prosthetic hand. Robust sliding mode, backstepping, and hybrid sliding mode-backstepping (HSMBS) parallel force-velocity controllers are tested by ten able-bodied subjects. Results obtained with a myoelectrically controlled prosthesis indicate that all three robust controllers offer a statistically significant improvement over linear hand prosthesis control schemes. The robust controllers enable the human operators to more easily manipulate a delicate object. Bench top experiments combined with quantitative and qualitative evaluations from ten test subjects reveal the HSMBS controller to be the best choice to improve control of powered prosthetic hands.

  16. Photoresponsive lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles for controlled doxorubicin release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Cuiping; Wu, Ming; Zhang, Cecheng; Lin, Xinyi; Wei, Zuwu; Zheng, Youshi; Zhang, Da; Zhang, Zhenxi; Liu, Xiaolong

    2017-06-01

    Currently, photoresponsive nanomaterials are particularly attractive due to their spatial and temporal controlled drug release abilities. In this work, we report a photoresponsive lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticle for remote controlled delivery of anticancer drugs. This hybrid nanoparticle comprises three distinct functional components: (i) a poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) core to encapsulate doxorubicin; (ii) a soybean lecithin monolayer at the interface of the core and shell to act as a molecular fence to prevent drug leakage; (iii) a photoresponsive polymeric shell with anti-biofouling properties to enhance nanoparticle stability, which could be detached from the nanoparticle to trigger the drug release via a decrease in the nanoparticle’s stability under light irradiation. In vitro results revealed that this core-shell nanoparticle had excellent light-controlled drug release behavior (76% release with light irradiation versus 10% release without light irradiation). The confocal microscopy and flow cytometry results also further demonstrated the light-controlled drug release behavior inside the cancer cells. Furthermore, a CCK8 assay demonstrated that light irradiation could significantly improve the efficiency of killing cancer cells. Meanwhile, whole-animal fluorescence imaging of a tumor-bearing mouse also confirmed that light irradiation could trigger drug release in vivo. Taken together, our data suggested that a hybrid nanoparticle could be a novel light controlled drug delivery system for cancer therapy.

  17. Hybrid sliding mode control of semi-active suspension systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadsangabi, Babak; Eghtesad, Mohammad; Daneshmand, Farhang; Vahdati, Nader

    2009-12-01

    In order to design a controller which can take both ride comfort and road holding into consideration, a hybrid model reference sliding mode controller (HMRSMC) is proposed. The controller includes two separate model reference sliding mode controllers (MRSMC). One of the controllers is designed so as to force the plant to follow the ideal Sky-hook model and the other is to force the plant to follow the ideal Ground-hook model; then the outputs of these two controllers are linearly combined and applied to the plant as the input. Also, since the designed controller requires a knowledge of the terrain input, this input is approximated by the unsprung mass displacement. Finally, in the simulation section of this study, the effect of the relative ratio between the two MRSMCs and the knowledge of the terrain on the performance of the controller is numerically investigated for both steady-state and transient cases.

  18. Event-triggered hybrid control based on multi-Agent systems for Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dou, Chun-xia; Liu, Bin; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    of distributed energy resources, thus it is typical hybrid dynamic network. Considering the complex hybrid behaviors, a hierarchical decentralized coordinated control scheme is firstly constructed based on multi-agent sys-tem, then, the hybrid model of the microgrid is built by using differential hybrid Petri...

  19. Active Vibration Control of Plate Partly Treated with ACLD Using Hybrid Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A finite element model of plate partly treated with ACLD treatments is developed based on the constitutive equations of elastic, piezoelectric, viscoelastic materials and Hamilton’s principle. The Golla-Hughes-Mctavish (GHM method is employed to describe the frequency-dependent characteristics of viscoelastic material (VEM. A model reduction is completed by using iterative dynamic condensation and balance model reduction method to design an effective control system. The emphasis is concerned on hybrid (combined feedback/feedforward control system to attenuate the vibration of plates with ACLD treatments. The optimal linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG controller is considered as a feedback channel and the adaptive filtered-reference LMS (FxLMS controller is used as a feedforward channel. They can be utilized individually or in a hybrid way to suppress the vibration of plate/ACLD system. The results show that the hybrid controller which combines feedback/feedforward together can reduce the displacement amplitude of plate/ACLD system subjected to a complicated disturbance substantially without requiring more control effort. Furthermore, the hybrid controller has more rapid and stable convergence rate than the adaptive feedforward FxLMS controller. Meanwhile, perfect robustness to phase error of the cancellation path in feedforward controller and the weight matrices in feedback LQG controller is demonstrated in proposed hybrid controller. Therefore, its application in structural engineering can be highly appreciated.

  20. The research of controller area network on hybrid electrical vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Hongxing; Song Liwei; Kou Baoquan; Cheng Shukang

    2006-01-01

    It is of increasing importance to design and implement vehicle networks for transferring information between electrical control units on Hybrid Electrical Vehicle (HEV). This paper presents a scheme of using Controller Area Network (CAN) technology to realize communication and datasharing between the electrical units on the HEV. The principle and communication protocol of Electrical Control Units (ECU) CAN node are introduced. By considering different sensitivity of the devices to the latency of data transportation, a new design procedure is proposed for the purpose of simplifying network codes and wiring harness, reducing assembly space and weight, improving assembly efficiency, and enhancing fault-diagnose in auto networks.

  1. Robust control of a parallel hybrid drivetrain with a CVT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, T.; Schroeder, D. [Technical Univ. of Munich (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    In this paper the design of a robust control system for a parallel hybrid drivetrain is presented. The drivetrain is based on a continuously variable transmission (CVT) and is therefore a highly nonlinear multiple-input-multiple-output system (MIMO-System). Input-Output-Linearization offers the possibility of linearizing and of decoupling the system. Since for example the vehicle mass varies with the load and the efficiency of the gearbox depends strongly on the actual working point, an exact linearization of the plant will mostly fail. Therefore a robust control algorithm based on sliding mode is used to control the drivetrain.

  2. Design and control of hybrid active power filters

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, Chi-Seng

    2014-01-01

    Design and Control of Hybrid Active Power Filters presents an overview of the current quality problems and their compensators. To get a balance between the system cost and performance, hybrid active power filters (HAPFs) are valuable. The book presents the coverage of resonance phenomena prevention capability, filtering performance and system robustness analysis of HAPF; nonlinear inverter current slope characteristics and their linear operation region requirement analysis of the hysteresis PWM for the HAPF; minimum inverter capacity design procedure of HAPF, adaptive dc-link voltage controller for the HAPF and the real design example of a 220V 10kVA HAPF, in which the system performance analysis method, minimum dc voltage deduction concept and adaptive dc voltage idea can be further extended into the other active compensators, such as APF, static synchronous compensator STATCOM, etc. This book will benefit researchers, graduate students, and electrical power engineers in the field of power-quality compensati...

  3. Adaptive and Reliable Control Algorithm for Hybrid System Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Abdel Hakeem Abdel Sattar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A stand-alone system is defined as an autonomous system that supplies electricity without being connected to the electric grid. Hybrid systems combined renewable energy source, that are never depleted (such solar (photovoltaic (PV, wind, hydroelectric, etc. , With other sources of energy, like Diesel. If these hybrid systems are optimally designed, they can be more cost effective and reliable than single systems. However, the design of hybrid systems is complex because of the uncertain renewable energy supplies, load demands and the non-linear characteristics of some components, so the design problem cannot be solved easily by classical optimisation methods. The use of heuristic techniques, such as the genetic algorithms, can give better results than classical methods. This paper presents to a hybrid system control algorithm and also dispatches strategy design in which wind is the primary energy resource with photovoltaic cells. The dimension of the design (max. load is 2000 kW and the sources is implemented as flow 1500 kw from wind, 500 kw from solar and diesel 2000 kw. The main task of the preposed algorithm is to take full advantage of the wind energy and solar energy when it is available and to minimize diesel fuel consumption.

  4. Hybrid Engine Powered City Car: Fuzzy Controlled Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ataur; Mohiuddin, AKM; Hawlader, MNA; Ihsan, Sany

    2017-03-01

    This study describes a fuzzy controlled hybrid engine powered car. The car is powered by the lithium ion battery capacity of 1000 Wh is charged by the 50 cc hybrid engine and power regenerative mode. The engine is operated with lean mixture at 3000 rpm to charge the battery. The regenerative mode that connects with the engine generates electrical power of 500-600 W for the deceleration of car from 90 km/h to 20 km/h. The regenerated electrical power has been used to power the air-conditioning system and to meet the other electrical power. The battery power only used to propel the car. The regenerative power also found charging the battery for longer operation about 40 minutes and more. The design flexibility of this vehicle starts with whole-vehicle integration based on radical light weighting, drag reduction, and accessory efficiency. The energy efficient hybrid engine cut carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxides (N2O) emission about 70-80% as the loads on the crankshaft such as cam-follower and its associated rotating components are replaced by electromagnetic systems, and the flywheel, alternator and starter motor are replaced by a motor generator. The vehicle was tested and found that it was able to travel 70 km/litre with the power of hybrid engine.

  5. Hybrid Porous Materials for Controlled Release and Catalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Rui

    2010-01-01

    First reported in 1992, ordered mesoporous materials exhibit unique features, such as regular pore geometry, high surface area, and large pore volume, and have shown great potential in various applications. This dissertation combines the knowledge from the field of ordered mesoporous materials and several other research areas to design advanced hybrid porous materials for controlled release and catalysis applications.The demand for better treatment of illness has led to ever-increasing effort...

  6. Controllability in hybrid kinetic equations modeling nonequilibrium multicellular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianca, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the derivation of hybrid kinetic partial integrodifferential equations that can be proposed for the mathematical modeling of multicellular systems subjected to external force fields and characterized by nonconservative interactions. In order to prevent an uncontrolled time evolution of the moments of the solution, a control operator is introduced which is based on the Gaussian thermostat. Specifically, the analysis shows that the moments are solution of a Riccati-type differential equation.

  7. Caged molecular beacons: controlling nucleic acid hybridization with light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunming; Zhu, Zhi; Song, Yanling; Lin, Hui; Yang, Chaoyong James; Tan, Weihong

    2011-05-28

    We have constructed a novel class of light-activatable caged molecular beacons (cMBs) that are caged by locking two stems with a photo-labile biomolecular interaction or covalent bond. With the cMBs, the nucleic acid hybridization process can be easily controlled with light, which offers the possibility for a high spatiotemporal resolution study of intracellular mRNAs. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  8. Hybrid Porous Materials for Controlled Release and Catalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Rui

    2010-01-01

    First reported in 1992, ordered mesoporous materials exhibit unique features, such as regular pore geometry, high surface area, and large pore volume, and have shown great potential in various applications. This dissertation combines the knowledge from the field of ordered mesoporous materials and several other research areas to design advanced hybrid porous materials for controlled release and catalysis applications.The demand for better treatment of illness has led to ever-increasing effort...

  9. Cascade Control Solution for Traction Motor for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsa Preitl

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a hybrid electric vehicle is considered, which contains both aninternal combustion engine and an electric motor (EM. Without focusing on the othercomponents of the vehicle, the EM is treated in detail, both regarding modelling aspectsand control solutions.After a brief modelling of the plant, two cascade speed control solutions are presented: firsta classical PI+PI cascade control solution is presented. The control systems related totraction electric motors (used in vehicle traction must be able to cope with differentrequests, such as variation of the reference signal, load disturbances which depend on thetransport conditions and parametric disturbances regarding changes in the total mass ofthe vehicle. For this purpose, in the design of the speed controller (external loop a specificmethodology based on extension of the symmetrical optimum method is presented. Thecontrollers are developed using the Modulus–Optimum method for the inner loop, and theExtended Symmetrical Optimum Method, corrected based on the 2p-SO-method, for theouter loop (for a more efficient disturbance rejection.In order to force the behaviour of the system regarding the reference input, a correctionterm is introduced as a non-homogenous structured PI controller solution.Simulations were performed using numerical values taken from a real applicationconsisting in a hybrid vehicle prototype, showing satisfactory behaviour.

  10. Electric and hybrid vehicles environmental control subsystem study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in the passenger compartment of electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. Various methods of obtaining the desired temperature control for the battery pack is also studied. The functional requirements of ECS equipment is defined. Following categorization by methodology, technology availability and risk, all viable ECS concepts are evaluated. Each is assessed independently for benefits versus risk, as well as for its feasibility to short, intermediate and long term product development. Selection of the preferred concept is made against these requirements, as well as the study's major goal of providing safe, highly efficient and thermally confortable ECS equipment.

  11. Novel hybrid coatings with controlled wettability by composite nanoparticle aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hritcu, Doina; Dodi, Gianina; Iordache, Mirabela L.; Draganescu, Dan; Sava, Elena; Popa, Marcel I.

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate novel hybrid materials as potential candidates for producing coatings with hierarchical roughness and controlled wetting behaviour. Magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles obtained by co-precipitation were embedded in matrices synthesized by radical graft co-polymerization of butyl acrylate (BA), butyl methacrylate (BMA), hexyl acrylate (HA) or styrene (ST) with ethylene glycol di-methacrylate (EGDMA) onto previously modified chitosan bearing surface vinyl groups. The resulting composite particles were characterized regarding their average size, composition and magnetic properties. Hybrid thin films containing suspension of composite particles in ethanol and pre-hydrolysed hexadecyltrimethoxysilane (HDTS) as a coupling/crosslinking agent were deposited by spin coating or spraying. The films were cured by heating and subsequently characterized regarding their morphology (scanning electron microscopy), contact angle with water and adhesion to substrate (scratch test). The structure-property relationship is discussed.

  12. A hybrid joint based controller for an upper extremity exoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Khairuddin, Ismail; Taha, Zahari; Majeed, Anwar P. P. Abdul; Hakeem Deboucha, Abdel; Azraai Mohd Razman, Mohd; Aziz Jaafar, Abdul; Mohamed, Zulkifli

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the modelling and control of a two degree of freedom upper extremity exoskeleton. The Euler-Lagrange formulation was used in deriving the dynamic modelling of both the human upper limb as well as the exoskeleton that consists of the upper arm and the forearm. The human model is based on anthropometrical measurements of the upper limb. The proportional-derivative (PD) computed torque control (CTC) architecture is employed in this study to investigate its efficacy performing joint-space control objectives specifically in rehabilitating the elbow and shoulder joints along the sagittal plane. An active force control (AFC) algorithm is also incorporated into the PD-CTC to investigate the effectiveness of this hybrid system in compensating disturbances. It was found that the AFC- PD-CTC performs well against the disturbances introduced into the system whilst achieving acceptable trajectory tracking as compared to the conventional PD-CTC control architecture.

  13. Optimal Control Policies of Pests for Hybrid Dynamical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baolin Kang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We improve the traditional integrated pest management (IPM control strategies and formulate three specific management strategies, which can be described by hybrid dynamical systems. These strategies can not only effectively control pests but also reduce the abuse of pesticides and protect the natural enemies. The aim of this work is to study how the factors, such as natural enemies optimum choice in the two kinds of different pests, timings of natural enemy releases, dosages and timings of insecticide applications, and instantaneous killing rates of pesticides on both pests and natural enemies, can affect the success of IPM control programmes. The results indicate that the pests outbreak period or frequency largely depends on the optimal selective feeding of the natural enemy between one of the pests and the control tactics. Ultimately, we obtain the only pest needs to be controlled below a certain threshold while not supervising pest .

  14. HYBRID CONTROL OF HYDRAULIC PRESS MACHINE BASED ON ROBUST CONTROL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Yu; YANG Jian; CHAI Xiaodong

    2008-01-01

    A robust control algorithm is proposed to focus on the non-linearity and variables of the hydraulic press machine with the proportional valve. The proposed robust controller does not need to design stable compensator in advance, which is simple in design and has large scope of uncertainty applications. The feedback gains of the proposed robust controller are small, so it is easily implemented in engineering applications. The theoretical and experimental research on the position and speed control of the hydraulic press machine is carried out. The control requirements of the hydraulic press machine during the working process are met in the position and speed at the same time. Experimental results show that the proposed controller has better robustness subject to load variables and adaptability of parameter variations of the hydraulic press machine with the proportional valve.

  15. Control Valve Trajectories for SOFC Hybrid System Startup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorrell, Megan; Banta, Larry; Rosen, William; Restrepo, Bernardo; Tucker, David

    2012-07-01

    Control and management of cathode airflow in a solid oxide fuel cell gas turbine hybrid power system was analyzed using the Hybrid Performance (HyPer) hardware simulation at the National Energy Technology (NETL), U.S. Department of Energy. This work delves into previously unexplored operating practices for HyPer, via simultaneous manipulation of bypass valves and the electric load on the generator. The work is preparatory to the development of a Multi-Input, Multi-Output (MIMO) controller for HyPer. A factorial design of experiments was conducted to acquire data for 81 different combinations of the manipulated variables, which consisted of three air flow control valves and the electric load on the turbine generator. From this data the response surface for the cathode airflow with respect to bypass valve positions was analyzed. Of particular interest is the control of airflow through the cathode during system startup and during large load swings. This paper presents an algorithm for controlling air mass flow through the cathode based on a modification of the steepest ascent method.

  16. A Hybrid Flight Control for a Simulated Raptor-30 V2 Helicopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbab Nighat Khizer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a hybrid flight control system for a single rotor simulated Raptor-30 V2 helicopter. Hybrid intelligent control system, combination of the conventional and intelligent control methodologies, is applied to small model helicopter. The proposed hybrid control used PID as a traditional control and fuzzy as an intelligent control so as to take the maximum advantage of advanced control theory. The helicopter?s model used; comes from X-Plane flight simulator and their hybrid flight control system was simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK in a simulation platform. X-Plane is also used to visualize the performance of this proposed autopilot design. Through a series of numerous experiments, the operation of hybrid control system was investigated. Results verified that the proposed hybrid control has an excellent performance at hovering flight mode.

  17. Optimal Control of Engine Warmup in Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Reeven Vital

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An Internal Combustion Engine (ICE under cold conditions experiences increased friction losses due to a high viscosity of the lubricant. With the additional control freedom present in hybrid electric vehicles, the losses during warmup can be minimized and fuel can be saved. In this paper, firstly, a control-oriented model of the ICE, describing the warmup behavior, is developed and validated on measured vehicle data. Secondly, the two-state, non-autonomous fuel optimization, for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle with stop-start functionality, is solved using optimal control theory. The principal behavior of the Lagrange multipliers is explicitly derived, including the discontinuities (jumps that are caused by the constraints on the lubricant temperature and the energy in the battery system. The minimization of the Hamiltonian for this two-state problem is also explicitly solved, resulting in a computationally efficient algorithm. The optimal controller shows the fuel benefit, as a function of the initial temperature, for a long-haul truck simulated on the FTP-75.

  18. Combined Optimal Sizing and Control for a Hybrid Tracked Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei Peng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The optimal sizing and control of a hybrid tracked vehicle is presented and solved in this paper. A driving schedule obtained from field tests is used to represent typical tracked vehicle operations. Dynamics of the diesel engine-permanent magnetic AC synchronous generator set, the lithium-ion battery pack, and the power split between them are modeled and validated through experiments. Two coupled optimizations, one for the plant parameters, forming the outer optimization loop and one for the control strategy, forming the inner optimization loop, are used to achieve minimum fuel consumption under the selected driving schedule. The dynamic programming technique is applied to find the optimal controller in the inner loop while the component parameters are optimized iteratively in the outer loop. The results are analyzed, and the relationship between the key parameters is observed to keep the optimal sizing and control simultaneously.

  19. Energy control strategy for parallel hydrostatic transmission hybrid vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Hui; JIANG Ji-hai; WANG Xin

    2009-01-01

    Aimed at the relatively lower energy density and complicated coordinating operation between two power sources, a special energy control strategy is required to maximize the fuel saving potential. Then a new type of configuration for hydrostatic transmission hybrid vehicles (PHHV) and the selection criterion for impor-tant components are proposed. Based on the optimization of planet gear transmission ratio and the analysis of op-timal energy distribution for the proposed PHHV on a representative urban driving cycle, a fuzzy torque control strategy and a braking energy regeneration strategy are designed and developed to realize the real-time control of energy for the proposed PHHV. Simulation results demonstrate that the energy control strategy effectively im-proves the fuel economy of PHHV.

  20. Hybrid Quantum-Classical Approach to Quantum Optimal Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Yang, Xiaodong; Peng, Xinhua; Sun, Chang-Pu

    2017-04-14

    A central challenge in quantum computing is to identify more computational problems for which utilization of quantum resources can offer significant speedup. Here, we propose a hybrid quantum-classical scheme to tackle the quantum optimal control problem. We show that the most computationally demanding part of gradient-based algorithms, namely, computing the fitness function and its gradient for a control input, can be accomplished by the process of evolution and measurement on a quantum simulator. By posing queries to and receiving answers from the quantum simulator, classical computing devices update the control parameters until an optimal control solution is found. To demonstrate the quantum-classical scheme in experiment, we use a seven-qubit nuclear magnetic resonance system, on which we have succeeded in optimizing state preparation without involving classical computation of the large Hilbert space evolution.

  1. Designing hybrid grass genomes to control runoff generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, C.; Binley, A.; Humphreys, M.; King, I. P.; O'Donovan, S.; Papadopoulos, A.; Turner, L. B.; Watts, C.; Whalley, W. R.; Haygarth, P.

    2010-12-01

    Sustainable management of water in landscapes requires balancing demands of agricultural production whilst moderating downstream effects like flooding. Pasture comprises 69% of global agricultural areas and is essential for producing food and fibre alongside environmental goods and services. Thus there is a need to breed forage grasses that deliver multiple benefits through increased levels of productivity whilst moderating fluxes of water. Here we show that a novel grass hybrid that combines the entire genomes of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne - the grass of choice for Europe’s forage agriculture) and meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis) has a significant role in flood prevention. Field plot experiments established differences in runoff generation with the hybrid cultivar reducing runoff by 50% compared to perennial ryegrass cultivar, and by 35% compared to a meadow fescue cultivar (34 events over two years, replicated randomized-block design, statistically significant differences). This important research outcome was the result of a project that combined plant genetics, soil physics and plot scale hydrology to identify novel grass genotypes that can reduce runoff from grassland systems. Through a coordinated series of experiments examining effects from the gene to plot scale, we have identified that the rapid growth and then turnover of roots in the L. perenne x F. pratensis hybrid is likely to be a key mechanism in reducing runoff generation. More broadly this is an exciting first step to realizing the potential to design grass genomes to achieve both food production, and to deliver flood control, a key ecosystem service.

  2. Novel hybrid coatings with controlled wettability by composite nanoparticle aggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hritcu, Doina, E-mail: dhritcu@ch.tuiasi.ro; Dodi, Gianina; Iordache, Mirabela L.; Draganescu, Dan; Sava, Elena; Popa, Marcel I.

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Magnetite-grafted chitosan composite nanoparticles were synthesized. • The particles are able to assemble under the influence of a silane derivative. • Thin films containing composites, chitosan and hydrolyzed silane were optimized. • The novel hybrid coatings show hierarchical roughness and high wetting angle. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to evaluate novel hybrid materials as potential candidates for producing coatings with hierarchical roughness and controlled wetting behaviour. Magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles obtained by co-precipitation were embedded in matrices synthesized by radical graft co-polymerization of butyl acrylate (BA), butyl methacrylate (BMA), hexyl acrylate (HA) or styrene (ST) with ethylene glycol di-methacrylate (EGDMA) onto previously modified chitosan bearing surface vinyl groups. The resulting composite particles were characterized regarding their average size, composition and magnetic properties. Hybrid thin films containing suspension of composite particles in ethanol and pre-hydrolysed hexadecyltrimethoxysilane (HDTS) as a coupling/crosslinking agent were deposited by spin coating or spraying. The films were cured by heating and subsequently characterized regarding their morphology (scanning electron microscopy), contact angle with water and adhesion to substrate (scratch test). The structure-property relationship is discussed.

  3. Path Planning and Trajectory Control of Collaborative Mobile Robots Using Hybrid Control Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Davies

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development and implementation a hybrid control architecture to direct a collective of three X80 mobile robots to multiple user-defined waypoints. The Genetic Algorithm Path Planner created an optimized, reduction in the time to complete the task, path plan for each robot in the collective such that each waypoint was visited once without colliding with a priori obstacles. The deliberative Genetic Algorithm Path Planner was then coupled with a reactive Potential Field Trajectory Planner and kinematic based controller to create a hybrid control architecture allowing the mobile robot to navigate between multiple user-defined waypoints, while avoiding a priori obstacles and obstacles detected using the robots' range sensors. The success of this hybrid control architecture was proven through simulation and experimentation using three of Dr. Robot's ™ wireless X80 mobile robots.

  4. Hybrid nanostructured drug carrier with tunable and controlled drug release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depan, D.; Misra, R.D.K., E-mail: dmisra@louisiana.edu

    2012-08-01

    We describe here a transformative approach to synthesize a hybrid nanostructured drug carrier that exhibits the characteristics of controlled drug release. The synthesis of the nanohybrid architecture involved two steps. The first step involved direct crystallization of biocompatible copolymer along the long axis of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs), followed by the second step of attachment of drug molecule to the polymer via hydrogen bonding. The extraordinary inorganic-organic hybrid architecture exhibited high drug loading ability and is physically stable even under extreme conditions of acidic media and ultrasonic irradiation. The temperature and pH sensitive characteristics of the hybrid drug carrier and high drug loading ability merit its consideration as a promising carrier and utilization of the fundamental aspects used for synthesis of other promising drug carriers. The higher drug release response during the application of ultrasonic frequency is ascribed to a cavitation-type process in which the acoustic bubbles nucleate and collapse releasing the drug. Furthermore, the study underscores the potential of uniquely combining CNTs and biopolymers for drug delivery. - Graphical abstract: Block-copolymer crystallized on carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Nanohybrid drug carrier synthesized by attaching doxorubicin (DOX) to polymer crystallized CNTs. Crystallized polymer on CNTs provide mechanical stability. Triggered release of DOX. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The novel synthesis of a hybrid nanostructured drug carrier is described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The drug carrier exhibits high drug loading ability and is physically stable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The high drug release is ascribed to a cavitation-type process.

  5. Hybrid model predictive control for speed control of permanent magnet synchronous motor with saturation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A discrete-time hybrid model of a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) with saturation in voltage and current is formulated.The controller design with incorporated constraints is achieved in a systematic way from modeling to control synthesis and implementation.The Hybrid System Description Language is used to obtain a mixed-logical dynamical (MLD) model.Based on the MLD model,a model predictive controller is designed for an optimal speed regulation of the motor.For reducing computation complexity and ...

  6. Electric and hybrid vehicle environmental control subsystem study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitner, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. A combination of a combustion heater and gasoline engine (Otto cycle) driven vapor compression air conditioner is selected. The combustion heater, the small gasoline engine, and the vapor compression air conditioner are commercially available. These technologies have good cost and performance characteristics. The cost for this ECS is relatively close to the cost of current ECS's. Its effect on the vehicle's propulsion battery is minimal and the ECS size and weight do not have significant impact on the vehicle's range.

  7. A Substractive Clustering Based Fuzzy Hybrid Reference Control Design for Transient Response Improvement of PID Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endra Joelianto

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The well known PID controller has inherent limitations in fulfilling simultaneously the conflicting control design objectives. Parameters of the tuned PID controller should trade off the requirement of tracking set-point performances, disturbance rejection and stability robustness. Combination of hybrid reference control (HRC with PID controller results in the transient response performances can be independently achieved without deteriorating the disturbance rejection properties and the stability robustness requirement. This paper proposes a fuzzy based HRC where the membership functions of the fuzzy logic system are obtained by using a substractive clustering technique. The proposed method guarantees the transient response performances satisfaction while preserving the stability robustness of the closed loop system controlled by the PID controller with effective and systematic procedures in designing the fuzzy hybrid reference control system.

  8. Hybrid Active Noise Control using Adjoint LMS Algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Hyun Do; Hong, Sik Ki [Dankook University (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-07-01

    A multi-channel hybrid active noise control(MCHANC) is derived by combining hybrid active noise control techniques and adjoint LMS algorithms, and this algorithm is applied to an active noise control system in a three dimensional enclosure. A MCHANC system uses feed forward and feedback filters simultaneously to cancel noises in an enclosure. The adjoint LMs algorithm, in which the error is filtered through an adjoint filter of the secondary channel, is also used to reduce the computational burden of adaptive filters. The overall attenuation performance and convergence characteristics of MCHANC algorithm is better than both multiple-channel feed forward algorithms and multiple-channel feedback algorithms. In a large enclosure, the acoustic reverberation can be very long, which means a very high order feed forward filter must be used to cancel the reverberation noises. Strong reverberation noises are generally narrow band and low frequency, which can be effectively predicted and canceled by a feedback adaptive filters. So lower order feed forward filter taps can be used in MCHANC algorithm which combines advantages of fast convergence and small excess mean square error. In this paper, computer simulations and real time implementations is carried out on a TMS320C31 processor to evaluate the performance of the MCHANC systems. (author). 11 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Hybrid control and motion planning of dynamical legged locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    "This book provides a comprehensive presentation of issues and challenges faced by researchers and practicing engineers in motion planning and hybrid control of dynamical legged locomotion. The major features range from offline and online motion planning algorithms to generate desired feasible periodic walking and running motions and tow-level control schemes, including within-stride feedback laws, continuous time update laws and event-based update laws, to asymptotically stabilize the generated desired periodic orbits. This book describes the current state of the art and future directions across all domains of dynamical legged locomotion so that readers can extend proposed motion planning algorithms and control methodologies to other types of planar and 3D legged robots".

  10. Hybrid intelligent PID control design for PEMFC anode system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-min WANG; Ying-ying ZHANG; Guang-yi CAO

    2008-01-01

    Control design is important for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) generator. This work researched the anode system of a 60-kW PEMFC generator. Both anode pressure and humidity must he maintained at ideal levels during steady operation. In view of characteristics and requirements of the system, a hybrid intelligent PID controller is designed specifically based on dynamic simulation. A single neuron PI controller is used for anode humidity by adjusting the water injection to the hydrogen cell. Another incremental PID controller, based on the diagonal recurrent neural network (DRNN) dynamic identification, is used to control anode pressure to be more stable and exact by adjusting the hydrogen flow rate. This control strategy can avoid the coupling problem of the PEMFC and achieve a more adaptive ability. Simulation results showed that the control strategy can maintain both anode humidity and pressure at ideal levels regardless of variable load, nonlinear dynamic and coupling characteristics of the system. This work will give some guides for further control design and applications of the total PEMFC generator.

  11. Multi-Agent System based Event-Triggered Hybrid Controls for High-Security Hybrid Energy Generation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dou, Chun-Xia; Yue, Dong; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes multi-agent system based event- triggered hybrid controls for guaranteeing energy supply of a hybrid energy generation system with high security. First, a mul-ti-agent system is constituted by an upper-level central coordi-nated control agent combined with several lower...... switching control, distributed dynamic regulation and coordinated switching con-trol are designed fully dependent on the hybrid behaviors of all distributed energy resources and the logical relationships be-tween them, and interact with each other by means of the mul-ti-agent system to form hierarchical......-level unit agents. Each lower-level unit agent is responsible for dealing with internal switching control and distributed dynamic regula-tion for its unit system. The upper-level agent implements coor-dinated switching control to guarantee the power supply of over-all system with high security. The internal...

  12. Modeling, analysis and control of fuel cell hybrid power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Kyung Won

    Transient performance is a key characteristic of fuel cells, that is sometimes more critical than efficiency, due to the importance of accepting unpredictable electric loads. To fulfill the transient requirement in vehicle propulsion and portable fuel cell applications, a fuel cell stack is typically coupled with a battery through a DC/DC converter to form a hybrid power system. Although many power management strategies already exist, they all rely on low level controllers that realize the power split. In this dissertation we design controllers that realize various power split strategies by directly manipulating physical actuators (low level commands). We maintain the causality of the electric dynamics (voltage and current) and investigate how the electric architecture affects the hybridization level and the power management. We first establish the performance limitations associated with a stand-alone and power-autonomous fuel cell system that is not supplemented by an additional energy storage and powers all its auxiliary components by itself. Specifically, we examine the transient performance in fuel cell power delivery as it is limited by the air supplied by a compressor driven by the fuel cell itself. The performance limitations arise from the intrinsic coupling in the fluid and electrical domain between the compressor and the fuel cell stack. Feedforward and feedback control strategies are used to demonstrate these limitations analytically and with simulations. Experimental tests on a small commercial fuel cell auxiliary power unit (APU) confirm the dynamics and the identified limitations. The dynamics associated with the integration of a fuel cell system and a DC/DC converter is then investigated. Decentralized and fully centralized (using linear quadratic techniques) controllers are designed to regulate the power system voltage and to prevent fuel cell oxygen starvation. Regulating these two performance variables is a difficult task and requires a compromise

  13. Spontaneous Emission Control in a Tunable Hybrid Photonic System

    CERN Document Server

    Frimmer, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate control of the rate of spontaneous emission in a tunable hybrid photonic system that consists of two canonical building blocks for spontaneous emission control, an optical antenna and a mirror, each providing a modification of the local density of optical states (LDOS).We couple fluorophores to a plasmonic antenna to create a superemitter with an enhanced decay rate. In a superemitter analog of the seminal Drexhage experiment we probe the LDOS of a nanomechanically approached mirror. Due to the electrodynamic interaction of the antenna with its own mirror image the superemitter traces the inverse LDOS of the mirror, in stark contrast to a bare source, whose decay rate is proportional to the mirror LDOS.

  14. Spontaneous emission control in a tunable hybrid photonic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimmer, Martin; Koenderink, A Femius

    2013-05-24

    We experimentally demonstrate control of the rate of spontaneous emission in a tunable hybrid photonic system that consists of two canonical building blocks for spontaneous emission control, an optical antenna and a mirror, each providing a modification of the local density of optical states (LDOS). We couple fluorophores to a plasmonic antenna to create a superemitter with an enhanced decay rate. In a superemitter analog of the seminal Drexhage experiment we probe the LDOS of a nanomechanically approached mirror. Because of the electrodynamic interaction of the antenna with its own mirror image, the superemitter traces the inverse of the LDOS enhancement provided by the mirror, in stark contrast to a bare source, whose decay rate is proportional to the mirror LDOS.

  15. Flux-weakening control methods for hybrid excitation synchronous motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming Huang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid excitation synchronous motor (HESM, which aim at combining the advantages of permanent magnet motor and wound excitation motor, have the characteristics of low-speed high-torque hill climbing and wide speed range. Firstly, a new kind of HESM is presented in the paper, and its structure and mathematical model are illustrated. Then, based on a space voltage vector control, a novel flux-weakening method for speed adjustment in the high speed region is presented. The unique feature of the proposed control method is that the HESM driving system keeps the q-axis back-EMF components invariable during the flux-weakening operation process. Moreover, a copper loss minimization algorithm is adopted to reduce the copper loss of the HESM in the high speed region. Lastly, the proposed method is validated by the simulation and the experimental results.

  16. Wireless Network Control with Privacy Using Hybrid ARQ

    CERN Document Server

    Sarikaya, Yunus; Koksal, Emre C

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of resource allocation in a wireless cellular network, in which nodes have both open and private information to be transmitted to the base station over block fading uplink channels. We develop a cross-layer solution, based on hybrid ARQ transmission with incremental redundancy. We provide a scheme that combines power control, flow control, and scheduling in order to maximize a global utility function, subject to the stability of the data queues, an average power constraint, and a constraint on the privacy outage probability. Our scheme is based on the assumption that each node has an estimate of its uplink channel gain at each block, while only the distribution of the cross channel gains is available. We prove that our scheme achieves a utility, arbitrarily close to the maximum achievable utility given the available channel state information.

  17. Design and control of hybrid actuation lower limb exoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hipolito Aguilar-Sierra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, two types of actuators are applied for a lower limb exoskeleton. They are DC motors with the harmonic drive and the pneumatic artificial muscles. This combination takes advantages of both the harmonic drive and the pneumatic artificial muscle. It provides both high accuracy position control and high ratio of strength and weight. The shortcomings of the two actuators are overcome by the hybrid actuation, for example, low control accuracy and modeling difficult of pneumatic artificial muscle, compactness, and structural flexibility of DC motors. The design and modeling processes are discussed to show the proposed exoskeleton can increase the strength of human lower limbs. Experiments and analysis of the exoskeleton are given to evaluate the effectiveness of the design and modeling.

  18. Fuel optimal control of parallel hybrid electric vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinhuan PU; Chenliang YIN; Jianwu ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    A mathematical model for fuel optimal control and its corresponding dynamic programming (DP) recurs-ive equation were established for an existing parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). Two augmented cost func-tions for gear shifting and engine stop-starting were designed to limit their frequency. To overcome the prob-lem of numerical DP dimensionality, an algorithm to restrict the exploring region was proposed. The algorithm significantly reduced the computational complexity. The system model was converted into real-time simulation code by using MATLAB/RTW to improve computation efficiency. Comparison between the results of a chassis dynamometer test, simulation, and DP proves that the proposed method can compute the performance limita-tion of the HEV within an acceptable time period and can be used to evaluate and optimize the control strategy.

  19. Biomimetic Hybrid Feedback Feedforward Neural-Network Learning Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yongping; Yu, Haoyong

    2017-06-01

    This brief presents a biomimetic hybrid feedback feedforward neural-network learning control (NNLC) strategy inspired by the human motor learning control mechanism for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems. The control structure includes a proportional-derivative controller acting as a feedback servo machine and a radial-basis-function (RBF) NN acting as a feedforward predictive machine. Under the sufficient constraints on control parameters, the closed-loop system achieves semiglobal practical exponential stability, such that an accurate NN approximation is guaranteed in a local region along recurrent reference trajectories. Compared with the existing NNLC methods, the novelties of the proposed method include: 1) the implementation of an adaptive NN control to guarantee plant states being recurrent is not needed, since recurrent reference signals rather than plant states are utilized as NN inputs, which greatly simplifies the analysis and synthesis of the NNLC and 2) the domain of NN approximation can be determined a priori by the given reference signals, which leads to an easy construction of the RBF-NNs. Simulation results have verified the effectiveness of this approach.

  20. Mercury Control With The Advanced Hybrid Paticulate Collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley J. Miller; Ye Zhuang; Jay Almlie

    2004-09-30

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4 - Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., and is marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the original 5-task project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included bench-scale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. The scope of work was modified to include an additional sixth task, initiated in April 2003. The objective of this task

  1. Autonomous Navigation Motion Control of Mobile Robots using Hybrid System Control Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.M. [Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea); Lim, M.S. [Kyonggi Institute of Technology, Shihung (Korea); Lim, J.H. [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-05-01

    This paper presents a framework of hybrid dynamic control systems for the motion control of wheeled mobile robot systems with nonholonomic constraints. The hybrid control system has the 3-layered hierarchical structure: digital automata for the higher process, mobile robot system for the lower process, and the interface as the interaction process between the continuous dynamics and the discrete dynamics. In the hybrid control architecture of mobile robot, the continuous dynamics of mobile robots are modeled by the switched systems. The abstract model and digital automata for the motion control are developed. In high level, the discrete states are defined by using the sensor-based search windows and the reference motions of a mobile robot in low level are specified in the abstracted motions. The mobile robots can perform both the motion planning and autonomous maneuvering with obstacle avoidance in indoor navigation problem. Simulation and experimental results show that hybrid system approach is an effective method for the autonomous maneuvering in indoor environments. (author). 13 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Hybrid internal model control and proportional control of chaotic dynamical systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐冬莲; 姚良宾

    2004-01-01

    A new chaos control method is proposed to take advantage of chaos or avoid it. The hybrid Internal Model Control and Proportional Control learning scheme are introduced. In order to gain the desired robust performance and ensure the system's stability, Adaptive Momentum Algorithms are also developed. Through properly designing the neural network plant model and neural network controller, the chaotic dynamical systems are controlled while the parameters of the BP neural network are modified. Taking the Lorenz chaotic system as example, the results show that chaotic dynamical systems can be stabilized at the desired orbits by this control strategy.

  3. Hybrid internal model control and proportional control of chaotic dynamical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Dong-lian; Yao, Liang-bin

    2004-01-01

    A new chaos control method is proposed to take advantage of chaos or avoid it. The hybrid Internal Model Control and Proportional Control learning scheme are introduced. In order to gain the desired robust performance and ensure the system's stability, Adaptive Momentum Algorithms are also developed. Through properly designing the neural network plant model and neural network controller, the chaotic dynamical systems are controlled while the parameters of the BP neural network are modified. Taking the Lorenz chaotic system as example, the results show that chaotic dynamical systems can be stabilized at the desired orbits by this control strategy.

  4. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Steven A. Benson; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2003-08-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and is now marketed as the ''Advanced Hybrid''{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultra-high collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot

  5. Hybrid control of bifurcation and chaos in stroboscopic model of Internet congestion control system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Da-Wei; Zhu Jie; Luo Xiao-Shu

    2008-01-01

    Interaction between transmission control protocol (TCP) and random early detection (RED) gateway in the Internet congestion control system has been modelled as a discrete-time dynamic system which exhibits complex bifurcating and chaotic behaviours.In this paper,a hybrid control strategy using both state feedback and parameter perturbation is employed to control the bifurcation and stabilize the chaotic orbits embedded in this discrete-time dynamic system of TCP/RED.Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations show that the bifurcation is delayed and the chaotic orbits are stabilized to a fixed point,which reliably achieves a stable average queue size in an extended range of parameters and even completely eliminates the chaotic behaviour in a particular range of parameters.Therefore it is possible to decrease the sensitivity of RED to parameters.By using the hybrid strategy,we may improve the stability and performance of TCP/RED congestion control system significantly.

  6. A Novel Hybrid Safety-control Strategy for a Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As robots tend to work cooperatively with humans in shared workplaces, safety as regards robot- human interactions has caused a great deal of concern in the robot community, and control strategies have become a hot topic in robotics research. In order to guarantee the robot’s safety and continuous motions, this paper proposes a novel safety-control strategy, which is strictly conservative and which consists of a pre-contact and post-contact safety strategy. We adopt an optimal motion trajectory-planning method, by use of which the jerk, acceleration and velocity of the robot’s motion can be limited and a time-optimal motion can be obtained as a post-contact safety strategy for a position-controlled manipulator. The optimal motion trajectory planning not only reduces the impact forces during the collision period, but also maintains the efficiency of the manipulator and preserves continuous motions. Next, we describe a novel collision detection method as a pre-contact safety strategy to avoid collisions. The method proposed here can compute security warning region to handle the effect of robot motion on collision detection and detect collisions between non-convex polygon soups. Finally, the control strategy is implemented for a 7-DOF humanoid manipulator and the experimental results demonstrate the validity of this novel hybrid safety-control strategy.

  7. Hierarchical modeling and control of hybrid systems with two layers; Hierarchische Modellierung und Regelung hybrider Systeme auf zwei Ebenen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stursberg, Olaf; Paschedag, Tina; Rungger, Matthias; Ding, Hao [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Fachgebiet Regelungs- und Systemtheorie

    2010-08-15

    While hybrid dynamic models are, to a certain degree, established for modeling systems with heterogeneous dynamics, most approaches for design and analysis of hybrid systems are restricted to monolithic models without hierarchy. This contribution first shows, how modular hybrid systems with two layers of decision, as appropriate for representing manufacturing systems for example, can be modeled systematically. The second part proposes a technique for fixing discrete inputs (for coordinating control) and continuous inputs (for embedded continuous controllers) in combination. The method uses a graph-based search on the upper decision layer, while principles of predictive control are used on the lower layer. The procedure of modeling and control is illustrated for a manufacturing process. (orig.)

  8. Control-relevant modeling and simulation of a SOFC-GT hybrid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rambabu Kandepu

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, control-relevant models of the most important components in a SOFC-GT hybrid system are described. Dynamic simulations are performed on the overall hybrid system. The model is used to develop a simple control structure, but the simulations show that more elaborate control is needed.

  9. Hybrid Wall Construction and Quality Control Issues in Wyandotte, Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukachko, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Grin, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bergey, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This report is the second report on the Wyandotte NSP2 project in Wyandotte, MI and documents refinements to the design, construction, and quality control for the High R-value enclosure. The report will be of interest to designers and builders of production housing in Cold Climates. The focus of the second round of research was on using the hybrid insulation approach to develop a reliable methodof achieving consistently low airtightness numbers. There are two primary outcomes from this research. First, the airtightness measurements demonstrate that with a shallow learning curve, even new builders entering the program having little experience with the technology package are able to achieve consistent results that are less than 1.5 ACH50. Second, the process changes implemented to helpsecure these results were straightforward and ended up encouraging better communication between designer, builder, and the City officials supervising the project.

  10. Hybrid Wall Construction and Quality Control Issues in Wyandotte, Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukachko, A. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Grin, A. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Bergey, D. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This report is the second report on the Wyandotte Neighborhood Stabilization Program 2 project in Wyandotte, MI, and documents refinements to the design, construction, and quality control for the high R-value enclosure. The report will be of interest to designers and builders of production housing in Cold Climates. The focus of the second round of research was on using the hybrid insulation approach to develop a reliable method of achieving consistently low airtightness numbers. There are two primary outcomes from this research. First, the airtightness measurements demonstrate that with a shallow learning curve, even new builders entering the program having little experience with the technology package are able to achieve consistent results that are less than 1.5 ACH50. Second, the process changes implemented to help secure these results were straightforward and ended up encouraging better communication between designer, builder, and the city officials supervising the project.

  11. Hybrid Polyaniline Systems under Chiral and Redox Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toshikazu Hirao; Toshiyuki Moriuchi; Xiuliang Shen; Kenji Morita

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Polyanilines are one of the promising electrically conducting π-conjugated polymers with chemical stability. In recent year, there has been increased interest in chiral induction of polyanilines because of their potential use in diverse areas. Chiral polyaniline has been reported to be formed only by the chiral acid dopant[1]. In our previous papers, complexation of polyanilines or their oligomers with transition metals modulates the redox properties of the quinonediimine unit, which is related to the catalytic function in the oxidation reaction[2].The controlled complexation with palladium(Ⅱ) compounds has been achieved to afford the cross-linked network conjugated complexes, in which the quinonediimine moieties serve as bridging coordination sites[3].Another hybrid system consisting of π-conjugated polymer and transition metal is also described.

  12. New Intelligent Transmission Concept for Hybrid Mobile Robot Speed Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazim Mir-Nasiri

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new concept of a mobile robot speed control by using two degree of freedom gear transmission. The developed intelligent speed controller utilizes a gear box which comprises of epicyclic gear train with two inputs, one coupled with the engine shaft and another with the shaft of a variable speed dc motor. The net output speed is a combination of the two input speeds and is governed by the transmission ratio of the planetary gear train. This new approach eliminates the use of a torque converter which is otherwise an indispensable part of all available automatic transmissions, thereby reducing the power loss that occurs in the box during the fluid coupling. By gradually varying the speed of the dc motor a stepless transmission has been achieved. The other advantages of the developed controller are pulling over and reversing the vehicle, implemented by intelligent mixing of the dc motor and engine speeds. This approach eliminates traditional braking system in entire vehicle design. The use of two power sources, IC engine and battery driven DC motor, utilizes the modern idea of hybrid vehicles. The new mobile robot speed controller is capable of driving the vehicle even in extreme case of IC engine failure, for example, due to gas depletion.

  13. New Intelligent Transmission Concept for Hybrid Mobile Robot Speed Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazim Mir-Nasiri

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new concept of a mobile robot speed control by using two degree of freedom gear transmission. The developed intelligent speed controller utilizes a gear box which comprises of epicyclic gear train with two inputs, one coupled with the engine shaft and another with the shaft of a variable speed dc motor. The net output speed is a combination of the two input speeds and is governed by the transmission ratio of the planetary gear train. This new approach eliminates the use of a torque converter which is otherwise an indispensable part of all available automatic transmissions, thereby reducing the power loss that occurs in the box during the fluid coupling. By gradually varying the speed of the dc motor a stepless transmission has been achieved. The other advantages of the developed controller are pulling over and reversing the vehicle, implemented by intelligent mixing of the dc motor and engine speeds. This approach eliminates traditional braking system in entire vehicle design. The use of two power sources, IC engine and battery driven DC motor, utilizes the modern idea of hybrid vehicles. The new mobile robot speed controller is capable of driving the vehicle even in extreme case of IC engine failure, for example, due to gas depletion..

  14. A Novel Hybrid Statistical Particle Swarm Optimization for Multimodal Functions and Frequency Control of Hybrid Wind-Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Harish Kumar; Jain, Cheshta

    2016-09-01

    In this article, a hybrid algorithm of particle swarm optimization (PSO) with statistical parameter (HSPSO) is proposed. Basic PSO for shifted multimodal problems have low searching precision due to falling into a number of local minima. The proposed approach uses statistical characteristics to update the velocity of the particle to avoid local minima and help particles to search global optimum with improved convergence. The performance of the newly developed algorithm is verified using various standard multimodal, multivariable, shifted hybrid composition benchmark problems. Further, the comparative analysis of HSPSO with variants of PSO is tested to control frequency of hybrid renewable energy system which comprises solar system, wind system, diesel generator, aqua electrolyzer and ultra capacitor. A significant improvement in convergence characteristic of HSPSO algorithm over other variants of PSO is observed in solving benchmark optimization and renewable hybrid system problems.

  15. Hybrid Approach to State Estimation for Bioprocess Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimvydas Simutis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available An improved state estimation technique for bioprocess control applications is proposed where a hybrid version of the Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF is employed. The underlying dynamic system model is formulated as a conventional system of ordinary differential equations based on the mass balances of the state variables biomass, substrate, and product, while the observation model, describing the less established relationship between the state variables and the measurement quantities, is formulated in a data driven way. The latter is formulated by means of a support vector regression (SVR model. The UKF is applied to a recombinant therapeutic protein production process using Escherichia coli bacteria. Additionally, the state vector was extended by the specific biomass growth rate µ in order to allow for the estimation of this key variable which is crucial for the implementation of innovative control algorithms in recombinant therapeutic protein production processes. The state estimates depict a sufficiently low noise level which goes perfectly with different advanced bioprocess control applications.

  16. Hybrid Approach to State Estimation for Bioprocess Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimvydas Simutis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available An improved state estimation technique for bioprocess control applications is proposed where a hybrid version of the Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF is employed. The underlying dynamic system model is formulated as a conventional system of ordinary differential equations based on the mass balances of the state variables biomass, substrate, and product, while the observation model, describing the less established relationship between the state variables and the measurement quantities, is formulated in a data driven way. The latter is formulated by means of a support vector regression (SVR model. The UKF is applied to a recombinant therapeutic protein production process using Escherichia coli bacteria. Additionally, the state vector was extended by the specific biomass growth rate µ in order to allow for the estimation of this key variable which is crucial for the implementation of innovative control algorithms in recombinant therapeutic protein production processes. The state estimates depict a sufficiently low noise level which goes perfectly with different advanced bioprocess control applications.

  17. Active sway control of a gantry crane using hybrid input shaping and PID control schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Tumari, M. Z.; Shabudin, L.; Zawawi, M. A.; Shah, L. H. Ahmad

    2013-12-01

    This project presents investigations into the development of hybrid input-shaping and PID control schemes for active sway control of a gantry crane system. The application of positive input shaping involves a technique that can reduce the sway by creating a common signal that cancels its own vibration and used as a feed-forward control which is for controlling the sway angle of the pendulum, while the proportional integral derivative (PID) controller is used as a feedback control which is for controlling the crane position. The PID controller was tuned using Ziegler-Nichols method to get the best performance of the system. The hybrid input-shaping and PID control schemes guarantee a fast input tracking capability, precise payload positioning and very minimal sway motion. The modeling of gantry crane is used to simulate the system using MATLAB/SIMULINK software. The results of the response with the controllers are presented in time domains and frequency domains. The performances of control schemes are examined in terms of level of input tracking capability, sway angle reduction and time response specification.

  18. Spacecraft Hybrid (Mixed-Actuator) Attitude Control Experiences on NASA Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.

    2014-01-01

    There is a heightened interest within NASA for the design, development, and flight implementation of mixed-actuator hybrid attitude control systems for science spacecraft that have less than three functional reaction wheel actuators. This interest is driven by a number of recent reaction wheel failures on aging, but what could be still scientifically productive, NASA spacecraft if a successful hybrid attitude control mode can be implemented. Over the years, hybrid (mixed-actuator) control has been employed for contingency attitude control purposes on several NASA science mission spacecraft. This paper provides a historical perspective of NASA's previous engineering work on spacecraft mixed-actuator hybrid control approaches. An update of the current situation will also be provided emphasizing why NASA is now so interested in hybrid control. The results of the NASA Spacecraft Hybrid Attitude Control Workshop, held in April of 2013, will be highlighted. In particular, the lessons learned captured from that workshop will be shared in this paper. An update on the most recent experiences with hybrid control on the Kepler spacecraft will also be provided. This paper will close with some future considerations for hybrid spacecraft control.

  19. Hybrid multiscale simulation of a mixing-controlled reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheibe, Timothy D.; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Agarwal, Khushbu; Chase, Jared M.; Yang, Xiaofan; Palmer, Bruce J.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Elsethagen, Todd O.; Redden, George D.

    2015-09-01

    Continuum-scale models have been used to study subsurface flow, transport, and reactions for many years but lack the capability to resolve fine-grained processes. Recently, pore-scale models, which operate at scales of individual soil grains, have been developed to more accurately model and study pore-scale phenomena, such as mineral precipitation and dissolution reactions, microbially-mediated surface reactions, and other complex processes. However, these highly-resolved models are prohibitively expensive for modeling domains of sizes relevant to practical problems. To broaden the utility of pore-scale models for larger domains, we developed a hybrid multiscale model that initially simulates the full domain at the continuum scale and applies a pore-scale model only to areas of high reactivity. Since the location and number of pore-scale model regions in the model varies as the reactions proceed, an adaptive script defines the number and location of pore regions within each continuum iteration and initializes pore-scale simulations from macroscale information. Another script communicates information from the pore-scale simulation results back to the continuum scale. These components provide loose coupling between the pore- and continuum-scale codes into a single hybrid multiscale model implemented within the SWIFT workflow environment. In this paper, we consider an irreversible homogenous bimolecular reaction (two solutes reacting to form a third solute) in a 2D test problem. This paper is focused on the approach used for multiscale coupling between pore- and continuum-scale models, application to a realistic test problem, and implications of the results for predictive simulation of mixing-controlled reactions in porous media. Our results and analysis demonstrate that loose coupling provides a feasible, efficient and scalable approach for multiscale subsurface simulations.

  20. Portraits of colloidal hybrid nanostructures: controlled synthesis and potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh-Dinh

    2013-03-01

    Inorganic hybrid nanostructures containing two or more nanocomponents have been emerging in many areas of materials science in recent years. The particle-particle interactions in a hybrid particle system could significantly improve existing local electronic structure and induce tunable physiochemical responses. The current work reviews the diverse inorganic hybrid nanostructures formed by adhesion of the different single components via seed-mediated method. The hybrid nanomaterials have great potentials for real applications in many other fields. The nanohybrids have been used as efficient heterocatalysts for carbon monoxide conversion and photodegradation of organic contaminants. The enhanced catalytic activity of these hybrid nanocatalysts could be attributed the formation of oxygen vacancies and electron transfer across the structural junction in a hybrid system as a result of the interfacial particle-particle interactions. The synergistic combination of up-converting and semiconducting properties in an up-converting semiconducting hybrid particle results in appearance of sub-band-gap photoconductivity. This behavior has a great significance for the design of photovoltaic devices for effective solar energy conversion. The functionalization and subsequent bioconjugation of the hybrid nanostructures to afford the multifunctional nanomedical platforms for simultaneous diagnosis and therapy are reviewed. The conjugated multifunctional hybrid nanostructures exhibit high biocompatibility and highly selective binding with functional groups-fabricated alive organs through delivering them to the tumor sites. The clever combinations of multifunctional features and antibody conjugation within these vehicles make them to generally offer new opportunities for clinical diagnostics and therapeutics.

  1. Output feedback hybrid-impulsive second order sliding mode control: Lyapunov approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shtessel, Y.; Glumineau, A.; Plestan, F.; Weiss, M.

    2014-01-01

    A perturbed nonlinear system of relative degree two controlled by output feedbacks discontinuous-hybrid-impulsive control is studied. The output hybrid-impulsive terms serve to drive instantaneously the system's trajectory to the origin or to its small vicinity. The output feedback impulsive action

  2. Multi-Objective Hybrid Optimal Control for Interplanetary Mission Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englander, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary design of low-thrust interplanetary missions is a highly complex process. The mission designer must choose discrete parameters such as the number of flybys, the bodies at which those flybys are performed, and in some cases the final destination. Because low-thrust trajectory design is tightly coupled with systems design, power and propulsion characteristics must be chosen as well. In addition, a time-history of control variables must be chosen which defines the trajectory. There are often many thousands, if not millions, of possible trajectories to be evaluated. The customer who commissions a trajectory design is not usually interested in a point solution, but rather the exploration of the trade space of trajectories between several different objective functions. This can be very expensive process in terms of the number of human analyst hours required. An automated approach is therefore very desirable. This work presents such an approach by posing the mission design problem as a multi-objective hybrid optimal control problem. The methods is demonstrated on hypothetical mission to the main asteroid belt and to Deimos.

  3. Monitoring and remote control of a hybrid photovoltaic microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Tiggemann

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The search of new alternatives for energy supply in island communities has always been a challenge in scientific and social context. In order to attend these communities, in January 2013 a photovoltaic hybrid microgrid project had its beginning at Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (UNISINOS. This paper presents the characterization and the development of such microgrid, monitored remotely via internet, which allows visualizing the electrical measurements, energy production and performing remote control actions. This work also aims increasing the interaction between students of universities to perform laboratory practices. The system consists of two photovoltaic modules technologies, mono and multicrystalline, totaling 570 Wp, connected to an energy storage bank of 200 Ah in 24 V and a pure sinusoidal inverter of 1 kW to supply AC voltage loads of 220 V. All acquisition components of data, conversion and management system are located in a control cabinet. Currently, the microgrid uses the utility grid as an auxiliary generator, simulating an alternative source of energy, which can be further replaced by fuel cell, biodiesel generator, etc.

  4. An Hybrid Multi Level Inverter Based on DSTATCOM Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ramash Kumar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation on the Hybrid Seven-Level (HSL H–bridge inverter, which is used in a Distribution Static Compensator (DSTATCOM in Power Systems (PS. Making use of HSLI has the benefits of low harmonics distortion, reduced number of switches required to achieve the seven- level inverter output over the conventional cascaded seven-level inverter, and also reduced switching losses. In order to compensate the reactive power and suppress the total harmonics distortion (THD drawn from a Non-Liner Diode Rectifier Load (NLDRL of DSTATCOM, we propose a Sub-Harmonics Pulse Width Modulation (SHPWM technique to control the switches of HSL H – bridge inverter. The D-Q reference frame theory is used to generate the reference compensating currents for DSTATCOM and proportional and integral (PI control is used for capacitors dc voltage regulation for DSTATCOM. An HSL H–bridge inverter is considered for the shunt compensation of a 4.5 kV distribution system. The results are validated by MatLab/Simulink simulation software.

  5. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven A. Benson; Stanley J. Miller; Charlene R. Crocker; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jason D. Laumb; Jill M. Zola; Ye Zhuang; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2004-08-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and is now marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the original 5-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a

  6. Mercury Control With The Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven A. Benson; Stanley J. Miller; Charlene R. Crocker; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jason D. Laumb; Jill M. Zola; Ye Zhuang; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2004-03-31

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4 - Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., and is now marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the original 5-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes benchscale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at

  7. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlene R. Crocker; Steven A. Benson; Stanley J. Miller

    2003-11-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4--Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and is now marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultra-high collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the original 5-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a

  8. Mercury Control With The Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven A. Benson; Stanley J. Miller; Charlene R. Crocker; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jason D. Laumb; Jill M. Zola; Ye Zhuang; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2003-12-31

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4 - Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., and is now marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the original 5-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes benchscale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at

  9. Double Motor Coordinated Control Based on Hybrid Genetic Algorithm and CMAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shaozhong; Tu, Ji

    A novel hybrid cerebellar model articulation controller (CMAC) and online adaptive genetic algorithm (GA) controller is introduced to control two Brushless DC motor (BLDCM) which applied in a biped robot. Genetic Algorithm simulates the random learning among the individuals of a group, and CMAC simulates the self-learning of an individual. To validate the ability and superiority of the novel algorithm, experiments have been done in MATLAB/SIMULINK. Analysis among GA, hybrid GA-CMAC and CMAC feed-forward control is also given. The results prove that the torque ripple of the coordinated control system is eliminated by using the hybrid GA-CMAC algorithm.

  10. Dynamic simulation and optimal control strategy for a parallel hybrid hydraulic excavator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao LIN; Shuang-xia PAN; Dong-yun WANG

    2008-01-01

    The primary focus of this study is to investigate the control strategies of a hybrid system used in hydraulic excavators. First, the structure and evaluation target of hybrid hydraulic excavators are analyzed. Then the dynamic system model including batteries, motor and engine is built as the simulation environment to obtain control results. A so-called multi-work-point dynamic control strategy, which has both closed-loop speed PI (proportion integral) control and direct torque control, is proposed and studied in the simulation model. Simulation results indicate that the hybrid system with this strategy can meet the power demand and achieve better system stability and higher fuel efficiency.

  11. Optimal traffic light control method for a single intersection based on hybrid systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓华; 陈阳舟; 崔平远

    2003-01-01

    A single intersection of two phases is selected as a model to put forward a new optimal time-planning scheme for traffic light based on the model of hybrid automata for single intersection. A method of optimization is proposed for hybrid systems, and the average queue length over all queues is used as an objective function to find an optimal switching scheme for traffic light. It is illustrated that traffic light control for single intersection is a typical hybrid system, and the optimal planning-time scheme can be obtained using the optimal hybrid systems control based on the two stages method.

  12. Supporting Engagement and Floor Control in Hybrid Meetings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Hofs, D.H.W.; Hondorp, G.H.W.; op den Akker, Harm; Zwiers, Jakob; Nijholt, Antinus; Esposito, Anna; Vich, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Remote participants in hybrid meetings often have problems to follow what is going on in the (physical) meeting room they are connected with. This paper describes a videoconferencing system for participation in hybrid meetings. The system has been developed as a research vehicle to see how

  13. Test and numerical simulation of a new type of hybrid control technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Qingli; Zhang Minzheng; Cheng Dong

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a new hybrid control technique, based on a combination of base-isolation and semi-active variable stiffness/damping in a superstructure, is presented. To illustrate the efficiency of the proposed control system, model tests on a mini-electromagnetic shaking table and a numerical simulation were performed. The test and numerical calculation results indicate that this new hybrid control mode with additional damping and smaller additional stiffness can achieve a better control efficiency.

  14. Two Beam Energy Exchange in Hybrid Liquid Crystal Cells with Photorefractive Field Controlled Boundary Conditions (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-12

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0209 TWO BEAM ENERGY EXCHANGE IN HYBRID LIQUID CRYSTAL CELLS WITH PHOTOREFRACTIVE FIELD CONTROLLED BOUNDARY...DATES COVERED (From - To) 29 August 2016 Interim 26 October 2015 – 29 July 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TWO BEAM ENERGY EXCHANGE IN HYBRID LIQUID... energy gain when two light beams intersect in a hybrid nematic liquid crystal (LC) cell with photorefractive crystalline substrates. A periodic space

  15. Empirical Estimation of Hybrid Model: A Controlled Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadaf Un Nisa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Scrum and Extreme Programming (XP are frequently used models among all agile models whereas Rational Unified Process (RUP is one of the widely used conventional plan driven software development models. The agile and plan driven approaches both have their own strengths and weaknesses. Although RUP model has certain drawbacks, such as tendency to be over budgeted, slow in adaptation to rapidly changing requirements and reputation of being impractical for small and fast paced projects. XP model has certain drawbacks such as weak documentation and poor performance for medium and large development projects. XP has a concrete set of engineering practices that emphasizes on team work where managers, customers and developers are all equal partners in collaborative teams. Scrum is more concerned with the project management. It has seven practices namely Scrum Master, Scrum teams, Product Backlog, Sprint, Sprint Planning Meeting, Daily Scrum Meeting and Sprint Review. Keeping above mentioned context in view, this paper intends to propose a hybrid model naming SPRUP model by combining strengths of Scrum, XP and RUP by eliminating their weaknesses to produce high quality software. The proposed SPRUP model is validated through a controlled case study.

  16. Nucleic Acid-Peptide Complex Phase Controlled by DNA Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieregg, Jeffrey; Lueckheide, Michael; Leon, Lorraine; Marciel, Amanda; Tirrell, Matthew

    When polyanions and polycations are mixed, counterion release drives formation of polymer-rich complexes that can either be solid (precipitates) or liquid (coacervates) depending on the properties of the polyelectrolytes. These complexes are important in many fields, from encapsulation of industrial polymers to membrane-free segregation of biomolecules such as nucleic acids and proteins. Condensation of long double-stranded DNA has been studied for several decades, but comparatively little attention has been paid to the polyelectrolyte behavior of oligonucleotides. We report here studies of DNA oligonucleotides (10 - 88 nt) complexed with polylysine (10 - 100 aa). Unexpectedly, we find that the phase of the resulting complexes is controlled by the hybridization state of the nucleic acid, with double-stranded DNA forming precipitates and single-stranded DNA forming coacervates. Stability increases with polyelectrolyte length and decreases with solution salt concentration, with complexes of the longer double-stranded polymers undergoing precipitate/coacervate/soluble transitions as ionic strength is increased. Mixing coacervates formed by complementary single-stranded oligonucleotides results in precipitate formation, raising the possibility of stimulus-responsive material design.

  17. Hybrid genetic algorithm approach for selective harmonic control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahidah, Mohamed S.A. [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, 63100, Jalan Multimedia-Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Agelidis, Vassilios G. [School of Electrical and Information Engineering, The University of Sydney, NSW (Australia); Rao, Machavaram V. [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, 75450, Jalan Ayer Keroh Lama-Melaka (Malaysia)

    2008-02-15

    The paper presents an optimal solution for a selective harmonic elimination pulse width modulated (SHE-PWM) technique suitable for a high power inverter used in constant frequency utility applications. The main challenge of solving the associated non-linear equations, which are transcendental in nature and, therefore, have multiple solutions, is the convergence, and therefore, an initial point selected considerably close to the exact solution is required. The paper discusses an efficient hybrid real coded genetic algorithm (HRCGA) that reduces significantly the computational burden, resulting in fast convergence. An objective function describing a measure of the effectiveness of eliminating selected orders of harmonics while controlling the fundamental, namely a weighted total harmonic distortion (WTHD) is derived, and a comparison of different operating points is reported. It is observed that the method was able to find the optimal solution for a modulation index that is higher than unity. The theoretical considerations reported in this paper are verified through simulation and experimentally on a low power laboratory prototype. (author)

  18. A study on the control of a hybrid MTDC system supplying a passive network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotb, Omar; Ghandhari, Mehrdad; Eriksson, Robert

    2014-01-01

    A hybrid Multi-Terminal DC (MTDC) system can combine the benefits of both Line Commutated Converter (LCC) and Voltage Source Converter (VSC) technologies in the form of reduced losses and flexibility to connect to weak and passive grids. In this paper, an analysis of control strategies used...... in a hybrid MTDC system is presented. A case study of a four terminal hybrid MTDC system supplying a passive AC network was considered for simulation study. A control scheme based on voltage margin was developed to cope with the condition of main DC voltage controlling station tripping. Two various control...... scenarios for controlling the VSCs connected to the passive network were presented and compared. The system performance was studied through EMTP-RV simulations under different disturbances. The results show the ability of selected converter control modes and proposed control schemes to operate the hybrid...

  19. Fuzzy logic controller versus classical logic controller for residential hybrid solar-wind-storage energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derrouazin, A., E-mail: derrsid@gmail.com [University Hassiba BenBouali of Chlef, LGEER,Chlef (Algeria); Université de Lorraine, LMOPS, EA 4423, 57070 Metz (France); CentraleSupélec, LMOPS, 57070 Metz (France); Aillerie, M., E-mail: aillerie@metz.supelec.fr; Charles, J. P. [Université de Lorraine, LMOPS, EA 4423, 57070 Metz (France); CentraleSupélec, LMOPS, 57070 Metz (France); Mekkakia-Maaza, N. [Université des sciences et de la Technologie d’Oran, Mohamed Boudiaf-USTO MB,LMSE, Oran Algérie (Algeria)

    2016-07-25

    Several researches for management of diverse hybrid energy systems and many techniques have been proposed for robustness, savings and environmental purpose. In this work we aim to make a comparative study between two supervision and control techniques: fuzzy and classic logics to manage the hybrid energy system applied for typical housing fed by solar and wind power, with rack of batteries for storage. The system is assisted by the electric grid during energy drop moments. A hydrogen production device is integrated into the system to retrieve surplus energy production from renewable sources for the household purposes, intending the maximum exploitation of these sources over years. The models have been achieved and generated signals for electronic switches command of proposed both techniques are presented and discussed in this paper.

  20. Fuzzy logic controller versus classical logic controller for residential hybrid solar-wind-storage energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrouazin, A.; Aillerie, M.; Mekkakia-Maaza, N.; Charles, J. P.

    2016-07-01

    Several researches for management of diverse hybrid energy systems and many techniques have been proposed for robustness, savings and environmental purpose. In this work we aim to make a comparative study between two supervision and control techniques: fuzzy and classic logics to manage the hybrid energy system applied for typical housing fed by solar and wind power, with rack of batteries for storage. The system is assisted by the electric grid during energy drop moments. A hydrogen production device is integrated into the system to retrieve surplus energy production from renewable sources for the household purposes, intending the maximum exploitation of these sources over years. The models have been achieved and generated signals for electronic switches command of proposed both techniques are presented and discussed in this paper.

  1. Hybrid architecture active wavefront sensing and control system, and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Lee D. (Inventor); Dean, Bruce H. (Inventor); Hyde, Tristram T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    According to various embodiments, provided herein is an optical system and method that can be configured to perform image analysis. The optical system can comprise a telescope assembly and one or more hybrid instruments. The one or more hybrid instruments can be configured to receive image data from the telescope assembly and perform a fine guidance operation and a wavefront sensing operation, simultaneously, on the image data received from the telescope assembly.

  2. Control and verification of industrial hybrid systems using models specified with the formalism $ chi $

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.H. Fey

    1996-01-01

    textabstractControl and verification of hybrid systems is studied using two industrial examples. The hybrid models of a conveyor-belt and of a biochemical plant for the production of ethanol are specified in the formalism $chi .$ A verification of the closed-loop systems for those examples,

  3. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Experimental Model with CAN Network Real Time Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RATOI, M.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an experimental model with a distributed control system of a hybrid electrical vehicle is presented. A communication CAN network of high speed (1 Mbps assures a distributed control of the all components. The modeling and the control of different operating regimes are realized on an experimental test-bench of a hybrid electrical vehicle. The experimental results concerning the variations of the mains variables (currents, torques, speeds are presented.

  4. Control of hybrid AC/DC microgrid under islanding operational conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, G.; Gao, F.; Zhang, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents control methods for hybrid AC/DC microgrid under islanding operation condition. The control schemes for AC sub-microgrid and DC sub-microgrid are investigated according to the power sharing requirement and operational reliability. In addition, the key control schemes......, the whole hybrid AC/DC microgrid can manage the power flow transferred between sub-microgrids for improving on the operational quality and efficiency....

  5. CONSTANT WORK-POINT CONTROL FOR PARALLEL HYBRID SYSTEM WITH CAPACITOR ACCUMULATOR IN HYDRAULIC EXCAVATOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yanting; WANG Qingfeng; XIAO Qing; FU Qiang

    2006-01-01

    Limitations of various accumulators in hybrid hydraulic excavator are analyzed. A program using capacitor as the accumulator based on constant work-point control is put forward. A simulating experimental system of hybrid construction machinery is established, and experimental study on constant work-point control for parallel hybrid system with capacitor accumulator is carried out using the pressure and flow rate derived from boom cylinder of hydraulic excavator in actual work as the simulating loads. A program of double work-point control is proposed and proved by further experiments.

  6. Remote toehold: a mechanism for flexible control of DNA hybridization kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genot, Anthony J; Zhang, David Yu; Bath, Jonathan; Turberfield, Andrew J

    2011-02-23

    Hybridization of DNA strands can be used to build molecular devices, and control of the kinetics of DNA hybridization is a crucial element in the design and construction of functional and autonomous devices. Toehold-mediated strand displacement has proved to be a powerful mechanism that allows programmable control of DNA hybridization. So far, attempts to control hybridization kinetics have mainly focused on the length and binding strength of toehold sequences. Here we show that insertion of a spacer between the toehold and displacement domains provides additional control: modulation of the nature and length of the spacer can be used to control strand-displacement rates over at least 3 orders of magnitude. We apply this mechanism to operate displacement reactions in potentially useful kinetic regimes: the kinetic proofreading and concentration-robust regimes.

  7. Requirements for Control Room Computer-Based Procedures for use in Hybrid Control Rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Blanc, Katya Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Oxstrand, Johanna Helene [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Joe, Jeffrey Clark [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Many plants in the U.S. are currently undergoing control room modernization. The main drivers for modernization are the aging and obsolescence of existing equipment, which typically results in a like-for-like replacement of analogue equipment with digital systems. However, the modernization efforts present an opportunity to employ advanced technology that would not only extend the life, but enhance the efficiency and cost competitiveness of nuclear power. Computer-based procedures (CBPs) are one example of near-term advanced technology that may provide enhanced efficiencies above and beyond like for like replacements of analog systems. Researchers in the LWRS program are investigating the benefits of advanced technologies such as CBPs, with the goal of assisting utilities in decision making during modernization projects. This report will describe the existing research on CBPs, discuss the unique issues related to using CBPs in hybrid control rooms (i.e., partially modernized analog control rooms), and define the requirements of CBPs for hybrid control rooms.

  8. Active vibration and noise control by hybrid active acoustic panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoebener, U.; Gaul, L. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. A fuer Mechanik

    2001-07-01

    In the present paper a hybrid passive and active treatment for vibration and noise reduction of plate type structures is proposed. The treatment is manufactured as sandwich structure and is called hybrid active acoustic panel. The passive component is used to reduce the vibration and sound radiation for high frequencies whereas the active part of the system is designed for the low frequency range. By selecting the thickness of the passive damping layer a certain frequency limit is defined, which divides the high and low frequency range. The actuator and sensor layout of the active component is evaluated by using the mode shapes of the low frequency range. According to the evaluated layout a hybrid active acoustic panel is manufactured and experimentally tested. The experimental results validate the proposed concept. (orig.)

  9. Hybrid Asymmetric Space Vector Modulation for inverter based direct torque control induction motor drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandakumar Sundararaju

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes novel hybrid asymmetric space vector modulation technique for inverter operated direct torque control induction motor drive. The hybridization process is performed by the combination of continuous asymmetric space vector modulation pulse width technique (ASVPWM and fuzzy operated discontinuous ASVPWM technique. Combination process is based on pulse mismatching technique. Pulse mismatching technique helps to reduce the active region of the switch. Finally, optimal pulses are applied to control the inverter. The optimal hybrid pulse condense switching losses of the inverter and also improves the operating performance of the direct torque control (DTC based drive system like smooth dynamic response in speed reversal, minimum torque error, settling time of speed. Simulation results of proposed hybrid asymmetric space vector pulse width modulation technique to direct torque control (HASVPWM-DTC approach has been carried out by using Matlab-Simulink environment.

  10. NEURAL NETWORKS CONTROL OF THE HYBRID POWER UNIT BASED ON THE METHOD OF ADAPTIVE CRITICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Serikov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The formal statement of the optimization problem of hybrid vehicle power unit control is given. Its solving by neural networks method application on the basis of adaptive critic is considered.

  11. Modeling, control, and simulation of grid connected intelligent hybrid battery/photovoltaic system using new hybrid fuzzy-neural method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvani, Alireza; Khalili, Abbas; Mazareie, Alireza; Gandomkar, Majid

    2016-07-01

    Nowadays, photovoltaic (PV) generation is growing increasingly fast as a renewable energy source. Nevertheless, the drawback of the PV system is its dependence on weather conditions. Therefore, battery energy storage (BES) can be considered to assist for a stable and reliable output from PV generation system for loads and improve the dynamic performance of the whole generation system in grid connected mode. In this paper, a novel topology of intelligent hybrid generation systems with PV and BES in a DC-coupled structure is presented. Each photovoltaic cell has a specific point named maximum power point on its operational curve (i.e. current-voltage or power-voltage curve) in which it can generate maximum power. Irradiance and temperature changes affect these operational curves. Therefore, the nonlinear characteristic of maximum power point to environment has caused to development of different maximum power point tracking techniques. In order to capture the maximum power point (MPP), a hybrid fuzzy-neural maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method is applied in the PV system. Obtained results represent the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method, and the average tracking efficiency of the hybrid fuzzy-neural is incremented by approximately two percentage points in comparison to the conventional methods. It has the advantages of robustness, fast response and good performance. A detailed mathematical model and a control approach of a three-phase grid-connected intelligent hybrid system have been proposed using Matlab/Simulink.

  12. Hybrid Control of a Two-Wheeled Automatic-Balancing Robot with Backlash Feature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic; Yang, Zhenyu

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the application of hybrid control for an automatic balancing robot system subject to backlash effect. The developed controller is a type of sliding mode controller, refereed to as a switching controller, with respect to different situations i.e., whether the backlash...

  13. Multi-agent system-based event-triggered hybrid control scheme for energy internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dou, Chunxia; Yue, Dong; Han, Qing Long

    2017-01-01

    This paper is concerned with an event-triggered hybrid control for the energy Internet based on a multi-agent system approach with which renewable energy resources can be fully utilized to meet load demand with high security and well dynamical quality. In the design of control, a multi-agent system...... framework is first constructed. Then, to describe fully the hybrid behaviors of all distributed energy resources and logical relationships between them, a differential hybrid Petri-net model is established, which is an original work. The most important contributions based on this model propose four types...

  14. Intelligent controller of a flexible hybrid robot machine for ITER assembly and maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-saedi, Mazin I., E-mail: mazin.al-saedi@lut.fi; Wu, Huapeng; Handroos, Heikki

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Studying flexible multibody dynamic of hybrid parallel robot. • Investigating fuzzy-PD controller to control a hybrid flexible hydraulically driven robot. • Investigating ANFIS-PD controller to control a hybrid flexible robot. Compare to traditional PID this method gives better performance. • Using the equilibrium of reaction forces between the parallel and serial parts of hybrid robot to control the serial part hydraulically driven. - Abstract: The assembly and maintenance of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) vacuum vessel (VV) is highly challenging since the tasks performed by the robot involve welding, material handling, and machine cutting from inside the VV. To fulfill the tasks in ITER application, this paper presents a hybrid redundant manipulator with four DOFs provided by serial kinematic axes and six DOFs by parallel mechanism. Thus, in machining, to achieve greater end-effector trajectory tracking accuracy for surface quality, a robust control of the actuators for the flexible link has to be deduced. In this paper, the intelligent control of a hydraulically driven parallel robot part based on the dynamic model and two control schemes have been investigated: (1) fuzzy-PID self tuning controller composed of the conventional PID control and with fuzzy logic; (2) adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system-PID (ANFIS-PID) self tuning of the gains of the PID controller, which are implemented independently to control each hydraulic cylinder of the parallel robot based on rod position predictions. The obtained results of the fuzzy-PID and ANFIS-PID self tuning controller can reduce more tracking errors than the conventional PID controller. Subsequently, the serial component of the hybrid robot can be analyzed using the equilibrium of reaction forces at the universal joint connections of the hexa-element. To achieve precise positional control of the end effector for maximum precision machining, the hydraulic cylinder should

  15. Control and fault diagnosis based sliding mode observer of a multicellular converter: Hybrid approach

    KAUST Repository

    Benzineb, Omar

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the diagnosis of a three cell converter is developed. The hybrid nature of the system represented by the presence of continuous and discrete dynamics is taken into account in the control design. The idea is based on using a hybrid control and an observer-type sliding mode to generate residuals from the observation errors of the system. The simulation results are presented at the end to illustrate the performance of the proposed approach. © 2013 FEI STU.

  16. Hybrid Control Design for a Wheeled Mobile Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Thomas; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Ravn, Anders Peter

    We present a hybrid systems solution to the problem of trajectory tracking for a four-wheel steered four-wheel driven mobile robot. The robot is modelled as a non-holonomic dynamic system subject to pure rolling, no-slip constraints. Under normal driving conditions, a nonlinear trajectory tracking...

  17. Predictive control strategy for power management in parallel hybrid-electric vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nodeh, Mohammad Taqi; Gholizade, Hossein; Hajizadeh, Amin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a hybrid model-based nonlinear optimal control method is used to compute the optimal power distribution and power management in parallel hybrid electric vehicles. In the power management strategy, for optimal power distribution between the internal combustion engine, electrical...... system and the other subsystems, nonlinear predictive control is applied. In order to achieve this goal, a hierarchical control structure is utilized. This type of control structure consists of three levels of monitoring, coordinating and local controllers. Nonlinear modeling and performance index...... in the proposed method should be formulated at the regulatory level of the controller. Discrete dynamic mode of operation (motor-generator) in hybrid electric vehicle requires to use a dual-mode switch model and to define an alternative expression of performance index for the optimal control problem...

  18. Predictive control strategies for energy saving of hybrid electric vehicles based on traffic light information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijiang YU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As the conventional control method for hybrid electric vehicle doesn’t consider the effect of known traffic light information on the vehicle energy management, this paper proposes a model predictive control intelligent optimization strategies based on traffic light information for hybrid electric vehicles. By building the simplified model of the hybrid electric vehicle and adopting the continuation/generalized minimum residual method, the model prediction problem is solved. The simulation is conducted by using MATLAB/Simulink platform. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed model of the traffic light information, and that the proposed model predictive control method can improve fuel economy and the real-time control performance significantly. The research conclusions show that the proposed control strategy can achieve optimal control of the vehicle trajectory, significantly improving fuel economy of the vehicle, and meet the system requirements for the real-time optimal control.

  19. Hybrid PID and PSO-based control for electric power assist steering system for electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanifah, R. A.; Toha, S. F.; Ahmad, S.

    2013-12-01

    Electric power assist steering (EPAS) system provides an important significance in enhancing the driving performance of a vehicle with its energy-conserving features. This paper presents a hybrid PID (Proportional-Integral-Derivative) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) based control scheme to minimize energy consumption for EPAS. This single objective optimization scheme is realized using the PSO technique in searching for best gain parameters of the PID controller. The fast tuning feature of this optimum PID controller produced high-quality solutions. Simulation results show the performance and effectiveness of the hybrid PSO-PID based controller as opposed to the conventional PID controller.

  20. Hybrid Active and Passive Control of Vibratory Power Flow in Flexible Isolation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.P. Xiong

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid active and passive vibration control strategy is developed to reduce the total power flows from machines, subject to multiple excitations, to supporting flexible structures. The dynamic interactions between machines, controllers, and receiving structures are studied. A force feedback control process governed by a proportional control law is adopted to produce active control forces to cancel the transmitted forces in the mounts. Computational simulations of a simple and a multiple dimensional hybrid vibration isolation system are performed to study the force transmissibility and the total power flows from vibration sources through active and passive isolators to the supporting structures. The investigation focuses on the effects of a hybrid control approach to the reduction of power flow transmissions and the influence of the dynamic characteristics of the control on power flow spectra. The hybrid control mechanism is synthesised from the power flow analysis. Conclusions and control strategies, well supported by numerical simulations, are deduced providing very useful guidelines for hybrid vibration isolation design.

  1. Frequency Stability of Hierarchically Controlled Hybrid Photovoltaic-Battery-Hydropower Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Yajuan; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez; Guerrero, Josep M.;

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid photovoltaic (PV) -battery-hydropower microgrids can be considered to enhance electricity accessibility and availability in remote areas. However, the coexistence of different renewable energy sources with different inertias and control strategies may affect system stability. In this paper......, a hierarchical controller for hybrid PV-battery-hydropower microgrid is proposed in order to achieve the parallel operation of hydropower and PV-battery system with different rates, and to guarantee power sharing performance among PV voltage controlled inverters, while the required power to hydropower...... is derived to analyze the system stability of the hybrid microgrid. The simulation results show system frequency and voltage stability for a hybrid microgrid demonstration which includes 2 MWp PV installations, a 15.2 MWh battery system, and a 12.8 MVA hydropower plant. Experimental results on a small...

  2. Control and design of volumetric composition in pultruded hybrid fibre composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Hashemi, Fariborz; Tahir, Paridah

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid composites consist of two of more fibre phases in a common matrix phase. This is a challenge for the control and design of the volumetric composition and microstructural uniformity of such composites. In the present study, a model is presented for the prediction of the complete volumetric...... composition (i.e. volume fractions of fibres, matrix and porosity) in hybrid fibre composites. The model is based on a constant local fibre volume fraction criterion. Good agreement is found between model predictions and experimental data of pultruded hybrid kenaf/glass fibre composites with variable hybrid...... fibre weight mixing ratios. To demonstrate the suitability of the model, simulations are performed for four different cases of volumetric composition in hybrid kenaf/glass composites....

  3. Controlled isotropic or anisotropic nanoscale growth of coordination polymers: formation of hybrid coordination polymer particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Jung; Cho, Yea Jin; Cho, Won; Oh, Moonhyun

    2013-01-22

    The ability to fabricate multicompositional hybrid materials in a precise and controlled manner is one of the primary goals of modern materials science research. In addition, an understanding of the phenomena associated with the systematic growth of one material on another can facilitate the evolution of multifunctional hybrid materials. Here, we demonstrate precise manipulation of the isotropic and/or anisotropic nanoscale growth of various coordination polymers (CPs) to obtain heterocompositional hybrid coordination polymer particles. Chemical composition analyses conducted at every growth step reveal the formation of accurately assembled hybrid nanoscale CPs, and microscopy images are used to examine the morphology of the particles and visualize the hybrid structures. The dissimilar growth behavior, that is, growth in an isotropic or anisotropic fashion, is found to be dependent on the size of the metal ions involved within the CPs.

  4. Performance and robustness of hybrid model predictive control for controllable dampers in building models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Erik A.; Elhaddad, Wael M.; Wojtkiewicz, Steven F.

    2016-04-01

    A variety of strategies have been developed over the past few decades to determine controllable damping device forces to mitigate the response of structures and mechanical systems to natural hazards and other excitations. These "smart" damping devices produce forces through passive means but have properties that can be controlled in real time, based on sensor measurements of response across the structure, to dramatically reduce structural motion by exploiting more than the local "information" that is available to purely passive devices. A common strategy is to design optimal damping forces using active control approaches and then try to reproduce those forces with the smart damper. However, these design forces, for some structures and performance objectives, may achieve high performance by selectively adding energy, which cannot be replicated by a controllable damping device, causing the smart damper performance to fall far short of what an active system would provide. The authors have recently demonstrated that a model predictive control strategy using hybrid system models, which utilize both continuous and binary states (the latter to capture the switching behavior between dissipative and non-dissipative forces), can provide reductions in structural response on the order of 50% relative to the conventional clipped-optimal design strategy. This paper explores the robustness of this newly proposed control strategy through evaluating controllable damper performance when the structure model differs from the nominal one used to design the damping strategy. Results from the application to a two-degree-of-freedom structure model confirms the robustness of the proposed strategy.

  5. Controlling chemical dosing for sulfide mitigation in sewer networks using a hybrid automata control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiqi; Ganigué, Ramon; Sharma, Keshab; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2013-01-01

    Chemicals such as magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) and iron salts are widely used to control sulfide-induced corrosion in sewer networks composed of interconnected sewer pipe lines and pumping stations. Chemical dosing control is usually non-automatic and based on experience, thus often resulting in sewage reaching the discharge point receiving inadequate or even no chemical dosing. Moreover, intermittent operation of pumping stations makes traditional control theory inadequate. A hybrid automata-based (HA-based) control method is proposed in this paper to coordinate sewage pumping station operations by considering their states, thereby ensuring suitable chemical concentrations in the network discharge. The performance of the proposed control method was validated through a simulation study of a real sewer network using real sewage flow data. The physical, chemical and biological processes were simulated using the well-established SeweX model. The results suggested that the HA-based control strategy significantly improved chemical dosing control performance and sulfide mitigation in sewer networks, compared to the current common practice.

  6. Single axis controlled hybrid magnetic bearing for left ventricular assist device: hybrid core and closed magnetic circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Isaias; Horikawa, Oswaldo; Cardoso, Jose R; Camargo, Fernando A; Andrade, Aron J P; Bock, Eduardo G P

    2011-05-01

    In previous studies, we presented main strategies for suspending the rotor of a mixed-flow type (centrifugal and axial) ventricular assist device (VAD), originally presented by the Institute Dante Pazzanese of Cardiology (IDPC), Brazil. Magnetic suspension is achieved by the use of a magnetic bearing architecture in which the active control is executed in only one degree of freedom, in the axial direction of the rotor. Remaining degrees of freedom, excepting the rotation, are restricted only by the attraction force between pairs of permanent magnets. This study is part of a joint project in development by IDPC and Escola Politecnica of São Paulo University, Brazil. This article shows advances in that project, presenting two promising solutions for magnetic bearings. One solution uses hybrid cores as electromagnetic actuators, that is, cores that combine iron and permanent magnets. The other solution uses actuators, also of hybrid type, but with the magnetic circuit closed by an iron core. After preliminary analysis, a pump prototype has been developed for each solution and has been tested. For each prototype, a brushless DC motor has been developed as the rotor driver. Each solution was evaluated by in vitro experiments and guidelines are extracted for future improvements. Tests have shown good results and demonstrated that one solution is not isolated from the other. One complements the other for the development of a single-axis-controlled, hybrid-type magnetic bearing for a mixed-flow type VAD.

  7. Hybrid model predictive control applied to switching control of burner load for a compact marine boiler design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Andersen, Palle; Maciejowski, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of hybrid model predictive control to control switching between different burner modes in a novel compact marine boiler design. A further purpose of the present work is to point out problems with finite horizon model predictive control applied to systems for w...

  8. H∞ Controller Design for Asynchronous Hybrid Systems with Multiple Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiang Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Solutions for the H∞ synthesis problems of asynchronous hybrid systems with input-output delays are proposed. The continuous-time lifting approach of sampled-data systems is extended to a hybrid system with multiple delays, and some feasible formulas to calculate the operators of the equivalent discrete-time (DT system are given. Different from the existing methods derived from symplectic pair theory or by state augmentation, a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional to solve the synthesis problem is explicitly constructed. The delay-dependent stability conditions we obtained can be described in terms of nonstrict linear matrix inequalities (LMIs, which are much more convenient to be solved by LMI tools.

  9. Evolved finite state controller for hybrid system in reduced search space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupuis, Jean-Francois; Fan, Zhun

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an evolutionary methodology to automatically generate finite state automata (FSA) controllers to control hybrid systems. The proposed approach reduces the search space using an invariant analysis of the system. FSA controllers for a case study of two-tank system have been...

  10. Backstepping fuzzy-neural-network control design for hybrid maglev transportation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Rong-Jong; Yao, Jing-Xiang; Lee, Jeng-Dao

    2015-02-01

    This paper focuses on the design of a backstepping fuzzy-neural-network control (BFNNC) for the online levitated balancing and propulsive positioning of a hybrid magnetic levitation (maglev) transportation system. The dynamic model of the hybrid maglev transportation system including levitated hybrid electromagnets to reduce the suspension power loss and the friction force during linear movement and a propulsive linear induction motor based on the concepts of mechanical geometry and motion dynamics is first constructed. The ultimate goal is to design an online fuzzy neural network (FNN) control methodology to cope with the problem of the complicated control transformation and the chattering control effort in backstepping control (BSC) design, and to directly ensure the stability of the controlled system without the requirement of strict constraints, detailed system information, and auxiliary compensated controllers despite the existence of uncertainties. In the proposed BFNNC scheme, an FNN control is utilized to be the major control role by imitating the BSC strategy, and adaptation laws for network parameters are derived in the sense of projection algorithm and Lyapunov stability theorem to ensure the network convergence as well as stable control performance. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy for the hybrid maglev transportation system is verified by experimental results, and the superiority of the BFNNC scheme is indicated in comparison with the BSC strategy and the backstepping particle-swarm-optimization control system in previous research.

  11. Comparing an evolved finite state controller for hybrid system to a lookahead design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupuis, Jean-Francois; Fan, Zhun

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of an evolutionary methodology for evolving finite state controller to the lookahead controller for hybrid system. To illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of both controllers two case studies, namely a two-tanks system and a single-input double-output DC...

  12. Design, implementation, and experimental validation of optimal power split control for hybrid electric trucks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, T. van; Mullem, D. van; Jager, B. van; Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Steinbuch, M.

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles require an algorithm that controls the power split between the internal combustion engine and electric machine(s), and the opening and closing of the clutch. Optimal control theory is applied to derive a methodology for a real-time optimal-control-based power split

  13. Dynamical control of quantum state transfer within hybrid open systems

    CERN Document Server

    Escher, B M; Clausen, J; Kurizki, G; Davidovich, L

    2010-01-01

    We analyze quantum state-transfer optimization within hybrid open systems, from a "noisy" (write-in) qubit to its "quiet" counterpart (storage qubit). Intriguing interplay is revealed between our ability to avoid bath-induced errors that profoundly depend on the bath-memory time and the limitations imposed by leakage out of the operational subspace. Counterintuitively, under no circumstances is the fastest transfer optimal (for a given transfer energy).

  14. Ciprofloxacin-nitroxide hybrids with potential for biofilm control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verderosa, Anthony D; de la Fuente-Núñez, César; Mansour, Sarah C; Cao, Jicong; Lu, Timothy K; Hancock, Robert E W; Fairfull-Smith, Kathryn E

    2017-09-29

    As bacterial biofilms display extreme tolerance to conventional antibiotic treatments, it has become imperative to develop new antibacterial strategies with alternative mechanisms of action. Herein, we report the synthesis of a series of ciprofloxacin-nitroxide conjugates and their corresponding methoxyamine derivatives in high yield. This was achieved by linking various nitroxides or methoxyamines to the secondary amine of the piperazine ring of ciprofloxacin using amide bond coupling. Biological evaluation of the prepared compounds on preformed P. aeruginosa biofilms in flow cells revealed substantial dispersal with ciprofloxacin-nitroxide hybrid 25, and virtually complete killing and removal (94%) of established biofilms in the presence of ciprofloxacin-nitroxide hybrid 27. Compounds 25-28 were shown to be non-toxic in both human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK 293) cells and human muscle rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells at concentrations up to 40 μM. Significantly, these hybrids demonstrate the potential of antimicrobial-nitroxide agents to overcome the resistance of biofilms to antimicrobials via stimulation of biofilm dispersal or through direct cell killing. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Non-fragile hybrid guaranteed cost control for a class of uncertain switched linear systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the problem of non-fragile hybrid guaranteed cost control for a class of uncertain switched linear systems. The controller gain to be designed is assumed to have additive gain variations. Based on multiple-Lyapunov function technique, the design of non-fragile hybrid guaranteed cost controllers is derived to make the corresponding closed-loop system asymptotically stable for all admissible uncertainties. Furthermore, a convex optimization approach with LMIs constraints is introduced to select the optimal non-fragile guaranteed cost controllers. Finally, a simulation example illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  16. Approximate dynamic programming recurrence relations for a hybrid optimal control problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, W.; Ferrari, S.; Fierro, R.; Wettergren, T. A.

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a hybrid approximate dynamic programming (ADP) method for a hybrid dynamic system (HDS) optimal control problem, that occurs in many complex unmanned systems which are implemented via a hybrid architecture, regarding robot modes or the complex environment. The HDS considered in this paper is characterized by a well-known three-layer hybrid framework, which includes a discrete event controller layer, a discrete-continuous interface layer, and a continuous state layer. The hybrid optimal control problem (HOCP) is to nd the optimal discrete event decisions and the optimal continuous controls subject to a deterministic minimization of a scalar function regarding the system state and control over time. Due to the uncertainty of environment and complexity of the HOCP, the cost-to-go cannot be evaluated before the HDS explores the entire system state space; as a result, the optimal control, neither continuous nor discrete, is not available ahead of time. Therefore, ADP is adopted to learn the optimal control while the HDS is exploring the environment, because of the online advantage of ADP method. Furthermore, ADP can break the curses of dimensionality which other optimizing methods, such as dynamic programming (DP) and Markov decision process (MDP), are facing due to the high dimensions of HOCP.

  17. Vehicle height and posture control of the electronic air suspension system using the hybrid system approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoqiang; Cai, Yingfeng; Chen, Long; Liu, Yanling; Wang, Shaohua

    2016-03-01

    The electronic air suspension (EAS) system can improve ride comfort, fuel economy and handling safety of vehicles by adjusting vehicle height. This paper describes the development of a novel controller using the hybrid system approach to adjust the vehicle height (height control) and to regulate the roll and pitch angles of the vehicle body during the height adjustment process (posture control). The vehicle height adjustment system of EAS poses challenging hybrid control problems, since it features different discrete modes of operation, where each mode has an associated linear continuous-time dynamic. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to the modelling and controller design problem for the vehicle height adjustment system of EAS. The system model is described firstly in the hybrid system description language (HYSDEL) to obtain a mixed logical dynamical (MLD) hybrid model. For the resulting model, a hybrid model predictive controller is tuned to improve the vehicle height and posture tracking accuracy and to achieve the on-off statuses direct control of solenoid valves. The effectiveness and performance of the proposed approach are demonstrated by simulations and actual vehicle tests.

  18. Autonomous Control of Interlinking Converter With Energy Storage in Hybrid AC–DC Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loh, Poh Chiang; Li, Ding; Chai, Yi Kang

    2013-01-01

    The coexistence of ac and dc subgrids in a hybrid microgrid is likely given that modern distributed sources can either be ac or dc. Linking these subgrids is a power converter, whose topology should preferably be not too unconventional. This is to avoid unnecessary compromises to reliability......, simplicity, and industry relevance of the converter. The desired operating features of the hybrid microgrid can then be added through this interlinking converter. To demonstrate, an appropriate control scheme is now developed for controlling the interlinking converter. The objective is to keep the hybrid...... microgrid in autonomous operation with active power proportionally shared among its distributed sources. Power sharing here should depend only on the source ratings and not their placements within the hybrid microgrid. The proposed scheme can also be extended to include energy storage within...

  19. In vitro spine testing using a robot-based testing system: comparison of displacement control and "hybrid control".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Kevin M; Hartman, Robert A; Gilbertson, Lars G; Kang, James D

    2013-06-21

    The two leading control algorithms for in-vitro spine biomechanical testing-"load control" and "displacement control"-are limited in their lack of adaptation to changes in the load-displacement response of a spine specimen-pointing to the need for sufficiently sophisticated control algorithms that are able to govern the application of loads/motions to a spine specimen in a more realistic, adaptive manner. A robotics-based spine testing system was programmed with a novel hybrid control algorithm combining "load control" and "displacement control" into a single, robust algorithm. Prior to in-vitro cadaveric testing, preliminary testing of the new algorithm was performed using a rigid-body-spring model with known structural properties. The present study also offers a direct comparison between "hybrid control" and "displacement control". The hybrid control algorithm enabled the robotics-based spine testing system to apply pure moments to an FSU (in flexion/extension, lateral bending, or axial rotation) in an unconstrained manner through active control of secondary translational/rotational degrees-of-freedom-successfully minimizing coupled forces/moments. The characteristic nonlinear S-shaped curves of the primary moment-rotation responses were consistent with previous reports of the FSU having a region of low stiffness (neutral zone) bounded by regions of increasing stiffness (elastic zone). Direct comparison of "displacement control" and "hybrid control" showed that hybrid control was able to actively minimize off-axis forces and resulted in larger neutral zone and range of motion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sliding Mode Controller for Three-Phase Hybrid Active Power Filter with Photovoltaic Application

    OpenAIRE

    Blorfan, Ayman; Merckle, Jean; Flieller, Damien; Wira, Patrice; Sturtzer, Guy

    2012-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents a new three-phase hybrid active power filter configuration that interconnects a passive high-pass filter in parallel with an active power filter and a photovoltaic system. The proposed configuration can improves the filtering performance of the conventional active power filter, as well as simultaneously supply the power from the photovoltaic arrays to the load and utility. This paper will describe the proposed hybrid active power filter control usin...

  1. Periodically-Scheduled Controller Analysis using Hybrid Systems Reachability and Continuization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    algorithm is run, and actuator outputs are set. The physical world , on the other hand, evolves continuously. Models of the physical world may be given...An extra clock variable, c, is added to the hybrid automaton that ticks at rate one (ċ = 1). When the clock reaches the period, a transition is...Preliminary Reachability Analysis Although hybrid automata can model real-time scheduled controllers and plants as shown above, an important factor is

  2. The Development of an Optimal Control Strategy for a Series Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wei Hung

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a Truck Class II series hydraulic hybrid model is established. Dynamic Programming (DP methodology is applied to derive the optimal power-splitting factor for the hybrid system for preselected driving schedules. Implementable rules are derived by extracting the optimal trajectory features from a DP scheme. The system behaviors illustrate that the improved control strategy gives a highly effective operation region for the engine and high power density characteristics for the hydraulic components.

  3. Guaranteed Cost Control for Exponential Synchronization of Cellular Neural Networks with Mixed Time-Varying Delays via Hybrid Feedback Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Botmart

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of guaranteed cost control for exponential synchronization of cellular neural networks with interval nondifferentiable and distributed time-varying delays via hybrid feedback control is considered. The interval time-varying delay function is not necessary to be differentiable. Based on the construction of improved Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals is combined with Leibniz-Newton's formula and the technique of dealing with some integral terms. New delay-dependent sufficient conditions for the exponential synchronization of the error systems with memoryless hybrid feedback control are first established in terms of LMIs without introducing any free-weighting matrices. The optimal guaranteed cost control with linear error hybrid feedback is turned into the solvable problem of a set of LMIs. A numerical example is also given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Species origin of genomic factors in Nicotiana nudicaulis Watson controlling hybrid lethality in interspecific hybrids between N. nudicaulis Watson and N. tabacum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongshuo Liu

    Full Text Available Hybrid lethality is expressed at 28°C in the cross Nicotiana nudicaulis × N. tabacum. The S subgenome of N. tabacum has been identified as controlling this hybrid lethality. To clarify the responsible genomic factor(s of N. nudicaulis, we crossed N. trigonophylla (paternal progenitor of N. nudicaulis with N. tabacum, because hybrids between N. sylvestris (maternal progenitor of N. nudicaulis and N. tabacum are viable when grown in a greenhouse. In the cross N. trigonophylla×N. tabacum, approximately 50% of hybrids were vitrified, 20% were viable, and 20% were nonviable at 28°C. To reveal which subgenome of N. tabacum was responsible for these phenotypes, we crossed N. trigonophylla with two progenitors of N. tabacum, N. sylvestris (SS and N. tomentosiformis (TT. In the cross N. sylvestris × N. trigonophylla, we confirmed that over half of hybrids of N. sylvestris × N. trigonophylla were vitrified, and none of the hybrids of N. trigonophylla × N. tomentosiformis were. The results imply that the S subgenome, encoding a gene or genes inducing hybrid lethality in the cross between N. nudicaulis and N. tabacum, has one or more genomic factors that induce vitrification. Furthermore, in vitrified hybrids of N. trigonophylla × N. tabacum and N. sylvestris × N. trigonophylla, we found that nuclear fragmentation, which progresses during expression of hybrid lethality, was accompanied by vitrification. This observation suggests that vitrification has a relationship to hybrid lethality. Based on these results, we speculate that when N. nudicaulis was formed approximately 5 million years ago, several causative genomic factors determining phenotypes of hybrid seedlings were inherited from N. trigonophylla. Subsequently, genome downsizing and various recombination-based processes took place. Some of the causative genomic factors were lost and some became genomic factor(s controlling hybrid lethality in extant N. nudicaulis.

  5. Species origin of genomic factors in Nicotiana nudicaulis Watson controlling hybrid lethality in interspecific hybrids between N. nudicaulis Watson and N. tabacum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongshuo; Marubashi, Wataru

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid lethality is expressed at 28°C in the cross Nicotiana nudicaulis × N. tabacum. The S subgenome of N. tabacum has been identified as controlling this hybrid lethality. To clarify the responsible genomic factor(s) of N. nudicaulis, we crossed N. trigonophylla (paternal progenitor of N. nudicaulis) with N. tabacum, because hybrids between N. sylvestris (maternal progenitor of N. nudicaulis) and N. tabacum are viable when grown in a greenhouse. In the cross N. trigonophylla×N. tabacum, approximately 50% of hybrids were vitrified, 20% were viable, and 20% were nonviable at 28°C. To reveal which subgenome of N. tabacum was responsible for these phenotypes, we crossed N. trigonophylla with two progenitors of N. tabacum, N. sylvestris (SS) and N. tomentosiformis (TT). In the cross N. sylvestris × N. trigonophylla, we confirmed that over half of hybrids of N. sylvestris × N. trigonophylla were vitrified, and none of the hybrids of N. trigonophylla × N. tomentosiformis were. The results imply that the S subgenome, encoding a gene or genes inducing hybrid lethality in the cross between N. nudicaulis and N. tabacum, has one or more genomic factors that induce vitrification. Furthermore, in vitrified hybrids of N. trigonophylla × N. tabacum and N. sylvestris × N. trigonophylla, we found that nuclear fragmentation, which progresses during expression of hybrid lethality, was accompanied by vitrification. This observation suggests that vitrification has a relationship to hybrid lethality. Based on these results, we speculate that when N. nudicaulis was formed approximately 5 million years ago, several causative genomic factors determining phenotypes of hybrid seedlings were inherited from N. trigonophylla. Subsequently, genome downsizing and various recombination-based processes took place. Some of the causative genomic factors were lost and some became genomic factor(s) controlling hybrid lethality in extant N. nudicaulis.

  6. Automated Controller Synthesis for non-Deterministic Piecewise-Affine Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, Jacob Deleuran

    a computational tree logic formula and refining the resulting solution to a catalogue of piecewise-affine controllers. The method has been implemented as aMatlab toolbox, PAHSCTRL , using linear matrix inequality feasibility computations for finding the discrete abstraction, UppAal Tiga for solving the discrete...... formations. This thesis uses a hybrid systems model of a satellite formation with possible actuator faults as a motivating example for developing an automated control synthesis method for non-deterministic piecewise-affine hybrid systems (PAHS). The method does not only open an avenue for further research...... in fault tolerant satellite formation control, but can be used to synthesise controllers for a wide range of systems where external events can alter the system dynamics. The synthesis method relies on abstracting the hybrid system into a discrete game, finding a winning strategy for the game meeting...

  7. Adaptive control using a hybrid-neural model: application to a polymerisation reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cubillos F.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the use of a hybrid-neural model for predictive control of a plug flow polymerisation reactor. The hybrid-neural model (HNM is based on fundamental conservation laws associated with a neural network (NN used to model the uncertain parameters. By simulations, the performance of this approach was studied for a peroxide-initiated styrene tubular reactor. The HNM was synthesised for a CSTR reactor with a radial basis function neural net (RBFN used to estimate the reaction rates recursively. The adaptive HNM was incorporated in two model predictive control strategies, a direct synthesis scheme and an optimum steady state scheme. Tests for servo and regulator control showed excellent behaviour following different setpoint variations, and rejecting perturbations. The good generalisation and training capacities of hybrid models, associated with the simplicity and robustness characteristics of the MPC formulations, make an attractive combination for the control of a polymerisation reactor.

  8. Optimal Control for a Parallel Hybrid Hydraulic Excavator Using Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-yun Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal control using particle swarm optimization (PSO is put forward in a parallel hybrid hydraulic excavator (PHHE. A power-train mathematical model of PHHE is illustrated along with the analysis of components’ parameters. Then, the optimal control problem is addressed, and PSO algorithm is introduced to deal with this nonlinear optimal problem which contains lots of inequality/equality constraints. Then, the comparisons between the optimal control and rule-based one are made, and the results show that hybrids with the optimal control would increase fuel economy. Although PSO algorithm is off-line optimization, still it would bring performance benchmark for PHHE and also help have a deep insight into hybrid excavators.

  9. Fuzzy-Based Hybrid Control Algorithm for the Stabilization of a Tri-Rotor UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zain Anwar Ali

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new and novel mathematical fuzzy hybrid scheme is proposed for the stabilization of a tri-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV. The fuzzy hybrid scheme consists of a fuzzy logic controller, regulation pole-placement tracking (RST controller with model reference adaptive control (MRAC, in which adaptive gains of the RST controller are being fine-tuned by a fuzzy logic controller. Brushless direct current (BLDC motors are installed in the triangular frame of the tri-rotor UAV, which helps maintain control on its motion and different altitude and attitude changes, similar to rotorcrafts. MRAC-based MIT rule is proposed for system stability. Moreover, the proposed hybrid controller with nonlinear flight dynamics is shown in the presence of translational and rotational velocity components. The performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated via MATLAB simulations, in which the proposed fuzzy hybrid controller is compared with the existing adaptive RST controller. It shows that our proposed algorithm has better transient performance with zero steady-state error, and fast convergence towards stability.

  10. Fuzzy-Based Hybrid Control Algorithm for the Stabilization of a Tri-Rotor UAV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Zain Anwar; Wang, Daobo; Aamir, Muhammad

    2016-05-09

    In this paper, a new and novel mathematical fuzzy hybrid scheme is proposed for the stabilization of a tri-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The fuzzy hybrid scheme consists of a fuzzy logic controller, regulation pole-placement tracking (RST) controller with model reference adaptive control (MRAC), in which adaptive gains of the RST controller are being fine-tuned by a fuzzy logic controller. Brushless direct current (BLDC) motors are installed in the triangular frame of the tri-rotor UAV, which helps maintain control on its motion and different altitude and attitude changes, similar to rotorcrafts. MRAC-based MIT rule is proposed for system stability. Moreover, the proposed hybrid controller with nonlinear flight dynamics is shown in the presence of translational and rotational velocity components. The performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated via MATLAB simulations, in which the proposed fuzzy hybrid controller is compared with the existing adaptive RST controller. It shows that our proposed algorithm has better transient performance with zero steady-state error, and fast convergence towards stability.

  11. Fuzzy-Based Hybrid Control Algorithm for the Stabilization of a Tri-Rotor UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Zain Anwar; Wang, Daobo; Aamir, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new and novel mathematical fuzzy hybrid scheme is proposed for the stabilization of a tri-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The fuzzy hybrid scheme consists of a fuzzy logic controller, regulation pole-placement tracking (RST) controller with model reference adaptive control (MRAC), in which adaptive gains of the RST controller are being fine-tuned by a fuzzy logic controller. Brushless direct current (BLDC) motors are installed in the triangular frame of the tri-rotor UAV, which helps maintain control on its motion and different altitude and attitude changes, similar to rotorcrafts. MRAC-based MIT rule is proposed for system stability. Moreover, the proposed hybrid controller with nonlinear flight dynamics is shown in the presence of translational and rotational velocity components. The performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated via MATLAB simulations, in which the proposed fuzzy hybrid controller is compared with the existing adaptive RST controller. It shows that our proposed algorithm has better transient performance with zero steady-state error, and fast convergence towards stability. PMID:27171084

  12. Research on Hybrid Seismic Response Control System for Motion Control of Two Span Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, G.; Kim, C.; Jeon, S.; Seo, S.; Jeon, J.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a hybrid seismic response control (HSRC) system was developed to control bridge motion caused by seismic load. It was aimed at optimum vibration control, composed of a rubber bearing of passive type and a MR-damper of semi-active type. The bridge model was built for experiment, a two-span bridge of 8.3 meters in length with the HSRC system put up on it. Then, inflicting El-centro seismic load on it, shaking table tests were carried out to confirm the system's validity. The experiments were conducted under the basic structure state (without an MR-damper applied) first, and then under the state with an MR-damper applied. It was also done under the basic structure state with a reinforced rubber bearing applied, then the passive on/off state of the HSRC system, and finally the semi-active state where the control algorithm was applied to the system. From the experiments, it was observed that collision rather increased when the MR-damper alone was applied, and also that the application of the HSRC system effectively prevented it from occurring. As a result, the HSRC system was proven to be effective in mitigating responses of the two-span bridge under seismic load.

  13. Hybrid control and acquisition system for remote control systems for environmental monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garufi, Fabio; Acernese, Fausto; Boiano, Alfonso; De Rosa, Rosario; Romano, Rocco; Barone, Fabrizio

    2008-10-01

    In this paper we describe the architecture and the performances of a hybrid modular acquisition and control system prototype for environmental monitoring and geophysics. The system, an alternative to a VME-UDP/IP based system, is based on a dual-channel 18-bit low noise ADC and a 16-bit DAC module at 1 MHz. The module can be configured as stand-alone or mounted on a motherboard as mezzanine. Both the modules and the motherboard can send/receive the configuration and the acquired/correction data for control through a standard EPP parallel port to a standard PC for the real-time computation. The tests have demonstrated that a distributed control systems based on this architecture exhibits a delay time of less than 25 us on a single channel, i.e a sustained sampling frequency of more than 40 kHz (and up to 80 kHz). The system is now under extensive test in the remote controls of seismic sensors (to simulate a geophysics networks of sensors) of a large baseline suspended Michelson interferometer.

  14. Grid-connected Photovoltaic Micro-inverter with New Hybrid Control LLC Resonant Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xingkui, Mao; Qisheng, Huang; Qingbo, Ke;

    2016-01-01

    A high-efficiency photovoltaic (PV) micro-inverter consisting of two power stages i.e. a LLC resonant converter with a new hybrid control scheme and a dc-ac inverter is proposed, studied and designed in this paper. In the first power stage, the new hybrid control combining pulse...... power of 250W and output voltage of 220VAC/50Hz. The experiment shows that the peak efficiency of the PVMI is 95.5%, where efficiency of LLC converter is up to 97.7%, and the MPPT accuracy is more than 99%. Thus the validity of the proposed system structure, design and control method is verified....

  15. A New Method for Modeling and Control of Hybrid Stepper Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Mihalache

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Over time the mathematical models of the hybrid stepper motors (HSM have been developed in various forms. In this paper we propose to use for HSM a model of a two-phase synchronous machine with permanent magnet in which the number of pole pairs is equal to the number of rotor teeth of the HSM. It analyzes the behavior of hybrid stepper motor controlled in open loop. Control signals are obtained by implementing the control sequences:one-phase-on, two-phases-on, half step.

  16. Fuel cell-gas turbine hybrid system design part II: Dynamics and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLarty, Dustin; Brouwer, Jack; Samuelsen, Scott

    2014-05-01

    Fuel cell gas turbine hybrid systems have achieved ultra-high efficiency and ultra-low emissions at small scales, but have yet to demonstrate effective dynamic responsiveness or base-load cost savings. Fuel cell systems and hybrid prototypes have not utilized controls to address thermal cycling during load following operation, and have thus been relegated to the less valuable base-load and peak shaving power market. Additionally, pressurized hybrid topping cycles have exhibited increased stall/surge characteristics particularly during off-design operation. This paper evaluates additional control actuators with simple control methods capable of mitigating spatial temperature variation and stall/surge risk during load following operation of hybrid fuel cell systems. The novel use of detailed, spatially resolved, physical fuel cell and turbine models in an integrated system simulation enables the development and evaluation of these additional control methods. It is shown that the hybrid system can achieve greater dynamic response over a larger operating envelope than either individual sub-system; the fuel cell or gas turbine. Results indicate that a combined feed-forward, P-I and cascade control strategy is capable of handling moderate perturbations and achieving a 2:1 (MCFC) or 4:1 (SOFC) turndown ratio while retaining >65% fuel-to-electricity efficiency, while maintaining an acceptable stack temperature profile and stall/surge margin.

  17. OPERATION & CONTROL OF SMART GRID CONNECTED PV- FC HYBRID POWER SYSTEMD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saritha(M tech

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method to operate and control a grid connected hybrid power system. The hybrid system composed of a Photovoltaic (PV array and a Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC is considered. The PV array normally uses a maximum power point tracking (MPPT technique to continuously deliver the highest power to the load when variations in irradiation and temperature occur, which make it become an uncontrollable source. In coordination with PEMFC, the hybrid system output power becomes controllable. Two operation modes, the unit-power control (UPC mode and the feeder-flow control (FFC mode, can be applied to the hybrid system. The coordination of two control modes, the coordination of the PV array and the PEMFC in the hybrid system, and the determination of reference parameters are presented. The proposed operating strategy with a flexible operation mode change always operates the PV array at maximum output power and the PEMFC in its high efficiency performance band, thus improving the performance of system operation, enhancing system stability, and decreasing the number of operating mode changes

  18. Controlling the Morphology of Nano-Hybrid Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah I.A. Jaafari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: It is known that layer double hydroxide is one of the nano ordered layered compounds and possesses plate-like morphology if carefully crystallized. Approach: In this study, Co-Sn LDH consisting of divalent and tetravalent cations was prepared with new morphology. XRD patterns of the prepared Co-Sn LDH showed that the interlayer spacing of the LDH was 0.78 nm and SEM image showed nano-needles structure. Results: By intercalation reaction with monocarboxylic acids at room temperature, XRD patterns indicated that the interlayered spacing increased to 3-4.8 nm and formed organic-inorganic nano-hybrid materials. Also, SEM images showed that the nano-needles structure of Co-Sn LDH changes to plate like-structure. Conclusion: Thermal analyses (TG, DTG and DTA and Infrared spectrum confirmed the intercalation processes of n-capric acid and n-stearic acid inside Co-Sn LDH and the formation of nano-hybrid materials.

  19. Modeling and control of a hybrid-electric vehicle for drivability and fuel economy improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprubasi, Kerem

    The gradual decline of oil reserves and the increasing demand for energy over the past decades has resulted in automotive manufacturers seeking alternative solutions to reduce the dependency on fossil-based fuels for transportation. A viable technology that enables significant improvements in the overall tank-to-wheel vehicle energy conversion efficiencies is the hybridization of electrical and conventional drive systems. Sophisticated hybrid powertrain configurations require careful coordination of the actuators and the onboard energy sources for optimum use of the energy saving benefits. The term optimality is often associated with fuel economy, although other measures such as drivability and exhaust emissions are also equally important. This dissertation focuses on the design of hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) control strategies that aim to minimize fuel consumption while maintaining good vehicle drivability. In order to facilitate the design of controllers based on mathematical models of the HEV system, a dynamic model that is capable of predicting longitudinal vehicle responses in the low-to-mid frequency region (up to 10 Hz) is developed for a parallel HEV configuration. The model is validated using experimental data from various driving modes including electric only, engine only and hybrid. The high fidelity of the model makes it possible to accurately identify critical drivability issues such as time lags, shunt, shuffle, torque holes and hesitation. Using the information derived from the vehicle model, an energy management strategy is developed and implemented on a test vehicle. The resulting control strategy has a hybrid structure in the sense that the main mode of operation (the hybrid mode) is occasionally interrupted by event-based rules to enable the use of the engine start-stop function. The changes in the driveline dynamics during this transition further contribute to the hybrid nature of the system. To address the unique characteristics of the HEV

  20. Robust Power Management Control for Stand-Alone Hybrid Power Generation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Elkhatib; Adouane, Lounis; Aitouche, Abdel; Mohammed, Walaa

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new robust fuzzy control of energy management strategy for the stand-alone hybrid power systems. It consists of two levels named centralized fuzzy supervisory control which generates the power references for each decentralized robust fuzzy control. Hybrid power systems comprises: a photovoltaic panel and wind turbine as renewable sources, a micro turbine generator and a battery storage system. The proposed control strategy is able to satisfy the load requirements based on a fuzzy supervisor controller and manage power flows between the different energy sources and the storage unit by respecting the state of charge and the variation of wind speed and irradiance. Centralized controller is designed based on If-Then fuzzy rules to manage and optimize the hybrid power system production by generating the reference power for photovoltaic panel and wind turbine. Decentralized controller is based on the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model and permits us to stabilize each photovoltaic panel and wind turbine in presence of disturbances and parametric uncertainties and to optimize the tracking reference which is given by the centralized controller level. The sufficient conditions stability are formulated in the format of linear matrix inequalities using the Lyapunov stability theory. The effectiveness of the proposed Strategy is finally demonstrated through a SAHPS (stand-alone hybrid power systems) to illustrate the effectiveness of the overall proposed method.

  1. Observer-based hybrid control algorithm for semi-active suspension systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任宏斌; 陈思忠; 赵玉壮; 刘刚; 杨林

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve ride comfort and handling performance of the vehicle, an adaptive hybrid control algorithm is proposed for semi-active suspension systems. The virtues of sky-hook is combined with ground-hook control strategies and a more suitable compromise for the suspension systems is chosen. The hybrid coefficient is tuned according to the longitudinal and lateral acceleration so as to improve the vehicle stability especially in high speed conditions. Damping continuous adjustable absorber is used to continuously control the damping force so as to eliminate the damping force jerk instead of traditional on-off control policy. Based on suspension stroke measured by sensors, unscented Kalman filter is designed to estimate the suspension states in real-time for the realization of hybrid control, which improves the robustness of the control strategy and is adaptive to different types of road profiles. Finally, the proposed control algorithm is validated under the following two typical road profiles: half-sine speed bump road and the random road. The simulation results indicate that the hybrid control algorithm could offer a good coordination between ride comfort and handling of the vehicle.

  2. Direct switching control of DC-DC power electronic converters using hybrid system theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, J.; Lin, F. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Wang, C. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States). Div. of Engineering Technology

    2010-07-01

    A direct switching control (DSC) scheme for power electronics converters was described. The system was designed for use in both traditional and renewable energy applications as well as in electric drive vehicles. The proposed control scheme was based on a detailed hybrid system converter model that used model predictive control (MPC), piecewise affine (PWA) approximations and constrained optimal control methods. A DC-DC converter was modelled as a hybrid machine. Switching among different modes of the DC-DC converter were modelled as discrete events controlled by the hybrid controller. The modelling scheme was applied to a Buck converter. The DSC was used to control the switch of the power converter based on a hybrid machine model. Results of the study showed that the method can be used to regulate output voltage and inductor currents. The method also provides fast transient responses and effectively regulates both currents and voltage. The controller can be used to provide immediate responses to dynamic disturbances and output voltage fluctuations. 23 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Multiple Systems for Cognitive Control: Evidence from a Hybrid Prime-Simon Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaghecken, Friederike; Refaat, Malik; Maylor, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive control resolves conflicts between appropriate and inappropriate response tendencies. Is this achieved by a unitary all-purpose conflict control system, or do independent subsystems deal with different aspects of conflicting information? In a fully factorial hybrid prime-Simon task, participants responded to the identity of targets…

  4. A Hybrid Optimization Method for Reactive Power and Voltage Control Considering Power Loss Minimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Chengxi; Qin, Nan; Bak, Claus Leth;

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a hybrid optimization method to optimally control the voltage and reactive power with minimum power loss in transmission grid. This approach is used for the Danish automatic voltage control (AVC) system which is typically a non-linear non-convex problem mixed with both continu...

  5. Six-Phase Vehicular Drive with Renewable DC Sources and Hybrid PWM Control of Four Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleschuk, Valentin; Ermuratskii, Vladimir; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents results of research of quad-inverter-based automotive system with combined scheme of PWM control of inverters, supplied by two renewable dc sources (by fuel cells and by battery). It has been shown, that hybrid switching techniques can be used successfully for control of vehicle...

  6. Design and Evaluation of Autonomous Hybrid Frequency-Voltage Sensitive Load Controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglass, Philip James; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo; Sossan, Fabrizio;

    2013-01-01

    The paper introduces an algorithm for control of autonomous loads without digital communication interfaces to provide both frequency regulation and voltage regulation services. This hybrid controller can be used to enhance frequency sensitive loads to mitigate line overload arising from reduced...

  7. X chromosome control of meiotic chromosome synapsis in mouse inter-subspecific hybrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmoy Bhattacharyya

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid sterility (HS belongs to reproductive isolation barriers that safeguard the integrity of species in statu nascendi. Although hybrid sterility occurs almost universally among animal and plant species, most of our current knowledge comes from the classical genetic studies on Drosophila interspecific crosses or introgressions. With the house mouse subspecies Mus m. musculus and Mus m. domesticus as a model, new research tools have become available for studies of the molecular mechanisms and genetic networks underlying HS. Here we used QTL analysis and intersubspecific chromosome substitution strains to identify a 4.7 Mb critical region on Chromosome X (Chr X harboring the Hstx2 HS locus, which causes asymmetrical spermatogenic arrest in reciprocal intersubspecific F1 hybrids. Subsequently, we mapped autosomal loci on Chrs 3, 9 and 13 that can abolish this asymmetry. Combination of immunofluorescent visualization of the proteins of synaptonemal complexes with whole-chromosome DNA FISH on pachytene spreads revealed that heterosubspecific, unlike consubspecific, homologous chromosomes are predisposed to asynapsis in F1 hybrid male and female meiosis. The asynapsis is under the trans- control of Hstx2 and Hst1/Prdm9 hybrid sterility genes in pachynemas of male but not female hybrids. The finding concurred with the fertility of intersubpecific F1 hybrid females homozygous for the Hstx2(Mmm allele and resolved the apparent conflict with the dominance theory of Haldane's rule. We propose that meiotic asynapsis in intersubspecific hybrids is a consequence of cis-acting mismatch between homologous chromosomes modulated by the trans-acting Hstx2 and Prdm9 hybrid male sterility genes.

  8. Control of a hybrid HVDC link to increase inter-regional power transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotb, Omar; Ghandhari, Mehrdad; Eriksson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the application of a hybrid HVDC link in a two area power system with the purpose of increasing the inter-regional power transfer. A hybrid HVDC system combines both LCCs and VSCs, and hence it is capable of combining the benefits of both converter technologies, such as reduced...... cost and power losses due to the LCCs, and ability to connect to weak AC grids due to the VSCs. The mathematical model of the power system including the HVDC link is presented. The increase in inter-area power transfer is demonstrated and compared to the case when the hybrid HVDC link is not used....... Furthermore, the transient stability of the AC/DC power system was enhanced using auxiliary controllers for Power Oscillation Damping (POD). The results show the ability of the hybrid HVDC link to increase the unidirectional inter-area power transfer, while enhancing the transient stability of the power...

  9. 4D Trajectory Estimation for Air Traffic Control Automation System Based on Hybrid System Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Min Tang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available To resolve the problem of future airspace management under great traffic flow and high density condition, 4D trajectory estimation has become one of the core technologies of the next new generation air traffic control automation system. According to the flight profile and the dynamics models of different aircraft types under different flight conditions, a hybrid system model that switches the aircraft from one flight stage to another with aircraft state changing continuously in one state is constructed. Additionally, air temperature and wind speed are used to modify aircraft true airspeed as well as ground speed, and the hybrid system evolution simulation is used to estimate aircraft 4D trajectory. The case study proves that 4D trajectory estimated through hybrid system model can image the flight dynamic states of aircraft and satisfy the needs of the planned flight altitude profile.KEY WORDSair traffic management, 4D trajectory estimation, hybrid system model, aircraft dynamic model

  10. Hybrid optical-thermal antennas for enhanced light focusing and local temperature control

    CERN Document Server

    Boriskina, Svetlana V; Tong, Jonathan K; Hsu, Wei-Chun; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Metal nanoantennas supporting localized surface plasmon resonances have become an indispensable tool in bio(chemical) sensing and nanoscale imaging applications. The high plasmon-enhanced electric field intensity in the visible or near-IR range that enables the above applications may also cause local heating of nanoantennas. We present a design of hybrid optical-thermal antennas that simultaneously enable intensity enhancement at the operating wavelength in the visible and nanoscale local temperature control. We demonstrate a possibility to reduce the hybrid antenna operating temperature via enhanced infrared thermal emission. We predict via rigorous numerical modeling that hybrid optical-thermal antennas that support high-quality-factor photonic-plasmonic modes enable up to two orders of magnitude enhancement of localized electric fields and of the optical power absorbed in the nanoscale metal volume. At the same time, the hybrid antenna temperature can be lowered by several hundred degrees with respect to i...

  11. Robust model predictive control of hybrid transmissions; Robuste Modellpraediktive Regelung fuer Hybridgetriebe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, R. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Regelungstechnik; Saenger Zetina, S.; Neiss, K. [DaimlerChrysler Corp., Troy, MI (United States); Bollig, A. [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    Hybrid electric vehicles increasingly gain importance mainly due to the potential fuel saving but also because of the additional agility achieved by the increased peak torques during boosting. An important aspect of a hybrid architecture is the transition between pure electric and hybrid operation, which is exemplarily investigated in a flexible hybrid transmission under a parallel engagement configuration. A clutch which separates the transmission input side (engine side) from the rest of the drivetrain is engaged in order to achieve the transition. A noticeable jerk during the engagement process or an interruption of the drive torque cannot be tolerated since the driving comfort must not be reduced. Special attention was given to the robustness of the controller, since the transition has to be carried out reliably and comfortably under varying vehicle properties and drive conditions. (orig.)

  12. A Hybrid Nonlinear Control Scheme for Active Magnetic Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, F.; Albritton, N. G.; Hung, J. Y.; Nelms, R. M.

    1996-01-01

    A nonlinear control scheme for active magnetic bearings is presented in this work. Magnet winding currents are chosen as control inputs for the electromechanical dynamics, which are linearized using feedback linearization. Then, the desired magnet currents are enforced by sliding mode control design of the electromagnetic dynamics. The overall control scheme is described by a multiple loop block diagram; the approach also falls in the class of nonlinear controls that are collectively known as the 'integrator backstepping' method. Control system hardware and new switching power electronics for implementing the controller are described. Various experiments and simulation results are presented to demonstrate the concepts' potentials.

  13. ADRC and Feedforward Hybrid Control System of PMSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The permanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM is a complex controlled object that is difficult to drive and control. In this study, the vector control strategy is adopted to drive the PMSM. The active disturbance rejection controller is used to achieve the closed-loop control of PMSM, which simplifies the computational complexity. A load torque observer and feedforward compensation component are designed to overcome the PMSM speed fluctuation of the load disturbance. An experimental system based on the DSP board is designed to test the controller performance. The results validate the control algorithm.

  14. Mini-quadrotor Attitude Control based on Hybrid Backstepping & Frenet-Serret Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Colorado Montaño, Julián; Barrientos Cruz, Antonio; Martínez Álvarez, Alexander; Lafaverges, B.; Pereira Valente, Joao Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    This paper is about modeling and control of miniature quadrotors, with a special emphasis on attitude control. Mathematical models for simulation and nonlinear control approaches are introduced and subsequently applied to commercial aircraft: the DraganFlyer quadrotor, which has been hardware-modified in order to perform experimental autonomous flying. Hybrid Backstepping control and the Frenet-Serret theory is used for attitude stabilization, introducing a desired attitude angle acceleration...

  15. A Hybrid Estimator for Active/Reactive Power Control of Single-Phase Distributed Generation Systems with Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Pahlevani, Majid; Eren, Suzan; Guerrero, Josep M.; Jain, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new active/reactive power closed-loop control system for a hybrid renewable energy generation system used for single-phase residential/commercial applications.The proposed active/reactive control method includes a hybrid estimator, which is able to quickly and accurately estimate the active/reactive power values. The proposed control system enables the hybrid renewable energy generation system to be able to perform real-time grid interconnection services such as active v...

  16. Hybrid LSA-ANN Based Home Energy Management Scheduling Controller for Residential Demand Response Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maytham S. Ahmed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Demand response (DR program can shift peak time load to off-peak time, thereby reducing greenhouse gas emissions and allowing energy conservation. In this study, the home energy management scheduling controller of the residential DR strategy is proposed using the hybrid lightning search algorithm (LSA-based artificial neural network (ANN to predict the optimal ON/OFF status for home appliances. Consequently, the scheduled operation of several appliances is improved in terms of cost savings. In the proposed approach, a set of the most common residential appliances are modeled, and their activation is controlled by the hybrid LSA-ANN based home energy management scheduling controller. Four appliances, namely, air conditioner, water heater, refrigerator, and washing machine (WM, are developed by Matlab/Simulink according to customer preferences and priority of appliances. The ANN controller has to be tuned properly using suitable learning rate value and number of nodes in the hidden layers to schedule the appliances optimally. Given that finding proper ANN tuning parameters is difficult, the LSA optimization is hybridized with ANN to improve the ANN performances by selecting the optimum values of neurons in each hidden layer and learning rate. Therefore, the ON/OFF estimation accuracy by ANN can be improved. Results of the hybrid LSA-ANN are compared with those of hybrid particle swarm optimization (PSO based ANN to validate the developed algorithm. Results show that the hybrid LSA-ANN outperforms the hybrid PSO based ANN. The proposed scheduling algorithm can significantly reduce the peak-hour energy consumption during the DR event by up to 9.7138% considering four appliances per 7-h period.

  17. Control Strategy Based on Wavelet Transform and Neural Network for Hybrid Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. D. Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an energy management of a hybrid power generation system. The proposed control strategy for the energy management is based on the combination of wavelet transform and neural network arithmetic. The hybrid system in this paper consists of an emulated wind turbine generator, PV panels, DC and AC loads, lithium ion battery, and super capacitor, which are all connected on a DC bus with unified DC voltage. The control strategy is responsible for compensating the difference between the generated power from the wind and solar generators and the demanded power by the loads. Wavelet transform decomposes the power difference into smoothed component and fast fluctuated component. In consideration of battery protection, the neural network is introduced to calculate the reference power of battery. Super capacitor (SC is controlled to regulate the DC bus voltage. The model of the hybrid system is developed in detail under Matlab/Simulink software environment.

  18. Vibration suppression during input tracking of a flexible manipulator using a hybrid controller

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashish Singla; Ashish Tewari; Bhaskar Dasgupta

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the performance of the hybrid controller for end-point vibration suppression of a flexible manipulator, while it is tracking a desired input profile. Due to large structural vibrations, precise control of flexible manipulators is a challenging task. A hybrid controller is used to track large movements of flexible robotic manipulators, which is a combination of inverse dynamics feedforward control, command shaping and linear state feedback control. The case study of a single-link flexible manipulator is considered, where the manipulator is controlled under open-loop as well as closed-loop control scheme. In the open-loop control scheme, the aim is to test the effectiveness of the command shaper in reducing the vibration levels. Moreover, the effect of payload variations on the performance of command shapers and the importance of more robust shapers is demonstrated in this work. Under the closed-loop control scheme, the control objective is to track the large-hub angle trajectory, while maintaining low vibration levels. In comparison to collocated PD control, being reported in the literature, large reductions in tip acceleration levels as well as input torque magnitudes are observed with the proposed hybrid controller.

  19. MODELLING AND TORQUE TRACKING CONTROL OF PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR FOR HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Sabirin Rahmat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a detailed derivation of a permanent magnet synchronous motor, which may be used as the electric power train for the simulation of a hybrid electric vehicle. A torque tracking control of the permanent magnet synchronous motor is developed by using an adaptive proportional-integral-derivative controller. Several tests such as step function, saw tooth function, sine wave function and square wave function were used in order to examine the performance of the proposed control structure. The effectiveness of the proposed controller was verified and compared with the same system under a PID controller and the desired control. The result of the observations shows that the proposed control structure proves to be effective in tracking the desired torque with a good response. The findings of this study will be considered in the design, optimisation and experimentation of series hybrid electric vehicle.

  20. Hybrid Control and Verification of a Pulsed Welding Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    Currently systems, which are desired to control, are becoming more and more complex and classical control theory objectives, such as stability or sensitivity, are often not sufficient to cover the control objectives of the systems. In this paper it is shown how the dynamics of a pulsed welding...

  1. A Robust Stability and Control Theory for Hybrid Dynamical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-30

    IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , to...Dual Linear Differential Inclusions", IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , Vol. 51, Issue 4, April 2006, pp. 661-666. D. Liberzon and J. Hespanha...34Stabilization of nonlinear systems with limited information feedback", IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 910-915,

  2. Online assessment of human-robot interaction for hybrid control of walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del-Ama, Antonio J; Moreno, Juan C; Gil-Agudo, Angel; de-los-Reyes, Ana; Pons, José L

    2012-01-01

    Restoration of walking ability of Spinal Cord Injury subjects can be achieved by different approaches, as the use of robotic exoskeletons or electrical stimulation of the user's muscles. The combined (hybrid) approach has the potential to provide a solution to the drawback of each approach. Specific challenges must be addressed with specific sensory systems and control strategies. In this paper we present a system and a procedure to estimate muscle fatigue from online physical interaction assessment to provide hybrid control of walking, regarding the performances of the muscles under stimulation.

  3. Optimized Treatment of Fibromyalgia Using System Identification and Hybrid Model Predictive Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Sunil; Nandola, Naresh N; Rivera, Daniel E; Younger, Jarred W

    2014-12-01

    The term adaptive intervention is used in behavioral health to describe individually-tailored strategies for preventing and treating chronic, relapsing disorders. This paper describes a system identification approach for developing dynamical models from clinical data, and subsequently, a hybrid model predictive control scheme for assigning dosages of naltrexone as treatment for fibromyalgia, a chronic pain condition. A simulation study that includes conditions of significant plant-model mismatch demonstrates the benefits of hybrid predictive control as a decision framework for optimized adaptive interventions. This work provides insights on the design of novel personalized interventions for chronic pain and related conditions in behavioral health.

  4. Online Assessment of Human-Robot Interaction for Hybrid Control of Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana de-los-Reyes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of walking ability of Spinal Cord Injury subjects can be achieved by different approaches, as the use of robotic exoskeletons or electrical stimulation of the user’s muscles. The combined (hybrid approach has the potential to provide a solution to the drawback of each approach. Specific challenges must be addressed with specific sensory systems and control strategies. In this paper we present a system and a procedure to estimate muscle fatigue from online physical interaction assessment to provide hybrid control of walking, regarding the performances of the muscles under stimulation.

  5. Decentralized PD Control for Non-uniform Motion of a Hamiltonian Hybrid System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingcong Deng; Hongnian Yu; Akira Inoue

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a decentralized proportional-derivative (PD) controller design for non-uniform motion of a Hamiltonian hybrid system is considered. A Hamiltonian hybrid system with the capability of producing a non-uniform motion is developed. The structural properties of the system are investigated by means of the theory of Hamiltonian systems. A relationship between the parameters of the system and the parameters of the proposed decentralized PD controller is shown to ensure local stability and tracking performance. Simulation results are included to show the obtained non-uniform motion.

  6. LQR-Based Power Train Control Method Design for Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Haitao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the mathematical model of fuel cell hybrid vehicle (FCHV proposed in our previous study, a multistate feedback control strategy of the hybrid power train is designed based on the linear quadratic regulator (LQR algorithm. A Kalman Filter (KF observer is introduced to estimate state of charge (SOC of the battery firstly, and then a linear quadratic regulator is constructed to compute the state feedback gain matrix of the closed-loop control system. At last, simulation and actual test are utilized to demonstrate this new approach.

  7. Powertrain Controls Optimization for HD Hybrid Line Haul Trucks - FY2014 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, David E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This is a vehicle system level project, encompassing analytical modeling and supervisory controls development as well as experimental verification/validation testing at the component, powertrain, and full vehicle system level. This project supports the goal of petroleum consumption reduction for medium and heavy trucks through the development of advanced hybrid technologies and control systems. VSST has invested previously in R&D to support hybrid energy storage systems (Li-ion plus ultra-caps) for light duty, passenger car applications. This research will be extended to the MD and HD sector where current battery technology is not mature enough to handle the substantial regenerative braking power levels these trucks are capable of producing. With this hybrid energy storage system, substantial gains in overall vehicle efficiency are possible. In addition, advanced combustion technologies, such as RCCI, will be implemented into an advanced hybrid powertrain for a Class 8 line haul application. This powertrain, leveraged from other VSST work (Meritor, a current ORNL/VSST partner), is ideal for taking advantage of the benefits of RCCI operation due to its series hybrid mode of operation. Emissions control is also a focus of this project, especially due to the fact that RCCI creates a low temperature exhaust stream that must addressed.

  8. Hybrid FES-robot cooperative control of ambulatory gait rehabilitation exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del-Ama, Antonio J; Gil-Agudo, Angel; Pons, José L; Moreno, Juan C

    2014-03-04

    Robotic and functional electrical stimulation (FES) approaches are used for rehabilitation of walking impairment of spinal cord injured individuals. Although devices are commercially available, there are still issues that remain to be solved. Control of hybrid exoskeletons aims at blending robotic exoskeletons and electrical stimulation to overcome the drawbacks of each approach while preserving their advantages. Hybrid actuation and control have a considerable potential for walking rehabilitation but there is a need of novel control strategies of hybrid systems that adequately manage the balance between FES and robotic controllers. Combination of FES and robotic control is a challenging issue, due to the non-linear behavior of muscle under stimulation and the lack of developments in the field of hybrid control. In this article, a cooperative control strategy of a hybrid exoskeleton is presented. This strategy is designed to overcome the main disadvantages of muscular stimulation: electromechanical delay and change in muscle performance over time, and to balance muscular and robotic actuation during walking.Experimental results in healthy subjects show the ability of the hybrid FES-robot cooperative control to balance power contribution between exoskeleton and muscle stimulation. The robotic exoskeleton decreases assistance while adequate knee kinematics are guaranteed. A new technique to monitor muscle performance is employed, which allows to estimate muscle fatigue and implement muscle fatigue management strategies. Kinesis is therefore the first ambulatory hybrid exoskeleton that can effectively balance robotic and FES actuation during walking. This represents a new opportunity to implement new rehabilitation interventions to induce locomotor activity in patients with paraplegia.Acronym list: 10 mWT: ten meters walking test; 6 MWT: six minutes walking test; FSM: finite-state machine; t-FSM: time-domain FSM; c-FSM: cycle-domain FSM; FES: functional electrical

  9. Automated Controller Synthesis for non-Deterministic Piecewise-Affine Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, Jacob Deleuran

    formations. This thesis uses a hybrid systems model of a satellite formation with possible actuator faults as a motivating example for developing an automated control synthesis method for non-deterministic piecewise-affine hybrid systems (PAHS). The method does not only open an avenue for further research......To further advance space based science the need for ever more precise measurement techniques increases. One of the most promising new ideas are satellite formations where accurate spatial control of multiple spacecraft can be used to create very large virtual apertures or very sensitive...... interferometric measurements. Control of satellite formations presents a whole new set of challenges for spacecraft control systems requiring advances in actuation, sensing, communication, and control algorithms. Specifically having the control system duplicated onto multiple satellites increases the possibility...

  10. Controlling Torque Distribution for Parallel Hybrid Vehicle Based on Hierarchical Structure Fuzzy Logic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuangMiao-hua; JinGuo-dong

    2003-01-01

    The Hierarchical Structure Fuzzy Logic Control(HSFLC) strategies of torque distribute for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) in the mocle of operation of the vehicle i. e. , acceleration, cruise, deceleration etc. have been studied. Using secondly developed the hybrid vehicle simulation tool ADVISOR, the dynamic model of PHEV has been set up by MATLAB/SIMULINK. The engine, motor as well as the battery characteristics have been studied. Simulation results show that the proposed hierarchical structured fuzzy logic control strategy is effective over the entire operating range of the vehicle in terms of fuel economy. Based on the analyses of the simulation results and driver's experiences, a fuzzy controller is designed and developed to control the torque distribution. The controller is evaluated via hardware-in-the-loop simulator (HILS). The results show that controller verify its value.

  11. Stochastic Optimal Control of Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feiyan Qin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Energy management strategies (EMSs in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs are highly related to the fuel economy and emission performances. However, EMS constitutes a challenging problem due to the complex structure of a HEV and the unknown or partially known driving cycles. To meet this problem, this paper adopts a stochastic dynamic programming (SDP method for the EMS of a specially designed vehicle, a pre-transmission single-shaft torque-coupling parallel HEV. In this parallel HEV, the auto clutch output is connected to the transmission input through an electric motor, which benefits an efficient motor assist operation. In this EMS, demanded torque of driver is modeled as a one-state Markov process to represent the uncertainty of future driving situations. The obtained EMS has been evaluated with ADVISOR2002 over two standard government drive cycles and a self-defined one, and compared with a dynamic programming (DP one and a rule-based one. Simulation results have shown the real-time performance of the proposed approach, and potential vehicle performance improvement relative to the rule-based one.

  12. A DNA origami nanorobot controlled by nucleic acid hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    Torelli, Emanuela

    2014-03-20

    A prototype for a DNA origami nanorobot is designed, produced, and tested. The cylindrical nanorobot (diameter of 14 nm and length of 48 nm) with a switchable flap, is able to respond to an external stimulus and reacts by a physical switch from a disarmed to an armed configuration able to deliver a cellular compatible message. In the tested design the robot weapon is a nucleic acid fully contained in the inner of the tube and linked to a single point of the internal face of the flap. Upon actuation the nanorobot moves the flap extracting the nucleic acid that assembles into a hemin/G-quadruplex horseradish peroxidase mimicking DNAzyme catalyzing a colorimetric reaction or chemiluminescence generation. The actuation switch is triggered by an external nucleic acid (target) that interacts with a complementary nucleic acid that is beard externally by the nanorobot (probe). Hybridization of probe and target produces a localized structural change that results in flap opening. The flap movement is studied on a two-dimensional prototype origami using Förster resonance energy transfer and is shown to be triggered by a variety of targets, including natural RNAs. The nanorobot has potential for in vivo biosensing and intelligent delivery of biological activators. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. A DNA origami nanorobot controlled by nucleic acid hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torelli, Emanuela; Marini, Monica; Palmano, Sabrina; Piantanida, Luca; Polano, Cesare; Scarpellini, Alice; Lazzarino, Marco; Firrao, Giuseppe

    2014-07-23

    A prototype for a DNA origami nanorobot is designed, produced, and tested. The cylindrical nanorobot (diameter of 14 nm and length of 48 nm) with a switchable flap, is able to respond to an external stimulus and reacts by a physical switch from a disarmed to an armed configuration able to deliver a cellular compatible message. In the tested design the robot weapon is a nucleic acid fully contained in the inner of the tube and linked to a single point of the internal face of the flap. Upon actuation the nanorobot moves the flap extracting the nucleic acid that assembles into a hemin/G-quadruplex horseradish peroxidase mimicking DNAzyme catalyzing a colorimetric reaction or chemiluminescence generation. The actuation switch is triggered by an external nucleic acid (target) that interacts with a complementary nucleic acid that is beard externally by the nanorobot (probe). Hybridization of probe and target produces a localized structural change that results in flap opening. The flap movement is studied on a two-dimensional prototype origami using Förster resonance energy transfer and is shown to be triggered by a variety of targets, including natural RNAs. The nanorobot has potential for in vivo biosensing and intelligent delivery of biological activators.

  14. Hybrid Fuzzy Sliding Mode Controller for Timedelay System

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, N K; R. K. Singh,

    2013-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the problems of stability analysis and stabilization control design for a class of discrete-time T-S fuzzy systems with state-delay for multi-input and multi-output. The nonlinear fuzzy controller helps to overcome the problems of the ill - defined model of the systems, which are creating the undesirable performance. . Here sliding surface is being designed for error function of nonlinear system and sliding mode control is being designed here. The swit...

  15. Robust Hybrid Control for Ballistic Missile Longitudinal Autopilot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAEL Mohsen Ahmed; QUAN Quana

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the boost phase's longitudinal autopilot of a ballistic missile equipped with thrust vector control.The existing longitudinal autopilot employs time-invariant passive resistor-inductor-capacitor (RLC) network compensator as a control strategy,which does not take into account the time-varying missile dynamics.This may cause the closed-loop system instability in the presence of large disturbance and dynamics uncertainty.Therefore,the existing controller should be redesigned to achieve more stable vehicle response.In this paper,based on gain-scheduling adaptive control strategy,two different types of optimal controllers are proposed.The first controller is gain-scheduled optimal tuning-proportional-integral-derivative (PID) with actuator constraints,which supplies better response but requires a priori knowledge of the system dynamics.Moreover,the controller has oscillatory response in the presence of dynamic uncertainty.Taking this into account,gain-scheduled optimal linear quadratic (LQ) in conjunction with optimal tuning-compensator offers the greatest scope for controller improvement in the presence of dynamic uncertainty and large disturbance.The latter controller is tested through various scenarios for the validated nonlinear dynamic flight model of the real ballistic missile system with autopilot exposed to external disturbances.

  16. Verification hybrid control of a wheeled mobile robot and manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszynska, Magdalena; Burghardt, Andrzej; Kurc, Krzysztof; Szybicki, Dariusz

    2016-04-01

    In this article, innovative approaches to realization of the wheeled mobile robots and manipulator tracking are presented. Conceptions include application of the neural-fuzzy systems to compensation of the controlled system's nonlinearities in the tracking control task. Proposed control algorithms work on-line, contain structure, that adapt to the changeable work conditions of the controlled systems, and do not require the preliminary learning. The algorithm was verification on the real object which was a Scorbot - ER 4pc robotic manipulator and a Pioneer - 2DX mobile robot.

  17. GA and Lyapunov theory-based hybrid adaptive fuzzy controller for non-linear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ananya; Das Sharma, Kaushik

    2015-02-01

    In this present article, a new hybrid methodology for designing stable adaptive fuzzy logic controllers (AFLCs) for a class of non-linear system is proposed. The proposed design strategy exploits the features of genetic algorithm (GA)-based stochastic evolutionary global search technique and Lyapunov theory-based local adaptation scheme. The objective is to develop a methodology for designing AFLCs with optimised free parameters and guaranteed closed-loop stability. Simultaneously, the proposed method introduces automation in the design process. The stand-alone Lyapunov theory-based design, GA-based design and proposed hybrid GA-Lyapunov design methodologies are implemented for two benchmark non-linear plants in simulation case studies with different reference signals and one experimental case study. The results demonstrate that the hybrid design methodology outperforms the other control strategies on the whole.

  18. Model predictive control for power fluctuation supression in hybrid wind/PV/battery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Liu, Zongyu; Zong, Yi

    2015-01-01

    predictive control (MPC)-based algorithm for battery management in a hybrid wind/PV/battery system to suppress the short-term power fluctuation on the ‘minute’ scale. A case study with data collected from a practical hybrid system setup is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm......A hybrid energy system, the combination of wind turbines, PV panels and battery storage with effective control mechanism, represents a promising solution to the power fluctuation problem when integrating renewable energy resources (RES) into conventional power systems. This paper proposes a model...... together with a Monte Carlo simulation-based sensitivity analysis. In addition to illustrating the complementarity between the fluctuations of wind power and PV power, the results prove the proposed MPC algorithm is effective in fluctuation suppression but sensitive to factors such as forecast accuracy...

  19. A Frequency Control Approach for Hybrid Power System Using Multi-Objective Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Elsayed Lotfy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid power system uses many wind turbine generators (WTG and solar photovoltaics (PV in isolated small areas. However, the output power of these renewable sources is not constant and can diverge quickly, which has a serious effect on system frequency and the continuity of demand supply. In order to solve this problem, this paper presents a new frequency control scheme for a hybrid power system to ensure supplying a high-quality power in isolated areas. The proposed power system consists of a WTG, PV, aqua-electrolyzer (AE, fuel cell (FC, battery energy storage system (BESS, flywheel (FW and diesel engine generator (DEG. Furthermore, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EVs are implemented at the customer side. A full-order observer is utilized to estimate the supply error. Then, the estimated supply error is considered in a frequency domain. The high-frequency component is reduced by BESS and FW; while the low-frequency component of supply error is mitigated using FC, EV and DEG. Two PI controllers are implemented in the proposed system to control the system frequency and reduce the supply error. The epsilon multi-objective genetic algorithm ( ε -MOGA is applied to optimize the controllers’ parameters. The performance of the proposed control scheme is compared with that of recent well-established techniques, such as a PID controller tuned by the quasi-oppositional harmony search algorithm (QOHSA. The effectiveness and robustness of the hybrid power system are investigated under various operating conditions.

  20. Modelling and control of hybrid renewable energy system connected to AC grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Younsi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development of new control and supervision method for the optimum operation of hybrid renewable energy system (HRES connected to AC grid. The hybrid system consists of wind generator (WG, diesel generator (DG, and flywheel energy storage system (FESS. These subsystems are based on permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSM which are controlled by sliding mode control. A supervisor control is designed to determine the energy transfer type of flywheel energy storage system (charging / discharging / no transfer energy, to take decision on diesel generators ON/OFF status, and to determine the reference powers for these two subsystems. The supervisor inputs are the power requested by AC grid, the power generated by wind generator, and the energy stored in flywheel. The objectives of the control and supervision for hybrid renewable energy system are to satisfy the power requested by AC grid, to manage the energy transfer between hybrid system and AC grid, to optimize the use of wind energy, and to reduce fuel of diesel generator. The system is simulated with Matlab – Simulink software and it gave good results.

  1. A Study on Control Strategy of Regenerative Braking in the Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Based on ECE Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes a mathematic model of composite braking in the hydraulic hybrid vehicle and analyzes the constraint condition of parallel regenerative braking control algorithm. Based on regenerative braking system character and ECE (Economic Commission of Europe regulations, it introduces the control strategy of regenerative braking in parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle (PHHV. Finally, the paper establishes the backward simulation model of the hydraulic hybrid vehicle in Matlab/simulink and makes a simulation analysis of the control strategy of regenerative braking. The results show that this strategy can equip the hydraulic hybrid vehicle with strong brake energy recovery power in typical urban drive state.

  2. MAS Based Event-Triggered Hybrid Control for Smart Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dou, Chunxia; Liu, Bin; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is focused on an advanced control for autonomous microgrids. In order to improve the performance regarding security and stability, a hierarchical decentralized coordinated control scheme is proposed based on multi-agents structure. Moreover, corresponding to the multi-mode and the hybr...

  3. Biodegradable hydrophobic-hydrophilic hybrid hydrogels: swelling behavior and controlled drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Da-Qing; Chu, Chih-Chang

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate a new family of hydrophobic-hydrophilic biodegradable hybrid hydrogels as drug carriers. A series of hydrophobic-hydrophilic biodegradable hybrid hydrogels was formulated via photo means from hydrophobic three-arm poly (epsilon-caprolactone) maleic acid (PGCL-Ma) and hydrophilic dextran maleic acid (Dex-Ma) precursors over a wide range of the two precursors' feed ratio (PGCL-Ma/Dex-Ma at 100:0, 70:30, 50:50, 30:70 and 0:100). A low-molecular-weight and hydrophilic drug, the alpha-7 agonist cocaine methiodide, was used as the model drug for the release study from the hybrid hydrogels in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer solution at 37 degrees C. The swelling data of these hybrid hydrogels depended on the hydrophobic to hydrophilic precursors' feed ratio, and there were several-fold differences in swelling ratios between a pure hydrophilic Dex-Ma and a pure hydrophobic PGCL-Ma hydrogels. The presence of the hydrophobic PGCL-Ma component significantly reduced the initial burst swelling of the hybrid hydrogels. Depending on the two precursors' feed ratios, the swelling data during the early period obeyed either Fickian diffusion (for 50:50 PGCL-Ma/Dex-Ma hydrogel), non-Fickian or anomalous transport (for 70:30 and 100:0 PGCL-Ma/Dex-Ma), or relaxation-controlled (for 30:70 and 0:100 PGCL-Ma/Dex-Ma). A wide range of cocaine methiodide release profiles was achieved by controlling hydrophobic to hydrophilic precursors' feed ratios. Initial drug burst release was significantly reduced as the concentration of the hydrophobic PGCL-Ma component increased in the hybrid hydrogels. The bulk of cocaine methiodide released during the 160-h period was via diffusion-controlled mechanism, while degradation-controlled mechanism dominated thereafter.

  4. Hybrid zero-voltage switching (ZVS) control for power inverters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirahmadi, Ahmadreza; Hu, Haibing; Batarseh, Issa

    2016-11-01

    A power inverter combination includes a half-bridge power inverter including first and second semiconductor power switches receiving input power having an intermediate node therebetween providing an inductor current through an inductor. A controller includes input comparison circuitry receiving the inductor current having outputs coupled to first inputs of pulse width modulation (PWM) generation circuitry, and a predictive control block having an output coupled to second inputs of the PWM generation circuitry. The predictive control block is coupled to receive a measure of Vin and an output voltage at a grid connection point. A memory stores a current control algorithm configured for resetting a PWM period for a switching signal applied to control nodes of the first and second power switch whenever the inductor current reaches a predetermined upper limit or a predetermined lower limit.

  5. Free chattering hybrid sliding mode control for a class of non-linear systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khooban, Mohammad-Hassan; Niknam, Taher; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    In current study, in order to find the control of general uncertain nonlinear systems, a new optimal hybrid control approach called Optimal General Type II Fuzzy Sliding Mode (OGT2FSM) is presented. In order to estimate unknown nonlinear activities in monitoring dynamic uncertainties, the benefits...... on the same topic, which are an Adaptive Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Controller (AGT2FLC) and Conventional Sliding Mode Controller (CSMC), to assess the efficiency of the suggested controller. The suggested control scheme is finally used to the Electric Vehicles type as a case study. Results of simulation...

  6. Controlling promoter strength and regulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using synthetic hybrid promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazeck, John; Garg, Rishi; Reed, Ben; Alper, Hal S

    2012-11-01

    A dynamic range of well-controlled constitutive and tunable promoters are essential for metabolic engineering and synthetic biology applications in all host organisms. Here, we apply a synthetic hybrid promoter approach for the creation of strong promoter libraries in the model yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Synthetic hybrid promoters are composed of two modular components-the enhancer element, consisting of tandem repeats or combinations of upstream activation sequences (UAS), and the core promoter element. We demonstrate the utility of this approach with three main case studies. First, we establish a dynamic range of constitutive promoters and in doing so expand transcriptional capacity of the strongest constitutive yeast promoter, P(GPD) , by 2.5-fold in terms of mRNA levels. Second, we demonstrate the capacity to impart synthetic regulation through a hybrid promoter approach by adding galactose activation and removing glucose repression. Third, we establish a collection of galactose-inducible hybrid promoters that span a nearly 50-fold dynamic range of galactose-induced expression levels and increase the transcriptional capacity of the Gal1 promoter by 15%. These results demonstrate that promoters in S. cerevisiae, and potentially all yeast, are enhancer limited and a synthetic hybrid promoter approach can expand, enhance, and control promoter activity.

  7. Optimal Design and Hybrid Control for the Electro-Hydraulic Dual-Shaking Table System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianpeng Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is to develop an optimal electro-hydraulic dual-shaking table system with high waveform replication precision. The parameters of hydraulic cylinders, servo valves, hydraulic supply power and gravity balance system are designed and optimized in detail. To improve synchronization and tracking control precision, a hybrid control strategy is proposed. The cross-coupled control using a novel based on sliding mode control based on adaptive reaching law (ASMC, which can adaptively tune the parameters of sliding mode control (SMC, is proposed to reduce the synchronization error. To improve the tracking performance, the observer-based inverse control scheme combining the feed-forward inverse model controller and disturbance observer is proposed. The system model is identified applying the recursive least squares (RLS algorithm and then the feed-forward inverse controller is designed based on zero phase error tracking controller (ZPETC technique. To compensate disturbance and model errors, disturbance observer is used cooperating with the designed inverse controller. The combination of the novel ASMC cross-coupled controller and proposed observer-based inverse controller can improve the control precision noticeably. The dual-shaking table experiment system is built and various experiments are performed. The experimental results indicate that the developed system with the proposed hybrid control strategy is feasible and efficient and can reduce the tracking errors to 25% and synchronization error to 16% compared with traditional control schemes.

  8. Hybrid Switching Controller Design for the Maneuvering and Transit of a Training Ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomera Mirosław

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the design of a hybrid controller used to control the movement of a ship in different operating modes, thereby improving the performance of basic maneuvers. This task requires integrating several operating modes, such as maneuvering the ship at low speeds, steering the ship at different speeds in the course or along the trajectory, and stopping the ship on the route. These modes are executed by five component controllers switched on and off by the supervisor depending on the type of operation performed. The desired route, containing the coordinates of waypoints and tasks performed along consecutive segments of the reference trajectory, is obtained by the supervisory system from the system operator. The former supports switching between component controllers and provides them with new set-points after each change in the reference trajectory segment, thereby ensuring stable operation of the entire hybrid switching controller.

  9. Adaptive Swarm Formation Control for Hybrid Ground and Aerial Assets

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Laura; Garcia, Richard; Fields, Mary Anne; Valavanis, Kimon

    2010-01-01

    In this work, a methodology for control and coordination of UAVs and UGVs has been presented. UAVs and UGVs were integrated into a single team and were able to adapt their formation accordingly. Potential field functions together with limiting functions can be successfully utilized to control UGV and UAV swarm formation, obstacle avoidance and the overall swarm movement. A single UAV was also successfully used to pull the UGV swarm into formation. These formations can move as a un...

  10. ε-MAXIMUM PRINCIPLE IN LINEAR PROBLEM OF HYBRID SYSTEM OPTIMUM CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. R. Gabasova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reveals necessary and sufficient conditions of optimality and sub-optimality of the programs for a hybrid system in the class of discrete control actions. The conditions are formulated in the support terms of  the initial problem. 

  11. Hybrid Multi-Layer Network Control for Emerging Cyber-Infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summerhill, Richard

    2009-08-14

    There were four basic task areas identified for the Hybrid-MLN project. They are: o Multi-Layer, Multi-Domain, Control Plane Architecture and Implementation, o Heterogeneous DataPlane Testing, o Simulation, o Project Publications, Reports, and Presentations.

  12. Field Evaluation of the Asian Corn Borer Control in Hybrid of Transgenic Maize Event MON 810

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Kang-lai; WANG Zhen-ying; WEN Li-ping; BAI Shu-xiong; ZHOU Da-rong; ZHU Qing-hua

    2003-01-01

    In this study,a transgenic Bt maize hybrid(event MON 810 from Monsanto Company)expressing Cry1Ab protein derived from Bacillus thuringiensis(Bt)and its negative isoline hybrid were evaluatrial. Maize plants were artificially infested with neonate larvae of Asian corn borer at the mid-whorl(firstgeneration),pre-tassel(first-and/or second-generation),and silk(second-generation)growth stages.The transgenic Bt maize hybrid sustained significantly less leaf feeding damage(rating 1.0±0.0)than its negative isoline control(rating 7.3±0.1).With the Bt maize,1.3-6.8%of plants were damaged by corn borer tunneling with<0.5 cm tunneling per stalk under different levels of infestation,compared with 100%of plants damaged with 9.3-25.0 cm tunneling per stalk for the negative isoline control. On average,transgenic Bt maize hybrids had only 0.01-0.05 tunnels per stalk and no stems were broken.In contrast,the negative isoline control had 3.11-8.36 tunnels per stalk and 31.2-73.9% of stems broken.Yields were significantly higher in trahsgenic Bt maize than in the control. These results demonstrate that transgenic Bt maize can significantly minimize yield losses caused by the Asian corn borer through resistance to the first-and second-generation larvae.

  13. Grid-connected Photovoltaic Micro-inverter with New Hybrid Control LLC Resonant Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xingkui, Mao; Qisheng, Huang; Qingbo, Ke;

    2016-01-01

    A high-efficiency photovoltaic (PV) micro-inverter consisting of two power stages i.e. a LLC resonant converter with a new hybrid control scheme and a dc-ac inverter is proposed, studied and designed in this paper. In the first power stage, the new hybrid control combining pulse-frequency modulat......A high-efficiency photovoltaic (PV) micro-inverter consisting of two power stages i.e. a LLC resonant converter with a new hybrid control scheme and a dc-ac inverter is proposed, studied and designed in this paper. In the first power stage, the new hybrid control combining pulse......-frequency modulation (PFM) and phase-shift pulse-width modulation (PS-PWM) is employed on a full-bridge LLC dc-dc converter, in order to achieve high efficiency when PV output voltage varies in a wide range. Moreover, a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method based on power perturbation is implemented in the dc......-ac inverter. Therefore, the complexity of regulating LLC converter can be reduced effectively, and efficiency optimal design can be carried out through the proposed designing procedure for the resonant tank of LLC converter. Finally, a prototype of the proposed PV micro-inverter (PVMI) is developed with rated...

  14. Grid-Connected Pv-Fc Hybrid System Power Control Using Mppt And Boost Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.HARIKA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method for operating a grid connected hybrid system. This system composed of a Photovoltaic (PV array and a Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC is considered. As the variations occur in temperature and irradiation during power delivery to load, Photo voltaic (PV system becomes uncontrollable. In coordination with PEMFC, the hybrid system output power becomes controllable. Two operation modes are the unit-power control (UPC mode and the feeder-flow control (FFC mode, can be applied to the hybrid system. All MPPT methods follow the same goal that is maximizing the PV system output power by tracking the maximum power on every operating condition. Maximum power point tracking technique (Incremental conductance for photovoltaic systems was introduced to maximize the produced energy. The coordination of two control modes, coordination of the PV array and the PEMFC in the hybrid system, and determination of reference parameters are presented. The proposed operating strategy systems with a flexible operation mode change always operate the PV array at maximum output power and the PEMFC in its high efficiency performance band. Also thus improving the performance of system operation, enhancing system stability, and reducing the number of operating mode changes.

  15. CURRENT VECTOR CONTROL OF PERMANENT-MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR OF HYBRID VEHICLE ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Serikov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of traction permanent-magnet synchronous motor under current vector optimum control in the possible traction-speed mode area which are relevant for hybrid vehicle engine have been investigated. As a criterion of optimality a maximum of electromagnetic moment per unit of current have been taken.

  16. Flexible Microgrid Power Quality Enhancement Using Adaptive Hybrid Voltage and Current Controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Jinwei; Li, Yun Wei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    To accomplish superior harmonic compensation performance using distributed generation (DG) unit power electronics interfaces, an adaptive hybrid voltage and current controlled method (HCM) is proposed in this paper. It shows that the proposed adaptive HCM can reduce the numbers of low-pass/bandpa...

  17. A Wireless Power Sharing Control Strategy for Hybrid Energy Storage Systems in DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jie; Jin, Xinmin; Wu, Xuezhi

    2017-01-01

    In order to compensate multiple time scales power fluctuation resulted from distributed energy resources and loads, hybrid energy storage systems are employed as the buffer unit in DC microgrid. In this paper, a wireless hierarchical control strategy is proposed to realize power sharing between...

  18. Hybrid Control Method for a Single Phase PFC using a Low Cost Microcontroller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lars Tønnes; Nielsen, Nils; Wolf, Christian

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid control method for single phase boost PFCs. The high bandwidth current loop is analog while the voltage loop is implemented in an 8-bit microcontroller. The design focuses on minimizing the number of calculations done in the microcontroller. A 1kW prototype has been...

  19. Lyapunov based control of hybrid energy storage system in electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Fadil, H.; Giri, F.; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with a Lyapunov based control principle in a hybrid energy storage system for electric vehicle. The storage system consists on fuel cell (FC) as a main power source and a supercapacitor (SC) as an auxiliary power source. The power stage of energy conversion consists on a boost...

  20. Modeling and Nonlinear Control of Fuel Cell / Supercapacitor Hybrid Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Fadil, Hassan; Giri, Fouad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of controlling hybrid energy storage system (HESS) for electric vehicle. The storage system consists of a fuel cell (FC), serving as the main power source, and a supercapacitor (SC), serving as an auxiliary power source. It also contains a power block for energy...

  1. Distributed Control for Autonomous Operation of a Three-Port AC/DC/DS Hybrid Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Peng; Jin, Chi; Zhu, Dexuan

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a distributed control scheme for reliable autonomous operation of a hybrid three-port ac/dc/distributed storage (ds) microgrid by means of power sharing in individual network, power exchange between ac and dc networks, and power management among three networks. The proposed...

  2. A Muscle Synergy-inspired Adaptive Control Scheme for a Hybrid Walking Neuroprosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naji A Alibeji

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract--- Abstract--- A hybrid neuroprosthesis that uses an electric motor-based wearable exoskeleton and functional electrical stimulation (FES has a promising potential to restore walking in persons with paraplegia. A hybrid actuation structure introduces effector redundancy, making its automatic control a challenging task because multiple muscles and additional electric motor need to be coordinated. Inspired by the muscle synergy principle, we designed a low dimensional controller to control multiple effectors: FES of multiple muscles and electric motors. The resulting control system may be less complex and easier to control. To obtain the muscle synergy-inspired low dimensional control, a subject-specific gait model was optimized to compute optimal control signals for the multiple effectors. The optimal control signals were then dimensionally reduced by using principal component analysis to extract synergies. Then, an adaptive feedforward controller with an update law for the synergy activation was designed. In addition, feedback control was used to provide stability and robustness to the control design. The adaptive-feedforward and feedback control structure makes the low dimensional controller more robust to disturbances and variations in the model parameters and may help to compensate for other time-varying phenomena (e.g., muscle fatigue. This is proven by using a Lyapunov stability analysis, which yielded semi-global uniformly ultimately bounded tracking. Computer simulations were performed to test the new controller on a 4 degree of freedom gait model.

  3. Design Intelligent Model-free Hybrid Guidance Controller for Three Dimension Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdol Majid Mirshekaran

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The minimum rule base Proportional Integral Derivative (PID Fuzzy hybrid guidance Controller for three dimensions spherical motor is presented in this research. A three dimensions spherical motor is well equipped with conventional control techniques and, in particular, various PID controllers which demonstrate a good performance and successfully solve different guidance problems. Guidance control in a three dimensions spherical motor is performed by the PID controllers producing the control signals which are applied to systems torque. The necessary reference inputs for a PID controller are usually supplied by the system's sensors based on different data. The popularity of PID Fuzzy hybrid guidance Controller can be attributed to their robust performance in a wide range of operating conditions and partly to their functional simplicity. PID methodology has three inputs and if any input is described with seven linguistic values, and any rule has three conditions we will need 343 rules. It is too much work to write 343 rules. In this research the PID-like fuzzy controller can be constructed as a parallel structure of a PD-like fuzzy controller and a conventional PI controller to have the minimum rule base. Linear type PID controller is used to modify PID fuzzy logic theory to design hybrid guidance methodology. This research is used to reduce or eliminate the fuzzy and conventional PID controller problem based on minimum rule base fuzzy logic theory and modified it by PID method to control of spherical motor system and testing of the quality of process control in the simulation environment of MATLAB/SIMULINK Simulator.

  4. Modeling and control of a small solar fuel cell hybrid energy system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei; ZHU Xin-jian; CAO Guang-yi

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a solar photovoltaic fuel cell (PVEC) hybrid generation system consisting of a photovoltaic (PV) generator, a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), an electrolyser, a supercapacitor, a storage gas tank and power conditioning unit (PCU). The load is supplied from the PV generator with a fuel cell working in parallel. Excess PV energy when available is converted to hydrogen using an electrolyser for later use in the fuel cell. The individual mathematical model for each component is presented. Control strategy for the system is described. MATLAB/Simulink is used for the simulation of this highly nonlinear hybrid energy system. The simulation results are shown in the paper.

  5. Inverse kinematics analysis and numerical control experiment for PRS-XY style hybrid machining tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Dongyong; ZHANG Jianmin; NIU Zhigang; SUN Hongchang

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzed the inverse kinematics for the new Parallel rotate slider-X Y axes(PRS-XY)style hybrid machining tool and educed the five axes linkage inverse kinematics transform formula on the basis of the coordinates of the X,Y,Z,A and B virtual axes.The program for the PRS-XY style hybrid machining tool in accordance with the program manner for the common numerical control(NC)machine tool was made.The results of the experiments prove that the inverse kinematics transform formula is correct.

  6. Magnetic-field-mediated coupling and control in hybrid atomic-nanomechanical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tretiakov, A

    2016-01-01

    Magnetically coupled hybrid quantum systems enable robust quantum state control through Landau-Zener transitions. Here, we show that an ultracold atomic sample coupled to a nanomechanical resonator via oscillating magnetic fields can be used to cool the resonator's mechanical motion, to measure the mechanical temperature, and to enable entanglement of these mesoscopic objects. We calculate the expected coupling for both permanent-magnet and current-conducting nanostring resonators and describe how this hybridization is attainable using recently developed fabrication techniques, including SiN nanostrings and atom chips.

  7. Power flow analysis for droop controlled LV hybrid AC-DC microgrids with virtual impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Chaudhary, Sanjay; Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The AC-DC hybrid microgrid is an effective form of utilizing different energy resources and the analysis of this system requires a proper power flow algorithm. This paper proposes a suitable power flow algorithm for LV hybrid AC-DC microgrid based on droop control and virtual impedance. Droop...... and virtual impedance concepts for AC network, DC network and interlinking converter are reviewed so as to model it in the power flow analysis. The validation of the algorithm is verified by comparing it with steady state results from detailed time domain simulation. The effectiveness of the proposed...

  8. Digital controller for hybrid filter in HVDC based on approximate inverse system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Ling; ZHAO Dong-yuan; CHEN Jian-ye; WANG Zan-ji

    2006-01-01

    In order to eliminate the characteristic harmonics in high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission systems and to simplify the analog controller structure,this paper proposes a new digital controller by adopting an approximate inverse system control strategy according to the frequency response characteristic of the hybrid power filter.The proposed digital controller is implemented with a TMS320C32 DSP,including a series of parallel digital band-pass filters,phase shifters and amplifiers.The results of both simulations based on PSCAD and experiments on a 30 kVA HVDC system prove that the proposed digital control system is stable and efficient for eliminating the harmonics.

  9. Development of Control Structure for Hybrid Wind Generators with Active Power Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Niroomand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A hierarchical control structure is proposed for hybrid energy systems (HES which consist of wind energy system (WES and energy storage system (ESS. The proposed multilevel control structure consists of four blocks: reference generation and mode select, power balancing, control algorithms, and switching control blocks. A high performance power management strategy is used for the system. Also, the proposed system is analyzed as an active power filter (APF with ability to control the voltage, to compensate the harmonics, and to deliver active power. The HES is designed with parallel DC coupled structure. Simulation results are shown for verification of the theoretical analysis.

  10. Modeling and Nonlinear Control of Electric Power Stage in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahri, A.; El Fadil, H.; Guerrero, Josep M.;

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of modeling and controlling the electric power stage of hybrid electric vehicle. The controlled system consists of a fuel cell (FC) as a main source, a supercapacitor as an auxiliary source, two DC-DC power converters, an inverter and a traction induction motor...... based approach is used to control the DC/DC power converters associated with the DC sources, the backstepping technique combined with the field oriented control strategy are invoked in order to control the induction motor. It is formally shown, using a theoretical analysis and simulation results...

  11. Hybrid Dynamic Modeling and Control of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Stack Shutdown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong; CAO Guang-yi; ZHU Xin-jian

    2007-01-01

    A hybrid automaton modeling approach that incorporates state space partitioning, phase dynamic modeling and control law synthesis by control strategy is utilized to develop a hybrid automaton model of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) stack shutdown. The shutdown operation is divided into several phases and their boundaries are decided according to a control strategy, which is a set of specifications about the dynamics of MCFC stack during shutdown. According to the control strategy, the specification of increasing stack temperature is satisfied in a phase that can be modeled accurately. The model for phase that has complex dynamic is approximated. The duration of this kind of phase is decreased to minimize the error caused by model approximation.

  12. Cooperative Energy Management of Hybrid DC Renewable Grid Using Decentralized Control Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Beykverdi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempted to control a hybrid DC microgrid in islanded operation mode using decentralized power management strategies. Proposed adaptive I/V characteristic for hybrid photovoltaic (PV and battery energy storage system (BESS and wind turbine generator (WTG adapts the distributed energy resources (DER behavior independently in accordance with the load demand. Hence, the PV module can spend its maximum power on load demand and spend the extra power for charging the BESS, which will regulate DC bus voltage and maintain the power balance within the microgrid. When load demand is beyond the maximum generation power of PV unit, WTG will supply the energy shortage. The proposed control system was applied on the DC microgrid in order to achieve control objectives through a decentralized procedure, without telecommunication links. In order to validate the proposed strategies, the control system was implemented on a DC microgrid within MATLAB/SIMULINK, where the simulation results were analyzed and validated.

  13. Adaptive Hybrid Control of Vehicle Semiactive Suspension Based on Road Profile Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yechen Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new road estimation based suspension hybrid control strategy is proposed. Its aim is to adaptively change control gains to improve both ride comfort and road handling with the constraint of rattle space. To achieve this, analytical expressions for ride comfort, road handling, and rattle space with respect to road input are derived based on the hybrid control, and the problem is transformed into a MOOP (Multiobjective Optimization Problem and has been solved by NSGA-II (Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II. A new road estimation and classification method, which is based on ANFIS (Adaptive Neurofuzzy Inference System and wavelet transforms, is then presented as a means of detecting the road profile level, and a Kalman filter is designed for observing unknown states. The results of simulations conducted with random road excitation show that the efficiency of the proposed control strategy compares favourably to that of a passive system.

  14. Control of hybrid AC/DC microgrid under islanding operational conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, G.; Gao, F.; Zhang, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents control methods for hybrid AC/DC microgrid under islanding operation condition. The control schemes for AC sub-microgrid and DC sub-microgrid are investigated according to the power sharing requirement and operational reliability. In addition, the key control schemes...... of interlinking converter with DC-link capacitor or energy storage, which will devote to the proper power sharing between AC and DC sub-microgrids to maintain AC and DC side voltage stable, is reviewed. Combining the specific control methods developed for AC and DC sub-microgrids with interlinking converter......, the whole hybrid AC/DC microgrid can manage the power flow transferred between sub-microgrids for improving on the operational quality and efficiency....

  15. Hybrid Control Systems: Design and Analysis for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-28

    and Optimization, v 44, n 3, 2006, p 777-800. 26. "Extremum seeking methods for optimization of variable cam timing engine operation" Popovic, D...Lifetime honors/awards IEEE Fellow, 2002 AACC Donald P. Eckman Award, 1999 SI AM Control and Systems Theory Prize, 1998 16

  16. Light- and Solvent-Controlled Self-Assembly Behavior of Spiropyran-Polyoxometalate-Alkyl Hybrid Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yang; Saad, Ali; Yin, Panchao; Wu, Jiayingzi; Oms, Olivier; Dolbecq, Anne; Mialane, Pierre; Liu, Tianbo

    2016-08-08

    A molecular photochromic spiropyran-polyoxometalate-alkyl organic-inorganic hybrid has been synthesized and fully characterized. The reversible switching of the hydrophobic spiropyran fragment to the hydrophilic merocyanine one can be easily achieved under light irradiation at different wavelengths. This switch changes the amphiphilic feature of the hybrid, leading to a light-controlled self-assembly behavior in solution. It has been shown that the hybrid can reversibly self-assemble into vesicles in polar solvents and irreversibly into reverse vesicles in non-polar solvents. The sizes of the vesicles and the reverse vesicles are both tunable by the polarity of the solvent, with the hydrophobic interactions being the main driving force.

  17. Multiphysics of bio-hybrid systems: shape control and electro-induced motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucantonio, Alessandro; Nardinocchi, Paola; Pezzulla, Matteo; Teresi, Luciano

    2014-04-01

    We discuss the control of the bending pattern of a bio-hybrid system made using the muscular thin film technique. We study the medusoid presented in Nawroth et al (2012 Nature Biotechnol. 30 792-7) as a prototypical bio-hybrid system. Specifically, we evaluate the contraction field within the biological layer that is necessary to produce a target curvature of the system, and determine an admissible range of the design parameters that correspond to the same bending solution. We also propose an electromechanical model of the bio-hybrid system and study the propagation of the action potential. Our results compare well with the experimental data reported in Nawroth et al (2012 Nature Biotechnol. 30 792-7).

  18. High-performance controllable ambipolar infrared phototransistors based on graphene-quantum dot hybrid

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Ran; Wang, Haiyang; Song, Xiaoxian; Jin, Lufan; Dai, Haitao; Wu, Sen; Yao, Jianquan

    2014-01-01

    The field effect transistors (FETs) exhibited ultrahigh responsivity (107 A/W) to infrared light with great improvement of mobility in graphene / PbS quantum dot (QD) hybrid. These reported transistors are either unipolar or depletion mode devices. In this paper, we presented and fabricated conveniently-controlled grapheme / PbS QD hybrid FETs. Through the investigation on electric and optoelectronic properties, the ambipolar FETs (normally OFF) can be switched ON by raising gate voltage (VG) up to 3.7 V and -0.8 V in the first and third quadrants. Near these thresholds (VT) each carrier species shows comparable mobility (~ 300 cm2V-1s-1). Photo-responsivity reach ~ 107 A/W near each threshold and it will linearly increases with (VG-VT). These hybrid FETs become strongly competitive candidates for devices in flexible integrated circuits with low cost, large area, low-energy consumption and high performances.

  19. A Hybrid Estimator for Active/Reactive Power Control of Single-Phase Distributed Generation Systems with Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pahlevani, Majid; Eren, Suzan; Guerrero, Josep M.;

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new active/reactive power closed-loop control system for a hybrid renewable energy generation system used for single-phase residential/commercial applications. The proposed active/reactive control method includes a hybrid estimator, which is able to quickly and accurately...... estimate the active/reactive power values. The proposed control system enables the hybrid renewable energy generation system to be able to perform real-time grid interconnection services such as active voltage regulation, active power control, and fault ride-through.Simulation and experimental results...... demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed closed-loop control system....

  20. Shape-controlled fabrication of magnetite silver hybrid nanoparticles with high performance magnetic hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Qi; Liu, Dongfang; Guo, Dawei; Yang, Fang; Pang, Xingyun; Che, Renchao; Zhou, Naizhen; Xie, Jun; Sun, Jianfei; Huang, Zhihai; Gu, Ning

    2017-04-01

    Superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs)-based hyperthermia is a promising non-invasive approach for cancer therapy. However, the heat transfer efficiency of Fe3O4 NPs is relative low, which hinders their practical clinical applications. Therefore, it is promising to improve the magnetic hyperthermia efficiency by exploring the higher performance magnetic NPs-based hybrid nanostructures. In the current study, it presents a straightforward in situ reduction method for the shape-controlled preparation of magnetite (Fe3O4) silver (Ag) hybrid NPs designed as magnetic hyperthermia heat mediators. The magnetite silver hybrid NPs with core-shell (Fe3O4@Ag) or heteromer (Fe3O4-Ag) structures exhibited a higher biocompatibility with SMMC-7721 cells and L02 cells than the individual Ag NPs. Importantly, in the magnetic hyperthermia, with the exposure to alternating current magnetic field, the Fe3O4@Ag and Fe3O4-Ag hybrid NPs indicated much better tumor suppression effect against SMMC-7721 cells than the individual Fe3O4 NPs in vitro and in vivo. These results demonstrate that the hybridisation of Fe3O4 and Ag NPs could greatly enhance the magnetic hyperthermia efficiency of Fe3O4 NPs. Therefore, the Fe3O4@Ag and Fe3O4-Ag hybrid NPs can be used to be as high performance magnetic hyperthermia mediators based on a simple and effective preparation approach.

  1. Reactive power control of wind-diesel-micro-hydro hybrid power systems using matlab/simulink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, R.C.; Bhatti, T.S.; Kothari, D.P.; Bhat, S. [Birla Inst. of Technology and Science, Pilani (India); Indian Inst. of Technology, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies; Visvesvaraya National Inst. of Technology, Nagpur (IN). Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents reactive power control of isolated wind-diesel-micro-hydro hybrid power system for realistic load disturbance using matlab/simulink. The mathematical model of the system based on matlab/simulink is developed. Reactive power control performance is compared using three different types of Static VAR Compensators (SVC). Transient responses for step plus normally distributed or band limited white noise random change in load have also been presented in this paper. (Author)

  2. Appendage modal coordinate truncation criteria in hybrid coordinate dynamic analysis. [for spacecraft attitude control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likins, P.; Ohkami, Y.; Wong, C.

    1976-01-01

    The paper examines the validity of the assumption that certain appendage-distributed (modal) coordinates can be truncated from a system model without unacceptable degradation of fidelity in hybrid coordinate dynamic analysis for attitude control of spacecraft with flexible appendages. Alternative truncation criteria are proposed and their interrelationships defined. Particular attention is given to truncation criteria based on eigenvalues, eigenvectors, and controllability and observability. No definitive resolution of the problem is advanced, and exhaustive study is required to obtain ultimate truncation criteria.

  3. Adaptive kanban control mechanism for a single-stage hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korugan, Aybek; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2002-02-01

    In this paper, we consider a hybrid manufacturing system with two discrete production lines. Here the output of either production line can satisfy the demand for the same type of product without any penalties. The interarrival times for demand occurrences and service completions are exponentially distributed i.i.d. variables. In order to control this type of manufacturing system we suggest a single stage pull type control mechanism with adaptive kanbans and state independent routing of the production information.

  4. Importance of permanent improvement of production and control of basic seed of ZP maize hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sečanski Mile

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High-quality seed is one of the key factors in the commercial maize grain production. In addition, hybrid seed production is conditioned by the production of basic seed of parental inbreds. According to the Law on Seed, 2005, the category of basic seed is defined as: original of self-pollinated plant species, hybrid components and potato elite, produced under control of the Ministry competent for agribusiness and is used for the production of certified seed of the first generation. This paper presents a chronological overview of the overall activity since1945. that led to the modern production of maize seed in our country. The activities have been based on scientific, technical and technological achievements within many fields, ranging from genetics and breeding, through growing practices, processing, quality control and legal regulations concerning all of this. Transition from maize breeding and production to hybrids has provided an amazing development of maize breeding and seed production and also included significant profit. Therefore, maize seed production has become high-technology industry. The scientific and professional work in improving the production of basic seed of ZP maize hybrids has been carried out in stages, and generally followed achievements in maize breeding and genetics, as well as developments in the growing practices and processing. In order to maintain a high quality of maize hybrid seed, as the end product, permanent efforts have to be invested into maize production improvement, drying, processing, storing, genetic purity of basic seed of parental inbreds of ZP maize hybrids, which are grown on the significant percentage of maize production areas not only in Serbia and countries in the region.

  5. Intelligent Hybrid Control Strategy for Trajectory Tracking of Robot Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zuo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of robust tracking control using a PD-plus-feedforward controller and an intelligent adaptive robust compensator for a rigid robotic manipulator with uncertain dynamics and external disturbances. A key feature of this scheme is that soft computer methods are used to learn the upper bound of system uncertainties and adjust the width of the boundary layer base. In this way, the prior knowledge of the upper bound of the system uncertainties does need not to be required. Moreover, chattering can be effectively eliminated, and asymptotic error convergence can be guaranteed. Numerical simulations and experiments of two-DOF rigid robots are presented to show effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  6. Methods for Reachability-based Hybrid Controller Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    Markov Decision Processes (see for example Russell and Norvig , 2002; Thrun et al., 2005). Given a finite state space, the state transition kernel ν can be...distribution p0 and the information vector ik. The update equations for pk|k can be found in for example Chapter 17 of Russell and Norvig (2002) or...for POMDP problems to find the optimal control policy (Russell and Norvig , 2002, Chapter 17; Thrun et al., 2005, Chapter 15). However, as shown by

  7. Fractional order fuzzy control of hybrid power system with renewable generation using chaotic PSO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Indranil; Das, Saptarshi

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the operation of a hybrid power system through a novel fuzzy control scheme. The hybrid power system employs various autonomous generation systems like wind turbine, solar photovoltaic, diesel engine, fuel-cell, aqua electrolyzer etc. Other energy storage devices like the battery, flywheel and ultra-capacitor are also present in the network. A novel fractional order (FO) fuzzy control scheme is employed and its parameters are tuned with a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm augmented with two chaotic maps for achieving an improved performance. This FO fuzzy controller shows better performance over the classical PID, and the integer order fuzzy PID controller in both linear and nonlinear operating regimes. The FO fuzzy controller also shows stronger robustness properties against system parameter variation and rate constraint nonlinearity, than that with the other controller structures. The robustness is a highly desirable property in such a scenario since many components of the hybrid power system may be switched on/off or may run at lower/higher power output, at different time instants.

  8. Hybridization of an invasive shrub affects tolerance and resistance to defoliation by a biological control agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Wyatt I.; Friedman, Jonathan M.; Gaskin, John F.; Norton, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Evolution has contributed to the successful invasion of exotic plant species in their introduced ranges, but how evolution affects particular control strategies is still under evaluation. For instance, classical biological control, a common strategy involving the utilization of highly specific natural enemies to control exotic pests, may be negatively affected by host hybridization because of shifts in plant traits, such as root allocation or chemical constituents. We investigated introgression between two parent species of the invasive shrub tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) in the western United States, and how differences in plant traits affect interactions with a biological control agent. Introgression varied strongly with latitude of origin and was highly correlated with plant performance. Increased levels of T. ramosissima introgression resulted in both higher investment in roots and tolerance to defoliation and less resistance to insect attack. Because tamarisk hybridization occurs predictably on the western U.S. landscape, managers may be able to exploit this information to maximize control efforts. Genetic differentiation in plant traits in this system underpins the importance of plant hybridization and may explain why some biological control releases are more successful than others.

  9. Active vibration control of hybrid smart structures featuring piezoelectric films and electrorheological fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Bok; Park, Yong-Kun; Cheong, ChaeCheon

    1996-05-01

    This paper presents a proof-of-concept investigation on an active vibration control of a hybrid smart structure (HSS) consisting of a piezoelectric film actuator (PFA) and an electro- rheological fluid actuator (ERFA). Firstly, an HSS beam is constructed by inserting a starch- based electro-rheological fluid into a hollow composite beam and perfectly bonding two piezoelectric films on the upper and lower surfaces of the structure as an actuator and as a sensor, respectively. As for the PFA, a neuro-sliding mode controller (NSC) incorporating neural networks with the concept of sliding mode control is formulated. On the other hand, the control scheme for the ERFA is developed as a function of excitation frequencies on the basis of field-dependent frequency responses. An experimental implementation for the PFA and ERFA is then established to perform an active vibration control of the HSS in the transient and forced vibrations. Both the increment of damping ratios and the suppression of tip deflections are evaluated in order to demonstrate control effectiveness of the PFA, the ERFA, and the hybrid actuation. The experimental results exhibit a superior ability of the hybrid actuation system to tailor elastodynamic responses of the HSS rather than a single class of actuation system alone.

  10. Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center for Hybrid Electric Drivetrains and Control Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Holloway

    2005-09-30

    Beginning the fall semester of 1999, The University of Maryland, Departments of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering and the Institute for Systems Research served as a U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center for Hybrid Electric Drivetrains and Control Strategies. A key goal was to produce a graduate level education program that educated and prepared students to address the technical challenges of designing and developing hybrid electric vehicles, as they progressed into the workforce. A second goal was to produce research that fostered the advancement of hybrid electric vehicles, their controls, and other related automotive technologies. Participation ended at the University of Maryland after the 2004 fall semester. Four graduate courses were developed and taught during the course of this time, two of which evolved into annually-taught undergraduate courses, namely Vehicle Dynamics and Control Systems Laboratory. Five faculty members from Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, and the Institute for Systems Research participated. Four Ph.D. degrees (two directly supported and two indirectly supported) and seven Master's degrees in Mechanical Engineering resulted from the research conducted. Research topics included thermoelectric waste heat recovery, fuel cell modeling, pre- and post-transmission hybrid powertrain control and integration, hybrid transmission design, H{sub 2}-doped combustion, and vehicle dynamics. Many of the participating students accepted positions in the automotive industry or government laboratories involved in automotive technology work after graduation. This report discusses the participating faculty, the courses developed and taught, research conducted, the students directly and indirectly supported, and the publication list. Based on this collection of information, the University of Maryland firmly believes that the key goal of the program was met and that the majority of the

  11. Rough set-based hybrid fuzzy-neural controller design for industrial wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W C; Chang, Ni-Bin; Chen, Jeng-Chung

    2003-01-01

    Recent advances in control engineering suggest that hybrid control strategies, integrating some ideas and paradigms existing in different soft computing techniques, such as fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms, rough set theory, and neural networks, may provide improved control performance in wastewater treatment processes. This paper presents an innovative hybrid control algorithm leading to integrate the distinct aspects of indiscernibility capability of rough set theory and search capability of genetic algorithms with conventional neural-fuzzy controller design. The methodology proposed in this study employs a three-stage analysis that is designed in series for generating a representative state function, searching for a set of multi-objective control strategies, and performing a rough set-based autotuning for the neural-fuzzy logic controller to make it applicable for controlling an industrial wastewater treatment process. Research findings in the case study clearly indicate that the use of rough set theory to aid in the neural-fuzzy logic controller design can produce relatively better plant performance in terms of operating cost, control stability, and response time simultaneously, which is effective at least in the selected industrial wastewater treatment plant. Such a methodology is anticipated to be capable of dealing with many other types of process control problems in waste treatment processes by making only minor modifications.

  12. Hierarchical Control of Parallel AC-DC Converter Interfaces for Hybrid Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Xiaonan; Guerrero, Josep M.; Sun, Kai;

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a hierarchical control system for parallel power electronics interfaces between ac bus and dc bus in a hybrid microgrid is presented. Both standalone and grid-connected operation modes in the dc side of the microgrid are analyzed. Concretely, a three-level hierarchical control syst...... the three control levels is developed in order to adjust the main control parameters and study the system stability. Experimental results of a 2×2.2 kW parallel ac-dc converter system have shown satisfactory realization of the designed system.......In this paper, a hierarchical control system for parallel power electronics interfaces between ac bus and dc bus in a hybrid microgrid is presented. Both standalone and grid-connected operation modes in the dc side of the microgrid are analyzed. Concretely, a three-level hierarchical control system...... is implemented. In the primary control level, the decentralized control is realized by using the droop method. Local ac current proportional-resonant controller and dc voltage proportional-integral controller are employed. When the local load is connected to the dc bus, dc droop control is applied to obtain...

  13. A Hybrid Model Predictive Control for Handling Infeasibility and Constraint Prioritization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇红; 黄德先; 金以慧

    2005-01-01

    A hybrid approach using MLD (mixed logical dynamical) framework to handle infeasibility and constraint prioritization issues in MPC (model predictive control) based on input-output model is introduced. By expressing constraint priorities as propositional logics and by transforming the propositional logics into inequalities,the infeasibility and constraint prioritization issues are solved in the MPC. Constraints with higher priorities are met first, and then these with lower priorities are satisfied as much as possible. This new approach is illustrated in the control of a heavy oil fractionator-Shell column. The overall control performance has been significantly improved through the infeasibility and control priorities handling.

  14. A hybrid disturbance rejection control solution for variable valve timing system of gasoline engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hui; Song, Kang; He, Yu

    2014-07-01

    A novel solution for electro-hydraulic variable valve timing (VVT) system of gasoline engines is proposed, based on the concept of active disturbance rejection control (ADRC). Disturbances, such as oil pressure and engine speed variations, are all estimated and mitigated in real-time. A feed-forward controller was added to enhance the performance of the system based on a simple and static first principle model, forming a hybrid disturbance rejection control (HDRC) strategy. HDRC was validated by experimentation and compared with an existing manually tuned proportional-integral (PI) controller. The results show that HDRC provided a faster response and better tolerance of engine speed and oil pressure variations.

  15. Simulation and experimental results of hybrid electric machine with a novel flux control strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paplicki Piotr

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents selected simulation and experimental results of a hybrid ECPMS-machine (Electric Controlled Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine. This permanent magnets (PMs excited machine offers an extended magnetic field control capability which makes it suitable for battery electric vehicle (BEV drives. Rotor, stator and the additional direct current control coil of the machine are analyzed in detail. The control system and strategy, the diagram of power supply system and an equivalent circuit model of the ECPMS-machine are presented. Influence of the additional excitation on the performance parameters of the machine, such as: torque, efficiency, speed limits and back-EMF have also been discussed.

  16. Zero Power Levitation Control of Hybrid Electro-Magnetic Levitation System by Load Observer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Youn Hyun; Lee, Ju [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-06-01

    This paper introduces the scheme that improve the control performance of electromagnetic levitation system with zero power controller. Magnetic levitation is used widely, but the electromagnetic force has nonlinear characteristics because it is proportioned to a square of the magnetic flux density and it is in inverse proportion to a square of the air gap. So, it is complicate and difficult to control the electromagnetic force. Besides, it is more difficult to control if the equivalent gap is unknown in case of zero power control. Therefore, this paper proposed the hybrid electro-magnetic levitation control method in which the variable load is estimated by using a load observer and its system is controlled at a new zero power equilibrium air gap position. Also it is confirmed that the proposed control method improve the control performance through simulation and experiment. (author). 10 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  17. A Model Predictive Control Approach for Fuel Economy Improvement of a Series Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri-Vien Vu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study applied a model predictive control (MPC framework to solve the cruising control problem of a series hydraulic hybrid vehicle (SHHV. The controller not only regulates vehicle velocity, but also engine torque, engine speed, and accumulator pressure to their corresponding reference values. At each time step, a quadratic programming problem is solved within a predictive horizon to obtain the optimal control inputs. The objective is to minimize the output error. This approach ensures that the components operate at high efficiency thereby improving the total efficiency of the system. The proposed SHHV control system was evaluated under urban and highway driving conditions. By handling constraints and input-output interactions, the MPC-based control system ensures that the system operates safely and efficiently. The fuel economy of the proposed control scheme shows a noticeable improvement in comparison with the PID-based system, in which three Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID controllers are used for cruising control.

  18. Angle hybrid control for a two-axis piezo-positioning system and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Zhou, Qinbo; Rui, Xiaoting

    2016-09-01

    The hysteresis characteristics of piezoelectric actuators and the residual vibration in the rapid positioning process will greatly affect the positioning accuracy and speed of a piezo-driven positioning system (PPS). In order to improve the positioning accuracy and to restrain the residual vibration of a two-axis PPS, a hybrid controller is proposed and explored based on a comprehensive model by combining the proposed feedforward linearization, the zero vibration and derivative shaping, and the linear-quadratic Gaussian feedback control for the PPS. The experimental results show that the proposed hybrid control significantly improves the positioning accuracy and suppresses the residual vibration of the PPS. Its application shows that the PPS proposed herein can effectively enhance the astronomical telescope’s star tracking and pointing performance.

  19. Hybrid Control of Long-Endurance Aerial Robotic Vehicles for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deok-Jin Lee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an effective hybrid control approach for building stable wireless sensor networks between heterogeneous unmanned vehicles using long‐ endurance aerial robotic vehicles. For optimal deployment of the aerial vehicles in communication networks, a gradient climbing based self‐estimating control algorithm is utilized to locate the aerial platforms to maintain maximum communication throughputs between distributed multiple nodes. The autonomous aerial robots, which function as communication relay nodes, extract and harvest thermal energy from the atmospheric environment to improve their flight endurance within specified communication coverage areas. The rapidly‐deployable sensor networks with the high‐endurance aerial vehicles can be used for various application areas including environment monitoring, surveillance, tracking, and decision‐making support. Flight test and simulation studies are conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid control technique for robust communication networks.

  20. Finite Element Analysis of Adaptive-Stiffening and Shape-Control SMA Hybrid Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiujie; Burton, Deborah; Turner, Travis L.; Brinson, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    Shape memory alloy hybrid composites with adaptive-stiffening or morphing functions are simulated using finite element analysis. The composite structure is a laminated fiber-polymer composite beam with embedded SMA ribbons at various positions with respect to the neutral axis of the beam. Adaptive stiffening or morphing is activated via selective resistance heating of the SMA ribbons or uniform thermal loads on the beam. The thermomechanical behavior of these composites was simulated in ABAQUS using user-defined SMA elements. The examples demonstrate the usefulness of the methods for the design and simulation of SMA hybrid composites. Keywords: shape memory alloys, Nitinol, ABAQUS, finite element analysis, post-buckling control, shape control, deflection control, adaptive stiffening, morphing, constitutive modeling, user element

  1. An Investigation into Regenerative Braking Control Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Dong; YIN Cheng-liang; ZHANG Jian-wu

    2005-01-01

    Energy regeneration during braking is an important technique for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) to improve their fuel economy and extend their driving range. Due to the effect of regenerative braking torque which is added by electric motor, the braking torque distribution between front and rear axles should be changed and the control logic of anti-lock braking system (ABS) ought to be adjusted according to the regenerative braking torque. This paper put forward a braking control strategy for hybrid electric vehicle; the control strategy is implemented with eight DOFs (Degree-of-Freedom) nonlinear vehicle forward simulation model which is built under the environment of Matlab/Simulink. Based on target wheel slip ratio, a fuzzy logic approach was applied to maintain the optimal target slip ratio so that best compromise between hydraulic torque and regenerative torque can be obtained for the vehicle.

  2. Motion Planning Using an Impact-Based Hybrid Control for Trajectory Generation in Adaptive Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Asif

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to solve a major drawback of walking robots i.e. their inability to react to environmental disturbances while navigating in natural rough terrains. This problem is reduced here by suggesting the use of a hybrid force‐position control based trajectory generation with the impact dynamics into consideration that compensates for the stability variations, thus helping the robot react stably in the face of environmental disturbances. As a consequence, the proposed impact‐based hybrid control helps the robot achieve better and stable motion planning than conventional position‐based control algorithms. Dynamic simulations and real world outdoor experiments performed on a six legged hexapod robot show a relevant improvement in the robot locomotion.

  3. THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE PRESSURE AND VACUUM CONTINUOUS CONTROL SYSTEM BASED ON HYBRID PUMP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A novel pressure and vacuum continuous control system, which adopts a hybrid pump as pressure and vacuum source, is presented. The mathematical model of the system is developed. The theoretical simulation and analysis on the system are implemented in order to study the relationships among the characteristics, parameters and working points of the system. The experimental investigations on the system characteristics are presented with the adoption of a fuzzy-PID controller. The simulation and experimental results indicate that the pressure and vacuum continuous control system based on hybrid pump has good dynamic and static performance, strong robustness and satisfactory adaptability to various system parameters. According to the results, system can successfully gain high accuracy and fast response signal. Also, the mathematical model of system is also testified by the experimental results.

  4. Application of Theory of Hybrid Systems to Control the Switching of Buck Converter

    KAUST Repository

    Benmiloud, Mohammed

    2013-08-01

    The field of power electronics poses challenging control problems that can’t be treated in a complete manner using traditional modeling. In this paper, the buck converter operating in Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM) is represented analytically by hybrid automaton model and graphically representation is also given. The hybrid trajectory and the model behavior are presented. The control problem of buck switching converters is transformed to a guard selection problem. The guard selection calculation formulas of buck converter are derived from the basic circuit laws. The stability of the switching is established analytically by the use of multiple Lyapunov functions to ensure the convergence and Poincare map to assess the local stability of the limit cycle. Numerical results clearly bring out the advantages and effectiveness of the proposed control law under varying line voltage and load conditions. Simulation studies are carried out in Matlab/Simulink/Stateflow.

  5. Breaking and Fixing Origin-Based Access Control in Hybrid Web/Mobile Application Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Martin; Jana, Suman; Shmatikov, Vitaly

    2014-02-01

    Hybrid mobile applications (apps) combine the features of Web applications and "native" mobile apps. Like Web applications, they are implemented in portable, platform-independent languages such as HTML and JavaScript. Like native apps, they have direct access to local device resources-file system, location, camera, contacts, etc. Hybrid apps are typically developed using hybrid application frameworks such as PhoneGap. The purpose of the framework is twofold. First, it provides an embedded Web browser (for example, WebView on Android) that executes the app's Web code. Second, it supplies "bridges" that allow Web code to escape the browser and access local resources on the device. We analyze the software stack created by hybrid frameworks and demonstrate that it does not properly compose the access-control policies governing Web code and local code, respectively. Web code is governed by the same origin policy, whereas local code is governed by the access-control policy of the operating system (for example, user-granted permissions in Android). The bridges added by the framework to the browser have the same local access rights as the entire application, but are not correctly protected by the same origin policy. This opens the door to fracking attacks, which allow foreign-origin Web content included into a hybrid app (e.g., ads confined in iframes) to drill through the layers and directly access device resources. Fracking vulnerabilities are generic: they affect all hybrid frameworks, all embedded Web browsers, all bridge mechanisms, and all platforms on which these frameworks are deployed. We study the prevalence of fracking vulnerabilities in free Android apps based on the PhoneGap framework. Each vulnerability exposes sensitive local resources-the ability to read and write contacts list, local files, etc.-to dozens of potentially malicious Web domains. We also analyze the defenses deployed by hybrid frameworks to prevent resource access by foreign-origin Web content

  6. Breaking and Fixing Origin-Based Access Control in Hybrid Web/Mobile Application Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Martin; Jana, Suman; Shmatikov, Vitaly

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid mobile applications (apps) combine the features of Web applications and “native” mobile apps. Like Web applications, they are implemented in portable, platform-independent languages such as HTML and JavaScript. Like native apps, they have direct access to local device resources—file system, location, camera, contacts, etc. Hybrid apps are typically developed using hybrid application frameworks such as PhoneGap. The purpose of the framework is twofold. First, it provides an embedded Web browser (for example, WebView on Android) that executes the app's Web code. Second, it supplies “bridges” that allow Web code to escape the browser and access local resources on the device. We analyze the software stack created by hybrid frameworks and demonstrate that it does not properly compose the access-control policies governing Web code and local code, respectively. Web code is governed by the same origin policy, whereas local code is governed by the access-control policy of the operating system (for example, user-granted permissions in Android). The bridges added by the framework to the browser have the same local access rights as the entire application, but are not correctly protected by the same origin policy. This opens the door to fracking attacks, which allow foreign-origin Web content included into a hybrid app (e.g., ads confined in iframes) to drill through the layers and directly access device resources. Fracking vulnerabilities are generic: they affect all hybrid frameworks, all embedded Web browsers, all bridge mechanisms, and all platforms on which these frameworks are deployed. We study the prevalence of fracking vulnerabilities in free Android apps based on the PhoneGap framework. Each vulnerability exposes sensitive local resources—the ability to read and write contacts list, local files, etc.—to dozens of potentially malicious Web domains. We also analyze the defenses deployed by hybrid frameworks to prevent resource access by foreign

  7. Hybrid Force Control Based on ICMAC for an Astronaut Rehabilitative Training Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixun Zhang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel Astronaut Rehabilitative Training Robot (ART based on a cable‐driven mechanism is represented in this paper. ART, a typical passive force servo system, can help astronauts to bench press in a microgravity environment. The purpose of this paper is to design controllers to eliminate the surplus force caused by an astronaut’s active movements. Based on the dynamics modelling of the cable‐driven unit, a hybrid force controller based on improved credit assignment CMAC (ICMAC is presented. A planning method for the cable tension is proposed so that the dynamic load produced by the ART can realistically simulate the gravity and inertial force of the barbell in a gravity environment. Finally, MATLAB simulation results of the man‐machine cooperation system are provided in order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy. The simulation results show that the hybrid control method based on the structure invariance principle can inhibit the surplus force and that ICMAC can improve the dynamic performance of the passive force servo system. Furthermore, the hybrid force controller based on ICMAC can ensure the stability of the system.

  8. Hybrid Analytical and Data-Driven Modeling for Feed-Forward Robot Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Felix Reinhart

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Feed-forward model-based control relies on models of the controlled plant, e.g., in robotics on accurate knowledge of manipulator kinematics or dynamics. However, mechanical and analytical models do not capture all aspects of a plant’s intrinsic properties and there remain unmodeled dynamics due to varying parameters, unmodeled friction or soft materials. In this context, machine learning is an alternative suitable technique to extract non-linear plant models from data. However, fully data-based models suffer from inaccuracies as well and are inefficient if they include learning of well known analytical models. This paper thus argues that feed-forward control based on hybrid models comprising an analytical model and a learned error model can significantly improve modeling accuracy. Hybrid modeling here serves the purpose to combine the best of the two modeling worlds. The hybrid modeling methodology is described and the approach is demonstrated for two typical problems in robotics, i.e., inverse kinematics control and computed torque control. The former is performed for a redundant soft robot and the latter for a rigid industrial robot with redundant degrees of freedom, where a complete analytical model is not available for any of the platforms.

  9. Hybrid Analytical and Data-Driven Modeling for Feed-Forward Robot Control †.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, René Felix; Shareef, Zeeshan; Steil, Jochen Jakob

    2017-02-08

    Feed-forward model-based control relies on models of the controlled plant, e.g., in robotics on accurate knowledge of manipulator kinematics or dynamics. However, mechanical and analytical models do not capture all aspects of a plant's intrinsic properties and there remain unmodeled dynamics due to varying parameters, unmodeled friction or soft materials. In this context, machine learning is an alternative suitable technique to extract non-linear plant models from data. However, fully data-based models suffer from inaccuracies as well and are inefficient if they include learning of well known analytical models. This paper thus argues that feed-forward control based on hybrid models comprising an analytical model and a learned error model can significantly improve modeling accuracy. Hybrid modeling here serves the purpose to combine the best of the two modeling worlds. The hybrid modeling methodology is described and the approach is demonstrated for two typical problems in robotics, i.e., inverse kinematics control and computed torque control. The former is performed for a redundant soft robot and the latter for a rigid industrial robot with redundant degrees of freedom, where a complete analytical model is not available for any of the platforms.

  10. Hybrid Analytical and Data-Driven Modeling for Feed-Forward Robot Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, René Felix; Shareef, Zeeshan; Steil, Jochen Jakob

    2017-01-01

    Feed-forward model-based control relies on models of the controlled plant, e.g., in robotics on accurate knowledge of manipulator kinematics or dynamics. However, mechanical and analytical models do not capture all aspects of a plant’s intrinsic properties and there remain unmodeled dynamics due to varying parameters, unmodeled friction or soft materials. In this context, machine learning is an alternative suitable technique to extract non-linear plant models from data. However, fully data-based models suffer from inaccuracies as well and are inefficient if they include learning of well known analytical models. This paper thus argues that feed-forward control based on hybrid models comprising an analytical model and a learned error model can significantly improve modeling accuracy. Hybrid modeling here serves the purpose to combine the best of the two modeling worlds. The hybrid modeling methodology is described and the approach is demonstrated for two typical problems in robotics, i.e., inverse kinematics control and computed torque control. The former is performed for a redundant soft robot and the latter for a rigid industrial robot with redundant degrees of freedom, where a complete analytical model is not available for any of the platforms. PMID:28208697

  11. Low speed hybrid generalized predictive control of a gasoline-propelled car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, M; de Madrid, A P; Mañoso, C; Milanés, V

    2015-07-01

    Low-speed driving in traffic jams causes significant pollution and wasted time for commuters. Additionally, from the passengers׳ standpoint, this is an uncomfortable, stressful and tedious scene that is suitable to be automated. The highly nonlinear dynamics of car engines at low-speed turn its automation in a complex problem that still remains as unsolved. Considering the hybrid nature of the vehicle longitudinal control at low-speed, constantly switching between throttle and brake pedal actions, hybrid control is a good candidate to solve this problem. This work presents the analytical formulation of a hybrid predictive controller for automated low-speed driving. It takes advantage of valuable characteristics supplied by predictive control strategies both for compensating un-modeled dynamics and for keeping passengers security and comfort analytically by means of the treatment of constraints. The proposed controller was implemented in a gas-propelled vehicle to experimentally validate the adopted solution. To this end, different scenarios were analyzed varying road layouts and vehicle speeds within a private test track. The production vehicle is a commercial Citroën C3 Pluriel which has been modified to automatically act over its throttle and brake pedals.

  12. Study of Efficiency Control by Hybrid Jet Engine Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F. Maksimov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes main control aspects of thrust jet engines, which use fuel components in different states of aggregation (solid fuels - liquid oxidant, a solid oxidizer - liquid fuel. Following the analytical review of literature a conclusion has been drawn that it is technically and functionally complicated to provide a process of thrust control by changing the mass flow and the combustion rate of a solid fuel charge.The objective of this work is to give a theoretical prediction of how the thermal knife impacts on the local combustion rate.The paper presents a diagram of interaction between thermal knife and solid fuel. There are three modes, namely: pyrolysis, transition (from pyrolysis to cutting charge, and fuel cut. In the computational model generation it is assumed that the solid fuel combustion rate is not dependent on the combustion direction, and the temperature distribution along the length of the charge (in the direction perpendicular to the face obeys the Michelson dependence without considering a resistance of the heated layer at the surface of the combustion charge. The paper considers mechanical interaction of the thermal knife with the surface of charge. The Hertz formula describes the relationship between the pressing force, the penetration depth and the radius of thermal knife mark in the fuel.Numerical modeling methods and direct calculations allow us to obtain relationships to describe the changing local combustion rate under the action of the thermal knife on a solid fuel charge in its mechanical penetration, depending on the blade geometry, mechanical properties of charge and pressing force.

  13. Multivariable Robust Control of a Simulated Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Gas Turbine Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai A, Banta L, Tucker D

    2010-08-01

    This work presents a systematic approach to the multivariable robust control of a hybrid fuel cell gas turbine plant. The hybrid configuration under investigation built by the National Energy Technology Laboratory comprises a physical simulation of a 300kW fuel cell coupled to a 120kW auxiliary power unit single spool gas turbine. The public facility provides for the testing and simulation of different fuel cell models that in turn help identify the key difficulties encountered in the transient operation of such systems. An empirical model of the built facility comprising a simulated fuel cell cathode volume and balance of plant components is derived via frequency response data. Through the modulation of various airflow bypass valves within the hybrid configuration, Bode plots are used to derive key input/output interactions in transfer function format. A multivariate system is then built from individual transfer functions, creating a matrix that serves as the nominal plant in an H{sub {infinity}} robust control algorithm. The controller’s main objective is to track and maintain hybrid operational constraints in the fuel cell’s cathode airflow, and the turbo machinery states of temperature and speed, under transient disturbances. This algorithm is then tested on a Simulink/MatLab platform for various perturbations of load and fuel cell heat effluence. As a complementary tool to the aforementioned empirical plant, a nonlinear analytical model faithful to the existing process and instrumentation arrangement is evaluated and designed in the Simulink environment. This parallel task intends to serve as a building block to scalable hybrid configurations that might require a more detailed nonlinear representation for a wide variety of controller schemes and hardware implementations.

  14. Electron beam energy stabilization using a neural network hybrid controller at the Australian Synchrotron Linac.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, E.; Morgan, M. J.; Biedron, S. G.; LeBlanc, G.; Wu, J. (OTD-ESE); (Monash Univ.); (Australian Synchrotron Project); (SLAC National Accelerator Lab.)

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a neural network hybrid controller for energy stabilization at the Australian Synchrotron Linac. The structure of the controller consists of a neural network (NNET) feed forward control, augmented by a conventional Proportional-Integral (PI) feedback controller to ensure stability of the system. The system is provided with past states of the machine in order to predict its future state, and therefore apply appropriate feed forward control. The NNET is able to cancel multiple frequency jitter in real-time. When it is not performing optimally due to jitter changes, the system can successfully be augmented by the PI controller to attenuate the remaining perturbations. With a view to control the energy and bunch length at the FERMI{at}Elettra Free Electron Laser (FEL), the present study considers a neural network hybrid feed forward-feedback type of control to rectify limitations related to feedback systems, such as poor response for high jitter frequencies or limited bandwidth, while ensuring robustness of control. The Australian Synchrotron Linac is equipped with a beam position monitor (BPM), that was provided by Sincrotrone Trieste from a former transport line thus allowing energy measurements and energy control experiments. The present study will consequently focus on correcting energy jitter induced by variations in klystron phase and voltage.

  15. A Multi-Modal Control Using a Hybrid Pole-Placement-Integral Resonant Controller (PPIR) with Experimental Investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Basu, Biswajit

    2011-01-01

    Control of multi-modal structural vibrations has been an important and challenging problem in flexible structural systems. This paper proposes a new vibration control algorithm for multi-modal structural control. The proposed algorithm combines a pole-placement controller with an integral resonant...... controller. The pole-placement controller is used to achieve a target equivalent modal viscous damping in the system and helps in the suppression of higher modes, which contribute to the vibration response of flexible structures. The integral resonant controller successfully reduces the low frequency...... vibrations e.g. caused by broad-band turbulent wind excitations. Hence, the proposed hybrid controller can effectively suppress complex multi-modal vibrations in flexible systems. Both numerical and experimental studies have been carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm using...

  16. Hybrid Sterility Locus on Chromosome X Controls Meiotic Recombination Rate in Mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Balcova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Meiotic recombination safeguards proper segregation of homologous chromosomes into gametes, affects genetic variation within species, and contributes to meiotic chromosome recognition, pairing and synapsis. The Prdm9 gene has a dual role, it controls meiotic recombination by determining the genomic position of crossover hotspots and, in infertile hybrids of house mouse subspecies Mus m. musculus (Mmm and Mus m. domesticus (Mmd, it further functions as the major hybrid sterility gene. In the latter role Prdm9 interacts with the hybrid sterility X 2 (Hstx2 genomic locus on Chromosome X (Chr X by a still unknown mechanism. Here we investigated the meiotic recombination rate at the genome-wide level and its possible relation to hybrid sterility. Using immunofluorescence microscopy we quantified the foci of MLH1 DNA mismatch repair protein, the cytological counterparts of reciprocal crossovers, in a panel of inter-subspecific chromosome substitution strains. Two autosomes, Chr 7 and Chr 11, significantly modified the meiotic recombination rate, yet the strongest modifier, designated meiotic recombination 1, Meir1, emerged in the 4.7 Mb Hstx2 genomic locus on Chr X. The male-limited transgressive effect of Meir1 on recombination rate parallels the male-limited transgressive role of Hstx2 in hybrid male sterility. Thus, both genetic factors, the Prdm9 gene and the Hstx2/Meir1 genomic locus, indicate a link between meiotic recombination and hybrid sterility. A strong female-specific modifier of meiotic recombination rate with the effect opposite to Meir1 was localized on Chr X, distally to Meir1. Mapping Meir1 to a narrow candidate interval on Chr X is an important first step towards positional cloning of the respective gene(s responsible for variation in the global recombination rate between closely related mouse subspecies.

  17. Hybrid Sterility Locus on Chromosome X Controls Meiotic Recombination Rate in Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcova, Maria; Faltusova, Barbora; Gergelits, Vaclav; Bhattacharyya, Tanmoy; Mihola, Ondrej; Trachtulec, Zdenek; Knopf, Corinna; Fotopulosova, Vladana; Chvatalova, Irena; Gregorova, Sona; Forejt, Jiri

    2016-04-01

    Meiotic recombination safeguards proper segregation of homologous chromosomes into gametes, affects genetic variation within species, and contributes to meiotic chromosome recognition, pairing and synapsis. The Prdm9 gene has a dual role, it controls meiotic recombination by determining the genomic position of crossover hotspots and, in infertile hybrids of house mouse subspecies Mus m. musculus (Mmm) and Mus m. domesticus (Mmd), it further functions as the major hybrid sterility gene. In the latter role Prdm9 interacts with the hybrid sterility X 2 (Hstx2) genomic locus on Chromosome X (Chr X) by a still unknown mechanism. Here we investigated the meiotic recombination rate at the genome-wide level and its possible relation to hybrid sterility. Using immunofluorescence microscopy we quantified the foci of MLH1 DNA mismatch repair protein, the cytological counterparts of reciprocal crossovers, in a panel of inter-subspecific chromosome substitution strains. Two autosomes, Chr 7 and Chr 11, significantly modified the meiotic recombination rate, yet the strongest modifier, designated meiotic recombination 1, Meir1, emerged in the 4.7 Mb Hstx2 genomic locus on Chr X. The male-limited transgressive effect of Meir1 on recombination rate parallels the male-limited transgressive role of Hstx2 in hybrid male sterility. Thus, both genetic factors, the Prdm9 gene and the Hstx2/Meir1 genomic locus, indicate a link between meiotic recombination and hybrid sterility. A strong female-specific modifier of meiotic recombination rate with the effect opposite to Meir1 was localized on Chr X, distally to Meir1. Mapping Meir1 to a narrow candidate interval on Chr X is an important first step towards positional cloning of the respective gene(s) responsible for variation in the global recombination rate between closely related mouse subspecies.

  18. A New Hybrid Control Scheme for an Integrated Helicopter and Engine System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Haibo; WANG Jiankang; CHEN Guoqiang; YAN Changkai

    2012-01-01

    A new hybrid control scheme is presented with a robust multiple model fusion control (RMMFC) law for a UH-60 helicopter and an active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) controller for its engines.This scheme is a control design method with every subsystem designed separately but fully considering the couplings between them.With three subspaces with respect to forward flight velocity,a RMMFC is proposed to devise a four-loop reference signal tracing control for the helicopter,which escapes the closed-loop system from unstable state due to the extreme complexity of this integrated nonlinear system.The engines are controlled by the proposed ADRC decoupling controller,which fully takes advantage of a good compensation ability for unmodeled dynamics and extra disturbances,so as to compensate torque disturbance in power turbine speed loop.By simulating a forward acceleration flight task,the RMMFC for the helicopter is validated.It is apparent that the integrated helicopter and engine system (IHES) has much better dynamic performance under the new control scheme.Especially in the switching process,the large transient is significantly weakened,and smooth transition among candidate controllers is achieved.Over the entire simulation task,the droop of power turbine speed with the proposed ADRC controller is significantly slighter than with the conventional PID controller,and the response time of the former is much faster than the latter.By simulating a rapid climb and descent flight task,the results also show the feasibility for the application of the proposed multiple model fusion control.Although there is aggressive power demand in this maneuver,the droop of power turbine speed with an ADRC controller is smaller than using a PID controller.The control performance for helicopter and engine is enhanced by adopting this hybrid control scheme,and simulation results in other envelope stale give proofs of robustness for this new scheme.

  19. Hybrid optimization of dynamic deployment for networked fire control system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Chen; Jie Chen; Bin Xin

    2013-01-01

    With applying the information technology to the military field, the advantages and importance of the networked combat are more and more obvious. In order to make ful use of limited battle-field resources and maximal y destroy enemy targets from arbitrary angle in a limited time, the research on firepower nodes dynamic deployment becomes a key problem of command and control. Con-sidering a variety of tactical indexes and actual constraints in air defense, a mathematical model is formulated to minimize the ene-my target penetration probability. Based on characteristics of the mathematical model and demands of the deployment problems, an assistance-based algorithm is put forward which combines the ar-tificial potential field (APF) method with a memetic algorithm. The APF method is employed to solve the constraint handling prob-lem and generate feasible solutions. The constrained optimization problem transforms into an optimization problem of APF para-meters adjustment, and the dimension of the problem is reduced greatly. The dynamic deployment is accomplished by generation and refinement of feasible solutions. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is effective and feasible in dynamic situation.

  20. Modeling and Control of Hybrid Machine Systems——a Five-bar Mechanism Case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongnian Yu

    2006-01-01

    A hybrid machine (HM) as a typical mechatronic device, is a useful tool to generate smooth motion, and combines the motions of a large constant speed motor with a small servo motor by means of a mechnical linkage mechanism, in order to provide a powerful programmable drive system. To achieve design objectives, a control system is required. To design a better control system and analyze the performance of an HM, a dynamic model is necessary. This paper first develops a dynamic model of an HM with a five-bar mechanism using a Lagrangian formulation. Then, several important properties which are very useful in system analysis, and control system design, are presented. Based on the developed dynamic model,two control approaches, computed torque, and combined computed torque and slide mode control, are adopted to control the HM system. Simulation results demonstrate the control performance and limitations of each control approach.

  1. Feedback control of the lower hybrid power deposition profile on Tore Supra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barana, O.; Mazon, D.; Laborde, L.; Turco, F.

    2007-07-01

    The Tore Supra facility is well suited to study ITER relevant topics such as the real-time control of plasma current and the sustaining of steady-state discharges. This work describes a tool that was recently developed and implemented on Tore Supra to control in real time, by means of the direct knowledge of the suprathermal electron local emission profile, the width of the lower hybrid power deposition profile. This quantity can be considered to some extent equivalent to the width of the plasma current density profile in case of fully non-inductive discharges. This system takes advantage of an accurate hard x-ray diagnostics, of an efficient lower hybrid additional heating and of a reliable real-time communication network. The successful experiments carried out to test the system employed, as actuators, the parallel refractive index n// and the total power PLH. The control of the suprathermal electron local emission profile through n// was also integrated with the feedback control of the total plasma current IP with PLH and of the loop voltage Vloop with the central solenoid flux. These results demonstrate that the system is robust, reliable and able to counterbalance destabilizing events. This tool can be effectively used in the future in fully non-inductive discharges to improve the MHD stability and to maintain internal transport barriers or lower hybrid enhanced performance modes. The real-time control of the lower hybrid power deposition profile could also be used in conjunction with the electron-cyclotron radiofrequency heating for synergy studies.

  2. Coordinated Stability Control of Wind-Thermal Hybrid AC/DC Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqing Yao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The wind-thermal hybrid power transmission will someday be the main form of transmitting wind power in China but such transmission mode is poor in system stability. In this paper, a coordinated stability control strategy is proposed to improve the system stability. Firstly, the mathematical model of doubly fed wind farms and DC power transmission system is established. The rapid power controllability of large-scale wind farms is discussed based on DFIG model and wide-field optical fiber delay feature. Secondly, low frequency oscillation and power-angle stability are analyzed and discussed under the hybrid transmission mode of a conventional power plant with wind farms. A coordinated control strategy for the wind-thermal hybrid AC/DC power system is proposed and an experimental prototype is made. Finally, real time simulation modeling is set up through Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS, including wind power system and synchronous generator system and DC power transmission system. The experimental prototype is connected with RTDS for joint debugging. Joint debugging result shows that, under the coordinated control strategy, the experimental prototype is conductive to enhance the grid damping and effectively prevents the grid from occurring low frequency oscillation. It can also increase the transient power-angle stability of a power system.

  3. Coordination Control Strategy for AC/DC Hybrid Microgrids in Stand-Alone Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Riana Aryani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Interest in DC microgrids is rapidly increasing along with the improvement of DC power technology because of its advantages. To support the integration process of DC microgrids with the existing AC utility grids, the form of hybrid AC/DC microgrids is considered for higher power conversion efficiency, lower component cost and better power quality. In the system, AC and DC portions are connected through interlink bidirectional AC/DC converters (IC with a proper control system and power management. In the stand-alone operation mode of AC/DC hybrid microgrids, the control of power injection through the IC is crucial in order to maintain the system security. This paper mainly deals with a coordination control strategy of IC and a battery energy storage system (BESS converter under stand-alone operation. A coordinated control strategy for the IC, which considers the state of charge (SOC level of BESS and the load shedding scheme as the last resort, is proposed to obtain better power sharing between AC and DC subgrids. The scheme will be tested with a hybrid AC/DC microgrid, using the tool of the PSCAD/EMTDC software.

  4. Mode Shift Control for a Hybrid Heavy-Duty Vehicle with Power-Split Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Huang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Given that power-split transmission (PST is considered to be a major powertrain technology for hybrid heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs, the development and application of PST in the HDVs make mode shift control an essential aspect of powertrain system design. This paper presents a shift schedule design and torque control strategy for a hybrid HDV with PST during mode shift, intended to reduce the output torque variation and improve the shift quality (SQ. Firstly, detailed dynamic models of the hybrid HDV are developed to analyze the mode shift characteristics. Then, a gear shift schedule calculation method including a dynamic shift schedule and an economic shift schedule is provided. Based on the dynamic models and the designed shift schedule, a mode shift performance simulator is built using MATLAB/Simulink, and simulations are carried out. Through analysis of the dynamic equations, it is seen that the inertia torques of the motor–generator lead to the occurrence of transition torque. To avoid the unwanted transition torque, we use a mode shift control strategy that coordinates the motor–generator torque to compensate for the transition torque. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the output torque variation during mode shift is effectively reduced by the proposed control strategy, thereby improving the SQ.

  5. Engine control strategy for a series hybrid electric vehicle incorporating load-leveling and computer controlled energy management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochgraf, C.G.; Ryan, M.J.; Wiegman, H.L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1996-09-01

    This paper identifies important engine, alternator and battery characteristics needed for determining an appropriate engine control strategy for a series hybrid electric vehicle. Examination of these characteristics indicates that a load-leveling strategy applied to the small engine will provide better fuel economy than a power-tracking scheme. An automatic energy management strategy is devised whereby a computer controller determines the engine-alternator turn-on and turn-off conditions and controls the engine-alternator autonomously. Battery state of charge is determined from battery voltage and current measurements. Experimental results of the system`s performance in a test vehicle during city driving are presented.

  6. Physics related to control and safety of hybrid systems; Physique associee au controle et a la surete des systemes hybrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gueton, O

    2001-12-01

    Regarding nuclear waste management, ADS can be considered as large minor actinides burners. In a first part, a critical analysis of different reactor types shows that fast spectrum, helium coolant and nitride fuel, containing 100% minor actinides, agree perfectly with the high transmutation requirements of ADS. The control and safety demonstration of this system represents the main purpose of this study. Understanding spatial and dynamic behaviour of ADS flux is absolutely necessary. For this purpose, we have defined an indicator to quantify spatial decoupling. It shows, on the one hand, point kinetic deficiency to study local transients, and on the other hand, perturbations propagation differences between ADS and critical cores. Then, in a more concrete approach, accidental sequences (source transient, beam de-focalization, reactivity insertions, loss of flow, depressurization) are evaluated for this core, strongly loaded with minor actinides. It is shown that the automatic beam shutdown leads to preserve large safety margins for all studied transients. The accelerator emergency stop is induced by an unexpected evolution of the core control parameters. These parameters, except reactivity, can be directly measured in subcritical systems like in critical ones. Concerning reactivity, we suggest a new method for its absolute determination in ADS: at the time of reactor start-up, the reactivity must be calibrated by coupling two methods of relative reactivity measurements (pulsed source and Approached Source Multiplication) for successive subcritical levels. After that, the on-line follow-up of reactivity is obtained from this calibration like in a critical core. (authors)

  7. A Novel Torque Coordination Control Strategy of a Single-Shaft Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle Based on Model Predictive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The torque coordination control during mode transition is a very important task for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV with a clutch serving as the key enabling actuator element. Poor coordination will deteriorate the drivability of the driver and lead to excessive wearing to the clutch friction plates. In this paper, a novel torque coordination control strategy for a single-shaft parallel hybrid electric vehicle is presented to coordinate the motor torque, engine torque, and clutch torque so that the seamless mode switching can be achieved. Different to the existing model predictive control (MPC methods, only one model predictive controller is needed and the clutch torque is taken as an optimized variable rather than a known parameter. Furthermore, the successful idea of model reference control (MRC is also used for reference to generate the set-point signal required by MPC. The parameter sensitivity is studied for better performance of the proposed model predictive controller. The simulation results validate that the proposed novel torque coordination control strategy has less vehicle jerk, less torque interruption, and smaller clutch frictional losses, compared with the baseline method. In addition, the sensitivity and adaptiveness of the proposed novel torque coordination control strategy are evaluated.

  8. Comparison on welding mode characteristics of arc heat source for heat input control in hybrid welding of aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Moo-Keun; Kim, Jong-Do; Oh, Jae-Hwan

    2015-03-01

    Presently in shipbuilding, transportation and aerospace industries, the potential to apply welding using laser and laser-arc hybrid heat sources is widely under research. This study has the purpose of comparing the weldability depending on the arc mode by varying the welding modes of arc heat sources in applying laser-arc hybrid welding to aluminum alloy and of implementing efficient hybrid welding while controlling heat input. In the experimental study, we found that hybrid welding using CMT mode produced deeper penetration and sounder bead surface than those characteristics produced during only laser welding, with less heat input compared to that required in pulsed arc mode.

  9. Controlled formation of calcium-phosphate-based hybrid mesocrystals by organic-inorganic co-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Halei; Chu, Xiaobin; Li, Li; Xu, Xurong; Tang, Ruikang

    2010-11-01

    An understanding of controlled formation of biomimetic mesocrystals is of great importance in materials chemistry and engineering. Here we report that organic-inorganic hybrid plates and even mesocrystals can be conveniently synthesized using a one-pot reaction in a mixed system of protein (bovine serum albumin (BSA)), surfactant (sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT)) and supersaturated calcium phosphate solution. The morphologies of calcium-phosphate-based products are analogous to the general inorganic crystals but they have abnormal and interesting substructures. The hybrids are constructed by the alternate stacking of organic layer (thickness of 1.31 nm) and well-crystallized inorganic mineral layer (thickness of 2.13 nm) at the nanoscale. Their morphologies (spindle, rhomboid and round) and sizes (200 nm-2 μm) can be tuned gradually by changing BSA, AOT and calcium phosphate concentrations. This modulation effect can be explained by a competition between the anisotropic and isotropic assembly of the ultrathin plate-like units. The anisotropic assembly confers mesocrystal characteristics on the hybrids while the round ones are the results of isotropic assembly. However, the basic lamellar organic-inorganic substructure remains unchanged during the hybrid formation, which is a key factor to ensure the self-assembly from molecule to micrometre scale. A morphological ternary diagram of BSA-AOT-calcium phosphate is used to describe this controlled formation process, providing a feasible strategy to prepare the required materials. This study highlights the cooperative effect of macromolecule (frame structure), small biomolecule (binding sites) and mineral phase (main component) on the generation and regulation of biomimetic hybrid mesocrystals.

  10. A digital-analog hybrid system and its application to the automatic flight control system simulation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of a digital-analog hybrid system composed of a DJS-8 digital computer and a HMJ-200 analog computer are described as well as its applications to simulation research for an automatic flight control system. A hybrid computational example is included to illustrate the application.

  11. Hybrid EEG-EOG brain-computer interface system for practical machine control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punsawad, Yunyong; Wongsawat, Yodchanan; Parnichkun, Manukid

    2010-01-01

    Practical issues such as accuracy with various subjects, number of sensors, and time for training are important problems of existing brain-computer interface (BCI) systems. In this paper, we propose a hybrid framework for the BCI system that can make machine control more practical. The electrooculogram (EOG) is employed to control the machine in the left and right directions while the electroencephalogram (EEG) is employed to control the forword, no action, and complete stop motions of the machine. By using only 2-channel biosignals, the average classification accuracy of more than 95% can be achieved.

  12. Multiobjective Output Feedback Control of a Class of Stochastic Hybrid Systems with State-Dependent Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Aberkane

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with dynamic output feedback control of continuous-time active fault tolerant control systems with Markovian parameters (AFTCSMP and state-dependent noise. The main contribution is to formulate conditions for multiperformance design, related to this class of stochastic hybrid systems, that take into account the problematic resulting from the fact that the controller only depends on the fault detection and isolation (FDI process. The specifications and objectives under consideration include stochastic stability, ℋ2 and ℋ∞ (or more generally, stochastic integral quadratic constraints performances. Results are formulated as matrix inequalities. The theoretical results are illustrated using a classical example from literature.

  13. Control Systems for a Dynamic Multi-Physics Model of a Nuclear Hybrid Energy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, Michael Scott [ORNL; Fugate, David W [ORNL; Cetiner, Sacit M [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    A Nuclear Hybrid Energy System (NHES) uses a nuclear reactor as the basic power generation unit, and the power generated is used by multiple customers as either thermal power, electrical power, or both. The definition and architecture of a particular NHES can be adapted based on the needs and opportunities of different local markets. For example, locations in need of potable water may be best served by coupling a desalination plant to the NHES. Similarly, a location near oil refineries may have a need for emission-free hydrogen production. Using the flexible, multi-domain capabilities of Modelica, Argonne National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are investigating the dynamics (e.g., thermal hydraulics and electrical generation/consumption) and cost of a hybrid system. This paper examines the NHES work underway, emphasizing the control system developed for individual subsystems and the overall supervisory control system.

  14. Synthesis from Design Requirements of a Hybrid System for Transport Aircraft Longitudinal Control. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Charles S.; Hardy, Gordon H.; Sherry, Lance

    2007-01-01

    Volume I of this report presents a new method for synthesizing hybrid systems directly from desi gn requirements, and applies the method to design of a hybrid system for longitudinal control of transport aircraft. The resulting system satisfies general requirement for safety and effectiveness specified a priori, enabling formal validation to be achieved. Volume II contains seven appendices intended to make the report accessible to readers with backgrounds in human factors, flight dynamics and control, and formal logic. Major design goals are (1) system design integrity based on proof of correctness at the design level, (2) significant simplification and cost reduction in system development and certification, and (3) improved operational efficiency, with significant alleviation of human-factors problems encountered by pilots in current transport aircraft. This report provides for the first time a firm technical basis for criteria governing design and certification of avionic systems for transport aircraft. It should be of primary interest to designers of next-generation avionic systems.

  15. Hybrid Intelligent Control Method to Improve the Frequency Support Capability of Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Young Heo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a hybrid intelligent control method that enables frequency support control for permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSGs wind turbines. The proposed method for a wind energy conversion system (WECS is designed to have PMSG modeling and full-scale back-to-back insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT converters comprising the machine and grid side. The controller of the machine side converter (MSC and the grid side converter (GSC are designed to achieve maximum power point tracking (MPPT based on an improved hill climb searching (IHCS control algorithm and de-loaded (DL operation to obtain a power margin. Along with this comprehensive control of maximum power tracking mode based on the IHCS, a method for kinetic energy (KE discharge control of the supporting primary frequency control scheme with DL operation is developed to regulate the short-term frequency response and maintain reliable operation of the power system. The effectiveness of the hybrid intelligent control method is verified by a numerical simulation in PSCAD/EMTDC. Simulation results show that the proposed approach can improve the frequency regulation capability in the power system.

  16. Hybrid state-space self-tuning control of uncertain linear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, L. S.; Wang, Y. J.; Sunkel, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents a hybrid state-space self-tuner using a new dual-rate sampling scheme for digital adaptive control of continuous-time uncertain linear systems. A state-space-based recursive least-squares algorithm, together with a variable forgetting factor, is used for direct estimations of both the equivalent discrete-time uncertain linear system parameters and the associated discrete-time state of a continuous-time uncertain linear system from the sampled input and output data. An analogue optimal regional pole-placement design method is used for designing an optimal observer-based analogue controller. A suboptimal observer-based digital controller is then designed from the designed analogue controller using digital redesign technique. To enhance the robustness of parameter identification and state estimation algorithms, a dynamic bound for a class of uncertain bilinear parameters and a fast-rate digital controller are developed at each fast-sampling period. Also, to accommodate computation loads and computation delay for developing the advanced hybrid self-tuner, the designed analogue controller and observer gains are both updated at each slow-sampling period. This control technique has been successfully applied to benchmark control problems.

  17. Control strategy of hybrid fuel cell/battery distributed generation system for grid-connected operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masoud Aliakbar GOLKAR; Amin HAJIZADEH

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a control strategy of a hybrid fuel cell/battery distributed generation (HDG) system in distribution systems. The overall structure of the HDG system is given, dynamic models for the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power plant,battery bank and its power electronic interfacing are briefly described, and controller design methodologies for the power conditioning units and fuel cell to control the power flow from the hybrid power plant to the utility grid are presented. To distribute the power between the fuel cell power plant and the battery energy storage, a neuro-fuzzy controller has been developed. Also, for controlling the active and reactive power independently in distribution systems, the current control strategy based on two fuzzy logic controllers has been presented. A Matlab/Simulink simulation model is developed for the HDG system by combining the individual component models and their controllers. Simulation results show the overall system performance including load-following and power management of the HDG system.

  18. Multi-objective decoupling algorithm for active distance control of intelligent hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yugong; Chen, Tao; Li, Keqiang

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents a novel active distance control strategy for intelligent hybrid electric vehicles (IHEV) with the purpose of guaranteeing an optimal performance in view of the driving functions, optimum safety, fuel economy and ride comfort. Considering the complexity of driving situations, the objects of safety and ride comfort are decoupled from that of fuel economy, and a hierarchical control architecture is adopted to improve the real-time performance and the adaptability. The hierarchical control structure consists of four layers: active distance control object determination, comprehensive driving and braking torque calculation, comprehensive torque distribution and torque coordination. The safety distance control and the emergency stop algorithms are designed to achieve the safety and ride comfort goals. The optimal rule-based energy management algorithm of the hybrid electric system is developed to improve the fuel economy. The torque coordination control strategy is proposed to regulate engine torque, motor torque and hydraulic braking torque to improve the ride comfort. This strategy is verified by simulation and experiment using a forward simulation platform and a prototype vehicle. The results show that the novel control strategy can achieve the integrated and coordinated control of its multiple subsystems, which guarantees top performance of the driving functions and optimum safety, fuel economy and ride comfort.

  19. Hybrid intelligent control of combustion process for ore-roasting furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aijun YAN; Tianyou CHAI; Fenghua WU; Pu WANG

    2008-01-01

    Because of its synthetic and complex characteristics, the combustion process of the shaft ore-roasting furnace is very difficult to control stably. A hybrid intelligent control approach is developed which consists of two systems: one is a cascade fuzzy control system with a temperature soft-sensor, and the other is a ratio control system for air flow with a compensation model for heating gas flow and air-fuel ratio. This approach combined intelligent control, soft-sensing and fault diagnosis with conventional control. It can adjust both the heating gas flow and the air-fuel ratio in real time. By this way, the difficulty of online measurement of the furnace temperature is solved, the fault ratios during combustion process is decreased, the steady control of the furnace temperature is achieved, and the gas consumption is reduced. The successful application in shaft furnaces of a mineral processing plant in China indicates its effectiveness.

  20. Dynamic control of the location of nanoparticles in hybrid co-assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhilong; Li, Xiaokang; Jiang, Xuesong; Lin, Shaoliang; Yin, Jie

    2015-03-01

    We herein demonstrated an approach to control the spatial distribution of components in hybrid microspheres. Hybrid core-shell structured microspheres (CSMs) prepared through co-assembly were used as starting materials, which are comprised of anthracene-ended hyperbranched poly(ether amine) (AN-hPEA) in the shell and crystallized anthracene containing polyhedral oligomer silsesquioxane (AN-POSS). Upon thermal annealing at a temperature higher than the melting point of AN-POSS, the diffusion of AN-POSS from the core to the shell of CSM leads to a transition of morphology from the core-shell structure to core-transition-shell to the more stable homogeneous morphology, which has been revealed by experimental results of TEM and DSC. The mechanism for the morphology transition of CSM induced by the diffusion of AN-POSS was disclosed by a dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulation. A mathematical model for the diffusion of POSS in the hybrid microsphere is established according to Fick's law of diffusion and can be used to quantify its distribution in CSM. Thus, the spatial distribution of POSS in the microsphere can be controlled dynamically by tuning the temperature and time of thermal annealing.We herein demonstrated an approach to control the spatial distribution of components in hybrid microspheres. Hybrid core-shell structured microspheres (CSMs) prepared through co-assembly were used as starting materials, which are comprised of anthracene-ended hyperbranched poly(ether amine) (AN-hPEA) in the shell and crystallized anthracene containing polyhedral oligomer silsesquioxane (AN-POSS). Upon thermal annealing at a temperature higher than the melting point of AN-POSS, the diffusion of AN-POSS from the core to the shell of CSM leads to a transition of morphology from the core-shell structure to core-transition-shell to the more stable homogeneous morphology, which has been revealed by experimental results of TEM and DSC. The mechanism for the morphology transition

  1. Controllable growth and characterizations of hybrid spiral-like atomically thin molybdenum disulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Song; Yang, Bingchu; Gao, Yongli

    2016-10-01

    Monolayer MoS2 is an emerging two-dimensional semiconductor with wide-ranging potential applications in novel electronic and optoelectronic devices. Here, we reported controlled vapor phase growth of hybrid spiral-like MoS2 crystals investigated by multiple means of X-Ray photoemission spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, kelvin probe force microscopy, Raman and Photoluminescence techniques. Morphological characterizations reveal an intriguing hybrid spiral-like MoS2 feature whose lower planes are AB Bernal stacking and upper structure is spiral. We ascribe the hybrid spiral-like structure to a screw dislocation drive growth mechanism owing to lower supersaturation and layer-by-layer growth mode. In addition, the electrostatic properties of MoS2 microflakes with hybrid spiral structures are obvious inhomogeneous and dependent on morphology manifested by kelvin probe force microscopy. Our work deepens the understanding of growth mechanisms of CVD-grown MoS2, which is also adoptable to other TMDC materials.

  2. Controllable synthesis, magnetism and solubility enhancement of graphene nanosheets/magnetite hybrid material by covalent bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yingqing; Yang, Xulin; Meng, Fanbin; Wei, Junji; Zhao, Rui; Liu, Xiaobo

    2011-11-01

    Hybrids of Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles and surface-modified graphene nanosheets (GNs) were synthesized by a two-step process. First, graphene nanosheets were modified by SOCl(2) and 4-aminophenoxyphthalonitrile to introduce nitrile groups on their surface. Second, the nitrile groups of surface-modified graphene nanosheets were reacted with ferric ions on the surface of Fe(3)O(4) with the help of relatively high boiling point solvent ethylene glycol to form a GNs/Fe(3)O(4) hybrid. The covalent attachment of Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles on the graphene nanosheet surface was confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). TEM and HRTEM observations indicated that the sizes of the nanoparticles and their coverage density on GNs could be easily controlled by changing the concentration of the precursor and the weight ratio to GNs. Magnetic measurements showed that magnetization of the hybrid materials is strongly influenced by the reaction conditions. Chemically bonded by phthalocyanine, the solubility of as-synthesized GNs/Fe(3)O(4) hybrid materials was greatly enhanced, which was believed to have potential for applications in the fields of composites, wastewater treatment and biomaterials.

  3. Controlled Photocatalytic Synthesis of Core–Shell SiC/Polyaniline Hybrid Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kormányos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid materials of electrically conducting polymers and inorganic semiconductors form an exciting class of functional materials. To fully exploit the potential synergies of the hybrid formation, however, sophisticated synthetic methods are required that allow for the fine-tuning of the nanoscale structure of the organic/inorganic interface. Here we present the photocatalytic deposition of a conducting polymer (polyaniline on the surface of silicon carbide (SiC nanoparticles. The polymerization is facilitated on the SiC surface, via the oxidation of the monomer molecules by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis light irradiation through the photogenerated holes. The synthesized core–shell nanostructures were characterized by UV-vis, Raman, and Fourier Transformed Infrared (FT-IR Spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and electrochemical methods. It was found that the composition of the hybrids can be varied by simply changing the irradiation time. In addition, we proved the crucial importance of the irradiation wavelength in forming conductive polyaniline, instead of its overoxidized, insulating counterpart. Overall, we conclude that photocatalytic deposition is a promising and versatile approach for the synthesis of conducting polymers with controlled properties on semiconductor surfaces. The presented findings may trigger further studies using photocatalysis as a synthetic strategy to obtain nanoscale hybrid architectures of different semiconductors.

  4. An adaptive metamaterial beam with hybrid shunting circuits for extremely broadband control of flexural waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. Y.; Hu, G. K.; Huang, G. L.

    2016-10-01

    A great deal of research has been devoted to controlling the dynamic behaviors of phononic crystals and metamaterials by directly tuning the frequency regions and/or widths of their inherent band gaps. Here, we report a new class of adaptive metamaterial beams with hybrid shunting circuits to realize super broadband Lamb-wave band gaps at an extreme subwavelength scale. The proposed metamaterial is made of a homogeneous host beam on which tunable local resonators consisting of hybrid shunted piezoelectric stacks with proof masses are attached. The hybrid shunting circuits are composed of negative-capacitance and negative-inductance elements connected in series or in parallel in order to tune the desired frequency-dependent stiffness. It is shown theoretically and numerically that by properly modifying the shunting impedance, the adaptive mechanical mechanism within the tunable resonator can produce high-pass and low-pass wave filtering capabilities for the zeroth-order anti-symmetric Lamb-wave modes. These unique behaviors are due to the hybrid effects from the negative-capacitance and negative-inductance circuit elements. Such a system opens up important perspectives for the development of adaptive vibration or wave-attenuation devices for broadband frequency applications.

  5. A Hybrid Bacterial Foraging - PSO Algorithm Based Tuning of Optimal FOPI Speed Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasekhar Anguluri

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm (BFOA has recently emerged as a very powerful technique for real parameteroptimization. In order to overcome the delay in optimization and to further enhance the performance of BFO, this paper proposeda new hybrid algorithm combining the features of BFOA and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO for tuning a Fractional orderspeed controller in a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM Drive. Computer simulations illustrate the effectiveness of theproposed approach compared to that of basic versions of PSO and BFO.

  6. Three-Dimensional Control of DNA Hybridization by Orthogonal Two-Color Two-Photon Uncaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichte, Manuela A H; Weyel, Xenia M M; Junek, Stephan; Schäfer, Florian; Herbivo, Cyril; Goeldner, Maurice; Specht, Alexandre; Wachtveitl, Josef; Heckel, Alexander

    2016-07-25

    We successfully introduced two-photon-sensitive photolabile groups ([7-(diethylamino)coumarin-4-yl]methyl and p-dialkylaminonitrobiphenyl) into DNA strands and demonstrated their suitability for three-dimensional photorelease. To visualize the uncaging, we used a fluorescence readout based on double-strand displacement in a hydrogel and in neurons. Orthogonal two-photon uncaging of the two cages is possible, thus enabling complex scenarios of three-dimensional control of hybridization with light.

  7. Development of Fuzzy Logic and Neural Network Control and Advanced Emissions Modeling for Parallel Hybrid Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajagopalan, A.; Washington, G.; Rizzoni, G.; Guezennec, Y.

    2003-12-01

    This report describes the development of new control strategies and models for Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) by the Ohio State University. The report indicates results from models created in NREL's ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR 3.2), and results of a scalable IC Engine model, called in Willan's Line technique, implemented in ADVISOR 3.2.

  8. Pressure Control for a Hydraulic Cylinder Based on a Self-Tuning PID Controller Optimized by a Hybrid Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the performance of the hydraulic support electro-hydraulic control system test platform, a self-tuning proportion integration differentiation (PID controller is proposed to imitate the actual pressure of the hydraulic support. To avoid the premature convergence and to improve the convergence velocity for tuning PID parameters, the PID controller is optimized with a hybrid optimization algorithm integrated with the particle swarm algorithm (PSO and genetic algorithm (GA. A selection probability and an adaptive cross probability are introduced into the PSO to enhance the diversity of particles. The proportional overflow valve is installed to control the pressure of the pillar cylinder. The data of the control voltage of the proportional relief valve amplifier and pillar pressure are collected to acquire the system transfer function. Several simulations with different methods are performed on the hydraulic cylinder pressure system. The results demonstrate that the hybrid algorithm for a PID controller has comparatively better global search ability and faster convergence velocity on the pressure control of the hydraulic cylinder. Finally, an experiment is conducted to verify the validity of the proposed method.

  9. Characteristic Analysis and Control of a Hybrid Excitation Linear Eddy Current Brake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoquan Kou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel hybrid excitation linear eddy current brake is presented as a braking system for high-speed road and rail vehicles. The presence of the permanent magnets (PMs, whose flux lines in the primary core are oppositely directed with respect to the flux lines by the excitation windings, has the effect of mitigating the saturation of the iron in the teeth of the primary core. This allows the brake to be fed with more intense currents, improving the braking force. First, using the magnetic equivalent circuit method and the layer theory approach, the analytical model of the hybrid excitation linear eddy current brake was developed, which can account for the saturation effects occurring in the iron parts. The saturation effects make the design and control of eddy current brakes more difficult. Second, the relationship between the braking force characteristics and the design parameters were analyzed to provide useful information to the designers of eddy current brakes. Then, the controller of the hybrid excitation linear eddy current brake was designed to control the amplitude of the braking force. Finally, experimental measurements were conducted to verify the validity of the theoretical analysis.

  10. Mode transition coordinated control for a compound power-split hybrid car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Zhao, Zhiguo; Zhang, Tong; Li, Mengna

    2017-03-01

    With a compound power-split transmission directly connected to the engine in hybrid cars, dramatic fluctuations in engine output torque result in noticeable jerks when the car is in mode transition from electric drive mode to hybrid drive mode. This study designed a mode transition coordinated control strategy, and verified that strategy's effectiveness with both simulations and experiments. Firstly, the mode transition process was analyzed, and ride comfort issues during the mode transition process were demonstrated. Secondly, engine ripple torque was modeled using the measured cylinder pumping pressure when the engine was not in operation. The complete dynamic plant model of the power-split hybrid car was deduced, and its effectiveness was validated by a comparison of experimental and simulation results. Thirdly, a coordinated control strategy was designed to determine the desired engine torque, motor torque, and the moment of fuel injection. Active damping control with two degrees of freedom, based on reference output shaft speed estimation, was designed to mitigate driveline speed oscillations. Carrier torque estimation based on transmission kinematics and dynamics was used to suppress torque disturbance during engine cranking. The simulation and experimental results indicate that the proposed strategy effectively suppressed vehicle jerks and improved ride comfort during mode transition.

  11. Position calibration of a 3-DOF hand-controller with hybrid structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chengcheng; Song, Aiguo

    2017-09-01

    A hand-controller is a human-robot interactive device, which measures the 3-DOF (Degree of Freedom) position of the human hand and sends it as a command to control robot movement. The device also receives 3-DOF force feedback from the robot and applies it to the human hand. Thus, the precision of 3-DOF position measurements is a key performance factor for hand-controllers. However, when using a hybrid type 3-DOF hand controller, various errors occur and are considered originating from machining and assembly variations within the device. This paper presents a calibration method to improve the position tracking accuracy of hybrid type hand-controllers by determining the actual size of the hand-controller parts. By re-measuring and re-calibrating this kind of hand-controller, the actual size of the key parts that cause errors is determined. Modifying the formula parameters with the actual sizes, which are obtained in the calibrating process, improves the end position tracking accuracy of the device.

  12. A Hybrid Scheme Motion Controller by Sliding Mode and Two-Degree-of-Freedom Controls to Minimize the Chattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu-Keng Lai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sliding mode control (SMC is rapped for the chattering due to high gain control. However, high gain control causes the system robust. For developing a system with robustness of SMC, a servo motor motion controller combining the two-degree-of-freedom (2DOF system and SMC is proposed. The discussed motion type is point-to-point control with the constraint of trapezoid velocity profile. SMC is designed to guide the motor motion to follow a predefined trail, and the inner 2DOF system is used to compensate the deterioration due to the adoption of load observer. The proposed hybrid system is realized on a PC-based motion controller, and the validness is verified by simulation and experimental results.

  13. Characterization of Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields from Diesel, Gasoline and Hybrid Cars under Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronen Hareuveny

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study characterizes extremely low frequency (ELF magnetic field (MF levels in 10 car models. Extensive measurements were conducted in three diesel, four gasoline, and three hybrid cars, under similar controlled conditions and negligible background fields. Averaged over all four seats under various driving scenarios the fields were lowest in diesel cars (0.02 μT, higher for gasoline (0.04–0.05 μT and highest in hybrids (0.06–0.09 μT, but all were in-line with daily exposures from other sources. Hybrid cars had the highest mean and 95th percentile MF levels, and an especially large percentage of measurements above 0.2 μT. These parameters were also higher for moving conditions compared to standing while idling or revving at 2500 RPM and higher still at 80 km/h compared to 40 km/h. Fields in non-hybrid cars were higher at the front seats, while in hybrid cars they were higher at the back seats, particularly the back right seat where 16%–69% of measurements were greater than 0.2 μT. As our results do not include low frequency fields (below 30 Hz that might be generated by tire rotation, we suggest that net currents flowing through the cars’ metallic chassis may be a possible source of MF. Larger surveys in standardized and well-described settings should be conducted with different types of vehicles and with spectral analysis of fields including lower frequencies due to magnetization of tires.

  14. Strategy and gaps for modeling, simulation, and control of hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Garcia, Humberto E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hovsapian, Rob [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinoshita, Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mesina, George L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boardman, Richard D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to establish a strategy for modeling and simulation of candidate hybrid energy systems. Modeling and simulation is necessary to design, evaluate, and optimize the system technical and economic performance. Accordingly, this report first establishes the simulation requirements to analysis candidate hybrid systems. Simulation fidelity levels are established based on the temporal scale, real and synthetic data availability or needs, solution accuracy, and output parameters needed to evaluate case-specific figures of merit. Accordingly, the associated computational and co-simulation resources needed are established; including physical models when needed, code assembly and integrated solutions platforms, mathematical solvers, and data processing. This report first attempts to describe the figures of merit, systems requirements, and constraints that are necessary and sufficient to characterize the grid and hybrid systems behavior and market interactions. Loss of Load Probability (LOLP) and effective cost of Effective Cost of Energy (ECE), as opposed to the standard Levelized Cost of Electricty (LCOE), are introduced as technical and economical indices for integrated energy system evaluations. Financial assessment methods are subsequently introduced for evaluation of non-traditional, hybrid energy systems. Algorithms for coupled and iterative evaluation of the technical and economic performance are subsequently discussed. This report further defines modeling objectives, computational tools, solution approaches, and real-time data collection and processing (in some cases using real test units) that will be required to model, co-simulate, and optimize; (a) an energy system components (e.g., power generation unit, chemical process, electricity management unit), (b) system domains (e.g., thermal, electrical or chemical energy generation, conversion, and transport), and (c) systems control modules. Co-simulation of complex, tightly coupled

  15. Hybrid passive-active modal networks for structural acoustic control (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunefare, Kenneth A.; Lossouarn, Boris; Collet, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    Distributions of piezoelectric patches bonded to structures provide a means to alter or control, through active or passive means, the dynamic response of the host structure. Numerous active control schemes for such composite structures have been explored. Alternatively, for certain structures, a passive electrical network may be implemented which presents an electrical analog of the modal response of the structure, effectively providing a multi-modal, distributed passive tuned mass modal damper capability. Numerous tuned-mass damper design concepts ("tunings") may be applied to such a passive network. Further, the distributed network analog, when coupled with active control concepts, permits a hybrid distributed passive-active modal control capability. This paper explores this hybrid distributed network control concept applied to a clamped rectangular plate. A unit-cell discrete representation of the plate leads to an electrical analog comprised of passive inductors, transformers and resistors. Addition of synthetic (or controlled) impedances at a limited set of points within the network permits dynamic adjustment of the frequency response of the system.

  16. Comparison of control schemes for a fuel cell hybrid tramway integrating two dc/dc converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, L.M.; Garcia, P.; Garcia, C.A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, EPS Algeciras, University of Cadiz, Avda. Ramon Puyol, s/n, 11202 Algeciras (Cadiz) (Spain); Torreglosa, J.P.; Jurado, F. [Department of Electrical Engineering, EPS Linares, University of Jaen, C/Alfonso X, n 28. 23700 Linares (Jaen) (Spain)

    2010-06-15

    This paper describes a comparative study of two control schemes for the energy management system of a hybrid tramway powered by a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell (FC) and an Ni-MH battery. The hybrid system was designed for a real surface tramway of 400 kW. It is composed of a PEM FC system with a unidirectional dc/dc boost converter (FC converter) and a rechargeable Ni-MH battery with a bidirectional dc/dc converter (battery converter), both of which are coupled to a traction dc bus. The PEM FC and Ni-MH battery models were designed from commercially available components. The function of the two control architectures was to effectively distribute the power of the electrical sources. One of these control architectures was a state machine control strategy, based on eight states. The other was a cascade control strategy which was used to validate the results obtained. The simulation results for the real driving cycle of the tramway reflected the optimal performance of the control systems compared in this study. (author)

  17. Hybrid Fluid-borne Noise Control in Fluid-filled Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, M.; Johnston, N.; Plummer, A.

    2016-09-01

    This article reports on an initial investigation of a hybrid fluid-borne noise control system in hydraulic pipelines. The hybrid system is built by integrating an active feedforward noise controller with passive tuned flexible hoses. The active attenuator is designed to cancel the dominant harmonic pressure pulsations in the fluid line, while the passive hose is tuned to attenuate the residual high frequency pulsations. The active attenuator can effectively decrease the fluid-borne noise by superimposing a secondary anti-phase control signal. Adaptive notch filters with the filtered-X least mean square algorithm were applied for the controller and a frequency-domain least mean square filter was used for the secondary path on-line identification. The transmission line model was used to model the pipeline, and a time-domain hose model which includes coupling of longitudinal wall and fluid waves was used to model the flexible hose. Simulation results show that very good noise cancellation was achieved using the proposed approach, which has several advantages over existing fluid-borne noise control systems, being effective for a wide range of frequencies without impairing the system dynamic response much. While the flexible hoses may be less effective than purpose-built passive silencers, they can form an inexpensive and practical solution in combination with active control.

  18. Performance-Driven Hybrid Full-Body Character Control for Navigation and Interaction in Virtual Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousas, Christos; Anagnostopoulos, Christos-Nikolaos

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a hybrid character control interface that provides the ability to synthesize in real-time a variety of actions based on the user's performance capture. The proposed methodology enables three different performance interaction modules: the performance animation control that enables the direct mapping of the user's pose to the character, the motion controller that synthesizes the desired motion of the character based on an activity recognition methodology, and the hybrid control that lies within the performance animation and the motion controller. With the methodology presented, the user will have the freedom to interact within the virtual environment, as well as the ability to manipulate the character and to synthesize a variety of actions that cannot be performed directly by him/her, but which the system synthesizes. Therefore, the user is able to interact with the virtual environment in a more sophisticated fashion. This paper presents examples of different scenarios based on the three different full-body character control methodologies.

  19. Control Strategy Optimization for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles Using a Memetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Huei Cheng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV control strategy is a management approach for generating, using, and saving energy. Therefore, the optimal control strategy is the sticking point to effectively manage hybrid electric vehicles. In order to realize the optimal control strategy, we use a robust evolutionary computation method called a “memetic algorithm (MA” to optimize the control parameters in parallel HEVs. The “local search” mechanism implemented in the MA greatly enhances its search capabilities. In the implementation of the method, the fitness function combines with the ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR and is set up according to an electric assist control strategy (EACS to minimize the fuel consumption (FC and emissions (HC, CO, and NOx of the vehicle engine. At the same time, driving performance requirements are also considered in the method. Four different driving cycles, the new European driving cycle (NEDC, Federal Test Procedure (FTP, Economic Commission for Europe + Extra-Urban driving cycle (ECE + EUDC, and urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS are carried out using the proposed method to find their respectively optimal control parameters. The results show that the proposed method effectively helps to reduce fuel consumption and emissions, as well as guarantee vehicle performance.

  20. A Piecewise Affine Hybrid Systems Approach to Fault Tolerant Satellite Formation Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, Jacob Deleuran; Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard; Bak, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a procedure for modelling satellite formations   including failure dynamics as a piecewise-affine hybrid system is   shown. The formulation enables recently developed methods and tools   for control and analysis of piecewise-affine systems to be applied   leading to synthesis of fault...... tolerant controllers and analysis of   the system behaviour given possible faults.  The method is   illustrated using a simple example involving two satellites trying   to reach a specific formation despite of actuator faults occurring....

  1. Digital Control of a power conditioner for fuel cell/super-capacitor hybrid system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero, Juan C Trujillo; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol; Montesinos-Miracle, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a digital control scheme to operate a proton exchange membrane fuel cell module of 1.2 kW and a super-capacitor through a DC/DC hybrid converter. A fuel cell has been proposed as a primary source of energy, and a super-capacitor has been proposed as an auxiliary source...... of energy. Experimental validation of the system implemented in the laboratory is provided. Several tests have been performed to verify that the system achieves excellent output voltage (V0) regulation and super-capacitor voltage (V SC) control under disturbances from fuel cell power (PFC) and output power...

  2. Electro-mechanical Braking Method in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Feedback Control Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li; YU Jun-quan; LIU Zheng-yu; CHANG Cheng

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the hybrid electric vehicle braking process is researched, by using variables consists of HEV speed, motor speed, and state of charge established, functions of mechanical braking force, regenerative braking force and efficiency of energy recovery are constructed, and the control goal is to maximization the energy recovery efficiency. Under the feedback control strategy, with the constrain condition of braking strength and braking stability, combining experiments in ADVISOR, in different experiments of different working conditions, we can see that in UDDS Cycle, the regenerative braking efficiency is the best. What’s more, compared with strategies in ADVISOR, strategy proposed in this paper is obviously better.

  3. Digital Control of a power conditioner for fuel cell/super-capacitor hybrid system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero, Juan C Trujillo; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol; Montesinos-Miracle, Daniel;

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a digital control scheme to operate a proton exchange membrane fuel cell module of 1.2 kW and a super-capacitor through a DC/DC hybrid converter. A fuel cell has been proposed as a primary source of energy, and a super-capacitor has been proposed as an auxiliary source...... of energy. Experimental validation of the system implemented in the laboratory is provided. Several tests have been performed to verify that the system achieves excellent output voltage (V0) regulation and super-capacitor voltage (V SC) control under disturbances from fuel cell power (PFC) and output power...

  4. A Piecewise Affine Hybrid Systems Approach to Fault Tolerant Satellite Formation Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, Jacob Deleuran; Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard; Bak, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a procedure for modelling satellite formations   including failure dynamics as a piecewise-affine hybrid system is   shown. The formulation enables recently developed methods and tools   for control and analysis of piecewise-affine systems to be applied   leading to synthesis of fault...... tolerant controllers and analysis of   the system behaviour given possible faults.  The method is   illustrated using a simple example involving two satellites trying   to reach a specific formation despite of actuator faults occurring....

  5. Collaborative-Hybrid Multi-Layer Network Control for Emerging Cyber-Infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, Tom [USC; Ghani, Nasir [UNM; Boyd, Eric [UCAID

    2010-08-31

    At a high level, there were four basic task areas identified for the Hybrid-MLN project. They are: o Multi-Layer, Multi-Domain, Control Plane Architecture and Implementation, including OSCARS layer2 and InterDomain Adaptation, Integration of LambdaStation and Terapaths with Layer2 dynamic provisioning, Control plane software release, Scheduling, AAA, security architecture, Network Virtualization architecture, Multi-Layer Network Architecture Framework Definition; o Heterogeneous DataPlane Testing; o Simulation; o Project Publications, Reports, and Presentations.

  6. Game-based Abstraction and Controller Synthesis for Probabilistic Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Ernst Moritz; Norman, Gethin; Parker, David;

    2011-01-01

    bounds on the optimal probability of reaching a particular class of states. We also demonstrate the applicability of these abstraction techniques to the computation of long-run average reward properties and the synthesis of controllers. The first of the two abstractions yields more precise information......We consider a class of hybrid systems that involve random phenomena, in addition to discrete and continuous behaviour. Examples of such systems include wireless sensing and control applications. We propose and compare two abstraction techniques for this class of models, which yield lower and upper...

  7. Collision avoidance for a mobile robot based on radial basis function hybrid force control technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Shu-Huan

    2009-01-01

    Collision avoidance is always difficult in the planning path for a mobile robot. In this paper, the virtual force field between a mobile robot and an obstacle is formed and regulated to maintain a desired distance by hybrid force control algorithm. Since uncertainties from robot dynamics and obstacle degrade the performance of a collision avoidance task, intelligent control is used to compensate for the uncertainties. A radial basis function (RBF) neural network is used to regulate the force field of an accurate distance between a robot and an obstacle in this paper and then simulation studies are conducted to confirm that the proposed algorithm is effective.

  8. GENERAL: Collision avoidance for a mobile robot based on radial basis function hybrid force control technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shu-Huan

    2009-10-01

    Collision avoidance is always difficult in the planning path for a mobile robot. In this paper, the virtual force field between a mobile robot and an obstacle is formed and regulated to maintain a desired distance by hybrid force control algorithm. Since uncertainties from robot dynamics and obstacle degrade the performance of a collision avoidance task, intelligent control is used to compensate for the uncertainties. A radial basis function (RBF) neural network is used to regulate the force field of an accurate distance between a robot and an obstacle in this paper and then simulation studies are conducted to confirm that the proposed algorithm is effective.

  9. Multi-Agent-Based Controller for Voltage Enhancement in AC/DC Hybrid Microgrid Using Energy Storages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadali Khatibzadeh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Development of renewable energies and DC loads have led microgrids toward the creation of DC networks. The predictions show that the hybrid microgrids will be used widely in the future. This article has studied the voltage stability in the presence of sources of energy storage in AC/DC hybrid networks. However, because the different dynamics of hybrid networks applying centralized and distributed controllers will be faced with different problems, in this study, a multi-agent control for the microgrid has been used. A new structure referred to here as an event-driven microgrid control management (EDMCM has been developed to control the microgrid. This method increases response speed and accuracy of decision making. Hybrid Network Simulation results confirm the validity of the developed model.

  10. Dynamic Modeling and Control Strategy Optimization for a Hybrid Electric Tracked Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new hybrid electric tracked bulldozer composed of an engine generator, two driving motors, and an ultracapacitor is put forward, which can provide high efficiencies and less fuel consumption comparing with traditional ones. This paper first presents the terramechanics of this hybrid electric tracked bulldozer. The driving dynamics for this tracked bulldozer is then analyzed. After that, based on analyzing the working characteristics of the engine, generator, and driving motors, the power train system model and control strategy optimization is established by using MATLAB/Simulink and OPTIMUS software. Simulation is performed under a representative working condition, and the results demonstrate that fuel economy of the HETV can be significantly improved.

  11. Hybrid gels assembled from Fmoc-amino acid and graphene oxide with controllable properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Pengyao; Chu, Xiaoxiao; Li, Shangyang; Ma, Mingfang; Hao, Aiyou

    2014-08-04

    A supramolecular gel is obtained from the self-assembly of an ultralow-molecular-weight gelator (N-fluorenyl-9-methoxycarbonyl glutamic acid) in good and poor solvents. The gelators can self-assemble into a lamellar structure, which can further form twisted fibers and nanotubes in the gel phase. Rheological studies show that the gels are robust and rigid, and are able to rapidly self-recover to a gel after being destroyed by shear force. Fluorescence experiments reveal the aggregation-induced emission effects of the gel system; the fluorescence intensity is significantly enhanced by gel formation. Graphene oxide (GO) is introduced into the system efficiently to give a hybrid material, and the interaction between gelators-GO sheets is studied. Rheological and fluorescent studies imply that the mechanical properties and the fluorescent emission of the hybrid materials can be fine-tuned by controlling the addition of GO.

  12. SDN Controlled mmWave Massive MIMO Hybrid Precoding for 5G Heterogeneous Mobile Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In 5G mobile network, millimeter wave (mmWave and heterogeneous networks (Hetnets are significant techniques to sustain coverage and spectral efficiency. In this paper, we utilize the hybrid precoding to overcome hardware constraints on the analog-only beamforming in mmWave systems. Particularly, we identify the complicated antenna coordination and vast spatial domain information as the outstanding challenges in mmWave Hetnets. In our work, we employ software defined network (SDN to accomplish radio resource management (RRM and achieve flexible spacial coordination in mmWave Hetnets. In our proposed scheme, SDN controller is responsible for collecting the user channel state information (CSI and applying hybrid precoding based on the calculated null-space of victim users. Simulation results show that our design can effectively reduce the interference to victim users and support high quality of service.

  13. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF HYBRID FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER FOR BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR DRIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. SUBBA RAMI REDDY

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents Hybrid fuzzy logic controller (HFLC for the well developed and sophisticated simulation model of Brush less DC (BLDC motor drive using MATLAB. The developed simulation model has been examined by the PID controller and HFLC. The performance of the controllers is evaluated more precisely from various simulation studies for variations in the load torque and speed of BLDC motor drive. A performance comparison of two controllers is also carried out by taking various performance measures such as settling time, steady state error, peak overshoot, the integral of the absolute value of the error (IAE and the integral of the time-weighted squared error (ITSE. The results confirm that the developed simulation model is very convenient for the precise evaluation of performance and the HFLC shows improved performance over the PID controller in terms of disturbance rejection or parameter variation.

  14. Hybrid Visual Servoing Control for Robotic Arc Welding Based on Structured Light Vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUDe; WANGLin-Kun; TUZhi-Guo; TANMin

    2005-01-01

    A novel hybrid visual servoing control method based on structured light vision is proposed for robotic arc welding with a general six degrees of freedom robot. It consists of a position control inner-loop in Cartesian space and two outer-loops. One is position-based visual control inCartesian space for moving in the direction of weld seam, i.e., weld seam tracking, another is imagebased visual control in image space for adjustment to eliminate the errors in the process of tracking.A new Jacobian matrix from image space of the feature point on structured light stripe to Cartesian space is provided for differential movement of the end-effector. The control system model is simplified and its stability is discussed. An experiment of arc welding protected by gas CO2 for verifying is well conducted.

  15. Sensorless Control of Low-cost Single-phase Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor Drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe; Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a sensorless-controlled, low-cost, low-power, and variable-speed drive system suitable for fan and pump applications. The main advantages of this drive system are the low system cost, simple converter structure, and simple but robust sensorless control technique. The drive motor...... is a special hybrid switched reluctance motor. The proposed sensorless control method beneficially utilizes the stator side PM field and its performance is motor parameter independent. The unique low-cost drive system solution, simple and robust sensorless control features of this drive system, is demonstrated...... in detail in this paper. Important design details for practical implementation of the sensorless control algorithm are included. The complete drive system performance is validated using a prototype drive system....

  16. Sensorless control of low-cost single-phase hybrid switched reluctance motor drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe; Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a sensorless-controlled, low-cost, low-power, variable-speed drive system suitable for fan and pump applications. The main advantages of this drive system are the low system cost, simple converter structure, and simple but robust sensorless control technique. The drive motor...... is a special Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor (HSRM). The proposed sensorless control method utilizes beneficially the stator side permanent magnet field and its performance is motor parameter independent. The unique low-cost drive system solution, simple and robust sensorless control features of this drive...... system, is demonstrated in detail in this paper. Important design details for practical implementation of the sensorless control algorithm are included. The complete drive system performance is validated using a prototype drive system....

  17. Synchronization for an array of neural networks with hybrid coupling by a novel pinning control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Dawei; Lewis, Frank L; Wang, Liping; Xu, Ke

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a novel pinning synchronization (synchronization with pinning control) scheme for an array of neural networks with hybrid coupling is investigated. The main contributions are as follows: (1) A novel pinning control strategy is proposed for the first time. Pinning control schemes are introduced as an array of column vector. The controllers are designed as simple linear systems, which are easy to be analyzed or tested. (2) Augmented Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional (LKF) is applied to introduce more relax variables, which can alleviate the requirements of the positive definiteness of the matrix. (3) Based on the appropriate LKF, by introducing some free weighting matrices, some novel synchronization criteria are derived. Furthermore, the proposed pinning control scheme described by column vector can also be expanded to almost all the other array of neural networks. Finally, numerical examples are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed results.

  18. Power Quality Improvement Using Hybrid Power Flow Controller in Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manidhar Thula ,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the applicability of Hybrid Power Flow Controller (HPFC as an alternative to Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC for improvement of power system performance. UPFC is a flexible AC transmission system (FACTS device containing two switching converters, one in series and one in shunt. To configure the HPFC, one of the switching converters of the UPFC is replaced by thyristor controlled variable impedances, thus reducing the cost. In this paper, the HPFC has been configured by multilevel Voltage Source Converter (VSC used for the shunt compensation branches and a thyristor controlled variable impedance used for series compensation. It is shown that with suitable control the HPFC can inject a voltage of required magnitude in series with the line at any desired angle, just like UPFC. This helps in providing compensation equivalent to UPFC and improving the steady state stability limits of the power system.

  19. Sensorless control of low-cost single-phase hybrid switched reluctance motor drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe; Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand;

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a sensorless-controlled, low-cost, low-power, variable-speed drive system suitable for fan and pump applications. The main advantages of this drive system are the low system cost, simple converter structure, and simple but robust sensorless control technique. The drive motor...... is a special Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor (HSRM). The proposed sensorless control method utilizes beneficially the stator side permanent magnet field and its performance is motor parameter independent. The unique low-cost drive system solution, simple and robust sensorless control features of this drive...... system, is demonstrated in detail in this paper. Important design details for practical implementation of the sensorless control algorithm are included. The complete drive system performance is validated using a prototype drive system....

  20. A hybrid robust fault tolerant control based on adaptive joint unscented Kalman filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbouei Hagh, Yashar; Mohammadi Asl, Reza; Cocquempot, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a new hybrid robust fault tolerant control scheme is proposed. A robust H∞ control law is used in non-faulty situation, while a Non-Singular Terminal Sliding Mode (NTSM) controller is activated as soon as an actuator fault is detected. Since a linear robust controller is designed, the system is first linearized through the feedback linearization method. To switch from one controller to the other, a fuzzy based switching system is used. An Adaptive Joint Unscented Kalman Filter (AJUKF) is used for fault detection and diagnosis. The proposed method is based on the simultaneous estimation of the system states and parameters. In order to show the efficiency of the proposed scheme, a simulated 3-DOF robotic manipulator is used.

  1. Investigation of Control Algorithms for Tracked Vehicle Mobility Load Emulation for a Combat Hybrid Electric Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-30

    Investigation of Control Algorithms for Tracked Vehicle Mobility Load Emulation for a Combat Hybrid Electric Power System Jarrett Goodell and...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Investigation of Control Algorithms for Tracked Vehicle Mobility Load Emulation for a Combat Hybrid Electric Power System 5a...for ~ 22 ton tracked vehicle • Tested and Developed: – Motors, Generators, Batteries, Inverters, DC-DC Converters , Thermal Management, Pulse Power

  2. Control Demonstration of Multiple Doubly-Fed Induction Motors for Hybrid Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadey, David J.; Bodson, Marc; Csank, Jeffrey T.; Hunker, Keith R.; Theman, Casey J.; Taylor, Linda M.

    2017-01-01

    The Convergent Aeronautics Solutions (CAS) High Voltage-Hybrid Electric Propulsion (HVHEP) task was formulated to support the move into future hybrid-electric aircraft. The goal of this project is to develop a new AC power architecture to support the needs of higher efficiency and lower emissions. This proposed architecture will adopt the use of the doubly-fed induction machine (DFIM) for propulsor drive motor application.The Convergent Aeronautics Solutions (CAS) High Voltage-Hybrid Electric Propulsion (HVHEP) task was formulated to support the move into future hybrid-electric aircraft. The goal of this project is to develop a new AC power architecture to support the needs of higher efficiency and lower emissions. This proposed architecture will adopt the use of the doubly-fed induction machine (DFIM) for propulsor drive motor application. DFIMs are attractive for several reasons, including but not limited to the ability to self-start, ability to operate sub- and super-synchronously, and requiring only fractionally rated power converters on a per-unit basis depending on the required range of operation. The focus of this paper is based specifically on the presentation and analysis of a novel strategy which allows for independent operation of each of the aforementioned doubly-fed induction motors. This strategy includes synchronization, soft-start, and closed loop speed control of each motor as a means of controlling output thrust; be it concurrently or differentially. The demonstration of this strategy has recently been proven out on a low power test bed using fractional horsepower machines. Simulation and hardware test results are presented in the paper.

  3. A New Topology and Control Strategy for a Hybrid Battery-Ultracapacitor Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changle Xiang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates a new hybrid energy storage system (HESS, which consists of a battery bank and an ultra-capacitor (UC bank, and a control strategy for this system. The proposed topology uses a bi-directional DC-DC converter with a lower power rating than those used in the traditional HESS topology. The proposed HESS has four operating modes, and the proposed control strategy chooses the appropriate operating mode and regulates the distribution of power between the battery bank and the UC bank. Additionally, the control system prevents surges during mode switching and ensures that both the battery bank and the bi-directional DC-DC converter operate within their power limits. The proposed HESS is used to improve the performance of an existing power-split hybrid electric vehicle (HEV. A method for calculating the parameters of the proposed HESS is presented. A simulation model of the proposed HESS and control strategy was developed, and a scaled-down experimental platform was constructed. The results of the simulations and the experiments provide strong evidence for the feasibility of the proposed topology and the control strategy. The performance of the HESS is not influenced by the power limits of the bi-directional DC-DC converter.

  4. Feedback control of current drive by using hybrid wave in tokamaks; Asservissement de la generation de courant par l`onde hybride dans un plasma de tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijnands, T.J. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee]|[CEA Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Direction des Sciences de la Matiere

    1997-03-01

    This work is focussed on an important and recent development in present day Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research and Tokamaks. The aim is to optimise the energy confinement for a certain magnetic configuration by adapting the radial distribution of the current. Of particular interest are feedback control scenarios with stationary modifications of the current profile using current, driven by Lower Hybrid waves. A new feedback control system has been developed for Tore Supra and has made a large number of new operation scenarios possible. In one of the experiments described here, there is no energy exchange between the poloidal field system and the plasma, the current is controlled by the power of the Lower Hybrid waves while the launched wave spectrum is used to optimise the current profile shape and the energy confinement. (author) 151 refs.

  5. The Hybrid RFNN Control for a PMSM Drive Electric Scooter Using Rotor Flux Estimator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hong Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid recurrent fuzzy neural network (HRFNN control for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM drive system using rotor flux estimator is developed to control electric scooter in this paper. First, the dynamic models of a PMSM drive system were derived in according to electric scooter. Owing to the load of electric scooter exited many uncertainties, for example, nonlinear friction force of the transmission belt, and so forth. The electric scooter with nonlinear uncertainties made the PI controller to disable speed tracking control. Moreover, in order to reduce interference of encoder and cost down, an HRFNN control system using rotor flux estimator was developed to control PMSM drive system in order to drive electric scooter. The rotor flux estimator consists of the estimation algorithm of rotor flux position and speed based on the back electromagnetic force (EMF in order to supply with HRFNN controller. The HRFNN controller consists of the supervisor control, RFNN, and compensated control with adaptive law is applied to PMSM drive system. The parameters of RFNN are trained according to different speeds in electric scooter. The electric scooter is operated to provide disturbance torque. To show the effectiveness of the proposed controller, comparative studies with PI controller are demonstrated by experimental results.

  6. Control concept for a hybrid engine test device composed of a water vortex brake and an asynchronous machine; Regelungskonzept fuer einen Hybrid-Motorenpruefstand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeenpaeae, A. [ABB Automation Products, Mannheim (Germany); Fischer, G. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    New environmental laws require lower exhaust limits of motor vehicles all over the world. To test these limits, drive-cycle tests are performed on engine test devices. Future laws will require the simulation od downhill driving, which requires extensive changes to the engine test devices. Hybrid test devices with a water vortex brake and an asynchronous machine could be advantageous. A new control concept for those hybrid test devices is described here. (orig.) [German] Neue Umweltgesetze druecken weltweit die Abgasgrenzwerte von Automobilen nach unten. Zur Ueberpruefung dieser Grenzwerte dienen Fahrzyklus-Testreihen auf Motorenpruefstaenden. Kuenftige Vorschriften erfordern dabei bald die Simulation des 'Schiebebetriebs' (wie bei Bergabfahrten). Das erfordert aufwendige Umruestungen bei den Motorenpruefstaenden. Eine preisguenstige Loesung stellen Hybrid-Pruefstaende aus einer Wasserwirbelbremse und einer Asynchron-Maschine dar. Ein neues Regelkonzept dafuer wird hier beschrieben. (orig.)

  7. Genetic based sensorless hybrid intelligent controller for strip loop formation control between inter-stands in hot steel rolling mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangavel, S; Palanisamy, V; Duraiswamy, K

    2008-04-01

    Safe operating environment is essential for all complex industrial processes. The safety issues in steel rolling mill when the hot strip passes through consecutive mill stands have been considered in this paper. Formation of sag in strip is a common problem in the rolling process. The excessive sag can lead to scrap runs and damage to machinery. Conventional controllers for mill actuation system are based on a rolling model. The factors like rise in temperature, aging, wear and tear are not taken into account while designing a conventional controller. Therefore, the conventional controller cannot yield a requisite controlled output. In this paper, a new Genetic-neuro-fuzzy hybrid controller without tension sensor has been proposed to optimize the quantum of excessive sag and reduce it. The performance of the proposed controller has been compared with the performance of fuzzy logic controller, Neuro-fuzzy controller and conventional controller with the help of data collected from the plant. The simulation results depict that the proposed controller has superior performance than the other controllers.

  8. System-wide hybrid MPC-PID control of a continuous pharmaceutical tablet manufacturing process via direct compaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ravendra; Ierapetritou, Marianthi; Ramachandran, Rohit

    2013-11-01

    The next generation of QbD based pharmaceutical products will be manufactured through continuous processing. This will allow the integration of online/inline monitoring tools, coupled with an efficient advanced model-based feedback control systems, to achieve precise control of process variables, so that the predefined product quality can be achieved consistently. The direct compaction process considered in this study is highly interactive and involves time delays for a number of process variables due to sensor placements, process equipment dimensions, and the flow characteristics of the solid material. A simple feedback regulatory control system (e.g., PI(D)) by itself may not be sufficient to achieve the tight process control that is mandated by regulatory authorities. The process presented herein comprises of coupled dynamics involving slow and fast responses, indicating the requirement of a hybrid control scheme such as a combined MPC-PID control scheme. In this manuscript, an efficient system-wide hybrid control strategy for an integrated continuous pharmaceutical tablet manufacturing process via direct compaction has been designed. The designed control system is a hybrid scheme of MPC-PID control. An effective controller parameter tuning strategy involving an ITAE method coupled with an optimization strategy has been used for tuning of both MPC and PID parameters. The designed hybrid control system has been implemented in a first-principles model-based flowsheet that was simulated in gPROMS (Process System Enterprise). Results demonstrate enhanced performance of critical quality attributes (CQAs) under the hybrid control scheme compared to only PID or MPC control schemes, illustrating the potential of a hybrid control scheme in improving pharmaceutical manufacturing operations.

  9. High voltage bus and auxiliary heater control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Balarama Vempaty

    2000-01-01

    A control system for an electric or hybrid electric vehicle includes a vehicle system controller and a control circuit having an electric immersion heater. The heater is electrically connected to the vehicle's high voltage bus and is thermally coupled to a coolant loop containing a heater core for the vehicle's climate control system. The system controller responds to cabin heat requests from the climate control system by generating a pulse width modulated signal that is used by the control circuit to operate the heater at a duty cycle appropriate for the amount of cabin heating requested. The control system also uses the heater to dissipate excess energy produced by an auxiliary power unit and to provide electric braking when regenerative braking is not desirable and manual braking is not necessary. The control system further utilizes the heater to provide a safe discharge of a bank of energy storage capacitors following disconnection of the battery or one of the high voltage connectors used to transmit high voltage operating power to the various vehicle systems. The control circuit includes a high voltage clamping circuit that monitors the voltage on the bus and operates the heater to clamp down the bus voltage when it exceeds a pre-selected maximum voltage. The control system can also be used to phase in operation of the heater when the bus voltage exceeds a lower threshold voltage and can be used to phase out the auxiliary power unit charging and regenerative braking when the battery becomes fully charged.

  10. Energy Conservation Analysis and Control of Hybrid Active Semiactive Suspension with Three Regulating Damping Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Active suspension has not been popularized for high energy consumption. To address this issue, this paper introduces the concept of a new kind of suspension. The linear motor is considered to be integrated into an adjustable shock absorber to form the hybrid active semiactive suspension (HASAS. To realize the superiority of HASAS, its energy consumption and regeneration mechanisms are revealed. And the system controller which is composed of linear quadratic regulator (LQR controller, mode decision and switch controller, and the sliding mode control based thrust controller is developed. LQR controller is designed to maintain the suspension control objectives, while mode decision and switch controller decides the optimal damping level to tune motor thrust. The thrust controller ensures motor thrust tracking. An adjustable shock absorber with three regulating levels to be used in HASAS is trial produced and tested to obtain its working characteristics. Finally, simulation analysis is made with the experimental three damping characteristics. The impacts of adjustable damping on the motor force and energy consumption are investigated. Simulation results demonstrate the advantages of HASAS in energy conservation with various suspension control objectives. Even self-powered active control and energy regenerated to the power source can be realized.

  11. Biomineralization-inspired synthesis of functional organic/inorganic hybrid materials: organic molecular control of self-organization of hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakaki, Atsushi; Shimizu, Katsuhiko; Oda, Mayumi; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Nishimura, Tatsuya; Kato, Takashi

    2015-01-28

    Organisms produce various organic/inorganic hybrid materials, which are called biominerals. They form through the self-organization of organic molecules and inorganic elements under ambient conditions. Biominerals often have highly organized and hierarchical structures from nanometer to macroscopic length scales, resulting in their remarkable physical and chemical properties that cannot be obtained by simple accumulation of their organic and inorganic constituents. These observations motivate us to create novel functional materials exhibiting properties superior to conventional materials--both synthetic and natural. Herein, we introduce recent progress in understanding biomineralization processes at the molecular level and the development of organic/inorganic hybrid materials by these processes. We specifically outline fundamental molecular studies on silica, iron oxide, and calcium carbonate biomineralization and describe material synthesis based on these mechanisms. These approaches allow us to design a variety of advanced hybrid materials with desired morphologies, sizes, compositions, and structures through environmentally friendly synthetic routes using functions of organic molecules.

  12. Controlled cytotoxicity of plasma treated water formulated by open-air hybrid mode discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, P.; Boehm, D.; Cullen, P.; Bourke, P.

    2017-06-01

    Plasma treated liquids (PTLs) provide a means to convey a broad range of effects of relevance for food, environmental, or clinical decontamination, plant growth promotion, and therapeutic applications. Devising the reactive species ingredients and controlling the biological response of PTLs are of great interest. We demonstrate an approach by using an open-air hybrid mode discharge (HMD) to control the principal reactive species composition within plasma treated water (PTW), which is then demonstrated to regulate the cytotoxicity of PTW. The cytotoxicity of HMD produced PTW demonstrates a non-monotonic change over the discharge time. Although hydrogen peroxide and nitrite are not the sole effectors for cell death caused by PTW, using them as principal reactive species indicators, cytotoxicity can be removed and/or enhanced by formulating their concentrations and composition through adjusting the discharge mode and time on-line during PTW generation without the addition of additional working gas or chemical scavengers. This work demonstrates that a hybrid mode discharge can be employed to generate a PTW formulation to control a biological response such as cytotoxicity. This provides insights into how plasma treated liquids may be harnessed for biological applications in a specific and controllable manner.

  13. Modeling and energy management control design for a fuel cell hybrid passenger bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Kyle; Guezennec, Yann; Onori, Simona

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling and supervisory energy management design of a hybrid fuel cell/battery-powered passenger bus. With growing concerns about petroleum usage and greenhouse gas emissions in the transportation sector, finding alternative methods for vehicle propulsion is necessary. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems are viable possibilities for energy converters due to their high efficiencies and zero emissions. It has been shown that the benefits of PEM fuel cell systems can be greatly improved through hybridization. In this work, the challenge of developing an on-board energy management strategy with near-optimal performance is addressed by a two-step process. First, an optimal control based on Pontryagin's Minimum Principle (PMP) is implemented to find the global optimal solution which minimizes fuel consumption, for different drive cycles, with and without grade. The optimal solutions are analyzed in order to aid in development of a practical controller suitable for on-board implementation, in the form of an Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) regulator. Simulation results show that the ARMA controller is capable of achieving fuel economy within 3% of the PMP controller while being able to limit the transient demand on the fuel cell system.

  14. Energy-Efficient Scheduling for Hybrid Tasks in Control Devices for the Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojun Dai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In control devices for the Internet of Things (IoT, energy is one of the critical restriction factors. Dynamic voltage scaling (DVS has been proved to be an effective method for reducing the energy consumption of processors. This paper proposes an energy-efficient scheduling algorithm for IoT control devices with hard real-time control tasks (HRCTs and soft real-time tasks (SRTs. The main contribution of this paper includes two parts. First, it builds the Hybrid tasks with multi-subtasks of different function Weight (HoW task model for IoT control devices. HoW describes the structure of HRCTs and SRTs, and their properties, e.g., deadlines, execution time, preemption properties, and energy-saving goals, etc. Second, it presents the Hybrid Tasks’ Dynamic Voltage Scaling (HTDVS algorithm. HTDVS first sets the slowdown factors of subtasks while meeting the different real-time requirements of HRCTs and SRTs, and then dynamically reclaims, reserves, and reuses the slack time of the subtasks to meet their ideal energy-saving goals. Experimental results show HTDVS can reduce energy consumption about 10%–80% while meeting the real-time requirements of HRCTs, HRCTs help to reduce the deadline miss ratio (DMR of systems, and HTDVS has comparable performance with the greedy algorithm and is more favorable to keep the subtasks’ ideal speeds.

  15. Kinematic Modelling and Control Simulation for 1PS+3TPS Type Hybrid Machine Tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Shouwen; WANG Xiaobing; HUANG Hongzhong

    2006-01-01

    A structure scheme for a novel hybrid machine tool (HMT) is proposed in this paper. In the scheme, a 4-DOFs 1PS+3TPS type spatial hybrid mechanism is utilized as main feed mechanism, with assistance of a two direction movable worktable, multi-coordinates NC machining can be realized. In the main feed mechanism, fixed platform is connected with moving platform by three TPS driving links and one PS driving link, one translation DOF and three rotation DOFs can be achieved by it. This type HMT enjoys some advantages over its conventional counterparts:large workspace,good dexterity,etc. Closed form inverse displacement analysis model and inverse kinematic model for main feed mechanism are established. A fuzzy PID control scheme for machining control of HMTs with high tracking precision is proposed aiming at highly nonlinear, tightly coupled and uncertain characteristic of HMTs. Simulation researches for fuzzy PID control of HMTs are carried out. Simulation Results demonstrate the effectiveness and the Robostness of the fuzzy PID controller.

  16. Energy-efficient scheduling for hybrid tasks in control devices for the Internet of Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhigang; Wu, Yifan; Dai, Guojun; Xia, Haixia

    2012-01-01

    In control devices for the Internet of Things (IoT), energy is one of the critical restriction factors. Dynamic voltage scaling (DVS) has been proved to be an effective method for reducing the energy consumption of processors. This paper proposes an energy-efficient scheduling algorithm for IoT control devices with hard real-time control tasks (HRCTs) and soft real-time tasks (SRTs). The main contribution of this paper includes two parts. First, it builds the Hybrid tasks with multi-subtasks of different function Weight (HoW) task model for IoT control devices. HoW describes the structure of HRCTs and SRTs, and their properties, e.g., deadlines, execution time, preemption properties, and energy-saving goals, etc. Second, it presents the Hybrid Tasks' Dynamic Voltage Scaling (HTDVS) algorithm. HTDVS first sets the slowdown factors of subtasks while meeting the different real-time requirements of HRCTs and SRTs, and then dynamically reclaims, reserves, and reuses the slack time of the subtasks to meet their ideal energy-saving goals. Experimental results show HTDVS can reduce energy consumption about 10%-80% while meeting the real-time requirements of HRCTs, HRCTs help to reduce the deadline miss ratio (DMR) of systems, and HTDVS has comparable performance with the greedy algorithm and is more favorable to keep the subtasks' ideal speeds.

  17. Control strategy of interlinking converters as the key segment of hybrid AC–DC microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baharizadeh, Mehdi; Karshenas, Hamid Reza; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    , which again deteriorates the IC ac-side voltage quality. The proposed strategy is based on droop method, similar to what is used in the autonomous control of sources in an AC-MG. This technique uses voltage-controlled method and does not need frequency measurement in its structure. This considerably......This study is concerned with presenting control strategy for interlink converters in hybrid microgrids. When both ac microgrids (AC-MGs) and dc microgrids are in the vicinity of each other, they can be interconnected via ac-dc converters, known as ICs, making it possible to exchange energy between...... two grids. Common methods employed in IC control strategy use frequency variation and CCM in their structure. This method requires the frequency variation at IC ac-side to be large, leading to poor power quality and stability of AC-MG. Furthermore, CCM does not directly regulate the IC ac-side voltage...

  18. Regenerative Braking Control Strategy of Electric-Hydraulic Hybrid (EHH Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel electric-hydraulic hybrid drivetrain incorporating a set of hydraulic systems is proposed for application in a pure electric vehicle. Models of the electric and hydraulic components are constructed. Two control strategies, which are based on two separate rules, are developed; the maximum energy recovery rate strategy adheres to the rule of the maximization of the braking energy recovery rate, while the minimum current impact strategy adheres to the rule of the minimization of the charge current to the battery. The simulation models were established to verify the effects of these two control strategies. An ABS (Anti-lock Braking System fuzzy control strategy is also developed and simulated. The simulation results demonstrate that the developed control strategy can effectively absorb the braking energy, suppress the current impact, and assure braking safety.

  19. OPTIMAL TORQUE CONTROL STRATEGY FOR PARALLEL HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE WITH AUTOMATIC MECHANICAL TRANSMISSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Yanchun; YIN Chengliang; ZHANG Jianwu

    2007-01-01

    In parallel hybrid electrical vehicle (PHEV) equipped with automatic mechanical transmission (AMT), the driving smoothness and the clutch abrasion are the primary considerations for powertrain control during gearshift and clutch operation. To improve these performance indexes of PHEV, a coordinated control system is proposed through the analyzing of HEV powertrain dynamic characteristics. Using the method of minimum principle, the input torque of transmission is optimized to improve the driving sinoothness of vehicle. Using the methods of fuzzy logic and fuzzy-PID, the engaging speed of clutch and the throttle opening of engine are manipulated to ensure the smoothness of clutch engagement and reduce the abrasion of clutch friction plates. The motor provides the difference between the required input torque of transmission and the torque transmitted through clutch plates. Results of simulation and experiments show that the proposed control strategy performs better than the contrastive control system, the smoothness of driving and the abrasion of clutch can be improved simultaneously.

  20. Assesment and Analyze Hybride Control System in Distribution Static Synchronous Compensator Based Current Source Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Ali Zanjani

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid technology advancement in control processes, electric utilities are experiencing more demanding requirements on the power quality from the large industrial power consumers. For achieved this purpose use of FACTS devices. One of kind compensator is D-Statcom, using in distribution system for conquest of power quality problem. This paper presents system modeling and control design techniques of distribution static synchronous compensator. For reach an optimal design, using a hybride state-feedback and d-q control systems. Using direct sampling on network parameter, than conventional control system, as well as fast dynamic responses are achieved. The derived simulations are tried to verify the result of this paper.

  1. Current control for a shunt hybrid active power filter using recursive integral PI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei ZHAO; An LUO; Ke PENG; Xia DENG

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a current control method for a shunt hybrid active power filter(HAPF) using recursive integral Pl algorithm.The method improves the performance of the HAPF system by reducing the influence of detection accuracy,time delay of instruction current calculation and phase displacement of output filter.Fuzzy logic based set-point weighing algorithm is combined in the control scheme to enhance its robustness and anti-interference ability.The proposed algorithm is easy to implement for engineering applications and easy to compute.Experiment results have verified the validity of the proposed controller.Furthermore,the proposed recursive integral PI algorithm can also be applied in the control of periodic current as in AC drivers.

  2. Improved hybrid position/force controller design of a flexible robot manipulator using a sliding observer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farooq M; Wang Daobo; Dar N. U

    2009-01-01

    An improved hybrid position/force controller design of a flexible robot manipulator is presented using a sliding observer. The friction between the end effector and the environment is considered and compensated. For systematic reasons the controller is designed taking into consideration the rigid link subsystems and the flexible joints. The proposed control system satisfies the stability of the two subsystems and copes with the uncertainty of robot dynamics. A sliding observer is designed to estimate the time derivative of the torque applied as input to the rigid part of the robot. For the stability of the observer, it is assumed that the uncertainty of the observed system is bounded. A MRAC algorithm is used for the estimation of the friction forces at the contact point between the end effector and the environment. Finally simulation and experimental results are given, to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller.

  3. A novel organic-inorganic hybrid composition for controllably synthesizing AgI nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junxue; He, Sheng; An, Changhua; Zhang, Jun

    2017-05-01

    The ability to control the shape and morphology of semiconductor macro/nanocrystals is critical to applications such as photocatalysis, electrocatalysis, photonics and nanoelectronics. Despite significant advances in controlling the shapes by thermal decomposition and solvothermal methods, rigorous shape control by low temperature and aqueous phase controlling remains challenging. Herein, a facile synthetic method based on ethylenediamine assisted precursor transformation technique has been developed for the fabrication of AgI nanocrystals. The central features of our approach are the use of ethylenediamine (en) as complexant and the use of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as capping surfactants to form Ag(en)xI precursor, which is followed by removing en to form AgI crystals. This work provides new insights into the use of a novel organic-inorganic hybrid composition as precursors for nanocrystals synthesis and offers a potential route to achieve well-defined morphology of inorganic nanostructures with uniform shape and size.

  4. Anti-inflammatory drug incorporation into polymeric nano-hybrids for local controlled release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammartino, G; Marenzi, G; Tammaro, L; Bolognese, A; Calignano, A; Costantino, U; Califano, L; Mastrangelo, F; Tetè, S; Vittoria, V

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present the formulation, preparation and characterization of new polymeric composite materials containing a nano-hybrid to be used for the controlled molecular delivery of an anti-inflammatory molecule, Diclofenac. The nano-hybrid consists of a layer of double hydroxide of an Mg-Al hydrotalcite type, in which we replaced the chloride anions present in the host galleries with Diclofenac anions by a simple ion-exchange reaction. Different amounts of the hybrid material were incorporated in polycaprolactone and processed as films of 0.15 mm thickness. The composite materials were analyzed by X-ray diffractometry, thermogravimetry and for their mechanical properties, and showed properties even better than those for the pristine polymer. The release process of the anti-inflammatory molecules was very interesting and promising for tuneable drug delivery. It consists of two stages: a first stage, very rapid as a burst in which a small fraction of the drug is released, and of a second stage that is much slower, extending for longer and longer periods. The parameters influencing the drug release were individuated and discussed.

  5. Nonvolatile, reversible electric-field controlled switching of remanent magnetization in multifunctional ferromagnetic/ferroelectric hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandlmaier, A.; Geprägs, S.; Woltersdorf, G.; Gross, R.; Goennenwein, S. T. B.

    2011-08-01

    In spin-mechanics, the magnetoelastic coupling in ferromagnetic/ferroelectric hybrid devices is exploited in order to realize an electric-voltage control of magnetization orientation. To this end, different voltage-induced elastic strain states are used to generate different magnetization orientations. In our approach, we take advantage of the hysteretic expansion and contraction of a commercial piezoelectric actuator as a function of electrical voltage to deterministically select one of two electro-remanent elastic strain states. We investigate the resulting magnetic response in a nickel thin film/piezoelectric actuator hybrid device at room temperature, using simultaneous magneto-optical Kerr effect and magnetotransport measurements. The magnetic properties of the hybrid can be consistently described in a macrospin model, i.e., in terms of a single magnetic domain. At zero external magnetic field, the magnetization orientation in the two electro-remanent strain states differs by 15°, which corresponds to a magnetoresistance change of 0.5%. These results demonstrate that the spin-mechanics scheme indeed enables a nonvolatile electrically read- and writable memory bit where the information is encoded in a magnetic property.

  6. A microfluidic microprocessor: controlling biomimetic containers and cells using hybrid integrated circuit/microfluidic chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issadore, David; Franke, Thomas; Brown, Keith A; Westervelt, Robert M

    2010-11-07

    We present an integrated platform for performing biological and chemical experiments on a chip based on standard CMOS technology. We have developed a hybrid integrated circuit (IC)/microfluidic chip that can simultaneously control thousands of living cells and pL volumes of fluid, enabling a wide variety of chemical and biological tasks. Taking inspiration from cellular biology, phospholipid bilayer vesicles are used as robust picolitre containers for reagents on the chip. The hybrid chip can be programmed to trap, move, and porate individual living cells and vesicles and fuse and deform vesicles using electric fields. The IC spatially patterns electric fields in a microfluidic chamber using 128 × 256 (32,768) 11 × 11 μm(2) metal pixels, each of which can be individually driven with a radio frequency (RF) voltage. The chip's basic functions can be combined in series to perform complex biological and chemical tasks and can be performed in parallel on the chip's many pixels for high-throughput operations. The hybrid chip operates in two distinct modes, defined by the frequency of the RF voltage applied to the pixels: Voltages at MHz frequencies are used to trap, move, and deform objects using dielectrophoresis and voltages at frequencies below 1 kHz are used for electroporation and electrofusion. This work represents an important step towards miniaturizing the complex chemical and biological experiments used for diagnostics and research onto automated and inexpensive chips.

  7. Feedforward-feedback hybrid control for magnetic shape memory alloy actuators based on the Krasnosel'skii-Pokrovskii model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaolei Zhou

    Full Text Available As a new type of smart material, magnetic shape memory alloy has the advantages of a fast response frequency and outstanding strain capability in the field of microdrive and microposition actuators. The hysteresis nonlinearity in magnetic shape memory alloy actuators, however, limits system performance and further application. Here we propose a feedforward-feedback hybrid control method to improve control precision and mitigate the effects of the hysteresis nonlinearity of magnetic shape memory alloy actuators. First, hysteresis nonlinearity compensation for the magnetic shape memory alloy actuator is implemented by establishing a feedforward controller which is an inverse hysteresis model based on Krasnosel'skii-Pokrovskii operator. Secondly, the paper employs the classical Proportion Integration Differentiation feedback control with feedforward control to comprise the hybrid control system, and for further enhancing the adaptive performance of the system and improving the control accuracy, the Radial Basis Function neural network self-tuning Proportion Integration Differentiation feedback control replaces the classical Proportion Integration Differentiation feedback control. Utilizing self-learning ability of the Radial Basis Function neural network obtains Jacobian information of magnetic shape memory alloy actuator for the on-line adjustment of parameters in Proportion Integration Differentiation controller. Finally, simulation results show that the hybrid control method proposed in this paper can greatly improve the control precision of magnetic shape memory alloy actuator and the maximum tracking error is reduced from 1.1% in the open-loop system to 0.43% in the hybrid control system.

  8. Feedforward-feedback hybrid control for magnetic shape memory alloy actuators based on the Krasnosel'skii-Pokrovskii model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Miaolei; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Jingyuan

    2014-01-01

    As a new type of smart material, magnetic shape memory alloy has the advantages of a fast response frequency and outstanding strain capability in the field of microdrive and microposition actuators. The hysteresis nonlinearity in magnetic shape memory alloy actuators, however, limits system performance and further application. Here we propose a feedforward-feedback hybrid control method to improve control precision and mitigate the effects of the hysteresis nonlinearity of magnetic shape memory alloy actuators. First, hysteresis nonlinearity compensation for the magnetic shape memory alloy actuator is implemented by establishing a feedforward controller which is an inverse hysteresis model based on Krasnosel'skii-Pokrovskii operator. Secondly, the paper employs the classical Proportion Integration Differentiation feedback control with feedforward control to comprise the hybrid control system, and for further enhancing the adaptive performance of the system and improving the control accuracy, the Radial Basis Function neural network self-tuning Proportion Integration Differentiation feedback control replaces the classical Proportion Integration Differentiation feedback control. Utilizing self-learning ability of the Radial Basis Function neural network obtains Jacobian information of magnetic shape memory alloy actuator for the on-line adjustment of parameters in Proportion Integration Differentiation controller. Finally, simulation results show that the hybrid control method proposed in this paper can greatly improve the control precision of magnetic shape memory alloy actuator and the maximum tracking error is reduced from 1.1% in the open-loop system to 0.43% in the hybrid control system.

  9. A Polar Fuzzy Control Scheme for Hybrid Power System Using Vehicle-To-Grid Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Elsayed Lotfy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel polar fuzzy (PF control approach for a hybrid power system is proposed in this research. The proposed control scheme remedies the issues of system frequency and the continuity of demand supply caused by renewable sources’ uncertainties. The hybrid power system consists of a wind turbine generator (WTG, solar photovoltaics (PV, a solar thermal power generator (STPG, a diesel engine generator (DEG, an aqua-electrolyzer (AE, an ultra-capacitor (UC, a fuel-cell (FC, and a flywheel (FW. Furthermore, due to the high cost of the battery energy storage system (BESS, a new idea of vehicle-to-grid (V2G control is applied to use the battery of the electric vehicle (EV as equivalent to large-scale energy storage units instead of small batteries to improve the frequency stability of the system. In addition, EV customers’ convenience is taken into account. A minimal-order observer is used to estimate the supply error. Then, the area control error (ACE signal is calculated in terms of the estimated supply error and the frequency deviation. ACE is considered in the frequency domain. Two PF approaches are utilized in the intended system. The mission of each controller is to mitigate one frequency component of ACE. The responsibility for ACE compensation is shared among all parts of the system according to their speed of response. The performance of the proposed control scheme is compared to the conventional fuzzy logic control (FLC. The effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control technique are verified by numerical simulations under various scenarios.

  10. Design and implementation of co-operative control strategy for hybrid AC/DC microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Rasel

    This thesis is mainly divided in two major sections: 1) Modeling and control of AC microgrid, DC microgrid, Hybrid AC/DC microgrid using distributed co-operative control, and 2) Development of a four bus laboratory prototype of an AC microgrid system. At first, a distributed cooperative control (DCC) for a DC microgrid considering the state-of-charge (SoC) of the batteries in a typical plug-in-electric-vehicle (PEV) is developed. In DC microgrids, this methodology is developed to assist the load sharing amongst the distributed generation units (DGs), according to their ratings with improved voltage regulation. Subsequently, a DCC based control algorithm for AC microgrid is also investigated to improve the performance of AC microgrid in terms of power sharing among the DGs, voltage regulation and frequency deviation. The results validate the advantages of the proposed methodology as compared to traditional droop control of AC microgrid. The DCC-based control methodology for AC microgrid and DC microgrid are further expanded to develop a DCC-based power management algorithm for hybrid AC/DC microgrid. The developed algorithm for hybrid microgrid controls the power flow through the interfacing converter (IC) between the AC and DC microgrids. This will facilitate the power sharing between the DGs according to their power ratings. Moreover, it enables the fixed scheduled power delivery at different operating conditions, while maintaining good voltage regulation and improved frequency profile. The second section provides a detailed explanation and step-by-step design and development of an AC/DC microgrid testbed. Controllers for the three-phase inverters are designed and tested on different generation units along with their corresponding inductor-capacitor-inductor (LCL) filters to eliminate the switching frequency harmonics. Electric power distribution line models are developed to form the microgrid network topology. Voltage and current sensors are placed in the proper

  11. Hybrid microelectronic technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, P.

    Various areas of hybrid microelectronic technology are discussed. The topics addressed include: basic thick film processing, thick film pastes and substrates, add-on components and attachment methods, thin film processing, and design of thick film hybrid circuits. Also considered are: packaging hybrid circuits, automating the production of hybrid circuits, application of hybrid techniques, customer's view of hybrid technology, and quality control and assurance in hybrid circuit production.

  12. A hybrid medium access control for convergence of broadband wireless and wireline ATM networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hong; Gliese, Ulrik Bo; Dittmann, Lars

    2000-01-01

    of contention, reservation and polling access techniques based on the dynamic TDMA system. Extensive simulation results using realistic data traffic sources, show that the proposed medium access scheme may provide QoS guarantees to different ATM traffic including the realistic MPEG video traces with low cell......In this paper, we propose a hybrid medium access control protocol for supporting broadband integrated services in the wireless ATM networks. The integrated services include CBR, VBR and ABR traffic varying from low bit-rate to very high bit-rate. The proposed protocol is an excellent compromise...

  13. Power control method on VSC-HVDC in a hybrid multi-infeed HVDC system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yan; Chen, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    Multi-infeed HVDC (MIDC) system connected with VSC-HVDC links and LCC-HVDC links is a new structure in modern power systems, which can be called hybrid multi-infeed HVDC (HMIDC) system. The paper presents the voltage stability analysis of a HMIDC system modeled from a possible future Danish power...... stability of the system with induction machine loads. The proposed power control method based on a VSC power circle makes fully use of the VSC-HVDC capacity to support system voltage during fault situations. Simulation model of the studied HMIDC system is built in PSCAD. Simulation studies under different...

  14. Control of Hybrid System Using Multi-Input Inverter and Maximum Power Point Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Sivakumar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to control the Wind/PV hybrid system using Multi-input inverter to get constant output power for different operating conditions. The MPPT also used in this system to get the maximum peak power to the load. The perturbation observation (P&O method is used to accomplish the maximum power point tracking algorithm for input sources. The operating principle of the open loop and closed loop circuit of multi-input inverter is discussed.

  15. Macroscopic assembly by optical control of zmol-level DNA hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Takuya; Nishimura, Yushi; Tamura, Mamoru; Nishida, Keisuke; Ito, Syoji; Tokonami, Shiho

    2017-04-01

    Remote acceleration of a molecular recognition will open an avenue for the control of various biological functions. Here, we have developed a new principle for the rapid macroscopic assembly based on the light-induced molecular recognition via nanoparticles. Remarkably, as an application of this principle, we have demonstrated the submillimetre network formation triggered by light-induced hybridization of zmol-level DNA within a few minutes. This finding will be used for the rapid and highly sensitive genetic screening without fluorescent labeling.

  16. Hybrid Multi-Agent Control in Microgrids: Framework, Models and Implementations Based on IEC 61850

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Dou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Operation control is a vital and complex issue for microgrids. The objective of this paper is to explore the practical means of applying decentralized control by using a multi agent system in actual microgrids and devices. This paper presents a hierarchical control framework (HCF consisting of local reaction control (LRC level, local decision control (LDC level, horizontal cooperation control (HCC level and vertical cooperation control (VCC level to meet different control requirements of a microgrid. Then, a hybrid multi-agent control model (HAM is proposed to implement HCF, and the properties, functionalities and operating rules of HAM are described. Furthermore, the paper elaborates on the implementation of HAM based on the IEC 61850 Standard, and proposes some new implementation methods, such as extended information models of IEC 61850 with agent communication language and bidirectional interaction mechanism of generic object oriented substation event (GOOSE communication. A hardware design and software system are proposed and the results of simulation and laboratory tests verify the effectiveness of the proposed strategies, models and implementations.

  17. Solid oxide fuel cell hybrid system: Control strategy for stand-alone configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Mario L.

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study is the development and testing of a control system for solid oxide fuel cell hybrid systems through dynamic simulations. Due to the complexity of these cycles, several parameters, such as the turbine rotational speed, the temperatures within the fuel cell, the differential pressure between the anodic and the cathodic side and the Steam-To-Carbon Ratio need to be monitored and kept within safe limits. Furthermore, in stand-alone conditions the system response to load variations is required to meet the global plant power demand at any time, supporting global load variations and avoiding dangerous or unstable conditions. The plant component models and their integration were carried out in previous studies. This paper focuses on the control strategy required for managing the net electrical power from the system, avoiding malfunctions or damage. Once the control system was developed and tuned, its performance was evaluated by simulating the transient behaviour of the whole hybrid cycle: the results for several operating conditions are presented and discussed.

  18. Hydrophobicity control by a supercritical drying technique in a sol–gel process with hybrid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Hongbo; Qiao, Zemin; Liu, Xiao; Cui, Xudong, E-mail: xudcui@gmail.com

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Sol–gel route is combined with polymerization without using modifier. • Supercritical drying control is the key to obtain super-hydrophobic surfaces. • The whole fabrication is technologically controllable and with low costs. • The production rate is higher than 90%. • The method provides a cost-effective way for industry applications. - Abstract: We successfully synthesized one type of cheap super-hydrophobic hybrid porous materials in a sol–gel process. In this route, hydrophilic polymers and TEOS-base sol are used as precursors, the ultraviolet ray-initiated polymerization and supercritical fluid drying techniques are combined together to fulfill this task. All fabricated samples exhibit lotus-leaf-like surface structures with super-hydrophobicity. The underlying mechanisms are carefully investigated using a field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). We found that a well-controlled drying process is crucial to the formation of such super-hydrophobic surfaces. As high as 90% production rate is obtained in our route and thus, it might provide a cost-effective way to produce super-hydrophobic hybrid materials for industry applications.

  19. A novel hybrid optimization algorithm for diferential-algebraic control problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Lobato

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic optimization problems can be numerically solved by direct, indirect and Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman methods. In this paper, the differential-algebraic approach is incorporated into a hybrid method, extending the concepts of structural and differential indexes, consistent initialization analysis, index reduction and dynamic degrees of freedom to the optimal control problem. The resultant differential-algebraic optimal control problem is solved in the following steps: transformation of the original problem into a standard nonlinear programming problem that provides control and state variables, switching time estimates and costate variables profiles with the DIRCOL code; definition of the switching function and the automatically generated sequence of index-1 differential-algebraic boundary value problems from Pontryagin’s minimum principle by using the developed Otima code; and finally, application of the COLDAE code with the results of the direct method as an initial guess. The proposed hybrid method is illustrated with a pressure-constrained batch reactor optimization problem associated with the slack variable method.

  20. Adaptive Second Order Sliding Mode Control of a Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Electric Vehicle Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxing Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an adaptive-gain second order sliding mode (SOSM control applied to a hybrid power system for electric vehicle applications. The main advantage of the adaptive SOSM is that it does not require the upper bound of the uncertainty. The proposed hybrid system consists of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC with a unidirectional DC/DC converter and a Li-ion battery stack with a bidirectional DC/DC converter, where the PEMFC is employed as the primary energy source and the battery is employed as the second energy source. One of the main limitations of the FC is its slow dynamics mainly due to the air-feed system and fuel-delivery system. Fuel starvation phenomenon will occur during fast load demand. Therefore, the second energy source is required to assist the main source to improve system perofrmance. The proposed energy management system contains two cascade control structures, which are used to regulate the fuel cell and battery currents to track the given reference currents and stabilize the DC bus voltage while satisfying the physical limitations. The proposed control strategy is evaluated for two real driving cycles, that is, Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS and Highway Fuel Economy Driving Schedule (HWFET.

  1. Design and verification of a hybrid nonlinear MRE vibration absorber for controllable broadband performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, S. S.; Yildirim, T.; Wu, Jichu; Yang, J.; Du, H.; Zhang, S. W.; Li, W. H.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, a hybrid nonlinear magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) vibration absorber has been designed, theoretically investigated and experimentally verified. The proposed nonlinear MRE absorber has the dual advantages of a nonlinear force-displacement relationship and variable stiffness technology; the purpose for coupling these two technologies is to achieve a large broadband vibration absorber with controllable capability. To achieve a nonlinear stiffness in the device, two pairs of magnets move at a rotary angle against each other, and the theoretical nonlinear force-displacement relationship has been theoretically calculated. For the experimental investigation, the effects of base excitation, variable currents applied to the device (i.e. variable stiffness of the MRE) and semi-active control have been conducted to determine the enhanced broadband performance of the designed device. It was observed the device was able to change resonance frequency with the applied current; moreover, the hybrid nonlinear MRE absorber displayed a softening-type nonlinear response with clear discontinuous bifurcations observed. Furthermore, the performance of the device under a semi-active control algorithm displayed the optimal performance in attenuating the vibration from a primary system to the absorber over a large frequency bandwidth from 4 to 12 Hz. By coupling nonlinear stiffness attributes with variable stiffness MRE technology, the performance of a vibration absorber is substantially improved.

  2. Ordered mesoporous polymer-silica hybrid nanoparticles as vehicles for the intracellular controlled release of macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Wan; Slowing, Igor I; Chung, Po-Wen; Lin, Victor Shang-Yi

    2011-01-25

    A two-dimensional hexagonal ordered mesoporous polymer-silica hybrid nanoparticle (PSN) material was synthesized by polymerization of acrylate monomers on the surface of SBA-15 mesoporous silica nanoparticles. The structure of the PSN material was analyzed using a series of different techniques, including transmission electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and N(2) sorption analysis. These structurally ordered mesoporous polymer-silica hybrid nanoparticles were used for the controlled release of membrane-impermeable macromolecules inside eukaryotic cells. The cellular uptake efficiency and biocompatibility of PSN with human cervical cancer cells (HeLa) were investigated. Our results show that the inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of PSN is very high (>100 μg/mL per million cells), while the median effective concentration for the uptake (EC(50)) of PSN is low (EC(50) = 4.4 μg/mL), indicating that PSNs are fairly biocompatible and easily up-taken in vitro. A membrane-impermeable macromolecule, 40 kDa FITC-Dextran, was loaded into the mesopores of PSNs at low pH. We demonstrated that the PSN material could indeed serve as a transmembrane carrier for the controlled release of FITC-Dextran at the pH level inside live HeLa cells. We believe that further developments of this PSN material will lead to a new generation of nanodevices for intracellular controlled delivery applications.

  3. Improved performance of hybrid error control techniques for real-time digital communications over noisy channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Charlie Qing

    1993-06-01

    Delay-related performance characteristics are investigated for asynchronous time division multiplexing links. Two methods based on an imbedded Markov chain model are developed and applied to the system with a noisy feedback channel yielding analytical expressions for the buffer occupancy and the block delay. A recursive expression for packet loss probability for systems with a finite transmitter buffer is obtained. The concept of delay limited error control coding is introduced for real-time communications. Performance improvement by truncation of a type-2 hybrid automatic repeat-request (ARQ) protocol with one retransmission is examined showing that the truncated protocol has a bounded delay and bounded queue length under typical conditions. The error performance of the truncated protocol is further analyzed for various mobile fading channels. Matched rate hybrid error control coding for both adaptive and non-adaptive cases is also studied. A new adaptive error control protocol using Reed-Solomon codes is proposed using novel feedback transmissions to achieve faster estimation of channel states. Numerical optimization is carried out by introducing overall and modified throughput as efficiency criteria. Based on channel bit error rate measurement, optimum overall throughput is obtained with minimum implementation complexity.

  4. Proposal of a resonant controller for a three phase four wire grid-connected shunt hybrid filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Candela, J. I.; Rodriguez, P.; Luna, A.

    2009-01-01

    of the system. In addition a new hybrid filter topology, that permits to cancel out the homopolar harmonics, is presented in this paper. The good performance of this new topology as well as the proposed controller will be evaluated by means of simulations and experimental results.......This paper present a three-phase four wire hybrid filter able to perform a selective cancellation of harmonic currents based on resonant controllers. As it will be shown in this work, this kind of control permits to enhance the bandwidth of the filter controller, without hindering the stability...

  5. The hybrid BCI system for movement control by combining motor imagery and moving onset visual evoked potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Teng; Li, Hui; Deng, Lili; Yang, Hao; Lv, Xulin; Li, Peiyang; Li, Fali; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Tiejun; Yao, Dezhong; Xu, Peng

    2017-04-01

    Objective. Movement control is an important application for EEG-BCI (EEG-based brain-computer interface) systems. A single-modality BCI cannot provide an efficient and natural control strategy, but a hybrid BCI system that combines two or more different tasks can effectively overcome the drawbacks encountered in single-modality BCI control. Approach. In the current paper, we developed a new hybrid BCI system by combining MI (motor imagery) and mVEP (motion-onset visual evoked potential), aiming to realize the more efficient 2D movement control of a cursor. Main result. The offline analysis demonstrates that the hybrid BCI system proposed in this paper could evoke the desired MI and mVEP signal features simultaneously, and both are very close to those evoked in the single-modality BCI task. Furthermore, the online 2D movement control experiment reveals that the proposed hybrid BCI system could provide more efficient and natural control commands. Significance. The proposed hybrid BCI system is compensative to realize efficient 2D movement control for a practical online system, especially for those situations in which P300 stimuli are not suitable to be applied.

  6. Controlled Electromagnetically Induced Transparency and Fano Resonances in Hybrid BEC-Optomechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Yasir, Kashif Ammar

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the controllability of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and Fano resonances in hybrid optomechanical system which is composed of cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) trapped inside high-finesse Fabry-P\\'erot cavity driven by a single mode optical field along the cavity axis and a transverse pump field. Here, transverse optical field is used to control the phenomenon of EIT in the output probe laser field. The output probe laser field can efficiently be amplified or attenuated depending on the strength of transverse optical field. Furthermore, we demonstrate the existence of Fano resonances in the output field spectra and discuss the controlled behavior of Fano resonances using transverse optical field. To observe this phenomena in laboratory, we suggest a certain set of experimental parameters.

  7. A hybrid active/passive exhaust noise control system for locomotives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, Paul J.; Knight, J. Scott; Hanna, Doug; Rowley, Craig

    2005-01-01

    A prototype hybrid system consisting of active and passive components for controlling far-field locomotive exhaust noise has been designed, assembled, and tested on a locomotive. The system consisted of a resistive passive silencer for controlling high-frequency broadband noise and a feedforward multiple-input, multiple-output active control system for suppressing low-frequency tonal noise. The active system used ten roof-mounted bandpass speaker enclosures with 2-12-in. speakers per enclosure as actuators, eight roof-mounted electret microphones as residual sensors, and an optical tachometer that sensed locomotive engine speed as a reference sensor. The system was installed on a passenger locomotive and tested in an operating rail yard. Details of the system are described and the near-field and far-field noise reductions are compared against the design goal. .

  8. Optimal control on hybrid ode systems with application to a tick disease model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wandi

    2007-10-01

    We are considering an optimal control problem for a type of hybrid system involving ordinary differential equations and a discrete time feature. One state variable has dynamics in only one season of the year and has a jump condition to obtain the initial condition for that corresponding season in the next year. The other state variable has continuous dynamics. Given a general objective functional, existence, necessary conditions and uniqueness for an optimal control are established. We apply our approach to a tick-transmitted disease model with age structure in which the tick dynamics changes seasonally while hosts have continuous dynamics. The goal is to maximize disease-free ticks and minimize infected ticks through an optimal control strategy of treatment with acaricide. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the results.

  9. A control strategy for parallel hybrid electric vehicles based on extremum seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinçmen, Erkin; Aksun Güvenç, Bilin

    2012-02-01

    An energy management control strategy for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle based on the extremum-seeking method for splitting torque between the internal combustion engine and electric motor is proposed in this paper. The control strategy has two levels of operation: the upper and lower levels. The upper level decision-making controller chooses the vehicle operation mode such as the simultaneous use of the internal combustion engine and electric motor, use of only the electric motor, use of only the internal combustion engine, or regenerative braking. In the simultaneous use of the internal combustion engine and electric motor, the optimum energy distribution between these two sources of energy is determined via the extremum-seeking algorithm that searches for maximum drivetrain efficiency. A dynamic programming solution is also obtained and used to form a benchmark for performance evaluation of the proposed method based on extremum seeking. Detailed simulations using a realistic model are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the methodology.

  10. PWR hybrid computer model for assessing the safety implications of control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, O L; Renier, J P; Difilippo, F C; Clapp, N E; Sozer, A; Booth, R S; Craddick, W G; Morris, D G

    1986-03-01

    The ORNL study of safety-related aspects of nuclear power plant control systems consists of two interrelated tasks: (1) failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) that identified single and multiple component failures that might lead to significant plant upsets and (2) computer models that used these failures as initial conditions and traced the dynamic impact on the control system and remainder of the plant. This report describes the simulation of Oconee Unit 1, the first plant analyzed. A first-principles, best-estimate model was developed and implemented on a hybrid computer consisting of AD-4 analog and PDP-10 digital machines. Controls were placed primarily on the analog to use its interactive capability to simulate operator action. 48 refs., 138 figs., 15 tabs.

  11. Technique of performing construction works by machines with hybrid: manual and remote control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevryugina Nadezhda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses issues dealing with efficiency of construction work mechanization. It offers a mathematical model for assessment of mutual influence between the members of the ‘construction site-machine-operator’ system triad, that can give a quantitative assessment of how the efficiency of a technological task varies with more comprehensive use of operational capacities of the machine, while lower effect that limiting parameters of production environment and technical condition of the machine have on the operator. The article contains a constructive remote control solution for upgrade of the base machine. It describes the conditions for using the machines with hybrid: manual and remote control at construction sites. There is also an imitation model of operator’s scanning pattern and data experimental research that prove the efficiency of remotely controlled technological operations. The article proves that lower psychological load on the operator and better comfort contribute to positive economic effect and higher quality of the construction process.

  12. Shunt hybrid active power filter under nonideal voltage based on fuzzy logic controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Papan; Mekhilef, Saad

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a synchronous reference frame (SRF) method based on a modified phase lock loop (PLL) circuit is developed for a three-phase four-wire shunt hybrid active power filter (APF). Its performance is analysed under unbalanced grid conditions. The dominant lower order harmonics as well as reactive power can be compensated by the passive elements, whereas the active part mitigates the remaining distortions and improves the power quality. As different control methods show contradictory performance, fuzzy logic controller is considered here for DC-link voltage regulation of the inverter. Extensive simulations of the proposed technique are carried out in a MATLAB-SIMULINK environment. A laboratory prototype has been built on dSPACE1104 platform to verify the feasibility of the suggested SHAPF controller. The simulation and experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  13. Full-Order Disturbance-Observer-Based Control for Singular Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuming Yao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the disturbance-observer-based control for singular hybrid system with two types of disturbances is addressed in this paper. Under the assumption that the system states are, unavailable, full-order observers (for both system states and the disturbance and a nonlinear control scheme are constructed, such that the composite system can be guaranteed to be stochastically admissible, and the two types of disturbances can be attenuated and rejected, simultaneously. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, sufficient conditions for the existence of the desired full-order disturbance-observer-based controllers are established in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs. Finally, a numerical example is provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  14. Sensorless torque control scheme of induction motor for hybrid electric vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan LIU; Cheng SHAO

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,the sensorless torque robust tracking problem of the induction motor for hybrid electric vehicle(HEV)applications is addressed.Because motor parameter variations in HEV applications are larger than in industrial drive system,the conventional field-oriented control(FOC)provides poor performance.Therefore,a new robust PI-based extension of the FOC controller and a speed-flux observer based on sliding mode and Lyapunov theory are developed in order to Improve the overall performance.Simulation results show that the proposed sensorless torque control scheme is robust with respect to motor parameter variations and loading disturbances.In addition,the operating flux of the motor is chosen optimally to minimize the consumption of electric energy,which results in a significant reduction in energy losses shown by simulations.

  15. A hybrid attitude controller consisting of electromagnetic torque rods and an active fluid ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobari, Nona A.; Misra, Arun K.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a novel hybrid actuation system for satellite attitude stabilization is proposed along with its feasibility analysis. The system considered consists of two magnetic torque rods and one fluid ring to produce the control torque required in the direction in which magnetic torque rods cannot produce torque. A mathematical model of the system dynamics is derived first. Then a controller is developed to stabilize the attitude angles of a satellite equipped with the abovementioned set of actuators. The effect of failure of the fluid ring or a magnetic torque rod is examined as well. It is noted that the case of failure of the magnetic torque rod whose torque is along the pitch axis is the most critical, since the coupling between the roll or yaw motion and the pitch motion is quite weak. The simulation results show that the control system proposed is quite fault tolerant.

  16. Gain tuning PI controllers for boiler turbine unit using a new hybrid jump PSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Sayed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new hybrid jump PSO (HJPSO is proposed for tuning the gains of PI controllers to the boiler turbine unit. HJPSO based Gaussian and Cauchy mutation is proposed to improve the standard PSO performance. The new strategy is based on observing the local and global best particles which are not improved in a predefined number of iterations and moving these particles to a new best position. Besides, forming a new particle that handles the minimum error of each controller to replace the global best particle if it has best fitness. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has its ability in optimizing the control parameters and effectively achieved better performance when compared with other PSO algorithms.

  17. Sensor-based hip control with hybrid neuroprosthesis for walking in paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Curtis S; Kobetic, Rudi; Bulea, Thomas C; Audu, Musa L; Schnellenberger, John R; Pinault, Gilles; Triolo, Ronald J

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to test whether a hybrid neuroprosthesis (HNP) with an exoskeletal variable-constraint hip mechanism (VCHM) combined with a functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) controller can maintain upright posture with less upper-limb support and improve gait speed as compared with walking with either an isocentric reciprocating gait orthosis (IRGO) or FNS only. The results show that walking with the HNP significantly reduced forward lean in FNS-only walking and the maximum upper-limb forces by 42% and 19% as compared with the IRGO and FNS-only gait, respectively. Walking speed increased significantly with VCHM as compared with 1:1 reciprocal coupling and by 15% when using the sensor-based FNS controller as compared with HNP with fixed baseline stimulation without the controller active.

  18. Sensor-based hip control with hybrid neuroprosthesis for walking in paraplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis S. To, PhD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to test whether a hybrid neuroprosthesis (HNP with an exoskeletal variable-­constraint hip mechanism (VCHM combined with a functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS controller can maintain upright posture with less upper-limb support and improve gait speed as compared with walking with either an isocentric reciprocating gait orthosis (IRGO or FNS only. The results show that walking with the HNP significantly reduced forward lean in FNS-only walking and the maximum upper-limb forces by 42% and 19% as compared with the IRGO and FNS-only gait, respectively. Walking speed increased significantly with VCHM as compared with 1:1 reciprocal coupling and by 15% when using the sensor-based FNS controller as compared with HNP with fixed baseline stimulation without the controller active.

  19. Economical launching and accelerating control strategy for a single-shaft parallel hybrid electric bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Song, Jian; Li, Liang; Li, Shengbo; Cao, Dongpu

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an economical launching and accelerating mode, including four ordered phases: pure electrical driving, clutch engagement and engine start-up, engine active charging, and engine driving, which can be fit for the alternating conditions and improve the fuel economy of hybrid electric bus (HEB) during typical city-bus driving scenarios. By utilizing the fast response feature of electric motor (EM), an adaptive controller for EM is designed to realize the power demand during the pure electrical driving mode, the engine starting mode and the engine active charging mode. Concurrently, the smoothness issue induced by the sequential mode transitions is solved with a coordinated control logic for engine, EM and clutch. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed launching and accelerating mode and its control methods are effective in improving the fuel economy and ensure the drivability during the fast transition between the operation modes of HEB.

  20. Adaptive Passivity-Based Control of PEM Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid Power Source for Stand-Alone Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KALANTAR, A.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a DC hybrid power source composed of PEM fuel cell as main source, Li-ion battery storage as transient power source and their power electronic interfacing is modelled based on Euler-Lagrange framework. Subsequently, adaptive passivity-based controllers are synthesized using the energy shaping and damping injection technique. Local asymptotic stability is insured as well. In addition, the power management system is designed in order to manage power flow between components. Evaluation of the proposed system and simulation of the hybrid system are accomplished using MATLAB/Simulink. Afterwards, linear PI controllers are provided for the purpose of comparison with proposed controllers responses. The results show that the outputs of hybrid system based on adaptive passivity-based controllers have a good tracking response, low overshoot, short settling time and zero steady-state error. The comparison of results demonstrates the robustness of the proposed controllers for reference DC voltage and resistive load changes.