WorldWideScience

Sample records for hybrid fluorocarbon hydrocarbon

  1. Surfactant Membrane Phases Containing Mixtures of Hydrocarbon and Fluorocarbon Surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Campo, Liliana; Warr, G.G.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: We describe the structure and stability of sponge and lamellar phases comprising mixtures of hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon surfactants. Such mixtures can show limited miscibility with each other, forming for example coexisting populations of hydrocarbon rich and fluorocarbon rich micelles under some circumstances. Our system is based on the well-characterised lamellar and sponge phases of cetylpyridinium chloride, hexanol and 0.2M brine, into which the partially fluorinated surfactant N-1H,1H,2H,2H-tridecafluorooctylpyridinium chloride is incorporated. By probing the structures with SAXS (small angle x-ray scattering) and SANS (small angle neutron scattering) using contrast variation, and by characterizing the dynamic properties with dynamic light scattering, we will describe the effect of incorporating the fluorinated surfactant on the phase equilibria and properties of the surfactant membrane structures. (authors)

  2. One-step synthesis, wettability and foaming properties of high-performance non-ionic hydro-fluorocarbon hybrid surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ying-ying; Lu, Feng; Tong, Qing-Xiao

    2018-03-01

    In this work, a series of non-ionic hydro-fluorocarbon hybrid surfactants (C9F19CONH(CH2)3N(CmH2m+1)2, abbreviated as C9F19AM (m = 1), C9F19AE (m = 2) and C9F19AB (m = 4) were easily synthesized by one-step reaction and characterized by 1HNMR, 19FNMR and MS spectroscopy. Unlike conventional non-ionic surfactants (most hydrophilic units consisted of hydroxy or ether groups), their hydrophilic groups were composed of amide group, an eco-friendly unit. The surface activity, wettability, thermal stability and foaming performance were investigated. The results showed that the C9F19AE (C9F19CONH(CH2)3N[CH2CH3]2) had superior surface and interface activities, which could reduce the surface tension of water down to 15.37 mN/m and the interfacial tension (cyclohexane/water/surfactants) to 5.8 mN/m with a low cmc (critical micelle concentration) of 0.12 mmol/L. Through the calculation of Amin (the minimum area occupied per-surfactant molecule), we speculated this higher surface activity was related to the compatibility between hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon chains. When used as wetting and foaming agents, the C9F19AE also outperformed great advantages over conventional non-ionic fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon surfactants, which could decrease the contact angle of water on PTFE plate from 107.7° to 3.6°, and increase the foam integrated value F to 536 500 ± 3066.5 mL s. Moreover, the decomposition temperature (Td) of C9F19AE could reach up to 173 °C. This work demonstrates a valuable strategy to develop a kind of high-efficiency foaming agent via facile synthesis.

  3. Comparative study of the physicochemical properties of aqueous solutions of the hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon surfactants and their ternary mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szymczyk, Katarzyna, E-mail: katarzyna.szymczyk@poczta.umcs.lublin.pl

    2014-03-03

    Highlights: • Acoustic properties of hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon surfactants were studied. • Auerbach’s relation is not proper for mixtures with fluorocarbon surfactants. • Values of the hydration number decreases at concentrations higher than CMC. • FSO100 and its mixtures are the strongest chaotropes. - Abstract: Speed of sound and density of aqueous solutions of hydrocarbon p-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl) phenoxypoly(ethyleneglycols) (Triton X-100 (TX100), Triton X-165 (TX165)) and fluorocarbon (Zonyl FSN-100 (FSN100), Zonyl FSO-100 (FSO100)) surfactants as well as their ternary mixtures were measured at 293 K. Taking into account these values and the literature data of the surface tension and viscosity of the studied systems, the values of the isentropic compressibility, apparent specific adiabatic compressibility, hydration number, apparent specific volume and Jones Dole’s A and B-coefficients were determined. For the systems containing FSO100 also the values of dB/dT were determined on the basis of the values of viscosity measured at different temperatures. Next, the calculated thermodynamic properties have been discussed in the term of intermolecular interactions between the components of the mixtures.

  4. Phase behavior, rheological property, and transmutation of vesicles in fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon surfactant mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zaiwu; Qin, Menghua; Chen, Xiushan; Liu, Changcheng; Li, Hongguang; Hao, Jingcheng

    2012-06-26

    We present a detailed study of a salt-free cationic/anionic (catanionic) surfactant system where a strongly alkaline cationic surfactant (tetradecyltrimethylammonium hydroxide, TTAOH) was mixed with a single-chain fluorocarbon acid (nonadecafluorodecanoic acid, NFDA) and a hyperbranched hydrocarbon acid [di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid, DEHPA] in water. Typically the concentration of TTAOH is fixed while the total concentration and mixing molar ratio of NFDA and DEHPA is varied. In the absence of DEHPA and at a TTAOH concentration of 80 mmol·L(-1), an isotropic L(1) phase, an L(1)/L(α) two-phase region, and a single L(α) phase were observed successively with increasing mixing molar ratio of NFDA to TTAOH (n(NFDA)/n(TTAOH)). In the NFDA-rich region (n(NFDA)/n(TTAOH) > 1), a small amount of excess NFDA can be solubilized into the L(α) phase while a large excess of NFDA eventually leads to phase separation. When NFDA is replaced gradually by DEHPA, the mixed system of TTAOH/NFDA/DEHPA/H(2)O follows the same phase sequence as that of the TTAOH/NFDA/H(2)O system and the phase boundaries remain almost unchanged. However, the viscoelasticity of the samples in the single L(α) phase region becomes higher at the same total surfactant concentration as characterized by rheological measurements. Cryo-transmission electron microscopic (cryo-TEM) observations revealed a microstructural evolution from unilamellar vesicles to multilamellar ones and finally to gaint onions. The size of the vesicle and number of lamella can be controlled by adjusting the molar ratio of NFDA to DEHPA. The dynamic properties of the vesicular solutions have also been investigated. It is found that the yield stress and the storage modulus are time-dependent after a static mixing process between the two different types of vesicle solutions, indicating the occurrence of a dynamic fusion between the two types of vesicles. The microenvironmental changes induced by aggregate transitions were probed by

  5. Cusp and W peak analysis in electron capture to the continuum of bare H and He projectiles from hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joyce, J.M.; Bissinger, G.

    1987-04-01

    The ECC cusp and W peak shapes for continuum electron capture by approx. = MeV/u H/sup +/ and He/sup 2 +/ from hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon gas molecules are analyzed with the general parametric expression of Meckbach, Nemirovsky and Garibotti (i) to look for trends in the coefficients of these parameters, (ii) as a way of generating computed cusp shapes to reduce statistical fluctuations in cusp difference spectra, and (iii) to provide information on the deconvoluted d/sup 2/sigma/d..nu.. dtheta values for cusp and W peaks in the hydrocarbon gases.

  6. Synthesis of single- and double-chain fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon galactosyl amphiphiles and their anti-HIV-1 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroux-Corlay, B; Clary, L; Gadras, C; Hammache, D; Greiner, J; Santaella, C; Aubertin, A M; Vierling, P; Fantini, J

    2000-07-24

    Galactosylceramide (GalCer) is an alternative receptor allowing HIV-1 entry into CD4(-)/GalCer(+) cells. This glycosphingolipid recognizes the V3 loop of HIV gp120, which plays a key role in the fusion of the HIV envelope and cellular membrane. To inhibit HIV uptake and infection, we designed and synthesized analogs of GalCer. These amphiphiles and bolaamphiphiles consist of single and double hydrocarbon and/or fluorocarbon chain beta-linked to galactose and galactosamine. They derive from serine (GalSer), cysteine (GalCys), and ethanolamine (GalAE). The anti-HIV activity and cytotoxicity of these galactolipids were evaluated in vitro on CEM-SS (a CD4(+) cell line), HT-29, a CD4(-) cell line expressing high levels of GalCer receptor, and/or HT29 genetically modified to express CD4. GalSer and GalAE derivatives, tested in aqueous medium or as part of liposome preparation, showed moderate anti-HIV-1 activities (IC50 in the 20-220 microM range), whereas none of the GalCys derivatives was found to be active. Moreover, only some of these anti-HIV active analogs inhibited the binding of [3H]suramin (a polysulfonyl compound which displays a high affinity for the V3 loop) to SPC3, a synthetic peptide which contains the conserved GPGRAF region of the V3 loop. Our results most likely indicate that the neutralization of the virion through masking of this conserved V3 loop region is not the only mechanism involved in the HIV-1 antiviral activity of our GalCer analogs.

  7. Neutralization of methyl cation via chemical reactions in low-energy ion-surface collisions with fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon self-assembled monolayer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Arpád; Smith, Darrin L; Wysocki, Vicki H; Colorado, Ramon; Lee, T Randall

    2002-10-01

    Low-energy ion-surface collisions of methyl cation at hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon self-assembled monolayer (SAM) surfaces produce extensive neutralization of CH3+. These experimental observations are reported together with the results obtained for ion-surface collisions with the molecular ions of benzene, styrene, 3-fluorobenzonitrile, 1,3,5-triazine, and ammonia on the same surfaces. For comparison, low-energy gas-phase collisions of CD3+ and 3-fluorobenzonitrile molecular ions with neutral n-butane reagent gas were conducted in a triple quadrupole (QQQ) instrument. Relevant MP2 6-31G*//MP2 6-31G* ab initio and thermochemical calculations provide further insight in the neutralization mechanisms of methyl cation. The data suggest that neutralization of methyl cation with hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon SAMs occurs by concerted chemical reactions, i.e., that neutralization of the projectile occurs not only by a direct electron transfer from the surface but also by formation of a neutral molecule. The calculations indicate that the following products can be formed by exothermic processes and without appreciable activation energy: CH4 (formal hydride ion addition) and C2H6 (formal methyl anion addition) from a hydrocarbon surface and CH3F (formal fluoride addition) from a fluorocarbon surface. The results also demonstrate that, in some cases, simple thermochemical calculations cannot be used to predict the energy profiles because relatively large activation energies can be associated with exothermic reactions, as was found for the formation of CH3CF3 (formal addition of trifluoromethyl anion).

  8. Phase behavior of fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon double-chain hydroxylated and galactosylated amphiphiles and bolaamphiphiles. Long-term shelf-stability of their liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, L; Gadras, C; Greiner, J; Rolland, J P; Santaella, C; Vierling, P; Gulik, A

    1999-06-01

    This paper describes the morphological characterization, by freeze-fracture electron microscopy, and the thermotropic phase behavior, by differential scanning calorimetry and/or X-ray scattering, of aqueous dispersions of various hydroxylated and galactosylated double-chain amphiphiles and bolaamphiphiles, several of them containing one or two hydrophobic fluorocarbon chains. Colloidal systems are observed in water with the hydroxylated hydrocarbon or fluorocarbon bolaamphiphiles only when they are dispersed with a co-amphiphile such as rac-1,2-dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) or rac-1,2-distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC). Liposomes are formed providing the relative content of bolaamphiphiles does not exceed 20% mol. Most of these liposomes can be thermally sterilized and stored at room temperature for several months without any significant modification of their size and size distribution. The hydrocarbon galactosylated bolaamphiphile HO[C24][C12]Gal forms in water a lamellar phase (the gel to liquid-crystal phase transition is complete at 45 degrees C) and a Im3m cubic phase above 47 degrees C. The fluorocarbon HO[C24][F6C5]Gal analog displays a more complex and metastable phase behavior. The fluorinated non-bolaform galactosylated [F8C7][C16]AEGal and SerGal amphiphiles form lamellar phases in water. Low amounts (10% molar ratio) of the HO[C24][F6C5]Gal or HO[C24][C12]Gal bolaamphiphiles or of the single-headed [F8C7][C16]AEGal improve substantially the shelf-stability of reference phospholipon/cholesterol 2/1 liposomes. These liposomes when co-formulated with a single-headed amphiphile from the SerGal series are by far less stable.

  9. Thermochemical Properties Enthalpy, Entropy, and Heat Capacity of C1-C4 Fluorinated Hydrocarbons: Fluorocarbon Group Additivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heng; Castillo, Álvaro; Bozzelli, Joseph W

    2015-07-23

    Enthalpies of formation for 14 C2–C4 fluorinated hydrocarbons were calculated with nine popular ab initio and density functional theory methods: B3LYP, CBS-QB3, CBS-APNO, M06, M06-2X, ωB97X, G4, G4(MP2)-6X, and W1U via several series of isodesmic reactions. The recommended ideal gas phase ΔHf298° (kcal mol(–1)) values calculated in this study are the following: −65.4 for CH3CH2F; −70.2 for CH3CH2CH2F; −75.3 for CH3CHFCH3; −75.2 for CH3CH2CH2CH2F; −80.3 for CH3CHFCH2CH3; −108.1 for CH2F2; −120.9 for CH3CHF2; −125.8 for CH3CH2CHF2; −133.3 for CH3CF2CH3; −166.7 for CHF3; −180.5 for CH3CF3; −185.5 for CH3CH2CF3; −223.2 for CF4; and −85.8 for (CH3)3CF. Entropies (S298° in cal mol(–1) K(–1)) were estimated using B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) computed frequencies and geometries. Rotational barriers were determined and hindered internal rotational contributions for S298°, and Cp(T) were calculated using the rigid rotor harmonic oscillator approximation, with direct integration over energy levels of the intramolecular rotation potential energy curve. Thermochemical properties for the fluorinated carbon groups C/C/F/H2, C/C2/F/H, C/C/F2/H, C/C2/F2, and C/C/F3 were derived from the above target fluorocarbons. Previously published enthalpies and groups for 1,2-difluoroethane, 1,1,2-trifluoroethane, 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, 1,1,1,2,2-pentafluoroethane, 2-fluoro-2-methylpropane that were previously determined via work reaction schemes are revised using updated reference species values. Standard deviations are compared for the calculation methods.

  10. Curable fluorocarbon substituted polyetherurethaneacrylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newell, R.G.; Wolf, S.F.

    1981-01-01

    Radiation polymerizable compositions comprise polyetherurethaneacrylates having pendant fluorocarbon substituents. The compositions may be radiation polymerized, e.g. by electron beam, actinic light or heat, to a light transmissive material. The fluorocarbon substituent generally has the formula-W-Rsub(f), wherein W is a divalent connecting moiety and Rsub(f) is a highly fluorinated, preferably perfluorinated, aliphatic, aryl or alkaryl radical. These compositions may be utilized as 100% solids. The compositions are particularly useful for joining electro-optical components, and as a protective coating. (author)

  11. Asymmetric Hollow Fiber Membranes for Separation of CO 2 from Hydrocarbons and Fluorocarbons at High-Pressure Conditions Relevant to C 2 F 4 Polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Kosuri, Madhava R.

    2009-12-02

    Separation of high-pressure carbon dioxide from fluorocarbons is important for the production of fluoropolymers such as poly(tetrafluoroethylene). Typical polymeric membranes plasticize under high CO2 partial pressure conditions and fail to provide adequate selective separations. Torlon, a polyamide-imide polymer, with the ability to form interchain hydrogen bonding, is shown to provide stability against aggressive CO2 plasticization. Torlon membranes in the form of asymmetric hollow fibers (the most productive form of membranes) are considered for an intended separation of CO 2/C2F4. To avoid safety issues with tetrafluoroethylene (C2F4), which could detonate under testing conditions, safer surrogate mixtures (C2H2F 2 and C2H4) are considered in this paper. Permeation measurements (at 35 °C) indicate that the Torlon membranes are not plasticized even up to 1250 psi of CO2. The membranes provide mixed gas CO2/C2H2F2 and CO 2/C2H4 selectivities of 100 and 30, respectively, at 1250 psi partial pressures of CO2. On the basis of the measured separation performances of CO2/C2H 2F2 and CO2/C2H4 mixtures, the selectivity of the CO2/C2F4 mixture is expected to be greater than 100. Long-term stability studies indicate that the membranes provide stable separations over a period of 5 days at 1250 psi partial pressures of CO2, thereby making the membrane approach attractive. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  12. Asymmetric Hollow Fiber Membranes for Separation of CO 2 from Hydrocarbons and Fluorocarbons at High-Pressure Conditions Relevant to C 2 F 4 Polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Kosuri, Madhava R.; Koros, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Separation of high-pressure carbon dioxide from fluorocarbons is important for the production of fluoropolymers such as poly(tetrafluoroethylene). Typical polymeric membranes plasticize under high CO2 partial pressure conditions and fail to provide adequate selective separations. Torlon, a polyamide-imide polymer, with the ability to form interchain hydrogen bonding, is shown to provide stability against aggressive CO2 plasticization. Torlon membranes in the form of asymmetric hollow fibers (the most productive form of membranes) are considered for an intended separation of CO 2/C2F4. To avoid safety issues with tetrafluoroethylene (C2F4), which could detonate under testing conditions, safer surrogate mixtures (C2H2F 2 and C2H4) are considered in this paper. Permeation measurements (at 35 °C) indicate that the Torlon membranes are not plasticized even up to 1250 psi of CO2. The membranes provide mixed gas CO2/C2H2F2 and CO 2/C2H4 selectivities of 100 and 30, respectively, at 1250 psi partial pressures of CO2. On the basis of the measured separation performances of CO2/C2H 2F2 and CO2/C2H4 mixtures, the selectivity of the CO2/C2F4 mixture is expected to be greater than 100. Long-term stability studies indicate that the membranes provide stable separations over a period of 5 days at 1250 psi partial pressures of CO2, thereby making the membrane approach attractive. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  13. Radiation induced solid-state polymerization of long-chain acrylates containing fluorocarbon chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibasaki, Y.; Zhu, Zhi-Qin

    1995-01-01

    γ-Ray irradiation post-polymerizations of long-chain acrylates containing fluorocarbon chain, H(CF 2 ) 10 CH 2 OCOCH=CH 2 and H(CF 2 ) 8 CH 2 OCOCH=CH 2 , were investigated and also the structures and thermal properties of comb-like polymers obtained were studied. It was found that these monomers exhibited very high polymerizability at wide temperature ranges around the melting points. Because the fluorocarbon chains are less flexible and thicker than the hydrocarbon chains, it can be expected that the aggregation force among the monomer molecules is strong and the conformational freedom of functional group for polymerization is large. According to the DSC and the X-ray diffraction measurements of the comb-like polymers obtained, the fluorocarbon chains are aggregated in a mode of hexagonal packing in the lamellar crystals. This situation can be considered as an optimum condition for the γ-ray irradiation post-polymerization. (author)

  14. Method of treating emissions of a hybrid vehicle with a hydrocarbon absorber and a catalyst bypass system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Bryan Nathaniel; Gonze, Eugene V; Santoso, Halim G; Spohn, Brian L

    2014-01-14

    A method of treating emissions from an internal combustion engine of a hybrid vehicle includes directing a flow of air created by the internal combustion engine when the internal combustion engine is spinning but not being fueled through a hydrocarbon absorber to collect hydrocarbons within the flow of air. When the hydrocarbon absorber is full and unable to collect additional hydrocarbons, the flow of air is directed through an electrically heated catalyst to treat the flow of air and remove the hydrocarbons. When the hydrocarbon absorber is not full and able to collect additional hydrocarbons, the flow of air is directed through a bypass path that bypasses the electrically heated catalyst to conserve the thermal energy stored within the electrically heated catalyst.

  15. The effect of mycorrhizal inoculation on hybrid poplar fine root dynamics in hydrocarbon contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunderson, J.; Knight, J.D.; Van Rees, K.C.J. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Soil Science

    2006-07-01

    The biological remediation of contaminated soils using plants was discussed. Hybrid poplars are good candidates for phytoremediation because they root deeply, cycle large amounts of water and grow quickly. Their fine root system is pivotal in nutrient and water acquisition. Therefore, in order to maximize the phytoremediation potential, it is important to understand the response of the fine root system. In addition to degrading organic chemicals, ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi provide the host with greater access to nutrients. This study determined the relationship between residual soil hydrocarbons and soil properties at a field site. The effects of residual contamination on hybrid poplar fine root dynamics was also examined along with the effect of ectomycorrhizal colonization on hybrid poplar fine root dynamics when grown in diesel contaminated soil under controlled conditions. A minirhizotron camera inside a growth chamber captured images of mycorrhizal inoculation on hybrid poplar fine root production. Walker hybrid poplar seedlings were grown for 12 weeks in a control soil and also in a diesel contaminated soil. Seedlings were also grown in control and diesel contaminated, ectomycorrhizal inoculated soils. The inoculum was a mycorrhizal mix containing Pisolithus tinctorius and Rhizopogon spp. The images showed that colonization by ECM fungi increased hybrid poplar fine root production and aboveground biomass in a diesel contaminated soil compared to non-colonized trees in the same soil. Root:shoot ratios were much higher in the diesel contaminated/non-inoculated treatment than in either of the control soil treatments. Results of phytoremediation in diesel contaminated soil were better in the non-colonized treatment than in the colonized treatment. Both treatments removed more contaminants from the soil than the unplanted control. Much higher quantities of hydrocarbons were found sequestered in the roots from the inoculated treatment than from the non

  16. The possible impact of fluorocarbons and halocarbons on ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-05-01

    Partial contents: Chemistry-(The production and atmospheric release of fluorocarbons and certain other chlorine compounds, Photochemistry of fluorocarbons); Measurement techniques-(Stratospheric sampling platforms, Methods for measuring fluorocarbons and other halocarbons); Measurements-(Halogenated organic compounds in the troposphere, Stratospheric measurement of oxides of nitrogen, Total ozone trends); Models-(Assessment of the accuracy of atmospheric transport, Model prediction of ozone depletion); Effects-

  17. Fluorocarbon Adsorption in Hierarchical Porous Frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motkuri, Radha K.; Annapureddy, Harsha V.; Vijayakumar, M.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Martin, P F.; McGrail, B. Peter; Dang, Liem X.; Krishna, Rajamani; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2014-07-09

    The adsorption behavior of a series of fluorocarbon derivatives was examined on a set of microporous metal organic framework (MOF) sorbents and another set of hierarchical mesoporous MOFs. The microporous M-DOBDC (M = Ni, Co) showed a saturation uptake capacity for R12 of over 4 mmol/g at a very low relative saturation pressure (P/Po) of 0.02. In contrast, the mesoporous MOF MIL-101 showed an exceptionally high uptake capacity reaching over 14 mmol/g at P/Po of 0.4. Adsorption affinity in terms of mass loading and isosteric heats of adsorption were found to generally correlate with the polarizability of the refrigerant with R12 > R22 > R13 > R14 > methane. These results suggest the possibility of exploiting MOFs for separation of azeotropic mixtures of fluorocarbons and use in eco-friendly fluorocarbon-based adsorption cooling and refrigeration applications.

  18. Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1927-02-22

    Coal tar, mineral oils, bitumens, coal extraction products, hydrogenation products of coal, oil schists can be atomized and heated with steam to decompose pyrogenetically and form gases rich in olefins which may be heated with or without pressure and with or without catalysts to produce liquid hydrocarbons of low boiling point, some of which may be aromatic. The apparatus should be lined with copper, silica, or ferrosilicon to prevent contact of the bases with iron which causes deposition of soot. Catalysts used may be metal oxides, silica, graphite, active charcoal, mica, pumice, porcelain, barium carbonate, copper, silver, gold, chromium, boron, or their compounds. At temperatures from 300 to 400/sup 0/C, olefins are produced. At higher temperatures, naphthenes and benzene hydrocarbons are produced.

  19. Fluorocarbon adsorption in hierarchical porous frameworks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motkuri, R.K.; Annapureddy, H.V.R.; Vijaykumar, M.; Schaef, H.T.; Martin, P.F.; McGrail, B.P.; Dang, L.X.; Krishna, R.; Thallapally, P.K.

    2014-01-01

    Metal-organic frameworks comprise an important class of solid-state materials and have potential for many emerging applications such as energy storage, separation, catalysis and bio-medical. Here we report the adsorption behaviour of a series of fluorocarbon derivatives on a set of microporous and

  20. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) of microorganisms in hydrocarbon contaminated aquifer sediment samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischer, Karolin; Zeder, Michael; Klug, Rebecca; Pernthaler, Jakob; Schattenhofer, Martha; Harms, Hauke; Wendeberg, Annelie

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater ecosystems are the most important sources of drinking water worldwide but they are threatened by contamination and overexploitation. Petroleum spills account for the most common source of contamination and the high carbon load results in anoxia and steep geochemical gradients. Microbes play a major role in the transformation of petroleum hydrocarbons into less toxic substances. To investigate microbial populations at the single cell level, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is now a well-established technique. Recently, however, catalyzed reporter deposition (CARD)-FISH has been introduced for the detection of microbes from oligotrophic environments. Nevertheless, petroleum contaminated aquifers present a worst case scenario for FISH techniques due to the combination of high background fluorescence of hydrocarbons and the presence of small microbial cells caused by the low turnover rates characteristic of groundwater ecosystems. It is therefore not surprising that studies of microorganisms from such sites are mostly based on cultivation techniques, fingerprinting, and amplicon sequencing. However, to reveal the population dynamics and interspecies relationships of the key participants of contaminant degradation, FISH is an indispensable tool. In this study, a protocol for FISH was developed in combination with cell quantification using an automated counting microscope. The protocol includes the separation and purification of microbial cells from sediment particles, cell permeabilization and, finally, CARD-FISH in a microwave oven. As a proof of principle, the distribution of Archaea and Bacteria was shown in 60 sediment samples taken across the contaminant plume of an aquifer (Leuna, Germany), which has been heavily contaminated with several ten-thousand tonnes of petroleum hydrocarbons since World War II. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Total petroleum hydrocarbon degradation by hybrid electrobiochemical reactor in oilfield produced water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousa, Ibrahim E.

    2016-01-01

    The crude oil drilling and extraction operations are aimed to maximize the production may be counterbalanced by the huge production of contaminated produced water (PW). PW is conventionally treated through different physical, chemical, and biological technologies. The efficiency of suggested hybrid electrobiochemical (EBC) methods for the simultaneous removal of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and sulfate from PW generated by petroleum industry is studied. Also, the factors that affect the stability of PW quality are investigated. The results indicated that the effect of biological treatment is very important to keep control of the electrochemical by-products and more TPH removal in the EBC system. The maximum TPH and sulfate removal efficiency was achieved 75% and 25.3%, respectively when the detention time was about 5.1 min and the energy consumption was 32.6 mA/cm 2 . However, a slight increasing in total bacterial count was observed when the EBC compact unit worked at a flow rate of average 20 L/h. Pseudo steady state was achieved after 30 min of current application in the solution. Also, the results of the study indicate that when the current intensity was increased above optimum level, no significant results occurred due to the release of gases. - Highlights: • The hybrid electrolytic biological cell was used for degradation of oilfield produced water. • Decomposition of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon with or without the biofilter. • High saline water with the high chloride and sulfate ions content treatment. • The removal of electrochemical by-products is a phase change technique that requires the maintenance the biofilm on the filter media, which is sensitive and a complex operation. • Biofilter is efficient for the degradation of PW bye products, the critical drawback to their utility in full-scale operations is high TDS water content and detention time of treatment.

  2. Fluorocarbon adsorption in hierarchical porous frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motkuri, RK; Annapureddy, HVR; Vijaykumar, M; Schaef, HT; Martin, PF; McGrail, BP; Dang, LX; Krishna, R; Thallapally, PK

    2014-07-09

    Metal-organic frameworks comprise an important class of solid-state materials and have potential for many emerging applications such as energy storage, separation, catalysis and bio-medical. Here we report the adsorption behaviour of a series of fluorocarbon derivatives on a set of microporous and hierarchical mesoporous frameworks. The microporous frameworks show a saturation uptake capacity for dichlorodifluoromethane of >4 mmol g(-1) at a very low relative saturation pressure (P/P-o) of 0.02. In contrast, the mesoporous framework shows an exceptionally high uptake capacity reaching >14 mmol g(-1) at P/P-o of 0.4. Adsorption affinity in terms of mass loading and isosteric heats of adsorption is found to generally correlate with the polarizability and boiling point of the refrigerant, with dichlorodifluoromethane >chlorodifluoromethane >chlorotrifluoromethane >tetrafluoromethane >methane. These results suggest the possibility of exploiting these sorbents for separation of azeotropic mixtures of fluorocarbons and use in eco-friendly fluorocarbon-based adsorption cooling.

  3. Development of fluorocarbon/silica composites via sol/gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Max P.; Maria, Daniel A.; Gomes, Luiza M.F.

    2009-01-01

    Fluorocarbon/silica composites have interesting physical-chemical properties, combining the great resistance to chemical products, the electric insulation, and the thermal stability of fluorine polymers with the optical, magnetic, and dielectric properties of silica. Due to the unique mechanical, thermal, and dielectric properties of fluorocarbon and silica composites, there is interest in their application in the development of fuel cells, the production of integrated circuit boards (ICB), and packages for the transportation of integrated circuits. The sol-gel process is a chemical route to prepare ceramic materials with specific properties that are hard or impossible to obtain by conventional methods. Fluorocarbon/silica composites were obtained by the sol-gel method from tetramethoxysilane - TMOS and fluorinated hydrocarbons with low molecular weight and main chains with 10 - 20 carbon atoms previously obtained from PTFE scraps irradiated with a 60 Co γ source in oxygen atmosphere with a dose of 1 MGy. Syntheses were performed in 125-mL reaction flasks in basic medium at 35 deg C and in acid medium at 60 deg C with N-N dimethylformamide as a chemical additive for drying control. After synthesis, the material was thermally treated in an oven with electronic temperature control. The monoliths obtained were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), electron microprobe and by a standard nitrogen adsorption-desorption technique. (author)

  4. Process for synthesizing a new series of fluorocarbon polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toy, M. S.

    1970-01-01

    Two-step process for preparing fluorocarbon materials includes - /1/ adding gaseous fluorine to a polyperfluoropolyene to create fluorocarbon radicals, with reactive sites at unsaturated carbon atoms, and /2/ introducing a monomer, after evacuation of fluorine gas, and allowing copolymerization with the free radicals.

  5. Mass spectrometry of fluorocarbon-labeled glycosphingolipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yunsen; Arigi, Emma; Eichert, Heather

    2010-01-01

    ceramide N-deacylase (SCDase) is used to remove the fatty acid from the ceramide moiety, after which a fluorocarbon-rich substituent (F-Tag) is incorporated at the free amine of the sphingoid. In initial trials, a neutral GSL, globotriaosylceramide (Gb(3)Cer), three purified bovine brain gangliosides...... with subsequent per-N,O-methylation was established for the F-tagged Gb(3) Cer and purified gangliosides, and extensive mass spectra (MS(1) and MS(2)) consistent with all of the expected products were acquired. The potential use of F-tagged derivatives for a comprehensive MS based profiling application...

  6. Catalytic Performance for Hydrocarbon Production from Syngas on the Promoted Co-Based Hybrid Catalysts; Influence of Pt Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk-Hwan Kang

    2017-10-01

    How to Cite: Kang, S.H., Ryu, J.H., Kim, J.H., Kim, H.S., Yang, H.C., Chung, D.Y. (2017. Catalytic Performance for Hydrocarbon Production from Syngas on the Promoted Co-Based Hybrid Catalysts; Influence of Pt Contents. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 12 (3: 452-459 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.12.3.592.452-459

  7. Selective Synthesis of Gasoline-Ranged Hydrocarbons from Syngas over Hybrid Catalyst Consisting of Metal-Loaded ZSM-5 Coupled with Copper-Zinc Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Ma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of syngas (CO + H2 to gasoline-ranged hydrocarbons was carried out using a hybrid catalyst consisting of metal-loaded ZSM-5 coupled with Cu-ZnO in a near-critical n-hexane solvent. Methanol was synthesized from syngas over Cu-ZnO; subsequently, was converted to hydrocarbons through the formation of dimethyl ether (DME over the metal-loaded ZSM-5. When 0.5 wt% Pd/ZSM-5 and 5 wt% Cu/ZSM-5 among the metal-loaded ZSM-5 catalysts with Pd, Co, Fe or Cu were employed as a portion of the hybrid catalyst, the gasoline-ranged hydrocarbons were selectively produced (the gasoline-ranged hydrocarbons in all hydrocarbons: 59% for the hybrid catalyst with Pd/ZSM-5 and 64% for that with Cu/ZSM-5 with a similar CO conversion during the reaction. An increase in the Cu loading on ZSM-5 resulted in increasing the yield of the gasoline-ranged hydrocarbons, and in decreasing the yield of DME. Furthermore, the hybrid catalyst with Cu/ZSM-5 exhibited no deactivation for 30 h of the reaction. It was revealed that a hybrid catalyst containing Cu/ZSM-5 was efficient in the selective synthesis of gasoline-ranged hydrocarbons from syngas via methanol in the near-critical n-hexane fluid.

  8. Hybrid energy converter based on swirling combustion chambers: the hydrocarbon feeding analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Minotti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript reports the latest investigations about a miniaturized hybrid energy power source, compatible with thermal/electrical conversion, by a thermo-photovoltaic cell, and potentially useful for civil and space applications. The converter is a thermally-conductive emitting parallelepiped element and the basic idea is to heat up its emitting surfaces by means of combustion, occurred in swirling chambers, integrated inside the device, and/or by the sun, which may work simultaneously or alternatively to the combustion. The current upgrades consist in examining whether the device might fulfill specific design constraints, adopting hydrocarbons-feeding. Previous papers, published by the author, demonstrate the hydrogen-feeding effectiveness. The project’s constraints are: 1 emitting surface dimensions fixed to 30 × 30 mm, 2 surface peak temperature T > 1000 K and the relative ∆T < 100 K (during the combustion mode, 3 the highest possible delivered power to the ambient, and 4 thermal efficiency greater than 20% when works with solar energy. To this end, a 5 connected swirling chambers configuration (3 mm of diameter, with 500 W of injected chemical power, stoichiometric conditions and detailed chemistry, has been adopted. Reactive numerical simulations show that the stiff methane chemical structure obliges to increase the operating pressure, up to 10 atm, and to add hydrogen, to the methane fuel injection, in order to obtain stable combustion and efficient energy conversion.

  9. Decontamination by cleaning with fluorocarbon surfactant solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, R.; Benson, C.E.; Meyers, E.S.; Vaughen, V.C.A.

    1994-02-01

    In the nuclear industry, facilities and their components inevitably become contaminated with radioactive materials. This report documents the application of a novel particle-removal process developed by Entropic Systems, Inc. (ESI), to decontaminate critical instruments and parts that are contaminated with small radioactive particles that adhere to equipment surfaces. The tests were performed as a cooperative effort between ESI and the Chemical Technology Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ESI developed a new, environmentally compatible process to remove small particles from solid surfaces that is more effective than spraying or sonicating with CFC-113. This process uses inert perfluorinated liquids as working media; the liquids have zero ozone-depleting potential, are nontoxic and nonflammnable, and are generally recognized as nonhazardous materials. In the ESI process, parts to be cleaned are first sprayed or sonicated with a dilute solution of a high-molecular-weight fluorocarbon surfactant in an inert perfluorinated liquid to effect particle removal. The parts are then rinsed with the perfluorinated liquid to remove the fluorocarbon surfactant applied in the first step, and the residual rinse liquid is then evaporated from the parts into an air or nitrogen stream from which it is recovered. Nuclear contamination is inherently a surface phenomenon. The presence of radioactive particles is responsible for all ''smearable'' contamination and, if the radioactive particles are small enough, for some of the fixed contamination. Because radioactivity does not influence the physical chemistry of particle adhesion, the ESI process should be just as effective in removing radioactive particles as it is in removing nonradioactive particles

  10. Electron transport in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons/boron nitride hybrid structures: density functional theory combined with the nonequilibrium Green's function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, S F K S; Namiranian, Afshin; Soleimani, Maryam; Jamaati, Maryam

    2018-02-07

    We investigate the electronic transport properties of two types of junction based on single polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAHs embedded in boron nitride (h-BN) nanoribbons, using nonequilibrium Green's functions (NEGF) and density functional theory (DFT). In the PAH junctions, a Fano resonance line shape at the Fermi energy in the transport feature can be clearly seen. In hybrid junctions, structural asymmetries enable interactions between the electronic states, leading to observation of interface-based transport. Our findings reveal that the interface of PAH/h-BN strongly affects the transport properties of the structures.

  11. Fluorocarbon seal replaces metal piston ring in low density gas environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morath, W. D.; Morgan, N. E.

    1967-01-01

    Reinforced fluorocarbon cupseal, which provides an integral lip-type seal, replaces the metal piston rings in piston-cylinder configurations used in the compression of low density gases. The fluorocarbon seal may be used as cryogenic compressor piston seals.

  12. Effect of fluorocarbons on acetylcholinesterase activity and some counter measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, W.; Parker, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    An isolated vagal sympathetic heart system has been successfully used for the study of the effect of fluorocarbons (FCs) on cardiac performance and in situ enzyme activity. Dichlorodifluoromethane sensitizes this preparation to sympathetic stimulation and to exogenous epinephrine challenge. Partial and complete A-V block and even cardiac arrest have been induced by epinephrine challenge in the FC sensitized heart. Potassium chloride alone restores the rhythmicity but not the normal contractility of the heart in such a situation. Addition of glucose will, however, completely restore the normal function of the heart which is sensitized by dichlorodifluoromethane. The ED 50 values of acetylcholinesterase activity which are used as a measure of relative effectiveness of fluorocarbons are compared with the maximum permissible concentration. Kinetic studies indicate that all the fluorocarbons tested so far are noncompetitive.

  13. Clonal variation in survival and growth of hybrid poplar and willow in an in situ trial on soils heavily contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; Edmund O. Bauer; Richard B. Hall; Jill A. Zalesny; Joshua Kunzman; Chris J. Rog; Don E. Riemenschneider

    2005-01-01

    Species and hybrids between species belonging to the genera Populus (poplar) and Salix (willow) have been used successfully for phytoremediation of contaminated soils. Our objectives were to: 1) evaluate the potential for establishing genotypes of poplar and willow on soils heavily contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and 2)...

  14. Fluoro-Carbonate Solvents for Li-Ion Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NAGASUBRAMANIAN, GANESAN

    1999-01-01

    A number of fluoro-carbonate solvents were evaluated as electrolytes for Li-ion cells. These solvents are fluorine analogs of the conventional electrolyte solvents such as dimethyl carbonate, ethylene carbonate, diethyl carbonate in Li-ion cells. Conductivity of single and mixed fluoro carbonate electrolytes containing 1 M LiPF(sub 6) was measured at different temperatures. These electrolytes did not freeze at -40 C. We are evaluating currently, the irreversible 1st cycle capacity loss in carbon anode in these electrolytes and the capacity loss will be compared to that in the conventional electrolytes. Voltage stability windows of the electrolytes were measured at room temperature and compared with that of the conventional electrolytes. The fluoro-carbon electrolytes appear to be more stable than the conventional electrolytes near Li voltage. Few preliminary electrochemical data of the fluoro-carbonate solvents in full cells are reported in the literature. For example, some of the fluorocarbonate solvents appear to have a wider voltage window than the conventional electrolyte solvents. For example, methyl 2,2,2 trifluoro ethyl carbonate containing 1 M LiPF(sub 6) electrolyte has a decomposition voltage exceeding 6 V vs. Li compared to and lt;5 V for conventional electrolytes. The solvent also appears to be stable in contact with lithium at room temperature

  15. Effective Enrichment and Detection of Trace Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Food Samples based on Magnetic Covalent Organic Framework Hybrid Microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Wu, Di; Hu, Na; Fan, Guangsen; Li, Xiuting; Sun, Jing; Chen, Xuefeng; Suo, Yourui; Li, Guoliang; Wu, Yongning

    2018-04-04

    The present study reported a facile, sensitive, and efficient method for enrichment and determination of trace polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in food samples by employing new core-shell nanostructure magnetic covalent organic framework hybrid microspheres (Fe 3 O 4 @COF-(TpBD)) as the sorbent followed by HPLC-DAD. Under mild synthetic conditions, the Fe 3 O 4 @COF-(TpBD) were prepared with the retention of colloidal nanosize, larger specific surface area, higher porosity, uniform morphology, and supermagnetism. The as-prepared materials showed an excellent adsorption ability for PAHs, and the enrichment efficiency of the Fe 3 O 4 @COF-(TpBD) could reach 99.95%. The obtained materials also had fast adsorption kinetics and realized adsorption equilibrium within 12 min. The eluent was further analyzed by HPLC-DAD, and good linearity was observed in the range of 1-100 ng/mL with the linear correlation being above 0.9990. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) and limits of quantitation (S/N = 10) for 15 PAHs were in the range of 0.83-11.7 ng/L and 2.76-39.0 ng/L, respectively. For the application, the obtained materials were employed for the enrichment of trace PAHs in food samples and exhibited superior enrichment capacity and excellent applicability.

  16. Study on usage of fluorocarbon for toroidal field coil cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyata, Hiroshi; Arai, Takashi

    1998-09-01

    In JT-60 machine, usage of fluorocarbon as an alternate coolant to a cooling channel of toroidal field coil (TF coil) in which a crack was detected is investigated. Fluorinert (a registered trademark of 3M) liquid which is one of fluorocarbon was reviewed, and liquid 'FC-43' was found as an appropriate one for TF coils cooling because of its physical properties about boiling point and thermal capacity. Fortunately, Fluorinert does not have impact on the greenhouse effect for the earth under the temperature of its boiling point. And thermal analysis shows that the cooling effectiveness obtained with liquid 'FC-43' for TF coils is rather well. Moreover, corrosion tests were carried out between liquid 'FC-43' and materials used in JT-60 by considering deterioration of TF coils. The test results demonstrate that there is no problem in applying liquid 'FC-43' as a coolant to cooling channel of TF coils. Results obtained above conclude that usage of fluorocarbon is one of the effective means to perform further experiments in JT-60. (author)

  17. Reaction of uranium and the fluorocarbon FC-75

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R. H.

    1985-04-01

    Because of criticality concerns with water cooling in enriched uranium upgrading, a fluorocarbon has been evaluated as a replacement coolant for internal module components in the Plasma Separation Process (PSP). The interaction of bulk uranium and of powdered uranium with FC-75 has been investigated at temperatures between 200 and 700 C. The gas pressure and the metal temperature were monitored as a function of time. Modest temperature changes of 50 to 100 C were observed for the bulk uranium/fluorocarbon reaction. Much larger changes (up to 1000 C) were noted for the reaction involving high surface area uranium powder. These temperature transients, particularly for the powdered uranium reaction, were short-lived ( 10 seconds) and indicative of the formation of a protective layer of reaction products. Analysis of residual gas products by infrared spectroscopy indicated that one potentially serious hazard, UF6, was not present; however, several small toxic fluorocarbons were produced by thermolysis and/or reaction. X-ray diffraction analysis of the residual solids indicated UF4 and UO2 were the major solid products.

  18. Hybrid gas turbine–organic Rankine cycle for seawater desalination by reverse osmosis in a hydrocarbon production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eveloy, Valérie; Rodgers, Peter; Qiu, Linyue

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Seawater reverse osmosis driven by hybrid gas turbine–organic Rankine power cycle. • High ambient air and seawater temperatures, and high seawater salinity. • Energy–exergy analysis of power and desalination systems for six organic fluids. • Economic viability of waste heat recovery in subsidized utility pricing context. - Abstract: Despite water scarcity, the use of industrial waste heat for seawater desalination has been limited in the Middle East to date. This study evaluates the technical and economic feasibility of integrating on-site gas turbine power generation and reverse osmosis equipment for the production of both electricity and fresh water in a coastal hydrocarbon production facility. Gas turbine exhaust gas waste heat is recovered using an intermediate heat transfer fluid and fed to an organic Rankine cycle evaporator, to generate mechanical power to drive the reverse osmosis high pressure pump. Six candidate organic working fluids are evaluated, namely toluene, benzene, cyclohexane, cyclopentane, n-pentane and R245fa. Thermodynamic and desalination performance are assessed in the harsh climatic and salinity conditions of the Arabian Gulf. The performance metrics considered incorporate electric power and permeate production, thermal and exergy efficiency, specific energy consumption, system size, and permeate quality. Using toluene in the bottoming power cycle, a gain in power generation efficiency of approximately 12% is achieved relative to the existing gas turbine cycle, with an annual average of 2260 m"3/h of fresh water produced. Depending upon the projected evolution of local water prices, the investment becomes profitable after two to four years, with an end-of-life net present value of 220–380 million USD, and internal rate of return of 26–48%.

  19. Synthesis of polydopamine-functionalized magnetic graphene and carbon nanotubes hybrid nanocomposites as an adsorbent for the fast determination of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kun; Jin, Rongrong; Luo, Chen; Song, Guoxin; Hu, Yaoming; Cheng, Hefa

    2018-04-01

    A novel adsorbent made of polydopamine-functionalized magnetic graphene and carbon nanotubes hybrid nanocomposite was synthesized and applied to determine 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by magnetic solid phase extraction in water samples. FTIR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy consistently indicate that the synthesized adsorbents are made of core-shell nanoparticles well dispersed on the surface of graphene and carbon nanotubes. The major factors affecting the extraction efficiency, including the pH value of samples, the amount of adsorbent, adsorption time and desorption time, type and volume of desorption solvent, were systematically optimized. Under the optimum extraction conditions, a linear response was obtained for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons between concentrations of 10 and 500 ng/L with the correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9958 to 0.9989, and the limits of detection (S/N = 3) were between 0.1 and 3.0 ng/L. Satisfactory results were also obtained when applying these magnetic graphene/carbon nanotubes/polydopamine hybrid nanocomposites to detect polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in several environmental aqueous samples. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Enhanced removal of radioactive particles by fluorocarbon surfactant solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, R.; Harling, O.K.

    1993-08-01

    The proposed research addressed the application of ESI's particle removal process to the non-destructive decontamination of nuclear equipment. The cleaning medium used in this process is a solution of a high molecular weight fluorocarbon surfactant in an inert perfluorinated liquid which results in enhanced particle removal. The perfluorinated liquids of interest, which are recycled in the process, are nontoxic, nonflammable, and environmentally compatible, and do not present a hazard to the ozone layer. The information obtained in the Phase 1 program indicated that the proposed ESI process is technically effective and economically attractive. The fluorocarbon surfactant solutions used as working media in the ESI process survived exposure of up to 10 Mrad doses of gamma rays, and are considered sufficiently radiation resistant for the proposed process. Ultrasonic cleaning in perfluorinated surfactant solutions was found to be an effective method of removing radioactive iron (Fe 59) oxide particles from contaminated test pieces. Radioactive particles suspended in the process liquids could be quantitatively removed by filtration through a 0.1 um membrane filter. Projected economics indicate a pre-tax pay back time of 1 month for a commercial scale system

  1. Application of cyclic fluorocarbon/argon discharges to device patterning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzler, Dominik, E-mail: dmetzler@umd.edu [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, and Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States); Uppireddi, Kishore; Bruce, Robert L.; Miyazoe, Hiroyuki; Zhu, Yu; Price, William; Sikorski, Ed S.; Engelmann, Sebastian U.; Joseph, Eric A. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Li, Chen [Department of Physics, and Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States); Oehrlein, Gottlieb S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, and Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    With increasing demands on device patterning to achieve smaller critical dimensions and pitches for the 5 nm node and beyond, the need for atomic layer etching (ALE) is steadily increasing. In this work, a cyclic fluorocarbon/Ar plasma is successfully used for ALE patterning in a manufacturing scale reactor. Self-limited etching of silicon oxide is observed. The impact of various process parameters on the etch performance is established. The substrate temperature has been shown to play an especially significant role, with lower temperatures leading to higher selectivity and lower etch rates, but worse pattern fidelity. The cyclic ALE approach established with this work is shown to have great potential for small scale device patterning, showing self-limited etching, improved uniformity and resist mask performance.

  2. Application of cyclic fluorocarbon/argon discharges to device patterning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzler, Dominik; Uppireddi, Kishore; Bruce, Robert L.; Miyazoe, Hiroyuki; Zhu, Yu; Price, William; Sikorski, Ed S.; Engelmann, Sebastian U.; Joseph, Eric A.; Li, Chen; Oehrlein, Gottlieb S.

    2016-01-01

    With increasing demands on device patterning to achieve smaller critical dimensions and pitches for the 5 nm node and beyond, the need for atomic layer etching (ALE) is steadily increasing. In this work, a cyclic fluorocarbon/Ar plasma is successfully used for ALE patterning in a manufacturing scale reactor. Self-limited etching of silicon oxide is observed. The impact of various process parameters on the etch performance is established. The substrate temperature has been shown to play an especially significant role, with lower temperatures leading to higher selectivity and lower etch rates, but worse pattern fidelity. The cyclic ALE approach established with this work is shown to have great potential for small scale device patterning, showing self-limited etching, improved uniformity and resist mask performance

  3. Shaped articles of cross-linked fluorocarbon polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotcher, A.J.; Germeraad, P.B.

    1981-01-01

    A process is described which comprises (1) contacting (a) a shaped article of a polymeric composition wherein the polymer is a fluorocarbon polymer having a melting point of at least 200 0 C, the article having a tensile strength of at least 3,000 psi, with (b) a fluid composition comprising a cross-linking agent, until the article contains at least 2.5% by weight of the cross-linking agent; and (2) irradiating the shaped article with ionising radiation to a dosage not exceeding 50 Mrads under conditions such that the composition is cross-linked sufficiently to impart thereto an M 100 value of at least 300 psi, while maintaining a tensile strength of at least 3000 psi, the shaped article containing a specified proportion of the cross-linking agent. (author)

  4. Optimized plasma-deposited fluorocarbon coating for dry release and passivation of thin SU-8 cantilevers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Stephan Urs; Häfliger, Daniel; Boisen, Anja

    2008-01-01

    during fluorocarbon deposition, the surface free energy of the coating can be tuned to allow for uniform wetting during spin coating of arbitrary thin SU-8 films. Further, they define an optimal pressure regime for the release of thin polymer structures at high yield. They demonstrate the successful......Plasma-deposited fluorocarbon coatings are introduced as a convenient method for the dry release of polymer structures. In this method, the passivation process in a deep reactive ion etch reactor was used to deposit hydrophobic fluorocarbon films. Standard photolithography with the negative epoxy......-based photoresist SU-8 was used to fabricate polymer structures such as cantilevers and membranes on top of the nonadhesive release layer. The authors identify the plasma density as the main parameter determining the surface properties of the deposited fluorocarbon films. They show that by modifying the pressure...

  5. Manufacturing Nanoparticles with Orthogonally Adjustable Dispersibility in Hydrocarbons, Fluorocarbons, and Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeininger, Lukas; Stiegler, Lisa M S; Portilla, Luis; Halik, Marcus; Hirsch, Andreas

    2018-04-01

    Invited for this month's cover picture is the group of Prof. Dr. Andreas Hirsch from Friedrich Alexander University (Germany). The cover picture shows shell-by-shell coated nanoparticle 'chameleons'-wet-chemically surface-modified nanoparticles that can reversibly adjust their dispersibility to entirely orthogonal solvent environments. Read the full text of their Full Paper at https://doi.org/10.1002/open.201800011.

  6. Biomimetic Fluorocarbon Surfactant Polymers Reduce Platelet Adhesion on PTFE/ePTFE Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuwu; Gupta, Anirban Sen; Sagnella, Sharon; Barendt, Pamela M.; Kottke-Marchant, Kandice; Marchant, Roger E.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a series of fluorocarbon surfactant polymers designed as surface-modifying agents for improving the thrombogenicity of ePTFE vascular graft materials by the reduction of platelet adhesion. The surfactant polymers consist of a poly(vinyl amine) backbone with pendent dextran and perfluoroundecanoyl branches. Surface modification is accomplished by a simple dip-coating process in which surfactant polymers undergo spontaneous surface-induced adsorption and assembly on PTFE/ePTFE surface. The adhesion stability of the surfactant polymer on PTFE was examined under dynamic shear conditions in PBS and human whole blood with a rotating disk system. Fluorocarbon surfactant polymer coatings with three different dextran to perfluorocarbon ratios (1:0.5, 1:1 and 1:2) were compared in the context of platelet adhesion on PTFE/ePTFE surface under dynamic flow conditions. Suppression of platelet adhesion was achieved for all three coated surfaces over the shear-stress range of 0–75 dyn/cm2 in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) or human whole blood. The effectiveness depended on the surfactant polymer composition such that platelet adhesion on coated surfaces decreased significantly with increasing fluorocarbon branch density at 0 dyn/cm2. Our results suggest that fluorocarbon surfactant polymers can effectively suppress platelet adhesion and demonstrate the potential application of the fluorocarbon surfactant polymers as non-thrombogenic coatings for ePTFE vascular grafts. PMID:19323880

  7. A PBE hybrid functional study of blue-shifting and red-shifting hydrogen bonds in p hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boaz Galdino de Oliveira

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines a selected group of p hydrocarbon complexes, represented by C2H4•••HCF3, C2H2•••HCF3, C2H4•••HCF3 and C2H2•••HCF3, from a theoretical point of view. From BPBE/6-311++G(d,p calculations, the geometrical results of these complexes revealed an elongation and shortening of the H—C bond lengths of chloroform (HCCl3 and fluoroform (HCF3, respectively. In terms of the infrared spectrum, the analysis of stretch frequencies revealed that the variations in the H—C modes are essentially recognized as red and blue-shifting modes. For the purposes of understanding the two vibrational phenomena of the p hydrocarbon complexes studied here, PBE/6-311++G(d,p calculations were carried out and partitioning of atomic charges derived from the ChelpG algorithm were also used. A theoretical justification of red- and blue-shift effects was drawn up using charge-transfer analysis, which is manifested in the p bonds of acetylene and ethylene to chloroform (H—CCl3 and fluoroform (H—CF3, respectively. Finally, a further debate regarding the distinct polarizability power of chloroform and fluoroform is presented, concluding that, in comparison with fluoroform, chloroform possesses the requisite features for conventional proton donors and a red-shift is therefore observed in the C2H4•••HCCl3 and C2H2•••HCCl3 complexes.

  8. Dry cleaning of fluorocarbon residues by low-power electron cyclotron resonance hydrogen plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, S H; Yuh, H K; Yoon Eui Joon; Lee, S I

    1988-01-01

    A low-power ( 50 W) electron cyclotron resonance hydrogen plasma cleaning process was demonstrated for the removal of fluorocarbon residue layers formed by reactive ion etching of silicon dioxide. The absence of residue layers was confirmed by in-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction and cross-sectional high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The ECR hydrogen plasma cleaning was applied to contact cleaning of a contact string structure, resulting in comparable contact resistance arising during by a conventional contact cleaning procedure. Ion-assisted chemical reaction involving reactive atomic hydrogen species generated in the plasma is attributed for the removal of fluorocarbon residue layers.

  9. Aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roder, M.

    1985-01-01

    Papers dealing with radiolysis of aromatic hydrocarbons of different composition (from benzene to terphenyls and hydrocarbons with condensed rings) as well as their mixtures (with alkanes, alkenes, other aromatic hydrocarbons) are reviewed. High radiation stability of aromatic hydrocarbons in condensed phases associated with peculiarities of molecular structure of compounds is underlined. Mechanisms of radiolytic processes, vaues of product yields are considered

  10. Reduced Graphene Oxide-Hybridized Polymeric High-Internal Phase Emulsions for Highly Efficient Removal of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Water Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yipeng; Zhang, Wenjuan; Ruan, Guihua; Li, Xianxian; Cong, Yongzheng; Du, Fuyou; Li, Jianping

    2018-03-27

    Reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-hybridized polymeric high-internal phase emulsions (RGO/polyHIPEs) with an open-cell structure and hydrophobicity have been successfully prepared using 2-ethylhexyl acrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the monomer and the cross-linker, respectively. The adsorption mechanism and performance of this RGO/polyHIPEs to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated. Adsorption isotherms of PAHs on RGO/polyHIPEs show that the saturated adsorption capacity is 47.5 mg/g and the equilibrium time is 8 h. Cycling tests show that the adsorption capacity of RGO/polyHIPEs remains stable in 10 adsorption-desorption cycles without observable structure change in RGO/polyHIPEs. Moreover, the PAH residues in water samples after being purified by RGO/polyHIPEs are lower than the limit values in drinking water set by the European Food Safety Authority. These results demonstrate that the RGO/polyHIPEs have great potentiality in PAH removal and water purification.

  11. Aspects of the use of saturated fluorocarbon fluids in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallewell, G.

    2011-01-01

    The excellent dielectric properties of saturated fluorocarbons have allowed their use in direct immersion liquid cooling of electronics, including supercomputers and as heat transfer media in vapour phase soldering and burn-in testing of electronics. Their high density, UV transparency, non-flammability, non-toxicity and radiation tolerance have led to their use as liquid and gas radiator media for RICH detectors in numerous particle physics experiments. Systems to circulate and purify saturated fluorocarbon Cherenkov radiator vapours often rely on thermodynamic evaporation-condensation cycles similar to those used in refrigeration. Their use as evaporative refrigerants was pioneered for the ATLAS silicon tracker, and they are now also used as evaporative coolants in ALICE and TOTEM and as liquid coolants in ATLAS and CMS. Ultrasonic techniques for vapour phase analysis of fluorocarbon mixtures-developed for the SLAC SLD barrel CRID radiator during the 1980s as an alternative to UV refractometry are again under development for the ATLAS tracker evaporative cooling system. Examples of fluorocarbon circulation systems, together with purification and analysis techniques for these versatile fluids are mentioned.

  12. Aspects of the use of saturated fluorocarbon fluids in high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallewell, G., E-mail: Gregory.Hallewell@cern.c [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, 163 Avenue de Luminy, Case 907, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France)

    2011-05-21

    The excellent dielectric properties of saturated fluorocarbons have allowed their use in direct immersion liquid cooling of electronics, including supercomputers and as heat transfer media in vapour phase soldering and burn-in testing of electronics. Their high density, UV transparency, non-flammability, non-toxicity and radiation tolerance have led to their use as liquid and gas radiator media for RICH detectors in numerous particle physics experiments. Systems to circulate and purify saturated fluorocarbon Cherenkov radiator vapours often rely on thermodynamic evaporation-condensation cycles similar to those used in refrigeration. Their use as evaporative refrigerants was pioneered for the ATLAS silicon tracker, and they are now also used as evaporative coolants in ALICE and TOTEM and as liquid coolants in ATLAS and CMS. Ultrasonic techniques for vapour phase analysis of fluorocarbon mixtures-developed for the SLAC SLD barrel CRID radiator during the 1980s as an alternative to UV refractometry are again under development for the ATLAS tracker evaporative cooling system. Examples of fluorocarbon circulation systems, together with purification and analysis techniques for these versatile fluids are mentioned.

  13. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart F of... - Specifications for Fluorocarbon and Other Refrigerants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., and 1C). An alternative gravimetric method is described in Appendix C to ARI Standard 700-1995. 5... fluorocarbon and other refrigerants regardless of source and lists acceptable test methods. These refrigerants... Test Methods and Maximum Permissible Contaminant Levels 5.1Referee Test. The referee test methods for...

  14. Preparation of a Fluorocarbon Polymerizable Surfactant and Its Application in Emulsion Polymerization of Fluorine-Containing Acrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Zhao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel polymerizable fluorocarbon surfactant, perfluoro (4–methyl–3, 6–dioxaoct–7–ene sodium sulfonate (PSVNa, was synthesized and characterized. The fluorocarbon surfactant PSVNa and its mixture PSVNa/SDS were used as emulsifiers during the emulsion polymerization of DFHMA/MMA. The investigation of polymerization kinetics, particle size, and stability of the emulsions revealed that PSVNa has excellent emulsifying properties. The NMR spectrum of the copolymer and the detection of residual PSVNa show that more than 95% of the fluorocarbon surfactants have been linked to the polymer chains by radical polymerization, which will greatly reduce the environmental pollution caused by fluorinated surfactants.

  15. Velocity of sound measurements in gaseous per-fluorocarbons and their custom mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Vacek, V; Lindsay, S

    2000-01-01

    An inexpensive sonar instrument was prepared for measurements of sound velocity in two fluorocarbon vapors; per-fluoro-n-propane (C3F8), per-fluoro-n-butane (C4F10), and their custom mixtures. The apparatus, measurement principle and instrument software are described. All sound velocity measurements in per-fluorocarbons were made in the low pressure range between 0.01 and 0.4 MPa, and at temperatures between 253 and 303 K. The purity of the C3F8 and C4F10 samples was checked using gas chromatography. Uncertainties in the speed of sound measurements were better than ± 0.1 %. Comparisons were made with theoretical predictions of sound velocity for the two individual components. The instrument was then used for concentration monitoring of custom C3F8/C4F10 mixtures.

  16. Fluorocarbon thin film with superhydrophobic property prepared by pyrolysis of hexafluoropropylene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun; Song Xue; Li Rui; Shen Jinpeng; Yang Guangcheng; Huang Hui

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We successfully prepared nanostructured fluorocarbon thin films using CVD method without any catalysts at low pyrolysis temperature (200–300 °C) of HFPO. ► The films show disparate morphology, high content of CF 2 (>90%), which are also characteristic of bulk PTFE. ► The film deposited at 300 °C shows superhydrophobic property (water contact angle of 172.7°). - Abstract: A fluorocarbon thin film with superhydrophobic property was prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method at low temperature (200–300 °C) via pyrolysis hexafluoropropylene oxide (HFPO). The experiment results indicated the morphology and structure of fluorocarbon films were strongly dependent on the pyrolysis temperature. As shown through atomic force microscope (AFM), the surface morphology of the films ranged from rodlike grains to sheets. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed that all the films contained the vibrational frequencies of linear CF 2 chains, which were also characteristic of bulk poly tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis showed that CF 2 structures were predominant in the films with high order. The film deposited at 300 °C exhibited a superhydrophobic surface with contact angle up to 172.7°.

  17. Petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrington, J.W.; Teal, J.M.; Parker, P.L.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine samples are presented. Types of hydrocarbons present and their origins are discussed. Principles and methods of analysis are outlined. Infrared spectrometry, uv spectrometry, gas chromatography, mass spectroscopy, and carbon 14 measurements are described

  18. On the efficiency of the hybrid and the exact second-order sampling formulations of the EnKF: a reality-inspired 3-D test case for estimating biodegradation rates of chlorinated hydrocarbons at the port of Rotterdam

    KAUST Repository

    El Gharamti, Mohamad

    2016-11-15

    This study considers the assimilation problem of subsurface contaminants at the port of Rotterdam in the Netherlands. It involves the estimation of solute concentrations and biodegradation rates of four different chlorinated solvents. We focus on assessing the efficiency of an adaptive hybrid ensemble Kalman filter and optimal interpolation (EnKF-OI) and the exact second-order sampling formulation (EnKFESOS) for mitigating the undersampling of the estimation and observation errors covariances, respectively. A multi-dimensional and multi-species reactive transport model is coupled to simulate the migration of contaminants within a Pleistocene aquifer layer located around 25 m below mean sea level. The biodegradation chain of chlorinated hydrocarbons starting from tetrachloroethene and ending with vinyl chloride is modeled under anaerobic environmental conditions for 5 decades. Yearly pseudo-concentration data are used to condition the forecast concentration and degradation rates in the presence of model and observational errors. Assimilation results demonstrate the robustness of the hybrid EnKF-OI, for accurately calibrating the uncertain biodegradation rates. When implemented serially, the adaptive hybrid EnKF-OI scheme efficiently adjusts the weights of the involved covariances for each individual measurement. The EnKFESOS is shown to maintain the parameter ensemble spread much better leading to more robust estimates of the states and parameters. On average, a well tuned hybrid EnKF-OI and the EnKFESOS respectively suggest around 48 and 21 % improved concentration estimates, as well as around 70 and 23 % improved anaerobic degradation rates, over the standard EnKF. Incorporating large uncertainties in the flow model degrades the accuracy of the estimates of all schemes. Given that the performance of the hybrid EnKF-OI depends on the quality of the background statistics, satisfactory results were obtained only when the uncertainty imposed on the background

  19. Absorption and recovery of n-hexane in aqueous solutions of fluorocarbon surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiao; Yan, Bo; Fu, Jiamo; Xiao, Xianming

    2015-11-01

    n-Hexane is widely used in industrial production as an organic solvent. As an industrial exhaust gas, the contribution of n-hexane to air pollution and damage to human health are attracting increasing attention. In the present study, aqueous solutions of two fluorocarbon surfactants (FSN100 and FSO100) were investigated for their properties of solubilization and dynamic absorption of n-hexane, as well as their capacity for regeneration and n-hexane recovery by thermal distillation. The results show that the two fluorocarbon surfactants enhance dissolution and absorption of n-hexane, and their effectiveness is closely related to their concentrations in solution. For low concentration solutions (0.01%-0.30%), the partition coefficient decreases dramatically and the saturation capacity increases significantly with increasing concentration, but the changes for both are more modest when the concentration is over 0.30%. The FSO100 solution presents a smaller partition coefficient and a greater saturation capacity than the FSN100 solution at the same concentration, indicating a stronger solubilization for n-hexane. Thermal distillation is a feasible method to recover n-hexane from these absorption solutions, and to regenerate them. With 90sec heating at 80-85°C, the recovery of n-hexane ranges between 81% and 85%, and the regenerated absorption solution maintains its original performance during reuse. This study provides basic information on two fluorocarbon surfactants for application in the treatment of industrial n-hexane waste gases. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Charging and trapping of macroparticles in near-electrode regions of fluorocarbon plasmas with negative ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrikov, K.N.; Kumar, S.; Sugai, H.

    2001-01-01

    Charging and trapping of macroparticles in the near-electrode region of fluorocarbon etching plasmas with negative ions is considered. The equilibrium charge and forces on particles are computed as a function of the local position in the plasma presheath and sheath. The ionic composition of the plasma corresponds to the etching experiments in 2.45 GHz surface-wave sustained and 13.56 MHz inductively coupled C 4 F 8 +Ar plasmas. It is shown that despite negligible negative ion currents collected by the particles, the negative fluorine ions affect the charging and trapping of particulates through modification of the sheath/presheath structure

  1. Properties of solid polymer electrolyte fluorocarbon film. [used in hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, W. B.

    1973-01-01

    The ionic fluorocarbon film used as the solid polymer electrolyte in hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells was found to exhibit delamination failures. Polarized light microscopy of as-received film showed a lined region at the center of the film thickness. It is shown that these lines were not caused by incomplete saponification but probably resulted from the film extrusion process. The film lines could be removed by an annealing process. Chemical, physical, and tensile tests showed that annealing improved or sustained the water contents, spectral properties, thermo-oxidative stability, and tensile properties of the film. The resistivity of the film was significantly decreased by the annealing process.

  2. EPDM and fluorocarbon seal materials: a comparison of performance for nuclear fuel transport flasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chivers, T.C.; George, A.F.

    2004-01-01

    The lid seals on the flasks used to transport spent fuel from U.K. AGR and Magnox Power Stations are fluorocarbon elastomer 'O' rings. Currently, only this material is qualified for the purpose and it was decided to investigate the possibility of qualifying other materials. One material that is already in use in similar applications is an Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM). The work presented in this paper compares the performance of the existing material with three candidate types of EPDM. The areas considered were: Extrusion and blow-out resistance when subjected to various steam pressures and temperatures at a range of flange separations, Permeability to water, caesium salt solution and hydrogen (as a typical 'benchmark' gas) Radiation resistance in warm (60 C) aqueous conditions It is concluded that the performance of the EPDM materials is good in respect of mechanical properties, radiation and water resistance. However, while permeation rates for gas and water can be higher than for fluorocarbon, this might be mitigated by assessing the actual radioactive burden in the permeate. In the case of dissolved salts, the test results indicate that this will be very low

  3. Ultrasonic and immersion cleaning: a comparison using aqueous and fluorocarbon solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, R.D.; Kearsey, A.

    1984-11-01

    Decontamination is a necessary process in reducing radiation levels in the working environment in the nuclear industry. Components from active areas which require decontamination for re-use or maintenance operations. In this report, a typical chemical cleaning process using liquid pumping, airagitation and physical movement for agitation is compared with ultrasonic cleaning, now an established cleaning process in many industries. The chosen traditional method is immersion in an agitated solution of warm SDG.3 solution; an established decontaminating reagent. The decontamination effect of this process is compared with the effect of cleaning in an ultrasonic bath containing the same reagent at the same concentration and temperature. Fluorocarbon reagents are of particular interest to the nuclear industry for they offer the ability to clean electrical components without damage, and can clean product contaminated material without the risk of criticality. Such reagents are based on 1,1,2-trichloro, 1,2,2-trifluoroethane and azeotropic mixtures. This reagent and one mixture with 6% methanol were tested under agitation and ultrasonic immersion at the same temperature. Parallel control experiments were conducted using demineralised water as the cleaning media in an agitated bath. SGG3 is a good reagent for general purpose cleaning (it can remove 99% of particulate contamination) using scrubbing, immersion or spraying techniques. There is little evidence to show that ultrasonic cleaning increases its effectiveness. For special purpose fluorocarbon solvents will give satisfactory results when used in an ultrasonic system. (author)

  4. Deposition of fluorocarbon films by Pulsed Plasma Thruster on the anode side

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Daixian; Zhang, Fan; He, Zhen; Wu, Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    Fluorocarbon thin films were deposited by Pulsed Plasma Thruster at different angles on the anode side of the thruster. Density and velocity of the plasma in the plume of the Pulsed Plasma Thruster were determined using double and triple Langmuir probe apparatus respectively. The deposited films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning probe microscope (SPM) and UV–vis spectrometer. Low F/C ratio (0.64–0.86) fluorocarbon films are deposited. The F/C ratio decreases with angle increasing from 0 degree to 30 degree; however it turns to increase with angle increasing from 45 degree to 90 degree. The films deposited at center angles appear rougher compared with that prepared at angles beyond 45 degree. These films basically show having strong absorption properties for wavelength below 600 nm and having enhanced reflective characteristics. Due to the influence of the chemical composition and the surface morphology of the films, the optical properties of these films also show significant angular dependence.

  5. Purifying hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demoulins, H D; Garner, F H

    1923-02-07

    Hydrocarbon distillates, including natural gases and vapors produced by cracking hydrocarbon oils, are desulfurized etc. by treating the vapor with an aqueous alkaline solution of an oxidizing agent. The hydrocarbons may be previously purified by sulfuric acid. In examples aqueous solutions of sodium or calcium hydrochlorite containing 1.5 to 5.0 grams per liter of available chlorine and sufficient alkali to give an excess of 0.1 percent in the spent reagent are preheated to the temperature of the vapor, and either sprayed or atomized into the vapors near the outlet of the dephlegmator or fractionating tower, or passed in countercurrent to the vapors through one or a series of scrubbers.

  6. Modeling the liquid-liquid equilibria of water plus fluorocarbons with the cubic-plus-association equation of state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Mariana B.; Freire, Mara G.; Marrucho, Isabel M.

    2007-01-01

    Fluorocarbons (FCs) are a family of chemicals that are composed primarily of carbon and fluorine. They present weak intermolecular and strong intramolecular interactions, which confers them unusual thermophysical properties. They can also solubilize large amounts of gases such as oxygen and carbon...

  7. Interim Proposal for Molecular Beam Studies of Surfactants in Sulfuric Acid Aerosols: Comparisons Between Hydrocarbon and Fluorocarbon Alcohols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nathanson, Gilbert

    2003-01-01

    .... These processes include the acid-catalyzed reactions of HCI and HBr with CIONO2 (BrONO2) and HOCI (HOBr) to generate photoactive halogen molecules, particularly in colder regions of the stratosphere where they are more soluble in the water-rich aerosols...

  8. Purifying hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunstan, A E

    1918-06-03

    Ligroin, kerosene, and other distillates from petroleum and shale oil, are purified by treatment with a solution of a hypochlorite containing an excess of alkali. The hydrocarbon may be poured into brine, the mixture stirred, and an electric current passed through. Heat may be applied.

  9. Metal doped fluorocarbon polymer films prepared by plasma polymerization using an RF planar magnetron target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biederman, H.; Holland, L.

    1983-01-01

    Fluorocarbon films have been prepared by plasma polymerization of CF 4 using an RF planar magnetron with an aluminium target. More than one order of magnitude higher deposition rate has been achieved in comparison with an r.f. diode system operated under similar conditions of monomer pressure and flow rate and power input. A glow discharge in a CF 4 [25%]-argon[75%] mixture was used to incorporate aluminium from a target electrode into the polymer films. The foregoing mixture and another based on CF 4 [87%]-argon[13%] were used in the RF discharge with a copper target. Some experiments with a gold target and pure CF 4 as the inlet gas were also made. The film structure was examined by SEM and TEM and characteristic micrographs are presented here. The composition of the films was estimated from an EAS study. The sheet resistivity of the metal/polymer film complexes was determined. (orig.)

  10. Development of fluorocarbon evaporative cooling recirculators and controls for the ATLAS inner silicon tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Bayer, C; Bonneau, P; Bosteels, Michel; Burckhart, H J; Cragg, D; English, R; Hallewell, G D; Hallgren, Björn I; Ilie, S; Kersten, S; Kind, P; Langedrag, K; Lindsay, S; Merkel, M; Stapnes, Steinar; Thadome, J; Vacek, V

    2000-01-01

    We report on the development of evaporative fluorocarbon cooling recirculators and their control systems for the ATLAS inner silicon tracker. We have developed a prototype circulator using a dry, hermetic compressor with C/sub 3/F/sup 8/ refrigerant, and have prototyped the remote-control analog pneumatic links for the regulation of coolant mass flows and operating temperatures that will be necessary in the magnetic field and radiation environment around ATLAS. pressure and flow measurement and control use 150+ channels of standard ATLAS LMB ("Local Monitor Board") DAQ and DACs on a multi-drop CAN network administered through a BridgeVIEW user interface. A hardwired thermal interlock system has been developed to cut power to individual silicon modules should their temperatures exceed safe values. Highly satisfactory performance of the circulator under steady state, partial-load and transient conditions was seen, with proportional fluid flow tuned to varying circuit power. Future developments, including a 6 kW...

  11. Cracking hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forwood, G F; Lane, M; Taplay, J G

    1921-10-07

    In cracking and hydrogenating hydrocarbon oils by passing their vapors together with steam over heated carbon derived from shale, wood, peat or other vegetable or animal matter, the gases from the condenser are freed from sulfuretted hydrogen, and preferably also from carbon dioxide, and passed together with oil vapors and steam through the retort. Carbon dioxide may be removed by passage through slaked lime, and sulfuretted hydrogen by means of hydrated oxide of iron. Vapors from high-boiling oils and those from low-boiling oils are passed alternately through the retort, so that carbon deposited from the high-boiling oils is used up during treatment of low-boiling oils.

  12. Distilling hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataafsche, N V; de Brey, J H.C.

    1918-10-30

    Hydrocarbons containing a very volatile constituent and less volatile constituents, such as casing-head gases, still gases from the distillation of crude petroleum and bituminous shale are separated into their constituents by rectification under pressure; a pressure of 20 atmospheres and limiting temperatures of 150/sup 0/C and 40/sup 0/C are mentioned as suitable. The mixture may be subjected to a preliminary treatment consisting in heating to a temperature below the maximum rectification temperature at a pressure greater than that proposed to be used in the rectification.

  13. Toward High-Performance Coatings for Biomedical Devices: Study on Plasma-Deposited Fluorocarbon Films and Ageing in PBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Mantovani

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available High performance coatings tailored to medical devices represent a recognised approach to modulate surface properties. Plasma-deposited fluorocarbon films have been proposed as a potential stent coating. Previous studies have shown promising adhesion properties: the 35 nm-thick film sustained plastic deformation up to 25% such as induced during the clinical implantation. In this study, the compositional and morphological changes of plasma-deposited fluorocarbon films were examined during ageing in a pseudo-physiological medium, a phosphate buffer solution (PBS, by angle-resolved XPS, FT-IR data and AFM images. The evolution of the ageing process is discussed: defluorination and crosslinking yielded an oxidized protective top layer onto the films, which showed further degradation.

  14. Exchange transfusion with fluorocarbon for studying synaptically evoked optical signal in rat cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Y; Fujii, F; Sato, C; Nemoto, M; Tamura, M

    2000-02-01

    . Zieglgansberger, The intrinsic optical signal evoked by chiasm stimulation in the rat suprachiasmatic nuclei exhibits GABAergic day-night variation, Eur. J. Neurosci. 8 (1996) 319-328] [3] [9] [13] [24]. A spectral fitting method with three components is used for the analysis of intrinsic optical signal [M. Nemoto, Y. Nomura, C. Sato, M. Tamura, K. Houkin, I. Koyanagi, H. Abe, Analysis of optical signals evoked by peripheral nerve stimulation in rat somatosensory cortex: dynamic changes in hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 19 (1999) 246-259] [17]. In order to validate the analysis, we need the knowledge on contribution of signal resulted from hemoglobin to total intrinsic optical signal. The exchange transfusion with fluorocarbon has the advantage that can change the spectral contribution of hemoglobin [M. Ferrari, M.A. Williams, D.A. Wilson, N.V. Thakor, R.J. Traystman, D.F. Hanley, Cat brain cytochrome-c oxidase redox changes induced by hypoxia after blood-fluorocarbon exchange transfusion, Am. J. Physiol. 269 (1995) H417-H424; A.L. Sylvia, C.A. Piantadosi, O(2) dependence of in vivo brain cytochrome redox responses and energy metabolism in bloodless rats, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 8 (1988) 163-172] [6] [23]. Here we describe a new method of the reduction of hemoglobin signal from somatosensory evoked optical intrinsic signal in rat cortex by the combination of exchange transfusion with fluorocarbon and imaging system of thinned skull cranial window. The method allows for the study of the synaptically evoked changes in light scattering as well as fluorescence of calcium indicator or voltage-sensitive dye without absorption of hemoglobin.

  15. Beam Simulation Studies of Plasma-Surface Interactions in Fluorocarbon Etching of Silicon and Silicon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, David C.

    1992-01-01

    A molecular beam apparatus has been constructed which allows the synthesis of dominant species fluxes to a wafer surface during fluorocarbon plasma etching. These species include atomic F as the primary etchant, CF _2 as a potential polymer forming precursor, and Ar^{+} or CF _{rm x}^{+} type ions. Ionic and neutral fluxes employed are within an order of magnitude of those typical of fluorocarbon plasmas and are well characterized through the use of in -situ probes. Etching yields and product distributions have been measured through the use of in-situ laser interferometry and line-of-sight mass spectrometry. XPS studies of etched surfaces were performed to assess surface chemical bonding states and average surface stoichiometry. A useful design guide was developed which allows optimal design of straight -tube molecular beam dosers in the collisionally-opaque regime. Ion-enhanced surface reaction kinetics have been studied as a function of the independently variable fluxes of free radicals and ions, as well as ion energy and substrate temperature. We have investigated the role of Ar ^{+} ions in enhancing the chemistries of F and CF_2 separately, and in combination on undoped silicon and silicon dioxide surfaces. We have employed both reactive and inert ions in the energy range most relevant to plasma etching processes, 20-500 eV, through the use of Kaufman and ECR type ion sources. The effect of increasing ion energy on the etching of fluorine saturated silicon and silicon dioxide surfaces was quantified through extensions of available low energy physical sputtering theory. Simple "site"-occupation models were developed for the quantification of the ion-enhanced fluorine etching kinetics in these systems. These models are suitable for use in topography evolution simulators (e.g. SAMPLE) for the predictive modeling of profile evolution in non-depositing fluorine-based plasmas such as NF_3 and SF_6. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14

  16. Hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foorwood, G F; Taplay, J G

    1916-12-12

    Hydrocarbon oils are hydrogenated, cracked, or treated for the removal of sulfur by bringing their vapors mixed with steam at temperatures between 450 and 600/sup 0/C into contact with a form of carbon that is capable of decomposing steam with the production of nascent hydrogen at those temperatures. The forms of carbon used include lamp-black, soot, charcoals derived from wood, cellulose, and lignite, and carbons obtained by carbonizing oil residues and other organic bodies at temperatures below 600/sup 0/C. The process is applied to the treatment of coal oil, shale oil, petroleum, and lignite oil. In examples, kerosene is cracked at 570/sup 0/C, cracked spirit is hydrogenated at 500/sup 0/C, and shale spirit is desulfurized at 530/sup 0/C. The products are led to a condenser and thence to a scrubber, where they are washed with creosote oil. After desulfurization, the products are washed with dilute caustic soda to remove sulfurretted hydrogen.

  17. Hydrocarbon exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerche, I. (South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-01-01

    This special issue of the journal examines various aspects of the on-going search for hydrocarbons, ranging from frontier basins where little data are available, to more mature areas where considerable data are available. The incentives underlying the search for oil are roughly: the social, economic and industrial needs of a nation; the incentive of a corporation to be profitable; and the personal incentives of individuals in the oil industry and governments, which range from financial wealth to power and which are as diverse as the individuals who are involved. From a geopolitical perspective, the needs, requirements, goals, strategies, and philosophies of nations, and groups of nations, also impact on the oil exploration game. Strategies that have been employed have ranged from boycott to austerity and rationing, to physical intervention, to global ''flooding'' with oil by over-production. (author)

  18. Global warming impacts of CFC alternative technologies: Combining fluorocarbon and CO2 effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairchild, P.D.; Fischer, S.K.; Hughes, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are on their way out, due to their role in stratospheric ozone depletion and the related international Montreal Protocol agreement and various national phaseout timetables. As the research, engineering development, and manufacturing investment decisions have ensued to prepare for this transition away from CFCs, the climate change issue has emerged and there has recently been increased attention on the direct global warming potential (GWP) of the fluorocarbon alternatives as greenhouse gases. However, there has been less focus on the indirect global warming effect arising from end-use energy changes and associated CO 2 emissions. A study was undertaken to address these combined global warming effects. A concept of Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) was developed for combining the direct and indirect effects and was used for evaluating CFC-replacement options available in the required CFC transition time frame. Analyses of industry technology surveys indicate that CFC-user industries have made substantial progress toward near-equal energy efficiency with many HCFC/HFC alternatives. The findings also bring into question the relative importance of the direct effect in many applications and stress energy efficiency when searching for suitable CFC alternatives. For chillers, household refrigerators, and unitary air-conditioning or heat pump equipment, changes in efficiency of only 2--5% would have a greater effect on future TEWI than completely eliminating the direct effect

  19. Metal doped fluorocarbon polymer films prepared by plasma polymerization using an RF planar magnetron target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biederman, H.; Holland, L. (Sussex Univ., Brighton (UK). Lab. for Plasma Materials Processing)

    1983-07-01

    Fluorocarbon films have been prepared by plasma polymerization of CF/sub 4/ using an RF planar magnetron with an aluminium target. More than one order of magnitude higher deposition rate has been achieved in comparison with an R.F. diode system operated under similar conditions of monomer pressure and flow rate and power input. A glow discharge in a CF/sub 4/(25%)-argon(75%) mixture was used to incorporate aluminium from a target electrode into the polymer films. The foregoing mixture and another based on CF/sub 4/(87%)-argon(13%) were used in the RF discharge with a copper target. Some experiments with a gold target and pure CF/sub 4/ as the inlet gas were also made. The film structure was examined by SEM and TEM and characteristic micrographs are presented here. The composition of the films was estimated from an EAS study. The sheet resistivity of the metal/polymer film complexes was determined.

  20. Hierarchical ZnO particles grafting by fluorocarbon polymer derivative: Preparation and superhydrophobic behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Dahai; Jia, Mengqiu, E-mail: jiamq@mail.buct.edu.cn

    2015-07-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The hierarchical particles were prepared by a simple, mild hydrothermal process. • The obtained “chestnut” ZnO particles show dual-scale morphology with high roughness. • FEVE derivative was creatively imported to graft onto hierarchical particles. • Superhydrophobic surfaces were obtained, on which the contact angles surpass 150°. • A special model was proposed to explain the wetting state in this work. - Abstract: Superhydrophobic surfaces on the basis of hierarchical ZnO particles grafted by fluoroethylene-vinylether (FEVE) polymer derivative were prepared using a facile, mild and low-cost method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed that the resulting ZnO particles via hydrothermal process exhibit micro–nano dual-scale morphology with high purity under a suitable surfactant amount and alkali concentration. The grafting of FEVE derivative was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), suggesting that hierarchical surface of ZnO particles was an imported monomolecular layer of fluorocarbon polymer. The obtained surface fabricated by drop-casting shows considerably high contact angle and good resistance to water immersion. The wetting behavior in this work was furthermore analyzed by theoretical wetting model. This work demonstrates that the sufficient low-wettable surface and high roughness both take a vital role in the superhydrophobic behavior.

  1. Gain and loss mechanisms for neutral species in low pressure fluorocarbon plasmas by infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Caleb T.; Overzet, Lawrence J.; Goeckner, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the chemical reaction pathways of stable neutral species in fluorocarbon plasmas. Octafluorocyclobutane (c-C 4 F 8 ) inductively coupled plasma discharges were found to primarily produce stable and metastable products downstream from the discharge, including c-C 4 F 8 , C 2 F 4 , C 2 F 6 , CF 4 , C 3 F 8 , C 4 F 10 , C 3 F 6 , and CF 2 . A novel analysis technique allows the estimation of gain and loss rates for neutral species in the steady state as functions of residence time, pressure, and discharge power. The gain and loss rates show that CF 4 , C 2 F 6 , C 3 F 8 , and C 4 F 10 share related gain mechanisms, speculated to occur at the surface. Further analysis confirms that CF 2 is predominantly produced at the chamber walls through electron impact dissociation of C 2 F 4 and lost through gas-phase addition reactions to form C 2 F 4 . Additionally, time-resolved FTIR spectra provide a second-order rate coefficient of 1.8 × 10 −14 cm 3 /s for the gas-phase addition of CF 2 to form C 2 F 4 . Finally, C 2 F 4, which is much more abundant than CF 2 in the discharge, is shown to be dominantly produced through electron impact dissociation of c-C 4 F 8 and lost through either surface or gas-phase addition reactions.

  2. Investigation of growth, coverage and effectiveness of plasma assisted nano-films of fluorocarbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Pratik P.; Pulikollu, Rajasekhar; Higgins, Steven R.; Hu Xiaoming; Mukhopadhyay, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    Plasma-assisted functional films have significant potential in various engineering applications. They can be tailored to impart desired properties by bonding specific molecular groups to the substrate surface. The aim of this investigation was to develop a fundamental understanding of the atomic level growth, coverage and functional effectiveness of plasma nano-films on flat surfaces and to explore their application-potential for complex and uneven shaped nano-materials. In this paper, results on plasma-assisted nano-scale fluorocarbon films, which are known for imparting inertness or hydrophobicity to the surface, will be discussed. The film deposition was studied as a function of time on flat single crystal surfaces of silicon, sapphire and graphite, using microwave plasma. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used for detailed study of composition and chemistry of the substrate and coating atoms, at all stages of deposition. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was performed in parallel to study the coverage and growth morphology of these films at each stage. Combined XPS and AFM results indicated complete coverage of all the substrates at the nanometer scale. It was also shown that these films grew in a layer-by-layer fashion. The nano-films were also applied to complex and uneven shaped nano-structured and porous materials, such as microcellular porous foam and nano fibers. It was seen that these nano-films can be a viable approach for effective surface modification of complex or uneven shaped nano-materials

  3. Modification of tin oxide nanoparticles by fluorocarbon solids via a mechanochemical route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senna, Mamoru, E-mail: senna@applc.keio.ac.jp; Turianicová, Erika; Zorkovská, Anna [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geotechnics (Slovakia); Makreski, Petre [SS Cyril and Methodius University, Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Kaňuchová, Mária [Technical University of Košice, Institute of Montaneous Sciences and Environmental Protection (Slovakia); Scholz, Gudrun [Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Department of Chemistry (Germany); Baláž, Matej; Baláž, Peter; Šepelák, Vladimír [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geotechnics (Slovakia); Hahn, Horst [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    Interfacial reactions at the surface of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles adjacent to the fluorocarbon solids (FCS) under mechanical stressing were compared in an attempt to their modification by introducing fluorine and carbon. Emphasis was laid on the comparison of the reactivity of 3 different species of FCS, i.e., polyvinylidene fluoride (PVdF), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). PVdF exhibited the highest reactivity, followed by PTFE and PFOA, as confirmed by Raman, FT-IR, XPS, and {sup 19}F MAS NMR spectra. The preferential reactivity could be explained in terms of the electrophilicity of FCS toward the nucleophilic oxygen in SnO{sub 2}, since the decomposition of FCS is catalyzed by the coexisting SnO{sub 2}. PFOA behaved in a different manner, due to its carboxylic groups. At the same time, carbon nanospecies were introduced as a decomposed product of FCS. This results in the formation of SnO{sub 2}:F/C nanocomposite. Fluorine introduced to SnO{sub 2} survived even after heating up to 600 °C either in air or in Ar. This indicates the thermal stability of the present partially fluorinated SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles.

  4. Pore-Engineered Metal–Organic Frameworks with Excellent Adsorption of Water and Fluorocarbon Refrigerant for Cooling Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jian [Physical; Vemuri, Rama S. [Energy; Estevez, Luis [Energy; Koech, Phillip K. [Energy; Varga, Tamas [Environmental; Camaioni, Donald M. [Physical; Blake, Thomas A. [Physical; McGrail, B. Peter [Energy; Motkuri, Radha Kishan [Energy

    2017-07-20

    Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) are found to be promising sorbents for adsorption cooling applications. Using organic ligands with 1, 2, and 3 phenylene rings, we construct moisture-stable Ni-MOF-74 members with adjustable pore apertures. These pore-engineered materials exhibit excellent sorption capabilities towards water and fluorocarbons. The adsorption patterns for these materials differ significantly and are attributed to variances in the hydrophobic/hydrophilic pore character, associated with differences in pore size. Complementary ex situ characterizations and in situ FTIR spectra are deployed to understand the correlations between the mechanisms of gas loadings and the pore environment of the MOFs.

  5. Rare Earth Element Fluorocarbonate Minerals from the Olympic Dam Cu-U-Au-Ag Deposit, South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle S. Schmandt

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Olympic Dam is a world-class breccia-hosted iron-oxide copper-gold-uranium ore deposit located in the Gawler Craton, South Australia. It contains elevated concentrations of rare earth elements (REE which occur as the REE minerals bastnäsite, synchysite, florencite, monazite, and xenotime. This is the first study to focus on the mineralogy and composition of the most abundant REE mineral at Olympic Dam, bastnäsite, and subordinate synchysite. The sample suite extends across the deposit and represents different sulfide mineralization styles (chalcopyrite-bornite and bornite-chalcocite and breccias of various types, ranging from those dominated by clasts of granite, dykes, and hematite. The REE-fluorocarbonates (bastnäsite and synchysite typically occur as fine-grained (<50 μm disseminations in Cu-Fe-sulfides and gangue minerals, and also within breccia matrix. They are also locally concentrated within macroscopic REE-mineral-rich pockets at various locations across the deposit. Such coarse-grained samples formed the primary target of this study. Three general textural groups of bastnäsite are recognized: matrix (further divided into disseminated, fine-grained, and stubby types, irregular (sulfide-associated, and clast replacement. Textures are largely driven by the specific location and prevailing mineral assemblage, with morphology and grain size often controlled by the associated minerals (hematite, sulfides. Major element concentration data reveal limited compositional variation among the REE-fluorocarbonates; all are Ce-dominant. Subtle compositional differences among REE-fluorocarbonates define a spectrum from relatively La-enriched to (Ce + Nd-enriched phases. Granite-derived hydrothermal fluids were the likely source of F in the REE-fluorocarbonates, as well as some of the CO2, which may also have been contributed by associated mafic-ultramafic magmatism. However, transport of REE by Cl-ligands is the most likely scenario. Stubby bastn

  6. Converting high boiling hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrisse, H; DuFour, L

    1929-02-12

    A process is given for converting high boiling hydrocarbons into low boiling hydrocarbons, characterized in that the high boiling hydrocarbons are heated to 200 to 500/sup 0/C in the presence of ferrous chloride and of such gases as hydrogen, water gas, and the like gases under a pressure of from 5 to 40 kilograms per square centimeter. The desulfurization of the hydrocarbons occurs simultaneously.

  7. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy investigation of interface formation in an indium-tin oxide/fluorocarbon/organic semiconductor contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, S.W.; Lau, K.M.; Sun, H.Y.; Fung, M.K.; Lee, C.S.; Lifshitz, Y.; Lee, S.T.

    2006-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that hole-injection in organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) can be enhanced by inserting a UV-illuminated fluorocarbon (CF x ) layer between indium-tin oxide (ITO) and organic hole-transporting layer (HTL). In this work, the process of interface formation and electronic properties of the ITO/CF x /HTL interface were investigated with ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that UV-illuminated fluorocarbon layer decreases the hole-injection barrier from ITO to α-napthylphenylbiphenyl diamine (NPB). Energy level diagrams deduced from the ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) spectra show that the hole-injection barrier in ITO/UV-treated CF x /NPB is the smallest (0.46 eV), compared to that in the ITO/untreated CF x /NPB (0.60 eV) and the standard ITO/NPB interface (0.68 eV). The improved current density-voltage (I-V) characteristics in the UV-treated CF x -coated ITO contact are consistent with its smallest barrier height

  8. Preparation of transparent fluorocarbon/TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} composite coating with improved self-cleaning performance and anti-aging property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jianping, E-mail: zf161162@163.com; Tan, Zhongyuan; Liu, Zhilei; Jing, Mengmeng; Liu, Wenjie; Fu, Wanli

    2017-02-28

    Graphical abstract: Semicrystalline colloidal particles of TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} composite oxide were prepared via a sol-gel approach and annealed by a microwave heating treatment. The fabricated fluorocarbon/TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} composite coatings are transparent, exhibit a highly stable and excellent hydrophilicity, an improved photocatalytic activity and outstanding self-cleaning performance. What’s more, the composite coatings display an excellent anti-aging performance toward UV irradiation. These findings indicate that the fluorocarbon/TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} composite coatings could be potentially used for outdoor applications. - Highlights: • Semicrystalline colloidal particles of TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} composite oxide presenting a particle size of 6–10 nm were prepared via a sol-gel approach and annealed by microwave heating method. • The fabricated transparent fluorocarbon/TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} composite coatings exhibited a superior hydrophilicity, an improved photocatalytic activity and excellent self-cleaning performance. • The fluorocarbon/TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} composite coatings exhibited an excellent anti-aging performance toward UV irradiation, rendering it quite suitable for outdoor applications. - Abstract: This work reports a facile method to fabricate transparent self-cleaning fluorocarbon coatings filled by semicrystalline colloidal particles of TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} composite oxide presenting a particle size ranging from 6 to 10 nm. Anatase-TiO{sub 2} crystallites were successfully obtained after microwave heating treatment of the TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} colloidal particles as confirmed by XRD, TEM and FTIR measurements. The fluorocarbon/TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} composite coatings exhibited a superior hydrophilicity and an improved photocatalytic activity in contrast to the TiO{sub 2}-filled coatings. In particular, a water contact angle (WCA) value of 4.5° and a decolorization ratio relative to methyl orange as high as 96.0% were

  9. Characterization of hydrocarbon utilizing fungi from hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    isolated fungi could be useful in the bioremediation of hydrocarbon polluted sites. Keywords: ... Technologies such as mechanical force, burying, evaporation, dispersant application, and ..... The effects of drilling fluids on marine bacteria from a.

  10. Atomic force microscopy indentation of fluorocarbon thin films fabricated by plasma enhanced chemical deposition at low radio frequency power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirghi, L.; Ruiz, A.; Colpo, P.; Rossi, F.

    2009-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) indentation technique is used for characterization of mechanical properties of fluorocarbon (CF x ) thin films obtained from C 4 F 8 gas by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition at low r.f. power (5-30 W) and d.c. bias potential (10-80 V). This particular deposition method renders films with good hydrophobic property and high plastic compliance. Commercially available AFM probes with stiff cantilevers (10-20 N/m) and silicon sharpened tips (tip radius < 10 nm) are used for indentations and imaging of the resulted indentation imprints. Force depth curves and imprint characteristics are used for determination of film hardness, elasticity modulus and plasticity index. The measurements show that the decrease of the discharge power results in deposition of films with decreased hardness and stiffness and increased plasticity index. Nanolithography based on AFM indentation is demonstrated on thin films (thickness of 40 nm) with good plastic compliance.

  11. Reverse water-in-fluorocarbon emulsions for use in pressurized metered-dose inhalers containing hydrofluoroalkane propellants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butz, N; Porté, C; Courrier, H; Krafft, M P; Vandamme, Th F

    2002-05-15

    Pulmonary administration of drugs has demonstrated numerous advantages in the treatment of pulmonary diseases due to direct targeting to the respiratory tract. It enables avoiding the first pass effect, reduces the amount of drugs administered, targets drugs to specific sites and reduces their side effects. Reverse water-in-fluorocarbon (FC) emulsions are potential drug delivery systems for pulmonary administration using pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDI). The external phase of these emulsions consists of perfluorooctyl bromide (PFOB, perflubron), whereas their internal phase contains the drugs solubilized or dispersed in water. These emulsions are stabilized by a perfluoroalkylated dimorpholinophosphate (F8H11DMP), i.e. a fluorinated surfactant. This study demonstrates the possibility of delivering a reverse fluorocarbon emulsion via the pulmonary route using a CFC-free pMDI. Two hydrofluoroalkanes (HFAs) (Solkane(R) 134a and Solkane(R) 227) were used as propellants, and various solution (or emulsion)/propellant ratios (1/3, 1/2, 2/3, 1/1, 3/2, 3/1 v/v) were investigated. The insolubility of water (with or without the fluorinated surfactant F8H11DMP) in both HFA 227 and HFA 134a was demonstrated. PFOB and the reverse emulsion were totally soluble or dispersible in all proportions in both propellants. This study demonstrated also that the reverse FC emulsion can be successfully used to deliver caffeine in a homogeneous and reproducible way. The mean diameter of the emulsion water droplets in the pressured canister was investigated immediately after packaging and after 1 week of storage at room temperature. Best results were obtained with emulsion/propellant ratios comprised between 2/3 and 3/2, and with HFA 227 as propellant.

  12. Hydrocarbons and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herz, O.

    1992-01-01

    This paper shows the influence of hydrocarbons vapors, emitted by transports or by volatile solvents using, on air pollution. Hydrocarbons are the principal precursors of photochemical pollution. After a brief introduction on atmospheric chemistry and photochemical reactions, the author describes the french prevention program against hydrocarbons emissions. In the last chapter, informations on international or european community programs for photochemical pollution study are given. 5 figs., 10 tabs

  13. Production of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, D T; Day, R E

    1920-04-27

    A process is disclosed of converting hydro-carbon oils having high boiling points to hydro-carbon oils having low boiling points, which process comprises adding the oil to be treated to a mass of hydro-carbon oil bearing shale, passing the shale with the oil through a conveyor retort and subjecting the material while in the retort to a heat treatment involving a temperature of at least 500/sup 0/F.

  14. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min

    2017-01-01

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured

  15. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2017-02-16

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured to be submerged in the liquid. The plasma plume from the plasma torch can cause reformation of the hydrocarbon. The device can use a variety of plasma torches that can be arranged in a variety of positions in the liquid container. The devices can be used for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons and/or liquid hydrocarbons. The reformation can produce methane, lower hydrocarbons, higher hydrocarbons, hydrogen gas, water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or a combination thereof.

  16. Group additivity values for enthalpies of formation (298 K), entropies (298 K), and molar heat capacities (300 K < T < 1500 K) of gaseous fluorocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Otterloo, Maren K.; Girshick, Steven L.; Roberts, Jeffrey T.

    2007-01-01

    A group additivity method was developed to estimate standard enthalpies of formation and standard entropies at 298 K of linear radical and closed-shell, gaseous fluorocarbon neutrals containing four or more carbon atoms. The method can also be used to estimate constant pressure molar heat capacities of the same compounds over the temperature range 300 K to 1500 K. Seventeen groups and seven fluorine-fluorine interaction terms were defined from 12 fluorocarbon molecules. Interaction term values from Yamada and Bozzelli [T. Yamada, J.W. Bozzelli, J. Phys. Chem. A 103 (1999) 7373-7379] were utilized. The enthalpy of formation group values were derived from G3MP2 calculations by Bauschlicher and Ricca [C.W. Bauschlicher, A. Ricca, J. Phys. Chem. A 104 (2000) 4581-4585]. Standard entropy and molar heat capacity group values were estimated from ab initio geometry optimization and frequency calculations at the Hartree-Fock level using the 6-31G(d) basis set. Enthalpies of formation for larger fluorocarbons estimated from the group additivity method compare well to enthalpies of formation found in the literature

  17. Surface etching mechanism of carbon-doped Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} phase change material in fluorocarbon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Lanlan [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Micro-system and Information Technology, Shanghai (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Song, Sannian; Song, Zhitang; Li, Le; Guo, Tianqi; Cheng, Yan; Lv, Shilong; Wu, Liangcai; Liu, Bo; Feng, Songlin [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Micro-system and Information Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2016-09-15

    Recently, carbon-doped Ge2Sb2Te5 (CGST) phase change material has been widely researched for being highly promising material for future phase change memory application. In this paper, the reactive-ion etching of CGST film in CF{sub 4}/Ar plasma is studied. Compared with GST, the etch rate of CGST is relatively lower due to the existence of carbon which reduce the concentration of F or CF{sub x} reactive radicals. It was found that Argon plays an important role in defining the sidewall edge acuity. Compared with GST, more physical bombardment is required to obtain vertical sidewall of CGST. The effect of fluorocarbon gas on the damage of the etched CGST film was also investigated. A Ge- and Sb-deficient layer with tens of nanometers was observed by TEM combining with XPS analysis. The reaction between fluorocarbon plasma and CGST is mainly dominated by the diffusion and consumption of reactive fluorine radicals through the fluorocarbon layer into the CGST substrate material. The formation of damage layer is mainly caused by strong chemical reactivity, low volatility of reaction compounds and weak ion bombardment. (orig.)

  18. Non-covalent Interactions of Graphene with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zygouri, Panagiota; Potsi, Georgia; Mouzourakis, Eleftherios; Spyrou, Konstantinos; Gournis, Dimitrios; Rudolf, Petra

    2015-01-01

    In this mini review we discuss the interactions of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with graphene and the experimental approaches developed so far to create novel graphene/PAH hybrids and composite systems. The utilization of these systems in electrical, biomedical and polymer-reinforcement

  19. Thraustochytrid protists degrade hydrocarbons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raikar, M.T.; Raghukumar, S.; Vani, V.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    isolation tubes with crude oil. Three isolates tested showed positive hydrophobicity of cell walls as judged by the Microbial Adhesion to Hydrocarbons (MATH) assay. Addition of Bombay High crude oil to nutrient broth slightly enhanced growth of the protists...

  20. Purifying hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostin, H

    1938-08-11

    A process is described for continuously purifying hydrocarbon oils consisting in conducting the vapors of the same at a temperature of 300 to 400/sup 0/C over the oelitic ore minette together with reducing gases in presence of steam the proportion of the reducing gases and steam being such that the sulfur of the hydrocarbons escapes from the reaction chamber in the form of sulfuretted hydrogen without permanent sulfide of iron being formed.

  1. Process for refining hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risenfeld, E H

    1924-11-26

    A process is disclosed for the refining of hydrocarbons or other mixtures through treatment in vapor form with metal catalysts, characterized by such metals being used as catalysts, which are obtained by reduction of the oxide of minerals containing the iron group, and by the vapors of the hydrocarbons, in the presence of the water vapor, being led over these catalysts at temperatures from 200 to 300/sup 0/C.

  2. Self-lubricating layer consist of polytetrafluoroethylene micropowders and fluorocarbon acrylate resin formation on surface of geotextile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xiaoyun; He, Lifen; Zhang, Yan; Ge, Mingqiao

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the self-lubricating layer consist of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) micropowders and two types fluorocarbon acrylate resin were formed on the surface of geotextile, to improves the evenness and decreases the frictional angle value of geotextile surface. The surface and cross section morphology of geotextile were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was determined that composite resin emulsion was evenly coated on the surface of geotextile, to form a even and complete self-lubricating layer, and it was strongly combined with the geotextile due to formation of the transition layer. The tensile fracture stress and strain values of samples were evaluated by mechanical properties measurement, the tensile fracture stress of the untreated and treated sample was approximately 5329 kN/m and 5452 kN/m while the elongation at the yield of them was approximately 85% to 83.9%, respectively. In addition, the frictional angle values of municipal solid waste (MSW)/geotextile interface was measured by the tilt table test, the values of untreated sample was 28.1° and 24.2° under the dry and moist condition, the values of treated sample was 16.2° and 9.8°, respectively.

  3. Nanoscale mechanical and tribological properties of fluorocarbon films grafted onto plasma-treated low-density polyethylene surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Q; Komvopoulos, K

    2012-01-01

    Fluorocarbon (FC) films were grafted onto Ar plasma-treated low-density polyethylene (LDPE) surfaces by plasma polymerization and deposition. The evolution of the surface morphology of the grafted FC films was investigated at different scales with an atomic force microscope. Nanoscale sliding experiments performed with a surface force microscope provided insight into the nanotribological properties of Ar plasma-treated LDPE, with and without grafted FC films, in terms of applied normal load and number of sliding cycles. The observed trends are explained in the context of microstructure models accounting for morphological and structure changes at the LDPE surface due to the effects of plasma treatment (e.g., selective etching of amorphous phase, chain crosslinking and FC film grafting) and surface sliding (e.g., crystalline lamellae alignment along the sliding direction). Nanoindentation experiments elucidated the effect of plasma treatment on surface viscoelasticity and global contact stiffness. The results of this study demonstrate that plasma-assisted grafting of FC films is an effective surface modification method for tuning the nanomechanical/tribological properties of polymers. (paper)

  4. Mesoporous fluorocarbon-modified silica aerogel membranes enabling long-term continuous CO2 capture with large absorption flux enhancements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Feng; Chen, Chien-Hua; Tung, Kuo-Lun; Wei, Te-Yu; Lu, Shih-Yuan; Chang, Kai-Shiun

    2013-03-01

    The use of a membrane contactor combined with a hydrophobic porous membrane and an amine absorbent has attracted considerable attention for the capture of CO2 because of its extensive use, low operational costs, and low energy consumption. The hydrophobic porous membrane interface prevents the passage of the amine absorbent but allows the penetration of CO2 molecules that are captured by the amine absorbent. Herein, highly porous SiO2 aerogels modified with hydrophobic fluorocarbon functional groups (CF3 ) were successfully coated onto a macroporous Al2 O3 membrane; their performance in a membrane contactor for CO2 absorption is discussed. The SiO2 aerogel membrane modified with CF3 functional groups exhibits the highest CO2 absorption flux and can be continuously operated for CO2 absorption for extended periods of time. This study suggests that a SiO2 aerogel membrane modified with CF3 functional groups could potentially be used in a membrane contactor for CO2 absorption. Also, the resulting hydrophobic SiO2 aerogel membrane contactor is a promising technology for large-scale CO2 absorption during the post-combustion process in power plants. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Plasma-deposited fluorocarbon polymer films on titanium for preventing cell adhesion: a surface finishing for temporarily used orthopaedic implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, B.; Testrich, H.; Rebl, H.; Walschus, U.; Schlosser, M.; Zietz, C.; Staehlke, S.; Nebe, J. B.; Weltmann, K. D.; Meichsner, J.; Polak, M.

    2016-06-01

    The design of a titanium implant surface should ideally support its later application in clinical use. Temporarily used implants have to fulfil requirements different from permanent implants: they should ensure the mechanical stabilization of the bone stock but in trauma surgery they should not be integrated into the bone because they will be removed after fracture healing. Finishing of the implant surface by a plasma-fluorocarbon-polymer (PFP) coating is a possible approach for preventing cell adhesion of osteoblasts. Two different low pressure gas-discharge plasma processes, microwave (MW 2.45 GHz) and capacitively coupled radio frequency (RF 13.56 MHz) plasma, were applied for the deposition of the PFP film using a mixture of the precursor octafluoropropane (C3F8) and hydrogen (H2). The thin films were characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, and water contact angle measurements. Cell culture experiments show that cell adhesion and spreading of MG-63 osteoblasts were clearly reduced or nonexistent on these surfaces, also after 24 h of storage in the cell culture medium. In vivo data demonstrated that the local inflammatory tissue response for the PFP films deposited in MW and RF plasma were comparable to uncoated controls.

  6. GPU based 3D feature profile simulation of high-aspect ratio contact hole etch process under fluorocarbon plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Poo-Reum; Lee, Se-Ah; Yook, Yeong-Geun; Choi, Kwang-Sung; Cho, Deog-Geun; Yu, Dong-Hun; Chang, Won-Seok; Kwon, Deuk-Chul; Im, Yeon-Ho

    2013-09-01

    Although plasma etch profile simulation has been attracted much interest for developing reliable plasma etching, there still exist big gaps between current research status and predictable modeling due to the inherent complexity of plasma process. As an effort to address this issue, we present 3D feature profile simulation coupled with well-defined plasma-surface kinetic model for silicon dioxide etching process under fluorocarbon plasmas. To capture the realistic plasma surface reaction behaviors, a polymer layer based surface kinetic model was proposed to consider the simultaneous polymer deposition and oxide etching. Finally, the realistic plasma surface model was used for calculation of speed function for 3D topology simulation, which consists of multiple level set based moving algorithm, and ballistic transport module. In addition, the time consumable computations in the ballistic transport calculation were improved drastically by GPU based numerical computation, leading to the real time computation. Finally, we demonstrated that the surface kinetic model could be coupled successfully for 3D etch profile simulations in high-aspect ratio contact hole plasma etching.

  7. An on-line acoustic fluorocarbon coolant mixture analyzer for the ATLAS silicon tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, R. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Battistin, M. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Berry, S.; Bitadze, A. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Bonneau, P. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Bousson, N. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Boyd, G. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Botelho-Direito, J.; DiGirolamo, B. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Doubek, M. [Czech Technical Univ., Technicka 4, 166 07 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Egorov, K. [Physics Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Godlewski, J. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Hallewell, G. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Katunin, S. [B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst. PNPI, 188300 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Mathieu, M.; McMahon, S. [Rutherford Appelton Laboratory - Science and Technology Facilities Council, Chilton, Didcot OX11 OQX (United Kingdom); Nagai, K. [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, Univ. of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Perez-Rodriguez, E. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Rozanov, A. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Vacek, V.; Vitek, M. [Czech Technical Univ., Technicka 4, 166 07 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2011-07-01

    The ATLAS silicon tracker community foresees an upgrade from the present octafluoro-propane (C{sub 3}F{sub 8}) evaporative cooling fluid - to a composite fluid with a probable 10-20% admixture of hexafluoro-ethane (C{sub 2}F{sub 6}). Such a fluid will allow a lower evaporation temperature and will afford the tracker silicon substrates a better safety margin against leakage current-induced thermal runaway caused by cumulative radiation damage as the luminosity profile at the CERN Large Hadron Collider increases. Central to the use of this new fluid is a new custom-developed speed-of-sound instrument for continuous real-time measurement of the C{sub 3}F{sub 8}/C{sub 2}F{sub 6} mixture ratio and flow. An acoustic vapour mixture analyzer/flow meter with new custom electronics allowing ultrasonic frequency transmission through gas mixtures has been developed for this application. Synchronous with the emission of an ultrasound 'chirp' from an acoustic transmitter, a fast readout clock (40 MHz) is started. The clock is stopped on receipt of an above threshold sound pulse at the receiver. Sound is alternately transmitted parallel and anti-parallel with the vapour flow for volume flow measurement from transducers that can serve as acoustic transmitters or receivers. In the development version, continuous real-time measurement of C{sub 3}F{sub 8}/C{sub 2}F{sub 6} flow and calculation of the mixture ratio is performed within a graphical user interface developed in PVSS-II, the Supervisory, Control and Data Acquisition standard chosen for LHC and its experiments at CERN. The described instrument has numerous potential applications - including refrigerant leak detection, the analysis of hydrocarbons, vapour mixtures for semiconductor manufacture and anesthetic gas mixtures. (authors)

  8. Process for desulfurizing hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-04-12

    A process is described for the desulfurization of a mixture of hydrocarbons, and in particular hydrocarbons containing less than 7 atoms of carbon and sulfur compounds of the type of sulfur carbonyl, characterized by the fact that the mixture, preferably in the liquid phase, is brought in contact with a solution of caustic alkali, essentially anhydrous or preferably with a solution of alkali hydroxide in an organic hydroxy nonacid solvent, for example, an alcohol, or with an alkaline alcoholate, under conditions suitable to the formation of hydrogen sulfide which produces a hydrocarbon mixture free from sulfur compounds of the sulfur carbonyl type but containing hydrogen sulfide, and that it is treated, following mixing, having beem submitted to the first treatment, by means of aqueous alkaline hydroxide to eliminate the hydrogen sulfide.

  9. Recovery of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1941-02-10

    A process is disclosed for recovery of hydrocarbon oils, especially lubricating oils or diesel oils, through pressure hydrogenation of distillation, extraction of hydrogenation products from coal or coaly materials or from oils such as mineral oils or tars in liquid phase by use in a reaction vessel of fixed-bed catalysts, characterized in that as starting material is employed material which has been freed of asphaltic and resinous material by hydrogenation refining, vacuum-steam distillation, treatment with hydrogen-rich hydrocarbons (hydroforming), or sulfuric acid.

  10. Highly selective SiO2 etching over Si3N4 using a cyclic process with BCl3 and fluorocarbon gas chemistries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Miyako; Kuwahara, Kenichi

    2018-06-01

    A cyclic process for highly selective SiO2 etching with atomic-scale precision over Si3N4 was developed by using BCl3 and fluorocarbon gas chemistries. This process consists of two alternately performed steps: a deposition step using BCl3 mixed-gas plasma and an etching step using CF4/Ar mixed-gas plasma. The mechanism of the cyclic process was investigated by analyzing the surface chemistry at each step. BCl x layers formed on both SiO2 and Si3N4 surfaces in the deposition step. Early in the etching step, the deposited BCl x layers reacted with CF x radicals by forming CCl x and BF x . Then, fluorocarbon films were deposited on both surfaces in the etching step. We found that the BCl x layers formed in the deposition step enhanced the formation of the fluorocarbon films in the CF4 plasma etching step. In addition, because F radicals that radiated from the CF4 plasma reacted with B atoms while passing through the BCl x layers, the BCl x layers protected the Si3N4 surface from F-radical etching. The deposited layers, which contained the BCl x , CCl x , and CF x components, became thinner on SiO2 than on Si3N4, which promoted the ion-assisted etching of SiO2. This is because the BCl x component had a high reactivity with SiO2, and the CF x component was consumed by the etching reaction with SiO2.

  11. Angular dependence of etch rates in the etching of poly-Si and fluorocarbon polymer using SF6, C4F8, and O2 plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Jae-Ho; Lee, Gyeo-Re; Lee, Jin-Kwan; Moon, Sang Heup; Kim, Chang-Koo

    2004-01-01

    The dependences of etch rates on the angle of ions incident on the substrate surface in four plasma/substrate systems that constitute the advanced Bosch process were investigated using a Faraday cage designed for the accurate control of the ion-incident angle. The four systems, established by combining discharge gases and substrates, were a SF 6 /poly-Si, a SF 6 /fluorocarbon polymer, an O 2 /fluorocarbon polymer, and a C 4 F 8 /Si. In the case of SF 6 /poly-Si, the normalized etch rates (NERs), defined as the etch rates normalized by the rate on the horizontal surface, were higher at all angles than values predicted from the cosine of the ion-incident angle. This characteristic curve shape was independent of changes in process variables including the source power and bias voltage. Contrary to the earlier case, the NERs for the O 2 /polymer decreased and eventually reached much lower values than the cosine values at angles between 30 deg. and 70 deg. when the source power was increased and the bias voltage was decreased. On the other hand, the NERs for the SF 6 /polymer showed a weak dependence on the process variables. In the case of C 4 F 8 /Si, which is used in the Bosch process for depositing a fluorocarbon layer on the substrate surface, the deposition rate varied with the ion incident angle, showing an S-shaped curve. These characteristic deposition rate curves, which were highly dependent on the process conditions, could be divided into four distinct regions: a Si sputtering region, an ion-suppressed polymer deposition region, an ion-enhanced polymer deposition region, and an ion-free polymer deposition region. Based on the earlier characteristic angular dependences of the etch (or deposition) rates in the individual systems, ideal process conditions for obtaining an anisotropic etch profile in the advanced Bosch process are proposed

  12. Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H.; Milanovich, F.P.; Hirschfeld, T.B.; Miller, F.S.

    1988-09-13

    A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon and but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons. 5 figs.

  13. Catalyst for hydrocarbon conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhaut, P.; Miquel, J.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given for a catalyst and process for hydrocarbon conversions, e.g., reforming. The catalyst contains an alumina carrier, platinum, iridium, at least one metal selected from uranium, vanadium, and gallium, and optionally halogen in the form of metal halide of one of the aforesaid components. (U.S.)

  14. TN trademark FLEX: a new generation of fluorocarbon o-rings developed by COGEMA logistics with enhanced characteristics at low temperature (-40 C)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issard, H.; Andre, R.

    2004-01-01

    Three main types of elastomers are used for the sealing of radioactive material transport casks with elastomeric gaskets: EPDM, fluorocarbons type Viton registered (standard designation: FKM) and silicon rubbers. Each rubber has specific characteristics in terms of temperature range, permeability, coefficient of expansion.. For the casks where high temperatures can be reached (200 C in continuous using), FKM gaskets are generally used. The problem is that this type of gasket does not guarantee the leaktightness at -40 C, which is a regulatory requirement. Two solutions are generally used: to specify a minimum heat load or a minimum ambient temperature. The direct consequence is that it is impossible to get B(U) approvals on the new concepts when FKM gaskets are used but only B(M) approvals, which generate significant additional justification costs (multiple submittals of Safety Analysis Reports, calculation of the minimum heat load or of the minimum ambient temperature..). Thus, it is important to develop gaskets with the same performance as FKM gaskets at high temperature but with enhanced performance at low temperature (and mainly, which guarantee the leaktightness at -40 C). COGEMA LOGISTICS has qualified a new generation of fluorocarbon O-rings (TN trademark FLEX gaskets) which can be used in continuous service on a -47 C/+200 C temperature range. TN trademark FLEX gaskets will be implemented on new casks designs

  15. Distilling hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, C

    1917-11-23

    In the fractional or destructive distillation of hydrocarbon oils or other liquids, the pressure in the still is raised and lowered alternately. The still is closed to raise the pressure, and is opened to lower the pressure rapidly solely by expansion of the vapors. The operation is effected without intermittent cooling, except such as may occur during the lowering of the pressure. In distilling hydrocarbon oil, pressure steam is blown into the oil until the pressure reaches 5 lb/in./sup 2/. The vapor outlet is then opened until the pressure falls to 2 lb/in./sup 2/, whereupon the vapor outlet is closed and steam is again admitted. The operation is continued until the steam, which is of 20 lb pressure, no longer effects distillation; after this stage, superheated steam is used.

  16. Distilling hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tausz, J

    1924-07-16

    Hydrocarbon oils such as petroleum, shale oils, lignite or coal tar oils are purified by distilling them and collecting the distillate in fractions within narrow limits so that all the impurities are contained in one or more of the narrow fractions. In distilling ligroin obtained by destructive distillation of brown coal, it is found that the coloring and resin-forming constituents are contained in the fractions distilling over at 62 to 86/sup 0/C and 108/sup 0/C. The ligroin is purified, therefore, by distillating in an apparatus provided with an efficient dephlegmotor and removing these two fractions. The distillation may be carried out wholly or in part under reduced pressure, and fractions separated under ordinary pressure may be subsequently distilled under reduced pressure. The hydrocarbons may be first separated into fractions over wider limits and the separate fractions be subjected to a further fractional distillation.

  17. Nuclear explosives and hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, P

    1971-10-01

    A nuclear explosive 12 in. in diam and producing very little tritium is feasible in France. Such a device would be well adapted for contained nuclear explosions set off for the purpose of hydrocarbon storage or stimulation. The different aspects of setting off the explosive are reviewed. In the particular case of gas storage in a nuclear cavity in granite, it is demonstrated that the dose of irradiation received is extremely small. (18 refs.)

  18. Treatment of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1936-02-22

    A process is described for refining a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons containing harmful substances, this process permitting the operation, which consists in treating the liquid mixture at a temperature higher than 200/sup 0/C with a solid catalyst of phosphoric acid, consisting of phosphoric acid deposited on a solid support of the type of metallurgical coke, for a time sufficient to convert the harmful components to inoffensive substances.

  19. Biogeochemistry of Halogenated Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaens, P.; Gruden, C.; McCormick, M. L.

    2003-12-01

    Halogenated hydrocarbons originate from both natural and industrial sources. Whereas direct anthropogenic emissions to the atmosphere and biosphere are often easy to assess, particularly when they are tied to major industrial activities, the attribution of emissions to other human activities (e.g., biomass burning), diffuse sources (e.g., atmospheric discharge, run off), and natural production (e.g., soils, fungi, algae, microorganisms) are difficult to quantify. The widespread occurrence of both alkyl and aryl halides in groundwater, surface water, soils, and various trophic food chains, even those not affected by known point sources, suggests a substantial biogeochemical cycling of these compounds (Wania and Mackay, 1996; Adriaens et al., 1999; Gruden et al., 2003). The transport and reactive fate mechanisms controlling their reactivity are compounded by the differences in sources of alkyl-, aryl-, and complex organic halides, and the largely unknown impact of biogenic processes, such as enzymatically mediated halogenation of organic matter, fungal production of halogenated hydrocarbons, and microbial or abiotic transformation reactions (e.g., Asplund and Grimvall, 1991; Gribble, 1996; Watling and Harper, 1998; Oberg, 2002). The largest source may be the natural halogenation processes in the terrestrial environment, as the quantities detected often exceed the amount that can be explained by human activities in the surrounding areas ( Oberg, 1998). Since biogeochemical processes result in the distribution of a wide range of halogenated hydrocarbon profiles, altered chemical structures, and isomer distributions in natural systems, source apportionment (or environmental forensics) can often only be resolved using multivariate statistical methods (e.g., Goovaerts, 1998; Barabas et al., 2003; Murphy and Morrison, 2002).This chapter will describe the widespread occurrence of halogenated hydrocarbons, interpret their distribution and biogeochemical cycling in light of

  20. Cracking hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seigle, A A.F.M.

    1922-12-20

    Hydrocarbon oils such as petroleum, peat, shale, or lignite oils, heavy tars, resin oils, naphthalene oils, etc., are vaporized by being fed from a tank through a preheater to the lower part of a vertical annular retort heated by a flame projected down the central cavity from a burner. The oil vapors rise through annular passages formed by disks, on which are placed chips of copper, iron, aluminum, etc., to act as catalysts.

  1. High boiling point hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1929-04-29

    A process is given for the production of hydrocarbons of high boiling point, such as lubricating oils, from bituminous substances, such as varieties of coal, shale, or other solid distillable carbonaceous materials. The process consists of treating the initial materials with organic solvents and then subjecting the products extracted from the initial materials, preferably directly, to a reducing treatment in respect to temperature, pressure, and time. The reduction treatment is performed by means of hydrogen under pressure.

  2. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  3. Redeposition of etch products on sidewalls during SiO2 etching in a fluorocarbon plasma. I. Effect of particle emission from the bottom surface in a CF4 plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Jae-Ho; Hwang, Sung-Wook; Lee, Gyeo-Re; Moon, Sang Heup

    2002-01-01

    The effect of etch-product redeposition on sidewall properties during the etching of step-shaped SiO 2 patterns in a CF 4 plasma was examined using a Faraday cage located in a transformer coupled plasma etcher. Sidewall properties were observed for two cases: with and without particles emitted from the bottom surface in normal contact with the sidewall. Particles sputtered from the bottom surface were redeposited on the sidewall, which contributes to the formation of a passivation layer on the surface of the latter. The passivation layer consisted of silicon oxide, Si x O y , and fluorocarbon, C x F y , the latter comprising the major species. Ar plasma experiments confirmed that C x F y or a fluorocarbon polymer must be present on the sidewall in order for the Si x O y species to be deposited on the surface. The redeposited particles, which were largely F-deficient fluorocarbon species, as evidenced by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses, functioned as precursors for fluorocarbon polymerization, resulting in a rough sidewall surface. The chemical etch rates of SiO 2 were retarded by the redeposition of particles, which eventually formed a thick layer, eventually covering the bulk SiO 2 . Auger electron spectroscopy analyses of the sidewall surface affected by the emission from the bottom suggest that the surface consists of three distinct layers: a surface-carbon layer, a redeposition-etch combined layer, and bulk SiO 2

  4. Measuring Trace Hydrocarbons in Silanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    Technique rapid and uses standard analytical equipment. Silane gas containing traces of hydrocarbons injected into carrier gas of moist nitrogen having about 0.2 percent water vapor. Carrier, water and silane pass through short column packed with powdered sodium hydroxide which combines moisture and silane to form nonvolatile sodium silicate. Carrier gas free of silane but containing nonreactive hydrocarbons, pass to silica-gel column where chromatographic separation takes place. Hydrocarbons measured by FID.

  5. Fractional separation of hydrocarbon vapours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-07-10

    A process is described for converting higher boiling hydrocarbons to lower boiling hydrocarbons by subjecting them at elevated temperatures to a conversion operation, then separating the higher and lower boiling fractions. The separation takes place while the reaction products are maintained in the vapor phase by contact with a mass of solid porous material which has little or no catalytic activity but does have a preferential absorption property for higher boiling hydrocarbons so that the lower boiling part of the reaction products pass through the separation zone while the heavier hydrocarbons are retained. The separation is accomplished without substantial loss of heat of these reaction products.

  6. Process for preparing hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauch, C; Anther, E; Pier, M

    1926-04-07

    A process is described for the conversion of coal of all kinds, wood, oil, shale, as well as other carbonaceous materials into liquid hydrocarbons in two steps, characterized by treatment of the coal and so forth with a stream of hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gases at raised temperatures and raised pressures and producing a tarry product which, after separation of the ashlike residue, is converted by a further treatment, in the presence of catalysts, with hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gases at raised temperature and pressure, largely into low-boiling products.

  7. Recovering valuable liquid hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1931-06-11

    A process for recovering valuable liquid hydrocarbons from coking coal, mineral coal, or oil shale through treatment with hydrogen under pressure at elevated temperature is described. Catalysts and grinding oil may be used in the process if necessary. The process provides for deashing the coal prior to hydrogenation and for preventing the coking and swelling of the deashed material. During the treatment with hydrogen, the coal is either mixed with coal low in bituminous material, such as lean coal or active coal, as a diluent or the bituminous constituents which cause the coking and swelling are removed by extraction with solvents. (BLM)

  8. Hydrogen production from hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Docekal, J

    1986-01-01

    Hydrogen is an important feed stock for chemical and petroleum industries, in addition to being considered as the energy carrier of the future. At the present time the feed stock hydrogen is mainly manufactured from hydrocarbons using steam reforming. In steam reforming two processes are employed, the conventional process and PSA (pressure swing adsorption) process. These two processes are described and compared. The results show that the total costs and the maintenance costs are lower for the PSA process, the capital outlay is lower for the conventional process, and the operating costs are similar for the two processes.

  9. Determination of polynuclear hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodge, Jr, J P

    1963-01-01

    At the present time, the method of choice for the determination of polynuclear hydrocarbons appears to be the following, (a) extraction of the benzene-soluble fraction from the gross collected particulate matter, (b) one pass through a chromatographic column of partially deactivated alumina, (c) spectral examination of the fractions and (d) the application of appropriate chemical tests as indicated by the previous step. Using this method, the presence of pyrene, fluoranthene, one of the benzofluorenes, chrysens, benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(e)pyrene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, anthanthrene, and coronene was demonstrated in the air of numerous American cities, and benzo(a)pyrene was measured at some 130 sites. Invaluable as such accurate determinations may be for research purposes, they are still too costly and time-consuming for routine survey purposes. While studies on the subject are by no means complete, they indicate the validity of piperonal chloride test as a general index of polycyclic hydrocarbons. This procedure is described in this paper. 7 references.

  10. Hydrocarbons: source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imarisio, G.; Frias, M.; Bemtgen, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are at present the single most important source of energy, since they are the most versatile and widely used. It is expected that their importance will extend well into the next century and therefore it is essential to provide for all those improvements which will extend their availability and usefulness. The sub-programme ''Optimization of the production and utilization of hydrocarbons'' (within the Non-Nuclear Energy R and D Programme of the European Communities) is pursuing a number of R and D topics aimed at the above-mentioned results. It is implemented by means of shared-cost R and D contracts. At this first Seminar held in Lyon (France) from 21-23 September, 1988, all contractors of the sub-programme presented the state of progress of their R and D projects. These proceedings comprise all the papers presented at the Seminar. The section on oilfield exploration includes a report of work on the interpretation of nuclear logs by means of mathematical models. (author)

  11. Fluorocarbon-bonded magnetic mesoporous microspheres for the analysis of perfluorinated compounds in human serum by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiaodan; Yu, Yingjia; Li, Yan; Zhang, Haiying; Ling, Jin; Sun, Xueni; Feng, Jianan; Duan, Gengli

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • New SPE method was developed for analysis of PFCs in human serum. • Fluorocarbon-bonded magnetic mesoporous microspheres were used as SPE absorbents. • PFCs in serum were directly extracted without any other pretreatment procedure. • The PFCs-adsorbed microspheres were simply and rapidly isolated by using a magnet. - Abstract: We report herein an extraction method for the analysis of perfluorinated compounds in human serum based on magnetic core–mesoporous shell microspheres with decyl-perfluorinated interior pore-walls (Fe 3 O 4 @mSiO 2 -F 17 ). Thanks to the unique properties of the Fe 3 O 4 @mSiO 2 -F 17 microspheres, macromolecules like proteins could be easily excluded from the mesoporous channels due to size exclusion effect, and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in protein-rich biosamples such as serum could thus be directly extracted with the fluorocarbon modified on the channel wall without any other pretreatment procedure. The PFCs adsorbed Fe 3 O 4 @mSiO 2 -F 17 microspheres could then be simply and rapidly isolated by using a magnet, followed by being identified and quantified by LC–MS/MS (high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry). Five perfluorinatedcarboxylic acids (C6, C8–C11) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) were selected as model analytes. In order to achieve the best extraction efficiency, some important factors including the amount of Fe 3 O 4 @mSiO 2 -F 17 microspheres added, adsorption time, type of elution solvent, eluting solvent volume and elution time were investigated. The ranges of the LOD were 0.02–0.05 ng mL −1 for the six PFCs. The recovery of the optimized method varies from 83.13% to 92.42% for human serum samples

  12. Steam hydrocarbon cracking and reforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golombok, M.

    2004-01-01

    Many industrial chemical processes are taught as distinct contrasting reactions when in fact the unifying comparisons are greater than the contrasts. We examine steam hydrocarbon reforming and steam hydrocarbon cracking as an example of two processes that operate under different chemical reactivity

  13. Canada's hydrocarbon processing evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, T.H.; Horton, R.

    2000-01-01

    The development of petroleum refining, petrochemicals and natural gas industries in Canada are discussed together with future issues and prospects. Figures give data on (a) refined products trade 1998; (b) refining capacity; (c) product demand 1980-1999; (d) refinery crude runs and capacity; (e) refining and marketing, historical returns 1993-1999; (f) processing power index for Canada and USA; (g) ethylene capacity; (eye) Montreal petrochemical capacities; (j) Sarnia petrochemical capacities in 2000; (k) Alberta petrochemicals capacities 2001; (l) ethylene net equivalent trade; (m) ethylene costs 1999 for W. Canada and other countries. It was concluded that the hydrocarbon processing business continues to expand in Canada and natural gas processing is likely to increase. Petrochemicals may expand in W. Canada, possibly using feed stock from the Far North. Offshore developments may stimulate new processing on the E. Coast

  14. Hydrogenating gaseous hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolardot, P L.F.

    1930-08-06

    Gaseous hydrocarbons obtained by the destructive distillation of carbonaceous materials are simultaneously desulfurized and hydrogenated by passing them at 350 to 500/sup 0/C, mixed with carbon monoxide and water vapor over lime mixed with metallic oxides present in sufficient amount to absorb the carbon dioxide as it is formed. Oxides of iron, copper, silver, cobalt, and metals of the rare earths may be used and are mixed with the lime to form a filling material of small pieces filling the reaction vessel which may have walls metallized with copper and zinc dust. The products are condensed and fixed with absorbents, e.g. oils, activated carbon, silica gels. The metallic masses may be regenerated by a hot air stream and by heating in inert gases.

  15. Treating hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, R; MacIvor, W

    1869-09-01

    The treatment of hydrocarbon oils, such as coal or shale oils, paraffin oils, and petroleum, either in the crude or more or less refined state has the object of reducing the specific gravity and otherwise improving the qualities of such oils. The oil to be treated is put into any ordinary still and distilled. The vapor escaping during the distillation is passed through one or more heating vessels or chambers and exposed to the heat necessary to produce the change. The heating vessels or chambers may be made of metal, clay, or any other material adapted to endure heat, and they may be made of any desired form, or they may be constituted of a coil of metal pipes or a series of tubes such as are used for heating air for blast furnaces.

  16. High energy density additives for Hybrid Fuel Rockets to Improve Performance and Enhance Safety

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a conceptual study of prototype strained hydrocarbon molecules as high energy density additives for hybrid rocket fuels to boost the performance of these...

  17. High Pressure Preignition Chemistry of Hydrocarbons and Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cernansky, N.P

    1998-01-01

    .... The research program entailed mechanistic studies examining the oxidation chemistry of single-component hydrocarbons and ignition studies examining the overall ignition of pure single component fuels and fuel blends...

  18. Growth of hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Two isolates from marine mud having broad spectrum hydrocarbon utilizing profile were identified as Arthrobacter simplex and Candida tropicalis.Both the organisms grew exponentially on crude oil. The cell yield of the organisms was influenced...

  19. Process for treating hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1933-09-15

    A process is described for treating simultaneously bituminous substances and hydrocarbon oils for the production of low-boiling hydrocarbons and volatilization of the bituminous substances, characterized by the fact that it consists of heating a current of charge constituted by a mixture of the bituminous substances and hydrocarbon oils, to a high temperature, passing the heated current into a zone of extended reaction where the vapors are separated from the liquid or solid residue to favor transformation of the liquid hydrocarbons and volatilization of the bituminous substances, owing to the utilization of a heating agent carried to a high temperature being brought in contact with the heated charge in order to communicate its heat to the charge, while this later presents itself as relatively fine pellet or in the condition of distinct particles, particularly separated from one another.

  20. Predicting hydrocarbon release from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppendieck, D.; Loehr, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' The remediation of hazardous chemicals from soils can be a lengthy and costly process. As a result, recent regulatory initiatives have focused on risk-based corrective action (RBCA) approaches. Such approaches attempt to identify the amount of chemical that can be left at a site with contaminated soil and still be protective of human health and the environment. For hydrocarbons in soils to pose risk to human heath and the environment, the hydrocarbons must be released from the soil and accessible to microorganisms, earthworms, or other higher level organisms. The sorption of hydrocarbons to soil can reduce the availability of the hydrocarbon to receptors. Typically in soils and sediments, there is an initial fast release of a hydrocarbon from the soil to the aqueous phase followed by a slower release of the remaining hydrocarbon to the aqueous phase. The rate and extent of slow release can influence aqueous hydrocarbon concentrations and the fate and transport of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. Once the fast fraction of the chemical has been removed from the soil, the remaining fraction of a chemical may desorb at a rate that natural mechanisms can attenuate the released hydrocarbon. Hence, active remediation may be needed only until the fast fraction has been removed. However, the fast fraction is a soil and chemical specific parameter. This presentation will present a tier I type protocol that has been developed to quickly estimate the fraction of hydrocarbons that are readily released from the soil matrix to the aqueous phase. Previous research in our laboratory and elsewhere has used long-term desorption (four months) studies to determine the readily released fraction. This research shows that a single short-term (less than two weeks) batch extraction procedure provides a good estimate of the fast released fraction derived from long-term experiments. This procedure can be used as a tool to rapidly evaluate the release and bioavailability of

  1. Hydrocarbon removal with constructed wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Eke, Paul Emeka

    2008-01-01

    Wetlands have long played a significant role as natural purification systems, and have been effectively used to treat domestic, agricultural and industrial wastewater. However, very little is known about the biochemical processes involved, and the use of constructed treatment wetlands in the removal of petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons from produced and/or processed water. Wastewaters from the oil industry contain aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and x...

  2. Bioassay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Kirk, E.A.

    1980-08-01

    A positive relationship was found between the photodynamic activity of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons versus published results on the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and initiation of unscheduled DNA synthesis. Metabolic activation of benzo(a)pyrene resulted in detection of increased mutagenesis in Paramecium tetraurelia as found also in the Ames Salmonella assay. The utility of P. tetraurelia as a biological detector of hazardous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is discussed.

  3. Catalytic pyrolysis of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vail' eva, N A; Buyanov, R A

    1979-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of petroleum fractions (undecane) was performed with the object of clarifying such questions as the mechanism of action of the catalyst, the concepts of activity and selectivity of the catalyst, the role of transport processes, the temperature ranges and limitations of the catalytic process, the effect of the catalyst on secondary processes, and others. Catalysts such as quartz, MgO, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, were used. Analysis of the experimental findings and the fact that the distribution of products is independent of the nature of the surface, demonstrate that the pyrolysis of hydrocarbons in the presence of catalysts is based on the heterogeneous-homogeneous radical-chain mechanism of action, and that the role of the catalysts reduces to increasing the concentration of free radicals. The concept of selectivity cannot be applied to catalysts here, since they do not affect the mechanism of the unfolding of the process of pyrolysis and their role consists solely in initiating the process. In catalytic pyrolysis the concepts of kinetic and diffusive domains of unfolding of the catalytic reaction do not apply, and only the outer surface of the catalyst is engaged, whereas the inner surface merely promotes deletorious secondary processes reducing the selectivity of the process and the activity of the catalyst. 6 references, 2 figures.

  4. Electrostatically atomised hydrocarbon sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yule, A.J.; Shrimpton, J.S.; Watkins, A.P.; Balachandran, W.; Hu, D. [UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom). Thermofluids Division, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1995-07-01

    A burner using an electrostatic method to produce and control a fuel spray is investigated for non-burning sprays. The burner has a charge injection nozzle and the liquid flow rate and charge injection rate are varied using hydrocarbon liquids of differing viscosities, surface tensions and electrical conductivities (kerosene, white spirit and diesel oil). Droplet size distributions are measured and it is shown how the dropsize, spray pattern, breakup mechanism and breakup length depend on the above variables, and in particular on the specific charge achieved in the spray. The data are valuable for validating two computer models under development. One predicts the electric field and flow field inside the nozzle as a function of emitter potential, geometry and flow rate. The other predicts the effect of charge on spray dispersion, with a view to optimizing spray combustion. It is shown that electrostatic disruptive forces can be used to atomize oils at flow rates commensurate with practical combustion systems and that the charge injection technique is particularly suitable for highly resistive liquids. Possible limitations requiring further research include the need to control the wide spray angle, which may provide fuel-air mixtures too lean near the nozzle, and the need to design for maximum charge injection rate, which is thought to be limited by corona breakdown in the gas near the nozzle orifice. 30 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  5. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  6. Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Task 8 is responsible for assessing the hydrocarbon potential of the Yucca Mountain vincinity. Our main focus is source rock stratigraphy in the NTS area in southern Nevada. (In addition, Trexler continues to work on a parallel study of source rock stratigraphy in the oil-producing region of east central Nevada, but this work is not funded by Task 8.) As a supplement to the stratigraphic studies, we are studying the geometry and kinematics of deformation at NTS, particularly as these pertain to reconstructing Paleozoic stratigraphy and to predicting the nature of the Late Paleozoic rocks under Yucca Mountain. Our stratigraphic studies continue to support the interpretation that rocks mapped as the open-quotes Eleana Formationclose quotes are in fact parts of two different Mississippian units. We have made significant progress in determining the basin histories of both units. These place important constraints on regional paleogeographic and tectonic reconstructions. In addition to continued work on the Eleana, we plan to look at the overlying Tippipah Limestone. Preliminary TOC and maturation data indicate that this may be another potential source rock

  7. Hydrophobicity attainment and wear resistance enhancement on glass substrates by atmospheric plasma-polymerization of mixtures of an aminosilane and a fluorocarbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Múgica-Vidal, Rodolfo, E-mail: rodolfo.mugica@alum.unirioja.es [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of La Rioja, c/ Luis de Ulloa 20, 26004, Logroño, La Rioja (Spain); Alba-Elías, Fernando, E-mail: fernando.alba@unirioja.es [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of La Rioja, c/ Luis de Ulloa 20, 26004, Logroño, La Rioja (Spain); Sainz-García, Elisa, E-mail: elisa.sainzg@unirioja.es [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of La Rioja, c/ Luis de Ulloa 20, 26004, Logroño, La Rioja (Spain); Pantoja-Ruiz, Mariola, E-mail: mpruiz@ing.uc3m.es [Materials Science and Engineering Department, IAAB, Materials Performance Group, University Carlos III of Madrid, Av. Universidad 30, 28911, Leganés, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • APTES and PFH were used to coat glass by non-thermal atmospheric jet plasma. • A mixture of 75% of APTES and 25% PFH produced the best sample of this work. • Hydrophobicity was achieved by changes in surface morphology and chemistry. • Wear resistance was enhanced by the formation of siloxane groups. - Abstract: Mixtures of different proportions of two liquid precursors were subjected to plasma-polymerization by a non-thermal atmospheric jet plasma system in a search for a coating that achieves a hydrophobic character on a glass substrate and enhances its wear resistance. 1-Perfluorohexene (PFH) was chosen as a low-surface-energy precursor to promote a hydrophobic character. Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) was chosen for its contribution to the improvement of wear resistance by the formation of siloxane bonds. The objective of this work was to determine which of the precursors’ mixtures that were tested provides the coating with the most balanced enhancement of both hydrophobicity and wear resistance, given that coatings deposited with fluorocarbon-based precursors such as PFH are usually low in resistance to wear and coatings deposited with APTES are generally hydrophilic. The coatings obtained were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), static Water Contact Angle (WCA) measurements, tribological ball-on-disc tests and contact profilometry. A relationship between the achievement of a hydrophobic character and the modifications to roughness and surface morphology and the incorporation of fluorocarbon groups in the surface chemistry was observed. Also, it was seen that the wear resistance was influenced by the SiOSi content of the coatings. In turn, the SiOSi content appears to be directly related to the percentage of APTES used in the mixture of precursors. The best conjunction of

  8. Role of chamber dimension in fluorocarbon based deposition and etching of SiO2 and its effects on gas and surface-phase chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, E. A.; Zhou, B.-S.; Sant, S. P.; Overzet, L. J.; Goeckner, M. J.

    2008-01-01

    It is well understood that chamber geometry is an influential factor governing plasma processing of materials. Simple models suggest that a large fraction of this influence is due to changes in basic plasma properties, namely, density, temperature, and potential. However, while such factors do play an important role, they only partly describe the observed differences in process results. Therefore, to better elucidate the role of chamber geometry in this work, the authors explore the influence of plasma chemistry and its symbiotic effect on plasma processing by decoupling the plasma density, temperature, and potential from the plasma-surface (wall) interactions. Specifically, a plasma system is used with which the authors can vary the chamber dimension so as to vary the plasma-surface interaction directly. By varying chamber wall diameter, 20-66 cm, and source-platen distance, 4-6 cm, the etch behavior of SiO 2 (or the deposition behavior of fluorocarbon polymer) and the resulting gas-phase chemistry change significantly. Results from in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry show significant differences in etch characteristics, with etch rates as high as 350 nm/min and as low as 75 nm/min for the same self-bias voltage. Fluorocarbon deposition rates are also highly dependent on chamber dimension and vary from no net deposition to deposition rates as high as 225 nm/min. Etch yields, however, remain unaffected by the chamber size variations. From Langmuir probe measurements, it is clear that chamber geometry results in significant shifts in plasma properties such as electron and ion densities. Indeed, such measurements show that on-wafer processes are limited at least in part by ion flux for high energy reactive ion etch. However, in situ multipass Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reveals that the line-averaged COF 2 , SiF 4 , CF 2 , and CF 3 gas-phase densities are also dependent on chamber dimension at high self-bias voltage and also correlate well to the CF x

  9. Evaluation on occluded hydrocarbon in deep–ultra deep ancient source rocks and its cracked gas resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil-cracked gas, as the main type of high-over mature marine natural gas in China, is mainly derived from occluded hydrocarbon. So it is significant to carry out quantitative study on occluded hydrocarbon. In this paper, the occluded hydrocarbon volume of the main basins in China was calculated depending on their types, abundances and evolution stages by means of the forward method (experimental simulation and the inversion method (geologic profile dissection. And then, occluded hydrocarbon evolution models were established for five types of source rocks (sapropelic, sapropelic prone hybrid, humic prone hybrid, humic and coal. It is shown that the hydrocarbon expulsion efficiency of sapropelic and sapropelic prone hybrid excellent source rocks is lower than 30% at the low-maturity stage, 30%–60% at the principal oil generation stage, and 50%–80% at the high-maturity stage, which are all about 10% higher than that of humic prone hybrid and humic source rocks at the corresponding stages. The resource distribution and cracked gas expulsion of occluded hydrocarbon since the high-maturity stage of marine source rocks in the Sichuan Basin were preliminarily calculated on the basis of the evolution models. The cracked gas expulsion is 230.4 × 1012 m3 at the high evolution stage of occluded hydrocarbon of the Lower Cambrian Qiongzhusi Fm in this basin, and 12.3 × 1012 m3 from the source rocks of Sinian Doushantuo Fm, indicating good potential for natural gas resources. It is indicated that the favorable areas of occluded hydrocarbon cracked gas in the Qiongzhusi Fm source rocks in the Sichuan Basin include Gaoshiti–Moxi, Ziyang and Weiyuan, covering a favorable area of 4.3 × 104 km2.

  10. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous materials play an important role in space. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a ubiquitous component of the carbonaceous materials. PAHs are the best-known candidates to account for the IR emission bands. They are also thought to be among the carriers of the diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs). PAH ionization states reflect the ionization balance of the medium while PAH size, composition, and structure reflect the energetic and chemical history of the medium. A major challenge is to reproduce in the laboratory the physical conditions that exist in the emission and absorption interstellar zones. The harsh physical conditions of the ISM -low temperature, collisionless, strong UV radiation fields- are simulated in the laboratory by associating a molecular beam with an ionizing discharge to generate a cold plasma expansion. PAH ions and radicals are formed from the neutral precursors in an isolated environment at low temperature and probed with high-sensitivity cavity ringdown spectroscopy in the NUV-NIR range. Carbon nanoparticles are also formed during the short residence time of the precursors in the plasma and are characterized with time-offlight mass spectrometry. These experiments provide unique information on the spectra of large carbonaceous molecules and ions in the gas phase that can now be directly compared to interstellar and circumstellar observations (IR emission bands, DIBs, extinction curve). These findings also hold great potential for understanding the formation process of interstellar carbonaceous grains. We will review recent progress in the experimental and theoretical studies of PAHs, compare the laboratory data with astronomical observations and discuss the global implications.

  11. A Combined On-Line Acoustic Flowmeter and Fluorocarbon Coolant Mixture Analyzer for The ATLAS Silicon Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Bitadze, A.; Bates, R.; Battistin, M.; Berry, S.; Bonneau, P.; Botelho-Direito, J.; DiGirolamo, B.; Godlewski, J.; Perez-Rodriguez, E.; Zwalinski, L.; Bousson, N.; Hallewell, G.; Mathieu, M.; Rozanov, A.; Boyd, G.; Doubek, M.; Vacek, V.; Vitek, M.; Egorov, K.; Katunin, S.; McMahon, S.; Nagai, K.

    2011-01-01

    An upgrade to the ATLAS silicon tracker cooling control system may require a change from C3F8 (octafluoro-propane) to a blend containing 10-30% of C2F6 (hexafluoro-ethane) to reduce the evaporation temperature and better protect the silicon from cumulative radiation damage with increasing LHC luminosity. Central to this upgrade is a new acoustic instrument for the real-time measurement of the C3F8/C2F6 mixture ratio and flow. The instrument and its Supervisory, Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) software are described in this paper. The instrument has demonstrated a resolution of 3.10-3 for C3F8/C2F6 mixtures with ~20%C2F6, and flow resolution of 2% of full scale for mass flows up to 30gs-1. In mixtures of widely-differing molecular weight (mw), higher mixture precision is possible: a sensitivity of < 5.10-4 to leaks of C3F8 into the ATLAS pixel detector nitrogen envelope (mw difference 160) has been seen. The instrument has many potential applications, including the analysis of mixtures of hydrocarbons,...

  12. A combined on-line acoustic flowmeter and fluorocarbon coolant mixture analyzer for the ATLAS silicon tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, R.; Bitadze, A.; Battistin, M.; Berry, S.; Bonneau, P.; Botelho-Direito, J.; Girolamo, B. Di; Godlewski, J.; Perez-Rodriguez, E.; Zwalinski, L.; Bousson, N.; Hallewell, G.; Mathieu, M.; Rozanov, A.; Boyd, G.; Doubek, M.; Vacek, V.; Vitek, M.; Egorov, K.; Katunin, S.; Konstantinov, B.P.; McMahon, S.; Nagai, K.

    2012-01-01

    An upgrade to the ATLAS silicon tracker cooling control system may require a change from C 3 F 8 (octafluoro-propane) to a blend containing 10-30% of C 2 F 6 (hexafluoro-ethane) to reduce the evaporation temperature and better protect the silicon from cumulative radiation damage with increasing LHC luminosity. Central to this upgrade is a new ultrasonic flowmeter and binary gas analyzer for the real-time measurement of the C 3 F 8 /C 2 F 6 mixture ratio and flow. The instrument and its Supervisory, Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) software are described in this paper. The instrument has demonstrated a resolution of 3.10 -3 for C 3 F 8 /C 2 F 6 mixtures with about 20% C 2 F 6 , and flow resolution of 2% of full scale for mass flows up to 30 gs -1 . In mixtures of widely-differing molecular weight (mw), higher mixture precision is possible: a sensitivity of -4 to leaks of C 3 F 8 into the ATLAS pixel detector nitrogen envelope (mw difference 160) has been seen. The instrument has many potential applications, including the analysis of mixtures of hydrocarbons, vapours for semi-conductor manufacture and anaesthesia. (authors)

  13. Hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of 233 U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m -2 , and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid

  14. Improvements in the technique of vascular perfusion-fixation employing a fluorocarbon-containing perfusate and a peristaltic pump controlled by pressure feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, J; Qvortrup, Klaus; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1993-01-01

    A new improved technique for whole-body perfusion-fixation of rats and other small animals is described. The driving force is a peristaltic pump which is feedback regulated by a pressure transducer that monitors the blood-perfusion pressure in the left ventricle of the heart. The primary perfusate...... to cannulate the heart; the outer and inner barrels of the cannula are connected to the peristaltic pump and to the pressure transducer, respectively. The tissue oxygen tension in the rat is monitored by a subcutaneous oxygen electrode. Measurements showed that tissue hypoxia/anoxia did not develop before......-fixative is composed of a blood substitute--13.3% oxygenated fluorocarbon FC-75--in 0.05 M cacodylate buffer (pH 7.4) with a 2% glutaraldehyde. The secondary perfusate-fixative is composed of 2% glutaraldehyde in 0.05 M cacodylate buffer (pH 7.4) with 20 mM CaCl2. A double-barrelled, self-holding cannula is used...

  15. Syntrophic biodegradation of hydrocarbon contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieg, Lisa M; Fowler, S Jane; Berdugo-Clavijo, Carolina

    2014-06-01

    Anaerobic environments are crucial to global carbon cycling wherein the microbial metabolism of organic matter occurs under a variety of redox conditions. In many anaerobic ecosystems, syntrophy plays a key role wherein microbial species must cooperate, essentially as a single catalytic unit, to metabolize substrates in a mutually beneficial manner. Hydrocarbon-contaminated environments such as groundwater aquifers are typically anaerobic, and often methanogenic. Syntrophic processes are needed to biodegrade hydrocarbons to methane, and recent studies suggest that syntrophic hydrocarbon metabolism can also occur in the presence of electron acceptors. The elucidation of key features of syntrophic processes in defined co-cultures has benefited greatly from advances in 'omics' based tools. Such tools, along with approaches like stable isotope probing, are now being used to monitor carbon flow within an increasing number of hydrocarbon-degrading consortia to pinpoint the key microbial players involved in the degradative pathways. The metagenomic sequencing of hydrocarbon-utilizing consortia should help to further identify key syntrophic features and define microbial interactions in these complex communities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Production of light hydrocarbons, etc. [from heavy hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-10-07

    A process is given for the production of light hydrocarbons of the gasoline type and, if desired, of the middle-oil type, from liquid or fusible heavy or medium heavy hydrocarbon materials. The process comprises subjecting the said initial materials in the first stage to catalytic hydrofining, separating the lower boiling constituents and the hydrogenating gas from the resulting products and then subjecting the higher boiling constituents in a second stage to a splitting destructive hydrogenation and then recycling substantially the entire reaction mixture obtained in the second stage to the frst stage.

  17. Production of hydrocarbons, especially ethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-01-17

    The invention has for its object a process for the production of gaseous nonsaturated hydrocarbons, particularly ethylene and aromatic hydrocarbons, by starting with hydrocarbon oils entirely of paraffinic nature or their fractions, which consists in putting the separated products in contact with solid inert material especially with porous nonmetallic inert material or of heavy metals or their alloys, maybe in a finely divided state or in the form, of pieces or chips, at a temperature above 500/sup 0/C, or better between 600 and 700/sup 0/C at a velocity per hour of 0.6 to 3.0, and preferably 0.75 to 1.5 parts per volume of products per each part of space volume of catalyst.

  18. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang,; Dali, [Los Alamos, NM; Devlin, David [Santa Fe, NM; Barbero, Robert S [Santa Cruz, NM; Carrera, Martin E [Naperville, IL; Colling, Craig W [Warrenville, IL

    2010-08-10

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  19. Production of hydrocarbons of value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-06-16

    A process is described for the production of hydrocarbons of great value by treating with heat and pressure carbonaceous materials such as coals, tars, mineral oils, and products of distillation and transformation of these materials, also for the refining with heat and pressure of mixed liquid hydrocarbons by means of hydrogen gas, preferably in the presence of catalysts, consisting in using as the hydrogenating gas that obtained by gasification of combustible solids after partial or complete cleaning at atmospheric or elevated pressures, by means of solid adsorbents, chemical agents or catalysts, or mixtures of these agents, the hydrocarbons being characterized by strong unsaturation, and the presence of oxygen, sulfur compounds, and oxides of nitrogen.

  20. Process of distilling heavy hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1929-12-03

    This invention has for its object the distillation of heavy liquid hydrocarbons for the purpose of obtaining lighter hydrocarbons stable and immediately salable for fuels in combustion motors. The process is distinguished by the fact that the heavy hydrocarbon is distilled by means of heating to a temperature in keeping with the nature of the material to be treated up to 350/sup 0/C under pressure or without pressure the distillation being carried out on catalysts containing successively nickel, copper, and iron (3 parts of nickel, 1 part of copper, and 1 part of iron), the vapors produced by this distillation being exposed in turn to the action of catalysts of the same nature and in the same proportion.

  1. Preparing valuable hydrocarbons by hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1930-08-22

    A process is described for the preparation of valuable hydrocarbons by treatment of carbonaceous materials, like coal, tars, minerals oils, and their distillation and conversion products, and for refining of liquid hydrocarbon mixture obtained at raised temperature and under pressure, preferably in the presence of catalysts, by the use of hydrogen-containing gases, purified and obtained by distilling solid combustibles, characterized by the purification of the hydrogen-containing gases being accomplished for the purpose of practically complete removal of the oxygen by heating at ordinary or higher pressure in the presence of a catalyst containing silver and oxides of metals of group VI of the periodic system.

  2. Purifying and regenerating hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-11-19

    Hydrocarbons are freed from sulfur-containing compounds, colloidal asphaltic bodies and unstable unsaturated substances by treatment with a small amount of dilute sulfuric acid and a salt of a trivalent cation, such as ferric chloride or sulfate. Hydrocarbons specified are petroleum, crude benzol, low temperature tars, shale oil or vapor-phase cracked spirit. Motor spirit or lubricating oil distillates are refined and finally distilled. The acid reagent may be regenerated by filtering through sand or asbestos. Used lubricating oils may be treated similarly and after removal of refining agent, the oil is heated with an adsorbent and decolorizing material and then filtered.

  3. Hydrocarbons cocktails of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    This publication of the Areva Group, a world nuclear industry leader, provides information on the energy in many domains. This issue deals with the CO 2 pollution exchange, the carbon sinks to compensate the CO 2 , the green coal as an innovative solution, an outsize dam in China, the solar energy progresses in France and the french medicine academy in favor of Nuclear. A special chapter is devoted to the hydrocarbons of the future, artificial chemical combination created from constituents of hydrocarbons and derived from various sources. (A.L.B.)

  4. Hybrid composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available mixed short sisal/glass hybrid fibre reinforced low density polyethylene composites was investigated by Kalaprasad et al [25].Chemical surface modifications such as alkali, acetic anhydride, stearic acid, permanganate, maleic anhydride, silane...

  5. Hybrid intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Cetorelli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    I introduce the concept of hybrid intermediaries: financial conglomerates that control a multiplicity of entity types active in the "assembly line" process of modern financial intermediation, a system that has become known as shadow banking. The complex bank holding companies of today are the best example of hybrid intermediaries, but I argue that financial firms from the "nonbank" space can just as easily evolve into conglomerates with similar organizational structure, thus acquiring the cap...

  6. BIOREMEDIATION OF A PETROLEUM-HYDROCARBON

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES OBE

    under field conditions in the bioremediation of a petroleum- hydrocarbon polluted ... an accelerated biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a polluted agricultural soil ..... 12) Jackson, M.L. Soil chemical analysis. ... biological assay. 3 rd.

  7. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH): ToxFAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a state: This map displays locations where Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) is known to be present. On ... I get more information? ToxFAQs TM for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) ( Hidrocarburos Totales de Petróleo (TPH) ) August ...

  8. Effective viscosity of confined hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, V.N.; Persson, B.N.J.

    2012-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon films with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. We find that the logarithm of the effective viscosity ηeff for nanometer-thin films depends linearly on the logarithm of the shear rate: log ηeff=C-nlog γ̇, where...

  9. Magnetic graphene oxide as adsorbent for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linli; Xu, Hui

    2014-09-01

    Detection of monohydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons metabolites in urine is an advisable and valid method to assess human environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In this work, novel Fe3O4/graphene oxide composites were prepared and their application in the magnetic solid-phase extraction of monohydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urine was investigated by coupling with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. In the hybrid material, superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles provide fast separation to simplify the analytical process and graphene oxide provides a large functional surface for the adsorption. The prepared magnetic nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry. The experimental conditions were optimized systematically. Under the optimal conditions, the recoveries of these compounds were in the range of 98.3-125.2%, the relative standard deviations ranged between 6.8 and 15.5%, and the limits of detection were in the range of 0.01-0.15 ng/mL. The simple, quick, and affordable method was successfully used in the analysis of human urinary monohydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in two different cities. The results indicated that the monohydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons level in human urine can provide useful information for environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in hypersaline environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Martins

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature on hydrocarbon degradation in extreme hypersaline media presents studies that point to a negative effect of salinity increase on hydrocarbonoclastic activity, while several others report an opposite tendency. Based on information available in the literature, we present a discussion on the reasons that justify these contrary results. Despite the fact that microbial ability to metabolize hydrocarbons is found in extreme hypersaline media, indeed some factors are critical for the occurrence of hydrocarbon degradation in such environments. How these factors affect hydrocarbon degradation and their implications for the assessment of hydrocarbon biodegradation in hypersaline environments are presented in this review.

  11. Process for separating liquid hydrocarbons from waxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowa, F J

    1948-03-08

    A process is described for the separation of liquid hydrocarbons from waxes comprising adding to a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons and waxes a sufficient quantity of an organo-silicon compound to cause the separation of the hydrocarbon and wax. The organo-silicon compounds are selected from the class of organic silicanes and their hydrolysis products and polymers. The silicanes have the formula R/sub y/SiX/sub z/, in which R is a saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbon radical, X is a halogen or another hydrocarbon radical or an -OR group, y has a value 1, 2, or 3 and z has a value 1, 2, or 3.

  12. Tolerance of Antarctic soil fungi to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Kevin A.; Bridge, Paul; Clark, Melody S. [British Antarctic Survey, Natural Environment Research Council, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of hydrocarbons and fuel oil on Antarctic filamentous fungi in the terrestrial Antarctic environment. Growth of fungi and bacteria from soils around Rothera Research Station (Adelaide Island, Antarctic Peninsula) was assessed in the presence of ten separate aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons [marine gas oil (MGO), dodecane, hexadecane, benzoic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, toluene, phenol, biphenyl, naphthalene and m- and p-xylenes with ethylbenzene]. Aromatic hydrocarbons inhibited soil microbial growth more than aliphatic hydrocarbons. Soil microorganisms from a moss patch, where little previous impact or hydrocarbon contamination had occurred, were less tolerant of hydrocarbons than those from high impact sites. Fungal growth rates of Mollisia sp., Penicillium commune, Mortierella sp., Trichoderma koningii, Trichoderma sp. and Phoma herbarum were assessed in the presence of hydrocarbons. Generally, aromatic hydrocarbons inhibited or stopped hyphal extension, though growth rates increased with some aliphatic hydrocarbons. Hyphal dry weight measurements suggested that Mortierella sp. may be able to use dodecane as sole carbon and energy source. Hydrocarbon-degrading Antarctic fungi may have use in future hydrocarbon spill bioremediation. (author)

  13. Hydrocarbon Rocket Technology Impact Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuber, Eric; Prasadh, Nishant; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the Apollo program ended, the development of launch propulsion systems in the US has fallen drastically, with only two new booster engine developments, the SSME and the RS-68, occurring in the past few decades.1 In recent years, however, there has been an increased interest in pursuing more effective launch propulsion technologies in the U.S., exemplified by the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist s inclusion of Launch Propulsion Systems as the first technological area in the Space Technology Roadmaps2. One area of particular interest to both government agencies and commercial entities has been the development of hydrocarbon engines; NASA and the Air Force Research Lab3 have expressed interest in the use of hydrocarbon fuels for their respective SLS Booster and Reusable Booster System concepts, and two major commercially-developed launch vehicles SpaceX s Falcon 9 and Orbital Sciences Antares feature engines that use RP-1 kerosene fuel. Compared to engines powered by liquid hydrogen, hydrocarbon-fueled engines have a greater propellant density (usually resulting in a lighter overall engine), produce greater propulsive force, possess easier fuel handling and loading, and for reusable vehicle concepts can provide a shorter turnaround time between launches. These benefits suggest that a hydrocarbon-fueled launch vehicle would allow for a cheap and frequent means of access to space.1 However, the time and money required for the development of a new engine still presents a major challenge. Long and costly design, development, testing and evaluation (DDT&E) programs underscore the importance of identifying critical technologies and prioritizing investment efforts. Trade studies must be performed on engine concepts examining the affordability, operability, and reliability of each concept, and quantifying the impacts of proposed technologies. These studies can be performed through use of the Technology Impact Forecasting (TIF) method. The Technology Impact

  14. Microbial production of gaseous hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Hideo

    1987-10-20

    Microbial production of ethylene, isobutane and a saturated gaseous hydrocarbon mixture was described. Microbial ethylene production was studied with Penicillium digitatum IFO 9372 and a novel pathway of the ethylene biosynthesis through alpha-ketoglutarate was proposed. Rhodotorula minuta IFO 1102 was selected for the microbial production of isobutane and the interesting actions of L-leucine and L-phenylalanine for the isobutane production were found. It was finally presented about the microbial production of a saturated gaseous hydrocarbon mixture with Rhizopus japonicus IFO 4758 was described. A gas mixture was produced through a chemical reaction of SH compounds and some cellular component such as squalene under aerobic conditions. (4 figs, 7 tabs, 41 refs)

  15. Scottish hydrocarbons: Borders and bounty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, John

    1999-01-01

    On 6 May, the people of Scotland will vote for the country's first parliament in almost three centuries. One issue is expected to arouse particularly strong views: the question of North Sea oil and gas, and who benefits from its production and taxation. Most of these hydrocarbons lie in the northern half of the British Isles, but drawing boundaries to settle contentious issues such as oil and gas fields is not an easy task. And, if boundaries were to be drawn, then a scarcely less contentious subject arises: just how much cash might an independent Scotland expect to receive? Reading between the lines it's clear that in hard cash terms, were Scotland to be independent whilst still retaining the vast bulk of North Sea oilfields, depressed prices would ensure that hydrocarbon tax revenues would be unlikely to constitute a particularly impressive addition to the Scottish Treasury. (UK)

  16. Treatment of hydrocarbon oil vapours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamplough, F

    1923-03-01

    An apparatus for treating hydrocarbon vapors for the purpose of preventing dehydrogenation is disclosed which comprises in combination a cooling tower having a vapor inlet at the bottom and a vapor outlet at the top, means to direct the entering vapors laterally in a plurality of jets against an interior side wall or walls of the tower and means to constrain the condensate to gravitate down the tower in the interior wall or walls against which the encountering vapor is forced to impinge.

  17. Deep desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunshan [State College, PA; Ma, Xiaoliang [State College, PA; Sprague, Michael J [Calgary, CA; Subramani, Velu [State College, PA

    2012-04-17

    The invention relates to processes for reducing the sulfur content in hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. The invention provides a method and materials for producing ultra low sulfur content transportation fuels for motor vehicles as well as for applications such as fuel cells. The materials and method of the invention may be used at ambient or elevated temperatures and at ambient or elevated pressures without the need for hydrogen.

  18. Source rock hydrocarbons. Present status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vially, R.; Maisonnier, G.; Rouaud, T.

    2013-01-01

    This report first presents the characteristics of conventional oil and gas system, and the classification of liquid and gaseous non conventional hydrocarbons, with the peculiar case of coal-bed methane. The authors then describe how source rock hydrocarbons are produced: production of shale oils and gases (horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing, exploitation) and of coal-bed methane and coal mine methane. In the next part, they address and discuss the environmental impact of source rock hydrocarbon production: installation footprint, water resource management, drilling fluids, fracturing fluids composition, toxicity and recycling, air pollution, induced seismicity, pollutions from other exploitation and production activities. They propose an overview of the exploitation and production of source rock gas, coal-bed gas and other non conventional gases in the world. They describe the current development and discuss their economic impacts: world oil context and trends in the USA, in Canada and other countries, impacts on the North American market, on the world oil industry, on refining industries, on the world oil balance. They analyse the economic impacts of non conventional gases: development potential, stakes for the world gas trade, consequence for gas prices, development opportunities for oil companies and for the transport sector, impact on CO 2 emissions, macro-economic impact in the case of the USA

  19. Hybrid stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hybrid stars. AsHOK GOYAL. Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India. Abstract. Recently there have been important developments in the determination of neutron ... number and the electric charge. ... available to the system to rearrange concentration of charges for a given fraction of.

  20. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  1. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  2. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may

  3. Fluorocarbon based atomic layer etching of Si_3N_4 and etching selectivity of SiO_2 over Si_3N_4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chen; Metzler, Dominik; Oehrlein, Gottlieb S.; Lai, Chiukin Steven; Hudson, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    Angstrom-level plasma etching precision is required for semiconductor manufacturing of sub-10 nm critical dimension features. Atomic layer etching (ALE), achieved by a series of self-limited cycles, can precisely control etching depths by limiting the amount of chemical reactant available at the surface. Recently, SiO_2 ALE has been achieved by deposition of a thin (several Angstroms) reactive fluorocarbon (FC) layer on the material surface using controlled FC precursor flow and subsequent low energy Ar"+ ion bombardment in a cyclic fashion. Low energy ion bombardment is used to remove the FC layer along with a limited amount of SiO_2 from the surface. In the present article, the authors describe controlled etching of Si_3N_4 and SiO_2 layers of one to several Angstroms using this cyclic ALE approach. Si_3N_4 etching and etching selectivity of SiO_2 over Si_3N_4 were studied and evaluated with regard to the dependence on maximum ion energy, etching step length (ESL), FC surface coverage, and precursor selection. Surface chemistries of Si_3N_4 were investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) after vacuum transfer at each stage of the ALE process. Since Si_3N_4 has a lower physical sputtering energy threshold than SiO_2, Si_3N_4 physical sputtering can take place after removal of chemical etchant at the end of each cycle for relatively high ion energies. Si_3N_4 to SiO_2 ALE etching selectivity was observed for these FC depleted conditions. By optimization of the ALE process parameters, e.g., low ion energies, short ESLs, and/or high FC film deposition per cycle, highly selective SiO_2 to Si_3N_4 etching can be achieved for FC accumulation conditions, where FC can be selectively accumulated on Si_3N_4 surfaces. This highly selective etching is explained by a lower carbon consumption of Si_3N_4 as compared to SiO_2. The comparison of C_4F_8 and CHF_3 only showed a difference in etching selectivity for FC depleted conditions. For FC accumulation conditions

  4. Climate change opportunities in the hydrocarbon sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amey, A.

    2003-01-01

    This presentation described some of the innovative policy, market and technology approaches that are needed to move to a carbon constrained future. The world's primary power consumption is currently 12 trillion watts. Most of the energy (85 per cent) comes from fossil fuels. Climate Change Central (C3) was incorporated as a not-for-profit company in 2000. It includes representatives from major industry sectors, environmental associations, and all levels of government. C3 provides leadership in encouraging action on climate change and developing climate change partnerships and alliances. It also provides strategic intelligence in identifying climate change priorities and appropriate policy frameworks. It helps increase public awareness of the issue. While C3 is focused on reducing greenhouse gases (GHG), it stands neutral in the Kyoto Protocol debate and is working to define emission reduction priorities in partnership with all stakeholders. Priorities include energy efficiency/conservation; emission off-sets development; adaptation; technology and market innovation; and, socio-economic implications. The difficulty in reducing GHGs stems from the fact that carbon emissions, energy use, and economic growth are directly related. In a buoyant, hydrocarbon-based economy, economic growth has meant an increase in energy production, energy use and increased carbon emissions, even while emission intensity decreases significantly. The United States contributes 23 per cent of the world's total carbon emissions, of which 90 per cent comes from energy production and consumption. Many states have implemented policies to control carbon emissions. A range of policy approaches are also underway in Canada to set GHG emission targets, to support the development of GHG off-set and trading systems, and to promote renewable energy source development. Efforts are also underway to develop clean coal or zero emission coal technology, to promote distributed power generation, biofuels, and

  5. Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio; Saito, Akiko; Kamimura, Tomomi; Nagasawa, Taeko; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Ito, Hitoshi

    2003-01-01

    The hydrocarbon method for the detection of irradiated foods is now recognized as the international technique. This method is based on radiolysis of fatty acids in food to give hydrocarbons. In order to expand this technique's application, ten foods (butter, cheese, chicken, pork, beef, tuna, dry shrimp, avocado, papaya, and mango) were irradiated in the range from 0.5 to 10 kGy and the hydrocarbons in them were detected. Recoveries of the hydrocarbons from most foods were acceptable (38-128%). Some hydrocarbons were found in non-irradiated foods, particularly, in butter, cheese, tuna, and shrimp. Seven irradiated foods, butter, cheese, chicken, beef, pork, tuna, dry shrimp, and avocado were detectable at their practical doses by measuring the appropriate marker hydrocarbons. In most case, marker hydrocarbon will be 1,7-hexadecadiene. However, the marker hydrocarbons produced only in irradiated foods varied from food to food; therefore, it is necessary to check a specific irradiated food for marker hydrocarbons. On the other hand, two irradiated foods (papaya and mango which were irradiated at their practical doses) were difficult to distinguish from non-irradiated foods using this method. (author)

  6. Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Akiko; Kamimura, Tomomi; Nagasawa, Taeko [Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Allied Health Sciences; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Establishment

    2003-06-01

    The hydrocarbon method for the detection of irradiated foods is now recognized as the international technique. This method is based on radiolysis of fatty acids in food to give hydrocarbons. In order to expand this technique's application, ten foods (butter, cheese, chicken, pork, beef, tuna, dry shrimp, avocado, papaya, and mango) were irradiated in the range from 0.5 to 10 kGy and the hydrocarbons in them were detected. Recoveries of the hydrocarbons from most foods were acceptable (38-128%). Some hydrocarbons were found in non-irradiated foods, particularly, in butter, cheese, tuna, and shrimp. Seven irradiated foods, butter, cheese, chicken, beef, pork, tuna, dry shrimp, and avocado were detectable at their practical doses by measuring the appropriate marker hydrocarbons. In most case, marker hydrocarbon will be 1,7-hexadecadiene. However, the marker hydrocarbons produced only in irradiated foods varied from food to food; therefore, it is necessary to check a specific irradiated food for marker hydrocarbons. On the other hand, two irradiated foods (papaya and mango which were irradiated at their practical doses) were difficult to distinguish from non-irradiated foods using this method. (author)

  7. Hydrocarbon-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria in marine hydrocarbon seep sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Kleindienst, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms are key players in our biosphere because of their ability to degrade various organic compounds including a wide range of hydrocarbons. At marine hydrocarbon seeps, more than 90% of sulfate reduction (SR) is potentially coupled to non-methane hydrocarbon oxidation. Several hydrocarbon-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were enriched or isolated from marine sediments. However, in situ active SRB remained largely unknown. In the present thesis, the global distribution and a...

  8. Halogenated hydrocarbons - an environmental problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeler, H F; Thofern, E

    1984-01-01

    The paper provides a survey of the incidence of highly volatile halogenated hydrocarbons in ground, surface and drinking water as well as in the snows of Western Germany. Almost the entire production of chlorinated solvents is released into the environment. The absorption media are mostly soil, water and atmosphere. Whereas in the atmosphere elimination reactions take place, solvents that have passed the soil get into the ground water owing to their persistence and can cause considerable pollutions of drinking water. Moreover haloforms may occur in drinking water, which are produced during chlorine disinfection of pre-treated water.

  9. Catalytic treatment of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1940-02-23

    A process is described for increasing the octane number of a hydrocarbon oil. The substance is subjected under pressure to a temperature between 800 and 1100/sup 0/C. Catalysts include metal compounds of Groups IV, V, Vi, or VIII (Group VI is perferred). Experiments are performed under a hydrogen atmosphere. Reaction time, temperature, pressure, and partial pressure of the hydrogen are adjusted so that there will be no net hydrogen consumption. The reaction gases (including the products) are recycled in whole or in part to supply the hydrogen gas required.

  10. Catalytic cracking of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1940-09-12

    A process is described for the vapor phase catalytic cracking of hydrocarbon oils boiling substantially in the gas oil range. The reaction takes place in the presence of a solid catalyst between 700 to 900/sup 0/F under pressure between atmospheric and 400 psi. A gas containing between 20 and 90 mol % of free hydrogen is used. The reaction is allowed to proceed until consumption of the free begins. The reaction is discontinued at that point and the catalyst is regenerated for further use.

  11. Performance of a Throttle Cycle Refrigerator with Nitrogen-Hydrocarbon and Argon-Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatarathnam, G.; Senthil Kumar, P.; Srinivasa Murthy, S.

    2004-06-01

    Throttle cycle refrigerators are a class of vapor compression refrigerators that can provide refrigeration at cryogenic temperatures and operate with refrigerant mixtures. The performance of our prototype refrigerators with nitrogen-hydrocarbon, nitrogen-hydrocarbon-helium and argon-hydrocarbon refrigerant mixtures is presented in this paper.

  12. Decontamination of hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes the method of treating hydrocarbon contaminated soil. It comprises forming the soil into a flowing particulate stream, forming an aqueous liquid mixture of water and treating substance that reacts with hydrocarbon to form CO 2 and water, dispersing the liquid mixture into the particulate soil stream to wet the particulate, allowing the substance to react with the wetted soil particulate to thereby form CO 2 and water, thereby the resultant soil is beneficially treated, the stream being freely projected to dwell at a level and then fall, and the dispersing includes spraying the liquid mixture into the projected stream at the dwell, the substance consisting of natural bacteria, and at a concentration level in the mixture of between 100 to 3,000 PPM of bacteria to water, the soil forming step including impacting the soil to reduce it to particles less than about 1 inches in cross dimension, and including forming the wetting particulate into a first layer on a surface to allow the substance to react

  13. Hydrocarbon production with nuclear explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade Watkins, J.

    1970-01-01

    The tremendous energy of nuclear explosives and the small dimensions of the explosive package make an ideal combination for drill-hole explosive emplacement in deep, thick hydrocarbon deposits. Potential applications exist in fracturing low permeability natural-gas and petroleum formations for stimulating production, fracturing oil shale to permit in situ retorting, and creating storage chimneys for natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, petroleum, petroleum products, helium, and other fluids. Calculations show, for example, that less than 100 shots per year would be needed to stabilize the natural gas reserves to production ratio. Under the Government-industry Plowshare program, two experiments, Projects Gasbuggy and Rulison, were conducted to stimulate natural gas production from low-permeability formations. Incomplete information indicates that both were technically successful. Potential problems associated with the use of nuclear explosives for underground engineering applications are radioactive contamination, maximum yield limitations, high costs of detonating contained nuclear explosives, and adverse public opinion. Results at Project Gasbuggy and other considerations indicated that the problem of radioactive contamination was about as predicted and not an insurmountable one. Also, it was demonstrated that shots at adequate depths could be detonated without appreciable damage to existing surface and subsurface buildings, natural features, and equipment. However, costs must be reduced and the public must be better informed before these techniques can be widely used in field operations. On the basis of present knowledge, the potential of nuclear-explosive stimulation of hydrocarbon production appears good. Additional field experiments will be required to adequately explore that potential. (author)

  14. Hydrocarbon production with nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade Watkins, J [Petroleum Research, Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC (United States)

    1970-05-01

    The tremendous energy of nuclear explosives and the small dimensions of the explosive package make an ideal combination for drill-hole explosive emplacement in deep, thick hydrocarbon deposits. Potential applications exist in fracturing low permeability natural-gas and petroleum formations for stimulating production, fracturing oil shale to permit in situ retorting, and creating storage chimneys for natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, petroleum, petroleum products, helium, and other fluids. Calculations show, for example, that less than 100 shots per year would be needed to stabilize the natural gas reserves to production ratio. Under the Government-industry Plowshare program, two experiments, Projects Gasbuggy and Rulison, were conducted to stimulate natural gas production from low-permeability formations. Incomplete information indicates that both were technically successful. Potential problems associated with the use of nuclear explosives for underground engineering applications are radioactive contamination, maximum yield limitations, high costs of detonating contained nuclear explosives, and adverse public opinion. Results at Project Gasbuggy and other considerations indicated that the problem of radioactive contamination was about as predicted and not an insurmountable one. Also, it was demonstrated that shots at adequate depths could be detonated without appreciable damage to existing surface and subsurface buildings, natural features, and equipment. However, costs must be reduced and the public must be better informed before these techniques can be widely used in field operations. On the basis of present knowledge, the potential of nuclear-explosive stimulation of hydrocarbon production appears good. Additional field experiments will be required to adequately explore that potential. (author)

  15. Unsaturated medium hydrocarbons pollution evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Luise, G.

    1991-01-01

    When the so called porous unsaturated medium, that's the vertical subsoil section between both the ground and water-table level, is interested by a hydrocarbons spill, the problem to evaluate the pollution becomes difficult: considering, essentially, the natural coexistence in it of two fluids, air and water, and the interactions between them. This paper reports that the problems tend to increase when a third fluid, the pollutant, immiscible with water, is introduced into the medium: a three-phases flow, which presents several analogies with the flow conditions present in an oil-reservoir, will be established. In such a situation, it would be very useful to handle the matter by the commonly used parameters in the oil reservoirs studies such as: residual saturation, relative permeability, phases mobility, to derive a first semiquantitative estimation of the pollution. The subsoil pollution form hydrocarbons agents is one of the worldwide more diffused causes of contamination: such events are generally referable to two main effects: accidental (oil pipeline breakdowns, e.g.), and continuous (underground tanks breaks, industrial plants leakages, e.g.)

  16. Production of hydrogen from hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmueller, R

    1984-03-01

    Hydrocarbons are the preferred starting materials for the industrial production of hydrogen. Most hydrogen is produced by steam reforming of light hydrocarbons. Partial oxidation of heavy oil and residue is used for the production of H/sub 2/ and synthesis gas in large plants. In both cases gas purification was improved. Hydrogen-rich gases like coke oven gas, refinery-offgas, and offgases from the chemical and petrochemical industry have high potential for becoming a major source of hydrogen. Processes for recovering H/sub 2/ (and by-products) are condensation and rectification at low temperatures and, most attractive and versatile for the production of very pure H/sub 2/, adsorption (PSA). The environmental impact of H/sub 2/ production lies mainly in the emission of CO/sub 2/ and heat. Other forms of pollution can be considerably reduced by conventional methods. The economy of H/sub 2/ production depends essentially on price and availability of the raw materials.

  17. The electrostatic atomization of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, A J

    1984-06-01

    Exploitation of the unique and potentially beneficial characteristics of electrostatic atomization in combustion systems has foundered upon the inability of two element, diode devices to operate at flow rates that are larger than a fraction of a millilitre per second. This restriction has been attributed to the high innate electrical resistivity of hydrocarbon fuels. A discussion of proposed electrostatic fuel atomizers and their limitations is presented from the vantage of a recently developed theory of electrostatic spraying. Comparison of theory and experiment reveals the existence of a 'constant of spraying' and the presence of an operational regime in which low charge density droplet development is possible. Operation with hydrocarbons in this regime occurs when the mean droplet size is greater than or equal to 10 ..mu..m and fluid viscosity is below about 250 cp. The resulting spray has a mean droplet size that is functionally dependent only upon the free charge density level of the fluid. Consequently there is no theoretical impediment to the attainment of high flow rate electrostatic atomization with fluids of arbitrary conductivity. Implementation is achieved by a general class of electrostatic spray devices which employ direct charge injection. The Spray Triode, a submerged field-emission electron gun, represents a particularly simple member of this new class of atomizer. Among the Spray Triode operational characteristics to be discussed is insensitivity to spray fluid properties and flow rate.

  18. Primary biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.H.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Paumen, M.L.; Parkerton, T.; Dmytrasz, B.

    2012-12-15

    This report describes primary biodegradation experiments performed to determine the persistence of higher molecular weight petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater. Results from the biodegradation experiments show that the majority of tested petroleum hydrocarbons have half-lives in seawater less than 60 days.

  19. Mechanistic model for microbial growth on hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallee, F M; Blanch, H W

    1977-12-01

    Based on available information describing the transport and consumption of insoluble alkanes, a mechanistic model is proposed for microbial growth on hydrocarbons. The model describes the atypical growth kinetics observed, and has implications in the design of large scale equipment for single cell protein (SCP) manufacture from hydrocarbons. The model presents a framework for comparison of the previously published experimental kinetic data.

  20. Identification and Characterisation of Major Hydrocarbons in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification and Characterisation of Major Hydrocarbons in Thermally Degraded Low Density Polyethylene Films. ... There were alkanes, alkenes, halogenated alkanes, and very few aromatics in the liquid product and, the hydrocarbons were observed to range between C10 - C27. The FTIR and GC-MS results show the ...

  1. Molecular characterization of autochthonous hydrocarbon utilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Materials and Methods ... culturable hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria (HUB) were enumerated by vapour phase ... hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial isolates by boiling method according to ... obtained in this investigation are consistent with past field studies (Kostka et ... Microbial and other related changes in a Niger sediment.

  2. Versatility of hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Min; Wang, Weihua; Zhang, Weiwen; Chen, Lei; Lu, Xuefeng

    2017-02-01

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms using solar energy, H 2 O, and CO 2 as the primary inputs. Compared to plants and eukaryotic microalgae, cyanobacteria are easier to be genetically engineered and possess higher growth rate. Extensive genomic information and well-established genetic platform make cyanobacteria good candidates to build efficient biosynthetic pathways for biofuels and chemicals by genetic engineering. Hydrocarbons are a family of compounds consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. Structural diversity of the hydrocarbon family is enabled by variation in chain length, degree of saturation, and rearrangements of the carbon skeleton. The diversified hydrocarbons can be used as valuable chemicals in the field of food, fuels, pharmaceuticals, nutrition, and cosmetics. Hydrocarbon biosynthesis is ubiquitous in bacteria, yeasts, fungi, plants, and insects. A wide variety of pathways for the hydrocarbon biosynthesis have been identified in recent years. Cyanobacteria may be superior chassis for hydrocabon production in a photosynthetic manner. A diversity of hydrocarbons including ethylene, alkanes, alkenes, and terpenes can be produced by cyanobacteria. Metabolic engineering and synthetic biology strategies can be employed to improve hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria. This review mainly summarizes versatility and perspectives of hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria.

  3. 33 CFR 157.166 - Hydrocarbon emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon emissions. 157.166 Section 157.166 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.166 Hydrocarbon emissions. If the...

  4. Hydrocarbon formation mechanism during uranium monocarbide hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermolaev, M.I.; Tishchenko, G.V.

    1979-01-01

    The hydrolysis of uranium monocarbide in oxidative media and in the presence of excessive hydrogen in statu nascendi has been investigated. It was found that oxydants promote the formation of elementary carbon, while in the presence of hydrogen the yield of light C-C hydrocarbons increases. EPR data confirm the radical mechanism of hydrocarbons formation during the decomposition of uranium monocarbide

  5. George A. Olah, Carbocation and Hydrocarbon Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    dropdown arrow Site Map A-Z Index Menu Synopsis George A. Olah, Carbocation and Hydrocarbon Chemistry George Olah received the 1994 Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his contribution to carbocation chemistry" and his 'role in the chemistry of hydrocarbons. In particular, he developed superacids

  6. Hybrid Qualifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Against the background of increasing qualification needs there is a growing awareness of the challenge to widen participation in processes of skill formation and competence development. At the same time, the issue of permeability between vocational education and training (VET) and general education...... has turned out as a major focus of European education and training policies and certainly is a crucial principle underlying the European Qualifications Framework (EQF). In this context, «hybrid qualifications» (HQ) may be seen as an interesting approach to tackle these challenges as they serve «two...

  7. Hybrid Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F. (Inventor); Roberts, Gary D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid gear consisting of metallic outer rim with gear teeth and metallic hub in combination with a composite lay up between the shaft interface (hub) and gear tooth rim is described. The composite lay-up lightens the gear member while having similar torque carrying capability and it attenuates the impact loading driven noise/vibration that is typical in gear systems. The gear has the same operational capability with respect to shaft speed, torque, and temperature as an all-metallic gear as used in aerospace gear design.

  8. Personal Rotorcraft Design and Performance with Electric Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Christopher A.

    2017-01-01

    Recent and projected improvements for more or all-electric aviation propulsion systems can enable greater personal mobility, while also reducing environmental impact (noise and emissions). However, all-electric energy storage capability is significantly less than present, hydrocarbon-fueled systems. A system study was performed exploring design and performance assuming hybrid propulsion ranging from traditional hydrocarbon-fueled cycles (gasoline Otto and diesel) to all-electric systems using electric motors generators, with batteries for energy storage and load leveling. Study vehicles were a conventional, single-main rotor (SMR) helicopter and an advanced vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) aircraft. Vehicle capability was limited to two or three people (including pilot or crew); the design range for the VTOL aircraft was set to 150 miles (about one hour total flight). Search and rescue (SAR), loiter, and cruise-dominated missions were chosen to illustrate each vehicle and degree of hybrid propulsion strengths and weaknesses. The traditional, SMR helicopter is a hover-optimized design; electric hybridization was performed assuming a parallel hybrid approach by varying degree of hybridization. Many of the helicopter hybrid propulsion combinations have some mission capabilities that might be effective for short range or on-demand mobility missions. However, even for 30 year technology electrical components, all hybrid propulsion systems studied result in less available fuel, lower maximum range, and reduced hover and loiter duration than the baseline vehicle. Results for the VTOL aircraft were more encouraging. Series hybrid combinations reflective of near-term systems could improve range and loiter duration by 30. Advanced, higher performing series hybrid combinations could double or almost triple the VTOL aircrafts range and loiter duration. Additional details on the study assumptions and work performed are given, as well as suggestions for future study effort.

  9. Intuitionistic hybrid logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area.......Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area....

  10. Photodynamic activity of polycyclic hydrocarbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, S S

    1963-01-01

    Exposure of Paramecium caudatum to suspensions of 3,4-benzopyrene, followed by long wave ultraviolet irradiation, results in cell death at times related, inter alia, to carcinogen concentration. Prior to death, the cells exhibit progressive immobilization and blebbing. This photodynamic response is a sensitized photo-oxidation, as it is oxygen-dependent and inhibited by anti-oxidants, such as butylated hydroxy anisole and ..cap alpha..-tocopherol. Protection is also afforded by other agents, including Tweens, tryptophan and certain fractions of plasma proteins. No evidence was found for the involvement of peroxides or sulfhydryl groups. The correlations between photodynamic toxicity and carcinogenicity in a large series of polycyclic hydrocarbons is under investigation. Assays of air extracts for photodynamic toxicity are in progress. Significant toxicity has been found in oxygenated besides aromatic fractions.

  11. Distribution of hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms and hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials in Alaskan continental shelf areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roubal, G.; Atlas, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    Hydrocarbon-utilizing microogranisms were enumerated from Alaskan continental shelf areas by using plate counts and a new most-probable-number procedure based on mineralization of 14 C-labeled hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbon utilizers were ubiquitously distributed, with no significant overall concentration differences between sampling regions or between surface water and sediment samples. There were, however, significant seasonal differences in numbers of hydrocarbon utilizers. Distribution of hydrocarbon utilizers within Cook Inlet was positively correlated with occurrence of hydrocarbons in the environment. Hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials were measured by using 14 C-radiolabeled hydrocarbon-spiked crude oil. There was no significant correlation between numbers of hydrocarbon utilizers and hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials. The biodegradation potentials showed large seasonal variations in the Beaufort Sea, probably due to seasonal depletion of available nutrients. Non-nutrient-limited biodegradation potentials followed the order hexadecane > naphthalene >> pristane > benzanthracene. In Cook Inlet, biodegradation potentials for hexadecane and naphthalene were dependent on availability of inorganic nutrients. Biodegradation potentials for pristane and benzanthracene were restricted, probably by resistance to attack by available enzymes in the indigenous population

  12. Hydrocarbon pollution from marinas in estuarine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voudrias, Evangelos A.; Smith, Craig L.

    1986-03-01

    A measure of the impact of marinas on three Eastern Virginia estuarine creeks was obtained by a study of hydrocarbons in their sediments. Two of the creeks support considerable marine activity, including pleasure boat marinas, boat repair facilities, and commercial fishing operations. The third creek, which served as a control, is seldom used by boats, and is surrounded by marsh and woodland. Sediments from the creeks with marinas contained significantly higher levels of both aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons than did the control. Differences in the concentrations of certain oil-pollution indicators, such as the 17α,21β-hopane homologs and phytane, and low molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbons, are indicative of light petroleum fractions. Most of the aromatic hydrocarbons from all creeks, however, appear to have a pyrogenic origin. Although hydrocarbons from three probable origins (petroleum, pyrogenesis, and recent biosynthesis) were detected in all locations, the petroleum-derived and pyrogenic hydrocarbons were of only minor importance relative to the biogenic hydrocarbons in the control creek.

  13. Hybridized Tetraquarks

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, A.; Polosa, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X, Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules. The latter would require a negative or zero binding energy whose counterpart in h-tetraquarks is a positive quantity. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs pi+- channel by the D0 collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X, Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568) are also made.

  14. Hybrid Propulsion Systems for Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithun Abdul Sathar Eqbal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of more efficient propulsion systems for aerospace vehicles is essential to achieve key objectives. These objectives are to increase efficiency while reducing the amount of carbon-based emissions. Hybrid electric propulsion (HEP is an ideal means to maintain the energy density of hydrocarbon-based fuels and utilize energy-efficient electric machines. A system that integrates different propulsion systems into a single system, with one being electric, is termed an HEP system. HEP systems have been studied previously and introduced into Land, Water, and Aerial Vehicles. This work presents research into the use of HEP systems in Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS. The systems discussed in this paper are Internal Combustion Engine (ICE–Electric Hybrid systems, ICE–Photovoltaic (PV Hybrid systems, and Fuel-Cell Hybrid systems. The improved performance characteristics in terms of fuel consumption and endurance are discussed.

  15. Detection of irradiated meats by hydrocarbon method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Michiko; Miyakawa, Hiroyuki; Fujinuma, Kenji; Ozawa, Hideki

    2005-01-01

    Meats, for example, lamb, razorback, wild duck and turkey were irradiated by gamma ray, and the amounts of hydrocarbons formed from fatty acids were measured. Since C 20:0 was found from wild duck and turkey. C 1-18:1 was recommended for internal standard. Good correlation was found between the amount of hydrocarbons and the doses of gamma irradiation. This study shows that such hydrocarbons induced after radiation procedure as C 1,7-16:2 , C 8-17:1 , C 1-14:1 , and C 15:0 may make it possible to detect irradiated lamb, razorback, wild duck and turkey. (author)

  16. Process for recovery of liquid hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, J.F.; Cockshott, J.E.

    1978-04-11

    Methane is recovered as a gas for discharge to a pipeline from a gas stream containing methane and heavier hydrocarbons, principally ethane and propane. Separation is accomplished by condensing the heavier hydrocarbons and distilling the methane therefrom. A liquid product (LPG) comprising the heavier hydrocarbons is subsequently recovered and transferred to storage. Prior to being discharged to a pipeline, the recovered methane gas is compressed and in undergoing compression the gas is heated. The heat content of the gas is employed to reboil the refrigerant in an absorption refrigeration unit. The refrigeration unit is used to cool the LPG prior to its storage.

  17. Method of recovering hydrocarbons from oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, D.K.; Slusser, M.S.

    1970-11-24

    A method is described for recovering hydrocarbons from an oil-shale formation by in situ retorting. A well penetrating the formation is heated and gas is injected until a pressure buildup within the well is reached, due to a decrease in the conductivity of naturally occurring fissures within the formation. The well is then vented, in order to produce spalling of the walls. This results in the formation of an enlarged cavity containing rubberized oil shale. A hot gas then is passed through the rubberized oil shale in order to retort hydrocarbons and these hydrocarbons are recovered from the well. (11 claims)

  18. The offshore hydrocarbon releases (HCR) database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, R.A.P.

    1995-01-01

    Following Cullen Recommendation 39 which states that: ''The regulatory body should be responsible for maintaining a database with regard to hydrocarbon leaks, spills, and ignitions in the Industry and for the benefit of Industry'', HSE Offshore Safety Division (HSE-OSD) has now been operating the Hydrocarbon Releases (HCR) Database for approximately 3 years. This paper deals with the reporting of Offshore Hydrocarbon Releases, the setting up of the HCR Database, the collection of associated equipment population data, and the main features and benefits of the database, including discussion on the latest output information. (author)

  19. Waste Plastic Converting into Hydrocarbon Fuel Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Mamunor Rashid, Mohammad; Molla, Mohammad

    2010-09-15

    The increased demand and high prices for energy sources are driving efforts to convert organic compounds into useful hydrocarbon fuels. Although much of this work has focused on biomass, there are strong benefits to deriving fuels from waste plastic material. Natural State Research Inc. (NSR) has invented a simple and economically viable process to decompose the hydrocarbon polymers of waste plastic into the shorter chain hydrocarbon of liquid fuel (patent pending). The method and principle of the production / process will be discussed. Initial tests with several widely used polymers indicate a high potential for commercialization.

  20. Conversion of hydrocarbon oils into motor fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-11-09

    The abstract describes a process for producing lower boiling hydrocarbon motor fuels with a starting material of wide boiling range composed primarily of hydrocarbon oils boiling substantially above the boiling range of the desired product. Separate catalytic and pyrolytic conversion zones are simultaneously maintained in an interdependent relationship. Higher boiling constituents are separated from residual constituents by fractionation while desirable reaction conditions are maintained. All or at least a portion of the products from the catalytic and pyrolytic conversion zones are blended to yield the desired lower boiling hydrocarbons or motor fuels.

  1. Energy Efficient Hybrid Gas Separation with Ionic Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xinyan; Liang, Xiaodong; Gani, Rafiqul

    2017-01-01

    Shale gas, like natural gas, contains H2, CO2, CH4 and that light hydrocarbon gases needs processing to separate the gases for conversion to higher value products. Currently, distillation based separation is employed, which is energy intensive. Hybrid gas separation processes, combining absorption...... systems is established for process design-analysis. A strategy for hybrid gas separation process synthesis where distillation and IL-based absorption are employed for energy efficient gas processing is developed and its application is highlighted for a model shale gas processing case study....

  2. Continuity controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation

  3. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  4. Continuity controlled hybrid automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  5. Continuity controlled hybrid automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  6. Radiolysis of hydrocarbons in liquid phase (Modern state of problem)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraeva, V.V.

    1986-01-01

    Problems of ionizing radiation effect on hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon systems in a liquid phase are considered. Modern representations on the mechanism of hydrocarbon radiolysis are presented. Electron moderation and ion-electron pair formation, behaviour of charged particles, excited states, radical formation and their reactions are discussed. Behaviour of certain hydrocarbon classes: alkanes, cyclic hydrocarbons, olefines, aromatic hydrocarbons as well as different hydrocarbon mixtures is considered in detail. Radiation-chemical changes in organic coolants and ways of increasing radiation resistance are considered. Polyphenyl compounds are noted to be most perspective here

  7. Method for the conversion of hydrocarbon charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittam, T V

    1976-11-11

    The basis of the invention is the application of defined zeolites as catalysts to hydrocarbon conversion processes such as reformation, isomerization, dehydrocyclization, and cracking. By charging the zeolite carrier masses with 0.001 to 5% metal of the 8th group of the periodic system, preferably noble metals, a wide region of applications for the catalysts is achieved. A method for the isomerization of an alkyl benzene (or mixture of alkyl benzenes) in the liquid or gas phase under suitable temperature, pressure and flow-rate conditions, as well as in the presence of a cyclic hydrocarbon, is described as preferential model form of the invention; furthermore, a method for the reformation of a hydrocarbon fraction boiling in the gasoline or benzene boiling region and a method for the hydrocracking of hydrocarbon charge (e.g. naphtha, kerosine, gas oils) are given. Types of performance of the methods are explained using various examples.

  8. Using microorganisms to aid in hydrocarbon degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, W.; Zamora, J.

    1993-01-01

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons are threatening the potable water supply and the aquatic ecosystem. Given the right microbial inhabitant(s), a large portion of these aliphatic hydrocarbons could be biodegraded before reaching the water supply. The authors' purpose is to isolate possible oil-degrading organisms. Soil samples were taken from hydrocarbon-laden soils at petroleum terminals, a petroleum refinery waste-treatment facility, a sewage-treatment plant grease collector, a site of previous bioremediation, and various other places. Some isolates known to be good degraders were obtained from culture collection services. These samples were plated on a 10w-30 multigrade motor oil solid medium to screen for aliphatic hydrocarbon degraders. The degrading organisms were isolated, identified, and tested (CO 2 evolution, BOD, and COD) to determine the most efficient degrader(s). Thirty-seven organisms were tested, and the most efficient degraders were Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter agglomerans

  9. Volatilisation of aromatic hydrocarbons from soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, B.; Christensen, T.H.

    1996-01-01

    The non-steady-state fluxes of aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in the laboratory from the surface of soils contaminated with coal tar Four soil samples from a former gasworks site were used for the experiments. The fluxes were quantified for 11 selected compounds, 4 mono- and 7 polycyclic...... aromatic hydrocarbons, for a period of up to 8 or 16 days. The concentrations of the selected compounds in the soils were between 0.2 and 3,100 mu g/g. The study included the experimental determination of the distribution coefficient of the aromatic hydrocarbons between the sorbed phase and the water under...... saturated conditions. The determined distribution coefficients showed that the aromatic hydrocarbons were more strongly sorbed to the total organic carbon including the coal tar pitch - by a factor of 8 to 25 - than expected for natural organic matter. The fluxes were also estimated using an analytical...

  10. Recovering low-boiling hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1934-10-03

    A process is described for the recovery of low-boiling hydrocarbons of the nature of benzine through treatment of liquid carbonaceous materials with hydrogen under pressure at raised temperature, suitably in the presence of catalysts. Middle oils (practically saturated with hydrogen) or higher boiling oils at a temperature above 500/sup 0/ (with or without the addition of hydrogen) containing cyclic hydrocarbons not saturated with hydrogen are changed into low boiling hydrocarbons of the nature of benzine. The cracking takes place under strongly hydrogenating conditions (with the use of a strongly active hydrogenating catalyst or high pressure) at temperatures below 500/sup 0/. If necessary, the constituents boiling below 200/sup 0/ can be reconverted into cyclic hydrocarbons partially saturated with hydrogen. (BLM)

  11. Determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-11-02

    Nov 2, 2006 ... Several water bodies in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria where extensive crude oil ..... hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fish from the Red Sea Coast of Yemem. ... smoked meat products and smoke flavouring food additives. J.

  12. Population dynamics and distribution of hydrocarbon utilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus species was found to be present in all the soil samples analysed ... The presence of these organisms in soils contaminated with spent and unspent lubricating oil ... hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria, bioremediation, enrichment medium,

  13. Collision data involving hydro-carbon molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawara, H.; Itikawa, Y.; Nishimura, H.; Tanaka, H.; Nakamura, Y.

    1990-07-01

    Hydro-carbon molecules are abundantly produced when graphites are used as internal wall materials of hydrogen plasmas and strongly influence properties of low temperature plasmas near the edges as well as those of high temperature plasmas at the center. In this report, following simple description of the production mechanisms of hydro-carbon molecules under the interactions between graphite and hydrogen plasma, the present status of collision data for hydro-carbon molecules by electron impact is discussed and the relevant data are summarized in a series of figures and tables. It should also be noted that, in addition to fusion plasmas, these hydrocarbon data compiled here are quite useful in other applications such as plasma chemistry and material processing. (author)

  14. Corporate Hybrid Bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlberg, Johan; Jansson, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid securities do not constitute a new phenomenon in the Swedish capital markets. Most commonly, hybrids issued by Swedish real estate companies in recent years are preference shares. Corporate hybrid bonds on the other hand may be considered as somewhat of a new-born child in the family of hybrid instruments. These do, as all other hybrid securities, share some equity-like and some debt-like characteristics. Nevertheless, since 2013 the interest for the instrument has grown rapidly and ha...

  15. Zeolitic catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2018-04-10

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon, the method comprising contacting said alcohol with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst at a temperature of at least 100.degree. C. and up to 550.degree. C., wherein said alcohol can be produced by a fermentation process, said metal is a positively-charged metal ion, and said metal-loaded zeolite catalyst is catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon.

  16. Formation of hydrocarbons by bacteria and algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornabene, T.G.

    1980-12-01

    A literature review has been performed summarizing studies on hydrocarbon synthesis by microorganisms. Certain algal and bacterial species produce hydrocarbons in large quantities, 70 to 80% of dry cell mass, when in a controlled environment. The nutritional requirements of these organisms are simple: CO/sub 2/ and mineral salts. The studies were initiated to determine whether or not microorganisms played a role in petroleum formation. 90 references. (DMC)

  17. Nitrocarburizing in ammonia-hydrocarbon gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2011-01-01

    The present work investigates the possibility of nitrocarburising in ammonia-acetylene-hydrogen and ammonia-propene-hydrogen gas mixtures, where unsaturated hydrocarbon gas is the carbon source during nitrocarburising. Consequently, nitrocarburising is carried out in a reducing atmosphere...... microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It is shown that the use of unsaturated hydrocarbon gas in nitrocarburising processes is a viable alternative to traditional nitrocarburising methods....

  18. Nitrocarburising in ammonia-hydrocarbon gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The present work investigates the possibility of nitrocarburising in ammonia-acetylene-hydrogen and ammoniapropene- hydrogen gas mixtures, where unsaturated hydrocarbon gas is the carbon source during nitrocarburising. Consequently, nitrocarburising is carried out in a reducing atmosphere...... microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It is shown that the use of unsaturated hydrocarbon gas in nitrocarburising processes is a viable alternative to traditional nitrocarburising methods....

  19. The future of oil and hydrocarbon man

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Colin

    1999-01-01

    Man appeared on the planet about four million years ago, and by 1850 numbered about one billion Ten came Hydrocarbon man. World population has since increased six-fold. After the oil price shocks of the 1970s, people asked "when will production peak?". It is not easy to answer this question because of the very poor database. Reserves and the many different hydrocarbon categories are poorly defined, reporting practices are ambiguous, revisions are not backdated...

  20. Zeolitic catalytic conversion of alochols to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2017-01-03

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon, the method comprising contacting said alcohol with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst at a temperature of at least 100.degree. C. and up to 550.degree. C., wherein said alcohol can be produced by a fermentation process, said metal is a positively-charged metal ion, and said metal-loaded zeolite catalyst is catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon.

  1. Birds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.

    2006-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are present throughout the global environment and are produced naturally and by activities of humans. Effects of PAH on birds have been determined by studies employing egg injection, egg immersion, egg shell application, single and multiple oral doses, subcutaneous injection, and chemical analysis of field-collected eggs and tissue. The four-to six-ring aromatic compounds are the most toxic to embryos, young birds, and adult birds. For embryos, effects include death, developmental abnormalities, and a variety of cellular and biochemical responses. For adult and young birds, effects include reduced egg production and hatching, increased clutch or brood abandonment, reduced growth, increased organweights, and a variety of biochemical responses. Trophic level accumulation is unlikely. Environmental exposure to PAH in areas of high human population or habitats affected by recent petroleum spills might be sufficient to adversely affect reproduction. Evidence of long-term effects of elevated concentrations of environmental PAH on bird populations is very limited and the mechanisms of effect are unclear.

  2. PROTONATED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS REVISITED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricca, Alessandra; Bauschlicher, Charles W. Jr; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2011-01-01

    We reconsider the contribution that singly protonated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; HPAH + s) might make to the Class A component of the 6.2 μm interstellar emission feature in light of the recent experimental measurements of protonated naphthalene and coronene. Our calculations on the small HPAH + s have a band near 6.2 μm, as found in experiment. While the larger HPAH + s still have emission near 6.2 μm, the much larger intensity of the band near 6.3 μm overwhelms the weaker band at 6.2 μm, so that the 6.2 μm band is barely visible. Since the large PAHs are more representative of those in the interstellar medium, our work suggests that large HPAH + s cannot be major contributors to the observed emission at 6.2 μm (i.e., Class A species). Saturating large PAH cations with hydrogen atoms retains the 6.2 μm Class A band position, but the rest of the spectrum is inconsistent with observed spectra.

  3. Polycyclic hydrocarbons - occurrence and determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drzewicz, P.

    2007-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a special group of atmospheric contaminants included in the persistent toxic substances (PTS) and also in the volatile organic compounds (VOC) groups. PAHs are present in the atmosphere and their origin can be due to anthropogenic activities. The main source of emission of PAH is the combustion of fossil fuels. Their specific characteristics, high volatility, mutagenic and carcinogenic power, easily transportable for long distances with the wind, make them important contaminants despite of the fact that they are present at very low concentrations. The report provides a review of main analytical methods applied in the determination of PAH in air. Special attention was devoted to heterocyclic PAH which contain one or more heteroatom (sulphur, oxygen, nitrogen) in the multiple-fused ring. The presence of heterocyclic PAH requires very complex, laborious and long lasting sample separation methods before analysis. In some cases, application of different temperature programs in gas chromatography allows to determine PAH and heterocyclic PAH in gaseous samples without sample pretreatment. Gas chromatography methods for the determination of PAH and heterocyclic PAH in the gas from combustion of light heating oil has been optimized. (author) [pl

  4. Dewaxing hydrocarbon oils. [British patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1933-06-23

    In dewaxing hydrocarbon oils such as residium stocks, overhead distillates and crude petroleum or shale oils, by admixing with a liquefied normally gaseous solvent, such as liquefied propane, and cooling to crystallize the wax, the rate of crystallization diminishes rapidly when a certain temperature in an example about 20/sup 0/F is reached. The diminution is prevented during further cooling by removing solvent by evaporation at such a rate that the proporation of solvent in the oil solvent component is maintained at about that existing at the temperature at which the alteration in the rate of crystallization takes place. The evaporation is effected by adjusting the pressure on the mixture, preferably in stages. Solvents for coloring matters and asphaltic compounds, such as carbon disulfide sulfur dioxide, methyl chloride or butyl alcohol may be added to the mixture before crystallization. Chilled solvent may be added to the chilled mixture before separation of the wax in a centrifuge, in order to increase the difference in specific gravity between the wax and the oil-solvent component.

  5. Hybrid XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckel, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In the last 10 years significant innovations of EDXRF, e.g. total reflection XRF or polarized beam XRF, were utilized in different industrial applications. The decrease of background within the spectra was the goal of these developments. Excellent detection limits and sensitivities demonstrate the success of these new techniques. Nevertheless, further improvements are possible by using Si drift detectors. These detectors allow the processing of input count rates up to 10 6 cps in comparison to 10 5 of Si(Li) detectors. New excitation optics are necessary to produce such count rates. One possibility is the use of doubly curved crystals between tube and sample. These crystals enable the reflection of the primary beam within the given solid angle (0.4π) of an end window tube to the sample. Using such brightness optics excellent sensitivities mainly for light elements are achievable. The combination of a BRAGG crystal as a wavelength dispersive component and a solid state detector as an energy dispersive component creates a new technique: hybrid XRF. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  6. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, L. G.; Greer, C W.

    1999-01-01

    Bioremediation of contaminated Arctic sites has been proposed as the logistically and economically most favorable solution despite the known technical difficulties. The difficulties involve the inhibition of pollutants removal by biodegradation below freezing temperatures and the relative slowness of the process to remove enough hydrocarbon pollutants during the above-freezing summer months. Despite these formidable drawbacks, biodegradation of hydrocarbon contaminants is possible even in below-zero temperatures, especially if indigenous psychrophilic and psychrotropic micro-organism are used. This paper reports results of a study involving several hydrocarbon-degrading psychrotropic bacteria and suggests bioaugmentation with specific cold-adapted organisms and/or biostimulation with commercial fertilizers for enhancing degradation of specific contaminants in soils from northern Canada. An evaluation of the biodegradation potential of hydrocarbon contaminated soils in the high Arctic suggested that the contaminated soils contained sufficient numbers of cold-adapted hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and that the addition of fertilizer was sufficient to enhance the level of hydrocarbon degradation at low ambient summer temperatures. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  7. Hybrid mimics and hybrid vigor in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Greaves, Ian K.; Groszmann, Michael; Wu, Li Min; Dennis, Elizabeth S.; Peacock, W. James

    2015-01-01

    F1 hybrids can outperform their parents in yield and vegetative biomass, features of hybrid vigor that form the basis of the hybrid seed industry. The yield advantage of the F1 is lost in the F2 and subsequent generations. In Arabidopsis, from F2 plants that have a F1-like phenotype, we have by recurrent selection produced pure breeding F5/F6 lines, hybrid mimics, in which the characteristics of the F1 hybrid are stabilized. These hybrid mimic lines, like the F1 hybrid, have larger leaves than the parent plant, and the leaves have increased photosynthetic cell numbers, and in some lines, increased size of cells, suggesting an increased supply of photosynthate. A comparison of the differentially expressed genes in the F1 hybrid with those of eight hybrid mimic lines identified metabolic pathways altered in both; these pathways include down-regulation of defense response pathways and altered abiotic response pathways. F6 hybrid mimic lines are mostly homozygous at each locus in the genome and yet retain the large F1-like phenotype. Many alleles in the F6 plants, when they are homozygous, have expression levels different to the level in the parent. We consider this altered expression to be a consequence of transregulation of genes from one parent by genes from the other parent. Transregulation could also arise from epigenetic modifications in the F1. The pure breeding hybrid mimics have been valuable in probing the mechanisms of hybrid vigor and may also prove to be useful hybrid vigor equivalents in agriculture. PMID:26283378

  8. Specificity Switching Pathways in Thermal and Mass Evaporation of Multicomponent Hydrocarbon Droplets: A Mesoscopic Observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Rasoul; Luo, Kai H

    2017-07-10

    For well over one century, the Hertz-Knudsen equation has established the relationship between thermal - mass transfer coefficients through a liquid - vapour interface and evaporation rate. These coefficients, however, have been often separately estimated for one-component equilibrium systems and their simultaneous influences on evaporation rate of fuel droplets in multicomponent systems have yet to be investigated at the atomic level. Here we first apply atomistic simulation techniques and quantum/statistical mechanics methods to understand how thermal and mass evaporation effects are controlled kinetically/thermodynamically. We then present a new development of a hybrid method of quantum transition state theory/improved kinetic gas theory, for multicomponent hydrocarbon systems to investigate how concerted-distinct conformational changes of hydrocarbons at the interface affect the evaporation rate. The results of this work provide an important physical concept in fundamental understanding of atomistic pathways in topological interface transitions of chain molecules, resolving an open problem in kinetics of fuel droplets evaporation.

  9. High-resolution gas chromatographic analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M.; Gonzalez, D.

    1988-01-01

    A study of the analysis by gas chromatography of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons is presented. The separation has been carried out by glass and fused silica capillary column in two different polar stationary phases OV-1 and SE-54. The limitation and the advantages of the procedure are discussed in terms of separation, sensitivity and precision. (Author) 20 refs

  10. Petroleum hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Hong Kong marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, G.J.; Richardson, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    A total of 20 surficial sediment samples, obtained from Hong Kong coastal waters, were analysed for petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) and a suite of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The results indicate that Hong Kong coastal sediments are often seriously polluted with petroleum related hydrocarbons. This is especially so in heavily urbanised or industrialized localities, such as Kowloon Bay (Victoria Harbour), Tsing Yi North and Tolo Harbour. Petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants in marine sediments are believed to be mainly derived from the transportation of oil, shipping activities, spillages, and industrial, stormwater and waste wastewater discharge. The ratio of unresolved complex mixture (UCM) to n-alkanes, carbon preference index (CPI), and n-C 16 values indicate that the main contribution to petroleum hydrocarbon contamination is via oil and its products. Pollutant sources appear to be stable and continuing when compared with previous data. (author)

  11. Worldwide overview of hydrocarbons and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonnac, Alain de; Perves, Jean-Pierre

    2013-12-01

    This publication presents and comments data regarding the share of hydrocarbons in the world energy consumption, hydrocarbon trade flows, the new situation created by the emergence of shale hydrocarbons and the consequences for the world economy, and possible risks. The authors first comment the evolution of energy consumption and outline that the objectives of CO 2 and greenhouse gas emission will not be reached (these emissions increased in 2012 and in 2013). They indicate the emission situation in the USA and Japan, and notice that the objectives defined by the IEA are quite different from those defined by the EU. They analyse the evolutions by distinguishing different periods: 2005-2008 as a reference period, 2008-2012 as a period of change, and the current period as a period of flow inversion. Then, the authors propose two different scenarios of evolution of economic and energy policies. The evolution of hydrocarbon demand is commented, and the levels of reserves (oil, conventional gas, coal, nuclear fuels) are discussed. The market evolution is also discussed, not only from an economic point of view, but also in relationship with geopolitics. The authors notably outline that the energy price is different from one country to the other, discuss the issue of hydrocarbon refining, the role of CO 2 tax

  12. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowell, M.J.; Ashworth, J.; Qureshi, A.A.

    1992-12-01

    The bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments was reviewed via a literature survey and discussions with workers in relevant disciplines. The impacts of hydrocarbons on soil are discussed along with a range of methods available to assist in their decomposition by soil microorganisms. The range of petroleum-based materials considered includes conventional and synthetic crude oils, refined oils, sludges, asphalts and bitumens, drilling mud residues, creosote tars, and some pesticides. The degradability of hydrocarbons largely depends upon their aqueous solubility and their adsorption on soil surfaces and, therefore, is related to their molecular structures. The ease of decomposition decreases with increasing complexity of structure, in the order aliphatics > aromatics > heterocyclics and asphaltenes (most recalcitrant). Most soils contain an adequate population of microorganisms and hence bioaugmentation may only be needed in special circumstances. Decomposition is fastest in soils where the hydrocarbon loading rate, aeration, nutrition, moisture, and pH are all optimized. At spill sites there is little control over the application rate, although containment measures can assist in either limiting contamination or distributing it more evenly. The enhancement of bioremediation is discussed in light of all these factors. Other techniques such as enhanced aeration, hydrocarbon decomposition by anaerobic processes, surfactants, and burning are also discussed. 211 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs

  13. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowell, M J; Ashworth, J; Qureshi, A A

    1992-12-01

    The bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments was reviewed via a literature survey and discussions with workers in relevant disciplines. The impacts of hydrocarbons on soil are discussed along with a range of methods available to assist in their decomposition by soil microorganisms. The range of petroleum-based materials considered includes conventional and synthetic crude oils, refined oils, sludges, asphalts and bitumens, drilling mud residues, creosote tars, and some pesticides. The degradability of hydrocarbons largely depends upon their aqueous solubility and their adsorption on soil surfaces and, therefore, is related to their molecular structures. The ease of decomposition decreases with increasing complexity of structure, in the order aliphatics > aromatics > heterocyclics and asphaltenes (most recalcitrant). Most soils contain an adequate population of microorganisms and hence bioaugmentation may only be needed in special circumstances. Decomposition is fastest in soils where the hydrocarbon loading rate, aeration, nutrition, moisture, and pH are all optimized. At spill sites there is little control over the application rate, although containment measures can assist in either limiting contamination or distributing it more evenly. The enhancement of bioremediation is discussed in light of all these factors. Other techniques such as enhanced aeration, hydrocarbon decomposition by anaerobic processes, surfactants, and burning are also discussed. 211 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  14. Emissions of hydrocarbons from combustion of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Mona; Persson, Eva Marie.

    1991-10-01

    Evaluations and measurements of emissions of hydrocarbons from power plants with a capacity exceeding 1 MW using biofuels (wood fuels and peat) have been studied in order to identify and quantify the emissions of incompletely combusted hydrocarbons. The influence of the type of fuel and the combustion technology applied were also studied, using literature references. The report summarizes monitoring results from a number of plants using biofuels. The reported emissions from the different plants can not be compared as they are relatively few and the test results have been obtained under various conditions using different methods of testing and analysis. The methods used are often poorly documented in the studied reports. Few investigations of emissions of hydrocarbons from plants in the range of 1 to 10 MW have been carried out. The plant and the technology used are important factors determining the amount and type of emissions of hydrocarbons. Larger temporary emissions can occur during start up, operational disturbances or when using fuel of inhomogeneous quality. In order to minimize the emissions the combustion process must be efficiently controlled, and a fuel of a hohogeneous quality must be used. The report also summarizes sampling and analysis methods used for monitoring emissions of hydrocarbons. (29 refs., 17 figs.)

  15. Hybrid Management in Hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrkjeflot, Haldor; Jespersen, Peter Kragh

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer......Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer...

  16. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the United Parcel Service (UPS) have developed a hydraulic hybrid delivery vehicle to explore and demonstrate the environmental benefits of the hydraulic hybrid for urban pick-up and delivery fleets.

  17. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hy D.; Claudet, Andre A.; Oliver, Andrew D.

    2010-09-07

    A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.

  18. Condensation Mechanism of Hydrocarbon Field Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalin, Oleg; Vafina, Nailya

    2017-08-31

    Petroleum geology explains how hydrocarbon fluids are generated, but there is a lack of understanding regarding how oil is expelled from source rocks and migrates to a reservoir. To clarify the process, the multi-layer Urengoy field in Western Siberia was investigated. Based on this example, we have identified an alternative mechanism of hydrocarbon field formation, in which oil and gas accumulations result from the phase separation of an upward hydrocarbon flow. There is evidence that the flow is generated by the gases released by secondary kerogen destruction. This study demonstrates that oil components are carried by the gas flow and that when the flow reaches a low-pressure zone, it condenses into a liquid with real oil properties. The transportation of oil components in the gas flow provides a natural explanation for the unresolved issues of petroleum geology concerning the migration process. The condensation mechanism can be considered as the main process of oil field formation.

  19. EVALUATION OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS ELUTION FROM SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Piekutin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents studies on oil removal from soil by means of water elution with a help of shaking out the contaminants from the soil. The tests were performed on simulated soil samples contaminated with a mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons. The study consisted in recording the time influence and the number of elution cycles to remove contaminants from the soil. The samples were then subject to the determination of petroleum hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene. Due to adding various concentrations of petroleum into particular soil samples and applying different shaking times, it was possible to find out the impact of petroleum content and sample shaking duration on the course and possibility of petroleum substances removal by means of elution process.

  20. Direct electroreduction of CO2 into hydrocarbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winea, Gauthier; Ledoux, Marc-Jacques; Pham-Huu, Cuong; Gangeri, Miriam; Perathoner, Siglinda; Centi, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    A lot of methods exist to directly reduce carbon dioxide into hydrocarbons: the photoelectrochemical process is certainly the most interesting, essentially due to the similarities with photosynthesis. As the human activities produce a great quantity of CO 2 , this one can then be considered as an infinite source of carbon. The products of this reaction are identical to those obtained during a Fischer-Tropsch reaction, that is to say hydrocarbons, alcohols and carboxylic acids. These works deal with the electrochemical reduction of CO 2 in standard conditions of temperature and pressure. The photochemical part has been replaced by a current generator as electrons source and a KHCO 3 aqueous solution as protons source. The first catalytic results clearly show that it is possible to reduce CO 2 into light hydrocarbons, typically from C1 to C9. (O.M.)

  1. Microbial hydrocarbon degradation - bioremediation of oil spills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atlas, R M [Louisville Univ., KY (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1991-01-01

    Bioremediation has become a major method employed in restoration of oil-polluted environments that makes use of natural microbial biodegradative activities. Bioremediation of petroleum pollutants overcomes the factors limiting rates of microbial hydrocarbon biodegradation. Often this involves using the enzymatic capabilities of the indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading microbial populations and modifying environmental factors, particularly concentrations of molecular oxygen, fixed forms of nitrogen and phosphate to achieve enhanced rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation. Biodegradation of oily sludges and bioremediation of oil-contaminated sites has been achieved by oxygen addition-e.g. by tilling soils in landfarming and by adding hydrogen peroxide or pumping oxygen into oiled aquifers along with addition of nitrogen- and phosphorous-containing fertilizers. The success of seeding oil spills with microbial preparations is ambiguous. Successful bioremediation of a major marine oil spill has been achieved based upon addition of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers. (author).

  2. Hybrid quantum information processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  3. Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallgren, Paul

    2009-03-30

    Bioremediation has been widely applied in the restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated. Parameters that may affect the rate and efficiency of biodegradation include temperature, moisture, salinity, nutrient availability, microbial species, and type and concentration of contaminants. Other factors can also affect the success of the bioremediation treatment of contaminants, such as climatic conditions, soil type, soil permeability, contaminant distribution and concentration, and drainage. Western Research Institute in conjunction with TechLink Environmental, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted laboratory studies to evaluate major parameters that contribute to the bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated drill cuttings using land farming and to develop a biotreatment cell to expedite biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Physical characteristics such as soil texture, hydraulic conductivity, and water retention were determined for the petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Soil texture was determined to be loamy sand to sand, and high hydraulic conductivity and low water retention was observed. Temperature appeared to have the greatest influence on biodegradation rates where high temperatures (>50 C) favored biodegradation. High nitrogen content in the form of ammonium enhanced biodegradation as well did the presence of water near field water holding capacity. Urea was not a good source of nitrogen and has detrimental effects for bioremediation for this site soil. Artificial sea water had little effect on biodegradation rates, but biodegradation rates decreased after increasing the concentrations of salts. Biotreatment cell (biocell) tests demonstrated hydrocarbon biodegradation can be enhanced substantially when utilizing a leachate recirculation design where a 72% reduction of hydrocarbon concentration was observed with a 72-h period at a treatment temperature of 50 C. Overall, this study demonstrates the investigation of the effects of

  4. Hybrid propulsion technology program. Volume 2: Technology definition package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Gordon E.; Holzman, Allen L.; Leisch, Steven O.; Keilbach, Joseph; Parsley, Randy; Humphrey, John

    1989-01-01

    A concept design study was performed to configure two sizes of hybrid boosters; one which duplicates the advanced shuttle rocket motor vacuum thrust time curve and a smaller, quarter thrust level booster. Two sizes of hybrid boosters were configured for either pump-fed or pressure-fed oxygen feed systems. Performance analyses show improved payload capability relative to a solid propellant booster. Size optimization and fuel safety considerations resulted in a 4.57 m (180 inch) diameter large booster with an inert hydrocarbon fuel. The preferred diameter for the quarter thrust level booster is 2.53 m (96 inches). The demonstration plan would culminate with test firings of a 3.05 m (120 inch) diameter hybrid booster.

  5. Hydrocarbon Plume Dynamics in the Worldś Most Spectacular Hydrocarbon Seeps, Santa Barbara Channel, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mau, S.; Reed, J.; Clark, J.; Valentine, D.

    2006-12-01

    Large quantities of natural gas are emitted from the seafloor into the coastal ocean near Coal Oil Point, Santa Barbara Channel (SBC), California. Methane, ethane, and propane were quantified in the surface water at 79 stations in a 270 km2 area in order to map the surficial hydrocarbon plume and to quantify air-sea exchange of these gases. A time series was initiated for 14 stations to identify the variability of the mapped plume, and biologically-mediated oxidation rates of methane were measured to quantify the loss of methane in surface water. The hydrocarbon plume was found to comprise ~70 km2 and extended beyond study area. The plume width narrowed from 3 km near the source to 0.7 km further from the source, and then expanded to 6.7 km at the edge of the study area. This pattern matches the cyclonic gyre which is the normal current flow in this part of the Santa Barbara Channel - pushing water to the shore near the seep field and then broadening the plume while the water turns offshore further from the source. Concentrations of gaseous hydrocarbons decrease as the plume migrates. Time series sampling shows similar plume width and hydrocarbon concentrations when normal current conditions prevail. In contrast, smaller plume width and low hydrocarbon concentrations were observed when an additional anticyclonic eddy reversed the normal current flow, and a much broader plume with higher hydrocarbon concentrations was observed during a time of diminished speed within the current gyre. These results demonstrate that surface currents control hydrocarbon plume dynamics in the SBC, though hydrocarbon flux to the atmosphere is likely less dependent on currents. Estimates of air- sea hydrocarbon flux and biological oxidation rates will also be presented.

  6. Electrochemical removal of NOx and hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedberg, Anja Zarah

    on the electrodes during polarisation, probably because of strong adsorption of the hydrocarbon relative to NO. On LSF/CGO electrode the impregnation of ionic conducting material increased the oxidation of NO to NO2 which is an important step before nitrogen formation. The propene inhibited this reaction because....... This could only be done if the electrode was impregnated with BaO. The nitrate formation did not seem to be inhibited by the presence of the hydrocarbon. However, the oxidation of propene was inhibited by the BaO because the active sites for oxidations were partially covered by the BaO nanoparticles...

  7. Mathematics of Periodic Tables for Benzenoid Hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Jerry Ray

    2007-01-01

    The upper and lower bounds for invariants of polyhex systems based on the Harary and Harborth inequalities are studied. It is shown that these invariants are uniquely correlated by the Periodic Table for Benzenoid Hydrocarbons. A modified periodic table for total resonant sextet (TRS) benzenoids based on the invariants of Ds and r(empty) is presented; Ds is the number of disconnections among the empty rings for fused TRS benzenoid hydrocarbons. This work represents a contribution toward deciphering the topological information content of benzenoid formulas.

  8. Plasma-catalytic reforming of liquid hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedybaliuk, O.A.; Chernyak, V.Ya; Kolgan, V.V.; Iukhymenko, V.V.; Solomenko, O.V.; Fedirchyk, I.I.; Martysh, E.V.; Demchina, V.P.; Klochok, N.V.; Dragnev, S.V.

    2015-01-01

    The series of experiments studying the plasma-catalytic reforming of liquid hydrocarbons was carried out. The dynamic plasma-liquid system based on a low-power rotating gliding arc with solid electrodes was used for the investigation of liquid hydrocarbons reforming process. Conversion was done via partial oxidation. A part of oxidant flow was activated by the discharge. Synthesis-gas composition was analysed by means of mass-spectrometry and gas-chromatography. A standard boiler, which operates on natural gas and LPG, was used for the burning of synthesis-gas

  9. Motor fuels by hydrogenation of liquid hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-05-07

    A process is disclosed for the production of knock-stable low-boiling motor fuels by conversion of liquid hydrocarbons which are vaporizable under the reaction conditions, which comprises passing the initial material at a temperature above 380/sup 0/C in a true vapor phase under pressure of more than 40 atmospheres together with hydrogen and gaseous hydrocarbons containing more than 1 carbon atom in the molecule in an amount by volume larger than that of the hydrogen over catalysts stable to poisoning stationarily confined in the reaction vessel.

  10. Gas-phase reactivity of lanthanide cations with fluorocarbons: C-F versus C-H and C-C bond activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornehl, H.H.; Hornung, G.; Schwarz, H.

    1996-01-01

    The gas-phase reactivity of the fluorinated hydrocarbons CF 4 , CHF 3 , CH 3 F, C 2 F 6 , 1,1-C 2 H 4 F 2 , and C 6 F 6 with the lanthanide cations Ce + , Pr + , Sm + , Ho + , Tm + , and Yb + and the reactivity of C 6 H 5 F with all lanthanide cations Ln + (Ln = La-Lu, with the exception of Pm + ) have been examined by Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The perfluorinated compounds tetrafluoromethane and hexafluoroethane as well as trifluoromethane do not react with any lanthanide cation. Selective activation of the strong C-F bonds in fluoromethane, 1,1-difluoroethane, hexafluorobenzene, and fluorobenzene appears as a general reaction scheme along the 4f row. Experimental evidence is given for a 'harpoon'-like mechanism for the F atom abstraction process which operates via an initial electron transfer from the lanthanide cation to the fluorinated substrate in the encounter complex Ln + RF. The most reactive lanthanides La + , Ce + , Gd + , and Tb + and also the formal closed-shell species Lu + exhibit additional C-H and C-C bond activation pathways in the reaction with fluorobenzene, namely dehydrohalogenation as well as loss of a neutral acetylene molecule. In the case of Tm + and Yb + the formation of neutral LnF 3 is observed in a multistep process via C-C coupling and charge transfer. 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Culture-dependent characterization of hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EARNEST

    Hydrocarbons interact with the environment and micro- organisms determining the .... it is pertinent to study the community dynamics of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria ... Chikere CB (2013). Application of molecular microbiology techniques in.

  12. Response of microalgae from mud-flats to petroleum hydrocarbons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-04

    Mar 4, 2008 ... hydrocarbons in the presence of nitrogenous fertilizer ... the hydrocarbon, there was delayed nutrient uptake. ... waters, but the use of inorganic of organic nitrogen in ... ment, fish kills as oxygen is depleted, offensive odour.

  13. Report on a survey in fiscal 1999 for trends in policies on prevention of global warming by use of substitute fluorocarbons; 1999 nendo daitai furon no chikyu ondanka taisaku doko ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper summarizes mainly on HFC, PFC and SF{sub 6} the trends in the last one year in technologies and regulations that can make compatible the ozone layer protection and the global warming prevention. Activities of the HFC/PHC task force established jointly by TEAP and IPCC are very important in deciding the future positions of HFC, PFC and SF{sub 6}. This paper reports the status of activities taken during fiscal 1999. IPCC reviewed the method of calculating the quantity of greenhouse effect gas emission. The paper introduces from its draft the gist of calculating the discharge quantity of HFC, PFC and SF{sub 6}. Introduction is given from the HFC/PFC task force report the actual status of using coolants, foaming agents and aerosols using HFC, PFC and SF{sub 6}, and the trends of developing substitution technologies. The paper introduces a fluorocarbon destruction technology as an international trend in discharge suppression measures. The paper reports movements of COP-5 in fiscal 1999 for gases other than the three gases including HFC. Chlorobromo-methane was indicated as a new substance, and n-propyl-bromide was decided to continue with measurement of ozone destruction coefficient. (NEDO)

  14. Bulk plasma fragmentation in a C4F8 inductively coupled plasma: A hybrid modeling study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Shu-Xia; Zhang, Yu-Ru; Gao, Fei; Wang, You-Nian; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid model is used to investigate the fragmentation of C 4 F 8 inductive discharges. Indeed, the resulting reactive species are crucial for the optimization of the Si-based etching process, since they determine the mechanisms of fluorination, polymerization, and sputtering. In this paper, we present the dissociation degree, the density ratio of F vs. C x F y (i.e., fluorocarbon (fc) neutrals), the neutral vs. positive ion density ratio, details on the neutral and ion components, and fractions of various fc neutrals (or ions) in the total fc neutral (or ion) density in a C 4 F 8 inductively coupled plasma source, as well as the effect of pressure and power on these results. To analyze the fragmentation behavior, the electron density and temperature and electron energy probability function (EEPF) are investigated. Moreover, the main electron-impact generation sources for all considered neutrals and ions are determined from the complicated C 4 F 8 reaction set used in the model. The C 4 F 8 plasma fragmentation is explained, taking into account many factors, such as the EEPF characteristics, the dominance of primary and secondary processes, and the thresholds of dissociation and ionization. The simulation results are compared with experiments from literature, and reasonable agreement is obtained. Some discrepancies are observed, which can probably be attributed to the simplified polymer surface kinetics assumed in the model

  15. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-04-01

    Natural hybridization is reproduction (without artificial influence) between two or more species/populations which are distinguishable from each other by heritable characters. Natural hybridizations among marine fishes were highly underappreciated due to limited research effort; it seems that this phenomenon occurs more often than is commonly recognized. As hybridization plays an important role in biodiversity processes in the marine environment, detecting hybridization events and investigating hybridization is important to understand and protect biodiversity. The first chapter sets the framework for this disseration study. The Cohesion Species Concept was selected as the working definition of a species for this study as it can handle marine fish hybridization events. The concept does not require restrictive species boundaries. A general history and background of natural hybridization in marine fishes is reviewed during in chapter as well. Four marine fish hybridization cases were examed and documented in Chapters 2 to 5. In each case study, at least one diagnostic nuclear marker, screened from among ~14 candidate markers, was found to discriminate the putative hybridizing parent species. To further investigate genetic evidence to support the hybrid status for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations together, the potential reasons that triggered each hybridization events and the potential genetic/ecology effects could be discussed. In the last chapter, sequences from 82 pairs of hybridizing parents species (for which COI barcoding sequences were available either on GenBank or in our lab) were collected. By comparing the COI fragment p-distance between each hybridizing parent species, some general questions about marine fish hybridization were discussed: Is

  16. Velocity Dependence of Friction of Confined Hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, Vladimir N.; Persson, Bo N. J.

    2010-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon “polymer” solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence of the f......We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon “polymer” solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence...... of the frictional shear stress for both cases. In our simulations, the polymer films are very thin (∼3 nm), and the solid walls are connected to a thermostat at a short distance from the polymer slab. Under these circumstances we find that frictional heating effects are not important, and the effective temperature...... in the polymer film is always close to the thermostat temperature. In the first setup (a), for hydrocarbons with molecular lengths from 60 to 1400 carbon atoms, the shear stresses are nearly independent of molecular length, but for the shortest hydrocarbon C20H42 the frictional shear stress is lower. In all...

  17. Taxation on mining and hydrocarbon investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz De La Vega Rengifo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article comments the most important aspects of the tax treatment applicable to investments of mining and oil and gas industry. The document highlights the relevant tax topics of the general tax legislation(Income Tax Law and the special legislation of both industries (General Mining Law and Hydrocarbons Organic Law.

  18. Dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons in the Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Topgi, R.S.; Noronha, R.J.; Fondekar, S.P.

    Mean dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons, measured using UV-spectrophotometry, at 0 and 10m were 51 plus or minus 1 and 55 plus or minus 1.2 mu g/litre respectively; range of variation being between 28 and 83 mu g/litre. Very little difference...

  19. Hydrocarbons in Argentina: networks, territories, integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrizo, S.C.

    2003-12-01

    Argentinean hydrocarbons networks have lived a huge reorganizing the structure, after the State reform in the 90's. Activities deregulation and the privatization of YPF and Gas del Estado forced the sector re-concentration, since then dominated by foreign companies, leaded by Repsol YPF. The hydrocarbons federalization contributed to the weakening and un-capitalization loss of wealth of the State. These changes resulted in an increase of the hydrocarbons production allowing to achieve the self-supply. Nevertheless, the expansion of internal networks has not been large enough to ensure the coverage of new requirements. Besides, several infrastructures have been built up to join external markets. National networks are connected to those of near neighboring countries. This integration is an opportunity for the 'South Cone' countries to enhance their potentials. In the country, hydrocarbons territories undergo the reorganizing the structure effects (unemployment, loss of territorial identity, etc). With many difficulties and very different possibilities, those territories, like Comodoro Rivadavia, Ensenada et and Bahia Blanca, look for their re-invention. (author)

  20. Cuticle hydrocarbons in saline aquatic beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Botella-Cruz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons are the principal component of insect cuticle and play an important role in maintaining water balance. Cuticular impermeability could be an adaptative response to salinity and desiccation in aquatic insects; however, cuticular hydrocarbons have been poorly explored in this group and there are no previous data on saline species. We characterized cuticular hydrocarbons of adults and larvae of two saline aquatic beetles, namely Nebrioporus baeticus (Dytiscidae and Enochrus jesusarribasi (Hydrophilidae, using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The CHC profile of adults of both species, characterized by a high abundance of branched alkanes and low of unsaturated alkenes, seems to be more similar to that of some terrestrial beetles (e.g., desert Tenebrionidae compared with other aquatic Coleoptera (freshwater Dytiscidae. Adults of E. jesusarribasi had longer chain compounds than N. baeticus, in agreement with their higher resistance to salinity and desiccation. The more permeable cuticle of larvae was characterized by a lower diversity in compounds, shorter carbon chain length and a higher proportion of unsaturated hydrocarbons compared with that of the adults. These results suggest that osmotic stress on aquatic insects could exert a selection pressure on CHC profile similar to aridity in terrestrial species.

  1. Wireless sensing on surface hydrocarbon production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, D; McStay, D; Mulholland, J; Costello, L

    2009-01-01

    The use of wireless sensor networks for monitoring and optimising the performance of surface hydrocarbon production systems is reported. Wireless sensor networks are shown to be able to produce comprehensively instrumented XTs and other equipment that generate the data required by Intelligent Oilfield systems. The information produced by such systems information can be used for real-time operational control, production optimization and troubleshooting.

  2. Identifying specific interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulas, Giacomo; Malloci, Giuliano; Porceddu, Ignazio

    2005-01-01

    Interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been thought to be ubiquitous for more than twenty years, yet no single species in this class has been identified in the Interstellar Medium (ISM) to date. The unprecedented sensitivity and resolution of present Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) and forthcoming Herschel observations in the far infrared spectral range will offer a unique way out of this embarrassing impasse

  3. Palynofacies characterization for hydrocarbon source rock ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    source rock potential of the Subathu Formation in the area. Petroleum geologists are well aware of the fact that the dispersed organic matter derived either from marine or non-marine sediments on reach- ing its maturation level over extended period of time contributes as source material for the produc- tion of hydrocarbons.

  4. Toxic Potential of Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxic Potential of Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (cPAHs) and Heavy Metal in Crude Oil from Gokana Area, Rivers State, Nigeria. ... Considerable caution should be applied in exploration, exposure and distribution of the crude oil through protected and well maintained pipelines to avoid the possible ...

  5. Earthworm-assisted bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ameh

    The use of earthworms (Eudrilus eugenia) for vermi-assisted bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated mechanic workshop soils ... not always result in complete neutrali- zation of pollutants (Yerushalmi et al., 2003). ..... Screening of biofouling activity in marine bacterial isolate from ship hull. Int. J. Environ. Sci.

  6. Petroleum-hydrocarbons biodegradation by Pseudomonas strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The capability of these isolates to degrade petroleum was performed by measuring the optical density, colony forming unit counts (CFU/ml) and concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Degradation of Isomerate by these isolates was analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (FID). Results ...

  7. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Levels in Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations were measured by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC/FID) in two fish species, Sardinella maderensis (Flat sardinella) and Galeoides decadactylus (Lesser African threadfin or Shine-nose or Common threadfin) from Ghanaian coastal waters and ...

  8. Bioremediation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon contaminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the effect of lead and chromium on the rate of bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated clay soil. Naphthalene was used as a target PAH. The soil was sterilized by heating at 120oC for one hour. 100g of the soil was contaminated with lead, chromium, nickel and mercury ...

  9. The presence of hydrocarbons in southeast Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanken, Niels Martin; Hansen, Malene Dolberg; Kresten Nielsen, Jesper

    Hydrocarbons, mostly found as solid pyrobitumen, are known from more than 30 localities in southeast Norway. They occur as inclusions in a wide range of "reservoir rocks" spanning from Permo-Carboniferous breccias to veins (vein quartz and calcite veins) in Precambrian granites, gneisses and amph......Hydrocarbons, mostly found as solid pyrobitumen, are known from more than 30 localities in southeast Norway. They occur as inclusions in a wide range of "reservoir rocks" spanning from Permo-Carboniferous breccias to veins (vein quartz and calcite veins) in Precambrian granites, gneisses......, indicating that Alum Shale was the most important source rock. Petrographic investigations combined with stable isotope analyses (d13C and d18O) of the cement containing pyrobitumen indicate two phases of hydrocarbon migration. The first phase probably took place in Upper Silurian to Lower Devonian time......, when the Alum Shale entered the oil window. These hydrocarbons are mostly found as pyrobitumen in primary voids and calcite cemented veins in Cambro-Silurian sedimentary deposits. The second phase is probably of Late Carboniferous/Permian age and was due to the increased heat flow during the formation...

  10. Determination of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air samples in Irbid, north Jordan. A Al-Gawadreh Sat, M.B. Gasim, A.R. Hassan, A Azid. Abstract. Air samples were collected at an urban site and a rural (BERQESH) site during February (2017) until March (2017) to determine concentrations of polycyclic ...

  11. Determination of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... collected from the most polluted part of Bangsai river at Saver industrial zone was analyzed for the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, anthracene, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  12. AD1995: NW Europe's hydrocarbon industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glennie, K.; Hurst, A.

    1996-01-01

    This volume concerns itself with wide-ranging aspects of the upstream hydro-carbon industry over the whole of NW Europe. As such, the book contrasts with many thematic volumes by presenting a broad range of topics side-by-side. One section of the book looks back at the history of geological exploration and production, and provides an overview of hydrocarbon exploration across NW Europe. Another section covers the state of the art in hydrocarbon exploration and production. This includes an update on computer-based basin modelling overpressure systems, innovations in reservoir engineering and reserve estimation, 3D seismic and the geochemical aspects of secondary migration. The final section of the book takes a look into the future. This covers the remaining hydrocarbon resources of the North Sea, managing risk in oil field development, oil field economics, and pollution and the environment. It is the editors' hope that several key areas of NW Europe's upstream oil industry have been usefully summarized in the volume. (Author)

  13. The role of hydrocarbons in energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-11-01

    This publication presents some reflections and statements as well as data regarding the role of hydrocarbons in energy production and consumption, in order to better highlight the role hydrocarbons may have in energy transition. It outlines the still very important share of oil in primary and final energy, and more particularly in transports, and that, despite the development of other energies, an energy transition is always very slow. It discusses the perspectives for hydrocarbon reserves and production of oil and natural gas. It outlines that oil remains the most important energy for mobility, the benefits of conventional fuels, and that distribution infrastructures must be preserved and developed. It discusses the evolution of the economic situation of the refining activity (more particularly its margin). It outlines the high contribution of oil industry to economic activity and employment in France, discusses the French energy taxing policy and environmental taxing policy, discusses the issue of security of energy supply (with its different components: exploration-production, refining, logistics and depots, distribution and station network). It discusses the possible role shale hydrocarbons may have in the future. For each issue, the position and opinion of the UFIP (the French Union of oil industries) is stated. The second part of the document proposes a Power Point presentation with several figures and data on these issues

  14. Mathematical modelling on transport of petroleum hydrocarbons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A brief theory has been included on the composition and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons following an onshore oil spill in order to demonstrate the level of complexity associated with the LNAPL dissolution mass transfer even in a classical porous medium. However, such studies in saturated fractured rocks are highly ...

  15. Task 8: Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Our studies focus on the stratigraphy of Late Devonian to early Pennsylvanian rocks at the NTS, because these are the best potential hydrocarbon source rocks in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain. In the last year, our stratigraphic studies have broadened to include the regional context for both the Chainman and the Eleana formations. New age data based on biostratigraphy constrain the age ranges of both Chainman and Eleana; accurate and reliable ages are essential for regional correlation and for regional paleogeographic reconstructions. Source rock analyses throughout the Chainman establish whether these rocks contained adequate organic material to generate hydrocarbons. Maturation analyses of samples from the Chainman determine whether the temperature history has been suitable for the generation of liquid hydrocarbons. Structural studies are aimed at defining the deformation histories and present position of the different packages of Devonian - Pennsylvanian rocks. This report summarizes new results of our structural, stratigraphic and hydrocarbon source rock potential studies at the Nevada Test Site and vicinity. Stratigraphy is considered first, with the Chainman Shale and Eleana Formation discussed separately. New biostratigraphic results are included in this section. New results from our structural studies are summarized next, followed by source rock and maturation analyses of the Chainman Shale. Directions for future work are included where appropriate

  16. Oxygenation of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Oxygenation of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons with sodium periodate. 431. Table 1. Competitive oxygenation of tetralin and cyclooctene with sodium periodate catalyzed by different manga- .... Teacher Education University. My grateful thanks also extend to Dr D Mohajer for his useful sugges- tions. References. 1.

  17. Process of converting phenols into hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seelig, S

    1929-02-02

    A process is disclosed for the conversion of phenols into hydrocarbons, characterized by preheating a mixture of phenols and hydrogen or hydrogen-producing gases to approximately the reaction temperature under pressure, heating by passage percussion-like through a bath of metal to the reaction temperature, and rapidly cooling.

  18. Producing light hydrocarbons by destructive hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fohlen, J H

    1928-06-20

    A method of obtaining light hydrocarbons from fuels and natural or industrial carbonaceous materials by cracking under pressure from 5 to 200 atmospheres and within a temperature range of 200 to 1,000/sup 0/C, the cracking operation being assisted by the presence of catalysts such as metallic halides, simultaneously, with hydrogenation by means of nascent hydrogen in the reaction chamber.

  19. Occurrence and growth potentials of hydrocarbon degrading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The surface of leaf samples from ten tropical plants, Anthocleista, Sarcophrynium, Canna, Colocassia, Musa, Cola, Citrus, Mangifera, Terminalia and Annona were cultured for the estimation of total heterotrophic and hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria. The total heterotrophic bacteria ranged from 0.75 x 107 to 0.98 x 107 ...

  20. Source identification of hydrocarbons following environmental releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkholz, D.A. [ALS Environmental, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Methods of identifying the sources of hydrocarbon contaminations were discussed in this PowerPoint presentation. Laboratories analyze for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) by obtaining chromatograms of observed products. However, many petroleum products provide similar chromatograms. Several independent lines of evidence are needed for the purposes of accurate determination in legal applications. A case study of a lube oil plant spill was used to demonstrate the inconclusiveness of chromatograms and the need to determine petroleum biomarkers. Terpane, sterane, triaromatic sterane, isoprenoid, and alkylcyclohexane analyses were conducted to differentiate between the hydrocarbon samples. The analysis methods are being used with various soil, water, and crab species samples from the BP oil spill. Oil found at the different sites must be directly related to the spill. However, there are 3858 oil and gas platforms currently operating in the Gulf of Mexico. Ratios of biomarkers and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are being developed to generate weight of evidence. A critical difference analysis was also presented. tabs., figs.

  1. Site characterization and petroleum hydrocarbon plume mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravishankar, K. [Harding Lawson Associates, Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a case study of site characterization and hydrocarbon contamination plume mapping/delineation in a gas processing plant in southern Mexico. The paper describes innovative and cost-effective use of passive (non-intrusive) and active (intrusive) techniques, including the use of compound-specific analytical methods for site characterization. The techniques used, on a demonstrative basis, include geophysical, geochemical, and borehole drilling. Geochemical techniques used to delineate the horizontal extent of hydrocarbon contamination at the site include soil gas surveys. The borehole drilling technique used to assess the vertical extent of contamination and confirm geophysical and geochemical data combines conventional hollow-stem auguring with direct push-probe using Geoprobe. Compound-specific analytical methods, such as hydrocarbon fingerprinting and a modified method for gasoline range organics, demonstrate the inherent merit and need for such analyses to properly characterize a site, while revealing the limitations of noncompound-specific total petroleum hydrocarbon analysis. The results indicate that the techniques used in tandem can properly delineate the nature and extent of contamination at a site; often supplement or complement data, while reducing the risk of errors and omissions during the assessment phase; and provide data constructively to focus site-specific remediation efforts. 7 figs.

  2. Organic amendment optimization for treatment of hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar cane cachasse was tested as an organic soil amendment at 0, 2, 4 and 9% (dry weight), for the remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil (with an average initial concentration of 14,356 mg/Kg), which had been pre-treated by the incorporation of 4% (dry weight) calcium hydroxide according to the ...

  3. Process of converting heavy hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiele, F C

    1921-05-27

    A modification is described of the process of the principal Patent 373,060 for splitting and converting heavy hydrocarbons into low-boiling lighter products or into cylinder oil, characterized in that, in place of petroleum, brown-coal oil, shale oil, or the like is distilled in the presence of hydrosilicate as a catalyzer or is heated with refluxing.

  4. Antioxidant Functions of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Dietrich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR is a transcription factor belonging to the basic helix-loop-helix/PER-ARNT-SIM family. It is activated by a variety of ligands, such as environmental contaminants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or dioxins, but also by naturally occurring compounds and endogenous ligands. Binding of the ligand leads to dimerization of the AhR with aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT and transcriptional activation of several xenobiotic phase I and phase II metabolizing enzymes. It is generally accepted that the toxic responses of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dioxins, and structurally related compounds are mediated by activation of the AhR. A multitude of studies indicate that the AhR operates beyond xenobiotic metabolism and exerts pleiotropic functions. Increasing evidence points to a protective role of the AhR against carcinogenesis and oxidative stress. Herein, I will highlight data demonstrating a causal role of the AhR in the antioxidant response and present novel findings on potential AhR-mediated antioxidative mechanisms.

  5. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria isolation and surfactant influence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrocarbons are substantially insoluble in water, often remaining partitioned in the non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL). However, there had been little or no attempts to advance the bioavailability of hydrocarbons through the use of surfactants. This study was conducted based on the need to isolate hydrocarbon degrading ...

  6. Polycyclic’ Aromatic Hydrocarbon Induced Intracellular Signaling and Lymphocyte Apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Alexander M.

    The aryl hydrocarbon (dioxin) receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor possessing high affinity to potent environmental pollutants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and related halogenated hydrocarbons (e.g. dioxins). Numerous research attribute toxicity of these compounds to the receptor...

  7. 27 CFR 21.125 - Rubber hydrocarbon solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubber hydrocarbon solvent. 21.125 Section 21.125 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU....125 Rubber hydrocarbon solvent. (a) Rubber hydrocarbon solvent is a petroleum derivative. (b...

  8. Russia and China hydrocarbon relations. A building block toward international hydrocarbon regulation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, Catherine; Abbas, Mehdi; Rossiaud, Sylvain

    2015-12-01

    This article is a first step of a research agenda on international hydrocarbon regulations. With regards to both: i) the new wealth and power equilibrium in the international political economy and ii) the new political economy of carbon that is emerging from The Paris agreement on Climate changes, this research agenda aims at analysing the changing national structures of governance and the ways these changes lead to international, bilateral, pluri-lateral or multilateral hydrocarbon regulation

  9. Mangrove microniches determine the structural and functional diversity of enriched petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading consortia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Newton C M; Flocco, Cecilia G; Costa, Rodrigo; Junca, Howard; Vilchez, Ramiro; Pieper, Dietmar H; Krögerrecklenfort, Ellen; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Mendonça-Hagler, Leda C S; Smalla, Kornelia

    2010-11-01

    In this study, the combination of culture enrichments and molecular tools was used to identify bacterial guilds, plasmids and functional genes potentially important in the process of petroleum hydrocarbon (PH) decontamination in mangrove microniches (rhizospheres and bulk sediment). In addition, we aimed to recover PH-degrading consortia (PHDC) for future use in remediation strategies. The PHDC were enriched with petroleum from rhizosphere and bulk sediment samples taken from a mangrove chronically polluted with oil hydrocarbons. Southern blot hybridization (SBH) assays of PCR amplicons from environmental DNA before enrichments resulted in weak positive signals for the functional gene types targeted, suggesting that PH-degrading genotypes and plasmids were in low abundance in the rhizosphere and bulk sediments. However, after enrichment, these genes were detected and strong microniche-dependent differences in the abundance and composition of hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial populations, plasmids (IncP-1α, IncP-1β, IncP-7 and IncP-9) and functional genes (naphthalene, extradiol and intradiol dioxygenases) were revealed by in-depth molecular analyses [PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and hybridization (SBH and microarray)]. Our results suggest that, despite the low abundance of PH-degrading genes and plasmids in the environmental samples, the original bacterial composition of the mangrove microniches determined the structural and functional diversity of the PHDC enriched. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis of hydrocarbons generated in coalbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butala, Steven John M.

    This dissertation describes kinetic calculations using literature data to predict formation rates and product yields of oil and gas at typical low-temperature conditions in coalbeds. These data indicate that gas formation rates from hydrocarbon thermolysis are too low to have generated commercial quantities of natural gas, assuming bulk first-order kinetics. Acid-mineral-catalyzed cracking, transition-metal-catalyzed hydrogenolysis of liquid hydrocarbons, and catalyzed CO2 hydrogenation form gas at high rates. The gaseous product compositions for these reactions are nearly the same as those for typical natural coalbed gases, while those from thermal and catalytic cracking are more representative of atypical coalbed gases. Three Argonne Premium Coals (Upper-Freeport, Pittsburgh #8 and Lewiston-Stockton) were extracted with benzene in both Soxhlet and elevated pressure extraction (EPE) systems. The extracts were compared on the basis of dry mass yield and hydrocarbon profiles obtained by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The dry mass yields for the Upper-Freeport coal gave consistent results by both methods, while the yields from the Pittsburgh #8 and Lewiston-Stockton coals were greater by the EPE method. EPE required ˜90 vol. % less solvent compared to Soxhlet extraction. Single-ion-chromatograms of the Soxhlet extracts all exhibited bimodal distributions, while those of the EPE extracts did not. Hydrocarbons analyzed from Greater Green River Basin samples indicate that the natural oils in the basin originated from the coal seams. Analysis of artificially produced oil indicates that hydrous pyrolysis mimics generation of C15+ n-alkanes, but significant variations were found in the branched alkane, low-molecular-weight n-alkanes, and high-molecular-weight aromatic hydrocarbon distributions.

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in exhaust emissions from diesel engines powered by rapeseed oil methylester and heated non-esterified rapeseed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojtisek-Lom, Michal; Czerwinski, Jan; Leníček, Jan; Sekyra, Milan; Topinka, Jan

    2012-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of exhaust emissions were studied in four direct-injection turbocharged four-cylinder diesel engines, with power ratings of 90-136 kW. The engines were operated on biodiesel (B-100), a blend of 30% biodiesel in diesel fuel (B-30), and heated rapeseed oil (RO) in two independent laboratories. Diesel particle filters (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems were used with B-30 and B-100. Concentrations of individual PAHs sampled in different substrates (quartz, borosilicate fiber and fluorocarbon membrane filters, polyurethane foam) were analyzed using different methods. Benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalents (BaP TEQ) were calculated using different sets of toxic equivalency factors (TEF). Operation on B-100 without aftertreatment devices, compared to diesel fuel, yielded a mean reduction in PAHs of 73%, consistent across engines and among TEF used. A lower PAH reduction was obtained using B-30. The BaP TEQ reductions on DPF were 91-99% using B-100, for one non-catalyzed DPF, and over 99% in all other cases. The BaP TEQ for heated RO were higher than those for B-100 and one half lower to over twice as high as that of diesel fuel. B-100 and RO samples featured, compared to diesel fuel, a relatively high share of higher molecular weight PAH and a relatively low share of lighter PAHs. Using different sets of TEF or different detection methods did not consistently affect the observed effect of fuels on BaP TEQ. The compilation of multiple tests was helpful for discerning emerging patterns. The collection of milligrams of particulate matter per sample was generally needed for quantification of all individual PAHs.

  12. Anaerobic degradation of propane and butane by sulfate-reducing bacteria enriched from marine hydrocarbon cold seeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaekel, Ulrike; Musat, Niculina; Adam, Birgit; Kuypers, Marcel; Grundmann, Olav; Musat, Florin

    2013-05-01

    The short-chain, non-methane hydrocarbons propane and butane can contribute significantly to the carbon and sulfur cycles in marine environments affected by oil or natural gas seepage. In the present study, we enriched and identified novel propane and butane-degrading sulfate reducers from marine oil and gas cold seeps in the Gulf of Mexico and Hydrate Ridge. The enrichment cultures obtained were able to degrade simultaneously propane and butane, but not other gaseous alkanes. They were cold-adapted, showing highest sulfate-reduction rates between 16 and 20 °C. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene libraries, followed by whole-cell hybridizations with sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes showed that each enrichment culture was dominated by a unique phylotype affiliated with the Desulfosarcina-Desulfococcus cluster within the Deltaproteobacteria. These phylotypes formed a distinct phylogenetic cluster of propane and butane degraders, including sequences from environments associated with hydrocarbon seeps. Incubations with (13)C-labeled substrates, hybridizations with sequence-specific probes and nanoSIMS analyses showed that cells of the dominant phylotypes were the first to become enriched in (13)C, demonstrating that they were directly involved in hydrocarbon degradation. Furthermore, using the nanoSIMS data, carbon assimilation rates were calculated for the dominant cells in each enrichment culture.

  13. Henkin and Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia; Manzano, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Leon Henkin was not a modal logician, but there is a branch of modal logic that has been deeply influenced by his work. That branch is hybrid logic, a family of logics that extend orthodox modal logic with special proposition symbols (called nominals) that name worlds. This paper explains why...... Henkin’s techniques are so important in hybrid logic. We do so by proving a completeness result for a hybrid type theory called HTT, probably the strongest hybrid logic that has yet been explored. Our completeness result builds on earlier work with a system called BHTT, or basic hybrid type theory...... is due to the first-order perspective, which lies at the heart of Henin’s best known work and hybrid logic....

  14. Sensitivity ranking for freshwater invertebrates towards hydrocarbon contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, Nadine V; Cailleaud, Kevin; Bassères, Anne; Liess, Matthias; Beketov, Mikhail A

    2017-11-01

    Hydrocarbons have an utmost economical importance but may also cause substantial ecological impacts due to accidents or inadequate transportation and use. Currently, freshwater biomonitoring methods lack an indicator that can unequivocally reflect the impacts caused by hydrocarbons while being independent from effects of other stressors. The aim of the present study was to develop a sensitivity ranking for freshwater invertebrates towards hydrocarbon contaminants, which can be used in hydrocarbon-specific bioindicators. We employed the Relative Sensitivity method and developed the sensitivity ranking S hydrocarbons based on literature ecotoxicological data supplemented with rapid and mesocosm test results. A first validation of the sensitivity ranking based on an earlier field study has been conducted and revealed the S hydrocarbons ranking to be promising for application in sensitivity based indicators. Thus, the first results indicate that the ranking can serve as the core component of future hydrocarbon-specific and sensitivity trait based bioindicators.

  15. Hydrocarbon-degradation by Isolate Pseudomonas lundensis UTAR FPE2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline, S. Y. Ting

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the potential of isolate Pseudomonas lundensis UTAR FPE2 as a hydrocarbon degrader was established. Their biodegradation activity was first detected with the formation of clearing zones on Bushnell-Hass agar plates, with the largest diameter observed on plates supplemented with paraffin, followed by mineral oil and petrol. Utilization of hydrocarbon sources were again detected in broth cultures supplemented with similar hydrocarbon substrates, where the mean viable cell count recovered from hydrocarbon-supplemented broth cultures were higher than the initial inoculum except for napthalene. In both tests, the isolate showed higher degradability towards aliphatic hydrocarbon sources, and the least activity towards the aromatic hydrocarbon naphthalene. The isolate P. lundensis UTAR FPE2 (8 log10 cfu/mL also degraded crude diesel sample, with 69% degradation during the first three days. To conclude, this study suggests the potential use of this isolate for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated environments.

  16. Catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons with low benzene content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2016-03-08

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction having a lowered benzene content, the method comprising: converting said alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction by contacting said alcohol, under conditions suitable for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, and contacting said hydrocarbon fraction with a benzene alkylation catalyst, under conditions suitable for alkylating benzene, to form alkylated benzene product in said hydrocarbon fraction. Also described is a catalyst composition useful in the method, comprising a mixture of (i) a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon, and (ii) a benzene alkylation catalyst, in which (i) and (ii) may be in a mixed or separated state. A reactor for housing the catalyst and conducting the reaction is also described.

  17. Catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons with low benzene content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2016-09-06

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction having a lowered benzene content, the method comprising: converting said alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction by contacting said alcohol, under conditions suitable for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, and contacting said hydrocarbon fraction with a benzene alkylation catalyst, under conditions suitable for alkylating benzene, to form alkylated benzene product in said hydrocarbon fraction. Also described is a catalyst composition useful in the method, comprising a mixture of (i) a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon, and (ii) a benzene alkylation catalyst, in which (i) and (ii) may be in a mixed or separated state. A reactor for housing the catalyst and conducting the reaction is also described.

  18. A method of refining aromatic hydrocarbons from coal chemical production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zieborak, K.; Koprowski, A.; Ratajczak, W.

    1979-10-01

    A method is disclosed for refining aromatic hydrocarbons of coal chemical production by contact of liquid aromatic hydrocarbons and their mixtures with a strongly acid macroporous sulfocationite in the H-form at atmospheric pressure and high temperature. The method is distinguished in that the aromatic hydrocarbons and their mixtures, from which alkali compounds have already been removed, are supplied for refinement with the sulfocationite with simultaneous addition of olefin derivatives of aromatic hydrocarbons, followed by separation of pure hydrocarbons by rectification. Styrene or alpha-methylstyrene is used as the olefin derivatives of the aromatic hydrocarbons. The method is performed in several stages with addition of olefin derivatives of aromatic hydrocarbons at each stage.

  19. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    a differential action, which allows differential equations as primitive actions. The extension allows us to model hybrid systems with both continuous and discrete behaviour. The main result of this paper is an extension of such a hybrid action system with parallel composition. The extension does not change...... the original meaning of the parallel composition, and therefore also the ordinary action systems can be composed in parallel with the hybrid action systems....

  20. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.

    2010-08-20

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.; Moganty, Surya S.; Archer, Lynden A.

    2010-01-01

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  3. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  4. Toronto hybrid taxi pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, M. [CrossChasm Technologies, Cambridge, ON (Canada); Marans, B. [Toronto Atmospheric Fund, ON (Canada)

    2009-10-15

    This paper provided details of a hybrid taxi pilot program conducted to compare the on-road performance of Toyota Camry hybrid vehicles against conventional vehicles over a 1-year period in order to determine the business case and air emission reductions associated with the use of hybrid taxi cabs. Over 750,000 km worth of fuel consumption was captured from 10 Toyota Camry hybrids, a Toyota Prius, and 5 non-hybrid Camry vehicles over an 18-month period. The average real world fuel consumption for the taxis demonstrated that the Toyota Prius has the lowest cost of ownership, while the non-hybrid Camry has the highest cost of ownership. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) reductions associated with the 10 Camry hybrid taxis were calculated at 236 tonnes over a 7-year taxi service life. Results suggested that the conversion of Toronto's 5680 taxis would yield annual CO{sub 2} emission reductions of over 19,000 tonnes. All hybrid purchasers identified themselves as highly likely to purchase a hybrid again. 5 tabs., 9 figs.

  5. Managing hybrid marketing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, R T; Moran, U

    1990-01-01

    As competition increases and costs become critical, companies that once went to market only one way are adding new channels and using new methods - creating hybrid marketing systems. These hybrid marketing systems hold the promise of greater coverage and reduced costs. But they are also hard to manage; they inevitably raise questions of conflict and control: conflict because marketing units compete for customers; control because new indirect channels are less subject to management authority. Hard as they are to manage, however, hybrid marketing systems promise to become the dominant design, replacing the "purebred" channel strategy in all kinds of businesses. The trick to managing the hybrid is to analyze tasks and channels within and across a marketing system. A map - the hybrid grid - can help managers make sense of their hybrid system. What the chart reveals is that channels are not the basic building blocks of a marketing system; marketing tasks are. The hybrid grid forces managers to consider various combinations of channels and tasks that will optimize both cost and coverage. Managing conflict is also an important element of a successful hybrid system. Managers should first acknowledge the inevitability of conflict. Then they should move to bound it by creating guidelines that spell out which customers to serve through which methods. Finally, a marketing and sales productivity (MSP) system, consisting of a central marketing database, can act as the central nervous system of a hybrid marketing system, helping managers create customized channels and service for specific customer segments.

  6. Toronto hybrid taxi pilot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, M.; Marans, B.

    2009-10-01

    This paper provided details of a hybrid taxi pilot program conducted to compare the on-road performance of Toyota Camry hybrid vehicles against conventional vehicles over a 1-year period in order to determine the business case and air emission reductions associated with the use of hybrid taxi cabs. Over 750,000 km worth of fuel consumption was captured from 10 Toyota Camry hybrids, a Toyota Prius, and 5 non-hybrid Camry vehicles over an 18-month period. The average real world fuel consumption for the taxis demonstrated that the Toyota Prius has the lowest cost of ownership, while the non-hybrid Camry has the highest cost of ownership. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) reductions associated with the 10 Camry hybrid taxis were calculated at 236 tonnes over a 7-year taxi service life. Results suggested that the conversion of Toronto's 5680 taxis would yield annual CO 2 emission reductions of over 19,000 tonnes. All hybrid purchasers identified themselves as highly likely to purchase a hybrid again. 5 tabs., 9 figs.

  7. Hybrid FOSS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers are continuing their efforts to further develop FOSS technologies. A hybrid FOSS technique (HyFOSS) employs conventional continuous grating...

  8. Hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation process for in situ destruction of chlorinated hydrocarbon and fuel hydrocarbon contaminants in water and soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauss, Kevin G.; Copenhaver, Sally C.; Aines, Roger D.

    2000-01-01

    In situ hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation process is useful for in situ degradation of hydrocarbon water and soil contaminants. Fuel hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum distillates and other organic contaminants present in the soil and water are degraded by the process involving hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation into non-toxic products of the degradation. The process uses heat which is distributed through soils and water, optionally combined with oxygen and/or hydrocarbon degradation catalysts, and is particularly useful for remediation of solvent, fuel or other industrially contaminated sites.

  9. Noble gas and hydrocarbon tracers in multiphase unconventional hydrocarbon systems: Toward integrated advanced reservoir simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrah, T.; Moortgat, J.; Poreda, R. J.; Muehlenbachs, K.; Whyte, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Although hydrocarbon production from unconventional energy resources has increased dramatically in the last decade, total unconventional oil and gas recovery from black shales is still less than 25% and 9% of the totals in place, respectively. Further, the majority of increased hydrocarbon production results from increasing the lengths of laterals, the number of hydraulic fracturing stages, and the volume of consumptive water usage. These strategies all reduce the economic efficiency of hydrocarbon extraction. The poor recovery statistics result from an insufficient understanding of some of the key physical processes in complex, organic-rich, low porosity formations (e.g., phase behavior, fluid-rock interactions, and flow mechanisms at nano-scale confinement and the role of natural fractures and faults as conduits for flow). Noble gases and other hydrocarbon tracers are capably of recording subsurface fluid-rock interactions on a variety of geological scales (micro-, meso-, to macro-scale) and provide analogs for the movement of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. As such geochemical data enrich the input for the numerical modeling of multi-phase (e.g., oil, gas, and brine) fluid flow in highly heterogeneous, low permeability formations Herein we will present a combination of noble gas (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe abundances and isotope ratios) and molecular and isotopic hydrocarbon data from a geographically and geologically diverse set of unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs in North America. Specifically, we will include data from the Marcellus, Utica, Barnett, Eagle Ford, formations and the Illinois basin. Our presentation will include geochemical and geological interpretation and our perspective on the first steps toward building an advanced reservoir simulator for tracer transport in multicomponent multiphase compositional flow (presented separately, in Moortgat et al., 2015).

  10. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Szalanski, Allen L; Gaskin, John F.; Young, Nicholas E.; West, Amanda; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Tripodi, Amber

    2014-01-01

    Science has shown that the introgression or hybridization of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals up to 40,000 YBP may have led to the swarm of modern humans on earth. However, there is little doubt that modern trade and transportation in support of the humans has continued to introduce additional species, genotypes, and hybrids to every country on the globe. We assessed the utility of species distributions modeling of genotypes to assess the risk of current and future invaders. We evaluated 93 locations of the genus Tamarix for which genetic data were available. Maxent models of habitat suitability showed that the hybrid, T. ramosissima x T. chinensis, was slightly greater than the parent taxa (AUCs > 0.83). General linear models of Africanized honey bees, a hybrid cross of Tanzanian Apis mellifera scutellata and a variety of European honey bee including A. m. ligustica, showed that the Africanized bees (AUC = 0.81) may be displacing European honey bees (AUC > 0.76) over large areas of the southwestern U.S. More important, Maxent modeling of sub-populations (A1 and A26 mitotypes based on mDNA) could be accurately modeled (AUC > 0.9), and they responded differently to environmental drivers. This suggests that rapid evolutionary change may be underway in the Africanized bees, allowing the bees to spread into new areas and extending their total range. Protecting native species and ecosystems may benefit from risk maps of harmful invasive species, hybrids, and genotypes.

  11. Analysis of monoterpene hydrocarbons in rural atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdren, M.W.; Westberg, H.H.; Zimmerman, P.R.

    1979-01-01

    Gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis of monoterpenes from a rural forested site in the northwestern United States is described. Use of a glass capillary column provided excellent resolution of the hydrocarbons. Increased sensitivity and specificity of the mass spectrometer detector over the flame ionization detector were demonstrated for trace (parts per trillion) atmospheric hydrocarbons. As little as 10 ppt of compound was detectable in 100-cc air samples. Two analytical methods (cryogenic and solid adsorbent--Tenax-GC) were used in the collection of ambient air. Analytical results from the two techniques compared very well. Rural concentrations of the monoterpenes varied considerably depending upon location within the forest canopy. The concentration of individual species never exceeded 1 ppb of compound during a 10-month sampling period. The monoterpene total for all samples fell in the range of 0.5- to 16-ppb compound for C 10 terpene

  12. CHARACTERISTICS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION IN ARCTIC CIRCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Lež

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The existence of large quantities of hydrocarbons is supposed within the Arctic Circle. Assumed quantities are 25% of the total undiscovered hydrocarbon reserves on Earth, mostly natural gas. Over 500 major and minor gas accumulations within the Arctic Circle were discovered so far, but apart from Snøhvit gas field, there is no commercial exploitation of natural gas from these fields. Arctic gas projects are complicated, technically hard to accomplish, and pose a great threat to the return of investment, safety of people and equipment and for the ecosystem. Russia is a country that is closest to the realization of the Arctic gas projects that are based on the giant gas fields. The most extreme weather conditions in the seas around Greenland are the reason why this Arctic region is the least explored and furthest from the realization of any gas project (the paper is published in Croatian .

  13. HYDROCARBON-DEGRADING BACTERIA AND SURFACTANT ACTIVITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R; Topher Berry, T; Grazyna A. Plaza, G; jacek Wypych, j

    2006-08-15

    Fate of benzene ethylbenzene toluene xylenes (BTEX) compounds through biodegradation was investigated using two different bacteria, Ralstonia picketti (BP-20) and Alcaligenes piechaudii (CZOR L-1B). These bacteria were isolated from extremely polluted petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils. PCR and Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) were used to identify the isolates. Biodegradation was measured using each organism individually and in combination. Both bacteria were shown to degrade each of the BTEX compounds. Alcaligenes piechaudii biodegraded BTEXs more efficiently while mixed with BP-20 and individually. Biosurfactant production was observed by culture techniques. In addition 3-hydroxy fatty acids, important in biosurfactant production, was observed by FAME analysis. In the all experiments toluene and m+p- xylenes were better growth substrates for both bacteria than the other BTEX compounds. In addition, the test results indicate that the bacteria could contribute to bioremediation of aromatic hydrocarbons (BTEX) pollution increase biodegradation through the action by biosurfactants.

  14. Hydrocarbons from plants: Analytical methods and observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Melvin

    1980-11-01

    We have suggested that certain plants rich in hydrocarbon-like materials might be cultivated for renewable photosynthetic products. Two species were selected for experimental plantations: Euphorbia lathyris, an annual from seed and Euphorbia tirucalli, a perennial from cuttings, The yield from each species is over 10 barrels of oil/acre/year without genetic or agronomic improvement. In addition to plants, there are trees, such as species of Copaifera in Brazil and other tropical areas, which produce a diesel-like oil upon tapping. Each tree produces approximately 40 liters of hydrocarbon per year, and this material can be used directly by a diesel-powered car. Further efforts to develop plants as alternate energy sources are underway, as well as a continuing search for additional plant species throughout the world which have a similar capability.

  15. Desorption and bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    A study was conducted in which the extent and pattern of contaminant biodegradation during bioremediation of four industrially-contaminated soils were examined to determine which factors control the ultimate extent of biodegradation and which limit the success of biological treatment. It was noted that although bioremediation is inexpensive and has low environmental impact, it often fails to completely remove the hydrocarbons in soils because of the complex interactions between contaminants, the soil environment, and the active microorganisms. In this study, the competency of the microorganisms in the soil to degrade the contaminants was examined. The equilibrium partitioning of the contaminants between the soil and the aqueous phase was also examined along with the transport of contaminants out of soil particles. The role of diffusion of compounds in the soil and the importance of direct contact between microorganisms and the hydrocarbons was determined. Methods for selecting suitable sites for biological treatment were also described

  16. Hydrocarbon potential of the Trinidad area - 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persad, K.M.

    1978-06-01

    It is recognized that deltaic and associated sands, together with porous marine limestones, form the vast majority of the reservoirs in the major accumulations of hydrocarbons throughout the world. The source of the hydrocarbons is now thought to be kerogen which is generated from the organic content of principally marine shales which are formed in or near the continental shelves. The Trinidad area contains several sedimentary subbasins, most of which consist largely of deltaic and associated sediments. These sediments, like most of the ancient deltas of the world, contain major reserves of oil and gas. Other less important reserves should occur in sporadic (time-wise) porous limestones. The total proven and probable reserves of the Trinidad area are around 5 billion bbl of oil, of which 1.6 billion bbl already have been produced, and over 47 TCF of gas.

  17. Enumeration of petroleum hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, S.; Barot, M.; Levine, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    In-situ biological treatment is one among a number of emerging technologies that may be applied to the remediation of contaminated soils and groundwater. In 1985, a surface spill of 1,500 gallons of dielectric transformer oil at the Sandia National Laboratories (HERMES II facility) resulted in contamination of soil up to depths of 160 feet. The extent of contamination and site characteristics favored the application of in-situ bioremediation as a potential remedial technology. The purpose of this research was to enumerate indigenous microbial populations capable of degrading petroleum hydrocarbons. Microbial enumeration and characterization methods suitably adapted for hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria were used as an indicator of the presence of viable microbial consortia in excavated oil samples with hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations ranging from 300 to 26,850 ppm. Microbial activity was quantified by direct and streak plating soil samples on silica gel media. Effects of toxicity and temperature were studied using batch cultures of hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria (selectively isolated in an enrichment medium), at temperatures of 20 and 35 C. It was concluded from this study that it is possible to isolate native microorganisms from contaminated soils from depths of 60 to 160 feet, and with oil concentration ranging from 300 to 26,850 ppm. About 62% of the microorganisms isolated form the contaminated soil were capable of using contaminant oil as a substrate for growth and metabolism under aerobic conditions. Growth rates were observed to be 50% higher for the highest contaminant concentration at 20 C. Resistance to toxicity to contaminant oil was also observed to be greater at 20 C than at 35 C

  18. National Gas Survey. Synthesized gaseous hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    The supply-Technical Advisory Task Force-Synthesized Gaseous Hydrocarbon Fuels considered coal, hydrocarbon liquids, oil shales, tar sands, and bioconvertible materials as potential feedstocks for gaseous fuels. Current status of process technology for each feedstock was reviewed, economic evaluations including sensitivity analysis were made, and constraints for establishment of a synthesized gaseous hydrocarbon fuels industry considered. Process technology is presently available to manufacture gaseous hydrocarbon fuels from each of the feedstocks. In 1975 there were eleven liquid feedstock SNG plants in the United States having a capacity of 1.1 billion SCFD. There can be no contribution of SNG before 1982 from plants using feedstocks other than liquids because there are no plants in operation or under construction as of 1977. Costs for SNG are higher than current regulated prices for U.S. natural gas. Because of large reserves, coal is a prime feedstock candidate although there are major constraints in the area of coal leases, mining and water permits, and others. Commercial technology is available and several new gasification processes are under development. Oil shale is also a feedstock in large supply and commercial process technology is available. There are siting and permit constraints, and water availability may limit the ultimate size of an oil shale processing industry. Under projected conditions, bioconvertible materials are not expected to support the production of large quantities of pipeline quality gas during the next decade. Production of low or medium Btu gas from municipal solid wastes can be expected to be developed in urban areas in conjunction with savings in disposal costs. In the economic evaluations presented, the most significant factor for liquid feedstock plants is the anticipated cost of feedstock and fuel. The economic viability of plants using other feedstocks is primarily dependent upon capital requirements.

  19. Hydrochloric acid recycling from chlorinated hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowieja, D. [Sulzer Escher Wyss GmbH, Ravensburg (Germany); Schaub, M. [Sulzer Chemtech Ltd., Winterthur (Switzerland)

    1993-12-31

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons present a major ecological hazard since most of them are only poorly biodegradable. Incineration is an economical process for their destruction, however the usually recovered sodium or calcium chlorides do not present a value and their disposal may even be very costly. Recovery of hydrochloric acid may therefore present an economical solution, mainly were large quantities of highly chlorinated compounds can be processed (author) 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Characterisation of unresolved complex mixtures of hydrocarbons

    OpenAIRE

    Gough, Mark Adrian

    1989-01-01

    Metadata merged with duplicate record (http://hdl.handle.net/10026.1/666) on 20.12.2016 by CS (TIS). This is a digitised version of a thesis that was deposited in the University Library. If you are the author please contact PEARL Admin () to discuss options. The hydrocarbons of Recent Polluted.., sediments, in-reservoir and laboratory biodegraded crude oils, and certain petroleum products (e. g. lubricating oils) often display "humps" or Unresolved Complex...

  1. Acquired and innate immunity to polyaromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusuf, Nabiha; Timares, Laura; Seibert, Megan D.; Xu Hui; Elmets, Craig A.

    2007-01-01

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbons are ubiquitous environmental pollutants that are potent mutagens and carcinogens. Researchers have taken advantage of these properties to investigate the mechanisms by which chemicals cause cancer of the skin and other organs. When applied to the skin of mice, several carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons have also been shown to interact with the immune system, stimulating immune responses and resulting in the development of antigen-specific T-cell-mediated immunity. Development of cell-mediated immunity is strain-specific and is governed by Ah receptor genes and by genes located within the major histocompatibility complex. CD8 + T cells are effector cells in the response, whereas CD4 + T cells down-regulate immunity. Development of an immune response appears to have a protective effect since strains of mice that develop a cell-mediated immune response to carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons are less likely to develop tumors when subjected to a polyaromatic hydrocarbon skin carcinogenesis protocol than mice that fail to develop an immune response. With respect to innate immunity, TLR4-deficient C3H/HeJ mice are more susceptible to polyaromatic hydrogen skin tumorigenesis than C3H/HeN mice in which TLR4 is normal. These findings support the hypothesis that immune responses, through their interactions with chemical carcinogens, play an active role in the prevention of chemical skin carcinogenesis during the earliest stages. Efforts to augment immune responses to the chemicals that cause tumors may be a productive approach to the prevention of tumors caused by these agents

  2. Solo Mycoremediation Impacted by Waste Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Santos Freire

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil and its derivatives are the principal means of energy generation for vehicles that transport raw materials and goods produced in developed and developing regions accentuating the risk of accidents by spills in stockpiling, transport, use or discarding. The contamination by total hydrocarbons suggests the elevated propension to mutations and to the formation of carcinogenic tumors, as a consequence of the exposure to human contamination by these products. This work had as aims: a To investigate, in a laboratorial scale, the degrading capacity of autochthonous microbiota in the presence of differing concentrations of hydrocarbons (0%, 2,5%, 5% e 7,5%; b To isolate fungi tolerant to the contaminant; c To quantify and analyze the biodegradation capacity of soil through the microbial biomass and metabolic quotient; and d To set, in laboratory, ideal conditions of biodegradation of the xenobiotic compound. Some parameters of microbial activity have been evaluated, such as: biological (Carbon of microbial biomass, CO2 , qCO2 emission, and fungi growth, chemical (pH, electrical conductivity –EC –, analysis of fertility and total hydrocarbons and physical (physical composition of the soil for analysis and comparisons. The obtained results suggest that the adding of 5% of waste oil in the ground provided ideal condition for the biodegradation of he   contaminant in the environment. From the evaluated parameters, the emission of CO2 and microbial C were considered more indicative of changes in soil microbial activity subject to the addition of hydrocarbons, confirming the possibility of microremediation use.

  3. Adaptive dynamics of cuticular hydrocarbons in Drosophila

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rajpurohit, S.; Hanus, Robert; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Behrman, E. L.; Bergland, A. O.; Petrov, D.; Cvačka, Josef; Schmidt, P. S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 1 (2017), s. 66-80 ISSN 1010-061X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP206/12/1093 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : cuticular hydrocarbons * Drosophila * experimental evolution * spatiotemporal variation * thermal plasticity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biology (theoretical, mathematical, thermal, cryobiology, biological rhythm), Evolutionary biology Impact factor: 2.792, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jeb.12988/full

  4. Electrochemical Routes towards Sustainable Hydrocarbon Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2012-01-01

    The potential of renewable energy and possible solution to the intermittency problem of renewable energy sources like sun and wind are explained. The densest storage of energy is in the form of hydrocarbons. The most suitable method of conversion and storage within a foreseeable future is electro...... in the future. In spite of this, it is important to research and develop as many viable sustainable energy technologies as economical possible. © 2012 ECS - The Electrochemical Society  ...

  5. Small Scale Hydrocarbon Fire Test Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Joachim Søreng Bjørge; Maria-Monika Metallinou; Arjen Kraaijeveld; Torgrim Log

    2017-01-01

    In the oil and gas industry, hydrocarbon process equipment was previously often thermally insulated by applying insulation directly to the metal surface. Fire protective insulation was applied outside the thermal insulation. In some cases, severe corrosion attacks were observed due to ingress of humidity and condensation at cold surfaces. Introducing a 25 mm air gap to prevent wet thermal insulation and metal wall contact is expected to solve the corrosion issues. This improved insulation met...

  6. Continuous process for converting hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1934-05-01

    A continuous process is disclosed for converting hydrocarbons, liquid, semi-liquid, and solid, of all origins and kinds, into incondensable gases, without carbon deposits, characterized by the fact that an intimate mixture of the material and superheated steam before cracking is passed through a contact mass. The contact mass consists of all metals, metal alloys, and mineral salts which, at the reaction temperature, are fused and do not react with the water vapor or gaseous products.

  7. Hydrochloric acid recycling from chlorinated hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowieja, D [Sulzer Escher Wyss GmbH, Ravensburg (Germany); Schaub, M [Sulzer Chemtech Ltd., Winterthur (Switzerland)

    1994-12-31

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons present a major ecological hazard since most of them are only poorly biodegradable. Incineration is an economical process for their destruction, however the usually recovered sodium or calcium chlorides do not present a value and their disposal may even be very costly. Recovery of hydrochloric acid may therefore present an economical solution, mainly were large quantities of highly chlorinated compounds can be processed (author) 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Transformations of aromatic hydrocarbons over zeolites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Voláková, Martina; Žilková, Naděžda; Čejka, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 34, 5-7 (2008), s. 439-454 ISSN 0922-6168 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/05/0197; GA AV ČR 1QS400400560; GA AV ČR KJB4040402 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : aromatic hydrocarbons * zeolites * alkylation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.514, year: 2008

  9. Geophysical monitoring in a hydrocarbon reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffagni, Enrico; Bokelmann, Goetz

    2016-04-01

    Extraction of hydrocarbons from reservoirs demands ever-increasing technological effort, and there is need for geophysical monitoring to better understand phenomena occurring within the reservoir. Significant deformation processes happen when man-made stimulation is performed, in combination with effects deriving from the existing natural conditions such as stress regime in situ or pre-existing fracturing. Keeping track of such changes in the reservoir is important, on one hand for improving recovery of hydrocarbons, and on the other hand to assure a safe and proper mode of operation. Monitoring becomes particularly important when hydraulic-fracturing (HF) is used, especially in the form of the much-discussed "fracking". HF is a sophisticated technique that is widely applied in low-porosity geological formations to enhance the production of natural hydrocarbons. In principle, similar HF techniques have been applied in Europe for a long time in conventional reservoirs, and they will probably be intensified in the near future; this suggests an increasing demand in technological development, also for updating and adapting the existing monitoring techniques in applied geophysics. We review currently available geophysical techniques for reservoir monitoring, which appear in the different fields of analysis in reservoirs. First, the properties of the hydrocarbon reservoir are identified; here we consider geophysical monitoring exclusively. The second step is to define the quantities that can be monitored, associated to the properties. We then describe the geophysical monitoring techniques including the oldest ones, namely those in practical usage from 40-50 years ago, and the most recent developments in technology, within distinct groups, according to the application field of analysis in reservoir. This work is performed as part of the FracRisk consortium (www.fracrisk.eu); this project, funded by the Horizon2020 research programme, aims at helping minimize the

  10. Aliphatic hydrocarbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon geochemistry of twelve major rivers in the Northwest Territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backus, S.; Swyripa, M.; Peddle, J.; Jeffries, D.S.

    1995-01-01

    Suspended sediment and water samples collected from twelve major rivers in the Northwest Territories were analyzed for aliphatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to assess the sources and transport of hydrocarbons entering the Arctic Ocean. Three stations on the Mackenzie River and one station near the mouth of eleven other northern rivers were selected for sampling. Samples were collected on the Mackenzie River on four occasions to characterize spring, summer and fall flow conditions and once on the remaining eleven rivers during high flow conditions. The Mackenzie River is distinctively different then the other eleven rivers. Naturally occurring hydrocarbons predominate in the river. These hydrocarbons include biogenic alkanes, diagenic PAHs, petrogenic alkanes, and PAHs from oil seeps and/or bitumens. Anthropogenic inputs of PAHs are low as indicated by low concentrations of combustion PAHs. Alkyl PAH distributions indicate that a significant component of the lower molecular weight PAH fraction is petrogenic. The majority of the high molecular weight PAHs, together with the petrogenic PAHs have a principal source in the Mackenzie River

  11. Thermal Adsorption Processing Of Hydrocarbon Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudad H. Al.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The raw materials of secondary catalytic processes must be pre-refined. Among these refining processes are the deasphalting and demetallization including their thermo adsorption or thermo-contact adsorption variety. In oil processing four main processes of thermo-adsorption refining of hydrocarbon residues are used ART Asphalt Residual Treating - residues deasphaltizing 3D Discriminatory Destructive Distillation developed in the US ACT Adsorption-Contact Treatment and ETCC Express Thermo-Contact Cracking developed in Russia. ART and ACT are processes with absorbers of lift type reactor while 3D and ETCC processes are with an adsorbing reactor having ultra-short contact time of the raw material with the adsorbent. In all these processes refining of hydrocarbon residues is achieved by partial Thermo-destructive transformations of hydrocarbons and hetero-atomic compounds with simultaneous adsorption of the formed on the surface of the adsorbents resins asphaltene and carboids as well as metal- sulphur - and nitro-organic compounds. Demetallized and deasphalted light and heavy gas oils or their mixtures are a quality raw material for secondary deepening refining processes catalytic and hydrogenation cracking etc. since they are characterized by low coking ability and low content of organometallic compounds that lead to irreversible deactivation of the catalysts of these deepening processes.

  12. Radiolytic degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xing-Zheng; Yamamoto, Takeshi [Fukui Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Fukui (Japan); Hatashita, Masanori [The Wakasa Wan Energy Research Center, Research Dept., Tsuruga, Fukui (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    Radiolytic degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons (chloroform, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene) in water was carried out. Water solutions of the chlorinated hydrocarbons with different concentrations were irradiated with {gamma} rays. Concentrations of methane, ethane, CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and O{sub 2} after the irradiation were determined by gas chromatography. Concentration of chloride ion in the irradiated sample was determined by ion chromatography. Experimental results show that radiolytic degradation of the chlorinated hydrocarbon increased with the radiation dose. Methane, ethane, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and Cl{sup -} concentrations increased with the radiation dose and the sample concentration. On the other hand, O{sub 2} concentration decreased with the radiation dose and the sample concentration. When sample concentration was high, dissolved oxygen might be not enough for converting most of the C atoms in the sample into CO{sub 2}. This resulted in a low decomposition ratio. Addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as an oxygen resource could increase the decomposition ratio greatly. Furthermore, gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy was applied to identify some intermediates of the radiolytic dehalogenation. Radiolytic degradation mechanisms are also discussed. (author)

  13. Recovering hydrocarbons with surfactants from lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naae, D.G.; Whittington, L.E.; Ledoux, W.A.; Debons, F.E.

    1988-11-29

    This patent describes a method of recovering hydrocarbons from an underground hydrocarbon formation penetrated by at least one injection well and at least one production well, which comprises: injecting into the formation through an injection well a surfactant slug comprising about 0.1% to about 10% by weight of surfactants produced from lignin, the surfactants produced by placing lignin in contact with water, converting the lignin into low molecular weight lignin phenols by reducing the lignin in the presence of a reducing agent of carbon monoxide or hydrogen creating a reduction reaction mixture comprising oil soluble lignin phenols, the reduction occurring at a temperature greater than about 200/sup 0/C and a pressure greater than about 100 psi, recovering the oil soluble lignin phenols from the reduction mixture, and converting the lignin phenols into lignin surfactants by a reaction selected from the group consisting of alkoxylation, sulfonation, sulfation, aklylation, sulfomethylation, and alkoxysulfation; injecting into the formation through the injection well a drive fluid to push the surfactant slug towards a production well; and recovering hydrocarbons at the production well.

  14. Adsorption of hydrocarbons in chalk reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, L.

    1996-12-31

    The present work is a study on the wettability of hydrocarbon bearing chalk reservoirs. Wettability is a major factor that influences flow, location and distribution of oil and water in the reservoir. The wettability of the hydrocarbon reservoirs depends on how and to what extent the organic compounds are adsorbed onto the surfaces of calcite, quartz and clay. Organic compounds such as carboxylic acids are found in formation waters from various hydrocarbon reservoirs and in crude oils. In the present investigation the wetting behaviour of chalk is studied by the adsorption of the carboxylic acids onto synthetic calcite, kaolinite, quartz, {alpha}-alumina, and chalk dispersed in an aqueous phase and an organic phase. In the aqueous phase the results clearly demonstrate the differences between the adsorption behaviour of benzoic acid and hexanoic acid onto the surfaces of oxide minerals and carbonates. With NaCl concentration of 0.1 M and with pH {approx_equal} 6 the maximum adsorption of benzoic acid decreases in the order: quartz, {alpha}-alumina, kaolinite. For synthetic calcite and chalk no detectable adsorption was obtaind. In the organic phase the order is reversed. The maximum adsorption of benzoic acid onto the different surfaces decreases in the order: synthetic calcite, chalk, kaolinite and quartz. Also a marked difference in adsorption behaviour between probes with different functional groups onto synthetic calcite from organic phase is observed. The maximum adsorption decreases in the order: benzoic acid, benzyl alcohol and benzylamine. (au) 54 refs.

  15. Biotransformation of monoaromatic hydrocarbons under anoxic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, H.A.; Reinhard, M.; McCarty, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons contained in gasoline are environmental pollutants of particular concern since they are relatively soluble in water, many are toxic, and some are confirmed carcinogens, (e.g., benzene). Although most gasoline constituents are readily degraded in aerobic surface water systems, the groundwater environment associated with hydrocarbon spills is typically anaerobic, thus precluding aerobic degradation pathways. In the absence of oxygen, degradation of gasoline components can take place only with the utilization of alternate electron acceptors such as nitrate, sulfate, carbon dioxide, and possibly ferric iron or other metal oxides. Benzene, toluene, and xylene isomers were completely degraded by aquifer- or sewage sludge-derived microorganisms under dentrifying and methanogenic conditions. Recently, a pure culture was found to degrade toluene and m-xylene nitrate or nitrous oxide as an electron acceptor. This paper presents initial results of ongoing study to develop and characterize microbial consortia capable of transforming aromatic hydrocarbons under nitrate-reducing conditions, and understand the effect of environmental factors on the biotransformation processes

  16. Fluorocarbon assisted atomic layer etching of SiO{sub 2} and Si using cyclic Ar/C{sub 4}F{sub 8} and Ar/CHF{sub 3} plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzler, Dominik; Oehrlein, Gottlieb S., E-mail: oehrlein@umd.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, and Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States); Li, Chen [Department of Physics, and Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States); Engelmann, Sebastian; Bruce, Robert L.; Joseph, Eric A. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    The need for atomic layer etching (ALE) is steadily increasing as smaller critical dimensions and pitches are required in device patterning. A flux-control based cyclic Ar/C{sub 4}F{sub 8} ALE based on steady-state Ar plasma in conjunction with periodic, precise C{sub 4}F{sub 8} injection and synchronized plasma-based low energy Ar{sup +} ion bombardment has been established for SiO{sub 2} [Metzler et al., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 32, 020603 (2014)]. In this work, the cyclic process is further characterized and extended to ALE of silicon under similar process conditions. The use of CHF{sub 3} as a precursor is examined and compared to C{sub 4}F{sub 8}. CHF{sub 3} is shown to enable selective SiO{sub 2}/Si etching using a fluorocarbon (FC) film build up. Other critical process parameters investigated are the FC film thickness deposited per cycle, the ion energy, and the etch step length. Etching behavior and mechanisms are studied using in situ real time ellipsometry and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Silicon ALE shows less self-limitation than silicon oxide due to higher physical sputtering rates for the maximum ion energies used in this work, ranged from 20 to 30 eV. The surface chemistry is found to contain fluorinated silicon oxide during the etching of silicon. Plasma parameters during ALE are studied using a Langmuir probe and establish the impact of precursor addition on plasma properties.

  17. Development of specific oligonucleotide probes for the identification and in situ detection of hydrocarbon-degrading Alcanivorax strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syutsubo, K; Kishira, H; Harayama, S

    2001-06-01

    The genus Alcanivorax comprises diverse hydrocarbon-degrading marine bacteria. Novel 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide DNA probes (ALV735 and ALV735-b) were developed to quantify two subgroups of the Alcanivorax/Fundibacter group by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and the conditions for the single-mismatch discrimination of the probes were optimized. The specificity of the probes was improved further using a singly mismatched oligonucleotide as a competitor. The growth of Alcanivorax cells in crude oil-contaminated sea water under the biostimulation condition was investigated by FISH with the probe ALV735, which targeted the main cluster of the Alcanivorax/Fundibacter group. The size of the Alcanivorax population increased with increasing incubation time and accounted for 91% of the 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) count after incubation for 2 weeks. The probes developed in this study are useful for detecting Alcanivorax populations in petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading microbial consortia.

  18. Assessing impediments to hydrocarbon biodegradation in weathered contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetutu, Eric; Weber, John; Aleer, Sam; Dandie, Catherine E; Aburto-Medina, Arturo; Ball, Andrew S; Juhasz, Albert L

    2013-10-15

    In this study, impediments to hydrocarbon biodegradation in contaminated soils were assessed using chemical and molecular methodologies. Two long-term hydrocarbon contaminated soils were utilised which were similar in physico-chemical properties but differed in the extent of hydrocarbon (C10-C40) contamination (S1: 16.5 g kg(-1); S2: 68.9 g kg(-1)). Under enhanced natural attenuation (ENA) conditions, hydrocarbon biodegradation was observed in S1 microcosms (26.4% reduction in C10-C40 hydrocarbons), however, ENA was unable to stimulate degradation in S2. Although eubacterial communities (PCR-DGGE analysis) were similar for both soils, the alkB bacterial community was less diverse in S2 presumably due to impacts associated with elevated hydrocarbons. When hydrocarbon bioaccessibility was assessed using HP-β-CD extraction, large residual concentrations remained in the soil following the extraction procedure. However, when linear regression models were used to predict the endpoints of hydrocarbon degradation, there was no significant difference (P>0.05) between HP-β-CD predicted and microcosm measured biodegradation endpoints. This data suggested that the lack of hydrocarbon degradation in S2 resulted primarily from limited hydrocarbon bioavailability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Hybridization in geese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottenburghs, Jente; Hooft, van Pim; Wieren, van Sipke E.; Ydenberg, Ronald C.; Prins, Herbert H.T.

    2016-01-01

    The high incidence of hybridization in waterfowl (ducks, geese and swans) makes this bird group an excellent study system to answer questions related to the evolution and maintenance of species boundaries. However, knowledge on waterfowl hybridization is biased towards ducks, with a large

  20. Mirror hybrid reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    The hybrid reactor studies are reviewed. The optimization of the point design and work on a reference design are described. The status of the nuclear analysis of fast spectrum blankets, systems studies for fissile fuel producing hybrid reactor, and the mechanical design of the machine are reviewed

  1. Hybrid Universities in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Molly; Wan, Chang Da; Sirat, Morshidi

    2017-01-01

    Are Asian universities different from those in Western countries? Premised on the hypothesis that Asian universities are different because of hybridization between Western academic models and local traditional cultures, this paper investigates the hybrid characteristics in Malaysian universities resulting from interaction between contemporary…

  2. Cardiac hybrid imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaemperli, Oliver [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Nuclear Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Kaufmann, Philipp A. [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Alkadhi, Hatem [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-05-15

    Hybrid cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT imaging allows combined assessment of anatomical and functional aspects of cardiac disease. In coronary artery disease (CAD), hybrid SPECT/CT imaging allows detection of coronary artery stenosis and myocardial perfusion abnormalities. The clinical value of hybrid imaging has been documented in several subsets of patients. In selected groups of patients, hybrid imaging improves the diagnostic accuracy to detect CAD compared to the single imaging techniques. Additionally, this approach facilitates functional interrogation of coronary stenoses and guidance with regard to revascularization procedures. Moreover, the anatomical information obtained from CT coronary angiography or coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) adds prognostic information over perfusion data from SPECT. The use of cardiac hybrid imaging has been favoured by the dissemination of dedicated hybrid systems and the release of dedicated image fusion software, which allow simple patient throughput for hybrid SPECT/CT studies. Further technological improvements such as more efficient detector technology to allow for low-radiation protocols, ultra-fast image acquisition and improved low-noise image reconstruction algorithms will be instrumental to further promote hybrid SPECT/CT in research and clinical practice. (orig.)

  3. Hybrid job shop scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the problem of scheduling jobs in a hybrid job shop. We use the term 'hybrid' to indicate that we consider a lot of extensions of the classic job shop, such as transportation times, multiple resources, and setup times. The Shifting Bottleneck procedure can be generalized to deal with

  4. Hybrid Shipboard Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Othman @ Marzuki, Muzaidi Bin; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    Strict regulation on emissions of air pollutants imposed by the maritime authorities has led to the introduction of hybrid microgrids to the shipboard power systems (SPSs) which acts toward energy efficient ships with less pollution. A hybrid energy system can include different means of generation...

  5. Hybrid intelligent engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, L C; Adelaide, Australia University of

    1997-01-01

    This book on hybrid intelligent engineering systems is unique, in the sense that it presents the integration of expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems, genetic algorithms, and chaos engineering. It shows that these new techniques enhance the capabilities of one another. A number of hybrid systems for solving engineering problems are presented.

  6. Editorial: Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olderog, Ernst-Rüdiger; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2007-01-01

    An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005.......An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005....

  7. Course on hybrid calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weill, J.; Tellier; Bonnemay; Craigne; Chareton; Di Falco

    1969-02-01

    After a definition of hybrid calculation (combination of analogue and digital calculation) with a distinction between series and parallel hybrid computing, and a description of a hybrid computer structure and of task sharing between computers, this course proposes a description of hybrid hardware used in Saclay and Cadarache computing centres, and of operations performed by these systems. The next part addresses issues related to programming languages and software. The fourth part describes how a problem is organised for its processing on these computers. Methods of hybrid analysis are then addressed: resolution of optimisation problems, of partial differential equations, and of integral equations by means of different methods (gradient, maximum principle, characteristics, functional approximation, time slicing, Monte Carlo, Neumann iteration, Fischer iteration)

  8. Hybrid functional pseudopotentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Tan, Liang Z.; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2018-02-01

    The consistency between the exchange-correlation functional used in pseudopotential construction and in the actual density functional theory calculation is essential for the accurate prediction of fundamental properties of materials. However, routine hybrid density functional calculations at present still rely on generalized gradient approximation pseudopotentials due to the lack of hybrid functional pseudopotentials. Here, we present a scheme for generating hybrid functional pseudopotentials, and we analyze the importance of pseudopotential density functional consistency for hybrid functionals. For the PBE0 hybrid functional, we benchmark our pseudopotentials for structural parameters and fundamental electronic gaps of the Gaussian-2 (G2) molecular dataset and some simple solids. Our results show that using our PBE0 pseudopotentials in PBE0 calculations improves agreement with respect to all-electron calculations.

  9. Hybrid plasma-catalytic reforming of ethanol aerosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomenko, O.V.; Nedybaliuk, O.A.; Chernyak, V.Ya.; Iukhymenko, V.V.; Veremii, Iu.P.; Iukhymenko, K.V.; Martysh, E.V.; Fedirchyk, I.I.; Demchina, V.P.; Levko, D.S.; Tsymbalyuk, O.M.; Liptuga, A.I.; Dragnev, S.V.

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid plasma-catalytic reforming of the ethanol aerosol with plasma activation of only the oxidant (air) was studied. Part of the oxidant (∼20%) was activated by means of rotational gliding arc with solid electrodes and injected into the reaction (pyrolytic) chamber as a plasma torch. This part of the oxidant interacted with a mixture of hydrocarbons and the rest of the oxidant (∼80%) in the reaction chamber. Temperature changes in the reaction chamber, the composition of the synthesis-gas and the products of synthesis-gas combustion were analyzed

  10. Adsorption of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons from aqueous solution: Agrowaste-modified kaolinite vs surfactant modified bentonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Unuabonah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption efficiency of a new hybrid clay adsorbent for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs is compared with known modified clay adsorbents. The new hybrid clay adsorbent (HYCA showed far higher adsorption capacities for the adsorption of various PAH molecules compared with sodium dodecyl sulfate modified and humic acid modified Bentonite clay adsorbents. With the new hybrid clay adsorbent (HYCA, the adsorption of some of the larger PAH molecules was complete in the first 1 h as compared with ≈ 62% and ≈ 76% observed for both humic acid modified and sodium dodecyl sulfate modified Bentonite clay adsorbents respectively. In 24 h adsorption of the PAHs was complete for all adsorbents with HYCA adsorbent showing better efficiency in the removal of the PAH molecules from aqueous solutions. No significant change was observed with increase in time up to 48 h. The adsorption was observed to be more spontaneous with HYCA adsorbent than with either modified Bentonite adsorbents. The enthalpy of adsorption did not follow any specific order and were not consistent for all PAH molecules considered.

  11. Novel Photocatalytic Reactor Development for Removal of Hydrocarbons from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Adams

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons contamination of the marine environment generated by the offshore oil and gas industry is generated from a number of sources including oil contaminated drill cuttings and produced waters. The removal of hydrocarbons from both these sources is one of the most significant challenges facing this sector as it moves towards zero emissions. The application of a number of techniques which have been used to successfully destroy hydrocarbons in produced water and waste water effluents has previously been reported. This paper reports the application of semiconductor photocatalysis as a final polishing step for the removal of hydrocarbons from two waste effluent sources. Two reactor concepts were considered: a simple flat plate immobilised film unit, and a new rotating drum photocatalytic reactor. Both units proved to be effective in removing residual hydrocarbons from the effluent with the drum reactor reducing the hydrocarbon content by 90% under 10 minutes.

  12. Methods for reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons using electrical discharge

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2017-02-16

    Methods for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons are provided. The methods can include forming a bubble containing the gaseous hydrocarbon in a liquid. The bubble can be generated to pass in a gap between a pair of electrodes, whereby an electrical discharge is generated in the bubble at the gap between the electrodes. The electrodes can be a metal or metal alloy with a high melting point so they can sustain high voltages of up to about 200 kilovolts. The gaseous hydrocarbon can be combined with an additive gas such as molecular oxygen or carbon dioxide. The reformation of the gaseous hydrocarbon can produce mixtures containing one or more of H2, CO, H2O, CO2, and a lower hydrocarbon such as ethane or ethylene. The reformation of the gaseous hydrocarbon can produce low amounts of CO2 and H2O, e.g. about 15 mol-% or less.

  13. Methods for reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons using electrical discharge

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min; Zhang, Xuming

    2017-01-01

    Methods for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons are provided. The methods can include forming a bubble containing the gaseous hydrocarbon in a liquid. The bubble can be generated to pass in a gap between a pair of electrodes, whereby an electrical discharge is generated in the bubble at the gap between the electrodes. The electrodes can be a metal or metal alloy with a high melting point so they can sustain high voltages of up to about 200 kilovolts. The gaseous hydrocarbon can be combined with an additive gas such as molecular oxygen or carbon dioxide. The reformation of the gaseous hydrocarbon can produce mixtures containing one or more of H2, CO, H2O, CO2, and a lower hydrocarbon such as ethane or ethylene. The reformation of the gaseous hydrocarbon can produce low amounts of CO2 and H2O, e.g. about 15 mol-% or less.

  14. Sustainable treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated industrial land

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, Colin John

    2012-01-01

    Land contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons is a widespread and global environmental pollution issue from recovery and refining of crude oil and the ubiquitous use of hydrocarbons in industrial processes and applications. Sustainable treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated industrial land was considered with reference to seven published works on contaminated railway land including the track ballast, crude oil wastes and contaminated refinery soils. A methodology was developed...

  15. Bioremediation in soil contaminated with hydrocarbons in Colombia.

    OpenAIRE

    María Alejandra Trujillo Toro; Juan Fernando Ramírez Quirama

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes bioremediation processes of hydrocarbon contaminated soils in Colombia as a sustainable alternative to the deterioration of environmental quality by hydrocarbon spillage. According to national and international environmental law, all waste contaminated with hydrocarbons is considered dangerous waste, and therefore it cannot be released in the ground, water or be incinerated. Such legislation has motivated companies around the world to implement treatment processes for cont...

  16. Global climate change due to the hydrocarbon industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almasi, M.; Racz, L.

    1999-01-01

    An overview is presented on the industry's response to the agreements of the Rio de Janeiro (1992) and Kyoto (1987) conventions on climate change, and to other international agreements. The announcements by large petroleum companies on the changes introduced according to the international commitments in order to fight climatic impacts of hydrocarbon fuels. The problems and foreseeable future of the Hungarian hydrocarbon industry with environmental protection are discussed. Finally, emission abatement and control possibilities of hydrocarbon combustion are considered. (R.P.)

  17. Total site integration of light hydrocarbons separation process

    OpenAIRE

    Ulyev, L.; Vasilyev, M.; Maatouk, A.; Duic, Neven; Khusanovc, Alisher

    2016-01-01

    Ukraine is the largest consumer of hydrocarbons per unit of production in Europe (Ukraine policy review, 2006). The most important point is a reduction of energy consumption in chemical and metallurgical industries as a biggest consumer. This paper deals with energy savings potential of light hydrocarbons separation process. Energy consumption of light hydrocarbons separation process processes typical of Eastern European countries were analysed. Process Integration (PI) was used to perform a ...

  18. Methods for natural gas and heavy hydrocarbon co-conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peter C [Idaho Falls, ID; Nelson, Lee O [Idaho Falls, ID; Detering, Brent A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-02-24

    A reactor for reactive co-conversion of heavy hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon gases and includes a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell having a pair of electrodes separated by a dielectric material and passageway therebetween. An inlet is provided for feeding heavy hydrocarbons and other reactive materials to the passageway of the discharge plasma cell, and an outlet is provided for discharging reaction products from the reactor. A packed bed catalyst may optionally be used in the reactor to increase efficiency of conversion. The reactor can be modified to allow use of a variety of light sources for providing ultraviolet light within the discharge plasma cell. Methods for upgrading heavy hydrocarbons are also disclosed.

  19. Process for making unsaturated hydrocarbons using microchannel process technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee [Dublin, OH; Yuschak, Thomas [Lewis Center, OH; LaPlante, Timothy J [Columbus, OH; Rankin, Scott [Columbus, OH; Perry, Steven T [Galloway, OH; Fitzgerald, Sean Patrick [Columbus, OH; Simmons, Wayne W [Dublin, OH; Mazanec, Terry Daymo, Eric

    2011-04-12

    The disclosed invention relates to a process for converting a feed composition comprising one or more hydrocarbons to a product comprising one or more unsaturated hydrocarbons, the process comprising: flowing the feed composition and steam in contact with each other in a microchannel reactor at a temperature in the range from about 200.degree. C. to about 1200.degree. C. to convert the feed composition to the product, the process being characterized by the absence of catalyst for converting the one or more hydrocarbons to one or more unsaturated hydrocarbons. Hydrogen and/or oxygen may be combined with the feed composition and steam.

  20. Potential hydrocarbon producing species of Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustus, G.D.P.S.; Jayabalan, M.; Rajarathinam, K. [Research Centre in Bombay, V.H.N.S.N. College, Virudhunagar (India); Ray, A.K. [Sardar Patel Univ., Anand (India). Dept. of Chemistry; Seiler, G.J. [USDA, ARS, Northern Crop Science Lab., Fargo, ND (United States)

    2002-09-01

    The decline in the world supplies of hydrocarbons has led to the search for alternate sources of fuel and chemicals. Plant species are potential sources of hydrocarbons. Large-scale screening of plants growing in the Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India was conducted to assess the hydrocarbon production and the type of isoprene compound(s) present. Three species contained more than 3% hydrocarbon. Sarcostemma brevistigma had the highest concentration of hydrocarbon with 3.6%. Seven species contained more than 2% of hydrocarbons among the plant species screened. The hydrocarbon fraction of Ficus elastica (leaf) had a gross heat value of 9834 cal/g (41.17 MJ/kg), which is close to the caloric value of fuel oil. Six hydrocarbon fractions contained gross heat values of more than 9000 cal/g (37.68 MJ/kg). Of the 13 species hydrocarbon fraction analysed, seven species contained cis-polyisoprene compounds, while two species contained trans-polyisoprenes. Cis and trans polyisoprenes are potential alternative energy sources for fuel and/or as industrial raw materials. (author)

  1. Process for in-situ biodegradation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ely, D.L.; Heffner, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes an in situ process for biodegrading hydrocarbons by drawing oxygen into an undisturbed hydrocarbon contaminated zone in a fluid permeable soil. It comprises: establishing a borehole extending from the earth's surface through a hydrocarbon contaminated zone having hydrocarbon degrading microbes therein; lining the borehole with a fluid impermeable liner coaxially spaced and sealingly connected to the inside surface of the borehole and extending from the earth's surface to the hydrocarbon-contaminated zone; the liner including a fluid permeable portion extending from the lower end thereof and through at least a portion of the hydrocarbon contaminated zone, fluidly connecting a source of negative pressure to the fluid impermeable line; evacuating gas from the borehole through the fluid permeable portion of the liner at a rate sufficient to draw air from the earth's surface into the hydrocarbon containing zone; and adjusting the flow rate of the evacuated gas so that the amount of hydrocarbon biodegradation therein is within 50% of the maximum hydrocarbon biodegradation rate as detected by the volume of carbon dioxide in the evacuated gas

  2. Hybrid electric vehicles TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-21

    This one-day TOPTEC session began with an overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology. Updates were given on alternative types of energy storage, APU control for low emissions, simulation programs, and industry and government activities. The keynote speech was about battery technology, a key element to the success of hybrids. The TOPEC concluded with a panel discussion on the mission of hybrid electric vehicles, with a perspective from industry and government experts from United States and Canada on their view of the role of this technology.

  3. Hybrid systems with constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Daafouz, Jamal; Sigalotti, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Control theory is the main subject of this title, in particular analysis and control design for hybrid dynamic systems.The notion of hybrid systems offers a strong theoretical and unified framework to cope with the modeling, analysis and control design of systems where both continuous and discrete dynamics interact. The theory of hybrid systems has been the subject of intensive research over the last decade and a large number of diverse and challenging problems have been investigated. Nevertheless, many important mathematical problems remain open.This book is dedicated mainly to

  4. Towers of hybrid mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semay, Claude; Buisseret, Fabien; Silvestre-Brac, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    A hybrid meson is a quark-antiquark pair in which, contrary to ordinary mesons, the gluon field is in an excited state. In the framework of constituent models, the interaction potential is assumed to be the energy of an excited string. An approximate, but accurate, analytical solution of the Schroedinger equation with such a potential is presented. When applied to hybrid charmonia and bottomonia, towers of states are predicted in which the masses are a linear function of a harmonic oscillator band number for the quark-antiquark pair. Such a formula could be a reliable guide for the experimental detection of heavy hybrid mesons.

  5. Hybrid Bloch brane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D.; Lima, Elisama E.M.; Losano, L. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2017-02-15

    This work reports on models described by two real scalar fields coupled with gravity in the five-dimensional spacetime, with a warped geometry involving one infinite extra dimension. Through a mechanism that smoothly changes a thick brane into a hybrid brane, one investigates the appearance of hybrid branes hosting internal structure, characterized by the splitting on the energy density and the volcano potential, induced by the parameter which controls interactions between the two scalar fields. In particular, we investigate distinct symmetric and asymmetric hybrid brane scenarios. (orig.)

  6. Geophysical Signitures From Hydrocarbon Contaminated Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M.; Jardani, A.

    2015-12-01

    The task of delineating the contamination plumes as well as studying their impact on the soil and groundwater biogeochemical properties is needed to support the remediation efforts and plans. Geophysical methods including electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), induced polarization (IP), ground penetrating radar (GPR), and self-potential (SP) have been previously used to characterize contaminant plumes and investigate their impact on soil and groundwater properties (Atekwana et al., 2002, 2004; Benson et al., 1997; Campbell et al., 1996; Cassidy et al., 2001; Revil et al., 2003; Werkema et al., 2000). Our objective was to: estimate the hydrocarbon contamination extent in a contaminated site in northern France, and to adverse the effects of the oil spill on the groundwater properties. We aim to find a good combination of non-intrusive and low cost methods which we can use to follow the bio-remediation process, which is planned to proceed next year. We used four geophysical methods including electrical resistivity tomography, IP, GPR, and SP. The geophysical data was compared to geochemical ones obtained from 30 boreholes installed in the site during the geophysical surveys. Our results have shown: low electrical resistivity values; high chargeability values; negative SP anomalies; and attenuated GPR reflections coincident with groundwater contamination. Laboratory and field geochemical measurements have demonstrated increased groundwater electrical conductivity and increased microbial activity associated with hydrocarbon contamination of groundwater. Our study results support the conductive model suggested by studies such as Sauck (2000) and Atekwana et al., (2004), who suggest that biological alterations of hydrocarbon contamination can substantially modify the chemical and physical properties of the subsurface, producing a dramatic shift in the geo-electrical signature from resistive to conductive. The next stage of the research will include time lapse borehole

  7. Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system : transportation assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This document provided an assessment of the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system. In addition to regulating the construction and operation of Canada's 45,000 km of pipeline that cross international and provincial borders, Canada's National Energy Board (NEB) regulates the trade of natural gas, oil and natural gas liquids. The ability of pipelines to delivery this energy is critical to the country's economic prosperity. The pipeline system includes large-diameter, cross-country, high-pressure natural gas pipelines, low-pressure crude oil and oil products pipelines and small-diameter pipelines. In order to assess the hydrocarbon transportation system, staff at the NEB collected data from pipeline companies and a range of publicly available sources. The Board also held discussions with members of the investment community regarding capital markets and emerging issues. The assessment focused largely on evaluating whether Canadians benefit from an efficient energy infrastructure and markets. The safety and environmental integrity of the pipeline system was also evaluated. The current adequacy of pipeline capacity was assessed based on price differentials compared with firm service tolls for major transportation paths; capacity utilization on pipelines; and, the degree of apportionment on major oil pipelines. The NEB concluded that the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system is working effectively, with an adequate capacity in place on existing natural gas pipelines, but with a tight capacity on oil pipelines. It was noted that shippers continue to indicate that they are reasonably satisfied with the services provided by pipeline companies and that the NEB-regulated pipeline companies are financially stable. 14 refs, 11 tabs., 28 figs., 4 appendices

  8. Hydrocarbons on Saturn's satellites Iapetus and Phoebe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruikshank, D.P.; Wegryn, E.; Dalle, Ore C.M.; Brown, R.H.; Bibring, J.-P.; Buratti, B.J.; Clark, R.N.; McCord, T.B.; Nicholson, P.D.; Pendleton, Y.J.; Owen, T.C.; Filacchione, G.; Coradini, A.; Cerroni, P.; Capaccioni, F.; Jaumann, R.; Nelson, R.M.; Baines, K.H.; Sotin, Christophe; Bellucci, G.; Combes, M.; Langevin, Y.; Sicardy, B.; Matson, D.L.; Formisano, V.; Drossart, P.; Mennella, V.

    2008-01-01

    Material of low geometric albedo (pV ??? 0.1) is found on many objects in the outer Solar System, but its distribution in the saturnian satellite system is of special interest because of its juxtaposition with high-albedo ice. In the absence of clear, diagnostic spectral features, the composition of this low-albedo (or "dark") material is generally inferred to be carbon-rich, but the form(s) of the carbon is unknown. Near-infrared spectra of the low-albedo hemisphere of Saturn's satellite Iapetus were obtained with the Visible-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) on the Cassini spacecraft at the fly-by of that satellite of 31 December 2004, yielding a maximum spatial resolution on the satellite's surface of ???65 km. The spectral region 3-3.6 ??m reveals a broad absorption band, centered at 3.29 ??m, and concentrated in a region comprising about 15% of the low-albedo surface area. This is identified as the C{single bond}H stretching mode vibration in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. Two weaker bands attributed to {single bond}CH2{single bond} stretching modes in aliphatic hydrocarbons are found in association with the aromatic band. The bands most likely arise from aromatic and aliphatic units in complex macromolecular carbonaceous material with a kerogen- or coal-like structure, similar to that in carbonaceous meteorites. VIMS spectra of Phoebe, encountered by Cassini on 11 June 2004, also show the aromatic hydrocarbon band, although somewhat weaker than on Iapetus. The origin of the PAH molecular material on these two satellites is unknown, but PAHs are found in carbonaceous meteorites, cometary dust particles, circumstellar dust, and interstellar dust. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hydrocarbon transport in the laboratory plasma (MAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, Seiji; Yamaguchi, Kenji; Yamawaki, Michio [Tokyo Univ., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Nuclear Engineering Research Lab.; Tanaka, Satoru

    1996-10-01

    Hydrocarbons are admitted in the laboratory plasma in order to investigate the transport processes of carbon - containing molecules in relation to redeposition processes in the fusion boundary plasma. When CH{sub 4} was introduced into the plasma, CH radical band spectra were optically identified, while in the case of C{sub 2}H{sub 2} introduction, C{sub 2} radicals were also identified in addition to CH radicals. Excitation temperature was determined from CH and C{sub 2} spectra band, which was observed to increase on approaching to the target. (author)

  10. Catalyst for reforming hydrocarbons with water vapors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicklin, T.; Farrington, F.; Whittaker, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    The catalyst should reform hydrocarbons with water vapour. It consists of a carrier substance (preferably clay) on whose surface the catalytically active substances are formed. By impregnation one obtains this with a mixture of thermally destructable nickel and uranium compounds and calcination of the impregnated carrier. The catalyst is marked by a definite weight ratio of uranium to nickel (about 0.6 to 1), the addition of barium compounds and a maximum limit of these additives. All details of manufacture and the range of variations are described in detail. (UWI) [de

  11. HYDROCARBON FORMATION ON POLYMER-SUPPORTED COBALT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benner, Linda S.; Perkins, Patrick; Vollhardt, K.Peter C.

    1980-10-01

    In this report we detail the synthesis catalytic chemistry of polystyrene supported {eta}{sup 5} ~cyclopentadienyl- dicarbonyl cobalt, CpCo(CO){sub 2}. This material is active in the hydrogenation of CO to saturated linear hydrocarbons and appears to retain its "homogeneous", mononuclear character during the course of its catalysis, During ·the course of our work 18% and 20% crosslinked analogs of polystyrene supported CpCo(CO){sub 2} were shown to exhibit limited catalytic activity and no CO activation.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in stellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Shantanu

    2005-06-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are an important com- ponent of the Interstellar Medium (ISM). They are being used as probes for understanding of process and conditions of different astrophysical environments. The understanding of their IR spectra and its variations with PAH size and ionization state is useful in characterizing the ISM. Spectral features of model graphene sheets and also that of smaller PAH molecules are reported. The variation of intensity with charge state of the molecule shows that cations give a better correlation with observations. The relationship between changes in charge distribution with intensity changes upon ionization has been probed.

  13. Hydrocarbon storage caverns overhaul: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, N. [Bayer Inc., Sarnia, ON (Canada)

    1998-09-01

    Case studies of four hydrocarbon storage cavern overhauls by Bayer Inc., of Sarnia during the period 1993 to 1997 were reviewed and the lessons learned were discussed. Discussions included inspection requirements for each of the caverns, the logistics and planning plant production around the cavern outages, site and cavern preparation, including removal of the casing slips from the well heads. It was emphasized that cavern overhauls can be expensive operations, unless preceded by proper planning. The largest variable cost is likely to be rig time at about $ 2,000 per day. Planning for the unexpected with thoughtful contingencies can reduce costs and avoid expensive delays.

  14. Boiling Heat Transfer to Halogenated Hydrocarbon Refrigerants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Suguru; Fujita, Yasunobu

    The current state of knowledge on heat transfer to boiling refrigerants (halogenated hydrocarbons) in a pool and flowing inside a horizontal tube is reviewed with an emphasis on information relevant to the design of refrigerant evaporators, and some recommendations are made for future research. The review covers two-phase flow pattern, heat transfer characteristics, correlation of heat transfer coefficient, influence of oil, heat transfer augmentation, boiling from tube-bundle, influence of return bend, burnout heat flux, film boiling, dryout and post-dryout heat transfer.

  15. Microbial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkering, F.; Breure, A.M.; Andel, J.G. van

    1992-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are hazardous compounds originating from oil, tar, creosote, or from incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. Application of biotechnological techniques for remediation of polluted soils from PAH demonstrated that the high molecular compounds are degraded very slowly, and that the residual concentration of PAH often is too high to permit application of the treated soil. Investigations were started to establish process parameters for optimal biodegradation of PAH. The aim is to achieve a relation between the physical properties of PAH and the biodegradation kinetics in different matrices, in order to identify applicability of biotechnological cleanup methods for waste streams and polluted soil. (orig.) [de

  16. Petroleum hydrocarbon toxicity to corals: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nicholas R; Renegar, D Abigail

    2017-06-30

    The proximity of coral reefs to coastal urban areas and shipping lanes predisposes corals to petroleum pollution from multiple sources. Previous research has evaluated petroleum toxicity to coral using a variety of methodology, including monitoring effects of acute and chronic spills, in situ exposures, and ex situ exposures with both adult and larval stage corals. Variability in toxicant, bioassay conditions, species and other methodological disparities between studies prevents comprehensive conclusions regarding the toxicity of hydrocarbons to corals. Following standardized protocols and quantifying the concentration and composition of toxicant will aid in comparison of results between studies and extrapolation to actual spills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Method of cleansing and refining of liquid hydrocarbons and derivatives of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, C A; Nielsen, H

    1934-10-11

    A process is described for cleaning and refining liquid hydrocarbons and derivatives by utilization of acids, followed by washing partly with a basic solution, partly with clean water. The process is characterized by using, in connection with the acid solutions mentioned, a strong solution of a mixture of sulfuric acid and phosphoric acid.

  18. Bioremediation of soils containing petroleum hydrocarbons, chlorinated phenols, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seech, A.; Burwell, S.; Marvan, I.

    1994-01-01

    Bench-scale treatability investigations, pilot-scale and full-scale bioremediation projects were conducted to evaluate Daramend trademark bioremediation of soils containing petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy oils, paraffins, chlorinated phenols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Bench-scale investigations were conducted using glass microcosms. Pilot-scale and full-scale demonstrations were conducted at industrial sites and included treatment of excavated soils and sediments in on-site cells constructed using synthetic liners and covered by steel/polyethylene structures as well as in-situ treatment. A total of approximately 5,000 tons of soil was treated. The soil treatment included organic soil amendments, specialized tillage/aeration apparatus, and strict control of soil moisture. The amendments are composed of naturally-occurring organic materials prepared to soil-specific particle size distributions, nutrient profiles, and nutrient-release kinetics. Bench-scale work indicated that in refinery soil containing high concentrations of heavy oils, extractable hydrocarbon concentrations could be rapidly reduced to industrial clean-up criteria, and that the hydrocarbons were fully mineralized with release of CO 2

  19. Hybrid Solar Cells: Materials, Interfaces, and Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Giacomo; Wang, Yue; Kaner, Richard B.; Huffaker, Diana L.

    Photovoltaic technologies could play a pivotal role in tackling future fossil fuel energy shortages, while significantly reducing our carbon dioxide footprint. Crystalline silicon is pervasively used in single junction solar cells, taking up 80 % of the photovoltaic market. Semiconductor-based inorganic solar cells deliver relatively high conversion efficiencies at the price of high material and manufacturing costs. A great amount of research has been conducted to develop low-cost photovoltaic solutions by incorporating organic materials. Organic semiconductors are conjugated hydrocarbon-based materials that are advantageous because of their low material and processing costs and a nearly unlimited supply. Their mechanical flexibility and tunable electronic properties are among other attractions that their inorganic counterparts lack. Recently, collaborations in nanotechnology research have combined inorganic with organic semiconductors in a "hybrid" effort to provide high conversion efficiencies at low cost. Successful integration of these two classes of materials requires a profound understanding of the material properties and an exquisite control of the morphology, surface properties, ligands, and passivation techniques to ensure an optimal charge carrier generation across the hybrid device. In this chapter, we provide background information of this novel, emerging field, detailing the various approaches for obtaining inorganic nanostructures and organic polymers, introducing a multitude of methods for combining the two components to achieve the desired morphologies, and emphasizing the importance of surface manipulation. We highlight several studies that have fueled new directions for hybrid solar cell research, including approaches for maximizing efficiencies by controlling the morphologies of the inorganic component, and in situ molecular engineering via electrochemical polymerization of a polymer directly onto the inorganic nanowire surfaces. In the end, we

  20. Formula hybrid SAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    User-friendly tools are needed for undergraduates to learn about component sizing, powertrain integration, and control : strategies for student competitions involving hybrid vehicles. A TK Solver tool was developed at the University of Idaho for : th...

  1. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T [Huntington Beach, CA; Sahimi, Muhammad [Altadena, CA; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak [Richmond, CA; Harale, Aadesh [Los Angeles, CA; Park, Byoung-Gi [Yeosu, KR; Liu, Paul K. T. [Lafayette Hill, PA

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  2. Hybrid plasmachemical reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lelevkin, V. M., E-mail: lelevkin44@mail.ru; Smirnova, Yu. G.; Tokarev, A. V. [Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University (Kyrgyzstan)

    2015-04-15

    A hybrid plasmachemical reactor on the basis of a dielectric barrier discharge in a transformer is developed. The characteristics of the reactor as functions of the dielectric barrier discharge parameters are determined.

  3. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-01-01

    for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations

  4. Preliminary Geospatial Analysis of Arctic Ocean Hydrocarbon Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Philip E.; Wurstner, Signe K.; Sullivan, E. C.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Bradley, Donald J.

    2008-10-01

    Ice coverage of the Arctic Ocean is predicted to become thinner and to cover less area with time. The combination of more ice-free waters for exploration and navigation, along with increasing demand for hydrocarbons and improvements in technologies for the discovery and exploitation of new hydrocarbon resources have focused attention on the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Basin and its margins. The purpose of this document is to 1) summarize results of a review of published hydrocarbon resources in the Arctic, including both conventional oil and gas and methane hydrates and 2) develop a set of digital maps of the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Ocean. These maps can be combined with predictions of ice-free areas to enable estimates of the likely regions and sequence of hydrocarbon production development in the Arctic. In this report, conventional oil and gas resources are explicitly linked with potential gas hydrate resources. This has not been attempted previously and is particularly powerful as the likelihood of gas production from marine gas hydrates increases. Available or planned infrastructure, such as pipelines, combined with the geospatial distribution of hydrocarbons is a very strong determinant of the temporal-spatial development of Arctic hydrocarbon resources. Significant unknowns decrease the certainty of predictions for development of hydrocarbon resources. These include: 1) Areas in the Russian Arctic that are poorly mapped, 2) Disputed ownership: primarily the Lomonosov Ridge, 3) Lack of detailed information on gas hydrate distribution, and 4) Technical risk associated with the ability to extract methane gas from gas hydrates. Logistics may control areas of exploration more than hydrocarbon potential. Accessibility, established ownership, and leasing of exploration blocks may trump quality of source rock, reservoir, and size of target. With this in mind, the main areas that are likely to be explored first are the Bering Strait and Chukchi

  5. Hybrid vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide.......A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide....

  6. Human hybrid hybridoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiebout, R.F.; van Boxtel-Oosterhof, F.; Stricker, E.A.M.; Zeijlemaker, W.P.

    1987-11-15

    Hybrid hybridomas are obtained by fusion of two cells, each producing its own antibody. Several authors have reported the construction of murine hybrid hybridomas with the aim to obtain bispecific monoclonal antibodies. The authors have investigated, in a model system, the feasibility of constructing a human hybrid hybridoma. They fused two monoclonal cell lines: an ouabain-sensitive and azaserine/hypoxanthine-resistant Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human cell line that produces an IgG1kappa antibody directed against tetanus toxiod and an azaserine/hypoxanthine-sensitive and ouabain-resistant human-mouse xenohybrid cell line that produces a human IgG1lambda antibody directed against hepatitis-B surface antigen. Hybrid hybridoma cells were selected in culture medium containing azaserine/hypoxanthine and ouabain. The hybrid nature of the secreted antibodies was analyzed by means of two antigen-specific immunoassay. The results show that it is possible, with the combined use of transformation and xenohybridization techniques, to construct human hybrid hybridomas that produce bispecific antibodies. Bispecific antibodies activity was measured by means of two radioimmunoassays.

  7. Systems for hybrid cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsche, Otmar; Gutmann, Guenter

    Not only sharp competition but also legislation are pushing development of hybrid drive trains. Based on conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, these drive trains offer a wide range of benefits from reduced fuel consumption and emission to multifaceted performance improvements. Hybrid electric drive trains may also facilitate the introduction of fuel cells (FC). The battery is the key component for all hybrid drive trains, as it dominates cost and performance issues. The selection of the right battery technology for the specific automotive application is an important task with an impact on costs of development and use. Safety, power, and high cycle life are a must for all hybrid applications. The greatest pressure to reduce cost is in soft hybrids, where lead-acid embedded in a considerate management presents the cheapest solution, with a considerable improvement in performance needed. From mild to full hybridization, an improvement in specific power makes higher costs more acceptable, provided that the battery's service life is equivalent to the vehicle's lifetime. Today, this is proven for the nickel-metal hydride system. Lithium ion batteries, which make use of a multiple safety concept, and with some development anticipated, provide even better prospects in terms of performance and costs. Also, their scalability permits their application in battery electric vehicles—the basis for better performance and enhanced user acceptance. Development targets for the batteries are discussed with a focus on system aspects such as electrical and thermal management and safety.

  8. Detecting chlorinated hydrocarbon residues: Rachel Carson's villains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Anthony S

    2012-07-01

    In 1962, Rachel Carson's Silent Spring drew the public's attention to the deleterious effects of chlorinated hydrocarbons employed as economic poisons in agriculture. However, she did not discuss how their residues could be routinely identified and quantified. In part, this was because the introduction of instruments for use in environmental analysis had only just begun, and she was probably unaware of their existence. The development of the instrumental methods began in industry, particularly at Dow and Shell, in the mid-1950s. Dow scientists, by combining mass spectrometry with gas chromatography, developed the most powerful technique, then and now, for the separation, quantitation and identification of chlorinated hydrocarbons. Shell scientists were no less innovative, particularly with the application of highly sensitive gas chromatography detectors to trace analysis. The first of these detectors, the electron capture detector, was invented by James Lovelock at the National Institute of Medical Research, North London, at the end of the 1950s. Around the same time, Dale Coulson in the USA developed his microcoulometric detector.

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Saccoglossus kowalewskyi (Agassiz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, D. A.; Farrington, J. W.

    1989-08-01

    Hydrocarbon extracts were analyzed from Saccoglossus kowalewskyi, a deposit-feeding enteropneust worm, and from surface sediments from Cape Cod, MA. Worms were held in experimental aquaria in sieved sediments and flowing seawater for four months and then fed sediments mixed with creosote, lampblack or clean sediment for two weeks as analogues of sediments containing degraded oil and pyrogenic compounds. Worms from all treatments contained polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in amounts and composition that indicate that the worms were contaminated with weathered No. 2 fuel oil before our experimental treatment and that the contamination persisted for four months in clean conditions. The contamination was not detected in the clean sediments used in the experiment. The worms accumulated steroid transformation products in greater abundance than the odd chain n-alkanes that dominated the sediment extractions. This may indicate selective assimilation of algal detritus and microbial products over salt marsh detritus. Worms, actively feeding during the experiment, contained 1-3 × 10 -6 g g -1 dry weight of unknown brominated compounds which were not detected in the sediments. These compounds are similar to bromopyrroles found elsewhere in enteropneusts, polychaetes and bacteria and may cause substantial interference in analyses for some industrial pollutants.

  10. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in a pelagic community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, D.; Fowler, S.W.

    1976-01-01

    For several years data have been accruing on the distribution of chlorinated hydrocarbon pollutants in marine ecosystems. An overall picture of ambient levels in biota, water and sediments is now emerging however, despite the vast amount of data collected to date, questions still arise as to whether certain pollutants such as chlorinated hydrocarbons are indeed magnified through the marine food web. Evidence both for and against trophic concentration of PCB and DDT compounds has been cited. The answer to this question remains unclear due to lack of adequate knowledge on the relative importance of food and water in the uptake of these compounds as well as the fact that conclusions are often confounded by comparing pollutant concentrations in successive links in the food chain sampled at different geographical locations and/or at different points in time. The situation is further complicated by complex prey-predator relationships that exist in many marine communities. In the present study we have tried to eliminate some of these problems by examining PCB and DOT concentrations in species belonging to a relatively well-defined pelagic food chain sampled at one point in space and time

  11. Laboratory Studies of Hydrocarbon Oxidation Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, J. J.; Tyndall, G. S.; Wallington, T. J.; Burkholder, J. B.; Bertman, S. B.; Chen, W.

    2001-12-01

    The oxidation of hydrocarbon species (alkanes, alkenes, halogenated species, and oxygenates of both natural and anthropogenic origin) in the troposphere leads to the generation of numerous potentially harmful secondary pollutants, such as ozone, organic nitrates and acids, and aerosols. These oxidations proceed via the formation of alkoxy radicals, whose complex chemistry controls the ultimate product distributions obtained. Studies of hydrocarbon oxidation mechanisms are ongoing at NCAR and Ford, using environmental chamber / FTIR absorption systems. The focus of these studies is often on the product distributions obtained at low temperature; these studies not only provide data of direct relevance to the free/upper troposphere, but also allow for a more fundamental understanding of the alkoxy radical chemistry (eg., from the determination of the Arrhenius parameters for unimolecular processes, and the quantification of the extent of the involvement of chemical activation in the alkoxy radical chemistry). In this paper, data will be presented on some or all of the following topics: kinetics/mechanisms for the reactions of OH with the unsaturated species MPAN, acrolein, and crotonaldehyde; the mechanism for the oxidation of ethyl chloride and ethyl bromide; and the mechanism for the reaction of OH with acetone and acetaldehyde at low temperature. The relevance of the data to various aspects of tropospheric chemistry will be discussed.

  12. Investigating hydrocarbon contamination using ground penetrating radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roest, P.B. van der; Brasser, D.J.S.; Wagebaert, A.P.J.; Stam, P.H.

    1996-01-01

    The increasing costs of remediating contaminated sites has stimulated research for cost reducing techniques in soil investigation and clean-up techniques. Under the traditional approach soil borings and groundwater wells are used to investigate contaminated soil. These are useful tools to determine the amount and characteristics of the contamination, but they are inefficient and costly in providing information on the location and extent of contamination as they only give information on one point. This often leads to uncertainty in estimating clean-up costs or, even worse, to unsuccessful clean-ups. MAP Environmental Research has developed a technology using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) in combination with in-house developed software to locate and define the extent of hydrocarbon contamination. With this technology, the quality of site investigation is increased while costs are reduced. Since 1994 MAP has been improving its technology and has applied it to over 100 projects, which all have been checked afterwards by conventional drilling. This paper gives some general characteristics of the method and presents a case study. The emphasis of this paper lies on the practical application of GPR to hydrocarbon contamination detection

  13. Hydrocarbons as Refrigerants―A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. KOH

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Refrigerants used in air conditioning and refrigeration (AC&R indusries have come full circle since the beginning of the industrialrevolution. With concern on issues relating to the environment such as the global warming and climate change issues, we should finda better alternative than to continue using these refrigerants that cause global warming and ozone depletion. AC&R industryplayers have blended in by introducing some new equipment and components that are specificallydesigned for hydrocarbon (HC use. Mostnew refrigerators sold in Malaysia are already equipped with isobutane [a hydrocarbon designated as R-600a by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE standards]as refrigerants. Malaysia has ratifiedthe Montreal Protocol and targetted a 10% reduction in hydrochlorofluorocarbon(HCFC consumption, beginning 2016 with the banning of 2.5 horsepower (hp and below in air-conditioning (AC equipment to be used. Instead,hydrofluorocarbon(HFC R-410a was introduced as a replacement for HCFC- 22, whereas in other countries this HFC has been phased down. This article was initiated  because of the difficultin findinga replacement for HCFC. Also, the possibilities of using HC as an alternative to replace HCFC insteadof using HFC as a transitional refrigerant in place of HCFC is reviewed in this article. The performance of HC is very similar to HCFC and flmmability issues could be easily overcome with the use of an effectivedesign. Their use could be facilitated with the adaptation of specific standards and properly enacted legislatio

  14. Mineral oil hydrocarbons in food - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Koni

    2018-06-12

    Work on mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOH) contaminating food is reviewed up to about 2010, when the subject received broad publicity. It covers the period of the main discoveries and elimination or reduction of the dominant sources: release agents used in industrial bakeries, spraying of rice, additions to animal feed, contamination of edible oils from various sources and migration from paperboard packaging. In most cases highly refined ("white") oils were involved, but also technical oils, e.g. from the environment, and more or less crude oil fractions from jute and sisal bags. There were numerous unexpected sources, and there might still be more of those. The exposure of the consumers to MOH must have been markedly reduced in the meantime. Environmental influx may have become dominant, particularly when taking into account that these MOH go through several degradation processes which might enrich the species resisting metabolic elimination. Major gaps are in the systematic investigation of sources and the largely unavoidable levels from environmental contamination, but also in the toxicological evaluation of the various types of hydrocarbons. A regulation is overdue that avoids the present discrepancy between the low tolerance to MOH perceived as contaminants and the very high legal limits for some applications - the MOH are largely the same.

  15. 40 CFR Table 2b to Subpart E of... - Reactivity Factors for Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures 2B Table 2B to Subpart E of Part 59 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures Bin Averageboiling point * (degrees F) Criteria Reactivityfactor 1 80-205 Alkanes... + Dry Point) / 2 (b) Aromatic Hydrocarbon Solvents ...

  16. Biodegradation of dicyclopentadiene by a mini-consortium isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Y.; Stehmeier, L.; Voordouw, G.

    1997-01-01

    Thirty-five bacterial species were isolated from soil contaminated by low molecular weight hydrocarbons (C5+). All species were identified by gene sequencing. The isolated genomic DNAs from these bacteria were spotted on a master filter in denatured form. They were then hybridized with total community DNAs isolated from soil exposed to dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) in order to determine the effect of DCPD on the soil microbial community by comparison with an untreated control group. Incubation of soil with DCPD enriched a Sphingomonas sp. while incubation with DCPD in the absence of soil gave enrichment of a Pseudomonas sp. These results indicate that identification of bacterial isolates with DCPD degrading potential is possible and that such organisms can be isolated from C5+ contaminated sites. However, the possibility of removing DCPD contamination in soil by bioremediation is not yet proven.10 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  17. BioDegradation of Refined Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Soil | Obire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carbon-dioxide production and hydrocarbon degradation of refined petroleum hydrocarbon in soils treated with 5% gasoline, kerosene and diesel oil were investigated. Soil for study was bulked from around a car park in Port Harcourt. Soil samples were collected at weekly intervals for four weeks and subsequently at ...

  18. Studies on hydrocarbon degradation by the bacterial isolate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hydrocarbon utilizing capability of Stenotrophomonas rhizophila (PM-1), isolated from oil contaminated soil composts from Western Ghats region of Karnataka was analyzed. In the bioremediation experiment, ONGC heavy crude oil and poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) utilization by the bacterial isolate was studied.

  19. Conversion of oligomeric starch, cellulose, or sugars to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silks, Louis A.; Sutton, Andrew; Kim, Jin Kyung; Gordon, John Cameron; Wu, Ruilian; Kimball, David B.

    2016-10-18

    The present invention is directed to the one step selective conversion of starch, cellulose, or glucose to molecules containing 7 to 26 contiguous carbon atoms. The invention is also directed to the conversion of those intermediates to saturated hydrocarbons. Such saturated hydrocarbons are useful as, for example, fuels.

  20. A Review of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Heavy Metal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Review of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Heavy Metal Contamination of Fish from Fish Farms. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals contribute to pollutants in aquaculture facilities and thus need to be further investigated.

  1. Comparative survey of petroleum hydrocarbons i lake sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakeham, S G

    1976-11-01

    Hydrocarbon distribution in sediments from three lakes in Washington State were studied and found to be related to the level of human activity in the respective drainage basins. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination was found in surface sediments of a lake surrounded by a major city, compared to no detectable contamination in a lake located in a National Park.

  2. In-situ hydrocarbon delineation using laser-induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taer, A.D.; Hastings, R.W.; Brown, A.Y.; Frend, R.

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of hydrocarbons in soils was conducted at an active Shell Oil Company petroleum products terminal, located in Carson, California. An investigation approach involving Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) and Cone Penetrometer Testing (CPT) technologies was implemented to provide real-time, in-situ characterization of site stratigraphy, hydrocarbon distribution and importantly, hydrocarbon product differentiation. The area of investigation is located along a property boundary, where a plume of separate phase hydrocarbons has been actively recovered for several years. CPT/LIF technology was selected for the investigation since previous delineation efforts using hydrocarbon fingerprinting methods proved inconclusive. Additionally, the CPT/LIF technology had the potential to provide a cost effective solution to accomplish project objectives. Based on the information obtained during this investigation, it was determined that the plume of separate phase hydrocarbons along the northern property boundary is from a source distinctly different than any identified hydrocarbons known to be from on-site sources. In addition, the plume was determined to not be connected with any other known on-site hydrocarbon plumes. The results of this CPT/LIF investigation were consistent with the known hydrogeologic conditions. This evaluation determined that CPT/LIF technology was very effective in addressing project objectives and resulted in a significant cost savings

  3. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.; Biddy, M.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the cultivation of algal biomass followed by further lipid extraction and upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the algal lipid extraction and upgrading pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  4. Application of fission track analysis to hydrocarbon exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duddy, I.R.; Green, P.F.; Gleadow, A.J.W.; Marshallsea, S.; Tingate, P.; Laslett, G.M.; Hegarty, K.A.; Lovering, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    The temperature range over which fission tracks in apatite show observable annealing effects coincides with that responsible for the maximum generation of liquid hydrocarbons. Work is currently in progress in a number of Australian and overseas sedimentary basins, applying Apatite Fission Track Analysis (AFTA) to investigate the thermal evolution of these hydrocarbon prospective regions

  5. Assessing human error during collecting a hydrocarbon sample of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the assessment method of the hydrocarbon sample collection standard operation procedure (SOP) using THERP. The Performance Shaping Factors (PSF) from THERP analyzed and assessed the human errors during collecting a hydrocarbon sample of a petrochemical refinery plant. Twenty-two ...

  6. Thermophilic slurry-phase treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon waste sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaldi, F.J.; Bombaugh, K.J.; McFarland, B.

    1995-01-01

    Chemoheterotrophic thermophilic bacteria were used to achieve enhanced hydrocarbon degradation during slurry-phase treatment of oily waste sludges from petroleum refinery operations. Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial cultures were examined under thermophilic conditions to assess the effects of mode of metabolism on the potential for petroleum hydrocarbon degradation. The study determined that both aerobic and anaerobic thermophilic bacteria are capable of growth on petroleum hydrocarbons. Thermophilic methanogenesis is feasible during the degradation of hydrocarbons when a strict anaerobic condition is achieved in a slurry bioreactor. Aerobic thermophilic bacteria achieved the largest apparent reduction in chemical oxygen demand, freon extractable oil, total and volatile solid,s and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) when treating oily waste sludges. The observed shift with time in the molecular weight distribution of hydrocarbon material was more pronounced under aerobic metabolic conditions than under strict anaerobic conditions. The changes in the hydrocarbon molecular weight distribution, infrared spectra, and PAH concentrations during slurry-phase treatment indicate that the aerobic thermophilic bioslurry achieved a higher degree of hydrocarbon degradation than the anaerobic thermophilic bioslurry during the same time period

  7. A PROCESS FOR THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF HYDROCARBONS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    A process for producing an alcohol from a gaseous hydrocarbon, e.g. a lower alkane such as methane, via oxidative reaction of the hydrocarbon in a concentrated sulfuric acid medium in the presence of a catalyst employs an added catalyst comprising a substance selected from iodine, iodine compounds...

  8. Cuticular hydrocarbons for species determination of tropical termites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael I. Haverty; Lori J. Nelson; Barbara L. Thorne; Margaret S. Collins; Johanna P.E.C. Darlington; Marion Page

    1992-01-01

    Cuticular hydrocarbons can be used to discriminate species in Coptotermes and Nasutitermes, here discussed for selected species from locations in the Pacific Rim and several Caribbean islands. We recently reexamined the cuticular hydrocarbons of Coptotermes formosanus and identified several dimethylalkanes that...

  9. Phenomenology of tremor-like signals observed over hydrocarbon reservoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dangel, S.; Schaepman, M.E.; Stoll, E.P.; Carniel, R.; Barzandji, O.; Rode, E.D.; Singer, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    We have observed narrow-band, low-frequency (1.5-4 Hz, amplitude 0.01-10 mum/s) tremor signals on the surface over hydrocarbon reservoirs (oil, gas and water multiphase fluid systems in porous media) at currently 15 sites worldwide. These 'hydrocarbon tremors' possess remarkably similar spectral and

  10. Conversion of oligomeric starch, cellulose, hydrolysates or sugars to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silks, Louis A; Sutton, Andrew; Kim, Jin Kyung; Gordon, John Cameron; Wu, Ruilian; Kimball, David B.

    2017-09-05

    Embodiments of the present invention are directed to the conversion of a source material (e.g., a depolymerized oligosaccharide mixture, a monomeric sugar, a hydrolysate, or a mixture of monomeric sugars) to intermediate molecules containing 7 to 26 contiguous carbon atoms. These intermediates may also be converted to saturated hydrocarbons. Such saturated hydrocarbons are useful as, for example, fuels.

  11. The separation of hydrocarbons from waste vapor streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behling, R.D.; Ohlrogge, K.; Peinemann, K.V.; Kyburz, E.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrocarbon vapors generated from industrial processes dispersed into air are contributing factors for the creation of photochemical smog. The separation of hydrocarbon vapor by means of membranes is in case of some applications a technically simple and economic process. A membrane vapor separation process with a following treatment of the retentate by catalytic incineration is introduced in this paper

  12. Graph theory for alternating hydrocarbons with attached ports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.

    Properties of molecules of certain hydrocarbons give rise to difficult questions in graph theory. This paper is primarily devoted to the graph theory, but the physico-chemical motivation, which is somewhat speculative, is also presented. Molecules of unsaturated hydrocarbons exhibit alternating

  13. Performance estimation of ejector cycles using heavier hydrocarbon refrigerants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasperski, Jacek; Gil, Bartosz

    2014-01-01

    Computer software basing on theoretical model of Huang et al. with thermodynamic properties of hydrocarbons was prepared. Investigation was focused on nine hydrocarbons: propane, butane, iso-butane, pentane, iso-pentane, hexane, heptane and octane. A series of calculations was carried out for the generator temperature between 70 and 200 °C, with assumed temperatures of evaporation 10 °C and condensation 40 °C. Calculation results show that none of the hydrocarbons enables high efficiency of a cycle in a wide range of temperature. Each hydrocarbon has its own maximal entrainment ratio at its individual temperature of optimum. Temperatures of entrainment ratios optimum increase according to the hydrocarbon heaviness with simultaneous increase of entrainment ratio peak values. Peak values of the COP do not increase according to the hydrocarbons heaviness. The highest COP = 0.32 is achieved for iso-butane at 102 °C and the COP = 0.28 for pentane at 165 °C. Heptane and octane can be ignored. - Highlights: • Advantages of use of higher hydrocarbons as ejector refrigerants were presumed. • Computer software basing on theoretical model of Huang et al. (1999) was prepared. • Optimal temperature range of vapor generation for each hydrocarbon was calculated

  14. Geochemical assessment of light gaseous hydrocarbons in near ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Light hydrocarbons in soil have been used as direct indicators in geochemical hydrocarbon exploration, which remains an unconventional path in the petroleum industry. The occurrence of adsorbed soil ... Kalpana1 D J Patil1 A M Dayal1. National Geophysical Research Institute, Uppal Road, Hyderabad 500606, India.

  15. Investigation Status of Heat Exchange while Boiling Hydrocarbon Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Obukhov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains analysis of heat exchange investigations while boiling hydrocarbon fuel. The obtained data are within the limits of the S.S. Kutateladze dependence proposed in 1939. Heat exchange at non-stationary heat release has not been investigated. The data for hydrocarbon fuel with respect to critical density of heat flow are not available even for stationary conditions.

  16. MICROORGANISMS’ SURFACE ACTIVE SUBSTANCES ROLE IN HYDROCARBONS BIODEGRADATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Оlga Vasylchenko

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available  Existing data and publications regarding oil, hydrocarbon biodegradation, metabolism, and bioremediation were analyzed. Search of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria which are producers of biosurfactants was provided, types of microbial surfactants and their physiological role were analyzed and ordered. The study of factors affecting the surface active properties of producers’ cultures was done.

  17. Management of the solid waste in perforation projects exploratory hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Miranda, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes de considerations for solid waste management in hydrocarbons exploration projects, as the serious environmental affectation as a function of soil contamination by leachate form the temporary storage of contaminated industrial waste hydrocarbons, altered by the presence of deposits landscaping waste materials, pollution of water and vegetation and the production of odors.

  18. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.; Biddy, M.; Tan, E.; Tao, L.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the biological conversion of biomass-derived sugars to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent literature references and information consistent with recent pilot-scale demonstrations at NREL. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the pathway to become competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  19. Hydrocarbon toxicity: an analysis of AAPCC TESS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobaugh, Daniel J; Seger, Donna L; Krenzelok, Edward P

    2007-01-01

    Human hydrocarbon exposures have the potential to cause significant morbidity and mortality. To determine which hydrocarbons were associated with the most severe adverse outcomes, human exposure data reported to American poison information centers were analyzed. Outcome data for single-substance, hydrocarbon exposures reported to the American Association of Poison Control Centers Toxic Exposure Surveillance System from 1994 through 2003 were analyzed. Only cases with definitive medical outcomes were included. Analyses were stratified by five age groups: 59 years. Hazard factors were determined by calculating the sum of the major effects and fatalities for each hydrocarbon category and dividing this by the total number of exposures for that category. To normalize the data, the overall rate of major effects and deaths for each age group was assigned hazard factor value of 1. Hydrocarbon categories with a HF of > or = 1.5 were included in the final analyses. Estimated rates of major effect and fatal outcomes (outcomes/1000 people) were also calculated. 318,939 exposures were analyzed. Exposures to benzene, toluene/xylene, halogenated hydrocarbons, kerosene and lamp oil resulted in the highest hazard factor values. These data demonstrate that hydrocarbons that are absorbed systemically and those with low viscosities are associated with higher hazard factors. The risks associated with hydrocarbons often implicated in abuse by older children and adolescents are also confirmed.

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas sp. IR1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, M. [Unidad de Biotecnologia del Petroleo, Centro de Biotecnologia, Fundacion Inst. de Estudios Avanzados (IDEA), Caracas (Venezuela); Synthesis and Biotics Div., Indian Oil Corp., Research and Development Center, Haryana (India); Leon, V.; Materano, A.D.S.; Ilzins, O.A.; Galindo-Castro, I.; Fuenmayor, S.L. [Unidad de Biotecnologia del Petroleo, Centro de Biotecnologia, Fundacion Inst. de Estudios Avanzados (IDEA), Caracas (Venezuela)

    2006-03-15

    We characterized a newly isolated bacterium, designated as IR1, with respect to its ability to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and to produce biosurfactants. Isolated IR1 was identified as Pseudomonas putida by analysis of 16S rRNA sequences (99.6% homology). It was capable of utilizing two-, three- and four-ring PAHs but not hexadecane and octadecane as a sole carbon and energy source. PCR and DNA hybridization studies showed that enzymes involved in PAH metabolism were related to the naphthalene dioxygenase pathway. Observation of both tensio-active and emulsifying activities indicated that biosurfactants were produced by IR1 during growth on both water miscible and immiscible substrates. The biosurfactants lowered the surface tension of medium from 54.9 dN cm{sup -1} to 35.4 dN cm{sup -1} and formed a stable and compact emulsion with an emulsifying activity of 74% with diesel oil, when grown on dextrose. These findings indicate that this isolate may be useful for bioremediation of sites contaminated with aromatic hydrocarbons. (orig.)

  1. Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program 250K Hybrid Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, George; Zoladz, Tom; Arves, Joe; Kearney, Darren; Abel, Terry; Park, O.

    2003-01-01

    The Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program (HPDP) program was formed to mature hybrid propulsion technology to a readiness level sufficient to enable commercialization for various space launch applications. The goal of the HPDP was to develop and test a 250,000 pound vacuum thrust hybrid booster in order to demonstrate hybrid propulsion technology and enable manufacturing of large hybrid boosters for current and future space launch vehicles. The HPDP has successfully conducted four tests of the 250,000 pound thrust hybrid rocket motor at NASA's Stennis Space Center. This paper documents the test series.

  2. Study on surface geochemistry and microbiology for hydrocarbon exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The test results of the experimental device for extraction of dissolved gases from water show that the device can be utilized for the gas geochemistry of water. The device is capable of determining hydrocarbon gases in water to the concentration of less than 5 x 10{sup -4} ml/l of water. According to the results of microbiological studies, the plate count technique can be a useful supplementary method for hydrocarbon exploration. This is based on the facts that the average survival rate to hydrocarbons (pentane, hexane) for heterotrophs is higher in the area known as containing considerable hydrocarbon gases than other areas in the Pohang region. However, it is still necessary to develop techniques to treat the bacteria with gaseous hydrocarbons. (author). 2 figs., 41 tabs.

  3. Imaging fluid/solid interactions in hydrocarbon reservoir rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwins, P J; Baker, J C; Mackinnon, I D

    1993-08-01

    The environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) has been used to image liquid hydrocarbons in sandstones and oil shales. Additionally, the fluid sensitivity of selected clay minerals in hydrocarbon reservoirs was assessed via three case studies: HCl acid sensitivity of authigenic chlorite in sandstone reservoirs, freshwater sensitivity of authigenic illite/smectite in sandstone reservoirs, and bleach sensitivity of a volcanic reservoir containing abundant secondary chlorite/corrensite. The results showed the suitability of using ESEM for imaging liquid hydrocarbon films in hydrocarbon reservoirs and the importance of simulating in situ fluid-rock interactions for hydrocarbon production programmes. In each case, results of the ESEM studies greatly enhanced prediction of reservoir/borehole reactions and, in some cases, contradicted conventional wisdom regarding the outcome of potential engineering solutions.

  4. Chemical fingerprinting of hydrocarbon-contamination in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Esther Sørensen; Nejrup, Jens; Jensen, Julie K.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical fingerprinting analyses of 29 hydrocarbon-contaminated soils were performed to assess the soil quality and determine the main contaminant sources. The results were compared to an assessment based on concentrations of the 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pointed out by the U...... and in assessing weathering trends of hydrocarbon contamination in the soils. Multivariate data analysis of sum-normalized concentrations could as a stand-alone tool distinguish between hydrocarbon sources of petrogenic and pyrogenic origin, differentiate within petrogenic sources, and detect weathering trends....... Diagnostic ratios of PACs were not successful for source identification of the heavily weathered hydrocarbon sources in the soils. The fingerprinting of contaminated soils revealed an underestimation of PACs in petrogenic contaminated soils when the assessment was based solely on EPAPAH16. As alkyl...

  5. Aspects of petroleum hydrocarbon metabolism in marine animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, O. G.

    1980-03-01

    Studies on hydrocarbon composition of Black Sea mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis sampled from different habitats indicate that the quantity and composition of hydrocarbons distributed in the molluscs depend on season and sea-water quality. The data obtained under experimental conditions testify to the possibility of hydrocarbon concentration in mussel tissues after death. During filtration in sea water containing oil and oil products, these pollutants are bound into faeces and pseudofaeces which contain a greater percentage of aromatic compounds than the oil initially present in sea water. Quantitative data are presented on hydrocarbon changes in mussel excretory products during transfer from oil-polluted to clean sea water. When Black Sea crabs Eriphia verrucosa are fed with mussels containing fuel-oil components accumulated from sea water, the pollutants concentrate in the whole body of the crab. This is in contrast to parenteral oil uptake, which leads to a concentration of most of the hydrocarbon in the muscles.

  6. Degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a laboratory aquifer column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billowits, M.; Whyte, L.; Greer, C.; Ramsay, J.

    1998-01-01

    One of the primary mechanisms for eliminating hydrocarbon pollutants from the environment is degradation of hydrocarbons by indigenous microorganisms. This report describes a study in which samples from a petroleum polluted shallow aquifer in the Yukon were used which contained a hundred times greater concentration of psychrotropic bacteria than mesophilic bacteria. Results showed a maximum degradation of 47 per cent of the total petroleum hydrocarbon in columns which simulated the aquifer conditions and to which nutrients were added. It was concluded that although in this case bioaugmentation of the columns with a psychrotropic hydrocarbon-degrading consortium increased microbial numbers, total petroleum hydrocarbon degradation was not much greater than could be achieved by remediation with nutrients alone

  7. Oils; lubricants; paraffin-wax compositions; hydrocarbon condensation products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1934-04-04

    Petroleum hydrocarbons such as gasoline, kerosene, Diesel fuel oil, lubricating-oil, and paraffin wax, and like hydrocarbons such as are obtainable from shale oil and by the hydrogenation of carbonaceous materials, are improved by addition of products obtained by condensing a cyclic hydrocarbon with a saturated dihalogen derivative of an aliphatic hydrocarbon containing less than five carbon atoms. The addition of the condensation products increases the viscosity of the hydrocarbon oils specified, and is particularly useful in the case of lubricating-oils; addition of the condensation products to paraffin wax increases the transparency and adherent properties of the wax, and is useful in the manufacture of moulded articles such as candles; the products may also be used in solid lubricating-compositions.

  8. Fusion-fission hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter discusses the range of characteristics attainable from hybrid reactor blankets; blanket design considerations; hybrid reactor designs; alternative fuel hybrid reactors; multi-purpose hybrid reactors; and hybrid reactors and the energy economy. Hybrid reactors are driven by a fusion neutron source and include fertile and/or fissile material. The fusion component provides a copious source of fusion neutrons which interact with a subcritical fission component located adjacent to the plasma or pellet chamber. Fissile fuel and/or energy are the main products of hybrid reactors. Topics include high F/M blankets, the fissile (and tritium) breeding ratio, effects of composition on blanket properties, geometrical considerations, power density and first wall loading, variations of blanket properties with irradiation, thermal-hydraulic and mechanical design considerations, safety considerations, tokamak hybrid reactors, tandem-mirror hybrid reactors, inertial confinement hybrid reactors, fusion neutron sources, fissile-fuel and energy production ability, simultaneous production of combustible and fissile fuels, fusion reactors for waste transmutation and fissile breeding, nuclear pumped laser hybrid reactors, Hybrid Fuel Factories (HFFs), and scenarios for hybrid contribution. The appendix offers hybrid reactor fundamentals. Numerous references are provided

  9. Airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons trigger human skin cells aging through aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yuan; Li, Qiang; Du, Hong-Yang; Wang, Qiao-Wei; Huang, Ye; Liu, Wei

    2017-07-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) which adsorbed on the surface of ambient air particulate matters (PM), are the major toxic compound to cause cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, even cancer. However, its detrimental effects on human skin cell remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated that SRM1649b, a reference urban dust material of PAH, triggers human skin cells aging through cell cycle arrest, cell growth inhibition and apoptosis. Principally, SRM1649b facilitated Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) translocated into nucleus, subsequently activated ERK/MAPK signaling pathway, and upregulated aging-related genes expression. Most important, we found that AhR antagonist efficiently revert the aging of skin cells. Thus our novel findings firstly revealed the mechanism of skin aging under PAH contamination and provided potential strategy for clinical application. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Research on Hybrid Vehicle Drivetrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhongzhi

    Hybrid cars as a solution to energy saving, emission reduction measures, have received widespread attention. Motor drive system as an important part of the hybrid vehicles as an important object of study. Based on the hybrid electric vehicle powertrain control system for permanent magnet synchronous motor as the object of study. Can be applied to hybrid car compares the characteristics of traction motors, chose permanent magnet synchronous Motors as drive motors for hybrid vehicles. Building applications in hybrid cars in MATLAB/Simulink simulation model of permanent-magnet synchronous motor speed control system and analysis of simulation results.

  11. New hybrid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardin, B.

    2001-01-01

    New hybrid systems are made up of a subcritical core, a spallation target and a proton accelerator. The neutrons that are produced in the target by the flux of protons are necessary to maintain the chain reaction of fission. Some parameters that are important for a classical nuclear reactor like doppler coefficient or delayed neutron fraction do not matter in a hybrid system. In a PWR-type reactor or in a fast reactor the concentration of actinides has a bad impact on these 2 parameters, so it is justified to study hybrid systems as actinide transmuters. The hybrid system, because of its external source of neutrons can put aside an important reactivity margin. This reactivity margin can be used to design safer nuclear reactors (particularly in some situations of reactivity accidents) or to irradiate fuel elements containing high concentrations of minor actinides that could not be allowed in a classical reactor. This article reviews various ways of integrating hybrid systems in a population of already existing nuclear reactors in order to manage quantities of plutonium, of minor actinides or of long-life fission products. (A.C.)

  12. Light hydrocarbon emissions from African savanna burnings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonsang, B.; Lambert, G.; Boissard, C.C.

    1991-01-01

    A study was undertaken in West Africa to determine the background mixing ratio of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) during the dry season and to measure the composition of savanna burnings. The experiment was conducted from 13 to 22 January 1989 in the experimental station located at the border of the tropical rainforest and savanna. Samples were collected during aircraft flights at 2,400 m in the free troposphere, at 400 m in the haze layer and in a smoke plume at 200 m altitude. Samples representing the ground-level evolution of the local background were collected at 10 m altitude. Fire samples were collected at a short distance from the fires during the intensive experiments. Results are presented in tables and indicate that the effect of NMHC produced by biomass burning on the tropospheric photochemistry is limited to a few species, namely, C 2 -C 4 alkenes

  13. The uncertain future of hydrocarbons in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auge, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    As it has been historically the first oil and gas producer in Africa with Gabon and Nigeria (it is now the third oil producer after Nigeria and Angola, and still the first gas producer), Algeria has faced a strong decrease of investments in this sector for the past ten years, for legal, security and political reasons. This resulted in a decrease of production whereas local consumption has been strongly increasing. The author examines whether measures voted in 2012 will be able to bring back the confidence of foreign investors which is needed to develop the huge oil, gas and shale gas potentials of this country. The author recalls this high resource level, and comments the role and behaviour of Sonatrach, the national company, and the consequences of the oil and gas revenues decrease. He outlines the importance of the issue of security (notably terrorism by AQMI), and comments expectations associated with the new law on hydrocarbons

  14. Identification of interstellar polysaccharides and related hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyle, F.; Olavesen, A.H.; Wickramasinghe, N.C.

    1978-01-01

    A discussion is presented on the infrared transmittance spectra of several polysaccharides that may be of interest as possible interstellar candidates. It is stated that a 2.5 to 15 μm spectrum computed from the author's measurements is remarkably close to that required to explain a wide range of astronomical data, except for two points. First the required relative opacity at the 3 μm absorption dip is a factor of about 1.5 lower than was found in laboratory measurements; this difference may arise from the presence of water in terrestrial polysaccharide samples. Secondly, in the 9.5 to 12 μm waveband an additional source of opacity appears to be necessary. Close agreement between the spectrum of this additional opacity and the absorption spectrum of propene, C 3 H 6 , points strongly to the presence of hydrocarbons of this type, which may be associated with polysaccharide grains in interstellar space. (U.K.)

  15. A method for producing a hydrocarbon resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsachev, A B; Andonov, K S; Igliyev, S P

    1980-11-25

    Rock coal resin (KS), for instance, with a relative density of 1,150 to 1,190 kilograms per cubic meter, which contains 8 to 10 percent naphthaline, 1.5 to 2.8 percent phenol and 6 to 15 percent substances insoluble in toluene, or its mixture with rock coal or oil fractions of resin are subjected to distillation (Ds) in a pipe furnace with two evaporators (Is) and a distillation tower with a temperature mode in the second stage of 320 to 360 degrees and 290 to 340 degrees in the pitch compartment. A hydrocarbon resin is produced with a high carbon content, especially for the production of resin and dolomite refractory materials, as well as fuel mixtures for blast furnace and open hearth industry.

  16. Hydrocarbon fermentation: kinetics of microbial cell growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goma, G [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees, Toulouse; Ribot, D

    1978-11-01

    Modeling of microbial growth using nonmiscible substrate is studied when kinetics of substrate dissolution is rate limiting. When the substrate concentration is low, the growth rate is described by an analytical relation that can be identified as a Contois relationship. If the substrate concentration is greater than a critical value S/sub crit/, the potentially useful hydrocarbon S* concentration is described by S* = S/sub crit//(1 + S/sub crit//S). A relationship was found between S/sub crit/ and the biomass concentration X. When X increased, S/sub crit/ decreased. The cell growth rate is related to a relation ..mu.. = ..mu../sub m/(A(X/S/sub crit/)(1 + S/sub crit//S) + 1)/sup -1/. This model describes the evolution of the growth rate when exponential or linear growth occurs, which is related to physico-chemical properties and hydrodynamic fermentation conditions. Experimental data to support the model are presented.

  17. Hydroprocessing using regenerated spent heavy hydrocarbon catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, F.T.; Hensley, A.L. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a process for hydroprocessing a hydrocarbon feedstock. It comprises: contacting the feedstock with hydrogen under hydroprocessing conditions with a hydroprocessing catalyst wherein the hydroprocessing catalyst contains a total contaminant metals build-up of greater than about 4 wt. % nickel plus vanadium, a hydrogenation component selected from the group consisting of Group VIB metals and Group VIII metals and is regenerated spent hydroprocessing catalyst regenerated by a process comprising the steps: partially decoking the spent catalyst in an initial coke-burning step; impregnating the partially decoked catalyst with a Group IIA metal-containing impregnation solution; and decoking the impregnated catalyst in a final coke-burning step wherein the impregnated catalyst is contacted with an oxygen-containing gas at a temperature of about 600 degrees F to about 1400 degrees F

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in yogurt samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisti, Chiara; Girelli, Anna Maria; Tarola, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    The concentrations and distributions of major polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 20 kinds of yogurt specimens collected from Italian supermarkets using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with fluorescence detection. The method was validated by determination of recovery percentages, precision (repeatability) and sensitivity (limits of detection) with yogurt samples fortified at 0.25, 0.5 and 1 µg/kg concentration levels. The recovery of 13 PAHs, with the exception of naphthalene and acenaphthene, ranged from 61% to 130% and from 60% to 97% at all the levels for yogurts with low (0.1%) and high (3.9%) fat content, respectively. The method is repeatable with relative standard deviation values yogurts with low and high fats were compared.

  19. System and process for upgrading hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Smith, Joseph D.; Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

    2015-08-25

    In one embodiment, a system for upgrading a hydrocarbon material may include a black wax upgrade subsystem and a molten salt gasification (MSG) subsystem. The black wax upgrade subsystem and the MSG subsystem may be located within a common pressure boundary, such as within a pressure vessel. Gaseous materials produced by the MSG subsystem may be used in the process carried out within the black wax upgrade subsystem. For example, hydrogen may pass through a gaseous transfer interface to interact with black wax feed material to hydrogenate such material during a cracking process. In one embodiment, the gaseous transfer interface may include one or more openings in a tube or conduit which is carrying the black wax material. A pressure differential may control the flow of hydrogen within the tube or conduit. Related methods are also disclosed.

  20. Hydrocarbon control strategies for gasoline marketing operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, R.L.; Sakaida, R.R.; Yamada, M.M.

    1978-05-01

    This informational document provides basic and current descriptions of gasoline marketing operations and methods that are available to control hydrocarbon emissions from these operations. The three types of facilities that are described are terminals, bulk plants, and service stations. Operational and business trends are also discussed. The potential emissions from typical facilities, including transport trucks, are given. The operations which lead to emissions from these facilities include (1) gasoline storage, (2) gasoline loading at terminals and bulk plants, (3) gasoline delivery to bulk plants and service stations, and (4) the refueling of vehicles at service stations. Available and possible methods for controlling emissions are described with their estimated control efficiencies and costs. This report also includes a bibliography of references cited in the text, and supplementary sources of information.

  1. Method and apparatus for synthesizing hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenares, C.A.; Somorjai, G.A.; Maj, J.J.

    1985-04-16

    A method and apparatus for synthesizing a mixture of aliphatic alcohols having five carbons or less is disclosed. An equal molar ratio of CO and H/sub 2/ gases is caused to pass through a ThO/sub 2/ catalyst having a surface area of about 80 to 125 m/sup 2//g. The catalyst further optionally includes Na ions present as substitutional cations in an amount of about 5 to 10 atom %. At a temperature of about 570 to 630/sup 0/K, and at pressures of about 20 to 50 atm, methanol and isobutanol are the predominant products and are produced in amounts of about 90 wt % of the total hydrocarbon mixture. 6 figs.

  2. Microbial hydrocarbons: back to the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Work, Victoria H.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Konopka, Allan; Posewitz, Matthew C.

    2012-03-01

    The defining challenge of energy research in the 21st century is the development and deployment of technologies for large-scale reconfiguration of global energy infrastructure. Modern society is built upon a concentrated yet finite reservoir of diverse hydrocarbons formed through the photosynthetic transformation of several hundred million years of solar energy. In human history, the fossil energy era will be short lived and never repeated. Although the timing of peak oil is extensively debated, it is an eventuality. It is, therefore, imperative that projections for both when it will occur and the degree to which supply will fall short of demand be taken into serious consideration, especially in the sectors of energy technology development, political and economic decision making, and societal energy usage. The requirement for renewable energy systems is no longer a point for discussion, and swift advances on many fronts are vital to counteract current and impending crises in both energy and the environment.

  3. Biodegrader metabolic expansion during polyaromatic hydrocarbons rhizoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rugh, C.L.; Susilawati, E.; Kravchenko, A.N. [Dept. of Crop and Soil Sciences, Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Thomas, J.C. [Dept. of Natural Sciences, Univ. of Michigan-Dearborn, Dearborn, MI (United States)

    2005-04-01

    Root-microbe interactions are considered to be the primary process of polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) phytoremediation, since bacterial degradation has been shown to be the dominant pathway for environmental PAH dissipation. However, the precise mechanisms driving PAH rhizostimulation symbiosis remain largely unresolved. In this study, we assessed PAH degrading bacterial abundance in contaminated soils planted with 18 different native Michigan plant species. Phenanthrene metabolism assays suggested that each plant species differentially influenced the relative abundance of PAH biodegraders, though they generally were observed to increase heterotrophic and biodegradative cell numbers relative to unplanted soils. Further study of > 1800 phenanthrene degrading isolates indicated that most of the tested plant species stimulated biodegradation of a broader range of PAH compounds relative to the unplanted soil bacterial consortia. These observations suggest that a principal contribution of planted systems for PAH bioremediation may be via expanded metabolic range of the rhizosphere bacterial community. (orig.)

  4. In vitro toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons to cetacean cells and tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvan, M.J. III.

    1993-01-01

    Cetaceans bioaccumulate high aromatic hydrocarbon tissue residues, and elevated levels of PCB residues in tissues are proposed to have occurred concurrently with recent epizootic deaths of dolphins. The objectives of this study were: (1) to develop and characterize an epithelial cell line derived from dolphin tissues, (2) to investigate the effects of hydrocarbon pollutants on those cells, and (3) to analyze the toxicity of hydrocarbon pollutants on cetacean tissues in vitro. An epithelial cell line, Carvan dolphin kidney (CDK), isolated from a spontaneously aborted female bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus, grew rapidly. These cells were neither transformed nor immortal. Velocity sedimentation analysis showed CDK cells contained nuclear aryl hydrocarbon receptor, suggestive of cytochrome P450 inducibility. BaP inhibited mitosis in CDK cells in a dose-dependent manner. Data indicate that CDK cells metabolize BaP, that BaP metabolites bind to cellular DNA initiating unscheduled DNA synthesis, and that the inhibition of cytochrome P450 metabolism decrease the BaP-associated inhibition of mitosis in dolphin cells. The data also suggest that TCDD acts synergistically to increase the levels of DNA damage by the procarcinogen BaP. Cetacean liver microsomes was isolated and evaluated for the presence of cytochrome P450 proteins by SDS-PAGE, apparent minimum molecular weight determination, and immunoblot analysis. P450 activity was induced in cetacean tissue samples and CDK cells by exposure in vitro to one of several cytochrome P450-inducing chemicals. The data suggest that cetacean tissues and cells can be utilized to study the in vitro induction of cytochrome P450, resultant metabolism of xenobiotic contaminants, and the subsequent cellular and molecular responses. However, the identity of specific P450 isozymes involved in this process will remain undetermined until monoclonal antibodies that recognize cetacean P450s can be generated.

  5. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in airborne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachon Q, Jorge; Garcia L, Hector; Bustos L, Martha; Bravo A, Humberto; Sosa E, Rodolfo

    2004-01-01

    Rainfall polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) concentrations were determined in particulate matter with a <10 mm aerodynamic diameter (PM10) in three industrial municipalities of the metropolitan zone of Bogota City (MZBC). The 12 samples of greatest concentration of PM10 collected between 2001 and 2002 at the stations of atmospheric monitoring of Cundinamarca secretary of health (SSC), in the municipalities of Soacha, Sibate and Cajica, were analyzed. The results were correlated with emissions in the area, by means of emission factors and environmental agencies information. The particulate matter results for the analyzed period show concentrations that exceed the air quality standard of the US environmental protection agency EPA on several occasions at the Soacha municipality, whereas the air quality in the Sibate and Cajica municipalities did not show that to be the case. Despite the reduced number of samples and sampling sites, we believe that the reported profiles can be considered a valid estimation of the average air quality of the MZBC. The identified PAH species were: phenanthrene(Phe), anthracene(Ant), fluoranthene(Fla), pyrene(Pyr), benzo(a)anthracene (Baa), chrysene(chr), benzo(ghi)perylene(BgP) and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene(Ind). It was not possible to quantify naphthalene (Nap), acenaphthy-lene(Acy), acenaphthene(Ace), nor fluorene(Flu), being light and volatile hydrocarbons with greater presence in the gaseous phase of the air. The correlation of PAH with source emissions shows mobile sources to be the main origin. The intervals of concentration of both individual PAH and the total species were similar to the ones usually found in other industrial zones of the world. PAHs correlations allowed pinpointing common emission sources between Soacha and Sibate municipalities

  6. Hydrocarbons biodegradation in unsaturated porous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, C.

    2007-12-01

    Biological processes are expected to play an important role in the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated soils. However, factors influencing the kinetics of biodegradation are still not well known, especially in the unsaturated zone. To address these biodegradation questions in the unsaturated zone an innovative experimental set up based on a physical column model was developed. This experimental set up appeared to be an excellent tool for elaboration of a structured porous medium, with well defined porous network and adjusted water/oil saturations. Homogeneous repartition of both liquid phases (i.e., aqueous and non aqueous) in the soil pores, which also contain air, was achieved using ceramic membranes placed at the bottom of the soil column. Reproducible interfaces (and connectivity) are developed between gas, and both non mobile water and NAPL phases, depending on the above-defined characteristics of the porous media and on the partial saturations of these three phases (NAPL, water and gas). A respirometric apparatus was coupled to the column. Such experimental set up have been validated with hexadecane in dilution in an HMN phase. This approach allowed detailed information concerning n-hexadecane biodegradation, in aerobic condition, through the profile of the oxygen consumption rate. We have taken benefit of this technique, varying experimental conditions, to determine the main parameters influencing the biodegradation kinetics and compositional evolution of hydrocarbons, under steady state unsaturated conditions and with respect to aerobic metabolism. Impacts of the nitrogen quantity and of three different grain sizes have been examined. Biodegradation of petroleum cut, as diesel cut and middle distillate without aromatic fraction, were, also studied. (author)

  7. The Hybrid Museum: Hybrid Economies of Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Vitus

    2013-01-01

    Social media has created new ways of communicating and has brought about a new distinctive ethos. New literacies are not simply about new technology but also about this new ethos. Many museums are embracing this ethos by what is often called participatory practices. From a sociocultural perspective...... this article shows that there are two different museum mindsets where the second mindset leans towards participatory practices. It is shown how a museum can support a hybrid economy of meaning that builds on both a user generated economy of meaning and an institutional economy of meaning and adds value to both...

  8. Hybrid system concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landeyro, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Hybrid systems studied for fissile material production, were reconsidered for minor actinide and long-lived fission product destruction as alternative to the traditional final disposal of nuclear waste. Now there are attempts to extend the use of the concepts developed for minor actinide incineration to plutonium burning. The most promising hybrid system concept considers fuel and target both as liquids. From the results obtained, the possibility to adopt composite targets seems the most promising solution, but still there remains the problem of Pu production, not acceptable in a burning system. This kind of targets can be mainly used for fissile material production, while for accelerator driven burners it is most convenient to use a liquid lead target. The most suitable solvent is heavy water for minor actinide annihilation in the blanket of a hybrid system. Due to the criticality conditions and the necessity of electric energy production, the blanket using plutonium dissolved in molten salts is the most convenient one. (author)

  9. Hybrid strategies in nanolithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saavedra, Hector M; Mullen, Thomas J; Zhang Pengpeng; Dewey, Daniel C; Claridge, Shelley A; Weiss, Paul S [Department of Chemistry, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)], E-mail: psw@cnsi.ucla.edu

    2010-03-15

    Hybrid nanoscale patterning strategies combine the registration and addressability of conventional lithographic techniques with the chemical and physical functionality enabled by intermolecular, electrostatic and/or biological interactions. This review aims to highlight and to provide a comprehensive description of recent developments in hybrid nanoscale patterning strategies that enhance existing lithographic techniques or can be used to fabricate functional chemical patterns that interact with their environment. These functional structures create new capabilities, such as the fabrication of physicochemical surfaces that can recognize and capture analytes from complex liquid or gaseous mixtures. The nanolithographic techniques we describe can be classified into three general areas: traditional lithography, soft lithography and scanning-probe lithography. The strengths and limitations of each hybrid patterning technique will be discussed, along with the current and potential applications of the resulting patterned, functional surfaces.

  10. The tokamak hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.L.; Rose, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    At a time when the potential benefits of various energy options are being seriously evaluated in many countries through-out the world, it is both timely and important to evaluate the practical application of fusion reactors for their economical production of nuclear fissile fuels from fertile fuels. The fusion hybrid reactor represents a concept that could assure the availability of adequate fuel supplies for a proven nuclear technology and have the potential of being an electrical energy source as opposed to an energy consumer as are the present fuel enrichment processes. Westinghouse Fusion Power Systems Department, under Contract No. EG-77-C-02-4544 with the Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy, has developed a preliminary conceptual design for an early twenty-first century fusion hybrid reactor called the commercial Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (CTHR). This design was developed as a first generation commercial plant producing fissile fuel to support a significant number of client Light Water Reactor (LWR) Plants. To the depth this study has been performed, no insurmountable technical problems have been identified. The study has provided a basis for reasonable cost estimates of the hybrid plants as well as the hybrid/LWR system busbar electricity costs. This energy system can be optimized to have a net cost of busbar electricity that is equivalent to the conventional LWR plant, yet is not dependent on uranium ore prices or standard enrichment costs, since the fusion hybrid can be fueled by numerous fertile fuel resources. A nearer-term concept is also defined using a beam driven fusion driver in lieu of the longer term ignited operating mode. (orig.)

  11. Microbial consortia involved in the anaerobic degradation of hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolinski; Harris, R F; Hickey, W J

    2000-01-01

    In this review, we examine the energetics of well-characterized biodegradation pathways and explore the possibilities for these to support growth of multiple organisms interacting in consortia. The relevant phenotypic and/or phylogenetic characteristics of isolates and consortia mediating hydrocarbon degradation coupled with different terminal electron-accepting processes (TEAP) are also reviewed. While the information on metabolic pathways has been gained from the analysis of individual isolates, the energetic framework presented here demonstrates that microbial consortia could be readily postulated for hydrocarbon degradation coupled to any TEAP. Several specialized reactions occur within these pathways, and the organisms mediating these are likely to play a key role in defining the hydrocarbon degradation characteristics of the community under a given TEAP. Comparing these processes within and between TEAPs reveals biological unity in that divergent phylotypes display similar degradation mechanisms and biological diversity in that hydrocarbon-degraders closely related as phylotypes differ in the type and variety of hydrocarbon degradation pathways they possess. Analysis of microcosms and of field samples suggests that we have only begun to reveal the diversity of organisms mediating anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation. Advancements in the understanding of how hydrocarbon-degrading communities function will be significantly affected by the extent to which organisms mediating specialized reactions can be identified, and tools developed to allow their study in situ.

  12. Constructed wetlands for treatment of dissolved phase hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, B J; Ross, S D [Komex International, Calgary, AB (Canada); Gibson, D [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Hardisty, P E [Komex Clarke Bond, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    1999-01-01

    The use of constructed wetlands as an alternative to conventional treatment of condensate-contaminated groundwater was studied. In 1997 a pilot scale wetland was constructed and implemented at the Gulf Strachan Gas Processing Plant to determine its ability in treating extracted groundwater contaminated with natural gas condensates. This paper presented the results of hydrocarbon removal efficiency, hydrocarbon removal mechanisms, winter operation, and the effect of hydrocarbons on vegetation health. The inflow water to the wetland contains 15 to 20 mg/L of C[sub 5]-C[sub 10] hydrocarbons, including 50 per cent BTEX compounds. During the summer months, hydrocarbon removal efficiency was 100 per cent, but decreased to 60 and 30 per cent in the spring and late fall, respectively. The hydrocarbons not removed in the wetland were eventually removed along the outflow channel. Temperature was determined to be an important factor in the variable removal rates, particularly when there is no aeration. The main hydrocarbon removal mechanisms appear to be volatilization, biodegradation and dilution. At present, plant uptake is not a factor. 12 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  13. Saturated versus unsaturated hydrocarbon interactions with carbon nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deivasigamani eUmadevi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The interactions of various acyclic and cyclic hydrocarbons in both saturated and unsaturated forms with the carbon nanostructures (CNSs have been explored by using density functional theory (DFT calculations. Model systems representing armchair and zigzag carbon nanotubes (CNTs and graphene have been considered to investigate the effect of chirality and curvature of the CNSs towards these interactions. Results of this study reveal contrasting binding nature of the acyclic and cyclic hydrocarbons towards CNSs. While the saturated molecules show stronger binding affinity in acyclic hydrocarbons; the unsaturated molecules exhibit higher binding affinity in cyclic hydrocarbons. In addition, acyclic hydrocarbons exhibit stronger binding affinity towards the CNSs when compared to their corresponding cyclic counterparts. The computed results excellently corroborate the experimental observations. The interaction of hydrocarbons with graphene is more favourable when compared with CNTs. Bader’s theory of atoms in molecules has been invoked to characterize the noncovalent interactions of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Our results are expected to provide useful insights towards the development of rational strategies for designing complexes with desired noncovalent interaction involving CNSs.

  14. Structural segregation of petroleum and prospective hydrocarbon regions in Azerbaijan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerimov, K.M.; Huseynov, A.N.; Hajiyev, F.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text : Structural segregation allows identify the earth crust blocks according to their geological setting and structural history conductive for hydrocarbon generation and their entrapment in the sedimentary fill reservoirs. Since then there has been a need to design a new tectonic map of petroleum and hydrocarbons potential systems in Azerbaijan embracing both on- and offshore areas. Map's legend designed upon above mentioned concepts and principles has made it possible to evaluate the role of individual stratigraphic units in hydrocarbon generation and its entrapment, as well as in recognition of regional structural criteria of the hydrocarbon bearing potential of different structural patterns. Tectonic map of petroleum and prospective hydrocarbon bearing on and offshore areas in Azerbaijan for the first time contained a wide range of information related to structural criteria of hydrocarbon bearing potential, sedimentary fill's structural architecture, its thickness, both timing of their formation stages and basement consolidation, its subsidence depth, as well as hydrocarbon deposit areal and vertical distribution across individual regions. This map was considered to be of important implication both for the petroleum geoscience and petroleum industry endeavors.

  15. Constructed wetlands for treatment of dissolved phase hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, B.J.; Ross, S.D.; Gibson, D.; Hardisty, P.E.

    1999-01-01

    The use of constructed wetlands as an alternative to conventional treatment of condensate-contaminated groundwater was studied. In 1997 a pilot scale wetland was constructed and implemented at the Gulf Strachan Gas Processing Plant to determine its ability in treating extracted groundwater contaminated with natural gas condensates. This paper presented the results of hydrocarbon removal efficiency, hydrocarbon removal mechanisms, winter operation, and the effect of hydrocarbons on vegetation health. The inflow water to the wetland contains 15 to 20 mg/L of C 5 -C 10 hydrocarbons, including 50 per cent BTEX compounds. During the summer months, hydrocarbon removal efficiency was 100 per cent, but decreased to 60 and 30 per cent in the spring and late fall, respectively. The hydrocarbons not removed in the wetland were eventually removed along the outflow channel. Temperature was determined to be an important factor in the variable removal rates, particularly when there is no aeration. The main hydrocarbon removal mechanisms appear to be volatilization, biodegradation and dilution. At present, plant uptake is not a factor. 12 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  16. Risk analysis associated with petroleum hydrocarbons: is everything running smoothly?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, D.

    1999-01-01

    Petroleum products represent one of the main sources of environmental contamination, and these products are complex, composed of several hundred individual hydrocarbons. The evaluation of the risks associated with petroleum products is often limited by certain specific parameters such as benzene. The petroleum hydrocarbons running from C(10) to C(50) are not often integrated in an analysis of the toxological risks since the toxological characterization of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons is difficult to carry out. There exist in the United States two approaches that were developed recently that allow the integration of various hydrocarbons comprising a mixture. In this presentation, two of these approaches are described and compared. An overview of these approaches related to Canadian regulatory bodies is included, and a case study completes the account. The two approaches that are most well known in this area are: 1) that of the Massachusetts Dept. of Environmental Protection, and 2) that of the Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Group. The integration of petroleum hydrocarbons in a quantitative evaluation of their toxological risk is possible by present methods. This integration allows a reduction in the uncertainty associated with the use of an integrating parameter in the case of these petroleum hydrocarbons in the C(10) to the C(50) range

  17. Hybride textuelle Strukturen und hybride textuelle Einheiten. Ein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    carrying set of all hybrid hierarchical structures are element-heterogeneous whilst the structure- carrying set of all ... grams of hierarchical hybrid article structures, the nodes for those text segments that establish the hybrid status of .... der; d ∈ ArtA ⊣ G|WAr (= Artikelangabe, anhand derer das Genus (= G) und zugleich die ...

  18. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications The following technical papers and fact sheets provide information about NREL's hydraulic hybrid fleet vehicle evaluations . Refuse Trucks Project Startup: Evaluating the Performance of Hydraulic Hybrid Refuse Vehicles. Bob

  19. Doubts about hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The natural draught wet cooling tower with a height of 160 m is considerably taller than the 80 m high hybrid cooling tower, but the latter has a considerably larger diameter. Spray losses for both types are about 4.5 kg/sec for a thermal output of 2500 MW. Apart from the pump load, the natural cooling tower requires no power. Apart from higher pump loads, the hybrid cooling tower requires power for the fans. The energy demand for this purpose is 1.5 to 3% of the nett powerstation output. For the Isar 2 nuclear powerstation this would mean a reduction in puput of about 35 MW. (orig.) [de

  20. Analog and hybrid computing

    CERN Document Server

    Hyndman, D E

    2013-01-01

    Analog and Hybrid Computing focuses on the operations of analog and hybrid computers. The book first outlines the history of computing devices that influenced the creation of analog and digital computers. The types of problems to be solved on computers, computing systems, and digital computers are discussed. The text looks at the theory and operation of electronic analog computers, including linear and non-linear computing units and use of analog computers as operational amplifiers. The monograph examines the preparation of problems to be deciphered on computers. Flow diagrams, methods of ampl

  1. Toyota hybrid synergy drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautschi, H.

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Hannes Gautschi, director of service and training at the Toyota company in Switzerland, takes a look at Toyota's hybrid drive vehicles. The construction of the vehicles and their combined combustion engines and electric generators and drives is presented and the combined operation of these components is described. Braking and energy recovery are discussed. Figures on the performance, fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} output of the hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles.

  2. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girish Srinivas; Steven C. Gebhard; David W. DeBerry

    2001-01-01

    This first quarter report of 2001 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H(sub 2)S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day. This process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both on-shore and offshore applications. CrystaSulf(trademark) (service mark of Gas Research Institute) is a new nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes hydrogen sulfide (H(sub 2)S) from gas streams and converts it into elemental sulfur. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, approximately 1/3 of the total H(sub 2)S in the natural gas is first oxidized to SO(sub 2) at low temperatures over a heterogeneous catalyst. Low temperature oxidation is done so that the H(sub 2)S can be oxidized in the presence of methane and other hydrocarbons without oxidation of the hydrocarbons. The project involves the development of a catalyst using laboratory/bench-scale catalyst testing, and then demonstration of the catalyst at CrystaTech's pilot plant in west Texas. During this reporting periods new catalyst formulations were tested. The experiments showed that the newest catalyst has slightly better performance, but catalyst TDA No.2 is still superior overall for use with the hybrid CrystaSulf process due to lower costs. Plans for catalyst pelletization and continued testing are described

  3. Mirror fusion--fission hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    The fusion-fission concept and the mirror fusion-fission hybrid program are outlined. Magnetic mirror fusion drivers and blankets for hybrid reactors are discussed. Results of system analyses are presented and a reference design is described

  4. Anaerobic degradation of cyclohexane by sulfate-reducing bacteria from hydrocarbon-contaminated marine sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike eJaekel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The fate of cyclohexane, often used as a model compound for the biodegradation of cyclic alkanes due to its abundance in crude oils, in anoxic marine sediments has been poorly investigated. In the present study, we obtained an enrichment culture of cyclohexane-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria from hydrocarbon-contaminated intertidal marine sediments. Microscopic analyses showed an apparent dominance by oval cells of 1.5×0.8 m. Analysis of a 16S rRNA gene library, followed by whole-cell hybridization with group- and sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes showed that these cells belonged to a single phylotype, and were accounting for more than 80% of the total cell number. The dominant phylotype, affiliated with the Desulfosarcina-Desulfococcus cluster of the Deltaproteobacteria, is proposed to be responsible for the degradation of cyclohexane. Quantitative growth experiments showed that cyclohexane degradation was coupled with the stoichiometric reduction of sulfate to sulfide. Substrate response tests corroborated with hybridization with a sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe suggested that the dominant phylotype apparently was able to degrade other cyclic and n-alkanes, including the gaseous alkanes propane and n-butane. Based on GC-MS analyses of culture extracts cyclohexylsuccinate was identified as a metabolite, indicating an activation of cyclohexane by addition to fumarate. Other metabolites detected were 3-cyclohexylpropionate and cyclohexanecarboxylate providing evidence that the overall degradation pathway of cyclohexane under anoxic conditions is analogous to that of n-alkanes.

  5. Radiation-induced volatile hydrocarbon production in platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radha, E.; Vaishnav, Y.N.; Kumar, K.S.; Weiss, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    Generation of volatile hydrocarbons (ethane, pentane) as a measure of lipid peroxidation was followed in preparations from platelet-rich plasma irradiated in vitro. The hydrocarbons in the headspace of sealed vials containing irradiated and nonirradiated washed platelets, platelet-rich plasma, or platelet-poor plasma increased with time. The major hydrocarbon, pentane, increased linearly and significantly with increasing log radiation dose, suggesting that reactive oxygen species induced by ionizing radiation result in lipid peroxidation. Measurements of lipid peroxidation products may give an indication of suboptimal quality of stored and/or irradiated platelets

  6. Process for scavenging hydrogen sulfide from hydrocarbon gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, I.

    1981-01-01

    A process for scavenging hydrogen sulfide from hydrocarbon gases utilizes iron oxide particles of unique chemical and physical properties. These particles have large surface area, and are comprised substantially of amorphous Fe 2 O 3 containing a crystalline phase of Fe 2 O 3 , Fe 3 O 4 and combinations thereof. In scavenging hydrogen sulfide, the iron oxide particles are suspended in a liquid which enters into intimate mixing contact with hydrocarbon gases; the hydrogen sulfide is reacted at an exceptional rate and only acid-stable reaction products are formed. Thereafter, the sweetened hydrocarbon gases are collected

  7. Mobile geophysics for searching and exploration of Domanic hydrocarbon deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovsky, M. Ya; Uspensky, B. V.; Valeeva, S. E.; Borisov, A. S.

    2018-05-01

    There are noted features of shale hydrocarbons occurrence. It is shown the role of geophysical prospecting in the geological prospecting process for non-traditional sources of hydrocarbon. There are considered the possibilities of non-seismic methods for forecasting, prospecting, exploration and preparation of Domanikovian hydrocarbons accumulations for exploration. It is emphasized the need for geophysical studies of tectonic disturbances. Modern aerogeophysical instrumentation and methodological support allows to combine high-precision magneto-prospecting with gravimetric and gamma spectrometry. This combination of geophysical methods contributes to the diagnosis of active and latent faults.

  8. Hydrocarbon composition products of the catalytic recycling plastics waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaksyntay Kairbekov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents the IR spectroscopy results of the hydrocarbon composition of products, which is obtained from catalytic processing of plastic wastes. The optimal conditions for the hydrogenation with to producny liquid of products are identified.  These liquid products are enriched with aromatics, paraffinic- naphthenic and unsaturated hydrocarbons. The main characteristics of the distillates received by hydrogenation of plastics (as density, refractive index, iodine number, pour point, cloud point, filtering, sulfur content,  fractional and composition of the hydrocarbon group.

  9. Security in hybrid cloud computing

    OpenAIRE

    Koudelka, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the area of hybrid cloud computing, specifically with its security. The major aim of the thesis is to analyze and compare the chosen hybrid cloud providers. For the minor aim this thesis compares the security challenges of hybrid cloud as opponent to other deployment models. In order to accomplish said aims, this thesis defines the terms cloud computing and hybrid cloud computing in its theoretical part. Furthermore the security challenges for cloud computing a...

  10. Release and attenuation of fluorocarbons in landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2003-01-01

    Several halocarbons with very high global warming and ozone depleting potentials have been used as blowing agent for insulation foam in refrigerators and freezers. Many appliances are shredded after the end of their useful life. Release experiments carried out in the laboratory on insulation foam...... blown with CFC-11, HCFC-141b, HFC- 134a, and HFC-245fa revealed that most of the blowing agent is not released to the atmosphere during a six-week period following the shredding process. The fraction which is released in the six-week period is highly dependent on how fine the foam is shredded....... The residual blowing agent remaining after the six-week period may be very slowly released if the integrity of the foam particles with respect to diffusional properties is kept after disposal of the foam waste in landfills. Laboratory experiments simulating attenuation processes in the landfilled waste...

  11. 2-D Temperature Mapping in Fluorocarbon Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, Kristen L.; Sobolewski, Mark A.

    2005-09-01

    Two-dimensional maps of rotational temperature in CF4 plasmas were determined using planar laser-induced fluorescence measurements of CF A2Σ+ - X2Π (1,0). Rotational temperatures are expected to be in equilibrium with gas temperatures under the present conditions. Experiments were performed in a capacitively-coupled, parallel-plate reactor at pressures from 27 Pa to 107 Pa and powers of 10 W to 30 W. The effects of electrode cooling and having a wafer present were also examined. Measured temperatures ranged between 273 K±15 K and 480 K±15 K. The strong temperature gradients found in these plasmas can have serious effects on density measurements that probe a single rotational level, as well as on reaction rate constants and interpretation of density gradients.

  12. Hybrid Ventilation Air Flow Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    The scope of this annex is therefore to obtain better knowledge of the use of hybrid ventilation technologies. The annex focus on development of control strategies for hybrid ventilation, on development of methods to predict hybrid ventilation performance in office buildings and on implementation...

  13. Teelt van hybride wintertarwerassen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, R.D.; Paauw, J.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Om de mogelijkheden van de teelt van hybride wintertarwerassen onder Nederlandse omstandigheden in beeld te brengen zijn er van 2000-2002 proeven uitgevoerd op het PPO-proefbedrijf te Lelystad. In deze proeven zijn een 4-tal hybriderassen (Hybnos, Hyno-braba, Hyno-esta, Mercury) vergeleken met een

  14. Hybrid FSAE Vehicle Realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The goal of this multi-year project is to create a fully functional University of Idaho entry in the hybrid FSAE competition. Vehicle integration is underway as part of a variety of 2010-11 senior design projects. This leverages a variety of analytic...

  15. Electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Report characterizes state-of-the-art electric and hybrid (combined electric and heat engine) vehicles. Performance data for representative number of these vehicles were obtained from track and dynamometer tests. User experience information was obtained from fleet operators and individual owners of electric vehicles. Data on performance and physical characteristics of large number of vehicles were obtained from manufacturers and available literature.

  16. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Vivek; Tawfik, Magdy S.

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy concept is becoming a reality for the US energy infrastructure where combinations of the various potential energy sources (nuclear, wind, solar, biomass, and so on) are integrated in a hybrid energy system. This paper focuses on challenges facing a hybrid system with a Small Modular Reactor at its core. The core of the paper will discuss efforts required to develop supervisory control center that collects data, supports decision-making, and serves as an information hub for supervisory control center. Such a center will also be a model for integrating future technologies and controls. In addition, advanced operations research, thermal cycle analysis, energy conversion analysis, control engineering, and human factors engineering will be part of the supervisory control center. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure would allow operators to optimize the cost of energy production by providing appropriate means of integrating different energy sources. The data needs to be stored, processed, analyzed, trended, and projected at right time to right operator to integrate different energy sources.

  17. Hybridization of biomedical circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinard, G. A.

    1978-01-01

    The design and fabrication of low power hybrid circuits to perform vital signs monitoring are reported. The circuits consist of: (1) clock; (2) ECG amplifier and cardiotachometer signal conditioner; (3) impedance pneumobraph and respiration rate processor; (4) hear/breath rate processor; (5) temperature monitor; and (6) LCD display.

  18. Glueballs, Hybrids and Exotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, M. A.; Moreno, G.

    2006-09-01

    We comment on the physics analysis carried out by the Experimental High Energy Physics (EHEP) group of the Instituto de Fisica of the University of Guanajuato (IFUG), Mexico. In particular, this group has been involved in analysis carried out to search for glueball, hybrid and exotic candidates.

  19. Hybrid wars’ information component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Nevskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The war of the new generation - hybrid war, the information component which is directed not so much on the direct destruction of the enemy, how to achieve the goals without warfare. Fighting in the information field is no less important than immediate military action.

  20. Glueballs, Hybrids and Exotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, M. A.; Moreno, G.

    2006-01-01

    We comment on the physics analysis carried out by the Experimental High Energy Physics (EHEP) group of the Instituto de Fisica of the University of Guanajuato (IFUG), Mexico. In particular, this group has been involved in analysis carried out to search for glueball, hybrid and exotic candidates