WorldWideScience

Sample records for hybrid field-lab technique

  1. Protaper--hybrid technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Stephane; Lumley, Philip; Tomson, Phillip; Pertot, Wilhelm-Joseph; Machtou, Pierre

    2008-03-01

    Crown down preparation is the most known and described technique since the introduction of Nickel Titanium (NiTi) rotary instruments in endodontics. This technique gives good results but has limitations, such as not addressing the initial anatomy of oval or dumb-bell shaped canals. The specific design of the Protaper instruments allows use of them with a different technique and, specifically, with a brushing motion in the body of the canal. The recent introduction of hand Protaper files has expanded the range of application of this system, especially in curved canals. The 'hybrid technique', using rotary and hand files, and the advantages of the combination of both instruments, are clearly described in this article. Used with this technique, the Protaper is a very safe system to use, and more controllable, for both inexperienced and experienced practitioners alike, than other systems. To understand the precautions needed with rotary files, and how to use them to preserve the anatomy of the canal and get a tapered shaping, even in severely curved canals.

  2. A hybrid straightwire technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celli, Daniel; Catalfamo, Lorenza; Gasperoni, Enrico; Deli, Roberto

    2017-09-01

    An original straightwire appliance was developed in order to easily adapt force and friction to the different stages and needs of treatment. The appliance features: (1) conventional brackets with a 0.020×0.030″ slot in the anterior area, passive self-ligating brackets with a 0.022×0.030″ slot in the lateral area, and tubes with a 0.022×0.030″ slot in the molar area; (2) archwires which adapt to the different stages of treatment and increase their section and stiffness progressively, starting with 0.014″ superelastic NiTi, passing through 0.016×0.025″ and 0.019×0.025″ heat-activated NiTi and reaching 0.019×0.025″ stainless steel working archwires; (3) use of several ligation systems which progressively increase their binding (low-friction ligatures, "O"- or "8"-shape elastomeric ligatures). Clinical cases are shown to illustrate the technique. Copyright © 2017 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Weighted hybrid technique for recommender system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriati, S.; Dwiastuti, Meisyarah; Tulus, T.

    2017-12-01

    Recommender system becomes very popular and has important role in an information system or webpages nowadays. A recommender system tries to make a prediction of which item a user may like based on his activity on the system. There are some familiar techniques to build a recommender system, such as content-based filtering and collaborative filtering. Content-based filtering does not involve opinions from human to make the prediction, while collaborative filtering does, so collaborative filtering can predict more accurately. However, collaborative filtering cannot give prediction to items which have never been rated by any user. In order to cover the drawbacks of each approach with the advantages of other approach, both approaches can be combined with an approach known as hybrid technique. Hybrid technique used in this work is weighted technique in which the prediction score is combination linear of scores gained by techniques that are combined.The purpose of this work is to show how an approach of weighted hybrid technique combining content-based filtering and item-based collaborative filtering can work in a movie recommender system and to show the performance comparison when both approachare combined and when each approach works alone. There are three experiments done in this work, combining both techniques with different parameters. The result shows that the weighted hybrid technique that is done in this work does not really boost the performance up, but it helps to give prediction score for unrated movies that are impossible to be recommended by only using collaborative filtering.

  4. Hybrid chemical and nondestructive-analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsue, S.T.; Marsh, S.F.; Marks, T.

    1982-01-01

    A hybrid chemical/NDA technique has been applied at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to the assay of plutonium in ion-exchange effluents. Typical effluent solutions contain low concentrations of plutonium and high concentrations of americium. A simple trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) separation can remove 99.9% of the americium. The organic phase that contains the separated plutonium can be accurately assayed by monitoring the uranium L x-ray intensities

  5. Hybridized centroid technique for 3D Molodensky-Badekas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In view of this, the present study developed and tested two new hybrid centroid techniques known as the harmonic-quadratic mean and arithmetic-quadratic mean centroids. The proposed hybrid approaches were compared with the geometric mean, harmonic mean, median, quadratic mean and arithmetic mean. In addition ...

  6. Treatment of critical lower limb ischemia using a hybrid technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Wagner da Costa Moreira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Critical ischemia of a lower limb is a condition that threatens its viability and must be treated promptly to avoid major amputation. Revascularization is the most effective treatment method and is performed using surgical or endovascular techniques. For patients with thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms, combining these two approaches into a "hybrid technique" makes it possible to treat patients who could not be adequately treated by either technique in isolation. We report on a case of lower limb critical ischemia treated using a combination of surgery and endovascular techniques, in an application of the hybrid technique in a different arterial bed.

  7. A Hybrid Technique for Medical Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamgir Nyma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical image segmentation is an essential and challenging aspect in computer-aided diagnosis and also in pattern recognition research. This paper proposes a hybrid method for magnetic resonance (MR image segmentation. We first remove impulsive noise inherent in MR images by utilizing a vector median filter. Subsequently, Otsu thresholding is used as an initial coarse segmentation method that finds the homogeneous regions of the input image. Finally, an enhanced suppressed fuzzy c-means is used to partition brain MR images into multiple segments, which employs an optimal suppression factor for the perfect clustering in the given data set. To evaluate the robustness of the proposed approach in noisy environment, we add different types of noise and different amount of noise to T1-weighted brain MR images. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms other FCM based algorithms in terms of segmentation accuracy for both noise-free and noise-inserted MR images.

  8. Hybrid hydrogels produced by ionizing radiation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.J.A.; Amato, V.S.; Lugão, A.B.; Parra, D.F.

    2012-01-01

    The interest in biocompatible hydrogels with particular properties has increased considerably in recent years due to their versatile applications in biomedicine, biotechnology, pharmacy, agriculture and controlled release of drugs. The use of hydrogels matrices for particular drug-release applications has been investigated with the synthesis of modified polymeric hydrogel of PVAl and 0.5, 1.0, 1.5% nano-clay. They were processed using gamma radiation from Cobalt-60 source at 25 kGy dose. The characterization of the hydrogels was conducted and toxicity was evaluated. The dried hydrogel was analyzed for thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and swelling in solutions of different pH. The membranes have no toxicity. The nano-clay influences directly the equilibrium swelling. - Highlights: ► Chemical interaction is observed when nanoclay is irradiated in PVAl hybrid hydrogels. ► Osmotic pressure within network promotes the rehydration capacity of the membranes. ► This effect is an important characteristic for hydrogels drug delivery systems.

  9. Sensitivity analysis of hybrid thermoelastic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.A. Samad; J.M. Considine

    2017-01-01

    Stress functions have been used as a complementary tool to support experimental techniques, such as thermoelastic stress analysis (TSA) and digital image correlation (DIC), in an effort to evaluate the complete and separate full-field stresses of loaded structures. The need for such coupling between experimental data and stress functions is due to the fact that...

  10. New hybrid technique for impulsive noise suppression in OFDM systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, A.; Zeb, A.; Sheikh, S.A.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a new hybrid technique employing RS (Reed Solomon) coding and adaptive filter for impulsive noise suppression in OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) systems is presented. Adaptive filter creates a more accurate estimate of the original OFDM signal after impulsive noise cancellation. The residual impulsive noise is further mitigated by RS decoder in the second stage of proposed technique. Three members of adaptive filters family i.e. NLMS (Normalized Least Mean Square) algorithm, RLS (Recursive Least Square) algorithm and Bhagyashri algorithm are tested with RS decoder in the proposed hybrid technique. Furthermore, the results in terms of steady state MSE (Mean Square Error) reduction, BER (Bit Error Rate) improvement and SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) enhancement confirm the effectiveness of the proposed dual faceted technique when compared with the recently reported techniques in literature. (author)

  11. Bonding techniques for hybrid active pixel sensors (HAPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigas, M. [Centre Nacional de Microelectronica, CNM-IMB (CSIC), Campus Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: Marc.Bigas@cnm.es; Cabruja, E. [Centre Nacional de Microelectronica, CNM-IMB (CSIC), Campus Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: Enric.Cabruja@cnm.es; Lozano, M. [Centre Nacional de Microelectronica, CNM-IMB (CSIC), Campus Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-05-01

    A hybrid active pixel sensor (HAPS) consists of an array of sensing elements which is connected to an electronic read-out unit. The most used way to connect these two different devices is bump bonding. This interconnection technique is very suitable for these systems because it allows a very fine pitch and a high number of I/Os. However, there are other interconnection techniques available such as direct bonding. This paper, as a continuation of a review [M. Lozano, E. Cabruja, A. Collado, J. Santander, M. Ullan, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 473 (1-2) (2001) 95-101] published in 2001, presents an update of the different advanced bonding techniques available for manufacturing a hybrid active pixel detector.

  12. A hybrid perturbation-Galerkin technique for partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geer, James F.; Anderson, Carl M.

    1990-01-01

    A two-step hybrid perturbation-Galerkin technique for improving the usefulness of perturbation solutions to partial differential equations which contain a parameter is presented and discussed. In the first step of the method, the leading terms in the asymptotic expansion(s) of the solution about one or more values of the perturbation parameter are obtained using standard perturbation methods. In the second step, the perturbation functions obtained in the first step are used as trial functions in a Bubnov-Galerkin approximation. This semi-analytical, semi-numerical hybrid technique appears to overcome some of the drawbacks of the perturbation and Galerkin methods when they are applied by themselves, while combining some of the good features of each. The technique is illustrated first by a simple example. It is then applied to the problem of determining the flow of a slightly compressible fluid past a circular cylinder and to the problem of determining the shape of a free surface due to a sink above the surface. Solutions obtained by the hybrid method are compared with other approximate solutions, and its possible application to certain problems associated with domain decomposition is discussed.

  13. Hybrid Technique of Lamellar Keratoplasty (DMEK-S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Studeny

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes of the hybrid technique of posterior lamellar keratoplasty (DMEK-S. Materials and Methods: 71 eyes of 55 patients enrolled in a single-center study underwent posterior lamellar keratoplasty with a hybrid lamella DMEK-S implanted using a solution implantation technique, owing to endothelial dysfunction. The outcome measures studied were visual acuity and endothelial cell density. Results: The rate of endothelial cell loss caused by surgery was 43.8%. During followups, we observed the stabilization of postoperative findings, or at minimum a very low rate of corneal endothelial cell loss. The UCDVA and BCDVA dramatically improved postoperatively. The rebubbling rate in our group of patients was 61.9%. We replaced the lamella due to its failure or malfunction in 17 patients (23.9%. Conclusion: In summary, DMEK-S combines the advantages of DSEK/DSAEK and DMEK. The central zone of bare Descemet’s membrane and endothelium allows for very good visual outcomes, and the peripheral rim allows for better manipulation of the lamella during implantation. It is an effective method of treating the endothelial dysfunction of various etiologies, but the high complication rate needs to be addressed before widespread implementation of the technique in the future.

  14. An Adaptive Hybrid Multiprocessor technique for bioinformatics sequence alignment

    KAUST Repository

    Bonny, Talal

    2012-07-28

    Sequence alignment algorithms such as the Smith-Waterman algorithm are among the most important applications in the development of bioinformatics. Sequence alignment algorithms must process large amounts of data which may take a long time. Here, we introduce our Adaptive Hybrid Multiprocessor technique to accelerate the implementation of the Smith-Waterman algorithm. Our technique utilizes both the graphics processing unit (GPU) and the central processing unit (CPU). It adapts to the implementation according to the number of CPUs given as input by efficiently distributing the workload between the processing units. Using existing resources (GPU and CPU) in an efficient way is a novel approach. The peak performance achieved for the platforms GPU + CPU, GPU + 2CPUs, and GPU + 3CPUs is 10.4 GCUPS, 13.7 GCUPS, and 18.6 GCUPS, respectively (with the query length of 511 amino acid). © 2010 IEEE.

  15. Supersonic impinging jet noise reduction using a hybrid control technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Alex; Kumar, Rajan

    2015-07-01

    Control of the highly resonant flowfield associated with supersonic impinging jet has been experimentally investigated. Measurements were made in the supersonic impinging jet facility at the Florida State University for a Mach 1.5 ideally expanded jet. Measurements included unsteady pressures on a surface plate near the nozzle exit, acoustics in the nearfield and beneath the impingement plane, and velocity field using particle image velocimetry. Both passive control using porous surface and active control with high momentum microjet injection are effective in reducing nearfield noise and flow unsteadiness over a range of geometrical parameters; however, the type of noise reduction achieved by the two techniques is different. The passive control reduces broadband noise whereas microjet injection attenuates high amplitude impinging tones. The hybrid control, a combination of two control methods, reduces both broadband and high amplitude impinging tones and surprisingly its effectiveness is more that the additive effect of the two control techniques. The flow field measurements show that with hybrid control the impinging jet is stabilized and the turbulence quantities such as streamwise turbulence intensity, transverse turbulence intensity and turbulent shear stress are significantly reduced.

  16. A hybrid Pade-Galerkin technique for differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geer, James F.; Andersen, Carl M.

    1993-01-01

    A three-step hybrid analysis technique, which successively uses the regular perturbation expansion method, the Pade expansion method, and then a Galerkin approximation, is presented and applied to some model boundary value problems. In the first step of the method, the regular perturbation method is used to construct an approximation to the solution in the form of a finite power series in a small parameter epsilon associated with the problem. In the second step of the method, the series approximation obtained in step one is used to construct a Pade approximation in the form of a rational function in the parameter epsilon. In the third step, the various powers of epsilon which appear in the Pade approximation are replaced by new (unknown) parameters (delta(sub j)). These new parameters are determined by requiring that the residual formed by substituting the new approximation into the governing differential equation is orthogonal to each of the perturbation coordinate functions used in step one. The technique is applied to model problems involving ordinary or partial differential equations. In general, the technique appears to provide good approximations to the solution even when the perturbation and Pade approximations fail to do so. The method is discussed and topics for future investigations are indicated.

  17. PEAK-TO-AVERAGE POWER RATIO REDUCTION USING CODING AND HYBRID TECHNIQUES FOR OFDM SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Bahubali K. Shiragapur; Uday Wali

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the research work investigated is based on an error correction coding techniques are used to reduce the undesirable Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) quantity. The Golay Code (24, 12), Reed-Muller code (16, 11), Hamming code (7, 4) and Hybrid technique (Combination of Signal Scrambling and Signal Distortion) proposed by us are used as proposed coding techniques, the simulation results shows that performance of Hybrid technique, reduces PAPR significantly as compared to Conve...

  18. Techniques of DNA hybridization detect small numbers of mycobacteria with no cross-hybridization with non-mycobacterial respiratory organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoemaker, S.A.; Fisher, J.H.; Scoggin, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    The traditional methods used in identifying mycobacteria, such as acid-fast bacillus stains and culture, are often time-consuming, insensitive, and nonspecific. As part of an ongoing program to improve diagnosis and characterization of mycobacteria, the authors have found that deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) hybridization techniques using isotopically labeled, single-stranded, total DNA can be used to detect as little as 10(-4) micrograms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb) DNA. This amount of DNA represents approximately 2 X 10(4) genomes. They have also shown the MTb DNA is sufficiently different from the DNA of non-mycobacterial microorganisms such that cross-hybridization with MTb DNA does not occur under the hybridization conditions employed. The authors speculate that DNA hybridization techniques may allow the rapid, sensitive, and specific identification of mycobacteria

  19. A Hybrid Islanding Detection Technique Using Average Rate of Voltage Change and Real Power Shift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahat, Pukar; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    The mainly used islanding detection techniques may be classified as active and passive techniques. Passive techniques don't perturb the system but they have larger nondetection znes, whereas active techniques have smaller nondetection zones but they perturb the system. In this paper, a new hybrid...... technique is proposed to solve this problem. An average rate of voltage change (passive technique) has been used to initiate a real power shift (active technique), which changes the eal power of distributed generation (DG), when the passive technique cannot have a clear discrimination between islanding...

  20. A New Generic Taxonomy on Hybrid Malware Detection Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Robiah, Y.; Rahayu, S. Siti; Zaki, M. Mohd; Shahrin, S.; Faizal, M. A.; Marliza, R.

    2009-01-01

    Malware is a type of malicious program that replicate from host machine and propagate through network. It has been considered as one type of computer attack and intrusion that can do a variety of malicious activity on a computer. This paper addresses the current trend of malware detection techniques and identifies the significant criteria in each technique to improve malware detection in Intrusion Detection System (IDS). Several existing techniques are analyzing from 48 various researches and...

  1. Resizing Technique-Based Hybrid Genetic Algorithm for Optimal Drift Design of Multistory Steel Frame Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Seon Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since genetic algorithm-based optimization methods are computationally expensive for practical use in the field of structural optimization, a resizing technique-based hybrid genetic algorithm for the drift design of multistory steel frame buildings is proposed to increase the convergence speed of genetic algorithms. To reduce the number of structural analyses required for the convergence, a genetic algorithm is combined with a resizing technique that is an efficient optimal technique to control the drift of buildings without the repetitive structural analysis. The resizing technique-based hybrid genetic algorithm proposed in this paper is applied to the minimum weight design of three steel frame buildings. To evaluate the performance of the algorithm, optimum weights, computational times, and generation numbers from the proposed algorithm are compared with those from a genetic algorithm. Based on the comparisons, it is concluded that the hybrid genetic algorithm shows clear improvements in convergence properties.

  2. High performance technique for database applicationsusing a hybrid GPU/CPU platform

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.; Bonny, Talal; Salama, Khaled N.

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid GPU/CPU platform. In particular, our technique solves the problem of the low efficiency result- ing from running short-length sequences in a database on a GPU. To verify our technique, we applied it to the widely used Smith-Waterman algorithm

  3. Hybrid simulation techniques applied to the earth's bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winske, D.; Leroy, M. M.

    1985-01-01

    The application of a hybrid simulation model, in which the ions are treated as discrete particles and the electrons as a massless charge-neutralizing fluid, to the study of the earth's bow shock is discussed. The essentials of the numerical methods are described in detail; movement of the ions, solution of the electromagnetic fields and electron fluid equations, and imposition of appropriate boundary and initial conditions. Examples of results of calculations for perpendicular shocks are presented which demonstrate the need for a kinetic treatment of the ions to reproduce the correct ion dynamics and the corresponding shock structure. Results for oblique shocks are also presented to show how the magnetic field and ion motion differ from the perpendicular case.

  4. Enhanced Electric Power Transmission by Hybrid Compensation Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palanichamy, C; Kiu, G Q

    2015-01-01

    In today's competitive environment, new power system engineers are likely to contribute immediately to the task, without years of seasoning via on-the-job training, mentoring, and rotation assignments. At the same time it is becoming obligatory to train power system engineering graduates for an increasingly quality-minded corporate environment. In order to achieve this, there is a need to make available better-quality tools for educating and training power system engineering students and in-service system engineers too. As a result of the swift advances in computer hardware and software, many windows-based computer software packages were developed for the purpose of educating and training. In line with those packages, a simulation package called Hybrid Series-Shunt Compensators (HSSC) has been developed and presented in this paper for educational purposes. (paper)

  5. Constrained Optimization Based on Hybrid Evolutionary Algorithm and Adaptive Constraint-Handling Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yong; Cai, Zixing; Zhou, Yuren

    2009-01-01

    A novel approach to deal with numerical and engineering constrained optimization problems, which incorporates a hybrid evolutionary algorithm and an adaptive constraint-handling technique, is presented in this paper. The hybrid evolutionary algorithm simultaneously uses simplex crossover and two...... mutation operators to generate the offspring population. Additionally, the adaptive constraint-handling technique consists of three main situations. In detail, at each situation, one constraint-handling mechanism is designed based on current population state. Experiments on 13 benchmark test functions...... and four well-known constrained design problems verify the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method. The experimental results show that integrating the hybrid evolutionary algorithm with the adaptive constraint-handling technique is beneficial, and the proposed method achieves competitive...

  6. PEAK-TO-AVERAGE POWER RATIO REDUCTION USING CODING AND HYBRID TECHNIQUES FOR OFDM SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahubali K. Shiragapur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the research work investigated is based on an error correction coding techniques are used to reduce the undesirable Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR quantity. The Golay Code (24, 12, Reed-Muller code (16, 11, Hamming code (7, 4 and Hybrid technique (Combination of Signal Scrambling and Signal Distortion proposed by us are used as proposed coding techniques, the simulation results shows that performance of Hybrid technique, reduces PAPR significantly as compared to Conventional and Modified Selective mapping techniques. The simulation results are validated through statistical properties, for proposed technique’s autocorrelation value is maximum shows reduction in PAPR. The symbol preference is the key idea to reduce PAPR based on Hamming distance. The simulation results are discussed in detail, in this article.

  7. A Hybrid MCDM Technique for Risk Management in Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajal Chatterjee

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Multi-stakeholder based construction projects are subject to potential risk factors due to dynamic business environment and stakeholders’ lack of knowledge. When solving project management tasks, it is necessary to quantify the main risk indicators of the projects. Managing these requires suitable risk mitigation strategies to evaluate and analyse their severity. The existence of information asymmetry also causes difficulties with achieving Pareto efficiency. Hence, to ensure balanced satisfaction of all participants, risk evaluation of these projects can be considered as an important part of the multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM process. In real-life problems, evaluation of project risks is often uncertain and even incomplete, and the prevailing methodologies fail to handle such situations. To address the problem, this paper extends the analytical network process (ANP methodology in the D numbers domain to handle three types of ambiguous information’s, viz. complete, uncertain, and incomplete, and assesses the weight of risk criteria. The D numbers based approach overcomes the deficiencies of the exclusiveness hypothesis and completeness constraint of Dempster–Shafer (D–S theory. Here, preference ratings of the decision matrix for each decision-maker are determined using a D numbers extended consistent fuzzy preference relation (D-CFPR. An extended multi-attributive border approximation area comparison (MABAC method in D numbers is then developed to rank and select the best alternative risk response strategy. Finally, an illustrative example from construction sector is presented to check the feasibility of the proposed approach. For checking the reliability of alternative ranking, a comparative analysis is performed with different MCDM approaches in D numbers domain. Based on different criteria weights, a sensitivity analysis of obtained ranking of the hybrid D-ANP-MABAC model is performed to verify the robustness of the proposed

  8. Brain tumor segmentation based on a hybrid clustering technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Abdel-Maksoud

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents an efficient image segmentation approach using K-means clustering technique integrated with Fuzzy C-means algorithm. It is followed by thresholding and level set segmentation stages to provide an accurate brain tumor detection. The proposed technique can get benefits of the K-means clustering for image segmentation in the aspects of minimal computation time. In addition, it can get advantages of the Fuzzy C-means in the aspects of accuracy. The performance of the proposed image segmentation approach was evaluated by comparing it with some state of the art segmentation algorithms in case of accuracy, processing time, and performance. The accuracy was evaluated by comparing the results with the ground truth of each processed image. The experimental results clarify the effectiveness of our proposed approach to deal with a higher number of segmentation problems via improving the segmentation quality and accuracy in minimal execution time.

  9. Implementation of the Fluorescent in Situ Hybridization technique in the Faculty of Medicine, UdelaR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cairus

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Cytogenetic Laboratory of the Faculty of Medicine processes, on average, 300 annual samples of public and private healthcare centers by conventional cytogenetics. It is essential to implement new techniques to improve the quality of the service offered. The purpose of this work was to implement the Fluorescent in situ Hybridization technique (FISH. An observational, cross-sectional, analytical study was performed. Peripheral blood samples from patients with sex chromosomopathies diagnosed by conventional cytogenetics were analyzed. Fluorescent in situ hybridization technique was applied, comparing results with FISH and with conventional cytogenetics. The percentage of mosaicism detected by conventional cytogenetics and Fluorescent in situ Hybridization was studied: 24 samples were analyzed; 19 presented numerical alterations, 3 structural and 2 both. Numerical alterations were Turner syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, XXX syndrome and XYY syndrome. Concordance in diagnoses was found for both techniques. For Turner syndrome, 8 of 12 samples corresponded to mosaicism, and there were no significant differences between conventional cytogenetics and the technique studied (p0.05. Klinefelter syndrome and XYY were both presented in a non-mosaic karyotype. For XXX syndrome, a normal line (46, XX was observed in three of the samples, in a percentage close to the cut off. From this research, it will be possible to implement Fluorescent in situ Hybridization in this service, to extend it to other pathologies and to enable the training of human resources; consolidating this laboratory as a national academic reference center.

  10. Novel Damage Detection Techniques for Structural Health Monitoring Using a Hybrid Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengjiang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a technique for detecting fatigue cracks based on a hybrid sensor monitoring system consisting of a combination of intelligent coating monitoring (ICM and piezoelectric transducer (PZT sensors. An experimental procedure using this hybrid sensor system was designed to monitor the cracks generated by fatigue testing in plate structures. A probability of detection (POD model that quantifies the reliability of damage detection for a specific sensor or the nondestructive testing (NDT method was used to evaluate the weight factor for the ICM and PZT sensors. To estimate the uncertainty of model parameters in this study, the Bayesian method was employed. Realistic data from fatigue testing was used to validate the overall method, and the results show that the novel damage detection technique using a hybrid sensor can quantify fatigue cracks more accurately than results obtained by conventional sensor methods.

  11. A Hybrid Neural Network-Genetic Algorithm Technique for Aircraft Engine Performance Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a model-based diagnostic method, which utilizes Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithms, is investigated. Neural networks are applied to estimate the engine internal health, and Genetic Algorithms are applied for sensor bias detection and estimation. This hybrid approach takes advantage of the nonlinear estimation capability provided by neural networks while improving the robustness to measurement uncertainty through the application of Genetic Algorithms. The hybrid diagnostic technique also has the ability to rank multiple potential solutions for a given set of anomalous sensor measurements in order to reduce false alarms and missed detections. The performance of the hybrid diagnostic technique is evaluated through some case studies derived from a turbofan engine simulation. The results show this approach is promising for reliable diagnostics of aircraft engines.

  12. Safety Assessment of Two Hybrid Instrumentation Techniques in a Dental Student Endodontic Clinic: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Marcelo Santos; Card, Steven John; Tawil, Peter Zahi

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively assess the safety potential of a hybrid technique combining nickel-titanium (NiTi) reciprocating and rotary instruments by third- and fourth-year dental students in the predoctoral endodontics clinic at one U.S. dental school. For the study, 3,194 root canal treatments performed by 317 dental students from 2012 through 2015 were evaluated for incidence of ledge creation and instrument separation. The hybrid reciprocating and rotary technique (RRT) consisted of a glide path creation with stainless steel hand files up to size 15/02, a crown down preparation with a NiTi reciprocating instrument, and an apical preparation with NiTi rotary instruments. The control was a traditional rotary and hand technique (RHT) that consisted of the same glide path procedure followed by a crown down preparation with NiTi rotary instruments and an apical preparation with NiTi hand instruments. The results showed that the RHT technique presented a rate of ledge creation of 1.4% per root and the RRT technique was 0.5% per root (protary technique for root canal instrumentation by these dental students provided good safety. This hybrid technique offered a low rate of ledge creation along with no NiTi instrument separation.

  13. High performance technique for database applicationsusing a hybrid GPU/CPU platform

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.

    2012-07-28

    Many database applications, such as sequence comparing, sequence searching, and sequence matching, etc, process large database sequences. we introduce a novel and efficient technique to improve the performance of database applica- tions by using a Hybrid GPU/CPU platform. In particular, our technique solves the problem of the low efficiency result- ing from running short-length sequences in a database on a GPU. To verify our technique, we applied it to the widely used Smith-Waterman algorithm. The experimental results show that our Hybrid GPU/CPU technique improves the average performance by a factor of 2.2, and improves the peak performance by a factor of 2.8 when compared to earlier implementations. Copyright © 2011 by ASME.

  14. Development of a hybrid strength training technique for paretic lower-limb muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennett, T. L.; Glaser, R. M.; Janssen, T. W J; Couch, W. P.; Herr, C. J.; Almeyda, J. W.; Petrofsky, S. H.; Akuthota, P.

    1996-01-01

    A hybrid resistance exercise technique for strength training of patients with lower-limb paresis was developed. It consists of electrical stimulation-induced contractions (ESIC) superimposed on voluntary contractions to increase recruitment of motor units and the functional load capability of

  15. Solving Linear Equations by Classical Jacobi-SR Based Hybrid Evolutionary Algorithm with Uniform Adaptation Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Jamali, R. M. Jalal Uddin; Hashem, M. M. A.; Hasan, M. Mahfuz; Rahman, Md. Bazlar

    2013-01-01

    Solving a set of simultaneous linear equations is probably the most important topic in numerical methods. For solving linear equations, iterative methods are preferred over the direct methods especially when the coefficient matrix is sparse. The rate of convergence of iteration method is increased by using Successive Relaxation (SR) technique. But SR technique is very much sensitive to relaxation factor, {\\omega}. Recently, hybridization of classical Gauss-Seidel based successive relaxation t...

  16. The Metal-Zirconia Implant Fixed Hybrid Full-Arch Prosthesis: An Alternative Technique for Fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpel, Lambert J; Haechler, Walter

    2018-03-01

    The metal-resin hybrid full-arch prosthesis has been a traditionally used type of restoration for full-arch implant fixed dentures. A newer development has centered around the use of monolithic zirconia or zirconia veneered with porcelain. Being a ceramic, zirconia has the potential for fracture. This article describes a technique that utilizes a metal substructure to support a chemically and mechanically resinbonded shell of zirconia. The workflow is discussed, ranging from in-office master cast fabrication to the CAD/ CAM production of the provisional and the definitive metal-zirconia prosthesis. The article also highlights the advantages and disadvantages of various materials used for hybrid prostheses.

  17. Locomotion training of legged robots using hybrid machine learning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, William E.; Doerschuk, Peggy I.; Zhang, Wen-Ran; Li, Andrew L.

    1995-01-01

    In this study artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic are used to control the jumping behavior of a three-link uniped robot. The biped locomotion control problem is an increment of the uniped locomotion control. Study of legged locomotion dynamics indicates that a hierarchical controller is required to control the behavior of a legged robot. A structured control strategy is suggested which includes navigator, motion planner, biped coordinator and uniped controllers. A three-link uniped robot simulation is developed to be used as the plant. Neurocontrollers were trained both online and offline. In the case of on-line training, a reinforcement learning technique was used to train the neurocontroller to make the robot jump to a specified height. After several hundred iterations of training, the plant output achieved an accuracy of 7.4%. However, when jump distance and body angular momentum were also included in the control objectives, training time became impractically long. In the case of off-line training, a three-layered backpropagation (BP) network was first used with three inputs, three outputs and 15 to 40 hidden nodes. Pre-generated data were presented to the network with a learning rate as low as 0.003 in order to reach convergence. The low learning rate required for convergence resulted in a very slow training process which took weeks to learn 460 examples. After training, performance of the neurocontroller was rather poor. Consequently, the BP network was replaced by a Cerebeller Model Articulation Controller (CMAC) network. Subsequent experiments described in this document show that the CMAC network is more suitable to the solution of uniped locomotion control problems in terms of both learning efficiency and performance. A new approach is introduced in this report, viz., a self-organizing multiagent cerebeller model for fuzzy-neural control of uniped locomotion is suggested to improve training efficiency. This is currently being evaluated for a possible

  18. Cleaning capacity of hybrid instrumentation technique using reamer with alternating cutting edges system files: Histological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Carlos Sponchiado Junior

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the following study is to evaluate the cleaning capacity of a hybrid instrumentation technique using Reamer with Alternating Cutting Edges (RaCe system files in the apical third of mesial roots of mandibular molars. Materials and Methods: Twenty teeth were selected and separated into two groups (n = 20 according to instrumentation technique as follows: BioRaCe - chemomechanical preparation with K-type files #10 and #15; and files BioRaCe BR0, BR1, BR2, BR3, and BR4; HybTec - hybrid instrumentation technique with K-type files #10 and #15 in the working length, #20 at 2 mm, #25 at 3 mm, cervical preparation with Largo burs #1 and #2; apical preparation with K-type files #15, #20, and #25 and RaCe files #25.04 and #30.04. The root canals were irrigated with 1 ml of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite at each change of instrument. The specimens were histologically processed and photographed under light optical microscope. The images were inserted onto an integration grid to count the amount of debris present in the root canal. Results: BioRaCe presented the highest percentage of debris in the apical third, however, with no statistically significant difference for HybTec (P > 0.05. Conclusions: The hybrid technique presented similar cleaning capacity as the technique recommended by the manufacturer.

  19. A Standalone PV System with a Hybrid P&O MPPT Optimization Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hota

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a maximum power point tracking (MPPT design for a photovoltaic (PV system using a hybrid optimization technique is proposed. For maximum power transfer, maximum harvestable power from a PV cell in a dynamically changing surrounding should be known. The proposed technique is compared with the conventional Perturb and Observe (P&O technique. A comparative analysis of power-voltage and current-voltage characteristics of a PV cell with and without the MPPT module when connected to the grid was performed in SIMULINK, to demonstrate the increment in the efficiency of the PV module after using the MPPT module.

  20. Combined amplification and hybridization techniques for genome scanning in vegetatively propagated crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahl, G; Ramser, J; Terauchi, R [Biocentre, University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Lopez-Peralta, C [IRGP, Colegio de Postgraduados, Montecillo, Edo. de Mexico, Texcoco (Mexico); Asemota, H N [Biotechnology Centre, University of the West Indies, Mona, Kingston (Jamaica); Weising, K [School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand)

    1998-10-01

    A combination of PCR- and hybridization-based genome scanning techniques and sequence comparisons between non-coding chloroplast DNA flanking tRNA genes has been employed to screen Dioscorea species for intra- and interspecific genetic diversity. This methodology detected extensive polymorphisms within Dioscorea bulbifera L., and revealed taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships among cultivated Guinea yams varieties and their potential wild progenitors. Finally, screening of yam germplasm grown in Jamaica permitted reliable discrimination between all major cultivars. Genome scanning by micro satellite-primed PCR (MP-PCR) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis in combination with the novel random amplified micro satellite polymorphisms (RAMPO) hybridization technique has shown high potential for the genetic analysis of yams, and holds promise for other vegetatively propagated orphan crops. (author) 46 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  1. Combined amplification and hybridization techniques for genome scanning in vegetatively propagated crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahl, G.; Ramser, J.; Terauchi, R.; Lopez-Peralta, C.; Asemota, H.N.; Weising, K.

    1998-01-01

    A combination of PCR- and hybridization-based genome scanning techniques and sequence comparisons between non-coding chloroplast DNA flanking tRNA genes has been employed to screen Dioscorea species for intra- and interspecific genetic diversity. This methodology detected extensive polymorphisms within Dioscorea bulbifera L., and revealed taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships among cultivated Guinea yams varieties and their potential wild progenitors. Finally, screening of yam germplasm grown in Jamaica permitted reliable discrimination between all major cultivars. Genome scanning by micro satellite-primed PCR (MP-PCR) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis in combination with the novel random amplified micro satellite polymorphisms (RAMPO) hybridization technique has shown high potential for the genetic analysis of yams, and holds promise for other vegetatively propagated orphan crops. (author)

  2. Novel Hybrid Scheduling Technique for Sensor Nodes with Mixed Criticality Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micea, Mihai-Victor; Stangaciu, Cristina-Sorina; Stangaciu, Valentin; Curiac, Daniel-Ioan

    2017-06-26

    Sensor networks become increasingly a key technology for complex control applications. Their potential use in safety- and time-critical domains has raised the need for task scheduling mechanisms specially adapted to sensor node specific requirements, often materialized in predictable jitter-less execution of tasks characterized by different criticality levels. This paper offers an efficient scheduling solution, named Hybrid Hard Real-Time Scheduling (H²RTS), which combines a static, clock driven method with a dynamic, event driven scheduling technique, in order to provide high execution predictability, while keeping a high node Central Processing Unit (CPU) utilization factor. From the detailed, integrated schedulability analysis of the H²RTS, a set of sufficiency tests are introduced and demonstrated based on the processor demand and linear upper bound metrics. The performance and correct behavior of the proposed hybrid scheduling technique have been extensively evaluated and validated both on a simulator and on a sensor mote equipped with ARM7 microcontroller.

  3. Electricity market price spike analysis by a hybrid data model and feature selection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjady, Nima; Keynia, Farshid

    2010-01-01

    In a competitive electricity market, energy price forecasting is an important activity for both suppliers and consumers. For this reason, many techniques have been proposed to predict electricity market prices in the recent years. However, electricity price is a complex volatile signal owning many spikes. Most of electricity price forecast techniques focus on the normal price prediction, while price spike forecast is a different and more complex prediction process. Price spike forecasting has two main aspects: prediction of price spike occurrence and value. In this paper, a novel technique for price spike occurrence prediction is presented composed of a new hybrid data model, a novel feature selection technique and an efficient forecast engine. The hybrid data model includes both wavelet and time domain variables as well as calendar indicators, comprising a large candidate input set. The set is refined by the proposed feature selection technique evaluating both relevancy and redundancy of the candidate inputs. The forecast engine is a probabilistic neural network, which are fed by the selected candidate inputs of the feature selection technique and predict price spike occurrence. The efficiency of the whole proposed method for price spike occurrence forecasting is evaluated by means of real data from the Queensland and PJM electricity markets. (author)

  4. Improved Image Encryption for Real-Time Application over Wireless Communication Networks using Hybrid Cryptography Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazeem B. Adedeji

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in communication networks have enabled organization to send confidential data such as digital images over wireless networks. However, the broadcast nature of wireless communication channel has made it vulnerable to attack from eavesdroppers. We have developed a hybrid cryptography technique, and we present its application to digital images as a means of improving the security of digital image for transmission over wireless communication networks. The hybrid technique uses a combination of a symmetric (Data Encryption Standard and asymmetric (Rivest Shamir Adleman cryptographic algorithms to secure data to be transmitted between different nodes of a wireless network. Three different image samples of type jpeg, png and jpg were tested using this technique. The results obtained showed that the hybrid system encrypt the images with minimal simulation time, and high throughput. More importantly, there is no relation or information between the original images and their encrypted form, according to Shannon’s definition of perfect security, thereby making the system much more secure.

  5. Surgical technique for en bloc transurethral resection of bladder tumour with a Hybrid Knife(®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islas-García, J J O; Campos-Salcedo, J G; López-Benjume, B I; Torres-Gómez, J J; Aguilar-Colmenero, J; Martínez-Alonso, I A; Gil-Villa, S A

    2016-05-01

    Bladder cancer is the second most common malignancy of the urinary tract and the 9th worldwide. Latin American has an incidence of 5.6 per 100,000 inhabitants per year. Seventy-five percent of newly diagnosed cases are nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer, and 25% of cases present as muscle invasive. The mainstay of treatment for nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer is loop transurethral resection. In 2013, the group led by Dr Mundhenk of the University Hospital of Tübingen, Germany, was the first to describe the Hybrid Knife(®) equipment for performing en bloc bladder tumour resection, with favourable functional and oncological results. To describe the surgical technique of en bloc bladder tumour resection with a Hybrid Knife(®) as an alternative treatment for nonmuscle invasive bladder tumours. A male patient was diagnosed by urotomography and urethrocystoscopy with a bladder tumour measuring 2×1cm on the floor. En bloc transurethral resection of the bladder tumour was performed with a Hybrid Knife(®). Surgery was performed for 35min, with 70 watts for cutting and 50 watts for coagulation, resecting and evacuating en bloc the bladder tumour, which macroscopically included the muscle layer of the bladder. There were no complications. The technique of en bloc bladder tumour resection with Hybrid Knife(®) is an effective alternative to bipolar loop transurethral resection. Resection with a Hybrid Knife(®) is a procedure with little bleeding and good surgical vision and minimises the risk of bladder perforation and tumour implants. The procedure facilitates determining the positivity of the neoplastic process, vascular infiltration and bladder muscle invasion in the histopathology study. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Contrast-Enhanced MR Angiography (CEMRA) in Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease (PAOD): conventional moving table technique versus hybrid technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalle, T. von; Gerlach, A.; Hatopp, A.; Klinger, S.; Prodehl, P.; Arlat, I.P.

    2004-01-01

    Patients and Methods: 80 patients (males n = 60, females n = 20, median age = 70 years, diabetics n = 27) with PAOD were examined with a 1,5T system (40 mT/m) using a dedicated phased array peripheral vascular coil. Protocol A consisted of a single injection of Gd-BOPTA with consecutive craniocaudal image acquisition and protocol B of two injections, with the first injection of Gd-BOPTA followed by image acquisition of the popliteocrural and pedal segments and the second injection followed by acquiring the aortoiliac and femoral segments (hybrid technique). The evaluation of the arterial system was directed to the iliac, femoral, popliteocrural and pedal arteries. Results: The visualization of the entire aortopedal vascular system was of diagnostically good or satisfactory quality in 16 of 40 patients using protocol A and in 29 of 40 patients using protocol B (iliac 40 vs. 37, femoral 40 vs. 40, popliteocrural 35 vs. 37, pedal 16 vs. 29); without the pedal station the number increased to 35 of 40 patients for both protocols. The reason of diagnostic limitations was an arteriovenous overlap in 24 of 80 cases, with 19 of 40 cases for protocol A and 5 of 40 for protocol B, located exclusively in the cruropedal region. Conclusion: Moving table hybrid CEMRA is superior to conventional technique in craniocaudal direction by producing less venous overlap of arteries and is especially more suitable for the diagnostic evaluation of the cruropedal region. (orig.) [de

  7. High capacity fiber optic sensor networks using hybrid multiplexing techniques and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qizhen; Li, Xiaolei; Zhang, Manliang; Liu, Qi; Liu, Hai; Liu, Deming

    2013-12-01

    Fiber optic sensor network is the development trend of fiber senor technologies and industries. In this paper, I will discuss recent research progress on high capacity fiber sensor networks with hybrid multiplexing techniques and their applications in the fields of security monitoring, environment monitoring, Smart eHome, etc. Firstly, I will present the architecture of hybrid multiplexing sensor passive optical network (HSPON), and the key technologies for integrated access and intelligent management of massive fiber sensor units. Two typical hybrid WDM/TDM fiber sensor networks for perimeter intrusion monitor and cultural relics security are introduced. Secondly, we propose the concept of "Microstructure-Optical X Domin Refecltor (M-OXDR)" for fiber sensor network expansion. By fabricating smart micro-structures with the ability of multidimensional encoded and low insertion loss along the fiber, the fiber sensor network of simple structure and huge capacity more than one thousand could be achieved. Assisted by the WDM/TDM and WDM/FDM decoding methods respectively, we built the verification systems for long-haul and real-time temperature sensing. Finally, I will show the high capacity and flexible fiber sensor network with IPv6 protocol based hybrid fiber/wireless access. By developing the fiber optic sensor with embedded IPv6 protocol conversion module and IPv6 router, huge amounts of fiber optic sensor nodes can be uniquely addressed. Meanwhile, various sensing information could be integrated and accessed to the Next Generation Internet.

  8. Novel hybrid (magnet plus curve grasper) technique during transumbilical cholecystectomy: initial experience of a promising approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan, Carolina; Bignon, Horacion; Bellia, Gaston; Buela, Enrique; Rabinovich, Fernando; Albertal, Mariano; Martinez Ferro, Marcelo

    2013-10-01

    The use of magnets in transumbilical cholecystectomy (TUC) improves triangulation and achieves an optimal critical view. Nonetheless, the tendency of the magnets to collide hinders the process. In order to simplify the surgical technique, we developed a hybrid model with a single magnet and a curved grasper. All TUCs performed with a hybrid strategy in our pediatric population between September 2009 and July 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Of 260 surgical procedures in which at least one magnet was used, 87 were TUCs. Of those, 62 were hybrid: 33 in adults and 29 in pediatric patients. The technique combines a magnet and a curved grasper. Through a transumbilical incision, we placed a 12-mm trocar and another flexible 5-mm trocar. The laparoscope with the working channel used the 12-mm trocar. The magnetic grasper was introduced to the abdominal cavity using the working channel to provide cephalic retraction of the gallbladder fundus. Across the flexible trocar, the assistant manipulated the curved grasper to mobilize the infundibulum. The surgeon operated through the working channel of the laparoscope. In this pediatric population, the mean age was 14 years (range, 4-17 years), and mean weight was 50 kg (range, 18-90 kg); 65% were girls. Mean operative time was 62 minutes. All procedures achieved a critical view of safety with no instrumental collision. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. The hospital stay was 1.4±0.6 days, and the median follow-up was 201 days. A hybrid technique, combining magnets and a curved grasper, simplifies transumbilical surgery. It seems feasible and safe for TUC and potentially reproducible.

  9. Hybrid image classification technique for land-cover mapping in the Arctic tundra, North Slope, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Debasish

    Remotely sensed image classification techniques are very useful to understand vegetation patterns and species combination in the vast and mostly inaccessible arctic region. Previous researches that were done for mapping of land cover and vegetation in the remote areas of northern Alaska have considerably low accuracies compared to other biomes. The unique arctic tundra environment with short growing season length, cloud cover, low sun angles, snow and ice cover hinders the effectiveness of remote sensing studies. The majority of image classification research done in this area as reported in the literature used traditional unsupervised clustering technique with Landsat MSS data. It was also emphasized by previous researchers that SPOT/HRV-XS data lacked the spectral resolution to identify the small arctic tundra vegetation parcels. Thus, there is a motivation and research need to apply a new classification technique to develop an updated, detailed and accurate vegetation map at a higher spatial resolution i.e. SPOT-5 data. Traditional classification techniques in remotely sensed image interpretation are based on spectral reflectance values with an assumption of the training data being normally distributed. Hence it is difficult to add ancillary data in classification procedures to improve accuracy. The purpose of this dissertation was to develop a hybrid image classification approach that effectively integrates ancillary information into the classification process and combines ISODATA clustering, rule-based classifier and the Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) classifier which uses artificial neural network (ANN). The main goal was to find out the best possible combination or sequence of classifiers for typically classifying tundra type vegetation that yields higher accuracy than the existing classified vegetation map from SPOT data. Unsupervised ISODATA clustering and rule-based classification techniques were combined to produce an intermediate classified map which was

  10. A comprehensive overview of hybrid electric vehicle: Powertrain configurations, powertrain control techniques and electronic control units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cagatay Bayindir, Kamil; Goezuekuecuek, Mehmet Ali; Teke, Ahmet [Cukurova University, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Balcali, Saricam, Adana (Turkey)

    2011-02-15

    The studies for hybrid electrical vehicle (HEV) have attracted considerable attention because of the necessity of developing alternative methods to generate energy for vehicles due to limited fuel based energy, global warming and exhaust emission limits in the last century. HEV incorporates internal composition engine, electric machines and power electronic equipments. In this study, overview of HEVs with a focus on hybrid configurations, energy management strategies and electronic control units are presented. Advantages and disadvantages of each configuration are clearly emphasized. The existing powertrain control techniques for HEVs are classified and comprehensively described. Electronic control units used in HEV configuration are also elaborated. The latest trends and technological challenges in the near future for HEVs are discussed. (author)

  11. Hybrid machine learning technique for forecasting Dhaka stock market timing decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banik, Shipra; Khodadad Khan, A F M; Anwer, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Forecasting stock market has been a difficult job for applied researchers owing to nature of facts which is very noisy and time varying. However, this hypothesis has been featured by several empirical experiential studies and a number of researchers have efficiently applied machine learning techniques to forecast stock market. This paper studied stock prediction for the use of investors. It is always true that investors typically obtain loss because of uncertain investment purposes and unsighted assets. This paper proposes a rough set model, a neural network model, and a hybrid neural network and rough set model to find optimal buy and sell of a share on Dhaka stock exchange. Investigational findings demonstrate that our proposed hybrid model has higher precision than the single rough set model and the neural network model. We believe this paper findings will help stock investors to decide about optimal buy and/or sell time on Dhaka stock exchange.

  12. Engine Yaw Augmentation for Hybrid-Wing-Body Aircraft via Optimal Control Allocation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Brian R.; Yoo, Seung Yeun

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetric engine thrust was implemented in a hybrid-wing-body non-linear simulation to reduce the amount of aerodynamic surface deflection required for yaw stability and control. Hybrid-wing-body aircraft are especially susceptible to yaw surface deflection due to their decreased bare airframe yaw stability resulting from the lack of a large vertical tail aft of the center of gravity. Reduced surface deflection, especially for trim during cruise flight, could reduce the fuel consumption of future aircraft. Designed as an add-on, optimal control allocation techniques were used to create a control law that tracks total thrust and yaw moment commands with an emphasis on not degrading the baseline system. Implementation of engine yaw augmentation is shown and feasibility is demonstrated in simulation with a potential drag reduction of 2 to 4 percent. Future flight tests are planned to demonstrate feasibility in a flight environment.

  13. Developing a hybrid dictionary-based bio-entity recognition technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background Bio-entity extraction is a pivotal component for information extraction from biomedical literature. The dictionary-based bio-entity extraction is the first generation of Named Entity Recognition (NER) techniques. Methods This paper presents a hybrid dictionary-based bio-entity extraction technique. The approach expands the bio-entity dictionary by combining different data sources and improves the recall rate through the shortest path edit distance algorithm. In addition, the proposed technique adopts text mining techniques in the merging stage of similar entities such as Part of Speech (POS) expansion, stemming, and the exploitation of the contextual cues to further improve the performance. Results The experimental results show that the proposed technique achieves the best or at least equivalent performance among compared techniques, GENIA, MESH, UMLS, and combinations of these three resources in F-measure. Conclusions The results imply that the performance of dictionary-based extraction techniques is largely influenced by information resources used to build the dictionary. In addition, the edit distance algorithm shows steady performance with three different dictionaries in precision whereas the context-only technique achieves a high-end performance with three difference dictionaries in recall. PMID:26043907

  14. Developing a hybrid dictionary-based bio-entity recognition technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min; Yu, Hwanjo; Han, Wook-Shin

    2015-01-01

    Bio-entity extraction is a pivotal component for information extraction from biomedical literature. The dictionary-based bio-entity extraction is the first generation of Named Entity Recognition (NER) techniques. This paper presents a hybrid dictionary-based bio-entity extraction technique. The approach expands the bio-entity dictionary by combining different data sources and improves the recall rate through the shortest path edit distance algorithm. In addition, the proposed technique adopts text mining techniques in the merging stage of similar entities such as Part of Speech (POS) expansion, stemming, and the exploitation of the contextual cues to further improve the performance. The experimental results show that the proposed technique achieves the best or at least equivalent performance among compared techniques, GENIA, MESH, UMLS, and combinations of these three resources in F-measure. The results imply that the performance of dictionary-based extraction techniques is largely influenced by information resources used to build the dictionary. In addition, the edit distance algorithm shows steady performance with three different dictionaries in precision whereas the context-only technique achieves a high-end performance with three difference dictionaries in recall.

  15. Hybrid PIV-PTV technique for measuring blood flow in rat mesenteric vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Hojin; Nam, Kweon-Ho; Lee, Sang Joon

    2012-11-01

    The micro-particle tracking velocimetry (μ-PTV) technique is used to obtain the velocity fields of blood flow in the microvasculature under in vivo conditions because it can provide the blood velocity distribution in microvessels with high spatial resolution. The in vivo μ-PTV technique usually requires a few to tens of seconds to obtain a whole velocity profile across the vessel diameter because of the limited number density of tracer particles under in vivo conditions. Thus, the μ-PTV technique alone is limited in measuring unsteady blood flows that fluctuate irregularly due to the heart beating and muscle movement in surrounding tissues. In this study, a new hybrid PIV-PTV technique was established by combining PTV and particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques to resolve the drawbacks of the μ-PTV method in measuring blood flow in microvessels under in vivo conditions. Images of red blood cells (RBCs) and fluorescent particles in rat mesenteric vessels were obtained simultaneously. Temporal variations of the centerline blood velocity were monitored using a fast Fourier transform-based cross-correlation PIV method. The fluorescence particle images were analyzed using the μ-PTV technique to extract the spatial distribution of the velocity vectors. Data from the μ-PTV and PIV methods were combined to obtain a better estimate of the velocity profile in actual blood flow. This technique will be useful in investigating hemodynamics in microcirculation by measuring unsteady irregular blood flows more accurately. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Innovative hybrid pile oscillator technique in the Minerve reactor: open loop vs. closed loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geslot Benoit

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pile oscillator techniques are powerful methods to measure small reactivity worth of isotopes of interest for nuclear data improvement. This kind of experiments has long been implemented in the Mineve experimental reactor, operated by CEA Cadarache. A hybrid technique, mixing reactivity worth estimation and measurement of small changes around test samples is presented here. It was made possible after the development of high sensitivity miniature fission chambers introduced next to the irradiation channel. A test campaign, called MAESTRO-SL, took place in 2015. Its objective was to assess the feasibility of the hybrid method and investigate the possibility to separate mixed neutron effects, such as fission/capture or scattering/capture. Experimental results are presented and discussed in this paper, which focus on comparing two measurements setups, one using a power control system (closed loop and another one where the power is free to drift (open loop. First, it is demonstrated that open loop is equivalent to closed loop. Uncertainty management and methods reproducibility are discussed. Second, results show that measuring the flux depression around oscillated samples provides valuable information regarding partial neutron cross sections. The technique is found to be very sensitive to the capture cross section at the expense of scattering, making it very useful to measure small capture effects of highly scattering samples.

  17. Innovative hybrid pile oscillator technique in the Minerve reactor: open loop vs. closed loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geslot, Benoit; Gruel, Adrien; Bréaud, Stéphane; Leconte, Pierre; Blaise, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    Pile oscillator techniques are powerful methods to measure small reactivity worth of isotopes of interest for nuclear data improvement. This kind of experiments has long been implemented in the Mineve experimental reactor, operated by CEA Cadarache. A hybrid technique, mixing reactivity worth estimation and measurement of small changes around test samples is presented here. It was made possible after the development of high sensitivity miniature fission chambers introduced next to the irradiation channel. A test campaign, called MAESTRO-SL, took place in 2015. Its objective was to assess the feasibility of the hybrid method and investigate the possibility to separate mixed neutron effects, such as fission/capture or scattering/capture. Experimental results are presented and discussed in this paper, which focus on comparing two measurements setups, one using a power control system (closed loop) and another one where the power is free to drift (open loop). First, it is demonstrated that open loop is equivalent to closed loop. Uncertainty management and methods reproducibility are discussed. Second, results show that measuring the flux depression around oscillated samples provides valuable information regarding partial neutron cross sections. The technique is found to be very sensitive to the capture cross section at the expense of scattering, making it very useful to measure small capture effects of highly scattering samples.

  18. Anatomic and Pathologic Variability During Radiotherapy for a Hybrid Active Breath-Hold Gating Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glide-Hurst, Carri K.; Gopan, Ellen; Hugo, Geoffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate intra- and interfraction variability of tumor and lung volume and position using a hybrid active breath-hold gating technique. Methods and Materials: A total of 159 repeat normal inspiration active breath-hold CTs were acquired weekly during radiotherapy for 9 lung cancer patients (12-21 scans per patient). A physician delineated the gross tumor volume (GTV), lungs, and spinal cord on the first breath-hold CT, and contours were propagated semiautomatically. Intra- and interfraction variability of tumor and lung position and volume were evaluated. Tumor centroid and border variability were quantified. Results: On average, intrafraction variability of lung and GTV centroid position was 0.1). Increases in free-breathing tidal volume were associated with increases in breath-hold ipsilateral lung volume (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The breath-hold technique was reproducible within 2 mm during each fraction. Interfraction variability of GTV position and shape was substantial because of tumor volume and breath-hold lung volume change during therapy. These results support the feasibility of a hybrid breath-hold gating technique and suggest that online image guidance would be beneficial.

  19. Identification of bacteria used for microbial enhanced oil recovery process by fluorescence in situ hybridization technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, K.; Tanaka, S.; Otsuka, M. [Kansai Research Institute, Kyoto (Japan). Lifescience Lab.; Yonebayashi, H. [Japan National Oil Corp., Chiba (Japan). Tech. Research Center; Enomoto, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Geoscience and Tech.

    2000-01-01

    A fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique using 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes was developed for rapid detection of microorganisms for use in the microbial enhancement of oil recovery (MEOR) process. Two microorganisms, Enterobacter cloacae TRC-322 and Bacillus licheniformis TRC-18-2-a, were selected from a collection of Enterobacter sp. and Bacillus sp. which were screened in previous studies as candidate microorganisms for injection, and were used for this experiment. Oligonucleotide probes, design based on specific sequences in the 16S rRNA gene were labeled with either fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), or 6-car-boxy-X-rhodamine (ROX), and were allowed to hybridize with fixed cells of the two microorganisms noted above. The fluorescence signal emitted from each microorganism cells could clearly be detected by an epifluorescence microscope. Moreover, E. cloacae TRC-322 and B, licheniformis TRC-18-2-a, suspended in actual reservoir brine, including inorganic salts, oil and aboriginal cells of the reservoir brine, could be detected directly by this hybridization method, without the need for cultivation and isolation. (author)

  20. Multi-technique hybrid imaging in PET/CT and PET/MR: what does the future hold?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galiza Barbosa, F. de; Delso, G.; Voert, E.E.G.W. ter; Huellner, M.W.; Herrmann, K.; Veit-Haibach, P.

    2016-01-01

    Integrated positron-emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) is one of the most important imaging techniques to have emerged in oncological practice in the last decade. Hybrid imaging, in general, remains a rapidly growing field, not only in developing countries, but also in western industrialised healthcare systems. A great deal of technological development and research is focused on improving hybrid imaging technology further and introducing new techniques, e.g., integrated PET and magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI). Additionally, there are several new PET tracers on the horizon, which have the potential to broaden clinical applications in hybrid imaging for diagnosis as well as therapy. This article aims to highlight some of the major technical and clinical advances that are currently taking place in PET/CT and PET/MRI that will potentially maintain the position of hybrid techniques at the forefront of medical imaging technologies.

  1. SU-E-T-16: A Hybrid VMAT/IMRT Technique for the Treatment of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, N; Yang, R; Wang, J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate a Hybrid VMAT/IMRT technique which combines volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: 2 full arcs VMAT, 9-field IMRT and Hybrid VMAT/IMRT plans were created for 10 patients with NPC. The Hybrid VMAT/IMRT technique consisted of 1 full VMAT arc and 7 IMRT fields. The dose distribution of planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OARs) for Hybrid VMAT/IMRT was compared with IMRT and VMAT. The monitor units (MUs) were also evaluated. Results: The Hybrid VMAT/IMRT technique significantly improved target dose homogeneity compared with IMRT and VMAT for PTV70 and PTV54. For PTV70 and PTV60, the Hybrid VMAT/IMRT technique significantly improved target dose conformity compared with IMRT (0.62 vs 0.47; p<0.05 and 0.64 vs 0.58; p<0.05, respectively) and VMAT (0.62 vs 0.43; p<0.05 and 0.64 vs 0.6; p<0.05, respectively). The near maximum dose (D2%) of temporomandibular joint (TMJ), temporal lobe and mandible for Hybrid plans were 5.5%, 7.9% and 5.2% lower than IMRT plans (p<0.05). The mean dose of TMJ, temporal lobe, mandible and unspecified tissue for Hybrid plans were 12.8%, 11.4%, 4.2% and 4.1% lower than IMRT plans (p<0.05). The mean dose of right parotid, mandible and unspecified tissue for Hybrid plans were 3.3%, 2.4% and 3.1% lower than VMAT plans (p<0.05). The mean MUs needed for IMRT, VMAT and Hybrid plans were 2256, 507 and 1394, respectively. Conclusion: Hybrid VMAT/IMRT technique significantly improved the target dose homogeneity and conformity compared with IMRT and VMAT and reduced the dose of OARs and unspecified tissue compared with IMRT with fewer MUs. Compared with VMAT, Hybrid VMAT/IMRT technique can better protect parotid gland, mandible and unspecified tissue. Ruijie Yang was funded by the grant project: National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81071237). Other authors have no competing interest for this work

  2. SU-E-T-16: A Hybrid VMAT/IMRT Technique for the Treatment of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, N; Yang, R; Wang, J [Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, Beijing (China)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate a Hybrid VMAT/IMRT technique which combines volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: 2 full arcs VMAT, 9-field IMRT and Hybrid VMAT/IMRT plans were created for 10 patients with NPC. The Hybrid VMAT/IMRT technique consisted of 1 full VMAT arc and 7 IMRT fields. The dose distribution of planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OARs) for Hybrid VMAT/IMRT was compared with IMRT and VMAT. The monitor units (MUs) were also evaluated. Results: The Hybrid VMAT/IMRT technique significantly improved target dose homogeneity compared with IMRT and VMAT for PTV70 and PTV54. For PTV70 and PTV60, the Hybrid VMAT/IMRT technique significantly improved target dose conformity compared with IMRT (0.62 vs 0.47; p<0.05 and 0.64 vs 0.58; p<0.05, respectively) and VMAT (0.62 vs 0.43; p<0.05 and 0.64 vs 0.6; p<0.05, respectively). The near maximum dose (D2%) of temporomandibular joint (TMJ), temporal lobe and mandible for Hybrid plans were 5.5%, 7.9% and 5.2% lower than IMRT plans (p<0.05). The mean dose of TMJ, temporal lobe, mandible and unspecified tissue for Hybrid plans were 12.8%, 11.4%, 4.2% and 4.1% lower than IMRT plans (p<0.05). The mean dose of right parotid, mandible and unspecified tissue for Hybrid plans were 3.3%, 2.4% and 3.1% lower than VMAT plans (p<0.05). The mean MUs needed for IMRT, VMAT and Hybrid plans were 2256, 507 and 1394, respectively. Conclusion: Hybrid VMAT/IMRT technique significantly improved the target dose homogeneity and conformity compared with IMRT and VMAT and reduced the dose of OARs and unspecified tissue compared with IMRT with fewer MUs. Compared with VMAT, Hybrid VMAT/IMRT technique can better protect parotid gland, mandible and unspecified tissue. Ruijie Yang was funded by the grant project: National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81071237). Other authors have no competing interest for this work.

  3. Enhancement of Twins Fetal ECG Signal Extraction Based on Hybrid Blind Extraction Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Kareem Abdullah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ECG machines are noninvasive system used to measure the heartbeat signal. It’s very important to monitor the fetus ECG signals during pregnancy to check the heat activity and to detect any problem early before born, therefore the monitoring of ECG signals have clinical significance and importance. For multi-fetal pregnancy case the classical filtering algorithms are not sufficient to separate the ECG signals between mother and fetal. In this paper the mixture consists of mixing from three ECG signals, the first signal is the mother ECG (M-ECG signal, second signal the Fetal-1 ECG (F1-ECG, and third signal is the Fetal-2 ECG (F2-ECG, these signals are extracted based on modified blind source extraction (BSE techniques. The proposed work based on hybridization between two BSE techniques to ensure that the extracted signals separated well. The results demonstrate that the proposed work very efficiently to extract the useful ECG signals

  4. REVIEW OF HEART DISEASE PREDICTION SYSTEM USING DATA MINING AND HYBRID INTELLIGENT TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Chitra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Healthcare industry generally clinical diagnosis is done mostly by doctor’s expertise and experience. Computer Aided Decision Support System plays a major role in medical field. With the growing research on heart disease predicting system, it has become important to categories the research outcomes and provides readers with an overview of the existing heart disease prediction techniques in each category. Neural Networks are one of many data mining analytical tools that can be utilized to make predictions for medical data. From the study it is observed that Hybrid Intelligent Algorithm improves the accuracy of the heart disease prediction system. The commonly used techniques for Heart Disease Prediction and their complexities are summarized in this paper.

  5. A hybrid firefly algorithm and pattern search technique for SSSC based power oscillation damping controller design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanta Mahapatra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel hybrid Firefly Algorithm and Pattern Search (h-FAPS technique is proposed for a Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC-based power oscillation damping controller design. The proposed h-FAPS technique takes the advantage of global search capability of FA and local search facility of PS. In order to tackle the drawback of using the remote signal that may impact reliability of the controller, a modified signal equivalent to the remote speed deviation signal is constructed from the local measurements. The performances of the proposed controllers are evaluated in SMIB and multi-machine power system subjected to various transient disturbances. To show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed design approach, simulation results are presented and compared with some recently published approaches such as Differential Evolution (DE and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO. It is observed that the proposed approach yield superior damping performance compared to some recently reported approaches.

  6. An efficient hybrid technique in RCS predictions of complex targets at high frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algar, María-Jesús; Lozano, Lorena; Moreno, Javier; González, Iván; Cátedra, Felipe

    2017-09-01

    Most computer codes in Radar Cross Section (RCS) prediction use Physical Optics (PO) and Physical theory of Diffraction (PTD) combined with Geometrical Optics (GO) and Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD). The latter approaches are computationally cheaper and much more accurate for curved surfaces, but not applicable for the computation of the RCS of all surfaces of a complex object due to the presence of caustic problems in the analysis of concave surfaces or flat surfaces in the far field. The main contribution of this paper is the development of a hybrid method based on a new combination of two asymptotic techniques: GTD and PO, considering the advantages and avoiding the disadvantages of each of them. A very efficient and accurate method to analyze the RCS of complex structures at high frequencies is obtained with the new combination. The proposed new method has been validated comparing RCS results obtained for some simple cases using the proposed approach and RCS using the rigorous technique of Method of Moments (MoM). Some complex cases have been examined at high frequencies contrasting the results with PO. This study shows the accuracy and the efficiency of the hybrid method and its suitability for the computation of the RCS at really large and complex targets at high frequencies.

  7. Novel Hybrid Scheduling Technique for Sensor Nodes with Mixed Criticality Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai-Victor Micea

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sensor networks become increasingly a key technology for complex control applications. Their potential use in safety- and time-critical domains has raised the need for task scheduling mechanisms specially adapted to sensor node specific requirements, often materialized in predictable jitter-less execution of tasks characterized by different criticality levels. This paper offers an efficient scheduling solution, named Hybrid Hard Real-Time Scheduling (H2RTS, which combines a static, clock driven method with a dynamic, event driven scheduling technique, in order to provide high execution predictability, while keeping a high node Central Processing Unit (CPU utilization factor. From the detailed, integrated schedulability analysis of the H2RTS, a set of sufficiency tests are introduced and demonstrated based on the processor demand and linear upper bound metrics. The performance and correct behavior of the proposed hybrid scheduling technique have been extensively evaluated and validated both on a simulator and on a sensor mote equipped with ARM7 microcontroller.

  8. Skill Assessment of An Hybrid Technique To Estimate Quantitative Precipitation Forecast For Galicia (nw Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, A.; Taboada, J. J.

    Precipitation is the most obvious of the weather elements in its effects on normal life. Numerical weather prediction (NWP) is generally used to produce quantitative precip- itation forecast (QPF) beyond the 1-3 h time frame. These models often fail to predict small-scale variations of rain because of spin-up problems and their coarse spatial and temporal resolution (Antolik, 2000). Moreover, there are some uncertainties about the behaviour of the NWP models in extreme situations (de Bruijn and Brandsma, 2000). Hybrid techniques, combining the benefits of NWP and statistical approaches in a flexible way, are very useful to achieve a good QPF. In this work, a new technique of QPF for Galicia (NW of Spain) is presented. This region has a percentage of rainy days per year greater than 50% with quantities that may cause floods, with human and economical damages. The technique is composed of a NWP model (ARPS) and a statistical downscaling process based on an automated classification scheme of at- mospheric circulation patterns for the Iberian Peninsula (J. Ribalaygua and R. Boren, 1995). Results show that QPF for Galicia is improved using this hybrid technique. [1] Antolik, M.S. 2000 "An Overview of the National Weather Service's centralized statistical quantitative precipitation forecasts". Journal of Hydrology, 239, pp:306- 337. [2] de Bruijn, E.I.F and T. Brandsma "Rainfall prediction for a flooding event in Ireland caused by the remnants of Hurricane Charley". Journal of Hydrology, 239, pp:148-161. [3] Ribalaygua, J. and Boren R. "Clasificación de patrones espaciales de precipitación diaria sobre la España Peninsular". Informes N 3 y 4 del Servicio de Análisis e Investigación del Clima. Instituto Nacional de Meteorología. Madrid. 53 pp.

  9. A hybrid SEA/modal technique for modeling structural-acoustic interior noise in rotorcraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayachandran, V; Bonilha, M W

    2003-03-01

    This paper describes a hybrid technique that combines Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) predictions for structural vibration with acoustic modal summation techniques to predict interior noise levels in rotorcraft. The method was applied for predicting the sound field inside a mock-up of the interior panel system of the Sikorsky S-92 helicopter. The vibration amplitudes of the frame and panel systems were predicted using a detailed SEA model and these were used as inputs to the model of the interior acoustic space. The spatial distribution of the vibration field on individual panels, and their coupling to the acoustic space were modeled using stochastic techniques. Leakage and nonresonant transmission components were accounted for using space-averaged values obtained from a SEA model of the complete structural-acoustic system. Since the cabin geometry was quite simple, the modeling of the interior acoustic space was performed using a standard modal summation technique. Sound pressure levels predicted by this approach at specific microphone locations were compared with measured data. Agreement within 3 dB in one-third octave bands above 40 Hz was observed. A large discrepancy in the one-third octave band in which the first acoustic mode is resonant (31.5 Hz) was observed. Reasons for such a discrepancy are discussed in the paper. The developed technique provides a method for modeling helicopter cabin interior noise in the frequency mid-range where neither FEA nor SEA is individually effective or accurate.

  10. Incorporating organizational factors into Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of complex socio-technical systems: A hybrid technique formalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohaghegh, Zahra; Kazemi, Reza; Mosleh, Ali

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a result of a research with the primary purpose of extending Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) modeling frameworks to include the effects of organizational factors as the deeper, more fundamental causes of accidents and incidents. There have been significant improvements in the sophistication of quantitative methods of safety and risk assessment, but the progress on techniques most suitable for organizational safety risk frameworks has been limited. The focus of this paper is on the choice of 'representational schemes' and 'techniques.' A methodology for selecting appropriate candidate techniques and their integration in the form of a 'hybrid' approach is proposed. Then an example is given through an integration of System Dynamics (SD), Bayesian Belief Network (BBN), Event Sequence Diagram (ESD), and Fault Tree (FT) in order to demonstrate the feasibility and value of hybrid techniques. The proposed hybrid approach integrates deterministic and probabilistic modeling perspectives, and provides a flexible risk management tool for complex socio-technical systems. An application of the hybrid technique is provided in the aviation safety domain, focusing on airline maintenance systems. The example demonstrates how the hybrid method can be used to analyze the dynamic effects of organizational factors on system risk

  11. Incorporating organizational factors into Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of complex socio-technical systems: A hybrid technique formalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohaghegh, Zahra [Center for Risk and Reliability, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)], E-mail: mohagheg@umd.edu; Kazemi, Reza; Mosleh, Ali [Center for Risk and Reliability, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    This paper is a result of a research with the primary purpose of extending Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) modeling frameworks to include the effects of organizational factors as the deeper, more fundamental causes of accidents and incidents. There have been significant improvements in the sophistication of quantitative methods of safety and risk assessment, but the progress on techniques most suitable for organizational safety risk frameworks has been limited. The focus of this paper is on the choice of 'representational schemes' and 'techniques.' A methodology for selecting appropriate candidate techniques and their integration in the form of a 'hybrid' approach is proposed. Then an example is given through an integration of System Dynamics (SD), Bayesian Belief Network (BBN), Event Sequence Diagram (ESD), and Fault Tree (FT) in order to demonstrate the feasibility and value of hybrid techniques. The proposed hybrid approach integrates deterministic and probabilistic modeling perspectives, and provides a flexible risk management tool for complex socio-technical systems. An application of the hybrid technique is provided in the aviation safety domain, focusing on airline maintenance systems. The example demonstrates how the hybrid method can be used to analyze the dynamic effects of organizational factors on system risk.

  12. Hybrid Clustering-GWO-NARX neural network technique in predicting stock price

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Debashish; Safa Sadiq, Ali; Mirjalili, Seyedali; Noraziah, A.

    2017-09-01

    Prediction of stock price is one of the most challenging tasks due to nonlinear nature of the stock data. Though numerous attempts have been made to predict the stock price by applying various techniques, yet the predicted price is not always accurate and even the error rate is high to some extent. Consequently, this paper endeavours to determine an efficient stock prediction strategy by implementing a combinatorial method of Grey Wolf Optimizer (GWO), Clustering and Non Linear Autoregressive Exogenous (NARX) Technique. The study uses stock data from prominent stock market i.e. New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), NASDAQ and emerging stock market i.e. Malaysian Stock Market (Bursa Malaysia), Dhaka Stock Exchange (DSE). It applies K-means clustering algorithm to determine the most promising cluster, then MGWO is used to determine the classification rate and finally the stock price is predicted by applying NARX neural network algorithm. The prediction performance gained through experimentation is compared and assessed to guide the investors in making investment decision. The result through this technique is indeed promising as it has shown almost precise prediction and improved error rate. We have applied the hybrid Clustering-GWO-NARX neural network technique in predicting stock price. We intend to work with the effect of various factors in stock price movement and selection of parameters. We will further investigate the influence of company news either positive or negative in stock price movement. We would be also interested to predict the Stock indices.

  13. WRHT: A Hybrid Technique for Detection of Wormhole Attack in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupinder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wormhole attack is a challenging security threat to wireless sensor networks which results in disrupting most of the routing protocols as this attack can be triggered in different modes. In this paper, WRHT, a wormhole resistant hybrid technique, is proposed, which can detect the presence of wormhole attack in a more optimistic manner than earlier techniques. WRHT is based on the concept of watchdog and Delphi schemes and ensures that the wormhole will not be left untreated in the sensor network. WRHT makes use of the dual wormhole detection mechanism of calculating probability factor time delay probability and packet loss probability of the established path in order to find the value of wormhole presence probability. The nodes in the path are given different ranking and subsequently colors according to their behavior. The most striking feature of WRHT consists of its capacity to defend against almost all categories of wormhole attacks without depending on any required additional hardware such as global positioning system, timing information or synchronized clocks, and traditional cryptographic schemes demanding high computational needs. The experimental results clearly indicate that the proposed technique has significant improvement over the existing wormhole attack detection techniques.

  14. Degradation of reactive orange 4 dye using hydrodynamic cavitation based hybrid techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Mohan M; Saharan, Virendra Kumar; Pinjari, Dipak V; Chavan, Prakash V; Pandit, Aniruddha B

    2014-05-01

    In the present work, degradation of reactive orange 4 dye (RO4) has been investigated using hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) and in combination with other AOP's. In the hybrid techniques, combination of hydrodynamic cavitation and other oxidizing agents such as H2O2 and ozone have been used to get the enhanced degradation efficiency through HC device. The hydrodynamic cavitation was first optimized in terms of different operating parameters such as operating inlet pressure, cavitation number and pH of the operating medium to get the maximum degradation of RO4. Following the optimization of HC parameters, the degradation of RO4 was carried out using the combination of HC with H2O2 and ozone. It has been found that the efficiency of the HC can be improved significantly by combining it with H2O2 and ozone. The mineralization rate of RO4 increases considerably with 14.67% mineralization taking place using HC alone increases to 31.90% by combining it with H2O2 and further increases to 76.25% through the combination of HC and ozone. The synergetic coefficient of greater than one for the hybrid processes of HC+H2O2 and HC+Ozone has suggested that the combination of HC with other oxidizing agents is better than the individual processes for the degradation of dye effluent containing RO4. The combination of HC with ozone proves to be the most energy efficient method for the degradation of RO4 as compared to HC alone and the hybrid process of HC and H2O2. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Immobilization of Mo(IV) complex in hybrid matrix obtained via sol-gel technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, C.; Sousa, A.M.; Freire, C.; Neves, I.C.; Fonseca, A.M.; Silva, C.J.R

    2003-10-06

    A molybdenum(IV) complex, trans-bis-[1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane]-fluoro-(diazopropano) -molybdenum tetraphenylborate, [MoF(DIAZO)(dppe){sub 2}][BPh{sub 4}], was prepared and immobilized in a hybrid matrix synthesized by the sol-gel process. The host matrix, designated as U(500), is an organic-inorganic network material, classed as ureasil, that combines a reticulated siliceous backbone linked by short polyether-based segments. Urea bridges make the link between these two components, and the polymerization of silicate substituted terminal groups generates the inorganic network. The free Mo(IV) complex and all new materials were characterized by spectroscopic techniques (FT-IR and UV-Vis) and thermal analysis (DSC). The ionic conductivity of the resulting material was also studied. The results indicate that immobilized Mo(IV) complex has kept its solid-state structure, although there is evidence of inter-molecular interactions between the Mo(IV) complex and some groups/atoms of the hybrid host matrix.

  16. Quantum chemical approaches: semiempirical molecular orbital and hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, Richard A; Hillier, Ian H

    2014-01-01

    The use of computational quantum chemical methods to aid drug discovery is surveyed. An overview of the various computational models spanning ab initio, density function theory, semiempirical molecular orbital (MO), and hybrid quantum mechanical (QM)/molecular mechanical (MM) methods is given and their strengths and weaknesses are highlighted, focussing on the challenge of obtaining the accuracy essential for them to make a meaningful contribution to drug discovery. Particular attention is given to hybrid QM/MM and semiempirical MO methods which have the potential to yield the necessary accurate predictions of macromolecular structure and reactivity. These methods are shown to have advanced the study of many aspects of substrate-ligand interactions relevant to drug discovery. Thus, the successful parametrization of semiempirical MO methods and QM/MM methods can be used to model noncovalent substrate-protein interactions, and to lead to improved scoring functions. QM/MM methods can be used in crystal structure refinement and are particularly valuable for modelling covalent protein-ligand interactions and can thus aid the design of transition state analogues. An extensive collection of examples from the areas of metalloenzyme structure, enzyme inhibition, and ligand binding affinities and scoring functions are used to illustrate the power of these techniques.

  17. Adaptation of Hybrid FSO/RF Communication System Using Puncturing Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Khan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Spectrum of radio frequency (RF communications is limited and expensive to install new applications. Free space optical (FSO communication is a viable technology which offers enormous bandwidth, license free installation, inexpensive deployment and error prone links. The FSO links degrade significantly due to the varying atmospheric and weather conditions (fog, cloud, snow, haze and combination of these. We propose a hybrid FSO/RF communication system which adapts the varying nature of atmosphere and weather. For the adaption of varying atmosphere and weather scenarios, we develop a novel optimization algorithm. The proposed algorithm is based on the well-known puncturing technique. We provide an extrinsic information transfer (EXIT chart for the binary and quaternary mapping scheme for the proposed communication system. We simulate the proposed algorithm for the hybrid communication system and analyze the system performance. The proposed algorithm is computationally less expensive and provide better performance gains over varying atmosphere and weather conditions. The algorithm is suitable for fast speed applications.

  18. Novel hybrid Monte Carlo/deterministic technique for shutdown dose rate analyses of fusion energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Ahmad M.; Peplow, Douglas E.; Peterson, Joshua L.; Grove, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Develop the novel Multi-Step CADIS (MS-CADIS) hybrid Monte Carlo/deterministic method for multi-step shielding analyses. •Accurately calculate shutdown dose rates using full-scale Monte Carlo models of fusion energy systems. •Demonstrate the dramatic efficiency improvement of the MS-CADIS method for the rigorous two step calculations of the shutdown dose rate in fusion reactors. -- Abstract: The rigorous 2-step (R2S) computational system uses three-dimensional Monte Carlo transport simulations to calculate the shutdown dose rate (SDDR) in fusion reactors. Accurate full-scale R2S calculations are impractical in fusion reactors because they require calculating space- and energy-dependent neutron fluxes everywhere inside the reactor. The use of global Monte Carlo variance reduction techniques was suggested for accelerating the R2S neutron transport calculation. However, the prohibitive computational costs of these approaches, which increase with the problem size and amount of shielding materials, inhibit their ability to accurately predict the SDDR in fusion energy systems using full-scale modeling of an entire fusion plant. This paper describes a novel hybrid Monte Carlo/deterministic methodology that uses the Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling (CADIS) method but focuses on multi-step shielding calculations. The Multi-Step CADIS (MS-CADIS) methodology speeds up the R2S neutron Monte Carlo calculation using an importance function that represents the neutron importance to the final SDDR. Using a simplified example, preliminary results showed that the use of MS-CADIS enhanced the efficiency of the neutron Monte Carlo simulation of an SDDR calculation by a factor of 550 compared to standard global variance reduction techniques, and that the efficiency enhancement compared to analog Monte Carlo is higher than a factor of 10,000

  19. A hybrid technique for private location-based queries with database protection

    KAUST Repository

    Ghinita, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    Mobile devices with global positioning capabilities allow users to retrieve points of interest (POI) in their proximity. To protect user privacy, it is important not to disclose exact user coordinates to un-trusted entities that provide location-based services. Currently, there are two main approaches to protect the location privacy of users: (i) hiding locations inside cloaking regions (CRs) and (ii) encrypting location data using private information retrieval (PIR) protocols. Previous work focused on finding good trade-offs between privacy and performance of user protection techniques, but disregarded the important issue of protecting the POI dataset D. For instance, location cloaking requires large-sized CRs, leading to excessive disclosure of POIs (O(|D|) in the worst case). PIR, on the other hand, reduces this bound to , but at the expense of high processing and communication overhead. We propose a hybrid, two-step approach to private location-based queries, which provides protection for both the users and the database. In the first step, user locations are generalized to coarse-grained CRs which provide strong privacy. Next, a PIR protocol is applied with respect to the obtained query CR. To protect excessive disclosure of POI locations, we devise a cryptographic protocol that privately evaluates whether a point is enclosed inside a rectangular region. We also introduce an algorithm to efficiently support PIR on dynamic POI sub-sets. Our method discloses O(1) POI, orders of magnitude fewer than CR- or PIR-based techniques. Experimental results show that the hybrid approach is scalable in practice, and clearly outperforms the pure-PIR approach in terms of computational and communication overhead. © 2009 Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  20. Wind Power Ramp Events Prediction with Hybrid Machine Learning Regression Techniques and Reanalysis Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cornejo-Bueno

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Wind Power Ramp Events (WPREs are large fluctuations of wind power in a short time interval, which lead to strong, undesirable variations in the electric power produced by a wind farm. Its accurate prediction is important in the effort of efficiently integrating wind energy in the electric system, without affecting considerably its stability, robustness and resilience. In this paper, we tackle the problem of predicting WPREs by applying Machine Learning (ML regression techniques. Our approach consists of using variables from atmospheric reanalysis data as predictive inputs for the learning machine, which opens the possibility of hybridizing numerical-physical weather models with ML techniques for WPREs prediction in real systems. Specifically, we have explored the feasibility of a number of state-of-the-art ML regression techniques, such as support vector regression, artificial neural networks (multi-layer perceptrons and extreme learning machines and Gaussian processes to solve the problem. Furthermore, the ERA-Interim reanalysis from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts is the one used in this paper because of its accuracy and high resolution (in both spatial and temporal domains. Aiming at validating the feasibility of our predicting approach, we have carried out an extensive experimental work using real data from three wind farms in Spain, discussing the performance of the different ML regression tested in this wind power ramp event prediction problem.

  1. A double labeling technique for performing immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization in virus infected cell cultures and tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gendelman, H.E.; Moench, T.R.; Narayan, O.; Griffin, D.E.; Clements, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes a combined immunocytochemical and in situ hybridization procedure which allows visualization of cellular or viral antigens and viral RNA in the same cell. Cultures infected with visna or measles virus were fixed in periodate-lysine-paraformaldehyde-glutaraldehyde, stained by the avidin-biotin-peroxidase technique using antibodies to viral or cellular proteins and then incubated with radiolabeled specific DNA probes (in situ hybridization). This technique provides a new approach to the study of viral pathogenesis by: (1) identifying the types of cells which are infected in the host and (2) identifying points of blockade in the virus life cycle during persistent infections. (Auth.)

  2. Performance evaluation of a hybrid-passive landfill leachate treatment system using multivariate statistical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, Jack, E-mail: jack.wallace@ce.queensu.ca [Department of Civil Engineering, Queen’s University, Ellis Hall, 58 University Avenue, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); Champagne, Pascale, E-mail: champagne@civil.queensu.ca [Department of Civil Engineering, Queen’s University, Ellis Hall, 58 University Avenue, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); Monnier, Anne-Charlotte, E-mail: anne-charlotte.monnier@insa-lyon.fr [National Institute for Applied Sciences – Lyon, 20 Avenue Albert Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Performance of a hybrid passive landfill leachate treatment system was evaluated. • 33 Water chemistry parameters were sampled for 21 months and statistically analyzed. • Parameters were strongly linked and explained most (>40%) of the variation in data. • Alkalinity, ammonia, COD, heavy metals, and iron were criteria for performance. • Eight other parameters were key in modeling system dynamics and criteria. - Abstract: A pilot-scale hybrid-passive treatment system operated at the Merrick Landfill in North Bay, Ontario, Canada, treats municipal landfill leachate and provides for subsequent natural attenuation. Collected leachate is directed to a hybrid-passive treatment system, followed by controlled release to a natural attenuation zone before entering the nearby Little Sturgeon River. The study presents a comprehensive evaluation of the performance of the system using multivariate statistical techniques to determine the interactions between parameters, major pollutants in the leachate, and the biological and chemical processes occurring in the system. Five parameters (ammonia, alkalinity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), “heavy” metals of interest, with atomic weights above calcium, and iron) were set as criteria for the evaluation of system performance based on their toxicity to aquatic ecosystems and importance in treatment with respect to discharge regulations. System data for a full range of water quality parameters over a 21-month period were analyzed using principal components analysis (PCA), as well as principal components (PC) and partial least squares (PLS) regressions. PCA indicated a high degree of association for most parameters with the first PC, which explained a high percentage (>40%) of the variation in the data, suggesting strong statistical relationships among most of the parameters in the system. Regression analyses identified 8 parameters (set as independent variables) that were most frequently retained for modeling

  3. A novel fluorescent in situ hybridization technique for detection of Rickettsia spp. in archival samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Claus Bo; Boye, Mette; Struve, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    A novel, sensitive and specific method for detecting Rickettsia spp. in archival samples is described. The method involves the use of fluorescently marked oligonucleotide probes for in situ hybridization. Specific hybridization of Ricekttsia was found without problems of cross-reactions with bact......A novel, sensitive and specific method for detecting Rickettsia spp. in archival samples is described. The method involves the use of fluorescently marked oligonucleotide probes for in situ hybridization. Specific hybridization of Ricekttsia was found without problems of cross...

  4. A Discrete Wavelet Based Feature Extraction and Hybrid Classification Technique for Microarray Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaison Bennet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer classification by doctors and radiologists was based on morphological and clinical features and had limited diagnostic ability in olden days. The recent arrival of DNA microarray technology has led to the concurrent monitoring of thousands of gene expressions in a single chip which stimulates the progress in cancer classification. In this paper, we have proposed a hybrid approach for microarray data classification based on nearest neighbor (KNN, naive Bayes, and support vector machine (SVM. Feature selection prior to classification plays a vital role and a feature selection technique which combines discrete wavelet transform (DWT and moving window technique (MWT is used. The performance of the proposed method is compared with the conventional classifiers like support vector machine, nearest neighbor, and naive Bayes. Experiments have been conducted on both real and benchmark datasets and the results indicate that the ensemble approach produces higher classification accuracy than conventional classifiers. This paper serves as an automated system for the classification of cancer and can be applied by doctors in real cases which serve as a boon to the medical community. This work further reduces the misclassification of cancers which is highly not allowed in cancer detection.

  5. [Molecular classification of breast cancer patients obtained through the technique of chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Angel; Reigosa, Aldo

    2013-12-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease composed of a growing number of biological subtypes, with substantial variability of the disease progression within each category. The aim of this research was to classify the samples object of study according to the molecular classes of breast cancer: luminal A, luminal B, HER2 and triple negative, as a result of the state of HER2 amplification obtained by the technique of chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH). The sample consisted of 200 biopsies fixed in 10% formalin, processed by standard techniques up to paraffin embedding, corresponding to patients diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. These biopsies were obtained from patients from private practice and the Institute of Oncology "Dr. Miguel Pérez Carreño", for immunohistochemistry (IHC) of hormone receptors and HER2 made in the Hospital Metropolitano del Norte, Valencia, Venezuela. The molecular classification of the patient's tumors considering the expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors by IHC and HER2 amplification by CISH, allowed those cases originally classified as unknown, since they had an indeterminate (2+) outcome for HER2 expression by IHC, to be grouped into the different molecular classes. Also, this classification permitted that some cases, initially considered as belonging to a molecular class, were assigned to another class, after the revaluation of the HER2 status by CISH.

  6. Investigation of Steel Surfaces Treated by a Hybrid Ion Implantation Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuther, H.; Richter, E.; Prokert, F.; Ueda, M.; Beloto, A. F.; Gomes, G. F.

    2004-01-01

    Implantation of nitrogen ions into stainless steel in combination with oxidation often results in a decrease or even complete removal of the chromium in the nitrogen containing outermost surface layer. While iron nitrides can be formed easily by this method, due to the absence of chromium, the formation of chromium nitrides is impossible and the beneficial influence of chromium in the steel for corrosion resistance cannot be used. To overcome this problem we use the following hybrid technique. A thin chromium layer is deposited on steel and subsequently implanted with nitrogen ions. Chromium can be implanted by recoil into the steel surface and thus the formation of iron/chromium nitrides should be possible. Both beam line ion implantation and plasma immersion ion implantation are used. Due to the variation of the process parameters, different implantation profiles and different compounds are produced. The produced layers are characterized by Auger electron spectroscopy, conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The obtained results show that due to the variation of the implantation parameters, the formation of iron/chromium nitrides can be achieved and that plasma immersion ion implantation is the most suitable technique for the enrichment of chromium in the outermost surface layer of the steel when compared to the beam line implantation.

  7. A hybrid online scheduling mechanism with revision and progressive techniques for autonomous Earth observation satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoliang; Xing, Lining; Chen, Yingwu

    2017-11-01

    The autonomicity of self-scheduling on Earth observation satellite and the increasing scale of satellite network attract much attention from researchers in the last decades. In reality, the limited onboard computational resource presents challenge for the online scheduling algorithm. This study considered online scheduling problem for a single autonomous Earth observation satellite within satellite network environment. It especially addressed that the urgent tasks arrive stochastically during the scheduling horizon. We described the problem and proposed a hybrid online scheduling mechanism with revision and progressive techniques to solve this problem. The mechanism includes two decision policies, a when-to-schedule policy combining periodic scheduling and critical cumulative number-based event-driven rescheduling, and a how-to-schedule policy combining progressive and revision approaches to accommodate two categories of task: normal tasks and urgent tasks. Thus, we developed two heuristic (re)scheduling algorithms and compared them with other generally used techniques. Computational experiments indicated that the into-scheduling percentage of urgent tasks in the proposed mechanism is much higher than that in periodic scheduling mechanism, and the specific performance is highly dependent on some mechanism-relevant and task-relevant factors. For the online scheduling, the modified weighted shortest imaging time first and dynamic profit system benefit heuristics outperformed the others on total profit and the percentage of successfully scheduled urgent tasks.

  8. Evaluation and Selection of Best Priority Sequencing Rule in Job Shop Scheduling using Hybrid MCDM Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran Kumar, Kalla; Nagaraju, Dega; Gayathri, S.; Narayanan, S.

    2017-05-01

    Priority Sequencing Rules provide the guidance for the order in which the jobs are to be processed at a workstation. The application of different priority rules in job shop scheduling gives different order of scheduling. More experimentation needs to be conducted before a final choice is made to know the best priority sequencing rule. Hence, a comprehensive method of selecting the right choice is essential in managerial decision making perspective. This paper considers seven different priority sequencing rules in job shop scheduling. For evaluation and selection of the best priority sequencing rule, a set of eight criteria are considered. The aim of this work is to demonstrate the methodology of evaluating and selecting the best priority sequencing rule by using hybrid multi criteria decision making technique (MCDM), i.e., analytical hierarchy process (AHP) with technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS). The criteria weights are calculated by using AHP whereas the relative closeness values of all priority sequencing rules are computed based on TOPSIS with the help of data acquired from the shop floor of a manufacturing firm. Finally, from the findings of this work, the priority sequencing rules are ranked from most important to least important. The comprehensive methodology presented in this paper is very much essential for the management of a workstation to choose the best priority sequencing rule among the available alternatives for processing the jobs with maximum benefit.

  9. A Polar Fuzzy Control Scheme for Hybrid Power System Using Vehicle-To-Grid Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Elsayed Lotfy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel polar fuzzy (PF control approach for a hybrid power system is proposed in this research. The proposed control scheme remedies the issues of system frequency and the continuity of demand supply caused by renewable sources’ uncertainties. The hybrid power system consists of a wind turbine generator (WTG, solar photovoltaics (PV, a solar thermal power generator (STPG, a diesel engine generator (DEG, an aqua-electrolyzer (AE, an ultra-capacitor (UC, a fuel-cell (FC, and a flywheel (FW. Furthermore, due to the high cost of the battery energy storage system (BESS, a new idea of vehicle-to-grid (V2G control is applied to use the battery of the electric vehicle (EV as equivalent to large-scale energy storage units instead of small batteries to improve the frequency stability of the system. In addition, EV customers’ convenience is taken into account. A minimal-order observer is used to estimate the supply error. Then, the area control error (ACE signal is calculated in terms of the estimated supply error and the frequency deviation. ACE is considered in the frequency domain. Two PF approaches are utilized in the intended system. The mission of each controller is to mitigate one frequency component of ACE. The responsibility for ACE compensation is shared among all parts of the system according to their speed of response. The performance of the proposed control scheme is compared to the conventional fuzzy logic control (FLC. The effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control technique are verified by numerical simulations under various scenarios.

  10. Application of Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) Technique for the Detection of Genetic Aberration in Medical Science

    OpenAIRE

    Ratan, Zubair Ahmed; Zaman, Sojib Bin; Mehta, Varshil; Haidere, Mohammad Faisal; Runa, Nusrat Jahan; Akter, Nasrin

    2017-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a macromolecule recognition technique, which is considered as a new advent in the field of cytology.?Initially, it was developed as a physical mapping tool to delineate genes within chromosomes. The accuracy and versatility of FISH were subsequently capitalized upon in biological and medical research. This visually appealing technique provides an intermediate degree of resolution between DNA analysis and chromosomal investigations. FISH consists of...

  11. Nanocomposite metal amorphous-carbon thin films deposited by hybrid PVD and PECVD technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, V; Soares, P; Martins, A J; Carneiro, J; Cerqueira, F

    2009-07-01

    Carbon based films can combine the properties of solid lubricating graphite structure and hard diamond crystal structure, i.e., high hardness, chemical inertness, high thermal conductivity and optical transparency without the crystalline structure of diamond. Issues of fundamental importance associated with nanocarbon coatings are reducing stress, improving adhesion and compatibility with substrates. In this work new nanocomposite coatings with improved toughness based in nanocrystalline phases of metals and ceramics embedded in amorphous carbon matrix are being developed within the frame of a research project: nc-MeNxCy/a-C(Me) with Me = Mo, Si, Al, Ti, etc. Carbide forming metal/carbon (Me/C) composite films with Me = Mo, W or Ti possess appropriate properties to overcome the limitation of pure DLC films. These novel coating architectures will be adopted with the objective to decrease residual stress, improve adherence and fracture toughness, obtain low friction coefficient and high wear-resistance. Nanocomposite DLC's films were deposited by hybrid technique using a PVD-Physically Vapor Deposition (magnetron sputtering) and Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD), by the use of CH4 gas. The parameters varied were: deposition time, substrate temperature (180 degrees C) and dopant (Si + Mo) of the amorphous carbon matrix. All the depositions were made on silicon wafers and steel substrates precoated with a silicon inter-layer. The characterisation of the film's physico-mechanical properties will be presented in order to understand the influence of the deposition parameters and metal content used within the a-C matrix in the thin film properties. Film microstructure and film hybridization state was characterized by Raman Spectroscopy. In order to characterize morphology SEM and AFM will be used. Film composition was measured by Energy-Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) and by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The contact angle for the produced DLC's on

  12. High luminescent fibers with hybrid SiO2-coated CdTe nanocrystals fabricated by electrospinning technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Yongqiang; Liu, Ning; Yang, Ping; Shi, Ruixia; Ma, Qian; Zhang, Aiyu; Zhu, Yuanna; Wang, Junpeng; Wang, Jianrong

    2015-01-01

    The polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) hybrid luminescent micro-/nanofibers doped with the novel hybrid SiO 2 -coated CdTe nanocrystals (HS-CdTe NCs) have been fabricated for the first time via the electrospinning technique. The morphologies and photoluminescence (PL) emissions of HS-CdTe/PVP micro-/nanofibers prepared by doping the HS-CdTe NCs with the different PL peak wavelength (571, 616, and 643 nm) in PVP fibers were investigated by optical and PL microscope. The results revealed that all the HS-CdTe/PVP hybrid fibers showed an ultralong length for several hundreds of micrometers and a relatively uniform diameter of 1000 ∼ 1200 nm. The hybrid fibers displayed a wavelength-tunable PL emission, determining by the PL of doped HS-CdTe NCs. Moreover, similar to the original PL properties of HS-CdTe NCs before the electrospinning, the HS-CdTe/PVP fibers also showed a series of superior PL properties, such as narrow and symmetry PL spectrum, high, and uniform brightness. For comparison purpose, we also prepared three CdTe/PVP hybrid fibers by doping the 553 nm, 600 nm, and 633 nm PL-emitting CdTe NCs respectively in PVP electrospinning fibers. The characterization results showed that, the obtained three CdTe/PVP hybrid fibers had a basically satisfactory micro-/nanofiber morphology with a long length and relatively uniform diameter, but all the fibers exhibited very weak PL emissions. The enormous contrast in PL properties between HS-CdTe/PVP and CdTe/PVP fibers should mainly be ascribed to the different connection modes of ligands with the NCs and the passivation effect of inert hybrid silica shell on HS-CdTe. It is hopeful that the high luminescent HS-CdTe/PVP micro-/nanofibers with the tunable PL peak wavelength would be a good candidate in the optical sensor, light-emitting devices (LEDs), nanometer-scale waveguides, and the other related photonic materials. - Highlights: • The HS-CdTe/PVP electrospun hybrid fibers were fabricated for the first time. • The

  13. Development of a hybrid earthquake early warning system based on single sensor technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravirov, V.V.; Kislov, K.V.

    2012-01-01

    There are two methods to earthquake early warning system: the method based on a network of seismic stations and the single-sensor method. Both have advantages and drawbacks. The current systems rely on high density seismic networks. Attempts at implementing techniques based on the single-station principle encounter difficulties in the identification of earthquake in noise. The noise may be very diverse, from stationary to impulsive. It seems a promising line of research to develop hybrid warning systems with single-sensors being incorporated in the overall early warning network. This will permit using all advantages and will help reduce the radius of the hazardous zone where no earthquake warning can be produced. The main problems are highlighted and the solutions of these are discussed. The system is implemented to include three detection processes in parallel. The first is based on the study of the co-occurrence matrix of the signal wavelet transform. The second consists in using the method of a change point in a random process and signal detection in a moving time window. The third uses artificial neural networks. Further, applying a decision rule out the final earthquake detection is carried out and estimate its reliability. (author)

  14. Power Management Based Current Control Technique for Photovoltaic-Battery Assisted Wind-Hydro Hybrid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram Prabhakar, J.; Ragavan, K.

    2013-07-01

    This article proposes new power management based current control strategy for integrated wind-solar-hydro system equipped with battery storage mechanism. In this control technique, an indirect estimation of load current is done, through energy balance model, DC-link voltage control and droop control. This system features simpler energy management strategy and necessitates few power electronic converters, thereby minimizing the cost of the system. The generation-demand (G-D) management diagram is formulated based on the stochastic weather conditions and demand, which would likely moderate the gap between both. The features of management strategy deploying energy balance model include (1) regulating DC-link voltage within specified tolerances, (2) isolated operation without relying on external electric power transmission network, (3) indirect current control of hydro turbine driven induction generator and (4) seamless transition between grid-connected and off-grid operation modes. Furthermore, structuring of the hybrid system with appropriate selection of control variables enables power sharing among each energy conversion systems and battery storage mechanism. By addressing these intricacies, it is viable to regulate the frequency and voltage of the remote network at load end. The performance of the proposed composite scheme is demonstrated through time-domain simulation in MATLAB/Simulink environment.

  15. Reprocessing techniques of LWR spent fuel for reutilization in hybrid systems and IV generation reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aruquipa, Wilmer; Velasquez, Carlos E.; Pereira, Claubia; Veloso, Maria Auxiliadora F.; Costa, Antonella L. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Barros, Graiciany de P. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Since the era of nuclear technology begins, nuclear reactors have been produced spent fuel. This spent fuel contains material that could be recycle and reprocessed by different processes. All these processes aim to reduce the contribution to the final repository through the re-utilization of the nuclear material. Therefore, some new reprocessing options with non-proliferation characteristics have been proposed and the goal is to compare the different techniques used to maximize the effectiveness of the spent fuel utilization and to reduce the volume and long-term radiotoxicity of high-level waste by irradiation with neutron with high energy such as the ones created in hybrid reactors. In order to compare different recovery methods, the cross sections of fuels are calculated with de MCNP code, the first set consists of thorium-232 spiked with the reprocessed material and the second set in depleted uranium that containing 4.5% of U-235 spiked with the reprocessed material; These sets in turn are compared with the cross section of the UO{sub 2} in order to evaluate the efficiency of the reprocessed fuel as nuclear fuel. (author)

  16. Value impact analysis utilizing PRA techniques combined with a hybrid plant model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edson, J.L.; Stillwell, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    A value impact analysis (VIA) has been performed by the INEL to support a NRC Regulatory Analysis for resolution of Generic Issue (GI) 29, Bolting Degradation or Failure in Nuclear Power Plants. A VIA for replacing the reactor coolant pressure boundary (RCPB) bolts of BWRs and PWRs was previously prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratories in 1985 under instructions limiting the VIA to the potential for failure of primary pressure boundary bolting. Subsequently the INEL was requested to perform a VIA that included non primary systems and component support bolts to be compatible with the resolution of the broader issue. Because the initial list of systems and bolting applications that could be included in the VIA was very large, including them all in the VIA would likely result in analyzing some that have little if any effect on public risk. This paper discusses how PRA techniques combined with a hybrid plant model were used to determine which bolts have the potential to be significant contributors to public risk if they were to fail, and therefore were included in the VIA

  17. A hybrid PSO technique for procuring VAR ancillary service in the deregulated electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Araby, E.E. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Suez Canal University (Egypt); Yorino, Naoto [Department of Artificial Complex Systems Engineering, Hiroshima University (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    This paper develops a new market-based technique for acquiring VAR ancillary service in the electricity market. The main objective of the developed market is to enable transmission operator ''TO'' to procure VAR service in a long term contract from the critical VAR providers that satisfy minimum VAR service payment while maintaining system security. Reactive power control problem for voltage stability is introduced into the VAR market problem in an explicit manner for normal and emergency states. An integration of particle swarm optimization ''PSO'' is presented with successive linear programming ''SLP'' for dealing with the VAR ancillary service problem. The problem is formulated as a large-scale nonlinear constrained optimization problem with a non-differentiable objective function representing VAR payment and operational costs. This type of problem is hard to be treated straightforwardly by the classical optimization methods. Therefore, we propose here a two-layer hybrid PSO/SLP approach, which is suited for carrying out the difficulties associated with non-differentiable and discontinuous objective functions. The proposed method has been examined on the standard IEEE 57 bus-system and compared with GA/SLP method to demonstrate its capability. (author)

  18. Fuzzy-Based Adaptive Hybrid Burst Assembly Technique for Optical Burst Switched Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Muhammad Umaru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The optical burst switching (OBS paradigm is perceived as an intermediate switching technology for future all-optical networks. Burst assembly that is the first process in OBS is the focus of this paper. In this paper, an intelligent hybrid burst assembly algorithm that is based on fuzzy logic is proposed. The new algorithm is evaluated against the traditional hybrid burst assembly algorithm and the fuzzy adaptive threshold (FAT burst assembly algorithm via simulation. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the hybrid and the FAT algorithms in terms of burst end-to-end delay, packet end-to-end delay, and packet loss ratio.

  19. Prediction of monthly regional groundwater levels through hybrid soft-computing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fi-John; Chang, Li-Chiu; Huang, Chien-Wei; Kao, I.-Feng

    2016-10-01

    Groundwater systems are intrinsically heterogeneous with dynamic temporal-spatial patterns, which cause great difficulty in quantifying their complex processes, while reliable predictions of regional groundwater levels are commonly needed for managing water resources to ensure proper service of water demands within a region. In this study, we proposed a novel and flexible soft-computing technique that could effectively extract the complex high-dimensional input-output patterns of basin-wide groundwater-aquifer systems in an adaptive manner. The soft-computing models combined the Self Organized Map (SOM) and the Nonlinear Autoregressive with Exogenous Inputs (NARX) network for predicting monthly regional groundwater levels based on hydrologic forcing data. The SOM could effectively classify the temporal-spatial patterns of regional groundwater levels, the NARX could accurately predict the mean of regional groundwater levels for adjusting the selected SOM, the Kriging was used to interpolate the predictions of the adjusted SOM into finer grids of locations, and consequently the prediction of a monthly regional groundwater level map could be obtained. The Zhuoshui River basin in Taiwan was the study case, and its monthly data sets collected from 203 groundwater stations, 32 rainfall stations and 6 flow stations during 2000 and 2013 were used for modelling purpose. The results demonstrated that the hybrid SOM-NARX model could reliably and suitably predict monthly basin-wide groundwater levels with high correlations (R2 > 0.9 in both training and testing cases). The proposed methodology presents a milestone in modelling regional environmental issues and offers an insightful and promising way to predict monthly basin-wide groundwater levels, which is beneficial to authorities for sustainable water resources management.

  20. A hybrid lightwave transmission system based on light injection/optoelectronic feedback techniques and fiber-VLLC integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Wen-Shing; Lu, Hai-Han; Li, Chung-Yi; Chen, Bo-Rui; Lin, Hung-Hsien; Lin, Dai-Hua

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid lightwave transmission system based on light injection/optoelectronic feedback techniques and fiber-visible laser light communication (VLLC) integration is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. To be the first one of its kind in employing light injection and optoelectronic feedback techniques in a fiber-VLLC integration lightwave transmission system, the light is successfully directly modulated with Community Access Television (CATV), 16-QAM, and 16-QAM-OFDM signals. Over a 40 km SMF and a 10 m free-space VLLC transport, good performances of carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR)/composite second-order (CSO)/composite triple-beat (CTB)/bit error rate (BER) are achieved for CATV/16-QAM/16-QAM-OFDM signals transmission. Such a hybrid lightwave transmission system would be very useful since it can provide broadband integrated services including CATV, Internet, and telecommunication services over both distribute fiber and in-building networks. (letter)

  1. Establishment of 60Co dose calibration curve using fluorescent in situ hybridization assay technique: Result of preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimah Abdul Rahim; Noriah Jamal; Noraisyah Mohd Yusof; Juliana Mahamad Napiah; Nelly Bo Nai Lee

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at establishing an in-vitro 60 Co dose calibration curve using Fluorescent In-Situ Hybridization assay technique for the Malaysian National Bio dosimetry Laboratory. Blood samples collected from a female healthy donor were irradiated with several doses of 60 Co radiation. Following culturing of lymphocytes, microscopic slides are prepared, denatured and hybridized. The frequencies of translocation are estimated in the metaphases. A calibration curve was then generated using a regression technique. It shows a good fit to a linear-quadratic model. The results of this study might be useful in estimating absorbed dose for the individual exposed to ionizing radiation retrospectively. This information may be useful as a guide for medical treatment for the assessment of possible health consequences. (author)

  2. TiO2/PCL hybrid materials synthesized via sol–gel technique for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catauro, M.; Bollino, F.; Papale, F.; Marciano, S.; Pacifico, S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present work has been the synthesis of organic/inorganic hybrid materials based on titanium dioxide and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) to be used in the biomedical field. Several materials have been synthesized using sol–gel methods by adding different amounts of polymer to the inorganic sol. The obtained gels have been characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The FT-IR data allowed us to hypothesize that the structure formed was that of an interpenetrating network, realized by hydrogen bonds between Ti-OH groups in the sol–gel intermediate species and carbonyl groups in the polymer repeating units. SEM and AFM analyses highlighted that the obtained materials were nanostructurated hybrids. To evaluate the biological properties of the hybrids, their bioactivity and cytotoxicity were investigated as a function of the PCL amount. The bioactivity of the synthesized systems was proven by the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of samples soaked in a fluid simulating human blood plasma (SBF). MTT cytotoxicity tests and Trypan Blue dye exclusion tests were carried out exposing NIH-3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts for 24 and 48 h to extracts from the investigated hybrid materials. The results showed that all the hybrids had a non-cytotoxic effect on target cells. - Highlights: • TiO 2 /PCL hybrids were obtained by the sol–gel process for biomedical applications. • Synthesized materials were found to be first-class hybrid nanocomposites. • Hybrids appear to be bioactive, a fundamental characteristic for osseointegration. • MTT and Trypan Blue viability test show that the materials are biocompatible. • The organic phase is able to modulate the biocompatibility of the materials

  3. Optimisation Sizing of Hybrid Wind-Diesel Systems using Linear Programming Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Gan, Leong Kit; Shek, Jonathan; Mueller, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Despite the great potential of hybrid wind-diesel system in supplying energy to remote or island communities, sizing the system components have been a challenging problem for many project managers due to the reliance on various factors. This work considers utilising a fixed speed wind turbine (induction generator) in the hybrid system. It requires energy for start-up operation and this work takes into account for sizing the battery storage. In addition, the trade-off between the number of bat...

  4. A hybrid method based on a new clustering technique and multilayer perceptron neural networks for hourly solar radiation forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azimi, R.; Ghayekhloo, M.; Ghofrani, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel clustering approach is proposed based on the data transformation approach. • A novel cluster selection method based on correlation analysis is presented. • The proposed hybrid clustering approach leads to deep learning for MLPNN. • A hybrid forecasting method is developed to predict solar radiations. • The evaluation results show superior performance of the proposed forecasting model. - Abstract: Accurate forecasting of renewable energy sources plays a key role in their integration into the grid. This paper proposes a hybrid solar irradiance forecasting framework using a Transformation based K-means algorithm, named TB K-means, to increase the forecast accuracy. The proposed clustering method is a combination of a new initialization technique, K-means algorithm and a new gradual data transformation approach. Unlike the other K-means based clustering methods which are not capable of providing a fixed and definitive answer due to the selection of different cluster centroids for each run, the proposed clustering provides constant results for different runs of the algorithm. The proposed clustering is combined with a time-series analysis, a novel cluster selection algorithm and a multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPNN) to develop the hybrid solar radiation forecasting method for different time horizons (1 h ahead, 2 h ahead, …, 48 h ahead). The performance of the proposed TB K-means clustering is evaluated using several different datasets and compared with different variants of K-means algorithm. Solar datasets with different solar radiation characteristics are also used to determine the accuracy and processing speed of the developed forecasting method with the proposed TB K-means and other clustering techniques. The results of direct comparison with other well-established forecasting models demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed hybrid forecasting method. Furthermore, a comparative analysis with the benchmark solar

  5. ProTaper rotary instrument fracture during root canal preparation: a comparison between rotary and hybrid techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, Huma; Khan, Farhan Raza; Rahman, Munawar

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to compare the frequency of ProTaper rotary instrument fracture with rotary (conventional) and hybrid (rotary and hand files) canal preparation techniques. Secondary objectives were to determine whether there was an association of ProTaper file fracture with the canal curvature and to compare the mean time required for canal preparation in the two techniques. An in vitro experiment was conducted on 216 buccal canals of extracted maxillary and mandibular first molars. After creating an access cavity and a glide path for each canal, a periapical radiograph was taken and the canal curvature was measured with Schneider's technique. The canals were then randomly divided into Group A (rotary technique) and Group B (hybrid technique). The length of ProTaper files were measured before and after each canal preparation. Time taken for each canal preparation was recorded. A total of seven ProTaper files fractured in Group A (P=0.014) in canals with a curvature >25 degrees (PProTaper rotary files, although time consuming, was safer in canals having a curvature greater than 25 degrees.

  6. Speed control with torque ripple reduction of switched reluctance motor by Hybrid Many Optimizing Liaison Gravitational Search technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutan Saha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a control scheme for simultaneous control of the speed of Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM and minimizing the torque ripple employing Hybrid Many Optimizing Liaison Gravitational Search Algorithm (Hybrid MOLGSA technique. The control mechanism includes two controlling loops, the outer loop is governed for speed control and a current controller for the inner loop, intelligent selection of turn on and turn off angle for a 60 KW, 3-phase 6/8 SRM. It is noticed that the torque ripple coefficient, ISE of speed & current are reduced by 12.81%, 38.60%, 16.74% respectively by Hybrid MOLGSA algorithm compared to Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA algorithm. It is also observed that the settling times for the controller using the parameter values for obtaining best values of torque ripple, Integral square error of speed and current are reduced by 51.25%, 58.04% and 59.375% by proposed Hybrid MOLGSA algorithm compared to the GSA algorithm.

  7. PET/MRI: a novel hybrid imaging technique. Major clinical indications and preliminary experience in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitor, Taise; Martins, Karine Minaif; Ionescu, Tudor Mihai; Cunha, Marcelo Livorsi da; Baroni, Ronaldo Hueb; Garcia, Marcio Ricardo Taveira; Wagner, Jairo; Campos, Guilherme de Carvalho; Nogueira, Solange Amorim; Guerra, Elaine Gonçalves; Amaro, Edson

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, medical imaging with hybrid techniques has widely accepted and employed in clinical routine. PET/MRI offers significant advantages, including excellent contrast and resolution and reduced ionizing radiation, as compared to well-established PET/CT. Therefore, PET/MRI is a promising modality for oncologic imaging of some regions, such as brain, head and neck, liver and pelvis. This article set out to analyze clinical conditions that could benefit from PET/MRI imaging based on our caseload. The potential of PET/MRI to become the imaging modality of choice for assessment of neurologic and oncologic conditions associated with soft tissues is highlighted. Clinical aspects of PET/MRI and its application to clinical cases are illustrated with examples extracted from the authors' preliminary experience. RESUMO Nos últimos anos, imagens médicas com tecnologias híbridas tornaram-se amplamente aceitas e utilizadas na prática clínica. O PET/RM possui vantagens importantes, incluindo excelentes contrastes e resolução, e menor radiação ionizante, em comparação ao PET/TC. Por isto, é uma modalidade promissora para exames de imagem de pacientes oncológicos, para avaliar o cérebro, cabeça e pescoço, o fígado e a pelve. O objetivo deste artigo foi analisar as situações clínicas que se beneficiariam de exames de PET/RM a partir de uma casuística. Destacamos o potencial desta técnica se tornar o método de imagem de escolha para doenças neurológicas e oncológicas que envolvam partes moles. Os aspectos clínicos de PET/RM e sua aplicação aos casos clínicos são ilustrados com exemplos da experiência inicial dos autores.

  8. A mathematical technique for hybrid power system design with energy loss considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jui-Yuan; Chen, Cheng-Liang; Chen, Hui-Chu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A superstructure-based model is developed for hybrid power system design. • The model considers various power losses occurring in hybrid power systems. • The model locates rigorous outsourced electricity targets. • The model determines the minimum electricity storage capacity required. • Three literature case studies are solved to demonstrate the use of the model. - Abstract: This paper presents a generic mathematical optimisation model for the design of hybrid power systems (HPSs). The model takes into account power losses during the allocation of power generated from renewables to appliance loads, and is formulated as a linear programme (LP) based on a superstructure including all possible power allocation options in a typical HPS. With given power source and demand data for an HPS, the minimum outsourced electricity supply and the minimum electricity storage capacity required can be determined through a two-step optimisation. Three literature case studies are solved to illustrate the proposed approach

  9. Multi-Wave and Hybrid Imaging Techniques: A New Direction for Nondestructive Testing and Structural Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhua Cheng

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the state-of-the-art multi-wave and hybrid imaging techniques in the field of nondestructive evaluation and structural health monitoring were comprehensively reviewed. A new direction for assessment and health monitoring of various structures by capitalizing the advantages of those imaging methods was discussed. Although sharing similar system configurations, the imaging physics and principles of multi-wave phenomena and hybrid imaging methods are inherently different. After a brief introduction of nondestructive evaluation (NDE , structure health monitoring (SHM and their related challenges, several recent advances that have significantly extended imaging methods from laboratory development into practical applications were summarized, followed by conclusions and discussion on future directions.

  10. Analysis of tribological behaviour of zirconia reinforced Al-SiC hybrid composites using statistical and artificial neural network technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Sajjad; Tanwir Alam, Md; Ansari, Akhter H.; Bilal Naim Shaikh, Mohd; Arif Siddiqui, M.

    2018-05-01

    The tribological performance of aluminium hybrid composites reinforced with micro SiC (5 wt%) and nano zirconia (0, 3, 6 and 9 wt%) fabricated through powder metallurgy technique were investigated using statistical and artificial neural network (ANN) approach. The influence of zirconia reinforcement, sliding distance and applied load were analyzed with test based on full factorial design of experiments. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate the percentage contribution of each process parameters on wear loss. ANOVA approach suggested that wear loss be mainly influenced by sliding distance followed by zirconia reinforcement and applied load. Further, a feed forward back propagation neural network was applied on input/output date for predicting and analyzing the wear behaviour of fabricated composite. A very close correlation between experimental and ANN output were achieved by implementing the model. Finally, ANN model was effectively used to find the influence of various control factors on wear behaviour of hybrid composites.

  11. Improving head and neck CTA with hybrid and model-based iterative reconstruction techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niesten, J. M.; van der Schaaf, I. C.; Vos, P. C.; Willemink, MJ; Velthuis, B. K.

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare image quality of head and neck computed tomography angiography (CTA) reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP), hybrid iterative reconstruction (HIR) and model-based iterative reconstruction (MIR) algorithms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The raw data of 34 studies were

  12. Role of hybrid forecasting techniques for transportation planning of broiler meat under uncertain demand in thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thoranin Sujjaviriyasup

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of numerous problems experiencing in supply chain management is the demand. Most demands are appeared in terms of uncertainty. The broiler meat industry is inevitably encountering the same problem. In this research, hybrid forecasting model of ARIMA and Support Vector Machine (SVMs are developed to forecast broiler meat export. In addition, ARIMA, SVMs, and Moving Average (MA are chosen for comparing the forecasting efficiency. All the forecasting models are tested and validated using the data of Brazil’s export, Canada’s export, and Thailand’s export. The hybrid model provides accuracy of the forecasted values that are 98.71%, 97.50%, and 93.01%, respectively. In addition, the hybrid model presents the least error of all MAE, RMSE, and MAPE comparing with other forecasting models. As forecasted data are applied to transportation planning, the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE of optimal value of forecasted value and actual value is 14.53%. The hybrid forecasting model shows an ability to reduce risk of total cost of transportation when broiler meat export is forecasted by using MA(2, MA(3, ARIMA, and SVM are 50.59%, 60.18%, 68.01%, and 46.55%, respectively. The results indicate that the developed forecasting model is recommended to broiler meat industries’ supply chain decision.

  13. A hybrid method for flood simulation in small catchments combining hydrodynamic and hydrological techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellos, Vasilis; Tsakiris, George

    2016-09-01

    The study presents a new hybrid method for the simulation of flood events in small catchments. It combines a physically-based two-dimensional hydrodynamic model and the hydrological unit hydrograph theory. Unit hydrographs are derived using the FLOW-R2D model which is based on the full form of two-dimensional Shallow Water Equations, solved by a modified McCormack numerical scheme. The method is tested at a small catchment in a suburb of Athens-Greece for a storm event which occurred in February 2013. The catchment is divided into three friction zones and unit hydrographs of 15 and 30 min are produced. The infiltration process is simulated by the empirical Kostiakov equation and the Green-Ampt model. The results from the implementation of the proposed hybrid method are compared with recorded data at the hydrometric station at the outlet of the catchment and the results derived from the fully hydrodynamic model FLOW-R2D. It is concluded that for the case studied, the proposed hybrid method produces results close to those of the fully hydrodynamic simulation at substantially shorter computational time. This finding, if further verified in a variety of case studies, can be useful in devising effective hybrid tools for the two-dimensional flood simulations, which are lead to accurate and considerably faster results than those achieved by the fully hydrodynamic simulations.

  14. Biological evaluation of zirconia/PEG hybrid materials synthesized via sol–gel technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catauro, M., E-mail: michelina.catauro@unina2.it [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Papale, F.; Bollino, F. [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Gallicchio, M.; Pacifico, S. [Department Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    The objective of the following study has been the synthesis via sol–gel and the characterization of novel organic–inorganic hybrid materials to be used in biomedical field. The prepared materials consist of an inorganic zirconia matrix containing as organic component the polyethylene glycol (PEG), a water-soluble polymer used in medical and pharmaceutical fields. Various hybrids have been synthesized changing the molar ratio between the organic and inorganic parts. Fourier transform spectroscopy suggests that the structure of the interpenetrating network is realized by hydrogen bonds between the Zr-OH group in the sol–gel intermediate species and both the terminal alcoholic group and ethereal oxygen atoms in the repeating units of polymer The amorphous nature of the gels has been ascertained by X-ray diffraction analysis. The morphology observation has been carried out by using the Scanning Electron Microscope and has confirmed that the obtained materials are nanostructurated hybrids. The bioactivity of the synthesized system has been shown by the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of samples soaked in a fluid simulating the human blood plasma. The potential biocompatibility of hybrids has been assessed as performing indirect MTT cytotoxicity assay towards 3T3 cell line at 24, 48, and 72 h exposure times. - Highlights: • ZrO{sub 2}/PEG amorphous class I organic–inorganic hybrid synthesis via sol–gel • Bioactivity evaluation of materials by the formation of apatite on surface in SBF • Biocompatibility test with indirect MTT cytotoxicity assay on NHI 3T3 cell line.

  15. Biological evaluation of zirconia/PEG hybrid materials synthesized via sol–gel technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catauro, M.; Papale, F.; Bollino, F.; Gallicchio, M.; Pacifico, S.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the following study has been the synthesis via sol–gel and the characterization of novel organic–inorganic hybrid materials to be used in biomedical field. The prepared materials consist of an inorganic zirconia matrix containing as organic component the polyethylene glycol (PEG), a water-soluble polymer used in medical and pharmaceutical fields. Various hybrids have been synthesized changing the molar ratio between the organic and inorganic parts. Fourier transform spectroscopy suggests that the structure of the interpenetrating network is realized by hydrogen bonds between the Zr-OH group in the sol–gel intermediate species and both the terminal alcoholic group and ethereal oxygen atoms in the repeating units of polymer The amorphous nature of the gels has been ascertained by X-ray diffraction analysis. The morphology observation has been carried out by using the Scanning Electron Microscope and has confirmed that the obtained materials are nanostructurated hybrids. The bioactivity of the synthesized system has been shown by the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of samples soaked in a fluid simulating the human blood plasma. The potential biocompatibility of hybrids has been assessed as performing indirect MTT cytotoxicity assay towards 3T3 cell line at 24, 48, and 72 h exposure times. - Highlights: • ZrO 2 /PEG amorphous class I organic–inorganic hybrid synthesis via sol–gel • Bioactivity evaluation of materials by the formation of apatite on surface in SBF • Biocompatibility test with indirect MTT cytotoxicity assay on NHI 3T3 cell line

  16. Synchronous Supraglottic and Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinomas Treated with a Monoisocentric Hybrid Intensity-Modulated Radiation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian L. Barney

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk factors for squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs of the head and neck (HN and esophagus are similar. As such, synchronous primary tumors in these areas are not entirely uncommon. Definitive chemoradiation (CRT is standard care for locally advanced HNSCC and is a preferred option for inoperable esophageal SCC. Simultaneous treatment of both primaries with CRT can present technical challenges. We report a case of synchronous supraglottic and esophageal SCC primary tumors, highlighting treatment with a monoisocentric hybrid radiation technique and normal tissue toxicity considerations.

  17. ADAPTING HYBRID MACHINE TRANSLATION TECHNIQUES FOR CROSS-LANGUAGE TEXT RETRIEVAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. ISWARYA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research work aims in developing Tamil to English Cross - language text retrieval system using hybrid machine translation approach. The hybrid machine translation system is a combination of rule based and statistical based approaches. In an existing word by word translation system there are lot of issues and some of them are ambiguity, Out-of-Vocabulary words, word inflections, and improper sentence structure. To handle these issues, proposed architecture is designed in such a way that, it contains Improved Part-of-Speech tagger, machine learning based morphological analyser, collocation based word sense disambiguation procedure, semantic dictionary, and tense markers with gerund ending rules, and two pass transliteration algorithm. From the experimental results it is clear that the proposed Tamil Query based translation system achieves significantly better translation quality over existing system, and reaches 95.88% of monolingual performance.

  18. Hybrid dextran-iron oxide thin films deposited by laser techniques for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Predoi, D.; Ciobanu, C.S. [National Institute for Physics of Materials, P.O. Box MG 07, Bucharest, Magurele (Romania); Radu, M.; Costache, M.; Dinischiotu, A. [Molecular Biology Center, University of Bucharest, 91-95 Splaiul Independentei, 76201, Bucharest 5 (Romania); Popescu, C.; Axente, E.; Mihailescu, I.N. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiations Physics, P. O. Box MG 36, 77125 Bucharest (Romania); Gyorgy, E., E-mail: egyorgy@cin2.es [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiations Physics, P. O. Box MG 36, 77125 Bucharest (Romania); Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Centre d' Investigacions en Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia (CSIC-CIN2), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2012-02-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared by chemical co-precipitation method. The nanoparticles were mixed with dextran in distilled water. The obtained solutions were frozen in liquid nitrogen and used as targets during matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation for the growth of hybrid, iron oxide nanoparticles-dextran thin films. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction investigations revealed that the obtained films preserve the structure and composition of the initial, non-irradiated iron oxide-dextran composite material. The biocompatibility of the iron oxide-dextran thin films was demonstrated by 3-(4.5 dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2.5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide-based colorimetric assay, using human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cells. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hybrid, dextran-iron oxide nanoparticles and thin films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Laser immobilization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biocompatibility of dextran-iron oxide nanoparticles.

  19. Hybrid dextran-iron oxide thin films deposited by laser techniques for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Predoi, D.; Ciobanu, C.S.; Radu, M.; Costache, M.; Dinischiotu, A.; Popescu, C.; Axente, E.; Mihailescu, I.N.; Gyorgy, E.

    2012-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared by chemical co-precipitation method. The nanoparticles were mixed with dextran in distilled water. The obtained solutions were frozen in liquid nitrogen and used as targets during matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation for the growth of hybrid, iron oxide nanoparticles-dextran thin films. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction investigations revealed that the obtained films preserve the structure and composition of the initial, non-irradiated iron oxide-dextran composite material. The biocompatibility of the iron oxide-dextran thin films was demonstrated by 3-(4.5 dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2.5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide-based colorimetric assay, using human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cells. - Highlights: ► Hybrid, dextran-iron oxide nanoparticles and thin films. ► Laser immobilization. ► Biocompatibility of dextran-iron oxide nanoparticles.

  20. Application of DNA hybridization techniques in the assessment of diarrheal disease among refugess in Thailand. [Shigella; Escherichia coli; Campylobacter; Cryptosporidium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, D.N.; Echeverria, P.; Pitarangsi, C.; Seriwatana, J.; Sethabutr, O.; Bodhidatta, L.; Brown, C.; Herrmann, J.E.; Blacklow, N.R.

    1988-01-01

    The epidemiology and etiology of acute diarrheal disease were determined in a Hmong refugee camp on the Thai-Laotian border from April 11 to May 14, 1985. DNA hybridization techniques were used to detect Shigella species, enteroinvasive Escherichia coli, and enterotoxigenic E. coli. A monoclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect rotavirus, and standard microbiology was used to detect other enteropathogens. The age-specific diarrheal disease rates were 47 episodes per month per 1000 children less than five years old and 113 episodes per month per 1000 children less than one year old. Rotavirus, enterotoxigenic E. coli, Campylobacter, and Cryptosporidium were the predominant pathogens in children less than two years old. The DNA probe hybridized with 94% of 31 specimens identified as enterotoxigenic E. coli by the standard assays and with none of the specimens in which the standard assays were negative. The probe for Shigella and enteroinvasive E. coli hybridized in eight of 10 stools that contained Shigella and four of 314 stools from which Shigella and enteroinvasive E. coli were not isolated. The use of DNA probes allows specimens to be collected in remote areas with a minimum amount of equipment and technical expertise so that they can be easily transported to a central laboratory for further processing.

  1. ANALYSIS DATA SETS USING HYBRID TECHNIQUES APPLIED ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE BASED PRODUCTION SYSTEMS INTEGRATED DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel-Petru GHENCEA; Miron ZAPCIU; Claudiu-Florinel BISU; Elena-Iuliana BOTEANU; Elena-Luminiţa OLTEANU

    2017-01-01

    The paper proposes a prediction model of behavior spindle from the point of view of the thermal deformations and the level of the vibrations by highlighting and processing the characteristic equations. This is a model analysis for the shaft with similar electro-mechanical characteristics can be achieved using a hybrid analysis based on artificial intelligence (genetic algorithms - artificial neural networks - fuzzy logic). The paper presents a prediction mode obtaining valid range of values f...

  2. Multi-technique investigation of the binary fraction of A-F type candidate hybrid variable stars discovered by Kepler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampens, P.; Frémat, Y.; Vermeylen, L.; Sódor, Á.; Skarka, M.; De Cat, P.; Bognár, Zs.; De Nutte, R.; Dumortier, L.; Escorza, A.; Oomen, G. M.; Van de Steene, G.; Kamath, D.; Laverick, M.; Samadi, A.; Triana, S.; Lehmann, H.

    2018-02-01

    Context. Hundreds of candidate hybrid pulsators of intermediate type A-F were revealed by recent space missions. Hybrid pulsators allow us to study the full stellar interiors, where both low-order p- and high-order g-modes are simultaneously excited. The true hybrid stars must be identified since other processes, related to stellar multiplicity or rotation, might explain the presence of (some) low frequencies observed in their periodograms. Aims: We measured the radial velocities of 50 candidate δ Scuti -γ Doradus hybrid stars from the Kepler mission with the Hermes and ACE spectrographs over a time span of months to years. We aim to derive the fraction of binary and multiple systems and to provide an independent and homogeneous determination of the atmospheric properties and v sin i for all targets. The long(er)-term objective is to identify the (probable) physical cause of the low frequencies. Methods: We computed one-dimensional cross-correlation functions (CCFs) in order to find the best set of parameters in terms of the number of components, spectral type(s), and v sin i for each target. Radial velocities were measured using spectrum synthesis and a two-dimensional cross-correlation technique in the case of double- and triple-lined systems. Fundamental parameters were determined by fitting (composite) synthetic spectra to the normalised median spectra corrected for the appropriate Doppler shifts. Results: We report on the analysis of 478 high-resolution Hermes and 41 ACE spectra of A/F-type candidate hybrid pulsators from the Kepler field. We determined their radial velocities, projected rotational velocities, and atmospheric properties and classified our targets based on the shape of the CCFs and the temporal behaviour of the radial velocities. We derived orbital solutions for seven new systems. Three preliminary long-period orbital solutions are confirmed by a photometric time-delay analysis. Finally, we determined a global multiplicity fraction of 27% in

  3. Substructure hybrid testing of reinforced concrete shear wall structure using a domain overlapping technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Pan, Peng; Gong, Runhua; Wang, Tao; Xue, Weichen

    2017-10-01

    An online hybrid test was carried out on a 40-story 120-m high concrete shear wall structure. The structure was divided into two substructures whereby a physical model of the bottom three stories was tested in the laboratory and the upper 37 stories were simulated numerically using ABAQUS. An overlapping domain method was employed for the bottom three stories to ensure the validity of the boundary conditions of the superstructure. Mixed control was adopted in the test. Displacement control was used to apply the horizontal displacement, while two controlled force actuators were applied to simulate the overturning moment, which is very large and cannot be ignored in the substructure hybrid test of high-rise buildings. A series of tests with earthquake sources of sequentially increasing intensities were carried out. The test results indicate that the proposed hybrid test method is a solution to reproduce the seismic response of high-rise concrete shear wall buildings. The seismic performance of the tested precast high-rise building satisfies the requirements of the Chinese seismic design code.

  4. Hybrid manganese oxide films for supercapacitor application prepared by sol-gel technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chin-Yi; Wang, Sheng-Chang; Tien, Yue-Han; Tsai, Wen-Ta; Lin, Chung-Kwei

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid films were prepared by adding various concentrations of meso-carbon microbeads (MCMB) during sol-gel processing of manganese oxide films. The heat-treated films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In addition, electrochemical performance of the MCMB-added Mn-oxide hybrid coatings was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and compared with its unadded counterpart. Experimental results showed that Mn-oxide films exhibited a mixture of Mn 2 O 3 and Mn 3 O 4 phases. The higher the heat-treatment temperature, the more Mn 2 O 3 can be observed. The specific capacitance of the unadded Mn-oxide electrodes is 209 F/g. Because the MCMB particles provide more interfacial surface area for electrochemical reactions, a significant improvement can be noticed by adding MCMB in Mn-oxide coatings. The 300 o C heat-treated hybrid Mn-oxide coating with a Mn/MCMB ratio of 10/1 exhibits the highest value of 350 F/g, showing a ∼ 170% increase in specific capacitance.

  5. Seven-hour fluorescence in situ hybridization technique for enumeration of Enterobacteriaceae in food and environmental water sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ootsubo, M; Shimizu, T; Tanaka, R; Sawabe, T; Tajima, K; Ezura, Y

    2003-01-01

    A fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique using an Enterobacteriaceae-specific probe (probe D) to target 16S rRNA was improved in order to enumerate, within a single working day, Enterobacteriaceae present in food and environmental water samples. In order to minimize the time required for the FISH procedure, each step of FISH with probe D was re-evaluated using cultured Escherichia coli. Five minutes of ethanol treatment for cell fixation and hybridization were sufficient to visualize cultured E. coli, and FISH could be performed within 1 h. Because of the difficulties in detecting low levels of bacterial cells by FISH without cultivation, a FISH technique for detecting microcolonies on membrane filters was investigated to improve the bacterial detection limit. FISH with probe D following 6 h of cultivation to grow microcolonies on a 13 mm diameter membrane filter was performed, and whole Enterobacteriaceae microcolonies on the filter were then detected and enumerated by manual epifluorescence microscopic scanning at magnification of x100 in ca 5 min. The total time for FISH with probe D following cultivation (FISHFC) was reduced to within 7 h. FISHFC can be applied to enumerate cultivable Enterobacteriaceae in food (above 100 cells g-1) and environmental water samples (above 1 cell ml-1). Cultivable Enterobacteriaceae in food and water samples were enumerated accurately within 7 h using the FISHFC method. A FISHFC method capable of evaluating Enterobacteriaceae contamination in food and environmental water within a single working day was developed.

  6. Application of Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) Technique for the Detection of Genetic Aberration in Medical Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratan, Zubair Ahmed; Zaman, Sojib Bin; Haidere, Mohammad Faisal; Runa, Nusrat Jahan; Akter, Nasrin

    2017-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a macromolecule recognition technique, which is considered as a new advent in the field of cytology. Initially, it was developed as a physical mapping tool to delineate genes within chromosomes. The accuracy and versatility of FISH were subsequently capitalized upon in biological and medical research. This visually appealing technique provides an intermediate degree of resolution between DNA analysis and chromosomal investigations. FISH consists of a hybridizing DNA probe, which can be labeled directly or indirectly. In the case of direct labeling, fluorescent nucleotides are used, while indirect labeling is incorporated with reporter molecules that are subsequently detected by fluorescent antibodies or other affinity molecules. FISH is applied to detect genetic abnormalities that include different characteristic gene fusions or the presence of an abnormal number of chromosomes in a cell or loss of a chromosomal region or a whole chromosome. It is also applied in different research applications, such as gene mapping or the identification of novel oncogenes. This article reviews the concept of FISH, its application, and its advantages in medical science.  PMID:28690958

  7. The Technique of Changing the Drive Method of Micro Step Drive and Sensorless Drive for Hybrid Stepping Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Makoto; Dohmeki, Hideo

    The position control system with the advantage large torque, low vibration, and high resolution can be obtained by the constant current micro step drive applied to hybrid stepping motor. However loss is large, in order not to be concerned with load torque but to control current uniformly. As the one technique of a position control system in which high efficiency is realizable, the same sensorless control as a permanent magnet motor is effective. But, it was the purpose that the control method proposed until now controls speed. Then, this paper proposed changing the drive method of micro step drive and sensorless drive. The change of the drive method was verified from the simulation and the experiment. On no load, it was checked not producing change of a large speed at the time of a change by making electrical angle and carrying out zero reset of the integrator. On load, it was checked that a large speed change arose. The proposed system could change drive method by setting up the initial value of an integrator using the estimated result, without producing speed change. With this technique, the low loss position control system, which employed the advantage of the hybrid stepping motor, has been built.

  8. Hybrid Techniques for Hybrid Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krilavicius, T.

    2006-01-01

    Computer controlled systems are almost omnipresent nowadays. We expect such systems to function properly at any time we need them. The malfunctioning of home electronics just irritates us, but glitches in a car, power plant or medical support system may threaten life, and faults in nuclear missile

  9. Day-ahead electricity prices forecasting by a modified CGSA technique and hybrid WT in LSSVM based scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shayeghi, H.; Ghasemi, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Presenting a hybrid CGSA-LSSVM scheme for price forecasting. • Considering uncertainties for filtering in input data and feature selection to improve efficiency. • Using DWT input featured LSSVM approach to classify next-week prices. • Used three real markets to illustrate performance of the proposed price forecasting model. - Abstract: At the present time, day-ahead electricity market is closely associated with other commodity markets such as fuel market and emission market. Under such an environment, day-ahead electricity price forecasting has become necessary for power producers and consumers in the current deregulated electricity markets. Seeking for more accurate price forecasting techniques, this paper proposes a new combination of a Feature Selection (FS) technique based mutual information (MI) technique and Wavelet Transform (WT) in this study. Moreover, in this paper a new modified version of Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA) optimization based chaos theory, namely Chaotic Gravitational Search Algorithm (CGSA) is developed to find the optimal parameters of Least Square Support Vector Machine (LSSVM) to predict electricity prices. The performance and price forecast accuracy of the proposed technique is assessed by means of real data from Iran’s, Ontario’s and Spain’s price markets. The simulation results from numerical tables and figures in different cases show that the proposed technique increases electricity price market forecasting accuracy than the other classical and heretical methods in the scientific researches

  10. Heart dose reduction in breast cancer treatment with simultaneous integrated boost. Comparison of treatment planning and dosimetry for a novel hybrid technique and 3D-CRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joest, Vincent; Kretschmer, Matthias; Sabatino, Marcello; Wuerschmidt, Florian; Dahle, Joerg; Lorenzen, Joern; Ueberle, Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    The present study compares in silico treatment plans of clinically established three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) with a hybrid technique consisting of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) during normally fractionated radiation of mammary carcinomas with simultaneous integrated boost on the basis of dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters. Radiation treatment planning was performed with a hybrid and a 3D-CRT treatment plan for 20 patients. Hybrid plans were implemented with two tangential IMRT fields and a VMAT field in the angular range of the tangents. Verification of the plan was performed with a manufacturer-independent measurement system consisting of a detector array and rotation unit. The mean values of the heart dose for the entire patient collective were 3.6 ± 2.5 Gy for 3D-CRT and 2.9 ± 2.1 Gy for the hybrid technique (p < 0.01). For the left side (n = 10), the mean values for the left anterior descending artery were 21.8 ± 7.4 Gy for 3D-CRT and 17.6 ± 7.4 Gy for the hybrid technique (p < 0.01). The mean values of the ipsilateral lung were 11.9 ± 1.6 Gy for 3D-CRT and 10.5 ± 1.3 Gy for the hybrid technique (p < 0.01). Calculated dose distributions in the hybrid arm were in good accordance with measured dose (on average 95.6 ± 0.5 % for γ < 1 and 3 %/3 mm). The difference of the mean treatment time per fraction was 7 s in favor of 3D-CRT. Compared with the established 3D-CRT technique, the hybrid technique allows for a decrease in dose, particularly of the mean heart and lung dose with comparable target volume acquisition and without disadvantageous low-dose load of contralateral structures. Uncomplicated implementation of the hybrid technique was demonstrated in this context. The hybrid technique combines the advantages of tangential IMRT with the superior sparing of organs at risk by VMAT. (orig.) [de

  11. Optimization of the design of thick, segmented scintillators for megavoltage cone-beam CT using a novel, hybrid modeling technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Langechuan; Antonuk, Larry E., E-mail: antonuk@umich.edu; El-Mohri, Youcef; Zhao, Qihua; Jiang, Hao [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Active matrix flat-panel imagers (AMFPIs) incorporating thick, segmented scintillators have demonstrated order-of-magnitude improvements in detective quantum efficiency (DQE) at radiotherapy energies compared to systems based on conventional phosphor screens. Such improved DQE values facilitate megavoltage cone-beam CT (MV CBCT) imaging at clinically practical doses. However, the MV CBCT performance of such AMFPIs is highly dependent on the design parameters of the scintillators. In this paper, optimization of the design of segmented scintillators was explored using a hybrid modeling technique which encompasses both radiation and optical effects. Methods: Imaging performance in terms of the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and spatial resolution of various hypothetical scintillator designs was examined through a hybrid technique involving Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport in combination with simulation of optical gain distributions and optical point spread functions. The optical simulations employed optical parameters extracted from a best fit to measurement results reported in a previous investigation of a 1.13 cm thick, 1016μm pitch prototype BGO segmented scintillator. All hypothetical designs employed BGO material with a thickness and element-to-element pitch ranging from 0.5 to 6 cm and from 0.508 to 1.524 mm, respectively. In the CNR study, for each design, full tomographic scans of a contrast phantom incorporating various soft-tissue inserts were simulated at a total dose of 4 cGy. Results: Theoretical values for contrast, noise, and CNR were found to be in close agreement with empirical results from the BGO prototype, strongly supporting the validity of the modeling technique. CNR and spatial resolution for the various scintillator designs demonstrate complex behavior as scintillator thickness and element pitch are varied—with a clear trade-off between these two imaging metrics up to a thickness of ∼3 cm. Based on these results, an

  12. Field Lab on the Rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, David T., Jr.; Abbott-King, Janet P.

    1985-01-01

    Advocates taking students on field trips to highway roadcuts to illustrate various geological principles. Photographs of three roadcuts (with sample objectives and questions/answers for students to answer) are included. Also included are suggestions for preparation, safety, and activities during such field trips. (DH)

  13. Enhancement of the mechanical properties of an aluminum metal matrix nanocomposite by the hybridization technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalidindi Sita Rama Raju

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A uniform distribution of nanoparticles in the matrix plays a prominent role in improving the composite strength. In the present investigation, two types of launching vehicles, such as aluminum powder (primary and CNTs (secondary, are considered to uniformly carry and launch ultra-fine nanoparticles (13 nm into molten metal. The use of a secondary launching vehicle is identified to promote strengthening compared to a regular primary vehicle, as indicated by the good distribution observed from electron micrographs. CNTs are responsible for hybridizing the composite and also assist strengthening by anchoring to the matrix through the destroyed outer-walls and their axial orientation with the matrix. These results help us in attaining a strength of 197 MPa and a hardness of 93 BHN, with a minimal loss in ductility for the H-3 sample.

  14. FPGA Techniques Based New Hybrid Modulation Strategies for Voltage Source Inverters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, L. U.; Baskaran, J.; Elankurisil, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper corroborates three different hybrid modulation strategies suitable for single-phase voltage source inverter. The proposed method is formulated using fundamental switching and carrier based pulse width modulation methods. The main tale of this proposed method is to optimize a specific performance criterion, such as minimization of the total harmonic distortion (THD), lower order harmonics, switching losses, and heat losses. The proposed method is articulated using fundamental switching and carrier based pulse width modulation methods. Thus, the harmonic pollution in the power system will be reduced and the power quality will be augmented with better harmonic profile for a target fundamental output voltage. The proposed modulation strategies are simulated in MATLAB r2010a and implemented in a Xilinx spartan 3E-500 FG 320 FPGA processor. The feasibility of these modulation strategies is authenticated through simulation and experimental results. PMID:25821852

  15. ANALYSIS DATA SETS USING HYBRID TECHNIQUES APPLIED ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE BASED PRODUCTION SYSTEMS INTEGRATED DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel-Petru GHENCEA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a prediction model of behavior spindle from the point of view of the thermal deformations and the level of the vibrations by highlighting and processing the characteristic equations. This is a model analysis for the shaft with similar electro-mechanical characteristics can be achieved using a hybrid analysis based on artificial intelligence (genetic algorithms - artificial neural networks - fuzzy logic. The paper presents a prediction mode obtaining valid range of values for spindles with similar characteristics based on measured data sets from a few spindles test without additional measures being required. Extracting polynomial functions of graphs resulting from simultaneous measurements and predict the dynamics of the two features with multi-objective criterion is the main advantage of this method.

  16. Hybrid endovascular stent-grafting technique for patent ductus arteriosus in an adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainuma, S; Kuratani, T; Sawa, Y

    2011-09-01

    A 51-year-old man was referred to our institution for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) complicated by left ventricular dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension. Surgical closure of a PDA is usually carried out via a small posterior thoracotomy. However, thoracoscopic procedures are probably not appropriate in adults because of the frequency of calcification and the greater risk of rupture while ligating the ductus. To minimize surgical trauma, we used hybrid endovascular stent grafting combined with revascularization of the left subclavian artery, which enabled us to eliminate shunt flow to the pulmonary artery. At 11-month follow-up, the patient was asymptomatic and showed no complications. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Elastography as a hybrid imaging technique : coupling with photoacoustics and quantitative imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widlak, T.G.

    2015-01-01

    While classical imaging methods, such as ultrasound, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, are well-known and mathematically understood, a host of physiological parameters relevant for diagnostic purposes cannot be obtained by them. This gap is recently being closed by the introduction of hybrid, or coupled-physics imaging methods. They connect more then one physical modality, and aim to provide quantitative information on optical, electrical or mechanical parameters with high resolution. Central to this thesis is the mechanical contrast of elastic tissue, especially Young’s modulus or the shear modulus. Different methods of qualitative elastography provide interior information of the mechanical displacement field. From this interior data the nonlinear inverse problem of quantitative elastography aims to reconstruct the shear modulus. In this thesis, the elastography problem is seen from a hybrid imaging perspective; methods from coupled-physics inspired literature and regularization theory have been employed to recover displacement and shear modulus information. The overdetermined systems approach by G. Bal is applied to the quantitative problem, and ellipticity criteria are deduced, for one and several measurements, as well as injectivity results. Together with the geometric theory of G. Chavent, the results are used for analyzing convergence of Tikhonov regularization. Also, a convergence analysis for the Levenberg Marquardt method is provided. As a second mainstream project in this thesis, elastography imaging is developed for extracting displacements from photoacoustic images. A novel method is provided for texturizing the images, and the optical flow problem for motion estimation is shown to be regularized with this texture generation. The results are tested in cooperation with the Medical University Vienna, and the methods for quantitative determination of the shear modulus evaluated in first experiments. In summary, the overdetermined systems

  18. Multiple group radiator and hybrid test heads, possibilities of combining the array technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuestenberg, H.

    1993-01-01

    This article is intended to show the important considerations, which led to the development of the multichannel group radiator technique. Trends in development and the advantages and disadvantages of the different possibilities are introduced, against the background of experience now available for these configurative variants of ultrasonic test heads. For this reason, a series of experiences and arguments is reported, from the point of view of the developer of the multi-channel group radiator technique. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Model Predictive Control techniques with application to photovoltaic, DC Microgrid, and a multi-sourced hybrid energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadmand, Mohammad Bagher

    Renewable energy sources continue to gain popularity. However, two major limitations exist that prevent widespread adoption: availability and variability of the electricity generated and the cost of the equipment. The focus of this dissertation is Model Predictive Control (MPC) for optimal sized photovoltaic (PV), DC Microgrid, and multi-sourced hybrid energy systems. The main considered applications are: maximum power point tracking (MPPT) by MPC, droop predictive control of DC microgrid, MPC of grid-interaction inverter, MPC of a capacitor-less VAR compensator based on matrix converter (MC). This dissertation firstly investigates a multi-objective optimization technique for a hybrid distribution system. The variability of a high-penetration PV scenario is also studied when incorporated into the microgrid concept. Emerging (PV) technologies have enabled the creation of contoured and conformal PV surfaces; the effect of using non-planar PV modules on variability is also analyzed. The proposed predictive control to achieve maximum power point for isolated and grid-tied PV systems speeds up the control loop since it predicts error before the switching signal is applied to the converter. The low conversion efficiency of PV cells means we want to ensure always operating at maximum possible power point to make the system economical. Thus the proposed MPPT technique can capture more energy compared to the conventional MPPT techniques from same amount of installed solar panel. Because of the MPPT requirement, the output voltage of the converter may vary. Therefore a droop control is needed to feed multiple arrays of photovoltaic systems to a DC bus in microgrid community. Development of a droop control technique by means of predictive control is another application of this dissertation. Reactive power, denoted as Volt Ampere Reactive (VAR), has several undesirable consequences on AC power system network such as reduction in power transfer capability and increase in

  20. Application of fluorescence in situ hybridization technique in the diagnosis of acute promyelocytic leukemia with abnormal immunophenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Leilei; Sun Xuemei; Chen Junhao; Zhang Le

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the utilization of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique in the diagnosis of acute promyelocytic leukemia(APL) with abnormal immunophenotype, flow cytometry was used to detect the immunophenotype of mononuclear cells in APL patients and PML/RARα fusion gene was detected by FISH. The mononuclear cells of several APL patients showed abnormal immunophenotype: CD13 + , CD33 + , CD34 - , HLA-DR + and PML/RARα fusion gene was also detected, which was different from the regular result of APL: HLA- DR - , PML/RARα + . Therefore, the detection of immunophenotype in APL patients should not be regarded as the sole accurate target for diagnosing leukemia. FISH ,associated with traditional FAB classification, is a simple, rapid, accurate and direct method. It can be used to help confirm the diagnosis, to guide the formulation of a reasonable chemotherapy scheme and to supervise the efficacy of the treatment in patients with leukemia. (authors)

  1. Hybrid vapor phase-solution phase growth techniques for improved CZT(S,Se) photovoltaic device performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Liang-Yi; Gershon, Talia S.; Haight, Richard A.; Lee, Yun Seog

    2016-12-27

    A hybrid vapor phase-solution phase CZT(S,Se) growth technique is provided. In one aspect, a method of forming a kesterite absorber material on a substrate includes the steps of: depositing a layer of a first kesterite material on the substrate using a vapor phase deposition process, wherein the first kesterite material includes Cu, Zn, Sn, and at least one of S and Se; annealing the first kesterite material to crystallize the first kesterite material; and depositing a layer of a second kesterite material on a side of the first kesterite material opposite the substrate using a solution phase deposition process, wherein the second kesterite material includes Cu, Zn, Sn, and at least one of S and Se, wherein the first kesterite material and the second kesterite material form a multi-layer stack of the absorber material on the substrate. A photovoltaic device and method of formation thereof are also provided.

  2. Treatment of breast cancer with simultaneous integrated boost in hybrid plan technique. Influence of flattening filter-free beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahrainy, Marzieh; Kretschmer, Matthias; Joest, Vincent; Kasch, Astrid; Wuerschmidt, Florian; Dahle, Joerg; Lorenzen, Joern [Radiologische Allianz, Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    The present study compares in silico treatment plans using hybrid plan technique during hypofractionated radiation of mammary carcinoma with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB). The influence of 6 MV photon radiation in flattening filter free (FFF) mode against the clinical standard flattening filter (FF) mode is to be examined. RT planning took place with FF and FFF radiation plans for 10 left-sided breast cancer patients. Hybrid plans were realised with two tangential IMRT fields and one VMAT field. The dose prescription was in line with the guidelines in the ARO-2010-01 study. The dosimetric verification took place with a manufacturer-independent measurement system. Required dose prescriptions for the planning target volumes (PTV) were achieved for both groups. The average dose values of the ipsi- and contralateral lung and the heart did not differ significantly. The overall average incidental dose to the left anterior descending artery (LAD) of 8.24 ± 3.9 Gy in the FFF group and 9.05 ± 3.7 Gy in the FF group (p < 0.05) were found. The dosimetric verifications corresponded to the clinical requirements. FFF-based RT plans reduced the average treatment time by 17 s/fraction. In comparison to the FF-based hybrid plan technique the FFF mode allows further reduction of the average LAD dose for comparable target volume coverage without adverse low-dose exposure of contralateral structures. The combination of hybrid plan technique and 6 MV photon radiation in the FFF mode is suitable for use with hypofractionated dose schemes. The increased dose rate allows a substantial reduction of treatment time and thus beneficial application of the deep inspiration breath hold technique. (orig.) [German] Vergleich der ''In-silico''-Bestrahlungsplaene der klinisch etablierten Hybridplan-Technik bei hypofraktionierter Bestrahlung des Mammakarzinoms mit simultan integriertem Boost (SIB). Untersucht wird der Einfluss von 6MV-Photonenstrahlung im Flattening

  3. All-optical delay technique for supporting multiple antennas in a hybrid optical - wireless transmission system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prince, Kamau; Chiuchiarelli, A; Presi, M

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a novel continuously-variable optical delay technique to support beam-forming wireless communications systems using antenna arrays. We demonstrate delay with 64-QAM modulated signals at a rate of 15 Msymbol/sec with 2.5 GHz carrier frequency.......We introduce a novel continuously-variable optical delay technique to support beam-forming wireless communications systems using antenna arrays. We demonstrate delay with 64-QAM modulated signals at a rate of 15 Msymbol/sec with 2.5 GHz carrier frequency....

  4. Dynamic model updating based on strain mode shape and natural frequency using hybrid pattern search technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ning; Yang, Zhichun; Wang, Le; Ouyang, Yan; Zhang, Xinping

    2018-05-01

    Aiming at providing a precise dynamic structural finite element (FE) model for dynamic strength evaluation in addition to dynamic analysis. A dynamic FE model updating method is presented to correct the uncertain parameters of the FE model of a structure using strain mode shapes and natural frequencies. The strain mode shape, which is sensitive to local changes in structure, is used instead of the displacement mode for enhancing model updating. The coordinate strain modal assurance criterion is developed to evaluate the correlation level at each coordinate over the experimental and the analytical strain mode shapes. Moreover, the natural frequencies which provide the global information of the structure are used to guarantee the accuracy of modal properties of the global model. Then, the weighted summation of the natural frequency residual and the coordinate strain modal assurance criterion residual is used as the objective function in the proposed dynamic FE model updating procedure. The hybrid genetic/pattern-search optimization algorithm is adopted to perform the dynamic FE model updating procedure. Numerical simulation and model updating experiment for a clamped-clamped beam are performed to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the present method. The results show that the proposed method can be used to update the uncertain parameters with good robustness. And the updated dynamic FE model of the beam structure, which can correctly predict both the natural frequencies and the local dynamic strains, is reliable for the following dynamic analysis and dynamic strength evaluation.

  5. Induction of mutants in Durum Wheat by hybridization and irradiation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Ubaidi, M.O.; Ibrahim, I.F.

    2001-01-01

    This investigation presents a breeding program for induction and development a new genotypes of durum wheat, resistant to lodging with high yield, by irradiated seeds (F2) of durum wheat hybrid's (Sin Al-jemal X Izraa, Sin Al-Jemal X Cocorat and Izraa X Cocorat) with gamma rays 100 Gy dose. This program involves: Induction of variability, selection, evaluation of the best mutants at three different locations, Twaitha(Baghdad), Latifya (Babylon) and Swari (Kutt), for the period 1990-1999. Results revealed that the mutants ( Si X Iz-7, Si X Iz-22, Si X Co-43, Si X Co-48, Si X Co-50, Si X Co- 87, Iz X Co-95 and Iz X Co-105) showed resistance to lodging with a significant reduction in plant heigth, but mutant Si X Iz-22 surpassed the other mutants and it is origin in lodging resistance and reduction in plant heigth (84.8, 81.9 and 86.3 cm) at Twaitha, Latifya and Babylon respectively in M7 and M8 generations. Also there were a significant differences between the mutants and their origin in yield and yield components during the two successive generations, on the other hand mutant Iz X Co-105 surpassed the other mutants in spikes/m2 ( 278.8, 263.3 and 289) and grain yield (4950, 4820 and 5320 kg/ha) in the testing locations respectively

  6. A hybrid interface tracking - level set technique for multiphase flow with soluble surfactant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seungwon; Chergui, Jalel; Juric, Damir; Kahouadji, Lyes; Matar, Omar K.; Craster, Richard V.

    2018-04-01

    A formulation for soluble surfactant transport in multiphase flows recently presented by Muradoglu and Tryggvason (JCP 274 (2014) 737-757) [17] is adapted to the context of the Level Contour Reconstruction Method, LCRM, (Shin et al. IJNMF 60 (2009) 753-778, [8]) which is a hybrid method that combines the advantages of the Front-tracking and Level Set methods. Particularly close attention is paid to the formulation and numerical implementation of the surface gradients of surfactant concentration and surface tension. Various benchmark tests are performed to demonstrate the accuracy of different elements of the algorithm. To verify surfactant mass conservation, values for surfactant diffusion along the interface are compared with the exact solution for the problem of uniform expansion of a sphere. The numerical implementation of the discontinuous boundary condition for the source term in the bulk concentration is compared with the approximate solution. Surface tension forces are tested for Marangoni drop translation. Our numerical results for drop deformation in simple shear are compared with experiments and results from previous simulations. All benchmarking tests compare well with existing data thus providing confidence that the adapted LCRM formulation for surfactant advection and diffusion is accurate and effective in three-dimensional multiphase flows with a structured mesh. We also demonstrate that this approach applies easily to massively parallel simulations.

  7. Prediction of AL and Dst Indices from ACE Measurements Using Hybrid Physics/Black-Box Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, E.; Rao, A.; Horton, W.; Mays, L.

    2008-12-01

    ACE measurements of the solar wind velocity, IMF and proton density is used to drive a hybrid Physics/Black- Box model of the nightside magnetosphere. The core physics is contained in a low order nonlinear dynamical model of the nightside magnetosphere called WINDMI. The model is augmented by wavelet based nonlinear mappings between the solar wind quantities and the input into the physics model, followed by further wavelet based mappings of the model output field aligned currents onto the ground based magnetometer measurements of the AL index and Dst index. The black box mappings are introduced at the input stage to account for uncertainties in the way the solar wind quantities are transported from the ACE spacecraft at L1 to the magnetopause. Similar mappings are introduced at the output stage to account for a spatially and temporally varying westward auroral electrojet geometry. The parameters of the model are tuned using a genetic algorithm, and trained using the large geomagnetic storm dataset of October 3-7 2000. It's predictive performance is then evaluated on subsequent storm datasets, in particular the April 15-24 2002 storm. This work is supported by grant NSF 7020201

  8. A hybrid technique for private location-based queries with database protection

    KAUST Repository

    Ghinita, Gabriel; Kalnis, Panos; Kantarcioǧlu, Murâ t; Bertino, Elisa

    2009-01-01

    on finding good trade-offs between privacy and performance of user protection techniques, but disregarded the important issue of protecting the POI dataset D. For instance, location cloaking requires large-sized CRs, leading to excessive disclosure of POIs (O

  9. A study on hybrid split-spectrum processing technique for enhanced reliability in ultrasonic signal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Hyung; Koo, Kil Mo; Cheong, Yong Moo; Kim, G. J.

    1995-01-01

    Many signal-processing techniques have been found to be useful in ultrasonic and nondestructive evaluation. Among the most popular techniques are signal averaging, spatial compounding, matched filters, and homomorphic processing. One of the significant new process is split-spectrum processing(SSP), which can be equally useful in signal-to-noise ratio(SNR) improvement and grain characterization in several engineering materials. The purpose of this paper is to explore the utility of SSP in ultrasonic NDE. A wide variety of engineering problems are reviewed and suggestions for implementation of the technique are provided. SSP uses the frequency-dependent response of the interfering coherent noise produced by unresolvable scatters in the resolution range cell of a transducer. It is implemented by splitting the Sequency spectrum of the received signal by using Gaussian bandpass filters. The theoretical basis for the potential of SSP for grain characterization in SUS 304 material is discussed, and some experimental-evidence for the feasibility of the approach is presented. Results of SNR enhancement in signals obtained from real four samples of SUS 304. The influence of various processing parameters on the performance of the processing technique is also discussed. The minimization algorithm. which provides an excellent SNR enhancement when used either in conjunction with other SSP algorithms like polarity-check or by itself, is also presented.

  10. A Study on Hybrid Split-Spectrum Processing Technique for Enhanced Reliability in Ultrasonic Signal Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, H.; Koo, K. M.; Kim, G. J.

    1996-01-01

    Many signal-processing techniques have been found to be useful in ultrasonic and nondestructive evaluation. Among the most popular techniques are signal averaging, spatial compounding, matched filters and homomorphic processing. One of the significant new process is split-spectrum processing(SSP), which can be equally useful in signal-to-noise ratio(SNR) improvement and grain characterization in several specimens. The purpose of this paper is to explore the utility of SSP in ultrasonic NDE. A wide variety of engineering problems are reviewed, and suggestions for implementation of the technique are provided. SSP uses the frequency-dependent response of the interfering coherent noise produced by unresolvable scatters in the resolution range cell of a transducer. It is implemented by splitting the frequency spectrum of the received signal by using gaussian bandpass filter. The theoretical basis for the potential of SSP for grain characterization in SUS 304 material is discussed, and some experimental evidence for the feasibility of the approach is presented. Results of SNR enhancement in signals obtained from real four samples of SUS 304. The influence of various processing parameters on the performance of the processing technique is also discussed. The minimization algorithm, which provides an excellent SNR enhancement when used either in conjunction with other SSP algorithms like polarity-check or by itself, is also presented

  11. Evaluation and Optimization Study on a Hybrid EOR Technique Named as Chemical-Alternating-Foam Floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Xingguang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a novel Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR method called Chemical-Alternating-Foam (CAF floods in order to overcome the drawbacks of the conventional foam flooding such as insufficient amount of in-situ foams, severe foam collapse and surfactant retention. The first part of this research focused on the comparison of conventional foam floods and CAF floods both of which had the same amount of gas and chemicals. It showed that: (1 CAF floods possessed the much greater Residual Resistance Factor (RRF at elevated temperature; (2 the accumulative oil recovery of the CAF floods was 10%-15% higher than that of the conventional foam flooding. After 1.8 Pore Volume (PV injection, the oil recovery reached the plateau for both methods; (3 CAF floods yielded the most amount of incremental oil at the 98% water cut (water content in the effluent, while the continuous foam floods achieved the best performance at 60% water cut. The second part of this work determined the optimal foam quality (gas/liquid ratio or the volume percent gas within foam, chemical/foam slug size ratio, cycle number and injection sequence for the CAF floods. It was found that the CAF was endowed with the peak performance if the foam quality, chemical/foam slug size ratio, cycle number was fixed at 80%, 1:1 and 3 respectively with the chemical slug being introduced ahead of the foam slug. Through systematic and thorough research, the proposed hybrid process has been approved to be a viable and effective method significantly strengthening the conventional foam flooding.

  12. A proposed framework on hybrid feature selection techniques for handling high dimensional educational data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahiri, Amirah Mohamed; Husain, Wahidah; Rashid, Nur'Aini Abd

    2017-10-01

    Huge amounts of data in educational datasets may cause the problem in producing quality data. Recently, data mining approach are increasingly used by educational data mining researchers for analyzing the data patterns. However, many research studies have concentrated on selecting suitable learning algorithms instead of performing feature selection process. As a result, these data has problem with computational complexity and spend longer computational time for classification. The main objective of this research is to provide an overview of feature selection techniques that have been used to analyze the most significant features. Then, this research will propose a framework to improve the quality of students' dataset. The proposed framework uses filter and wrapper based technique to support prediction process in future study.

  13. A HYBRID TECHNIQUE FOR PAPR REDUCTION OF OFDM USING DHT PRECODING WITH PIECEWISE LINEAR COMPANDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thammana Ajay

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM is a fascinating approach for wireless communication applications which require huge amount of data rates. However, OFDM signal suffers from its large Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR, which results in significant distortion while passing through a nonlinear device, such as a transmitter high power amplifier (HPA. Due to this high PAPR, the complexity of HPA as well as DAC also increases. For the reduction of PAPR in OFDM many techniques are available. Among them companding is an attractive low complexity technique for the OFDM signal’s PAPR reduction. Recently, a piecewise linear companding technique is recommended aiming at minimizing companding distortion. In this paper, a collective piecewise linear companding approach with Discrete Hartley Transform (DHT method is expected to reduce peak-to-average of OFDM to a great extent. Simulation results shows that this new proposed method obtains significant PAPR reduction while maintaining improved performance in the Bit Error Rate (BER and Power Spectral Density (PSD compared to piecewise linear companding method.

  14. Minimum deltaV Burn Planning for the International Space Station Using a Hybrid Optimization Technique, Level 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Aaron J.

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station's (ISS) trajectory is coordinated and executed by the Trajectory Operations and Planning (TOPO) group at NASA's Johnson Space Center. TOPO group personnel routinely generate look-ahead trajectories for the ISS that incorporate translation burns needed to maintain its orbit over the next three to twelve months. The burns are modeled as in-plane, horizontal burns, and must meet operational trajectory constraints imposed by both NASA and the Russian Space Agency. In generating these trajectories, TOPO personnel must determine the number of burns to model, each burn's Time of Ignition (TIG), and magnitude (i.e. deltaV) that meet these constraints. The current process for targeting these burns is manually intensive, and does not take advantage of more modern techniques that can reduce the workload needed to find feasible burn solutions, i.e. solutions that simply meet the constraints, or provide optimal burn solutions that minimize the total DeltaV while simultaneously meeting the constraints. A two-level, hybrid optimization technique is proposed to find both feasible and globally optimal burn solutions for ISS trajectory planning. For optimal solutions, the technique breaks the optimization problem into two distinct sub-problems, one for choosing the optimal number of burns and each burn's optimal TIG, and the other for computing the minimum total deltaV burn solution that satisfies the trajectory constraints. Each of the two aforementioned levels uses a different optimization algorithm to solve one of the sub-problems, giving rise to a hybrid technique. Level 2, or the outer level, uses a genetic algorithm to select the number of burns and each burn's TIG. Level 1, or the inner level, uses the burn TIGs from Level 2 in a sequential quadratic programming (SQP) algorithm to compute a minimum total deltaV burn solution subject to the trajectory constraints. The total deltaV from Level 1 is then used as a fitness function by the genetic

  15. A Hybrid Semi-Digital Transimpedance Amplifier With Noise Cancellation Technique for Nanopore-Based DNA Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chung-Lun; Jiang, Haowei; Venkatesh, A G; Hall, Drew A

    2015-10-01

    Over the past two decades, nanopores have been a promising technology for next generation deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequencing. Here, we present a hybrid semi-digital transimpedance amplifier (HSD-TIA) to sense the minute current signatures introduced by single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) translocating through a nanopore, while discharging the baseline current using a semi-digital feedback loop. The amplifier achieves fast settling by adaptively tuning a DC compensation current when a step input is detected. A noise cancellation technique reduces the total input-referred current noise caused by the parasitic input capacitance. Measurement results show the performance of the amplifier with 31.6 M Ω mid-band gain, 950 kHz bandwidth, and 8.5 fA/ √Hz input-referred current noise, a 2× noise reduction due to the noise cancellation technique. The settling response is demonstrated by observing the insertion of a protein nanopore in a lipid bilayer. Using the nanopore, the HSD-TIA was able to measure ssDNA translocation events.

  16. Development of novel hybrid poly(l-lactide)/chitosan scaffolds using the rapid freeze prototyping technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, N; Chen, X B [Division of Biomedical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Li, M G [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Cooper, D, E-mail: xbc719@mail.usask.ca [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2011-09-15

    Engineered scaffolds have been shown to be critical to various tissue engineering applications. This paper presents the development of a novel three-dimensional scaffold made from a mixture of chitosan microspheres (CMs) and poly(l-lactide) by means of the rapid freeze prototyping (RFP) technique. The CMs were used to encapsulate bovine serum albumin (BSA) and improve the scaffold mechanical properties. Experiments to examine the BSA release were carried out; the BSA release could be controlled by adjusting the crosslink degree of the CMs and prolonged after the CMs were embedded into the PLLA scaffolds, while the examination of the mechanical properties of the scaffolds illustrates that they depend on the ratio of CMs to PLLA in the scaffolds as well as the cryogenic temperature used in the RFP fabrication process. The chemical characteristics of the PLLA/chitosan scaffolds were evaluated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The morphological and pore structure of the scaffolds were also examined by scanning electron microscopy and micro-tomography. The results obtained show that the scaffolds have higher porosity and enhanced pore size distribution compared to those fabricated by the dispensing-based rapid prototyping technique. This study demonstrates that the novel scaffolds have not only enhanced porous structure and mechanical properties but also showed the potential to preserve the bioactivities of the biomolecules and to control the biomolecule distribution and release rate.

  17. Fabrication of ridge waveguide structure from photosensitive TiO2/ormosil hybrid films by using an ultraviolet soft imprint technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xuehua; Que, Wenxiu; Chen, Jing; Gao, Tianxi; Hu, Jiaxing; Liu, Weiguo

    2013-01-01

    Photosensitive TiO 2 /organically modified silane hybrid films were prepared by combining a low-temperature sol–gel process with a spin-coating technique. Optical properties and photochemical activities of the as-prepared hybrid sol–gel films under different UV irradiation time were characterized and monitored by prism coupling technique, UV–visible spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Surface morphology of the hybrid films was also observed by an atomic force microscopy. Advantages for fabrication of ridge waveguide structure based on the photosensitive hybrid films were demonstrated by an ultraviolet soft imprint technique. Effects of imprint force, imprint time, and UV irradiation time on high replication fidelity of the ridge waveguide structure were also investigated. An altitude replication fidelity of 99.7% can be obtained when the imprint force of 2 MPa, imprint time of 30 min and UV irradiation time of 45 min were chosen. Scanning electron microscopy and surface profiler were used to characterize the morphological and surface profile properties of the as fabricated ridge waveguide structure. Results indicate that the as-prepared photosensitive hybrid materials have great applicability for the fabrication of micro-optical elements and advantage as the imprint layer under the ultraviolet soft imprint technique. - Highlights: ► Photosensitive TiO 2 /ormosil hybrid film is prepared by a sol–gel process. ► Optical properties of the films change a little with UV exposure time. ► Photo-chemical property of the film changes a lot with UV exposure time. ► The imprint force and time, and the UV exposure time affect the imprint fidelity. ► A fidelity value of 99.7% is obtained under an optimized condition

  18. Fabrication of ridge waveguide structure from photosensitive TiO{sub 2}/ormosil hybrid films by using an ultraviolet soft imprint technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xuehua [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, International Center for Dielectric Research, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Que, Wenxiu, E-mail: wxque@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, International Center for Dielectric Research, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Chen, Jing; Gao, Tianxi; Hu, Jiaxing [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, International Center for Dielectric Research, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Liu, Weiguo [Micro-optoelectronic Systems Laboratories, Xi' an Technological University, Xi' an 710032, Shaanxi (China)

    2013-03-01

    Photosensitive TiO{sub 2}/organically modified silane hybrid films were prepared by combining a low-temperature sol–gel process with a spin-coating technique. Optical properties and photochemical activities of the as-prepared hybrid sol–gel films under different UV irradiation time were characterized and monitored by prism coupling technique, UV–visible spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Surface morphology of the hybrid films was also observed by an atomic force microscopy. Advantages for fabrication of ridge waveguide structure based on the photosensitive hybrid films were demonstrated by an ultraviolet soft imprint technique. Effects of imprint force, imprint time, and UV irradiation time on high replication fidelity of the ridge waveguide structure were also investigated. An altitude replication fidelity of 99.7% can be obtained when the imprint force of 2 MPa, imprint time of 30 min and UV irradiation time of 45 min were chosen. Scanning electron microscopy and surface profiler were used to characterize the morphological and surface profile properties of the as fabricated ridge waveguide structure. Results indicate that the as-prepared photosensitive hybrid materials have great applicability for the fabrication of micro-optical elements and advantage as the imprint layer under the ultraviolet soft imprint technique. - Highlights: ► Photosensitive TiO{sub 2}/ormosil hybrid film is prepared by a sol–gel process. ► Optical properties of the films change a little with UV exposure time. ► Photo-chemical property of the film changes a lot with UV exposure time. ► The imprint force and time, and the UV exposure time affect the imprint fidelity. ► A fidelity value of 99.7% is obtained under an optimized condition.

  19. Recent advances in knowledge-based paradigms and applications enhanced applications using hybrid artificial intelligence techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi

    2014-01-01

    This book presents carefully selected contributions devoted to the modern perspective of AI research and innovation. This collection covers several areas of applications and motivates new research directions. The theme across all chapters combines several domains of AI research , Computational Intelligence and Machine Intelligence including an introduction to  the recent research and models. Each of the subsequent chapters reveals leading edge research and innovative solution that employ AI techniques with an applied perspective. The problems include classification of spatial images, early smoke detection in outdoor space from video images, emergent segmentation from image analysis, intensity modification in images, multi-agent modeling and analysis of stress. They all are novel pieces of work and demonstrate how AI research contributes to solutions for difficult real world problems that benefit the research community, industry and society.

  20. Dry sliding wear behavior of heat treated hybrid metal matrix composite using Taguchi techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiran, T.S.; Prasanna Kumar, M.; Basavarajappa, S.; Viswanatha, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • ZA-27 alloy is used as matrix material and reinforced with SiC and Gr particles. • Heat treatment was carried out for all specimen. • Dry sliding wear test was done on pin-on-disc apparatus by Taguchi technique. • ZA-27/9SiC–3Gr showed superior wear resistance over the base alloy. • Ceramic mixed mechanical layer on contact surface of composite was formed. - Abstract: Dry sliding wear behavior of zinc based alloy and composite reinforced with SiCp (9 wt%) and Gr (3 wt%) fabricated by stir casting method was investigated. Heat treatment (HT) and aging of the specimen were carried out, followed by water quenching. Wear behavior was evaluated using pin on disc apparatus. Taguchi technique was used to estimate the parameters affecting the wear significantly. The effect of HT was that it reduced the microcracks, residual stresses and improved the distribution of microconstituents. The influence of various parameters like applied load, sliding speed and sliding distance on wear behavior was investigated by means and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Further, correlation between the parameters was determined by multiple linear regression equation for each response. It was observed that the applied load significantly influenced the wear volume loss (WVL), followed by sliding speed implying that increase in either applied load or sliding speed increases the WVL. Whereas for composites, sliding distance showed a negative influence on wear indicating that increase in sliding distance reduces WVL due to the presence of reinforcements. The wear mechanism of the worn out specimen was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. The analysis shows that the formation and retention of ceramic mixed mechanical layer (CMML) plays a major role in the dry sliding wear resistance

  1. Contrast-Enhanced MR Angiography (CEMRA) in Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease (PAOD): conventional moving table technique versus hybrid technique; Kontrastverstaerkte MR-Angiographie (CEMRA) bei peripherer AVK (pAVK): konventionelle Tischverschiebetechnik versus Hybrid-Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalle, T. von; Gerlach, A.; Hatopp, A.; Klinger, S.; Prodehl, P.; Arlat, I.P. [Katharinenhospital, Stuttgart (Germany). Radiologisches Inst.

    2004-01-01

    Patients and Methods: 80 patients (males n = 60, females n = 20, median age = 70 years, diabetics n = 27) with PAOD were examined with a 1,5T system (40 mT/m) using a dedicated phased array peripheral vascular coil. Protocol A consisted of a single injection of Gd-BOPTA with consecutive craniocaudal image acquisition and protocol B of two injections, with the first injection of Gd-BOPTA followed by image acquisition of the popliteocrural and pedal segments and the second injection followed by acquiring the aortoiliac and femoral segments (hybrid technique). The evaluation of the arterial system was directed to the iliac, femoral, popliteocrural and pedal arteries. Results: The visualization of the entire aortopedal vascular system was of diagnostically good or satisfactory quality in 16 of 40 patients using protocol A and in 29 of 40 patients using protocol B (iliac 40 vs. 37, femoral 40 vs. 40, popliteocrural 35 vs. 37, pedal 16 vs. 29); without the pedal station the number increased to 35 of 40 patients for both protocols. The reason of diagnostic limitations was an arteriovenous overlap in 24 of 80 cases, with 19 of 40 cases for protocol A and 5 of 40 for protocol B, located exclusively in the cruropedal region. Conclusion: Moving table hybrid CEMRA is superior to conventional technique in craniocaudal direction by producing less venous overlap of arteries and is especially more suitable for the diagnostic evaluation of the cruropedal region. (orig.) [German] Patienten und Methodik: Untersucht wurden 80 Patienten (maennl. n = 60, weibl. n = 20, mittl. Alter 70 J., Diabetiker n = 27) mit pAVK an einem 1,5-Tesla-Geraet (40 mT/m) mit dedizierter Phased-Array-Oberflaechen-Gefaessspule. Protokoll A beinhaltete eine Kontrastmittel-Injektion (Gd-BOPTA) mit konsekutiver kraniokaudaler Bildakquisition. In Protokoll B erfolgte die Akquisition zunaechst der Unterschenkel- und Fussetage mittels einer ersten, anschliessend der Abdomen-Becken- und Oberschenkeletage mittels

  2. A hybrid stock trading framework integrating technical analysis with machine learning techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajashree Dash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel decision support system using a computational efficient functional link artificial neural network (CEFLANN and a set of rules is proposed to generate the trading decisions more effectively. Here the problem of stock trading decision prediction is articulated as a classification problem with three class values representing the buy, hold and sell signals. The CEFLANN network used in the decision support system produces a set of continuous trading signals within the range 0–1 by analyzing the nonlinear relationship exists between few popular technical indicators. Further the output trading signals are used to track the trend and to produce the trading decision based on that trend using some trading rules. The novelty of the approach is to engender the profitable stock trading decision points through integration of the learning ability of CEFLANN neural network with the technical analysis rules. For assessing the potential use of the proposed method, the model performance is also compared with some other machine learning techniques such as Support Vector Machine (SVM, Naive Bayesian model, K nearest neighbor model (KNN and Decision Tree (DT model.

  3. Flexible Riser Monitoring Using Hybrid Magnetic/Optical Strain Gage Techniques through RLS Adaptive Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pipa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible riser is a class of flexible pipes which is used to connect subsea pipelines to floating offshore installations, such as FPSOs (floating production/storage/off-loading unit and SS (semisubmersible platforms, in oil and gas production. Flexible risers are multilayered pipes typically comprising an inner flexible metal carcass surrounded by polymer layers and spiral wound steel ligaments, also referred to as armor wires. Since these armor wires are made of steel, their magnetic properties are sensitive to the stress they are subjected to. By measuring their magnetic properties in a nonintrusive manner, it is possible to compare the stress in the armor wires, thus allowing the identification of damaged ones. However, one encounters several sources of noise when measuring electromagnetic properties contactlessly, such as movement between specimen and probe, and magnetic noise. This paper describes the development of a new technique for automatic monitoring of armor layers of flexible risers. The proposed approach aims to minimize these current uncertainties by combining electromagnetic measurements with optical strain gage data through a recursive least squares (RLSs adaptive filter.

  4. A study on maintenance reliability allocation of urban transit brake system using hybrid neuro-genetic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Chul Ho; Kim, Hyun Jun; Lee, Jung Hwan; Suh, Myung Won; Chu, Yul

    2007-01-01

    For reasonable establishing of maintenance strategies, safety security and cost limitation must be considered at the same time. In this paper, the concept of system reliability introduces and optimizes as the key of reasonable maintenance strategies. This study aims at optimizing component's reliability that satisfies the target reliability of brake system in the urban transit. First of all, constructed reliability evaluation system is used to predict and analyze reliability. This data is used for the optimization. To identify component reliability in a system, a method is presented in this paper which uses hybrid neuro-genetic technique. Feed-forward multi-layer neural networks trained by back propagation are used to find out the relationship between component reliability (input) and system reliability (output) of a structural system. The inverse problem can be formulated by using neural network. Genetic algorithm is used to find the minimum square error. Finally, this paper presents reasonable maintenance cycle of urban transit brake system by using optimal system reliability

  5. Recovery and reuse of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions by a hybrid technique of electrodialysis and ion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gayathri, R. [Sengunthar Engineering College, Tiruchengode (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering], e-mail: gay3civil@gmail.com; Senthil Kumar, P. [SSN College of Engineering, Chennai (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering], E-mail: senthilkumarp@ssn.edu.in

    2010-01-15

    The chrome plating industry is one of the highly polluting industries whose effluent mainly consists of chromium(VI). This compound is highly toxic to aquatic life and human health. The rinse water constituents reflect the chrome plating bath characteristics; generally dead tank wash water contains about 1% of the plating bath concentration. Other metals and metal compounds usually considered as toxic can be precipitated out by suitably adjusting the pH of the wastewaters. However, Cr(VI) is soluble in almost all pH ranges and therefore an efficient treatment is required for the removal and recovery of chromium, and also for the reuse of wastewaters. The present study aims to recover the chromium by a hybrid technique of electrodialysis and ion exchange for the removal and concentration of chromate ions from the effluent. The different modes of operation like batch recirculation process, batch recirculation process with continuous dipping and continuous process were carried out to remove and recover the chromium from the effluent and the percentage reductions of chromium were found to be 98.69%, 99.18% and 100%, respectively. (author)

  6. Recovery and reuse of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions by a hybrid technique of electrodialysis and ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayathri, R.; Senthil Kumar, P.

    2010-01-01

    The chrome plating industry is one of the highly polluting industries whose effluent mainly consists of chromium(VI). This compound is highly toxic to aquatic life and human health. The rinse water constituents reflect the chrome plating bath characteristics; generally dead tank wash water contains about 1% of the plating bath concentration. Other metals and metal compounds usually considered as toxic can be precipitated out by suitably adjusting the pH of the wastewaters. However, Cr(VI) is soluble in almost all pH ranges and therefore an efficient treatment is required for the removal and recovery of chromium, and also for the reuse of wastewaters. The present study aims to recover the chromium by a hybrid technique of electrodialysis and ion exchange for the removal and concentration of chromate ions from the effluent. The different modes of operation like batch recirculation process, batch recirculation process with continuous dipping and continuous process were carried out to remove and recover the chromium from the effluent and the percentage reductions of chromium were found to be 98.69%, 99.18% and 100%, respectively. (author)

  7. Recovery and reuse of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions by a hybrid technique of electrodialysis and ion exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gayathri

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The chrome plating industry is one of the highly polluting industries whose effluent mainly consists of chromium(VI. This compound is highly toxic to aquatic life and human health. The rinse water constituents reflect the chrome plating bath characteristics; generally dead tank wash water contains about 1% of the plating bath concentration. Other metals and metal compounds usually considered as toxic can be precipitated out by suitably adjusting the pH of the wastewaters. However, Cr(VI is soluble in almost all pH ranges and therefore an efficient treatment is required for the removal and recovery of chromium, and also for the reuse of wastewaters. The present study aims to recover the chromium by a hybrid technique of electrodialysis and ion exchange for the removal and concentration of chromate ions from the effluent. The different modes of operation like batch recirculation process, batch recirculation process with continuous dipping and continuous process were carried out to remove and recover the chromium from the effluent and the percentage reductions of chromium were found to be 98.69%, 99.18% and 100%, respectively.

  8. Scalable High-Performance Ultraminiature Graphene Micro-Supercapacitors by a Hybrid Technique Combining Direct Writing and Controllable Microdroplet Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Daozhi; Zou, Guisheng; Liu, Lei; Zhao, Wenzheng; Wu, Aiping; Duley, Walter W; Zhou, Y Norman

    2018-02-14

    Miniaturization of energy storage devices can significantly decrease the overall size of electronic systems. However, this miniaturization is limited by the reduction of electrode dimensions and the reproducible transfer of small electrolyte drops. This paper reports first a simple scalable direct writing method for the production of ultraminiature microsupercapacitor (MSC) electrodes, based on femtosecond laser reduced graphene oxide (fsrGO) interlaced pads. These pads, separated by 2 μm spacing, are 100 μm long and 8 μm wide. A second stage involves the accurate transfer of an electrolyte microdroplet on top of each individual electrode, which can avoid any interference of the electrolyte with other electronic components. Abundant in-plane mesopores in fsrGO induced by a fs laser together with ultrashort interelectrode spacing enables MSCs to exhibit a high specific capacitance (6.3 mF cm -2 and 105 F cm -3 ) and ∼100% retention after 1000 cycles. An all graphene resistor-capacitor (RC) filter is also constructed by combining the MSC and a fsrGO resistor, which is confirmed to exhibit highly enhanced performance characteristics. This new hybrid technique combining fs laser direct writing and precise microdroplet transfer easily enables scalable production of ultraminiature MSCs, which is believed to be significant for practical application of micro-supercapacitor microelectronic systems.

  9. Hybrid soliwave technique for mitigating sulfate-reducing bacteria in controlling biocorrosion: a case study on crude oil sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Ali, Muhammad Khairool Fahmy Bin; Abu Bakar, Akrima; Md Noor, Norhazilan; Yahaya, Nordin; Ismail, Mardhiah; Rashid, Ahmad Safuan

    2017-10-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is among the common corrosion types for buried and deep-water pipelines that result in costly repair and pipeline failure. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are commonly known as the culprit of MIC. The aim of this work is to investigate the performance of combination of ultrasound (US) irradiation and ultraviolet (UV) radiation (known as Hybrid soliwave technique, HyST) at pilot scale to inactivate SRB. The influence of different reaction times with respect to US irradiation and UV radiation and synergistic effect toward SRB consortium was tested and discussed. In this research, the effect of HyST treatment toward SRB extermination and corrosion studies of carbon steel coupon upon SRB activity before and after the treatment were performed using weight loss method. The carbon steel coupons immersed in SRB sample were exposed to HyST treatment at different time of exposure. Additionally, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy were used to investigate the corrosion morphology in verifying the end product of SRB activity and corrosion formation after treatment. Results have shown that the US irradiation treatment gives a synergistic effect when combined with UV radiation in mitigating the SRB consortium.

  10. Analysis of the validity of the asymptotic techniques in the lower hybrid wave equation solution for reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardinali, A.; Morini, L.; Castaldo, C.; Cesario, R.; Zonca, F.

    2007-01-01

    Knowing that the lower hybrid (LH) wave propagation in tokamak plasmas can be correctly described with a full wave approach only, based on fully numerical techniques or on semianalytical approaches, in this paper, the LH wave equation is asymptotically solved via the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) method for the first two orders of the expansion parameter, obtaining governing equations for the phase at the lowest and for the amplitude at the next order. The nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE) for the phase is solved in a pseudotoroidal geometry (circular and concentric magnetic surfaces) by the method of characteristics. The associated system of ordinary differential equations for the position and the wavenumber is obtained and analytically solved by choosing an appropriate expansion parameter. The quasilinear PDE for the WKB amplitude is also solved analytically, allowing us to reconstruct the wave electric field inside the plasma. The solution is also obtained numerically and compared with the analytical solution. A discussion of the validity limits of the WKB method is also given on the basis of the obtained results

  11. The application of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH technique for studying the microbial communities in intestinal tissues of white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supamattaya, K.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ hybridization technique is very useful for the evaluation of microbial communities in various environments. It is possible to apply this technique to study the intestinal microflora in white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei. Different fixatives and storage temperature were tested in this technique. It was found that fixation with 10% buffered formalin for 12 hours and changed to 70% ethanol shown positive results when compared to the fixation with Davidson's fixative or RF fixative. The best signaling was obtainedfrom the samples which were stored in -20ºC. By using the DNA probe targeted to the Eubacteria domain (EUB338 probe, 5′-GCT GCC TCC CGT AGG AGT-3′ labeled with fluorescein as a hybridizing probe, it was found that most intestinal microflora were aggregated with the intestinal contents, or dispersed in the lumen. There was not evidence of the attachment of the microflora with the intestinal epithelium in this study.

  12. Evaluation of fluorescent in-situ hybridization technique for diagnosis of malaria in Ahero Sub-County hospital, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandie, Regina; Ochola, Rachel; Njaanake, Kariuki

    2018-01-08

    Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Treatment of malaria in a timely manner could avert deaths. Treatment ultimately relies on the rapid and accurate diagnosis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), a cytogenetic technique based on detection of specific nucleic acid, has the potential to address the limitations of the current diagnostic approaches. This study investigates further the performance of FISH for the diagnosis of malaria in a rural setting in Western Kenya. Blood samples from 302 patients presenting with fever (temperature ≥ 37.5 °C) were examined for malaria using the Giemsa microscopy (GM), rapid diagnostic test (RDT), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and FISH. The sensitivity and specificity of FISH was 85.6% and 96.2% respectively, while the corresponding values for GM were 82.2% and 100% respectively. RDT and PCR had sensitivities of 91.1% and 98.9%, respectively with their specificities being 89.6 and 100%, respectively. The positive predictive values for RDT, GM, FISH and PCR were 78.8%, 100%, 90.6% and 100%, respectively. The negative predictive values for RDT, GM, FISH and PCR were 96.0%, 93.0%, 94.0% and 99.5%, respectively. Their respective diagnostic accuracies were 90.1%, 94.7% 93.0% and 99.7%. The present study demonstrates that the specificity and reproducibility of FISH assays are high, thus adding to the growing evidence on the potential of the technique as an effective tool for the detection of malaria parasites in remote settings.

  13. Sb(III)-Imprinted Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Sorbent Prepared by Hydrothermal-Assisted Surface Imprinting Technique for Selective Adsorption of Sb(III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Zhao, Yue; Xu, Hong-Bo

    2018-03-01

    Sb(III)-imprinted organic-inorganic hybrid sorbent was prepared by hydrothermal-assisted surface imprinting technique and was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled to an energy dispersive spectrometer and N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms. Hydrothermal-assisted process can improve the selectivity of the Sb(III)-imprinted hybrid sorbent for Sb(III) due to stable control of temperature and pressure. The Sb(III)-imprinted hybrid sorbent IIS indicated higher selectivity for Sb(III), had high static adsorption capacity of 37.3 mg g-1 for Sb(III), displayed stable adsorption capacity in pH range from 4 to 8, reached an rapid adsorption equilibrium within 30 min. According to the correlation coefficient ( r 2 > 0.99), the experimental data fitted better the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir equilibrium isotherm.

  14. THE BNL ASTD FIELD LAB - NEAR - REAL - TIME CHARACTERIZATION OF BNL STOCKPILED SOILS TO ACCELERATE COMPLETION OF THE EM CHEMICAL HOLES PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOWERMAN, B.S.; ADAMS, J.W.; HEISER, J.; KALB, P.D.; LOCKWOOD, A.

    2003-01-01

    bottom. Field personnel collected eight 100-gram samples, plus quality assurance (QA) duplicates for chemical analysis, and a 1-liter jar of material for gamma spectroscopy. After analyses were completed and reviewed, the stockpiles were reconstructed for later disposal as discrete entities within a disposal site profile. A field lab was set up in a trailer close to the stockpile site, equipped with instrumentation to test for mercury, RCRA metals, and gamma spectroscopy, and a tumbler for carrying out a modified Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) protocol. Chemical analysis included X-ray fluorescence (XRF) to screen for high (>260 ppm) total mercury concentrations, and modified TCLP tests to verify that the soils were not RCRA hazardous. The modified TCLP tests were 1/10th scale, to minimize secondary (leachate) waste and maximize tumbler capacity and sampler throughput. TCLP leachate analysis was accomplished using a Milestone Direct Mercury Analyzer (DMA80). Gamma spectroscopy provided added assurance of previously measured Am-241, Cs-137, and Co-60 contamination levels

  15. Influence of the polymer amount on bioactivity and biocompatibility of SiO{sub 2}/PEG hybrid materials synthesized by sol–gel technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catauro, M., E-mail: michelina.catauro@unina2.it [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Bollino, F.; Papale, F. [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Gallicchio, M.; Pacifico, S. [Department of Environmental Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy)

    2015-03-01

    SiO{sub 2}/PEG organic–inorganic hybrid materials, which differ in polyethylene glycol (PEG) content, were synthesized by sol–gel technique and the characterization of their structure and biological properties was carried out in order to evaluate the possible use in biomedical field. FT-IR spectroscopy detected that the two components of the hybrids (SiO{sub 2} and PEG) are linked by hydrogen bonds between the Si–OH groups of the inorganic phase and the terminal alcoholic groups and/or the ethereal oxygen atoms in the repeating units of polymer. X-ray diffraction analysis ascertained the amorphous nature of the gels and the observation of their morphology by SEM microscopy confirmed that the interpenetration of the two phases (organic and inorganic) occurs on nanometric scale. The biological characterization was carried out as a function of the polymer amount to study its influence on material behavior. The results showed that the synthesized materials were bioactive and biocompatible. The formation of a hydroxyapatite layer, indeed, was observed on their surface by SEM/EDX analysis after soaking in simulated body fluid. Moreover, the biocompatibility of SiO{sub 2}/PEG hybrids was assessed performing MTT and SRB cytotoxicity tests on fibroblast cell NIH 3T3 after 24 and 48 h of exposure, as well as Trypan Blue dye exclusion test. The response to the presence of the investigated materials was positive. The cell growth and proliferation showed dependence on polymer amount and time of exposure to the material extracts. Therefore, the obtained results are encouraging for the use of the obtained hybrids in dental or orthopedic applications. - Highlights: • SiO{sub 2}/PEG hybrid biomaterials synthesized by sol–gel method at various PEG percentages • Chemical and morphological characterization of hybrid materials • Chemical interactions between inorganic and organic components • Biological characterizations with MTT and SRB cytotoxicity tests

  16. Assessment of fusion facility dose rate map using mesh adaptivity enhancements of hybrid Monte Carlo/deterministic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Ahmad M.; Wilson, Paul P.; Sawan, Mohamed E.; Mosher, Scott W.; Peplow, Douglas E.; Grove, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Calculate the prompt dose rate everywhere throughout the entire fusion energy facility. •Utilize FW-CADIS to accurately perform difficult neutronics calculations for fusion energy systems. •Develop three mesh adaptivity algorithms to enhance FW-CADIS efficiency in fusion-neutronics calculations. -- Abstract: Three mesh adaptivity algorithms were developed to facilitate and expedite the use of the CADIS and FW-CADIS hybrid Monte Carlo/deterministic techniques in accurate full-scale neutronics simulations of fusion energy systems with immense sizes and complicated geometries. First, a macromaterial approach enhances the fidelity of the deterministic models without changing the mesh. Second, a deterministic mesh refinement algorithm generates meshes that capture as much geometric detail as possible without exceeding a specified maximum number of mesh elements. Finally, a weight window coarsening algorithm decouples the weight window mesh and energy bins from the mesh and energy group structure of the deterministic calculations in order to remove the memory constraint of the weight window map from the deterministic mesh resolution. The three algorithms were used to enhance an FW-CADIS calculation of the prompt dose rate throughout the ITER experimental facility and resulted in a 23.3% increase in the number of mesh tally elements in which the dose rates were calculated in a 10-day Monte Carlo calculation. Additionally, because of the significant increase in the efficiency of FW-CADIS simulations, the three algorithms enabled this difficult calculation to be accurately solved on a regular computer cluster, eliminating the need for a world-class super computer

  17. Application of Meta-Heuristic Hybrid Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Modeling of Bonding Strength of Plywood Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenk Demirkır

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Plywood, which is one of the most important wood based panels, has many usage areas changing from traffic signs to building constructions in many countries. It is known that the high quality plywood panel manufacturing has been achieved with a good bonding under the optimum pressure conditions depending on adhesive type. This is a study of determining the using possibilities of modern meta-heuristic hybrid artificial intelligence techniques such as IKE and AANN methods for prediction of bonding strength of plywood panels. This study has composed of two main parts as experimental and analytical. Scots pine, maritime pine and European black pine logs were used as wood species. The pine veneers peeled at 32°C and 50°C were dried at 110°C, 140°C and 160°C temperatures. Phenol formaldehyde and melamine urea formaldehyde resins were used as adhesive types. EN 314-1 standard was used to determine the bonding shear strength values of plywood panels in experimental part of this study. Then the intuitive k-nearest neighbor estimator (IKE and adaptive artificial neural network (AANN were used to estimate bonding strength of plywood panels. The best estimation performance was obtained from MA metric for k-value=10. The most effective factor on bonding strength was determined as adhesive type. Error rates were determined less than 5% for both of the IKE and AANN. It may be recommended that proposed methods could be used in applying to estimation of bonding strength values of plywood panels.

  18. Detection of distribution of avian influenza H5N1 virus by immunohistochemistry, chromogenic in situ hybridization and real-time PCR techniques in experimentally infected chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamnanpood, Chanpen; Sanguansermsri, Donruedee; Pongcharoen, Sutatip; Sanguansermsri, Phanchana

    2011-03-01

    Ten specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens were inoculated intranasally with avian influenza virus subtype H5N1. Evaluation revealed distribution of the virus in twelve organs: liver, intestine, bursa, lung, trachea, thymus, heart, pancreas, brain, spleen, kidney, and esophagus. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH), and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were developed and compared for detection of the virus from the organs. The distribution of avian influenza H5N1 in chickens varied by animal and detecting technique. The heart, kidneys, intestines, lungs, and pancreas were positive with all three techniques, while the others varied by techique. The three techniques can be used to detect avian influenza effectively, but the pros and cons of each technique need to be determined. The decision of which technique to use depends on the objective of the examination, budget, type and quality of samples, laboratory facilities and technician skills.

  19. Analysis, control and optimal operations in hybrid power systems advanced techniques and applications for linear and nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bizon, Nicu; Mahdavi Tabatabaei, Naser

    2014-01-01

    This book explains and analyzes the dynamic performance of linear and nonlinear systems, particularly for Power Systems including Hybrid Power Sources. Offers a detailed description of system stability using state space energy conservation principle, and more.

  20. TiO{sub 2}/PCL hybrid materials synthesized via sol–gel technique for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catauro, M., E-mail: michelina.catauro@unina2.it [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Bollino, F.; Papale, F. [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Marciano, S.; Pacifico, S. [Department Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy)

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present work has been the synthesis of organic/inorganic hybrid materials based on titanium dioxide and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) to be used in the biomedical field. Several materials have been synthesized using sol–gel methods by adding different amounts of polymer to the inorganic sol. The obtained gels have been characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The FT-IR data allowed us to hypothesize that the structure formed was that of an interpenetrating network, realized by hydrogen bonds between Ti-OH groups in the sol–gel intermediate species and carbonyl groups in the polymer repeating units. SEM and AFM analyses highlighted that the obtained materials were nanostructurated hybrids. To evaluate the biological properties of the hybrids, their bioactivity and cytotoxicity were investigated as a function of the PCL amount. The bioactivity of the synthesized systems was proven by the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of samples soaked in a fluid simulating human blood plasma (SBF). MTT cytotoxicity tests and Trypan Blue dye exclusion tests were carried out exposing NIH-3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts for 24 and 48 h to extracts from the investigated hybrid materials. The results showed that all the hybrids had a non-cytotoxic effect on target cells. - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}/PCL hybrids were obtained by the sol–gel process for biomedical applications. • Synthesized materials were found to be first-class hybrid nanocomposites. • Hybrids appear to be bioactive, a fundamental characteristic for osseointegration. • MTT and Trypan Blue viability test show that the materials are biocompatible. • The organic phase is able to modulate the biocompatibility of the materials.

  1. Hybrid Brain–Computer Interface Techniques for Improved Classification Accuracy and Increased Number of Commands: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Keum-Shik; Khan, Muhammad Jawad

    2017-01-01

    In this article, non-invasive hybrid brain–computer interface (hBCI) technologies for improving classification accuracy and increasing the number of commands are reviewed. Hybridization combining more than two modalities is a new trend in brain imaging and prosthesis control. Electroencephalography (EEG), due to its easy use and fast temporal resolution, is most widely utilized in combination with other brain/non-brain signal acquisition modalities, for instance, functional near infrared spec...

  2. Investigation of kinetics and thermodynamics of DNA hybridization by means of 2-D fluorescence spectroscopy and soft/hard modeling techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimi, Sara; Kompany-Zareh, Mohsen, E-mail: kmpz@dr.com

    2016-02-04

    Reversible hybridization reaction plays a key role in fundamental biological processes, in many laboratory techniques, and also in DNA based sensing devices. Comprehensive investigation of this process is, therefore, essential for the development of more sophisticated applications. Kinetics and thermodynamics of the hybridization reaction, as a second order process, are systematically investigated with the aid of the soft and hard chemometric methods. Labeling two complementary 21 mer DNA single strands with FAM and Texas red fluorophores, enabled recording of the florescence excitation−emission matrices during the experiments which led to three-way data sets. The presence of fluorescence resonance energy transfer in excitation and emission modes and the closure in concentration mode, made the three-way data arrays rank deficient. To acquire primary chemical information, restricted Tucker3 as a soft method was employed. Herein a model-based method, hard restricted trilinear decomposition, is introduced for in depth analysis of rank deficient three-way data sets. By employing proposed hard method, the nonlinear model parameters as well as the correct profiles could be estimated. In addition, a simple constraint is presented to extract chemically reasonable output profiles regarding the core elements of restricted Tucker3 model. - Highlights: • Hard restricted trilinear decomposition (HrTD) was introduced for model-based analysis of three-way rank deficient data. • DNA hybridization was investigated by two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy and soft/hard multi-way techniques. • Restricted Tucker3 analysis enabled accurate estimation of pure FRET profiles in the hybridized form. • HrTD was successfully employed to estimate kinetic and equilibrium parameters of DNA hybridization system. • The performance of the proposed methods in response to different physical stimuli was successfully evaluated.

  3. Application of Hybrid Meta-Heuristic Techniques for Optimal Load Shedding Planning and Operation in an Islanded Distribution Network Integrated with Distributed Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Jallad

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In a radial distribution network integrated with distributed generation (DG, frequency and voltage instability could occur due to grid disconnection, which would result in an islanded network. This paper proposes an optimal load shedding scheme to balance the electricity demand and the generated power of DGs. The integration of the Firefly Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization (FAPSO is proposed for the application of the planned load shedding and under frequency load shedding (UFLS scheme. In planning mode, the hybrid optimization maximizes the amount of load remaining and improves the voltage profile of load buses within allowable limits. Moreover, the hybrid optimization can be used in UFLS scheme to identify the optimal combination of loads that need to be shed from a network in operation mode. In order to assess the capabilities of the hybrid optimization, the IEEE 33-bus radial distribution system and part of the Malaysian distribution network with different types of DGs were used. The response of the proposed optimization method in planning and operation were compared with other optimization techniques. The simulation results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid optimization in planning mode and demonstrated that the proposed UFLS scheme is quick enough to restore the system frequency without overshooting in less execution time.

  4. Patterns of cytosine methylation in an elite rice hybrid and its parental lines, detected by a methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, L Z; Xu, C G; Saghai Maroof, M A; Zhang, Q

    1999-04-01

    DNA methylation is known to play an important role in the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. In this study, we assessed the extent and pattern of cytosine methylation in the rice genome, using the technique of methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP), which is a modification of the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) method that makes use of the differential sensitivity of a pair of isoschizomers to cytosine methylation. The tissues assayed included seedlings and flag leaves of an elite rice hybrid, Shanyou 63, and the parental lines Zhenshan 97 and Minghui 63. In all, 1076 fragments, each representing a recognition site cleaved by either or both of the isoschizomers, were amplified using 16 pairs of selective primers. A total of 195 sites were found to be methylated at cytosines in one or both parents, and the two parents showed approximately the same overall degree of methylation (16.3%), as revealed by the incidence of differential digestion by the isoschizomers. Four classes of patterns were identified in a comparative assay of cytosine methylation in the parents and hybrid; increased methylation was detected in the hybrid compared to the parents at some of the recognition sites, while decreased methylation in the hybrid was detected at other sites. A small proportion of the sites was found to be differentially methylated in seedlings and flag leaves; DNA from young seedlings was methylated to a greater extent than that from flag leaves. Almost all of the methylation patterns detected by MSAP could be confirmed by Southern analysis using the isolated amplified fragments as probes. The results clearly demonstrate that the MSAP technique is highly efficient for large-scale detection of cytosine methylation in the rice genome. We believe that the technique can be adapted for use in other plant species.

  5. Novel Graphene-Gold Hybrid Nanostructures Constructed via Sulfur Modified Graphene: Preparation and Characterization by Surface and Electrochemical Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shervedani, Reza Karimi; Amini, Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Graphene nanosheet-gold nanoparticles (GNs-AuNPs) hybrid has been fabricated from sulfur-modified graphene nanosheets (S-GNs) impregnated with HAuCl4 as Au precursor. Application of the GNs-AuNPs hybrid in electrochemical biosensing was demonstrated by immobilization of glucose oxidase as a model on the surface of GCE-ATP-GNs-AuNPs, and then, using it for sensing of glucose. - Highlights: • A new hybrid of GNs-AuNPs is synthesized by using sulfur-modified graphene. • Stability of the hybrid is exceptionally improved in comparison with previous works. • Aminothiophenol mediated fabrication and stabilization of GNs-AuNPs on GCE electrode. • High electrocatalytic activity was observed for O 2 reduction by hybrid. • Activity of the hybrid was originated from synergistic effect and surface roughness. - Abstract: A novel and uniform graphene nanosheet-gold nanoparticles (GNs-AuNPs) hybrid has been fabricated from sulfur-modified graphene nanosheets (S-GNs) impregnated with HAuCl 4 as Au precursor. Physicochemical and morphological characteristics of the GNs-AuNPs hybrids were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), surface Raman spectroscopy (SRS), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The results of the XRD and HRTEM demonstrated well dispersed Au nanoparticles on GNs with an average particle size of less than 10 nm and a narrow size distribution of 6 to 8 nm. A film of GNs-AuNPs hybrid was constructed on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) through layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of 4-aminothiphenol (ATP) on GCE, and then, transferring the hybrid to the sulfur function of ATP to form GCE-ATP-GNs-AuNPs modified surface. Application of the GNs-AuNPs hybrid in electrochemical biosensing was demonstrated by immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx) as a model on the surface of GCE-ATP-GNs-AuNPs, and then, using it for sensing of glucose. The biosensor exhibited a wide linear response

  6. Deterministic and stochastic approach for safety and reliability optimization of captive power plant maintenance scheduling using GA/SA-based hybrid techniques: A comparison of results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanta, Dusmanta Kumar; Sadhu, Pradip Kumar; Chakrabarti, R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of results for optimization of captive power plant maintenance scheduling using genetic algorithm (GA) as well as hybrid GA/simulated annealing (SA) techniques. As utilities catered by captive power plants are very sensitive to power failure, therefore both deterministic and stochastic reliability objective functions have been considered to incorporate statutory safety regulations for maintenance of boilers, turbines and generators. The significant contribution of this paper is to incorporate stochastic feature of generating units and that of load using levelized risk method. Another significant contribution of this paper is to evaluate confidence interval for loss of load probability (LOLP) because some variations from optimum schedule are anticipated while executing maintenance schedules due to different real-life unforeseen exigencies. Such exigencies are incorporated in terms of near-optimum schedules obtained from hybrid GA/SA technique during the final stages of convergence. Case studies corroborate that same optimum schedules are obtained using GA and hybrid GA/SA for respective deterministic and stochastic formulations. The comparison of results in terms of interval of confidence for LOLP indicates that levelized risk method adequately incorporates the stochastic nature of power system as compared with levelized reserve method. Also the interval of confidence for LOLP denotes the possible risk in a quantified manner and it is of immense use from perspective of captive power plants intended for quality power

  7. A Novel Hybrid Ultramicrotomy/FIB-SEM Technique: Preparation of Serial Electron-Transparent Thin Sections of a Hayabusa Grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Eve L.; Keller, Lindsay P.

    2014-01-01

    the sample connected by an interior tab. tab. Sections are lifted out, attached to TEM grids and thinned to electron transparency. TEM analyses show that our hybrid technique preserves both interior and edge features, including surface modifications from exposure to the space environment, such as damaged rims that form in response to solar wind implantation effects and adhering grains. In addition, the FIB sections provide larger areas that are free of fractures and chatter effects in comparison to the microtome thin sections, thus enabling more accurate measurements of solar flare particle track densities that are used to determine the surface exposure age of the particles.

  8. A new microcolumn-type microchip for examining the expression of chimeric fusion genes using a nucleic acid sandwich hybridization technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Michihiro; Sasaki, Naoyuki; Kishimoto, Takuya; Watanabe, Hidetoshi; Takagi, Masatoshi; Mizutani, Shuki; Kishii, Noriyuki; Yasuda, Akio

    2014-11-01

    We report a new type of microcolumn installed in a microchip. The architecture allows use of a nucleic acid sandwich hybridization technique to detect a messenger RNA (mRNA) chain as a target. Data are presented that demonstrate that the expression of a chimeric fusion gene can be detected. The microcolumn was filled with semi-transparent microbeads made of agarose gel that acted as carriers, allowing increased efficiency of the optical detection of fluorescence from the microcolumn. The hybrid between the target trapped on the microbeads and a probe DNA labeled with a fluorescent dye was detected by measuring the intensity of the fluorescence from the microcolumn directly. These results demonstrate an easy and simple method for determining the expression of chimeric fusion genes with no preamplification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Human exposure assessment in the near field of GSM base-station antennas using a hybrid finite element/method of moments technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Frans J C; Davidson, David B; Jakobus, Ulrich; Stuchly, Maria A

    2003-02-01

    A hybrid finite-element method (FEM)/method of moments (MoM) technique is employed for specific absorption rate (SAR) calculations in a human phantom in the near field of a typical group special mobile (GSM) base-station antenna. The MoM is used to model the metallic surfaces and wires of the base-station antenna, and the FEM is used to model the heterogeneous human phantom. The advantages of each of these frequency domain techniques are, thus, exploited, leading to a highly efficient and robust numerical method for addressing this type of bioelectromagnetic problem. The basic mathematical formulation of the hybrid technique is presented. This is followed by a discussion of important implementation details-in particular, the linear algebra routines for sparse, complex FEM matrices combined with dense MoM matrices. The implementation is validated by comparing results to MoM (surface equivalence principle implementation) and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) solutions of human exposure problems. A comparison of the computational efficiency of the different techniques is presented. The FEM/MoM implementation is then used for whole-body and critical-organ SAR calculations in a phantom at different positions in the near field of a base-station antenna. This problem cannot, in general, be solved using the MoM or FDTD due to computational limitations. This paper shows that the specific hybrid FEM/MoM implementation is an efficient numerical tool for accurate assessment of human exposure in the near field of base-station antennas.

  10. A quantitative comparison of noise reduction across five commercial (hybrid and model-based) iterative reconstruction techniques: an anthropomorphic phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Manuel; Fuentes, Jorge M; Hayano, Koichi; Kambadakone, Avinash R; Uyeda, Jennifer W; Sahani, Dushyant V

    2015-02-01

    OBJECTIVE. The objective of our study was to compare the performance of three hybrid iterative reconstruction techniques (IRTs) (ASiR, iDose4, SAFIRE) and their respective strengths for image noise reduction on low-dose CT examinations using filtered back projection (FBP) as the standard reference. Also, we compared the performance of these three hybrid IRTs with two model-based IRTs (Veo and IMR) for image noise reduction on low-dose examinations. MATERIALS AND METHODS. An anthropomorphic abdomen phantom was scanned at 100 and 120 kVp and different tube current-exposure time products (25-100 mAs) on three CT systems (for ASiR and Veo, Discovery CT750 HD; for iDose4 and IMR, Brilliance iCT; and for SAFIRE, Somatom Definition Flash). Images were reconstructed using FBP and using IRTs at various strengths. Nine noise measurements (mean ROI size, 423 mm(2)) on extracolonic fat for the different strengths of IRTs were recorded and compared with FBP using ANOVA. Radiation dose, which was measured as the volume CT dose index and dose-length product, was also compared. RESULTS. There were no significant differences in radiation dose and image noise among the scanners when FBP was used (p > 0.05). Gradual image noise reduction was observed with each increasing increment of hybrid IRT strength, with a maximum noise suppression of approximately 50% (48.2-53.9%). Similar noise reduction was achieved on the scanners by applying specific hybrid IRT strengths. Maximum noise reduction was higher on model-based IRTs (68.3-81.1%) than hybrid IRTs (48.2-53.9%) (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION. When constant scanning parameters are used, radiation dose and image noise on FBP are similar for CT scanners made by different manufacturers. Significant image noise reduction is achieved on low-dose CT examinations rendered with IRTs. The image noise on various scanners can be matched by applying specific hybrid IRT strengths. Model-based IRTs attain substantially higher noise reduction than hybrid

  11. Developing a Hybrid Model to Predict Student First Year Retention in STEM Disciplines Using Machine Learning Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhasawneh, Ruba; Hargraves, Rosalyn Hobson

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a hybrid framework to model first year student retention for underrepresented minority (URM) students comprising African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Native Americans. Identifying inputs that best contribute to student retention provides significant information for institutions to learn about…

  12. Effect of hybrid iterative reconstruction technique on quantitative and qualitative image analysis at 256-slice prospective gating cardiac CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Weigold, W. Guy; Weissman, Gaby; Taylor, Allen J.

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of hybrid iterative reconstruction on qualitative and quantitative parameters at 256-slice cardiac CT. Prospective cardiac CT images from 20 patients were analysed. Paired image sets were created using 3 reconstructions, i.e. filtered back projection (FBP) and moderate- and high-level iterative reconstructions. Quantitative parameters including CT-attenuation, noise, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were determined in both proximal- and distal coronary segments. Image quality was graded on a 4-point scale. Coronary CT attenuation values were similar for FBP, moderate- and high-level iterative reconstruction at 293 ± 74-, 290 ± 75-, and 283 ± 78 Hounsfield units (HU), respectively. CNR was significantly higher with moderate- and high-level iterative reconstructions (10.9 ± 3.5 and 18.4 ± 6.2, respectively) than FBP (8.2 ± 2.5) as was the visual grading of proximal vessels. Visualisation of distal vessels was better with high-level iterative reconstruction than FBP. The mean number of assessable segments among 289 segments was 245, 260, and 267 for FBP, moderate- and high-level iterative reconstruction, respectively; the difference between FBP and high-level iterative reconstruction was significant. Interobserver agreement was significantly higher for moderate- and high-level iterative reconstruction than FBP. Cardiac CT using hybrid iterative reconstruction yields higher CNR and better image quality than FBP. circle Cardiac CT helps clinicians to assess patients with coronary artery disease circle Hybrid iterative reconstruction provides improved cardiac CT image quality circle Hybrid iterative reconstruction improves the number of assessable coronary segments circle Hybrid iterative reconstruction improves interobserver agreement on cardiac CT. (orig.)

  13. Development of realtime monitoring technology for laser photoreaction product - Development of glow discharge-mass spectrometry (GD-MS) hybrid techniques for trace analysis of refractory elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Chun [Kyungnam University, Masan (Korea); Kim, Ha Suck [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Hyo Jin [Dongduk Women' s University, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    This research is focusing on development of hybrid techniques of glow discharge-mass spectrometry for the trace analysis of refractory elements. At first, we developed a glow discharge(GD) ionization cell and its characteristics was investigated. The new GD cell was designed based on direct current hollow cathode glow discharge and it is used for quadrupole mass analyzer and time-of-flight mass analyzer. Currently, GD-quadrupole mass spectrometry is working for the analysis of refractory elements. The experimental results show relatively good for trace analysis. In addition, ion mobile spectrometry using plasma and liquid discharge technique were investigated for the analysis of refractory elements and both techniques need more investigation to deduce the their usefulness. 30 refs., 67 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  14. Hybrid FOSS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers are continuing their efforts to further develop FOSS technologies. A hybrid FOSS technique (HyFOSS) employs conventional continuous grating...

  15. Comparaison de la souche 7784 hypovirulente de Mycoplasma agalactiae à la souche type virulente PG2 par la technique d'hybridation soustractive suppressive

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnefin, Nathalie

    2003-01-01

    Mycoplasma agalactiae est l'agent principal responsable de l'agalactie contagieuse des ovins et caprins, un syndrome largement répandu dans le monde et regroupant des atteintes mammaires, articulaires et oculaires. Afin de rechercher les bases moléculaires du pouvoir pathogène de M. agalactiae, la technique d'hybridation soustractive suppressive, qui permet l'identification de séquences présentes dans un génome mais absentes d'un autre, a été utilisée. Deux souches de M. agalactiae ont été co...

  16. Assessing Market Development and Innovation Project Management Factors Using the PICEA-g Hybrid Evolutionary Multi-Criteria Decision Technique. The Calcimine Company Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ghaffari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Project management includes the consideration of complex decision modes used in modern decision support techniques. The aim of this paper was to prioritize such factors and evaluate their effects on project management and optimal control. Their effect on management and optimal project control are evaluated in frame of a statistical hypothesis. A new algorithm, "IPICEA-g" is proposed for the assessment. A questionnaire is used for data collection distributed between 56 employees of the CALCIMINE Company. T-test, two-sentence test, ANP method, FUZZY SEAMATEL and the IPICEA-g hybrid algorithm, are employed for data analyzing. Results are further discussed and conclusions are drawn.

  17. High sensitive diagnostic technique for virus gene using radioisotope. Development of PCR in situ hybridization and its application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, Takuya; Sada, Tetsutaro; Terai, Masanori; Sato, Yuko; Kurata, Takeshi [National Inst. of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo (Japan); Yamaguchi, Kazuyoshi; Yanagisawa, Akio; Sakai, Yuzo

    1998-02-01

    An animal model, experimentally induced squamous cell carcinoma was produced in hamster mucosa to establish a carcinogenic system inducible by interaction of a virus and chemical(s). Human hydatid mole and cholioepithelioma were chosen as the target subjects. Several tumor cells and host cells were isolated under microscopy and DNA was extracted from these cells to indentify the respective origins (maternal, paternal or host origin). The base sequence of HLADRB region was analyzed by PCR using synthetic primer and the tissue localization was examined by PCR in situ hybridization. A PCR product of 82 bp was found in 15 of 17 samples and there were 2 samples in which the product was not detectable with the constructed primer and 6 samples were negative. While significant differences were not observed by in situ hybridization compared with the negative control. (M.N.)

  18. High sensitive diagnostic technique for virus gene using radioisotope. Development of PCR in situ hybridization and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Takuya; Sada, Tetsutaro; Terai, Masanori; Sato, Yuko; Kurata, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Kazuyoshi; Yanagisawa, Akio; Sakai, Yuzo

    1998-01-01

    An animal model, experimentally induced squamous cell carcinoma was produced in hamster mucosa to establish a carcinogenic system inducible by interaction of a virus and chemical(s). Human hydatid mole and cholioepithelioma were chosen as the target subjects. Several tumor cells and host cells were isolated under microscopy and DNA was extracted from these cells to indentify the respective origins (maternal, paternal or host origin). The base sequence of HLADRB region was analyzed by PCR using synthetic primer and the tissue localization was examined by PCR in situ hybridization. A PCR product of 82 bp was found in 15 of 17 samples and there were 2 samples in which the product was not detectable with the constructed primer and 6 samples were negative. While significant differences were not observed by in situ hybridization compared with the negative control. (M.N.)

  19. Preparation and characterization of hybrid A359/(SiC+Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) composites synthesized by stir/squeeze casting techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shalaby, Essam A.M.; Churyumov, Alexander Yu., E-mail: churyumov@misis.ru; Solonin, Alexey N.; Lotfy, A.

    2016-09-30

    Stir followed by squeeze casting techniques were used to produce A359 composites containing different weight percentage of (SiC+Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) particles. Microstructures of the composites showed a homogeneous and even distribution of hybrid reinforcements within the matrix. Moreover, particles agglomerations, residual porosity, and other casting problems were not noticed. Interfacial reactions between the particles and the matrix were investigated using X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray analyses. The presence of particles in squeezed composites did not only increase the peak hardness of the composites, but also accelerated the aging kinetics. As compared with the A359 matrix alloy, a compression test of the hybrid composites exhibited a significant increase in the yield and the ultimate compressive strengths with a relative reduction in the failure strain. Finite element modeling of the composite compression showed that strain concentration near large SiC particles is the main reason for low ductility of the composite. The development of those lightweight hybrid composites with high mechanical properties has a high potential to be used for automotive and aerospace applications.

  20. Hybrid PAPR reduction scheme with Huffman coding and DFT-spread technique for direct-detection optical OFDM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Miao; Chen, Ming; Zhou, Hui; Wan, Qiuzhen; Jiang, LeYong; Yang, Lin; Zheng, Zhiwei; Chen, Lin

    2018-01-01

    High peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of the transmit signal is a major drawback in optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OOFDM) system. In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel hybrid scheme, combined the Huffman coding and Discrete Fourier Transmission-Spread (DFT-spread), in order to reduce high PAPR in a 16-QAM short-reach intensity-modulated and direct-detection OOFDM (IMDD-OOFDM) system. The experimental results demonstrated that the hybrid scheme can reduce the PAPR by about 1.5, 2, 3 and 6 dB, and achieve 1.5, 1, 2.5 and 3 dB receiver sensitivity improvement compared to clipping, DFT-spread and Huffman coding and original OFDM signals, respectively, at an error vector magnitude (EVM) of -10 dB after transmission over 20 km standard single-mode fiber (SSMF). Furthermore, the throughput gain can be of the order of 30% by using the hybrid scheme compared with the cases of without applying the Huffman coding.

  1. A Novel Hybrid Axial-Radial Atmospheric Plasma Spraying Technique for the Fabrication of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes Containing Cu, Co, Ni, and Samaria-Doped Ceria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuglietta, Mark; Kuhn, Joel; Kesler, Olivera

    2013-06-01

    Composite coatings containing Cu, Co, Ni, and samaria-doped ceria (SDC) have been fabricated using a novel hybrid atmospheric plasma spraying technique, in which a multi-component aqueous suspension of CuO, Co3O4, and NiO was injected axially simultaneously with SDC injected radially in a dry powder form. Coatings were characterized for their microstructure, permeability, porosity, and composition over a range of plasma spray conditions. Deposition efficiency of the metal oxides and SDC was also estimated. Depending on the conditions, coatings displayed either layering or high levels of mixing between the SDC and metal phases. The deposition efficiencies of both feedstock types were strongly dependent on the nozzle diameter. Plasma-sprayed metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells utilizing anodes fabricated with this technique demonstrated power densities at 0.7 V as high as 366 and 113 mW/cm2 in humidified hydrogen and methane, respectively, at 800 °C.

  2. Fiber-wireless integrated mobile backhaul network based on a hybrid millimeter-wave and free-space-optics architecture with an adaptive diversity combining technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junwen; Wang, Jing; Xu, Yuming; Xu, Mu; Lu, Feng; Cheng, Lin; Yu, Jianjun; Chang, Gee-Kung

    2016-05-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel fiber-wireless integrated mobile backhaul network based on a hybrid millimeter-wave (MMW) and free-space-optics (FSO) architecture using an adaptive combining technique. Both 60 GHz MMW and FSO links are demonstrated and fully integrated with optical fibers in a scalable and cost-effective backhaul system setup. Joint signal processing with an adaptive diversity combining technique (ADCT) is utilized at the receiver side based on a maximum ratio combining algorithm. Mobile backhaul transportation of 4-Gb/s 16 quadrature amplitude modulation frequency-division multiplexing (QAM-OFDM) data is experimentally demonstrated and tested under various weather conditions synthesized in the lab. Performance improvement in terms of reduced error vector magnitude (EVM) and enhanced link reliability are validated under fog, rain, and turbulence conditions.

  3. A novel hybrid model for air quality index forecasting based on two-phase decomposition technique and modified extreme learning machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Deyun; Wei, Shuai; Luo, Hongyuan; Yue, Chenqiang; Grunder, Olivier

    2017-02-15

    The randomness, non-stationarity and irregularity of air quality index (AQI) series bring the difficulty of AQI forecasting. To enhance forecast accuracy, a novel hybrid forecasting model combining two-phase decomposition technique and extreme learning machine (ELM) optimized by differential evolution (DE) algorithm is developed for AQI forecasting in this paper. In phase I, the complementary ensemble empirical mode decomposition (CEEMD) is utilized to decompose the AQI series into a set of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) with different frequencies; in phase II, in order to further handle the high frequency IMFs which will increase the forecast difficulty, variational mode decomposition (VMD) is employed to decompose the high frequency IMFs into a number of variational modes (VMs). Then, the ELM model optimized by DE algorithm is applied to forecast all the IMFs and VMs. Finally, the forecast value of each high frequency IMF is obtained through adding up the forecast results of all corresponding VMs, and the forecast series of AQI is obtained by aggregating the forecast results of all IMFs. To verify and validate the proposed model, two daily AQI series from July 1, 2014 to June 30, 2016 collected from Beijing and Shanghai located in China are taken as the test cases to conduct the empirical study. The experimental results show that the proposed hybrid model based on two-phase decomposition technique is remarkably superior to all other considered models for its higher forecast accuracy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Nucleic acid hybridization and radioimmunoassay techniques for studying the interrelationships among the progressive pneumonia viruses of sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    In Section I of this thesis, experiments were performed to determine if three representative ''slow'' viruses of sheep VV, MV and PPV replicate by way of a DNA ''provirus'' in a manner similar to the RNA tumor viruses. The approach used was to determine if unique virus-specific DNA sequences not present in normal cells could be detected in the DNA of infected cell cultures. The results presented demonstrate that infection by VV, MV and PPV results in the synthesis of proviral DNA. Sections II and III examine the similarities among VV, MV and PPV. In Section II, the RNA genomes of these viruses were compared by nucleic acid hybridization. The homology among these viral RNAs was determined from the extensive competition of homologous viral RNA-cDNA hybrids by heterologous RNA and from the thermal stability of homologous and heterologous RNA-cDNA hybrids. The 70S RNAs of visna and maedi virus were indistinguishable but only partially homologous to that of progressive pneumonia virus. Section III describes the purification of the major internal protein component of VV, p27, the development of a radioimmunoassay to study its antigenic relatedness to the corresponding proteins of PPV and MV, and its use in the detection of cross-reacting proteins in progressive pneumonia virus infected sheep lung. The ability to detect unique virus-related DNA sequences and viral antigens in infected sheep tissues makes it now feasible to search for slow virus related DNA sequences and/or antigens in human diseases which bear resemblance to the slow diseases of sheep

  5. Fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques (FISH) to detect changes in CYP19a gene expression of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, June-Woo; Tompsett, Amber; Zhang, Xiaowei; Newsted, John L.; Jones, Paul D.; Au, Doris; Kong, Richard; Wu, Rudolf S.S.; Giesy, John P.; Hecker, Markus

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a sensitive in situ hybridization methodology using fluorescence-labeled riboprobes (FISH) that allows for the evaluation of gene expression profiles simultaneously in multiple target tissues of whole fish sections of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). To date FISH methods have been limited in their application due to autofluorescence of tissues, fixatives or other components of the hybridization procedure. An optimized FISH method, based on confocal fluorescence microscopy was developed to reduce the autofluorescence signal. Because of its tissue- and gender-specific expression and relevance in studies of endocrine disruption, gonadal aromatase (CYP19a) was used as a model gene. The in situ hybridization (ISH) system was validated in a test exposure with the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole. The optimized FISH method revealed tissue-specific expression of the CYP19a gene. Furthermore, the assay could differentiate the abundance of CYP19a mRNA among cell types. Expression of CYP19a was primarily associated with early stage oocytes, and expression gradually decreased with increasing maturation. No expression of CYP19a mRNA was observed in other tissues such as brain, liver, or testes. Fadrozole (100 μg/L) caused up-regulation of CYP19a expression, a trend that was confirmed by RT-PCR analysis on excised tissues. In a combination approach with gonad histology, it could be shown that the increase in CYP19a expression as measured by RT-PCR on a whole tissue basis was due to a combination of both increases in numbers of CYP19a-containing cells and an increase in the amount of CYP19a mRNA present in the cells

  6. Hybrid Brain–Computer Interface Techniques for Improved Classification Accuracy and Increased Number of Commands: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Keum-Shik; Khan, Muhammad Jawad

    2017-01-01

    In this article, non-invasive hybrid brain–computer interface (hBCI) technologies for improving classification accuracy and increasing the number of commands are reviewed. Hybridization combining more than two modalities is a new trend in brain imaging and prosthesis control. Electroencephalography (EEG), due to its easy use and fast temporal resolution, is most widely utilized in combination with other brain/non-brain signal acquisition modalities, for instance, functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), electromyography (EMG), electrooculography (EOG), and eye tracker. Three main purposes of hybridization are to increase the number of control commands, improve classification accuracy and reduce the signal detection time. Currently, such combinations of EEG + fNIRS and EEG + EOG are most commonly employed. Four principal components (i.e., hardware, paradigm, classifiers, and features) relevant to accuracy improvement are discussed. In the case of brain signals, motor imagination/movement tasks are combined with cognitive tasks to increase active brain–computer interface (BCI) accuracy. Active and reactive tasks sometimes are combined: motor imagination with steady-state evoked visual potentials (SSVEP) and motor imagination with P300. In the case of reactive tasks, SSVEP is most widely combined with P300 to increase the number of commands. Passive BCIs, however, are rare. After discussing the hardware and strategies involved in the development of hBCI, the second part examines the approaches used to increase the number of control commands and to enhance classification accuracy. The future prospects and the extension of hBCI in real-time applications for daily life scenarios are provided. PMID:28790910

  7. Hybrid Brain-Computer Interface Techniques for Improved Classification Accuracy and Increased Number of Commands: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Keum-Shik; Khan, Muhammad Jawad

    2017-01-01

    In this article, non-invasive hybrid brain-computer interface (hBCI) technologies for improving classification accuracy and increasing the number of commands are reviewed. Hybridization combining more than two modalities is a new trend in brain imaging and prosthesis control. Electroencephalography (EEG), due to its easy use and fast temporal resolution, is most widely utilized in combination with other brain/non-brain signal acquisition modalities, for instance, functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), electromyography (EMG), electrooculography (EOG), and eye tracker. Three main purposes of hybridization are to increase the number of control commands, improve classification accuracy and reduce the signal detection time. Currently, such combinations of EEG + fNIRS and EEG + EOG are most commonly employed. Four principal components (i.e., hardware, paradigm, classifiers, and features) relevant to accuracy improvement are discussed. In the case of brain signals, motor imagination/movement tasks are combined with cognitive tasks to increase active brain-computer interface (BCI) accuracy. Active and reactive tasks sometimes are combined: motor imagination with steady-state evoked visual potentials (SSVEP) and motor imagination with P300. In the case of reactive tasks, SSVEP is most widely combined with P300 to increase the number of commands. Passive BCIs, however, are rare. After discussing the hardware and strategies involved in the development of hBCI, the second part examines the approaches used to increase the number of control commands and to enhance classification accuracy. The future prospects and the extension of hBCI in real-time applications for daily life scenarios are provided.

  8. Hybrid Brain–Computer Interface Techniques for Improved Classification Accuracy and Increased Number of Commands: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keum-Shik Hong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, non-invasive hybrid brain–computer interface (hBCI technologies for improving classification accuracy and increasing the number of commands are reviewed. Hybridization combining more than two modalities is a new trend in brain imaging and prosthesis control. Electroencephalography (EEG, due to its easy use and fast temporal resolution, is most widely utilized in combination with other brain/non-brain signal acquisition modalities, for instance, functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS, electromyography (EMG, electrooculography (EOG, and eye tracker. Three main purposes of hybridization are to increase the number of control commands, improve classification accuracy and reduce the signal detection time. Currently, such combinations of EEG + fNIRS and EEG + EOG are most commonly employed. Four principal components (i.e., hardware, paradigm, classifiers, and features relevant to accuracy improvement are discussed. In the case of brain signals, motor imagination/movement tasks are combined with cognitive tasks to increase active brain–computer interface (BCI accuracy. Active and reactive tasks sometimes are combined: motor imagination with steady-state evoked visual potentials (SSVEP and motor imagination with P300. In the case of reactive tasks, SSVEP is most widely combined with P300 to increase the number of commands. Passive BCIs, however, are rare. After discussing the hardware and strategies involved in the development of hBCI, the second part examines the approaches used to increase the number of control commands and to enhance classification accuracy. The future prospects and the extension of hBCI in real-time applications for daily life scenarios are provided.

  9. Incorporation of nano-clay saponite layers in the organo-clay hybrid films using anionic amphiphile stearic acid by Langmuir–Blodgett technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Syed Arshad, E-mail: sa_h153@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Tripura University, Suryamaninagar-799022 (India); Chakraborty, S.; Bhattacharjee, D. [Department of Physics, Tripura University, Suryamaninagar-799022 (India); Schoonheydt, R.A. [Centres for Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, K.U. Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 23, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2013-06-01

    In general cationic amphiphiles are used to prepare organo-clay hybrid film in Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) technique. In this present communication we demonstrated a unique technique to prepare the organo–clay hybrid films using an anionic amphiphile. The T–O–T type clay saponite was incorporated onto a floating stearic acid monolayer via a divalent cation Mg{sup 2+}. Salt MgCl{sub 2} was mixed along with the clay dispersion in the LB trough and amphiphile solution was spread onto the subphase in order to make the organo-clay hybrid films. It was observed that salt (MgCl{sub 2}) concentration on the subphase affects the organization of nano-dimensional clay platelet (saponite) in organo-clay hybrid films at air–water interface as well as in LB films. Noticeable changes in area per molecule and shape of the isotherms were observed and measured at subphases with different salt concentrations. Infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy studies reveal that only an in-plane (996 cm{sup −1}) vibration of ν (Si-O) band occurred when the salt concentration was 10 mM. However, both in-plane (996 cm{sup −1}) and out-of-plane (1063 cm{sup −1}) vibrations of the ν (Si-O) band of saponite occurred when the subphase salt concentration was 100 mM. Also the out-of-plane vibration of ν (OH) of saponite was prominent at higher salt concentration. This is because at lower salt concentration clay sheets remain flat on the surface whereas; at higher MgCl{sub 2} concentration they aggregated and form stacks of saponite layers. Also they may be slightly tilted with a very small tilt angle at higher salt concentration making a favorable condition for both in-plane and out-of-plane vibrations of ν (Si-O) in the hybrid films. Observed decrease in starting area per molecule in the pressure area isotherm measured at higher salt concentration also supports the tilting of clay layers at air–clay dispersion interface. Attentuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared

  10. What is the difference in the hybrid imaging techniques - SPECT/CT and PET-CT and is there any advantage of their application?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinova, I.

    2012-01-01

    The hybrid imaging methods - Single Photon Emission Tomography-Computer Tomography /SPECT-CT / and Positron Emission Tomography-Computer Tomography / PET-CT/ allow receiving of combined image of two different techniques. In such a way it is possible to superimpose detailed anatomical image of the multislice spiral computer tomography with specific and sensitive molecular images of the SPECT and PET in a single study, allowing utilization of the full possibilities of the both techniques. They have advantages and disadvantages, which basically stem from the differences in the used radiopharmaceuticals and their physical properties. In PET- CT - positron emitters are applied, most often 18F and 11C, while in SPECT-CT - single photon emitters, most often 99m Tc and 131 I. A disadvantage of PET is a high cost, which is produced in cyclotron and its logistics is complicated. The great advantage of PET is its better spatial resolution, compared to SPECT, because of the possibility for simultaneous detection of pared photons and better registration. These techniques, especially PET-CT are nowadays the most increasing imaging methods in the world in making diagnosis, staging and following the effect of treatment in patients with oncological, neurological, cardiological, orthopedic diseases and infections. Recently, they are applied for the purposes of radiotherapy planning on the basis of the metabolically active tumor. As a final result, compared to the conventional techniques - roentgenography, CT and MRI, it is possible in many cases to make an early and more precise diagnosis, saving patients' time and using most appropriate treatment. As a conclusion it is clear, that the hybrid imaging has future and its application will increase. (author)

  11. An enhanced security solution for electronic medical records based on AES hybrid technique with SOAP/XML and SHA-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiah, M L Mat; Nabi, Mohamed S; Zaidan, B B; Zaidan, A A

    2013-10-01

    This study aims to provide security solutions for implementing electronic medical records (EMRs). E-Health organizations could utilize the proposed method and implement recommended solutions in medical/health systems. Majority of the required security features of EMRs were noted. The methods used were tested against each of these security features. In implementing the system, the combination that satisfied all of the security features of EMRs was selected. Secure implementation and management of EMRs facilitate the safeguarding of the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of e-health organization systems. Health practitioners, patients, and visitors can use the information system facilities safely and with confidence anytime and anywhere. After critically reviewing security and data transmission methods, a new hybrid method was proposed to be implemented on EMR systems. This method will enhance the robustness, security, and integration of EMR systems. The hybrid of simple object access protocol/extensible markup language (XML) with advanced encryption standard and secure hash algorithm version 1 has achieved the security requirements of an EMR system with the capability of integrating with other systems through the design of XML messages.

  12. Thermal conductivity prediction of nanoscale phononic crystal slabs using a hybrid lattice dynamics-continuum mechanics technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles M. Reinke

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent work has demonstrated that nanostructuring of a semiconductor material to form a phononic crystal (PnC can significantly reduce its thermal conductivity. In this paper, we present a classical method that combines atomic-level information with the application of Bloch theory at the continuum level for the prediction of the thermal conductivity of finite-thickness PnCs with unit cells sized in the micron scale. Lattice dynamics calculations are done at the bulk material level, and the plane-wave expansion method is implemented at the macrosale PnC unit cell level. The combination of the lattice dynamics-based and continuum mechanics-based dispersion information is then used in the Callaway-Holland model to calculate the thermal transport properties of the PnC. We demonstrate that this hybrid approach provides both accurate and efficient predictions of the thermal conductivity.

  13. Lorentz-Shaped Comet Dust Trail Cross Section from New Hybrid Visual and Video Meteor Counting Technique - Implications for Future Leonid Storm Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenniskens, Peter; Crawford, Chris; Butow, Steven J.; Nugent, David; Koop, Mike; Holman, David; Houston, Jane; Jobse, Klaas; Kronk, Gary

    2000-01-01

    A new hybrid technique of visual and video meteor observations was developed to provide high precision near real-time flux measurements for satellite operators from airborne platforms. A total of 33,000 Leonids. recorded on video during the 1999 Leonid storm, were watched by a team of visual observers using a video head display and an automatic counting tool. The counts reveal that the activity profile of the Leonid storm is a Lorentz profile. By assuming a radial profile for the dust trail that is also a Lorentzian, we make predictions for future encounters. If that assumption is correct, we passed 0.0003 AU deeper into the 1899 trailet than expected during the storm of 1999 and future encounters with the 1866 trailet will be less intense than. predicted elsewhere.

  14. Critical review of on-board capacity estimation techniques for lithium-ion batteries in electric and hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmann, Alexander; Waag, Wladislaw; Marongiu, Andrea; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2015-05-01

    This work provides an overview of available methods and algorithms for on-board capacity estimation of lithium-ion batteries. An accurate state estimation for battery management systems in electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles is becoming more essential due to the increasing attention paid to safety and lifetime issues. Different approaches for the estimation of State-of-Charge, State-of-Health and State-of-Function are discussed and analyzed by many authors and researchers in the past. On-board estimation of capacity in large lithium-ion battery packs is definitely one of the most crucial challenges of battery monitoring in the aforementioned vehicles. This is mostly due to high dynamic operation and conditions far from those used in laboratory environments as well as the large variation in aging behavior of each cell in the battery pack. Accurate capacity estimation allows an accurate driving range prediction and accurate calculation of a battery's maximum energy storage capability in a vehicle. At the same time it acts as an indicator for battery State-of-Health and Remaining Useful Lifetime estimation.

  15. Crude Oil Price Forecasting Based on Hybridizing Wavelet Multiple Linear Regression Model, Particle Swarm Optimization Techniques, and Principal Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabri, Ani; Samsudin, Ruhaidah

    2014-01-01

    Crude oil prices do play significant role in the global economy and are a key input into option pricing formulas, portfolio allocation, and risk measurement. In this paper, a hybrid model integrating wavelet and multiple linear regressions (MLR) is proposed for crude oil price forecasting. In this model, Mallat wavelet transform is first selected to decompose an original time series into several subseries with different scale. Then, the principal component analysis (PCA) is used in processing subseries data in MLR for crude oil price forecasting. The particle swarm optimization (PSO) is used to adopt the optimal parameters of the MLR model. To assess the effectiveness of this model, daily crude oil market, West Texas Intermediate (WTI), has been used as the case study. Time series prediction capability performance of the WMLR model is compared with the MLR, ARIMA, and GARCH models using various statistics measures. The experimental results show that the proposed model outperforms the individual models in forecasting of the crude oil prices series. PMID:24895666

  16. EnVision+, a new dextran polymer-based signal enhancement technique for in situ hybridization (ISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedorn, K H; Goldmann, T; Henne, C; Kühl, H; Vollmer, E

    2001-09-01

    Seventy paraffin-embedded cervical biopsy specimens and condylomata were tested for the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) by conventional in situ hybridization (ISH) and ISH with subsequent signal amplification. Signal amplification was performed either by a commercial biotinyl-tyramide-based detection system [GenPoint (GP)] or by the novel two-layer dextran polymer visualization system EnVision+ (EV), in which both EV-horseradish peroxidase (EV-HRP) and EV-alkaline phosphatase (EV-AP) were applied. We could demonstrate for the first time, that EV in combination with preceding ISH results in a considerable increase in signal intensity and sensitivity without loss of specificity compared to conventional ISH. Compared to GP, EV revealed a somewhat lower sensitivity, as measured by determination of the integrated optical density (IOD) of the positively stained cells. However, EV is easier to perform, requires a shorter assay time, and does not raise the background problems that may be encountered with biotinyl-tyramide-based amplification systems. (J Histochem Cytochem 49:1067-1071, 2001)

  17. Crude Oil Price Forecasting Based on Hybridizing Wavelet Multiple Linear Regression Model, Particle Swarm Optimization Techniques, and Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Shabri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil prices do play significant role in the global economy and are a key input into option pricing formulas, portfolio allocation, and risk measurement. In this paper, a hybrid model integrating wavelet and multiple linear regressions (MLR is proposed for crude oil price forecasting. In this model, Mallat wavelet transform is first selected to decompose an original time series into several subseries with different scale. Then, the principal component analysis (PCA is used in processing subseries data in MLR for crude oil price forecasting. The particle swarm optimization (PSO is used to adopt the optimal parameters of the MLR model. To assess the effectiveness of this model, daily crude oil market, West Texas Intermediate (WTI, has been used as the case study. Time series prediction capability performance of the WMLR model is compared with the MLR, ARIMA, and GARCH models using various statistics measures. The experimental results show that the proposed model outperforms the individual models in forecasting of the crude oil prices series.

  18. Crude oil price forecasting based on hybridizing wavelet multiple linear regression model, particle swarm optimization techniques, and principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabri, Ani; Samsudin, Ruhaidah

    2014-01-01

    Crude oil prices do play significant role in the global economy and are a key input into option pricing formulas, portfolio allocation, and risk measurement. In this paper, a hybrid model integrating wavelet and multiple linear regressions (MLR) is proposed for crude oil price forecasting. In this model, Mallat wavelet transform is first selected to decompose an original time series into several subseries with different scale. Then, the principal component analysis (PCA) is used in processing subseries data in MLR for crude oil price forecasting. The particle swarm optimization (PSO) is used to adopt the optimal parameters of the MLR model. To assess the effectiveness of this model, daily crude oil market, West Texas Intermediate (WTI), has been used as the case study. Time series prediction capability performance of the WMLR model is compared with the MLR, ARIMA, and GARCH models using various statistics measures. The experimental results show that the proposed model outperforms the individual models in forecasting of the crude oil prices series.

  19. Fusion welding of Fe-added lap joints between AZ31B magnesium alloy and 6061 aluminum alloy by hybrid laser-tungsten inert gas welding technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Xiao-dong; Liu, Li-ming

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → Hybrid Laser-TIG fusion welding technique was used for joining Mg to Al alloys. → Laser defocusing amount determined penetration depth inside Al alloy of joints. → The addition of Fe interlayer suppressed Mg-Al intermetallics greatly in joints. → A maximum joint strength with optimum thickness of Fe interlayer was obtained. → Excessive addition of Fe interlayer was adverse for the strength improvement. -- Abstract: AZ31B magnesium alloy and 6061-T6 aluminum alloy were lap joined together with the addition of Fe interlayer by fusion welding of hybrid laser-tungsten inert gas (TIG) technique. The influence of location of laser focal spot (LFS) on joint penetration depth and that of the depth on joint strength were investigated. The results showed that when the LFS was just on the surface of Al plate, the deepest penetration could be obtained, which contributed to the improvement of shear strength of Fe-added joints, but not to the elevation of the strength of Mg/Al direct joints. The addition of Fe interlayer suppressed massive production of Mg-Al intermetallics but produced Fe-Al intermetallics in the fusion zone of the joints, whose micro-hardness was extremely high and was also adverse for the enhancement of joint shear strength. The effect of Fe-interlayer thickness on the joint shear strength was also examined, and the maximum shear strength of Fe-added joint could achieve 100 MPa with 0.13 mm thick Fe interlayer. The fracture modes of 0.07 and 0.13 mm Fe-interlayer-added joints were both quasi-cleavage, while those of direct and 0.22 mm interlayer-added joints were completely cleavage. The theoretical shear strength of the Fe-added joints was also discussed.

  20. Ant colony optimisation-direct cover: a hybrid ant colony direct cover technique for multi-level synthesis of multiple-valued logic functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-El-Barr, Mostafa

    2010-12-01

    The use of non-binary (multiple-valued) logic in the synthesis of digital systems can lead to savings in chip area. Advances in very large scale integration (VLSI) technology have enabled the successful implementation of multiple-valued logic (MVL) circuits. A number of heuristic algorithms for the synthesis of (near) minimal sum-of products (two-level) realisation of MVL functions have been reported in the literature. The direct cover (DC) technique is one such algorithm. The ant colony optimisation (ACO) algorithm is a meta-heuristic that uses constructive greediness to explore a large solution space in finding (near) optimal solutions. The ACO algorithm mimics the ant's behaviour in the real world in using the shortest path to reach food sources. We have previously introduced an ACO-based heuristic for the synthesis of two-level MVL functions. In this article, we introduce the ACO-DC hybrid technique for the synthesis of multi-level MVL functions. The basic idea is to use an ant to decompose a given MVL function into a number of levels and then synthesise each sub-function using a DC-based technique. The results obtained using the proposed approach are compared to those obtained using existing techniques reported in the literature. A benchmark set consisting of 50,000 randomly generated 2-variable 4-valued functions is used in the comparison. The results obtained using the proposed ACO-DC technique are shown to produce efficient realisation in terms of the average number of gates (as a measure of chip area) needed for the synthesis of a given MVL function.

  1. 3D hybrid profile order technique in a single breath-hold 3D T2-weighted fast spin-echo sequence: Usefulness in diagnosis of small liver lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Kenichiro; Nakaura, Takeshi; Okuaki, Tomoyuki; Tsuda, Noriko; Taguchi, Narumi; Oda, Seitaro; Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2018-01-01

    We compared the efficacy of three-dimensional (3D) isotropic T2-weighted fast spin-echo imaging using a 3D hybrid profile order technique with a single-breath-hold (3D-Hybrid BH) with a two-dimensional (2D) T2-weighted fast spin-echo conventional respiratory-gated (2D-Conventional RG) technique for visualising small liver lesions. This study was approved by our institutional review board. The requirement to obtain written informed consent was waived. Fifty patients with small (≤15mm) hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) (n=26), or benign cysts (n=24), had undergone hepatic MRI including both 2D-Conventional RG and 3D-Hybrid BH. We calculated the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and tumour-to-liver contrast (TLC). The diagnostic performance of the two protocols was analysed. The image acquisition time was 89% shorter with the 3D-Hybrid BH than with 2D-Conventional RG. There was no significant difference in the SNR between the two protocols. The area under the curve (AUC) of the TLC was significantly higher on 3D-Hybrid BH than on 2D-Conventional RG. The 3D-Hybrid BH sequence significantly improved diagnostic performance for small liver lesions with a shorter image acquisition time without sacrificing accuracy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. SU-E-T-451: Hybrid-VMAT: A Novel Technique Combining VMAT and 3D in Planning Whole Breast Radiotherapy with a Simultaneously-Integrated Boost (WBRT+SIB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guida, K; Qamar, K; Thompson, M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The RTOG 1005 trial offered a hypofractionated arm in delivering WBRT+SIB. Traditionally, treatments were planned at our institution using field-in-field (FiF) tangents with a concurrent 3D conformal boost. With the availability of VMAT, it is possible that a hybrid VMAT-3D planning technique could provide another avenue in treating WBRT+SIB. Methods: A retrospective study of nine patients previously treated using RTOG 1005 guidelines was performed to compare FiF+3D plans with the hybrid technique. A combination of static tangents and partial VMAT arcs were used in base-dose optimization. The hybrid plans were optimized to deliver 4005cGy to the breast PTVeval and 4800cGy to the lumpectomy PTVeval over 15 fractions. Plans were optimized to meet the planning goals dictated by RTOG 1005. Results: Hybrid plans yielded similar coverage of breast and lumpectomy PTVs (average D95 of 4013cGy compared to 3990cGy for conventional), while reducing the volume of high dose within the breast; the average D30 and D50 for the hybrid technique were 4517cGy and 4288cGy, compared to 4704cGy and 4377cGy for conventional planning. Hybrid plans increased conformity as well, yielding CI95% values of 1.22 and 1.54 for breast and lumpectomy PTVeval volumes; in contrast, conventional plans averaged 1.49 and 2.27, respectively. The nearby organs at risk (OARs) received more low dose with the hybrid plans due to low dose spray from the partial arcs, but all hybrid plans did meet the acceptable constraints, at a minimum, from the protocol. Treatment planning time was also reduced, as plans were inversely optimized (VMAT) rather than forward optimized. Conclusion: Hybrid-VMAT could be a solution in delivering WB+SIB, as plans yield very conformal treatment plans and maintain clinical standards in OAR sparing. For treating breast cancer patients with a simultaneously-integrated boost, Hybrid-VMAT offers superiority in dosimetric conformity and planning time as compared to FIF

  3. SU-E-T-451: Hybrid-VMAT: A Novel Technique Combining VMAT and 3D in Planning Whole Breast Radiotherapy with a Simultaneously-Integrated Boost (WBRT+SIB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guida, K; Qamar, K; Thompson, M [University of Kansas Hospital, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The RTOG 1005 trial offered a hypofractionated arm in delivering WBRT+SIB. Traditionally, treatments were planned at our institution using field-in-field (FiF) tangents with a concurrent 3D conformal boost. With the availability of VMAT, it is possible that a hybrid VMAT-3D planning technique could provide another avenue in treating WBRT+SIB. Methods: A retrospective study of nine patients previously treated using RTOG 1005 guidelines was performed to compare FiF+3D plans with the hybrid technique. A combination of static tangents and partial VMAT arcs were used in base-dose optimization. The hybrid plans were optimized to deliver 4005cGy to the breast PTVeval and 4800cGy to the lumpectomy PTVeval over 15 fractions. Plans were optimized to meet the planning goals dictated by RTOG 1005. Results: Hybrid plans yielded similar coverage of breast and lumpectomy PTVs (average D95 of 4013cGy compared to 3990cGy for conventional), while reducing the volume of high dose within the breast; the average D30 and D50 for the hybrid technique were 4517cGy and 4288cGy, compared to 4704cGy and 4377cGy for conventional planning. Hybrid plans increased conformity as well, yielding CI95% values of 1.22 and 1.54 for breast and lumpectomy PTVeval volumes; in contrast, conventional plans averaged 1.49 and 2.27, respectively. The nearby organs at risk (OARs) received more low dose with the hybrid plans due to low dose spray from the partial arcs, but all hybrid plans did meet the acceptable constraints, at a minimum, from the protocol. Treatment planning time was also reduced, as plans were inversely optimized (VMAT) rather than forward optimized. Conclusion: Hybrid-VMAT could be a solution in delivering WB+SIB, as plans yield very conformal treatment plans and maintain clinical standards in OAR sparing. For treating breast cancer patients with a simultaneously-integrated boost, Hybrid-VMAT offers superiority in dosimetric conformity and planning time as compared to FIF

  4. A comparative analysis of different hybrid MCDM techniques considering a case of selection of 3D printers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debapriyo Paul

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A multitude of techniques fall under the domain of Multi- Criteria Decision Making (MCDM which is used to select the best alternative among the available ones. The objective of this paper is to compare some of these techniques with respect to the problem of selection of 3D printers, which is associated with multiple attributes. The weights of the criteria were determined using analytical network process (ANP. Next, the alternatives were ranked using three different MCDM techniques- 1.TOPSIS which ranks alternatives having the shortest distance to the ideal solution as well as the greatest distance from the negative-ideal solution 2. Deng’s Similarity based Approach where the most preferred alternative should have the highest degree of similarity to the positive ideal solution and the lowest degree of similarity to the negative-ideal solution and 3.PROMETHEE and GAIA. The solutions for each of these three cases were analyzed thoroughly, and reasons for any deviations were discussed.

  5. Variable weight Khazani-Syed code using hybrid fixed-dynamic technique for optical code division multiple access system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anas, Siti Barirah Ahmad; Seyedzadeh, Saleh; Mokhtar, Makhfudzah; Sahbudin, Ratna Kalos Zakiah

    2016-10-01

    Future Internet consists of a wide spectrum of applications with different bit rates and quality of service (QoS) requirements. Prioritizing the services is essential to ensure that the delivery of information is at its best. Existing technologies have demonstrated how service differentiation techniques can be implemented in optical networks using data link and network layer operations. However, a physical layer approach can further improve system performance at a prescribed received signal quality by applying control at the bit level. This paper proposes a coding algorithm to support optical domain service differentiation using spectral amplitude coding techniques within an optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) scenario. A particular user or service has a varying weight applied to obtain the desired signal quality. The properties of the new code are compared with other OCDMA codes proposed for service differentiation. In addition, a mathematical model is developed for performance evaluation of the proposed code using two different detection techniques, namely direct decoding and complementary subtraction.

  6. A hybrid electron and photon IMRT planning technique that lowers normal tissue integral patient dose using standard hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosca, Florin

    2012-06-01

    To present a mixed electron and photon IMRT planning technique using electron beams with an energy range of 6-22 MeV and standard hardware that minimizes integral dose to patients for targets as deep as 7.5 cm. Ten brain cases, two lung, a thyroid, an abdominal, and a parotid case were planned using two planning techniques: a photon-only IMRT (IMRT) versus a mixed modality treatment (E+IMRT) that includes an enface electron beam and a photon IMRT portion that ensures a uniform target coverage. The electron beam is delivered using a regular cutout placed in an electron cone. The electron energy was chosen to provide a good trade-off between minimizing integral dose and generating a uniform, deliverable plan. The authors choose electron energies that cover the deepest part of PTV with the 65%-70% isodose line. The normal tissue integral dose, the dose for ring structures around the PTV, and the volumes of the 75%, 50%, and 25% isosurfaces were used to compare the dose distributions generated by the two planning techniques. The normal tissue integral dose was lowered by about 20% by the E+IMRT plans compared to the photon-only IMRT ones for most studied cases. With the exception of lungs, the dose reduction associated to the E+IMRT plans was more pronounced further away from the target. The average dose ratio delivered to the 0-2 cm and the 2-4 cm ring structures for brain patients for the two planning techniques were 89.6% and 70.8%, respectively. The enhanced dose sparing away from the target for the brain patients can also be observed in the ratio of the 75%, 50%, and 25% isodose line volumes for the two techniques, which decreases from 85.5% to 72.6% and further to 65.1%, respectively. For lungs, the lateral electron beams used in the E+IMRT plans were perpendicular to the mostly anterior/posterior photon beams, generating much more conformal plans. The authors proved that even using the existing electron delivery hardware, a mixed electron/photon planning

  7. ICT developments in mart industry field labs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolwijk, C.C.M.; Punter, L.M.

    2017-01-01

    This report is intended as a contribution to the OECD project called Next Production Revolution on behalf of the Netherlands. The Next Production Revolution exams the impacts and policy implications of emerging production technologies. The focus of the Next Production Revolution project is on

  8. Pseudodynamic Bearing Capacity Analysis of Shallow Strip Footing Using the Advanced Optimization TechniqueHybrid Symbiosis Organisms Search Algorithm” with Numerical Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arijit Saha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of shallow foundations subjected to seismic loading has been an important area of research for civil engineers. This paper presents an upper-bound solution for bearing capacity of shallow strip footing considering composite failure mechanisms by the pseudodynamic approach. A recently developed hybrid symbiosis organisms search (HSOS algorithm has been used to solve this problem. In the HSOS method, the exploration capability of SQI and the exploitation potential of SOS have been combined to increase the robustness of the algorithm. This combination can improve the searching capability of the algorithm for attaining the global optimum. Numerical analysis is also done using dynamic modules of PLAXIS-8.6v for the validation of this analytical solution. The results obtained from the present analysis using HSOS are thoroughly compared with the existing available literature and also with the other optimization techniques. The significance of the present methodology to analyze the bearing capacity is discussed, and the acceptability of HSOS technique is justified to solve such type of engineering problems.

  9. A hybrid hydrologic-geophysical inverse technique for the assessment and monitoring of leachates in the vadose zone. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alumbaugh, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    'It is the objective of this proposed study to develop and field test a new, integrated Hybrid Hydrologic-Geophysical Inverse Technique (HHGIT) for characterization of the vadose zone at contaminated sites. This fundamentally new approach to site characterization and monitoring will provide detailed knowledge about hydrological properties, geological heterogeneity and the extent and movement of contamination. HHGIT combines electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) to geophysically sense a 3D volume, statistical information about fabric of geological formations, and sparse data on moisture and contaminant distributions. Combining these three types of information into a single inversion process will provide much better estimates of spatially varied hydraulic properties and three-dimensional contaminant distributions than could be obtained from interpreting the data types individually. Furthermore, HHGIT will be a geostatistically based estimation technique; the estimates represent conditional mean hydraulic property fields and contaminant distributions. Thus, this method will also quantify the uncertainty of the estimates as well as the estimates themselves. The knowledge of this uncertainty is necessary to determine the likelihood of success of remediation efforts and the risk posed by hazardous materials. Controlled field experiments will be conducted to provide critical data sets for evaluation of these methodologies, for better understanding of mechanisms controlling contaminant movement in the vadose zone, and for evaluation of the HHGIT method as a long term monitoring strategy.'

  10. Optimization of the etch-and-rinse technique: New perspectives to improve resin-dentin bonding and hybrid layer integrity by reducing residual water using dimethyl sulfoxide pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stape, Thiago Henrique Scarabello; Tjäderhane, Leo; Abuna, Gabriel; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho; Martins, Luís Roberto Marcondes; Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu

    2018-04-13

    To determine whether bonding effectiveness and hybrid layer integrity on acid-etched dehydrated dentin would be comparable to the conventional wet-bonding technique through new dentin biomodification approaches using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Etched dentin surfaces from extracted sound molars were randomly bonded in wet or dry conditions (30s air drying) with DMSO/ethanol or DMSO/H 2 O as pretreatments using a simplified (Scotchbond Universal Adhesive, 3M ESPE: SU) and a multi-step (Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose, 3M ESPE: SBMP) etch-and-rinse adhesives. Untreated dentin surfaces served as control. Bonded teeth (n=8) were stored in distilled water for 24h and sectioned into resin-dentin beams (0.8mm 2 ) for microtensile bond strength test and quantitative interfacial nanoleakage analysis (n=8) under SEM. Additional teeth (n=2) were prepared for micropermeability assessment by CFLSM under simulated pulpar pressure (20cm H 2 O) using 5mM fluorescein as a tracer. Microtensile data was analyzed by 3-way ANOVA followed by Tukey Test and nanoleakage by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn-Bonferroni multiple comparison test (α=0.05). While dry-bonding of SBMP produced significantly lower bond strengths than wet-bonding (padhesives to demineralized air-dried dentin beyond conventional wet-bonding. Less porous resin-dentin interfaces with higher bond strengths on air-dried etched dentin were achieved; nonetheless, overall efficiency varied according to DMSO's co-solvent and adhesive type. DMSO pretreatments permit etched dentin to be air-dried before hybridization facilitating residual water removal and thus improving bonding effectiveness. This challenges the current paradigm of wet-bonding requirement for the etch-and-rinse approach creating new possibilities to enhance the clinical longevity of resin-dentin interfaces. Copyright © 2018 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Improving Semantic Updating Method on 3d City Models Using Hybrid Semantic-Geometric 3d Segmentation Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkawi, K.-H.; Abdul-Rahman, A.

    2013-09-01

    to LoD4. The accuracy and structural complexity of the 3D objects increases with the LoD level where LoD0 is the simplest LoD (2.5D; Digital Terrain Model (DTM) + building or roof print) while LoD4 is the most complex LoD (architectural details with interior structures). Semantic information is one of the main components in CityGML and 3D City Models, and provides important information for any analyses. However, more often than not, the semantic information is not available for the 3D city model due to the unstandardized modelling process. One of the examples is where a building is normally generated as one object (without specific feature layers such as Roof, Ground floor, Level 1, Level 2, Block A, Block B, etc). This research attempts to develop a method to improve the semantic data updating process by segmenting the 3D building into simpler parts which will make it easier for the users to select and update the semantic information. The methodology is implemented for 3D buildings in LoD2 where the buildings are generated without architectural details but with distinct roof structures. This paper also introduces hybrid semantic-geometric 3D segmentation method that deals with hierarchical segmentation of a 3D building based on its semantic value and surface characteristics, fitted by one of the predefined primitives. For future work, the segmentation method will be implemented as part of the change detection module that can detect any changes on the 3D buildings, store and retrieve semantic information of the changed structure, automatically updates the 3D models and visualize the results in a userfriendly graphical user interface (GUI).

  12. Novel preparation of controlled porosity particle/fibre loaded scaffolds using a hybrid micro-fluidic and electrohydrodynamic technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhizkar, Maryam; Sofokleous, Panagiotis; Stride, Eleanor; Edirisinghe, Mohan

    2014-11-27

    The purpose of this research was to produce multi-dimensional scaffolds containing biocompatible particles and fibres. To achieve this, two techniques were combined and used: T-Junction microfluidics and electrohydrodynamic (EHD) processing. The former was used to form layers of monodispersed bovine serum albumin (BSA) bubbles, which upon drying formed porous scaffolds. By altering the T-Junction processing parameters, bubbles with different diameters were produced and hence the scaffold porosity could be controlled. EHD processing was used to spray or spin poly(lactic-co-glycolic) (PLGA), polymethysilsesquioxane (PMSQ) and collagen particles/fibres onto the scaffolds during their production and after drying. As a result, multifunctional BSA scaffolds with controlled porosity containing PLGA, PMSQ and collagen particles/fibres were obtained. Product morphology was studied by optical and scanning electron microscopy. These products have potential applications in many advanced biomedical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields e.g. bone regeneration, drug delivery, cosmetic cream lathers, facial scrubbing creams etc.

  13. Ranking factors involved in product design using a hybrid model of Quality Function Deployment, Data Envelopment Analysis and TOPSIS technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Feiz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Quality function deployment (QFD is one such extremely important quality management tool, which is useful in product design and development. Traditionally, QFD rates the design requirements (DRs with respect to customer requirements, and aggregates the rating to get relative importance score of DRs. An increasing number of studies emphasize on the need to incorporate additional factors, such as cost and environmental impact, while calculating the relative importance of DRs. However, there are different methodologies for driving the relative importance of DRs, when several additional factors are considered. TOPSIS (technique for order preferences by similarity to ideal solution is suggested for the purpose of the research. This research proposes new approach of TOPSIS for considering the rating of DRs with respect to CRs, and several additional factors, simultaneously. Proposed method is illustrated using by step-by-step procedure. The proposed methodology was applied for the Sanam Electronic Company in Iran.

  14. Hybrid intelligent engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, L C; Adelaide, Australia University of

    1997-01-01

    This book on hybrid intelligent engineering systems is unique, in the sense that it presents the integration of expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems, genetic algorithms, and chaos engineering. It shows that these new techniques enhance the capabilities of one another. A number of hybrid systems for solving engineering problems are presented.

  15. Visceral hybrid reconstruction of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm after open repair of type a aortic dissection by the Bentall procedure with the elephant trunk technique: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Reconstruction of chronic type B dissection and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA remaining after the emergency reconstruction of the ascending thoracic aorta and aortic arch for acute type A dissection represents one of the major surgical challenges. Complications of chronic type B dissection are aneurysmal formation and rupture of an aortic aneurysm with a high mortality rate. We presented a case of visceral hybrid reconstruction of TAAA secondary to chronic dissection type B after the Bentall procedure with the elephant trunk technique due to acute type A aortic dissection in a high-risk patient. Case report. A 62 year-old woman was admitted to our institution for reconstruction of Crawford type I TAAA secondary to chronic dissection. The patient had had an acute type A aortic dissection 3 years before and undergone reconstruction by the Bentall procedure with the elephant trunk technique with valve replacement. On admission the patient had coronary artery disease (myocardial infarction, two times in the past 3 years, congestive heart disease with ejection fraction of 25% and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. On computed tomography (CT of the aorta TAAA was revealed with a maximum diameter of 93 mm in the descending thoracic aorta secondary to chronic dissection. All the visceral arteries originated from the true lumen with exception of the celiac artery (CA, and the end of chronic dissection was below the origin of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA. The patient was operated on using surgical visceral reconstruction of the SMA, CA and the right renal artery (RRA as the first procedure. Postoperative course was without complications. Endovascular TAAA reconstruction was performed as the second procedure one month later, when the elephant trunk was used as the proximal landing zone for the endograft, and distal landing zone was the level of origin of the RRA. Postoperatively, the patient had no neurological deficit and

  16. Improving the prediction of going concern of Taiwanese listed companies using a hybrid of LASSO with data mining techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, Yeung-Ja James; Chi, Der-Jang; Shen, Zong-De

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to establish rigorous and reliable going concern doubt (GCD) prediction models. This study first uses the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) to select variables and then applies data mining techniques to establish prediction models, such as neural network (NN), classification and regression tree (CART), and support vector machine (SVM). The samples of this study include 48 GCD listed companies and 124 NGCD (non-GCD) listed companies from 2002 to 2013 in the TEJ database. We conduct fivefold cross validation in order to identify the prediction accuracy. According to the empirical results, the prediction accuracy of the LASSO-NN model is 88.96 % (Type I error rate is 12.22 %; Type II error rate is 7.50 %), the prediction accuracy of the LASSO-CART model is 88.75 % (Type I error rate is 13.61 %; Type II error rate is 14.17 %), and the prediction accuracy of the LASSO-SVM model is 89.79 % (Type I error rate is 10.00 %; Type II error rate is 15.83 %).

  17. A hybrid body technique: does the pulse diagnostic cun guan chi method have Chinese-Tibetan origins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the medieval origins of the main pulse diagnostic method in contemporary Chinese medicine, sometimes known as san bu (three sectors) method, which requires physicians to examine the mai (vessels, vessel movements or pulse) on the wrist at the three locations cun guan chi (inch, gate, foot). The article provides evidence to suggest that this body technique grew out of an earlier Chinese one, the cun chi (inch-foot) method, which appears to have aimed at investigating the qualities of yin and yang in order to determine the condition of a patient by means of exploring fairly large areas of the patient's body surface with the palms. The article furthermore posits that the cun chi method was decisively transformed in medieval times, presumably due to the impact of early Tibetan pulse diagnostic practices: it became framed in a numerology of three and started advocating the use of the fingertips for sensing the pulse beats. The article, which draws on detailed textual analyses of medieval manuscripts, on visual evidence and also on psychophysical research, furthermore highlights how misunderstandings can constructively contribute to cultural communication.

  18. Comparison of pure and hybrid iterative reconstruction techniques with conventional filtered back projection: Image quality assessment in the cervicothoracic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsura, Masaki; Sato, Jiro; Akahane, Masaaki; Matsuda, Izuru; Ishida, Masanori; Yasaka, Koichiro; Kunimatsu, Akira; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the impact on image quality of three different image reconstruction techniques in the cervicothoracic region: model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR), and filtered back projection (FBP). Methods: Forty-four patients underwent unenhanced standard-of-care clinical computed tomography (CT) examinations which included the cervicothoracic region with a 64-row multidetector CT scanner. Images were reconstructed with FBP, 50% ASIR-FBP blending (ASIR50), and MBIR. Two radiologists assessed the cervicothoracic region in a blinded manner for streak artifacts, pixilated blotchy appearances, critical reproduction of visually sharp anatomical structures (thyroid gland, common carotid artery, and esophagus), and overall diagnostic acceptability. Objective image noise was measured in the internal jugular vein. Data were analyzed using the sign test and pair-wise Student's t-test. Results: MBIR images had significant lower quantitative image noise (8.88 ± 1.32) compared to ASIR images (18.63 ± 4.19, P 0.9 for ASIR vs. FBP for both readers). MBIR images were all diagnostically acceptable. Unique features of MBIR images included pixilated blotchy appearances, which did not adversely affect diagnostic acceptability. Conclusions: MBIR significantly improves image noise and streak artifacts of the cervicothoracic region over ASIR and FBP. MBIR is expected to enhance the value of CT examinations for areas where image noise and streak artifacts are problematic

  19. Comparison of pure and hybrid iterative reconstruction techniques with conventional filtered back projection: Image quality assessment in the cervicothoracic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsura, Masaki, E-mail: mkatsura-tky@umin.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Sato, Jiro; Akahane, Masaaki; Matsuda, Izuru; Ishida, Masanori; Yasaka, Koichiro; Kunimatsu, Akira; Ohtomo, Kuni [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan)

    2013-02-15

    Objectives: To evaluate the impact on image quality of three different image reconstruction techniques in the cervicothoracic region: model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR), and filtered back projection (FBP). Methods: Forty-four patients underwent unenhanced standard-of-care clinical computed tomography (CT) examinations which included the cervicothoracic region with a 64-row multidetector CT scanner. Images were reconstructed with FBP, 50% ASIR-FBP blending (ASIR50), and MBIR. Two radiologists assessed the cervicothoracic region in a blinded manner for streak artifacts, pixilated blotchy appearances, critical reproduction of visually sharp anatomical structures (thyroid gland, common carotid artery, and esophagus), and overall diagnostic acceptability. Objective image noise was measured in the internal jugular vein. Data were analyzed using the sign test and pair-wise Student's t-test. Results: MBIR images had significant lower quantitative image noise (8.88 ± 1.32) compared to ASIR images (18.63 ± 4.19, P < 0.01) and FBP images (26.52 ± 5.8, P < 0.01). Significant improvements in streak artifacts of the cervicothoracic region were observed with the use of MBIR (P < 0.001 each for MBIR vs. the other two image data sets for both readers), while no significant difference was observed between ASIR and FBP (P > 0.9 for ASIR vs. FBP for both readers). MBIR images were all diagnostically acceptable. Unique features of MBIR images included pixilated blotchy appearances, which did not adversely affect diagnostic acceptability. Conclusions: MBIR significantly improves image noise and streak artifacts of the cervicothoracic region over ASIR and FBP. MBIR is expected to enhance the value of CT examinations for areas where image noise and streak artifacts are problematic.

  20. Frequencies of X-ray induced chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes of xeroderma pigmentosum and Fanconi anemia patients estimated by Giemsa and fluorescence in situ hybridization staining techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saraswathy Radha

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood lymphocytes from xeroderma pigmentosum (XP and Fanconi anemia (FA patients were assessed for their sensitivity to ionizing radiation by estimating the frequency of X-ray (1 and 2 Gy-induced chromosome aberrations (CA. The frequencies of aberrations in the whole genome were estimated in Giemsa-stained preparations of lymphocytes irradiated at G0 or G2 stages. The frequencies of translocations and dicentrics involving chromosomes 1 and 3 as well as the X-chromosome were determined in slides stained by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH technique. An increase in all types of CA was observed in XP and FA lymphocytes irradiated at G0 when compared to controls. The frequency of dicentrics and rings was 6 to 27% higher (at 1 and 2 Gy in XP lymphocytes and 37% higher (at 2 Gy in FA lymphocytes than in controls, while chromosome deletions were higher in irradiated (30% in 1 Gy and 72% in 2 Gy than in control XP lymphocytes and 28 to 102% higher in FA lymphocytes. In G2-irradiated lymphocytes the frequency of CA was 24 to 55% higher in XP lymphocytes than in controls. In most cases the translocation frequencies were higher than the frequencies of dicentrics (21/19.

  1. Efficient Power Scheduling in Smart Homes Using Hybrid Grey Wolf Differential Evolution Optimization Technique with Real Time and Critical Peak Pricing Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muqaddas Naz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of automated environments, energy demand by consumers is increasing rapidly. More than 80% of total electricity is being consumed in the residential sector. This brings a challenging task of maintaining the balance between demand and generation of electric power. In order to meet such challenges, a traditional grid is renovated by integrating two-way communication between the consumer and generation unit. To reduce electricity cost and peak load demand, demand side management (DSM is modeled as an optimization problem, and the solution is obtained by applying meta-heuristic techniques with different pricing schemes. In this paper, an optimization technique, the hybrid gray wolf differential evolution (HGWDE, is proposed by merging enhanced differential evolution (EDE and gray wolf optimization (GWO scheme using real-time pricing (RTP and critical peak pricing (CPP. Load shifting is performed from on-peak hours to off-peak hours depending on the electricity cost defined by the utility. However, there is a trade-off between user comfort and cost. To validate the performance of the proposed algorithm, simulations have been carried out in MATLAB. Results illustrate that using RTP, the peak to average ratio (PAR is reduced to 53.02%, 29.02% and 26.55%, while the electricity bill is reduced to 12.81%, 12.012% and 12.95%, respectively, for the 15-, 30- and 60-min operational time interval (OTI. On the other hand, the PAR and electricity bill are reduced to 47.27%, 22.91%, 22% and 13.04%, 12%, 11.11% using the CPP tariff.

  2. Henkin and Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia; Manzano, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Leon Henkin was not a modal logician, but there is a branch of modal logic that has been deeply influenced by his work. That branch is hybrid logic, a family of logics that extend orthodox modal logic with special proposition symbols (called nominals) that name worlds. This paper explains why...... Henkin’s techniques are so important in hybrid logic. We do so by proving a completeness result for a hybrid type theory called HTT, probably the strongest hybrid logic that has yet been explored. Our completeness result builds on earlier work with a system called BHTT, or basic hybrid type theory...... is due to the first-order perspective, which lies at the heart of Henin’s best known work and hybrid logic....

  3. 基于DICache的混合线索解释执行技术%A DICache-Based Hybrid Threaded Interpretation Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈微; 王志英; 陈顼颢; 沈立; 陆洪毅; 肖侬

    2012-01-01

    Interpretation-based instruction set emulation provides a solution to the binary compatibility problem. The organization of the interpretation process has great impact on the performance of an interpreter. Centralized interpretation is inefficient while the traditional threaded interpretation is not suitable for interpreting the CISC Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) because of the complicated instruction decoding process. We propose a DICache-based hybrid interpretation technique. DICache can dynamically predecode the source instruction and convert them into an intermediate form. The DICache access code is appended at the end of each interpreter routine, which enables the threaded interpretation for CISC ISA. We implement an interpreter which interprets the IA-32 instructions on VLIW. We conduct some benchmarks from SPEC INT 2000 to evaluate the performance of the novel threaded interpretation method. It is demonstrated that DICache-based hybrid threaded interpretation can significantly improve the performance of an interpreter.%由解释执行实现的指令集仿真是解决二进制兼容问题的有效手段.解释执行各步骤的组织方式对解释器性能有着重要影响.集中方式效率较低,而效率较高的线索方式由于译码过程过于复杂而无法用于CISC指令集的解释执行.本文提出了一种基于DICache的混合线索解释执行技术,DICache实现一种高效的硬件动态预译码,将源指令转换为一种中间表示,在解释例程中对DICache快速访问实现对CISC指令集的线索解释执行.本文在一个源为IA-32、目标为VLIW的解释器上,采用SPEC INT2000中的测试程序对基于DICache的混合线索解释执行技术进行评估.结果表明该方法可以显著提高解释器的性能.

  4. Identification of dietary patterns associated with obesity in a nationally representative survey of Canadian adults: application of a priori, hybrid, and simplified dietary pattern techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessri, Mahsa; Wolfinger, Russell D; Lou, Wendy Y; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2017-03-01

    Background: Analyzing the effects of dietary patterns is an important approach for examining the complex role of nutrition in the etiology of obesity and chronic diseases. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to characterize the dietary patterns of Canadians with the use of a priori, hybrid, and simplified dietary pattern techniques, and to compare the associations of these patterns with obesity risk in individuals with and without chronic diseases (unhealthy and healthy obesity). Design: Dietary recalls from 11,748 participants (≥18 y of age) in the cross-sectional, nationally representative Canadian Community Health Survey 2.2 were used. A priori dietary pattern was characterized with the use of the previously validated 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans Adherence Index (DGAI). Weighted partial least squares (hybrid method) was used to derive an energy-dense (ED), high-fat (HF), low-fiber density (LFD) dietary pattern with the use of 38 food groups. The associations of derived dietary patterns with disease outcomes were then tested with the use of multinomial logistic regression. Results: An ED, HF, and LFD dietary pattern had high positive loadings for fast foods, carbonated drinks, and refined grains, and high negative loadings for whole fruits and vegetables (≥|0.17|). Food groups with a high loading were summed to form a simplified dietary pattern score. Moving from the first (healthiest) to the fourth (least healthy) quartiles of the ED, HF, and LFD pattern and the simplified dietary pattern scores was associated with increasingly elevated ORs for unhealthy obesity, with individuals in quartile 4 having an OR of 2.57 (95% CI: 1.75, 3.76) and 2.73 (95% CI: 1.88, 3.98), respectively ( P -trend obesity ( P -trend dietary patterns with healthy obesity and unhealthy nonobesity were weaker, albeit significant. Conclusions: Consuming an ED, HF, and LFD dietary pattern and lack of adherence to the recommendations of the 2015 DGAI were associated with

  5. The Influence of the Polymer Amount on the Biological Properties of PCL/ZrO2 Hybrid Materials Synthesized via Sol-Gel Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelina Catauro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Organic/inorganic hybrid materials are attracting considerable attention in the biomedical area. The sol-gel process provides a convenient way to produce many bioactive organic–inorganic hybrids. Among those, poly(e-caprolactone/zirconia (PCL/ZrO2 hybrids have proved to be bioactive with no toxic materials. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of these materials on the cellular response as a function of the PCL content, in order to evaluate their potential use in the biomedical field. For this purpose, PCL/ZrO2 hybrids containing 6, 12, 24, and 50 wt % of PCL were synthesized by the sol-gel method. The effects of their presence on the NIH-3T3 fibroblast cell line carrying out direct cell number counting, MTT, cell damage assays, flow cytometry-based analysis of cell-cycle progression, and immunoblotting experiments. The results confirm and extend the findings that PCL/ZrO2 hybrids are free from toxicity. The hybrids containing 12 and 24 wt % PCL, (more than 6 and 50 wt % ones enhance cell proliferation when compared to pure ZrO2 by affecting cell cycle progression. The finding that the content of PCL in PCL/ZrO2 hybrids differently supports cell proliferation suggests that PCL/ZrO2 hybrids could be useful tools with different potential clinical applications.

  6. The Influence of the Polymer Amount on the Biological Properties of PCL/ZrO2 Hybrid Materials Synthesized via Sol-Gel Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranquillo, Elisabetta; Illiano, Michela; Sapio, Luigi; Spina, Annamaria; Naviglio, Silvio

    2017-01-01

    Organic/inorganic hybrid materials are attracting considerable attention in the biomedical area. The sol-gel process provides a convenient way to produce many bioactive organic–inorganic hybrids. Among those, poly(e-caprolactone)/zirconia (PCL/ZrO2) hybrids have proved to be bioactive with no toxic materials. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of these materials on the cellular response as a function of the PCL content, in order to evaluate their potential use in the biomedical field. For this purpose, PCL/ZrO2 hybrids containing 6, 12, 24, and 50 wt % of PCL were synthesized by the sol-gel method. The effects of their presence on the NIH-3T3 fibroblast cell line carrying out direct cell number counting, MTT, cell damage assays, flow cytometry-based analysis of cell-cycle progression, and immunoblotting experiments. The results confirm and extend the findings that PCL/ZrO2 hybrids are free from toxicity. The hybrids containing 12 and 24 wt % PCL, (more than 6 and 50 wt % ones) enhance cell proliferation when compared to pure ZrO2 by affecting cell cycle progression. The finding that the content of PCL in PCL/ZrO2 hybrids differently supports cell proliferation suggests that PCL/ZrO2 hybrids could be useful tools with different potential clinical applications. PMID:29039803

  7. The superiority of hybrid-volumetric arc therapy (VMAT) technique over double arcs VMAT and 3D-conformal technique in the treatment of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer – A planning study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Oscar S.H.; Lee, Michael C.H.; Hung, Albert W.M.; Chang, Amy T.Y.; Yeung, Rebecca M.W.; Lee, Anne W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the dosimetric performance of three different treatment techniques – conformal radiotherapy (CRT), double arcs volumetric modulated arc therapy (RapidArc, RA) and Hybrid-RapidArc (H-RA) for locally-advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Material and methods: CRT, RA and H-RA plans were optimized for 24 stage III NSCLC patients. The target prescription dose was 60 Gy. CRT consisted of 5–7 coplanar fields, while RA comprised of two 204 o arcs. H-RA referred to two 204 o arcs plus 2 static fields, which accounted for approximately half of the total dose. The plans were optimized to fulfill the departmental plan acceptance criteria. Results: RA and H-RA yielded a 20% better conformity compared with CRT. Lung volume receiving >20 Gy (V20) and mean lung dose (MLD) were the lowest in H-RA (V20 1.7% and 2.1% lower, MLD 0.59 Gy and 0.41 Gy lower than CRT and RA respectively) without jeopardizing the low-dose lung volume (V5). H-RA plans gave the lowest mean maximum spinal cord dose (34.4 Gy, 3.9 Gy < CRT and 2.2 Gy < RA plans) and NTCP of lung. Higher average MU per fraction (addition 52.4 MU) was observed with a reduced treatment time compared with CRT plans. Conclusion: The H-RA technique was superior in dosimetric outcomes for treating locally-advanced NSCLC compared to CRT and RA.

  8. Selective detection of Fe2+ by combination of CePO4:Tb3+ nanocrystal-H2O2 hybrid system with synchronous fluorescence scan technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongqi; Ren, Jicun

    2012-04-21

    A new method for quenching kinetic discrimination of Fe(2+) and Fe(3+), and sensitive detection of trace amount of Fe(2+) was developed by using synchronous fluorescence scan technique. The principle of this assay is based on the quenching kinetic discrimination of Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) in CePO(4):Tb(3+) nanocrytals-H(2)O(2) hybrid system and the Fenton reaction between Fe(2+) and H(2)O(2). Stable, water-soluble and well-dispersible CePO(4):Tb(3+) nanocrystals were synthesized in aqueous solutions, and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron diffraction spectroscopy (EDS). We found that both Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) could quench the synchronous fluorescence of CePO(4):Tb(3+) nanocrytals-H(2)O(2) system, but their quenching kinetics velocities were quite different. In the presence of Fe(3+), the synchronous fluorescent intensity was unchanged after only one minute, but in the presence of Fe(2+), the synchronous fluorescent intensity decreased slowly until 28 min later. The Fenton reaction between Fe(2+) and H(2)O(2) resulted in hydroxyl radicals which effectively quenched the synchronous fluorescence of the CePO(4):Tb(3+) nanocrystals due to the oxidation of Ce(3+) into Ce(4+) by hydroxyl radicals. Under optimum conditions, the linear range for Fe(2+) is 3 nM-2 μM, and the limit of detection is 2.0 nM. The method was used to analyze water samples.

  9. Comparison of iterative model, hybrid iterative, and filtered back projection reconstruction techniques in low-dose brain CT: impact of thin-slice imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakaura, Takeshi; Iyama, Yuji; Kidoh, Masafumi; Yokoyama, Koichi [Amakusa Medical Center, Diagnostic Radiology, Amakusa, Kumamoto (Japan); Kumamoto University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan); Oda, Seitaro; Yamashita, Yasuyuki [Kumamoto University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan); Tokuyasu, Shinichi [Philips Electronics, Kumamoto (Japan); Harada, Kazunori [Amakusa Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of iterative model reconstruction (IMR) in brain CT especially with thin-slice images. This prospective study received institutional review board approval, and prior informed consent to participate was obtained from all patients. We enrolled 34 patients who underwent brain CT and reconstructed axial images with filtered back projection (FBP), hybrid iterative reconstruction (HIR) and IMR with 1 and 5 mm slice thicknesses. The CT number, image noise, contrast, and contrast noise ratio (CNR) between the thalamus and internal capsule, and the rate of increase of image noise in 1 and 5 mm thickness images between the reconstruction methods, were assessed. Two independent radiologists assessed image contrast, image noise, image sharpness, and overall image quality on a 4-point scale. The CNRs in 1 and 5 mm slice thickness were significantly higher with IMR (1.2 ± 0.6 and 2.2 ± 0.8, respectively) than with FBP (0.4 ± 0.3 and 1.0 ± 0.4, respectively) and HIR (0.5 ± 0.3 and 1.2 ± 0.4, respectively) (p < 0.01). The mean rate of increasing noise from 5 to 1 mm thickness images was significantly lower with IMR (1.7 ± 0.3) than with FBP (2.3 ± 0.3) and HIR (2.3 ± 0.4) (p < 0.01). There were no significant differences in qualitative analysis of unfamiliar image texture between the reconstruction techniques. IMR offers significant noise reduction and higher contrast and CNR in brain CT, especially for thin-slice images, when compared to FBP and HIR. (orig.)

  10. A hybrid breath hold and continued respiration-triggered technique for time-resolved 3D MRI perfusion studies in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hintze, C.; Stemmer, A.; Bock, M.

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of lung cancer perfusion is impaired by respiratory motion. Imaging times for contrast agent wash-out studies often exceed breath hold capabilities, and respiration triggering reduces temporal resolution. Temporally resolved volume acquisition of entire tumors is required to assess heterogeneity. Therefore, we developed and evaluated an MR measurement technique that exceeds a single breath hold, and provides a variable temporal resolution during acquisition while suspending breath-dependent motion. 20 patients with suspected lung cancer were subjected to perfusion studies using a spoiled 3D gradient echo sequence after bolus injection of 0.07 mmol/kg body weight of Gd-DTPA. 10 acquisitions in expiratory breath hold were followed by 50 navigator-triggered acquisitions under free breathing. Post-processing allowed for co-registration of the 3D data sets. An ROI-based visualization of the signal-time curves was performed. In all cases motion-suspended, time-resolved volume data sets (40 x 33 x 10 cm 3 , voxel size: 2.1 x 2.1 x 5.0 mm 3 ) were generated with a variable, initially high temporal resolution (2.25 sec) that was synchronized with the breath pattern and covered up to 8(1)/(2) min. In 7 / 20 cases a remaining offset could be reduced by rigid co-registration. The tumors showed fast wash-in, followed by rapid signal decay (8 / 20) or a plateau. The feasibility of a perfusion study with hybrid breath hold and navigator-triggered time-resolved 3D MRI which combines high initial temporal resolution during breath hold with a long wash-out period under free breathing was demonstrated. (orig.)

  11. Hybrid strategies in nanolithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saavedra, Hector M; Mullen, Thomas J; Zhang Pengpeng; Dewey, Daniel C; Claridge, Shelley A; Weiss, Paul S [Department of Chemistry, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)], E-mail: psw@cnsi.ucla.edu

    2010-03-15

    Hybrid nanoscale patterning strategies combine the registration and addressability of conventional lithographic techniques with the chemical and physical functionality enabled by intermolecular, electrostatic and/or biological interactions. This review aims to highlight and to provide a comprehensive description of recent developments in hybrid nanoscale patterning strategies that enhance existing lithographic techniques or can be used to fabricate functional chemical patterns that interact with their environment. These functional structures create new capabilities, such as the fabrication of physicochemical surfaces that can recognize and capture analytes from complex liquid or gaseous mixtures. The nanolithographic techniques we describe can be classified into three general areas: traditional lithography, soft lithography and scanning-probe lithography. The strengths and limitations of each hybrid patterning technique will be discussed, along with the current and potential applications of the resulting patterned, functional surfaces.

  12. Utilization of the computational technique to improve the thermophysical performance in the transportation of an electrically conducting Al2O3 - Ag/H2O hybrid nanofluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Z.; Azhar, Ehtsham; Maraj, E. N.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we analyzed the induced magnetic field effect on stagnation-point flow of a Al2O3-Ag/water hybrid nanofluid over a stretching sheet. Hybrid nanofluid, a new type of conventional fluid has been used for enhancement of heat transfer within boundary layer flow. It is notable here that only 1% to 5% contribution of nanoparticles enhance thermal conductivity of water. Nonlinear governing equations are simplified into boundary layer equations under boundary layer approximation assumption. A coupled system of nonlinear partial differential equation is transformed into a nonlinear system of ordinary differential equation by implementing suitable similarity conversions. Numerical analysis is performed by means of Keller box scheme. Effects of different non-dimensional governing parameters on velocity, induced magnetic field and temperature profiles, along with skinfriction coefficient and local Nusselt number, are discussed and presented through graphs and tables. Hybrid nanofluid is considered by keeping the 0.1% volumetric fraction of silver. From this study it is observed that the heat transfer rate of hybrid nanofluid (Al2O3-Ag/water) is higher than nanofluid (Ag/water). Novel results computed are useful in academic studies of hybrid nanofluids in engineering and industry.

  13. Cardiac hybrid imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaemperli, Oliver [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Nuclear Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Kaufmann, Philipp A. [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Alkadhi, Hatem [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-05-15

    Hybrid cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT imaging allows combined assessment of anatomical and functional aspects of cardiac disease. In coronary artery disease (CAD), hybrid SPECT/CT imaging allows detection of coronary artery stenosis and myocardial perfusion abnormalities. The clinical value of hybrid imaging has been documented in several subsets of patients. In selected groups of patients, hybrid imaging improves the diagnostic accuracy to detect CAD compared to the single imaging techniques. Additionally, this approach facilitates functional interrogation of coronary stenoses and guidance with regard to revascularization procedures. Moreover, the anatomical information obtained from CT coronary angiography or coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) adds prognostic information over perfusion data from SPECT. The use of cardiac hybrid imaging has been favoured by the dissemination of dedicated hybrid systems and the release of dedicated image fusion software, which allow simple patient throughput for hybrid SPECT/CT studies. Further technological improvements such as more efficient detector technology to allow for low-radiation protocols, ultra-fast image acquisition and improved low-noise image reconstruction algorithms will be instrumental to further promote hybrid SPECT/CT in research and clinical practice. (orig.)

  14. Multi-objective optimization of in-situ bioremediation of groundwater using a hybrid metaheuristic technique based on differential evolution, genetic algorithms and simulated annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Deepak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater contamination due to leakage of gasoline is one of the several causes which affect the groundwater environment by polluting it. In the past few years, In-situ bioremediation has attracted researchers because of its ability to remediate the contaminant at its site with low cost of remediation. This paper proposed the use of a new hybrid algorithm to optimize a multi-objective function which includes the cost of remediation as the first objective and residual contaminant at the end of the remediation period as the second objective. The hybrid algorithm was formed by combining the methods of Differential Evolution, Genetic Algorithms and Simulated Annealing. Support Vector Machines (SVM was used as a virtual simulator for biodegradation of contaminants in the groundwater flow. The results obtained from the hybrid algorithm were compared with Differential Evolution (DE, Non Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA II and Simulated Annealing (SA. It was found that the proposed hybrid algorithm was capable of providing the best solution. Fuzzy logic was used to find the best compromising solution and finally a pumping rate strategy for groundwater remediation was presented for the best compromising solution. The results show that the cost incurred for the best compromising solution is intermediate between the highest and lowest cost incurred for other non-dominated solutions.

  15. Study of the effect of low-power pulse laser on arc plasma and magnesium alloy target in hybrid welding by spectral diagnosis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liming; Hao, Xinfeng

    2008-10-01

    In order to study the effect of laser pulses on arc plasma and target metal in the hybrid welding process, the spectra of the plasmas in the welding process of magnesium alloys are analysed in this paper. The acquisition system of plasma spectra is set up and the spectral lines of welding plasma are acquired. Compared with tungsten-inert gas (TIG) welding, the intensities of the spectral lines of magnesium increase sharply while those of Ar decrease for strong evaporation and ionization of magnesium alloys in low-power laser/arc hybrid welding. The electron temperature and density are estimated by the Boltzmann plot method and the Stark broadening effect. The result shows that the electron temperature of arc plasma in the hybrid welding process is much lower than that in TIG welding, especially in the laser beam-affected zone. In contrast, the electron density of the plasma is enhanced. The influences of laser parameters on electron temperature are also studied. The changes in electron temperature and density indicate that the effect of laser pulse on the target metal is the dominant factor influencing the electron temperature and density in low-power laser/arc hybrid welding.

  16. Epitaxial growth of hybrid nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chaoliang; Chen, Junze; Wu, Xue-Jun; Zhang, Hua

    2018-02-01

    Hybrid nanostructures are a class of materials that are typically composed of two or more different components, in which each component has at least one dimension on the nanoscale. The rational design and controlled synthesis of hybrid nanostructures are of great importance in enabling the fine tuning of their properties and functions. Epitaxial growth is a promising approach to the controlled synthesis of hybrid nanostructures with desired structures, crystal phases, exposed facets and/or interfaces. This Review provides a critical summary of the state of the art in the field of epitaxial growth of hybrid nanostructures. We discuss the historical development, architectures and compositions, epitaxy methods, characterization techniques and advantages of epitaxial hybrid nanostructures. Finally, we provide insight into future research directions in this area, which include the epitaxial growth of hybrid nanostructures from a wider range of materials, the study of the underlying mechanism and determining the role of epitaxial growth in influencing the properties and application performance of hybrid nanostructures.

  17. Hybrid XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckel, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In the last 10 years significant innovations of EDXRF, e.g. total reflection XRF or polarized beam XRF, were utilized in different industrial applications. The decrease of background within the spectra was the goal of these developments. Excellent detection limits and sensitivities demonstrate the success of these new techniques. Nevertheless, further improvements are possible by using Si drift detectors. These detectors allow the processing of input count rates up to 10 6 cps in comparison to 10 5 of Si(Li) detectors. New excitation optics are necessary to produce such count rates. One possibility is the use of doubly curved crystals between tube and sample. These crystals enable the reflection of the primary beam within the given solid angle (0.4π) of an end window tube to the sample. Using such brightness optics excellent sensitivities mainly for light elements are achievable. The combination of a BRAGG crystal as a wavelength dispersive component and a solid state detector as an energy dispersive component creates a new technique: hybrid XRF. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  18. Fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites processed by a hybrid technique based on chemical vapor infiltration, slurry impregnation and spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnant, J.; Pailler, R.; Le Petitcorps, Y.; Maille, L.; Guette, A.; Marthe, J.

    2013-01-01

    Fabrication of multidirectional continuous carbon and silicon carbide fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites (CMC) by a new short time hybrid process was studied. This process is based, first, on the deposition of fiber interphase and coating by chemical vapor infiltration, next, on the introduction of silicon nitride powders into the fibrous preform by slurry impregnation and, finally, on the densification of the composite by liquid phase spark plasma sintering (LP-SPS). The homogeneous introduction of the ceramic charges into the multidirectional fiber pre-forms was realized by slurry impregnation from highly concentrated and well-dispersed aqueous colloid suspensions. The chemical degradation of the carbon fibers during the fabrication was prevented by adapting the sintering pressure cycle. The composites manufactured are dense. Microstructural analyses were conducted to explain the mechanical properties achieved. One main important result of this study is that LP-SPS can be used in some hybrid processes to densify fiber reinforced CMC. (authors)

  19. Patterning Luminescent Nanocrystalline LaPO4 : Eu and CePO4 : Tb Particles Embedded in Hybrid Organosilica with Soft-Lithographic Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid U. Khan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eu3+-doped LaPO4 and Tb3+-doped CePO4 luminescent nanoparticles embedded in hybrid organosilica were patterned by two soft lithographic techniques. The role of various parameters such as solution chemistry, thermal protocols, and modification of the mold-substrate surface energies related to pattern shape formation and adhesion to the substrates have been studied. The shrinkage of the oxide patterns and shape evolution during the process was also examined. The patterns were characterized with optical and photoluminescence (PL microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Compositional analyses were carried out with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, low-energy ion scattering (LEIS, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS. The results indicated that the final patterns obtained with these two techniques for the same material have different shapes and adherence to the substrates.

  20. Influence of PCL on mechanical properties and bioactivity of ZrO{sub 2}-based hybrid coatings synthesized by sol–gel dip coating technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catauro, Michelina, E-mail: michelina.catauro@unina2.it [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Bollino, Flavia [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Veronesi, Paolo [Department of Engineering “Enzo Ferrari”, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905, 41125 Modena (Italy); Lamanna, Giuseppe [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy)

    2014-06-01

    The biological properties of medical implants can be enhanced through surface modifications such as to provide a firm attachment of the implant. In this study, organic–inorganic hybrid coatings have been synthesized via sol–gel dip coating. They consist of an inorganic ZrO{sub 2} matrix in which different amounts of poly(ε-caprolactone) have been entrapped to improve the mechanical properties of the films. The influence of the PCL amount on the microstructural, biological and mechanical properties of the coating has been investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses have shown that the hybrids used for the coating are homogenous and totally amorphous materials; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) has demonstrated that hydrogen bonds arise between the organic and inorganic phases. SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM) have highlighted the nanostructured nature of the film. SEM and EDS analyses, after soaking the samples in a simulated body fluid (SBF), have pointed out the apatite formation on the coating surface, which proves the bone-bonding ability of the nanocomposite bioactive films. Scratch and nano-indentation tests have shown that the coating hardness, stiffness and Young's modulus decrease in the presence of large amounts of the organic phase. - Highlights: • ZrO{sub 2}/PCL organic-inorganic hybrid coatings synthesis via sol-gel dip coating. • Coatings porosity and bioactivity increase in presence of high PCL amount. • Coatings Hardness and Young’s modulus decrease in presence of high PCL amount.

  1. Human hybrid hybridoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiebout, R.F.; van Boxtel-Oosterhof, F.; Stricker, E.A.M.; Zeijlemaker, W.P.

    1987-11-15

    Hybrid hybridomas are obtained by fusion of two cells, each producing its own antibody. Several authors have reported the construction of murine hybrid hybridomas with the aim to obtain bispecific monoclonal antibodies. The authors have investigated, in a model system, the feasibility of constructing a human hybrid hybridoma. They fused two monoclonal cell lines: an ouabain-sensitive and azaserine/hypoxanthine-resistant Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human cell line that produces an IgG1kappa antibody directed against tetanus toxiod and an azaserine/hypoxanthine-sensitive and ouabain-resistant human-mouse xenohybrid cell line that produces a human IgG1lambda antibody directed against hepatitis-B surface antigen. Hybrid hybridoma cells were selected in culture medium containing azaserine/hypoxanthine and ouabain. The hybrid nature of the secreted antibodies was analyzed by means of two antigen-specific immunoassay. The results show that it is possible, with the combined use of transformation and xenohybridization techniques, to construct human hybrid hybridomas that produce bispecific antibodies. Bispecific antibodies activity was measured by means of two radioimmunoassays.

  2. Application of gamma-ray irradiation technique to select, create and develop super rice with high quality to substitute the imported hybrid rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Duy Quy; Tran Duy Vuong; Tran Duy Duong; Bui Huy Thuc

    2015-01-01

    Three varieties NPT3, BQ and TQ14 were selected by irradiation ray source Gamma Co-60 with dry seed, 13% grain moisture and created at 25-30 krad. NPT3 is super rice varieties with characteristics such as: extremely short growing period (105-110 day crop; 130- 135 days in the spring, the average yield of 9-10 tones/ha), quality, stem, leaf stand, suitable for intensive capability, able to resist pests and unfavorable conditions especially the elements of productivity (amylase from 15-16%) and mass produced including hybrid rice as Nhi Uu 868, Thien Nguyen Uu 9, HYT100, etc. BQ rice varieties were high quality, average productivity gain of 7.5- 8.0 ton/ha, equivalent to hybrid rice, short growth period (105-110 days in summer season; 120- 130 days in spring season), and quality rice: content 18-20% amylose, rice delicious, supple as BC15. TQ14 varieties was planted in 2 seasons/ year, with agricultural and biological characteristics as Khang-Dan18 mutant with wide adaptation, high yield potential, the average gain from 5.9 to 6.2 tones/ha, short growth period (105-110 days in summer season, 130-135 days in spring season), insect resistance, quality of rice suitable for manufacturing technology like noodles, instant noodles, rice noodles, Ethanol. (author)

  3. Fluorescence background subtraction technique for hybrid fluorescence molecular tomography/x-ray computed tomography imaging of a mouse model of early stage lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale, Angelique; Ermolayev, Vladimir; Deliolanis, Nikolaos C; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2013-05-01

    The ability to visualize early stage lung cancer is important in the study of biomarkers and targeting agents that could lead to earlier diagnosis. The recent development of hybrid free-space 360-deg fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) and x-ray computed tomography (XCT) imaging yields a superior optical imaging modality for three-dimensional small animal fluorescence imaging over stand-alone optical systems. Imaging accuracy was improved by using XCT information in the fluorescence reconstruction method. Despite this progress, the detection sensitivity of targeted fluorescence agents remains limited by nonspecific background accumulation of the fluorochrome employed, which complicates early detection of murine cancers. Therefore we examine whether x-ray CT information and bulk fluorescence detection can be combined to increase detection sensitivity. Correspondingly, we research the performance of a data-driven fluorescence background estimator employed for subtraction of background fluorescence from acquisition data. Using mice containing known fluorochromes ex vivo, we demonstrate the reduction of background signals from reconstructed images and sensitivity improvements. Finally, by applying the method to in vivo data from K-ras transgenic mice developing lung cancer, we find small tumors at an early stage compared with reconstructions performed using raw data. We conclude with the benefits of employing fluorescence subtraction in hybrid FMT-XCT for early detection studies.

  4. Structural properties and surface wettability of Cu-containing diamond-like carbon films prepared by a hybrid linear ion beam deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Peng; Sun, Lili; Li, Xiaowei [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Xu, Sheng [Gao Hong Coating Technology Co., Ltd, Huzhou 313000 (China); Ke, Peiling [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Wang, Aiying, E-mail: aywang@nimte.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2015-06-01

    Cu-containing diamond-like carbon (Cu-DLC) films were deposited on Si/glass substrate by a hybrid ion beam deposition system. The Cu concentration (0.1–39.7 at.%) in the film was controlled by varying the sputtering current. The microstructure and composition of Cu-DLC films were investigated systematically. The surface topography, roughness and surface wettability of the films were also studied. Results indicated that with increasing the Cu concentration, the water contact angle of the films changed from 66.8° for pure carbon film to more than 104.4° for Cu-DLC films with Cu concentration larger than 24.4 at.%. In the hydrophilic region, the polar surface energy decreased from 30.54 mJ/m{sup 2} for pure carbon film to 2.48 mJ/m{sup 2} for the film with Cu 7.0 at.%. - Highlights: • Cu-containing diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited by a hybrid ion beam system. • Cu-containing DLC films exhibited a wide range of water contact angle. • The water contact angles vary with the surface energies and surface roughness.

  5. Research of a hybrid undulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Youwu; Wu Bing; Liu Bo

    1995-12-01

    A 1.5 m tapered hybrid undulator has been designed and built for mid-infrared free electron laser experiments at CIAE. The undulator utilizes the REC-steel hybrid configuration. The magnetic gap and magnetic field taper can be continuously adjusted. The rms error of the peak field is less than 0.53%. The electron trajectory deviation is around 0.03 mm. The design of undulator, sorting of magnets in hybrid undulator using simulated annealing technique, the motion of electron beam in the ideal and measured magnetic field, magnetic field measurement technique and magnetic field adjustment are described. (6 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab)

  6. Hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of 233 U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m -2 , and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid

  7. Analytical improvements of hybrid LC-MS/MS techniques for the efficient evaluation of emerging contaminants in river waters: a case study of the Henares River (Madrid, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Parada, Andrés; Gómez-Ramos, María del Mar; Martínez Bueno, María Jesús; Uclés, Samanta; Uclés, Ana; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2012-02-01

    Instrumental capabilities and software tools of modern hybrid mass spectrometry (MS) instruments such as high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF), and quadrupole linear ion trap (QLIT) were experimentally investigated for the study of emerging contaminants in Henares River water samples. Automated screening and confirmatory capabilities of QTOF working in full-scan MS and tandem MS (MS/MS) were explored when dealing with real samples. Investigations on the effect of sensitivity and resolution power influence on mass accuracy were studied for the correct assignment of the amoxicillin transformation product 5(R) amoxicillin-diketopiperazine-2',5' as an example of a nontarget compound. On the other hand, a comparison of quantitative and qualitative strategies based on direct injection analysis and off-line solid-phase extraction sample treatment were assayed using two different QLIT instruments for a selected group of emerging contaminants when operating in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) and information-dependent acquisition (IDA) modes. Software-aided screening usually needs a further confirmatory step. Resolving power and MS/MS feature of QTOF showed to confirm/reject most findings in river water, although sensitivity-related limitations are usually found. Superior sensitivity of modern QLIT-MS/MS offered the possibility of direct injection analysis for proper quantitative study of a variety of contaminants, while it simultaneously reduced the matrix effect and increased the reliability of the results. Confirmation of ethylamphetamine, which lacks on a second SRM transition, was accomplished by using the IDA feature. Hybrid MS instruments equipped with high resolution and high sensitivity contributes to enlarge the scope of targeted analytes in river waters. However, in the tested instruments, there is a margin of improvement principally in required sensitivity and data treatment software tools devoted to reliable confirmation

  8. Analysis of Non-binary Hybrid LDPC Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Sassatelli, Lucile; Declercq, David

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse asymptotically a new class of LDPC codes called Non-binary Hybrid LDPC codes, which has been recently introduced. We use density evolution techniques to derive a stability condition for hybrid LDPC codes, and prove their threshold behavior. We study this stability condition to conclude on asymptotic advantages of hybrid LDPC codes compared to their non-hybrid counterparts.

  9. PET/MRI: a novel hybrid imaging technique: major clinical indications and preliminary experience in Brazil; PET/RM: um novo metodo de imagem hibrida: principais indicacoes clinicas e experiencia preliminar no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitor, Taise; Martins, Karine Minaif; Ionescu, Tudor Mihai and others, E-mail: taisevitor@gmail.com [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, medical imaging with hybrid techniques has widely accepted and employed in clinical routine. PET/MRI offers significant advantages, including excellent contrast and resolution and reduced ionizing radiation, as compared to well-established PET/ CT. Therefore, PET/MRI is a promising modality for oncologic imaging of some regions, such as brain, head and neck, liver and pelvis. This article set out to analyze clinical conditions that could benefit from PET/MRI imaging based on our caseload. The potential of PET/MRI to become the imaging modality of choice for assessment of neurologic and oncologic conditions associated with soft tissues is highlighted. Clinical aspects of PET/MRI and its application to clinical cases are illustrated with examples extracted from the authors' preliminary experience. (author)

  10. Novel hard mask fabrication method for hybrid plasmonic waveguide and metasurfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choudhury, Sajid; Zenin, Vladimir A.; Saha, Soham

    2017-01-01

    A hybrid plasmonic waveguide fabrication technique has been developed and waveguides fabricated using this technique have been demonstrated experimentally. The developed technique can be utilized for creating similar hybrid waveguide structures and metasurfaces with an array of material platforms...

  11. The human interactome knowledge base (hint-kb): An integrative human protein interaction database enriched with predicted protein–protein interaction scores using a novel hybrid technique

    KAUST Repository

    Theofilatos, Konstantinos A.

    2013-07-12

    Proteins are the functional components of many cellular processes and the identification of their physical protein–protein interactions (PPIs) is an area of mature academic research. Various databases have been developed containing information about experimentally and computationally detected human PPIs as well as their corresponding annotation data. However, these databases contain many false positive interactions, are partial and only a few of them incorporate data from various sources. To overcome these limitations, we have developed HINT-KB (http://biotools.ceid.upatras.gr/hint-kb/), a knowledge base that integrates data from various sources, provides a user-friendly interface for their retrieval, cal-culatesasetoffeaturesofinterest and computesaconfidence score for every candidate protein interaction. This confidence score is essential for filtering the false positive interactions which are present in existing databases, predicting new protein interactions and measuring the frequency of each true protein interaction. For this reason, a novel machine learning hybrid methodology, called (Evolutionary Kalman Mathematical Modelling—EvoKalMaModel), was used to achieve an accurate and interpretable scoring methodology. The experimental results indicated that the proposed scoring scheme outperforms existing computational methods for the prediction of PPIs.

  12. Hybrid composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available mixed short sisal/glass hybrid fibre reinforced low density polyethylene composites was investigated by Kalaprasad et al [25].Chemical surface modifications such as alkali, acetic anhydride, stearic acid, permanganate, maleic anhydride, silane...

  13. Hybrid intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Cetorelli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    I introduce the concept of hybrid intermediaries: financial conglomerates that control a multiplicity of entity types active in the "assembly line" process of modern financial intermediation, a system that has become known as shadow banking. The complex bank holding companies of today are the best example of hybrid intermediaries, but I argue that financial firms from the "nonbank" space can just as easily evolve into conglomerates with similar organizational structure, thus acquiring the cap...

  14. A Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar Partial Fixed-Point Imaging System Using a Field- Programmable Gate Array-Application-Specific Integrated Circuit Hybrid Heterogeneous Parallel Acceleration Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chen; Li, Bingyi; Chen, Liang; Wei, Chunpeng; Xie, Yizhuang; Chen, He; Yu, Wenyue

    2017-06-24

    With the development of satellite load technology and very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuit technology, onboard real-time synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging systems have become a solution for allowing rapid response to disasters. A key goal of the onboard SAR imaging system design is to achieve high real-time processing performance with severe size, weight, and power consumption constraints. In this paper, we analyse the computational burden of the commonly used chirp scaling (CS) SAR imaging algorithm. To reduce the system hardware cost, we propose a partial fixed-point processing scheme. The fast Fourier transform (FFT), which is the most computation-sensitive operation in the CS algorithm, is processed with fixed-point, while other operations are processed with single precision floating-point. With the proposed fixed-point processing error propagation model, the fixed-point processing word length is determined. The fidelity and accuracy relative to conventional ground-based software processors is verified by evaluating both the point target imaging quality and the actual scene imaging quality. As a proof of concept, a field- programmable gate array-application-specific integrated circuit (FPGA-ASIC) hybrid heterogeneous parallel accelerating architecture is designed and realized. The customized fixed-point FFT is implemented using the 130 nm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology as a co-processor of the Xilinx xc6vlx760t FPGA. A single processing board requires 12 s and consumes 21 W to focus a 50-km swath width, 5-m resolution stripmap SAR raw data with a granularity of 16,384 × 16,384.

  15. A Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar Partial Fixed-Point Imaging System Using a Field- Programmable Gate Array−Application-Specific Integrated Circuit Hybrid Heterogeneous Parallel Acceleration Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With the development of satellite load technology and very large scale integrated (VLSI circuit technology, onboard real-time synthetic aperture radar (SAR imaging systems have become a solution for allowing rapid response to disasters. A key goal of the onboard SAR imaging system design is to achieve high real-time processing performance with severe size, weight, and power consumption constraints. In this paper, we analyse the computational burden of the commonly used chirp scaling (CS SAR imaging algorithm. To reduce the system hardware cost, we propose a partial fixed-point processing scheme. The fast Fourier transform (FFT, which is the most computation-sensitive operation in the CS algorithm, is processed with fixed-point, while other operations are processed with single precision floating-point. With the proposed fixed-point processing error propagation model, the fixed-point processing word length is determined. The fidelity and accuracy relative to conventional ground-based software processors is verified by evaluating both the point target imaging quality and the actual scene imaging quality. As a proof of concept, a field- programmable gate array−application-specific integrated circuit (FPGA-ASIC hybrid heterogeneous parallel accelerating architecture is designed and realized. The customized fixed-point FFT is implemented using the 130 nm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS technology as a co-processor of the Xilinx xc6vlx760t FPGA. A single processing board requires 12 s and consumes 21 W to focus a 50-km swath width, 5-m resolution stripmap SAR raw data with a granularity of 16,384 × 16,384.

  16. Novel hybrid cryo‐radial method: an emerging alternative to CT‐guided biopsy in suspected lung cancer. A prospective case series and description of technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Elaine

    2017-01-01

    In diagnosing peripheral pulmonary lesions (PPL), radial endobronchial ultrasound (R‐EBUS) is emerging as a safer method in comparison to CT‐guided biopsy. Despite the better safety profile, the yield of R‐EBUS remains lower (73%) than CT‐guided biopsy (90%) due to the smaller size of samples. We adopted a hybrid method by adding cryobiopsy via the R‐EBUS Guide Sheath (GS) to produce larger, non‐crushed samples to improve diagnostic capability and enhance molecular testing. We report six prospective patients who underwent this procedure in our institution. R‐EBUS samples were obtained via conventional sampling methods (needle aspiration, forceps biopsy, and cytology brush), followed by a cryobiopsy. An endobronchial blocker was placed near the planned area of biopsy in advance and inflated post‐biopsy to minimize the risk of bleeding in all patients. A chest X‐ray was performed 1 h post‐procedure. All the PPLs were visualized with R‐EBUS. The mean diameter of cryobiopsy samples was twice the size of forceps biopsy samples. In four patients, cryobiopsy samples were superior in size and the number of malignant cells per high power filed and was the preferred sample selected for mutation analysis and molecular testing. There was no pneumothorax or significant bleeding to report. Cryobiopsy samples were consistently larger and were the preferred samples for molecular testing, with an increase in the diagnostic yield and reduction in the need for repeat procedures, without hindering the marked safety profile of R‐EBUS. Using an endobronchial blocker improves the safety of this procedure. PMID:29321931

  17. Hybrid Simulation of Composite Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh, Jacob Herold

    experiment. The technique has primarily been used within earthquake engineering but many other fields of engineering have utilized the method with benefit. However, these previous efforts have focused on structures with a simple boundary between the numerical and physical substructure i.e. few degrees...... the transfer system and the control and monitoring techniques in the shared boundary is therefore a key issue in this type of hybrid simulation. During the research, hybrid simulation platforms have been programmed capable of running on different time scales with advanced control and monitoring techniques...

  18. THE EFFECT OF VARIOUS PARAMETERS ON DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOR AND SUBSURFACE OF AGED HYBRID METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES USING TAGUCHI TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M. Viswanatha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of applied load, sliding speed and sliding distance on the dry sliding wear behavior of aged Al-SiCp-Gr composites were investigated. The specimen were fabricated by stir-casting technique. The pin-on-disc wear testing machine was used to investigate the wear rate by design of experiments based on L27 using Taguchi technique. Sliding distance was the most important variable that influenced the wear rate followed by sliding speed and applied load. The worn out surfaces were analyzed by SEM and EDS to study the subsurface mechanism of wear. The addition of reinforcements showed improved tribological behavior of the composite than base alloy.

  19. Single Visit Feeding Appliance for 1-day-old Neonate with Cleft Palate Using Safe Dental Putty-Gauze Hybrid Impression Technique for Maxillary Impression

    OpenAIRE

    Rathee, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate is one of the most common craniofacial anomalies of humans. Intraoral impression making is the first clinical step in the fabrication of feeding appliance for infants with oro-nasal communication. It is difficult to control the flow of the impression material in the cleft area and undercuts in a child patient. This clinical report presents a simple and safe impression technique for maxillary impression making in neonates and infants with cleft palate. A gauze piece was us...

  20. Improved coronary in-stent visualization using a combined high-resolution kernel and a hybrid iterative reconstruction technique at 256-slice cardiac CT—Pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Seitaro; Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Funama, Yoshinori; Takaoka, Hiroko; Katahira, Kazuhiro; Honda, Keiichi; Noda, Katsuo; Oshima, Shuichi; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the diagnostic performance of 256-slice cardiac CT for the evaluation of the in-stent lumen by using a hybrid iterative reconstruction (HIR) algorithm combined with a high-resolution kernel. Methods: This study included 28 patients with 28 stents who underwent cardiac CT. Three different reconstruction images were obtained with: (1) a standard filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm with a standard cardiac kernel (CB), (2) an FBP algorithm with a high-resolution cardiac kernel (CD), and (3) an HIR algorithm with the CD kernel. We measured image noise and kurtosis and used receiver operating characteristics analysis to evaluate observer performance in the detection of in-stent stenosis. Results: Image noise with FBP plus the CD kernel (80.2 ± 15.5 HU) was significantly higher than with FBP plus the CB kernel (28.8 ± 4.6 HU) and HIR plus the CD kernel (36.1 ± 6.4 HU). There was no significant difference in the image noise between FBP plus the CB kernel and HIR plus the CD kernel. Kurtosis was significantly better with the CD- than the CB kernel. The kurtosis values obtained with the CD kernel were not significantly different between the FBP- and HIR reconstruction algorithms. The areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves with HIR plus the CD kernel were significantly higher than with FBP plus the CB- or the CD kernel. The difference between FBP plus the CB- or the CD kernel was not significant. The average sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value for the detection of in-stent stenosis were 83.3, 50.0, 33.3, and 91.6% for FBP plus the CB kernel, 100, 29.6, 40.0, and 100% for FBP plus the CD kernel, and 100, 54.5, 40.0, and 100% for HIR plus the CD kernel. Conclusions: The HIR algorithm combined with the high-resolution kernel significantly improved diagnostic performance in the detection of in-stent stenosis

  1. Current status of hybrid coronary revascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaik, Nikhil P; Umakanthan, Ramanan; Leacche, Marzia; Solenkova, Natalia; Balaguer, Jorge M; Hoff, Steven J; Ball, Stephen K; Zhao, David X; Byrne, John G

    2011-10-01

    Hybrid coronary revascularization combines coronary artery bypass surgery with percutaneous coronary intervention techniques to treat coronary artery disease. The potential benefits of such a technique are to offer the patients the best available treatments for coronary artery disease while minimizing the risks of the surgery. Hybrid coronary revascularization has resulted in the establishment of new 'hybrid operating suites', which incorporate and integrate the capabilities of a cardiac surgery operating room with that of an interventional cardiology laboratory. Hybrid coronary revascularization has greatly augmented teamwork and cooperation between both fields and has demonstrated encouraging as well as good initial outcomes.

  2. Application of Genomic In Situ Hybridization in Horticultural Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Ramzan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular cytogenetic techniques, such as in situ hybridization methods, are admirable tools to analyze the genomic structure and function, chromosome constituents, recombination patterns, alien gene introgression, genome evolution, aneuploidy, and polyploidy and also genome constitution visualization and chromosome discrimination from different genomes in allopolyploids of various horticultural crops. Using GISH advancement as multicolor detection is a significant approach to analyze the small and numerous chromosomes in fruit species, for example, Diospyros hybrids. This analytical technique has proved to be the most exact and effective way for hybrid status confirmation and helps remarkably to distinguish donor parental genomes in hybrids such as Clivia, Rhododendron, and Lycoris ornamental hybrids. The genome characterization facilitates in hybrid selection having potential desirable characteristics during the early hybridization breeding, as this technique expedites to detect introgressed sequence chromosomes. This review study epitomizes applications and advancements of genomic in situ hybridization (GISH techniques in horticultural plants.

  3. Single Visit Feeding Appliance for 1-day-old Neonate with Cleft Palate Using Safe Dental Putty-Gauze Hybrid Impression Technique for Maxillary Impression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathee, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate is one of the most common craniofacial anomalies of humans. Intraoral impression making is the first clinical step in the fabrication of feeding appliance for infants with oro-nasal communication. It is difficult to control the flow of the impression material in the cleft area and undercuts in a child patient. This clinical report presents a simple and safe impression technique for maxillary impression making in neonates and infants with cleft palate. A gauze piece was used to confine the impression material during functional movements of sucking while impression making in an awake child to avoid the risk of aspiration or swallowing.

  4. Use of a hybrid iterative reconstruction technique to reduce image noise and improve image quality in obese patients undergoing computed tomographic pulmonary angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kligerman, Seth; Mehta, Dhruv; Farnadesh, Mahmmoudreza; Jeudy, Jean; Olsen, Kathryn; White, Charles

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether an iterative reconstruction (IR) technique (iDose, Philips Healthcare) can reduce image noise and improve image quality in obese patients undergoing computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA). The study was Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant and approved by our institutional review board. A total of 33 obese patients (average body mass index: 42.7) underwent CTPA studies following standard departmental protocols. The data were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) and 3 iDose strengths (iDoseL1, iDoseL3, and iDoseL5) for a total of 132 studies. FBP data were collected from 33 controls (average body mass index: 22) undergoing CTPA. Regions of interest were drawn at 6 identical levels in the pulmonary artery (PA), from the main PA to a subsegmental branch, in both the control group and study groups using each algorithm. Noise and attenuation were measured at all PA levels. Three thoracic radiologists graded each study on a scale of 1 (very poor) to 5 (ideal) by 4 categories: image quality, noise, PA enhancement, and "plastic" appearance. Statistical analysis was performed using an unpaired t test, 1-way analysis of variance, and linear weighted κ. Compared with the control group, there was significantly higher noise with FBP, iDoseL1, and iDoseL3 algorithms (Pnoise in the control group and iDoseL5 algorithm in the study group. Analysis within the study group showed a significant and progressive decrease in noise and increase in the contrast-to-noise ratio as the level of IR was increased (Pnoise and PA enhancement with increasing levels of iDose. The use of an IR technique leads to qualitative and quantitative improvements in image noise and image quality in obese patients undergoing CTPA.

  5. Hybrid soft computing approaches research and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Paramartha; Chakraborty, Susanta

    2016-01-01

    The book provides a platform for dealing with the flaws and failings of the soft computing paradigm through different manifestations. The different chapters highlight the necessity of the hybrid soft computing methodology in general with emphasis on several application perspectives in particular. Typical examples include (a) Study of Economic Load Dispatch by Various Hybrid Optimization Techniques, (b) An Application of Color Magnetic Resonance Brain Image Segmentation by ParaOptiMUSIG activation Function, (c) Hybrid Rough-PSO Approach in Remote Sensing Imagery Analysis,  (d) A Study and Analysis of Hybrid Intelligent Techniques for Breast Cancer Detection using Breast Thermograms, and (e) Hybridization of 2D-3D Images for Human Face Recognition. The elaborate findings of the chapters enhance the exhibition of the hybrid soft computing paradigm in the field of intelligent computing.

  6. High-resolution analysis of 16q22.1 in breast carcinoma using DNA amplifiable probes (multiplex amplifiable probe hybridization technique) and immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakha, Emad A; Armour, John A L; Pinder, Sarah E; Paish, Claire E; Ellis, Ian O

    2005-05-01

    Loss of the chromosomal material at 16q22.1 is one of the most frequent genetic aberrations found in both lobular and low-grade nonlobular invasive carcinoma of the breast, indicating the presence of a tumour suppressor gene (TSG) at this region in these tumours. However, the TSG (s) at the 16q22.1 in the more frequent nonlobular carcinomas is still unknown. Multiplex Amplifiable Probe Hybridisation (MAPH) is a simple, accurate and a high-resolution technique that provides an alternative approach to DNA copy-number measurement. The aim of our study was to examine the most likely candidate genes at 16q22.1 using MAPH assay combined with protein expression analysis by immunohistochemistry. We identified deletion at 16q22.1 that involves some or all of these genes. We also noticed that the smallest region of deletion at 16q22.1 could be delineated to a 3 Mb region centromeric to the P-cadherin gene. Apart from the correlation between E-cadherin protein expression and its gene copy number, no correlation was detected between the expression of E2F-4, CTCF, TRF2 or P-cadherin with their gene's copy number. In the malignant tissues, no significant loss or decrease of protein expression of any gene other than E-cadherin was seen in association with any specific tumour type. No expression of VE-cadherin or Ksp-cadherin was detected in the normal and/or malignant tissues of the breast in these cases. However, there was a correlation between increased nuclear expression of E2F-4 and tumours with higher histological grade (p = 0.04) and positive lymph node disease (p = 0.02), suggesting that it may have an oncogenic rather than a tumour suppressor role. The malignant breast tissues also showed abnormal cytoplasmic cellular localisation of CTCF, compared to its expression in the normal parenchymal cells. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that MAPH is a potential technique for assessment of genomic imbalances in malignant tissues. Although our results support E-cadherin as the

  7. A Hybrid Technique for De-Noising Multi-Modality Medical Images by Employing Cuckoo’s Search with Curvelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qaisar Javaid

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available De-noising of the medical images is very difficult task. To improve the overall visual representation we need to apply a contrast enhancement techniques, this representation provide the physicians and clinicians a good and recovered diagnosis results. Various de-noising and contrast enhancements methods are develops. However, some of the methods are not good in providing the better results with accuracy and efficiency. In our paper we de-noise and enhance the medical images without any loss of information. We uses the curvelet transform in combination with ridglet transform along with CS (Cuckoo Search algorithm. The curvlet transform adapt and represents the sparse pixel informations with all edges. The edges play very important role in understanding of the images. Curvlet transform computes the edges very efficiently where the wavelets are failed. We used the CS to optimize the de-noising coefficients without loss of structural and morphological information. Our designed method would be accurate and efficient in de-noising the medical images. Our method attempts to remove the multiplicative and additive noises. Our proposed method is proved to be an efficient and reliable in removing all kind of noises from the medical images. Result indicates that our proposed approach is better than other approaches in removing impulse, Gaussian, and speckle noises.

  8. Hybrid stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hybrid stars. AsHOK GOYAL. Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India. Abstract. Recently there have been important developments in the determination of neutron ... number and the electric charge. ... available to the system to rearrange concentration of charges for a given fraction of.

  9. Cosmological dynamics of a hybrid chameleon scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Nozari, Kourosh; Rashidi, N.

    2013-01-01

    We consider a hybrid scalar field which is non-minimally coupled to the matter and models a chameleon cosmology. By introducing an effective potential, we study the dependence of the effective potential's minimum and hybrid chameleon field's masses to the local matter density. In a dynamical system technique, we analyze the phase space of this two-field chameleon model, find its fixed points and study their stability. We show that the hybrid chameleon domination solution is a stable attractor...

  10. Reverse sample genome probing, a new technique for identification of bacteria in environmental samples by DNA hybridization, and its application to the identification of sulfate-reducing bacteria in oil field samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voordouw, G.; Voordouw, J.K.; Karkhoff-Schweizer, R.R.; Fedorak, P.M.; Westlake, D.W.S.

    1991-01-01

    A novel method for identification of bacteria in environmental samples by DNA hybridization is presented. It is based on the fact that, even within a genus, the genomes of different bacteria may have little overall sequence homology. This allows the use of the labeled genomic DNA of a given bacterium (referred to as a standard) to probe for its presence and that of bacteria with highly homologous genomes in total DNA obtained from an environmental sample. Alternatively, total DNA extracted from the sample can be labeled and used to probe filters on which denatured chromosomal DNA from relevant bacterial standards has been spotted. The latter technique is referred to as reverse sample genome probing, since it is the reverse of the usual practice of deriving probes from reference bacteria for analyzing a DNA sample. Reverse sample genome probing allows identification of bacteria in a sample in a single step once a master filter with suitable standards has been developed. Application of reverse sample genome probing to the identification of sulfate-reducing bacteria in 31 samples obtained primarily from oil fields in the province of Alberta has indicated that there are at least 20 genotypically different sulfate-reducing bacteria in these samples

  11. Hybrid Arrays for Chemical Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Kirsten E.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Johnson, Kevin J.; Minor, Christian P.

    In recent years, multisensory approaches to environment monitoring for chemical detection as well as other forms of situational awareness have become increasingly popular. A hybrid sensor is a multimodal system that incorporates several sensing elements and thus produces data that are multivariate in nature and may be significantly increased in complexity compared to data provided by single-sensor systems. Though a hybrid sensor is itself an array, hybrid sensors are often organized into more complex sensing systems through an assortment of network topologies. Part of the reason for the shift to hybrid sensors is due to advancements in sensor technology and computational power available for processing larger amounts of data. There is also ample evidence to support the claim that a multivariate analytical approach is generally superior to univariate measurements because it provides additional redundant and complementary information (Hall, D. L.; Linas, J., Eds., Handbook of Multisensor Data Fusion, CRC, Boca Raton, FL, 2001). However, the benefits of a multisensory approach are not automatically achieved. Interpretation of data from hybrid arrays of sensors requires the analyst to develop an application-specific methodology to optimally fuse the disparate sources of data generated by the hybrid array into useful information characterizing the sample or environment being observed. Consequently, multivariate data analysis techniques such as those employed in the field of chemometrics have become more important in analyzing sensor array data. Depending on the nature of the acquired data, a number of chemometric algorithms may prove useful in the analysis and interpretation of data from hybrid sensor arrays. It is important to note, however, that the challenges posed by the analysis of hybrid sensor array data are not unique to the field of chemical sensing. Applications in electrical and process engineering, remote sensing, medicine, and of course, artificial

  12. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darin P Clark

    Full Text Available Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID. In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM. Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with

  13. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Darin P.

    2017-01-01

    Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD) technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID). In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM). Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with a spectral

  14. Inference in hybrid Bayesian networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Rumí, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1980s, Bayesian Networks (BNs) have become increasingly popular for building statistical models of complex systems. This is particularly true for boolean systems, where BNs often prove to be a more efficient modelling framework than traditional reliability-techniques (like fault trees...... decade's research on inference in hybrid Bayesian networks. The discussions are linked to an example model for estimating human reliability....

  15. Hybrid Maritime Warfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John; Murphy, Martin; Hoffman, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Russia’s use of hybrid warfare techniques has raised concerns about the security of the Baltic States. Gary Schaub, Jr, Martin Murphy and Frank G Hoffman recommend a series of measures to augment NATO’s Readiness Action Plan in the Baltic region, including increasing the breadth and depth of naval...... exercises, and improving maritime domain awareness through cooperative programmes. They also suggest unilateral and cooperative measures to develop a sound strategic communications strategy to counter Moscow’s information operations, reduce dependence on Russian energy supplies and build the resilience...

  16. Hybrid Techniques for Optimizing Complex Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    relay placement problem, we modeled the network as a mechanical system with springs and a viscous damper ⎯a widely used approach for solving optimization...fundamental mathematical tools in many branches of physics such as fluid and solid mechanics, and general relativity [108]. More recently, several

  17. Hybrid hydrogels produced by ionizing radiation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M. J. A.; Amato, V. S.; Lugão, A. B.; Parra, D. F.

    2012-09-01

    The interest in biocompatible hydrogels with particular properties has increased considerably in recent years due to their versatile applications in biomedicine, biotechnology, pharmacy, agriculture and controlled release of drugs. The use of hydrogels matrices for particular drug-release applications has been investigated with the synthesis of modified polymeric hydrogel of PVAl and 0.5, 1.0, 1.5% nano-clay. They were processed using gamma radiation from Cobalt-60 source at 25 kGy dose. The characterization of the hydrogels was conducted and toxicity was evaluated. The dried hydrogel was analyzed for thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and swelling in solutions of different pH. The membranes have no toxicity. The nano-clay influences directly the equilibrium swelling.

  18. Hybrid Qualifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Against the background of increasing qualification needs there is a growing awareness of the challenge to widen participation in processes of skill formation and competence development. At the same time, the issue of permeability between vocational education and training (VET) and general education...... has turned out as a major focus of European education and training policies and certainly is a crucial principle underlying the European Qualifications Framework (EQF). In this context, «hybrid qualifications» (HQ) may be seen as an interesting approach to tackle these challenges as they serve «two...

  19. Hybrid Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F. (Inventor); Roberts, Gary D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid gear consisting of metallic outer rim with gear teeth and metallic hub in combination with a composite lay up between the shaft interface (hub) and gear tooth rim is described. The composite lay-up lightens the gear member while having similar torque carrying capability and it attenuates the impact loading driven noise/vibration that is typical in gear systems. The gear has the same operational capability with respect to shaft speed, torque, and temperature as an all-metallic gear as used in aerospace gear design.

  20. Hybridization and sequencing of nucleic acids using base pair mismatches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Stephen P. A.; Lipshutz, Robert J.; Huang, Xiaohua

    2001-01-01

    Devices and techniques for hybridization of nucleic acids and for determining the sequence of nucleic acids. Arrays of nucleic acids are formed by techniques, preferably high resolution, light-directed techniques. Positions of hybridization of a target nucleic acid are determined by, e.g., epifluorescence microscopy. Devices and techniques are proposed to determine the sequence of a target nucleic acid more efficiently and more quickly through such synthesis and detection techniques.

  1. Intuitionistic hybrid logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area.......Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area....

  2. A Novel Application of a Hybrid Delphi-Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) Technique: Identifying Key Success Factors in the Strategic Alignment of Collaborative Heterarchical Transportation Networks for Supply Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Yasanur Kayikci; Volker Stix; Larry J. LeBlanc; Michael R. Bartolacci

    2014-01-01

    This research studies heterarchical collaboration in logistical transport. Specifically, it utilizes a hybrid Delphi-Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) approach to explore the relevant criteria for the formation and maintenance of a strategic alignment for heterarchical transport collaboration. The importance of this work is that it applies a novel hybrid approach for identifying criteria for success to a little-studied form of supply chain collaboration: heterarchical collaborative transport. ...

  3. Hard electroproduction of hybrid mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikin, I.V.; LPT Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay; Szymanowski, L.; Teryaev, O.V.; ); Wallon, S.

    2005-01-01

    We estimate the sizeable cross section for deep exclusive electroproduction of an exotic J PC = 1 -+ hybrid meson in the Bjorken regime. The production amplitude scales like the one for usual meson electroproduction, i.e. as 1/Q 2 . This is due to the non-vanishing leading twist distribution amplitude for the hybrid meson, which may be normalized thanks to its relation to the energy momentum tensor and to the QCD sum rules technique. The hard amplitude is considered up to next-to-leading order in as and we explore the consequences of fixing the renormalization scale ambiguity through the BLM procedure. (author)

  4. Inference in hybrid Bayesian networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas D.; Rumi, Rafael; Salmeron, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1980s, Bayesian networks (BNs) have become increasingly popular for building statistical models of complex systems. This is particularly true for boolean systems, where BNs often prove to be a more efficient modelling framework than traditional reliability techniques (like fault trees and reliability block diagrams). However, limitations in the BNs' calculation engine have prevented BNs from becoming equally popular for domains containing mixtures of both discrete and continuous variables (the so-called hybrid domains). In this paper we focus on these difficulties, and summarize some of the last decade's research on inference in hybrid Bayesian networks. The discussions are linked to an example model for estimating human reliability.

  5. Hybridized Tetraquarks

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, A.; Polosa, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X, Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules. The latter would require a negative or zero binding energy whose counterpart in h-tetraquarks is a positive quantity. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs pi+- channel by the D0 collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X, Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568) are also made.

  6. hybrid modulation scheme fo rid modulation scheme fo dulation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    control technique is done through simulations and ex control technique .... HYBRID MODULATION SCHEME FOR CASCADED H-BRIDGE INVERTER CELLS. C. I. Odeh ..... and OR operations. Referring to ... MATLAB/SIMULINK environment.

  7. Continuity controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation

  8. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  9. Continuity controlled hybrid automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  10. Continuity controlled hybrid automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  11. Corporate Hybrid Bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlberg, Johan; Jansson, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid securities do not constitute a new phenomenon in the Swedish capital markets. Most commonly, hybrids issued by Swedish real estate companies in recent years are preference shares. Corporate hybrid bonds on the other hand may be considered as somewhat of a new-born child in the family of hybrid instruments. These do, as all other hybrid securities, share some equity-like and some debt-like characteristics. Nevertheless, since 2013 the interest for the instrument has grown rapidly and ha...

  12. Hybrid mesons with auxiliary fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buisseret, F.; Mathieu, V.

    2006-01-01

    Hybrid mesons are exotic mesons in which the color field is not in the ground state. Their understanding deserves interest from a theoretical point of view, because it is intimately related to nonperturbative aspects of QCD. Moreover, it seems that some recently detected particles, such as the π 1 (1600) and the Y(4260), are serious hybrid candidates. In this work, we investigate the description of such exotic hadrons by applying the auxiliary fields technique (also known as the einbein field method) to the widely used spinless Salpeter Hamiltonian with appropriate linear confinement. Instead of the usual numerical resolution, this technique allows to find simplified analytical mass spectra and wave functions of the Hamiltonian, which still lead to reliable qualitative predictions. We analyse and compare two different descriptions of hybrid mesons, namely a two-body q system with an excited flux tube, or a three-body qg system. We also compute the masses of the 1 -+ hybrids. Our results are shown to be in satisfactory agreement with lattice QCD and other effective models. (orig.)

  13. Hybrid Laminates for Application in North Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipov, V. V.; Oreshko, E. I.; Erasov, V. S.; Serebrennikova, N. Yu.

    2016-11-01

    A hybrid aluminum-lithium alloy/SIAL laminate as a possible material for application in structures operated in North conditions is considered. The finite-element method is used for a buckling stability analysis of hybrid panels, bars, and plates. A technique allowing one to compare the buckling stability of multilayered hybrid plates is offered. Compression tests were run on a hybrid laminate wing panel as a prototype of the top panel of TU-204SM airplane made from a high-strength B95T2 aluminum alloy. It turned out that the lighter composite panel had a higher load-carrying capacity than the aluminum one. Results of investigation into the properties the hybrid aluminum-lithium alloy/SIAL laminate and an analysis of scientific-technical data on this subject showed that this composite material could be used in the elements of airframes, including those operated in north conditions.

  14. Stochastic Reachability Analysis of Hybrid Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bujorianu, Luminita Manuela

    2012-01-01

    Stochastic reachability analysis (SRA) is a method of analyzing the behavior of control systems which mix discrete and continuous dynamics. For probabilistic discrete systems it has been shown to be a practical verification method but for stochastic hybrid systems it can be rather more. As a verification technique SRA can assess the safety and performance of, for example, autonomous systems, robot and aircraft path planning and multi-agent coordination but it can also be used for the adaptive control of such systems. Stochastic Reachability Analysis of Hybrid Systems is a self-contained and accessible introduction to this novel topic in the analysis and development of stochastic hybrid systems. Beginning with the relevant aspects of Markov models and introducing stochastic hybrid systems, the book then moves on to coverage of reachability analysis for stochastic hybrid systems. Following this build up, the core of the text first formally defines the concept of reachability in the stochastic framework and then...

  15. Hybrid mimics and hybrid vigor in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Greaves, Ian K.; Groszmann, Michael; Wu, Li Min; Dennis, Elizabeth S.; Peacock, W. James

    2015-01-01

    F1 hybrids can outperform their parents in yield and vegetative biomass, features of hybrid vigor that form the basis of the hybrid seed industry. The yield advantage of the F1 is lost in the F2 and subsequent generations. In Arabidopsis, from F2 plants that have a F1-like phenotype, we have by recurrent selection produced pure breeding F5/F6 lines, hybrid mimics, in which the characteristics of the F1 hybrid are stabilized. These hybrid mimic lines, like the F1 hybrid, have larger leaves than the parent plant, and the leaves have increased photosynthetic cell numbers, and in some lines, increased size of cells, suggesting an increased supply of photosynthate. A comparison of the differentially expressed genes in the F1 hybrid with those of eight hybrid mimic lines identified metabolic pathways altered in both; these pathways include down-regulation of defense response pathways and altered abiotic response pathways. F6 hybrid mimic lines are mostly homozygous at each locus in the genome and yet retain the large F1-like phenotype. Many alleles in the F6 plants, when they are homozygous, have expression levels different to the level in the parent. We consider this altered expression to be a consequence of transregulation of genes from one parent by genes from the other parent. Transregulation could also arise from epigenetic modifications in the F1. The pure breeding hybrid mimics have been valuable in probing the mechanisms of hybrid vigor and may also prove to be useful hybrid vigor equivalents in agriculture. PMID:26283378

  16. Tough hybrid ceramic-based material with high strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Shuqi; Kagawa, Yutaka; Nishimura, Toshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    This study describes a tough and strong hybrid ceramic material consisting of platelet-like zirconium compounds and metal. A mixture of boron carbide and excess zirconium powder was heated to 1900 °C using a liquid-phase reaction sintering technique to produce a platelet-like ZrB 2 -based hybrid ceramic bonded by a thin zirconium layer. The platelet-like ZrB 2 grains were randomly present in the as-sintered hybrid ceramic. Relative to non-hybrid ceramics, the fracture toughness and flexural strength of the hybrid ceramic increased by approximately 2-fold.

  17. Hybrid LES – Review and assessment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    brief overview of these techniques and current developments in hybrid LES techniques .... Spalart et al (1997) and Speziale (1998) proposed a new method in which ... over Ahmed Car Reference model (Kapadia et al 2003) and for a flat plate at ..... Allmaras S R 1994 One equation turbulence model for aerodynamics flows.

  18. Recent Advances on Hybrid Intelligent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Melin, Patricia; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    This book presents recent advances on hybrid intelligent systems using soft computing techniques for intelligent control and robotics, pattern recognition, time series prediction and optimization of complex problems. Soft Computing (SC) consists of several intelligent computing paradigms, including fuzzy logic, neural networks, and bio-inspired optimization algorithms, which can be used to produce powerful hybrid intelligent systems. The book is organized in five main parts, which contain groups of papers around a similar subject. The first part consists of papers with the main theme of hybrid intelligent systems for control and robotics, which are basically state of the art papers that propose new models and concepts, which can be the basis for achieving intelligent control and mobile robotics. The second part contains papers with the main theme of hybrid intelligent systems for pattern recognition and time series prediction, which are basically papers using nature-inspired techniques, like evolutionary algo...

  19. Active Trimming of Hybrid Integrated Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Németh, P.; Krémer, P.

    1984-01-01

    One of the more important fields of the microelectronics industry is the manufacturing of hybrid integrated circuits.An important part of the manufacturing process is concerned with the trimming of the hybrid integratedl circuits. This article deals with the basic principles of active trimming and introduces a microprocessor controlled trimming machine. By comparing active trimming with passive techniques, it can be shown that the active system has some advantages. This article outlines these...

  20. Hybrid and hierarchical composite materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Chang-Soo; Sano, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses a broad spectrum of areas in both hybrid materials and hierarchical composites, including recent development of processing technologies, structural designs, modern computer simulation techniques, and the relationships between the processing-structure-property-performance. Each topic is introduced at length with numerous  and detailed examples and over 150 illustrations.   In addition, the authors present a method of categorizing these materials, so that representative examples of all material classes are discussed.

  1. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnkö, M.; Ravn, Anders Peter; Sere, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time......-derivatives in modelling continuous-time dynamics. The generalized differential action has an intuitively appealing predicate transformer semantics, which we show to be both conjunctive and monotonic. In addition, we show that differential actions blend smoothly with conventional actions in action systems, even under...... parallel composition. Moreover, as the strength of the action system formalism is the support for stepwise development by refinement, we investigate refinement involving a differential action. We show that, due to the predicate transformer semantics, standard action refinement techniques apply also...

  2. Hybrid Management in Hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrkjeflot, Haldor; Jespersen, Peter Kragh

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer......Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer...

  3. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the United Parcel Service (UPS) have developed a hydraulic hybrid delivery vehicle to explore and demonstrate the environmental benefits of the hydraulic hybrid for urban pick-up and delivery fleets.

  4. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hy D.; Claudet, Andre A.; Oliver, Andrew D.

    2010-09-07

    A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.

  5. USING OF NON-CONVENTIONAL FUELS IN HYBRID VEHICLE DRIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Barta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electric or hybrid vehicles are becoming increasingly common on roads. While electric vehicles are still more or less intended for city traffic, hybrid vehicles allow normal use due to wider driving range. The use of internal combustion engines in hybrid drives is still an inspiration to find the way to reduce the produc-tion of emissions. Numbers of alternative energy resources were studied as a substitution of conventional fuels for hybrid vehicles drives worldwide. The paper deals with the possibility of using alternative fuels as CNG, LPG and LNG in combination with hybrid drive of a midibus with the capacity of 20 passengers. Various aspects and techniques of hybrid vehicles from energy management system, propulsion system and using of various alternative fuels are explored in this paper. Other related fields of hybrid vehicles such as changes of vehicle weight or influence of electric energy sources on the total vehicle emission production are also included.

  6. Hybrid quantum information processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  7. Hybrid Integrated Platforms for Silicon Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Di; Roelkens, Gunther; Baets, Roel; Bowers, John E.

    2010-01-01

    A review of recent progress in hybrid integrated platforms for silicon photonics is presented. Integration of III-V semiconductors onto silicon-on-insulator substrates based on two different bonding techniques is compared, one comprising only inorganic materials, the other technique using an organic bonding agent. Issues such as bonding process and mechanism, bonding strength, uniformity, wafer surface requirement, and stress distribution are studied in detail. The application in silicon photonics to realize high-performance active and passive photonic devices on low-cost silicon wafers is discussed. Hybrid integration is believed to be a promising technology in a variety of applications of silicon photonics.

  8. Hybrid Integrated Platforms for Silicon Photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Bowers

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A review of recent progress in hybrid integrated platforms for silicon photonics is presented. Integration of III-V semiconductors onto silicon-on-insulator substrates based on two different bonding techniques is compared, one comprising only inorganic materials, the other technique using an organic bonding agent. Issues such as bonding process and mechanism, bonding strength, uniformity, wafer surface requirement, and stress distribution are studied in detail. The application in silicon photonics to realize high-performance active and passive photonic devices on low-cost silicon wafers is discussed. Hybrid integration is believed to be a promising technology in a variety of applications of silicon photonics.

  9. Novel brewing yeast hybrids: creation and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogerus, Kristoffer; Magalhães, Frederico; Vidgren, Virve; Gibson, Brian

    2017-01-01

    The natural interspecies Saccharomyces cerevisiae × Saccharomyces eubayanus hybrid yeast is responsible for global lager beer production and is one of the most important industrial microorganisms. Its success in the lager brewing environment is due to a combination of traits not commonly found in pure yeast species, principally low-temperature tolerance, and maltotriose utilization. Parental transgression is typical of hybrid organisms and has been exploited previously for, e.g., the production of wine yeast with beneficial properties. The parental strain S. eubayanus has only been discovered recently and newly created lager yeast strains have not yet been applied industrially. A number of reports attest to the feasibility of this approach and artificially created hybrids are likely to have a significant impact on the future of lager brewing. De novo S. cerevisiae × S. eubayanus hybrids outperform their parent strains in a number of respects, including, but not restricted to, fermentation rate, sugar utilization, stress tolerance, and aroma formation. Hybrid genome function and stability, as well as different techniques for generating hybrids and their relative merits are discussed. Hybridization not only offers the possibility of generating novel non-GM brewing yeast strains with unique properties, but is expected to aid in unraveling the complex evolutionary history of industrial lager yeast.

  10. Hybrid options for treating cardiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umakanthan, Ramanan; Leacche, Marzia; Zhao, David X; Gallion, Anna H; Mishra, Prabodh C; Byrne, John G

    2011-01-01

    The options for treating heart disease have greatly expanded during the course of the last 2 1/2 decades with the advent of hybrid technology. The hybrid option for treating cardiac disease implies using the technology of both interventional cardiology and cardiac surgery to treat cardiac disease. This rapidly developing technology has given rise to new and creative techniques to treat cardiac disease involving coronary artery disease, coronary artery disease and cardiac valve disease, and atrial fibrillation. It has also led to the establishment of new procedural suites called hybrid operating rooms that facilitate the integration of technologies of interventional cardiology catheterization laboratories with those of cardiac surgery operating rooms. The development of hybrid options for treating cardiac disease has also greatly augmented teamwork and collaboration between interventional cardiologists and cardiac surgeons. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Lower hybrid current drive in shaped tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesner, J.

    1993-01-01

    A time dependent lower hybrid current drive tokamak simulation code has been developed. This code combines the BALDUR tokamak simulation code and the Bonoli/Englade lower hybrid current drive code and permits the study of the interaction of lower hybrid current drive with neutral beam heating in shaped cross-section plasmas. The code is time dependent and includes the beam driven and bootstrap currents in addition to the current driven by the lower hybrid system. Examples of simulations are shown for the PBX-M experiment which include the effect of cross section shaping on current drive, ballooning mode stabilization by current profile control and sawtooth stabilization. A critical question in current drive calculations is the radial transport of the energetic electrons. The authors have developed a response function technique to calculate radial transport in the presence of an electric field. The consequences of the combined influences of radial diffusion and electric field acceleration are discussed

  12. The fusion-fission hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teller, E.

    1985-01-01

    As the history of the development of fusion energy shows, a sustained controlled fusion reaction is much more difficult to produce than rapid uncontrolled release of fusion energy. Currently, the ''magnetic bottle'' technique shows sufficient progress that it might applied for the commercial fuel production of /sup 233/U, suitable for use in fission reactors, by developing a fusion-fission hybrid. Such a device would consist of a fusion chamber core surrounded by a region containing cladded uranium pellets cooled by helium, with lithium salts also present to produce tritium to refuel the fusion process. Successful development of this hybrid might be possible within 10 y, and would provide both experience and funds for further development of controlled fusion energy

  13. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-04-01

    Natural hybridization is reproduction (without artificial influence) between two or more species/populations which are distinguishable from each other by heritable characters. Natural hybridizations among marine fishes were highly underappreciated due to limited research effort; it seems that this phenomenon occurs more often than is commonly recognized. As hybridization plays an important role in biodiversity processes in the marine environment, detecting hybridization events and investigating hybridization is important to understand and protect biodiversity. The first chapter sets the framework for this disseration study. The Cohesion Species Concept was selected as the working definition of a species for this study as it can handle marine fish hybridization events. The concept does not require restrictive species boundaries. A general history and background of natural hybridization in marine fishes is reviewed during in chapter as well. Four marine fish hybridization cases were examed and documented in Chapters 2 to 5. In each case study, at least one diagnostic nuclear marker, screened from among ~14 candidate markers, was found to discriminate the putative hybridizing parent species. To further investigate genetic evidence to support the hybrid status for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations together, the potential reasons that triggered each hybridization events and the potential genetic/ecology effects could be discussed. In the last chapter, sequences from 82 pairs of hybridizing parents species (for which COI barcoding sequences were available either on GenBank or in our lab) were collected. By comparing the COI fragment p-distance between each hybridizing parent species, some general questions about marine fish hybridization were discussed: Is

  14. On the Performance of Grooming Strategies for Offloading IP Flows onto Lightpaths in Hybrid Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesbroek, Rudolf; Fioreze, Tiago; Granville, L.; Pras, Aiko

    Hybrid networks take data forwarding decisions at multiple network levels. In order to make an efficient use of hybrid networks, traffic engineering solutions (e.g., routing and data grooming techniques) are commonly employed. Within the specific context of a self-managed hybrid optical and packet

  15. Effect of surface modification and hybridization on dynamic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Epoxy; Roystonea regia; glass; surface modification; hybridization; dynamic mechanical ... other advantages such as light weight, low cost, high specific ... ful technique to study the mechanical behaviour of mate- ... The test reveals response.

  16. Using a hybrid methodology of dasyametric mapping and data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a hybrid methodology of dasyametric mapping and data interpolation techniques ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... the value and accuracy of the developed methodology is that of the 2011 census ...

  17. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    a differential action, which allows differential equations as primitive actions. The extension allows us to model hybrid systems with both continuous and discrete behaviour. The main result of this paper is an extension of such a hybrid action system with parallel composition. The extension does not change...... the original meaning of the parallel composition, and therefore also the ordinary action systems can be composed in parallel with the hybrid action systems....

  18. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.

    2010-08-20

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.; Moganty, Surya S.; Archer, Lynden A.

    2010-01-01

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  1. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  2. New hybrid conjugate gradient methods with the generalized Wolfe line search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao; Kong, Fan-Yu

    2016-01-01

    The conjugate gradient method was an efficient technique for solving the unconstrained optimization problem. In this paper, we made a linear combination with parameters β k of the DY method and the HS method, and putted forward the hybrid method of DY and HS. We also proposed the hybrid of FR and PRP by the same mean. Additionally, to present the two hybrid methods, we promoted the Wolfe line search respectively to compute the step size α k of the two hybrid methods. With the new Wolfe line search, the two hybrid methods had descent property and global convergence property of the two hybrid methods that can also be proved.

  3. Toronto hybrid taxi pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, M. [CrossChasm Technologies, Cambridge, ON (Canada); Marans, B. [Toronto Atmospheric Fund, ON (Canada)

    2009-10-15

    This paper provided details of a hybrid taxi pilot program conducted to compare the on-road performance of Toyota Camry hybrid vehicles against conventional vehicles over a 1-year period in order to determine the business case and air emission reductions associated with the use of hybrid taxi cabs. Over 750,000 km worth of fuel consumption was captured from 10 Toyota Camry hybrids, a Toyota Prius, and 5 non-hybrid Camry vehicles over an 18-month period. The average real world fuel consumption for the taxis demonstrated that the Toyota Prius has the lowest cost of ownership, while the non-hybrid Camry has the highest cost of ownership. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) reductions associated with the 10 Camry hybrid taxis were calculated at 236 tonnes over a 7-year taxi service life. Results suggested that the conversion of Toronto's 5680 taxis would yield annual CO{sub 2} emission reductions of over 19,000 tonnes. All hybrid purchasers identified themselves as highly likely to purchase a hybrid again. 5 tabs., 9 figs.

  4. Managing hybrid marketing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, R T; Moran, U

    1990-01-01

    As competition increases and costs become critical, companies that once went to market only one way are adding new channels and using new methods - creating hybrid marketing systems. These hybrid marketing systems hold the promise of greater coverage and reduced costs. But they are also hard to manage; they inevitably raise questions of conflict and control: conflict because marketing units compete for customers; control because new indirect channels are less subject to management authority. Hard as they are to manage, however, hybrid marketing systems promise to become the dominant design, replacing the "purebred" channel strategy in all kinds of businesses. The trick to managing the hybrid is to analyze tasks and channels within and across a marketing system. A map - the hybrid grid - can help managers make sense of their hybrid system. What the chart reveals is that channels are not the basic building blocks of a marketing system; marketing tasks are. The hybrid grid forces managers to consider various combinations of channels and tasks that will optimize both cost and coverage. Managing conflict is also an important element of a successful hybrid system. Managers should first acknowledge the inevitability of conflict. Then they should move to bound it by creating guidelines that spell out which customers to serve through which methods. Finally, a marketing and sales productivity (MSP) system, consisting of a central marketing database, can act as the central nervous system of a hybrid marketing system, helping managers create customized channels and service for specific customer segments.

  5. Toronto hybrid taxi pilot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, M.; Marans, B.

    2009-10-01

    This paper provided details of a hybrid taxi pilot program conducted to compare the on-road performance of Toyota Camry hybrid vehicles against conventional vehicles over a 1-year period in order to determine the business case and air emission reductions associated with the use of hybrid taxi cabs. Over 750,000 km worth of fuel consumption was captured from 10 Toyota Camry hybrids, a Toyota Prius, and 5 non-hybrid Camry vehicles over an 18-month period. The average real world fuel consumption for the taxis demonstrated that the Toyota Prius has the lowest cost of ownership, while the non-hybrid Camry has the highest cost of ownership. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) reductions associated with the 10 Camry hybrid taxis were calculated at 236 tonnes over a 7-year taxi service life. Results suggested that the conversion of Toronto's 5680 taxis would yield annual CO 2 emission reductions of over 19,000 tonnes. All hybrid purchasers identified themselves as highly likely to purchase a hybrid again. 5 tabs., 9 figs.

  6. Methodological comparison on hybrid nano organic solar cell fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vairavan, Rajendaran; Hambali, Nor Azura Malini Ahmad; Wahid, Mohamad Halim Abd; Retnasamy, Vithyacharan; Shahimin, Mukhzeer Mohamad

    2018-02-01

    The development of low cost solar cells has been the main focus in recent years. This has lead to the generation of photovoltaic cells based on hybrid of nanoparticle-organic polymer materials. This type of hybrid photovoltaic cells can overcome the problem of polymeric devices having low optical absorption and carrier mobilities. The hybrid cell has the potential of bridging the efficiency gap, which in present in organic and inorganic semiconductor materials. This project focuses on obtaining an hybrid active layer consisting of nanoparticles and organic polymer, to understand the parameter involved in obtaining this active layer and finally to investigate if the addition of nano particles in to the active layer could enhance the output of the hybrid solar cell. The hybrid active layer have will be deposited using the spin coating technique by using CdTe, CdS nano particles mixed with poly (2-methoxy,5-(2-ethyl-hexyloxy)-p-phenylvinylene)MEH-PPV.

  7. Hybrid intravenous digital subtraction angiography of the carotid bifurcation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burbank, F.H.; Enzmann, D.; Keyes, G.S.; Brody, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    A hybrid digital subtraction angiography technique and noise-reduction algorithm were used to evaluate the carotid bifurcation. Temporal, hybrid, and reduced-noise hybrid images were obtained in right and left anterior oblique projections, and both single- and multiple-frame images were created with each method. The resulting images were graded on a scale of 1 to 5 by three experienced neuroradiologists. Temporal images were preferred over hybrid images. The percentage of nondiagnostic examinations, as agreed upon by two readers, was higher for temporal alone than temporal + hybrid. In addition, also by agreement between two readers, temporal + hybrid images significantly increased the number of bifurcations seen in two views (87%) compared to temporal subtraction alone

  8. Hybrid Testing of Composite Structures with Single-Axis Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldbjørn, Jacob Paamand; Høgh, Jacob Herold; Stang, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Correlation (DIC) is therefore implemented for displacement control of the experimental setup. The hybrid testing setup was verified on a multicomponent structure consisting of a beam loaded in three point bending and a numerical structure of a frame. Furthermore, the stability of the hybrid testing loop......Hybrid testing is a substructuring technique where a structure is emulated by modelling a part of it in a numerical model while testing the remainder experimentally. Previous research in hybrid testing has been performed on multi-component structures e.g. damping fixtures, however in this paper...... a hybrid testing platform is introduced for single-component hybrid testing. In this case, the boundary between the numerical model and experimental setup is defined by multiple Degrees-Of-Freedoms (DOFs) which highly complicate the transferring of response between the two substructures. Digital Image...

  9. Gravity localization on hybrid branes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F.S. Veras

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with gravity localization on codimension-1 brane worlds engendered by compacton-like kinks, the so-called hybrid branes. In such scenarios, the thin brane behavior is manifested when the extra dimension is outside the compact domain, where the energy density is non-trivial, instead of asymptotically as in the usual thick brane models. The zero mode is trapped in the brane, as required. The massive modes, although not localized in the brane, have important phenomenological implications such as corrections to the Newton's law. We study such corrections in the usual thick domain wall and in the hybrid brane scenarios. By means of suitable numerical methods, we attain the mass spectrum for the graviton and the corresponding wavefunctions. The spectra possess the usual linearly increasing behavior from the Kaluza–Klein theories. Further, we show that the 4D gravitational force is slightly increased at short distances. The first eigenstate contributes highly for the correction to the Newton's law. The subsequent normalized solutions have diminishing contributions. Moreover, we find out that the phenomenology of the hybrid brane is not different from the usual thick domain wall. The use of numerical techniques for solving the equations of the massive modes is useful for matching possible phenomenological measurements in the gravitational law as a probe to warped extra dimensions.

  10. Exotic hybrid mesons in hard electroproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikin, I.V.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Teryaev, O.V.; Wallon, S.

    2005-01-01

    We estimate the sizeable cross section for deep exclusive electroproduction of an exotic J PC =1 -+ hybrid meson in the Bjorken regime. The production amplitude scales like the one for usual meson electroproduction, i.e., as 1/Q 2 . This is due to the nonvanishing leading twist distribution amplitude for the hybrid meson, which may be normalized thanks to its relation to the energy-momentum tensor and to the QCD sum rules technique. The hard amplitude is considered up to next-to-leading order in α S and we explore the consequences of fixing the renormalization scale ambiguity through the Brodsky-Lepage-Mackenzie (BLM) procedure. We study the particular case where the hybrid meson decays through a πη meson pair. We discuss the πη generalized distribution amplitude and then calculate the production amplitude for this process. We propose a forward-backward asymmetry in the production of π and η mesons as a signal for the hybrid meson production. We briefly comment on hybrid electroproduction at very high energy, in the diffractive limit where a QCD Odderon exchange mechanism should dominate. The conclusion of our study is that hard electroproduction is a promising way to study exotic hybrid mesons, in particular, at JLAB, HERA (HERMES), or CERN (Compass)

  11. Original Framework for Optimizing Hybrid Energy Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amevi Acakpovi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an original framework for optimizing hybrid energy systems. The recent growth of hybrid energy systems in remote areas across the world added to the increasing cost of renewable energy has triggered the inevitable development of hybrid energy systems. Hybrid energy systems always pose a problem of optimization of cost which has been approached with different perspectives in the recent past. This paper proposes a framework to guide the techniques of optimizing hybrid energy systems in general. The proposed framework comprises four stages including identification of input variables for energy generation, establishment of models of energy generation by individual sources, development of artificial intelligence, and finally summation of selected sources. A case study of a solar, wind, and hydro hybrid system was undertaken with a linear programming approach. Substantial results were obtained with regard to how load requests were constantly satisfied while minimizing the cost of electricity. The developed framework gained its originality from the fact that it has included models of individual sources of energy that even make the optimization problem more complex. This paper also has impacts on the development of policies which will encourage the integration and development of renewable energies.

  12. Hybrid methods for cybersecurity analysis :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Warren Leon,; Dunlavy, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Early 2010 saw a signi cant change in adversarial techniques aimed at network intrusion: a shift from malware delivered via email attachments toward the use of hidden, embedded hyperlinks to initiate sequences of downloads and interactions with web sites and network servers containing malicious software. Enterprise security groups were well poised and experienced in defending the former attacks, but the new types of attacks were larger in number, more challenging to detect, dynamic in nature, and required the development of new technologies and analytic capabilities. The Hybrid LDRD project was aimed at delivering new capabilities in large-scale data modeling and analysis to enterprise security operators and analysts and understanding the challenges of detection and prevention of emerging cybersecurity threats. Leveraging previous LDRD research e orts and capabilities in large-scale relational data analysis, large-scale discrete data analysis and visualization, and streaming data analysis, new modeling and analysis capabilities were quickly brought to bear on the problems in email phishing and spear phishing attacks in the Sandia enterprise security operational groups at the onset of the Hybrid project. As part of this project, a software development and deployment framework was created within the security analyst work ow tool sets to facilitate the delivery and testing of new capabilities as they became available, and machine learning algorithms were developed to address the challenge of dynamic threats. Furthermore, researchers from the Hybrid project were embedded in the security analyst groups for almost a full year, engaged in daily operational activities and routines, creating an atmosphere of trust and collaboration between the researchers and security personnel. The Hybrid project has altered the way that research ideas can be incorporated into the production environments of Sandias enterprise security groups, reducing time to deployment from months and

  13. Hydraulic Hybrid Propulsion for Heavy Vehicles: Combining the Simulation and Engine-In-the-Loop Techniques to Maximize the Fuel Economy and Emission Benefits Propulsion hybride hydraulique des poids lourds : une approche alliant les techniques de simulation et d’« Engine-In-the-loop » (EIL afin de maximiser les économies de carburant et les avantages en termes d’émissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipi Z.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The global energy situation, the dependence of the transportation sector on fossil fuels, and a need for a rapid response to the global warming challenge, provide a strong impetus for development of fuel efficient vehicle propulsion. The task is particularly challenging in the case of trucks due to severe weight/size constraints. Hybridization is the only approach offering significant breakthroughs in near and mid-term. In particular, the series configuration decouples the engine from the wheels and allows full flexibility in controlling the engine operation, while the hydraulic energy conversion and storage provides exceptional power density and efficiency. The challenge stems from a relatively low energy density of the hydraulic accumulator. This places particular emphasis on development of the supervisory controller. The conventional wisdom is to operate the engine at the “sweet spot”, but the aggressive pursuit of engine efficiency as the sole objective can lead to frequent and rapid diesel engine transients, thus causing an adverse affect on the soot emissions and driver feel. Therefore, we propose a comprehensive methodology for considering a combined hybrid system fuel-economy and emissions objective. The fuel economy is addressed with the simulation-based approach, while investigating the impact of engine transients on particulate emission relies on the Engine-In-the-loop (EIL capability. The EIL study confirms advantages of a modulated state-of-charge control over the thermostatic approach, and demonstrates the ability of the Series Hydraulic Hybrid to improve the fuel economy of the medium truck by 72%, while reducing the particulate emission by 74% compared to the conventional baseline over the city driving schedule. La situation énergétique mondiale, la dépendance du secteur des transports vis-à-vis des combustibles d’origine fossile et la nécessité d’une réponse rapide face au défi présenté par le r

  14. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Szalanski, Allen L; Gaskin, John F.; Young, Nicholas E.; West, Amanda; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Tripodi, Amber

    2014-01-01

    Science has shown that the introgression or hybridization of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals up to 40,000 YBP may have led to the swarm of modern humans on earth. However, there is little doubt that modern trade and transportation in support of the humans has continued to introduce additional species, genotypes, and hybrids to every country on the globe. We assessed the utility of species distributions modeling of genotypes to assess the risk of current and future invaders. We evaluated 93 locations of the genus Tamarix for which genetic data were available. Maxent models of habitat suitability showed that the hybrid, T. ramosissima x T. chinensis, was slightly greater than the parent taxa (AUCs > 0.83). General linear models of Africanized honey bees, a hybrid cross of Tanzanian Apis mellifera scutellata and a variety of European honey bee including A. m. ligustica, showed that the Africanized bees (AUC = 0.81) may be displacing European honey bees (AUC > 0.76) over large areas of the southwestern U.S. More important, Maxent modeling of sub-populations (A1 and A26 mitotypes based on mDNA) could be accurately modeled (AUC > 0.9), and they responded differently to environmental drivers. This suggests that rapid evolutionary change may be underway in the Africanized bees, allowing the bees to spread into new areas and extending their total range. Protecting native species and ecosystems may benefit from risk maps of harmful invasive species, hybrids, and genotypes.

  15. Experimental techniques; Techniques experimentales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel-Chomaz, P. [GANIL CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/DSM, 14 - Caen (France)

    2007-07-01

    This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, {gamma} detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

  16. Hybridization in geese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottenburghs, Jente; Hooft, van Pim; Wieren, van Sipke E.; Ydenberg, Ronald C.; Prins, Herbert H.T.

    2016-01-01

    The high incidence of hybridization in waterfowl (ducks, geese and swans) makes this bird group an excellent study system to answer questions related to the evolution and maintenance of species boundaries. However, knowledge on waterfowl hybridization is biased towards ducks, with a large

  17. Mirror hybrid reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    The hybrid reactor studies are reviewed. The optimization of the point design and work on a reference design are described. The status of the nuclear analysis of fast spectrum blankets, systems studies for fissile fuel producing hybrid reactor, and the mechanical design of the machine are reviewed

  18. Hybrid Universities in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Molly; Wan, Chang Da; Sirat, Morshidi

    2017-01-01

    Are Asian universities different from those in Western countries? Premised on the hypothesis that Asian universities are different because of hybridization between Western academic models and local traditional cultures, this paper investigates the hybrid characteristics in Malaysian universities resulting from interaction between contemporary…

  19. Hybrid job shop scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the problem of scheduling jobs in a hybrid job shop. We use the term 'hybrid' to indicate that we consider a lot of extensions of the classic job shop, such as transportation times, multiple resources, and setup times. The Shifting Bottleneck procedure can be generalized to deal with

  20. Hybrid Shipboard Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Othman @ Marzuki, Muzaidi Bin; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    Strict regulation on emissions of air pollutants imposed by the maritime authorities has led to the introduction of hybrid microgrids to the shipboard power systems (SPSs) which acts toward energy efficient ships with less pollution. A hybrid energy system can include different means of generation...

  1. Editorial: Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olderog, Ernst-Rüdiger; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2007-01-01

    An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005.......An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005....

  2. Course on hybrid calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weill, J.; Tellier; Bonnemay; Craigne; Chareton; Di Falco

    1969-02-01

    After a definition of hybrid calculation (combination of analogue and digital calculation) with a distinction between series and parallel hybrid computing, and a description of a hybrid computer structure and of task sharing between computers, this course proposes a description of hybrid hardware used in Saclay and Cadarache computing centres, and of operations performed by these systems. The next part addresses issues related to programming languages and software. The fourth part describes how a problem is organised for its processing on these computers. Methods of hybrid analysis are then addressed: resolution of optimisation problems, of partial differential equations, and of integral equations by means of different methods (gradient, maximum principle, characteristics, functional approximation, time slicing, Monte Carlo, Neumann iteration, Fischer iteration)

  3. Hybrid functional pseudopotentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Tan, Liang Z.; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2018-02-01

    The consistency between the exchange-correlation functional used in pseudopotential construction and in the actual density functional theory calculation is essential for the accurate prediction of fundamental properties of materials. However, routine hybrid density functional calculations at present still rely on generalized gradient approximation pseudopotentials due to the lack of hybrid functional pseudopotentials. Here, we present a scheme for generating hybrid functional pseudopotentials, and we analyze the importance of pseudopotential density functional consistency for hybrid functionals. For the PBE0 hybrid functional, we benchmark our pseudopotentials for structural parameters and fundamental electronic gaps of the Gaussian-2 (G2) molecular dataset and some simple solids. Our results show that using our PBE0 pseudopotentials in PBE0 calculations improves agreement with respect to all-electron calculations.

  4. Hybrid computer modelling in plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hromadka, J; Ibehej, T; Hrach, R

    2016-01-01

    Our contribution is devoted to development of hybrid modelling techniques. We investigate sheath structures in the vicinity of solids immersed in low temperature argon plasma of different pressures by means of particle and fluid computer models. We discuss the differences in results obtained by these methods and try to propose a way to improve the results of fluid models in the low pressure area. There is a possibility to employ Chapman-Enskog method to find appropriate closure relations of fluid equations in a case when particle distribution function is not Maxwellian. We try to follow this way to enhance fluid model and to use it in hybrid plasma model further. (paper)

  5. Semitransparent ZnO/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) based hybrid inorganic/organic heterojunction thin film diodes prepared by combined radio-frequency magnetron-sputtering and electrodeposition techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez-Moreno, Jorge; Navarrete-Astorga, Elena; Martín, Francisco; Schrebler, Ricardo; Ramos-Barrado, José R.; Dalchiele, Enrique A.

    2012-01-01

    n-ZnO/p-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) semitransparent inorganic–organic hybrid vertical heterojunction thin film diodes have been fabricated with PEDOT and ZnO thin films grown by electrodeposition and radio-frequency magnetron-sputtering respectively, onto a tin doped indium oxide coated glass substrate. The diode exhibited an optical transmission of ∼ 40% to ∼ 50% in the visible region between 450 and 700 nm. The current–voltage (I–V) characteristics of the heterojunction show good rectifying diode characteristics, with a ratio of forward current to the reverse current as high as 35 in the range − 4 V to + 4 V. The I–V characteristic was examined in the framework of the thermionic emission model. The ideality factor and barrier height were obtained as 4.0 and 0.88 eV respectively. - Highlights: ► Semitransparent inorganic–organic heterojunction thin film diodes investigated ► n-ZnO/p-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythipohene) used for the heterojunction ► Diodes exhibited an optical transmission of ∼ 40%–∼ 50% in the visible region ► Heterojunction current–voltage features show good rectifying diode characteristics ► A forward to reverse current ratio as high as 35 (− 4 V to + 4 V range) was attained

  6. Semitransparent ZnO/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) based hybrid inorganic/organic heterojunction thin film diodes prepared by combined radio-frequency magnetron-sputtering and electrodeposition techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Moreno, Jorge; Navarrete-Astorga, Elena; Martin, Francisco [Laboratorio de Materiales y Superficies (Unidad Asociada al CSIC), Departamentos de Fisica Aplicada and Ing. Quimica, Universidad de Malaga, E29071 Malaga (Spain); Schrebler, Ricardo [Instituto de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Casilla 4059, Valparaiso (Chile); Ramos-Barrado, Jose R. [Laboratorio de Materiales y Superficies (Unidad Asociada al CSIC), Departamentos de Fisica Aplicada and Ing. Quimica, Universidad de Malaga, E29071 Malaga (Spain); Dalchiele, Enrique A., E-mail: dalchiel@fing.edu.uy [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Herrera y Reissig 565, C.C. 30, 11000 Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2012-12-15

    n-ZnO/p-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) semitransparent inorganic-organic hybrid vertical heterojunction thin film diodes have been fabricated with PEDOT and ZnO thin films grown by electrodeposition and radio-frequency magnetron-sputtering respectively, onto a tin doped indium oxide coated glass substrate. The diode exhibited an optical transmission of {approx} 40% to {approx} 50% in the visible region between 450 and 700 nm. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the heterojunction show good rectifying diode characteristics, with a ratio of forward current to the reverse current as high as 35 in the range - 4 V to + 4 V. The I-V characteristic was examined in the framework of the thermionic emission model. The ideality factor and barrier height were obtained as 4.0 and 0.88 eV respectively. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Semitransparent inorganic-organic heterojunction thin film diodes investigated Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer n-ZnO/p-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythipohene) used for the heterojunction Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diodes exhibited an optical transmission of {approx} 40%-{approx} 50% in the visible region Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heterojunction current-voltage features show good rectifying diode characteristics Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A forward to reverse current ratio as high as 35 (- 4 V to + 4 V range) was attained.

  7. In situ hybridization at the electron microscope level: hybrid detection by autoradiography and colloidal gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, N J; Langer-Safer, P R; Ward, D C; Hamkalo, B A

    1982-11-01

    In situ hybridization has become a standard method for localizing DNA or RNA sequences in cytological preparations. We developed two methods to extend this technique to the transmission electron microscope level using mouse satellite DNA hybridization to whole mount metaphase chromosomes as the test system. The first method devised is a direct extension of standard light microscope level using mouse satellite DNA hybridization to whole mount metaphase chromosomes as the test system. The first method devised is a direct extension of standard light microscope in situ hybridization. Radioactively labeled complementary RNA (cRNA) is hybridized to metaphase chromosomes deposited on electron microscope grids and fixed in 70 percent ethanol vapor; hybridixation site are detected by autoradiography. Specific and intense labeling of chromosomal centromeric regions is observed even after relatively short exposure times. Inerphase nuclei present in some of the metaphase chromosome preparations also show defined paatterms of satellite DNA labeling which suggests that satellite-containing regions are associate with each other during interphase. The sensitivity of this method is estimated to at least as good as that at the light microscope level while the resolution is improved at least threefold. The second method, which circumvents the use of autoradiogrphic detection, uses biotin-labeled polynucleotide probes. After hybridization of these probes, either DNA or RNA, to fixed chromosomes on grids, hybrids are detected via reaction is improved at least threefold. The second method, which circumvents the use of autoradiographic detection, uses biotin-labeled polynucleotide probes. After hybridization of these probes, either DNA or RNA, to fixed chromosomes on grids, hybrids are detected via reaction with an antibody against biotin and secondary antibody adsorbed to the surface of over centromeric heterochromatin and along the associated peripheral fibers. Labeling is on average

  8. Lifetime prognostics of hybrid backup power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Simon Dyhr; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2017-01-01

    Modern telecommunication power supplies are based on renewable solutions, e.g. fuel cell/battery hybrid systems, for immediate and prolonged load support during grid faults. The high demand for power continuity increases the emphasis on power supply reliability and availability which raises...... the need for monitoring the system condition for timely maintenance and prevention of downtime. Although present on component level, no current literature addresses the condition monitoring from the perspective of a fuel cell/battery hybrid system such as the telecommunication power supply. This paper...... components: fuel cell, battery, and converters, is given. Finally, the paper presents a discussion on the available monitoring techniques from a commercial hybrid system point view....

  9. Hybrid SPECT/CT imaging in neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarmiello, Andrea; Giovannini, Elisabetta; Meniconi, Martina; Cuccurullo, Vincenzo; Gaeta, Maria Chiara

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the SPECT/CT hybrid modality has led to a rapid development of imaging techniques in nuclear medicine, opening new perspectives for imaging staff and patients as well. However, while, the clinical role of positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) is well consolidated, the diffusion and the consequent value of single-photon emission tomography-computed tomography (SPECT-CT) has yet to be weighed, Hence, there is a need for a careful analysis, comparing the "potential" benefits of the hybrid modality with the "established" ones of the standalone machine. The aim of this article is to analyze the impact of this hybrid tool on the diagnosis of diseases of the central nervous system, comparing strengths and weaknesses of both modalities through the use of SWOT analysis.

  10. Hybrid electric vehicles TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-21

    This one-day TOPTEC session began with an overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology. Updates were given on alternative types of energy storage, APU control for low emissions, simulation programs, and industry and government activities. The keynote speech was about battery technology, a key element to the success of hybrids. The TOPEC concluded with a panel discussion on the mission of hybrid electric vehicles, with a perspective from industry and government experts from United States and Canada on their view of the role of this technology.

  11. Hybrid systems with constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Daafouz, Jamal; Sigalotti, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Control theory is the main subject of this title, in particular analysis and control design for hybrid dynamic systems.The notion of hybrid systems offers a strong theoretical and unified framework to cope with the modeling, analysis and control design of systems where both continuous and discrete dynamics interact. The theory of hybrid systems has been the subject of intensive research over the last decade and a large number of diverse and challenging problems have been investigated. Nevertheless, many important mathematical problems remain open.This book is dedicated mainly to

  12. Towers of hybrid mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semay, Claude; Buisseret, Fabien; Silvestre-Brac, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    A hybrid meson is a quark-antiquark pair in which, contrary to ordinary mesons, the gluon field is in an excited state. In the framework of constituent models, the interaction potential is assumed to be the energy of an excited string. An approximate, but accurate, analytical solution of the Schroedinger equation with such a potential is presented. When applied to hybrid charmonia and bottomonia, towers of states are predicted in which the masses are a linear function of a harmonic oscillator band number for the quark-antiquark pair. Such a formula could be a reliable guide for the experimental detection of heavy hybrid mesons.

  13. Hybrid Bloch brane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D.; Lima, Elisama E.M.; Losano, L. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2017-02-15

    This work reports on models described by two real scalar fields coupled with gravity in the five-dimensional spacetime, with a warped geometry involving one infinite extra dimension. Through a mechanism that smoothly changes a thick brane into a hybrid brane, one investigates the appearance of hybrid branes hosting internal structure, characterized by the splitting on the energy density and the volcano potential, induced by the parameter which controls interactions between the two scalar fields. In particular, we investigate distinct symmetric and asymmetric hybrid brane scenarios. (orig.)

  14. Weather forecasting based on hybrid neural model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Tanzila; Rehman, Amjad; AlGhamdi, Jarallah S.

    2017-11-01

    Making deductions and expectations about climate has been a challenge all through mankind's history. Challenges with exact meteorological directions assist to foresee and handle problems well in time. Different strategies have been investigated using various machine learning techniques in reported forecasting systems. Current research investigates climate as a major challenge for machine information mining and deduction. Accordingly, this paper presents a hybrid neural model (MLP and RBF) to enhance the accuracy of weather forecasting. Proposed hybrid model ensure precise forecasting due to the specialty of climate anticipating frameworks. The study concentrates on the data representing Saudi Arabia weather forecasting. The main input features employed to train individual and hybrid neural networks that include average dew point, minimum temperature, maximum temperature, mean temperature, average relative moistness, precipitation, normal wind speed, high wind speed and average cloudiness. The output layer composed of two neurons to represent rainy and dry weathers. Moreover, trial and error approach is adopted to select an appropriate number of inputs to the hybrid neural network. Correlation coefficient, RMSE and scatter index are the standard yard sticks adopted for forecast accuracy measurement. On individual standing MLP forecasting results are better than RBF, however, the proposed simplified hybrid neural model comes out with better forecasting accuracy as compared to both individual networks. Additionally, results are better than reported in the state of art, using a simple neural structure that reduces training time and complexity.

  15. Exotic hybrid mesons in hard electroproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Anikin, I V; Szymanowski, L; Teryaev, O V; Wallon, S

    2005-01-01

    We estimate the sizeable cross section for deep exclusive electroproduction of an exotic $J^{PC}=1^{-+}$ hybrid meson in the Bjorken regime. The production amplitude scales like the one for usual meson electroproduction, i.e. as $1/Q^2$. This is due to the non-vanishing leading twist distribution amplitude for the hybrid meson, which may be normalized thanks to its relation to the energy momentum tensor and to the QCD sum rules technique. The hard amplitude is considered up to next-to-leading order in $\\alpha_{S}$ and we explore the consequences of fixing the renormalization scale ambiguity through the BLM procedure. We study the particular case where the hybrid meson decays through a $\\pi\\eta $ meson pair. We discuss the $\\pi\\eta$ generalized distribution amplitude and then calculate the production amplitude for this process. We propose a forward-backward asymmetry in the production of $\\pi$ and $\\eta$ mesons as a signal for the hybrid meson production. We briefly comment on hybrid electroproduction at very ...

  16. Hybrid foundry patterns of bevel gears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budzik G.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of making hybrid foundry patterns of bevel gears for investment casting process are presented. Rapid prototyping of gears with complex tooth forms is possible with the use of modern methods. One of such methods is the stereo-lithography, where a pattern is obtained as a result of resin curing with laser beam. Patterns of that type are applicable in precision casting. Removing of stereo-lithographic pattern from foundry mould requires use of high temperatures. Resin burning would generate significant amounts of harmful gases. In case of a solid stereo-lithographic pattern, the pressure created during gas burning may cause the mould to crack. A gas volume reduction may be achieved by using patterns of honeycomb structure. However, this technique causes a significant worsening of accuracy of stereo-lithographic patterns in respect of their dimensions and shape. In cooperation with WSK PZL Rzeszów, the Machine Design Department of Rzeszow University of Technology carried out research on the design of hybrid stereo-lithographic patterns. Hybrid pattern consists of a section made by stereo-lithographic process and a section made of casting wax. The latter material is used for stereo-lithographic pattern filling and for mould gating system. The hybrid pattern process consists of two stages: wax melting and then the burn-out of stereolithographic pattern. Use of hybrid patterns reduces the costs of production of stereolithographic patterns. High dimensional accuracy remains preserved in this process.

  17. Formula hybrid SAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    User-friendly tools are needed for undergraduates to learn about component sizing, powertrain integration, and control : strategies for student competitions involving hybrid vehicles. A TK Solver tool was developed at the University of Idaho for : th...

  18. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T [Huntington Beach, CA; Sahimi, Muhammad [Altadena, CA; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak [Richmond, CA; Harale, Aadesh [Los Angeles, CA; Park, Byoung-Gi [Yeosu, KR; Liu, Paul K. T. [Lafayette Hill, PA

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  19. Hybrid plasmachemical reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lelevkin, V. M., E-mail: lelevkin44@mail.ru; Smirnova, Yu. G.; Tokarev, A. V. [Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University (Kyrgyzstan)

    2015-04-15

    A hybrid plasmachemical reactor on the basis of a dielectric barrier discharge in a transformer is developed. The characteristics of the reactor as functions of the dielectric barrier discharge parameters are determined.

  20. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-01-01

    for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations

  1. PV-hybrid and mini-grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    ) Optimization of a wind/diesel hybrid configuration in a remote grid with battery implementation: Case study of Melinka Island; (23) Provisional acceptance of installations and online data submission of PV and hybrid kits in remote areas of Latin-America under the EC's EURO-SOLAR programme; (24) Experience of the Canary Islands in the development of insular 100 % RES systems and micro-grids; (25) Assessment of photovoltaic hybrid power systems in the United States; (26) Solar hybrid school project in East Malaysia; (27) Eigg Island - Electrification of a British Island by a unique PV wind hydro diesel hybrid system; (28) A pragmatic performance reporting approach for describing PV hybrid systems within mini-grids: Work in progress from IEA's PVPS Task 11 Act. 31; (29) Hybrid renewable energy systems for the supply of services in rural settlements of Mediterranean partner countries. The HYRESS project - The case study of the hybrid system - Micro grid in Egypt. Beside these lectures, the following poster contributions were presented: (1) Performance of conventional MPPT techniques in the presence of partial shielding; (2) Photovoltaic and thermal collector (PV/T) hybrid system's performance analysis under the mild climate conditions of Izmir City; (3) Influential parameters on a building integrated hybrid PVT concentrator; (4) The solution to combine and manage renewable energies in hybrid applications and mini-grids; (5) Stabilization of distribution networks with PV and vanadium redox-battery backup systems - Simulation and first experiences; (6) Control, monitoring and data acquisition architecture design for clean production of hydrogen from mini-wind energy; (7) Remote Telecom System including photovoltaic energy and H{sub 2} production by electrolysis; (8) Effective combination of solar and wind energy systems; (9) Standardisation of distributed grid support - An analogous approach for the smart grid; (10) Optimizing energy management of decentralized

  2. Hybrid real-code ant colony optimisation for constrained mechanical design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pholdee, Nantiwat; Bureerat, Sujin

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a hybrid meta-heuristic based on integrating a local search simplex downhill (SDH) method into the search procedure of real-code ant colony optimisation (ACOR). This hybridisation leads to five hybrid algorithms where a Monte Carlo technique, a Latin hypercube sampling technique (LHS) and a translational propagation Latin hypercube design (TPLHD) algorithm are used to generate an initial population. Also, two numerical schemes for selecting an initial simplex are investigated. The original ACOR and its hybrid versions along with a variety of established meta-heuristics are implemented to solve 17 constrained test problems where a fuzzy set theory penalty function technique is used to handle design constraints. The comparative results show that the hybrid algorithms are the top performers. Using the TPLHD technique gives better results than the other sampling techniques. The hybrid optimisers are a powerful design tool for constrained mechanical design problems.

  3. Hybrid vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide.......A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide....

  4. Carboxylated nitrile butadiene rubber/hybrid filler composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mousa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The surface properties of the OSW and NLS are measured with the dynamic contact-angle technique. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS of the OSW reveals that the OSW possesses various reactive functional groups namely hydroxyl groups (OH. Hybrid filler from NLS and OSW were incorporated into carboxylated nitrile rubber (XNBR to produce XNBR hybrid composites. The reaction of OH groups from the OSW with COOH of the XNBR is checked by attenuated total reflectance spectra (ATR-IR of the composites. The degree of curing ΔM (maximum torque-minimum torque as a function of hybrid filler as derived from moving die rheometer (MDR is reported. The stress-strain behavior of the hybrid composites as well as the dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA is studied. Bonding quality and dispersion of the hybrid filler with and in XNBR are examined using scanning-transmission electron microscopy (STEM in SEM.

  5. Systems for hybrid cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsche, Otmar; Gutmann, Guenter

    Not only sharp competition but also legislation are pushing development of hybrid drive trains. Based on conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, these drive trains offer a wide range of benefits from reduced fuel consumption and emission to multifaceted performance improvements. Hybrid electric drive trains may also facilitate the introduction of fuel cells (FC). The battery is the key component for all hybrid drive trains, as it dominates cost and performance issues. The selection of the right battery technology for the specific automotive application is an important task with an impact on costs of development and use. Safety, power, and high cycle life are a must for all hybrid applications. The greatest pressure to reduce cost is in soft hybrids, where lead-acid embedded in a considerate management presents the cheapest solution, with a considerable improvement in performance needed. From mild to full hybridization, an improvement in specific power makes higher costs more acceptable, provided that the battery's service life is equivalent to the vehicle's lifetime. Today, this is proven for the nickel-metal hydride system. Lithium ion batteries, which make use of a multiple safety concept, and with some development anticipated, provide even better prospects in terms of performance and costs. Also, their scalability permits their application in battery electric vehicles—the basis for better performance and enhanced user acceptance. Development targets for the batteries are discussed with a focus on system aspects such as electrical and thermal management and safety.

  6. Hybrid Firefly Variants Algorithm for Localization Optimization in WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. SrideviPonmalar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Localization is one of the key issues in wireless sensor networks. Several algorithms and techniques have been introduced for localization. Localization is a procedural technique of estimating the sensor node location. In this paper, a novel three hybrid algorithms based on firefly is proposed for localization problem. Hybrid Genetic Algorithm-Firefly Localization Algorithm (GA-FFLA, Hybrid Differential Evolution-Firefly Localization Algorithm (DE-FFLA and Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization -Firefly Localization Algorithm (PSO-FFLA are analyzed, designed and implemented to optimize the localization error. The localization algorithms are compared based on accuracy of estimation of location, time complexity and iterations required to achieve the accuracy. All the algorithms have hundred percent estimation accuracy but with variations in the number of firefliesr requirements, variation in time complexity and number of iteration requirements. Keywords: Localization; Genetic Algorithm; Differential Evolution; Particle Swarm Optimization

  7. Hybrid context aware recommender systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rajshree; Tyagi, Jaya; Singh, Sandeep Kumar; Alam, Taj

    2017-10-01

    Recommender systems and context awareness is currently a vital field of research. Most hybrid recommendation systems implement content based and collaborative filtering techniques whereas this work combines context and collaborative filtering. The paper presents a hybrid context aware recommender system for books and movies that gives recommendations based on the user context as well as user or item similarity. It also addresses the issue of dimensionality reduction using weighted pre filtering based on dynamically entered user context and preference of context. This unique step helps to reduce the size of dataset for collaborative filtering. Bias subtracted collaborative filtering is used so as to consider the relative rating of a particular user and not the absolute values. Cosine similarity is used as a metric to determine the similarity between users or items. The unknown ratings are calculated and evaluated using MSE (Mean Squared Error) in test and train datasets. The overall process of recommendation has helped to personalize recommendations and give more accurate results with reduced complexity in collaborative filtering.

  8. Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program 250K Hybrid Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, George; Zoladz, Tom; Arves, Joe; Kearney, Darren; Abel, Terry; Park, O.

    2003-01-01

    The Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program (HPDP) program was formed to mature hybrid propulsion technology to a readiness level sufficient to enable commercialization for various space launch applications. The goal of the HPDP was to develop and test a 250,000 pound vacuum thrust hybrid booster in order to demonstrate hybrid propulsion technology and enable manufacturing of large hybrid boosters for current and future space launch vehicles. The HPDP has successfully conducted four tests of the 250,000 pound thrust hybrid rocket motor at NASA's Stennis Space Center. This paper documents the test series.

  9. Template-based fabrication of nanowire-nanotube hybrid arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Zuxin; Liu Haidong; Schultz, Isabel; Wu Wenhao; Naugle, D G; Lyuksyutov, I

    2008-01-01

    The fabrication and structure characterization of ordered nanowire-nanotube hybrid arrays embedded in porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes are reported. Arrays of TiO 2 nanotubes were first deposited into the pores of AAO membranes by a sol-gel technique. Co nanowires were then electrochemically deposited into the TiO 2 nanotubes to form the nanowire-nanotube hybrid arrays. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy measurements showed a high nanowire filling factor and a clean interface between the Co nanowire and the TiO 2 nanotube. Application of these hybrids to the fabrication of ordered nanowire arrays with highly controllable geometric parameters is discussed

  10. Fusion-fission hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter discusses the range of characteristics attainable from hybrid reactor blankets; blanket design considerations; hybrid reactor designs; alternative fuel hybrid reactors; multi-purpose hybrid reactors; and hybrid reactors and the energy economy. Hybrid reactors are driven by a fusion neutron source and include fertile and/or fissile material. The fusion component provides a copious source of fusion neutrons which interact with a subcritical fission component located adjacent to the plasma or pellet chamber. Fissile fuel and/or energy are the main products of hybrid reactors. Topics include high F/M blankets, the fissile (and tritium) breeding ratio, effects of composition on blanket properties, geometrical considerations, power density and first wall loading, variations of blanket properties with irradiation, thermal-hydraulic and mechanical design considerations, safety considerations, tokamak hybrid reactors, tandem-mirror hybrid reactors, inertial confinement hybrid reactors, fusion neutron sources, fissile-fuel and energy production ability, simultaneous production of combustible and fissile fuels, fusion reactors for waste transmutation and fissile breeding, nuclear pumped laser hybrid reactors, Hybrid Fuel Factories (HFFs), and scenarios for hybrid contribution. The appendix offers hybrid reactor fundamentals. Numerous references are provided

  11. ABOUT HYBRID BIDIRECTIONAL ASSOCIATIVE MEMORY NEURAL NETWORKS WITH DISCRETE DELAYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, hybrid bidirectional associative memory neural networks with discrete delays is considered. By ingeniously importing real parameters di > 0(i = 1,2,···,n) which can be adjusted, we establish some new sufficient conditions for the dynamical characteristics of hybrid bidirectional associative memory neural networks with discrete delays by the method of variation of parameters and some analysis techniques. Our results generalize and improve the related results in [10,11]. Our work is significant...

  12. Electrodeposition of hybrid ZnO/organic dye films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moya, Monica; Mari, Bernabe; Mollar, Miquel [Department de Fisica Aplicada-IDF, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2011-06-15

    The viability of the electrodeposition as a suitable technique for preparing new porous hybrid materials has been tested in this paper. Hybrid ZnO films with two different organic dyes: Eosin-Y and Tetrasulphonated-Cu-phtalocyanine were prepared. Their physical and chemical properties as well as their dependence on the growth conditions were investigated. It is found that the type of dye has a big influence on the morphology and porosity of hybrid films. Open and connected pores are created in hybrid ZnO/Eosin-Y films while both open and closed pores coexist in hybrid ZnO/Tetrasulfonated-Cu-phthalocyanine. As one of the promising applications of hybrid materials is photovoltaic conversion of sunlight, photoelectrochemical characterization of hybrid films is also reported. Photocurrent generation owing to both contributions ZnO and Eosin-Y is observed in ZnO/Eosin-Y films but no photocurrent has been observed in ZnO/Tetrasulfonated-Cu-phthalocyanine films. SEM micrographs of hybrid ZnO films grown in aqueous bath; (Left) ZnO/Eosin-Y films grown at 70 C, -0.9 V (Right) ZnO/Ts-CuPc films grown at 70 C, -0.9 V. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Effect of nanomodified polyester resin on hybrid sandwich laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anbusagar, NRR.; Giridharan, P.K.; Palanikumar, K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of nanomodified polyester resin on hybrid sandwich laminates is evaluated. • The hybrid sandwich laminates are fabricated with varying wt% of nanoclay. • Flexural, impact and moisture absorbtion properties are evaluated for hybrid composites. • Scanning electron microscopy is utilized to analyze the dispersion of clay and fractured surfaces of the nanocomposites. - Abstract: Effect of nanoclay modified polyester resin on flexural, impact, hardness and water absorption properties of untreated woven jute and glass fabric hybrid sandwich laminates have been investigated experimentally. The hybrid sandwich laminates are prepared by hand lay-up manufacturing technique (HL) for investigation. All hybrid sandwich laminates are fabricated with a total of 10 layers, by varying the extreme layers and wt% of nanoclay in polyester resin so as to obtain four different combinations of hybrid sandwich laminates. For comparison of the composite with hybrid composite, jute fiber reinforced composite laminate also fabricated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results obtained from samples with nanoclay indicated that intergallery spacing of the layered clay increases with matrix. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gave a morphological picture of the cross-sections and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) allowed investigating the elemental composition of matrix in composites. The testing results indicated that the flexural properties are greatly increased at 4% of nanoclay loading while impact, hardness and water absorption properties are increased at 6% of nanoclay loading. A plausible explanation for high increase of properties has also been discussed

  14. Contextual Validity in Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2013-01-01

    interpretations. Moreover, such indexicals give rise to a special kind of validity—contextual validity—that interacts with ordinary logi- cal validity in interesting and often unexpected ways. In this paper we model these interactions by combining standard techniques from hybrid logic with insights from the work...... of Hans Kamp and David Kaplan. We introduce a simple proof rule, which we call the Kamp Rule, and first we show that it is all we need to take us from logical validities involving now to contextual validities involving now too. We then go on to show that this deductive bridge is strong enough to carry us...... to contextual validities involving yesterday, today and tomorrow as well....

  15. Dismantling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiese, E.

    1998-01-01

    Most of the dismantling techniques used in a Decontamination and Dismantlement (D and D) project are taken from conventional demolition practices. Some modifications to the techniques are made to limit exposure to the workers or to lessen the spread of contamination to the work area. When working on a D and D project, it is best to keep the dismantling techniques and tools as simple as possible. The workers will be more efficient and safer using techniques that are familiar to them. Prior experience with the technique or use of mock-ups is the best way to keep workers safe and to keep the project on schedule

  16. Dismantling techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiese, E.

    1998-03-13

    Most of the dismantling techniques used in a Decontamination and Dismantlement (D and D) project are taken from conventional demolition practices. Some modifications to the techniques are made to limit exposure to the workers or to lessen the spread of contamination to the work area. When working on a D and D project, it is best to keep the dismantling techniques and tools as simple as possible. The workers will be more efficient and safer using techniques that are familiar to them. Prior experience with the technique or use of mock-ups is the best way to keep workers safe and to keep the project on schedule.

  17. Research on Hybrid Vehicle Drivetrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhongzhi

    Hybrid cars as a solution to energy saving, emission reduction measures, have received widespread attention. Motor drive system as an important part of the hybrid vehicles as an important object of study. Based on the hybrid electric vehicle powertrain control system for permanent magnet synchronous motor as the object of study. Can be applied to hybrid car compares the characteristics of traction motors, chose permanent magnet synchronous Motors as drive motors for hybrid vehicles. Building applications in hybrid cars in MATLAB/Simulink simulation model of permanent-magnet synchronous motor speed control system and analysis of simulation results.

  18. New hybrid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardin, B.

    2001-01-01

    New hybrid systems are made up of a subcritical core, a spallation target and a proton accelerator. The neutrons that are produced in the target by the flux of protons are necessary to maintain the chain reaction of fission. Some parameters that are important for a classical nuclear reactor like doppler coefficient or delayed neutron fraction do not matter in a hybrid system. In a PWR-type reactor or in a fast reactor the concentration of actinides has a bad impact on these 2 parameters, so it is justified to study hybrid systems as actinide transmuters. The hybrid system, because of its external source of neutrons can put aside an important reactivity margin. This reactivity margin can be used to design safer nuclear reactors (particularly in some situations of reactivity accidents) or to irradiate fuel elements containing high concentrations of minor actinides that could not be allowed in a classical reactor. This article reviews various ways of integrating hybrid systems in a population of already existing nuclear reactors in order to manage quantities of plutonium, of minor actinides or of long-life fission products. (A.C.)

  19. The Hybrid Museum: Hybrid Economies of Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Vitus

    2013-01-01

    Social media has created new ways of communicating and has brought about a new distinctive ethos. New literacies are not simply about new technology but also about this new ethos. Many museums are embracing this ethos by what is often called participatory practices. From a sociocultural perspective...... this article shows that there are two different museum mindsets where the second mindset leans towards participatory practices. It is shown how a museum can support a hybrid economy of meaning that builds on both a user generated economy of meaning and an institutional economy of meaning and adds value to both...

  20. Assessment of metastatic colorectal cancer with hybrid imaging: comparison of reading performance using different combinations of anatomical and functional imaging techniques in PET/MRI and PET/CT in a short case series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brendle, C.; Schwenzer, N.F.; Rempp, H.; Schmidt, H.; Pfannenberg, C.; Nikolaou, K.; Schraml, C. [Eberhard Karls University, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); La Fougere, C. [Eberhard Karls University, Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    The purpose was to investigate the diagnostic performance of different combinations of anatomical and functional imaging techniques in PET/MRI and PET/CT for the evaluation of metastatic colorectal cancer lesions. Image data of 15 colorectal cancer patients (FDG-PET/CT and subsequent FDG-PET/MRI) were retrospectively evaluated by two readers in five reading sessions: MRI (morphology) alone, MRI/diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI), MRI/PET, MRI/DWI/PET; and PET/CT. Diagnostic performance of lesion detection with each combination was assessed in general and organ-based. The reference standard was given by histology and/or follow-up imaging. Separate analysis of mucinous tumours was performed. One hundred and eighty lesions (110 malignant) were evaluated (intestine n = 6, liver n = 37, lymph nodes n = 55, lung n = 4, and peritoneal n = 74). The overall lesion-based diagnostic accuracy was 0.46 for MRI, 0.47 for MRI/DWI, 0.57 for MRI/PET, 0.69 for MRI/DWI/PET and 0.66 for PET/CT. In the organ-based assessment, MRI/DWI/PET showed the highest accuracy for liver metastases (0.74), a comparable accuracy to PET/CT in peritoneal lesions (0.55), and in lymph node metastases (0.84). The accuracy in mucinous tumour lesions was limited in all modalities (MRI/DWI/PET = 0.52). PET/MRI including DWI is comparable to PET/CT in the evaluation of colorectal cancer metastases, with a markedly higher accuracy when using combined imaging data than the modalities separately. Further improvement is needed in the imaging of peritoneal carcinomatosis and mucinous tumours. (orig.)

  1. Hybrid system concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landeyro, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Hybrid systems studied for fissile material production, were reconsidered for minor actinide and long-lived fission product destruction as alternative to the traditional final disposal of nuclear waste. Now there are attempts to extend the use of the concepts developed for minor actinide incineration to plutonium burning. The most promising hybrid system concept considers fuel and target both as liquids. From the results obtained, the possibility to adopt composite targets seems the most promising solution, but still there remains the problem of Pu production, not acceptable in a burning system. This kind of targets can be mainly used for fissile material production, while for accelerator driven burners it is most convenient to use a liquid lead target. The most suitable solvent is heavy water for minor actinide annihilation in the blanket of a hybrid system. Due to the criticality conditions and the necessity of electric energy production, the blanket using plutonium dissolved in molten salts is the most convenient one. (author)

  2. The tokamak hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.L.; Rose, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    At a time when the potential benefits of various energy options are being seriously evaluated in many countries through-out the world, it is both timely and important to evaluate the practical application of fusion reactors for their economical production of nuclear fissile fuels from fertile fuels. The fusion hybrid reactor represents a concept that could assure the availability of adequate fuel supplies for a proven nuclear technology and have the potential of being an electrical energy source as opposed to an energy consumer as are the present fuel enrichment processes. Westinghouse Fusion Power Systems Department, under Contract No. EG-77-C-02-4544 with the Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy, has developed a preliminary conceptual design for an early twenty-first century fusion hybrid reactor called the commercial Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (CTHR). This design was developed as a first generation commercial plant producing fissile fuel to support a significant number of client Light Water Reactor (LWR) Plants. To the depth this study has been performed, no insurmountable technical problems have been identified. The study has provided a basis for reasonable cost estimates of the hybrid plants as well as the hybrid/LWR system busbar electricity costs. This energy system can be optimized to have a net cost of busbar electricity that is equivalent to the conventional LWR plant, yet is not dependent on uranium ore prices or standard enrichment costs, since the fusion hybrid can be fueled by numerous fertile fuel resources. A nearer-term concept is also defined using a beam driven fusion driver in lieu of the longer term ignited operating mode. (orig.)

  3. Hybride textuelle Strukturen und hybride textuelle Einheiten. Ein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    carrying set of all hybrid hierarchical structures are element-heterogeneous whilst the structure- carrying set of all ... grams of hierarchical hybrid article structures, the nodes for those text segments that establish the hybrid status of .... der; d ∈ ArtA ⊣ G|WAr (= Artikelangabe, anhand derer das Genus (= G) und zugleich die ...

  4. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications The following technical papers and fact sheets provide information about NREL's hydraulic hybrid fleet vehicle evaluations . Refuse Trucks Project Startup: Evaluating the Performance of Hydraulic Hybrid Refuse Vehicles. Bob

  5. Doubts about hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The natural draught wet cooling tower with a height of 160 m is considerably taller than the 80 m high hybrid cooling tower, but the latter has a considerably larger diameter. Spray losses for both types are about 4.5 kg/sec for a thermal output of 2500 MW. Apart from the pump load, the natural cooling tower requires no power. Apart from higher pump loads, the hybrid cooling tower requires power for the fans. The energy demand for this purpose is 1.5 to 3% of the nett powerstation output. For the Isar 2 nuclear powerstation this would mean a reduction in puput of about 35 MW. (orig.) [de

  6. Analog and hybrid computing

    CERN Document Server

    Hyndman, D E

    2013-01-01

    Analog and Hybrid Computing focuses on the operations of analog and hybrid computers. The book first outlines the history of computing devices that influenced the creation of analog and digital computers. The types of problems to be solved on computers, computing systems, and digital computers are discussed. The text looks at the theory and operation of electronic analog computers, including linear and non-linear computing units and use of analog computers as operational amplifiers. The monograph examines the preparation of problems to be deciphered on computers. Flow diagrams, methods of ampl

  7. Toyota hybrid synergy drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautschi, H.

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Hannes Gautschi, director of service and training at the Toyota company in Switzerland, takes a look at Toyota's hybrid drive vehicles. The construction of the vehicles and their combined combustion engines and electric generators and drives is presented and the combined operation of these components is described. Braking and energy recovery are discussed. Figures on the performance, fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} output of the hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles.

  8. Mirror fusion--fission hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    The fusion-fission concept and the mirror fusion-fission hybrid program are outlined. Magnetic mirror fusion drivers and blankets for hybrid reactors are discussed. Results of system analyses are presented and a reference design is described

  9. Translation Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Marcia Pinheiro

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss three translation techniques: literal, cultural, and artistic. Literal translation is a well-known technique, which means that it is quite easy to find sources on the topic. Cultural and artistic translation may be new terms. Whilst cultural translation focuses on matching contexts, artistic translation focuses on matching reactions. Because literal translation matches only words, it is not hard to find situations in which we should not use this technique.  Because a...

  10. Disease processes as hybrid dynamical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Liò

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the use of hybrid techniques in complex processes of infectious diseases. Since predictive disease models in biomedicine require a multiscale approach for understanding the molecule-cell-tissue-organ-body interactions, heterogeneous methodologies are often employed for describing the different biological scales. Hybrid models provide effective means for complex disease modelling where the action and dosage of a drug or a therapy could be meaningfully investigated: the infection dynamics can be classically described in a continuous fashion, while the scheduling of multiple treatment discretely. We define an algebraic language for specifying general disease processes and multiple treatments, from which a semantics in terms of hybrid dynamical system can be derived. Then, the application of control-theoretic tools is proposed in order to compute the optimal scheduling of multiple therapies. The potentialities of our approach are shown in the case study of the SIR epidemic model and we discuss its applicability on osteomyelitis, a bacterial infection affecting the bone remodelling system in a specific and multiscale manner. We report that formal languages are helpful in giving a general homogeneous formulation for the different scales involved in a multiscale disease process; and that the combination of hybrid modelling and control theory provides solid grounds for computational medicine.

  11. Security in hybrid cloud computing

    OpenAIRE

    Koudelka, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the area of hybrid cloud computing, specifically with its security. The major aim of the thesis is to analyze and compare the chosen hybrid cloud providers. For the minor aim this thesis compares the security challenges of hybrid cloud as opponent to other deployment models. In order to accomplish said aims, this thesis defines the terms cloud computing and hybrid cloud computing in its theoretical part. Furthermore the security challenges for cloud computing a...

  12. Comparison performance of split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle and hybrid electric vehicle using ADVISOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rashid Muhammad Ikram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicle suffers from relatively short range and long charging times and consequently has not become an acceptable solution to the automotive consumer. The addition of an internal combustion engine to extend the range of the electric vehicle is one method of exploiting the high efficiency and lack of emissions of the electric vehicle while retaining the range and convenient refuelling times of a conventional gasoline powered vehicle. The term that describes this type of vehicle is a hybrid electric vehicle. Many configurations of hybrid electric vehicles have been designed and implemented, namely the series, parallel and power-split configurations. This paper discusses the comparison between Split Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle(SPHEV and Hybrid Electric Vehicle(HEV. Modelling methods such as physics-based Resistive Companion Form technique and Bond Graph method are presented with powertrain component and system modelling examples. The modelling and simulation capability of existing tools such as ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR is demonstrated through application examples. Since power electronics is indispensable in hybrid vehicles, the issue of numerical oscillations in dynamic simulations involving power electronics is briefly addressed.

  13. Hybrid IMRT plans-concurrently treating conventional and IMRT beams for improved breast irradiation and reduced planning time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, Charles S.; Urie, Marcia M.; Fitzgerald, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a hybrid intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) technique as a class solution for treatment of the intact breast. Methods and materials: The following five plan techniques were compared for 10 breast patients using dose-volume histogram analysis: conventional wedged-field tangents (Tangents), forward-planned field-within-a-field tangents (FIF), IMRT-only tangents (IMRT tangents), conventional open plus IMRT tangents (4-field hybrid), and conventional open plus IMRT tangents with 2 anterior oblique IMRT beams (6-field hybrid). Results: The 4-field hybrid and FIF achieved dose distributions better than Tangents and IMRT tangents. The volume of tissue outside the planning target volume receiving ≥110% of prescribed dose was largest for IMRT tangents (average 158 cc) and least for 6-field hybrid (average 1 cc); the FIF and 4-field hybrid were comparable (average 15 cc). Heart volume ≥30 Gy averaged 13 cc for all techniques, except Tangents, for which it was 32 cc. Average total lung volume ≥20 Gy was 7% for all. Contralateral breast doses were < 3% for all. Planning time for hybrid techniques was significantly less than for conventional FIF technique. Conclusions: The 4-field hybrid technique is a viable class solution. The 6-field hybrid technique creates the most conformal dose distribution at the expense of more normal tissue receiving low dose

  14. Hybrid Ventilation Air Flow Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    The scope of this annex is therefore to obtain better knowledge of the use of hybrid ventilation technologies. The annex focus on development of control strategies for hybrid ventilation, on development of methods to predict hybrid ventilation performance in office buildings and on implementation...

  15. Teelt van hybride wintertarwerassen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, R.D.; Paauw, J.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Om de mogelijkheden van de teelt van hybride wintertarwerassen onder Nederlandse omstandigheden in beeld te brengen zijn er van 2000-2002 proeven uitgevoerd op het PPO-proefbedrijf te Lelystad. In deze proeven zijn een 4-tal hybriderassen (Hybnos, Hyno-braba, Hyno-esta, Mercury) vergeleken met een

  16. Hybrid FSAE Vehicle Realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The goal of this multi-year project is to create a fully functional University of Idaho entry in the hybrid FSAE competition. Vehicle integration is underway as part of a variety of 2010-11 senior design projects. This leverages a variety of analytic...

  17. Electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Report characterizes state-of-the-art electric and hybrid (combined electric and heat engine) vehicles. Performance data for representative number of these vehicles were obtained from track and dynamometer tests. User experience information was obtained from fleet operators and individual owners of electric vehicles. Data on performance and physical characteristics of large number of vehicles were obtained from manufacturers and available literature.

  18. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Vivek; Tawfik, Magdy S.

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy concept is becoming a reality for the US energy infrastructure where combinations of the various potential energy sources (nuclear, wind, solar, biomass, and so on) are integrated in a hybrid energy system. This paper focuses on challenges facing a hybrid system with a Small Modular Reactor at its core. The core of the paper will discuss efforts required to develop supervisory control center that collects data, supports decision-making, and serves as an information hub for supervisory control center. Such a center will also be a model for integrating future technologies and controls. In addition, advanced operations research, thermal cycle analysis, energy conversion analysis, control engineering, and human factors engineering will be part of the supervisory control center. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure would allow operators to optimize the cost of energy production by providing appropriate means of integrating different energy sources. The data needs to be stored, processed, analyzed, trended, and projected at right time to right operator to integrate different energy sources.

  19. Hybridization of biomedical circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinard, G. A.

    1978-01-01

    The design and fabrication of low power hybrid circuits to perform vital signs monitoring are reported. The circuits consist of: (1) clock; (2) ECG amplifier and cardiotachometer signal conditioner; (3) impedance pneumobraph and respiration rate processor; (4) hear/breath rate processor; (5) temperature monitor; and (6) LCD display.

  20. Glueballs, Hybrids and Exotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, M. A.; Moreno, G.

    2006-09-01

    We comment on the physics analysis carried out by the Experimental High Energy Physics (EHEP) group of the Instituto de Fisica of the University of Guanajuato (IFUG), Mexico. In particular, this group has been involved in analysis carried out to search for glueball, hybrid and exotic candidates.

  1. Hybrid wars’ information component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Nevskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The war of the new generation - hybrid war, the information component which is directed not so much on the direct destruction of the enemy, how to achieve the goals without warfare. Fighting in the information field is no less important than immediate military action.

  2. Glueballs, Hybrids and Exotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, M. A.; Moreno, G.

    2006-01-01

    We comment on the physics analysis carried out by the Experimental High Energy Physics (EHEP) group of the Instituto de Fisica of the University of Guanajuato (IFUG), Mexico. In particular, this group has been involved in analysis carried out to search for glueball, hybrid and exotic candidates

  3. Hybrid quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehrawat, Arun; Englert, Berthold-Georg; Zemann, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We present a hybrid model of the unitary-evolution-based quantum computation model and the measurement-based quantum computation model. In the hybrid model, part of a quantum circuit is simulated by unitary evolution and the rest by measurements on star graph states, thereby combining the advantages of the two standard quantum computation models. In the hybrid model, a complicated unitary gate under simulation is decomposed in terms of a sequence of single-qubit operations, the controlled-z gates, and multiqubit rotations around the z axis. Every single-qubit and the controlled-z gate are realized by a respective unitary evolution, and every multiqubit rotation is executed by a single measurement on a required star graph state. The classical information processing in our model requires only an information flow vector and propagation matrices. We provide the implementation of multicontrol gates in the hybrid model. They are very useful for implementing Grover's search algorithm, which is studied as an illustrative example.

  4. Hybrid keyword search auctions

    KAUST Repository

    Goel, Ashish; Munagala, Kamesh

    2009-01-01

    Search auctions have become a dominant source of revenue generation on the Internet. Such auctions have typically used per-click bidding and pricing. We propose the use of hybrid auctions where an advertiser can make a per-impression as well as a per-click bid, and the auctioneer then chooses one of the two as the pricing mechanism. We assume that the advertiser and the auctioneer both have separate beliefs (called priors) on the click-probability of an advertisement. We first prove that the hybrid auction is truthful, assuming that the advertisers are risk-neutral. We then show that this auction is superior to the existing per-click auction in multiple ways: 1. We show that risk-seeking advertisers will choose only a per-impression bid whereas risk-averse advertisers will choose only a per-click bid, and argue that both kind of advertisers arise naturally. Hence, the ability to bid in a hybrid fashion is important to account for the risk characteristics of the advertisers. 2. For obscure keywords, the auctioneer is unlikely to have a very sharp prior on the click-probabilities. In such situations, we show that having the extra information from the advertisers in the form of a per-impression bid can result in significantly higher revenue. 3. An advertiser who believes that its click-probability is much higher than the auctioneer's estimate can use per-impression bids to correct the auctioneer's prior without incurring any extra cost. 4. The hybrid auction can allow the advertiser and auctioneer to implement complex dynamic programming strategies to deal with the uncertainty in the click-probability using the same basic auction. The per-click and per-impression bidding schemes can only be used to implement two extreme cases of these strategies. As Internet commerce matures, we need more sophisticated pricing models to exploit all the information held by each of the participants. We believe that hybrid auctions could be an important step in this direction. The hybrid

  5. Hybrid keyword search auctions

    KAUST Repository

    Goel, Ashish

    2009-01-01

    Search auctions have become a dominant source of revenue generation on the Internet. Such auctions have typically used per-click bidding and pricing. We propose the use of hybrid auctions where an advertiser can make a per-impression as well as a per-click bid, and the auctioneer then chooses one of the two as the pricing mechanism. We assume that the advertiser and the auctioneer both have separate beliefs (called priors) on the click-probability of an advertisement. We first prove that the hybrid auction is truthful, assuming that the advertisers are risk-neutral. We then show that this auction is superior to the existing per-click auction in multiple ways: 1. We show that risk-seeking advertisers will choose only a per-impression bid whereas risk-averse advertisers will choose only a per-click bid, and argue that both kind of advertisers arise naturally. Hence, the ability to bid in a hybrid fashion is important to account for the risk characteristics of the advertisers. 2. For obscure keywords, the auctioneer is unlikely to have a very sharp prior on the click-probabilities. In such situations, we show that having the extra information from the advertisers in the form of a per-impression bid can result in significantly higher revenue. 3. An advertiser who believes that its click-probability is much higher than the auctioneer\\'s estimate can use per-impression bids to correct the auctioneer\\'s prior without incurring any extra cost. 4. The hybrid auction can allow the advertiser and auctioneer to implement complex dynamic programming strategies to deal with the uncertainty in the click-probability using the same basic auction. The per-click and per-impression bidding schemes can only be used to implement two extreme cases of these strategies. As Internet commerce matures, we need more sophisticated pricing models to exploit all the information held by each of the participants. We believe that hybrid auctions could be an important step in this direction. The

  6. Design and fabrication of advanced hybrid circuits for high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, G.M.; Moss, J.; Freytag, D.R.; Nelson, D.; Yim, A.; Lo, C.C.

    1987-10-01

    Current design and fabrication techniques of hybrid devices are explained for the Drift Chamber and the Liquid Argon Calorimeter for the Stanford Linear Collider Large Detector (SLD) at SLAC. Methods of developing layouts, ranging from hand-cut templates to advanced designs utilizing CAD tools with special hybrid design software were applied. Physical and electrical design rules for good yield and performance are discussed. Fabrication and assembly of the SLD hybrids are described. 7 refs., 10 figs

  7. Contribution of fluorescence in situ hybridization to biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorokine-Durm, I.; Roy, L.; Durand, V.; Voisin, P.

    1995-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization with composite whole chromosome specific DNA probes for human chromosomes 2, 4 and 12 an α-satellite centromeric DNA probe labelled with biotin were used to measure symmetrical and terminal translocations (dose rate 0.5 Gy/min) and dicentrics (0.1 Gy/min) induced in vitro by 60 Co γ-irradiation (0-5 Gy). The suitability of fluorescence in situ hybridization (F.I.S.H.) technique for dicentrics detection is compared with the conventional technique. Dose-response curves for γ-rays ( 60 Co) for two dose rates are shown (dicentrics and translocations). (authors). 10 refs., 2 figs

  8. On hybrid cooperation in underlay cognitive radio networks

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Nurul Huda

    2012-11-01

    In wireless systems where transmitters are subject to a strict received power constraint, such as in underlay cognitive radio networks, cooperative communication is a promising strategy to enhance network performance, as it helps to improve the coverage area and outage performance of a network. However, this comes at the expense of increased resource utilization. To balance the performance gain against the possible over-utilization of resources, we propose a hybrid-cooperation technique for underlay cognitive radio networks, where secondary users cooperate only when required. Various performance measures of the proposed hybrid-cooperation technique are analyzed in this paper, and are also further validated numerically. © 2012 IEEE.

  9. Study on Mechanical and Physical Behaviour of Hybrid GFRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Bahiyah Baba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the mechanical and physical behaviour of hybrid glass fibre reinforced plastic (GFRP. Hybrid GFRP was fabricated by three different types of glass fibre, namely, 3D, woven, and chopped, which were selected and combined with mixture of polyester resin and hardener. The hybrid GFRP was investigated by varying three parameters which were the composite volume fractions, hybrid GFRP arrangement, and single type fibre. The hybrid GFRP was fabricated by using open mould hand lay-up technique. Mechanical testing was conducted by tensile test for strength and stiffness whereas physical testing was performed using water absorption and hardness. These tests were carried out to determine the effect of mechanical and physical behaviour over the hybrid GFRP. The highest volume fraction of 0.5 gives the highest strength and stiffness of 73 MPa and 821 MPa, respectively. Varying hybrid fibre arrangement which is the arrangement of chopped-woven-3D-woven-chopped showed the best value in strength of 66.2 MPa. The stiffness is best at arrangement of woven-chopped-woven-chopped-woven at 690 MPa. This arrangement also showed the lowest water absorption of 4.5%. Comparing the single fibre type, woven had overtaken the others in terms of both mechanical and physical properties.

  10. Design and management of energy-efficient hybrid electrical energy storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Younghyun

    2014-01-01

    This book covers system-level design optimization and implementation of hybrid energy storage systems. The author introduces various techniques to improve the performance of hybrid energy storage systems, in the context of design optimization and automation. Various energy storage techniques are discussed, each with its own advantages and drawbacks, offering viable, hybrid approaches to building a high performance, low cost energy storage system. Novel design optimization techniques and energy-efficient operation schemes are introduced. The author also describes the technical details of an act

  11. In situ hybridization; principles and applications: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Nozhat

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In situ hybridization (ISH is a method that uses labeled complementary single strand DNA or RNA to localize specific DNA or RNA sequences in an intact cell or in a fixed tissue section. The main steps of ISH consist of: probe selection, tissue or sample preparation, pre-hybridization treatment, hybridization and washing, detection and control procedure. Probe selection is one of the important aspects of successful hybridization. ISH sensitivity and specificity can be influenced by: probe construct, efficiency of labeling, percentage of GC, probe length and signal detection systems. Different methods such as nick translation, random priming, end tailing and T4 DNA polymerase replacement are used for probe generation. Both radioactive and non-radioactive labels can be used in order to probe labeling. Nucleic acid maintenance in samples, prevention of morphological changes of samples and probe penetration into tissue section are the main aims of sample preparation step. Then, a small amount of solution containing probe, is added on slides containing tissue sections for hybridization process, then slides are incubated overnight. Next day, washes are carried out to remove the probes which are not bound to target DNA or RNA. Finally, in order to be sure that the observed labeling is specific to the target sequence, using several control procedures is very important. Various techniques based on ISH consist of: Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH, genomic in situ hybridization (GISH, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH, spectral karyotyping (SKY and multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization (MFISH. One of the most common techniques of ISH is fluorescence in situ hybridization. FISH can be used to: 1 detect small deletions and duplications that are not visible using microscope analysis, 2 detect how many chromosomes of a certain type are present in each cell and 3 confirm rearrangements that are

  12. NS maize hybrids in production regions of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojaković Milisav

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen NS maize hybrids of FAO 300-700 maturity groups were evaluated in strip trials (plot size 1,120 m2 at 30 locations in Serbia. In all locations including all production regions, the most yielding hybrid was NS 6030 with average yield of 10.9 t ha-1. The additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI and the sites regression (SREG models were used to study basic structure of G x E interactions and the possible existence of different mega-environments in Serbian maize growing regions in 2009. The results of the 15 hybrids x 10 locations for grain yield in maize showed by biplot technique indicate several specific location-hybrid deviations (the AMMI biplot, and possible existence of at least one mega-environment (the GGE biplot. .

  13. Laser synthesis of hybrid nanoparticles for biomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetissian, H. K.; Lalayan, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    The extraordinary properties of size-tunable nanoparticles (NPs) have given rise to their widespread applications in Nanophotonics, Biomedicine, Plasmonics etc. Semiconductor and metal NPs have found a number of significant applications in the modern biomedicine due to ultrasmall sizes (1-10 nm) and the size-dependent flexibility of their optical properties. In the present work passive Q-switched Nd:YAG pulsed laser was used to synthesize NPs by method of laser ablation in different liquids. For cases of hybrid metal NPs we have demonstrated that plasmon resonance can be modified and tuned from the plasmon resonances of pure metal NPs. The shifted plasmon resonance frequency at 437 nm for Au-Ag hybrid NPs, and 545 nm for Au-Cu hybrid NPs have been observed. Effectiveness of biotissue ablation in the case of the tissue sample that colored with metal NPs was approximately on 4-5 times larger than for the sample with non-colored area. Laser welding for deep-located biotissue layers colored by metal NPs has been realized. The luminescence properties of the colloidal hybrid Si-Ni nanoparticles' system fabricated by pulsed laser ablation are also considered. The red-shifted photoluminescence of this system has been registered in the blue range of the spectrum because of the Stark effect in the Coulomb field of the charged Ni nanoparticles. Summarizing, the knowledge of peculiarities of optical properties of hybrid NPs is very important for biomedical applications. More complex nanoassemblies can be easily constructed by the presented technique of laser synthesis of colloidal QDs including complexes of NPs of different materials.

  14. Mirror hybrid reactor optimization studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    A system model of the mirror hybrid reactor has been developed. The major components of the model include (1) the reactor description, (2) a capital cost analysis, (3) various fuel management schemes, and (4) an economic analysis that includes the hybrid plus its associated fission burner reactors. The results presented describe the optimization of the mirror hybrid reactor, the objective being to minimize the cost of electricity from the hybrid fission-burner reactor complex. We have examined hybrid reactors with two types of blankets, one containing natural uranium, the other thorium. The major difference between the two optimized reactors is that the uranium hybrid is a significant net electrical power producer, whereas the thorium hybrid just about breaks even on electrical power. Our projected costs for fissile fuel production are approximately 50 $/g for 239 Pu and approximately 125 $/g for 233 U

  15. Economics of hybrid photovoltaic power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breyer, Christian

    2012-08-16

    The global power supply stability is faced to several severe and fundamental threats, in particular steadily increasing power demand, diminishing and degrading fossil and nuclear energy resources, very harmful greenhouse gas emissions, significant energy injustice and a structurally misbalanced ecological footprint. Photovoltaic (PV) power systems are analysed in various aspects focusing on economic and technical considerations of supplemental and substitutional power supply to the constraint conventional power system. To infer the most relevant system approach for PV power plants several solar resources available for PV systems are compared. By combining the different solar resources and respective economics, two major PV systems are identified to be very competitive in almost all regions in the world. The experience curve concept is used as a key technique for the development of scenario assumptions on economic projections for the decade of the 2010s. Main drivers for cost reductions in PV systems are learning and production growth rate, thus several relevant aspects are discussed such as research and development investments, technical PV market potential, different PV technologies and the energetic sustainability of PV. Three major market segments for PV systems are identified: off-grid PV solutions, decentralised small scale on-grid PV systems (several kWp) and large scale PV power plants (tens of MWp). Mainly by application of 'grid-parity' and 'fuel-parity' concepts per country, local market and conventional power plant basis, the global economic market potential for all major PV system segments is derived. PV power plant hybridization potential of all relevant power technologies and the global power plant structure are analyzed regarding technical, economical and geographical feasibility. Key success criteria for hybrid PV power plants are discussed and comprehensively analysed for all adequate power plant technologies, i.e. oil, gas and coal fired power

  16. Economics of hybrid photovoltaic power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breyer, Christian

    2012-08-16

    The global power supply stability is faced to several severe and fundamental threats, in particular steadily increasing power demand, diminishing and degrading fossil and nuclear energy resources, very harmful greenhouse gas emissions, significant energy injustice and a structurally misbalanced ecological footprint. Photovoltaic (PV) power systems are analysed in various aspects focusing on economic and technical considerations of supplemental and substitutional power supply to the constraint conventional power system. To infer the most relevant system approach for PV power plants several solar resources available for PV systems are compared. By combining the different solar resources and respective economics, two major PV systems are identified to be very competitive in almost all regions in the world. The experience curve concept is used as a key technique for the development of scenario assumptions on economic projections for the decade of the 2010s. Main drivers for cost reductions in PV systems are learning and production growth rate, thus several relevant aspects are discussed such as research and development investments, technical PV market potential, different PV technologies and the energetic sustainability of PV. Three major market segments for PV systems are identified: off-grid PV solutions, decentralised small scale on-grid PV systems (several kWp) and large scale PV power plants (tens of MWp). Mainly by application of 'grid-parity' and 'fuel-parity' concepts per country, local market and conventional power plant basis, the global economic market potential for all major PV system segments is derived. PV power plant hybridization potential of all relevant power technologies and the global power plant structure are analyzed regarding technical, economical and geographical feasibility. Key success criteria for hybrid PV power plants are discussed and comprehensively analysed for all adequate power plant technologies, i.e. oil, gas and

  17. Hybrid cognitive engine for radio systems adaptation

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail

    2017-07-20

    Network efficiency and proper utilization of its resources are essential requirements to operate wireless networks in an optimal fashion. Cognitive radio aims to fulfill these requirements by exploiting artificial intelligence techniques to create an entity called cognitive engine. Cognitive engine exploits awareness about the surrounding radio environment to optimize the use of radio resources and adapt relevant transmission parameters. In this paper, we propose a hybrid cognitive engine that employs Case Based Reasoning (CBR) and Decision Trees (DTs) to perform radio adaptation in multi-carriers wireless networks. The engine complexity is reduced by employing DTs to improve the indexing methodology used in CBR cases retrieval. The performance of our hybrid engine is validated using software defined radios implementation and simulation in multi-carrier environment. The system throughput, signal to noise and interference ratio, and packet error rate are obtained and compared with other schemes in different scenarios.

  18. Breaking Dense Structures: Proving Stability of Densely Structured Hybrid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eike Möhlmann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstraction and refinement is widely used in software development. Such techniques are valuable since they allow to handle even more complex systems. One key point is the ability to decompose a large system into subsystems, analyze those subsystems and deduce properties of the larger system. As cyber-physical systems tend to become more and more complex, such techniques become more appealing. In 2009, Oehlerking and Theel presented a (de-composition technique for hybrid systems. This technique is graph-based and constructs a Lyapunov function for hybrid systems having a complex discrete state space. The technique consists of (1 decomposing the underlying graph of the hybrid system into subgraphs, (2 computing multiple local Lyapunov functions for the subgraphs, and finally (3 composing the local Lyapunov functions into a piecewise Lyapunov function. A Lyapunov function can serve multiple purposes, e.g., it certifies stability or termination of a system or allows to construct invariant sets, which in turn may be used to certify safety and security. In this paper, we propose an improvement to the decomposing technique, which relaxes the graph structure before applying the decomposition technique. Our relaxation significantly reduces the connectivity of the graph by exploiting super-dense switching. The relaxation makes the decomposition technique more efficient on one hand and on the other allows to decompose a wider range of graph structures.

  19. Diagnostic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berquist, T.H.; Bender, C.E.; James, E.M.; Brown, M.L.; McLeod, R.A.; Broderick, D.F.; Welch, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    Proper application of imaging procedures is essential to obtain needed information for diagnosis and therapy planning in patients with suspected foot and/or ankle pathology. This paper provides basic background data for the numerous imaging techniques

  20. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs are comparatively environmentally friendly and energy efficient, but cost substantially more compared with conventional vehicles. Hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs are mainly operated using engines, or using alternate combinations of engine and hydraulic power sources while vehicles accelerate. When the hydraulic system accumulator is depleted, the conventional engine reengages; concurrently, brake-regenerated power is recycled and reused by employing hydraulic motor–pump modules in circulation patterns to conserve fuel and recycle brake energy. This study adopted MATLAB Simulink to construct complete HHV and HEV models for backward simulations. New European Driving Cycles were used to determine the changes in fuel economy. The output of power components and the state-of-charge of energy could be retrieved. Varying power component models, energy storage component models, and series or parallel configurations were combined into seven different vehicle configurations: the conventional manual transmission vehicle, series hybrid electric vehicle, series hydraulic hybrid vehicle, parallel hybrid electric vehicle, parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle, purely electric vehicle, and hydraulic-electric hybrid vehicle. The simulation results show that fuel consumption was 21.80% lower in the series hydraulic hybrid vehicle compared to the series hybrid electric vehicle; additionally, fuel consumption was 3.80% lower in the parallel hybrid electric vehicle compared to the

  1. The Use of Whole-Mount "in Situ" Hybridization to Illustrate Gene Expression Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamusí, Beatriz; Muñoz-Soriano, Verónica; Paricio, Nuria; Artero, Rubén

    2014-01-01

    "In situ" hybridization is a widely used technique for studying gene expression. Here, we describe two experiments addressed to postgraduate genetics students in which the effect of transcription factors on gene expression is analyzed in "Drosophila embryos of different genotypes by whole-mount in situ hybridization. In one of the…

  2. Application of Hybrid IC's to the Automotive Electronics Market in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Eckart von Roda

    1981-01-01

    In the last few years hybrids have been increasingly used in automotive electronics in Europe. With examples from the BOSCH and BLAUPUNKT production range their application in regulators, breakerless ignition modules, electronically-controlled fuel injection systems and car radios is illustrated. The elements and techniques used to assemble the hybrids, and the advantages which can be gained are discussed.

  3. Hybrid Disease Diagnosis Using Multiobjective Optimization with Evolutionary Parameter Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MadhuSudana Rao Nalluri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the widespread adoption of e-Healthcare and telemedicine applications, accurate, intelligent disease diagnosis systems have been profoundly coveted. In recent years, numerous individual machine learning-based classifiers have been proposed and tested, and the fact that a single classifier cannot effectively classify and diagnose all diseases has been almost accorded with. This has seen a number of recent research attempts to arrive at a consensus using ensemble classification techniques. In this paper, a hybrid system is proposed to diagnose ailments using optimizing individual classifier parameters for two classifier techniques, namely, support vector machine (SVM and multilayer perceptron (MLP technique. We employ three recent evolutionary algorithms to optimize the parameters of the classifiers above, leading to six alternative hybrid disease diagnosis systems, also referred to as hybrid intelligent systems (HISs. Multiple objectives, namely, prediction accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity, have been considered to assess the efficacy of the proposed hybrid systems with existing ones. The proposed model is evaluated on 11 benchmark datasets, and the obtained results demonstrate that our proposed hybrid diagnosis systems perform better in terms of disease prediction accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. Pertinent statistical tests were carried out to substantiate the efficacy of the obtained results.

  4. Sneutrino Hybrid Inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antusch, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    We review the scenario of sneutrino hybrid inflation, where one of the singlet sneutrinos, the superpartners of the right-handed neutrinos, plays the role of the inflaton. In a minimal model of sneutrino hybrid inflation, the spectral index is given by ns ≅ 1 + 2γ. With γ = 0.025 ± 0.01 constrained by WMAP, a running spectral index vertical bar dns/dlnk vertical bar << vertical barγvertical bar and a tensor-to-scalar ratio r << γ2 are predicted. Small neutrino masses arise from the seesaw mechanism, with heavy masses for the singlet (s)neutrinos generated by the vacuum expectation value of the waterfall field after inflation. The baryon asymmetry of the universe can be explained by non-thermal leptogenesis via sneutrino inflaton decay, with low reheat temperature TRH ≅ 106 GeV

  5. Hybrid-secure MPC 

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Christoph; Raub, Dominik; Maurer, Ueli

    2010-01-01

    of the adversary, without being aware of the actual adversarial setting. Thus, hybrid-secure MPC protocols allow for graceful degradation of security. We present a hybrid-secure MPC protocol that provides an optimal trade-off between IT robustness and computational privacy: For any robustness parameter ρ ... obtain one MPC protocol that is simultaneously IT secure with robustness for up to t ≤ ρ actively corrupted parties, IT secure with fairness (no robustness) for up to t ... in the universal composability (UC) framework (based on a network of secure channels, a broadcast channel, and a common reference string). It achieves the bound on the trade-off between robustness and privacy shown by Ishai et al. [CRYPTO'06] and Katz [STOC'07], the bound on fairness shown by Cleve [STOC'86...

  6. Hybrid superconducting magnetic suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tixador, P.; Hiebel, P.; Brunet, Y.; Chaud, X.; Gautier-Picard, P.

    1996-01-01

    Superconductors, especially high T c ones, are the most attractive materials to design stable and fully passive magnetic suspensions which have to control five degrees of freedom. The hybrid superconducting magnetic suspensions present high performances and a simple cooling mode. They consist of a permanent magnet bearing, stabilized by a suitable magnet-superconductor structure. Several designs are given and compared in terms of forces and stiffnesses. The design of the magnet bearing plays an important part. The superconducting magnetic bearing participates less in levitation but must provide a high stabilizing stiffness. This is achieved by the magnet configuration, a good material in term of critical current density and field cooling. A hybrid superconducting suspension for a flywheel is presented. This system consists of a magnet thrust bearing stabilized by superconductors interacting with an alternating polarity magnet structure. First tests and results are reported. Superconducting materials are magnetically melt-textured YBaCuO

  7. The Power of Hybridization

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Programming languages always seem to do some things well but not others: Python punts when it comes to user interfaces, Java’s artificial complexity prevents rapid development and produces tangles, and it will be awhile before we see benefits from C++ concurrency work. The cognitive load of languages and their blind spots increases the cost of experimentation, impeding your ability to fail fast and iterate. If you use a single language to solve your problem, you are binding yourself to the worldview limitations and the mistakes made by the creator of that language. Consider increasing your wiggle room by crossing language boundaries, complementing a language that is powerful in one area with a different language powerful in another. Language hybridization can speed development to quickly discover your real problems, giving you more time to fix them. After making a case for hybridizing your thinking in general, I will present a number of simple examples; first showing the benefits of using other languages...

  8. Tokamak hybrid study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenney, F.H.

    1976-09-01

    A report on one year of study of a tokamak hybrid reactor is presented. The plasma is maintained by both D and T beams. To obtain long burn times a poloidal field divertor is required. Both the single null and the double null style of divertor are considered. The blanket consists of a neutron multiplier region containing natural uranium followed by burner regions of molten salt (flibe) loaded with PuF 3 to enhance the energy multiplication. Economic analysis has been applied only recently to a variety of reactor sizes and plasma conditions. Early indications suggest that the most attractive hybrids will have large plasmas of major radius in excess of 8 meters

  9. Tokamak hybrid study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenney, F.H.

    1976-01-01

    A report on one year of study of a tokamak hybrid reactor is given. The plasma is maintained by both D and T beams. To obtain long burn times a poloidal field divertor is required. Both the single null and the double null style of divertor are considered. The blanket consists of a neutron multiplier region containing natural uranium followed by burner regions of molten salt (flibe) loaded with PuF 3 to enhance the energy multiplication. Economic analysis has been applied only recently to a variety of reactor sizes and plasma conditions. Early indications suggest that the most attractive hybrids will have large plasmas of major radius in excess of 8 meters

  10. Fusion of neural computing and PLS techniques for load estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, M.; Xue, H.; Cheng, X. [Northwestern Polytechnical Univ., Xi' an (China); Zhang, W. [Xi' an Inst. of Post and Telecommunication, Xi' an (China)

    2007-07-01

    A method to predict the electric load of a power system in real time was presented. The method is based on neurocomputing and partial least squares (PLS). Short-term load forecasts for power systems are generally determined by conventional statistical methods and Computational Intelligence (CI) techniques such as neural computing. However, statistical modeling methods often require the input of questionable distributional assumptions, and neural computing is weak, particularly in determining topology. In order to overcome the problems associated with conventional techniques, the authors developed a CI hybrid model based on neural computation and PLS techniques. The theoretical foundation for the designed CI hybrid model was presented along with its application in a power system. The hybrid model is suitable for nonlinear modeling and latent structure extracting. It can automatically determine the optimal topology to maximize the generalization. The CI hybrid model provides faster convergence and better prediction results compared to the abductive networks model because it incorporates a load conversion technique as well as new transfer functions. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the hybrid model, load forecasting was performed on a data set obtained from the Puget Sound Power and Light Company. Compared with the abductive networks model, the CI hybrid model reduced the forecast error by 32.37 per cent on workday, and by an average of 27.18 per cent on the weekend. It was concluded that the CI hybrid model has a more powerful predictive ability. 7 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  11. An Adaptive Hybrid Multiprocessor technique for bioinformatics sequence alignment

    KAUST Repository

    Bonny, Talal; Salama, Khaled N.; Zidan, Mohammed A.

    2012-01-01

    Sequence alignment algorithms such as the Smith-Waterman algorithm are among the most important applications in the development of bioinformatics. Sequence alignment algorithms must process large amounts of data which may take a long time. Here, we

  12. Implementation of hybrid pollution control techniques to regulate the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    1999-05-13

    May 13, 1999 ... regulate the metal finishing industries in the Ethekwini. Municipality ... ment processes, process control methodology and engineering design. ..... standards. There were many barriers that had to be overcome, the most.

  13. Hybrid hydrogels produces by ionizing radiation technique for drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.J.A.; Parra, D.F.; Lugao, A.B.; Amato, V.S.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Interest in the preparation of biocompatible hydrogels with various properties has increased considerably in recent years due to their versatile applications in biomedicine, biotechnology, pharmacy, agriculture and controlled release of drugs. The use of hydrogels matrices for particular drug-release applications has been investigated with the synthesis of modified polymeric hydrogel of PVAl, PEG and 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% nano-clay. They were processed using gamma radiation from Cobalt-60 source at 25 kGy dose. The characterization of the hydrogels was conducted and toxicity was evaluated. The dried hydrogel was analyzed for thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), infrared spectroscopic analysis (FTIR), swelling in solutions of different pH and gel determinations. The membranes have no toxicity and the gel content reveals the reticulation. The nano-clay influences directly the equilibrium swelling. Acknowledgement: Support by FAPESP 09/50926-1, FAPESP Process no. 2009/18627-4 CNPq Process no. 310849/2009-8, CAPES, IPEN/CNEN.

  14. A Hybridized Centroid Technique for 3D Molodensky-Badekas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Richannan

    the same point in a second reference frame (Ghilani, 2010). ... widely used approach by most researchers to compute values of centroid coordinates in the ... choice of centroid method on the Veis model has been investigated by Ziggah et al.

  15. Hybrid undulator numerical optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hairetdinov, A.H. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zukov, A.A. [Solid State Physics Institute, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    3D properties of the hybrid undulator scheme arc studied numerically using PANDIRA code. It is shown that there exist two well defined sets of undulator parameters which provide either maximum on-axis field amplitude or minimal higher harmonics amplitude of the basic undulator field. Thus the alternative between higher field amplitude or pure sinusoidal field exists. The behavior of the undulator field amplitude and harmonics structure for a large set of (undulator gap)/(undulator wavelength) values is demonstrated.

  16. Hybrid electroluminescent devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiang, Joseph John; Duggal, Anil Raj; Michael, Joseph Darryl

    2010-08-03

    A hybrid electroluminescent (EL) device comprises at least one inorganic diode element and at least one organic EL element that are electrically connected in series. The absolute value of the breakdown voltage of the inorganic diode element is greater than the absolute value of the maximum reverse bias voltage across the series. The inorganic diode element can be a power diode, a Schottky barrier diode, or a light-emitting diode.

  17. Mirror hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    The fusion-fission hybrid is a combination of the fusion and fission processes, having features which are complementary. Fission energy is running out of readily available fuel, and fusion has extra neutrons which can be used to breed that fission fuel. Fusion would have to take on an extra burden of radioactivity, but this early application would give fusion, which does not work well enough now to make power, practical experience which may accelerate development of pure fusion

  18. The challenge of hybridization

    CERN Document Server

    Caccia, Massimo

    2000-01-01

    Hybridization of pixel detector systems has to satisfy tight requirements: high yield, long term reliability, mechanical stability, thermal compliance and robustness have to go together with low passive mass added to the system, radiation hardness, flexibility in the technology end eventually low cost. The current technologies for the interconnection of the front-end chips and the sensor are reviewed and compared, together with the solutions for the interface to the far-end electronics.

  19. Decomposition techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Sample decomposition is a fundamental and integral step in the procedure of geochemical analysis. It is often the limiting factor to sample throughput, especially with the recent application of the fast and modern multi-element measurement instrumentation. The complexity of geological materials makes it necessary to choose the sample decomposition technique that is compatible with the specific objective of the analysis. When selecting a decomposition technique, consideration should be given to the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the sample, elements to be determined, precision and accuracy requirements, sample throughput, technical capability of personnel, and time constraints. This paper addresses these concerns and discusses the attributes and limitations of many techniques of sample decomposition along with examples of their application to geochemical analysis. The chemical properties of reagents as to their function as decomposition agents are also reviewed. The section on acid dissolution techniques addresses the various inorganic acids that are used individually or in combination in both open and closed systems. Fluxes used in sample fusion are discussed. The promising microwave-oven technology and the emerging field of automation are also examined. A section on applications highlights the use of decomposition techniques for the determination of Au, platinum group elements (PGEs), Hg, U, hydride-forming elements, rare earth elements (REEs), and multi-elements in geological materials. Partial dissolution techniques used for geochemical exploration which have been treated in detail elsewhere are not discussed here; nor are fire-assaying for noble metals and decomposition techniques for X-ray fluorescence or nuclear methods be discussed. ?? 1992.

  20. Asymmetric Hybrid Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chumanov, George [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2015-11-05

    Hybrid Nanoparticles (AHNs) are rationally-designed multifunctional nanostructures and novel building blocks for the next generation of advanced materials and devices. Nanoscale materials attract considerable interest because of their unusual properties and potential for practical applications. Most of the activity in this field is focused on the synthesis of homogeneous nanoparticles from metals, metal oxides, semiconductors, and polymers. It is well recognized that properties of nanoparticles can be further enhanced if they are made as hybrid structures. This program is concerned with the synthesis, characterization, and application of such hybrid structures termed AHNs. AHNs are composed of a homogeneous core and several caps of different materials deposited on its surface (Fig. 1). Combined properties of the core and the caps as well as new properties that arise from core-cap and cap-cap interactions render AHNs multifunctional. In addition, specific chemical reactivity of the caps enables directional self-assembly of AHNs into complex architectures that are not possible with only spherical nanoparticles.

  1. Hybrid2 - The hybrid power system simulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.; Green, H.J.; Dijk, V.A.P. van [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Manwell, J.F. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    There is a large-scale need and desire for energy in remote communities, especially in the developing world; however the lack of a user friendly, flexible performance prediction model for hybrid power systems incorporating renewables hindered the analysis of hybrids as options to conventional solutions. A user friendly model was needed with the versatility to simulate the many system locations, widely varying hardware configurations, and differing control options for potential hybrid power systems. To meet these ends, researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the University of Massachusetts (UMass) developed the Hybrid2 software. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities, features, and functionality of the Hybrid2 code, discusses its validation and future plans. Model availability and technical support provided to Hybrid2 users are also discussed. 12 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Hybrid scatterometry measurement for BEOL process control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoney, Padraig; Vaid, Alok; Kang, Byeong Cheol; Liu, Haibo; Isbester, Paul; Cheng, Marjorie; Ng-Emans, Susan; Yellai, Naren; Sendelbach, Matt; Koret, Roy; Gedalia, Oram

    2017-03-01

    Scaling of interconnect design rules in advanced nodes has been accompanied by a reducing metrology budget for BEOL process control. Traditional inline optical metrology measurements of BEOL processes rely on 1-dimensional (1D) film pads to characterize film thickness. Such pads are designed on the assumption that solid copper blocks from previous metallization layers prevent any light from penetrating through the copper, thus simplifying the effective film stack for the 1D optical model. However, the reduction of the copper thickness in each metallization layer and CMP dishing effects within the pad, have introduced undesired noise in the measurement. To resolve this challenge and to measure structures that are more representative of product, scatterometry has been proposed as an alternative measurement. Scatterometry is a diffraction based optical measurement technique using Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA), where light diffracted from a periodic structure is used to characterize the profile. Scatterometry measurements on 3D structures have been shown to demonstrate strong correlation to electrical resistance parameters for BEOL Etch and CMP processes. However, there is significant modeling complexity in such 3D scatterometry models, in particlar due to complexity of front-end-of-line (FEOL) and middle-of-line (MOL) structures. The accompanying measurement noise associated with such structures can contribute significant measurement error. To address the measurement noise of the 3D structures and the impact of incoming process variation, a hybrid scatterometry technique is proposed that utilizes key information from the structure to significantly reduce the measurement uncertainty of the scatterometry measurement. Hybrid metrology combines measurements from two or more metrology techniques to enable or improve the measurement of a critical parameter. In this work, the hybrid scatterometry technique is evaluated for 7nm and 14nm node BEOL measurements of

  3. Assume-Guarantee Abstraction Refinement Meets Hybrid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolov, Sergiy; Frehse, Goran; Greitschus, Marius; Grosu, Radu; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Podelski, Andreas; Strump, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Compositional verification techniques in the assume- guarantee style have been successfully applied to transition systems to efficiently reduce the search space by leveraging the compositional nature of the systems under consideration. We adapt these techniques to the domain of hybrid systems with affine dynamics. To build assumptions we introduce an abstraction based on location merging. We integrate the assume-guarantee style analysis with automatic abstraction refinement. We have implemented our approach in the symbolic hybrid model checker SpaceEx. The evaluation shows its practical potential. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work combining assume-guarantee reasoning with automatic abstraction-refinement in the context of hybrid automata.

  4. Effect of layering sequence and chemical treatment on the mechanical properties of woven kenaf–aramid hybrid laminated composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahaya, R.; Sapuan, S.M.; Jawaid, M.; Leman, Z.; Zainudin, E.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The mechanical properties of woven kenaf/Kevlar hybrid composites were analysed. • The layering sequences affect the mechanical properties of hybrid composites. • Treated kenaf improves the mechanical properties of hybrid composites. - Abstract: This work aims to evaluate the effect of layering sequence and chemical treatment on mechanical properties of woven kenaf–Kevlar composites. Woven kenaf–aramid hybrid laminated composites fabricated through hand lay-up techniques by arranging woven kenaf and Kevlar fabrics in different layering sequences and by using treated kenaf mat. To evaluate the effect of chemical treatment on hybrid composites, the woven kenaf mat was treated with 6% sodium hydroxide (NaOH) diluted solution and compared mechanical properties with untreated kenaf hybrid composites. Results shows that the tensile properties of hybrid composites improved in 3-layer composites compared to 4-layer composites. Hybrid composite with Kevlar as outer layers display a better mechanical properties as compared to other hybrid composites. Tensile and flexural properties of treated hybrid composites are better than non-treated hybrid composites. The fractured surface of hybrid composites was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. This study is a part of exploration of potential application of the hybrid composite in high velocity impact application

  5. Fluorescence in situ hybridization on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laub Petersen, Bodil; Zeuthen, Mette Christa; Pedersen, Sanni

    2004-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is widely used to study numerical and structural genetic abnormalities in both metaphase and interphase cells. The technique is based on the hybridization of labeled probes to complementary sequences in the DNA or RNA of the cells. Interphase FISH is most...... in time lapse between removal of tissue and fixation, duration of fixation, enzymatic pretreatment, hybridization conditions, and posthybridization washing conditions are important factors in the hybridization. In this study, we have listed the results of a systematic approach to improve FISH on isolated...

  6. Gas-Transport-Property Performance of Hybrid Carbon Molecular Sieve−Polymer Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Mita; Perry, John D.; Koros, William J.

    2010-01-01

    agglomeration and residual stress, were addressed in this work, and subsequently a new membrane formation technique was developed to produce high-performing membranes. The successfully improved interfacial region of the hybrid membranes allows the sieves

  7. First-Order Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid logic is an extension of modal logic which allows us to refer explicitly to points of the model in the syntax of formulas. It is easy to justify interest in hybrid logic on applied grounds, with the usefulness of the additional expressive power. For example, when reasoning about time one...... often wants to build up a series of assertions about what happens at a particular instant, and standard modal formalisms do not allow this. What is less obvious is that the route hybrid logic takes to overcome this problem often actually improves the behaviour of the underlying modal formalism....... For example, it becomes far simpler to formulate proof-systems for hybrid logic, and completeness results can be proved of a generality that is simply not available in modal logic. That is, hybridization is a systematic way of remedying a number of known deficiencies of modal logic. First-order hybrid logic...

  8. Neutron techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    The way in which neutrons interact with matter such as slowing-down, diffusion, neutron absorption and moderation are described. The use of neutron techniques in industry, in moisture gages, level and interface measurements, the detection of blockages, boron analysis in ore feedstock and industrial radiography are discussed. (author)

  9. Hybrid solar lighting distribution systems and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D [Lenoir City, TN; Earl, Dennis D [Knoxville, TN; Beshears, David L [Knoxville, TN; Maxey, Lonnie C [Powell, TN; Jordan, John K [Oak Ridge, TN; Lind, Randall F [Lenoir City, TN

    2011-07-05

    A hybrid solar lighting distribution system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates all components.

  10. Completeness in Hybrid Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Areces, Carlos; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    We show that basic hybridization (adding nominals and @ operators) makes it possible to give straightforward Henkin-style completeness proofs even when the modal logic being hybridized is higher-order. The key ideas are to add nominals as expressions of type t, and to extend to arbitrary types th......-style intensional models; we build, as simply as we can, hybrid logicover Henkin’s logic...

  11. Characteristics of CoPc/CdS hybrid diode device

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    CdS/CoPc hybrid heterojunctions were fabricated and characterized. CdS films were deposited by the spray pyrolysis technique on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrates and ... ing solution was prepared by dissolving 0.025 M CdCl2.

  12. Model-based health monitoring of hybrid systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Danwei; Low, Chang Boon; Arogeti, Shai

    2013-01-01

    Offers in-depth comprehensive study on health monitoring for hybrid systems Includes new concepts, such as GARR, mode tracking and multiple failure prognosis Contains many examples, making the developed techniques easily understandable and accessible Introduces state-of-the-art algorithms and methodologies from experienced researchers

  13. Convergence of hybrid methods for solving non-linear partial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is concerned with the numerical solution and convergence analysis of non-linear partial differential equations using a hybrid method. The solution technique involves discretizing the non-linear system of PDE to obtain a corresponding non-linear system of algebraic difference equations to be solved at each time ...

  14. THE ELECTRIC DRIVE FOR A CONVERSION HYBRID CAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bazhinov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of converting a car with an internal combustion engine and manual transmission in a hybrid is regarded. Is regarded the technique of choosing the parameters of the electric and simple technical solution to achieve the efficient operation of the brushless electric motor in the traction mode and into recovery mode.

  15. Confinement Effects in Low-Dimensional Lead Iodide Perovskite Hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, Machteld E.; Fang, Honghua; Filip, Marina R.; Giustino, Feliciano; Baas, Jacobus; Blake, Graeme R.; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Palstra, Thomas T. M.

    2016-01-01

    We use a layered solution crystal growth technique to synthesize high-quality single crystals of phenylalkylammonium lead iodide organic/inorganic hybrid compounds. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction reveals low-dimensional structures consisting of inorganic sheets separated by bilayers of the organic

  16. Hybrid computer optimization of systems with random parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R. C., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A hybrid computer Monte Carlo technique for the simulation and optimization of systems with random parameters is presented. The method is applied to the simultaneous optimization of the means and variances of two parameters in the radar-homing missile problem treated by McGhee and Levine.

  17. The new era of cardiac surgery: hybrid therapy for cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solenkova, Natalia V; Umakanthan, Ramanan; Leacche, Marzia; Zhao, David X; Byrne, John G

    2010-11-01

    Surgical therapy for cardiovascular disease carries excellent long-term outcomes but it is relatively invasive. With the development of new devices and techniques, modern cardiovascular surgery is trending toward less invasive approaches, especially for patients at high risk for traditional open heart surgery. A hybrid strategy combines traditional surgical treatments performed in the operating room with treatments traditionally available only in the catheterization laboratory with the goal of offering patients the best available therapy for any set of cardiovascular diseases. Examples of hybrid procedures include hybrid coronary artery bypass grafting, hybrid valve surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention, hybrid endocardial and epicardial atrial fibrillation procedures, and hybrid coronary artery bypass grafting/carotid artery stenting. This multidisciplinary approach requires strong collaboration between cardiac surgeons, vascular surgeons, and interventional cardiologists to obtain optimal patient outcomes.

  18. Special Issue: New trends and applications on hybrid artificial intelligence systems

    OpenAIRE

    Corchado Rodríguez, Emilio; Graña Romay, Manuel; Woźniak, MichaŁ

    2017-01-01

    This Special Issue is an outgrowth of the HAIS'10, the 5th International Conference on Hybrid Artificial Intelligence Systems, which was held in San Sebastián, Spain, 23–25 June 2010. The HAIS conference series is devoted to the presentation of innovative techniques involving the hybridization of emerging and active topics in data mining and decision support systems, information fusion, evolutionary computation, visualization techniques, ensemble models, intelligent agent-based systems (compl...

  19. Multilevel Hybrid Chernoff Tau-Leap

    KAUST Repository

    Moraes, Alvaro

    2016-01-06

    Markovian pure jump processes can model many phenomena, e.g. chemical reactions at molecular level, protein transcription and translation, spread of epidemics diseases in small populations and in wireless communication networks, among many others. In this work [6] we present a novel multilevel algorithm for the Chernoff-based hybrid tauleap algorithm. This variance reduction technique allows us to: (a) control the global exit probability of any simulated trajectory, (b) obtain accurate and computable estimates for the expected value of any smooth observable of the process with minimal computational work.

  20. Multilevel Hybrid Chernoff Tau-Leap

    KAUST Repository

    Moraes, Alvaro

    2015-01-07

    Markovian pure jump processes can model many phenomena, e.g. chemical reactions at molecular level, protein transcription and translation, spread of epidemics diseases in small populations and in wireless communication networks, among many others. In this work [6] we present a novel multilevel algorithm for the Chernoff-based hybrid tauleap algorithm. This variance reduction technique allows us to: (a) control the global exit probability of any simulated trajectory, (b) obtain accurate and computable estimates for the expected value of any smooth observable of the process with minimal computational work.

  1. Multilevel Hybrid Chernoff Tau-Leap

    KAUST Repository

    Moraes, Alvaro

    2014-01-06

    Markovian pure jump processes can model many phenomena, e.g. chemical reactions at molecular level, protein transcription and translation, spread of epidemics diseases in small populations and in wireless communication networks, among many others. In this work [6] we present a novel multilevel algorithm for the Chernoff-based hybrid tauleap algorithm. This variance reduction technique allows us to: (a) control the global exit probability of any simulated trajectory, (b) obtain accurate and computable estimates for the expected value of any smooth observable of the process with minimal computational work.

  2. High-density hybrid interconnect methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, J.; Zimmermann, L.; Moor, P.De; Hoof, C.Van

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The presentation gives an overview of the state-of-the-art of hybrid integration and in particular the IMEC technological approaches that will be able to address future hybrid detector needs. The dense hybrid flip-chip integration of an array of detectors and its dedicated readout electronics can be achieved with a variety of solderbump techniques such as pure Indium or Indium alloys, Ph-In, Ni/PbSn, but also conducting polymers... Particularly for cooled applications or ultra-high density applications, Indium solderbump technology (electroplated or evaporated) is the method of choice. The state-of-the-art of solderbump technologies that are to a high degree independent of the underlying detector material will be presented and examples of interconnect densities between 5x1E4cm-2 and 1x1E6 cm-2 will be demonstrated. For several classes of detectors, flip-chip integration is not allowed since the detectors have to be illuminated from the top. This applies to image sensors for EUV applications such as GaN/AlGaN based detectors and to MEMS-based sensors. In such cases, the only viable interconnection method has to be through the (thinned) detector wafer followed by a solderbump-based integration. The approaches for dense and ultra-dense through-the-wafer interconnect 'vias' will be presented and wafer thinning approaches will be shown

  3. Hybrid discrete-time neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hongjun; Ibarz, Borja

    2010-11-13

    Hybrid dynamical systems combine evolution equations with state transitions. When the evolution equations are discrete-time (also called map-based), the result is a hybrid discrete-time system. A class of biological neural network models that has recently received some attention falls within this category: map-based neuron models connected by means of fast threshold modulation (FTM). FTM is a connection scheme that aims to mimic the switching dynamics of a neuron subject to synaptic inputs. The dynamic equations of the neuron adopt different forms according to the state (either firing or not firing) and type (excitatory or inhibitory) of their presynaptic neighbours. Therefore, the mathematical model of one such network is a combination of discrete-time evolution equations with transitions between states, constituting a hybrid discrete-time (map-based) neural network. In this paper, we review previous work within the context of these models, exemplifying useful techniques to analyse them. Typical map-based neuron models are low-dimensional and amenable to phase-plane analysis. In bursting models, fast-slow decomposition can be used to reduce dimensionality further, so that the dynamics of a pair of connected neurons can be easily understood. We also discuss a model that includes electrical synapses in addition to chemical synapses with FTM. Furthermore, we describe how master stability functions can predict the stability of synchronized states in these networks. The main results are extended to larger map-based neural networks.

  4. Glueballs, hybrids, multiquarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klempt, Eberhard [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen-und Kernphysik der Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms Universitaet, Nussallee 14-16, D-53115 Bonn (Germany)], E-mail: klempt@hiskp.uni-bonn.de; Zaitsev, Alexander [Institute for High-Energy Physics, Moscow Region, RU-142284 Protvino (Russian Federation)

    2007-12-15

    Glueballs, hybrids and multiquark states are predicted as bound states in models guided by quantum chromo dynamics (QCD), by QCD sum rules or QCD on a lattice. Estimates for the (scalar) glueball ground state are in the mass range from 1000 to 1800 MeV, followed by a tensor and a pseudoscalar glueball at higher mass. Experiments have reported evidence for an abundance of meson resonances with 0{sup -+},0{sup ++} and 2{sup ++} quantum numbers. In particular, the sector of scalar mesons is full of surprises starting from the elusive {sigma} and {kappa} mesons. The a{sub 0}(980) and f{sub 0}(980), discussed extensively in the literature, are reviewed with emphasis on their Janus-like appearance as KK-bar molecules, tetraquark states or qq-bar mesons. Most exciting is the possibility that the three mesons f{sub 0}(1370), f{sub 0}(1500), and f{sub 0}(1710) might reflect the appearance of a scalar glueball in the world of quarkonia. However, the existence of f{sub 0}(1370) is not beyond doubt and there is evidence that both f{sub 0}(1500) and f{sub 0}(1710) are flavour octet states, possibly in a tetraquark composition. We suggest a scheme in which the scalar glueball is dissolved into the wide background into which all scalar flavour-singlet mesons collapse. There is an abundance of meson resonances with the quantum numbers of the {eta}. Three states are reported below 1.5GeV/c{sup 2} whereas quark models expect only one, perhaps two. One of these states, {iota}(1440), was the prime glueball candidate for a long time. We show that {iota}(1440) is the first radial excitation of the {eta} meson. Hybrids may have exotic quantum numbers which are not accessible by qq-bar mesons. There are several claims for J{sup PC}=1{sup -+} exotics, some of them with properties as predicted from the flux tube model interpreting the quark-antiquark binding by a gluon string. The evidence for these states depends partly on the assumption that meson-meson interactions are dominated by s

  5. Epigenetic patterns newly established after interspecific hybridization in natural populations of Solanum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cara, Nicolás; Marfil, Carlos F; Masuelli, Ricardo W

    2013-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization is known for triggering genetic and epigenetic changes, such as modifications on DNA methylation patterns and impact on phenotypic plasticity and ecological adaptation. Wild potatoes (Solanum, section Petota) are adapted to multiple habitats along the Andes, and natural hybridizations have proven to be a common feature among species of this group. Solanum × rechei, a recently formed hybrid that grows sympatrically with the parental species S. kurtzianum and S. microdontum, represents an ideal model for studying the ecologically and evolutionary importance of hybridization in generating of epigenetic variability. Genetic and epigenetic variability and their correlation with morphological variation were investigated in wild and ex situ conserved populations of these three wild potato species using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) techniques. We observed that novel methylation patterns doubled the number of novel genetic patterns in the hybrid and that the morphological variability measured on 30 characters had a higher correlation with the epigenetic than with the genetic variability. Statistical comparison of methylation levels suggested that the interspecific hybridization induces genome demethylation in the hybrids. A Bayesian analysis of the genetic data reveled the hybrid nature of S. × rechei, with genotypes displaying high levels of admixture with the parental species, while the epigenetic information assigned S. × rechei to its own cluster with low admixture. These findings suggested that after the hybridization event, a novel epigenetic pattern was rapidly established, which might influence the phenotypic plasticity and adaptation of the hybrid to new environments. PMID:24198938

  6. Indexical Hybrid Tense Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we explore the logic of now, yesterday, today and tomorrow by combining the semantic approach to indexicality pioneered by Hans Kamp [9] and refined by David Kaplan [10] with hybrid tense logic. We first introduce a special now nominal (our @now corresponds to Kamp’s original now...... operator N) and prove completeness results for both logical and contextual validity. We then add propositional constants to handle yesterday, today and tomorrow; our system correctly treats sentences like “Niels will die yesterday” as contextually unsatisfiable. Building on our completeness results for now......, we prove completeness for the richer language, again for both logical and contextual validity....

  7. Hybrid Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Chao, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Dark matter can be produced in the early universe via the freeze-in or freeze-out mechanisms. Both scenarios were investigated in references, but the production of dark matters via the combination of these two mechanisms are not addressed. In this paper we propose a hybrid dark matter model where dark matters have two components with one component produced thermally and the other one produced non-thermally. We present for the first time the analytical calculation for the relic abundance of th...

  8. Reflections on Intellectual Hybridity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimala Price

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from the growing literature on interdisciplinarity and my own experiences as an intellectual hybrid, I discuss the personal and institutional challenges inherent in crossing disciplinary boundaries in the academy. I argue that boundary crossing is a natural occurrence and that the issue of (interdisciplinarity is a matter of degree and of determining who gets to define the boundaries. Defining boundaries is not merely an intellectual enterprise, but also a political act that delineates what is, or is not, legitimate scholarship. This issue is especially salient to women's and gender studies during times of economic distress and educational budget cuts.

  9. The Hybrid Advantage: Graduate Student Perspectives of Hybrid Education Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sarah; Villareal, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid courses combine online and face-to-face learning environments. To organize and teach hybrid courses, instructors must understand the uses of multiple online learning tools and face-toface classroom activities to promote and monitor the progress of students. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the perspectives of…

  10. Hybrid vehicle potential assessment. Volume 7: Hybrid vehicle review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leschly, K. O.

    1979-01-01

    Review of hybrid vehicles built during the past ten years or planned to be built in the near future is presented. An attempt is made to classify and analyze these vehicles to get an overall picture of their key characteristics. The review includes onroad hybrid passenger cars, trucks, vans, and buses.

  11. Astrophysical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kitchin, CR

    2013-01-01

    DetectorsOptical DetectionRadio and Microwave DetectionX-Ray and Gamma-Ray DetectionCosmic Ray DetectorsNeutrino DetectorsGravitational Radiation Dark Matter and Dark Energy Detection ImagingThe Inverse ProblemPhotographyElectronic ImagingScanningInterferometrySpeckle InterferometryOccultationsRadarElectronic ImagesPhotometryPhotometryPhotometersSpectroscopySpectroscopy SpectroscopesOther TechniquesAstrometryPolarimetrySolar StudiesMagnetometryComputers and The Internet.

  12. Presentation Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froejmark, M.

    1992-10-01

    The report presents a wide, easily understandable description of presentation technique and man-machine communication. General fundamentals for the man-machine interface are illustrated, and the factors that affect the interface are described. A model is presented for describing the operators work situation, based on three different levels in the operators behaviour. The operator reacts routinely in the face of simple, known problems, and reacts in accordance with predetermined plans in the face of more complex, recognizable problems. Deep fundamental knowledge is necessary for truly complex questions. Today's technical status and future development have been studied. In the future, the operator interface will be based on standard software. Functions such as zooming, integration of video pictures, and sound reproduction will become common. Video walls may be expected to come into use in situations in which several persons simultaneously need access to the same information. A summary of the fundamental rules for the design of good picture ergonomics and design requirements for control rooms are included in the report. In conclusion, the report describes a presentation technique within the Distribution Automation and Demand Side Management area and analyses the know-how requirements within Vattenfall. If different systems are integrated, such as geographical information systems and operation monitoring systems, strict demands are made on the expertise of the users for achieving a user-friendly technique which is matched to the needs of the human being. (3 figs.)

  13. Hybridization properties of long nucleic acid probes for detection of variable target sequences, and development of a hybridization prediction algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öhrmalm, Christina; Jobs, Magnus; Eriksson, Ronnie; Golbob, Sultan; Elfaitouri, Amal; Benachenhou, Farid; Strømme, Maria; Blomberg, Jonas

    2010-01-01

    One of the main problems in nucleic acid-based techniques for detection of infectious agents, such as influenza viruses, is that of nucleic acid sequence variation. DNA probes, 70-nt long, some including the nucleotide analog deoxyribose-Inosine (dInosine), were analyzed for hybridization tolerance to different amounts and distributions of mismatching bases, e.g. synonymous mutations, in target DNA. Microsphere-linked 70-mer probes were hybridized in 3M TMAC buffer to biotinylated single-stranded (ss) DNA for subsequent analysis in a Luminex® system. When mismatches interrupted contiguous matching stretches of 6 nt or longer, it had a strong impact on hybridization. Contiguous matching stretches are more important than the same number of matching nucleotides separated by mismatches into several regions. dInosine, but not 5-nitroindole, substitutions at mismatching positions stabilized hybridization remarkably well, comparable to N (4-fold) wobbles in the same positions. In contrast to shorter probes, 70-nt probes with judiciously placed dInosine substitutions and/or wobble positions were remarkably mismatch tolerant, with preserved specificity. An algorithm, NucZip, was constructed to model the nucleation and zipping phases of hybridization, integrating both local and distant binding contributions. It predicted hybridization more exactly than previous algorithms, and has the potential to guide the design of variation-tolerant yet specific probes. PMID:20864443

  14. Nonminimally coupled hybrid inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Seoktae; Minamitsuji, Masato

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the hybrid inflation model where the inflaton field is nonminimally coupled to gravity. In the Jordan frame, the potential contains φ 4 term as well as terms in the original hybrid inflation model. In our model, inflation can be classified into the type (I) and the type (II). In the type (I), inflation is terminated by the tachyonic instability of the waterfall field, while in the type (II) by the violation of slow-roll conditions. In our model, the reheating takes place only at the true minimum and even in the case (II) finally the tachyonic instability occurs after the termination of inflation. For a negative nonminimal coupling, inflation takes place in the vacuum-dominated region, in the large field region, or near the local minimum/maximum. Inflation in the vacuum-dominated region becomes either the type (I) or (II), resulting in a blue or red spectrum of the curvature perturbations, respectively. Inflation around the local maximum can be either the type (I) or the type (II), which results in the red spectrum of the curvature perturbations, while around the local minimum it must be the type (I), which results in the blue spectrum. In the large field region, to terminate inflation, potential in the Einstein frame must be positively tilted, always resulting in the red spectrum. We then numerically solve the equations of motion to investigate the whole dynamics of inflaton and confirm that the spectrum of curvature perturbations changes from red to blue ones as scales become smaller.

  15. Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

  16. Hybrid spread spectrum radio system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen F [London, TN; Dress, William B [Camas, WA

    2010-02-09

    Systems and methods are described for hybrid spread spectrum radio systems. A method, includes receiving a hybrid spread spectrum signal including: fast frequency hopping demodulating and direct sequence demodulating a direct sequence spread spectrum signal, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time and each bit is represented by chip transmissions at multiple frequencies.

  17. The governance of hybrid organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spear, Roger; Cornforth, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this chapter is on the governance of third sector organizations (TSOs) and the challenges that are raised by hybridity. In particular it will focus on the question how does hybridity affect governance structures and processes and the challenges that governing bodies face?...

  18. Electric/Hybrid Vehicle Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusser, R. A.; Chapman, C. P.; Brennand, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    ELVEC computer program provides vehicle designer with simulation tool for detailed studies of electric and hybrid vehicle performance and cost. ELVEC simulates performance of user-specified electric or hybrid vehicle under user specified driving schedule profile or operating schedule. ELVEC performs vehicle design and life cycle cost analysis.

  19. Electric-hybrid-vehicle simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasma, D. C.

    The simulation of electric hybrid vehicles is to be performed using experimental data to model propulsion system components. The performance of an existing ac propulsion system will be used as the baseline for comparative purposes. Hybrid components to be evaluated include electrically and mechanically driven flywheels, and an elastomeric regenerative braking system.

  20. Design Principles for Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    For many years mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately. Naturally, the next step in this development is the development of ventilation concepts that utilize and combine the best features from each system to create a new type of ventilation system -Hybrid Ventilation. ....... The hybrid ventilation concepts, design challenges and - principles are discussed and illustrated by four building examples....