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Sample records for hybrid encoding method

  1. Design Hybrid Methods for Encoding Prior Knowledge in Feedforward Network with Application in Chemical Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENChongwei; CHENDezhao

    2002-01-01

    Three-layer feedforward networks have been widely used in modeling chemical engineering processes and prior-knowledge-based methods have been introduced to improve their performances.In this paper,we propose the methodology of designing better prior-knowledge-based hybrid methods by combining the existing ones. Then according to this methodology,two hybrid methods,interpolation-optimization (IO) method and interpolation penalty-function (IPF) method,are designed as examples.Finally,both methods are applied to modeling two cases in chemical engineering to investigate their effectiveness.Simulation results show that the performances of the hybrid methods are better than those of their parents.

  2. Hybrid polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye; Shaghasi, Tarana

    2016-11-01

    The present invention provides hybrid polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity. The present invention also provides polynucleotides encoding the hybrid polypeptides; nucleic acid constructs, vectors and host cells comprising the polynucleotides; and processes of using the hybrid polypeptides.

  3. A METHOD OF SHAPE ENCODING AND RETRIEVAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Xianglin; Song Lei; Shen Lansun

    2002-01-01

    A method of shape encoding and retrieval is proposed in this letter, which uses centripetal code to encode shape and extracts shape's convex for retrieval. For the rotation invariance and translation invariance of the centripetal code and the normalization of convex,the proposed retrieval method is similarity transform resistant, Experimental results confirm this capability.

  4. A hybrid quantum encoding algorithm of vector quantization for image compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pang Chao-Yang; Zhou Zheng-Wei; Guo Guang-Can

    2006-01-01

    Many classical encoding algorithms of vector quantization (VQ) of image compression that can obtain global optimal solution have computational complexity O(N). A pure quantum VQ encoding algorithm with probability of success near 100% has been proposed, that performs operations 45√N times approximately. In this paper, a hybrid quantum VQ encoding algorithm between the classical method and the quantum algorithm is presented. The number of its operations is less than √N for most images, and it is more efficient than the pure quantum algorithm.

  5. Universal quantum computation using all-optical hybrid encoding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭奇; 程留永; 王洪福; 张寿

    2015-01-01

    By employing displacement operations, single-photon subtractions, and weak cross-Kerr nonlinearity, we propose an alternative way of implementing several universal quantum logical gates for all-optical hybrid qubits encoded in both single-photon polarization state and coherent state. Since these schemes can be straightforwardly implemented only using local operations without teleportation procedure, therefore, less physical resources and simpler operations are required than the existing schemes. With the help of displacement operations, a large phase shift of the coherent state can be obtained via currently available tiny cross-Kerr nonlinearity. Thus, all of these schemes are nearly deterministic and feasible under current technology conditions, which makes them suitable for large-scale quantum computing.

  6. Novel encoding methods for DNA-templated chemical libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Zheng, Wenlu; Liu, Ying; Li, Xiaoyu

    2015-06-01

    Among various types of DNA-encoded chemical libraries, DNA-templated library takes advantage of the sequence-specificity of DNA hybridization, enabling not only highly effective DNA-templated chemical reactions, but also high fidelity in library encoding. This brief review summarizes recent advances that have been made on the encoding strategies for DNA-templated libraries, and it also highlights their respective advantages and limitations for the preparation of DNA-encoded libraries.

  7. Nonlinear inversion of potential-field data using a hybrid-encoding genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Xia, J.; Liu, J.; Feng, G.

    2006-01-01

    Using a genetic algorithm to solve an inverse problem of complex nonlinear geophysical equations is advantageous because it does not require computer gradients of models or "good" initial models. The multi-point search of a genetic algorithm makes it easier to find the globally optimal solution while avoiding falling into a local extremum. As is the case in other optimization approaches, the search efficiency for a genetic algorithm is vital in finding desired solutions successfully in a multi-dimensional model space. A binary-encoding genetic algorithm is hardly ever used to resolve an optimization problem such as a simple geophysical inversion with only three unknowns. The encoding mechanism, genetic operators, and population size of the genetic algorithm greatly affect search processes in the evolution. It is clear that improved operators and proper population size promote the convergence. Nevertheless, not all genetic operations perform perfectly while searching under either a uniform binary or a decimal encoding system. With the binary encoding mechanism, the crossover scheme may produce more new individuals than with the decimal encoding. On the other hand, the mutation scheme in a decimal encoding system will create new genes larger in scope than those in the binary encoding. This paper discusses approaches of exploiting the search potential of genetic operations in the two encoding systems and presents an approach with a hybrid-encoding mechanism, multi-point crossover, and dynamic population size for geophysical inversion. We present a method that is based on the routine in which the mutation operation is conducted in the decimal code and multi-point crossover operation in the binary code. The mix-encoding algorithm is called the hybrid-encoding genetic algorithm (HEGA). HEGA provides better genes with a higher probability by a mutation operator and improves genetic algorithms in resolving complicated geophysical inverse problems. Another significant

  8. Reading Neural Encodings using Phase Space Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Abarbanel, Henry D I; Abarbanel, Henry D I; Tumer, Evren C.

    2003-01-01

    Environmental signals sensed by nervous systems are often represented in spike trains carried from sensory neurons to higher neural functions where decisions and functional actions occur. Information about the environmental stimulus is contained (encoded) in the train of spikes. We show how to "read" the encoding using state space methods of nonlinear dynamics. We create a mapping from spike signals which are output from the neural processing system back to an estimate of the analog input signal. This mapping is realized locally in a reconstructed state space embodying both the dynamics of the source of the sensory signal and the dynamics of the neural circuit doing the processing. We explore this idea using a Hodgkin-Huxley conductance based neuron model and input from a low dimensional dynamical system, the Lorenz system. We show that one may accurately learn the dynamical input/output connection and estimate with high precision the details of the input signals from spike timing output alone. This form of "...

  9. Hybrid codes: Methods and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winske, D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Omidi, N. (California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (USA))

    1991-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss hybrid'' algorithms used in the study of low frequency electromagnetic phenomena, where one or more ion species are treated kinetically via standard PIC methods used in particle codes and the electrons are treated as a single charge neutralizing massless fluid. Other types of hybrid models are possible, as discussed in Winske and Quest, but hybrid codes with particle ions and massless fluid electrons have become the most common for simulating space plasma physics phenomena in the last decade, as we discuss in this paper.

  10. Hybrid particles and associated methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert V; Rodriguez, Rene; Pak, Joshua J; Sun, Chivin

    2015-02-10

    Hybrid particles that comprise a coating surrounding a chalcopyrite material, the coating comprising a metal, a semiconductive material, or a polymer; a core comprising a chalcopyrite material and a shell comprising a functionalized chalcopyrite material, the shell enveloping the core; or a reaction product of a chalcopyrite material and at least one of a reagent, heat, and radiation. Methods of forming the hybrid particles are also disclosed.

  11. An improved hybrid encoding cuckoo search algorithm for 0-1 knapsack problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yanhong; Jia, Ke; He, Yichao

    2014-01-01

    Cuckoo search (CS) is a new robust swarm intelligence method that is based on the brood parasitism of some cuckoo species. In this paper, an improved hybrid encoding cuckoo search algorithm (ICS) with greedy strategy is put forward for solving 0-1 knapsack problems. First of all, for solving binary optimization problem with ICS, based on the idea of individual hybrid encoding, the cuckoo search over a continuous space is transformed into the synchronous evolution search over discrete space. Subsequently, the concept of confidence interval (CI) is introduced; hence, the new position updating is designed and genetic mutation with a small probability is introduced. The former enables the population to move towards the global best solution rapidly in every generation, and the latter can effectively prevent the ICS from trapping into the local optimum. Furthermore, the greedy transform method is used to repair the infeasible solution and optimize the feasible solution. Experiments with a large number of KP instances show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm and its ability to achieve good quality solutions.

  12. Rapid hybrid encoding for high-resolution whole-brain fluid-attenuated imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hoonjae; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Park, Jaeseok

    2013-12-01

    Single-slab three-dimensional (3D) turbo spin-echo (TSE) imaging combined with inversion recovery (IR), which employs short, spatially non-selective refocusing pulses and signal prescription based variable refocusing flip angles (VFA) to increase imaging efficiency, was recently introduced to produce fluid-attenuated brain images for lesion detection. Despite the advantages, the imaging efficiency in this approach still remains limited because a substantially long time of inversion is needed to selectively suppress the signal intensity of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) while fully recovering that of brain tissues. The purpose of this work is to develop a novel, rapid hybrid encoding method for highly efficient whole-brain fluid-attenuated imaging. In each time of repetition, volumetric data are continuously encoded using the hybrid modular acquisition in a sequential fashion even during IR signal transition, wherein reversed fast imaging with steady-state free precession (PSIF) is employed to encode intermediate-to-high spatial frequency signals prior to CSF nulling, while VFA-TSE is used to collect low-to-intermediate spatial frequency signals afterwards. Gradient-induced spin de-phasing between a pair of neighboring radio-frequency (RF) pulses in both PSIF and TSE modules is kept identical to avoid the occurrence of multiple echoes in a single acquisition window. Additionally, a two-step, alternate RF phase-cycling scheme is employed in the low spatial frequency region to eliminate free induction decay induced edge artifacts. Numerical simulations of the Bloch equations were performed to evaluate signal evolution of brain tissues along the echo train while optimizing imaging parameters. In vivo studies demonstrate that the proposed technique produces high-resolution isotropic fluid-attenuated whole-brain images in a clinically acceptable imaging time with substantially high signal-to-noise ratio for white matter while retaining lesion conspicuity.

  13. A method for encoding clinical datasets with SNOMED CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Hue

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past decade there has been a growing body of literature on how the Systematised Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT can be implemented and used in different clinical settings. Yet, for those charged with incorporating SNOMED CT into their organisation's clinical applications and vocabulary systems, there are few detailed encoding instructions and examples available to show how this can be done and the issues involved. This paper describes a heuristic method that can be used to encode clinical terms in SNOMED CT and an illustration of how it was applied to encode an existing palliative care dataset. Methods The encoding process involves: identifying input data items; cleaning the data items; encoding the cleaned data items; and exporting the encoded terms as output term sets. Four outputs are produced: the SNOMED CT reference set; interface terminology set; SNOMED CT extension set and unencodeable term set. Results The original palliative care database contained 211 data elements, 145 coded values and 37,248 free text values. We were able to encode ~84% of the terms, another ~8% require further encoding and verification while terms that had a frequency of fewer than five were not encoded (~7%. Conclusions From the pilot, it would seem our SNOMED CT encoding method has the potential to become a general purpose terminology encoding approach that can be used in different clinical systems.

  14. Method for high-speed Manchester encoded optical signal generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jianfeng; Chi, Nan; Holm-Nielsen, Pablo Villanueva

    2004-01-01

    A method for high-speed Manchester encoded optical signal generation is proposed and demonstrated with a specially configured electro-optical modulator. A 10 Gb/s Manchester encoded optical signal was generated, and its bit-error-ratio (BER) performance was evaluated.......A method for high-speed Manchester encoded optical signal generation is proposed and demonstrated with a specially configured electro-optical modulator. A 10 Gb/s Manchester encoded optical signal was generated, and its bit-error-ratio (BER) performance was evaluated....

  15. Hybrid Power Management System and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A system and method for hybrid power management. The system includes photovoltaic cells, ultracapacitors, and pulse generators. In one embodiment, the hybrid power management system is used to provide power for a highway safety flasher.

  16. Lossloss encoding of medical images: hybrid modification of statistical modelling-based conception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przelaskowski, Artur

    2001-10-01

    Methods of lossless compression of medical image data are considered. Selected class of efficient algorithms have been constructed, examined, and optimized to conclude the most useful tools for medical image archiving and transmission. Image data scanning, 2D context-based prediction and interpolation, and statistical models of entropy coder have been optimized to compress effectively ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance (MR), and computed tomography (CT) images. The SSM technique of suitable data decomposing scanning method followed by probabilistic modeling of the context in arithmetic encoding have occurred the most useful in our experiments. Context order, shape, and alphabet have been fitted to local data characteristics to decrease image data correlation and dilution of statistical model. Average bit rate value over test images is equal to 2.53 bpp for SSM coder and significantly overcomes 2.92 bpp of CALIC bit rate. Moreover, optimization of lossless wavelet coder by thinking of efficient subband decomposition schemes, and integer-to-integer transforms is reported. Efficient hybrid coding method (SHEC) as a complete tool for medical image archiving and transmission is proposed. SHEC develops SSM by including CALIC-like coder to compress the highest quality images and JPEG2000 wavelet coder for progressive delivering of high and middle quality images in telemedicine systems.

  17. [A hybrid volume rendering method using general hardware].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Tian, Lianfang; Chen, Ping; Mao, Zongyuan

    2008-06-01

    In order to improve the effect and efficiency of the reconstructed image after hybrid volume rendering of different kinds of volume data from medical sequential slices or polygonal models, we propose a hybrid volume rendering method based on Shear-Warp with economical hardware. First, the hybrid volume data are pre-processed by Z-Buffer method and RLE (Run-Length Encoded) data structure. Then, during the process of compositing intermediate image, a resampling method based on the dual-interpolation and the intermediate slice interpolation methods is used to improve the efficiency and the effect. Finally, the reconstructed image is rendered by the texture-mapping technology of OpenGL. Experiments demonstrate the good performance of the proposed method.

  18. Retrieval of phase distributions from the quadriwave lateral shearing interferogram obtained by randomly encoded hybrid grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Tong; Yang, Yongying; Liu, Dong; Yue, Xiumei; Jiang, Jiabin

    2015-10-01

    A wavefront retrieval method for the quadriwave lateral shearing interferogram obtained by randomly encoded hybrid grating (REHG) is proposed. The REHG consists of a binary amplitude grating and a phase chessboard, and the Faunhofer diffractions of this grating only contain the +/-1 orders in two orthogonal directions. As a result, no order selection mask is ever needed by the REHG for quadriwave lateral shearing interference. To retrieve the phase distributions from the REHG interferograms, fast Fourier transform (FFT) technique is employed at first to get the frequency spectrum. By performing inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT) of the +1 order spectrum in the x and y directions, it is possible to extract shearing wavefronts from the interferogram in both two orthogonal directions. Using the translation property of Fourier transform, the relationship between the Fourier spectrum of the shearing wavefronts and the Fourier spectrum of the wavefront under test is deduced. The wavefront under test is retrieved by establishing an evaluation function firstly and finding the minimum value with least-square-solution. Analysis and compensations are made to reduce the errors in the testing results. Simulation experiments have shown that this method can retrieve different phase distributions without losing high-frequency information.

  19. Multilevel Wavelet Feature Statistics for Efficient Retrieval, Transmission, and Display of Medical Images by Hybrid Encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuyu; Mitra, Sunanda; Corona, Enrique; Nutter, Brian; Lee, DJ

    2003-12-01

    Many common modalities of medical images acquire high-resolution and multispectral images, which are subsequently processed, visualized, and transmitted by subsampling. These subsampled images compromise resolution for processing ability, thus risking loss of significant diagnostic information. A hybrid multiresolution vector quantizer (HMVQ) has been developed exploiting the statistical characteristics of the features in a multiresolution wavelet-transformed domain. The global codebook generated by HMVQ, using a combination of multiresolution vector quantization and residual scalar encoding, retains edge information better and avoids significant blurring observed in reconstructed medical images by other well-known encoding schemes at low bit rates. Two specific image modalities, namely, X-ray radiographic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), have been considered as examples. The ability of HMVQ in reconstructing high-fidelity images at low bit rates makes it particularly desirable for medical image encoding and fast transmission of 3D medical images generated from multiview stereo pairs for visual communications.

  20. Effect of Encoding Method on the Distribution of Cardiac Arrhythmias

    CERN Document Server

    Mora, Luis A

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the evaluation of the effect of the method of ECG signal encoding, based on nonlinear characteristics such as information entropy and Lempel-Ziv complexity, on the distribution of cardiac arrhythmias. Initially proposed a procedure electrocardiographic gating to compensate for errors inherent in the process of filtering segments. For the evaluation of distributions and determine which of the different encoding methods produces greater separation between different kinds of arrhythmias studied (AFIB, AFL, SVTA, VT, Normal's), use a function based on the dispersion of the elements on the centroid of its class, the result being that the best encoding for the entire system is through the method of threshold value for a ternary code with E = 1 / 12.

  1. On Hybrid and mixed finite element methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pian, T. H. H.

    1981-01-01

    Three versions of the assumed stress hybrid model in finite element methods and the corresponding variational principles for the formulation are presented. Examples of rank deficiency for stiffness matrices by the hybrid stress model are given and their corresponding kinematic deformation modes are identified. A discussion of the derivation of general semi-Loof elements for plates and shells by the hybrid stress method is given. It is shown that the equilibrium model by Fraeijs de Veubeke can be derived by the approach of the hybrid stress model as a special case of semi-Loof elements.

  2. A HYBRID METHOD FOR LINEAR PROGRAMMING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIU Naihua; WU Fang

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, a hybrid method for linear programming is established.Its search direction is defined as a combination of two directions insimplex method and affine-scaling interior point method.The method is proven to have some promising convergence properties.The relation among the new method, the simplex method and the affine-scalinginteriorpoint method is discussed.

  3. Generalized non-separable two-dimensional Dammann encoding method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junjie; Zhou, Changhe; Zhu, Linwei; Lu, Yancong; Wu, Jun; Jia, Wei

    2017-01-01

    We generalize for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the Dammann encoding method into non-separable two-dimensional (2D) structures for designing various pure-phase Dammann encoding gratings (DEGs). For examples, three types of non-separable 2D DEGs, including non-separable binary Dammann vortex gratings, non-separable binary distorted Dammann gratings, and non-separable continuous-phase cubic gratings, are designed theoretically and demonstrated experimentally. Correspondingly, it is shown that 2D square arrays of optical vortices with topological charges proportional to the diffraction orders, focus spots shifting along both transversal and axial directions with equal spacings, and Airy-like beams with controllable orientation for each beam, are generated in symmetry or asymmetry by these three DEGs, respectively. Also, it is shown that a more complex-shaped array of modulated beams could be achieved by this non-separable 2D Dammann encoding method, which will be a big challenge for those conventional separable 2D Dammann encoding gratings. Furthermore, the diffractive efficiency of the gratings can be improved around ∼10% when the non-separable structure is applied, compared with their conventional separable counterparts. Such improvement in the efficiency should be of high significance for some specific applications.

  4. Hybrid methods for cybersecurity analysis :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Warren Leon,; Dunlavy, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Early 2010 saw a signi cant change in adversarial techniques aimed at network intrusion: a shift from malware delivered via email attachments toward the use of hidden, embedded hyperlinks to initiate sequences of downloads and interactions with web sites and network servers containing malicious software. Enterprise security groups were well poised and experienced in defending the former attacks, but the new types of attacks were larger in number, more challenging to detect, dynamic in nature, and required the development of new technologies and analytic capabilities. The Hybrid LDRD project was aimed at delivering new capabilities in large-scale data modeling and analysis to enterprise security operators and analysts and understanding the challenges of detection and prevention of emerging cybersecurity threats. Leveraging previous LDRD research e orts and capabilities in large-scale relational data analysis, large-scale discrete data analysis and visualization, and streaming data analysis, new modeling and analysis capabilities were quickly brought to bear on the problems in email phishing and spear phishing attacks in the Sandia enterprise security operational groups at the onset of the Hybrid project. As part of this project, a software development and deployment framework was created within the security analyst work ow tool sets to facilitate the delivery and testing of new capabilities as they became available, and machine learning algorithms were developed to address the challenge of dynamic threats. Furthermore, researchers from the Hybrid project were embedded in the security analyst groups for almost a full year, engaged in daily operational activities and routines, creating an atmosphere of trust and collaboration between the researchers and security personnel. The Hybrid project has altered the way that research ideas can be incorporated into the production environments of Sandias enterprise security groups, reducing time to deployment from months and

  5. The path exchange method for hybrid LCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzen, Manfred; Crawford, Robert

    2009-11-01

    Hybrid techniques for Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) provide a way of combining the accuracy of process analysis and the completeness of input-output analysis. A number of methods have been suggested to implement a hybrid LCA in practice, with the main challenge being the integration of specific process data with an overarching input-output system. In this work we present a new hybrid LCA method which works at the finest input-output level of detail: structural paths. This new Path Exchange method avoids double-counting and system disturbance just as previous hybrid LCA methods, but instead of a large LCA database it requires only a minimum of external information on those structural paths that are to be represented by process data.

  6. Novel selection methods for DNA-encoded chemical libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alix I; McGregor, Lynn M; Liu, David R

    2015-06-01

    Driven by the need for new compounds to serve as biological probes and leads for therapeutic development and the growing accessibility of DNA technologies including high-throughput sequencing, many academic and industrial groups have begun to use DNA-encoded chemical libraries as a source of bioactive small molecules. In this review, we describe the technologies that have enabled the selection of compounds with desired activities from these libraries. These methods exploit the sensitivity of in vitro selection coupled with DNA amplification to overcome some of the limitations and costs associated with conventional screening methods. In addition, we highlight newer techniques with the potential to be applied to the high-throughput evaluation of DNA-encoded chemical libraries.

  7. Implementation of Hybrid DCT/DPCM Video-Encoder in the DM642 EVM for Educational Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Huska

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There is presented implementation of hybrid DCT/DPCM video-encoder in the power ful TI’s media processor TMS320DM642 embed in evaluation module DM642 EVM. Code Composer Studio 3 is used as working space. Videoencoder is implemented with use of C code so it is easily understandable. The easiness is very important because the implemented video-encoder will be used for educational purposes. The structure of the encoder is lightly recognizable forstudents frequenting the courses Analog and Digital Television, Digital Image Processing and Encoding so some routines could lightly modified.

  8. Application of Hybrid Encoding Genetic Algorithm on Pickup and Delivery Traveling Salesman Problem with Traffic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Patvichaichod

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study deals with the pickup and delivery traveling salesman problem with traffic conditions (PDTSPTW, an extension of the pickup and delivery traveling salesman problem (PDTSP where each customer to be served is associated with two quantities of product to be collected and delivered. Almost PDTSP problems uses distance between each point of customers as Euclidean Distance and are not concerned with other parameters to find minimal cost. Approach: The PDTSPTC concerns more parameters, such as street network and vehicle speed, which results it closer to the real world condition. The study also proposes the developed genetic algorithm called “Hybrid Encoding Genetic Algorithm (HEGA”. The concept is to combine binary encoding and integer encoding together, causing the in complexity of the algorithm structure and the ease of implementation. Results: the HEGA can save the travel cost about 26-57%. It is obviously seen that HEGA in the PDTSPTC test problems result the fast convergence that is about 12-43% and in all, the computational time is under 6 seconds. Conclusion: The HEGA performs quite well when testing a test problem. Computation times are small in all case. The PDTSPTC is closer to real-world conditions than PDTSP. This problem can be applied in logistics immediately if the distance of streets, traffic conditions (average vehicle speed in each street and vehicle conditions (fuel consumption rate and vehicle capacity are known.

  9. 基于先验知识的杂交方法的设计及其在化工问题中的应用%Design Hybrid Methods for Encoding Prior Knowledge in Feedforward Network with Application in Chemical Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈翀伟; 陈德钊

    2002-01-01

    Three-layer feedforward networks have been widely used in modeling chemical engineering processes and prior-knowledge-based methods have been introduced to improve their performances. In this paper, we propose the methodology of designing better prior-knowledge-based hybrid methods by combining the existing ones. Then according to this methodology, two hybrid methods, interpolation-optimization (IO) method and interpolationpenalty-function (IPF) method, are designed as examples. Finally, both methods are applied to modeling two cases in chemical engineering to investigate their effectiveness. Simulation results show that the performances of the hybrid methods are better than those of their parents.

  10. Identification of human rotavirus serotype by hybridization to polymerase chain reaction-generated probes derived from a hyperdivergent region of the gene encoding outer capsid protein VP7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, J.; Sears, J.; Schael, I.P.; White, L.; Garcia, D.; Lanata, C.; Kapikian, A.Z. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-08-01

    We have synthesized {sup 32}P-labeled hybridization probes from a hyperdivergent region (nucleotides 51 to 392) of the rotavirus gene encoding the VP7 glycoprotein by using the polymerase chain reaction method. Both RNA (after an initial reverse transcription step) and cloned cDNA from human rotavirus serotypes 1 through 4 could be used as templates to amplify this region. High-stringency hybridization of each of the four probes to rotavirus RNAs dotted on nylon membranes allowed the specific detection of corresponding sequences and thus permitted identification of the serotype of the strains dotted. The procedure was useful when applied to rotaviruses isolated from field studies.

  11. Method of generating ploynucleotides encoding enhanced folding variants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, Andrew M.; Kiss, Csaba; Waldo, Geoffrey S.

    2017-05-02

    The invention provides directed evolution methods for improving the folding, solubility and stability (including thermostability) characteristics of polypeptides. In one aspect, the invention provides a method for generating folding and stability-enhanced variants of proteins, including but not limited to fluorescent proteins, chromophoric proteins and enzymes. In another aspect, the invention provides methods for generating thermostable variants of a target protein or polypeptide via an internal destabilization baiting strategy. Internally destabilization a protein of interest is achieved by inserting a heterologous, folding-destabilizing sequence (folding interference domain) within DNA encoding the protein of interest, evolving the protein sequences adjacent to the heterologous insertion to overcome the destabilization (using any number of mutagenesis methods), thereby creating a library of variants. The variants in the library are expressed, and those with enhanced folding characteristics selected.

  12. Hybrid Modeling of Intra-DCT Coefficients for Real-Time Video Encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The two-dimensional discrete cosine transform (2-D DCT and its subsequent quantization are widely used in standard video encoders. However, since most DCT coefficients become zeros after quantization, a number of redundant computations are performed. This paper proposes a hybrid statistical model used to predict the zeroquantized DCT (ZQDCT coefficients for intratransform and to achieve better real-time performance. First, each pixel block at the input of DCT is decomposed into a series of mean values and a residual block. Subsequently, a statistical model based on Gaussian distribution is used to predict the ZQDCT coefficients of the residual block. Then, a sufficient condition under which each quantized coefficient becomes zero is derived from the mean values. Finally, a hybrid model to speed up the DCT and quantization calculations is proposed. Experimental results show that the proposed model can reduce more redundant computations and achieve better real-time performance than the reference in the literature at the cost of negligible video quality degradation. Experiments also show that the proposed model significantly reduces multiplications for DCT and quantization. This is particularly suitable for processors in portable devices where multiplications consume more power than additions. Computational reduction implies longer battery lifetime and energy economy.

  13. Sin/cosine encoder interpolation methods: encoder to digital tracking converters for rate and position loop controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Steven T.; Hilkert, J. M.

    2008-04-01

    Pointing and tracking applications usually require relative gimbal angles to be measured for reporting and controlling the line-of-sight angular position. Depending on the application, angular resolution and/or accuracy might jointly or independently determine the angle transducer requirements. In the past decade, encoders have been increasingly taking the place of inductive devices where the measurement of angles over a wide range is required. This is primarily due to the fact that encoders are now achieving very high resolution in smaller sizes than was previously possible. These advances in resolution are primarily due to improved encoder disk and detector technology along with developments in interpolation techniques. Measurement accuracy, on the other hand, is primarily determined by mounting and bearing eccentricity as it is with all angular measurement devices. For very demanding accuracy requirements, some type of calibration of the assembled system may be the only solution, in which case transducer repeatability is paramount. This paper describes a unique encoder-to-digital tracking converter concept for improving interpolation of optical encoders. The new method relies on Fraunhofer diffraction models to correct the non-ideal sin/cos outputs of the encoder detectors. Diffraction model concepts are used in the interpolation filters to predict the phase of non-ideal sin and cosine encoder outputs. The new method also minimizes many of the open loop pre-processing requirements and assumptions that limit interpolation accuracy and rate loop noise performance in ratiometric tracking converter designs.

  14. An Improved Hybrid Method for Inverse Obstacle Scattering Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU JUAN; MA FU-MING

    2011-01-01

    An improved hybrid method is introduced in this paper as a numerical method to reconstruct the scatterer by far-field pattern for just one incident direction with unknown physical properties of the scatterer.The improved hybrid method inherits the idea of the hybrid method by Kress and Serranho which is a combination of Newton and decomposition method,and it improves the hybrid method by introducing a general boundary condition.The numerical experiments show the feasibility of this method.

  15. Probabilistic Analysis Methods for Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Frier, Christian; Heiselberg, Per

    This paper discusses a general approach for the application of probabilistic analysis methods in the design of ventilation systems. The aims and scope of probabilistic versus deterministic methods are addressed with special emphasis on hybrid ventilation systems. A preliminary application of stoc...... of stochastic differential equations is presented comprising a general heat balance for an arbitrary number of loads and zones in a building to determine the thermal behaviour under random conditions....

  16. Hybrid Lanczos-type product methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ressel, K.J. [Swiss Center for Scientific Computing, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    A general framework is proposed to construct hybrid iterative methods for the solution of large nonsymmetric systems of linear equations. This framework is based on Lanczos-type product methods, whose iteration polynomial consists of the Lanczos polynomial multiplied by some other arbitrary, {open_quotes}shadow{close_quotes} polynomial. By using for the shadow polynomial Chebyshev (more general Faber) polynomials or L{sup 2}-optimal polynomials, hybrid (Chebyshev-like) methods are incorporated into Lanczos-type product methods. In addition, to acquire spectral information on the system matrix, which is required for such a choice of shadow polynomials, the Lanczos-process can be employed either directly or in an QMR-like approach. The QMR like approach allows the cheap computation of the roots of the B-orthogonal polynomials and the residual polynomials associated with the QMR iteration. These roots can be used as a good approximation for the spectrum of the system matrix. Different choices for the shadow polynomials and their construction are analyzed. The resulting hybrid methods are compared with standard Lanczos-type product methods, like BiOStab, BiOStab({ell}) and BiOS.

  17. Hybrid Method Simulation of Slender Marine Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Niels Hørbye

    This present thesis consists of an extended summary and five appended papers concerning various aspects of the implementation of a hybrid method which combines classical simulation methods and artificial neural networks. The thesis covers three main topics. Common for all these topics...... is that they deal with time domain simulation of slender marine structures such as mooring lines and flexible risers used in deep sea offshore installations. The first part of the thesis describes how neural networks can be designed and trained to cover a large number of different sea states. Neural networks can...... that a single neural network can cover all relevant sea states. The applicability and performance of the present hybrid method is demonstrated on a numerical model of a mooring line attached to a floating offshore platform. The second part of the thesis demonstrates how sequential neural networks can be used...

  18. Optimized Vertex Method and Hybrid Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Steven A.; Krishnamurthy, T.; Mason, B. H.

    2002-01-01

    A method of calculating the fuzzy response of a system is presented. This method, called the Optimized Vertex Method (OVM), is based upon the vertex method but requires considerably fewer function evaluations. The method is demonstrated by calculating the response membership function of strain-energy release rate for a bonded joint with a crack. The possibility of failure of the bonded joint was determined over a range of loads. After completing the possibilistic analysis, the possibilistic (fuzzy) membership functions were transformed to probability density functions and the probability of failure of the bonded joint was calculated. This approach is called a possibility-based hybrid reliability assessment. The possibility and probability of failure are presented and compared to a Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) of the bonded joint.

  19. Hybrid lattice Boltzmann method on overlapping grids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ilio, G; Chiappini, D; Ubertini, S; Bella, G; Succi, S

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a hybrid lattice Boltzmann method (HLBM) is proposed, where the standard lattice Boltzmann implementation based on the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (LBGK) approximation is combined together with an unstructured finite-volume lattice Boltzmann model. The method is constructed on an overlapping grid system, which allows the coexistence of a uniform lattice nodes spacing and a coordinate-free lattice structure. The natural adaptivity of the hybrid grid system makes the method particularly suitable to handle problems involving complex geometries. Moreover, the provided scheme ensures a high-accuracy solution near walls, given the capability of the unstructured submodel of achieving the desired level of refinement in a very flexible way. For these reasons, the HLBM represents a prospective tool for solving multiscale problems. The proposed method is here applied to the benchmark problem of a two-dimensional flow past a circular cylinder for a wide range of Reynolds numbers and its numerical performances are measured and compared with the standard LBGK ones.

  20. Nucleic acid molecules encoding isopentenyl monophosphate kinase, and methods of use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, Rodney B. (Pullman, WA); Lange, Bernd M. (Pullman, WA)

    2001-01-01

    A cDNA encoding isopentenyl monophosphate kinase (IPK) from peppermint (Mentha x piperita) has been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequence has been determined. Accordingly, an isolated DNA sequence (SEQ ID NO:1) is provided which codes for the expression of isopentenyl monophosphate kinase (SEQ ID NO:2), from peppermint (Mentha x piperita). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for isopentenyl monophosphate kinase, or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of isopentenyl monophosphate kinase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding isopentenyl monophosphate kinase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of the aforementioned recombinant isopentenyl monophosphate kinase that may be used to facilitate its production, isolation and purification in significant amounts. Recombinant isopentenyl monophosphate kinase may be used to obtain expression or enhanced expression of isopentenyl monophosphate kinase in plants in order to enhance the production of isopentenyl monophosphate kinase, or isoprenoids derived therefrom, or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of isopentenyl monophosphate kinase, or the production of its products.

  1. Transport Test Problems for Hybrid Methods Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaver, Mark W.; Miller, Erin A.; Wittman, Richard S.; McDonald, Benjamin S.

    2011-12-28

    This report presents 9 test problems to guide testing and development of hybrid calculations for the ADVANTG code at ORNL. These test cases can be used for comparing different types of radiation transport calculations, as well as for guiding the development of variance reduction methods. Cases are drawn primarily from existing or previous calculations with a preference for cases which include experimental data, or otherwise have results with a high level of confidence, are non-sensitive, and represent problem sets of interest to NA-22.

  2. Method and system for efficient video compression with low-complexity encoder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun (Inventor); He, Dake (Inventor); Jagmohan, Ashish (Inventor); Lu, Ligang (Inventor); Sheinin, Vadim (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Disclosed are a method and system for video compression, wherein the video encoder has low computational complexity and high compression efficiency. The disclosed system comprises a video encoder and a video decoder, wherein the method for encoding includes the steps of converting a source frame into a space-frequency representation; estimating conditional statistics of at least one vector of space-frequency coefficients; estimating encoding rates based on the said conditional statistics; and applying Slepian-Wolf codes with the said computed encoding rates. The preferred method for decoding includes the steps of; generating a side-information vector of frequency coefficients based on previously decoded source data, encoder statistics, and previous reconstructions of the source frequency vector; and performing Slepian-Wolf decoding of at least one source frequency vector based on the generated side-information, the Slepian-Wolf code bits and the encoder statistics.

  3. Optimization methods applied to hybrid vehicle design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, J. F.; Burghart, J. H.

    1983-01-01

    The use of optimization methods as an effective design tool in the design of hybrid vehicle propulsion systems is demonstrated. Optimization techniques were used to select values for three design parameters (battery weight, heat engine power rating and power split between the two on-board energy sources) such that various measures of vehicle performance (acquisition cost, life cycle cost and petroleum consumption) were optimized. The apporach produced designs which were often significant improvements over hybrid designs already reported on in the literature. The principal conclusions are as follows. First, it was found that the strategy used to split the required power between the two on-board energy sources can have a significant effect on life cycle cost and petroleum consumption. Second, the optimization program should be constructed so that performance measures and design variables can be easily changed. Third, the vehicle simulation program has a significant effect on the computer run time of the overall optimization program; run time can be significantly reduced by proper design of the types of trips the vehicle takes in a one year period. Fourth, care must be taken in designing the cost and constraint expressions which are used in the optimization so that they are relatively smooth functions of the design variables. Fifth, proper handling of constraints on battery weight and heat engine rating, variables which must be large enough to meet power demands, is particularly important for the success of an optimization study. Finally, the principal conclusion is that optimization methods provide a practical tool for carrying out the design of a hybrid vehicle propulsion system.

  4. Efficient Hybrid Method for Binary Floating Point Multiplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Praveenkumar Reddy,

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a high speed binary floating point multiplier based on Hybrid Method. To improve speed multiplication of mantissa is done using Hybrid method replacing existing multipliers like Carry Save Multiplier, Dadda Multiplier and Modified Booth Multiplier. Hybrid method is a combination of Dadda Multiplier and Modified Radix-8 Booth Multiplier. The design achieves high speed with maximum frequency of 555 MHz compared to existing floating point multipliers. The multiplier implemented in Verilog HDL and analyzed in Quartus II 10.0 version. Hybrid Multiplier is compared with existing multipliers.

  5. A Simple Image Encoding Method with Data Lossless Information Hiding

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi-Hui Wang; Chin-Chen Chang; Ming-Chu Li; Tzu-Chuen Lu

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a simple reversible data hiding method in the spatial domain for block truncation coding (BTC) compressed grayscale images. The BTC method compresses a block of a grayscale image to a bitmap and a pair of quantization numbers. The proposed method first embeds secret bits into a block by changing the order of those two quantization numbers. The compression rate is not enlarged by this embedding scheme. To further improve the hiding capacity, the proposed method embeds...

  6. Absolute Difference and Low-Power Bus Encoding Method for LCD Digital Display Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hao Fang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Power dissipation has been an inevitable problem of LCD systems for years. To ease the problem, many encoding methods have been developed, such as the methods of transition minimized differential signaling, the most popular one in use for DVI to date, chromatic encoding, and limited intraword transition. In this paper, the authors present the absolute difference and low-power encoding method for the serial transmission of LCD digital DVI display interface. In regard to the LCD digital display interface with UMC 90 nm technology, the proposed method minimizes the architectural complexity and reduces the power dissipation by about 67% and 12%, respectively, compared with the transition minimized differential signaling and limited intraword transition. In short, the proposed method is an efficient bus encoding method to largely decrease the dynamic and total power dissipation of the LCD digital display interfaces.

  7. Chemical ligation methods for the tagging of DNA-encoded chemical libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Anthony D; Clark, Matthew A; Hupp, Christopher D; Litovchick, Alexander; Zhang, Ying

    2015-06-01

    The generation of DNA-encoded chemical libraries requires the unimolecular association of multiple encoding oligonucleotides with encoded chemical entities during combinatorial synthesis processes. This has traditionally been achieved using enzymatic ligation. We discuss a range of chemical ligation methods that provide alternatives to enzymatic ligation. These chemical ligation methods include the generation of modified internucleotide linkages that support polymerase translocation and other modified linkages that while not supporting the translocation of polymerases can also be used to generate individual cDNA molecules containing encoded chemical information specifying individual library members. We also describe which of these approaches have been successfully utilized for the preparation of DNA-encoded chemical libraries and those that were subsequently used for the discovery of inhibitors.

  8. HiSC: A Hybrid XML Index Composing Structure-Encoded with Cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jincai; ZHANG Lin

    2007-01-01

    A new way of indexing and processing twig patterns in an XML documents is proposed in this paper. Every path in XML document can be transformed into a sequence of labels by Structure-Encoded that constructs a one-to-one correspondence between XML tree and sequence. Base on identifying characteristics of nodes in XML tree, the elements are classified and clustered. During query proceeding, the twig pattern is also transformed into its Structure-Encoded. By performing subsequence matching on the set of sequences in XML documents, all the occurrences of path in the XML documents are refined. Using the index, the numbers of elements retrieved are minimized. The search results with pertinent format provide more structure information without any false dismissals or false alarms. The index also supports keyword search.Experiment results indicate the index has significantly efficiency with high precision.

  9. Method and system for progressive mesh storage and reconstruction using wavelet-encoded height fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxes, Gregory A. (Inventor); Linger, Timothy C. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Systems and methods are provided for progressive mesh storage and reconstruction using wavelet-encoded height fields. A method for progressive mesh storage includes reading raster height field data, and processing the raster height field data with a discrete wavelet transform to generate wavelet-encoded height fields. In another embodiment, a method for progressive mesh storage includes reading texture map data, and processing the texture map data with a discrete wavelet transform to generate wavelet-encoded texture map fields. A method for reconstructing a progressive mesh from wavelet-encoded height field data includes determining terrain blocks, and a level of detail required for each terrain block, based upon a viewpoint. Triangle strip constructs are generated from vertices of the terrain blocks, and an image is rendered utilizing the triangle strip constructs. Software products that implement these methods are provided.

  10. Hybrid systems, optimal control and hybrid vehicles theory, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Böhme, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    This book assembles new methods showing the automotive engineer for the first time how hybrid vehicle configurations can be modeled as systems with discrete and continuous controls. These hybrid systems describe naturally and compactly the networks of embedded systems which use elements such as integrators, hysteresis, state-machines and logical rules to describe the evolution of continuous and discrete dynamics and arise inevitably when modeling hybrid electric vehicles. They can throw light on systems which may otherwise be too complex or recondite. Hybrid Systems, Optimal Control and Hybrid Vehicles shows the reader how to formulate and solve control problems which satisfy multiple objectives which may be arbitrary and complex with contradictory influences on fuel consumption, emissions and drivability. The text introduces industrial engineers, postgraduates and researchers to the theory of hybrid optimal control problems. A series of novel algorithmic developments provides tools for solving engineering pr...

  11. Hybrid ququart-encoded quantum cryptography protected by Kochen-Specker contextuality

    CERN Document Server

    Cabello, Adan; Nagali, Eleonora; Sciarrino, Fabio; 10.1103/PhysRevA.84.030302

    2011-01-01

    Quantum cryptographic protocols based on complementarity are nonsecure against attacks in which complementarity is imitated with classical resources. The Kochen-Specker (KS) theorem provides protection against these attacks, without requiring entanglement or spatially separated composite systems. We analyze the maximum tolerated noise to guarantee the security of a KS-protected cryptographic scheme against these attacks, and describe a photonic realization of this scheme using hybrid ququarts defined by the polarization and orbital angular momentum of single photons.

  12. Hybrid ququart-encoded quantum cryptography protected by Kochen-Specker contextuality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabello, Adan [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41012 Sevilla (Spain); Department of Physics, Stockholm University, S-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); D' Ambrosio, Vincenzo; Nagali, Eleonora [Dipartimento di Fisica della ' ' Sapienza' ' Universita di Roma, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Sciarrino, Fabio [Dipartimento di Fisica della ' ' Sapienza' ' Universita di Roma, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (INO-CNR), I-50125 Florence (Italy)

    2011-09-15

    Quantum cryptographic protocols based on complementarity are not secure against attacks in which complementarity is imitated with classical resources. The Kochen-Specker (KS) theorem provides protection against these attacks, without requiring entanglement or spatially separated composite systems. We analyze the maximum tolerated noise to guarantee the security of a KS-protected cryptographic scheme against these attacks and describe a photonic realization of this scheme using hybrid ququarts defined by the polarization and orbital angular momentum of single photons.

  13. Hybrid Prediction Method for Aircraft Interior Noise Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the project is research and development of methods for application of the Hybrid FE-SEA method to aircraft vibro-acoustic problems. This proposal...

  14. New Methods of Stereo Encoding for FM Radio Broadcasting Based on Digital Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stranak

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes new methods of stereo encoding for FM radio broadcasting. Digital signal processing makes possible to construct an encoder with properties that are not attainable using conventional analog solutions. The article describes the mathematical model of the encoder, on the basis of which a specific program code for DSP was developed. The article further deals with a new method of composite clipping which does not cause impurities in the output spectrum, and at the same time preserves high separation between the left and right audio channels. The application of the new method is useful mainly where there are unwanted signal overshoots on the input of the stereo encoder, e.g., in case of signal transmission from the studio to the transmitter site through a route with psychoacoustic lossy compression of data rate.

  15. 5th Symposium on Hybrid RANS-LES Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Haase, Werner; Peng, Shia-Hui; Schwamborn, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    This book gathers the proceedings of the Fifth Symposium on Hybrid RANS-LES Methods, which was held on March 19-21 in College Station, Texas, USA. The different chapters, written by leading experts, reports on the most recent developments in flow physics modelling, and gives a special emphasis to industrially relevant applications of hybrid RANS-LES methods and other turbulence-resolving modelling approaches. The book addresses academic researchers, graduate students, industrial engineers, as well as industrial R&D managers and consultants dealing with turbulence modelling, simulation and measurement, and with multidisciplinary applications of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), such as flow control, aero-acoustics, aero-elasticity and CFD-based multidisciplinary optimization. It discusses in particular advanced hybrid RANS-LES methods. Further topics include wall-modelled Large Eddy Simulation (WMLES) methods, embedded LES, and a comparison of the LES methods with both hybrid RANS-LES and URANS methods. ...

  16. Designing waveforms for temporal encoding using a frequency sampling method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gran, Fredrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2007-01-01

    , the amplitude spectrum of the transmitted waveform can be optimized, such that most of the energy is transmitted where the transducer has large amplification. To test the design method, a waveform was designed for a BK8804 linear array transducer. The resulting nonlinear frequency modulated waveform...... for the linear frequency modulated signal) were tested for both waveforms in simulation with respect to the Doppler frequency shift occurring when probing moving objects. It was concluded that the Doppler effect of moving targets does not significantly degrade the filtered output. Finally, in vivo measurements...

  17. A new encoding scheme-based hybrid algorithm for minimising two-machine flow-shop group scheduling problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Cheng-Dar; Hsieh, Yi-Chih; Chen, Yin-Yann

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the two-machine flow-shop group scheduling problem (GSP) with sequence-dependent setup and removal times, and job transportation times between machines. The objective is to minimise the total completion time. As known, this problem is an NP-hard problem and generalises the typical two-machine GSPs. In this article, a new encoding scheme based on permutation representation is proposed to transform a random job permutation to a feasible permutation for GSPs. The proposed encoding scheme simultaneously determines both the sequence of jobs in each group and the sequence of groups. By reasonably combining particle swarm optimisation (PSO) and genetic algorithm (GA), we develop a fast and easily implemented hybrid algorithm (HA) for solving the considered problems. The effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed HA are demonstrated and compared with those of standard PSO and GA by numerical results of various tested instances with group numbers up to 20. In addition, three different lower bounds are developed to evaluate the solution quality of the HA. Limited numerical results indicate that the proposed HA is a viable and effective approach for the studied two-machine flow-shop group scheduling problem.

  18. Hybrid ODE/SSA methods and the cell cycle model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Chen, M.; Cao, Y.

    2017-07-01

    Stochastic effect in cellular systems has been an important topic in systems biology. Stochastic modeling and simulation methods are important tools to study stochastic effect. Given the low efficiency of stochastic simulation algorithms, the hybrid method, which combines an ordinary differential equation (ODE) system with a stochastic chemically reacting system, shows its unique advantages in the modeling and simulation of biochemical systems. The efficiency of hybrid method is usually limited by reactions in the stochastic subsystem, which are modeled and simulated using Gillespie's framework and frequently interrupt the integration of the ODE subsystem. In this paper we develop an efficient implementation approach for the hybrid method coupled with traditional ODE solvers. We also compare the efficiency of hybrid methods with three widely used ODE solvers RADAU5, DASSL, and DLSODAR. Numerical experiments with three biochemical models are presented. A detailed discussion is presented for the performances of three ODE solvers.

  19. Multiplexing encoding method for full-color dynamic 3D holographic display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Gaolei; Liu, Juan; Li, Xin; Jia, Jia; Zhang, Zhao; Hu, Bin; Wang, Yongtian

    2014-07-28

    The multiplexing encoding method is proposed and demonstrated for reconstructing colorful images accurately by using single phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM). It will encode the light waves at different wavelengths into one pure-phase hologram at the same time based on the analytic formulas. The three-dimensional (3D) images can be reconstructed clearly when the light waves at different wavelengths are incident into the encoding hologram. Numerical simulations and optical experiments for 2D and 3D colorful images are performed. The results show that the colorful reconstructed images with high quality are achieved successfully. The proposed multiplexing method is a simple and fast encoding approach and the size of the system is small and compact. It is expected to be used for realizing full-color 3D holographic display in future.

  20. A Method for Measurement of Absolute Angular Position and Application in a Novel Electromagnetic Encoder System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijian Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the encoders, especially the sine-cosine magnetic ones, a new method to measure absolute angular position is proposed in the paper. In the method, the code disc of the encoder has only two circle tracks and each one was divided into N and (N-1 equal code cells. The cell angles, changing from 0° to 360° between any two neighboring code cells, are defined to represent any position on the code disc. The position value of the same point can be represented by different cell angle values of different tracks and the absolute angular position of the point can be obtained by the difference value between the cell angle value of the outer track and the inner one. To validate the correctness of the method theoretically, the derivation process of the method was provided. An electromagnetic encoder system was designed and the experimental platform was established to test the method. The experimental results indicate that the electromagnetic encoder can measure the absolute angular position. Besides, it shows that the method is easy to be realized in algorithm and can reduce computational complexity and decrease dimension of the encoder.

  1. Reduction Methods for Real-time Simulations in Hybrid Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid testing constitutes a cost-effective experimental full scale testing method. The method was introduced in the 1960's by Japanese researchers, as an alternative to conventional full scale testing and small scale material testing, such as shake table tests. The principle of the method...... is to divide a structure into a physical substructure and a numerical substructure, and couple these in a test. If the test is conducted in real-time it is referred to as real time hybrid testing. The hybrid testing concept has developed significantly since its introduction in the 1960', both with respect...... without introducing further unknowns into the system. The basis formulation is shown to exhibit high precision and to reduce the computational cost significantly. Furthermore, the basis formulation exhibits a significant higher stability, than standard nonlinear algorithms. A real-time hybrid test...

  2. A Hybrid Method for Nonlinear Least Squares Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongyi Liu; Linping Sun

    2007-01-01

    A negative curvature method is applied to nonlinear least squares problems with indefinite Hessian approximation matrices. With the special structure of the method,a new switch is proposed to form a hybrid method. Numerical experiments show that this method is feasible and effective for zero-residual,small-residual and large-residual problems.

  3. Method for non-referential defect characterization using fractal encoding and active contours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Shaun S.; Sari-Sarraf, Hamed

    2007-05-15

    A method for identification of anomalous structures, such as defects, includes the steps of providing a digital image and applying fractal encoding to identify a location of at least one anomalous portion of the image. The method does not require a reference image to identify the location of the anomalous portion. The method can further include the step of initializing an active contour based on the location information obtained from the fractal encoding step and deforming an active contour to enhance the boundary delineation of the anomalous portion.

  4. Cleft Lip Repair: The Hybrid Subunit Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollefson, Travis T

    2016-04-01

    The unilateral cleft lip repair is one of the most rewarding and challenging of plastic surgery procedures. Surgeons have introduced a variety of straight line, geometric, and rotation-advancement designs, while in practice the majority of North American surgeons have been using hybrids of the rotation-advancement techniques. The anatomic subunit approach was introduced in 2005 by Fisher and has gained popularity, with early adopters of the design touting its simplicity and effectiveness. The objectives of this article are to summarize the basic tenets of respecting the philtral subunit, accurate measurement and planning, and tips for transitioning to this subunit approach.

  5. An optimized encoding method for secure key distribution by swapping quantum entanglement and its extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Gan

    2015-08-01

    Song [Song D 2004 Phys. Rev. A 69 034301] first proposed two key distribution schemes with the symmetry feature. We find that, in the schemes, the private channels which Alice and Bob publicly announce the initial Bell state or the measurement result through are not needed in discovering keys, and Song’s encoding methods do not arrive at the optimization. Here, an optimized encoding method is given so that the efficiencies of Song’s schemes are improved by 7/3 times. Interestingly, this optimized encoding method can be extended to the key distribution scheme composed of generalized Bell states. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11205115), the Program for Academic Leader Reserve Candidates in Tongling University (Grant No. 2014tlxyxs30), and the 2014-year Program for Excellent Youth Talents in University of Anhui Province, China.

  6. Reconstruction of 3-D digital cores using a hybrid method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xuefeng; Sun Jianmeng; Wang Haitao

    2009-01-01

    A 3-D digital core describes the pore space microstructure of rocks. An X-ray micro CT scan is the most accurate and direct but costly method to obtain a 3-D digital core. In this study, we propose a hybrid method which combines sedimentation simulation and simulated annealing (SA) method to generate 3-D digital cores based on 2-D images of rocks. The method starts with the sedimentation simulation to build a 3-D digital core, which is the initial configuration for the SA method. We update the initial digital core using the SA method to match the auto-correlation function of the 2-D rock image and eventually build the final 3-D digital core. Compared with the typical SA method, the hybrid method has significantly reduced the computation time. Local porosity theory is applied to quantitatively compare the reconstructed 3-D digital cores with the X-ray micro CT 3-D images. The results indicate that the 3-D digital cores reconstructed by the hybrid method have homogeneity and geometric connectivity similar to those of the X-ray micro CT image. The formation factors and permeabilities of the reconstructed 3-D digital cores are estimated using the finite element method (FEM) and lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), respectively. The simulated results are in good agreement with the experimental measurements. Comparison of the simulation results suggests that the digital cores reconstructed by the hybrid method more closely reflect the true transport properties than the typical SA method alone.

  7. Hybrid architecture active wavefront sensing and control system, and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Lee D. (Inventor); Dean, Bruce H. (Inventor); Hyde, Tristram T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    According to various embodiments, provided herein is an optical system and method that can be configured to perform image analysis. The optical system can comprise a telescope assembly and one or more hybrid instruments. The one or more hybrid instruments can be configured to receive image data from the telescope assembly and perform a fine guidance operation and a wavefront sensing operation, simultaneously, on the image data received from the telescope assembly.

  8. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockelmann, Thomas R [Battle Creek, MI; Hope, Mark E [Marshall, MI; Zou, Zhanjiang [Battle Creek, MI; Kang, Xiaosong [Battle Creek, MI

    2009-02-10

    A battery control system for hybrid vehicle includes a hybrid powertrain battery, a vehicle accessory battery, and a prime mover driven generator adapted to charge the vehicle accessory battery. A detecting arrangement is configured to monitor the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge. A controller is configured to activate the prime mover to drive the generator and recharge the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a first predetermined level, or transfer electrical power from the hybrid powertrain battery to the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a second predetermined level. The invention further includes a method for controlling a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  9. Efficient hybrid method for time reversal superresolution imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohua Wang,Wei Gao,; Bingzhong Wang

    2015-01-01

    An efficient hybrid time reversal (TR) imaging method based on signal subspace and noise subspace is proposed for electromagnetic superresolution detecting and imaging. First, the locations of targets are estimated by the transmitting-mode decom-position of the TR operator (DORT) method employing the signal subspace. Then, the TR multiple signal classification (TR-MUSIC) method employing the noise subspace is used in the estimated target area to get the superresolution imaging of targets. Two examples with homogeneous and inhomogeneous background mediums are considered, respectively. The results show that the proposed hybrid method has advantages in CPU time and memory cost because of the combination of rough and fine imaging.

  10. Hybrid Method for Tokamak MHD Equilibrium Configuration Reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Hong-Da; DONG Jia-Qi; ZHANG Jin-Hua; JIANG Hai-Bin

    2007-01-01

    A hybrid method for tokamak MHD equilibrium configuration reconstruction is proposed and employed in the modified EFIT code. This method uses the free boundary tokamak equilibrium configuration reconstruction algorithm with one boundary point fixed. The results show that the position of the fixed point has explicit effects on the reconstructed divertor configurations. In particular, the separatrix of the reconstructed divertor configuration precisely passes the required position when the hybrid method is used in the reconstruction. The profiles of plasma parameters such as pressure and safety factor for reconstructed HL-2A tokamak configurations with the hybrid and the free boundary methods are compared. The possibility for applications of the method to swing the separatrix strike point on the divertor target plate is discussed.

  11. A Hybrid of DL and WYL Nonlinear Conjugate Gradient Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengwei Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The conjugate gradient method is an efficient method for solving large-scale nonlinear optimization problems. In this paper, we propose a nonlinear conjugate gradient method which can be considered as a hybrid of DL and WYL conjugate gradient methods. The given method possesses the sufficient descent condition under the Wolfe-Powell line search and is globally convergent for general functions. Our numerical results show that the proposed method is very robust and efficient for the test problems.

  12. Duplication and Loss of Function of Genes Encoding RNA Polymerase III Subunit C4 Causes Hybrid Incompatibility in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giao Ngoc Nguyen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive barriers are commonly observed in both animals and plants, in which they maintain species integrity and contribute to speciation. This report shows that a combination of loss-of-function alleles at two duplicated loci, DUPLICATED GAMETOPHYTIC STERILITY 1 (DGS1 on chromosome 4 and DGS2 on chromosome 7, causes pollen sterility in hybrid progeny derived from an interspecific cross between cultivated rice, Oryza sativa, and an Asian annual wild rice, O. nivara. Male gametes carrying the DGS1 allele from O. nivara (DGS1-nivaras and the DGS2 allele from O. sativa (DGS2-T65s were sterile, but female gametes carrying the same genotype were fertile. We isolated the causal gene, which encodes a protein homologous to DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP III subunit C4 (RPC4. RPC4 facilitates the transcription of 5S rRNAs and tRNAs. The loss-of-function alleles at DGS1-nivaras and DGS2-T65s were caused by weak or nonexpression of RPC4 and an absence of RPC4, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that gene duplication of RPC4 at DGS1 and DGS2 was a recent event that occurred after divergence of the ancestral population of Oryza from other Poaceae or during diversification of AA-genome species.

  13. Molecular cloning and expression of a cDNA encoding a hybrid histidine kinase receptor in tropical periwinkle Catharanthus roseus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papon, N; Bremer, J; Vansiri, A; Glévarec, G; Rideau, M; Creche, J

    2006-09-01

    Signalling pathways involving histidine kinase receptors (HKRs) are widely used by prokaryotes and fungi to regulate a large palette of biological processes. In plants, HKRs are known to be implicated in cytokinin, ethylene, and osmosensing transduction pathways. In this work, a full length cDNA named CRCIK was isolated from the tropical species CATHARANTHUS ROSEUS (L.) G. Don. It encodes a 1205 amino acid protein that belongs to the hybrid HKR family. The deduced amino acid sequence shows the highest homology with AtHK1, an osmosensing HKR in ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA. In return, CrCIK protein shares very low identity with the other 10 ARABIDOPSIS HKRs. Southern blot analysis indicates that the CRCIK corresponding gene is either present in multiple copies or has very close homologues in the genome of the tropical periwinkle. The gene is widely expressed in the plant. In C. ROSEUS C20D cell suspension, it is slightly induced after exposure to low temperature, pointing to a putative role in cold-shock signal transduction.

  14. Singular and Regular Implementations of the Hybrid Boundary Node Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The hybrid boundary node method (HdBNM) combines a modified function with the moving least squares approximation to form a boundary-only truly meshless method. This paper describes two implementations of the HdBNM, the singular hybrid boundary node method (ShBNM) and the regular hybrid boundary node method (RhBNM). The ShBNM and RhBNM were compared with each other, and the parameters that influence their performance were studied in detail. The convergence rates and their applicability to thin structures were also investigated. The ShBNM and RhBNM are found to be very easy to implement and to efficiently obtain numerical solutions to computational mechanics problems.

  15. Spoken Language Identification Using Hybrid Feature Extraction Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Pawan; Mishra, A N; Chandra, Mahesh

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces and motivates the use of hybrid robust feature extraction technique for spoken language identification (LID) system. The speech recognizers use a parametric form of a signal to get the most important distinguishable features of speech signal for recognition task. In this paper Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC), Perceptual linear prediction coefficients (PLP) along with two hybrid features are used for language Identification. Two hybrid features, Bark Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (BFCC) and Revised Perceptual Linear Prediction Coefficients (RPLP) were obtained from combination of MFCC and PLP. Two different classifiers, Vector Quantization (VQ) with Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) and Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) were used for classification. The experiment shows better identification rate using hybrid feature extraction techniques compared to conventional feature extraction methods.BFCC has shown better performance than MFCC with both classifiers. RPLP along with GMM has shown be...

  16. A hybrid method for assessment of soil pollutants spatial distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, D. A.; Medvedev, A. N.; Sergeev, A. P.; Shichkin, A. V.; Buevich, A. G.

    2017-07-01

    The authors propose a hybrid method to predict the distribution of topsoil pollutants (Cu and Cr). The method combines artificial neural networks and kriging. Corresponding computer models were built and tested on real data on example of subarctic regions of Russia. The network structure selection was based on the minimization of the Root-mean-square error between real and predicted concentrations. The constructed models show that the prognostic accuracy of the artificial neural network is higher than in case of the geostatistical (kriging) and deterministic methods. The conclusion is that hybridization of models (artificial neural network and kriging) provides the improvement of the total predictive accuracy.

  17. Fast full waveform inversion with source encoding and second-order optimization methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Clara; Métivier, Ludovic; Operto, Stéphane; Brossier, Romain; Virieux, Jean

    2015-02-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) of 3-D data sets has recently been possible thanks to the development of high performance computing. However, FWI remains a computationally intensive task when high frequencies are injected in the inversion or more complex wave physics (viscoelastic) is accounted for. The highest computational cost results from the numerical solution of the wave equation for each seismic source. To reduce the computational burden, one well-known technique is to employ a random linear combination of the sources, rather that using each source independently. This technique, known as source encoding, has shown to successfully reduce the computational cost when applied to real data. Up to now, the inversion is normally carried out using gradient descent algorithms. With the idea of achieving a fast and robust frequency-domain FWI, we assess the performance of the random source encoding method when it is interfaced with second-order optimization methods (quasi-Newton l-BFGS, truncated Newton). Because of the additional seismic modelings required to compute the Newton descent direction, it is not clear beforehand if truncated Newton methods can indeed further reduce the computational cost compared to gradient algorithms. We design precise stopping criteria of iterations to fairly assess the computational cost and the speed-up provided by the source encoding method for each optimization method. We perform experiment on synthetic and real data sets. In both cases, we confirm that combining source encoding with second-order optimization methods reduces the computational cost compared to the case where source encoding is interfaced with gradient descent algorithms. For the synthetic data set, inspired from the geology of Gulf of Mexico, we show that the quasi-Newton l-BFGS algorithm requires the lowest computational cost. For the real data set application on the Valhall data, we show that the truncated Newton methods provide the most robust direction of descent.

  18. Cellulases, nucleic acids encoding them and methods for making and using them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, David; Gemsch Cuenca, Joslin; Dycaico, Mark

    2013-04-23

    This invention relates to molecular and cellular biology and biochemistry. In one aspect, the invention provides polypeptides having cellulase activity, e.g., endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, mannanase and/or .beta.-glucosidase activity, polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides, and methods of making and using these polynucleotides and polypeptides. In one aspect, the invention is directed to polypeptides cellulase activity, e.g., endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, mannanase and/or .beta.-glucosidase activity, including thermostable and thermotolerant activity, and polynucleotides encoding these enzymes, and making and using these polynucleotides and polypeptides. The polypeptides of the invention can be used in a variety of pharmaceutical, agricultural, food and feed processing and industrial contexts.

  19. A Hybrid 3D Path Planning Method for UAVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid method for path planning in 3D spaces. We propose an improvement to a near-optimal 2D off-line algorithm and a flexible normalized on-line fuzzy controller to find shortest paths. Our method, targeted to low altitude domains, is simple and efficient. Our preliminary resu...

  20. Method for production of sorghum hybrids with selected flowering times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullet, John E.; Rooney, William L.

    2016-08-30

    Methods and composition for the production of sorghum hybrids with selected and different flowering times are provided. In accordance with the invention, a substantially continual and high-yield harvest of sorghum is provided. Improved methods of seed production are also provided.

  1. Method for production of sorghum hybrids with selected flowering times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullet, John E.; Rooney, William L.

    2016-08-30

    Methods and composition for the production of sorghum hybrids with selected and different flowering times are provided. In accordance with the invention, a substantially continual and high-yield harvest of sorghum is provided. Improved methods of seed production are also provided.

  2. Heat-capacity measurements on small samples: The hybrid method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaasse, J.C.P.; Brück, E.H.

    2008-01-01

    A newly developed method is presented for measuring heat capacities on small samples, particularly where thermal isolation is not sufficient for the use of the traditional semiadiabatic heat-pulse technique. This "hybrid technique" is a modification of this heat-pulse method in case the temperature

  3. Heat-capacity measurements on small samples: The hybrid method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaasse, J.C.P.; Brück, E.H.

    2008-01-01

    A newly developed method is presented for measuring heat capacities on small samples, particularly where thermal isolation is not sufficient for the use of the traditional semiadiabatic heat-pulse technique. This "hybrid technique" is a modification of this heat-pulse method in case the temperature

  4. A hybrid formulation of a component mode synthesis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Charbel; Geradin, Michel

    1992-01-01

    Component mode synthesis is a substructuring technique frequently employed in structural dynamics. In this method, a given structure is subdivided into components or substructures, each of which is analyzed independently for natural frequencies and for mode shapes. The substructure mode shapes are then assembled to give displacement shapes or load patterns of the original structure. An analytical justification of the basic concept is presented using spectral decompositions, and a variant substructuring approach where intersubstructure continuity is enforced in a weak form is derived. This leads to a hybrid formulation of the basic method which is particularly suitable for assembling heterogeneous substructures and analyzing nonconforming and incompatible finite element substructure models. For problems where both the basic and hybrid methods are applicable, the hybrid variant can be computationally more advantageous.

  5. Novel hybrid method: pulse CO2 laser-TIG hybrid welding by coordinated control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yanbin; Lei Zhenglong; Li Liqun; Wu Lin; Xie Cheng

    2006-01-01

    In continuous wave CO2 laser-TIG hybrid welding process, the laser energy is not fully utilized because of the absorption and defocusing by plasma in the arc space. Therefore, the optimal welding result can only be achieved in a limited energy range. In order to improve the welding performance further, a novel hybrid welding method-pulse CO2 laser-TIG arc hybrid welding by coordinated control is proposed and investigated. The experimental results indicate that, compared with continuous wave CO2 laser-TIG hybrid welding, the absorption and defocusing of laser energy by plasma are decreased further, and at the same time, the availability ratio of laser and arc energy can be increased when a coordinated frequency is controlled. As a result, the weld appearance is also improved as well as the weld depth is deepened. Furthermore, the effect of frequency and phase of pulse laser and TIG arc on the arc images and welding characteristics is also studied. However, the novel hybrid method has great potentials in the application of industrials from views of techniques and economy.

  6. Multiple-time-stepping generalized hybrid Monte Carlo methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escribano, Bruno, E-mail: bescribano@bcamath.org [BCAM—Basque Center for Applied Mathematics, E-48009 Bilbao (Spain); Akhmatskaya, Elena [BCAM—Basque Center for Applied Mathematics, E-48009 Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, E-48013 Bilbao (Spain); Reich, Sebastian [Universität Potsdam, Institut für Mathematik, D-14469 Potsdam (Germany); Azpiroz, Jon M. [Kimika Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea (UPV/EHU) and Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), P.K. 1072, Donostia (Spain)

    2015-01-01

    Performance of the generalized shadow hybrid Monte Carlo (GSHMC) method [1], which proved to be superior in sampling efficiency over its predecessors [2–4], molecular dynamics and hybrid Monte Carlo, can be further improved by combining it with multi-time-stepping (MTS) and mollification of slow forces. We demonstrate that the comparatively simple modifications of the method not only lead to better performance of GSHMC itself but also allow for beating the best performed methods, which use the similar force splitting schemes. In addition we show that the same ideas can be successfully applied to the conventional generalized hybrid Monte Carlo method (GHMC). The resulting methods, MTS-GHMC and MTS-GSHMC, provide accurate reproduction of thermodynamic and dynamical properties, exact temperature control during simulation and computational robustness and efficiency. MTS-GHMC uses a generalized momentum update to achieve weak stochastic stabilization to the molecular dynamics (MD) integrator. MTS-GSHMC adds the use of a shadow (modified) Hamiltonian to filter the MD trajectories in the HMC scheme. We introduce a new shadow Hamiltonian formulation adapted to force-splitting methods. The use of such Hamiltonians improves the acceptance rate of trajectories and has a strong impact on the sampling efficiency of the method. Both methods were implemented in the open-source MD package ProtoMol and were tested on a water and a protein systems. Results were compared to those obtained using a Langevin Molly (LM) method [5] on the same systems. The test results demonstrate the superiority of the new methods over LM in terms of stability, accuracy and sampling efficiency. This suggests that putting the MTS approach in the framework of hybrid Monte Carlo and using the natural stochasticity offered by the generalized hybrid Monte Carlo lead to improving stability of MTS and allow for achieving larger step sizes in the simulation of complex systems.

  7. Stability estimates for hybrid coupled domain decomposition methods

    CERN Document Server

    Steinbach, Olaf

    2003-01-01

    Domain decomposition methods are a well established tool for an efficient numerical solution of partial differential equations, in particular for the coupling of different model equations and of different discretization methods. Based on the approximate solution of local boundary value problems either by finite or boundary element methods, the global problem is reduced to an operator equation on the skeleton of the domain decomposition. Different variational formulations then lead to hybrid domain decomposition methods.

  8. Robust Hybrid Finite Element Methods for Antennas and Microwave Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, J.; Volakis, John L.

    1996-01-01

    One of the primary goals in this dissertation is concerned with the development of robust hybrid finite element-boundary integral (FE-BI) techniques for modeling and design of conformal antennas of arbitrary shape. Both the finite element and integral equation methods will be first overviewed in this chapter with an emphasis on recently developed hybrid FE-BI methodologies for antennas, microwave and millimeter wave applications. The structure of the dissertation is then outlined. We conclude the chapter with discussions of certain fundamental concepts and methods in electromagnetics, which are important to this study.

  9. Hybrid SVM/HMM Method for Face Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘江华; 陈佳品; 程君实

    2004-01-01

    A face recognition system based on Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Hidden Markov Model (HMM) has been proposed. The powerful discriminative ability of SVM is combined with the temporal modeling ability of HMM. The output of SVM is moderated to be probability output, which replaces the Mixture of Gauss (MOG) in HMM. Wavelet transformation is used to extract observation vector, which reduces the data dimension and improves the robustness.The hybrid system is compared with pure HMM face recognition method based on ORL face database and Yale face database. Experiments results show that the hybrid method has better performance.

  10. Hybrid recommendation methods in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiasconaro, A.; Tumminello, M.; Nicosia, V.; Latora, V.; Mantegna, R. N.

    2015-07-01

    We propose two recommendation methods, based on the appropriate normalization of already existing similarity measures, and on the convex combination of the recommendation scores derived from similarity between users and between objects. We validate the proposed measures on three data sets, and we compare the performance of our methods to other recommendation systems recently proposed in the literature. We show that the proposed similarity measures allow us to attain an improvement of performances of up to 20% with respect to existing nonparametric methods, and that the accuracy of a recommendation can vary widely from one specific bipartite network to another, which suggests that a careful choice of the most suitable method is highly relevant for an effective recommendation on a given system. Finally, we study how an increasing presence of random links in the network affects the recommendation scores, finding that one of the two recommendation algorithms introduced here can systematically outperform the others in noisy data sets.

  11. Hybrid recommendation methods in complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiasconaro, A; Tumminello, M; Nicosia, V; Latora, V; Mantegna, R N

    2015-07-01

    We propose two recommendation methods, based on the appropriate normalization of already existing similarity measures, and on the convex combination of the recommendation scores derived from similarity between users and between objects. We validate the proposed measures on three data sets, and we compare the performance of our methods to other recommendation systems recently proposed in the literature. We show that the proposed similarity measures allow us to attain an improvement of performances of up to 20% with respect to existing nonparametric methods, and that the accuracy of a recommendation can vary widely from one specific bipartite network to another, which suggests that a careful choice of the most suitable method is highly relevant for an effective recommendation on a given system. Finally, we study how an increasing presence of random links in the network affects the recommendation scores, finding that one of the two recommendation algorithms introduced here can systematically outperform the others in noisy data sets.

  12. Hybrid recommendation methods in complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Fiasconaro, A; Nicosia, V; Latora, V; Mantegna, R N

    2014-01-01

    We propose here two new recommendation methods, based on the appropriate normalization of already existing similarity measures, and on the convex combination of the recommendation scores derived from similarity between users and between objects. We validate the proposed measures on three relevant data sets, and we compare their performance with several recommendation systems recently proposed in the literature. We show that the proposed similarity measures allow to attain an improvement of performances of up to 20\\% with respect to existing non-parametric methods, and that the accuracy of a recommendation can vary widely from one specific bipartite network to another, which suggests that a careful choice of the most suitable method is highly relevant for an effective recommendation on a given system. Finally, we studied how an increasing presence of random links in the network affects the recommendation scores, and we found that one of the two recommendation algorithms introduced here can systematically outpe...

  13. A HYBRID METHOD FOR EFFICIENT TARGET RECOGNITION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yanning; Zheng Jiangbin; Zhao Rongchun

    2003-01-01

    An efficient target recognition method for remote sensing image is proposed in this paper, which is based on moment invariant and support vector machine. First, seven Hu's invariant moments are extracted as a feature vector. Then, a support vector machine is used to recognize targets of planes and ships on binary remote sensing images. The experimental results show that the new method can obtain better recognition results. Moreover, it is observed that the range of the binary values of image affects directly the performance of recognition.

  14. A Hybrid Method with Deviational Particles for Spatial Inhomogeneous Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Bokai

    2015-01-01

    In this work we propose a Hybrid method with Deviational Particles (HDP) for a plasma modeled by the inhomogeneous Vlasov-Poisson-Landau system. We split the distribution into a Maxwellian part evolved by a grid based fluid solver and a deviation part simulated by numerical particles. These particles, named deviational particles, could be both positive and negative. We combine the Monte Carlo method proposed in \\cite{YC15}, a Particle in Cell method and a Macro-Micro decomposition method \\cite{BLM08} to design an efficient hybrid method. Furthermore, coarse particles are employed to accelerate the simulation. A particle resampling technique on both deviational particles and coarse particles is also investigated and improved. The efficiency is significantly improved compared to a PIC-MCC method, especially near the fluid regime.

  15. Hybrid multiple criteria decision-making methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zavadskas, Edmundas Kazimieras; Govindan, K.; Antucheviciene, Jurgita

    2016-01-01

    Formal decision-making methods can be used to help improve the overall sustainability of industries and organisations. Recently, there has been a great proliferation of works aggregating sustainability criteria by using diverse multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM) techniques. A number of revi...

  16. Multi-band frequency encoding method for metabolic imaging with hyperpolarized [1- 13C]pyruvate

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Morze, Cornelius; Reed, Galen; Shin, Peter; Larson, Peder E. Z.; Hu, Simon; Bok, Robert; Vigneron, Daniel B.

    2011-08-01

    A new method was developed for simultaneous spatial localization and spectral separation of multiple compounds based on a single echo, by designing the acquisition to place individual compounds in separate frequency encoding bands. This method was specially designed for rapid and robust metabolic imaging of hyperpolarized 13C substrates and their metabolic products, and was investigated in phantom studies and studies in normal mice and transgenic models of prostate cancer to provide rapid metabolic imaging of hyperpolarized [1- 13C]pyruvate and its metabolic products [1- 13C]lactate and [1- 13C]alanine at spatial resolutions up to 3 mm in-plane. Elevated pyruvate and lactate signals in the vicinity of prostatic tissues were observed in transgenic tumor mice. The multi-band frequency encoding technique enabled rapid metabolic imaging of hyperpolarized 13C compounds with important advantages over prior approaches, including less complicated acquisition and reconstruction methods.

  17. A study of hybrid prediction method for ship parametric rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周耀华; 马宁; 鲁江; 顾民

    2016-01-01

    The parametric rolling (PR) in the head or following waves has been considered as one of the main stability failure modes in the development of the 2nd generation Intact Stability criterion by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). According to previous studies, the estimation methods of the roll damping affect the prediction of the PR significantly, and most of them are based on experiment data or Ikeda’s empirical formula. The accuracy of the estimation method for the roll damping could be a key aspect for the validity of its prediction for the full scale ship. In this research, a hybrid prediction method is developed for the numerical prediction of the parametric rolling when experiment data are not available for the roll damping. Comparison study is also carried out between the hybrid method and a nonlinear dynamics method, where the roll damping is estimated by the simplified Ikeda’s method and the direct CFD prediction method in a direct non-linear simulation based on the 3-D CFD approach in the model scale. It is shown that the results of the hybrid method are in satisfactory agreements with the model experiment results, and the method can be used for analysis especially at the early design stage where experiment data are often not available.

  18. Hybrid radical energy storage device and method of making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gennett, Thomas; Ginley, David S.; Braunecker, Wade; Ban, Chunmei; Owczarczyk, Zbyslaw

    2016-04-26

    Hybrid radical energy storage devices, such as batteries or electrochemical devices, and methods of use and making are disclosed. Also described herein are electrodes and electrolytes useful in energy storage devices, for example, radical polymer cathode materials and electrolytes for use in organic radical batteries.

  19. A COMBINED HYBRID FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR PLATE BENDING PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-xiao Zhou; Xiao-ping Xie

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a combined hybrid method is applied to finite element discretization ofplate bending problems. It is shown that the resultant schemes are stabilized, i.e., theconvergence of the schemes is independent of inf-sup conditions and any other patch test.Based on this, two new series of plate elements are proposed.

  20. A Novel Method of Utilizing Hybrid Generator as Renewable Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Fathima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy production and consumption in the future may depend on renewable energy sources and also depends on the efficiency of utilizing it. Here, a hybrid system, a combination of solar cells and thermoelectric generators is controlled by open circuit voltage method which is normally used for linear electrical characteristics. The proposed system is supported by theoretical analysis and simulation. Lead acid battery is used to accumulate the harvested energy. Cuk converters are used here to improve the efficiency and helps in reduction of noises. Hybrid generators are found to be efficient and more stable.

  1. A Hybrid On-line Verification Method of Relay Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wangyuan; Chen, Qing; Si, Ji; Huang, Xin

    2017-05-01

    Along with the rapid development of the power industry, grid structure gets more sophisticated. The validity and rationality of protective relaying are vital to the security of power systems. To increase the security of power systems, it is essential to verify the setting values of relays online. Traditional verification methods mainly include the comparison of protection range and the comparison of calculated setting value. To realize on-line verification, the verifying speed is the key. The verifying result of comparing protection range is accurate, but the computation burden is heavy, and the verifying speed is slow. Comparing calculated setting value is much faster, but the verifying result is conservative and inaccurate. Taking the overcurrent protection as example, this paper analyses the advantages and disadvantages of the two traditional methods above, and proposes a hybrid method of on-line verification which synthesizes the advantages of the two traditional methods. This hybrid method can meet the requirements of accurate on-line verification.

  2. Construction, expression and characterization of a plasmid-encoded Na(+)-specific ATPase hybrid consisting of Propionigenium modestum F0-ATPase and Escherichia coli F1-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaim, G; Dimroth, P

    1994-06-01

    The Escherichia coli strain DK8, a deletion mutant lacking the complete unc operon, was transformed with a plasmid containing the genes encoding the a, b, c, delta and part of the alpha subunit of the Na(+)-dependent ATPase of Propionigenium modestum and the genes encoding the alpha, gamma, beta and epsilon subunits of the H(+)-dependent E. coli ATPase. The transformants showed Na(+)-dependent growth on succinate as non-fermentable carbon source. The functionally expressed hybrid ATPase was activated 13-fold at pH 7.5 by the addition of Na+ and inhibited by 1,3-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, azide and tributyltin chloride. At pH 7.5 and pH 9.0, the hybrid enzyme was protected from inhibition by 1,3-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide in the presence of 50 mM NaCl and 5 mM NaCl, respectively. The hybrid ATPase was reconstituted into proteoliposomes and catalyzed the transport of Na+ upon ATP addition. ATP-dependent fluorescence quenching of 9-amino-6-chloro-2-methoxyacridine proved that the ATPase hybrid was able to pump protons in the absence of Na+. Furthermore, ATP synthesis could be measured under conditions where a valinomycin-mediated K+ diffusion potential (delta psi) and a Na+ concentration gradient (delta p Na+) were imposed.

  3. Hybrid intelligent optimization methods for engineering problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivanoglu, Yasin Volkan

    The purpose of optimization is to obtain the best solution under certain conditions. There are numerous optimization methods because different problems need different solution methodologies; therefore, it is difficult to construct patterns. Also mathematical modeling of a natural phenomenon is almost based on differentials. Differential equations are constructed with relative increments among the factors related to yield. Therefore, the gradients of these increments are essential to search the yield space. However, the landscape of yield is not a simple one and mostly multi-modal. Another issue is differentiability. Engineering design problems are usually nonlinear and they sometimes exhibit discontinuous derivatives for the objective and constraint functions. Due to these difficulties, non-gradient-based algorithms have become more popular in recent decades. Genetic algorithms (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithms are popular, non-gradient based algorithms. Both are population-based search algorithms and have multiple points for initiation. A significant difference from a gradient-based method is the nature of the search methodologies. For example, randomness is essential for the search in GA or PSO. Hence, they are also called stochastic optimization methods. These algorithms are simple, robust, and have high fidelity. However, they suffer from similar defects, such as, premature convergence, less accuracy, or large computational time. The premature convergence is sometimes inevitable due to the lack of diversity. As the generations of particles or individuals in the population evolve, they may lose their diversity and become similar to each other. To overcome this issue, we studied the diversity concept in GA and PSO algorithms. Diversity is essential for a healthy search, and mutations are the basic operators to provide the necessary variety within a population. After having a close scrutiny of the diversity concept based on qualification and

  4. A multigrid solution method for mixed hybrid finite elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, W. [Universitaet Augsburg (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    We consider the multigrid solution of linear equations arising within the discretization of elliptic second order boundary value problems of the form by mixed hybrid finite elements. Using the equivalence of mixed hybrid finite elements and non-conforming nodal finite elements, we construct a multigrid scheme for the corresponding non-conforming finite elements, and, by this equivalence, for the mixed hybrid finite elements, following guidelines from Arbogast/Chen. For a rectangular triangulation of the computational domain, this non-conforming schemes are the so-called nodal finite elements. We explicitly construct prolongation and restriction operators for this type of non-conforming finite elements. We discuss the use of plain multigrid and the multilevel-preconditioned cg-method and compare their efficiency in numerical tests.

  5. Validation of a hybrid life-cycle inventory analysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Robert H

    2008-08-01

    The life-cycle inventory analysis step of a life-cycle assessment (LCA) may currently suffer from several limitations, mainly concerned with the use of incomplete and unreliable data sources and methods of assessment. Many past LCA studies have used traditional inventory analysis methods, namely process analysis and input-output analysis. More recently, hybrid inventory analysis methods have been developed, combining these two traditional methods in an attempt to minimise their limitations. In light of recent improvements, these hybrid methods need to be compared and validated, as these too have been considered to have several limitations. This paper evaluates a recently developed hybrid inventory analysis method which aims to improve the limitations of previous methods. It was found that the truncation associated with process analysis can be up to 87%, reflecting the considerable shortcomings in the quantity of process data currently available. Capital inputs were found to account for up to 22% of the total inputs to a particular product. These findings suggest that current best-practice methods are sufficiently accurate for most typical applications, but this is heavily dependent upon data quality and availability. The use of input-output data assists in improving the system boundary completeness of life-cycle inventories. However, the use of input-output analysis alone does not always provide an accurate model for replacing process data. Further improvements in the quantity of process data currently available are needed to increase the reliability of life-cycle inventories.

  6. Hybrid Vortex Method for the Aerodynamic Analysis of Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vortex method, in which vortex panel method is combined with the viscous-vortex particle method (HPVP, was established to model the wind turbine aerodynamic and relevant numerical procedure program was developed to solve flow equations. The panel method was used to calculate the blade surface vortex sheets and the vortex particle method was employed to simulate the blade wake vortices. As a result of numerical calculations on the flow over a wind turbine, the HPVP method shows significant advantages in accuracy and less computation resource consuming. The validation of the aerodynamic parameters against Phase VI wind turbine experimental data is performed, which shows reasonable agreement.

  7. RBFs-MSA Hybrid Method for Mesh Deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yu; GUO Zheng; LIU Jun

    2012-01-01

    Simulating unsteady flow phenomena involving moving boundaries is a challenging task,one key requirement of which is a reliable and fast algorithm to deform the computational mesh.Radial basis functions (RBFs) interpolation is a very simple and robust method to deform the mesh.However,the number of operations and the requirement of memory storage will be increased rapidly as the number of grid nodes increases,which limits the application of RBFs to three-dimensional (3D) moving mesh.Moving submesh approach (MSA) is an efficient method,but its robustness depends on the method used to deform the background mesh.A hybrid method which combines the benefits of MSA and RBFs interpolation,which is called RBFs-MSA,has been presented.This hybrid method is proved to be robust and efficient via several numerical examples.From the aspect of the quality of deforming meshes,this hybrid method is comparable with the RBFs interpolation; from the aspect of computing efficiency,one test case shows that RBFs-MSA is about two orders of magnitude faster than RBFs interpolation.For these benefits of RBFs-MSA,the new method is suitable for unsteady flow simulation which refers to boundaries movement.

  8. A hybrid splitting method for smoothing Tikhonov regularization problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hua Zeng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, a hybrid splitting method is proposed for solving a smoothing Tikhonov regularization problem. At each iteration, the proposed method solves three subproblems. First of all, two subproblems are solved in a parallel fashion, and the multiplier associated to these two block variables is updated in a rapid sequence. Then the third subproblem is solved in the sense of an alternative fashion with the former two subproblems. Finally, the multiplier associated to the last two block variables is updated. Global convergence of the proposed method is proven under some suitable conditions. Some numerical experiments on the discrete ill-posed problems (DIPPs show the validity and efficiency of the proposed hybrid splitting method.

  9. A study on the fabrication of main scale of linear encoder using continuous roller imprint method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shanjin; Shi, Yongsheng; Yin, Lei; Feng, Long; Liu, Hongzhong

    2013-10-01

    Linear encoder composed of main and index scales has an extensive application in the field of modern precision measurement. The main scale is the key component of linear encoder as measuring basis. In this article, the continuous roller imprint technology is applied to the manufacturing of the main scale, this method can realize the high efficiency and low cost manufacturing of the ultra-long main scale. By means of the plastic deformation of the soft metal film substrate, the grating microstructure on the surface of the cylinder mold is replicated to the soft metal film substrate directly. Through the high precision control of continuous rotational motion of the mold, ultra-long high precision grating microstructure is obtained. This paper mainly discusses the manufacturing process of the high precision cylinder mold and the effects of the roller imprint pressure and roller rotation speed on the imprint replication quality. The above process parameters were optimized to manufacture the high quality main scale. At last, the reading test of a linear encoder contains the main scale made by the above method was conducted to evaluate its measurement accuracy, the result demonstrated the feasibility of the continuous roller imprint method.

  10. Regularity properties of a class of hybrid methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DaxueCHEN; AiguoXIAO

    2000-01-01

    The existence of spurious steady solutions and period-2 solutions in constant timestep is studied. The concepts of Rill-regularity and R-regularity of a class of hybrid methods for dynamical systems of ordinary differential equations are introduced and studied.Some conditions guaranteeing R-regularity and R-regularity of such methods applied to dynamical systems of ordinary differential equations with some important structures are given.

  11. Hybrid Fundamental Solution Based Finite Element Method: Theory and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Changyong Cao; Qing-Hua Qin

    2015-01-01

    An overview on the development of hybrid fundamental solution based finite element method (HFS-FEM) and its application in engineering problems is presented in this paper. The framework and formulations of HFS-FEM for potential problem, plane elasticity, three-dimensional elasticity, thermoelasticity, anisotropic elasticity, and plane piezoelectricity are presented. In this method, two independent assumed fields (intraelement filed and auxiliary frame field) are employed. The formulations for...

  12. Hybrid Method and Similarity to Recognize Javanese Keris

    OpenAIRE

    Halim Budi Santoso; Ryan Peterzon Hadjon

    2015-01-01

    this paper describes Hybrid method and Similarity for recoginizing Javanese Keris. Javanese Keris is one of traditional javanese weapon. It is one of the Indonesia Cultural Heritage. Keris is famous for its distinctive wavy blade. But some of the keris has straight blades. There are many kinds of Keris and every Keris has its own unique pattern. The algorithm to recognize several types of Javanese Keris is made by using Edge Detection method with Image Segmentation and combine with Similarity...

  13. A Hybrid Intelligent Method of Predicting Stock Returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhter Mohiuddin Rather

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel method for predicting stock returns by means of a hybrid intelligent model. Initially predictions are obtained by a linear model, and thereby prediction errors are collected and fed into a recurrent neural network which is actually an autoregressive moving reference neural network. Recurrent neural network results in minimized prediction errors because of nonlinear processing and also because of its configuration. These prediction errors are used to obtain final predictions by summation method as well as by multiplication method. The proposed model is thus hybrid of both a linear and a nonlinear model. The model has been tested on stock data obtained from National Stock Exchange of India. The results indicate that the proposed model can be a promising approach in predicting future stock movements.

  14. Fabrication of Hybrid Organic Photovoltaic Devices Using Electrostatic Spray Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe-Wei Chiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid organic photovoltaic devices (OPVDs are fabricated using the electrostatic spray (e-spray method and their optical and electrical properties are investigated. E-spray is used to deposit a hybrid film (P3HT: PCBM/nanodiamond with morphology and optical characteristics onto OPVDs. The root-mean-square roughness and optical absorption increase with increasing nanodiamond content. The performance of e-spray is comparable to that of the spin-coating method under uniform conditions. The device takes advantage of the high current density, power conversion efficiency, and low cost. Nanodiamond improves the short-circuit current density and power conversion efficiency. The best performance was obtained with 1.5 wt% nanodiamond content, with a current density of 7.28 mA/cm2 and a power conversion efficiency of 2.25%.

  15. Erratum: New Encoding Method of Parameter for Dynamic Encoding Algorithm for Searches (DEAS) [IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences E94.A (2011) , No. 9 pp.1804-1816

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Youngsu; Kim, Jong-Wook; Kim, Johwan; Kim, Sang Woo

    Erratum: New Encoding Method of Parameter for Dynamic Encoding Algorithm for Searches (DEAS) [IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences E94.A (2011) , No. 9 pp.1804-1816

  16. Low-noise multiple watermarks technology based on complex double random phase encoding method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jihong; Lu, Rongwen; Sun, Liujie; Zhuang, Songlin

    2010-11-01

    Based on double random phase encoding method (DRPE), watermarking technology may provide a stable and robust method to protect the copyright of the printing. However, due to its linear character, DRPE exist the serious safety risk when it is attacked. In this paper, a complex coding method, which means adding the chaotic encryption based on logistic mapping before the DRPE coding, is provided and simulated. The results testify the complex method will provide better security protection for the watermarking. Furthermore, a low-noise multiple watermarking is studied, which means embedding multiple watermarks into one host printing and decrypt them with corresponding phase keys individually. The Digital simulation and mathematic analysis show that with the same total embedding weight factor, multiply watermarking will improve signal noise ratio (SNR) of the output printing image significantly. The complex multiply watermark method may provide a robust, stability, reliability copyright protection with higher quality printing image.

  17. A Class of Multiderivative Hybrid One-step Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-jian Yang; Xin-ming Chen; Ai-guo Zhang

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a class of hybrid one-step methods that are obtained by using Cramer's rule and rational approximations to function exp (q). The algorithms fall into the catalogue of implicit formula, which involves sth order derivative and s+1 free parameters. The order of the algorithms satisfies s+1≤p≤2s+2. The stability of the methods is also studied, necessary and sufficient conditions for A-stability and L-stability are given. In addition, some examples are also given to demonstrate the method presented.

  18. Hybrid Method for 3D Segmentation of Magnetic Resonance Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGXiang; ZHANGDazhi; TIANJinwen; LIUJian

    2003-01-01

    Segmentation of some complex images, especially in magnetic resonance brain images, is often difficult to perform satisfactory results using only single approach of image segmentation. An approach towards the integration of several techniques seems to be the best solution. In this paper a new hybrid method for 3-dimension segmentation of the whole brain is introduced, based on fuzzy region growing, edge detection and mathematical morphology, The gray-level threshold, controlling the process of region growing, is determined by fuzzy technique. The image gradient feature is obtained by the 3-dimension sobel operator considering a 3×3×3 data block with the voxel to be evaluated at the center, while the gradient magnitude threshold is defined by the gradient magnitude histogram of brain magnetic resonance volume. By the combined methods of edge detection and region growing, the white matter volume of human brain is segmented perfectly. By the post-processing using mathematical morphological techniques, the whole brain region is obtained. In order to investigate the validity of the hybrid method, two comparative experiments, the region growing method using only gray-level feature and the thresholding method by combining gray-level and gradient features, are carried out. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method provides much better results than the traditional method using a single technique in the 3-dimension segmentation of human brain magnetic resonance data sets.

  19. A separable shadow Hamiltonian hybrid Monte Carlo method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Christopher R; Hampton, Scott S; Skeel, Robert D; Izaguirre, Jesús A

    2009-11-07

    Hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC) is a rigorous sampling method that uses molecular dynamics (MD) as a global Monte Carlo move. The acceptance rate of HMC decays exponentially with system size. The shadow hybrid Monte Carlo (SHMC) was previously introduced to reduce this performance degradation by sampling instead from the shadow Hamiltonian defined for MD when using a symplectic integrator. SHMC's performance is limited by the need to generate momenta for the MD step from a nonseparable shadow Hamiltonian. We introduce the separable shadow Hamiltonian hybrid Monte Carlo (S2HMC) method based on a formulation of the leapfrog/Verlet integrator that corresponds to a separable shadow Hamiltonian, which allows efficient generation of momenta. S2HMC gives the acceptance rate of a fourth order integrator at the cost of a second-order integrator. Through numerical experiments we show that S2HMC consistently gives a speedup greater than two over HMC for systems with more than 4000 atoms for the same variance. By comparison, SHMC gave a maximum speedup of only 1.6 over HMC. S2HMC has the additional advantage of not requiring any user parameters beyond those of HMC. S2HMC is available in the program PROTOMOL 2.1. A Python version, adequate for didactic purposes, is also in MDL (http://mdlab.sourceforge.net/s2hmc).

  20. Decoding of quantum dots encoded microbeads using a hyperspectral fluorescence imaging method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yixi; Liu, Le; He, Yonghong; Zhu, Liang; Ma, Hui

    2015-05-19

    We presented a decoding method of quantum dots encoded microbeads with its fluorescence spectra using line scan hyperspectral fluorescence imaging (HFI) method. A HFI method was developed to attain both the spectra of fluorescence signal and the spatial information of the encoded microbeads. A decoding scheme was adopted to decode the spectra of multicolor microbeads acquired by the HFI system. Comparison experiments between the HFI system and the flow cytometer were conducted. The results showed that the HFI system has higher spectrum resolution; thus, more channels in spectral dimension can be used. The HFI system detection and decoding experiment with the single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) immobilized multicolor beads was done, and the result showed the efficiency of the HFI system. Surface modification of the microbeads by use of the polydopamine was characterized by the scanning electron microscopy and ssDNA immobilization was characterized by the laser confocal microscope. These results indicate that the designed HFI system can be applied to practical biological and medical applications.

  1. Hybrid star structure with the Field Correlator Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgio, G.F.; Zappala, D. [INFN, Catania (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    We explore the relevance of the color-flavor locking phase in the equation of state (EoS) built with the Field Correlator Method (FCM) for the description of the quark matter core of hybrid stars. For the hadronic phase, we use the microscopic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (BHF) many-body theory, and its relativistic counterpart, i.e. the Dirac-Brueckner (DBHF). We find that the main features of the phase transition are directly related to the values of the quark-antiquark potential V{sub 1}, the gluon condensate G{sub 2} and the color-flavor superconducting gap Δ. We confirm that the mapping between the FCM and the CSS (constant speed of sound) parameterization holds true even in the case of paired quark matter. The inclusion of hyperons in the hadronic phase and its effect on the mass-radius relation of hybrid stars is also investigated. (orig.)

  2. A hybrid method for evaluating enterprise architecture implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikpay, Fatemeh; Ahmad, Rodina; Yin Kia, Chiam

    2017-02-01

    Enterprise Architecture (EA) implementation evaluation provides a set of methods and practices for evaluating the EA implementation artefacts within an EA implementation project. There are insufficient practices in existing EA evaluation models in terms of considering all EA functions and processes, using structured methods in developing EA implementation, employing matured practices, and using appropriate metrics to achieve proper evaluation. The aim of this research is to develop a hybrid evaluation method that supports achieving the objectives of EA implementation. To attain this aim, the first step is to identify EA implementation evaluation practices. To this end, a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) was conducted. Second, the proposed hybrid method was developed based on the foundation and information extracted from the SLR, semi-structured interviews with EA practitioners, program theory evaluation and Information Systems (ISs) evaluation. Finally, the proposed method was validated by means of a case study and expert reviews. This research provides a suitable foundation for researchers who wish to extend and continue this research topic with further analysis and exploration, and for practitioners who would like to employ an effective and lightweight evaluation method for EA projects.

  3. 3D measurement method based on combined temporal encoding structured light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoyang; Wang, Yang; Yu, Shuang; Cheng, Hao; Sun, Xiaoming; Yu, Shuchun; Chen, Deyun

    2013-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) vision measurement technology based on encoding structured light plays an important role and has become the main development trend in the field of 3D non-contact measurement. However, how to synthetically improve measurement speed, accuracy and sampling density is still a difficult problem. Thus in the present work, a novel 3D measurement method based on temporal encoding structured light by combining trapezoidal phase-shifting pattern and cyclic code pattern is proposed. Due to trapezoidal phase-shifting has the advantages of high sampling density and high-speed, the proposed method can maintain these advantages by using cyclic code to expand the range of trapezoidal phase-shifting. In addition, the correction scheme is designed to solve the problem of cycle dislocation. Finally, simulation experimental platform is built with 3ds max and MATLAB. Experimental analyses and results show that, the maximal error is less than 3 mm in the range from 400 mm to 1100 mm, cycle dislocation correction has a good effect.

  4. Adaptive Current Control Method for Hybrid Active Power Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Minh Thuyen

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes an adaptive current control method for Hybrid Active Power Filter (HAPF). It consists of a fuzzy-neural controller, identification and prediction model and cost function. The fuzzy-neural controller parameters are adjusted according to the cost function minimum criteria. For this reason, the proposed control method has a capability on-line control clings to variation of the load harmonic currents. Compared to the single fuzzy logic control method, the proposed control method shows the advantages of better dynamic response, compensation error in steady-state is smaller, able to online control is better and harmonics cancelling is more effective. Simulation and experimental results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

  5. Compass: A hybrid method for clinical and biobank data mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krysiak-Baltyn, Konrad; Petersen, Thomas Nordahl; Audouze, Karine Marie Laure

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new method for identification of confident associations within large clinical data sets. The method is a hybrid of two existing methods; Self-Organizing Maps and Association Mining. We utilize Self-Organizing Maps as the initial step to reduce the search space, and then apply...... Association Mining in order to find association rules. We demonstrate that this procedure has a number of advantages compared to traditional Association Mining; it allows for handling numerical variables without a priori binning and is able to generate variable groups which act as “hotspots” for statistically...... significant associations. We showcase the method on infertility-related data from Danish military conscripts. The clinical data we analyzed contained both categorical type questionnaire data and continuous variables generated from biological measurements, including missing values. From this data set, we...

  6. A new hybrid method--combined heat flux method with Monte-Carlo method to analyze thermal radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new hybrid method, Monte-Carlo-Heat-Flux (MCHF) method, was presented to analyze the radiative heat transfer of participating medium in a three-dimensional rectangular enclosure using combined the Monte-Carlo method with the heat flux method. Its accuracy and reliability was proved by comparing the computational results with exact results from classical "Zone Method".

  7. Cellulolytic enzymes, nucleic acids encoding them and methods for making and using them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kevin A [San Diego, CA; Zhao, Lishan [Emeryville, CA; Cayouette, Michelle H [San Diego, CA

    2012-01-24

    The invention provides polypeptides having any cellulolytic activity, e.g., a cellulase activity, a endoglucanase, a cellobiohydrolase, a beta-glucosidase, a xylanase, a mannanse, a .beta.-xylosidase, an arabinofuranosidase, and/or an oligomerase activity, polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides, and methods of making and using these polynucleotides and polypeptides. In one aspect, the invention is directed to polypeptides having any cellulolytic activity, e.g., a cellulase activity, e.g., endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, beta-glucosidase, xylanase, mannanse, .beta.-xylosidase, arabinofuranosidase, and/or oligomerase activity, including thermostable and thermotolerant activity, and polynucleotides encoding these enzymes, and making and using these polynucleotides and polypeptides. In one aspect, the invention provides polypeptides having an oligomerase activity, e.g., enzymes that convert recalcitrant soluble oligomers to fermentable sugars in the saccharification of biomass. The polypeptides of the invention can be used in a variety of pharmaceutical, agricultural, food and feed processing and industrial contexts. The invention also provides compositions or products of manufacture comprising mixtures of enzymes comprising at least one enzyme of this invention.

  8. A method of developing frequency encoded multi-bit optical data comparator using semiconductor optical amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garai, Sisir Kumar

    2011-02-01

    Optical data comparator is the part and parcel of arithmetic and logical unit of any optical data processor and it is working as a building block in a larger optical circuit, as an optical switch in all optical header processing and optical packet switching based all optical telecommunications system. In this article the author proposes a method of developing an all optical single bit comparator unit and subsequently extending the proposal to develop a n-bit comparator exploiting the nonlinear rotation of the state of polarization of the probe beam in semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). Here the dataset to be compared are taken in frequency encoded/decoded form throughout the communication. The major advantages of frequency encoding over all other conventional techniques are that as the frequency of any signal is fundamental one so it can preserve its identity throughout the communication of optical signal and minimizes the probability of bit error problem. For frequency routing purpose optical add/drop multiplexer (ADM) is used which not only route the pump beams properly but also to amplify the pump beams efficiently. Switching speed of 'MZI-SOA switch' as well as SOA based switches are very fast with good on-off contrast ratio and as a result it is possible to obtain very fast action of optical data comparator.

  9. Hybrid methods to represent incomplete and uncertain information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslyn, C. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Decision making is cast in the semiotic context of perception, decision, and action loops. Towards the goal of properly grounding hybrid representations of information and uncertainty from this semiotic perspective, we consider the roles of and relations among the mathematical components of General Information Theory (GIT), particularly among fuzzy sets, possibility theory, probability theory, and random sets. We do so by using a clear distinction between the syntactic, mathematical formalism and the semantic domains of application of each of these fields, placing the emphasis on available measurement and action methods appropriate for each formalism, to which and from which the decision-making process flows.

  10. Interior Noise Prediction of the Automobile Based on Hybrid FE-SEA Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, S. M; Wang, D. F; Zan, J. M

    2011-01-01

    In order to predict the interior noise of the automobile in the low and middle frequency band in the design and development stage, the hybrid FE-SEA model of an automobile was created using hybrid FE-SEA method...

  11. Hybrid perturbation methods based on statistical time series models

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Juan, Juan Félix; San-Martín, Montserrat; Pérez, Iván; López, Rosario

    2016-04-01

    In this work we present a new methodology for orbit propagation, the hybrid perturbation theory, based on the combination of an integration method and a prediction technique. The former, which can be a numerical, analytical or semianalytical theory, generates an initial approximation that contains some inaccuracies derived from the fact that, in order to simplify the expressions and subsequent computations, not all the involved forces are taken into account and only low-order terms are considered, not to mention the fact that mathematical models of perturbations not always reproduce physical phenomena with absolute precision. The prediction technique, which can be based on either statistical time series models or computational intelligence methods, is aimed at modelling and reproducing missing dynamics in the previously integrated approximation. This combination results in the precision improvement of conventional numerical, analytical and semianalytical theories for determining the position and velocity of any artificial satellite or space debris object. In order to validate this methodology, we present a family of three hybrid orbit propagators formed by the combination of three different orders of approximation of an analytical theory and a statistical time series model, and analyse their capability to process the effect produced by the flattening of the Earth. The three considered analytical components are the integration of the Kepler problem, a first-order and a second-order analytical theories, whereas the prediction technique is the same in the three cases, namely an additive Holt-Winters method.

  12. Small RNA Detection by in Situ Hybridization Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna O. Urbanek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Small noncoding RNAs perform multiple regulatory functions in cells, and their exogenous mimics are widely used in research and experimental therapies to interfere with target gene expression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are the most thoroughly investigated representatives of the small RNA family, which includes short interfering RNAs (siRNAs, PIWI-associated RNA (piRNAs, and others. Numerous methods have been adopted for the detection and characterization of small RNAs, which is challenging due to their short length and low level of expression. These include molecular biology methods such as real-time RT-PCR, northern blotting, hybridization to microarrays, cloning and sequencing, as well as single cell miRNA detection by microscopy with in situ hybridization (ISH. In this review, we focus on the ISH method, including its fluorescent version (FISH, and we present recent methodological advances that facilitated its successful adaptation for small RNA detection. We discuss relevant technical aspects as well as the advantages and limitations of ISH. We also refer to numerous applications of small RNA ISH in basic research and molecular diagnostics.

  13. Flux-weakening control methods for hybrid excitation synchronous motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming Huang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid excitation synchronous motor (HESM, which aim at combining the advantages of permanent magnet motor and wound excitation motor, have the characteristics of low-speed high-torque hill climbing and wide speed range. Firstly, a new kind of HESM is presented in the paper, and its structure and mathematical model are illustrated. Then, based on a space voltage vector control, a novel flux-weakening method for speed adjustment in the high speed region is presented. The unique feature of the proposed control method is that the HESM driving system keeps the q-axis back-EMF components invariable during the flux-weakening operation process. Moreover, a copper loss minimization algorithm is adopted to reduce the copper loss of the HESM in the high speed region. Lastly, the proposed method is validated by the simulation and the experimental results.

  14. Hybrid discretization method for time-delay nonlinear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zheng [Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Zhang, Yuanliang; Kil Chong, To [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kostyukova, Olga [3Institute of Mathematics National Academy of Science of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus)

    2010-03-15

    A hybrid discretization scheme that combines the virtues of the Taylor series and Matrix exponential integration methods is proposed. In the algorithm, each sampling time interval is divided into two subintervals to be considered according to the time delay and sampling period. The algorithm is not too expensive computationally and lends itself to be easily inserted into large simulation packages. The mathematical structure of the new discretization scheme is explored and described in detail. The performance of the proposed discretization procedure is evaluated by employing case studies. Various input signals, sampling rates, and time-delay values are considered to test the proposed method. The results demonstrate that the proposed discretization scheme is better than previous Taylor series method for nonlinear time-delay systems, especially when a large sampling period is inevitable

  15. A hybrid training method for neural energy estimation in calorimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Da Silva, P V M; Seixas, J

    2001-01-01

    A neural mapping is developed to improve the overall performance of Tilecal, which is the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS detector. Feeding the input nodes of a multilayer feedforward neural network with the energy values sampled by the calorimeter cells in beam tests, it is shown that the original energy scale of pion beams is reconstructed over a wide energy range and linearity is significantly improved. As it happens for classical methods, a compromise between nonlinearity correction and the optimization of the energy resolution of the detector has to be accomplished. A hybrid training method for the neural mapping is proposed to achieve this design goal. Using the backpropagation algorithm, the method intercalates an epoch of training steps, for which the neural mapping mainly focus on linearity correction, with another block of training steps, in which the original energy resolution obtained by linearly combining the calorimeter cells becomes the main target. (6 refs).

  16. Hybrid method of solution applied to simulation of pulse chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Cremasco

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this communication, the method proposed by Cremasco et al. (2003 is applied to predict single and low concentration pulse chromatography. In previous work, a general rate model was presented to describe the breakthrough curve, where a hybrid solution was proposed for the linear adsorption. The liquid phase concentration inside the particle was found analytically and related with the bed liquid phase through Duhamel's Theorem, while the bulk-phase equation was solved by a numerical method. In this paper, this method is applied to describe pulse chromatography of solutes that present linear adsorption isotherms. The simulated results of pulse chromatography are compared with experimental ones for aromatic amino acid experiments from literature.

  17. Hybrid Steepest-Descent Methods for Triple Hierarchical Variational Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Ceng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce and analyze a relaxed iterative algorithm by combining Korpelevich’s extragradient method, hybrid steepest-descent method, and Mann’s iteration method. We prove that, under appropriate assumptions, the proposed algorithm converges strongly to a common element of the fixed point set of infinitely many nonexpansive mappings, the solution set of finitely many generalized mixed equilibrium problems (GMEPs, the solution set of finitely many variational inclusions, and the solution set of general system of variational inequalities (GSVI, which is just a unique solution of a triple hierarchical variational inequality (THVI in a real Hilbert space. In addition, we also consider the application of the proposed algorithm for solving a hierarchical variational inequality problem with constraints of finitely many GMEPs, finitely many variational inclusions, and the GSVI. The results obtained in this paper improve and extend the corresponding results announced by many others.

  18. Customer churn prediction using a hybrid method and censored data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Tavakkoli-Moghaddam

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Customers are believed to be the main part of any organization’s assets and customer retention as well as customer churn management are important responsibilities of organizations. In today’s competitive environment, organization must do their best to retain their existing customers since attracting new customers cost significantly more than taking care of existing ones. In this paper, we present a hybrid method based on neural network and Cox regression analysis where neural network is used for outlier data and Cox regression method is implemented for prediction of future events. The proposed model of this paper has been implemented on some data and the results are compared based on five criteria including prediction accuracy, errors’ type I and II, root mean square error and mean absolute deviation. The preliminary results indicate that the proposed model of this paper performs better than alternative methods.

  19. An efficient de-convolution reconstruction method for spatiotemporal-encoding single-scan 2D MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Congbo; Dong, Jiyang; Cai, Shuhui; Li, Jing; Chen, Ying; Bao, Lijun; Chen, Zhong

    2013-03-01

    Spatiotemporal-encoding single-scan MRI method is relatively insensitive to field inhomogeneity compared to EPI method. Conjugate gradient (CG) method has been used to reconstruct super-resolved images from the original blurred ones based on coarse magnitude-calculation. In this article, a new de-convolution reconstruction method is proposed. Through removing the quadratic phase modulation from the signal acquired with spatiotemporal-encoding MRI, the signal can be described as a convolution of desired super-resolved image and a point spread function. The de-convolution method proposed herein not only is simpler than the CG method, but also provides super-resolved images with better quality. This new reconstruction method may make the spatiotemporal-encoding 2D MRI technique more valuable for clinic applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A novel method of developing all optical frequency encoded Fredkin gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garai, Sisir Kumar

    2014-02-01

    All optical reversible logic gates have significant applications in the field of optics and optoelectronics for developing different sequential and combinational circuits of optical computing, optical signal processing and in multi-valued logic operations and quantum computing. Here the author proposes a method for developing all optical three-input-output Fredkin gate and modified Fredkin gate using frequency encoded data. For this purpose the author has exploited the properties of efficient frequency conversion and faster switching speed of semiconductor optical amplifiers. Simulation results of the three input-output Fredkin gate testifies to the feasibility of the proposed scheme. These Fredkin gates are universal logic gates, and can be used to develop different all-optical logic and data processors in communication network.

  1. A Numerical Method for Lane-Emden Equations Using Hybrid Functions and the Collocation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changqing Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical method to solve Lane-Emden equations as singular initial value problems is presented in this work. This method is based on the replacement of unknown functions through a truncated series of hybrid of block-pulse functions and Chebyshev polynomials. The collocation method transforms the differential equation into a system of algebraic equations. It also has application in a wide area of differential equations. Corresponding numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method.

  2. Design of time interval generator based on hybrid counting method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Yuan [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Wang, Zhaoqi [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Lu, Houbing [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hefei Electronic Engineering Institute, Hefei 230037 (China); Chen, Lian [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Jin, Ge, E-mail: goldjin@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2016-10-01

    Time Interval Generators (TIGs) are frequently used for the characterizations or timing operations of instruments in particle physics experiments. Though some “off-the-shelf” TIGs can be employed, the necessity of a custom test system or control system makes the TIGs, being implemented in a programmable device desirable. Nowadays, the feasibility of using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) to implement particle physics instrumentation has been validated in the design of Time-to-Digital Converters (TDCs) for precise time measurement. The FPGA-TDC technique is based on the architectures of Tapped Delay Line (TDL), whose delay cells are down to few tens of picosecond. In this case, FPGA-based TIGs with high delay step are preferable allowing the implementation of customized particle physics instrumentations and other utilities on the same FPGA device. A hybrid counting method for designing TIGs with both high resolution and wide range is presented in this paper. The combination of two different counting methods realizing an integratable TIG is described in detail. A specially designed multiplexer for tap selection is emphatically introduced. The special structure of the multiplexer is devised for minimizing the different additional delays caused by the unpredictable routings from different taps to the output. A Kintex-7 FPGA is used for the hybrid counting-based implementation of a TIG, providing a resolution up to 11 ps and an interval range up to 8 s.

  3. Design of time interval generator based on hybrid counting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuan; Wang, Zhaoqi; Lu, Houbing; Chen, Lian; Jin, Ge

    2016-10-01

    Time Interval Generators (TIGs) are frequently used for the characterizations or timing operations of instruments in particle physics experiments. Though some "off-the-shelf" TIGs can be employed, the necessity of a custom test system or control system makes the TIGs, being implemented in a programmable device desirable. Nowadays, the feasibility of using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) to implement particle physics instrumentation has been validated in the design of Time-to-Digital Converters (TDCs) for precise time measurement. The FPGA-TDC technique is based on the architectures of Tapped Delay Line (TDL), whose delay cells are down to few tens of picosecond. In this case, FPGA-based TIGs with high delay step are preferable allowing the implementation of customized particle physics instrumentations and other utilities on the same FPGA device. A hybrid counting method for designing TIGs with both high resolution and wide range is presented in this paper. The combination of two different counting methods realizing an integratable TIG is described in detail. A specially designed multiplexer for tap selection is emphatically introduced. The special structure of the multiplexer is devised for minimizing the different additional delays caused by the unpredictable routings from different taps to the output. A Kintex-7 FPGA is used for the hybrid counting-based implementation of a TIG, providing a resolution up to 11 ps and an interval range up to 8 s.

  4. Hybrid Perturbation methods based on Statistical Time Series models

    CERN Document Server

    San-Juan, Juan Félix; Pérez, Iván; López, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    In this work we present a new methodology for orbit propagation, the hybrid perturbation theory, based on the combination of an integration method and a prediction technique. The former, which can be a numerical, analytical or semianalytical theory, generates an initial approximation that contains some inaccuracies derived from the fact that, in order to simplify the expressions and subsequent computations, not all the involved forces are taken into account and only low-order terms are considered, not to mention the fact that mathematical models of perturbations not always reproduce physical phenomena with absolute precision. The prediction technique, which can be based on either statistical time series models or computational intelligence methods, is aimed at modelling and reproducing missing dynamics in the previously integrated approximation. This combination results in the precision improvement of conventional numerical, analytical and semianalytical theories for determining the position and velocity of a...

  5. A hybrid approach for efficient anomaly detection using metaheuristic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer F. Ghanem

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Network intrusion detection based on anomaly detection techniques has a significant role in protecting networks and systems against harmful activities. Different metaheuristic techniques have been used for anomaly detector generation. Yet, reported literature has not studied the use of the multi-start metaheuristic method for detector generation. This paper proposes a hybrid approach for anomaly detection in large scale datasets using detectors generated based on multi-start metaheuristic method and genetic algorithms. The proposed approach has taken some inspiration of negative selection-based detector generation. The evaluation of this approach is performed using NSL-KDD dataset which is a modified version of the widely used KDD CUP 99 dataset. The results show its effectiveness in generating a suitable number of detectors with an accuracy of 96.1% compared to other competitors of machine learning algorithms.

  6. Hybrid Fundamental Solution Based Finite Element Method: Theory and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyong Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview on the development of hybrid fundamental solution based finite element method (HFS-FEM and its application in engineering problems is presented in this paper. The framework and formulations of HFS-FEM for potential problem, plane elasticity, three-dimensional elasticity, thermoelasticity, anisotropic elasticity, and plane piezoelectricity are presented. In this method, two independent assumed fields (intraelement filed and auxiliary frame field are employed. The formulations for all cases are derived from the modified variational functionals and the fundamental solutions to a given problem. Generation of elemental stiffness equations from the modified variational principle is also described. Typical numerical examples are given to demonstrate the validity and performance of the HFS-FEM. Finally, a brief summary of the approach is provided and future trends in this field are identified.

  7. Quantum Simulations of Solvated Biomolecules Using Hybrid Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodak, Miroslav

    2009-03-01

    One of the most important challenges in quantum simulations on biomolecules is efficient and accurate inclusion of the solvent, because the solvent atoms usually outnumber those in the biomolecule of interest. We have developed a hybrid method that allows for explicit quantum-mechanical treatment of the solvent at low computational cost. In this method, Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory (DFT) is combined with an orbital-free (OF) DFT. Kohn-Sham (KS) DFT is used to describe the biomolecule and its first solvation shells, while the orbital-free (OF) DFT is employed for the rest of the solvent. The OF part is fully O(N) and capable of handling 10^5 solvent molecules on current parallel supercomputers, while taking only ˜ 10 % of the total time. The compatibility between the KS and OF DFT methods enables seamless integration between the two. In particular, the flow of solvent molecules across the KS/OF interface is allowed and the total energy is conserved. As the first large-scale applications, the hybrid method has been used to investigate the binding of copper ions to proteins involved in prion (PrP) and Parkinson's diseases. Our results for the PrP, which causes mad cow disease when misfolded, resolve a contradiction found in experiments, in which a stronger binding mode is replaced by a weaker one when concentration of copper ions is increased, and show how it can act as a copper buffer. Furthermore, incorporation of copper stabilizes the structure of the full-length PrP, suggesting its protective role in prion diseases. For alpha-synuclein, a Parkinson's disease (PD) protein, we show that Cu binding modifies the protein structurally, making it more susceptible to misfolding -- an initial step in the onset of PD. In collaboration with W. Lu, F. Rose and J. Bernholc.

  8. Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar Image Classification by a Hybrid Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kamran Ullah Khan; YANG Jian

    2007-01-01

    Different methods proposed so far for accurate classification of land cover types in polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image are data specific and no general method is available. A novel hybrid framework for this classification was developed in this work. A set of effective features derived from the coherence matrix of polarimetric SARdata was proposed.Constituents of the feature set are wavelet,texture,and nonlinear features.The proposed feature set has a strong discrimination power. A neural network was used as the classification engine in a unique way. By exploiting the speed of the conjugate gradient method and the convergence rate of the Levenberg-Marquardt method (near the optimal point), an overall speed up of the classification procedure was achieved. Principal component analysis(PCA)was used to shrink the dimension of the feature vector without sacrificing much of the classification accuracy. The proposed approach is compared with the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE)based on the complex Wishart distribution and the results show the superiority of the proposed method,with the average classification accuracy by the proposed method(95.4%)higher than that of the MLE(93.77%). Use of PCA to reduce the dimensionality of the feature vector helps reduce the memory requirements and computational cost, thereby enhancing the speed of the process.

  9. A hybrid incremental projection method for thermal-hydraulics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christon, Mark A.; Bakosi, Jozsef; Nadiga, Balasubramanya T.; Berndt, Markus; Francois, Marianne M.; Stagg, Alan K.; Xia, Yidong; Luo, Hong

    2016-07-01

    A new second-order accurate, hybrid, incremental projection method for time-dependent incompressible viscous flow is introduced in this paper. The hybrid finite-element/finite-volume discretization circumvents the well-known Ladyzhenskaya-Babuška-Brezzi conditions for stability, and does not require special treatment to filter pressure modes by either Rhie-Chow interpolation or by using a Petrov-Galerkin finite element formulation. The use of a co-velocity with a high-resolution advection method and a linearly consistent edge-based treatment of viscous/diffusive terms yields a robust algorithm for a broad spectrum of incompressible flows. The high-resolution advection method is shown to deliver second-order spatial convergence on mixed element topology meshes, and the implicit advective treatment significantly increases the stable time-step size. The algorithm is robust and extensible, permitting the incorporation of features such as porous media flow, RANS and LES turbulence models, and semi-/fully-implicit time stepping. A series of verification and validation problems are used to illustrate the convergence properties of the algorithm. The temporal stability properties are demonstrated on a range of problems with 2 ≤ CFL ≤ 100. The new flow solver is built using the Hydra multiphysics toolkit. The Hydra toolkit is written in C++ and provides a rich suite of extensible and fully-parallel components that permit rapid application development, supports multiple discretization techniques, provides I/O interfaces, dynamic run-time load balancing and data migration, and interfaces to scalable popular linear solvers, e.g., in open-source packages such as HYPRE, PETSc, and Trilinos.

  10. Computer-aided diagnosis system: a Bayesian hybrid classification method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle-Alonso, F; Pérez, C J; Arias-Nicolás, J P; Martín, J

    2013-10-01

    A novel method to classify multi-class biomedical objects is presented. The method is based on a hybrid approach which combines pairwise comparison, Bayesian regression and the k-nearest neighbor technique. It can be applied in a fully automatic way or in a relevance feedback framework. In the latter case, the information obtained from both an expert and the automatic classification is iteratively used to improve the results until a certain accuracy level is achieved, then, the learning process is finished and new classifications can be automatically performed. The method has been applied in two biomedical contexts by following the same cross-validation schemes as in the original studies. The first one refers to cancer diagnosis, leading to an accuracy of 77.35% versus 66.37%, originally obtained. The second one considers the diagnosis of pathologies of the vertebral column. The original method achieves accuracies ranging from 76.5% to 96.7%, and from 82.3% to 97.1% in two different cross-validation schemes. Even with no supervision, the proposed method reaches 96.71% and 97.32% in these two cases. By using a supervised framework the achieved accuracy is 97.74%. Furthermore, all abnormal cases were correctly classified.

  11. Hybrid Neural Network and Support Vector Machine Method for Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Man Mohan (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    System and method for optimization of a design associated with a response function, using a hybrid neural net and support vector machine (NN/SVM) analysis to minimize or maximize an objective function, optionally subject to one or more constraints. As a first example, the NN/SVM analysis is applied iteratively to design of an aerodynamic component, such as an airfoil shape, where the objective function measures deviation from a target pressure distribution on the perimeter of the aerodynamic component. As a second example, the NN/SVM analysis is applied to data classification of a sequence of data points in a multidimensional space. The NN/SVM analysis is also applied to data regression.

  12. A Hybrid Dynamic Programming Method for Concave Resource Allocation Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜计荣; 孙小玲

    2005-01-01

    Concave resource allocation problem is an integer programming problem of minimizing a nonincreasing concave function subject to a convex nondecreasing constraint and bounded integer variables. This class of problems are encountered in optimization models involving economies of scale. In this paper, a new hybrid dynamic programming method was proposed for solving concave resource allocation problems. A convex underestimating function was used to approximate the objective function and the resulting convex subproblem was solved with dynamic programming technique after transforming it into a 0-1 linear knapsack problem. To ensure the convergence, monotonicity and domain cut technique was employed to remove certain integer boxes and partition the revised domain into a union of integer boxes. Computational results were given to show the efficiency of the algorithm.

  13. Revisiting Milgram's Cyranoid Method: Experimenting With Hybrid Human Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Kevin; Gillespie, Alex

    2015-01-01

    In two studies based on Stanley Milgram's original pilots, we present the first systematic examination of cyranoids as social psychological research tools. A cyranoid is created by cooperatively joining in real-time the body of one person with speech generated by another via covert speech shadowing. The resulting hybrid persona can subsequently interact with third parties face-to-face. We show that naïve interlocutors perceive a cyranoid to be a unified, autonomously communicating person, evidence for a phenomenon Milgram termed the "cyranic illusion." We also show that creating cyranoids composed of contrasting identities (a child speaking adult-generated words and vice versa) can be used to study how stereotyping and person perception are mediated by inner (dispositional) vs. outer (physical) identity. Our results establish the cyranoid method as a unique means of obtaining experimental control over inner and outer identities within social interactions rich in mundane realism.

  14. A New Method to Optimize Semiactive Hybrid Energy Storage System for Hybrid Electrical Vehicle by Using PE Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although both battery and super-capacitor are important power sources for hybrid electric vehicles, there is no accurate configuration theory to match the above two kinds of power sources which have significantly different characteristics on energy and power storage for the goal of making good use of their individual features without size wasting. In this paper, a new performance is presented that is used for analysis and optimal design method of battery and super-capacitor for hybrid energy storage system of a parallel hybrid electrical vehicle. In order to achieve optimal design with less consumption, the power-energy function is applied to establish direct mathematical relationship between demand power and the performance. During matching process, firstly, three typical operating conditions are chosen as the basis of design; secondly, the energy and power capacity evaluation methods for the parameters of battery and super-capacitor in hybrid energy storage system are proposed; thirdly, the mass, volume, and cost of the system are optimized simultaneously by using power-energy function. As a result, there are significant advantages on mass, volume, and cost for the hybrid energy storage system with the matching method. Simulation results fit well with the results of analysis, which confirms that the optimized design can meet the demand of hybrid electric vehicle well.

  15. 智能规划的逻辑编码方式研究%Logical Encoding Methods in Intelligent Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕帅; 刘磊; 魏唯; 高冰冰

    2012-01-01

    逻辑编码方式的设计和实现是基于转换的规划方法有效处理的关键.对几种智能规划方法中的逻辑编码方式予以分析,分别介绍线性编码、基于Graphplan的编码、基于状态的编码、基于动作的编码、基于命题的编码、基于转移的编码、提升的因果编码、基于多值变元的编码、基于有向二元决策图的编码以及基于约束可满足的编码等,并结合国际规划竞赛和相关论文等的实验结论,说明上述编码方式的有效性和可行性,分析该类编码方式在其他领域的应用前景.最后,提出目前智能规划方法中逻辑编码方式研究所面临的挑战、可能的处理方法,以及与之相关的研究热点与趋势.%The design and implementation of logical encoding methods are the key issues of translation based planning methods, which need to translate a given planning problem to a series of other classical solvable problems during planning procedures. All the logical encoding methods need to consider the logical representations and reasonings based on the crossponding propositional logic, first-order logic, multi-value logic, probabilistic logic, modal logic, epistemic logic, or the other adopted non-classical logics. This paper introduces the concrete details of the state-of-the-art logical encoding methods in intelligent planning, which include linear encoding, Graphplan based encoding, state based encoding, action based encoding, proposition based encoding, transition based encoding, lifted casual encoding, multi-value variable based encoding, ordered binary decision diagram based encoding, constraint satisfiabilitiy based encoding and so on. It also introduces the possible needed encoding methods of probabilistics, epistemic properties, modal assumptions, and flexible constraints for planning operations or states of some proposed abstract planning domain problems, whose formal characteristic expressions are still disputed. After

  16. Ne2 encodes protein(s) and the altered RuBisCO could be the proteomics leader of hybrid necrosis in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SI RUI PAN; XING LAI PAN; QIANYING PAN; YIN HONG SHI; LI ZHANG; YUN FAN; YAN RUI XUE

    2017-06-01

    Wheat hybrid necrosis is caused by the interaction of two dominant complementary genes, Ne1 and Ne2, located on chromosome arms 5BL and 2BS, respectively. The sequences of Ne1 or Ne2 have not yet been identified. It is also not known whether Ne1 and Ne2 are structural or regulatory genes. Understanding the proteomic pathways may provide a knowledge base for protecting or maximizing the photosynthesis capacity of wheat. Using DIGE and MALDITOF-TOF MS, the flag leaf protein patterns of the two unique F14 near-isogenic line siblings (NILs), the necrotic ShunMai 12Ah (Ne1Ne1Ne2Ne2) and the normal ShunMai 12Af (Ne1Ne1ne2ne2) were compared. Due to the presence or absence of Ne2, (i) three protein spots were expressed or disappeared, (ii) seven RuBisCO-related proteins were altered significantly, and (iii) 21 photosynthesis/glucose related proteins were changed significantly. Three hypotheses were deduced, (i) Ne1 may also encode protein(s), (ii) genetic maladjustment of RuBisCO could lead to early leaf death, and (iii) interactions between nuclear genes and chloroplast genes could determine photosynthetic traits. Our hypothetical model presents the RuBisCO pathway of hybrid necrosis in wheat and explains how Ne1 and Ne2 interact at molecular level.

  17. Investigating Transgenic Corn Hybrids as a Method for Mycotoxin Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic Bt corn hybrids have been available for more than 10 years and are known to control specific insects. More recently, so-called “stacked-gene” hybrids, have been released with multiple insect resistance genes and genes for herbicide resistance, resulting in up to 6 traits per plant. Beca...

  18. SIMS: a hybrid method for rapid conformational analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryant Gipson

    Full Text Available Proteins are at the root of many biological functions, often performing complex tasks as the result of large changes in their structure. Describing the exact details of these conformational changes, however, remains a central challenge for computational biology due the enormous computational requirements of the problem. This has engendered the development of a rich variety of useful methods designed to answer specific questions at different levels of spatial, temporal, and energetic resolution. These methods fall largely into two classes: physically accurate, but computationally demanding methods and fast, approximate methods. We introduce here a new hybrid modeling tool, the Structured Intuitive Move Selector (sims, designed to bridge the divide between these two classes, while allowing the benefits of both to be seamlessly integrated into a single framework. This is achieved by applying a modern motion planning algorithm, borrowed from the field of robotics, in tandem with a well-established protein modeling library. sims can combine precise energy calculations with approximate or specialized conformational sampling routines to produce rapid, yet accurate, analysis of the large-scale conformational variability of protein systems. Several key advancements are shown, including the abstract use of generically defined moves (conformational sampling methods and an expansive probabilistic conformational exploration. We present three example problems that sims is applied to and demonstrate a rapid solution for each. These include the automatic determination of "active" residues for the hinge-based system Cyanovirin-N, exploring conformational changes involving long-range coordinated motion between non-sequential residues in Ribose-Binding Protein, and the rapid discovery of a transient conformational state of Maltose-Binding Protein, previously only determined by Molecular Dynamics. For all cases we provide energetic validations using well

  19. STRONG CONVERGENCE OF MONOTONE HYBRID METHOD FOR FIXED POINT ITERATION PROCESSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongfu SU; Xiaolong QIN

    2008-01-01

    K. Nakajo and W. Takahashi in 2003 proved the strong convergence theorems for nonexpansive mappings, nonexpansive semigroups, and proximal point algorithm for zero point of monotone operators in Hilbert spaces by using the hybrid method in mathematical programming. The purpose of this paper is to modify the hybrid iteration method of K. Nakajo and W. Takahashi through the monotone hybrid method, and to prove strong convergence theorems. The convergence rate of iteration process of the monotone hybrid method is faster than that of the iteration process of the hybrid method of K. Nakajo and W. Takahashi. In the proofs in this article, Cauchy sequence method is used to avoid the use of the demiclosedness principle and Opial's condition.

  20. Blind Evaluation of Hybrid Protein Structure Analysis Methods based on Cross-Linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsom, Adam; Schneider, Michael; Brock, Oliver; Rappsilber, Juri

    2016-07-01

    Hybrid methods combine experimental data and computational modeling to analyze protein structures that are elusive to structure determination. To spur the development of hybrid methods, we propose to test them in the context of the CASP experiment and would like to invite experimental groups to participate in this initiative.

  1. Nanoscale lamellar photoconductor hybrids and methods of making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupp, Samuel I; Goldberger, Josh; Sofos, Marina

    2013-02-05

    An article of manufacture and methods of making same. In one embodiment, the article of manufacture has a plurality of zinc oxide layers substantially in parallel, wherein each zinc oxide layer has a thickness d.sub.1, and a plurality of organic molecule layers substantially in parallel, wherein each organic molecule layer has a thickness d.sub.2 and a plurality of molecules with a functional group that is bindable to zinc ions, wherein for every pair of neighboring zinc oxide layers, one of the plurality of organic molecule layers is positioned in between the pair of neighboring zinc oxide layers to allow the functional groups of the plurality of organic molecules to bind to zinc ions in the neighboring zinc oxide layers to form a lamellar hybrid structure with a geometric periodicity d.sub.1+d.sub.2, and wherein d.sub.1 and d.sub.2 satisfy the relationship of d.sub.1.ltoreq.d.sub.2.ltoreq.3d.sub.1.

  2. Optimal traffic light control method for a single intersection based on hybrid systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓华; 陈阳舟; 崔平远

    2003-01-01

    A single intersection of two phases is selected as a model to put forward a new optimal time-planning scheme for traffic light based on the model of hybrid automata for single intersection. A method of optimization is proposed for hybrid systems, and the average queue length over all queues is used as an objective function to find an optimal switching scheme for traffic light. It is illustrated that traffic light control for single intersection is a typical hybrid system, and the optimal planning-time scheme can be obtained using the optimal hybrid systems control based on the two stages method.

  3. Hybrid classifiers methods of data, knowledge, and classifier combination

    CERN Document Server

    Wozniak, Michal

    2014-01-01

    This book delivers a definite and compact knowledge on how hybridization can help improving the quality of computer classification systems. In order to make readers clearly realize the knowledge of hybridization, this book primarily focuses on introducing the different levels of hybridization and illuminating what problems we will face with as dealing with such projects. In the first instance the data and knowledge incorporated in hybridization were the action points, and then a still growing up area of classifier systems known as combined classifiers was considered. This book comprises the aforementioned state-of-the-art topics and the latest research results of the author and his team from Department of Systems and Computer Networks, Wroclaw University of Technology, including as classifier based on feature space splitting, one-class classification, imbalance data, and data stream classification.

  4. A CASE FOR HYBRID INSTRUCTION ENCODING FOR REDUCING CODE SIZE IN EMBEDDED SYSTEM-ON-CHIPS BASED ON RISC PROCESSOR CORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindarajalu Bakthavatsalam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Embedded computing differs from general purpose computing in several aspects. In most embedded systems, size, cost and power consumption are more important than performance. In embedded System-on-Chips (SoC, memory is a scarce resource and it poses constraints on chip space, cost and power consumption. Whereas fixed instruction length feature of RISC architecture simplifies instruction decoding and pipeline implementation, its undesirable side effect is code size increase caused by large number of unused bits. Code size reduction minimizes memory size, chip space and power consumption all of which are significant for low power portable embedded systems. Though code size reduction has drawn the attention of architects and developers, the solutions currently used are more of cure than of prevention. Considering the huge number of embedded applications, there is a need for a dedicated processor optimized for low power and portable embedded systems. In the study, we propose a variation of Hybrid Instruction Encoding (HIE for the embedded processors. Our scheme uses fixed number of multiple instruction lengths with provision for hybrid sizes for the offset and the immediate fields thereby reducing the number of unused bits. We simulated the HIE for the MIPS32 processors and measured code sizes of various embedded applications of MiBench and MediaBench benchmarks using an offline tool developed newly. We noticed up to 27% code reduction for large and medium sized embedded applications respectively. This results in reduction of on-chip memory capacity up to 1 mega bytes that is very significant for SoC based embedded applications. Considering the large market share of embedded systems, it is worth investing in a new architecture and development of dedicated HIE-RISC processor cores for portable embedded systems based on SoCs.

  5. Localization and diurnal expression of mRNA encoding the β1-adrenoceptor in the rat pineal gland: an in situ hybridization study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Morten; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri; Morgan, K.C.;

    1997-01-01

    Anatomy, neurobiology, adrenoceptors, diurnal rhythms, in situ hybridization, pineal gland, rat (Wistar)......Anatomy, neurobiology, adrenoceptors, diurnal rhythms, in situ hybridization, pineal gland, rat (Wistar)...

  6. MESHLESS METHOD OF DUAL RECIPROCITY HYBRID RADIAL BOUNDARY NODE METHOD FOR ELASTICITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Yan; Xiating Feng; Hui Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Combining the radial point interpolation method(RPIM),thedualreciprocitymethod(DRM)and the hybrid boundary node method(HBNM),a dual reciprocity hybrid radial boundary node method(DHRBNM)is proposed for linear elasticity.Compared to DHBNM,RPIM is exploited to replace the moving least square(MLS)in DHRBNM,and it gets rid of the deficiency of MLS approximation,in which shape functions lack the delta function property,the boundary condition can not be applied easily and directly and it's computational expense is high.Besides,different approximate functions are discussed in DRM to get the interpolation property,in which the accuracy and efficiency for different basis functions are compared.Then RPIM is also applied in DRM to replace the conical function interpolation,which can greatly improve the accuracy of the present method.To demonstrate the effectiveness of the present method,DHBNM is applied for comparison,and some numerical examples of 2-D elasticity problems show that the present method is much more effective than DHBNM.

  7. Novel method for hybrid multiple attribute decision making based on TODIM method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Wang; Hua Li

    2015-01-01

    The TODIM (an acronym in Portuguese for interac-tive and multiple attribute decision making) method is a valuable tool to solve the multiple attribute decision making (MADM) prob-lems considering the behavior of the decision maker (DM), while it cannot be used to handle the problem with unknown weight information on attributes. In this paper, a novel method based on the classical TODIM method is proposed to solve the hybrid MADM problems with unknown weight information on attributes, in which attribute values are represented in four different formats:crisp numbers, interval numbers, triangular fuzzy numbers and trapezoidal fuzzy numbers. Firstly, the positive-ideal alternative and negative-ideal alternative are determined, and the gain and loss matrices are constructed by calculating the gain and loss of each alternative relatived to the ideal alternatives concerning each attribute based on different distance calculation formulas, which may avoid the information missing or information distortion in the process of unifying multiform attribute values into a certain rep-resentation form. Secondly, an optimization model based on the maximizing deviation (MD) method, by which the attribute weights can be determined, is established for the TODIM method. Fur-ther, the calculation steps to solve the hybrid MADM problems are given. Final y, two numerical examples are presented to il us-trate the usefulness of the proposed method, and the results show that the DM’s psychological behavior, attribute weights and the transformed information would highly affect the ranking orders of alternatives.

  8. Modeling, control, and simulation of grid connected intelligent hybrid battery/photovoltaic system using new hybrid fuzzy-neural method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvani, Alireza; Khalili, Abbas; Mazareie, Alireza; Gandomkar, Majid

    2016-07-01

    Nowadays, photovoltaic (PV) generation is growing increasingly fast as a renewable energy source. Nevertheless, the drawback of the PV system is its dependence on weather conditions. Therefore, battery energy storage (BES) can be considered to assist for a stable and reliable output from PV generation system for loads and improve the dynamic performance of the whole generation system in grid connected mode. In this paper, a novel topology of intelligent hybrid generation systems with PV and BES in a DC-coupled structure is presented. Each photovoltaic cell has a specific point named maximum power point on its operational curve (i.e. current-voltage or power-voltage curve) in which it can generate maximum power. Irradiance and temperature changes affect these operational curves. Therefore, the nonlinear characteristic of maximum power point to environment has caused to development of different maximum power point tracking techniques. In order to capture the maximum power point (MPP), a hybrid fuzzy-neural maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method is applied in the PV system. Obtained results represent the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method, and the average tracking efficiency of the hybrid fuzzy-neural is incremented by approximately two percentage points in comparison to the conventional methods. It has the advantages of robustness, fast response and good performance. A detailed mathematical model and a control approach of a three-phase grid-connected intelligent hybrid system have been proposed using Matlab/Simulink.

  9. Label-free detection of hybridization of oligonucleotides by oblique-incidence reflectivity difference method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The microarrays of 20-base oligonucleotide with different concentrations are detected before and after hybridization by the oblique-incidence reflectivity difference (OI-RD) method. The experimental results prove that OI-RD is a label-free method which can not only distinguish the concentration difference of oligonucleotides before and after the hybridization but also detect the hybridization of short oligonucleotides. At present the OI-RD method can detect 0.39 μmol/L 20-base oligonucleotide or less. These results suggest that the OI-RD method is a promising and potential technique for label-free detection of biological microarrays.

  10. APPLICATION OF PENALTY FUNCTION METHOD IN ISOPARAMETRIC HYBRID FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Dao-zheng; JIAO Zhao-ping

    2005-01-01

    By the aid of the penalty function method, the equilibrium restriction conditions were introduced to the isoparametric hybrid finite element analysis, and the concrete application course of the penalty function method in three-dimensional isoparametric hybrid finite element was discussed. The separated penalty parameters method and the optimal hybrid element model with penalty balance were also presented.The penalty balance method can effectively refrain the parasitical stress on the premise of no additional degrees of freedom. The numeric experiment shows that the presented element not only is effective in improving greatly the numeric calculation precision of distorted grids but also has the universality.

  11. Screening of candidate genes encoding proteins expressed in pectoral fins of fugu Takifugu rubripes, in relation to habitat site of parasitic copepod Caligus fugu, using suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasumi, Satoshi; Norshida, Ismail; Boxshall, Geoffrey A; Kikuchi, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Yuzuru; Ohtsuka, Susumu

    2015-05-01

    Caligus fugu is a parasitic copepod specific to the tetraodontid genus Takifugu including the commercially important Takifugu rubripes. Despite the rapid accumulation of knowledge on other aspects of its biology, the host and settlement-site recognition mechanisms of this parasite are not yet well understood. Since the infective copepodid stage shows preferential site selection in attaching to the fins, we considered it likely that the copepodid recognizes chemical cues released or leaking from the fins, and/or transmembrane protein present on the fins. To isolate molecules potentially related to attachment site specificity, we applied suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) PCR by identifying genes expressed more highly in pectoral fins of T. rubripes than in the body surface skin. We sequenced plasmid DNA from 392 clones in a SSH library. The number of non-redundant sequences was 276, which included 135 sequences located on 117 annotated genes and 141 located in positions where no genes had been annotated. We characterized those annotated genes on the basis of gene ontology terms, and found that 46 of the identified genes encode secreted proteins, enzymes or membrane proteins. Among them nine showed higher expression in the pectoral fins than in the skin. These could be candidate genes for involvement in behavioral mechanisms related to the site specificity shown by the infective copepodids of C. fugu.

  12. GhHyPRP4, a cotton gene encoding putative hybrid proline-rich protein, is preferentially expressed in leaves and involved in plant response to cold stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gengqing Huang; Siying Gong; Wenliang Xu; Peng Li; Dejing Zhang; Lixia Qin; Wen Li; Xuebao Li

    2011-01-01

    Plant hybrid proline-rich proteins (HyPRPs) usually consist of an N-terminal signal peptide, a central prolinerich domain, and a conserved eight-cysteine motif C-terminal domain. In this study, one gene (designated as GhHyPRP4) encoding putative HyPRP was isolated from cotton cDNA library. Northern blot and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that GhHyPRP4 was preferentially expressed in leaves. Under cold stress, GhHyPRP4 expression was significantly up-regulated in leaves of cotton seedlings.Using the genome walking approach, a promoter fragment of GhHyPRP4 gene was isolated from cotton genome.GUS (β-glucuronidase) gene driven by GhHyPRP4 promoter was specifically expressed in leaves and cotyledons of the transgenic 4rabidopsis thaliana. Furthermore,GUS expression in leaves was remarkably induced by cold stress. Overexpression of GhHyPRP4 in yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) significantly enhanced the cell survival rate upon treatment under -20℃ for 60 h.These data suggested that GhHyPRP4 may be involved in plant response to cold stress during seedling development of cotton.

  13. Methods for mapping QTLs underlying endosperm traits based on random hybridization design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Yongxian; WU Weiren

    2006-01-01

    Several methods of interval mapping of QTLs underlying endosperm traits based on random hybridization designs and the triploid genetic model are proposed. The basic idea is: plants (or lines) from a population with known marker genotype information are randomly hybridized to generate a population of hybrid lines for endosperm QTL mapping; a mixture of seeds of each hybrid line is measured for the endosperm trait to get the mean of the line; then endosperm QTL mapping and effect estimation is performed using the endosperm trait means of hybrid lines and the marker genotype information of parental plants (or lines). The feasibility and efficiency of the methods are examined by computer simulations. Results show that the methods can precisely map endosperm QTLs and unbiasedly and efficiently estimate the three effects (additive effect, first dominant effect, second dominant effect) of endosperm QTLs.

  14. Iterative Reconstruction Methods for Hybrid Inverse Problems in Impedance Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kristoffer; Knudsen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    For a general formulation of hybrid inverse problems in impedance tomography the Picard and Newton iterative schemes are adapted and four iterative reconstruction algorithms are developed. The general problem formulation includes several existing hybrid imaging modalities such as current density...... impedance imaging, magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography, and ultrasound modulated electrical impedance tomography, and the unified approach to the reconstruction problem encompasses several algorithms suggested in the literature. The four proposed algorithms are implemented numerically in two...... be based on a theoretical analysis of the underlying inverse problem....

  15. GPU-accelerated discontinuous Galerkin methods on hybrid meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jesse; Wang, Zheng; Modave, Axel; Remacle, Jean-Francois; Warburton, T.

    2016-08-01

    We present a time-explicit discontinuous Galerkin (DG) solver for the time-domain acoustic wave equation on hybrid meshes containing vertex-mapped hexahedral, wedge, pyramidal and tetrahedral elements. Discretely energy-stable formulations are presented for both Gauss-Legendre and Gauss-Legendre-Lobatto (Spectral Element) nodal bases for the hexahedron. Stable timestep restrictions for hybrid meshes are derived by bounding the spectral radius of the DG operator using order-dependent constants in trace and Markov inequalities. Computational efficiency is achieved under a combination of element-specific kernels (including new quadrature-free operators for the pyramid), multi-rate timestepping, and acceleration using Graphics Processing Units.

  16. Sequencing of megabase plus DNA by hybridization: Method development ENT. Final technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crkvenjakov, R.; Drmanac, R.

    1991-01-31

    Sequencing by hybridization (SBH) is the only sequencing method based on the experimental determination of the content of oligonucleotide sequences. The data acquisition relies on the natural process of base pairing. It is possible to determine the content of complementary oligosequences in the target DNA by the process of hybridization with oligonucleotide probes of known sequences.

  17. A Dynamic Feature-Based Method for Hybrid Blurred/Multiple Object Detection in Manufacturing Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsun-Kuo Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vision-based inspection has been applied for quality control and product sorting in manufacturing processes. Blurred or multiple objects are common causes of poor performance in conventional vision-based inspection systems. Detecting hybrid blurred/multiple objects has long been a challenge in manufacturing. For example, single-feature-based algorithms might fail to exactly extract features when concurrently detecting hybrid blurred/multiple objects. Therefore, to resolve this problem, this study proposes a novel vision-based inspection algorithm that entails selecting a dynamic feature-based method on the basis of a multiclassifier of support vector machines (SVMs for inspecting hybrid blurred/multiple object images. The proposed algorithm dynamically selects suitable inspection schemes for classifying the hybrid images. The inspection schemes include discrete wavelet transform, spherical wavelet transform, moment invariants, and edge-feature-descriptor-based classification methods. The classification methods for single and multiple objects are adaptive region growing- (ARG- based and local adaptive region growing- (LARG- based learning approaches, respectively. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can dynamically select suitable inspection schemes by applying a selection algorithm, which uses SVMs for classifying hybrid blurred/multiple object samples. Moreover, the method applies suitable feature-based schemes on the basis of the classification results for employing the ARG/LARG-based method to inspect the hybrid objects. The method improves conventional methods for inspecting hybrid blurred/multiple objects and achieves high recognition rates for that in manufacturing processes.

  18. Celluloytic enzymes, nucleic acids encoding them and methods for making and using them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kevin A.; Zhao, Lishan; Cayouette, Michelle H.

    2015-09-08

    The invention is directed to polypeptides having any cellulolytic activity, e.g., a cellulase activity, e.g., endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, beta-glucosidase, xylanase, mannanse, .beta.-xylosidase, arabinofuranosidase, and/or oligomerase activity, including thermostable and thermotolerant activity, and polynucleotides encoding these enzymes, and making and using these polynucleotides and polypeptides. The polypeptides of the invention can be used in a variety of pharmaceutical, agricultural, food and feed processing and industrial contexts. The invention also provides compositions or products of manufacture comprising mixtures of enzymes comprising at least one enzyme of this invention.

  19. Celluloytic enzymes, nucleic acids encoding them and methods for making and using them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Kevin A; Zhao, Lishan; Cayouette, Michelle H

    2015-11-04

    The invention is directed to polypeptides having any cellulolytic activity, e.g., a cellulase activity, e.g., endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, beta-glucosidase, xylanase, mannanse, .beta.-xylosidase, arabinofuranosidase, and/or oligomerase activity, including thermostable and thermotolerant activity, and polynucleotides encoding these enzymes, and making and using these polynucleotides and polypeptides. The polypeptides of the invention can be used in a variety of pharmaceutical, agricultural, food and feed processing and industrial contexts. The invention also provides compositions or products of manufacture comprising mixtures of enzymes comprising at least one enzyme of this invention.

  20. Application of asymptotic waveform approximation technique to hybrid FE/BI method for 3D scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Zhen; SHENG XinQing

    2007-01-01

    The asymptotic waveform evaluation (AWE) technique is a rational function approximation method in computational mathematics, which is used in many applications in computational electromagnetics. In this paper, the performance of the AWE technique in conjunction with hybrid finite element/boundary integral (FE/BI) method is firstly investigated. The formulation of the AWE applied in hybrid FE/BI method is given in detail. The characteristic implementation of the application of the AWE to the hybrid FE/BI method is discussed. Numerical results demonstrate that the AWE technique can greatly speed up the hybrid FE/BI method to acquire wide-band and wide-angle backscatter radar-cross-section (RCS) by complex targets.

  1. A hybrid semi-automatic method for liver segmentation based on level-set methods using multiple seed points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaopeng; Yu, Hee Chul; Choi, Younggeun; Lee, Wonsup; Wang, Baojian; Yang, Jaedo; Hwang, Hongpil; Kim, Ji Hyun; Song, Jisoo; Cho, Baik Hwan; You, Heecheon

    2014-01-01

    The present study developed a hybrid semi-automatic method to extract the liver from abdominal computerized tomography (CT) images. The proposed hybrid method consists of a customized fast-marching level-set method for detection of an optimal initial liver region from multiple seed points selected by the user and a threshold-based level-set method for extraction of the actual liver region based on the initial liver region. The performance of the hybrid method was compared with those of the 2D region growing method implemented in OsiriX using abdominal CT datasets of 15 patients. The hybrid method showed a significantly higher accuracy in liver extraction (similarity index, SI=97.6 ± 0.5%; false positive error, FPE = 2.2 ± 0.7%; false negative error, FNE=2.5 ± 0.8%; average symmetric surface distance, ASD=1.4 ± 0.5mm) than the 2D (SI=94.0 ± 1.9%; FPE = 5.3 ± 1.1%; FNE=6.5 ± 3.7%; ASD=6.7 ± 3.8mm) region growing method. The total liver extraction time per CT dataset of the hybrid method (77 ± 10 s) is significantly less than the 2D region growing method (575 ± 136 s). The interaction time per CT dataset between the user and a computer of the hybrid method (28 ± 4 s) is significantly shorter than the 2D region growing method (484 ± 126 s). The proposed hybrid method was found preferred for liver segmentation in preoperative virtual liver surgery planning.

  2. Satellite range scheduling with the priority constraint: An improved genetic algorithm using a station ID encoding method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuqing

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Satellite range scheduling with the priority constraint is one of the most important problems in the field of satellite operation. This paper proposes a station coding based genetic algorithm to solve this problem, which adopts a new chromosome encoding method that arranges tasks according to the ground station ID. The new encoding method contributes to reducing the complexity in conflict checking and resolving, and helps to improve the ability to find optimal resolutions. Three different selection operators are designed to match the new encoding strategy, namely random selection, greedy selection, and roulette selection. To demonstrate the benefits of the improved genetic algorithm, a basic genetic algorithm is designed in which two cross operators are presented, a single-point crossover and a multi-point crossover. For the purpose of algorithm test and analysis, a problem-generating program is designed, which can simulate problems by modeling features encountered in real-world problems. Based on the problem generator, computational results and analysis are made and illustrated for the scheduling of multiple ground stations.

  3. Fitting method for hybrid temperature control in smart home environment

    OpenAIRE

    CHENG, Zhuo; TAN, Yasuo; Lim, Azman Osman

    2014-01-01

    The design of control system is crucial for improving the comfort level of home environment. Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) can offer numerous opportunities to design high efficient control systems. In this paper, we focus on the design of temperature control systems. By using the idea of CPS, a hybrid temperature control (HTC) system is proposed. It combines supervisory and proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers. Through an energy efficient temperature control (EETC) algorithm, HT...

  4. NEURAL NETWORKS CONTROL OF THE HYBRID POWER UNIT BASED ON THE METHOD OF ADAPTIVE CRITICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Serikov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The formal statement of the optimization problem of hybrid vehicle power unit control is given. Its solving by neural networks method application on the basis of adaptive critic is considered.

  5. THE STRESS SUBSPACE OF HYBRID STRESS ELEMENT AND THE DIAGONALIZATION METHOD FOR FLEXIBILITY MATRIX H

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张灿辉; 冯伟; 黄黔

    2002-01-01

    The following is proved: 1 ) The linear independence of assumed stress modes is the necessary and sufficient condition for the nonsingular fiexibility matrix; 2) The equivalent assumed stress modes lead to the identical hybrid element. The Hilbert stress subspace of the assumed stress modes is established. So, it is easy to derive the equivalent orthogonal normal stress modes by Schmidt 's method. Because of the resulting diagonal fiexibility matrix, the identical hybrid element is free from the complex matrix inversion so that the hybrid efficiency is improved greatly. The numerical examples show that the method is effective.

  6. Research on the methods of optical image hiding based on double random phase encoding and digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongsheng; Sang, Nong

    2011-12-01

    Optical information hiding system has many features such as high processing speed, high parallel, high encryption dimension and high speed of optical transformation and related operations, more advantages than digital method in some way. But it has not adequate security, and enough combination with techniques of digital image processing. So on basis of analyzing existing image hiding and analyzing techniques, we give out the idea. We should adopt idea of virtual optics on the way of all-digital simulation to do research of optical image hiding and analyzing methods based on optical image processing technique especially technique of double random phase encoding and digital holography.

  7. A Rough Set GA-based Hybrid Method for Robot Path Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Dong Wu; Ying Zhang; Meng-Xin Li; Yong Yue

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a hybrid method based on rough sets and genetic algorithms, is proposed to improve the speed of robot path planning. Decision rules are obtained using rough set theory. A series of available paths are produced by training obtained minimal decision rules. Path populations are optimised by using genetic algorithms until the best path is obtained. Experiment results show that this hybrid method is capable of improving robot path planning speed.

  8. Hybrid statistics-simulations based method for atom-counting from ADF STEM images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wael, Annelies; De Backer, Annick; Jones, Lewys; Nellist, Peter D; Van Aert, Sandra

    2017-01-25

    A hybrid statistics-simulations based method for atom-counting from annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (ADF STEM) images of monotype crystalline nanostructures is presented. Different atom-counting methods already exist for model-like systems. However, the increasing relevance of radiation damage in the study of nanostructures demands a method that allows atom-counting from low dose images with a low signal-to-noise ratio. Therefore, the hybrid method directly includes prior knowledge from image simulations into the existing statistics-based method for atom-counting, and accounts in this manner for possible discrepancies between actual and simulated experimental conditions. It is shown by means of simulations and experiments that this hybrid method outperforms the statistics-based method, especially for low electron doses and small nanoparticles. The analysis of a simulated low dose image of a small nanoparticle suggests that this method allows for far more reliable quantitative analysis of beam-sensitive materials.

  9. DUAL RECIPROCITY HYBRID BOUNDARY NODE METHOD FOR THREE-DIMENSIONAL ELASTICITY WITH BODY FORCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Yan; Yuanhan Wang; Yu Miao; Fei Tan

    2008-01-01

    Combining Dual Reciprocity Method (DRM) with Hybrid Bòundary Node Method(HBNM),the Dual Reciprocity Hybrid Boundary Node Method (DRHBNM) is developed for three-dimensional linear elasticity problems with body force.This method can be used to solve the elasticity problems with body force without domain integral,which is inevitable by HBNM.To demonstrate the versatility and the fast convergence of this method,some numerical examples of 3-D elasticity problems with body forces are examined.The computational results show that the present method is effective and can be widely applied in solving practical engineering problems.

  10. An Accurate Block Hybrid Collocation Method for Third Order Ordinary Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Ken Yap

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The block hybrid collocation method with two off-step points is proposed for the direct solution of general third order ordinary differential equations. Both the main and additional methods are derived via interpolation and collocation of the basic polynomial. These methods are applied in block form to provide the approximation at five points concurrently. The stability properties of the block method are investigated. Some numerical examples are tested to illustrate the efficiency of the method. The block hybrid collocation method is also implemented to solve the nonlinear Genesio equation and the problem in thin film flow.

  11. A novel segmentation method to identify left ventricular infarction in short-axis composite strain-encoded magnetic resonance images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algohary, Ahmad O.; Metwally, Muhammad K.; El-Bialy, Ahmed M.; Kandil, Ahmed H.; Osman, Nael F.

    2011-03-01

    Composite Strain Encoding (CSENC) is a new Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technique for simultaneously acquiring cardiac functional and viability images. It combines the use of Delayed Enhancement (DE) and the Strain Encoding (SENC) imaging techniques to identify the infracted (dead) tissue and to image the myocardial deformation inside the heart muscle. In this work, a new unsupervised segmentation method is proposed to identify infarcted left ventricular tissue in the images provided by CSENC MRI. The proposed method is based on the sequential application of Bayesian classifier, Otsu's thresholding, morphological opening, radial sweep boundary tracing and the fuzzy C-means (FCM) clustering algorithm. This method is tested on images of twelve patients with and without myocardial infarction (MI) and on simulated heart images with various levels of superimposed noise. The resulting clustered images are compared with those marked up by an expert cardiologist who assisted in validating results coming from the proposed method. Infarcted myocardium is correctly identified using the proposed method with high levels of accuracy and precision.

  12. Numerical Investigations on Hybrid Fuzzy Fractional Differential Equations by Improved Fractional Euler Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Vivek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the improved Euler method is used for solving hybrid fuzzy fractional differential equations (HFFDE of order $q \\in (0, 1 $ under Caputo-type fuzzy fractional derivatives. This method is based on the fractional Euler method and generalized Taylor's formula. The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated by solving numerical examples.

  13. Hybrid molecular–continuum methods: From prototypes to coupling software

    KAUST Repository

    Neumann, Philipp

    2014-02-01

    In this contribution, we review software requirements in hybrid molecular-continuum simulations. For this purpose, we analyze a prototype implementation which combines two frameworks-the Molecular Dynamics framework MarDyn and the framework Peano for spatially adaptive mesh-based simulations-and point out particular challenges of a general coupling software. Based on this analysis, we discuss the software design of our recently published coupling tool. We explain details on its overall structure and show how the challenges that arise in respective couplings are resolved by the software. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Detection and Analysis of DNA Hybridization Characteristics by using Thermodynamic Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D.K.; Kwon, Y.S. [Donga University, Pusan (Korea)

    2002-06-01

    The determination of DNA hybridization reaction can apply the molecular biology research, clinic diagnostics, bioengineering, environment monitoring, food science and application area. So, the improvement of DNA hybridization detection method is very important for the determination of this hybridization reaction. Several molecular biological techniques require accurate predictions of matched versus mismatched hybridization thermodynamics, such as PCR, sequencing by hybridization, gene diagnostics and antisense oligonucleotide probes. In addition, recent developments of oligonucleotide chip arrays as means for biochemical assays and DNA sequencing requires accurate knowledge of hybridization thermodynamics and population ratios at matched and mismatched target sites. In this study, we report the characteristics of the probe and matched, mismatched target oligonucleotide hybridization reaction using thermodynamic method. Thermodynamic of 5 oligonucleotides with central and terminal mismatch sequences were obtained by measured UV-absorbance as a function of temperature. The data show that the nearest-neighbor base-pair model is adequate for predicting thermodynamics of oligonucleotides with average deviations for {delta}H{sup O}, {delta}S{sup O}, {delta}G{sub 37}{sup O} and T{sub m}, respectively. (author). 6 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. SERS-Activated Platforms for Immunoassay: Probes, Encoding Methods, and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuyuan; Zong, Shenfei; Wu, Lei; Zhu, Dan; Cui, Yiping

    2017-06-28

    Owing to their excellent multiplexing ability, high sensitivity, and large dynamic range, immunoassays using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) as the readout signal have found prosperous applications in fields such as disease diagnosis, environmental surveillance, and food safety supervision. Various ever-increasing demands have promoted SERS-based immunoassays from the classical sandwich-type ones to those integrated with fascinating automatic platforms (e.g., test strips and microfluidic chips). As recent years have witnessed impressive progress in SERS immunoassays, we try to comprehensively cover SERS-based immunoassays from their basic working principles to specific applications. Focusing on several basic elements in SERS immunoassays, typical structures of SERS nanoprobes, productive optical spectral encoding strategies, and popular immunoassay platforms are highlighted, followed by their representative biological applications in the last 5 years. Moreover, despite the vast advances achieved to date, SERS immunoassays still suffer from some annoying shortcomings. Thus, proposals on how to improve the SERS immunoassay performance are also discussed, as well as future challenges and perspectives, aiming to give brief and valid guidelines for choosing suitable platforms according to particular applications.

  16. Topology optimization of bounded acoustic problems using the hybrid finite element-wave based method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goo, Seongyeol; Wang, Semyung; Kook, Junghwan

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative topology optimization method for bounded acoustic problems that uses the hybrid finite element-wave based method (FE-WBM). The conventional method for the topology optimization of bounded acoustic problems is based on the finite element method (FEM), which...... is limited to low frequency applications due to considerable computational efforts. To this end, we propose a gradient-based topology optimization method that uses the hybrid FE-WBM whereby the entire domain of a problem is partitioned into design and non-design domains. In this respect, the FEM is used...... as a design domain of topology optimization, and the WBM is used as a non-design domain to increase computational efficiency. The adjoint variable method based on the hybrid FE-WBM is also proposed as a means of computing design sensitivities. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness...

  17. Handling Diagnosis of Schizophrenia by a Hybrid Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Comin Nunes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychotics disorders, most commonly known as schizophrenia, have incapacitated professionals in different sectors of activities. Those disorders have caused damage in a microlevel to the individual and his/her family and in a macrolevel to the economic and production system of the country. The lack of early and sometimes very late diagnosis has provided reactive measures, when the professional is already showing psychological signs of incapacity to work. This study aims to help the early diagnosis of psychotics’ disorders with a hybrid proposal of an expert system that is integrated to structured methodologies in decision support (multicriteria decision analysis: MCDA and knowledge structured representations into production rules and probabilities (artificial intelligence: AI.

  18. A Hybrid Circular Queue Method for Iterative Stencil Computations on GPUs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yang; Hui-Min Cui; Xiao-Bing Feng; Jing-Ling Xue

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we present a hybrid circular queue method that can significantly boost the performance of stencil computations on GPU by carefully balancing usage of registers and shared-memory.Unlike earlier methods that rely on circular queues predominantly implemented using indirectly addressable shared memory,our hybrid method exploits a new reuse pattern spanning across the multiple time steps in stencil computations so that circular queues can be implemented by both shared memory and registers effectively in a balanced manner.We describe a framework that automatically finds the best placement of data in registers and shared memory in order to maximize the performance of stencil computations.Validation using four different types of stencils on three different GPU platforms shows that our hybrid method achieves speedups up to 2.93X over methods that use circular queues implemented with shared-memory only.

  19. A hybrid method for optimal load shedding and improving voltage stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Tamilselvan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a hybrid method is proposed for reducing the amount of load shedding and voltage collapse. The hybrid method is the combination of Genetic Algorithm (GA and Neural Network (NN. The GA is used by two stages, one is to frame the optimization model and other stage is to generate data set for developing the NN based intelligent load shedding model. The appropriate buses for load shedding are selected based on the sensitivity of minimum eigenvalue of load flow Jacobian with respect to the load shed. The proposed method is implemented in MATLAB working platform and the performance is tested with 6 bus and IEEE 14 bus bench mark system. The result of the proposed hybrid method is compared with the GA based optimization algorithm. The comparison shows that, the proposed method ensures voltage stability with minimum loading shedding.

  20. Known plaintext attack on double random phase encoding using fingerprint as key and a method for avoiding the attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashima, Hideaki; Takeda, Masafumi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Obi, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Ohyama, Nagaaki

    2010-06-21

    We have shown that the application of double random phase encoding (DRPE) to biometrics enables the use of biometrics as cipher keys for binary data encryption. However, DRPE is reported to be vulnerable to known-plaintext attacks (KPAs) using a phase recovery algorithm. In this study, we investigated the vulnerability of DRPE using fingerprints as cipher keys to the KPAs. By means of computational experiments, we estimated the encryption key and restored the fingerprint image using the estimated key. Further, we propose a method for avoiding the KPA on the DRPE that employs the phase retrieval algorithm. The proposed method makes the amplitude component of the encrypted image constant in order to prevent the amplitude component of the encrypted image from being used as a clue for phase retrieval. Computational experiments showed that the proposed method not only avoids revealing the cipher key and the fingerprint but also serves as a sufficiently accurate verification system.

  1. Some methods of encoding simple visual images for use with a sparse distributed memory, with applications to character recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeckel, Louis A.

    1989-01-01

    To study the problems of encoding visual images for use with a Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM), I consider a specific class of images- those that consist of several pieces, each of which is a line segment or an arc of a circle. This class includes line drawings of characters such as letters of the alphabet. I give a method of representing a segment of an arc by five numbers in a continuous way; that is, similar arcs have similar representations. I also give methods for encoding these numbers as bit strings in an approximately continuous way. The set of possible segments and arcs may be viewed as a five-dimensional manifold M, whose structure is like a Mobious strip. An image, considered to be an unordered set of segments and arcs, is therefore represented by a set of points in M - one for each piece. I then discuss the problem of constructing a preprocessor to find the segments and arcs in these images, although a preprocessor has not been developed. I also describe a possible extension of the representation.

  2. Development and Evaluation of a Hybrid Dynamical-Statistical Downscaling Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Daniel Burton

    Regional climate change studies usually rely on downscaling of global climate model (GCM) output in order to resolve important fine-scale features and processes that govern local climate. Previous efforts have used one of two techniques: (1) dynamical downscaling, in which a regional climate model is forced at the boundaries by GCM output, or (2) statistical downscaling, which employs historical empirical relationships to go from coarse to fine resolution. Studies using these methods have been criticized because they either dynamical downscaled only a few GCMs, or used statistical downscaling on an ensemble of GCMs, but missed important dynamical effects in the climate change signal. This study describes the development and evaluation of a hybrid dynamical-statstical downscaling method that utilizes aspects of both dynamical and statistical downscaling to address these concerns. The first step of the hybrid method is to use dynamical downscaling to understand the most important physical processes that contribute to the climate change signal in the region of interest. Then a statistical model is built based on the patterns and relationships identified from dynamical downscaling. This statistical model can be used to downscale an entire ensemble of GCMs quickly and efficiently. The hybrid method is first applied to a domain covering Los Angeles Region to generate projections of temperature change between the 2041-2060 and 1981-2000 periods for 32 CMIP5 GCMs. The hybrid method is also applied to a larger region covering all of California and the adjacent ocean. The hybrid method works well in both areas, primarily because a single feature, the land-sea contrast in the warming, controls the overwhelming majority of the spatial detail. Finally, the dynamically downscaled temperature change patterns are compared to those produced by two commonly-used statistical methods, BCSD and BCCA. Results show that dynamical downscaling recovers important spatial features that the

  3. Hybrid 3D-2D printing of bone scaffolds Hybrid 3D-2D printing methods for bone scaffolds fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, V Ya; Seleznev, Vladimir

    2016-12-13

    It is a well-known fact that bone scaffold topography on micro- and nanometer scale influences the cellular behavior. Nano-scale surface modification of scaffolds allows the modulation of biological activity for enhanced cell differentiation. To date, there has been only a limited success in printing scaffolds with micro- and nano-scale features exposed on the surface. To improve on the currently available imperfect technologies, in our paper we introduce new hybrid technologies based on a combination of 2D (nano imprint) and 3D printing methods. The first method is based on using light projection 3D printing and simultaneous 2D nanostructuring of each of the layers during the formation of the 3D structure. The second method is based on the sequential integration of preliminarily created 2D nanostructured films into a 3D printed structure. The capabilities of the developed hybrid technologies are demonstrated with the example of forming 3D bone scaffolds. The proposed technologies can be used to fabricate complex 3D micro- and nanostructured products for various fields. Copyright 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  4. Hierarchical hybrid testability modeling and evaluation method based on information fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xishan Zhang; Kaoli Huang; Pengcheng Yan; Guangyao Lian

    2015-01-01

    In order to meet the demand of testability analysis and evaluation for complex equipment under a smal sample test in the equipment life cycle, the hierarchical hybrid testability model-ing and evaluation method (HHTME), which combines the testabi-lity structure model (TSM) with the testability Bayesian networks model (TBNM), is presented. Firstly, the testability network topo-logy of complex equipment is built by using the hierarchical hybrid testability modeling method. Secondly, the prior conditional prob-ability distribution between network nodes is determined through expert experience. Then the Bayesian method is used to update the conditional probability distribution, according to history test information, virtual simulation information and similar product in-formation. Final y, the learned hierarchical hybrid testability model (HHTM) is used to estimate the testability of equipment. Compared with the results of other modeling methods, the relative deviation of the HHTM is only 0.52%, and the evaluation result is the most accurate.

  5. A novel method for rapid hybridization of DNA to a solid support.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Pettersson

    Full Text Available Here we present a novel approach entitled Magnetic Forced Hybridization (MFH that provides the means for efficient and direct hybridization of target nucleic acids to complementary probes immobilized on a glass surface in less than 15 seconds at ambient temperature. In addition, detection is carried out instantly since the beads become visible on the surface. The concept of MFH was tested for quality control of array manufacturing, and was combined with a multiplex competitive hybridization (MUCH approach for typing of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV. Magnetic Forced Hybridization of bead-DNA constructs to a surface achieves a significant reduction in diagnostic testing time. In addition, readout of results by visual inspection of the unassisted eye eliminates the need for additional expensive instrumentation. The method uses the same set of beads throughout the whole process of manipulating and washing DNA constructs prior to detection, as in the actual detection step itself.

  6. A Novel Method for Rapid Hybridization of DNA to a Solid Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Erik; Ahmadian, Afshin; Ståhl, Patrik L.

    2013-01-01

    Here we present a novel approach entitled Magnetic Forced Hybridization (MFH) that provides the means for efficient and direct hybridization of target nucleic acids to complementary probes immobilized on a glass surface in less than 15 seconds at ambient temperature. In addition, detection is carried out instantly since the beads become visible on the surface. The concept of MFH was tested for quality control of array manufacturing, and was combined with a multiplex competitive hybridization (MUCH) approach for typing of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). Magnetic Forced Hybridization of bead-DNA constructs to a surface achieves a significant reduction in diagnostic testing time. In addition, readout of results by visual inspection of the unassisted eye eliminates the need for additional expensive instrumentation. The method uses the same set of beads throughout the whole process of manipulating and washing DNA constructs prior to detection, as in the actual detection step itself. PMID:23950946

  7. Two Hybrid Methods for Solving Two-Dimensional Linear Time-Fractional Partial Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Jacobs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A computationally efficient hybridization of the Laplace transform with two spatial discretization techniques is investigated for numerical solutions of time-fractional linear partial differential equations in two space variables. The Chebyshev collocation method is compared with the standard finite difference spatial discretization and the absolute error is obtained for several test problems. Accurate numerical solutions are achieved in the Chebyshev collocation method subject to both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The solution obtained by these hybrid methods allows for the evaluation at any point in time without the need for time-marching to a particular point in time.

  8. Block Hybrid Collocation Method with Application to Fourth Order Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Ken Yap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The block hybrid collocation method with three off-step points is proposed for the direct solution of fourth order ordinary differential equations. The interpolation and collocation techniques are applied on basic polynomial to generate the main and additional methods. These methods are implemented in block form to obtain the approximation at seven points simultaneously. Numerical experiments are conducted to illustrate the efficiency of the method. The method is also applied to solve the fourth order problem from ship dynamics.

  9. Accuracy improvement of a hybrid robot for ITER application using POE modeling method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yongbo, E-mail: yongbo.wang@hotmail.com [Laboratory of Intelligent Machines, Lappeenranta University of Technology, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Wu, Huapeng; Handroos, Heikki [Laboratory of Intelligent Machines, Lappeenranta University of Technology, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► The product of exponential (POE) formula for error modeling of hybrid robot. ► Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm for parameter identification. ► Simulation results are given to verify the effectiveness of the method. -- Abstract: This paper focuses on the kinematic calibration of a 10 degree-of-freedom (DOF) redundant serial–parallel hybrid robot to improve its accuracy. The robot was designed to perform the assembling and repairing tasks of the vacuum vessel (VV) of the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER). By employing the product of exponentials (POEs) formula, we extended the POE-based calibration method from serial robot to redundant serial–parallel hybrid robot. The proposed method combines the forward and inverse kinematics together to formulate a hybrid calibration method for serial–parallel hybrid robot. Because of the high nonlinear characteristics of the error model and too many error parameters need to be identified, the traditional iterative linear least-square algorithms cannot be used to identify the parameter errors. This paper employs a global optimization algorithm, Differential Evolution (DE), to identify parameter errors by solving the inverse kinematics of the hybrid robot. Furthermore, after the parameter errors were identified, the DE algorithm was adopted to numerically solve the forward kinematics of the hybrid robot to demonstrate the accuracy improvement of the end-effector. Numerical simulations were carried out by generating random parameter errors at the allowed tolerance limit and generating a number of configuration poses in the robot workspace. Simulation of the real experimental conditions shows that the accuracy of the end-effector can be improved to the same precision level of the given external measurement device.

  10. A simple method encoding linear single strain DNA sequence with natural numbers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jiye; XU Yuan; ZHANG Wang

    2008-01-01

    A simple method presenting linear single strain DNA (LssDNA) sequence with natural numbers is introduced in this paper. The method presents LssDNA correspondingly with the numerals 1, 2, 3 and 4. After calculation, the sequence can be coded in natural numbers which can also be decoded into the DNA sequence. Thus, an LssDNA sequence can be expressed in a natural number and a dot at coordinate axes. In the future, a new LssDNA sequences database termed "DotBank" would be realized in which each LssDNA sequence is determined as a dot.

  11. A Hybrid Method for Modeling and Solving Supply Chain Optimization Problems with Soft and Logical Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Sitek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a hybrid method for modeling and solving supply chain optimization problems with soft, hard, and logical constraints. Ability to implement soft and logical constraints is a very important functionality for supply chain optimization models. Such constraints are particularly useful for modeling problems resulting from commercial agreements, contracts, competition, technology, safety, and environmental conditions. Two programming and solving environments, mathematical programming (MP and constraint logic programming (CLP, were combined in the hybrid method. This integration, hybridization, and the adequate multidimensional transformation of the problem (as a presolving method helped to substantially reduce the search space of combinatorial models for supply chain optimization problems. The operation research MP and declarative CLP, where constraints are modeled in different ways and different solving procedures are implemented, were linked together to use the strengths of both. This approach is particularly important for the decision and combinatorial optimization models with the objective function and constraints, there are many decision variables, and these are summed (common in manufacturing, supply chain management, project management, and logistic problems. The ECLiPSe system with Eplex library was proposed to implement a hybrid method. Additionally, the proposed hybrid transformed model is compared with the MILP-Mixed Integer Linear Programming model on the same data instances. For illustrative models, its use allowed finding optimal solutions eight to one hundred times faster and reducing the size of the combinatorial problem to a significant extent.

  12. A scalable hybrid multi-robot SLAM method for highly detailed maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Pfingsthorn; B. Slamet; A. Visser

    2007-01-01

    Recent successful SLAM methods employ hybrid map representations combining the strengths of topological maps and occupancy grids. Such representations often facilitate multi-agent mapping. In this paper, a successful SLAM method is presented, which is inspired by the manifold data structure by Howar

  13. Three-step relaxed hybrid steepest-descent methods for variational inequalities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The classical variational inequality problem with a Lipschitzian and strongly monotone operator on a nonempty closed convex subset in a real Hilbert space is studied.A new three-step relaxed hybrid steepest-descent method for this class of variational inequalities is introduced. Strong convergence of this method is establishe d under suitable assumptions imposed on the algorithm parameters.

  14. A scalable hybrid multi-robot SLAM method for highly detailed maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfingsthorn, M.; Slamet, B.; Visser, A.

    2008-01-01

    Recent successful SLAM methods employ hybrid map representations combining the strengths of topological maps and occupancy grids. Such representations often facilitate multi-agent mapping. In this paper, a successful SLAM method is presented, which is inspired by the manifold data structure by Howar

  15. On the Hybrid Method with Three Off-Step Points for Initial Value Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jator, S. N.

    2010-01-01

    A continuous representation of a hybrid method with three "off-step" points is developed via interpolation and collocation procedures, and used to obtain initial value methods (IVMs) for solving initial value problems. The IVMs are assembled into a single block matrix equation which is convergent and A-stable. We note that accuracy is improved by…

  16. Method for Load Sharing and Power Management in a Hybrid PV/Battery Source Islanded Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karimi, Yaser; Oraee, Hashem; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a decentralized load sharing and power management method for an islanded microgrid composed of PV units, battery units and hybrid PV/battery units. The proposed method performs all the necessary tasks such as load sharing among the units, battery charging and discharging and PV...

  17. Methods of combined bioprocessing and related microorganisms, thermophilic and/or acidophilic enzymes, and nucleic acids encoding said enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David N; Apel, William A; Thompson, Vicki S; Ward, Thomas E

    2013-07-23

    A genetically modified organism comprising: at least one nucleic acid sequence and/or at least one recombinant nucleic acid isolated from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and encoding a polypeptide involved in at least partially degrading, cleaving, transporting, metabolizing, or removing polysaccharides, cellulose, lignocellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, sugars, sugar oligomers, carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, chitin, heteroxylans, glycosides, xylan-, glucan-, galactan-, or mannan-decorating groups; and at least one nucleic acid sequence and/or at least one recombinant nucleic acid encoding a polypeptide involved in fermenting sugar molecules to a product. Additionally, enzymatic and/or proteinaceous extracts may be isolated from one or more genetically modified organisms. The extracts are utilized to convert biomass into a product. Further provided are methods of converting biomass into products comprising: placing the genetically modified organism and/or enzymatic extracts thereof in fluid contact with polysaccharides, cellulose, lignocellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, sugars, sugar oligomers, carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, chitin, heteroxylans, glycosides, and/or xylan-, glucan-, galactan-, or mannan-decorating groups.

  18. Methods of combined bioprocessing and related microorganisms, thermophilic and/or acidophilic enzymes, and nucleic acids encoding said enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, David N.; Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S.; Ward, Thomas E.

    2016-03-22

    A genetically modified organism comprising: at least one nucleic acid sequence and/or at least one recombinant nucleic acid isolated from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and encoding a polypeptide involved in at least partially degrading, cleaving, transporting, metabolizing, or removing polysaccharides, cellulose, lignocellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, sugars, sugar oligomers, carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, chitin, heteroxylans, glycosides, xylan-, glucan-, galactan-, or mannan-decorating groups; and at least one nucleic acid sequence and/or at least one recombinant nucleic acid encoding a polypeptide involved in fermenting sugar molecules to a product. Additionally, enzymatic and/or proteinaceous extracts may be isolated from one or more genetically modified organisms. The extracts are utilized to convert biomass into a product. Further provided are methods of converting biomass into products comprising: placing the genetically modified organism and/or enzymatic extracts thereof in fluid contact with polysaccharides, cellulose, lignocellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, sugars, sugar oligomers, carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, chitin, heteroxylans, glycosides, and/or xylan-, glucan-, galactan-, or mannan-decorating groups.

  19. Methods of combined bioprocessing and related microorganisms, thermophilic and/or acidophilic enzymes, and nucleic acids encoding said enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, David N; Apel, William A; Thompson, Vicki S; Ward, Thomas E

    2014-04-08

    A genetically modified organism comprising: at least one nucleic acid sequence and/or at least one recombinant nucleic acid isolated from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and encoding a polypeptide involved in at least partially degrading, cleaving, transporting, metabolizing, or removing polysaccharides, cellulose, lignocellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, sugars, sugar oligomers, carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, chitin, heteroxylans, glycosides, xylan-, glucan-, galactan-, or mannan-decorating groups; and at least one nucleic acid sequence and/or at least one recombinant nucleic acid encoding a polypeptide involved in fermenting sugar molecules to a product. Additionally, enzymatic and/or proteinaceous extracts may be isolated from one or more genetically modified organisms. The extracts are utilized to convert biomass into a product. Further provided are methods of converting biomass into products comprising: placing the genetically modified organism and/or enzymatic extracts thereof in fluid contact with polysaccharides, cellulose, lignocellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, sugars, sugar oligomers, carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, chitin, heteroxylans, glycosides, and/or xylan-, glucan-, galactan-, or mannan-decorating groups.

  20. Methods of combined bioprocessing and related microorganisms, thermophilic and/or acidophilic enzymes, and nucleic acids encoding said enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, David N.; Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S.; Ward, Thomas E.

    2017-08-15

    A genetically modified organism comprising: at least one nucleic acid sequence and/or at least one recombinant nucleic acid isolated from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and encoding a polypeptide involved in at least partially degrading, cleaving, transporting, metabolizing, or removing polysaccharides, cellulose, lignocellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, sugars, sugar oligomers, carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, chitin, heteroxylans, glycosides, xylan-, glucan-, galactan-, or mannan-decorating groups; and at least one nucleic acid sequence and/or at least one recombinant nucleic acid encoding a polypeptide involved in fermenting sugar molecules to a product. Additionally, enzymatic and/or proteinaceous extracts may be isolated from one or more genetically modified organisms. The extracts are utilized to convert biomass into a product. Further provided are methods of converting biomass into products comprising: placing the genetically modified organism and/or enzymatic extracts thereof in fluid contact with polysaccharides, cellulose, lignocellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, sugars, sugar oligomers, carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, chitin, heteroxylans, glycosides, and/or xylan-, glucan-, galactan-, or mannan-decorating groups.

  1. A Hybrid Nodal Method for Time-Dependent Incompressible Flow in Two-Dimensional Arbitrary Geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toreja, A J; Uddin, R

    2002-10-21

    A hybrid nodal-integral/finite-analytic method (NI-FAM) is developed for time-dependent, incompressible flow in two-dimensional arbitrary geometries. In this hybrid approach, the computational domain is divided into parallelepiped and wedge-shaped space-time nodes (cells). The conventional nodal integral method (NIM) is applied to the interfaces between adjacent parallelepiped nodes (cells), while a finite analytic approach is applied to the interfaces between parallelepiped and wedge-shaped nodes (cells). In this paper, the hybrid method is formally developed and an application of the NI-FAM to fluid flow in an enclosed cavity is presented. Results are compared with those obtained using a commercial computational fluid dynamics code.

  2. Yeast two-hybrid screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makuch, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Yeast two-hybrid is a method for screening large numbers of gene products (encoded by cDNA libraries) for their ability to interact with a protein of interest. This system can also be used for characterizing and manipulating candidate protein: protein interactions. Interactions between proteins are monitored by the growth of yeast plated on selective media.

  3. A New Color-based Lawn Weed Detection Method and Its Integration with Texture-based Methods: A Hybrid Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watchareeruetai, Ukrit; Ohnishi, Noboru

    We propose a color-based weed detection method specifically designed for detecting lawn weeds in winter. The proposed method exploits fuzzy logic to make inference from color information. Genetic algorithm is adopted to search for the optimal combination of color information, fuzzy membership functions, as well as fuzzy rules used in the method. Experimental results show that the proposed color-based method outperforms the conventional texture-based methods when testing with a winter dataset. In addition, we propose a hybrid system that incorporates both texture-based and color-based weed detection methods. It can automatically select a better method to perform weed detection, depending on an input image. The results show that the use of the hybrid system can significantly improve weed control performances for the overall datasets.

  4. Hybrid Adaptive Ray-Moment Method (HARM2): A highly parallel method for radiation hydrodynamics on adaptive grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, A. L.; Krumholz, M. R.; Oishi, J. S.; Lee, A. T.; Klein, R. I.

    2017-02-01

    We present a highly-parallel multi-frequency hybrid radiation hydrodynamics algorithm that combines a spatially-adaptive long characteristics method for the radiation field from point sources with a moment method that handles the diffuse radiation field produced by a volume-filling fluid. Our Hybrid Adaptive Ray-Moment Method (HARM2) operates on patch-based adaptive grids, is compatible with asynchronous time stepping, and works with any moment method. In comparison to previous long characteristics methods, we have greatly improved the parallel performance of the adaptive long-characteristics method by developing a new completely asynchronous and non-blocking communication algorithm. As a result of this improvement, our implementation achieves near-perfect scaling up to O (103) processors on distributed memory machines. We present a series of tests to demonstrate the accuracy and performance of the method.

  5. Hybrid Adaptive Ray-Moment Method (HARM$^2$): A Highly Parallel Method for Radiation Hydrodynamics on Adaptive Grids

    CERN Document Server

    Rosen, Anna L; Oishi, Jeffrey S; Lee, Aaron T; Klein, Richard I

    2016-01-01

    We present a highly-parallel multi-frequency hybrid radiation hydrodynamics algorithm that combines a spatially-adaptive long characteristics method for the radiation field from point sources with a moment method that handles the diffuse radiation field produced by a volume-filling fluid. Our Hybrid Adaptive Ray-Moment Method (HARM$^2$) operates on patch-based adaptive grids, is compatible with asynchronous time stepping, and works with any moment method. In comparison to previous long characteristics methods, we have greatly improved the parallel performance of the adaptive long-characteristics method by developing a new completely asynchronous and non-blocking communication algorithm. As a result of this improvement, our implementation achieves near-perfect scaling up to $\\mathcal{O}(10^3)$ processors on distributed memory machines. We present a series of tests to demonstrate the accuracy and performance of the method.

  6. A hybrid method based upon nonlinear Lamb wave response for locating a delamination in composite laminates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelve, Nitesh P; Mitra, Mira; Mujumdar, P M; Ramadas, C

    2016-08-01

    A new hybrid method based upon nonlinear Lamb wave response in time and frequency domains is introduced to locate a delamination in composite laminates. In Lamb wave based nonlinear method, the presence of damage is shown by the appearance of higher harmonics in the Lamb wave response. The proposed method not only uses this spectral information but also the corresponding temporal response data, for locating the delamination. Thus, the method is termed as a hybrid method. The paper includes formulation of the method and its application to locate a Barely Visible Impact Damage (BVID) induced delamination in a Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) laminate. The method gives the damage location fairly well. It is a baseline free method, as it does not need data from the pristine specimen.

  7. Hybridization of the probability perturbation method with gradient information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kent; Caers, J.; Suzuki, S.

    2007-01-01

    Geostatistically based history-matching methods make it possible to devise history-matching strategies that will honor geologic knowledge about the reservoir. However, the performance of these methods is known to be impeded by slow convergence rates resulting from the stochastic nature of the alg......Geostatistically based history-matching methods make it possible to devise history-matching strategies that will honor geologic knowledge about the reservoir. However, the performance of these methods is known to be impeded by slow convergence rates resulting from the stochastic nature...

  8. Efficient method for measuring the parameters encoded in a gravitational-wave signal

    CERN Document Server

    Haster, Carl-Johan; Farr, Will M

    2015-01-01

    Once upon a time, predictions for the accuracy of inference on gravitational-wave signals relied on computationally inexpensive but often inaccurate techniques. Recently, the approach has shifted to actual inference on noisy signals with complex stochastic Bayesian methods, at the expense of significant computational cost. Here, we argue that it is often possible to have the best of both worlds: a Bayesian approach that incorporates prior information and correctly marginalizes over uninteresting parameters, providing accurate posterior probability distribution functions, but carried out on a simple grid at a low computational cost, comparable to the inexpensive predictive techniques.

  9. Methods for the isolation of genes encoding novel PHB cycle enzymes from complex microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordeste, Ricardo F; Trainer, Maria A; Charles, Trevor C

    2010-01-01

    Development of different PHAs as alternatives to petrochemically derived plastics can be facilitated by mining metagenomic libraries for diverse PHA cycle genes that might be useful for synthesis of bioplastics. The specific phenotypes associated with mutations of the PHA synthesis pathway genes in Sinorhizobium meliloti allows for the use of powerful selection and screening tools to identify complementing novel PHA synthesis genes. Identification of novel genes through their function rather than sequence facilitates finding functional proteins that may otherwise have been excluded through sequence-only screening methodology. We present here methods that we have developed for the isolation of clones expressing novel PHA metabolism genes from metagenomic libraries.

  10. Adjoint method for hybrid guidance loop state-space models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, M.; Bucco, D.

    2015-01-01

    A framework is introduced to develop the theory of the adjoint method for models including both continuous and discrete dynamics. The basis of this framework consists of the class of impulsive linear dynamic systems. It allows extension of the adjoint method to more general models that include multi

  11. A Hybrid Positioning Method Based on Hypothesis Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amiot, Nicolas; Pedersen, Troels; Laaraiedh, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    maxima. We propose to first estimate the support region of the two peaks of the likelihood function using a set membership method, and then decide between the two regions using a rule based on the less reliable observations. Monte Carlo simulations show that the performance of the proposed method...

  12. Development of a hybrid deterministic/stochastic method for 1D nuclear reactor kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terlizzi, Stefano; Rahnema, Farzad; Zhang, Dingkang; Dulla, Sandra; Ravetto, Piero

    2015-12-01

    A new method has been implemented for solving the time-dependent neutron transport equation efficiently and accurately. This is accomplished by coupling the hybrid stochastic-deterministic steady-state coarse-mesh radiation transport (COMET) method [1,2] with the new predictor-corrector quasi-static method (PCQM) developed at Politecnico di Torino [3]. In this paper, the coupled method is implemented and tested in 1D slab geometry.

  13. Development of a hybrid deterministic/stochastic method for 1D nuclear reactor kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terlizzi, Stefano; Dulla, Sandra; Ravetto, Piero [Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, 24 10129, Torino (Italy); Rahnema, Farzad, E-mail: farzad@gatech.edu [Nuclear & Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Programs, Georgia Institute of Technology, 770 State Street NW, Atlanta, Ga, 30332-0745 (United States); Nuclear & Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Programs, Georgia Institute of Technology, 770 State Street NW, Atlanta, Ga, 30332-0745 (United States); Zhang, Dingkang [Nuclear & Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Programs, Georgia Institute of Technology, 770 State Street NW, Atlanta, Ga, 30332-0745 (United States)

    2015-12-31

    A new method has been implemented for solving the time-dependent neutron transport equation efficiently and accurately. This is accomplished by coupling the hybrid stochastic-deterministic steady-state coarse-mesh radiation transport (COMET) method [1,2] with the new predictor-corrector quasi-static method (PCQM) developed at Politecnico di Torino [3]. In this paper, the coupled method is implemented and tested in 1D slab geometry.

  14. Application of Computational Intelligence in Order to Develop Hybrid Orbit Propagation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Pérez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new approach in astrodynamics and celestial mechanics fields, called hybrid perturbation theory. A hybrid perturbation theory combines an integrating technique, general perturbation theory or special perturbation theory or semianalytical method, with a forecasting technique, statistical time series model or computational intelligence method. This combination permits an increase in the accuracy of the integrating technique, through the modeling of higher-order terms and other external forces not considered in the integrating technique. In this paper, neural networks have been used as time series forecasters in order to help two economic general perturbation theories describe the motion of an orbiter only perturbed by the Earth’s oblateness.

  15. Encoding Methods of Spectral Vector in Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Image%高光谱遥感影像中光谱向量编码方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Pei-jun; FANG Tao; TANG Hong; SHI Peng-fei

    2005-01-01

    Taking into account the demands of hyperspectral remote sensing (RS) image retrieval and processing, some encoding methods of spectral vector including direct encoding, feature-based encoding and tree-based encoding methods are proposed and compared. In direct encoding, based on the analysis of binary encoding and quad-value encoding, decimal encoding is proposed. It is proved that quad-value encoding and decimal encoding are suitable to fast processing and retrieval. In absorption feature-based encoding method, five common metrics are compared. Because locations of reflection/absorption features are sensitive to noise, this method is not very effective in retrieval. In tree-based encoding methods, bitree, quadtree, octree and hextree are proposed and discussed. It is proved that 2-level octree and 2-level hextree are more effective than bitree and quadtree. Finally, quad-value encoding, decimal encoding, 2-level octree and 2-level hextree are proposed in spectral vectors encoding, similarity measure and hyperspectral RS image retrieval.

  16. Hybrid airfoil design methods for full-scale ice accretion simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Farooq

    The objective of this thesis is to develop a design method together with a design philosophy that allows the design of "subscale" or "hybrid" airfoils that simulate fullscale ice accretions. These subscale or hybrid airfoils have full-scale leading edges and redesigned aft-sections. A preliminary study to help develop a design philosophy for the design of hybrid airfoils showed that hybrid airfoils could be designed to simulate full-scale airfoil droplet-impingement characteristics and, therefore, ice accretion. The study showed that the primary objective in such a design should be to determine the aft section profile that provides the circulation necessary for simulating full-scale airfoil droplet-impingement characteristics. The outcome of the study, therefore, reveals circulation control as the main design variable. To best utilize this fact, this thesis describes two innovative airfoil design methods for the design of hybrid airfoils. Of the two design methods, one uses a conventional flap system while the other only suggests the use of boundary-layer control through slot-suction on the airfoil upper surface as a possible alternative for circulation control. The formulation of each of the two design methods is described in detail, and the results from each method are validated using wind-tunnel test data. The thesis demonstrates the capabilities of each method with the help of specific design examples highlighting their application potential. In particular, the flap-system based hybrid airfoil design method is used to demonstrate the design of a half-scale hybrid model of a full-scale airfoil that simulates full-scale ice accretion at both the design and off-design conditions. The full-scale airfoil used is representative of a scaled modern business-jet main wing section. The study suggests some useful advantages of using hybrid airfoils as opposed to full-scale airfoils for a better understanding of the ice accretion process and the related issues. Results

  17. Distinguishing enzymes using metabolome data for the hybrid dynamic/static method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakayama Yoichi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the process of constructing a dynamic model of a metabolic pathway, a large number of parameters such as kinetic constants and initial metabolite concentrations are required. However, in many cases, experimental determination of these parameters is time-consuming. Therefore, for large-scale modelling, it is essential to develop a method that requires few experimental parameters. The hybrid dynamic/static (HDS method is a combination of the conventional kinetic representation and metabolic flux analysis (MFA. Since no kinetic information is required in the static module, which consists of MFA, the HDS method may dramatically reduce the number of required parameters. However, no adequate method for developing a hybrid model from experimental data has been proposed. Results In this study, we develop a method for constructing hybrid models based on metabolome data. The method discriminates enzymes into static modules and dynamic modules using metabolite concentration time series data. Enzyme reaction rate time series were estimated from the metabolite concentration time series data and used to distinguish enzymes optimally for the dynamic and static modules. The method was applied to build hybrid models of two microbial central-carbon metabolism systems using simulation results from their dynamic models. Conclusion A protocol to build a hybrid model using metabolome data and a minimal number of kinetic parameters has been developed. The proposed method was successfully applied to the strictly regulated central-carbon metabolism system, demonstrating the practical use of the HDS method, which is designed for computer modelling of metabolic systems.

  18. Hybrid Prediction Method for Aircraft Interior Noise Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal discusses the development and application of new methods of structural-acoustic analysis in order to address existing problems in aircraft interior...

  19. Finite Element Methods On Very Large, Dynamic Tubular Grid Encoded Implicit Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nemitz, Oliver; Nielsen, Michael Bang; Rumpf, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The simulation of physical processes on interfaces and a variety of applications in geometry processing and geometric modeling are based on the solution of partial differential equations on curved and evolving surfaces. Frequently, an implicit level set type representation of these surfaces...... is the most effective and computationally advantageous approach. This paper addresses the computational problem of how to solve partial differential equations on highly resolved level sets with an underlying very high-resolution discrete grid. These high-resolution grids are represented in a very efficient...... dynamic tubular grid encoding format for a narrow band. A reaction diffusion model on a fixed surface and surface evolution driven by a nonlinear geometric diffusion approach, by isotropic or truly anisotropic curvature motion, are investigated as characteristic model problems. The proposed methods...

  20. HYBRID METHOD FOR ANALYSE DISCONTINUITIES IN SHIELDED MICROSTRIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMED EL AMINE EL GOUZI

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A rigorous full-wave analysis is employed to analyze discontinuity in shielded Microstrip (open end, uniform bend. An accurate and efficient method of moments solution combined with the source method(SM formulation is proposed in order to achieve a full-wave characterization of the analyzed structures. A wavelet matrix transform(WMT, operated by wavelet-like transform (WLT allows a significant reduction of the central processing unit time and the memory storage.

  1. A direct hybrid S{sub N} method for slab-geometry lattice calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Davi J.M.; Barros, Ricardo C., E-mail: rcbarros@pq.cnpq.b [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (IPRJ/UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Modelagem Computacional; Zani, Jose H. [Fundacao Educacional Serra dos Orgaos, Teresopolis, RJ (Brazil). Ciencia da Computacao

    2011-07-01

    In this work we describe a hybrid direct method for calculating the thermal disadvantage factor and the neutron flux distribution in fuel-moderator lattices. For the mathematical model, we use the one-speed slab-geometry discrete ordinates (S{sub N}) transport equation with linearly anisotropic scattering. The basic idea is to use higher order angular quadrature set in the highly absorbing fuel region (S{sub NF}) and lower order angular quadrature set in the diffusive moderator region (S{sub NM}) , i.e., N{sub F} > N{sub M}. We apply special continuity conditions based on the equivalence of the S{sub N} and P{sub N-1} equations, which characterize the hybrid model. Numerical results to a typical model problem are given to illustrate the accuracy and the efficiency of the offered hybrid method. (author)

  2. GeoNeoLogical novel and other hybrimedia experiments: or how to use hybrid methods such as Hybrid Discourse Analysis (HDA within a knowledge base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade, Pedro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I will present some results of the project Public Communication of Art, which developed a seminal theory and methodology intended to cope with hybridity and new media literacy in our globalized and inter/transcultural world. Some of the methods used blend vision with touch and are called ‘hybrid methods’ or ‘hybrimethods’. Examples of these are, for instance, a Multitouch Interactive Table, a Multitouch Questionnaire, Trichotomies Game and GeoNeoLogic Novel, this last one being a hybrid novel activated by fusion of vision, touch and GPS coordinates. Another hybrimethod is a sort of discursive analysis, named Hybrid Discourse Analysis (HDA, which uses ‘semantic-logical networks’ organized by concepts and ‘relation-concepts’. HDA is here articulated with Critical Sociology and applied to the analysis of a text on Magic Realism, which is also a hybrid genre within the social field of literature.

  3. A Bayesian hybrid method for context-sensitive spelling correction

    CERN Document Server

    Golding, A R

    1996-01-01

    Two classes of methods have been shown to be useful for resolving lexical ambiguity. The first relies on the presence of particular words within some distance of the ambiguous target word; the second uses the pattern of words and part-of-speech tags around the target word. These methods have complementary coverage: the former captures the lexical ``atmosphere'' (discourse topic, tense, etc.), while the latter captures local syntax. Yarowsky has exploited this complementarity by combining the two methods using decision lists. The idea is to pool the evidence provided by the component methods, and to then solve a target problem by applying the single strongest piece of evidence, whatever type it happens to be. This paper takes Yarowsky's work as a starting point, applying decision lists to the problem of context-sensitive spelling correction. Decision lists are found, by and large, to outperform either component method. However, it is found that further improvements can be obtained by taking into account not ju...

  4. Hybrid function method for solving Fredholm and Volterra integral equations of the second kind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Chun-Hui

    2009-08-01

    Numerical solutions of Fredholm and Volterra integral equations of the second kind via hybrid functions, are proposed in this paper. Based upon some useful properties of hybrid functions, integration of the cross product, a special product matrix and a related coefficient matrix with optimal order, are applied to solve these integral equations. The main characteristic of this technique is to convert an integral equation into an algebraic; hence, the solution procedures are either reduced or simplified accordingly. The advantages of hybrid functions are that the values of n and m are adjustable as well as being able to yield more accurate numerical solutions than the piecewise constant orthogonal function, for the solutions of integral equations. We propose that the available optimal values of n and m can minimize the relative errors of the numerical solutions. The high accuracy and the wide applicability of the hybrid function approach will be demonstrated with numerical examples. The hybrid function method is superior to other piecewise constant orthogonal functions [W.F. Blyth, R.L. May, P. Widyaningsih, Volterra integral equations solved in Fredholm form using Walsh functions, Anziam J. 45 (E) (2004) C269-C282; M.H. Reihani, Z. Abadi, Rationalized Haar functions method for solving Fredholm and Volterra integral equations, J. Comp. Appl. Math. 200 (2007) 12-20] for these problems.

  5. Methods for assessing DNA hybridization of PNA-TiO2 nanoconjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Eric M. B.; Paunesku, Tatjana; Wu, AiGuo; Thurn, K. Ted; Haley, Benjamin; Clark, Jimmy; Priester, Taisa; Woloschak, Gayle E.

    2008-01-01

    We describe the synthesis of peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoconjugates and the several novel methods developed to investigate the DNA hybridization behaviors of these constructs. PNAs are synthetic DNA analogs resistant to degradation by cellular enzymes, which hybridize to single strand DNA (ssDNA) with higher affinity than DNA oligonucleotides, invade double strand DNA (dsDNA), and form different PNA-DNA complexes. Previously, we developed a DNA-TiO2 nanoconjugate capable of hybridizing to target DNA intracellularly in a sequence-specific manner, with the ability to cleave DNA when excited by electromagnetic radiation, but susceptible to degradation which may lower its intracellular targeting efficiency and retention time. PNA-TiO2 nanoconjugates described herein hybridize to target ssDNA, oligonucleotide dsDNA, and supercoiled plasmid DNA under physiological-like ionic and temperature conditions, enabling rapid and inexpensive, sequence-specific precipitation of nucleic acids in vitro. When modified by the addition of imaging agents or peptides, hybridization capabilities of PNA-TiO2 nanoconjugates are enhanced which provides essential benefits for numerous in vitro and in vivo applications. The series of experiments shown here could not be done with either TiO2-DNA nanoconjugates or PNAs alone, and the novel methods developed will benefit studies of numerous other nanoconjugate systems. PMID:18786502

  6. A hybrid optimization method for biplanar transverse gradient coil design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi Feng [Key Laboratory for Quantum Information and Measurements, Ministry of Education, School of Electronics Engineering and Computer Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Tang Xin [Beijing Key Laboratory of Medical Physics and Engineering, Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Jin Zhe [Key Laboratory for Quantum Information and Measurements, Ministry of Education, School of Electronics Engineering and Computer Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Jiang Zhongde [Beijing Key Laboratory of Medical Physics and Engineering, Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Shen Yifei [Key Laboratory for Quantum Information and Measurements, Ministry of Education, School of Electronics Engineering and Computer Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Meng Bin [Key Laboratory for Quantum Information and Measurements, Ministry of Education, School of Electronics Engineering and Computer Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zu Donglin [Beijing Key Laboratory of Medical Physics and Engineering, Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wang Weimin [Key Laboratory for Quantum Information and Measurements, Ministry of Education, School of Electronics Engineering and Computer Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2007-05-07

    The optimization of transverse gradient coils is one of the fundamental problems in designing magnetic resonance imaging gradient systems. A new approach is presented in this paper to optimize the transverse gradient coils' performance. First, in the traditional spherical harmonic target field method, high order coefficients, which are commonly ignored, are used in the first stage of the optimization process to give better homogeneity. Then, some cosine terms are introduced into the series expansion of stream function. These new terms provide simulated annealing optimization with new freedoms. Comparison between the traditional method and the optimized method shows that the inhomogeneity in the region of interest can be reduced from 5.03% to 1.39%, the coil efficiency increased from 3.83 to 6.31 mT m{sup -1} A{sup -1} and the minimum distance of these discrete coils raised from 1.54 to 3.16 mm.

  7. Hybrid inverse design method for nonlifting bodies in incompressible flow

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Broughton, BA

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available is needed. The possible applications of a general inverse design method also extend beyond fuselage design: work done by Lutz and Wagner [18] on shape optimization of airship bodies demonstrated the usefulness of a custom inverse design method...�uence of a second component in the �ow�eld is shown. In this last example, a constant- chord symmetrical keel at zero angle of attack is added to the body to simulate the bulb and keel of a competition sailing yacht. Design of an Airship Body The goal...

  8. A least angle regression method for fMRI activation detection in phase-encoded experimental designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingfeng; Coyle, Damien; Maguire, Liam; McGinnity, Thomas M; Watson, David R; Benali, Habib

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents a new regression method for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation detection. Unlike general linear models (GLM), this method is based on selecting models for activation detection adaptively which overcomes the limitation of requiring a predefined design matrix in GLM. This limitation is because GLM designs assume that the response of the neuron populations will be the same for the same stimuli, which is often not the case. In this work, the fMRI hemodynamic response model is selected from a series of models constructed online by the least angle regression (LARS) method. The slow drift terms in the design matrix for the activation detection are determined adaptively according to the fMRI response in order to achieve the best fit for each fMRI response. The LARS method is then applied along with the Moore-Penrose pseudoinverse (PINV) and fast orthogonal search (FOS) algorithm for implementation of the selected model to include the drift effects in the design matrix. Comparisons with GLM were made using 11 normal subjects to test method superiority. This paper found that GLM with fixed design matrix was inferior compared to the described LARS method for fMRI activation detection in a phased-encoded experimental design. In addition, the proposed method has the advantage of increasing the degrees of freedom in the regression analysis. We conclude that the method described provides a new and novel approach to the detection of fMRI activation which is better than GLM based analyses.

  9. A hybrid method for the parallel computation of Green's functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Dan Erik; Li, Song; Stokbro, Kurt;

    2009-01-01

    Quantum transport models for nanodevices using the non-equilibrium Green's function method require the repeated calculation of the block tridiagonal part of the Green's and lesser Green's function matrices. This problem is related to the calculation of the inverse of a sparse matrix. Because...

  10. Blind testing of cross-linking/mass spectrometry hybrid methods in CASP11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Michael; Belsom, Adam; Rappsilber, Juri; Brock, Oliver

    2016-09-01

    Hybrid approaches combine computational methods with experimental data. The information contained in the experimental data can be leveraged to probe the structure of proteins otherwise elusive to computational methods. Compared with computational methods, the structures produced by hybrid methods exhibit some degree of experimental validation. In spite of these advantages, most hybrid methods have not yet been validated in blind tests, hampering their development. Here, we describe the first blind test of a specific cross-link based hybrid method in CASP. This blind test was coordinated by the CASP organizers and utilized a novel, high-density cross-linking/mass-spectrometry (CLMS) approach that is able to collect high-density CLMS data in a matter of days. This experimental protocol was developed in the Rappsilber laboratory. This approach exploits the chemistry of a highly reactive, photoactivatable cross-linker to produce an order of magnitude more cross-links than homobifunctional cross-linkers. The Rappsilber laboratory generated experimental CLMS data based on this protocol, submitted the data to the CASP organizers which then released this data to the CASP11 prediction groups in a separate, CLMS assisted modeling experiment. We did not observe a clear improvement of assisted models, presumably because the properties of the CLMS data-uncertainty in cross-link identification and residue-residue assignment, and uneven distribution over the protein-were largely unknown to the prediction groups and their approaches were not yet tailored to this kind of data. We also suggest modifications to the CLMS-CASP experiment and discuss the importance of rigorous blind testing in the development of hybrid methods. Proteins 2016; 84(Suppl 1):152-163. © 2016 The Authors Proteins: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. A Hybrid Natural Transform Homotopy Perturbation Method for Solving Fractional Partial Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehu Maitama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid analytical method for solving linear and nonlinear fractional partial differential equations is presented. The proposed analytical approach is an elegant combination of the Natural Transform Method (NTM and a well-known method, Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM. In this analytical method, the fractional derivative is computed in Caputo sense and the nonlinear term is calculated using He’s polynomial. The proposed analytical method reduces the computational size and avoids round-off errors. Exact solution of linear and nonlinear fractional partial differential equations is successfully obtained using the analytical method.

  12. A HYBRID METHOD FOR AUTOMATIC COUNTING OF MICROORGANISMS IN MICROSCOPIC IMAGES

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Microscopic image analysis is an essential process to enable the automatic enumeration and quantitative analysis of microbial images. There are several system are available for numerating microbial growth. Some of the existing method may be inefficient to accurately count the overlapped microorganisms. Therefore, in this paper we proposed an efficient method for automatic segmentation and counting of microorganisms in microscopic images. This method uses a hybrid approach based on...

  13. Developing energy forecasting model using hybrid artificial intelligence method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shahram Mollaiy-Berneti

    2015-01-01

    An important problem in demand planning for energy consumption is developing an accurate energy forecasting model. In fact, it is not possible to allocate the energy resources in an optimal manner without having accurate demand value. A new energy forecasting model was proposed based on the back-propagation (BP) type neural network and imperialist competitive algorithm. The proposed method offers the advantage of local search ability of BP technique and global search ability of imperialist competitive algorithm. Two types of empirical data regarding the energy demand (gross domestic product (GDP), population, import, export and energy demand) in Turkey from 1979 to 2005 and electricity demand (population, GDP, total revenue from exporting industrial products and electricity consumption) in Thailand from 1986 to 2010 were investigated to demonstrate the applicability and merits of the present method. The performance of the proposed model is found to be better than that of conventional back-propagation neural network with low mean absolute error.

  14. Hybrid Particle-Continuum Numerical Methods for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Numerical Methods for Aerospace Applications 6 - 2 RTO-EN-AVT-194 2.1 Micro-Scale Flows Recently, an increase in the development of micro- and nano ...equations predict a separation bubble that forms along the surface that is signicantly larger than experimental measurements. In general, DSMC...and Rockets, Vol. 31, No. 6, 1994, pp. 971979. [3] McNeely, M., Microturbine Designed for Mechanical Drive Applications, Diesel Progress North

  15. A Hybrid Method to Predict Success of Dental Implants

    OpenAIRE

    Reyhaneh Sadat Moayeri; Mehdi Khalili; Mahsa Nazari

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The market demand for dental implants is growing at a significant pace. Results obtained from real cases shows that some dental implants do not lead to success. Hence, the main problem is whether machine learning techniques can be successful in prediction of success of dental implants. Methods/Statistical Analysis: This paper presents a combined predictive model to evaluate the success of dental implants. The classifiers used in this model are W-J48, SVM, Neural Network...

  16. Small RNA Detection by in Situ Hybridization Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Urbanek, Martyna O.; Nawrocka, Anna U.; Krzyzosiak, Wlodzimierz J.

    2015-01-01

    Small noncoding RNAs perform multiple regulatory functions in cells, and their exogenous mimics are widely used in research and experimental therapies to interfere with target gene expression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are the most thoroughly investigated representatives of the small RNA family, which includes short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), PIWI-associated RNA (piRNAs), and others. Numerous methods have been adopted for the detection and characterization of small RNAs, which is challenging due to...

  17. Motion segmentation method for hybrid characteristic on human motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Newman; Wong, Ben; Chow, Daniel

    2009-03-11

    Motion segmentation and analysis are used to improve the process of classification of motion and information gathered on repetitive or periodic characteristic. The classification result is useful for ergonomic and postural safety analysis, since repetitive motion is known to be related to certain musculoskeletal disorders. Past studies mainly focused on motion segmentation on particular motion characteristic with certain prior knowledge on static or periodic property of motion, which narrowed method's applicability. This paper attempts to introduce a method to tackle human joint motion without having prior knowledge. The motion is segmented by a two-pass algorithm. Recursive least square (RLS) is firstly used to estimate possible segments on the input human-motion set. Further, period identification and extra segmentation process are applied to produce meaningful segments. Each of the result segments is modeled by a damped harmonic model, with frequency, amplitude and duration produced as parameters for ergonomic evaluation and other human factor studies such as task safety evaluation and sport analysis. Experiments show that the method can handle periodic, random and mixed characteristics on human motion, which can also be extended to the usage in repetitive motion in workflow and irregular periodic motion like sport movement.

  18. Hybrid Intrusion Detection Using Ensemble of Classification Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Govindarajan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major developments in machine learning in the past decade is the ensemble method, which finds highly accurate classifier by combining many moderately accurate component classifiers. In this research work, new ensemble classification methods are proposed for homogeneous ensemble classifiers using bagging and heterogeneous ensemble classifiers using arcing classifier and their performances are analyzed in terms of accuracy. A Classifier ensemble is designed using Radial Basis Function (RBF and Support Vector Machine (SVM as base classifiers. The feasibility and the benefits of the proposed approaches are demonstrated by the means of real and benchmark data sets of intrusion detection. The main originality of the proposed approach is based on three main parts: preprocessing phase, classification phase and combining phase. A wide range of comparative experiments are conducted for real and benchmark data sets of intrusion detection. The accuracy of base classifiers is compared with homogeneous and heterogeneous models for data mining problem. The proposed ensemble methods provide significant improvement of accuracy compared to individual classifiers and also heterogeneous models exhibit better results than homogeneous models for real and benchmark data sets of intrusion detection.

  19. Short-Term Wind Power Forecasting Using the Enhanced Particle Swarm Optimization Based Hybrid Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yeau Chang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available High penetration of wind power in the electricity system provides many challenges to power system operators, mainly due to the unpredictability and variability of wind power generation. Although wind energy may not be dispatched, an accurate forecasting method of wind speed and power generation can help power system operators reduce the risk of an unreliable electricity supply. This paper proposes an enhanced particle swarm optimization (EPSO based hybrid forecasting method for short-term wind power forecasting. The hybrid forecasting method combines the persistence method, the back propagation neural network, and the radial basis function (RBF neural network. The EPSO algorithm is employed to optimize the weight coefficients in the hybrid forecasting method. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, the method is tested on the practical information of wind power generation of a wind energy conversion system (WECS installed on the Taichung coast of Taiwan. Comparisons of forecasting performance are made with the individual forecasting methods. Good agreements between the realistic values and forecasting values are obtained; the test results show the proposed forecasting method is accurate and reliable.

  20. On determination of microphone response and other parameters by a hybrid experimental and numerical method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrera Figueroa, Salvador; Jacobsen, Finn; Rasmussen, Knud

    2008-01-01

    such as the acoustic centres. In this work, a hybrid method is presented. The velocity distributions of condenser Laboratory Standard microphones were measured using a laser vibrometer. This measured velocity distribution was used for estimating the microphone responses and parameters. The agreement with experimental...

  1. A Hybrid Optimization Method for Reactive Power and Voltage Control Considering Power Loss Minimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Chengxi; Qin, Nan; Bak, Claus Leth;

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a hybrid optimization method to optimally control the voltage and reactive power with minimum power loss in transmission grid. This approach is used for the Danish automatic voltage control (AVC) system which is typically a non-linear non-convex problem mixed with both continu...

  2. A hybrid method for flood simulation in small catchments combining hydrodynamic and hydrological techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellos, Vasilis; Tsakiris, George

    2016-09-01

    The study presents a new hybrid method for the simulation of flood events in small catchments. It combines a physically-based two-dimensional hydrodynamic model and the hydrological unit hydrograph theory. Unit hydrographs are derived using the FLOW-R2D model which is based on the full form of two-dimensional Shallow Water Equations, solved by a modified McCormack numerical scheme. The method is tested at a small catchment in a suburb of Athens-Greece for a storm event which occurred in February 2013. The catchment is divided into three friction zones and unit hydrographs of 15 and 30 min are produced. The infiltration process is simulated by the empirical Kostiakov equation and the Green-Ampt model. The results from the implementation of the proposed hybrid method are compared with recorded data at the hydrometric station at the outlet of the catchment and the results derived from the fully hydrodynamic model FLOW-R2D. It is concluded that for the case studied, the proposed hybrid method produces results close to those of the fully hydrodynamic simulation at substantially shorter computational time. This finding, if further verified in a variety of case studies, can be useful in devising effective hybrid tools for the two-dimensional flood simulations, which are lead to accurate and considerably faster results than those achieved by the fully hydrodynamic simulations.

  3. 3D magnetospheric parallel hybrid multi-grid method applied to planet–plasma interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leclercq, L., E-mail: ludivine.leclercq@latmos.ipsl.fr [LATMOS/IPSL, UVSQ Université Paris-Saclay, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, CNRS, Guyancourt (France); Modolo, R., E-mail: ronan.modolo@latmos.ipsl.fr [LATMOS/IPSL, UVSQ Université Paris-Saclay, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, CNRS, Guyancourt (France); Leblanc, F. [LATMOS/IPSL, UPMC Univ. Paris 06 Sorbonne Universités, UVSQ, CNRS, Paris (France); Hess, S. [ONERA, Toulouse (France); Mancini, M. [LUTH, Observatoire Paris-Meudon (France)

    2016-03-15

    We present a new method to exploit multiple refinement levels within a 3D parallel hybrid model, developed to study planet–plasma interactions. This model is based on the hybrid formalism: ions are kinetically treated whereas electrons are considered as a inertia-less fluid. Generally, ions are represented by numerical particles whose size equals the volume of the cells. Particles that leave a coarse grid subsequently entering a refined region are split into particles whose volume corresponds to the volume of the refined cells. The number of refined particles created from a coarse particle depends on the grid refinement rate. In order to conserve velocity distribution functions and to avoid calculations of average velocities, particles are not coalesced. Moreover, to ensure the constancy of particles' shape function sizes, the hybrid method is adapted to allow refined particles to move within a coarse region. Another innovation of this approach is the method developed to compute grid moments at interfaces between two refinement levels. Indeed, the hybrid method is adapted to accurately account for the special grid structure at the interfaces, avoiding any overlapping grid considerations. Some fundamental test runs were performed to validate our approach (e.g. quiet plasma flow, Alfven wave propagation). Lastly, we also show a planetary application of the model, simulating the interaction between Jupiter's moon Ganymede and the Jovian plasma.

  4. Outcome of the First wwPDB Hybrid/Integrative Methods Task Force Workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sali, Andrej; Berman, Helen M.; Schwede, Torsten; Trewhella, Jill; Kleywegt, Gerard; Burley, Stephen K.; Markley, John; Nakamura, Haruki; Adams, Paul; Bonvin, Alexandre M J J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113691238; Chiu, Wah; Peraro, Matteo Dal; Di Maio, Frank; Ferrin, Thomas E.; Grünewald, Kay; Gutmanas, Aleksandras; Henderson, Richard; Hummer, Gerhard; Iwasaki, Kenji; Johnson, Graham; Lawson, Catherine L.; Meiler, Jens; Marti-Renom, Marc A.; Montelione, Gaetano T.; Nilges, Michael; Nussinov, Ruth; Patwardhan, Ardan; Rappsilber, Juri; Read, Randy J.; Saibil, Helen; Schröder, Gunnar F.; Schwieters, Charles D.; Seidel, Claus A M; Svergun, Dmitri; Topf, Maya; Ulrich, Eldon L.; Velankar, Sameer; Westbrook, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Structures of biomolecular systems are increasingly computed by integrative modeling that relies on varied types of experimental data and theoretical information. We describe here the proceedings and conclusions from the first wwPDB Hybrid/Integrative Methods Task Force Workshop held at the European

  5. Hybrid Control Method for a Single Phase PFC using a Low Cost Microcontroller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lars Tønnes; Nielsen, Nils; Wolf, Christian

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid control method for single phase boost PFCs. The high bandwidth current loop is analog while the voltage loop is implemented in an 8-bit microcontroller. The design focuses on minimizing the number of calculations done in the microcontroller. A 1kW prototype has been...

  6. Hybrid analytic-numeric calculation method for light through a bounded planar dielectric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolau, J.B.; Groesen, van E.

    2005-01-01

    We present a hybrid analytic-numeric method to calculate the transmission and reflection of light that is fluxed into a bounded complicated optical structure surrounded by air. The solution is obtained by numerical calculations inside a square containing the structure and by analytical calculations

  7. Price forecasting of day-ahead electricity markets using a hybrid forecast method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafie-khah, M., E-mail: miadreza@gmail.co [Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moghaddam, M. Parsa, E-mail: parsa@modares.ac.i [Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sheikh-El-Eslami, M.K., E-mail: aleslam@modares.ac.i [Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} A hybrid method is proposed to forecast the day-ahead prices in electricity market. {yields} The method combines Wavelet-ARIMA and RBFN network models. {yields} PSO method is applied to obtain optimum RBFN structure for avoiding over fitting. {yields} One of the merits of the proposed method is lower need to the input data. {yields} The proposed method has more accurate behavior in compare with previous methods. -- Abstract: Energy price forecasting in a competitive electricity market is crucial for the market participants in planning their operations and managing their risk, and it is also the key information in the economic optimization of the electric power industry. However, price series usually have a complex behavior due to their nonlinearity, nonstationarity, and time variancy. In this paper, a novel hybrid method to forecast day-ahead electricity price is proposed. This hybrid method is based on wavelet transform, Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models and Radial Basis Function Neural Networks (RBFN). The wavelet transform provides a set of better-behaved constitutive series than price series for prediction. ARIMA model is used to generate a linear forecast, and then RBFN is developed as a tool for nonlinear pattern recognition to correct the estimation error in wavelet-ARIMA forecast. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is used to optimize the network structure which makes the RBFN be adapted to the specified training set, reducing computation complexity and avoiding overfitting. The proposed method is examined on the electricity market of mainland Spain and the results are compared with some of the most recent price forecast methods. The results show that the proposed hybrid method could provide a considerable improvement for the forecasting accuracy.

  8. AN IMPROVED HYBRID BOUNDARY NODE METHOD IN TWO-DIMENSIONAL SOLIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Yu; Wang Yuanhan; Jiang Heyang

    2005-01-01

    The hybrid boundary node method (HBNM) is a promising method for solving boundary value problems with the hybrid displacement variational formulation and shape functions from the moving least squares(MLS) approximation. The main idea is to reduce the dimensionality of the former and keep the meshless advantage of the latter. Following its application in solving potential problems, it is further developed and numerically implemented for 2D solids in this paper. The rigid movement method is employed to solve the hyper-singular integrations. Numerical examples for some 2D solids have been given to show the characteristics. The computation results obtained by the present method are in excellent agreement with the analytical solution.The parameters that influence the performance of this method are studied through numerical examples.

  9. A modeling method of semiconductor fabrication flows with extended knowledge hybrid Petri nets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Binghai; Jiang Shuyu; Wang Shijin; Wu bin

    2008-01-01

    A modeling method of extended knowledge hybrid Petri nets (EKHPNs), incorporating object-oriented methods into hybrid Petri nets (HPNs), was presented and used for the representation and modeling of semiconductor wafer fabrication flows. To model the discrete and continuous parts of a complex semiconductor wafer fabrication flow, the HPNs were introduced into the EKHPNs. Object-oriented methods were combined into the EKHPNs for coping with the complexity of the fabrication flow. Knowledge annotations were introduced to solve input and output conflicts of the EKHPNs.Finally, to demonstrate the validity of the EKHPN method, a real semiconductor wafer fabrication case was used to illustrate the modeling procedure. The modeling results indicate that the proposed method can be used to model a complex semiconductor wafer fabrication flow expediently.

  10. An Object Detection Method Using Wavelet Optical Flow and Hybrid Linear-Nonlinear Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengcheng Han

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new computational intelligence method using wavelet optical flow and hybrid linear-nonlinear classifier for object detection. With the existing optical flow methods, it is difficult to accurately estimate moving objects with diverse speeds. We propose a wavelet-based optical flow method, which uses wavelet decomposition in optical flow motion estimation. The algorithm can accurately detect moving objects with variable speeds in a scene. In addition, we use the hybrid linear-nonlinear classifier (HLNLC to classify moving objects and static background. HLNLC transforms a nonoptimal scalar variable into its likelihood ratio and uses a scalar quantity as the decision variable. This approach is appropriate for the classification of optical flow feature vectors with unequal variance matrices. The experimental results confirm that our proposed object detection method has an improved accuracy and computation efficiency over other state-of-the-art methods.

  11. Full Wave Simulation of Integrated Circuits Using Hybrid Numerical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jilin

    Transmission lines play an important role in digital electronics, and in microwave and millimeter-wave circuits. Analysis, modeling, and design of transmission lines are critical to the development of the circuitry in the chip, subsystem, and system levels. In the past several decays, at the EM modeling level, the quasi-static approximation has been widely used due to its great simplicity. As the clock rates increase, the inter-connect effects such as signal delay, distortion, dispersion, reflection, and crosstalk, limit the performance of microwave systems. Meanwhile, the quasi-static approach loses its validity for some complex system structures. Since the successful system design of the PCB, MCM, and the chip packaging, rely very much on the computer aided EM level modeling and simulation, many new methods have been developed, such as the full wave approach, to guarantee the successful design. Many difficulties exist in the rigorous EM level analysis. Some of these include the difficulties in describing the behavior of the conductors with finite thickness and finite conductivity, the field singularity, and the arbitrary multilayered multi-transmission lines structures. This dissertation concentrates on the full wave study of the multi-conductor transmission lines with finite conductivity and finite thickness buried in an arbitrary lossy multilayered environment. Two general approaches have been developed. The first one is the integral equation method in which the dyadic Green's function for arbitrary layered media has been correctly formulated and has been tested both analytically and numerically. By applying this method, the double layered high dielectric permitivitty problem and the heavy dielectrical lossy problem in multilayered media in the CMOS circuit design have been solved. The second approach is the edge element method. In this study, the correct functional for the two dimensional propagation problem has been successfully constructed in a rigorous way

  12. Magnetostatic solution by hybrid technique and fast multipole method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruosso, G. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica e Informazione, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Repetto, M. [Politecnico di Torino, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica, C.so Duca Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Turin (Italy)], E-mail: maurizio.repetto@polito.it

    2008-02-01

    The use of fast multipole method (FMM) in the solution of a magnetostatic problem is presented. The magnetostatic solution strategy is based on finite formulation of electromagnetic field coupled with an integral formulation for the definition of boundary conditions on the external surface of the unstructured mesh. Due to the hypothesis of micromagnetic problem, the resulting matrix structure is sparse and integral terms are only on the RHS. Magnetic surface charge is used as source of these integral terms and is localized on the faces between tetrahedra. The computation of the integral terms can be performed by analytical formulas for the near field contributes and by FMM for far field ones.

  13. A Hybrid Method to Predict Success of Dental Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyhaneh Sadat Moayeri

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objectives: The market demand for dental implants is growing at a significant pace. Results obtained from real cases shows that some dental implants do not lead to success. Hence, the main problem is whether machine learning techniques can be successful in prediction of success of dental implants. Methods/Statistical Analysis: This paper presents a combined predictive model to evaluate the success of dental implants. The classifiers used in this model are W-J48, SVM, Neural Network, K-NN and Naïve Bayes. All internal parameters of each classifier are optimized. These classifiers are combined in a way that results in the highest possible accuracies. Results: The performance of the proposed method is compared with single classifiers. Results of our study show that the combinative approach can achieve higher performance than the best of the single classifiers. Using the combinative approach improves the sensitivity indicator by up to 13.3%. Conclusion/Application: Since diagnosis of patients whose implant does not lead to success is very important in implant surgery, the presented model can help surgeons to make a more reliable decision on level of success of implant operation prior to surgery.

  14. A hybrid method for identification of structural domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yongpan; Zhu, Min; Wang, Yuelong; Xie, Zhaoyang; Li, Menglong

    2014-12-01

    Structural domains in proteins are the basic units to form various proteins. In the protein's evolution and functioning, domains play important roles. But the definition of domain is not yet precisely given, and the update cycle of structural domain databases is long. The automatic algorithms identify domains slowly, while protein entities with great structural complexity are on the rise. Here, we present a method which recognizes the compact and modular segments of polypeptide chains to identify structural domains, and contrast some data sets to illuminate their effect. The method combines support vector machine (SVM) with K-means algorithm. It is faster and more stable than most current algorithms and performs better. It also indicates that when proteins are presented as some Alpha-carbon atoms in 3D space, it is feasible to identify structural domains by the spatially structural properties. We have developed a web-server, which would be helpful in identification of structural domains (http://vis.sculab.org/~huayongpan/cgi-bin/domainAssignment.cgi).

  15. Evaluation of methods for extraction of the volitional EMG in dynamic hybrid muscle activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizrahi Joseph

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hybrid muscle activation is a modality used for muscle force enhancement, in which muscle contraction is generated from two different excitation sources: volitional and external, by means of electrical stimulation (ES. Under hybrid activation, the overall EMG signal is the combination of the volitional and ES-induced components. In this study, we developed a computational scheme to extract the volitional EMG envelope from the overall dynamic EMG signal, to serve as an input signal for control purposes, and for evaluation of muscle forces. Methods A "synthetic" database was created from in-vivo experiments on the Tibialis Anterior of the right foot to emulate hybrid EMG signals, including the volitional and induced components. The database was used to evaluate the results obtained from six signal processing schemes, including seven different modules for filtration, rectification and ES component removal. The schemes differed from each other by their module combinations, as follows: blocking window only, comb filter only, blocking window and comb filter, blocking window and peak envelope, comb filter and peak envelope and, finally, blocking window, comb filter and peak envelope. Results and conclusion The results showed that the scheme including all the modules led to an excellent approximation of the volitional EMG envelope, as extracted from the hybrid signal, and underlined the importance of the artifact blocking window module in the process. The results of this work have direct implications on the development of hybrid muscle activation rehabilitation systems for the enhancement of weakened muscles.

  16. SFC Optimization for Aero Engine Based on Hybrid GA-SQP Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Fan, Ding; Sreeram, Victor

    2013-12-01

    This study focuses on on-line specific fuel consumption (SFC) optimization of aero engines. For solving this optimization problem, a nonlinear pneumatic and thermodynamics model of the aero engine is built and a hybrid optimization technique which is formed by combining the genetic algorithm (GA) and the sequential quadratic programming (SQP) is presented. The ability of standard GA and standard SQP in solving this type of problem is investigated. It has been found that, although the SQP is fast, very little SFC reductions can be obtained. The GA is able to solve the problem well but a lot of computational time is needed. The presented hybrid GA-SQP gives a good SFC optimization effect and saves 76.6% computational time when compared to the standard GA. It has been shown that the hybrid GA-SQP is a more effective and higher real-time method for SFC on-line optimization of the aero engine.

  17. ASSESSMENT OF THE PRODUCTIBILITY OF HYBRID NODES USING THE MULTI-CRITERIA METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Urbański

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an assessment of the productibility of hybrid nodes. The hybrid node is a new structural element the implementation of which causes numerous (especially technological problems that need to be solved. The most important element of the hybrid node is the so-called connector, the choice of which is a complex and difficult problem. It involves taking into account many aspects (constructional, strength-related, technological, economic in order to make sure that the choice is as objective as possible. Therefore, an attempt to acquire a comprehensive view at the problem requires that a set of accurate criteria be used for assessment. In this paper, the author undertakes such an attempt. The expert method presented herein allows for choosing the right connector.

  18. Dopamine/TiO{sub 2} hybrid thin films prepared by the liquid phase deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez-Tauste, David [Departament de Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Campus UAB, Edifici Cn, 08290 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: davidg@qf.uab.es; Domenech, Xavier [Departament de Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Campus UAB, Edifici Cn, 08290 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona (Spain); Domingo, Concepcion [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales (CSIC), Campus UAB, 08290 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona (Spain); Ayllon, Jose A. [Departament de Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Campus UAB, Edifici Cn, 08290 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-04-30

    Liquid phase deposition method is applied to one-step production of a hybrid material composed by dopamine(DA) and TiO{sub 2} anatase. An optimized amount of the enediol derivative is added to a fluoride titania precursor aqueous solution in order to entrap this modifier within the growing TiO{sub 2}, yielding a DA/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite material. Uniform, well-adhered and brown-colored thin films are deposited on indium tin oxide covered glass substrate. The DA/TiO{sub 2} hybrid material has been characterized by infrared spectroscopy, electronic microscopy, X-ray diffraction and UV-vis spectroscopy. The formation of the hybrid material seems to be reasonably explained by linkage of different TiO{sub 2} nanocrystallites taking advantage of both enediol and amine groups of DA.

  19. Study on Polyimide/Silica Hybrid Films via Directly Intermingle Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin ZHAO; Bao-Lin RAO

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction In recent years, polyimide hybrid materials have received considerable attention due to the dramatic improvements over their pristine state in thermal stabilities, mechanical properties and other special features by introducing only small fraction inorganic additives[1]. Polyimide/silica hybrid materials were studied mostly by sol-gel route[2]. However the storage stability of the sol resin is a practical problem and has not researched on it so far. On the other hand, nano-sized silica has been produced on a large scale and industrialized. In this paper, polyimide/siliea hybrid films were prepared via directly intermingle method. The storage stability of the sol resin, the thermal and mechanical properties of the resulting films were investigated.

  20. A hybrid Pseudo-spectral Immersed-Boundary Method for Applications to Aquatic Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zheng; Hall, David; Mohseni, Kamran

    2011-11-01

    A hybrid pseudo-spectral immersed boundary method is developed for application in marine locomotion. Spatial derivatives are calculated using pseudo-spectral method while a 2nd-order Runge-Kutta scheme is used for time integration. The singular force applied on the immersed boundary is obtained using a direct forcing method. To avoid Gibb's phenomenon in the spectral method, we regularize the force by smoothing it over several grid cells. This method has the advantage of spectral accuracy and the flexibility to model irregular, moving boundaries on a Cartesian coordinate without complex mesh generation. The method is applied to examine locomotion of jellyfish for both jetting and paddling jellyfish.

  1. Hybrid Bernstein Block-Pulse Functions Method for Second Kind Integral Equations with Convergence Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Alipour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new combination of Bernstein polynomials (BPs and Block-Pulse functions (BPFs on the interval [0, 1]. These functions are suitable for finding an approximate solution of the second kind integral equation. We call this method Hybrid Bernstein Block-Pulse Functions Method (HBBPFM. This method is very simple such that an integral equation is reduced to a system of linear equations. On the other hand, convergence analysis for this method is discussed. The method is computationally very simple and attractive so that numerical examples illustrate the efficiency and accuracy of this method.

  2. Kekuatan transversa resin akrilik hybrid setelah penambahan glass fiber dengan metode berbeda (The transverse strength of the hybrid acrylic resin after glass fiber reinforcement with different method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Nirwana

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Different types of fibers have been added to acrylic resin materials to improve their mechanical properties. The purpose of this study was to know the transverse strength of the hybrid acrylic resins after glass fiber reinforcement with difference method. This study used rectangular specimens of 65 mm in length, 10 mm in width and 2.5 mm in thickness. There were 3 groups consisting of 6 specimens each, hybrid acrylic resin without glass fiber (control, glass fibers dipped in methyl methacrylate monomer for 15 minutes before being reinforced into hybrid acrylic resin (first method, glass fibers reinforced into a mixture of polymer powder and monomer liquid after the hybrid acrylic resin was mixed directly (second method. All of the specimens were cured for 20 minutes at 100° C. Transverse strength was measured using Autograph. The statistical analyses using one way ANOVA and LSD test showed that there were significant differences in transverse strength (p < 0.05 among the groups. The means of transverse strength were 94,94; 118,27; and 116,34 MPa. It meant that glass fibers reinforcement into hybrid acrylic resin enhanced their transverse strength compared with control. Glass fiber reinforcement into hybrid acrylic resin with differenciate method didn’t enhance their transverse strength.

  3. A hybrid TOPSIS-BSC method for strategic planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Shojaee

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available For years, tangible assets used to be the most important precious wealth of organizations. However, the recent advances in technology has changed this concept and today, intangible assets such as human resources, customers, processes are playing essential roles on making strategies. In this paper, we present a study to setup appropriate strategies using the implementation of balanced score card in four perspectives of customers, processes, learning and financial. The proposed study of this paper gathers important factors through three different brainstorming sessions and prioritize them using TOPSIS method. Based on the results of MCDM technique, selecting appropriate target market for penetration is the number one priority followed by having good accounting system and preparing for more diversified production. These are the most important items influencing strategic planning. Therefore, the study uses BSC for the first two important strategies and discusses possible actions for productivity improvement.

  4. Efficient Hybrid Optimal Design Method for Power Electronics Converters

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)697719; Aguglia, Davide; Viarouge, Philippe; Cros, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel design methodology for dimensioning optimal power-electronic converters, which is able to achieve the precision of numerical simulation-based optimization procedures, however minimizing the overall computation time. The approach is based on the utilization of analytical and frequency-domain design models for a numerical optimization process, a validation with numerical simulations of the intermediate optimal solutions, and the correction of the analytical design models precision from the numerical simulation results. This method allows using the numerical simulation in an efficient way, where typically less than ten correction iterations are required. In order to demonstrate the performances of the proposed methodology, the calculation of the control parameters for an H-bridge DC-DC converter and the optimal dimensioning of a damped output filter for a buck converter using the proposed approach is presented.

  5. A New Hybrid Method for Risk Management in Expert Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Mohammadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Information security management is a part of information management, whose main task is to determine information goals and remove obstacles on the way of achieving such goals with providing necessary strategies. Information management is responsible to implement and control the performance of the organization`s security system while tries to keep it up to date. The purpose of information security management in an organization is maintaining different sorts of resources as software, hardware, information, communication and human resources. The organization needs an integrated program against threats such as unauthorized access to information, environmental risks and dangers caused by users. In the present paper, the IT risk in an organization was assessed through an intelligent system benefiting from fuzzy analysis and certainty factors. As most of ambiguity samples have a level of belie, so doubt and the degree of membership were calculated as a part of output in the system and a better result achieved compared to previous methods.

  6. Hybrid MCDA Methods to Integrate Multiple Ecosystem Services in Forest Management Planning: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhde, Britta; Andreas Hahn, W.; Griess, Verena C.; Knoke, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is a decision aid frequently used in the field of forest management planning. It includes the evaluation of multiple criteria such as the production of timber and non-timber forest products and tangible as well as intangible values of ecosystem services (ES). Hence, it is beneficial compared to those methods that take a purely financial perspective. Accordingly, MCDA methods are increasingly popular in the wide field of sustainability assessment. Hybrid approaches allow aggregating MCDA and, potentially, other decision-making techniques to make use of their individual benefits and leading to a more holistic view of the actual consequences that come with certain decisions. This review is providing a comprehensive overview of hybrid approaches that are used in forest management planning. Today, the scientific world is facing increasing challenges regarding the evaluation of ES and the trade-offs between them, for example between provisioning and regulating services. As the preferences of multiple stakeholders are essential to improve the decision process in multi-purpose forestry, participatory and hybrid approaches turn out to be of particular importance. Accordingly, hybrid methods show great potential for becoming most relevant in future decision making. Based on the review presented here, the development of models for the use in planning processes should focus on participatory modeling and the consideration of uncertainty regarding available information.

  7. Fuzzy Shannon Entropy: A Hybrid GIS-Based Landslide Susceptibility Mapping Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Shadman Roodposhti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessing Landslide Susceptibility Mapping (LSM contributes to reducing the risk of living with landslides. Handling the vagueness associated with LSM is a challenging task. Here we show the application of hybrid GIS-based LSM. The hybrid approach embraces fuzzy membership functions (FMFs in combination with Shannon entropy, a well-known information theory-based method. Nine landslide-related criteria, along with an inventory of landslides containing 108 recent and historic landslide points, are used to prepare a susceptibility map. A random split into training (≈70% and testing (≈30% samples are used for training and validation of the LSM model. The study area—Izeh—is located in the Khuzestan province of Iran, a highly susceptible landslide zone. The performance of the hybrid method is evaluated using receiver operating characteristics (ROC curves in combination with area under the curve (AUC. The performance of the proposed hybrid method with AUC of 0.934 is superior to multi-criteria evaluation approaches using a subjective scheme in this research in comparison with a previous study using the same dataset through extended fuzzy multi-criteria evaluation with AUC value of 0.894, and was built on the basis of decision makers’ evaluation in the same study area.

  8. Method for isolating chromosomal DNA in preparation for hybridization in suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Joe N.

    2000-01-01

    A method is provided for detecting nucleic acid sequence aberrations using two immobilization steps. According to the method, a nucleic acid sequence aberration is detected by detecting nucleic acid sequences having both a first nucleic acid sequence type (e.g., from a first chromosome) and a second nucleic acid sequence type (e.g., from a second chromosome), the presence of the first and the second nucleic acid sequence type on the same nucleic acid sequence indicating the presence of a nucleic acid sequence aberration. In the method, immobilization of a first hybridization probe is used to isolate a first set of nucleic acids in the sample which contain the first nucleic acid sequence type. Immobilization of a second hybridization probe is then used to isolate a second set of nucleic acids from within the first set of nucleic acids which contain the second nucleic acid sequence type. The second set of nucleic acids are then detected, their presence indicating the presence of a nucleic acid sequence aberration. Chromosomal DNA in a sample containing cell debris is prepared for hybridization in suspension by treating the mixture with RNase. The treated DNA can also be fixed prior to hybridization.

  9. An Efficient Method for Electroporation of Small Interfering RNAs into ENCODE Project Tier 1 GM12878 and K562 Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Ryan Y; Hammond, Ming C; Rio, Donald C; Lee, Yeon J

    2015-12-01

    The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Project aims to identify all functional sequence elements in the human genome sequence by use of high-throughput DNA/cDNA sequencing approaches. To aid the standardization, comparison, and integration of data sets produced from different technologies and platforms, the ENCODE Consortium selected several standard human cell lines to be used by the ENCODE Projects. The Tier 1 ENCODE cell lines include GM12878, K562, and H1 human embryonic stem cell lines. GM12878 is a lymphoblastoid cell line, transformed with the Epstein-Barr virus, that was selected by the International HapMap Project for whole genome and transcriptome sequencing by use of the Illumina platform. K562 is an immortalized myelogenous leukemia cell line. The GM12878 cell line is attractive for the ENCODE Projects, as it offers potential synergy with the International HapMap Project. Despite the vast amount of sequencing data available on the GM12878 cell line through the ENCODE Project, including transcriptome, chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing for histone marks, and transcription factors, no small interfering siRNA-mediated knockdown studies have been performed in the GM12878 cell line, as cationic lipid-mediated transfection methods are inefficient for lymphoid cell lines. Here, we present an efficient and reproducible method for transfection of a variety of siRNAs into the GM12878 and K562 cell lines, which subsequently results in targeted protein depletion.

  10. Reconstruction and analysis of hybrid composite shells using meshless methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, G. M. S.; Loja, M. A. R.

    2017-02-01

    The importance of focusing on the research of viable models to predict the behaviour of structures which may possess in some cases complex geometries is an issue that is growing in different scientific areas, ranging from the civil and mechanical engineering to the architecture or biomedical devices fields. In these cases, the research effort to find an efficient approach to fit laser scanning point clouds, to the desired surface, has been increasing, leading to the possibility of modelling as-built/as-is structures and components' features. However, combining the task of surface reconstruction and the implementation of a structural analysis model is not a trivial task. Although there are works focusing those different phases in separate, there is still an effective need to find approaches able to interconnect them in an efficient way. Therefore, achieving a representative geometric model able to be subsequently submitted to a structural analysis in a similar based platform is a fundamental step to establish an effective expeditious processing workflow. With the present work, one presents an integrated methodology based on the use of meshless approaches, to reconstruct shells described by points' clouds, and to subsequently predict their static behaviour. These methods are highly appropriate on dealing with unstructured points clouds, as they do not need to have any specific spatial or geometric requirement when implemented, depending only on the distance between the points. Details on the formulation, and a set of illustrative examples focusing the reconstruction of cylindrical and double-curvature shells, and its further analysis, are presented.

  11. Reconstruction and analysis of hybrid composite shells using meshless methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, G. M. S.; Loja, M. A. R.

    2017-06-01

    The importance of focusing on the research of viable models to predict the behaviour of structures which may possess in some cases complex geometries is an issue that is growing in different scientific areas, ranging from the civil and mechanical engineering to the architecture or biomedical devices fields. In these cases, the research effort to find an efficient approach to fit laser scanning point clouds, to the desired surface, has been increasing, leading to the possibility of modelling as-built/as-is structures and components' features. However, combining the task of surface reconstruction and the implementation of a structural analysis model is not a trivial task. Although there are works focusing those different phases in separate, there is still an effective need to find approaches able to interconnect them in an efficient way. Therefore, achieving a representative geometric model able to be subsequently submitted to a structural analysis in a similar based platform is a fundamental step to establish an effective expeditious processing workflow. With the present work, one presents an integrated methodology based on the use of meshless approaches, to reconstruct shells described by points' clouds, and to subsequently predict their static behaviour. These methods are highly appropriate on dealing with unstructured points clouds, as they do not need to have any specific spatial or geometric requirement when implemented, depending only on the distance between the points. Details on the formulation, and a set of illustrative examples focusing the reconstruction of cylindrical and double-curvature shells, and its further analysis, are presented.

  12. A hybrid method for optimization of the adaptive Goldstein filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mi; Ding, Xiaoli; Tian, Xin; Malhotra, Rakesh; Kong, Weixue

    2014-12-01

    The Goldstein filter is a well-known filter for interferometric filtering in the frequency domain. The main parameter of this filter, alpha, is set as a power of the filtering function. Depending on it, considered areas are strongly or weakly filtered. Several variants have been developed to adaptively determine alpha using different indicators such as the coherence, and phase standard deviation. The common objective of these methods is to prevent areas with low noise from being over filtered while simultaneously allowing stronger filtering over areas with high noise. However, the estimators of these indicators are biased in the real world and the optimal model to accurately determine the functional relationship between the indicators and alpha is also not clear. As a result, the filter always under- or over-filters and is rarely correct. The study presented in this paper aims to achieve accurate alpha estimation by correcting the biased estimator using homogeneous pixel selection and bootstrapping algorithms, and by developing an optimal nonlinear model to determine alpha. In addition, an iteration is also merged into the filtering procedure to suppress the high noise over incoherent areas. The experimental results from synthetic and real data show that the new filter works well under a variety of conditions and offers better and more reliable performance when compared to existing approaches.

  13. Broadband ground motion simulation using a paralleled hybrid approach of Frequency Wavenumber and Finite Difference method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Wei, S.

    2016-12-01

    The serious damage of Mexico City caused by the 1985 Michoacan earthquake 400 km away indicates that urban areas may be affected by remote earthquakes. To asses earthquake risk of urban areas imposed by distant earthquakes, we developed a hybrid Frequency Wavenumber (FK) and Finite Difference (FD) code implemented with MPI, since the computation of seismic wave propagation from a distant earthquake using a single numerical method (e.g. Finite Difference, Finite Element or Spectral Element) is very expensive. In our approach, we compute the incident wave field (ud) at the boundaries of the excitation box, which surrounding the local structure, using a paralleled FK method (Zhu and Rivera, 2002), and compute the total wave field (u) within the excitation box using a parallelled 2D FD method. We apply perfectly matched layer (PML) absorbing condition to the diffracted wave field (u-ud). Compared to previous Generalized Ray Theory and Finite Difference (Wen and Helmberger, 1998), Frequency Wavenumber and Spectral Element (Tong et al., 2014), and Direct Solution Method and Spectral Element hybrid method (Monteiller et al., 2013), our absorbing boundary condition dramatically suppress the numerical noise. The MPI implementation of our method can greatly speed up the calculation. Besides, our hybrid method also has a potential use in high resolution array imaging similar to Tong et al. (2014).

  14. A novel hybrid Neumann expansion method for stochastic analysis of mistuned bladed discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jie; Allegri, Giuliano; Scarpa, Fabrizio; Patsias, Sophoclis; Rajasekaran, Ramesh

    2016-05-01

    The paper presents a novel hybrid method to enhance the computational efficiency of matrix inversions during the stochastic analysis of mistuned bladed disc systems. The method is based on the use of stochastic Neumann expansion in the frequency domain, coupled with a matrix factorization in the neighbourhood of the resonant frequencies. The number of the expansion terms is used as an indicator to select the matrix inversion technique to be used, without introducing any additional computational cost. The proposed method is validated using two case studies, where the dynamics an aero-engine bladed disc is modelled first using a lumped parameter approach and then with high-fidelity finite element analysis. The frequency responses of the blades are evaluated according to different mistuning patterns via stiffness or mass perturbations under the excitation provided by the engine orders. Results from standard matrix factorization methods are used to benchmark the responses obtained from the proposed hybrid method. Unlike classic Neumann expansion methods, the new technique can effectively update the inversion of an uncertain matrix with no convergence problems during Monte Carlo simulations. The novel hybrid method is more computationally efficient than standard techniques, with no accuracy loss.

  15. A hybrid Tabu search-simulated annealing method to solve quadratic assignment problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Amin Kaviani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Quadratic assignment problem (QAP has been considered as one of the most complicated problems. The problem is NP-Hard and the optimal solutions are not available for large-scale problems. This paper presents a hybrid method using tabu search and simulated annealing technique to solve QAP called TABUSA. Using some well-known problems from QAPLIB generated by Burkard et al. (1997 [Burkard, R. E., Karisch, S. E., & Rendl, F. (1997. QAPLIB–a quadratic assignment problem library. Journal of Global Optimization, 10(4, 391-403.], two methods of TABUSA and TS are both coded on MATLAB and they are compared in terms of relative percentage deviation (RPD for all instances. The performance of the proposed method is examined against Tabu search and the preliminary results indicate that the hybrid method is capable of solving real-world problems, efficiently.

  16. An Efficient Hybrid Conjugate Gradient Method with the Strong Wolfe-Powell Line Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Alhawarat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conjugate gradient (CG method is an interesting tool to solve optimization problems in many fields, such as design, economics, physics, and engineering. In this paper, we depict a new hybrid of CG method which relates to the famous Polak-Ribière-Polyak (PRP formula. It reveals a solution for the PRP case which is not globally convergent with the strong Wolfe-Powell (SWP line search. The new formula possesses the sufficient descent condition and the global convergent properties. In addition, we further explained about the cases where PRP method failed with SWP line search. Furthermore, we provide numerical computations for the new hybrid CG method which is almost better than other related PRP formulas in both the number of iterations and the CPU time under some standard test functions.

  17. A Heuristic and Hybrid Method for the Tank Allocation Problem in Maritime Bulk Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Charlotte; Larsen, Jesper; Lusby, Richard Martin

    and strength as well as other operational constraints. The problem of finding a feasible solution to this tank allocation problem has been shown to be NP-Complete. We approach the problem on a tactical level where requirements for computation time are strict while solution quality is less important than simply...... have created a hybrid method that first runs the heuristic and if the heuristic fails to solve the problem, then runs the modified optimality based method on the parts of the problem that the heuristic did not solve. This hybrid method cuts between 90% and 94% of the average running times compared...... finding a feasible solution. We have developed a heuristic that can efficiently find feasible cargo allocations. Computational results show that it can solve 99% of the considered instances within 0.4 seconds and all of them if allowed longer time. We have also modified an optimality based method from...

  18. Hybrid Decomposition Method in Parallel Molecular Dynamics Simulation Based on SMP Cluster Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bing; SHU Jiwu; ZHENG Weimin; WANG Jinzhao; CHEN Min

    2005-01-01

    A hybrid decomposition method for molecular dynamics simulations was presented, using simultaneously spatial decomposition and force decomposition to fit the architecture of a cluster of symmetric multi-processor (SMP) nodes. The method distributes particles between nodes based on the spatial decomposition strategy to reduce inter-node communication costs. The method also partitions particle pairs within each node using the force decomposition strategy to improve the load balance for each node. Simulation results for a nucleation process with 4 000 000 particles show that the hybrid method achieves better parallel performance than either spatial or force decomposition alone, especially when applied to a large scale particle system with non-uniform spatial density.

  19. An Approximate Analytical Method for the Evaluation of the Concentrations and Current for Hybrid Enzyme Biosensor

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of amperometric biosensor with cyclic reaction is discussed. Analytical expressions pertaining to the concentration of substrate, cosubstrate, reducing agent and medial product and current for hybrid enzyme biosensor are obtained in terms of Thiele module and saturation parameters. In this paper, a powerful analytical method, called homotopy analysis method (HAM) is used to solve the system of nonlinear differential equations. Furthermore, in this work the numerical simu...

  20. Grid impedance estimation based hybrid islanding detection method for AC microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghzaiel, Walid; Jebali-Ben Ghorbal, Manel; Slama-Belkhodja, Ilhem;

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on a hybrid islanding detection algorithm for parallel-inverters-based microgrids. The proposed algorithm is implemented on the unit ensuring the control of the intelligent bypass switch connecting or disconnecting the microgrid from the utility. This method employs a grid impe...... that the resonance excitation is canceled and the resistive and inductive grid impedance parts are estimated. Simulation results are carried out to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method....

  1. Hybrid constraint programming and metaheuristic methods for large scale optimization problems

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This work presents hybrid Constraint Programming (CP) and metaheuristic methods for the solution of Large Scale Optimization Problems; it aims at integrating concepts and mechanisms from the metaheuristic methods to a CP-based tree search environment in order to exploit the advantages of both approaches. The modeling and solution of large scale combinatorial optimization problem is a topic which has arisen the interest of many researcherers in the Operations Research field; combinatori...

  2. Method of reliability tolerance design based on EDA technology and its application on DC hybrid contactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shu-juan; SHA You-tao; ZHANG Hui; ZHAI Guo-fu

    2007-01-01

    Tolerance design, including tolerance analysis and distribution, is an important part of the electronic system's reliability design. The traditional design needs to construct mathematic model of material circuit, which involves large amount of workload and lacks of practicability. This paper discusses the basic theory of electronic system's reliability tolerance design and presents a new design method based on EDA (Electronic Design Automatic) software. This method has been validated through the application research on reliability tolerance design of the DC hybrid contactor's control circuit.

  3. Progress on hybrid finite element methods for scattering by bodies of revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jeffery D.; Volakis, John L.

    1992-01-01

    Progress on the development and implementation of hybrid finite element methods for scattering by bodies of revolution are described. It was found that earlier finite element-boundary integral formulations suffered from convergence difficulties when applied to large and thin bodies of revolution. An alternative implementation is described where the finite element method is terminated with an absorbing termination boundary. In addition, an alternative finite element-boundary integral implementation is discussed for improving the convergence of the original code.

  4. Recent Work in Hybrid Radiation Transport Methods with Applications to Commercial Nuclear Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulesza, Joel A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-20

    This talk will begin with an overview of hybrid radiation transport methods followed by a discussion of the author’s work to advance current capabilities. The talk will then describe applications for these methods in commercial nuclear power reactor analyses and techniques for experimental validation. When discussing these analytical and experimental activities, the importance of technical standards such as those created and maintained by ASTM International will be demonstrated.

  5. A HYBRID METHOD FOR AUTOMATIC COUNTING OF MICROORGANISMS IN MICROSCOPIC IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Kalavathi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Microscopic image analysis is an essential process to enable the automatic enumeration and quantitative analysis of microbial images. There are several system are available for numerating microbial growth. Some of the existing method may be inefficient to accurately count the overlapped microorganisms. Therefore, in this paper we proposed an efficient method for automatic segmentation and counting of microorganisms in microscopic images. This method uses a hybrid approach based on morphological operation, active contour model and counting by region labelling process. The colony count value obtained by this proposed method is compared with the manual count and the count value obtained from the existing method

  6. 基于编码控制机制的混杂系统半全局实用镇定%Semi-global Practical Stabilization of Hybrid Systems Based on an Encoded Control Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼旭阳; 叶倩

    2014-01-01

    Robust stabilization of hybrid systems is one of the important research topics in the field of complex control systems. This paper proposes a hybrid control strategy under an encoded control mechanism. It can effectively overcome the limitation in dealing with the problems of local robust stabilizing equilibrium point or invariant set for the traditional continuous feedback control or discontinuous feedback control, and obtain better control effects. We first build a general hybrid system model to describe the closed-loop system of a nonlinear system under the encoded state feedback. Then we carry out the robustness analysis of hybrid control for the nonlinear system based on the inverse Lyapunov theorem, and present a semi-global practical asymptotic stability criterion for the closed-loop hybrid system. Finally, we combine with a classical control problem to illustrate the superiority of the proposed control strategy.%混杂系统的鲁棒镇定是复杂控制系统领域的重要研究课题之一。提出了一种编码机制下的混杂控制策略,它能有效地克服传统连续反馈控制或不连续反馈控制在处理局部鲁棒镇定平衡点或不变集问题中的局限性,获得更好的控制效果。首先针对编码状态反馈,构建了一般的混杂系统模型来描述编码状态反馈作用下非线性系统的闭环系统模型。然后,基于逆Lyapunov 定理开展了非线性系统的混杂控制鲁棒性分析,提出了闭环混杂系统的半全局实用渐近稳定性判据。最后,结合一个经典控制问题来说明所提出控制策略的优越性。

  7. Irrigation method does not affect wild bee pollinators of hybrid sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hillary Sardiñas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation method has the potential to directly or indirectly influence populations of wild bee crop pollinators nesting and foraging in irrigated crop fields. The majority of wild bee species nest in the ground, and their nests may be susceptible to flooding. In addition, their pollination of crops can be influenced by nectar quality and quantity, which are related to water availability. To determine whether different irrigation methods affect crop pollinators, we compared the number of ground-nesting bees nesting and foraging in drip- and furrow-irrigated hybrid sunflower fields in the Sacramento Valley. We found that irrigation method did not impact wild bee nesting rates or foraging bee abundance or bee species richness. These findings suggest that changing from furrow irrigation to drip irrigation to conserve water likely will not alter hybrid sunflower crop pollination.

  8. Uniform convergence and a posteriori error estimation for assumed stress hybrid finite element methods

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Guozhu; Carstensen, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Assumed stress hybrid methods are known to improve the performance of standard displacement-based finite elements and are widely used in computational mechanics. The methods are based on the Hellinger-Reissner variational principle for the displacement and stress variables. This work analyzes two existing 4-node hybrid stress quadrilateral elements due to Pian and Sumihara [Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng, 1984] and due to Xie and Zhou [Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng, 2004], which behave robustly in numerical benchmark tests. For the finite elements, the isoparametric bilinear interpolation is used for the displacement approximation, while different piecewise-independent 5-parameter modes are employed for the stress approximation. We show that the two schemes are free from Poisson-locking, in the sense that the error bound in the a priori estimate is independent of the relevant Lame constant $\\lambda$. We also establish the equivalence of the methods to two assumed enhanced strain schemes. Finally, we derive reliable ...

  9. Empirical evaluation of a practical indoor mobile robot navigation method using hybrid maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özkil, Ali Gürcan; Fan, Zhun; Xiao, Jizhong

    2010-01-01

    This video presents a practical navigation scheme for indoor mobile robots using hybrid maps. The method makes use of metric maps for local navigation and a topological map for global path planning. Metric maps are generated as occupancy grids by a laser range finder to represent local information...... that the method is implemented successfully on physical robot in a hospital environment, which provides a practical solution for indoor navigation........ The navigation scheme based on the hybrid metric-topologica maps saves memory space and is also scalable and adaptable since new local maps can be easily added to the global topology, and the method can be deployed with minimum amount of modification if new areas are to be explored. The video demonstrated...

  10. Computationally efficient double hybrid density functional theory using dual basis methods

    CERN Document Server

    Byrd, Jason N

    2015-01-01

    We examine the application of the recently developed dual basis methods of Head-Gordon and co-workers to double hybrid density functional computations. Using the B2-PLYP, B2GP-PLYP, DSD-BLYP and DSD-PBEP86 density functionals, we assess the performance of dual basis methods for the calculation of conformational energy changes in C$_4$-C$_7$ alkanes and for the S22 set of noncovalent interaction energies. The dual basis methods, combined with resolution-of-the-identity second-order M{\\o}ller-Plesset theory, are shown to give results in excellent agreement with conventional methods at a much reduced computational cost.

  11. Efficient Mooring Line Fatigue Analysis Using a Hybrid Method Time Domain Simulation Scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Niels Hørbye; Voie, Per Erlend Torbergsen; Høgsberg, Jan Becker;

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic analyses of mooring line systems are computationally expensive. Over the last decades an extensive variety of methods to reduce this computational cost have been suggested. One method that has shown promising preliminary results is a hybrid method which combines finite element analysis...... and slow drift motion. The method is tested on a mooring line system of a floating offshore platform. After training a full fatigue analysis is carried out. The results show that the ANN with high precision provides top tension force histories two orders of magnitude faster than a full dynamic analysis...

  12. #JeSuisCharlie: Towards a Multi-Method Study of Hybrid Media Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Sumiala

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article suggests a new methodological model for the study of hybrid media events with global appeal. This model, developed in the project on the 2015 Charlie Hebdo attacks in Paris, was created specifically for researching digital media—and in particular, Twitter. The article is structured as follows. Firstly, the methodological scope is discussed against the theoretical context, e.g. the theory of media events. In the theoretical discussion, special emphasis is given to i disruptive, upsetting, or disintegrative media events and hybrid media events and ii the conditions of today’s heterogeneous and globalised media communication landscape. Secondly, the article introduces a multi-method approach developed for the analysis of hybrid media events. In this model, computational social science—namely, automated content analysis (ACA and social network analytics (SNA—are combined with a qualitative approach—specifically, digital ethnography. The article outlines three key phases for research in which the interplay between quantitative and qualitative approaches is played out. In the first phase, preliminary digital ethnography is applied to provide the outline of the event. In the second phase, quantitative social network analytics are applied to construct the digital field for research. In this phase, it is necessary to map a what is circulating on the websites and b where this circulation takes place. The third and final phase applies a qualitative approach and digital ethnography to provide a more nuanced, in-depth interpretation of what (substance/content is circulating and how this material connects with the ‘where’ in the digital landscape, hence constituting links and connections in the hybrid media landscape. In conclusion, the article reflects on how this multi-method approach contributes to understanding the workings of today’s hybrid media events: how they create and maintain symbolic battles over certain imagined

  13. A Hybrid Numerical Method for Turbulent Mixing Layers. Degree awarded by Case Western Reserve Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, Nicholas J.

    2001-01-01

    A hybrid method has been developed for simulations of compressible turbulent mixing layers. Such mixing layers dominate the flows in exhaust systems of modern day aircraft and also those of hypersonic vehicles currently under development. The method configurations in which a dominant structural feature provides an unsteady mechanism to drive the turbulent development in the mixing layer. The hybrid method uses a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) procedure to calculate wall bounded regions entering a mixing section, and a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) procedure to calculate the mixing dominated regions. A numerical technique was developed to enable the use of the hybrid RANS-LES method on stretched, non-Cartesian grids. Closure for the RANS equations was obtained using the Cebeci-Smith algebraic turbulence model in conjunction with the wall-function approach of Ota and Goldberg. The wall-function approach enabled a continuous computational grid from the RANS regions to the LES region. The LES equations were closed using the Smagorinsky subgrid scale model. The hybrid RANS-LES method is applied to a benchmark compressible mixing layer experiment. Preliminary two dimensional calculations are used to investigate the effects of axial grid density and boundary conditions. Vortex shedding from the base region of a splitter plate separating the upstream flows was observed to eventually transition to turbulence. The location of the transition, however, was much further downstream than indicated by experiments. Actual LES calculations, performed in three spatial directions, also indicated vortex shedding, but the transition to turbulence was found to occur much closer to the beginning of the mixing section. which is in agreement with experimental observations. These calculations demonstrated that LES simulations must be performed in three dimensions. Comparisons of time-averaged axial velocities and turbulence intensities indicated reasonable agreement with experimental

  14. Hybrid design method for air-core solenoid with axial homogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Li; Lee, Sang Jin [Uiduk University, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Suk Jin [Institute for Basic Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    In this paper, a hybrid method is proposed to design an air-core superconducting solenoid system for 6 T axial uniform magnetic field using Niobium Titanium (NbTi) superconducting wire. In order to minimize the volume of conductor, the hybrid optimization method including a linear programming and a nonlinear programming was adopted. The feasible space of solenoid is divided by several grids and the magnetic field at target point is approximated by the sum of magnetic field generated by an ideal current loop at the center of each grid. Using the linear programming, a global optimal current distribution in the feasible space can be indicated by non-zero current grids. Furthermore the clusters of the non-zero current grids also give the information of probable solenoids in the feasible space, such as the number, the shape, and so on. Applying these probable solenoids as the initial model, the final practical configuration of solenoids with integer layers can be obtained by the nonlinear programming. The design result illustrates the efficiency and the flexibility of the hybrid method. And this method can also be used for the magnet design which is required the high homogeneity within several ppm (parts per million)

  15. Autonomous Navigation Motion Control of Mobile Robots using Hybrid System Control Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.M. [Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea); Lim, M.S. [Kyonggi Institute of Technology, Shihung (Korea); Lim, J.H. [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-05-01

    This paper presents a framework of hybrid dynamic control systems for the motion control of wheeled mobile robot systems with nonholonomic constraints. The hybrid control system has the 3-layered hierarchical structure: digital automata for the higher process, mobile robot system for the lower process, and the interface as the interaction process between the continuous dynamics and the discrete dynamics. In the hybrid control architecture of mobile robot, the continuous dynamics of mobile robots are modeled by the switched systems. The abstract model and digital automata for the motion control are developed. In high level, the discrete states are defined by using the sensor-based search windows and the reference motions of a mobile robot in low level are specified in the abstracted motions. The mobile robots can perform both the motion planning and autonomous maneuvering with obstacle avoidance in indoor navigation problem. Simulation and experimental results show that hybrid system approach is an effective method for the autonomous maneuvering in indoor environments. (author). 13 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Development of Intelligent Suits for Disuse Atrophy of Musculoskeletal System Using Hybrid Exercise Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Naoto; Yoshimitsu, Kazuhiro; Matsugaki, Tohru; Narita, Arata; Maeda, Takashi; Inada, Tomohisa; Tagawa, Yoshihiko; Numada, Kiyoshi; Nishi, Tetsuya

    We developed ‘Hybrid exercise’ method that was designed to maintain the musculoskeletal system by using electrically stimulated antagonist muscles to resist volitional contraction of agonist muscles. This approach also produces a minimum of inertial reaction forces and has the advantage that it may minimize the need for external stabilization that is currently necessary during exercise in a weightlessness environment. The purpose of this study was to develop the intelligent suits with virtual reality (VR) system that had function of preventing disuse atrophy of musculoskeletal system using hybrid exercise system. Installing of the hybrid exercise system to the subject became easy by the intelligent suits. VR system realized the sense of sight by computer graphics animation synchronized with subjects' motion, and sense of force induced by electrical stimulation. By using VR system, the management of the exercise accomplishment degree was enabled easily because the device could record the exercise history. Intelligent suits with VR hybrid exercise system might become one of the useful countermeasures for the disuse musculoskeletal system in the space.

  17. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION METHOD FOR BUSINESS PROCESS OF MACHINERY MANUFACTURER BASED ON DEA/AHP HYBRID MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ting; YI Shuping; YANG Yuanzhao

    2007-01-01

    A set of indices for performance evaluation for business processes with multiple inputs and multiple outputs is proposed, which are found in machinery manufacturers. Based on the traditional methods of data envelopment analysis (DEA) and analytical hierarchical process (AHP), a hybrid model called DEA/AHP model is proposed to deal with the evaluation of business process performance. With the proposed method, the DEA is firstly used to develop a pairwise comparison matrix, and then the AHP is applied to evaluate the performance of business process using the pairwise comparison matrix. The significant advantage of this hybrid model is the use of objective data instead of subjective human judgment for performance evaluation. In the case study, a project of business process reengineering (BPR) with a hydraulic machinery manufacturer is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the DEA/AHP model.

  18. A hybrid analysis method for linear dynamic soil-structure interaction in time and frequency domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁海平; 廖振鹏

    2001-01-01

    A hybrid analysis method in time and frequency domains for linear soil-structure interaction is presented. First, the time domain solution of the system with Rayleigh damping excited by a short time impulse is obtained by the decoupling numerical simulation technique of near-field wave motion. Then, the corresponding frequency domain solution can be got by Fourier transform. According to the relationship between damping value and dynamic re-sponse of a system, the solution of the system with complex damping can be got by Taylor expansion. The hybrid method makes the best of decoupling and explicit algorithm in time domain, and increases the calculation efficien-cy for linear soil-structure interaction analysis.

  19. Multiscale modeling of rapid granular flow with a hybrid discrete-continuum method

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xizhong; Li, Jinghai

    2015-01-01

    Both discrete and continuum models have been widely used to study rapid granular flow, discrete model is accurate but computationally expensive, whereas continuum model is computationally efficient but its accuracy is doubtful in many situations. Here we propose a hybrid discrete-continuum method to profit from the merits but discard the drawbacks of both discrete and continuum models. Continuum model is used in the regions where it is valid and discrete model is used in the regions where continuum description fails, they are coupled via dynamical exchange of parameters in the overlap regions. Simulation of granular channel flow demonstrates that the proposed hybrid discrete-continuum method is nearly as accurate as discrete model, with much less computational cost.

  20. SVC Planning in Large–scale Power Systems via a Hybrid Optimization Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Guang ya; Majumder, Rajat; Xu, Zhao

    2009-01-01

    The research on allocation of FACTS devices has attracted quite a lot interests from various aspects. In this paper, a hybrid model is proposed to optimise the number, location as well as the parameter settings of static Var compensator (SVC) deployed in large–scale power systems. The model utili...... a candidate solution pool. Then in the second stage, the candidates are presented to a linear planning model to investigate the system optimal loadability, hence the optimal solution for SVC planning can be achieved. The method is presented to IEEE 300–bus system....... utilises the result of vulnerability assessment for determining the candidate locations. A hybrid optimisation method including two stages is proposed to find out the optimal solution of SVC in large– scale planning problem. In the first stage, a conventional genetic algorithm (GA) is exploited to generate...

  1. Paraxial Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin method applied to the lower hybrid wave propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertelli, N.; Phillips, C. K.; Valeo, E.; Wilson, J. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Maj, O.; Poli, E. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748, Garching (Germany); Harvey, R. [CompX, Del Mar, California 92014 (United States); Wright, J. C.; Bonoli, P. T. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Smirnov, A. P. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-08-15

    The paraxial Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (pWKB) approximation, also called beam tracing method, has been employed in order to study the propagation of lower hybrid waves in a tokamak plasma. Analogous to the well-know ray tracing method, this approach reduces Maxwell's equations to a set of ordinary differential equations, while, in addition, retains the effects of the finite beam cross-section, and, thus, the effects of diffraction. A new code, LHBEAM (lower hybrid BEAM tracing), is presented, which solves the pWKB equations in tokamak geometry for arbitrary launching conditions and for analytic and experimental plasma equilibria. In addition, LHBEAM includes linear electron Landau damping for the evaluation of the absorbed power density and the reconstruction of the wave electric field in both the physical and Fourier space. Illustrative LHBEAM calculations are presented along with a comparison with the ray tracing code GENRAY and the full wave solver TORIC-LH.

  2. Optimal design of structures for earthquake loads by a hybrid RBF-BPSO method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eysa Salajegheh; Saeed Gholizadeh; Mohsen Khatibina

    2008-01-01

    The optimal seismic design of structures requires that time history analyses (THA) be carried out repeatedly. This makes the optimal design process inefficient, in particular, if an evolutionary algorithm is used. To reduce the overall time required for structural optimization, two artificial intelligence strategies are employed. In the first strategy, radial basis function (RBF) neural networks are used to predict the time history responses of structures in the optimization flow. In the second strategy, a binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO) is used to find the optimum design. Combining the RBF and BPSO, a hybrid RBF-BPSO optimization method is proposed in this paper, which achieves fast optimization with high computational performance. Two examples are presented and compared to determine the optimal weight of structures under earthquake loadings using both exact and approximate analyses. The numerical results demonstrate the computational advantages and effectiveness of the proposed hybrid RBF-BPSO optimization method for the seismic design of structures.

  3. Screening methods for linear-scaling short-range hybrid calculations on CPU and GPU architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuerle, Matthias; Kussmann, Jörg; Ochsenfeld, Christian

    2017-04-01

    We present screening schemes that allow for efficient, linear-scaling short-range exchange calculations employing Gaussian basis sets for both CPU and GPU architectures. They are based on the LinK [C. Ochsenfeld et al., J. Chem. Phys. 109, 1663 (1998)] and PreLinK [J. Kussmann and C. Ochsenfeld, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 134114 (2013)] methods, but account for the decay introduced by the attenuated Coulomb operator in short-range hybrid density functionals. Furthermore, we discuss the implementation of short-range electron repulsion integrals on GPUs. The introduction of our screening methods allows for speedups of up to a factor 7.8 as compared to the underlying linear-scaling algorithm, while retaining full numerical control over the accuracy. With the increasing number of short-range hybrid functionals, our new schemes will allow for significant computational savings on CPU and GPU architectures.

  4. Extended Mixture of MLP Experts by Hybrid of Conjugate Gradient Method and Modified Cuckoo Search

    CERN Document Server

    Salimi, Hamid; Soltanshahi, Mohammad Ali; Hatami, Javad

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates a new method for improving the learning algorithm of Mixture of Experts (ME) model using a hybrid of Modified Cuckoo Search (MCS) and Conjugate Gradient (CG) as a second order optimization technique. The CG technique is combined with Back-Propagation (BP) algorithm to yield a much more efficient learning algorithm for ME structure. In addition, the experts and gating networks in enhanced model are replaced by CG based Multi-Layer Perceptrons (MLPs) to provide faster and more accurate learning. The CG is considerably depends on initial weights of connections of Artificial Neural Network (ANN), so, a metaheuristic algorithm, the so-called Modified Cuckoo Search is applied in order to select the optimal weights. The performance of proposed method is compared with Gradient Decent Based ME (GDME) and Conjugate Gradient Based ME (CGME) in classification and regression problems. The experimental results show that hybrid MSC and CG based ME (MCS-CGME) has faster convergence and better performa...

  5. New Method of Selecting Efficient Project Portfolios in the Presence of Hybrid Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Rębiasz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new methods of selecting efficient project portfolios in the presence of hybrid uncertainty has been presented. Pareto optimal solutions have been defined by an algorithm for generating project portfolios. The method presented allows us to select efficient project portfolios taking into account statistical and economic dependencies between projects when some of the parameters used in the calculation of effectiveness can be expressed in the form of an interactive possibility distribution and some in the form of a probability distribution. The procedure for processing such hybrid data combines stochastic simulation with nonlinear programming. The interaction between data are modeled by correlation matrices and the interval regression. Economic dependences are taken into account by the equations balancing the production capacity of the company. The practical example presented indicates that an interaction between projects has a significant impact on the results of calculations. (original abstract

  6. A hybrid time-domain discontinuous galerkin-boundary integral method for electromagnetic scattering analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ping

    2014-05-01

    A scheme hybridizing discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) and time-domain boundary integral (TDBI) methods for accurately analyzing transient electromagnetic scattering is proposed. Radiation condition is enforced using the numerical flux on the truncation boundary. The fields required by the flux are computed using the TDBI from equivalent currents introduced on a Huygens\\' surface enclosing the scatterer. The hybrid DGTDBI ensures that the radiation condition is mathematically exact and the resulting computation domain is as small as possible since the truncation boundary conforms to scatterer\\'s shape and is located very close to its surface. Locally truncated domains can also be defined around each disconnected scatterer additionally reducing the size of the overall computation domain. Numerical examples demonstrating the accuracy and versatility of the proposed method are presented. © 2014 IEEE.

  7. New hybrid frequency reuse method for packet loss minimization in LTE network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nora A; El-Dakroury, Mohamed A; El-Soudani, Magdi; ElSayed, Hany M; Daoud, Ramez M; Amer, Hassanein H

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates the problem of inter-cell interference (ICI) in Long Term Evolution (LTE) mobile systems, which is one of the main problems that causes loss of packets between the base station and the mobile station. Recently, different frequency reuse methods, such as soft and fractional frequency reuse, have been introduced in order to mitigate this type of interference. In this paper, minimizing the packet loss between the base station and the mobile station is the main concern. Soft Frequency Reuse (SFR), which is the most popular frequency reuse method, is examined and the amount of packet loss is measured. In order to reduce packet loss, a new hybrid frequency reuse method is implemented. In this method, each cell occupies the same bandwidth of the SFR, but the total system bandwidth is greater than in SFR. This will provide the new method with a lot of new sub-carriers from the neighboring cells to reduce the ICI which represents a big problem in many applications and causes a lot of packets loss. It is found that the new hybrid frequency reuse method has noticeable improvement in the amount of packet loss compared to SFR method in the different frequency bands. Traffic congestion management in Intelligent Transportation system (ITS) is one of the important applications that is affected by the packet loss due to the large amount of traffic that is exchanged between the base station and the mobile node. Therefore, it is used as a studied application for the proposed frequency reuse method and the improvement in the amount of packet loss reached 49.4% in some frequency bands using the new hybrid frequency reuse method.

  8. Hybrid method to resolve the neutrino mass hierarchy by supernova (anti)neutrino induced reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Vale, D; Paar, N

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a hybrid method to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy by simultaneous measurements of responses of at least two detectors to antineutrino and neutrino fluxes from accretion and cooling phases of core-collapse supernovae. The (anti)neutrino-nucleus cross sections for $^{56}$Fe and $^{208}$Pb are calculated in the framework of the relativistic nuclear energy density functional and weak interaction Hamiltonian, while the cross sections for inelastic scattering on free protons $\\mathrm{p}(\\bar{\

  9. Stability analysis for impulsive fractional hybrid systems via variational Lyapunov method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; He, Yong; Wang, Yong; Wu, Min

    2017-04-01

    This paper investigates the stability properties for a class of impulsive Caputo fractional-order hybrid systems with impulse effects at fixed moments. By utilizing the variational Lyapunov method, a fractional variational comparison principle is established. Some stability and instability criteria in terms of two measures are obtained. These results generalize the known ones, extending the corresponding theory of impulsive fractional differential systems. An example is given to demonstrate their effectiveness.

  10. A Simple Method for Forming Hybrid Core-Shell Nanoparticles Suspended in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Daigle

    2008-01-01

    addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT polymerization as dispersant. Then, the resulting dispersion is engaged in a radical emulsion polymerization process whereby a hydrophobic organic monomer (styrene and butyl acrylate is polymerized to form the shell of the hybrid nanoparticle. This method is extremely versatile, allowing the preparation of a variety of nanocomposites with metal oxides (alumina, rutile, anatase, barium titanate, zirconia, copper oxide, metals (Mo, Zn, and even inorganic nitrides (Si3N4.

  11. A new method for identification of Trichomonas vaginalis by fluorescent DNA in situ hybridization.

    OpenAIRE

    Muresu, R; Rubino, S.; Rizzu, P.; Baldini, A.; Colombo, M; Cappuccinelli, P.

    1994-01-01

    The protozoan flagellate Trichomonas vaginalis is responsible for human trichomoniasis, one of the most widespread sexually transmitted diseases in the world. Several methods are currently used for laboratory diagnosis, including direct microscopic observation, cell culture, immunological techniques, and more recently, DNA probing and gene amplification. This report describes an in situ hybridization technique with specific DNA probes labeled with either biotin, rhodamine, or fluorescein for ...

  12. Hybrid Method for Inverse Electromagnetic Coil Optimization Using Multi-transition and Hopfield Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Takeyoshi; Cingoski, Vlatko; Kaneda, Kazufumi; Yamashita, Hideo

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, a hybrid method for inverse optimization of electromagnetic coils utilizing the multi-transition neural network and the Hopfield neural network is proposed. Due to the discrete character of the neural network, an optimization problem is transformed into a discrete problem through the division of the entire coil area into elemental coils with constant current density. The minimization of the objective function is performed by the multi-transition neural network and the Hopfield ...

  13. Acoustic characterization of seafloor sediment employing a hybrid method of neural network architecture and fuzzy algorithm

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    De, C.; Chakraborty, B.

    IEEE GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING LETTERS, VOL. 6, NO. 4, OCTOBER 2009 743 Acoustic Characterization of Seafloor Sediment Employing a Hybrid Method of Neural Network Architecture and Fuzzy Algorithm Chanchal De and Bishwajit Chakraborty Abstract... backscatter data [11]–[13] and side-scan sonar images [14]–[16] have been demonstrated for seafloor classification. In this letter, seafloor sediment is characterized using an unsupervised architecture called Kohonen’s self-organizing Manuscript received...

  14. A microsatellite-based method for genotyping diploid and triploid water frogs of the Rana esculenta hybrid complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ditte Guldager

    2005-01-01

    Rana esculenta is a hybrid between Rana lessonae (LL) and Rana ridibunda (RR), and hybrids may be diploid (LR) or triploid (LLR or LRR). Genotypes can be roughly determined from erythrocyte size and morphometry in adult frogs, but accurate genotyping requires more labourious methods. Here I...

  15. A hybrid passive localization method under strong interference with a preliminary experimental demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Bo; Yang, Yixin; Yang, Kunde; Wang, Yong; Shi, Yang

    2016-12-01

    Strong interference exists in many passive localization problems and may lead to the inefficacy of traditional localization methods. In this study, a hybrid passive localization method is proposed to address strong interference. This method combines generalized cross-correlation and interference cancellation for time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA) measurement, followed by a time-delay-based iterative localization method. The proposed method is applied to a preliminary experiment using three hydrophones. The TDOAs estimated by the proposed method are compared with those obtained by the particle filtering method. Results show that the positions are in agreement when the TDOAs are accurately obtained. Furthermore, the proposed method is more capable of localization in the presence of a strong moving jamming source.

  16. Extraction of handwritten areas from colored image of bank checks by an hybrid method

    CERN Document Server

    Haboubi, Sofiene

    2011-01-01

    One of the first step in the realization of an automatic system of check recognition is the extraction of the handwritten area. We propose in this paper an hybrid method to extract these areas. This method is based on digit recognition by Fourier descriptors and different steps of colored image processing . It requires the bank recognition of its code which is located in the check marking band as well as the handwritten color recognition by the method of difference of histograms. The areas extraction is then carried out by the use of some mathematical morphology tools.

  17. An hybrid finite volume finite element method for variable density incompressible flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calgaro, Caterina; Creusé, Emmanuel; Goudon, Thierry

    2008-04-01

    This paper is devoted to the numerical simulation of variable density incompressible flows, modeled by the Navier-Stokes system. We introduce an hybrid scheme which combines a finite volume approach for treating the mass conservation equation and a finite element method to deal with the momentum equation and the divergence free constraint. The breakthrough relies on the definition of a suitable footbridge between the two methods, through the design of compatibility condition. In turn, the method is very flexible and allows to deal with unstructured meshes. Several numerical tests are performed to show the scheme capabilities. In particular, the viscous Rayleigh-Taylor instability evolution is carefully investigated.

  18. PHOTOPROBER® Biotin: An Alternative Method for Labeling Archival DNA for Comparative Genomic Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Korinth

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH represents a powerful method for screening the entire genome of solid tumors for chromosomal imbalances. Particularly it enabled the molecular cytogenetic analysis of archival, formalin‐fixed, paraffin‐embedded (FFPE tissue. A well‐known dilemma, however, is the poor DNA quality of this material with fragment sizes below 1000 bp. Nick translation, the conventionally used enzymatic DNA labeling method in CGH, leads to even shorter fragments often below a critical limit for successful analysis. In this study we report the alternative application of non‐enzymatic, PHOTOPROBE® biotin labeling for conjugation of the hapten to the DNA prior to in situ hybridization and fluorescence detection. We analyzed 51 FFPE tumor samples mainly from the upper respiratory tract by both labeling methods. In 19 cases, both approaches were successful. The comparison of hybridized metaphases showed a distinct higher fluorescence signal of the PHOTOPROBE® samples sometimes with a discrete cytoplasm background which however did not interfere with specificity and sensitivity of the detected chromosomal imbalances. For further 32 cases characterized by an average DNA fragment size below 1000 bp, PHOTOPROBE® biotin was the only successful labeling technique thus offering a new option for CGH analysis of highly degraded DNA from archival material.

  19. A hybrid fuzzy weight of evidence method in landslide susceptibility analysis on the Wuyuan area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Haoyuan; Ilia, Ioanna; Tsangaratos, Paraskevas; Chen, Wei; Xu, Chong

    2017-08-01

    The present study proposed a hybrid fuzzy weight of evidence model for constructing a landslide susceptibility map in the Wuyuan area, China, where disastrous landslide events have occurred. The model combines the knowledge of experts obtained through a fuzzy logic approach and a hybrid weight of evidence method. The estimated knowledge-based fuzzy membership value of each environmental variable is combined with data-based conditional probabilities to derive fuzzy posterior probabilities and landslide susceptibility. The developed model was compared with a landslide susceptibility map produced using the data-driven weight of evidence method, based on 510 landslide and non-landslide sites. The sites were identified by analyzing airborne imagery, field investigation and previous studies. Landside susceptibility for these sites was analyzed using 10 geo-environmental variables: slope, aspect, lithology, soil, rainfall, plan curvature, the normalized difference vegetation index, distance to roads, distance to rivers and distance to faults. The resultant hybrid fuzzy weight of evidence method showed high predictive power, with the area under the success and predictive curves being 0.770 and 0.746, respectively. Additional analyses showed that the developed model could work effectively even with limited data.

  20. Higher-order brick-tetrahedron hybrid method for Maxwell's equations in time domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winges, Johan; Rylander, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    We present a higher-order brick-tetrahedron hybrid method for Maxwell's equations in time domain. Brick-shaped elements are used for large homogeneous parts of the computational domain, where we exploit mass-lumping and explicit time-stepping. In regions with complex geometry, we use an unstructured mesh of tetrahedrons that share an interface with the brick-shaped elements and, at the interface, tangential continuity of the electric field is imposed in the weak sense by means of Nitsche's method. Implicit time-stepping is used for the tetrahedrons together with the interface. For cavity resonators, the hybrid method reproduces the lowest non-zero eigenvalues with correct multiplicity and, for geometries without field singularities from sharp corners or edges, the numerical eigenvalues converge towards the analytical result with an error that is approximately proportional to h2p, where h is the cell size and p is the polynomial order of the elements. For a rectangular waveguide, a layer of tetrahedrons embedded in a grid of brick-shaped elements yields a low reflection coefficient that scales approximately as h2p. Finally, we demonstrate hybrid time-stepping for a lossless closed cavity resonator, where the time-domain response is computed for 300,000 time steps without any signs of instabilities.

  1. A Hybrid Maximum Power Point Tracking Method for Automobile Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Rui; Zhou, Wei; Yang, Guangyou; Quan, Shuhai

    2016-08-01

    To make full use of the maximum output power of automobile exhaust thermoelectric generator (AETEG) based on Bi2Te3 thermoelectric modules (TEMs), taking into account the advantages and disadvantages of existing maximum power point tracking methods, and according to the output characteristics of TEMs, a hybrid maximum power point tracking method combining perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm, quadratic interpolation and constant voltage tracking method was put forward in this paper. Firstly, it searched the maximum power point with P&O algorithms and a quadratic interpolation method, then, it forced the AETEG to work at its maximum power point with constant voltage tracking. A synchronous buck converter and controller were implemented in the electric bus of the AETEG applied in a military sports utility vehicle, and the whole system was modeled and simulated with a MATLAB/Simulink environment. Simulation results demonstrate that the maximum output power of the AETEG based on the proposed hybrid method is increased by about 3.0% and 3.7% compared with that using only the P&O algorithm and the quadratic interpolation method, respectively. The shorter tracking time is only 1.4 s, which is reduced by half compared with that of the P&O algorithm and quadratic interpolation method, respectively. The experimental results demonstrate that the tracked maximum power is approximately equal to the real value using the proposed hybrid method,and it can preferentially deal with the voltage fluctuation of the AETEG with only P&O algorithm, and resolve the issue that its working point can barely be adjusted only with constant voltage tracking when the operation conditions change.

  2. A Hybrid Maximum Power Point Tracking Method for Automobile Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Rui; Zhou, Wei; Yang, Guangyou; Quan, Shuhai

    2017-05-01

    To make full use of the maximum output power of automobile exhaust thermoelectric generator (AETEG) based on Bi2Te3 thermoelectric modules (TEMs), taking into account the advantages and disadvantages of existing maximum power point tracking methods, and according to the output characteristics of TEMs, a hybrid maximum power point tracking method combining perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm, quadratic interpolation and constant voltage tracking method was put forward in this paper. Firstly, it searched the maximum power point with P&O algorithms and a quadratic interpolation method, then, it forced the AETEG to work at its maximum power point with constant voltage tracking. A synchronous buck converter and controller were implemented in the electric bus of the AETEG applied in a military sports utility vehicle, and the whole system was modeled and simulated with a MATLAB/Simulink environment. Simulation results demonstrate that the maximum output power of the AETEG based on the proposed hybrid method is increased by about 3.0% and 3.7% compared with that using only the P&O algorithm and the quadratic interpolation method, respectively. The shorter tracking time is only 1.4 s, which is reduced by half compared with that of the P&O algorithm and quadratic interpolation method, respectively. The experimental results demonstrate that the tracked maximum power is approximately equal to the real value using the proposed hybrid method,and it can preferentially deal with the voltage fluctuation of the AETEG with only P&O algorithm, and resolve the issue that its working point can barely be adjusted only with constant voltage tracking when the operation conditions change.

  3. Time-domain hybrid method for simulating large amplitude motions of ships advancing in waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukui Liu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Typical results obtained by a newly developed, nonlinear time domain hybrid method for simulating large amplitude motions of ships advancing with constant forward speed in waves are presented. The method is hybrid in the way of combining a time-domain transient Green function method and a Rankine source method. The present approach employs a simple double integration algorithm with respect to time to simulate the free-surface boundary condition. During the simulation, the diffraction and radiation forces are computed by pressure integration over the mean wetted surface, whereas the incident wave and hydrostatic restoring forces/moments are calculated on the instantaneously wetted surface of the hull. Typical numerical results of application of the method to the seakeeping performance of a standard containership, namely the ITTC S175, are herein presented. Comparisons have been made between the results from the present method, the frequency domain 3D panel method (NEWDRIFT of NTUA-SDL and available experimental data and good agreement has been observed for all studied cases between the results of the present method and comparable other data.

  4. Development of a Multiplex PCR Method for Detection of the Genes Encoding 16S rRNA, Coagulase, Methicillin Resistance and Enterotoxins in Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multiplex PCR method was developed for simultaneous detection of the genes encoding methicillin resistance (mecA), staphylococcal enterotoxins A, B and C (sea, seb and sec), coagulase (coa) and 16S rRNA. The primers for amplification of the 16S rRNA gene were specific for Staphylococcus spp., and ...

  5. Detection of biomarkers for Hepatocellular Carcinoma using a hybrid univariate gene selection methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Samee Nagwan M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Discovering new biomarkers has a great role in improving early diagnosis of Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The experimental determination of biomarkers needs a lot of time and money. This motivates this work to use in-silico prediction of biomarkers to reduce the number of experiments required for detecting new ones. This is achieved by extracting the most representative genes in microarrays of HCC. Results In this work, we provide a method for extracting the differential expressed genes, up regulated ones, that can be considered candidate biomarkers in high throughput microarrays of HCC. We examine the power of several gene selection methods (such as Pearson’s correlation coefficient, Cosine coefficient, Euclidean distance, Mutual information and Entropy with different estimators in selecting informative genes. A biological interpretation of the highly ranked genes is done using KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways, ENTREZ and DAVID (Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery databases. The top ten genes selected using Pearson’s correlation coefficient and Cosine coefficient contained six genes that have been implicated in cancer (often multiple cancers genesis in previous studies. A fewer number of genes were obtained by the other methods (4 genes using Mutual information, 3genes using Euclidean distance and only one gene using Entropy. A better result was obtained by the utilization of a hybrid approach based on intersecting the highly ranked genes in the output of all investigated methods. This hybrid combination yielded seven genes (2 genes for HCC and 5 genes in different types of cancer in the top ten genes of the list of intersected genes. Conclusions To strengthen the effectiveness of the univariate selection methods, we propose a hybrid approach by intersecting several of these methods in a cascaded manner. This approach surpasses all of univariate selection methods when

  6. COARSE-MESH-ACCURACY IMPROVEMENT OF BILINEAR Q4-PLANE ELEMENT BY THE COMBINED HYBRID FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢小平; 周天孝

    2003-01-01

    The combined hybrid finite element method is of an intrinsic mechanism of enhancing coarse-mesh-accuracy of lower order displacement schemes. It was confirmed that the combined hybrid scheme without energy error leads to enhancement of accuracy at coarse meshes, and that the combination parameter plays an important role in the enhancement. As an improvement of conforming bilinear Q4-plane element, the combined hybrid method adopted the most convenient quadrilateral displacements-stress mode, i. e.,the mode of compatible isoparametric bilinear displacements and pure constant stresses. By adjusting the combined parameter, the optimized version of the combined hybrid element was obtained and numerical tests indicated that this parameter-adjusted version behaves much better than Q4-element and is of high accuracy at coarse meshes. Due to elimination of stress parameters at the elemental level, this combined hybrid version is of the same computational cost as that of Q4 -element.

  7. Systematic hybrid LOH: a new method to reduce false positives and negatives during screening of yeast gene deletion libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvaro, D.; Sunjevaric, I.; Reid, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a new method, systematic hybrid loss of heterozygosity, to facilitate genomic screens utilizing the yeast gene deletion library. Screening is performed using hybrid diploid strains produced through mating the library haploids with strains from a different genetic background...... mating a library gene deletion haploid to such a conditional centromere strain, which corresponds to the chromosome carrying the gene deletion, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the gene deletion locus can be generated in these otherwise hybrid diploids. The use of hybrid diploid strains permits...... complementation of any spurious recessive mutations in the library strain, facilitating attribution of the observed phenotype to the documented gene deletion and dramatically reducing false positive results commonly obtained in library screens. The systematic hybrid LOH method can be applied to virtually any...

  8. A robust method for handling low density regions in hybrid simulations for collisionless plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Takanobu, E-mail: amano@eps.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Higashimori, Katsuaki; Shirakawa, Keisuke

    2014-10-15

    A robust method to handle vacuum and near vacuum regions in hybrid simulations for space and astrophysical plasmas is presented. The conventional hybrid simulation model dealing with kinetic ions and a massless charge-neutralizing electron fluid is known to be susceptible to numerical instability due to divergence of the whistler-mode wave dispersion, as well as division-by-density operation in regions of low density. Consequently, a pure vacuum region is not allowed to exist in the simulation domain unless some ad hoc technique is used. To resolve this difficulty, an alternative way to introduce finite electron inertia effect is proposed. Contrary to the conventional method, the proposed one introduces a correction to the electric field rather than the magnetic field. It is shown that the generalized Ohm's law correctly reduces to Laplace's equation in a vacuum which therefore does not involve any numerical problems. In addition, a variable ion-to-electron mass ratio is introduced to reduce the phase velocity of high frequency whistler waves at low density regions so that the stability condition is always satisfied. It is demonstrated that the proposed model is able to handle near vacuum regions generated as a result of nonlinear self-consistent development of the system, as well as pure vacuum regions set up at the initial condition, without losing the advantages of the standard hybrid code.

  9. Dynamic response evaluation of sensorless MPPT method for hybrid PV-DFIG wind turbine system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danvu Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research proposes a sensorless Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT method for a hybrid Photovoltaic-Wind system, which consists of Photovoltaic (PV system and Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG Wind Turbine. In the hybrid system, the DC/DC converter output of the PV system is directly connected to the DC-link of DFIG’s back-to-back converter. Therefore, the PV inverter and its associated circuit can be removed in this structure. Typically, the PV power is monitored by using PV current sensor and PV voltage sensor for MPPT. In this paper, the powers of converters on grid side and rotor side of DFIG are used to estimate the PV power without the PV current sensor. That can efficiently reduce the cost of the hybrid system. The detailed analysis of the sensorless MPPT method, which includes derived equations and operation response, is also presented in this paper. In addition, an overview of PV-DFIG research in literature is stated to supply comprehensive knowledge of related research.

  10. Gravity Search Algorithm hybridized Recursive Least Square method for power system harmonic estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Singh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new hybrid method based on Gravity Search Algorithm (GSA and Recursive Least Square (RLS, known as GSA-RLS, to solve the harmonic estimation problems in the case of time varying power signals in presence of different noises. GSA is based on the Newton’s law of gravity and mass interactions. In the proposed method, the searcher agents are a collection of masses that interact with each other using Newton’s laws of gravity and motion. The basic GSA algorithm strategy is combined with RLS algorithm sequentially in an adaptive way to update the unknown parameters (weights of the harmonic signal. Simulation and practical validation are made with the experimentation of the proposed algorithm with real time data obtained from a heavy paper industry. A comparative performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated with other recently reported algorithms like, Differential Evolution (DE, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO, Bacteria Foraging Optimization (BFO, Fuzzy-BFO (F-BFO hybridized with Least Square (LS and BFO hybridized with RLS algorithm, which reveals that the proposed GSA-RLS algorithm is the best in terms of accuracy, convergence and computational time.

  11. A hybrid SPH/N-body method for star cluster simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Hubber, D A; Smith, R; Goodwin, S P

    2013-01-01

    We present a new hybrid Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH)/N-body method for modelling the collisional stellar dynamics of young clusters in a live gas background. By deriving the equations of motion from Lagrangian mechanics we obtain a formally conservative combined SPH/N-body scheme. The SPH gas particles are integrated with a 2nd order Leapfrog, and the stars with a 4th order Hermite scheme. Our new approach is intended to bridge the divide between the detailed, but expensive, full hydrodynamical simulations of star formation, and pure N-body simulations of gas-free star clusters. We have implemented this hybrid approach in the SPH code SEREN (Hubber et al. 2011) and perform a series of simple tests to demonstrate the fidelity of the algorithm and its conservation properties. We investigate and present resolution criteria to adequately resolve the density field and to prevent strong numerical scattering effects. Future developments will include a more sophisticated treatment of binaries.

  12. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of organic/silicon nanowire hybrid solar cells by solution-evacuated method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Li; Zou, Xian-Shao; Zhang, Bin; Dong, Jun; Niu, Qiao-Li; Yin, Yi-An; Zhang, Yong

    2014-06-01

    A method has been developed to fabricate organic-inorganic hybrid heterojunction solar cells based on n-type silicon nanowire (SiNW) and poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly (styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) hybrid structures by evacuating the PEDOT:PSS solution with dip-dropping on the top of SiNWs before spin-coating (solution-evacuating). The coverage and contact interface between PEDOT:PSS and SiNW arrays can be dramatically enhanced by optimizing the solution-evacuated time. The maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) reaches 9.22% for a solution-evacuated time of 2 min compared with 5.17% for the untreated pristine device. The improvement photovoltaic performance is mainly attributed to better organic coverage and contact with an n-type SiNW surface.

  13. Study of Double Strangeness Nuclei by an Emulsion-Scintillating fiber Hybrid Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, K.

    1995-02-01

    In the emulsion-counter hybrid experiment of KEK-E176, we have analyzed one light double-Λ hypernucleus, at least three heavy double-Λ hypernuclei and two events emitting a sigle-Λ hypernuclei pair found in the sample of ≈80 events of Ξ- capture at rest. Based on this experiment, we have proposed an experiment to study double strangeness nuclei with ten times more events than the E176, ie. 10 3Ξ- stop events. This proposed experiment will clear the uncertainty given by the E176 with use of a new emulsion counter hybrid method, where a laser microscope works for 3D graphic processing in emulsion analysis, scintillating fiber blocks detect decay products of strange particles and a glass capillary tracker filled with liquid scintillator gives precise predictions of Ξ- particle's angle aand position.

  14. Label-free DNA hybridization detection by various spectroscopy methods using triphenylmethane dyes as a probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jiaojiao; Cai, Changqun; Ma, Ying; Luo, Lin; Weng, Chao; Chen, Xiaoming

    2012-12-01

    A new assay is developed for direct detection of DNA hybridization using triphenylmethane dye as a probe. It is based on various spectroscopic methods including resonance light scattering (RLS), circular dichroism (CD), ultraviolet spectra and fluorescence spectra, as well as atomic force microscopy (AFM), six triphenylmethane dyes interact with double strand DNA (dsDNA) and single strand DNA (ssDNA) were investigated, respectively. The interaction results in amplified resonance light scattering signals and enables the detection of hybridization without the need for labeling DNA. Mechanism investigations have shown that groove binding occurs between dsDNA and these triphenylmethane dyes, which depends on G-C sequences of dsDNA and the molecular volumes of triphenylmethane dyes. Our present approaches display the advantages of simple and fast, accurate and reliable, and the artificial samples were determined with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Immobilization of Biocatalysts and Cells on Hybrid Membranes Syntheses on Sol-gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yotova L.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigations in the area of enzyme action in the living organisms give us the opportunity for applications of these biochemical catalysts in the different purposes of medicine, industry and analytical practice. Using of soluble enzymes is connected with many difficulties, because the enzymes are no regenerative and they are instability. By immobilization of the enzymes on to different carriers the more of these problems are overcome. The application of soluble enzymes caused many difficulties, by the reason that the enzymes can not be regenerated. The immobilization of the enzymes by means of different reagents and carriers overcomes this problem. The aim of this study to develop a sol-gel method of synthesis of new hybrid membrane, with immobilized biocatalysts (microbial cells and enzymes for biosensor construction. This study shows that hybrid organic-inorganic membranes were synthesized.

  16. Effect of hybrid oxidation on the titanium oxide layer's properties investigated by spectroscopic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, J. J.; Kurpaska, L.; Lubas, M.; Lesniak, M.; Jasinski, J.; Sitarz, M.

    2016-12-01

    In this work the study of hybrid Ti Grade 2 during oxidation using FADT - fluidized bed atmospheric diffusive treatment and PVD - magnetron sputtering have been investigated. Additionally, the influence of the oxidation method on the change in the mechanism of oxygen transport to the substrate have been discussed (phenomenon responsible for the improvement of bioactivity). Presented method consists in forming the titanium surface layer saturated with oxygen due to the diffusion and deposition of a thin homogeneous oxide coating on the Ti surface. Discussed processes diminish the surface roughness and increase bio-compatibility of the surface, which results in easier hydroxyapatite cluster deposition. The diffusion process was conducted on Al2O3 fluidized bed, with air as the fluidizing factor at 913 K for 8 h. The deposition of the oxide coatings were carried out with magnetron sputtering, with the use of a TiO2 target at a pressure of 3 × 10-2 mbars and power of 350 W. To evaluate the effects of hybrid oxidation and to determine the mechanism of oxygen transport, the following research methods have been applied: spectroscopy (GDOS, SIMS, RS), microscopic methods (SEM-EDS, SEM-EBSD, TEM-EFTEM), X-ray tests (μ-XRD, GID). Obtained test results were used to identify the type of oxide coatings, to assess the thickness of the layers and to study the influence of crystallographic orientation on oxygen transport and concentration in the surface layer and in the oxide coating. It has been found that the formation of oxide coatings created by using the hybrid method (FADT + PVD leads to a change in oxygen concentration in the substrate due to introduced defects. This phenomenon is in opposition to the conventional methods such as: electrochemical or laser oxidation. In contrast, forming a tight homogeneous oxide coating on Ti surface improves the biocompatibility, which is particularly important in the context of biomedical applications.

  17. Discrimination of Maize Haploid Seeds from Hybrid Seeds Using Vis Spectroscopy and Support Vector Machine Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin; Guo, Ting-ting; Li, Hao-chuan; Jia, Shi-qiang; Yan, Yan-lu; An, Dong; Zhang, Yao; Chen, Shao-jiang

    2015-11-01

    Doubled haploid (DH) lines are routinely applied in the hybrid maize breeding programs of many institutes and companies for their advantages of complete homozygosity and short breeding cycle length. A key issue in this approach is an efficient screening system to identify haploid kernels from the hybrid kernels crossed with the inducer. At present, haploid kernel selection is carried out manually using the"red-crown" kernel trait (the haploid kernel has a non-pigmented embryo and pigmented endosperm) controlled by the R1-nj gene. Manual selection is time-consuming and unreliable. Furthermore, the color of the kernel embryo is concealed by the pericarp. Here, we establish a novel approach for identifying maize haploid kernels based on visible (Vis) spectroscopy and support vector machine (SVM) pattern recognition technology. The diffuse transmittance spectra of individual kernels (141 haploid kernels and 141 hybrid kernels from 9 genotypes) were collected using a portable UV-Vis spectrometer and integrating sphere. The raw spectral data were preprocessed using smoothing and vector normalization methods. The desired feature wavelengths were selected based on the results of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The wavelengths with p values above 0. 05 were eliminated because the distributions of absorbance data in these wavelengths show no significant difference between haploid and hybrid kernels. Principal component analysis was then performed to reduce the number of variables. The SVM model was evaluated by 9-fold cross-validation. In each round, samples of one genotype were used as the testing set, while those of other genotypes were used as the training set. The mean rate of correct discrimination was 92.06%. This result demonstrates the feasibility of using Vis spectroscopy to identify haploid maize kernels. The method would help develop a rapid and accurate automated screening-system for haploid kernels.

  18. A class of hybrid finite element methods for electromagnetics: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volakis, J. L.; Chatterjee, A.; Gong, J.

    1993-01-01

    Integral equation methods have generally been the workhorse for antenna and scattering computations. In the case of antennas, they continue to be the prominent computational approach, but for scattering applications the requirement for large-scale computations has turned researchers' attention to near neighbor methods such as the finite element method, which has low O(N) storage requirements and is readily adaptable in modeling complex geometrical features and material inhomogeneities. In this paper, we review three hybrid finite element methods for simulating composite scatterers, conformal microstrip antennas, and finite periodic arrays. Specifically, we discuss the finite element method and its application to electromagnetic problems when combined with the boundary integral, absorbing boundary conditions, and artificial absorbers for terminating the mesh. Particular attention is given to large-scale simulations, methods, and solvers for achieving low memory requirements and code performance on parallel computing architectures.

  19. Hybrid Polling Method for Direct Link Communication for IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Yong Choi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The direct link communication between STAtions (STAs is one of the techniques to improve the MAC performance of IEEE 802.11 infrastructure networks. For the efficient direct link communication, in the literature, the simultaneous polling method was proposed to allow the multiple direct data communication to be performed simultaneously. However, the efficiency of the simultaneous polling method is affected by the interference condition. To alleviate the problem of the lower polling efficiency with the larger interference range, the hybrid polling method is proposed for the direct link communication between STAs in IEEE 802.11 infrastructure networks. By the proposed polling method, we can integrate the sequential and simultaneous polling methods properly according to the interference condition. Numerical examples are also presented to show the medium access control (MAC performance improvement by the proposed polling method.

  20. Hybrid PSO-ASVR-based method for data fitting in the calibration of infrared radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sen; Li, Chengwei

    2016-06-01

    The present paper describes a hybrid particle swarm optimization-adaptive support vector regression (PSO-ASVR)-based method for data fitting in the calibration of infrared radiometer. The proposed hybrid PSO-ASVR-based method is based on PSO in combination with Adaptive Processing and Support Vector Regression (SVR). The optimization technique involves setting parameters in the ASVR fitting procedure, which significantly improves the fitting accuracy. However, its use in the calibration of infrared radiometer has not yet been widely explored. Bearing this in mind, the PSO-ASVR-based method, which is based on the statistical learning theory, is successfully used here to get the relationship between the radiation of a standard source and the response of an infrared radiometer. Main advantages of this method are the flexible adjustment mechanism in data processing and the optimization mechanism in a kernel parameter setting of SVR. Numerical examples and applications to the calibration of infrared radiometer are performed to verify the performance of PSO-ASVR-based method compared to conventional data fitting methods.

  1. A Hybrid Optimization Method for Solving Bayesian Inverse Problems under Uncertainty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhang

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the application of a new method, the Finite Difference and Stochastic Gradient (Hybrid method, for history matching in reservoir models. History matching is one of the processes of solving an inverse problem by calibrating reservoir models to dynamic behaviour of the reservoir in which an objective function is formulated based on a Bayesian approach for optimization. The goal of history matching is to identify the minimum value of an objective function that expresses the misfit between the predicted and measured data of a reservoir. To address the optimization problem, we present a novel application using a combination of the stochastic gradient and finite difference methods for solving inverse problems. The optimization is constrained by a linear equation that contains the reservoir parameters. We reformulate the reservoir model's parameters and dynamic data by operating the objective function, the approximate gradient of which can guarantee convergence. At each iteration step, we obtain the relatively 'important' elements of the gradient, which are subsequently substituted by the values from the Finite Difference method through comparing the magnitude of the components of the stochastic gradient, which forms a new gradient, and we subsequently iterate with the new gradient. Through the application of the Hybrid method, we efficiently and accurately optimize the objective function. We present a number numerical simulations in this paper that show that the method is accurate and computationally efficient.

  2. A hybrid table look-up method for H.264/AVC coeff_token decoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Suhua; Zhang, Yixiong; Lu, Min; Tang, Biyu

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, a hybrid table look-up method for H.264 Coeff_Token Decoding is presented. In the proposed method the probabilities of the codewords with various lengths are analyzed, and based on the statistics a hybrid look-up table is constructed. In the coeff_token decoding process, firstly, a few bits are read from the bit-stream, if a matched codeword is found in the first look-up table, the further look-up steps will be skipped. Otherwise, more bits need to be read and looked up in the second table, which is built upon the number of leading 0's before the first number one. Experimental results on the RTSM Emulation Baseboard ARM926 of RealView show that the proposed method speeds up CAVLD of H.264 by about 8% with more efficient memory utilization, when compared to the prefix-based decoding method. And compared with the pattern-search method based on hashing algorithms adopted in the newest version of FFMPEG, the proposed method reduces memory space by about 77%.

  3. Multivariable analysis of effects of various methods of magnesium application of LG 2244 maize hybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Bocianowski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a multivariable approach to the estimation of variability for quantitative traits after using the seven methods of magnesium application of the “stay-green” type of maize (Zea mays L. hybrid. The 13 characteristics of LG 2244 hybrid were under consideration in three years (2006-2008: grain yield, moisture of grain, 1000 grain yield, dry matter of a single plant, dry matter yield, uptake of N, uptake of P, uptake of K, uptake of Mg, uptake of Ca, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and chlorophyll a+b content. The obtained results were computed with statistical multivariable methods of application. Canonical variable analysis (in each year independent has proved to be an effective tool for clear assessing of differences among the studied methods of magnesium application. The most diverse methods were: C and E (in 2006, A and F (in 2007, and B as G (in 2008. The most similar methods (in respect of 13 traits simultaneously were: B and C (in 2006, D and E (in 2007, and C and E (in 2008. Mahalanobis’ distances between methods of magnesium application in individual years of the study were not significantly correlated.

  4. A Hybrid Optimization Method for Solving Bayesian Inverse Problems under Uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Wang, Zengfei; Zhang, Liming; Yao, Jun; Yan, Xia

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the application of a new method, the Finite Difference and Stochastic Gradient (Hybrid method), for history matching in reservoir models. History matching is one of the processes of solving an inverse problem by calibrating reservoir models to dynamic behaviour of the reservoir in which an objective function is formulated based on a Bayesian approach for optimization. The goal of history matching is to identify the minimum value of an objective function that expresses the misfit between the predicted and measured data of a reservoir. To address the optimization problem, we present a novel application using a combination of the stochastic gradient and finite difference methods for solving inverse problems. The optimization is constrained by a linear equation that contains the reservoir parameters. We reformulate the reservoir model's parameters and dynamic data by operating the objective function, the approximate gradient of which can guarantee convergence. At each iteration step, we obtain the relatively 'important' elements of the gradient, which are subsequently substituted by the values from the Finite Difference method through comparing the magnitude of the components of the stochastic gradient, which forms a new gradient, and we subsequently iterate with the new gradient. Through the application of the Hybrid method, we efficiently and accurately optimize the objective function. We present a number numerical simulations in this paper that show that the method is accurate and computationally efficient.

  5. Method of manufacturing a hybrid emitter all back contact solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loscutoff, Paul; Rim, Seung

    2017-02-07

    A method of manufacturing an all back contact solar cell which has a hybrid emitter design. The solar cell has a thin dielectric layer formed on a backside surface of a single crystalline silicon substrate. One emitter of the solar cell is made of doped polycrystalline silicon that is formed on the thin dielectric layer. A second emitter of the solar cell is formed in the single crystalline silicon substrate and is made of doped single crystalline silicon. The method further includes forming contact holes that allow metal contacts to connect to corresponding emitters.

  6. Hybrid Finite Element and Volume Integral Methods for Scattering Using Parametric Geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volakis, John L.; Sertel, Kubilay; Jørgensen, Erik

    2004-01-01

    n this paper we address several topics relating to the development and implementation of volume integral and hybrid finite element methods for electromagnetic modeling. Comparisons of volume integral equation formulations with the finite element-boundary integral method are given in terms of accu...... of vanishing divergence within the element but non-zero curl. In addition, a new domain decomposition is introduced for solving array problems involving several million degrees of freedom. Three orders of magnitude CPU reduction is demonstrated for such applications....

  7. THE FINITE VOLUME PROJECTION METHOD WITH HYBRID UNSTRUCTURED TRIANGULAR COLLOCATED GRIDS FOR INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOWS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Wei; DUAN Ya-li; LIU Ru-xun

    2009-01-01

    In this article a finite volume method is proposed to solve viscous incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in two-dimensional regions with corners and curved boundaries. A hybrid collocated-grid variable arrangement is adopted, in which the velocity and pressure are stored at the centroid and the circumcenters of the triangular control cell, respectively. The cell flux is defined at the mid-point of the cell face. Second-order implicit time integration schemes are used for convection and diffusion terms. The second-order upwind scheme is used for convection fluxes. The present method is validated by results of several viscous flows.

  8. Plasmonic Encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-06

    spherical nucleic acid (SNA)-based probes that are comprised of a densely functionalized oligonucleotide shell and an inorganic nanoparticle core...The oligonucleotide capture sequence attached to the nanoparticle hybridizes with short, fluorophore- labeled DNA molecules, termed “flares”. In...this end we have developed a Nanoflare-like construct, referred to as the StickyFlare, which utilizes antisense flares capable of binding to and

  9. Improved reader for magnetically-encoded ID cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T. T.

    1979-01-01

    Hybrid demodulator in electronic card reader for magnetically encoded identification cards, accommodates variations in insertion speeds, yet is simpler and less expensive than equivalent all-digital circuits.

  10. Towards Modelling of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal

    2006-01-01

    The article is an attempt to use methods of category theory and topology for analysis of hybrid systems. We use the notion of a directed topological space; it is a topological space together with a set of privileged paths. Dynamical systems are examples of directed topological spaces. A hybrid...... system consists of a number of dynamical systems that are glued together according to information encoded in the discrete part of the system. We develop a definition of a hybrid system as a functor from the category generated by a transition system to the category of directed topological spaces. Its...... directed homotopy colimit (geometric realization) is a single directed topological space. The behavior of hybrid systems can be then understood in terms of the behavior of dynamical systems through the directed homotopy colimit....

  11. Hybrid Spectral Difference/Embedded Finite Volume Method for Conservation Laws

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Jung J

    2014-01-01

    A novel hybrid spectral difference/embedded finite volume method is introduced in order to apply a discontinuous high-order method for large scale engineering applications involving discontinuities in flows with complex geometries. In the proposed hybrid approach, structured finite volume (FV) cells are embedded in hexahedral SD elements containing discontinuities, and FV based high-order shock-capturing scheme is employed to overcome Gibbs phenomenon. Thus, discontinuities are captured at the resolution of embedded FV cells within an SD element. In smooth flow regions, the SD method is chosen for its low numerical dissipation and computational efficiency preserving spectral-like solutions. The coupling between the SD elements and the elements with embedded FV cells are achieved by the mortar method. In this paper, the 5th-order WENO scheme with characteristic decomposition is employed as the shock-capturing scheme in the embedded FV cells, and the 5th-order SD method is used in the smooth flow field. The ord...

  12. Hybrid teaching method for undergraduate student in Marine Geology class in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf Awaluddin, M.; Yuliadi, Lintang

    2016-04-01

    Bridging Geosciences to the future generations in interesting and interactive ways are challenging for lecturers and teachers. In the past, one-way 'classic' face-to-face teaching method has been used as the only alternative for undergraduate's Marine Geology class in Padjadjaran University, Indonesia. Currently, internet users in Indonesia have been increased significantly, among of them are young generations and students. The advantage of the internet as a teaching method in Geosciences topic in Indonesia is still limited. Here we have combined between the classic and the online method for undergraduate teaching. The case study was in Marine Geology class, Padjadjaran University, with 70 students as participants and 2 instructors. We used Edmodo platform as a primary tool in our teaching and Dropbox as cloud storage. All online teaching activities such as assignment, quiz, discussion and examination were done in concert with the classic one with proportion 60% and 40% respectively. We found that the students had the different experience in this hybrid teaching method as shown in their feedback through this platform. This hybrid method offers interactive ways not only between the lecturers and the students but also among students. Classroom meeting is still needed to expose their work and for general discussion.Nevertheless, the only problem was the lack of internet access in the campus when all our students accessing the platform at the same time.

  13. A hybrid feature selection method using multiclass SVM for diagnosis of erythemato-squamous disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryam, Setiawan, Noor Akhmad; Wahyunggoro, Oyas

    2017-08-01

    The diagnosis of erythemato-squamous disease is a complex problem and difficult to detect in dermatology. Besides that, it is a major cause of skin cancer. Data mining implementation in the medical field helps expert to diagnose precisely, accurately, and inexpensively. In this research, we use data mining technique to developed a diagnosis model based on multiclass SVM with a novel hybrid feature selection method to diagnose erythemato-squamous disease. Our hybrid feature selection method, named ChiGA (Chi Square and Genetic Algorithm), uses the advantages from filter and wrapper methods to select the optimal feature subset from original feature. Chi square used as filter method to remove redundant features and GA as wrapper method to select the ideal feature subset with SVM used as classifier. Experiment performed with 10 fold cross validation on erythemato-squamous diseases dataset taken from University of California Irvine (UCI) machine learning database. The experimental result shows that the proposed model based multiclass SVM with Chi Square and GA can give an optimum feature subset. There are 18 optimum features with 99.18% accuracy.

  14. High-order Hybridized Discontinuous Galerkin methods for Large-Eddy Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Pablo; Nguyen, Ngoc-Cuong; Peraire, Jaime

    2016-11-01

    With the increase in computing power, Large-Eddy Simulation emerges as a promising technique to improve both knowledge of complex flow physics and reliability of flow predictions. Most LES works, however, are limited to simple geometries and low Reynolds numbers due to high computational cost. While most existing LES codes are based on 2nd-order finite volume schemes, the efficient and accurate prediction of complex turbulent flows may require a paradigm shift in computational approach. This drives a growing interest in the development of Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods for LES. DG methods allow for high-order, conservative implementations on complex geometries, and offer opportunities for improved sub-grid scale modeling. Also, high-order DG methods are better-suited to exploit modern HPC systems. In the spirit of making them more competitive, researchers have recently developed the hybridized DG methods that result in reduced computational cost and memory footprint. In this talk we present an overview of high-order hybridized DG methods for LES. Numerical accuracy, computational efficiency, and SGS modeling issues are discussed. Numerical results up to Re=460k show rapid grid convergence and excellent agreement with experimental data at moderate computational cost.

  15. A Unified Multi-Dimensional Gaskinetic Hybrid BGK-DSMC Method for Nonequilibrium and Chemically Reacting Flows Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A consistent and accurate Hybrid gaskinetic BGK and DSMC method, valid in the full Knudsen number (Kn) range, is proposed as a 3D tool to handle hypersonic...

  16. Mitigating the effect of noise in the hybrid input-output method of phase retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trahan, Russell; Hyland, David

    2013-05-01

    Here a modification to the hybrid input-output (HIO) method of phase retrieval is presented which aides in mitigating the negative effects of low signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). Various type of interferometers measure diffraction patterns which are used to determine the Fourier transform modulus of an objective. Interferometry often suffers from very low SNRs making phase retrieval difficult because of the sensitivity of most phase retrieval algorithms to local minima. Here we analyze the effect of noise on the HIO method. The result is used as a rationale for the proposed modification to the HIO method. The algorithm presented here introduces a filtering scheme which removes much of the Fourier modulus noise. Examples are shown and the results are compared to the HIO method with and without the proposed modification. Comparisons are also made to other methods of filtering the Fourier modulus noise.

  17. Analysis of airborne antenna using a FEM-UID hybrid method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Meng; ZHANG Yu; LIANG Chang-hong

    2006-01-01

    In this paper,the near-field vector components were used to combine the FEM method and the uniform-geometrical theory of diffraction (UTD) method for analyzing phased array antenna mounted on an airborne platform.First,HFSS,a set of software based on finite element method (FEM),was utilized to find the near-field vector components of the phased army antennas,and then these vector components were used as the source of the UTD method to get the disturbed radiation pattern.Numerical results show that the hybrid of the two methods not only extends the use of the UTD program,but also effectively solves this type of challenging problems.

  18. An efficient hybrid reliability analysis method with random and interval variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shaojun; Pan, Baisong; Du, Xiaoping

    2016-09-01

    Random and interval variables often coexist. Interval variables make reliability analysis much more computationally intensive. This work develops a new hybrid reliability analysis method so that the probability analysis (PA) loop and interval analysis (IA) loop are decomposed into two separate loops. An efficient PA algorithm is employed, and a new efficient IA method is developed. The new IA method consists of two stages. The first stage is for monotonic limit-state functions. If the limit-state function is not monotonic, the second stage is triggered. In the second stage, the limit-state function is sequentially approximated with a second order form, and the gradient projection method is applied to solve the extreme responses of the limit-state function with respect to the interval variables. The efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method are demonstrated by three examples.

  19. Hybridization of Adaptive Differential Evolution with an Expensive Local Search Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashida Adeeb Khanum

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Differential evolution (DE is an effective and efficient heuristic for global optimization problems. However, it faces difficulty in exploiting the local region around the approximate solution. To handle this issue, local search (LS techniques could be hybridized with DE to improve its local search capability. In this work, we hybridize an updated version of DE, adaptive differential evolution with optional external archive (JADE with an expensive LS method, Broydon-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shano (BFGS for solving continuous unconstrained global optimization problems. The new hybrid algorithm is denoted by DEELS. To validate the performance of DEELS, we carried out extensive experiments on well known test problems suits, CEC2005 and CEC2010. The experimental results, in terms of function error values, success rate, and some other statistics, are compared with some of the state-of-the-art algorithms, self-adaptive control parameters in differential evolution (jDE, sequential DE enhanced by neighborhood search for large-scale global optimization (SDENS, and differential ant-stigmergy algorithm (DASA. These comparisons reveal that DEELS outperforms jDE and SDENS except DASA on the majority of test instances.

  20. Short Communication Quick method for identifying horse (Equus caballus) and donkey (Equus asinus) hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, M M; Santos, J B F; Mendonça, A S; Silva, T C F; Antunes, R C; Melo, E O

    2016-09-23

    The domestication of the Equus genus 5000-6000 years ago has influenced the history of human civilization. As soon as horse and donkey species had been domesticated, they were crossbred, producing humanity's first documented attempt at animal genome manipulation. Since then, the mule (male donkey x female horse) and the reciprocal cross (the hinny, male horse x female donkey) have been the most common equine hybrids in the world. Due to their hybrid vigor, mules and hinnies have been intensively used for carrying loads and people and for tilling the land. Despite their importance, visual distinction of mules and hinnies is difficult due to high phenotypic resemblance. However, the distinction between these two hybrids is of pivotal importance for equid breeders and ranchers. In this study, an easy, low-cost, effective, and fast multiplex-polymerase chain reaction method was developed to distinguish the maternal origin of mules and hinnies, targeting the hyper-variable mitochondrial DNA D-loop region. This methodology can help breeders, ranchers, animal science professionals, and researchers manage their equine herds with more confidence and precision.

  1. Research of distribution system service restoration algorithm based on hybrid encoding%基于混合编码方式的配电网故障恢复算法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩伟峥; 房鑫炎

    2012-01-01

    为提高遗传算法求解配电网故障恢复问题的效率,提出了一种染色体混合编码模型.对配电网的网络拓扑进行节点深度法编码,通过相应的交叉变异操作,产生可行的配电网生成树.非故障失电区的可中断负荷采用0-1编码,实现切负荷控制,增加故障恢复的灵活性.这种混合编码方式可以大大降低不可行解的数量,加快算法收敛速度.采用多目标优化算法NSGA-Ⅱ,减少权重系数主观性对最优解的影响,实现各个优化目标的协同进化,可以为调度人员提供多个最优恢复方案.算例计算结果验证了所提出的模型和算法的正确性和有效性.%A chromosome hybrid encoding model is established to enhance the genetic algorithm's efficiency of solving problems of distribution system service restoration. After node-depth encoding of distribution network topology and corresponding crossover and mutation operation, feasible distribution network spanning trees are generated. 0-1 encoding is applied to interrupttable load in the non-fault load loss regions to control load shedding and increase the flexibility of fault restoration. Using the hybrid encobing mode, the infeasible solutions can be reduced greatly, and the algorithm convergence is speeded up. Multi-objective optimization algorithm NSGA- II reduces the influence of weight coefficient subjectivity on optimum solution, and attains co-evolution of each optimization objective. It provides dispatcher with more than one service restoration plan. Simulation of the proposed model and the algorithm has verified their feasibility and correctness.

  2. HybridN-order Lagrangian Interpolation Eulerian-Lagrangian Method for Salinity Calculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴炎成; 朱首贤; 周林; 游小宝; 张文静

    2016-01-01

    The Eulerian−Lagrangian method (ELM) has been used by many ocean models as the solution of the advection equation, but the numerical error caused by interpolation imposes restriction on its accuracy. In the present study, hybrid N-order Lagrangian interpolation ELM (LiELM) is put forward in which theN-order Lagrangian interpolation is used at first, then the lower order Lagrangian interpolation is applied in the points where the interpolation results are abnormally higher or lower. The calculation results of a step-shaped salinity advection model are analyzed, which show that higher order (N=3−8) LiELM can reduce the mean numerical error of salinity calculation, but the numerical oscillation error is still significant. Even number order LiELM makes larger numerical oscillation error than its adjacent odd number order LiELM. HybridN-order LiELM can remove numerical oscillation, and it significantly reduces the mean numerical error whenN is even and the current is in fixed direction, while it makes less effect on mean numerical error whenNis odd or the current direction changes periodically. Hybrid odd number order LiELM makes less mean numerical error than its adjacent even number order LiELM when the current is in the fixed direction, while the mean numerical error decreases asN increases when the current direction changes periodically, so odd number ofN may be better for application. Among various types of HybridN-order LiELM, the scheme reducingN-order directly to 1st-order may be the optimal for synthetic selection of accuracy and computational efficiency.

  3. Geranyl diphosphate synthase molecules, and nucleic acid molecules encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce; Burke, Charles Cullen

    2008-06-24

    In one aspect, the present invention provides isolated nucleic acid molecules that each encode a geranyl diphosphate synthase protein, wherein each isolated nucleic acid molecule hybridizes to a nucleic acid molecule consisting of the sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO:1 under conditions of 5.times.SSC at 45.degree. C. for one hour. The present invention also provides isolated geranyl diphosphate synthase proteins, and methods for altering the level of expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase protein in a host cell.

  4. A New Method to Study the Sol-gel Transition Process of Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Bin; GAO Jian-gang; CHEN Da-zhu; LIU Jian-ping; HE Ping-sheng; ZHANG Qi-jin

    2005-01-01

    The sol-gel transition process of PMMA/SiO2 hybrid materials was first studied by means of the dynamic torsional vibration method. The different stages of the transition can be described by the change of torque. The temperature-dependent measurement of the gel time(tg) gives the possibility to determine the apparent activation energy(Ea) of this transition according to Flory′s gelation theory. The non-equilibrium thermodynamic fluctuation theory was used to predict the transition behavior. The isothermal transition experiments on hybrid sols with different TEOS(tetraethyl orthosilicate) contents were carried out. The results show that the Ea of a hybrid sol is higher than that of a non- hybrid sol of a TEOS-water-ethanol system. The increasing of TEOS content in a hybrid sol has no obvious effect on the Ea value, but it can enhance the sol-gel reaction rate.

  5. Hybrid Intelligent Control Method to Improve the Frequency Support Capability of Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Young Heo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a hybrid intelligent control method that enables frequency support control for permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSGs wind turbines. The proposed method for a wind energy conversion system (WECS is designed to have PMSG modeling and full-scale back-to-back insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT converters comprising the machine and grid side. The controller of the machine side converter (MSC and the grid side converter (GSC are designed to achieve maximum power point tracking (MPPT based on an improved hill climb searching (IHCS control algorithm and de-loaded (DL operation to obtain a power margin. Along with this comprehensive control of maximum power tracking mode based on the IHCS, a method for kinetic energy (KE discharge control of the supporting primary frequency control scheme with DL operation is developed to regulate the short-term frequency response and maintain reliable operation of the power system. The effectiveness of the hybrid intelligent control method is verified by a numerical simulation in PSCAD/EMTDC. Simulation results show that the proposed approach can improve the frequency regulation capability in the power system.

  6. Hybrid CIS-DFT method to study electric field effects on electronic excited states of ethylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Mei-Zhong; Zhu Zheng-He; Chen Xiao-Jun; Xu Guo-Liang; Zhang Yong-Bin; Mao Hua-Ping; Shen Xiao-Hong

    2005-01-01

    The present work is devoted to the study of the effects of external dipole electric field on the molecular structure of ethylene using a hybrid method which combines the single-excitation configuration interactions (CIS) with density functional theory (DFT), i.e. CIS-DFT(B3LYP). It is found that the effects of electric dipole field on the molecular geometry (D2h, D2d and C2v), dipole moment, transition dipole moment, polarizability and, particularly, excitation energy of ethylene are remarkable. The advantages of the hybrid CIS-DFT method are that it can determine the symmetry of molecule and the correct order of excitation as well as the Molecular Orbital (MO) electron configuration;thereby the electronic excitation states of ethylene are easily derived, and most of them are in agreement with those obtained in experiments or references. It may be the first time the effects of external electric field on ethylene molecule have been considered. Compared with other ab initio methods, the CIS-DFT method is relatively accurate and low cost in computation. We expect that it can be used to study other closed-shell molecules.

  7. Chaotic and Subharmonic Motion Analysis of Floating Ring Gas Bearing System by Hybrid Numerical Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chi Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the nonlinear dynamic behaviors including chaotic, subharmonic, and quasi-periodic motions of a rigid rotor supported by floating ring gas bearing (FRGB system. A hybrid numerical method combining the differential transformation method and the finite difference method used to calculate pressure distribution of FRGB system and rotor orbits. The results obtained for the orbits of the rotor center are in good agreement with those obtained using the traditional finite difference approach. Moreover, the hybrid method avoids the numerical instability problem suffered by the finite difference scheme at low values of the rotor mass and computational time-step. Moreover, power spectra, Poincaré maps, bifurcation diagrams and Lyapunov exponents are applied to examine the nonlinear dynamic response of the FRGB system over representative ranges of the rotor mass and bearing number, respectively. The results presented summarize the changes which take place in the dynamic behavior of the FRGB system as the rotor mass and bearing number are increased and therefore provide a useful guideline for the bearing system.

  8. Interior Noise Prediction of the Automobile Based on Hybrid FE-SEA Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Chen

    2011-01-01

    created using hybrid FE-SEA method. The modal density was calculated using analytical method and finite element method; the damping loss factors of the structural and acoustic cavity subsystems were also calculated with analytical method; the coupling loss factors between structure and structure, structure and acoustic cavity were both calculated. Four different kinds of excitations including road excitations, engine mount excitations, sound radiation excitations of the engine, and wind excitations are exerted on the body of automobile when the automobile is running on the road. All the excitations were calculated using virtual prototype technology, computational fluid dynamics (CFD, and experiments realized in the design and development stage. The interior noise of the automobile was predicted and verified at speed of 120 km/h. The predicted and tested overall SPLs of the interior noise were 73.79 and 74.44 dB(A respectively. The comparison results also show that the prediction precision is satisfied, and the effectiveness and reliability of the hybrid FE-SEA model of the automobile is verified.

  9. A hybrid method for provincial scale energy-related carbon emission allocation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hongtao; Zhang, Yingxuan; Wang, Huizhi; Huang, Yanying; Xu, He

    2014-01-01

    Achievement of carbon emission reduction targets proposed by national governments relies on provincial/state allocations. In this study, a hybrid method for provincial energy-related carbon emissions allocation in China was developed to provide a good balance between production- and consumption-based approaches. In this method, provincial energy-related carbon emissions are decomposed into direct emissions of local activities other than thermal power generation and indirect emissions as a result of electricity consumption. Based on the carbon reduction efficiency principle, the responsibility for embodied emissions of provincial product transactions is assigned entirely to the production area. The responsibility for carbon generation during the production of thermal power is borne by the electricity consumption area, which ensures that different regions with resource endowments have rational development space. Empirical studies were conducted to examine the hybrid method and three indices, per capita GDP, resource endowment index and the proportion of energy-intensive industries, were screened to preliminarily interpret the differences among China's regional carbon emissions. Uncertainty analysis and a discussion of this method are also provided herein.

  10. 2D-3D hybrid stabilized finite element method for tsunami runup simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, S.; Moriguchi, S.; Terada, K.; Kato, J.; Kyoya, T.; Kashiyama, K.; Kotani, T.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a two-dimensional (2D)-three-dimensional (3D) hybrid stabilized finite element method that enables us to predict a propagation process of tsunami generated in a hypocentral region, which ranges from offshore propagation to runup to urban areas, with high accuracy and relatively low computational costs. To be more specific, the 2D shallow water equation is employed to simulate the propagation of offshore waves, while the 3D Navier-Stokes equation is employed for the runup in urban areas. The stabilized finite element method is utilized for numerical simulations for both of the 2D and 3D domains that are independently discretized with unstructured meshes. The multi-point constraint and transmission methods are applied to satisfy the continuity of flow velocities and pressures at the interface between the resulting 2D and 3D meshes, since neither their spatial dimensions nor node arrangements are consistent. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed hybrid method to simulate tsunami behavior, including offshore propagation and runup to urban areas, with substantially lower computation costs in comparison with full 3D computations.

  11. Visually Improved Image Compression by Combining EZW Encoding with Texture Modeling using Huffman Encoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay U. Kale

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a technique for image compression which uses the Wavelet-based Image/Texture Coding Hybrid (WITCH scheme [1] in combination with Huffman encoder. It implements a hybrid coding approach, while nevertheless preserving the features of progressive and lossless coding. The hybrid scheme was designed to encode the structural image information by Embedded Zerotree Wavelet (EZW encoding algorithm [2] and the stochastic texture in a model-based manner and this encoded data is then compressed using Huffman encoder. The scheme proposed here achieves superior subjective quality while increasing the compression ratio by more than a factor of three or even four. With this technique, it is possible to achieve compression ratios as high as 10 to 12 but with some minor distortions in the encoded image.

  12. A highly oriented hybrid microarray modified electrode fabricated by a template-free method for ultrasensitive electrochemical DNA recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Chu, Zhenyu; Dong, Xueliang; Jin, Wanqin; Dempsey, Eithne

    2013-10-01

    Highly oriented growth of a hybrid microarray was realized by a facile template-free method on gold substrates for the first time. The proposed formation mechanism involves an interfacial structure-directing force arising from self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) between gold substrates and hybrid crystals. Different SAMs and variable surface coverage of the assembled molecules play a critical role in the interfacial directing forces and influence the morphologies of hybrid films. A highly oriented hybrid microarray was formed on the highly aligned and vertical SAMs of 1,4-benzenedithiol molecules with rigid backbones, which afforded an intense structure-directing power for the oriented growth of hybrid crystals. Additionally, the density of the microarray could be adjusted by controlling the surface coverage of assembled molecules. Based on the hybrid microarray modified electrode with a large specific area (ca. 10 times its geometrical area), a label-free electrochemical DNA biosensor was constructed for the detection of an oligonucleotide fragment of the avian flu virus H5N1. The DNA biosensor displayed a significantly low detection limit of 5 pM (S/N = 3), a wide linear response from 10 pM to 10 nM, as well as excellent selectivity, good regeneration and high stability. We expect that the proposed template-free method can provide a new reference for the fabrication of a highly oriented hybrid array and the as-prepared microarray modified electrode will be a promising paradigm in constructing highly sensitive and selective biosensors.Highly oriented growth of a hybrid microarray was realized by a facile template-free method on gold substrates for the first time. The proposed formation mechanism involves an interfacial structure-directing force arising from self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) between gold substrates and hybrid crystals. Different SAMs and variable surface coverage of the assembled molecules play a critical role in the interfacial directing forces and

  13. Hybrid Method for a Class of Stochastic Bi-criteria Optimization Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Zhong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a class of stochastic bi-criteria optimization problems with one quadratic and one linear objective functions and some linear inequality constraints. A hybrid method of chance-constrained programming (CCP combined with variance expectation (VE is proposed to find the optimal solution of the original problem. By introducing the expectation level, the bi-criteria problem is converted into a single-objective problem. By introducing the confidence level and the preference level of decision maker, we obtain a relaxed robust deterministic formulation of the stochastic problem. Then, an interactive algorithm is developed to solve the obtained deterministic model with three parameters, reflecting the preferences of decision maker. Numerical experiments show that the proposed method is superior to the existing methods. The optimal solution obtained by our method has less violation of the constraints and reflects the satisfaction degree of decision-maker.

  14. AN ITERATIVE HYBRIDIZED MIXED FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ELLIPTIC INTERFACE PROBLEMS WITH STRONGLY DISCONTINUOUS COEFFICIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dao-qi Yang; Jennifer Zhao

    2003-01-01

    An iterative algorithm is proposed and analyzed based on a hybridized mixed finite element method for numerically solving two-phase generalized Stefan interface problems withstrongly discontinuous solutions, conormal derivatives, and coefficients. This algorithmiteratively solves small problems for each single phase with good accuracy and exchangeinformation at the interface to advance the iteration until convergence, following the ideaof Schwarz Alternating Methods. Error estimates are derived to show that this algorithmalways converges provided that relaxation parameters are suitably chosen. Numeric experiments with matching and non-matching grids at the interface from different phases areperformed to show the accuracy of the method for capturing discontinuities in the solutionsand coefficients. In contrast to standard numerical methods, the accuracy of our methoddoes not seem to deteriorate as the coefficient discontinuity increases.

  15. Convergence Theorems Concerning Hybrid Methods for Strict Pseudocontractions and Systems of Equilibrium Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Peichao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Let be strict pseudo-contractions defined on a closed and convex subset of a real Hilbert space . We consider the problem of finding a common element of fixed point set of these mappings and the solution set of a system of equilibrium problems by parallel and cyclic algorithms. In this paper, new iterative schemes are proposed for solving this problem. Furthermore, we prove that these schemes converge strongly by hybrid methods. The results presented in this paper improve and extend some well-known results in the literature.

  16. Power control method on VSC-HVDC in a hybrid multi-infeed HVDC system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yan; Chen, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    Multi-infeed HVDC (MIDC) system connected with VSC-HVDC links and LCC-HVDC links is a new structure in modern power systems, which can be called hybrid multi-infeed HVDC (HMIDC) system. The paper presents the voltage stability analysis of a HMIDC system modeled from a possible future Danish power...... stability of the system with induction machine loads. The proposed power control method based on a VSC power circle makes fully use of the VSC-HVDC capacity to support system voltage during fault situations. Simulation model of the studied HMIDC system is built in PSCAD. Simulation studies under different...

  17. A generic plant RNA isolation method suitable for RNA-Seq and suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y Q; Wu, W J; Xiao, H W; Chen, H B; Zheng, Y; Zhang, Y J; Wang, H X; Huang, L Q

    2013-11-18

    A recently developed revolutionary approach to transcriptomics, RNA-Seq, and suppression subtractive hybridization are powerful tools for gene expression research. However, currently, the difficulty of isolating high-quality RNAs from plant tissues bearing abundant complex polysaccharides, polyphenolics, and secondary metabolites is a serious problem that not only limits the application of these technologies but also hinders studies dealing with RNA in general. We have developed a consistent protocol to prepare highly intact and pure RNAs from tissues of a variety of field-grown plant species, with high yields, in 2 to 3 h. Additionally, this method can be readily applied to mammalian, yeast, and bacterial cells.

  18. A hybrid method for pancreas extraction from CT image based on level set methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Huiyan; Tan, Hanqing; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel semiautomatic method to extract the pancreas from abdominal CT images. Traditional level set and region growing methods that request locating initial contour near the final boundary of object have problem of leakage to nearby tissues of pancreas region. The proposed method consists of a customized fast-marching level set method which generates an optimal initial pancreas region to solve the problem that the level set method is sensitive to the initial contour location and a modified distance regularized level set method which extracts accurate pancreas. The novelty in our method is the proper selection and combination of level set methods, furthermore an energy-decrement algorithm and an energy-tune algorithm are proposed to reduce the negative impact of bonding force caused by connected tissue whose intensity is similar with pancreas. As a result, our method overcomes the shortages of oversegmentation at weak boundary and can accurately extract pancreas from CT images. The proposed method is compared to other five state-of-the-art medical image segmentation methods based on a CT image dataset which contains abdominal images from 10 patients. The evaluated results demonstrate that our method outperforms other methods by achieving higher accuracy and making less false segmentation in pancreas extraction.

  19. New hybrid method for reactive systems from integrating molecular orbital or molecular mechanics methods with analytical potential energy surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Garciá, Joaquín; Rangel, Cipriano; Navarrete, Marta; Corchado, José C

    2004-09-15

    A computational approach to calculating potential energy surfaces for reactive systems is presented and tested. This hybrid approach is based on integrated methods where calculations for a small model system are performed by using analytical potential energy surfaces, and for the real system by using molecular orbital or molecular mechanics methods. The method is tested on a hydrogen abstraction reaction by using the variational transition-state theory with multidimensional tunneling corrections. The agreement between the calculated and experimental information depends on the quality of the method chosen for the real system. When the real system is treated by accurate quantum mechanics methods, the rate constants are in excellent agreement with the experimental measurements over a wide temperature range. When the real system is treated by molecular mechanics methods, the results are still good, which is very encouraging since molecular mechanics itself is not at all capable of describing this reactive system. Since no experimental information or additional fits are required to apply this method, it can be used to improve the accuracy of molecular orbital methods or to extend the molecular mechanics method to treat any reactive system with the single constraint of the availability of an analytical potential energy surface that describes the model system.

  20. Hybrid Modeling of Flotation Height in Air Flotation Oven Based on Selective Bagging Ensemble Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Hou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The accurate prediction of the flotation height is very necessary for the precise control of the air flotation oven process, therefore, avoiding the scratch and improving production quality. In this paper, a hybrid flotation height prediction model is developed. Firstly, a simplified mechanism model is introduced for capturing the main dynamic behavior of the process. Thereafter, for compensation of the modeling errors existing between actual system and mechanism model, an error compensation model which is established based on the proposed selective bagging ensemble method is proposed for boosting prediction accuracy. In the framework of the selective bagging ensemble method, negative correlation learning and genetic algorithm are imposed on bagging ensemble method for promoting cooperation property between based learners. As a result, a subset of base learners can be selected from the original bagging ensemble for composing a selective bagging ensemble which can outperform the original one in prediction accuracy with a compact ensemble size. Simulation results indicate that the proposed hybrid model has a better prediction performance in flotation height than other algorithms’ performance.

  1. ELV Recycling Service Provider Selection Using the Hybrid MCDM Method: A Case Application in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuli Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid depletion of natural resources and undesired environmental changes globally, more interest has been shown in the research of green supply chain practices, including end-of-life vehicle (ELV recycling. The ELV recycling is mandatory for auto-manufacturers by legislation for the purpose of minimizing potential environmental damages. The purpose of the present research is to determine the best choice of ELV recycling service provider by employing an integrating hybrid multi-criteria decision making (MCDM method. In this research, economic, environmental and social factors are taken into consideration. The linguistic variables and trapezoidal fuzzy numbers (TFNs are applied into this evaluation to deal with the vague and qualitative information. With the combined weight calculation of criteria based on fuzzy aggregation and Shannon Entropy techniques, the normative multi-criteria optimization technique (FVIKOR method is applied to explore the best solution. An application was performed based on the proposed hybrid MCDM method, and sensitivity analysis was conducted on different decision making scenarios. The present study provides a decision-making approach on ELV recycling business selection under sustainability and green philosophy with high robustness and easy implementation.

  2. Hybrid Multicriteria Group Decision Making Method for Information System Project Selection Based on Intuitionistic Fuzzy Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Guo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Information system (IS project selection is of critical importance to every organization in dynamic competing environment. The aim of this paper is to develop a hybrid multicriteria group decision making approach based on intuitionistic fuzzy theory for IS project selection. The decision makers’ assessment information can be expressed in the form of real numbers, interval-valued numbers, linguistic variables, and intuitionistic fuzzy numbers (IFNs. All these evaluation pieces of information can be transformed to the form of IFNs. Intuitionistic fuzzy weighted averaging (IFWA operator is utilized to aggregate individual opinions of decision makers into a group opinion. Intuitionistic fuzzy entropy is used to obtain the entropy weights of the criteria. TOPSIS method combined with intuitionistic fuzzy set is proposed to select appropriate IS project in group decision making environment. Finally, a numerical example for information system projects selection is given to illustrate application of hybrid multi-criteria group decision making (MCGDM method based on intuitionistic fuzzy theory and TOPSIS method.

  3. Gradient-augmented hybrid interface capturing method for incompressible two-phase flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Fu; Shi-Yu, Wu; Kai-Xin, Liu

    2016-06-01

    Motivated by inconveniences of present hybrid methods, a gradient-augmented hybrid interface capturing method (GAHM) is presented for incompressible two-phase flow. A front tracking method (FTM) is used as the skeleton of the GAHM for low mass loss and resources. Smooth eulerian level set values are calculated from the FTM interface, and are used for a local interface reconstruction. The reconstruction avoids marker particle redistribution and enables an automatic treatment of interfacial topology change. The cubic Hermit interpolation is employed in all steps of the GAHM to capture subgrid structures within a single spacial cell. The performance of the GAHM is carefully evaluated in a benchmark test. Results show significant improvements of mass loss, clear subgrid structures, highly accurate derivatives (normals and curvatures) and low cost. The GAHM is further coupled with an incompressible multiphase flow solver, Super CE/SE, for more complex and practical applications. The updated solver is evaluated through comparison with an early droplet research. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 10972010, 11028206, 11371069, 11372052, 11402029, and 11472060), the Science and Technology Development Foundation of China Academy of Engineering Physics (CAEP), China (Grant No. 2014B0201030), and the Defense Industrial Technology Development Program of China (Grant No. B1520132012).

  4. Development of quadruped walking locomotion gait generator using a hybrid method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasni, F.; Shafie, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    The earth, in many areas is hardly reachable by the wheeled or tracked locomotion system. Thus, walking locomotion system is becoming a favourite option for mobile robot these days. This is because of the ability of walking locomotion to move on the rugged and unlevel terrains. However, to develop a walking locomotion gait for a robot is not a simple task. Central Pattern Generator (CPGs) method is a biological inspired method that is introduced as a method to develop the gait for the walking robot recently to tackle the issue faced by the conventional method of pre-designed trajectory based method. However, research shows that even the CPG method do have some limitations. Thus, in this paper, a hybrid method that combines CPG and the pre-designed trajectory based method is introduced to develop a walking gait for quadruped walking robot. The 3-D foot trajectories and the joint angle trajectories developed using the proposed method are compared with the data obtained via the conventional method of pre-designed trajectory to confirm the performance.

  5. Decentralized Method for Load Sharing and Power Management in a Hybrid Single/Three-Phase Islanded Microgrid Consisting of Hybrid Source PV/Battery Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karimi, Yaser; Oraee, Hashem; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new decentralized power management and load sharing method for a photovoltaic based, hybrid single/three-phase islanded microgrid consisting of various PV units, battery units and hybrid PV/battery units. The proposed method is not limited to the systems with separate PV...... and battery units, and power flow among different phases is performed automatically through three-phase units. The proposed method takes into account the available PV power and battery conditions of the units to share the load among them. To cover all possible conditions of the microgrid, the operation...... in different load, PV generation and battery conditions is validated experimentally in a microgrid lab prototype consisted of one three-phase unit and two single-phase units....

  6. Path-integral methods for analyzing the effects of fluctuations in stochastic hybrid neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressloff, Paul C

    2015-01-01

    We consider applications of path-integral methods to the analysis of a stochastic hybrid model representing a network of synaptically coupled spiking neuronal populations. The state of each local population is described in terms of two stochastic variables, a continuous synaptic variable and a discrete activity variable. The synaptic variables evolve according to piecewise-deterministic dynamics describing, at the population level, synapses driven by spiking activity. The dynamical equations for the synaptic currents are only valid between jumps in spiking activity, and the latter are described by a jump Markov process whose transition rates depend on the synaptic variables. We assume a separation of time scales between fast spiking dynamics with time constant [Formula: see text] and slower synaptic dynamics with time constant τ. This naturally introduces a small positive parameter [Formula: see text], which can be used to develop various asymptotic expansions of the corresponding path-integral representation of the stochastic dynamics. First, we derive a variational principle for maximum-likelihood paths of escape from a metastable state (large deviations in the small noise limit [Formula: see text]). We then show how the path integral provides an efficient method for obtaining a diffusion approximation of the hybrid system for small ϵ. The resulting Langevin equation can be used to analyze the effects of fluctuations within the basin of attraction of a metastable state, that is, ignoring the effects of large deviations. We illustrate this by using the Langevin approximation to analyze the effects of intrinsic noise on pattern formation in a spatially structured hybrid network. In particular, we show how noise enlarges the parameter regime over which patterns occur, in an analogous fashion to PDEs. Finally, we carry out a [Formula: see text]-loop expansion of the path integral, and use this to derive corrections to voltage-based mean-field equations, analogous

  7. Hybrid massively parallel fast sweeping method for static Hamilton–Jacobi equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detrixhe, Miles, E-mail: mdetrixhe@engineering.ucsb.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering (United States); University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA, 93106 (United States); Gibou, Frédéric, E-mail: fgibou@engineering.ucsb.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering (United States); University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA, 93106 (United States); Department of Computer Science (United States); Department of Mathematics (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The fast sweeping method is a popular algorithm for solving a variety of static Hamilton–Jacobi equations. Fast sweeping algorithms for parallel computing have been developed, but are severely limited. In this work, we present a multilevel, hybrid parallel algorithm that combines the desirable traits of two distinct parallel methods. The fine and coarse grained components of the algorithm take advantage of heterogeneous computer architecture common in high performance computing facilities. We present the algorithm and demonstrate its effectiveness on a set of example problems including optimal control, dynamic games, and seismic wave propagation. We give results for convergence, parallel scaling, and show state-of-the-art speedup values for the fast sweeping method.

  8. A hybrid method for computing forces on curved dislocations threading to free surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, M; Cai, W; Xu, G; Bulatov, V V

    2005-06-06

    Dislocations threading to free surfaces present a challenge for numerical implementation of traction-free boundary conditions. The difficulty arises when canonical (singular) solutions of dislocation mechanics are used in combination with the Finite Element or Boundary Element (Green's function) methods. A new hybrid method is developed here in which the singular part and the non-singular (regular) part of the image stress are dealt with separately. A special analytical solution for a semi-infinite straight dislocation intersecting the surface of a half-space is used to account for the singular part of the image stress, while the remaining regular part of the image stress field is treated using the standard Finite Element Method. The numerical advantages of such regularization are demonstrated with examples.

  9. Further validation of the hybrid particle-mesh method for vortex shedding flow simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Seung-Jae

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This is the continuation of a numerical study on vortex shedding from a blunt trailing-edge of a hydrofoil. In our previous work (Lee et al., 2015, numerical schemes for efficient computations were successfully implemented; i.e. multiple domains, the approximation of domain boundary conditions using cubic spline functions, and particle-based domain decomposition for better load balancing. In this study, numerical results through a hybrid particle-mesh method which adopts the Vortex-In-Cell (VIC method and the Brinkman penalization model are further rigorously validated through comparison to experimental data at the Reynolds number of 2 × 106. The effects of changes in numerical parameters are also explored herein. We find that the present numerical method enables us to reasonably simulate vortex shedding phenomenon, as well as turbulent wakes of a hydrofoil.

  10. [Stain hybridization method with pRepHind probe for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moleón Borodowsky, I

    1992-01-01

    A study was conducted on the parasitemia detection level and the specificity of the pRepHind DNA probe for diagnosing Plasmodium falciparum by the stain hybridization method. The parasitemia detection level was studied by using dilutions of a P. falciparum in vitro culture, adjusted by direct microscopic examination to 1; 0.1; 0.01; 0.001; 0.0001 and 0.00001% of parasited red cells. Specificity was increased by using DNA extractions from P. Yoelii, P. berghei and human leucocytes. The results showed that the method was able to detect 0.0001% of parasitemia starting from DNA extractions of 100 L infected red cells. The pRepHind probe only detected specifically DNA from P. falciparum. It is concluded that the method is suitable for being used in the diagnosis of infection due to P. falciparum.

  11. Diagnosis of Intermittent Faults in IGBTs Using the Latent Nestling Method with Hybrid Coloured Petri Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Rodriguez-Urrego

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fault diagnosis application of the Latent Nestling Method to IGBTs. The paper extends the Latent Nestling Method based in Coloured Petri Nets (CPNs to hybrid systems in such a manner that IGBTs performance can be modeled. CPNs allow for an enhanced capability for synthesis and modeling in contrast to the classical phenomena of combinational state explosion when Finite State Machine methods are applied. We present an IGBT model with different fault modes including those of intermittent nature that can be used advantageously as predictive symptoms within a predictive maintenance strategy. Ageing stress tests have been experimentally applied to the IGBTs modules and intermittent faults are diagnosed as precursors of permanent failures. In addition, ageing is validated with morphological analysis (Scanning Electron Microscopy and semiqualitative analysis (Energy Dispersive Spectrometry.

  12. Hybrid massively parallel fast sweeping method for static Hamilton-Jacobi equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detrixhe, Miles; Gibou, Frédéric

    2016-10-01

    The fast sweeping method is a popular algorithm for solving a variety of static Hamilton-Jacobi equations. Fast sweeping algorithms for parallel computing have been developed, but are severely limited. In this work, we present a multilevel, hybrid parallel algorithm that combines the desirable traits of two distinct parallel methods. The fine and coarse grained components of the algorithm take advantage of heterogeneous computer architecture common in high performance computing facilities. We present the algorithm and demonstrate its effectiveness on a set of example problems including optimal control, dynamic games, and seismic wave propagation. We give results for convergence, parallel scaling, and show state-of-the-art speedup values for the fast sweeping method.

  13. A Hybrid Heating Method for the HT-7U Coils during Vacuum-Pressure Impregnation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The HT-7U superconducting tokamak is a full-superconducting magnetically confined fusion device, The toroidal magnet system of HT-7U is a very important part of the device.In VPI (Vacuum-Pressure Impregnation) process the magnet coils must be heated and degassed before impregnating and must be heated to the gel temperature and then the curing temperature,and keep the two kinds of temperatures for a long period of time after impregnating. Thus the heating method of VPI is critical. In this paper, a hybrid method of combining the internal and external heating for the coils is analyzed, especially the possibility of the internal heating method is proved.

  14. Kinetics of the thermal degradation of Erica arborea by DSC: Hybrid kinetic method

    CERN Document Server

    Cancellieri, Dominique; Rossi, Jean Louis; 10.1016/j.tca.2005.07.013

    2008-01-01

    The scope of this work was the determination of kinetic parameters of the thermal oxidative degradation of a Mediterranean scrub using a hybrid method developed at the laboratory. DSC and TGA were used in this study under air sweeping to record oxidative reactions. Two dominating and overlapped exothermic peaks were recorded in DSC and individualized using an experimental and numerical separation. This first stage allowed obtaining the enthalpy variation of each exothermic phenomenon. In a second time, a model free method was applied on each isolated curve to determine the apparent activation energies. A reactional kinetic scheme was proposed for the global exotherm composed of two independent and consecutive reactions. In fine mean values of enthalpy variation and apparent activation energy previously determined were injected in a model fitting method to obtain the reaction order and the preexponential factor of each oxidative reaction. We plan to use these data in a sub-model to be integrated in a wildland ...

  15. Hybrid islanding detection method by using grid impedance estimation in parallel-inverters-based microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghzaiel, Walid; Jebali-Ben Ghorbal, Manel; Slama-Belkhodja, Ilhem

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid islanding detection algorithm integrated on the distributed generation unit more close to the point of common coupling of a Microgrid based on parallel inverters where one of them is responsible to control the system. The method is based on resonance excitation under...... parameters, both resistive and inductive parts, from the injected resonance frequency determination. Finally, the inverter will disconnect the microgrid from the faulty grid and reconnect the parallel inverter system to the controllable distributed system in order to ensure high power quality. This paper...... shows that grid impedance variation detection estimation can be an efficient method for islanding detection in microgrid systems. Theoretical analysis and simulation results are presented to validate the proposed method....

  16. A hybrid multiscale coarse-grained method for dynamics on complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Chuansheng; Hou, Zhonghuai; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Brute-force simulations for dynamics on very large networks are quite expensive. While phenomenological treatments may capture some macroscopic properties, they often ignore important microscopic details. Fortunately, one may be only interested in the property of local part and not in the whole network. Here, we propose a hybrid multiscale coarse-grained(HMCG) method which combines a fine Monte Carlo(MC) simulation on the part of nodes of interest with a more coarse Langevin dynamics on the rest part. We demonstrate the validity of our method by analyzing the equilibrium Ising model and the nonequilibrium susceptible-infected-susceptible model. It is found that HMCG not only works very well in reproducing the phase transitions and critical phenomena of the microscopic models, but also accelerates the evaluation of dynamics with significant computational savings compared to microscopic MC simulations directly for the whole networks. The proposed method is general and can be applied to a wide variety of network...

  17. Multi-hybrid method for investigation of EM scattering from inhomogeneous object above a dielectric rough surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Guo, LiXin; He, Qiong; Wei, Bing

    2012-10-01

    An iterative strategy combining Kirchhoff approximation^(KA) with the hybrid finite element-boundary integral (FE-BI) method is presented in this paper to study the interactions between the inhomogeneous object and the underlying rough surface. KA is applied to study scattering from underlying rough surfaces, whereas FE-BI deals with scattering from the above target. Both two methods use updated excitation sources. Huygens equivalence principle and an iterative strategy are employed to consider the multi-scattering effects. This hybrid FE-BI-KA scheme is an improved and generalized version of previous hybrid Kirchhoff approximation-method of moments (KA-MoM). This newly presented hybrid method has the following advantages: (1) the feasibility of modeling multi-scale scattering problems (large scale underlying surface and small scale target); (2) low memory requirement as in hybrid KA-MoM; (3) the ability to deal with scattering from inhomogeneous (including coated or layered) scatterers above rough surfaces. The numerical results are given to evaluate the accuracy of the multi-hybrid technique; the computing time and memory requirements consumed in specific numerical simulation of FE-BI-KA are compared with those of MoM. The convergence performance is analyzed by studying the iteration number variation caused by related parameters. Then bistatic scattering from inhomogeneous object of different configurations above dielectric Gaussian rough surface is calculated and the influences of dielectric compositions and surface roughness on the scattering pattern are discussed.

  18. An ensemble method with hybrid features to identify extracellular matrix proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Runtao; Zhang, Chengjin; Gao, Rui; Zhang, Lina

    2015-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a dynamic composite of secreted proteins that play important roles in numerous biological processes such as tissue morphogenesis, differentiation and homeostasis. Furthermore, various diseases are caused by the dysfunction of ECM proteins. Therefore, identifying these important ECM proteins may assist in understanding related biological processes and drug development. In view of the serious imbalance in the training dataset, a Random Forest-based ensemble method with hybrid features is developed in this paper to identify ECM proteins. Hybrid features are employed by incorporating sequence composition, physicochemical properties, evolutionary and structural information. The Information Gain Ratio and Incremental Feature Selection (IGR-IFS) methods are adopted to select the optimal features. Finally, the resulting predictor termed IECMP (Identify ECM Proteins) achieves an balanced accuracy of 86.4% using the 10-fold cross-validation on the training dataset, which is much higher than results obtained by other methods (ECMPRED: 71.0%, ECMPP: 77.8%). Moreover, when tested on a common independent dataset, our method also achieves significantly improved performance over ECMPP and ECMPRED. These results indicate that IECMP is an effective method for ECM protein prediction, which has a more balanced prediction capability for positive and negative samples. It is anticipated that the proposed method will provide significant information to fully decipher the molecular mechanisms of ECM-related biological processes and discover candidate drug targets. For public access, we develop a user-friendly web server for ECM protein identification that is freely accessible at http://iecmp.weka.cc.

  19. A Hybrid Vehicle Detection Method Based on Viola-Jones and HOG + SVM from UAV Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongzheng; Yu, Guizhen; Wang, Yunpeng; Wu, Xinkai; Ma, Yalong

    2016-08-19

    A new hybrid vehicle detection scheme which integrates the Viola-Jones (V-J) and linear SVM classifier with HOG feature (HOG + SVM) methods is proposed for vehicle detection from low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images. As both V-J and HOG + SVM are sensitive to on-road vehicles' in-plane rotation, the proposed scheme first adopts a roadway orientation adjustment method, which rotates each UAV image to align the roads with the horizontal direction so the original V-J or HOG + SVM method can be directly applied to achieve fast detection and high accuracy. To address the issue of descending detection speed for V-J and HOG + SVM, the proposed scheme further develops an adaptive switching strategy which sophistically integrates V-J and HOG + SVM methods based on their different descending trends of detection speed to improve detection efficiency. A comprehensive evaluation shows that the switching strategy, combined with the road orientation adjustment method, can significantly improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the vehicle detection from UAV images. The results also show that the proposed vehicle detection method is competitive compared with other existing vehicle detection methods. Furthermore, since the proposed vehicle detection method can be performed on videos captured from moving UAV platforms without the need of image registration or additional road database, it has great potentials of field applications. Future research will be focusing on expanding the current method for detecting other transportation modes such as buses, trucks, motors, bicycles, and pedestrians.

  20. A hybrid Boundary Element Unstructured Transmission-line (BEUT) method for accurate 2D electromagnetic simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Daniel; Cools, Kristof; Sewell, Phillip

    2016-11-01

    Time domain electromagnetic simulation tools have the ability to model transient, wide-band applications, and non-linear problems. The Boundary Element Method (BEM) and the Transmission Line Modeling (TLM) method are both well established numerical techniques for simulating time-varying electromagnetic fields. The former surface based method can accurately describe outwardly radiating fields from piecewise uniform objects and efficiently deals with large domains filled with homogeneous media. The latter volume based method can describe inhomogeneous and non-linear media and has been proven to be unconditionally stable. Furthermore, the Unstructured TLM (UTLM) enables modelling of geometrically complex objects by using triangular meshes which removes staircasing and unnecessary extensions of the simulation domain. The hybridization of BEM and UTLM which is described in this paper is named the Boundary Element Unstructured Transmission-line (BEUT) method. It incorporates the advantages of both methods. The theory and derivation of the 2D BEUT method is described in this paper, along with any relevant implementation details. The method is corroborated by studying its correctness and efficiency compared to the traditional UTLM method when applied to complex problems such as the transmission through a system of Luneburg lenses and the modelling of antenna radomes for use in wireless communications.

  1. A Hybrid Vehicle Detection Method Based on Viola-Jones and HOG + SVM from UAV Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongzheng; Yu, Guizhen; Wang, Yunpeng; Wu, Xinkai; Ma, Yalong

    2016-01-01

    A new hybrid vehicle detection scheme which integrates the Viola-Jones (V-J) and linear SVM classifier with HOG feature (HOG + SVM) methods is proposed for vehicle detection from low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images. As both V-J and HOG + SVM are sensitive to on-road vehicles’ in-plane rotation, the proposed scheme first adopts a roadway orientation adjustment method, which rotates each UAV image to align the roads with the horizontal direction so the original V-J or HOG + SVM method can be directly applied to achieve fast detection and high accuracy. To address the issue of descending detection speed for V-J and HOG + SVM, the proposed scheme further develops an adaptive switching strategy which sophistically integrates V-J and HOG + SVM methods based on their different descending trends of detection speed to improve detection efficiency. A comprehensive evaluation shows that the switching strategy, combined with the road orientation adjustment method, can significantly improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the vehicle detection from UAV images. The results also show that the proposed vehicle detection method is competitive compared with other existing vehicle detection methods. Furthermore, since the proposed vehicle detection method can be performed on videos captured from moving UAV platforms without the need of image registration or additional road database, it has great potentials of field applications. Future research will be focusing on expanding the current method for detecting other transportation modes such as buses, trucks, motors, bicycles, and pedestrians. PMID:27548179

  2. Logarithmic 3-Band Color Encoding: Robust Method for Display and Comparison of Compositional Maps in Electron Probe X-ray Microanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Dale E.; Bright, David S.

    1999-10-01

    Electron-excited X-ray maps recorded with the scanning electron microscope (SEM)/electron probe X-ray microanalyzer (EPMA) are a major method of presenting compositional information. Digitally recorded maps are processed in a variety of ways to improve the visibility of features. Scaling of the recorded signal to match the 8-bit gray-scale intensity range of a typical computer display system is almost always necessary. Inherent limitations of gray-scale displays have led to other intensity-encoding methods for X-ray maps, including clipping, histogram normalization, and pseudocolor scales. While feature visibility is improved by applying these scales, comparisons among image sets are difficult. Quantitative comparisons must be based on standardized intensities corrected for background to produce intensity ratio (k-value) maps. We have developed a new logarithmic, multiband color-encoding method to view these k-value maps more effectively. Three color bands are defined, starting with a dark primary color and grading to a bright pastel: blue = trace (0.001 to 0.01); green = minor (0.01 to 0.1); and red = major (0.1 to 1.0). Within each band, the color is assigned according to a logarithmic scale that depends on intensity ratio or compositional measurements. Logarithmic multiband color encoding permits direct comparisons of maps, such as maps of different elements in the same field of view or maps of the same element in different areas, because the color scale is identical for all maps.

  3. Physics-based hybrid method for multiscale transport in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefzadeh, Mehrdad; Battiato, Ilenia

    2017-09-01

    Despite advancements in the development of multiscale models for flow and reactive transport in porous media, the accurate, efficient and physics-based coupling of multiple scales in hybrid models remains a major theoretical and computational challenge. Improving the predictivity of macroscale predictions by means of multiscale algorithms relative to classical at-scale models is the primary motivation for the development of multiscale simulators. Yet, very few are the quantitative studies that explicitly address the predictive capability of multiscale coupling algorithms as it is still generally not possible to have a priori estimates of the errors that are present when complex flow processes are modeled. We develop a nonintrusive pore-/continuum-scale hybrid model whose coupling error is bounded by the upscaling error, i.e. we build a predictive tightly coupled multiscale scheme. This is accomplished by slightly enlarging the subdomain where continuum-scale equations are locally invalid and analytically defining physics-based coupling conditions at the interfaces separating the two computational sub-domains, while enforcing state variable and flux continuity. The proposed multiscale coupling approach retains the advantages of domain decomposition approaches, including the use of existing solvers for each subdomain, while it gains flexibility in the choice of the numerical discretization method and maintains the coupling errors bounded by the upscaling error. We implement the coupling in finite volumes and test the proposed method by modeling flow and transport through a reactive channel and past an array of heterogeneously reactive cylinders.

  4. A Robust Method for Handling Low Density Regions in Hybrid Simulations for Collisionless Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Amano, Takanobu; Shirakawa, Keisuke

    2014-01-01

    A robust method to handle vacuum and near vacuum regions in hybrid simulations for space and astrophysical plasmas is presented. The conventional hybrid simulation model dealing with kinetic ions and a massless charge-neutralizing electron fluid is known to be susceptible to numerical instability due to divergence of the whistler-mode wave dispersion, as well as division-by-density operation in regions of low density. Consequently, a pure vacuum region is not allowed to exist in the simulation domain unless some ad hoc technique is used. To resolve this difficulty, an alternative way to introduce finite electron inertia effect is proposed. Contrary to the conventional method, the proposed one introduces a correction to the electric field rather than the magnetic field. It is shown that the generalized Ohm's law correctly reduces to Laplace's equation in a vacuum which therefore does not involve any numerical problems. In addition, a variable ion-to-electron mass ratio is introduced to reduce the phase velocit...

  5. A Method for Determination of Metals in Hybrid Metal Oxide/Metal-Carbon Nanotubes Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Bok-Badura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs, due to their special structure and unique properties, are still one of the most interesting materials for scientists. Recently, carbon nanotubes were proposed as a new type of carbon support for catalysts. Fe, Pt, Ni, Co, and other metals anchored to CNTs are used in various reactions. Due to the fact that production processes are usually unpredictable and the total amount of metal/metal oxide deposited on the CNTs may only be estimated, the methods for examining the chemical composition are necessary. In this study, fast and simple inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES with slurry nebulization was proposed for metal content determination in hybrid CeZrO2/CNT, Ni-CeZrO2/CNT, and Ni/CNT materials. Slurries were prepared by 30 min ultrasonication of appropriate amount of investigated material in 1% Triton X-100 solution. Optimal range of slurry concentration and optimal RF plasma power were established (40–400 mg L−1, 1.2 kW, resp.. Obtained results proved that this method may be applied for determination of Ce, Zr, and Ni in hybrid CNT-based materials.

  6. Non-conforming hybrid meshes for efficient 2-D wave propagation using the Discontinuous Galerkin Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Verena; Käser, Martin; Castro, Cristóbal E.

    2011-02-01

    We present a Discontinuous Galerkin finite element method using a high-order time integration technique for seismic wave propagation modelling on non-conforming hybrid meshes in two space dimensions. The scheme can be formulated to achieve the same approximation order in space and time and avoids numerical artefacts due to non-conforming mesh transitions or the change of the element type. A point-wise Gaussian integration along partially overlapping edges of adjacent elements is used to preserve the schemes accuracy while providing a higher flexibility in the problem-adapted mesh generation process. We describe the domain decomposition strategy of the parallel implementation and validate the performance of the new scheme by numerical convergence test and experiments with comparisons to independent reference solutions. The advantage of non-conforming hybrid meshes is the possibility to choose the mesh spacing proportional to the seismic velocity structure, which allows for simple refinement or coarsening methods even for regular quadrilateral meshes. For particular problems of strong material contrasts and geometrically thin structures, the scheme reduces the computational cost in the sense of memory and run-time requirements. The presented results promise to achieve a similar behaviour for an extension to three space dimensions where the coupling of tetrahedral and hexahedral elements necessitates non-conforming mesh transitions to avoid linking elements in form of pyramids.

  7. Synthesis of hybrid chitosan/calcium aluminosilicate using a sol-gel method for optical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elnahrawy, Amany Mohamed [Department of Solid State, Physics Division, National Research Center (NRC), Giza 12622, Cairo (Egypt); Kim, Yong Soo, E-mail: yskim2@ulsan.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Energy Harvest-Storage Research Center (EHSRC), University of Ulsan, Ulsan 44610 (Korea, Republic of); Ali, Ahmed I., E-mail: Ahmed_ali_2010@helwan.edu.eg [Department of Physics and Energy Harvest-Storage Research Center (EHSRC), University of Ulsan, Ulsan 44610 (Korea, Republic of); Basic Science Department, Faculty of Industrial Education & Technology, Helwan University, Cairo 11281 (Egypt)

    2016-08-15

    Hybrid chitosan (CS)/calcium aluminosilicate nanocomposites thin films and membranes were prepared using a sol–gel method with three different concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (5, 7 and 10 mol. %). The prepared nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. The optical properties of the prepared samples were analyzed by UV/Vis spectrophotometry and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The optical parameters revealed an increase in both the refractive index and band gap of the nanocomposites with increasing Al concentration. In addition, the PL spectra revealed a blue shift that was consistent with an increase in the optical band gap. These results suggest that CS/calcium aluminosilicate in two different forms can be a good candidate for optical sensors applications. - Highlights: • We show a large specific surface area of hybrid CS/calcium aluminosilicate thin films and membranes using sol-gel method. • Inorganic SiO{sub 2}-based phase are perfectly embedded onto chitosan matrix has a reliable stability. • CS/calcium aluminosilicate could be usable for optical sensors, planar waveguide, and bio-sensing.

  8. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder analyzed with array comparative genome hybridization method. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duga, Balázs; Czakó, Márta; Komlósi, Katalin; Hadzsiev, Kinga; Sümegi, Katalin; Kisfali, Péter; Melegh, Márton; Melegh, Béla

    2014-10-05

    One of the most common psychiatric disorders during childhood is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, which affects 5-6% of children worldwide. Symptoms include attention deficit, hyperactivity, forgetfulness and weak impulse control. The exact mechanism behind the development of the disease is unknown. However, current data suggest that a strong genetic background is responsible, which explains the frequent occurrence within a family. Literature data show that copy number variations are very common in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The authors present a patient with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder who proved to have two approximately 400 kb heterozygous microduplications at 6p25.2 and 15q13.3 chromosomal regions detected by comparative genomic hybridization methods. Both duplications affect genes (6p25.2: SLC22A23; 15q13.3: CHRNA7) which may play a role in the development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. This case serves as an example of the wide spectrum of indication of the array comparative genome hybridization method.

  9. A new finite element and finite difference hybrid method for computing electrostatics of ionic solvated biomolecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Jinyong; Xie, Dexuan

    2015-10-01

    The Poisson-Boltzmann equation (PBE) is one widely-used implicit solvent continuum model for calculating electrostatics of ionic solvated biomolecule. In this paper, a new finite element and finite difference hybrid method is presented to solve PBE efficiently based on a special seven-overlapped box partition with one central box containing the solute region and surrounded by six neighboring boxes. In particular, an efficient finite element solver is applied to the central box while a fast preconditioned conjugate gradient method using a multigrid V-cycle preconditioning is constructed for solving a system of finite difference equations defined on a uniform mesh of each neighboring box. Moreover, the PBE domain, the box partition, and an interface fitted tetrahedral mesh of the central box can be generated adaptively for a given PQR file of a biomolecule. This new hybrid PBE solver is programmed in C, Fortran, and Python as a software tool for predicting electrostatics of a biomolecule in a symmetric 1:1 ionic solvent. Numerical results on two test models with analytical solutions and 12 proteins validate this new software tool, and demonstrate its high performance in terms of CPU time and memory usage.

  10. Dissolved oxygen content prediction in crab culture using a hybrid intelligent method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huihui; Chen, Yingyi; Hassan, Shahbazgul; Li, Daoliang

    2016-06-01

    A precise predictive model is needed to obtain a clear understanding of the changing dissolved oxygen content in outdoor crab ponds, to assess how to reduce risk and to optimize water quality management. The uncertainties in the data from multiple sensors are a significant factor when building a dissolved oxygen content prediction model. To increase prediction accuracy, a new hybrid dissolved oxygen content forecasting model based on the radial basis function neural networks (RBFNN) data fusion method and a least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) with an optimal improved particle swarm optimization(IPSO) is developed. In the modelling process, the RBFNN data fusion method is used to improve information accuracy and provide more trustworthy training samples for the IPSO-LSSVM prediction model. The LSSVM is a powerful tool for achieving nonlinear dissolved oxygen content forecasting. In addition, an improved particle swarm optimization algorithm is developed to determine the optimal parameters for the LSSVM with high accuracy and generalizability. In this study, the comparison of the prediction results of different traditional models validates the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed hybrid RBFNN-IPSO-LSSVM model for dissolved oxygen content prediction in outdoor crab ponds.

  11. A Novel Degradation Estimation Method for a Hybrid Energy Storage System Consisting of Battery and Double-Layer Capacitor

    OpenAIRE

    Yuanbin Yu; Dongdong Zhang; Haitao Min; Yi Tang; Tao Zhu(GCAP-CASPER, Physics Department, Baylor University, One Bear Place, # 97316, Waco, TX 76798-7316, U.S.A.)

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for battery degradation estimation using a power-energy (PE) function in a battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage system (HESS), and the integrated optimization which concerns both parameters matching and control for HESS has been done as well. A semiactive topology of HESS with double-layer capacitor (EDLC) coupled directly with DC-link is adopted for a hybrid electric city bus (HECB). In the purpose of presenting the quantitative relationship between s...

  12. Systematization of a hybrid costing method for medical procedures: a concomitant apllication of the ABC and UEP methodologies

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia Zanievicz da Silva; Altair Borgert; Charles Albino Schultz

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study consists in systematization Hybrid Costing Methodology supported by the concepts of Activity Based Costing (ABC) and the Production Effort Unit (UEP) to quantify the cost of medical procedures in hospitals. By means of theory-concept research, the hybrid method application stages were organized and then tested at the University Hospital of the University of the State of Santa Catarina with the purpose of determining the cost of medical procedures, more...

  13. A New Starting Method of the Hybrid Power Filter for Wind Power Generation Systems with Soft Starter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroaki; Hiraki, Eiji; Tanaka, Toshihiko

    This paper proposes a new method of starting the hybrid power filter for wind power generation systems with soft starter. In the proposed method, an active filter of the hybrid power filter behaves a resistor for the source current under the starting condition. Thus the inrush phenomena of the passive filter are perfectly suppressed. The basic principle of the proposed starting method is discussed, and then confirmed by digital computer simulation using PSCAD/EMTDC. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed starting method can overcome the inrush currents for the passive filter, building up the dc voltage of the active filter.

  14. Sitotoksisitas resin akrilik hybrid setelah penambahan glass fiber dengan metode berbeda (Cytotoxicity of the hybrid acrylic resin after glass fiber reinforcement with difference method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Nirwana

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Glass fiber reinforcement of the hybrid acrylic resin with difference method can enhance residual monomer content of the material; it can cause cytotoxic effect on fibroblast cells. The purpose of this study was to know the cytotoxicity of hybrid acrylic resins after glass fiber reinforcement with difference method on the cultured fibroblasts. The squared specimens of 10 mm in length, 10 mm in width and 1.5 mm in thickness were cured for 20 minutes at 100° C. The fibroblast cells were grown in Eagle's Minimum Essential Medium to be 2 × 105 cells/ml, then the cells were added to the samples in the plates and incubated at 37° C. After 48 hours, the cytotoxic effect was determined by direct cell number count using microscope and a hemocytometer. The statistical analyses using one way ANOVA and LSD test showed that there were significant difference in cell viability (p < 0.05 among the groups. The means percentage of cell viability were 90.00%, 99.,11%, 98.66%, it could be concluded that glass fiber reinforcement into hybrid acrylic resin with either first method or second method was not toxic.

  15. Hooke–Jeeves Method-used Local Search in a Hybrid Global Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Sulimov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern methods for optimization investigation of complex systems are based on development and updating the mathematical models of systems because of solving the appropriate inverse problems. Input data desirable for solution are obtained from the analysis of experimentally defined consecutive characteristics for a system or a process. Causal characteristics are the sought ones to which equation coefficients of mathematical models of object, limit conditions, etc. belong. The optimization approach is one of the main ones to solve the inverse problems. In the main case it is necessary to find a global extremum of not everywhere differentiable criterion function. Global optimization methods are widely used in problems of identification and computation diagnosis system as well as in optimal control, computing to-mography, image restoration, teaching the neuron networks, other intelligence technologies. Increasingly complicated systems of optimization observed during last decades lead to more complicated mathematical models, thereby making solution of appropriate extreme problems significantly more difficult. A great deal of practical applications may have the problem con-ditions, which can restrict modeling. As a consequence, in inverse problems the criterion functions can be not everywhere differentiable and noisy. Available noise means that calculat-ing the derivatives is difficult and unreliable. It results in using the optimization methods without calculating the derivatives.An efficiency of deterministic algorithms of global optimization is significantly restrict-ed by their dependence on the extreme problem dimension. When the number of variables is large they use the stochastic global optimization algorithms. As stochastic algorithms yield too expensive solutions, so this drawback restricts their applications. Developing hybrid algo-rithms that combine a stochastic algorithm for scanning the variable space with deterministic local search

  16. Divergent Development of Hexaploid Triticale by a Wheat - Rye -Psathyrostachys huashanica Trigeneric Hybrid Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Houyang; Wang, Hao; Huang, Juan; Wang, Yujie; Li, Daiyan; Diao, Chengdou; Zhu, Wei; Tang, Yao; Wang, Yi; Fan, Xing; Zeng, Jian; Xu, Lili; Sha, Lina; Zhang, Haiqin; Zhou, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    Hexaploid triticale is an important forage crop and a promising energy plant. Some forms were previously reported for developing the hexaploid triticale, such as crossing tetraploid wheat or hexaploid wheat with rye, crossing hexaploid triticale and/or hexaploid wheat with octoploid triticale, and spontaneously appearing in the selfed progenies of octoploid triticale. In the present study, we developed an effective method for production of diverse types of hexaploid triticale via wheat-rye-Psathyrostachys huashanica trigeneric hybrid. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) karyotyping revealed that D genome chromosomes were completely eliminated and the whole A, B, and R genome chromosomes were retained in three lines. More interestingly, the composite genome of the line K14-489-2 consisted of complete A and B genomes and chromosomes 1D, 2R, 3R, 4R, 5R, 6R, and 7R, that of line K14-491-2 was 12 A-genome (1A-6A), 14 B-genome (1B-7B), 12 R-genome (1R-3R, 5R-7R), and chromosomes 1D and 3D, and that of the line K14-547-1 had 26A/B and 14R chromosomes, plus one pair of centric 6BL/2DS translocations. This finding implies that some of D genome chromosomes can be spontaneously and stably incorporated into the hexaploid triticale. Additionally, a variety of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) compositions were detected in the six hexaploid triticale lines, respectively. Besides, compared with its recurrent triticale parent Zhongsi828, these lines showed high level of resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, Pst) pathogens prevalent in China, including V26/Gui 22. These new hexaploid triticales not only enhanced diversification of triticale but also could be utilized as valuable germplasm for wheat improvement.

  17. Hybrid Multiscale Finite Volume Method for Advection-Diffusion Equations Subject to Heterogeneous Reactive Boundary Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barajas-Solano, David A.; Tartakovsky, A. M.

    2016-10-13

    We present a hybrid scheme for the coupling of macro and microscale continuum models for reactive contaminant transport in fractured and porous media. The transport model considered is the advection-dispersion equation, subject to linear heterogeneous reactive boundary conditions. The Multiscale Finite Volume method (MsFV) is employed to define an approximation to the microscale concentration field defined in terms of macroscopic or \\emph{global} degrees of freedom, together with local interpolator and corrector functions capturing microscopic spatial variability. The macroscopic mass balance relations for the MsFV global degrees of freedom are coupled with the macroscopic model, resulting in a global problem for the simultaneous time-stepping of all macroscopic degrees of freedom throughout the domain. In order to perform the hybrid coupling, the micro and macroscale models are applied over overlapping subdomains of the simulation domain, with the overlap denoted as the handshake subdomain $\\Omega^{hs}$, over which continuity of concentration and transport fluxes between models is enforced. Continuity of concentration is enforced by posing a restriction relation between models over $\\Omega^{hs}$. Continuity of fluxes is enforced by prolongating the macroscopic model fluxes across the boundary of $\\Omega^{hs}$ to microscopic resolution. The microscopic interpolator and corrector functions are solutions to local microscopic advection-diffusion problems decoupled from the global degrees of freedom and from each other by virtue of the MsFV decoupling ansatz. The error introduced by the decoupling ansatz is reduced iteratively by the preconditioned GMRES algorithm, with the hybrid MsFV operator serving as the preconditioner.

  18. Probe hybridization array typing: a binary typing method for Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, U; Zhang, L; France, A M; Ghosh, D; Shalaby, W; Xie, J; Marrs, C F; Foxman, B

    2007-01-01

    The ability to distinguish between Escherichia coli strains is critical for outbreak investigations. Binary typing, based on the presence or absence of genetic material, provides a high-throughput alternative to gel- and PCR-based typing techniques that generate complex banding patterns and lack uniform interpretation criteria. We developed, validated, and determined the discriminatory power of an E. coli binary typing method, probe hybridization array typing (PHAT). In PHAT, the absence or presence of genetic material is identified by using DNA hybridization to produce a reproducible and portable fingerprint for each genome. PHAT probes were generated from genome subtractive hybridization experiments. We PHAT typed the ECOR collection of strains from a variety of geographical locations, and 33 rectal E. coli strains selected from college-aged women with urinary tract infection. In the set of 33 human rectal strains, the discriminatory power of PHAT (98%) equaled that of multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. However, for ECOR strains, which include nonhuman strains, the current set of PHAT probes was less discriminating than MLST, ribotyping, and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence PCR (80% versus 97, 92, and 97%, respectively). When we limited the analysis to ECOR strains of B2 and D lineage, which are associated with human infection, current PHAT probes were highly discriminatory (94%). PHAT can be applied in a high-throughput format (i.e., "library on a slide"), the discriminatory ability can be varied based on the probe set, and PHAT is readily adapted to other bacterial species with high variation in genetic content.

  19. Divergent Development of Hexaploid Triticale by a Wheat - Rye -Psathyrostachys huashanica Trigeneric Hybrid Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houyang Kang

    Full Text Available Hexaploid triticale is an important forage crop and a promising energy plant. Some forms were previously reported for developing the hexaploid triticale, such as crossing tetraploid wheat or hexaploid wheat with rye, crossing hexaploid triticale and/or hexaploid wheat with octoploid triticale, and spontaneously appearing in the selfed progenies of octoploid triticale. In the present study, we developed an effective method for production of diverse types of hexaploid triticale via wheat-rye-Psathyrostachys huashanica trigeneric hybrid. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH karyotyping revealed that D genome chromosomes were completely eliminated and the whole A, B, and R genome chromosomes were retained in three lines. More interestingly, the composite genome of the line K14-489-2 consisted of complete A and B genomes and chromosomes 1D, 2R, 3R, 4R, 5R, 6R, and 7R, that of line K14-491-2 was 12 A-genome (1A-6A, 14 B-genome (1B-7B, 12 R-genome (1R-3R, 5R-7R, and chromosomes 1D and 3D, and that of the line K14-547-1 had 26A/B and 14R chromosomes, plus one pair of centric 6BL/2DS translocations. This finding implies that some of D genome chromosomes can be spontaneously and stably incorporated into the hexaploid triticale. Additionally, a variety of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS compositions were detected in the six hexaploid triticale lines, respectively. Besides, compared with its recurrent triticale parent Zhongsi828, these lines showed high level of resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, Pst pathogens prevalent in China, including V26/Gui 22. These new hexaploid triticales not only enhanced diversification of triticale but also could be utilized as valuable germplasm for wheat improvement.

  20. Organic/hybrid nanoparticles and single-walled carbon nanotubes: preparation methods and chiral applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassen, Haysem; Antony, Vijy; Ghanem, Ashraf; Yajadda, Mir Massoud Aghili; Han, Zhao Jun; Ostrikov, Kostya Ken

    2014-11-01

    Nanoparticles are molecular-sized solids with at least one dimension measuring between 1-100 nm or 10-1000 nm depending on the individual discipline's perspective. They are aggregates of anywhere from a few hundreds to tens of thousands of atoms which render them larger than molecules but smaller than bulk solids. Consequently, they frequently exhibit physical and chemical properties somewhere between. On the other hand, nanocrystals are a special class of nanoparticles which have started gaining attention recently owing to their unique crystalline structures which provide a larger surface area and promising applications including chiral separations. Hybrid nanoparticles are supported by the growing interest of chemists, physicists, and biologists, who are researching to fully exploit them. These materials can be defined as molecular or nano-composites with mixed (organic or bio) and inorganic components, where at least one of the component domain has a dimension ranging from a few Å to several nanometers. Similarly, and due to their extraordinary physical, chemical, and electrical properties, single-walled carbon nanotubes have been the subject of intense research. In this short review, the focus is mainly on the current well-established simple preparation techniques of chiral organic and hybrid nanoparticles as well as single-walled carbon nanotubes and their applications in separation science. Of particular interest, cinchonidine, chitosan, and β-CD-modified gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are discussed as model examples for organic and hybrid nanoparticles. Likewise, the chemical vapor deposition method, used in the preparation of single-walled carbon nanotubes, is discussed. The enantioseparation applications of these model nanomaterials is also presented.

  1. Amplified RNA degradation in T7-amplification methods results in biased microarray hybridizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivell Richard

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amplification of RNA with the T7-System is a widely used technique for obtaining increased amounts of RNA starting from limited material. The amplified RNA (aRNA can subsequently be used for microarray hybridizations, warranting sufficient signal for image analysis. We describe here an amplification-time dependent degradation of aRNA in prolonged standard T7 amplification protocols, that results in lower average size aRNA and decreased yields. Results A time-dependent degradation of amplified RNA (aRNA could be observed when using the classical "Eberwine" T7-Amplification method. When the amplification was conducted for more than 4 hours, the resulting aRNA showed a significantly smaller size distribution on gel electrophoresis and a concomitant reduction of aRNA yield. The degradation of aRNA could be correlated to the presence of the T7 RNA Polymerase in the amplification cocktail. The aRNA degradation resulted in a strong bias in microarray hybridizations with a high coefficient of variation and a significant reduction of signals of certain transcripts, that seem to be susceptible to this RNA degrading activity. The time-dependent degradation of these transcripts was verified by a real-time PCR approach. Conclusions It is important to perform amplifications not longer than 4 hours as there is a characteristic 'quality vs. yield' situation for longer amplification times. When conducting microarray hybridizations it is important not to compare results obtained with aRNA from different amplification times.

  2. Hybrid charge division multiplexing method for silicon photomultiplier based PET detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Haewook; Ko, Guen Bae; Lee, Jae Sung

    2017-06-01

    Silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) is widely utilized in various positron emission tomography (PET) detectors and systems. However, the individual recording of SiPM output signals is still challenging owing to the high granularity of the SiPM; thus, charge division multiplexing is commonly used in PET detectors. Resistive charge division method is well established for reducing the number of output channels in conventional multi-channel photosensors, but it degrades the timing performance of SiPM-based PET detectors by yielding a large resistor-capacitor (RC) constant. Capacitive charge division method, on the other hand, yields a small RC constant and provides a faster timing response than the resistive method, but it suffers from an output signal undershoot. Therefore, in this study, we propose a hybrid charge division method which can be implemented by cascading the parallel combination of a resistor and a capacitor throughout the multiplexing network. In order to compare the performance of the proposed method with the conventional methods, a 16-channel Hamamatsu SiPM (S11064-050P) was coupled with a 4  ×  4 LGSO crystal block (3  ×  3  ×  20 mm3) and a 9  ×  9 LYSO crystal block (1.2  ×  1.2  ×  10 mm3). In addition, we tested a time-over-threshold (TOT) readout using the digitized position signals to further demonstrate the feasibility of the time-based readout of multiplexed signals based on the proposed method. The results indicated that the proposed method exhibited good energy and timing performance, thus inheriting only the advantages of conventional resistive and capacitive methods. Moreover, the proposed method showed excellent pulse shape uniformity that does not depend on the position of the interacted crystal. Accordingly, we can conclude that the hybrid charge division method is useful for effectively reducing the number of output channels of the SiPM array.

  3. Business Scenario Evaluation Method Using Monte Carlo Simulation on Qualitative and Quantitative Hybrid Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samejima, Masaki; Akiyoshi, Masanori; Mitsukuni, Koshichiro; Komoda, Norihisa

    We propose a business scenario evaluation method using qualitative and quantitative hybrid model. In order to evaluate business factors with qualitative causal relations, we introduce statistical values based on propagation and combination of effects of business factors by Monte Carlo simulation. In propagating an effect, we divide a range of each factor by landmarks and decide an effect to a destination node based on the divided ranges. In combining effects, we decide an effect of each arc using contribution degree and sum all effects. Through applied results to practical models, it is confirmed that there are no differences between results obtained by quantitative relations and results obtained by the proposed method at the risk rate of 5%.

  4. A Hybrid Multi Objective Particle Swarm Optimization Method to Discover Biclusters in Microarray Data

    CERN Document Server

    lashkargir, Mohsen; Dastjerdi, Ahmad Baraani

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, with the development of microarray technique, discovery of useful knowledge from microarray data has become very important. Biclustering is a very useful data mining technique for discovering genes which have similar behavior. In microarray data, several objectives have to be optimized simultaneously and often these objectives are in conflict with each other. A Multi Objective model is capable of solving such problems. Our method proposes a Hybrid algorithm which is based on the Multi Objective Particle Swarm Optimization for discovering biclusters in gene expression data. In our method, we will consider a low level of overlapping amongst the biclusters and try to cover all elements of the gene expression matrix. Experimental results in the bench mark database show a significant improvement in both overlap among biclusters and coverage of elements in the gene expression matrix.

  5. Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods for parameter estimation of a novel hybrid redundant robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yongbo, E-mail: yongbo.wang@hotmail.com [Laboratory of Intelligent Machine, Lappeenranta University of Technology, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Wu Huapeng; Handroos, Heikki [Laboratory of Intelligent Machine, Lappeenranta University of Technology, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland)

    2011-10-15

    This paper presents a statistical method for the calibration of a redundantly actuated hybrid serial-parallel robot IWR (Intersector Welding Robot). The robot under study will be used to carry out welding, machining, and remote handing for the assembly of vacuum vessel of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The robot has ten degrees of freedom (DOF), among which six DOF are contributed by the parallel mechanism and the rest are from the serial mechanism. In this paper, a kinematic error model which involves 54 unknown geometrical error parameters is developed for the proposed robot. Based on this error model, the mean values of the unknown parameters are statistically analyzed and estimated by means of Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach. The computer simulation is conducted by introducing random geometric errors and measurement poses which represent the corresponding real physical behaviors. The simulation results of the marginal posterior distributions of the estimated model parameters indicate that our method is reliable and robust.

  6. Active semi-supervised learning method with hybrid deep belief networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shusen; Chen, Qingcai; Wang, Xiaolong

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a novel semi-supervised learning algorithm called active hybrid deep belief networks (AHD), to address the semi-supervised sentiment classification problem with deep learning. First, we construct the previous several hidden layers using restricted Boltzmann machines (RBM), which can reduce the dimension and abstract the information of the reviews quickly. Second, we construct the following hidden layers using convolutional restricted Boltzmann machines (CRBM), which can abstract the information of reviews effectively. Third, the constructed deep architecture is fine-tuned by gradient-descent based supervised learning with an exponential loss function. Finally, active learning method is combined based on the proposed deep architecture. We did several experiments on five sentiment classification datasets, and show that AHD is competitive with previous semi-supervised learning algorithm. Experiments are also conducted to verify the effectiveness of our proposed method with different number of labeled reviews and unlabeled reviews respectively.

  7. Optimization of the hybrid bilayer membrane method for immobilization of avidin on quartz crystal microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Saem; Choi, Suk-Jung

    2009-04-15

    Hybrid bilayer membrane (HBM), comprising a lipid monolayer fused to a hydrophobic self-assembled monolayer (SAM), has a potential capability to provide a convenient tool for the preparation of functionalized sensor surfaces. In this work, the HBM approach was optimized for the preparation of avidin-containing quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor chip which would be available for immobilization of biotinylated molecules. Lipid layer of HBM was composed of background lipid such as egg phosphatidyl choline and biotinylated lipid to which avidin was attached. Highest performance was obtained at 1:1 ratio of the biotinylated lipid and the background lipid, and sensitivity and stability of the resulting sensor chip was comparable to a sensor chip prepared by the conventional carbodiimide reaction. By utilizing the HBM method, construction of a stable avidin sensor chip was achieved within 40 min without any chemical steps. Thus the HBM method was proven to be a convenient and efficient way to immobilize avidin on sensor surfaces.

  8. An aggregation method of Markov graphs for the reliability analysis of hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenig, Raphael [Centre de Recherche en Automatique de Nancy (CRAN), 2, avenue de la Foret de Haye, 54516 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France) and GFI Consulting, 12, rue Rouget de Lisle, 92442 Issy les Moulineaux (France)]. E-mail: raphael.schoenig@mpsa.com; Aubry, Jean-Francois [Centre de Recherche en Automatique de Nancy (CRAN), 2, avenue de la Foret de Haye, 54516 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)]. E-mail: jean-francois.aubry@isi.u-nancy.fr; Cambois, Thierry [PSA Peugeot Citroen, 18, rue des Fauvelles, 92256 La Garenne Colombes (France)]. E-mail: thierry.cambois@mpsa.com; Hutinet, Tony [GFI Consulting, 12, rue Rouget de Lisle, 92442 Issy les Moulineaux (France)]. E-mail: thutinet@gfi.fr

    2006-02-01

    To meet always increasing safety requirements in car industry, design and safety assessment methods are developed in order to fit the complexity of new embedded mecatronic systems. Hybrid (discrete/continuous) and dynamic features, specific to these systems, require choosing a suitable formalism. These features should also be considered in safety studies made all through the system design. The aim of this paper is to propose a quantitative analysis method based on the construction of an aggregated Markov graph, which allows a limitation of the combinatorial expansion. This graph is directly deducted from the Petri net modelling of the system. It is composed by a set of functional modes and a set of transitions to which statistical information regarding the system dynamics has been added.

  9. Ultrasound thermal mapping based on a hybrid method combining physical and statistical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ben-Ting; Shieh, Jay; Huang, Chang-Wei; Chen, Wen-Shiang; Chen, Shing-Ru; Chen, Chuin-Shan

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive temperature measurement of tissues deep inside the body has great potential for clinical applications, such as temperature monitoring during thermal therapy and early diagnosis of diseases. We developed a novel method for both temperature estimation and thermal mapping that uses ultrasound B-mode radiofrequency data. The proposed method is a hybrid that combines elements of physical and statistical models to achieve higher precision and resolution of temperature variations and distribution. We propose a dimensionless combined index (CI) that combines the echo shift differential and signal intensity difference with a weighting factor relative to the distance from the heat source. In vitro experiments verified that the combined index has a strong linear relationship with temperature variation and can be used to effectively estimate temperature with an average relative error thermal therapy and could easily be integrated into existing ultrasound systems. Copyright © 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Class of Parameter Estimation Methods for Nonlinear Muskingum Model Using Hybrid Invasive Weed Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijia Ouyang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear Muskingum models are important tools in hydrological forecasting. In this paper, we have come up with a class of new discretization schemes including a parameter θ to approximate the nonlinear Muskingum model based on general trapezoid formulas. The accuracy of these schemes is second order, if θ≠1/3, but interestingly when θ=1/3, the accuracy of the presented scheme gets improved to third order. Then, the present schemes are transformed into an unconstrained optimization problem which can be solved by a hybrid invasive weed optimization (HIWO algorithm. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the present methods. The numerical results substantiate the fact that the presented methods have better precision in estimating the parameters of nonlinear Muskingum models.

  11. Hybrid Methods and Atomistic Models to Explore Free Energies, Rates and Pathways of Protein Shape Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yong

    biologist, I was proud and excited for the breaking news as this prize is not only to them, but also to the whole community of computational biology. There has been progress in the modeling of protein dynamics in recent years and it has also started to be clear that computer simulations play...... folding, conformational exchange and binding with ligands at long time scales. In Chapter 2, we benchmarked how well the current force elds and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations could model changes in structure, dynamics, free energy and kinetics for an extensively studied protein called T4 lysozyme (T4...... allows us to utilize the limited computational resources in a more reasonable way. In Chapter 5, we further illustrated the possibility to combine the free energy ooding potential obtained from the variational method with infrequent metadynamics to calculate the long timescale rate. This hybrid method...

  12. A hybrid spatial-spectral denoising method for infrared hyperspectral images using 2DPCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Ma, Yong; Mei, Xiaoguang; Fan, Fan

    2016-11-01

    The traditional noise reduction methods for 3-D infrared hyperspectral images typically operate independently in either the spatial or spectral domain, and such methods overlook the relationship between the two domains. To address this issue, we propose a hybrid spatial-spectral method in this paper to link both domains. First, principal component analysis and bivariate wavelet shrinkage are performed in the 2-D spatial domain. Second, 2-D principal component analysis transformation is conducted in the 1-D spectral domain to separate the basic components from detail ones. The energy distribution of noise is unaffected by orthogonal transformation; therefore, the signal-to-noise ratio of each component is used as a criterion to determine whether a component should be protected from over-denoising or denoised with certain 1-D denoising methods. This study implements the 1-D wavelet shrinking threshold method based on Stein's unbiased risk estimator, and the quantitative results on publicly available datasets demonstrate that our method can improve denoising performance more effectively than other state-of-the-art methods can.

  13. An analysis platform for multiscale hydrogeologic modeling with emphasis on hybrid multiscale methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibe, Timothy D; Murphy, Ellyn M; Chen, Xingyuan; Rice, Amy K; Carroll, Kenneth C; Palmer, Bruce J; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M; Battiato, Ilenia; Wood, Brian D

    2015-01-01

    One of the most significant challenges faced by hydrogeologic modelers is the disparity between the spatial and temporal scales at which fundamental flow, transport, and reaction processes can best be understood and quantified (e.g., microscopic to pore scales and seconds to days) and at which practical model predictions are needed (e.g., plume to aquifer scales and years to centuries). While the multiscale nature of hydrogeologic problems is widely recognized, technological limitations in computation and characterization restrict most practical modeling efforts to fairly coarse representations of heterogeneous properties and processes. For some modern problems, the necessary level of simplification is such that model parameters may lose physical meaning and model predictive ability is questionable for any conditions other than those to which the model was calibrated. Recently, there has been broad interest across a wide range of scientific and engineering disciplines in simulation approaches that more rigorously account for the multiscale nature of systems of interest. In this article, we review a number of such approaches and propose a classification scheme for defining different types of multiscale simulation methods and those classes of problems to which they are most applicable. Our classification scheme is presented in terms of a flowchart (Multiscale Analysis Platform), and defines several different motifs of multiscale simulation. Within each motif, the member methods are reviewed and example applications are discussed. We focus attention on hybrid multiscale methods, in which two or more models with different physics described at fundamentally different scales are directly coupled within a single simulation. Very recently these methods have begun to be applied to groundwater flow and transport simulations, and we discuss these applications in the context of our classification scheme. As computational and characterization capabilities continue to improve

  14. A HYBRID METHOD FOR AUTOMATIC SPEECH RECOGNITION PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT IN REAL WORLD NOISY ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urmila Shrawankar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a well known fact that, speech recognition systems perform well when the system is used in conditions similar to the one used to train the acoustic models. However, mismatches degrade the performance. In adverse environment, it is very difficult to predict the category of noise in advance in case of real world environmental noise and difficult to achieve environmental robustness. After doing rigorous experimental study it is observed that, a unique method is not available that will clean the noisy speech as well as preserve the quality which have been corrupted by real natural environmental (mixed noise. It is also observed that only back-end techniques are not sufficient to improve the performance of a speech recognition system. It is necessary to implement performance improvement techniques at every step of back-end as well as front-end of the Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR model. Current recognition systems solve this problem using a technique called adaptation. This study presents an experimental study that aims two points, first is to implement the hybrid method that will take care of clarifying the speech signal as much as possible with all combinations of filters and enhancement techniques. The second point is to develop a method for training all categories of noise that can adapt the acoustic models for a new environment that will help to improve the performance of the speech recognizer under real world environmental mismatched conditions. This experiment confirms that hybrid adaptation methods improve the ASR performance on both levels, (Signal-to-Noise Ratio SNR improvement as well as word recognition accuracy in real world noisy environment.

  15. Hybrid Enrichment Assay Methods for a UF6 Cylinder Verification Station: FY10 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Leon E.; Jordan, David V.; Orton, Christopher R.; Misner, Alex C.; Mace, Emily K.

    2010-08-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing the concept of an automated UF6 cylinder verification station that would be located at key measurement points to positively identify each cylinder, measure its mass and enrichment, store the collected data in a secure database, and maintain continuity of knowledge on measured cylinders until the arrival of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors. At the center of this unattended system is a hybrid enrichment assay technique that combines the traditional enrichment-meter method (based on the 186 keV peak from 235U) with non-traditional neutron-induced high-energy gamma-ray signatures (spawned primarily by 234U alpha emissions and 19F(alpha, neutron) reactions). Previous work by PNNL provided proof-of-principle for the non-traditional signatures to support accurate, full-volume interrogation of the cylinder enrichment, thereby reducing the systematic uncertainties in enrichment assay due to UF6 heterogeneity and providing greater sensitivity to material substitution scenarios. The work described here builds on that preliminary evaluation of the non-traditional signatures, but focuses on a prototype field system utilizing NaI(Tl) and LaBr3(Ce) spectrometers, and enrichment analysis algorithms that integrate the traditional and non-traditional signatures. Results for the assay of Type-30B cylinders ranging from 0.2 to 4.95 wt% 235U, at an AREVA fuel fabrication plant in Richland, WA, are described for the following enrichment analysis methods: 1) traditional enrichment meter signature (186 keV peak) as calculated using a square-wave convolute (SWC) algorithm; 2) non-traditional high-energy gamma-ray signature that provides neutron detection without neutron detectors and 3) hybrid algorithm that merges the traditional and non-traditional signatures. Uncertainties for each method, relative to the declared enrichment for each cylinder, are calculated and compared to the uncertainties from an attended

  16. A modified hybrid uncertain analysis method for dynamic response field of the LSOAAC with random and interval parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Bin; Zhou, Bin

    2016-07-01

    For the prediction of dynamic response field of the luffing system of an automobile crane (LSOAAC) with random and interval parameters, a hybrid uncertain model is introduced. In the hybrid uncertain model, the parameters with certain probability distribution are modeled as random variables, whereas, the parameters with lower and upper bounds are modeled as interval variables instead of given precise values. Based on the hybrid uncertain model, the hybrid uncertain dynamic response equilibrium equation, in which different random and interval parameters are simultaneously included in input and output terms, is constructed. Then a modified hybrid uncertain analysis method (MHUAM) is proposed. In the MHUAM, based on random interval perturbation method, the first-order Taylor series expansion and the first-order Neumann series, the dynamic response expression of the LSOAAC is developed. Moreover, the mathematical characteristics of extrema of bounds of dynamic response are determined by random interval moment method and monotonic analysis technique. Compared with the hybrid Monte Carlo method (HMCM) and interval perturbation method (IPM), numerical results show the feasibility and efficiency of the MHUAM for solving the hybrid LSOAAC problems. The effects of different uncertain models and parameters on the LSOAAC response field are also investigated deeply, and numerical results indicate that the impact made by the randomness in the thrust of the luffing cylinder F is larger than that made by the gravity of the weight in suspension Q . In addition, the impact made by the uncertainty in the displacement between the lower end of the lifting arm and the luffing cylinder a is larger than that made by the length of the lifting arm L .

  17. [Detection of DNA human cytomegalovirus of a molecular methods: hybrid capture DNA CMV by immunocompromised].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhiri, Leila; Arrouji, Zakia; Slim, Amine; Ben Redjeb, Saida

    2006-10-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a member of the beta-virus herpes family, is a ubiquitous human pathogen. After a primary infection, HCMV establishes life latency. HCMV rarely causes symptomatic disease in an immunocompetent host, however, it is a major cause of infectious morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised individuals and developing fetuses. The HCMV genome consists of 240 kbp of double stranded DNA. Early diagnosis molecular of CMV infection is important. The objective of this study was to develop a molecular methods: Quantitative Hybrid capture for the detection of DNA CMV. We present results for 200 immunocompromised collected from 1999 to 2003 (122 men and 78 women, whom mean age was 35 years). Our results showed that 25% of women and 36% of men were positif for hybrid capture DNA CMV. This simple test (cold probe) provide quantitative and fast results. Also the efficacity of anti-CMV therapy can be followed. More over, in contrary with pp65-antigenemia assay and CMV PCR, this test can be managed on biopsy sample.

  18. Multi-State Extrapolation of Uv/vis Absorption Spectra with Qm/qm Hybrid Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Sijin; Caricato, Marco

    2017-06-01

    In this work, we present a simple approach to obtain absorption spectra from hybrid QM/QM calculations. The goal is to obtain reliable spectra for compounds that are too large to be treated entirely at a high level of theory. The approach is based on the extrapolation of the entire absorption spectrum obtained by individual subcalculations. Our program locates the main spectral features in each subcalculation, e.g. band peaks and shoulders, and fits them to Gaussian functions. Each Gaussian is then extrapolated with a formula similar to that of ONIOM (Our own N-layered Integrated molecular Orbital molecular Mechanics). However, information about individual excitations is not necessary so that difficult state-matching across subcalculations is avoided. This multi-state extrapolation thus requires relatively low implementation effort while affording maximum flexibility in the choice of methods to be combined in the hybrid approach. The test calculations show the efficacy and robustness of this methodology in reproducing the spectrum computed for the entire molecule at a high level of theory.

  19. Quantitative data analysis methods for bead-based DNA hybridization assays using generic flow cytometry platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrie, S R; Lawrie, G A; Battersby, B J; Ford, K; Rühmann, A; Koehler, K; Sabath, D E; Trau, M

    2008-05-01

    Bead-based assays are in demand for rapid genomic and proteomic assays for both research and clinical purposes. Standard quantitative procedures addressing raw data quality and analysis are required to ensure the data are consistent and reproducible across laboratories independent of flow platform. Quantitative procedures have been introduced spanning raw histogram analysis through to absolute target quantitation. These included models developed to estimate the absolute number of sample molecules bound per bead (Langmuir isotherm), relative quantitative comparisons (two-sided t-tests), and statistical analyses investigating the quality of raw fluorescence data. The absolute target quantitation method revealed a concentration range (below probe saturation) of Cy5-labeled synthetic cytokeratin 19 (K19) RNA of c.a. 1 x 10(4) to 500 x 10(4) molecules/bead, with a binding constant of c.a. 1.6 nM. Raw hybridization frequency histograms were observed to be highly reproducible across 10 triplex assay replicates and only three assay replicates were required to distinguish overlapping peaks representing small sequence mismatches. This study provides a quantitative scheme for determining the absolute target concentration in nucleic acid hybridization reactions and the equilibrium binding constants for individual probe/target pairs. It is envisaged that such studies will form the basis of standard analytical procedures for bead-based cytometry assays to ensure reproducibility in inter- and intra-platform comparisons of data between laboratories. (c) 2008 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  20. Hybrid Map-Based Navigation Method for Unmanned Ground Vehicle in Urban Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyan Chen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the data size of metric map and map matching computational cost in unmanned ground vehicle self-driving navigation in urban scenarios, a metric-topological hybrid map navigation system is proposed in this paper. According to the different positioning accuracy requirements, urban areas are divided into strong constraint (SC areas, such as roads with lanes, and loose constraint (LC areas, such as intersections and open areas. As direction of the self-driving vehicle is provided by traffic lanes and global waypoints in the road network, a simple topological map is fit for the navigation in the SC areas. While in the LC areas, the navigation of the self-driving vehicle mainly relies on the positioning information. Simultaneous localization and mapping technology is used to provide a detailed metric map in the LC areas, and a window constraint Markov localization algorithm is introduced to achieve accurate position using laser scanner. Furthermore, the real-time performance of the Markov algorithm is enhanced by using a constraint window to restrict the size of the state space. By registering the metric maps into the road network, a hybrid map of the urban scenario can be constructed. Real unmanned vehicle mapping and navigation tests demonstrated the capabilities of the proposed method.

  1. A hybrid metaheuristic method to optimize the order of the sequences in continuous-casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achraf Touil

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a hybrid metaheuristic algorithm to maximize the production and to minimize the processing time in the steel-making and continuous casting (SCC by optimizing the order of the sequences where a sequence is a group of jobs with the same chemical characteristics. Based on the work Bellabdaoui and Teghem (2006 [Bellabdaoui, A., & Teghem, J. (2006. A mixed-integer linear programming model for the continuous casting planning. International Journal of Production Economics, 104(2, 260-270.], a mixed integer linear programming for scheduling steelmaking continuous casting production is presented to minimize the makespan. The order of the sequences in continuous casting is assumed to be fixed. The main contribution is to analyze an additional way to determine the optimal order of sequences. A hybrid method based on simulated annealing and genetic algorithm restricted by a tabu list (SA-GA-TL is addressed to obtain the optimal order. After parameter tuning of the proposed algorithm, it is tested on different instances using a.NET application and the commercial software solver Cplex v12.5. These results are compared with those obtained by SA-TL (simulated annealing restricted by tabu list.

  2. A hybrid method for efficient and accurate simulations of diffusion compartment imaging signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rensonnet, Gaëtan; Jacobs, Damien; Macq, Benoît; Taquet, Maxime

    2015-12-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging is sensitive to the movement of water molecules through the tissue microstructure and can therefore be used to gain insight into the tissue cellular architecture. While the diffusion signal arising from simple geometrical microstructure is known analytically, it remains unclear what diffusion signal arises from complex microstructural configurations. Such knowledge is important to design optimal acquisition sequences, to understand the limitations of diffusion-weighted imaging and to validate novel models of the brain microstructure. We present a novel framework for the efficient simulation of high-quality DW-MRI signals based on the hybrid combination of exact analytic expressions in simple geometric compartments such as cylinders and spheres and Monte Carlo simulations in more complex geometries. We validate our approach on synthetic arrangements of parallel cylinders representing the geometry of white matter fascicles, by comparing it to complete, all-out Monte Carlo simulations commonly used in the literature. For typical configurations, equal levels of accuracy are obtained with our hybrid method in less than one fifth of the computational time required for Monte Carlo simulations.

  3. Short term load forecasting of anomalous load using hybrid soft computing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasyid, S. A.; Abdullah, A. G.; Mulyadi, Y.

    2016-04-01

    Load forecast accuracy will have an impact on the generation cost is more economical. The use of electrical energy by consumers on holiday, show the tendency of the load patterns are not identical, it is different from the pattern of the load on a normal day. It is then defined as a anomalous load. In this paper, the method of hybrid ANN-Particle Swarm proposed to improve the accuracy of anomalous load forecasting that often occur on holidays. The proposed methodology has been used to forecast the half-hourly electricity demand for power systems in the Indonesia National Electricity Market in West Java region. Experiments were conducted by testing various of learning rate and learning data input. Performance of this methodology will be validated with real data from the national of electricity company. The result of observations show that the proposed formula is very effective to short-term load forecasting in the case of anomalous load. Hybrid ANN-Swarm Particle relatively simple and easy as a analysis tool by engineers.

  4. A hybrid surface modification method on copper wire braids for enhancing thermal performance of ultra-thin heat pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, W. K.; Lin, H. T.; Wu, C. H.; Kuo, L. S.; Chen, P. H.

    2017-02-01

    Copper is the most widely used material in heat pipe manufacturing. Since the capability of wick structures inside a heat pipe will dominate its thermal performance, in this study, we introduce a hybrid surface modification method on the copper wire braids being inserted as wick structure into an ultra-thin heat pipe. The hybrid method is the combination of a chemical-oxidation-based method and a sol-gel method with nanoparticles being dip-coated onto the braid. The experimental data show that braids under hybrid treatment perform higher water rising speed than the oxidized braids while owning higher water net weight than those braids being only dip-coated with nanoparticle.

  5. Hybrid microelectronic technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, P.

    Various areas of hybrid microelectronic technology are discussed. The topics addressed include: basic thick film processing, thick film pastes and substrates, add-on components and attachment methods, thin film processing, and design of thick film hybrid circuits. Also considered are: packaging hybrid circuits, automating the production of hybrid circuits, application of hybrid techniques, customer's view of hybrid technology, and quality control and assurance in hybrid circuit production.

  6. Facile method to synthesize magnetic iron oxides/TiO2 hybrid nanoparticles and their photodegradation application of methylene blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Wei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many methods have been reported to improving the photocatalytic efficiency of organic pollutant and their reliable applications. In this work, we propose a facile pathway to prepare three different types of magnetic iron oxides/TiO2 hybrid nanoparticles (NPs by seed-mediated method. The hybrid NPs are composed of spindle, hollow, and ultrafine iron oxide NPs as seeds and 3-aminopropyltriethyloxysilane as linker between the magnetic cores and TiO2 layers, respectively. The composite structure and the presence of the iron oxide and titania phase have been confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectra. The hybrid NPs show good magnetic response, which can get together under an external applied magnetic field and hence they should become promising magnetic recovery catalysts (MRCs. Photocatalytic ability examination of the magnetic hybrid NPs was carried out in methylene blue (MB solutions illuminated under Hg light in a photochemical reactor. About 50% to 60% of MB was decomposed in 90 min in the presence of magnetic hybrid NPs. The synthesized magnetic hybrid NPs display high photocatalytic efficiency and will find recoverable potential applications in cleaning polluted water with the help of magnetic separation.

  7. A Reconstructed Discontinuous Galerkin Method for the Compressible Navier-Stokes Equations on Hybrid Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaodong Liu; Lijun Xuan; Hong Luo; Yidong Xia

    2001-01-01

    A reconstructed discontinuous Galerkin (rDG(P1P2)) method, originally introduced for the compressible Euler equations, is developed for the solution of the compressible Navier- Stokes equations on 3D hybrid grids. In this method, a piecewise quadratic polynomial solution is obtained from the underlying piecewise linear DG solution using a hierarchical Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory (WENO) reconstruction. The reconstructed quadratic polynomial solution is then used for the computation of the inviscid fluxes and the viscous fluxes using the second formulation of Bassi and Reay (Bassi-Rebay II). The developed rDG(P1P2) method is used to compute a variety of flow problems to assess its accuracy, efficiency, and robustness. The numerical results demonstrate that the rDG(P1P2) method is able to achieve the designed third-order of accuracy at a cost slightly higher than its underlying second-order DG method, outperform the third order DG method in terms of both computing costs and storage requirements, and obtain reliable and accurate solutions to the large eddy simulation (LES) and direct numerical simulation (DNS) of compressible turbulent flows.

  8. Rapid method to detect duplex formation in sequencing by hybridization methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzabekov, A.D.; Timofeev, E.N.; Florentiev, V.L.; Kirillov, E.V.

    1999-01-19

    A method for determining the existence of duplexes of oligonucleotide complementary molecules is provided. A plurality of immobilized oligonucleotide molecules, each of a specific length and each having a specific base sequence, is contacted with complementary, single stranded oligonucleotide molecules to form a duplex. Each duplex facilitates intercalation of a fluorescent dye between the base planes of the duplex. The invention also provides for a method for constructing oligonucleotide matrices comprising confining light sensitive fluid to a surface and exposing the light-sensitive fluid to a light pattern. This causes the fluid exposed to the light to coalesce into discrete units and adhere to the surface. This places each of the units in contact with a set of different oligonucleotide molecules so as to allow the molecules to disperse into the units. 13 figs.

  9. Comparison of kDNA PCR-hybridization assay with three PCR methods for canines visceral Leishmaniasis diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilatti, Marcia M.; Andrade, Antero S.R. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: marciapilatti@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: antero@cdtn.br; Ferreira, Sidney A. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Parasitologia], e-mail: saninoalmeida@gmail.com

    2009-07-01

    The sensitivity of the kDNA PCR-Hybridization assay, which uses radioactive DNA probes (labeled with {sup 32}P), was compared with three conventional PCR methods used for canine visceral leishmaniasis diagnosis. All PCR methods had two steps: a first amplification followed by hybridization or by a new amplification (nested or semi nested). Two methods (kDNA PCR-Hybridization and kDNA snPCR) used primers addressed to kinetoplast minicircles and the other two methods to the coding (LnPCR) and intergenic noncoding regions (ITS-1 nPCR) of the ribosomal rRNA genes. The comparison was accomplished in two groups of 23 infected dogs using samples collected by the conjunctival swab procedure. In the Group 1 the DNA was extracted from cotton swabs by phenol-chloroform and in Group 2 by boiling. The most efficient PCR methods in the Group 1 were those based on kDNA targets. The kDNA PCR-Hybridization was able to detect parasites in 22/23 dogs (95.6%) and in 40/46 samples (86.9%). The kDNA snPCR was positive for 21/23 dogs (91.3%) and for 40/46 samples (86.9%). The positivities of the kDNA based methods were significantly higher than the positivities verified for the methods based on ribosomal rRNA genes (p<0.05). In the Group 2 the kDNA PCR- Hybridization showed a better performance detecting parasites in 18/23 dogs (78.3%) and in 31/46 samples (67.4%), significantly higher than the other three methods (p<0.05). The higher sensitivity of the minicircle kDNA based assays reported by others was confirmed in this study and kDNA PCR-Hybridization showed the best sensitivity among the assays evaluated. (author)

  10. Harmonic Retrieval Embedded in Hybrid Colored Noise: a Novel Pisarenko Method Based on Cross-high-order Cumulant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Spectral estimation method is an effective method in the case of parameter estimation of sinusoid signal in noises.It always applies cross-spectral estimation theory and high-order self-spectral estimation methods up to now.Yule-Walker equation based on cross-fourth-order cumulant is developed and Pisarenko method is provided in this paper.Simulation results show that the method is effective to retrieve sinusoid signal frequencies from hybrid colored noises and has good performance.

  11. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA in whole blood as a superior prognostic and monitoring factor than EBV-encoded small RNA in situ hybridization in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, J-H; Lu, T-X; Tian, T; Wang, L; Fan, L; Xu, J; Zhang, R; Gong, Q-X; Zhang, Z-H; Li, J-Y; Xu, W

    2015-06-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) status was retrospectively analysed by the use of EBV-encoded small RNA (EBER) in situ hybridization (ISH) and EBV DNA analysis in whole blood with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, to assess the clinical significance for diagnosis, prognostication, and monitoring of tumour burden. Three hundred and twenty-nine patients were retrospectively enrolled, with 232 patients being available for EBER ISH analysis, 189 patients for EBV DNA analysis, and 138 patients for both analyses. EBER was positive in 24 (10.3%) patients, and EBV DNA was positive in 18 (9.5%) patients; the two analyses had 92.8% concordance. Patients with pretreatment EBER positivity had worse overall survival (OS) than those without EBER positivity (p 0.03); the same pattern was observed for EBV DNA (p EBV DNA were combined (p EBV DNA (hazard ratio 3.71, 95% CI 1.78-7.74, p EBV DNA, the transformation from positive to negative after cycle 3 with chemotherapy may have the most capacity to distinguish a superior from an inferior outcome. These findings suggest that EBV DNA in whole blood has good concordance with EBER ISH, and that it may be a better prognostic and monitoring biomarker than EBER.

  12. Mapping of the gene encoding the melanocortin-1 ([alpha]-melanocyte stimulating hormone) receptor (MC1R) to human chromosome 16q24. 3 by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gantz, I.; Yamada, Tadataka; Tashiro, Takao; Konda, Yoshitaka; Shimoto, Yoshimasa; Miwa, Hiroto; Trent, J.M. (Univ. of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States))

    1994-01-15

    [alpha]-Melanocyte stimulating hormone ([alpha]-MSH), a hormone originally named for its ability to regulate pigmentation of melanocytes, is a 13-amino-acid post-translational product of the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) gene. [alpha]-MSH and the other products of POMC processing, which share the core heptapeptide amino acid sequence Met-Glu (Gly)-His-Phe-Arg-Trp-Gly (Asp), the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), [beta]-MSH, and [gamma]-MSH, are collectively referred to as melanocortins. While best known for their effects on the melanocyte (pigmentation) and adrenal cortical cells (steroidogenesis), melanocortins have been postulated to function in diverse activities, including enhancement of learning and memory, control of the cardiovascular system, analgesia, thermoregulation, immunomodulation, parturition, and neurotrophism. To identify the chromosomal band encoding the human melanocortin-1 receptor gene, 1 [mu]g of an EMBL clone coding region of the human MC1R and approximately 15 kb of surrounding DNA was labeled with biotin and hybridized to human metaphase chromosomes as previously described. The results indicate that the human MC1R gene is localized to 16q24.3. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Ultrasound thermal mapping based on a hybrid method combining cross-correlation and zero-crossing tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chang-Wei; Lien, Der-Hsien; Chen, Ben-Ting; Shieh, Jay; Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Chen, Chuin-Shan; Chen, Wen-Shiang

    2013-08-01

    A hybrid method for estimating temperature with spatial mapping using diagnostic ultrasound, based on detection of echo shifts from tissue undergoing thermal treatment, is proposed. Cross-correlation and zero-crossing tracking are two conventional algorithms used for detecting echo shifts, but their practical applications are limited. The proposed hybrid method combines the advantages of both algorithms with improved accuracy in temperature estimation. In vitro experiments were performed on porcine muscle for preliminary validation and temperature calibration. In addition, thermal mapping of rabbit thigh muscle in vivo during high-intensity focused ultrasound heating was conducted. Results from the in vitro experiments indicated that the difference between the estimated temperature change by the proposed hybrid method and the actual temperature change measured by the thermocouple was generally less than 1 °C when the increase in temperature due to heating was less than 10 °C. For the in vivo study, the area predicted to experience the highest temperature coincided well with the focal point of the high-intensity focused ultrasound transducer. The computational efficiency of the hybrid algorithm was similar to that of the fast cross-correlation algorithm, but with an improved accuracy. The proposed hybrid method could provide an alternative means for non-invasive monitoring of limited temperature changes during hyperthermia therapy.

  14. Globally Conservative, Hybrid Self-Adjoint Angular Flux and Least-Squares Method Compatible with Void

    CERN Document Server

    Laboure, Vincent M; Wang, Yaqi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we derive a method for the second-order form of the transport equation that is both globally conservative and compatible with voids, using Continuous Finite Element Methods (CFEM). The main idea is to use the Least-Squares (LS) form of the transport equation in the void regions and the Self-Adjoint Angular Flux (SAAF) form elsewhere. While the SAAF formulation is globally conservative, the LS formulation need a correction in void. The price to pay for this fix is the loss of symmetry of the bilinear form. We first derive this Conservative LS (CLS) formulation in void. Second we combine the SAAF and CLS forms and end up with an hybrid SAAF-CLS method, having the desired properties. We show that extending the theory to near-void regions is a minor complication and can be done without affecting the global conservation of the scheme. Being angular discretization agnostic, this method can be applied to both discrete ordinates (SN) and spherical harmonics (PN) methods. However, since a globally conse...

  15. A hybrid method for image Denoising based on Wavelet Thresholding and RBF network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Dubey

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital image denoising is crucial part of image pre-processing. The application of denoising process in satellite image data and also in television broadcasting. Image data sets collected by image sensors are generally contaminated by noise. Imperfect instruments, problems with the data acquisition process, and interfering natural phenomena can all degrade the data of interest. Furthermore, noise can be introduced by transmission errors and compression. Thus, denoising is often a necessary and the first step to be taken before the images data is analyzed. In this paper we proposed a novel methodology for image denoising. Image denoising method based on wavelet transform and radial basis neural network and also used concept of soft thresholding. Wavelet transform decomposed image in to different layers, the decomposed layer differentiate by horizontal, vertical and diagonal. For the test of our hybrid method, we used noise image dataset. This data provided by UCI machine learning website. Our proposed method compare with traditional method and our base paper method and getting better comparative result.

  16. Gallbladder Removal Simulation for Laparoscopic Surgery Training:A Hybrid Modeling Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Youngjun Kim; Dongjune Chang; Jungsik Kim; Sehyung Park

    2013-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery has many advantages,but it is difficult for a surgeon to achieve the necessary surgical skills.Recently,virtual training simulations have been gaining interest because they can provide a safe and efficient learning environment for medical students and novice surgeons.In this paper,we present a hybrid modeling method for simulating gallbladder removal that uses both the boundary element method (BEM) and the finite element method (FEM).Each modeling method is applied according to the deformable properties of human organs:BEM for the liver and FEM for the gallbladder.Connective tissues between the liver and the gallbladder are also included in the surgical simulation.Deformations in the liver and the gallbladder models are transferred via connective tissue springs using a mass-spring method.Special effects and techniques are developed to achieve realistic simulations,and the software is integrated into a custom-designed haptic interface device.Various computer graphical techniques are also applied in the virtual gallbladder removal laparoscopic surgery training.The detailed techniques and the results of the simulations are described in this paper.

  17. Comparison of Data Fusion Methods Using Crowdsourced Data in Creating a Hybrid Forest Cover Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myroslava Lesiv

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Data fusion represents a powerful way of integrating individual sources of information to produce a better output than could be achieved by any of the individual sources on their own. This paper focuses on the data fusion of different land cover products derived from remote sensing. In the past, many different methods have been applied, without regard to their relative merit. In this study, we compared some of the most commonly-used methods to develop a hybrid forest cover map by combining available land cover/forest products and crowdsourced data on forest cover obtained through the Geo-Wiki project. The methods include: nearest neighbour, naive Bayes, logistic regression and geographically-weighted logistic regression (GWR, as well as classification and regression trees (CART. We ran the comparison experiments using two data types: presence/absence of forest in a grid cell; percentage of forest cover in a grid cell. In general, there was little difference between the methods. However, GWR was found to perform better than the other tested methods in areas with high disagreement between the inputs.

  18. Laser speckle imaging of rat retinal blood flow with hybrid temporal and spatial analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Haiying; Yan, Yumei; Duong, Timothy Q.

    2009-02-01

    Noninvasive monitoring of blood flow in retinal circulation will reveal the progression and treatment of ocular disorders, such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma. A non-invasive and direct BF measurement technique with high spatial-temporal resolution is needed for retinal imaging. Laser speckle imaging (LSI) is such a method. Currently, there are two analysis methods for LSI: spatial statistics LSI (SS-LSI) and temporal statistical LSI (TS-LSI). Comparing these two analysis methods, SS-LSI has higher signal to noise ratio (SNR) and TSLSI is less susceptible to artifacts from stationary speckle. We proposed a hybrid temporal and spatial analysis method (HTS-LSI) to measure the retinal blood flow. Gas challenge experiment was performed and images were analyzed by HTS-LSI. Results showed that HTS-LSI can not only remove the stationary speckle but also increase the SNR. Under 100% O2, retinal BF decreased by 20-30%. This was consistent with the results observed with laser Doppler technique. As retinal blood flow is a critical physiological parameter and its perturbation has been implicated in the early stages of many retinal diseases, HTS-LSI will be an efficient method in early detection of retina diseases.

  19. Optimal Design of Stochastic Distributed Order Linear SISO Systems Using Hybrid Spectral Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Luu Trung Duong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The distributed order concept, which is a parallel connection of fractional order integrals and derivatives taken to the infinitesimal limit in delta order, has been the main focus in many engineering areas recently. On the other hand, there are few numerical methods available for analyzing distributed order systems, particularly under stochastic forcing. This paper proposes a novel numerical scheme for analyzing the behavior of a distributed order linear single input single output control system under random forcing. The method is based on the operational matrix technique to handle stochastic distributed order systems. The existing Monte Carlo, polynomial chaos, and frequency methods were first adapted to the stochastic distributed order system for comparison. Numerical examples were used to illustrate the accuracy and computational efficiency of the proposed method for the analysis of stochastic distributed order systems. The stability of the systems under stochastic perturbations can also be inferred easily from the moment of random output obtained using the proposed method. Based on the hybrid spectral framework, the optimal design was elaborated on by minimizing the suitably defined constrained-optimization problem.

  20. 默声音符编码文本输入方法%A text input method based on silent voice symbol encoding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕鹏; 贾云得

    2011-01-01

    Speech input is expected to become the principal method of computer text input and replace the keyboard. But speech input is seriously degraded in nosiy environment, and often makes a leakage of information as well. To avoid these problems, this paper presents a text input method based on silent voice symbol encoding. We select several easy-to-pronounced and easy-to-recognized phonemes in silent voice as silent voice symbols (SVSs) to encode characters. Similar to Morse code,memorizing the encoding scheme, users can input text accurately by speaking relevant SVSs. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is promising to be a reliable method of text input for many applications.%人们希望语音输入能够取代键盘,成为计算机文本输入的最主要方式.但语音输入在噪声环境中准确率低,且会泄露输入信息,也会影响他人.本文提出默声音符编码文本输入方法,该方法选择默声音中容易发声、容易精准识别且彼此间容易区分的少数几个音素作为默声音符(silent voice symbol),对各种字符进行编码.类似摩尔斯电码,用户只需要记住编码方式,就可以通过读默声音符准确地实现文本输入.实验证明提出的方法有潜力替代键盘在各种环境下完成文本输入任务.

  1. Application of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Hybrid Methods to Structure Determination of Complex Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prischi, Filippo; Pastore, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    The current main challenge of Structural Biology is to undertake the structure determination of increasingly complex systems in the attempt to better understand their biological function. As systems become more challenging, however, there is an increasing demand for the parallel use of more than one independent technique to allow pushing the frontiers of structure determination and, at the same time, obtaining independent structural validation. The combination of different Structural Biology methods has been named hybrid approaches. The aim of this review is to critically discuss the most recent examples and new developments that have allowed structure determination or experimentally-based modelling of various molecular complexes selecting them among those that combine the use of nuclear magnetic resonance and small angle scattering techniques. We provide a selective but focused account of some of the most exciting recent approaches and discuss their possible further developments.

  2. Feasibility of using Hybrid Wavelet Collocation - Brinkman Penalization Method for Shape and Topology Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyev, Oleg V.; Gazzola, Mattia; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2009-11-01

    In this talk we discuss preliminary results for the use of hybrid wavelet collocation - Brinkman penalization approach for shape and topology optimization of fluid flows. Adaptive wavelet collocation method tackles the problem of efficiently resolving a fluid flow on a dynamically adaptive computational grid in complex geometries (where grid resolution varies both in space and time time), while Brinkman volume penalization allows easy variation of flow geometry without using body-fitted meshes by simply changing the shape of the penalization region. The use of Brinkman volume penalization approach allow seamless transition from shape to topology optimization by combining it with level set approach and increasing the size of the optimization space. The approach is demonstrated for shape optimization of a variety of fluid flows by optimizing single cost function (time averaged Drag coefficient) using covariance matrix adaptation (CMA) evolutionary algorithm.

  3. Interphase cytogenetics in pathology: principles, methods, and applications of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, M; Wilkens, L; Aubele, M; Nolte, M; Zitzelsberger, H; Komminoth, P

    1997-01-01

    Characteristic chromosome aberrations have been identified in various tumors. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using specific probes that are generated by vector cloning or in vitro amplification and labeled with fluorescent dyes allow for the detection of these genetic changes in interphase cells. This technique, that is also referred to as "interphase cytogenetics", can be performed in cytological preparations as well as in sections of routinely formaldehyde-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue. In cancer research and diagnostics, interphase cytogenetics by FISH is used to detect numerical chromosome changes and structural aberrations, e.g., translocations, deletions, or amplifications. In this technical overview, we explain the principles of the FISH method and provide protocols for FISH in cytological preparations and paraffin sections. Moreover, possible applications of FISH are discussed.

  4. Superconductivity in LiTi2O4 Prepared by Hybrid Microwave Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Li-Hong; DONG Cheng; SONG Hui-Hua; GUO Juan; FU Guang-Cai

    2005-01-01

    @@ The well-known superconducting oxide LiTi2 O4 has a structural phase transition from spinel to ramsdellite around 900 ℃. We have successfully obtained the superconducting spinel phase and the non-superconducting ramsdellite phase of LiTi2O4 using a hybrid microwave method. The samples are characterized by x-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and measurements of resistivity and magnetic susceptibility. The results show that the low-temperature spinel phase is a superconductor with Tc = 13 K, while the high-temperature ramsdellite phase is a semiconductor. By comparison between the crystal structures of the spinel and the ramsdellite phases, it is suggested that the geometrical frustration plays an important role in the superconductivity of the spinel LiTi2 O4.

  5. Hybrid RANS/LES method for wind flow over complex terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Andreas; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2010-01-01

    The use of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) to predict wall-bounded flows has presently been limited to low Reynolds number flows. Since the number of computational grid points required to resolve the near-wall turbulent structures increase rapidly with Reynolds number, LES has been unattainable...... for flows at high Reynolds numbers. To reduce the computational cost of traditional LES, a hybrid method is proposed in which the near-wall eddies are modelled in a Reynolds-averaged sense. Close to walls, the flow is treated with the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations (unsteady RANS......), and this layer acts as wall model for the outer flow handled by LES. The well-known high Reynolds number two-equation k - turbulence model is used in the RANS layer and the model automatically switches to a two-equation k - subgrid scale stress model in the LES region. The approach can be used for flow over...

  6. A hybrid method for decision making with dependence & feedback under incomplete information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Weijie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a hybrid method to tackle multiple criteria decision making problems with incomplete weight information in the context of fuzzy soft sets. In order to determine the weights of criteria, we develop a comprehensive two-stage framework. Stage One: We first define the distance between two fuzzy soft numbers. Next, we establish an optimization model based on ideal point of attribute values, by which the attrib-ute weights can be determined. Stage Two: To get the global weights, we use fuzzy cognitive maps to depict the dependent and feedback effect among criteria. Next, we require constructing fuzzy soft set to decide the desirable alternative. Finally, a case study is given to clarify the proposed approach of this paper.

  7. Implementation of Hybrid V-Cycle Multilevel Methods for Mixed Finite Element Systems with Penalty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chen-Yao G.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this paper is the implementation of hybrid V-cycle hierarchical multilevel methods for the indefinite discrete systems which arise when a mixed finite element approximation is used to solve elliptic boundary value problems. By introducing a penalty parameter, the perturbed indefinite system can be reduced to a symmetric positive definite system containing the small penalty parameter for the velocity unknown alone. We stabilize the hierarchical spatial decomposition approach proposed by Cai, Goldstein, and Pasciak for the reduced system. We demonstrate that the relative condition number of the preconditioner is bounded uniformly with respect to the penalty parameter, the number of levels and possible jumps of the coefficients as long as they occur only across the edges of the coarsest elements.

  8. A hybrid method for airway segmentation and automated measurement of bronchial wall thickness on CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ziyue; Bagci, Ulas; Foster, Brent; Mansoor, Awais; Udupa, Jayaram K; Mollura, Daniel J

    2015-08-01

    Inflammatory and infectious lung diseases commonly involve bronchial airway structures and morphology, and these abnormalities are often analyzed non-invasively through high resolution computed tomography (CT) scans. Assessing airway wall surfaces and the lumen are of great importance for diagnosing pulmonary diseases. However, obtaining high accuracy from a complete 3-D airway tree structure can be quite challenging. The airway tree structure has spiculated shapes with multiple branches and bifurcation points as opposed to solid single organ or tumor segmentation tasks in other applications, hence, it is complex for manual segmentation as compared with other tasks. For computerized methods, a fundamental challenge in airway tree segmentation is the highly variable intensity levels in the lumen area, which often causes a segmentation method to leak into adjacent lung parenchyma through blurred airway walls or soft boundaries. Moreover, outer wall definition can be difficult due to similar intensities of the airway walls and nearby structures such as vessels. In this paper, we propose a computational framework to accurately quantify airways through (i) a novel hybrid approach for precise segmentation of the lumen, and (ii) two novel methods (a spatially constrained Markov random walk method (pseudo 3-D) and a relative fuzzy connectedness method (3-D)) to estimate the airway wall thickness. We evaluate the performance of our proposed methods in comparison with mostly used algorithms using human chest CT images. Our results demonstrate that, on publicly available data sets and using standard evaluation criteria, the proposed airway segmentation method is accurate and efficient as compared with the state-of-the-art methods, and the airway wall estimation algorithms identified the inner and outer airway surfaces more accurately than the most widely applied methods, namely full width at half maximum and phase congruency.

  9. A Hybrid Vehicle Detection Method Based on Viola-Jones and HOG + SVM from UAV Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzheng Xu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A new hybrid vehicle detection scheme which integrates the Viola-Jones (V-J and linear SVM classifier with HOG feature (HOG + SVM methods is proposed for vehicle detection from low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV images. As both V-J and HOG + SVM are sensitive to on-road vehicles’ in-plane rotation, the proposed scheme first adopts a roadway orientation adjustment method, which rotates each UAV image to align the roads with the horizontal direction so the original V-J or HOG + SVM method can be directly applied to achieve fast detection and high accuracy. To address the issue of descending detection speed for V-J and HOG + SVM, the proposed scheme further develops an adaptive switching strategy which sophistically integrates V-J and HOG + SVM methods based on their different descending trends of detection speed to improve detection efficiency. A comprehensive evaluation shows that the switching strategy, combined with the road orientation adjustment method, can significantly improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the vehicle detection from UAV images. The results also show that the proposed vehicle detection method is competitive compared with other existing vehicle detection methods. Furthermore, since the proposed vehicle detection method can be performed on videos captured from moving UAV platforms without the need of image registration or additional road database, it has great potentials of field applications. Future research will be focusing on expanding the current method for detecting other transportation modes such as buses, trucks, motors, bicycles, and pedestrians.

  10. Effect of Row Circle Method and Variety of Hybrid Corn on Yield of Corn (Zea mays L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Use Etica

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Corn yield improved by genetic improving, plant population and fertilizer. The experiment aims to knowing the effect off row circle planting method and hybrid corn variety toward population and yield of corn. The experiment was conducted on August- November 2015 in Siman, Ponorogo, altitude 140 amsl and textured clay grumosol soil types. The experiment was a factorial experiment in a complete block randomized design with two factor and three replications. The first factor was hybrid corn varieties (Bisi-18, NK-7328, Pertiwi-3, and Pioneer-27. The second factor was row circle planting method (single manner with interval planting of 60x40x20 cm; row circle planting method with interval planting of 60x100 cm and 100x50x50 cm. The result showed not significantly interaction between row circle planting method and hybrid corn varieties with respect to population total and corn yield. Row circle planting method with interval planting 100x50x50 cm increased plant population about 164.413 plants/ha and significantly different with single manner with interval planting of 60x40x20 cm (62,881 plants/ha and row circle planting method with interval planting 60x100 cm (136,774 plants/ha. Hybrid corn varieties was not significantly increased plant population. Pioneer-27 variety of hybrid corn produced weight of wet corn logs by 17,22 ton/Ha and significantly different with Bisi-18, NK-7328 and Pertiwi-3. Hybrid corn varieties was not significantly affects to increasing produce of dry corn kernels. Variety of Pioneer-27 produced dry corn kernels 7,28 ton/ha and was not significantly different with varieties of Bisi-18, NK-7328, and Pertiwi-3. Variety of NK-7328 had percentage weight of wet corn logs into dry corn kernels as big as 55,38% bigger than varieties of Bisi-18, Pertiwi-3 and Pioneer-27.

  11. Structural hybrid reliability index and its convergent solving method based on random–fuzzy–interval reliability model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai An

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to resolve the problems of a variety of uncertainty variables that coexist in the engineering structure reliability analysis, a new hybrid reliability index to evaluate structural hybrid reliability, based on the random–fuzzy–interval model, is proposed in this article. The convergent solving method is also presented. First, the truncated probability reliability model, the fuzzy random reliability model, and the non-probabilistic interval reliability model are introduced. Then, the new hybrid reliability index definition is presented based on the random–fuzzy–interval model. Furthermore, the calculation flowchart of the hybrid reliability index is presented and it is solved using the modified limit-step length iterative algorithm, which ensures convergence. And the validity of convergent algorithm for the hybrid reliability model is verified through the calculation examples in literature. In the end, a numerical example is demonstrated to show that the hybrid reliability index is applicable for the wear reliability assessment of mechanisms, where truncated random variables, fuzzy random variables, and interval variables coexist. The demonstration also shows the good convergence of the iterative algorithm proposed in this article.

  12. Inheritance of spike length in F3, F4 and F5 wheat hybrids obtained by different selection methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the mode of inheritance of spike length in F3, F4 and F5 wheat hybrids obtained by pedigree, bulk and modified pedigree method of selection. Wheat hybrids were produced after crossing five varieties by M x N method. Three varieties were used as a female parent (Briscard, Carifen 12 and Rescler and two as a male component (Francuska and PKB-Prelivka. Descendents in F2 generation were produced from 6 F1 hybrids (3 x 2. Selection after F2 generation were undertaken from 1996 to 1999, while in 2000 the field experiments with complete breeding material were set up at the Institute 'PKB INI Agroekonomik' in Padinska Skela near Belgrade. Spike length was measured in progeny generations, from F3 to F5. It was observed that progenies had higher values for spike length than better parent (BP, with longer spikes in 5 out of 6 analyzed hybrids: Briscard x PKB-Prelivka, Carifen 12 x Francuska, Carifen 12 x PKB-Prelivka, Rescler x Francuska, and Rescler x PKB-Prelivka. From the above mentioned hybrid combinations, only Rescler x Francuska descendents in F5 generation obtained by pedigree and bulk selection inherited the spike length from the parent with lower value. High significant interaction was observed for spike length between genotype and generation of progenies in each of the applied selection methods.

  13. A New Hybrid Method for Improving the Performance of Myocardial Infarction Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojatollah Hamidi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Myocardial Infarction, also known as heart attack, normally occurs due to such causes as smoking, family history, diabetes, and so on. It is recognized as one of the leading causes of death in the world. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the performance of classification models in order to predict Myocardial Infarction, using a feature selection method that includes Forward Selection and Genetic Algorithm. Materials & Methods: The Myocardial Infarction data set used in this study contains the information related to 519 visitors to Shahid Madani Specialized Hospital of Khorramabad, Iran. This data set includes 33 features. The proposed method includes a hybrid feature selection method in order to enhance the performance of classification algorithms. The first step of this method selects the features using Forward Selection. At the second step, the selected features were given to a genetic algorithm, in order to select the best features. Classification algorithms entail Ada Boost, Naïve Bayes, J48 decision tree and simpleCART are applied to the data set with selected features, for predicting Myocardial Infarction. Results: The best results have been achieved after applying the proposed feature selection method, which were obtained via simpleCART and J48 algorithms with the accuracies of 96.53% and 96.34%, respectively. Conclusion: Based on the results, the performances of classification algorithms are improved. So, applying the proposed feature selection method, along with classification algorithms seem to be considered as a confident method with respect to predicting the Myocardial Infarction.

  14. Modeling and simulation of surfactant-polymer flooding using a new hybrid method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daripa, Prabir; Dutta, Sourav

    2017-04-01

    Chemical enhanced oil recovery by surfactant-polymer (SP) flooding has been studied in two space dimensions. A new global pressure for incompressible, immiscible, multicomponent two-phase porous media flow has been derived in the context of SP flooding. This has been used to formulate a system of flow equations that incorporates the effect of capillary pressure and also the effect of polymer and surfactant on viscosity, interfacial tension and relative permeabilities of the two phases. The coupled system of equations for pressure, water saturation, polymer concentration and surfactant concentration has been solved using a new hybrid method in which the elliptic global pressure equation is solved using a discontinuous finite element method and the transport equations for water saturation and concentrations of the components are solved by a Modified Method Of Characteristics (MMOC) in the multicomponent setting. Numerical simulations have been performed to validate the method, both qualitatively and quantitatively, and to evaluate the relative performance of the various flooding schemes for several different heterogeneous reservoirs.

  15. Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis by a new multiplex peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, António; Castro, Joana; Cereija, Tatiana; Almeida, Carina

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is one of most common vaginal infections. However, its diagnosis by classical methods reveals low specificity. Our goal was to evaluate the accuracy diagnosis of 150 vaginal samples with research gold standard methods and our Peptide Nucleic Acid (PNA) probes by Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) methodology. Also, we described the first PNA-FISH methodology for BV diagnosis, which provides results in approximately 3 h. The results showed a sensitivity of 84.6% (95% confidence interval (CI), from 64.3 to 95.0%) and a specificity of 97.6% (95% CI [92.6–99.4%]), demonstrating the higher specificity of the PNA-FISH method and showing false positive results in BV diagnosis commonly obtained by the classical methods. This methodology combines the specificity of PNA probes for Lactobacillus species and G. vaginalis visualization and the calculation of the microscopic field by Nugent score, allowing a trustful evaluation of the bacteria present in vaginal microflora and avoiding the occurrence of misleading diagnostics. Therefore, the PNA-FISH methodology represents a valuable alternative for BV diagnosis. PMID:25737820

  16. Hybrid finite-element/boundary-element method to calculate Oersted fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertel, Riccardo, E-mail: hertel@ipcms.unistra.fr [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS UMR 7504, Strasbourg (France); Kákay, Attila [Peter Grünberg Institut (PGI-6), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, D-52428 Jülich (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    The article presents a general-purpose hybrid finite-element/boundary-element method (FEM/BEM) to calculate magnetostatic fields generated by stationary electric currents. The efficiency of this code lies in its ability to simulate Oersted fields in complex geometries with non-uniform current density distributions. As a precursor to the calculation of the Oersted field, an FEM algorithm is employed to calculate the electric current density distribution. The accuracy of the code is confirmed by comparison with analytic results. Two examples show how this method provides important numerical data that can be directly plugged into micromagnetic simulations: The current density distribution in a thin magnetic strip with a notch, and the Oersted field in a three-dimensional contact geometry; similar to the type commonly used in spin-torque driven nano-oscillators. It is argued that a precise calculation of both, the Oersted field and the current density distribution, is essential for a reliable simulation of current-driven micromagnetic processes. - Highlights: • We present a numerical method to calculate Oersted fields for arbitrary geometries. • Description of a FEM algorithm to calculate current density distributions. • It is argued that these methods are valuable for micromagnetic STT-simulations. • Several examples are shown, highlighting the methods’ importance and accuracy.

  17. A hybrid cuckoo search algorithm with Nelder Mead method for solving global optimization problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ahmed F; Tawhid, Mohamed A

    2016-01-01

    Cuckoo search algorithm is a promising metaheuristic population based method. It has been applied to solve many real life problems. In this paper, we propose a new cuckoo search algorithm by combining the cuckoo search algorithm with the Nelder-Mead method in order to solve the integer and minimax optimization problems. We call the proposed algorithm by hybrid cuckoo search and Nelder-Mead method (HCSNM). HCSNM starts the search by applying the standard cuckoo search for number of iterations then the best obtained solution is passing to the Nelder-Mead algorithm as an intensification process in order to accelerate the search and overcome the slow convergence of the standard cuckoo search algorithm. The proposed algorithm is balancing between the global exploration of the Cuckoo search algorithm and the deep exploitation of the Nelder-Mead method. We test HCSNM algorithm on seven integer programming problems and ten minimax problems and compare against eight algorithms for solving integer programming problems and seven algorithms for solving minimax problems. The experiments results show the efficiency of the proposed algorithm and its ability to solve integer and minimax optimization problems in reasonable time.

  18. Evaluating water management strategies in watersheds by new hybrid Fuzzy Analytical Network Process (FANP) methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    RazaviToosi, S. L.; Samani, J. M. V.

    2016-03-01

    Watersheds are considered as hydrological units. Their other important aspects such as economic, social and environmental functions play crucial roles in sustainable development. The objective of this work is to develop methodologies to prioritize watersheds by considering different development strategies in environmental, social and economic sectors. This ranking could play a significant role in management to assign the most critical watersheds where by employing water management strategies, best condition changes are expected to be accomplished. Due to complex relations among different criteria, two new hybrid fuzzy ANP (Analytical Network Process) algorithms, fuzzy TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) and fuzzy max-min set methods are used to provide more flexible and accurate decision model. Five watersheds in Iran named Oroomeyeh, Atrak, Sefidrood, Namak and Zayandehrood are considered as alternatives. Based on long term development goals, 38 water management strategies are defined as subcriteria in 10 clusters. The main advantage of the proposed methods is its ability to overcome uncertainty. This task is accomplished by using fuzzy numbers in all steps of the algorithms. To validate the proposed method, the final results were compared with those obtained from the ANP algorithm and the Spearman rank correlation coefficient is applied to find the similarity in the different ranking methods. Finally, the sensitivity analysis was conducted to investigate the influence of cluster weights on the final ranking.

  19. Constructing Post-Permeation Method to Fabricate Polymer/Nanocrystals Hybrid Solar Cells with PCE Exceeding 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaohang; Zeng, Qingsen; Jin, Gan; Liu, Fangyuan; Ji, Tianjiao; Yue, Yuanyuan; Yang, Yi; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Bai

    2017-01-11

    A post-permeation method is constructed for fabricating bulk-heterojunction hybrid solar cells. Porous CdTe film is prepared by annealing the mixture solution of aqueous CdTe nanocrystals and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide, after which the post-permeation of polymer is employed. By this method, kinds of polymers can be applied regardless of the intermiscibility with the nanoparticles. The inorganic nanocrystals and the polymer can be treated under respective optimized annealing temperatures, which can facilitate the growth of nanocrystals without damaging the polymers. A high power conversion efficiency of 6.36% in the polymer/nanocrystals hybrid solar cells is obtained via systematical optimization.

  20. Selecting Operations for Assembler Encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Praczyk

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Assembler Encoding is a neuro-evolutionary method in which a neural network is represented in the form of a simple program called Assembler Encoding Program. The task of the program is to create the so-called Network Definition Matrix which maintains all the information necessary to construct the network. To generate Assembler Encoding Programs and the subsequent neural networks evolutionary techniques are used.
    The performance of Assembler Encoding strongly depends on operations used in Assembler Encoding Programs. To select the most effective operations, experiments in the optimization and the predator-prey problem were carried out. In the experiments, Assembler Encoding Programs equipped with different types of operations were tested. The results of the tests are presented at the end of the paper.