WorldWideScience

Sample records for hybrid electrolytic-thermochemical process

  1. Hydrogen production by water decomposition using a combined electrolytic-thermochemical cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farbman, G. H.; Brecher, L. E.

    1976-01-01

    A proposed dual-purpose power plant generating nuclear power to provide energy for driving a water decomposition system is described. The entire system, dubbed Sulfur Cycle Water Decomposition System, works on sulfur compounds (sulfuric acid feedstock, sulfur oxides) in a hybrid electrolytic-thermochemical cycle; performance superior to either all-electrolysis systems or presently known all-thermochemical systems is claimed. The 3345 MW(th) graphite-moderated helium-cooled reactor (VHTR - Very High Temperature Reactor) generates both high-temperature heat and electric power for the process; the gas stream at core exit is heated to 1850 F. Reactor operation is described and reactor innards are illustrated. A cost assessment for on-stream performance in the 1990's is optimistic.

  2. Hybrid quantum information processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  3. Arabidopsis hybrid speciation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmickl, Roswitha; Koch, Marcus A

    2011-08-23

    The genus Arabidopsis provides a unique opportunity to study fundamental biological questions in plant sciences using the diploid model species Arabidopsis thaliana and Arabidopsis lyrata. However, only a few studies have focused on introgression and hybrid speciation in Arabidopsis, although polyploidy is a common phenomenon within this genus. More recently, there is growing evidence of significant gene flow between the various Arabidopsis species. So far, we know Arabidopsis suecica and Arabidopsis kamchatica as fully stabilized allopolyploid species. Both species evolved during Pleistocene glaciation and deglaciation cycles in Fennoscandinavia and the amphi-Beringian region, respectively. These hybrid studies were conducted either on a phylogeographic scale or reconstructed experimentally in the laboratory. In our study we focus at a regional and population level. Our research area is located in the foothills of the eastern Austrian Alps, where two Arabidopsis species, Arabidopsis arenosa and A. lyrata ssp. petraea, are sympatrically distributed. Our hypothesis of genetic introgression, migration, and adaptation to the changing environment during the Pleistocene has been confirmed: We observed significant, mainly unidirectional gene flow between the two species, which has given rise to the tetraploid A. lyrata. This cytotype was able to escape from the narrow ecological niche occupied by diploid A. lyrata ssp. petraea on limestone outcrops by migrating northward into siliceous areas, leaving behind a trail of genetic differentiation.

  4. Advanced Digital Signal Processing for Hybrid Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-30

    Technical 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Advance Digital Signal Processing for Hybrid Lidar 6. AUTHOR(S) William D. Jemison 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...development of signed processing algorithms for hybrid lidar - radar designed to improve detection performance. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Hybrid Lidar - Radar 16...Award Number N000141110371 Title of Research Advanced Digital Signal Processing for Hybrid Lidar Principal Investigator William D. Jemison

  5. Hybrid Ventilation Air Flow Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    The scope of this annex is therefore to obtain better knowledge of the use of hybrid ventilation technologies. The annex focus on development of control strategies for hybrid ventilation, on development of methods to predict hybrid ventilation performance in office buildings and on implementation...

  6. Hybrid modelling of anaerobic wastewater treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karama, A; Bernard, O; Genovesi, A; Dochain, D; Benhammou, A; Steyer, J P

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid approach for the modelling of an anaerobic digestion process. The hybrid model combines a feed-forward network, describing the bacterial kinetics, and the a priori knowledge based on the mass balances of the process components. We have considered an architecture which incorporates the neural network as a static model of unmeasured process parameters (kinetic growth rate) and an integrator for the dynamic representation of the process using a set of dynamic differential equations. The paper contains a description of the neural network component training procedure. The performance of this approach is illustrated with experimental data.

  7. Process algebra for Hybrid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    We propose a process algebra obtained by extending a combination of the process algebra with continuous relative timing from Baeten and Middelburg [Process Algebra with Timing, Springer, Chap. 4, 2002] and the process algebra with propositional signals from Baeten and Bergstra [Theoretical Computer

  8. Process algebra for hybrid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    We propose a process algebra obtained by extending a combination of the process algebra with continuous relative timing from Baeten and Middelburg (Process Algebra with Timing, Springer,Berlin, 2002, Chapter 4), and the process algebra with propositional signals from Baeten and Bergstra(Theoret. Com

  9. Recent Developments in Abrasive Hybrid Manufacturing Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruszaj Adam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent dynamic development of abrasive hybrid manufacturing processes results from application of a new difficult for machining materials and improvement of technological indicators of manufacturing processes already applied in practice. This tendency also occurs in abrasive machining processes which are often supported by ultrasonic vibrations, electrochemical dissolution or by electrical discharges. In the paper we present the review of new results of investigations and new practical applications of Abrasive Electrodischarge (AEDM and Electrochemical (AECM Machining.

  10. Hybrid scheme for Brownian semistationary processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Mikkel; Lunde, Asger; Pakkanen, Mikko S.

    the asymptotics of the mean square error of the hybrid scheme and we observe that the scheme leads to a substantial improvement of accuracy compared to the ordinary forward Riemann-sum scheme, while having the same computational complexity. We exemplify the use of the hybrid scheme by two numerical experiments......, where we examine the finite-sample properties of an estimator of the roughness parameter of a Brownian semistationary process and study Monte Carlo option pricing in the rough Bergomi model of Bayer et al. (2015), respectively....

  11. Hybrid staging of geothermal energy conversion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steidel, R.F.

    1978-09-01

    A hybrid system consists of two or more energy conversion processes. This study examines the use of three energy conversion machines in hybrid systems: the conventional single-phase turbine, and the two-phase expanders known as the Lysholm engine and the radial outflow reaction turbine. Two hybrid systems are presented. The first is a two-stage, single-flash system with the Lysholm engine as the first stage, and a separator and conventional turbine as the second stage. The second system adds a radial outflow reaction turbine to recover a part of the energy rejected in the second stage. A theoretical specific power of 41.3 kW.s/lb is predicted for the two-stage, single-flash hybrid system. The addition of the radial outflow rotary turbine increases performance to 44.8 kW.s/lb. Both are superior to the double-flash system, with a specific power of 37.8 kW.s/lb. In addition, the hybrid system offers operating flexibility.

  12. Disease processes as hybrid dynamical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Liò

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the use of hybrid techniques in complex processes of infectious diseases. Since predictive disease models in biomedicine require a multiscale approach for understanding the molecule-cell-tissue-organ-body interactions, heterogeneous methodologies are often employed for describing the different biological scales. Hybrid models provide effective means for complex disease modelling where the action and dosage of a drug or a therapy could be meaningfully investigated: the infection dynamics can be classically described in a continuous fashion, while the scheduling of multiple treatment discretely. We define an algebraic language for specifying general disease processes and multiple treatments, from which a semantics in terms of hybrid dynamical system can be derived. Then, the application of control-theoretic tools is proposed in order to compute the optimal scheduling of multiple therapies. The potentialities of our approach are shown in the case study of the SIR epidemic model and we discuss its applicability on osteomyelitis, a bacterial infection affecting the bone remodelling system in a specific and multiscale manner. We report that formal languages are helpful in giving a general homogeneous formulation for the different scales involved in a multiscale disease process; and that the combination of hybrid modelling and control theory provides solid grounds for computational medicine.

  13. Sustainable process design & analysis of hybrid separations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar Tula, Anjan; Befort, Bridgette; Garg, Nipun

    2016-01-01

    Distillation is an energy intensive operation in chemical process industries. There are around 40,000 distillation columns in operation in the US, requiring approximately 40% of the total energy consumption in US chemical process industries. However, analysis of separations by distillation has...... shown that more than 50% of energy is spent in purifying the last 5-10% of the distillate product. Membrane modules on the other hand can achieve high purity separations at lower energy costs, but if the flux is high, it requires large membrane area. A hybrid scheme where distillation and membrane...... modules are combined such that each operates at its highest efficiency, has the potential for significant energy reduction without significant increase of capital costs. This paper presents a method for sustainable design of hybrid distillation-membrane schemes with guaranteed reduction of energy...

  14. Ambipolar solution-processed hybrid perovskite phototransistors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Feng

    2015-09-08

    Organolead halide perovskites have attracted substantial attention because of their excellent physical properties, which enable them to serve as the active material in emerging hybrid solid-state solar cells. Here we investigate the phototransistors based on hybrid perovskite films and provide direct evidence for their superior carrier transport property with ambipolar characteristics. The field-effect mobilities for triiodide perovskites at room temperature are measured as 0.18 (0.17) cm2 V−1 s−1 for holes (electrons), which increase to 1.24 (1.01) cm2 V−1 s−1 for mixed-halide perovskites. The photoresponsivity of our hybrid perovskite devices reaches 320 A W−1, which is among the largest values reported for phototransistors. Importantly, the phototransistors exhibit an ultrafast photoresponse speed of less than 10 μs. The solution-based process and excellent device performance strongly underscore hybrid perovskites as promising material candidates for photoelectronic applications.

  15. Hybrid DPWM with Process and Temperature Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing

    In this thesis, a 12-bit high resolution, power and area efficiency hybrid DPWM with process and temperature calibration is proposed for DPWM controller IC for DC-DC converters. The hybrid structure of DPWM combines a 6-bit differential segmented tapped delay line structure and a 6-bit counter-comparator structure, resulting in a power and area saving solution. Furthermore, the 6-bit differential segmented delay line structure serves as the clock to the high 6-bit counter-comparator structure, thus a high frequency clock is eliminated and power is significantly saved. In order to have simple delay cell and flexible delay time controllability, voltage controlled inverter is adopted to build the differential delay cell, which allows fine-tuning of the delay time. The process and temperature calibration circuit is composed of process and temperature monitors, two 2-bit flash ADCs, and a lookup table. The monitor circuits sense the process and temperature variations, and the flash ADC converts the data into digital code. The lookup table combines both the process and the temperature digital information and provides an appropriate value to the control voltage of the differential delay cell. The complete circuits design has been verified under different corners of CMOS 0.11um process technology node.

  16. Advanced Digital Signal Processing for Hybrid Lidar FY 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-30

    Report 3. DATES COVERED (Frorr) - To) 6/2011 to 9/2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Advance Digital Signal Processing for Hybrid Lidar 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...report describes the technical progress towards the development of signed processing algorithms for hybrid lidar - radar designed to improve...detection performance. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Hybrid Lidar

  17. Powder processing of hybrid titanium neural electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Jose Luis, Jr.

    A preliminary investigation into the powder production of a novel hybrid titanium neural electrode for EEG is presented. The rheological behavior of titanium powder suspensions using sodium alginate as a dispersant are examined for optimal slip casting conditions. Electrodes were slip cast and sintered at 950°C for 1 hr, 1000°C for 1, 3, and 6 hrs, and 1050°C for 1 hr. Residual porosities from sintering are characterized using Archimedes' technique and image analysis. The pore network is gel impregnated by submerging the electrodes in electrically conductive gel and placing them in a chamber under vacuum. Gel evaporation of the impregnated electrodes is examined. Electrodes are characterized in the dry and gelled states using impedance spectrometry and compared to a standard silver- silver chloride electrode. Power spectral densities for the sensors in the dry and gelled state are also compared. Residual porosities for the sintered specimens were between 50.59% and 44.81%. Gel evaporation tests show most of the impregnated gel evaporating within 20 min of exposure to atmospheric conditions with prolonged evaporation times for electrodes with higher impregnated gel mass. Impedance measurements of the produced electrodes indicate the low impedance of the hybrid electrodes are due to the increased contact area of the porous electrode. Power spectral densities of the titanium electrode behave similar to a standard silver-silver chloride electrode. Tests suggest the powder processed hybrid titanium electrode's performance is better than current dry contact electrodes and comparable to standard gelled silver-silver chloride electrodes.

  18. Hybrid machining processes perspectives on machining and finishing

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Kapil; Laubscher, R F

    2016-01-01

    This book describes various hybrid machining and finishing processes. It gives a critical review of the past work based on them as well as the current trends and research directions. For each hybrid machining process presented, the authors list the method of material removal, machining system, process variables and applications. This book provides a deep understanding of the need, application and mechanism of hybrid machining processes.

  19. Production of Fine Metallic Powders by Hybrid Atomization Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minagawa, Kazumi; Liu, Yunzhong; Kakisawa, Hideki; Halada, Kohmei

    Hybrid Atomization is a recently developed powder-making process that combines effectively free-fall gas atomization and centrifugal atomization. This technique can produce very fine spherical powders with mean diameters of around 10 micrometers, and in high yields. The present report discusses the concept and basic principles of hybrid atomization. Process experiments were carried out and the optimal processing conditions were obtained. The results show that the influences of processing parameters and optimum conditions differ greatly between the proposed and the conventional atomization processes. A new correlation of atomization equation applicable to hybrid atomization is proposed and discussed.

  20. Hybrid Filtering in Semantic Query Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hanjo

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation presents a hybrid filtering method and a case-based reasoning framework for enhancing the effectiveness of Web search. Web search may not reflect user needs, intent, context, and preferences, because today's keyword-based search is lacking semantic information to capture the user's context and intent in posing the search query.…

  1. Conceptual design of distillation-based hybrid separation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiborowski, Mirko; Harwardt, Andreas; Marquardt, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid separation processes combine different separation principles and constitute a promising design option for the separation of complex mixtures. Particularly, the integration of distillation with other unit operations can significantly improve the separation of close-boiling or azeotropic mixtures. Although the design of single-unit operations is well understood and supported by computational methods, the optimal design of flowsheets of hybrid separation processes is still a challenging task. The large number of operational and design degrees of freedom requires a systematic and optimization-based design approach. To this end, a structured approach, the so-called process synthesis framework, is proposed. This article reviews available computational methods for the conceptual design of distillation-based hybrid processes for the separation of liquid mixtures. Open problems are identified that must be addressed to finally establish a structured process synthesis framework for such processes.

  2. Hybrids of Gibbs Point Process Models and Their Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Baddeley

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe a simple way to construct new statistical models for spatial point pattern data. Taking two or more existing models (finite Gibbs spatial point processes we multiply the probability densities together and renormalise to obtain a new probability density. We call the resulting model a hybrid. We discuss stochastic properties of hybrids, their statistical implications, statistical inference, computational strategies and software implementation in the R package spatstat. Hybrids are particularly useful for constructing models which exhibit interaction at different spatial scales. The methods are demonstrated on a real data set on human social interaction. Software and data are provided.

  3. Hybrid microcircuit technology handbook materials, processes, design, testing and production

    CERN Document Server

    Licari, James J

    1998-01-01

    The Hybrid Microcircuit Technology Handbook integrates the many diverse technologies used in the design, fabrication, assembly, and testing of hybrid segments crucial to the success of producing reliable circuits in high yields. Among these are: resistor trimming, wire bonding, die attachment, cleaning, hermetic sealing, and moisture analysis. In addition to thin films, thick films, and assembly processes, important chapters on substrate selections, handling (including electrostatic discharge), failure analysis, and documentation are included. A comprehensive chapter of design guidelines will

  4. The Automated Discovery of Hybrid Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slaats, Tijs; Reijers, Hajo; Maggi, Fabrizio Maria

    2014-01-01

    The declarative-procedural dichotomy is highly relevant when choosing the most suitable process modeling language to represent a discovered process. Less-structured processes with a high level of variability can be described in a more compact way using a declarative language. By contrast, procedu...

  5. Quantum-Classical Hybrid for Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail

    2011-01-01

    Based upon quantum-inspired entanglement in quantum-classical hybrids, a simple algorithm for instantaneous transmissions of non-intentional messages (chosen at random) to remote distances is proposed. The idea is to implement instantaneous transmission of conditional information on remote distances via a quantum-classical hybrid that preserves superposition of random solutions, while allowing one to measure its state variables using classical methods. Such a hybrid system reinforces the advantages, and minimizes the limitations, of both quantum and classical characteristics. Consider n observers, and assume that each of them gets a copy of the system and runs it separately. Although they run identical systems, the outcomes of even synchronized runs may be different because the solutions of these systems are random. However, the global constrain must be satisfied. Therefore, if the observer #1 (the sender) made a measurement of the acceleration v(sub 1) at t =T, then the receiver, by measuring the corresponding acceleration v(sub 1) at t =T, may get a wrong value because the accelerations are random, and only their ratios are deterministic. Obviously, the transmission of this knowledge is instantaneous as soon as the measurements have been performed. In addition to that, the distance between the observers is irrelevant because the x-coordinate does not enter the governing equations. However, the Shannon information transmitted is zero. None of the senders can control the outcomes of their measurements because they are random. The senders cannot transmit intentional messages. Nevertheless, based on the transmitted knowledge, they can coordinate their actions based on conditional information. If the observer #1 knows his own measurements, the measurements of the others can be fully determined. It is important to emphasize that the origin of entanglement of all the observers is the joint probability density that couples their actions. There is no centralized source

  6. Hybrid process technologies in the financial sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debois, Søren; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Marquard, Morten;

    2015-01-01

    Danish mortgage credit institutes deal with highly variable and knowledgeintensive processes. At the same time these processes are required to be strictly conformant to current regulations and laws. In addition different divisions of the business are interested in different views on the same proc...

  7. Hybrid process technologies in the financial sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debois, Søren; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Marquard, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Danish mortgage credit institutes deal with highly variable and knowledgeintensive processes. At the same time these processes are required to be strictly conformant to current regulations and laws. In addition different divisions of the business are interested in different views on the same...

  8. Hybrid Sludge Modeling in Water Treatment Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Brenda, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Sludge occurs in many waste water and drinking water treatment processes. The numeric modeling of sludge is therefore crucial for developing and optimizing water treatment processes. Numeric single-phase sludge models mainly include settling and viscoplastic behavior. Even though many investigators emphasize the importance of modeling the rheology of sludge for good simulation results, it is difficult to measure, because of settling and the viscoplastic behavior. In this thesis, a new method ...

  9. Removal of heavy metals by hybrid electrocoagulation and microfiltration processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keerthi; Vinduja, V; Balasubramanian, N

    2013-01-01

    This study is based on the investigation of the performance of electrocoagulation (EC), followed by the microfiltration process for heavy metal removal in synthetic model waste water containing Zn2+, Ni2+ and Cd2+ ions. Effects of initial concentration, current density and pH on metal removal were analysed to optimize the EC process. The optimized EC process was then integrated with dead-end microfiltration (MF) and was found that the hybrid process was capable of 99% removal of heavy metals. The cake layer formed over the membrane by the hybrid process was analysed through scanning electron microscope-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The particle size analysis of the sludge formed during EC was done to investigate the fouling caused during the process.

  10. Selection processes in a citrus hybrid population using RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Roberto Pedroso de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the processes of selection in a citrus hybrid population using segregation analysis of RAPD markers. The segregation of 123 RAPD markers between 'Cravo' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco and 'Pêra' sweet orange (C. sinensis (L. Osbeck was analysed in a F1 progeny of 94 hybrids. Genetic composition, diversity, heterozygosity, differences in chromosomal structure and the presence of deleterious recessive genes are discussed based on the segregation ratios obtained. A high percentage of markers had a skeweness of the 1:1 expected segregation ratio in the F1 population. Many markers showed a 3:1 segregation ratio in both varieties and 1:3 in 'Pêra' sweet orange, probably due to directional selection processes. The distribution analysis of the frequencies of the segregant markers in a hybrid population is a simple method which allows a better understanding of the genetics of citrus group.

  11. Hybrid modelling of a sugar boiling process

    CERN Document Server

    Lauret, Alfred Jean Philippe; Gatina, Jean Claude

    2012-01-01

    The first and maybe the most important step in designing a model-based predictive controller is to develop a model that is as accurate as possible and that is valid under a wide range of operating conditions. The sugar boiling process is a strongly nonlinear and nonstationary process. The main process nonlinearities are represented by the crystal growth rate. This paper addresses the development of the crystal growth rate model according to two approaches. The first approach is classical and consists of determining the parameters of the empirical expressions of the growth rate through the use of a nonlinear programming optimization technique. The second is a novel modeling strategy that combines an artificial neural network (ANN) as an approximator of the growth rate with prior knowledge represented by the mass balance of sucrose crystals. The first results show that the first type of model performs local fitting while the second offers a greater flexibility. The two models were developed with industrial data...

  12. Hybrid Discrete-Continuous Markov Decision Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhengzhu; Dearden, Richard; Meuleau, Nicholas; Washington, Rich

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes a Markov decision process (MDP) model that features both discrete and continuous state variables. We extend previous work by Boyan and Littman on the mono-dimensional time-dependent MDP to multiple dimensions. We present the principle of lazy discretization, and piecewise constant and linear approximations of the model. Having to deal with several continuous dimensions raises several new problems that require new solutions. In the (piecewise) linear case, we use techniques from partially- observable MDPs (POMDPS) to represent value functions as sets of linear functions attached to different partitions of the state space.

  13. FERMENTATION PROCESS CHARACTERISTICS OF DIFFERENT MAIZE SILAGE HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bíro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect the fermentation process differences in different hybrid maize silage. We conserved in laboratory conditions hybrids of whole maize plants with different length of the vegetative period (FAO number. Maize hybrids for silage were harvested in the vegetation stage of the milk-wax maturity of corn and the content of dry matter was from 377.7 to 422.8 g.kg-1. The highest content of dry matter was typical for silages made from the hybrids with FAO number 310 (400.0 g.kg-1 and FAO 300a (400.4 g.kg-1. The content of desirable lactic acid ranged from 23.7 g.kg-1 of dry matter (FAO 350 to 58.9 g.kg-1 of dry matter (FAO 420. We detected the occurrence of undesirable butyric acid in silages from hybrids FAO 250, 300b, 310 and 380. The highest content of total alcohols we found in silages made from hybrid with FAO number 240 (25.2 g.kg-1 of dry matter. Ammonia contents were in tested silages from 0.153 (FAO 270 to 0.223 g.kg-1 of dry matter (FAO 240. The lowest value of silage titration acidity we analyzed in silage made from hybrid FAO 420 (3.66. We observed in maize silages with different length of plant maturity tested in the experiment differences in content of lactic acid, total alcohols, titration acidity, pH and content of fermentation products.

  14. High mobility solution-processed hybrid light emitting transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Bright; Kim, Jin Young [School of Energy and Chemical Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Ullah, Mujeeb; Burn, Paul L.; Namdas, Ebinazar B., E-mail: e.namdas@uq.edu.au, E-mail: seojh@dau.ac.kr [Centre for Organic Photonics and Electronics, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Chae, Gil Jo [Department of Materials Physics, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics and EHSRC, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Shinuk [Department of Physics and EHSRC, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Jung Hwa, E-mail: e.namdas@uq.edu.au, E-mail: seojh@dau.ac.kr [Department of Materials Physics, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-03

    We report the design, fabrication, and characterization of high-performance, solution-processed hybrid (inorganic-organic) light emitting transistors (HLETs). The devices employ a high-mobility, solution-processed cadmium sulfide layer as the switching and transport layer, with a conjugated polymer Super Yellow as an emissive material in non-planar source/drain transistor geometry. We demonstrate HLETs with electron mobilities of up to 19.5 cm{sup 2}/V s, current on/off ratios of >10{sup 7}, and external quantum efficiency of 10{sup −2}% at 2100 cd/m{sup 2}. These combined optical and electrical performance exceed those reported to date for HLETs. Furthermore, we provide full analysis of charge injection, charge transport, and recombination mechanism of the HLETs. The high brightness coupled with a high on/off ratio and low-cost solution processing makes this type of hybrid device attractive from a manufacturing perspective.

  15. Design, processing and testing of LSI arrays: Hybrid microelectronics task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmel, R. P.; Stuhlbarg, S. M.; Ravetti, R. G.; Zulueta, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    Mathematical cost factors were generated for both hybrid microcircuit and printed wiring board packaging methods. A mathematical cost model was created for analysis of microcircuit fabrication costs. The costing factors were refined and reduced to formulae for computerization. Efficient methods were investigated for low cost packaging of LSI devices as a function of density and reliability. Technical problem areas such as wafer bumping, inner/outer leading bonding, testing on tape, and tape processing, were investigated.

  16. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girish Srinivas; Steven C. Gebhard; David W. DeBerry

    2001-05-01

    This first quarter report of 2001 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day. This process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both on-shore and offshore applications. CrystaSulf{trademark} (service mark of Gas Research Institute) is a new nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from gas streams and converts it into elemental sulfur. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, approximately 1/3 of the total H{sub 2}S in the natural gas is first oxidized to SO{sub 2} at low temperatures over a heterogeneous catalyst. Low temperature oxidation is done so that the H{sub 2}S can be oxidized in the presence of methane and other hydrocarbons without oxidation of the hydrocarbons. The project involves the development of a catalyst using laboratory/bench-scale catalyst testing, and then demonstration of the catalyst at CrystaTech's pilot plant in west Texas. During this reporting periods new catalyst formulations were tested. The experiments showed that the newest catalyst has slightly better performance, but catalyst TDA No.2 is still superior overall for use with the hybrid CrystaSulf process due to lower costs. Plans for catalyst pelletization and continued testing are described.

  17. Treatment of sharp mandibular alveolar process with hybrid prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukaedi Sukaedi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Losing posterior teeth for a long time would occasionally lead to the sharpening of alveolar process. The removable partial denture usually have problems when used during mastication, because of the pressure on the mucosa under the alveolar ridge. Purpose: The purpose of this case report was to manage patients with sharp mandibular alveolar process by wearing hybrid prosthesis with extra coronal precision attachment retention and soft liner on the surface base beneath the removable partial denture. Case: A 76 years old woman visited the Prosthodontic Clinic Faculty of Dentistry Airlangga University. The patient had a long span bridge on the upper jaw and a free end acrylic removable partial denture on the lower jaw. She was having problems with mastication. The patient did not wear her lower denture because of the discomfort with it during mastication. Hence, she would like to replace it with a new removable partial denture. Case management: The patient was treated by wearing a hybrid prosthesis with extra coronal precision attachment on the lower jaw. Soft liner was applied on the surface of the removable partial denture. Hybrid prosthesis is a complex denture consisting of removable partial denture and fixed bridge. Conclusion: It concluded that after restoration, the patient had no problems with sharp alveolar process with her new denture, and she was able to masticate well.Latar belakang: Kehilangan geligi posterior dapat menimbulkan processus alveolaris tajam. Gigi tiruan sebagian lepasan mempunyai masalah selama pengunyahan karena adanya tekanan di mukosa di bawah alveolar ridge. Tujuan: Tujuan laporan kasus ini adalah untuk menjelaskan cara menangani pasien yang mempunyai prosesus alveolaris yang tajam di rahang bawah dengan dibuatkan protesis hybrid dengan daya tahan extra coronal precision attachment dan soft liner di permukaan bawah basis gigi tiruan sebagian lepasan. Kasus: Pasien wanita berumur 76 tahun datang di klinik

  18. ANALYSIS OF A TRANSPORT PROCESS USING HYBRID PETRI NETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeta Mihaela CIORTEA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the paper is to analyze the Petri net model, to describe the transport process, part of amanufacturing system and its dynamics.A hibrid Petri net model is built to describe the dinamics of the transport process manufacturingsystem. Mathematical formulation of the dinamycs processes a detailed description. Based on this model, theanalysis of the transport process is designed to be able to execute a production plan and resolve any conflictsthat may arise in the system.In the analysis dinamics known two stages: in the continuous variables are discrete hybrid system in thehibrid discrete variables are used as safety control with very well defined responsibilities.In terms of the chosen model, analyze transport process is designed to help execute a production planand resolve conflicts that may arise in the process, and then the ones in the system

  19. Hybrid language processing in the Spoken Language Translator

    CERN Document Server

    Rayner, M; Rayner, Manny; Carter, David

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of the Spoken Language Translator (SLT) system's hybrid language-processing architecture, focussing on the way in which rule-based and statistical methods are combined to achieve robust and efficient performance within a linguistically motivated framework. In general, we argue that rules are desirable in order to encode domain-independent linguistic constraints and achieve high-quality grammatical output, while corpus-derived statistics are needed if systems are to be efficient and robust; further, that hybrid architectures are superior from the point of view of portability to architectures which only make use of one type of information. We address the topics of ``multi-engine'' strategies for robust translation; robust bottom-up parsing using pruning and grammar specialization; rational development of linguistic rule-sets using balanced domain corpora; and efficient supervised training by interactive disambiguation. All work described is fully implemented in the current version...

  20. Concrete Crack Identification Using a UAV Incorporating Hybrid Image Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunjun; Lee, Junhwa; Ahn, Eunjong; Cho, Soojin; Shin, Myoungsu; Sim, Sung-Han

    2017-09-07

    Crack assessment is an essential process in the maintenance of concrete structures. In general, concrete cracks are inspected by manual visual observation of the surface, which is intrinsically subjective as it depends on the experience of inspectors. Further, it is time-consuming, expensive, and often unsafe when inaccessible structural members are to be assessed. Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technologies combined with digital image processing have recently been applied to crack assessment to overcome the drawbacks of manual visual inspection. However, identification of crack information in terms of width and length has not been fully explored in the UAV-based applications, because of the absence of distance measurement and tailored image processing. This paper presents a crack identification strategy that combines hybrid image processing with UAV technology. Equipped with a camera, an ultrasonic displacement sensor, and a WiFi module, the system provides the image of cracks and the associated working distance from a target structure on demand. The obtained information is subsequently processed by hybrid image binarization to estimate the crack width accurately while minimizing the loss of the crack length information. The proposed system has shown to successfully measure cracks thicker than 0.1 mm with the maximum length estimation error of 7.3%.

  1. Concrete Crack Identification Using a UAV Incorporating Hybrid Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunjun Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Crack assessment is an essential process in the maintenance of concrete structures. In general, concrete cracks are inspected by manual visual observation of the surface, which is intrinsically subjective as it depends on the experience of inspectors. Further, it is time-consuming, expensive, and often unsafe when inaccessible structural members are to be assessed. Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV technologies combined with digital image processing have recently been applied to crack assessment to overcome the drawbacks of manual visual inspection. However, identification of crack information in terms of width and length has not been fully explored in the UAV-based applications, because of the absence of distance measurement and tailored image processing. This paper presents a crack identification strategy that combines hybrid image processing with UAV technology. Equipped with a camera, an ultrasonic displacement sensor, and a WiFi module, the system provides the image of cracks and the associated working distance from a target structure on demand. The obtained information is subsequently processed by hybrid image binarization to estimate the crack width accurately while minimizing the loss of the crack length information. The proposed system has shown to successfully measure cracks thicker than 0.1 mm with the maximum length estimation error of 7.3%.

  2. Solution-processed hybrid materials for light detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinolfi, Valerio

    Inorganic semiconductors form the foundation of modern electronics and optoelectronics. These materials benefit from excellent optoelectronic properties, but applications are generally limited due to high cost of fabrication. More recently, organic semiconductors have emerged as a low-cost alternative for light emitting devices. Organic materials benefit from facile, low temperature fabrication and offer attractive features such as flexibility and transparency. However, these materials are inherently limited by poor electronic transport. In recent years, new materials have been developed to overcome the dichotomy between performance and the cost. Hybrid organic--inorganic semiconductors combine the superior electronic properties of inorganic materials with the facile assembly of organic systems to yield high-performance, low-cost electronics. This dissertation focuses on the development of solution-processed light detectors using hybrid material systems, particularly colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) and hybrid perovskites. First, advanced architectures for colloidal quantum dot light detectors are presented. These devices overcome the responsivity--speed--dark current trade-off that has limited past reports of CQD-based devices. The photo-junction field effect transistors presented in this work decrease the dark current of CQD detectors by two orders of magnitude, ultimately reducing power consumption (100x) and noise current (10x). The detector simultaneously benefits from high gain (˜10 electrons/photon) and fast time response (˜ 10 mus). This represents the first CQD-based three-terminal-junction device reported in the literature. Building on this success, hybrid perovskite devices are then presented. This material system has become a focal point of the semiconductor research community due to its relatively unexplored nature and attractive optoelectronic properties. Herein we present the first extensive electronic characterization of single crystal organolead

  3. Near-Optimal Hybrid Processing for Massive MIMO Systems via Matrix Decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Ni, Weiheng; Dong, Xiaodai; Lu, Wu-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    For the practical implementation of massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems, the hybrid processing (precoding/combining) structure is promising to reduce the high cost rendered by large number of RF chains of the traditional processing structure. The hybrid processing is performed through low-dimensional digital baseband processing combined with analog RF processing enabled by phase shifters. We propose to design hybrid RF and baseband precoders/combiners for multi-stream transm...

  4. XPS-XRF hybrid metrology enabling FDSOI process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mainul; Subramanian, Ganesh; Triyoso, Dina; Wahl, Jeremy; Mcardle, Timothy; Vaid, Alok; Bello, A. F.; Lee, Wei Ti; Klare, Mark; Kwan, Michael; Pois, Heath; Wang, Ying; Larson, Tom

    2016-03-01

    Planar fully-depleted silicon-on-insulator (FDSOI) technology potentially offers comparable transistor performance as FinFETs. pFET FDOSI devices are based on a silicon germanium (cSiGe) layer on top of a buried oxide (BOX). Ndoped interfacial layer (IL), high-k (HfO2) layer and the metal gate stacks are then successively built on top of the SiGe layer. In-line metrology is critical in precisely monitoring the thickness and composition of the gate stack and associated underlying layers in order to achieve desired process control. However, any single in-line metrology technique is insufficient to obtain the thickness of IL, high-k, cSiGe layers in addition to Ge% and N-dose in one single measurement. A hybrid approach is therefore needed that combines the capabilities of more than one measurement technique to extract multiple parameters in a given film stack. This paper will discuss the approaches, challenges, and results associated with the first-in-industry implementation of XPS-XRF hybrid metrology for simultaneous detection of high-k thickness, IL thickness, N-dose, cSiGe thickness and %Ge, all in one signal measurement on a FDSOI substrate in a manufacturing fab. Strong correlation to electrical data for one or more of these measured parameters will also be presented, establishing the reliability of this technique.

  5. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girish Srinivas; Steven C. Gebhard; David W. DeBerry

    2002-04-01

    This first quarter report of 2002 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day. This process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both on-shore and offshore applications. CrystaSulf{sup SM} (service mark of CrystaTech, Inc.) is a new nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from gas streams and converts it into elemental sulfur. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, approximately 1/3 of the total H{sub 2}S in the natural gas is first oxidized to SO{sub 2} at low temperatures over a heterogeneous catalyst. Low temperature oxidation is done so that the H{sub 2}S can be oxidized in the presence of methane and other hydrocarbons without oxidation of the hydrocarbons. The project involves the development of a catalyst using laboratory/bench-scale catalyst testing, and then demonstration of the catalyst at CrystaTech's pilot plant in west Texas. In a previous reporting period tests were done to determine the effect of hydrocarbons such as n-hexane on catalyst performance with and without H{sub 2}S present. The experiments showed that hexane oxidation is suppressed when H{sub 2}S is present. Hexane represents the most reactive of the C1 to C6 series of alkanes. Since hexane exhibits low reactivity under H{sub 2}S oxidation conditions, and more importantly, does not

  6. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girish Srinivas; Steven C. Gebhard; David W. DeBerry

    2002-07-01

    This second quarter report of 2002 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day. This process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both on-shore and offshore applications. CrystaSulf (service mark of CrystaTech, Inc.) is a new nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from gas streams and converts it into elemental sulfur. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, approximately 1/3 of the total H{sub 2}S in the natural gas is first oxidized to SO{sub 2} at low temperatures over a heterogeneous catalyst. Low temperature oxidation is done so that the H{sub 2}S can be oxidized in the presence of methane and other hydrocarbons without oxidation of the hydrocarbons. The project involves the development of a catalyst using laboratory/bench-scale catalyst testing, and then demonstration of the catalyst at CrystaTech's pilot plant in west Texas. Previous reports described development of a catalyst with the required selectivity and efficiency for producing sulfur dioxide from H{sub 2}S. In the laboratory, the catalyst was shown to be robust and stable in the presence of several intentionally added contaminants, including condensate from the pilot plant site. This report describes testing using the laboratory apparatus but operated at the pilot plant using the actual pilot

  7. Hybrid quantum repeater protocol with fast local processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Johannes; Brask, Jonatan Bohr; Sørensen, Anders Søndberg

    2012-01-01

    the need for classical communication during growth. Entanglement is generated in subsequent connection processes. Furthermore the growth procedure is optimized. We review the main elements of the original protocol and present the two modifications. Finally the two protocols are compared and the modified......We propose a hybrid quantum repeater protocol combining the advantages of continuous and discrete variables. The repeater is based on the previous work of Brask et al. [ Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 160501 (2010)] but we present two ways of improving this protocol. In the previous protocol entangled single......-photon states are produced and grown into superpositions of coherent states, known as two-mode cat states. The entanglement is then distributed using homodyne detection. To improve the protocol, we replace the time-consuming nonlocal growth of cat states with local growth of single-mode cat states, eliminating...

  8. Development of hybrid fluid jet/float polishing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaucamp, Anthony T. H.; Namba, Yoshiharu; Freeman, Richard R.

    2013-09-01

    On one hand, the "float polishing" process consists of a tin lap having many concentric grooves, cut from a flat by single point diamond turning. This lap is rotated above a hydrostatic bearing spindle of high rigidity, damping and rotational accuracy. The optical surface thus floats above a thin layer of abrasive particles. But whilst surface texture can be smoothed to ~0.1nm rms (as measured by atomic force microscopy), this process can only be used on flat surfaces. On the other hand, the CNC "fluid jet polishing" process consists of pumping a mixture of water and abrasive particles to a converging nozzle, thus generating a polishing spot that can be moved along a tool path with tight track spacing. But whilst tool path feed can be moderated to ultra-precisely correct form error on freeform optical surfaces, surface finish improvement is generally limited to ~1.5nm rms (with fine abrasives). This paper reports on the development of a novel finishing method, that combines the advantages of "fluid jet polishing" (i.e. freeform corrective capability) with "float polishing" (i.e. super-smooth surface finish of 0.1nm rms or less). To come up with this new "hybrid" method, computational fluid dynamic modeling of both processes in COMSOL is being used to characterize abrasion conditions and adapt the process parameters of experimental fluid jet polishing equipment, including: (1) geometrical shape of nozzle, (2) position relative to the surface, (3) control of inlet pressure. This new process is aimed at finishing of next generation X-Ray / Gamma Ray focusing optics.

  9. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis Dalrymple

    2004-06-01

    This final report describes the objectives, technical approach, results and conclusions for a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept is a configuration of CrystaTech, Inc.'s CrystaSulf{reg_sign} process which utilizes a direct oxidation catalyst upstream of the absorber tower to oxidize a portion of the inlet hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) to sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and elemental sulfur. This hybrid configuration of CrystaSulf has been named CrystaSulf-DO and represents a low-cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day and more. This hybrid process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both onshore and offshore applications. CrystaSulf is a nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes H{sub 2}S from gas streams and converts it to elemental sulfur. In CrystaSulf, H{sub 2}S in the inlet gas is reacted with SO{sub 2} to make elemental sulfur according to the liquid phase Claus reaction: 2H{sub 2}S + SO{sub 2} {yields} 2H{sub 2}O + 3S. The SO{sub 2} for the reaction can be supplied from external sources by purchasing liquid SO{sub 2} and injecting it into the CrystaSulf solution, or produced internally by converting a portion of the inlet gas H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} or by burning a portion of the sulfur produced to make SO{sub 2}. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, the needed SO{sub 2} is produced by placing a bed of direct oxidation catalyst in the inlet gas stream to oxidize

  10. Hybrid Adsorption-Membrane Biological Reactors for Improved Performance and Reliability of Perchlorate Removal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    carbon supply for the autotrophic perchlorate reducing bacteria. The membrane used in the reactor is a hollow-fiber microfiltration membrane made from...1 HYBRID ADSORPTION- MEMBRANE BIOLOGICAL REACTORS FOR IMPROVED PERFORMANCE AND RELIABILITY OF PERCHLORATE REMOVAL PROCESSES L.C. Schideman...Center Champaign, IL 61826, USA ABSTRACT This study introduces the novel HAMBgR process (Hybrid Adsorption Membrane Biological Reactor) and

  11. Structural and Morphological Investigation for Water-Processed Graphene Oxide/Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muda, M. R.; Ramli, M. M.; Mat Isa, S. S.; Halin, D. S. C.; Talip, L. F. A.; Mazelan, N. S.; Anhar, N. A. M.; Danial, N. A.

    2017-06-01

    New group of materials derived from hybridization of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and graphene oxide (GO) which resulting novel three dimensional (3D) materials generates an outstanding properties compared to corresponding SWCNTs and GO/Graphene. In this paper, we describe a simple approach using water processing method to develop integrated rGO/GO-SWCNT hybrids with different hybrid ratios. The hybrid ratios were varied into three divided ratio and the results were compared between pristine SWCNTs and GO in order to investigate the structural density and morphology of these carbonaceous materials. With an optimized ratio of rGO/GO-SWCNT, the hybrid shows a well-organized hybrid film structures with less defects density sites. The optimized mixture ratio emphasized the important of both rGO and SWCNTs in the hybrid structures. Morphological structural and defects density degrees were examined by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Raman spectroscopy.

  12. Strategic Co-Location in a Hybrid Process Involving Desalination and Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO)

    OpenAIRE

    Krantz, William B.; Anthony G. Fane; Tzyy Haur Chong; Chuyang Y. Tang; Sim, Victor S.T.; Qianhong She

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on a Hybrid Process that uses feed salinity dilution and osmotic power recovery from Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO) to achieve higher overall water recovery. This reduces the energy consumption and capital costs of conventional seawater desalination and water reuse processes. The Hybrid Process increases the amount of water recovered from the current 66.7% for conventional seawater desalination and water reuse processes to a potential 80% through the use of reclaimed water...

  13. The design, fabrication, and test of a new VLSI hybrid analog-digital neural processing element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyong, Mark R.; Findley, Randall L.; Fields, Chris

    1992-01-01

    A hybrid analog-digital neural processing element with the time-dependent behavior of biological neurons has been developed. The hybrid processing element is designed for VLSI implementation and offers the best attributes of both analog and digital computation. Custom VLSI layout reduces the layout area of the processing element, which in turn increases the expected network density. The hybrid processing element operates at the nanosecond time scale, which enables it to produce real-time solutions to complex spatiotemporal problems found in high-speed signal processing applications. VLSI prototype chips have been designed, fabricated, and tested with encouraging results. Systems utilizing the time-dependent behavior of the hybrid processing element have been simulated and are currently in the fabrication process. Future applications are also discussed.

  14. The design, fabrication, and test of a new VLSI hybrid analog-digital neural processing element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyong, Mark R.; Findley, Randall L.; Fields, Chris

    1992-01-01

    A hybrid analog-digital neural processing element with the time-dependent behavior of biological neurons has been developed. The hybrid processing element is designed for VLSI implementation and offers the best attributes of both analog and digital computation. Custom VLSI layout reduces the layout area of the processing element, which in turn increases the expected network density. The hybrid processing element operates at the nanosecond time scale, which enables it to produce real-time solutions to complex spatiotemporal problems found in high-speed signal processing applications. VLSI prototype chips have been designed, fabricated, and tested with encouraging results. Systems utilizing the time-dependent behavior of the hybrid processing element have been simulated and are currently in the fabrication process. Future applications are also discussed.

  15. HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS REFERENCE DESIGN AND COST ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorensek, M.; Summers, W.; Boltrunis, C.; Lahoda, E.; Allen, D.; Greyvenstein, R.

    2009-05-12

    PBMR (Pty.) Ltd. in the RSA, with the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, under development by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in the US as part of the NHI. This work was performed by SRNL, Westinghouse Electric Company, Shaw, PBMR (Pty) Ltd., and Technology Insights under a Technical Consulting Agreement (TCA). Westinghouse Electric, serving as the lead for the PBMR process heat application team, established a cost-shared TCA with SRNL to prepare an updated HyS thermochemical water-splitting process flowsheet, a nuclear hydrogen plant preconceptual design and a cost estimate, including the cost of hydrogen production. SRNL was funded by DOE under the NHI program, and the Westinghouse team was self-funded. The results of this work are presented in this Final Report. Appendices have been attached to provide a detailed source of information in order to document the work under the TCA contract.

  16. Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Solution-Processed H-2-Evolving Photocathodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, Lai-Hung; Gomulya, Widianta; Berghuis, Matthijs; Protesescu, Loredana; Detz, Remko J.; Reek, Joost N. H.; Kovalenko, Maksym V.; Loi, Maria A.

    2015-01-01

    Here we report for the first time an H-2-evolving photocathode fabricated by a solution-processed organic inorganic hybrid composed of CdSe and P3HT. The CdSe:P3HT (10:1 (w/w)) hybrid bulk heterojunction treated with 1,2-ethanedithiol (EDT) showed efficient water reduction and hydrogen generation. A

  17. Fusion-Fission Hybrid for Fissile Fuel Production without Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratoni, M; Moir, R W; Kramer, K J; Latkowski, J F; Meier, W R; Powers, J J

    2012-01-02

    Two scenarios are typically envisioned for thorium fuel cycles: 'open' cycles based on irradiation of {sup 232}Th and fission of {sup 233}U in situ without reprocessing or 'closed' cycles based on irradiation of {sup 232}Th followed by reprocessing, and recycling of {sup 233}U either in situ or in critical fission reactors. This study evaluates a third option based on the possibility of breeding fissile material in a fusion-fission hybrid reactor and burning the same fuel in a critical reactor without any reprocessing or reconditioning. This fuel cycle requires the hybrid and the critical reactor to use the same fuel form. TRISO particles embedded in carbon pebbles were selected as the preferred form of fuel and an inertial laser fusion system featuring a subcritical blanket was combined with critical pebble bed reactors, either gas-cooled or liquid-salt-cooled. The hybrid reactor was modeled based on the earlier, hybrid version of the LLNL Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE1) system, whereas the critical reactors were modeled according to the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) and the Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) design. An extensive neutronic analysis was carried out for both the hybrid and the fission reactors in order to track the fuel composition at each stage of the fuel cycle and ultimately determine the plant support ratio, which has been defined as the ratio between the thermal power generated in fission reactors and the fusion power required to breed the fissile fuel burnt in these fission reactors. It was found that the maximum attainable plant support ratio for a thorium fuel cycle that employs neither enrichment nor reprocessing is about 2. This requires tuning the neutron energy towards high energy for breeding and towards thermal energy for burning. A high fuel loading in the pebbles allows a faster spectrum in the hybrid blanket; mixing dummy carbon pebbles with fuel pebbles enables a softer spectrum in

  18. Effect of Nozzle Design and Processing Parameter on Characteristics of Glass/Polypropylene Hybrid Yarns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Hireni Mankodi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the various methods commingling process is comparatively better alternative to produce hybrid yarns. The required properties of hybrid yarns can be obtained by controlling main processing parameters such as air pressure, overfeed and take-up speed along with proper selection of nozzle (jet design. The commingling machine has been fabricated to study the commingling parameters. The nozzle is the most important element of the commingling machine. The design specification of commingling jet along with the processing parameters decides the final characteristics of yarn. In the present study two different types of jets have been selected to investigate commingling characteristics of glass/polypropylene hybrid yarn.

  19. STRONG CONVERGENCE OF MONOTONE HYBRID METHOD FOR FIXED POINT ITERATION PROCESSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongfu SU; Xiaolong QIN

    2008-01-01

    K. Nakajo and W. Takahashi in 2003 proved the strong convergence theorems for nonexpansive mappings, nonexpansive semigroups, and proximal point algorithm for zero point of monotone operators in Hilbert spaces by using the hybrid method in mathematical programming. The purpose of this paper is to modify the hybrid iteration method of K. Nakajo and W. Takahashi through the monotone hybrid method, and to prove strong convergence theorems. The convergence rate of iteration process of the monotone hybrid method is faster than that of the iteration process of the hybrid method of K. Nakajo and W. Takahashi. In the proofs in this article, Cauchy sequence method is used to avoid the use of the demiclosedness principle and Opial's condition.

  20. Preparation and characterization of silk/silica hybrid biomaterials by sol-gel crosslinking process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou Aiqin, E-mail: aiqinhou@dhu.edu.c [National Engineering Research Center for Dyeing and Finishing of Textiles, Donghua University, 3H, 2999 North Renmin Road, Songjiang, Shanghai 201620 (China); Chen Huawei [National Engineering Research Center for Dyeing and Finishing of Textiles, Donghua University, 3H, 2999 North Renmin Road, Songjiang, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2010-03-15

    The silk/silica hybrid biomaterials are synthesized by sol-gel crosslinking process. The chemical and morphological structures of silk/silica hybrids are investigated with micro-FT-IR spectra, X-ray diffraction, SEM, AFM, and DSC. The results show that the crosslinking reactions among inorganic nano-particles, fibroin and 2,4,6-tri[(2-epihydrin-3-bimethyl-ammonium)propyl]-1,3,5-triazine chloride (Tri-EBAC) take place during sol-gel process. The silk/silica hybrids form new molecular structures containing not only organic fibroin but also inorganic nano-silica particles. The inorganic particles are bounded to the fibroin through covalent bonds. The silk/silica hybrids can form excellent film with very even nanometer particles. The thermal properties of organic/inorganic hybrid are improved.

  1. ?HY-CHANGE?: AN HYBRID METHODOLOGY FOR CONTINUOUS PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT OF MANUFACTURING PROCESSES

    OpenAIRE

    Dassisti, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Abstract An hybrid methodology based on the joint recourse of Business Process An hybrid methodology for Continuous Performance Improvement (CPI) is presented, basically funded on the joint recourse of Business Process Reengineering (BPR) and Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) principles and tools. The methodology (called HY-CHANGE) is conceived as a logical and technical support to the decision maker. It results in a number of recursive phases, where the rational and synchronous...

  2. Photovoltaic/diesel hybrid systems: The design process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G. J.; Chapman, R. N.

    A photovoltaic/storage system by itself may be uneconomical for stand-alone applications with large energy demands. However, by combining the PV system with a back-up energy source, such as a diesel, gasoline, or propane/thermoelectric generator, system economics can be improved. Such PV/fossil hybrid systems are being used, but their design has required detailed modeling to determine the optimal mix of photovoltaics and back-up energy. Recent data on diesel field reliability and a new design technique for stand-alone systems have overcome this problem. The approach provides the means for sizing the photovoltaic system to obtain a near optimal hybrid system, with about a 90% savings in back-up fuel costs. System economics are determined by comparing PV capital cost to the present value of the displaced diesel operation and maintenance costs.

  3. Organic-inorganic hybrid materials processing and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Helmut K.; Mennig, Martin; Nonninger, Ralph; Oliveira, Peter William de; Schirra, Hermann

    1999-01-01

    Hybrid materials as inorganic-organic nanostructured composites require tailored surface chemistry in order to obtain a homogeneous distribution of the nanoparticles in the matrix. For this reason, nanoparticles with organic functions have been synthesized, first, to provide the desired æ-potential at a given pH value, second, to avoid irreversible agglomeration due to the spacing effect, and third, to provide the appropriate surface chemistry. I could be shown that using this approach, it is...

  4. Micro-Processes of Employees in a Hybrid Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Virginie; Boxenbaum, Eva; Ravasi, Davide

    actors engaged in the energy transition. We draw on the literature on institutional logics and hybrid organizations to examine how employees of this French energy corporation deal with this institutionally complex environment. Our findings point to three strategies that individuals use to cope......The present article examines how employees cope with an organizational setting that is institutionally complex. The empirical setting is a French energy corporation that simultaneously pursues a logic of science and a logic of market through multiple research partnerships with public and private...

  5. Hybrid quantum repeater protocol with fast local processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Johannes; Brask, Jonatan Bohr; Sørensen, Anders Søndberg

    2012-01-01

    We propose a hybrid quantum repeater protocol combining the advantages of continuous and discrete variables. The repeater is based on the previous work of Brask et al. [ Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 160501 (2010)] but we present two ways of improving this protocol. In the previous protocol entangled single......-photon states are produced and grown into superpositions of coherent states, known as two-mode cat states. The entanglement is then distributed using homodyne detection. To improve the protocol, we replace the time-consuming nonlocal growth of cat states with local growth of single-mode cat states, eliminating...

  6. A Dynamic Feature-Based Method for Hybrid Blurred/Multiple Object Detection in Manufacturing Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsun-Kuo Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vision-based inspection has been applied for quality control and product sorting in manufacturing processes. Blurred or multiple objects are common causes of poor performance in conventional vision-based inspection systems. Detecting hybrid blurred/multiple objects has long been a challenge in manufacturing. For example, single-feature-based algorithms might fail to exactly extract features when concurrently detecting hybrid blurred/multiple objects. Therefore, to resolve this problem, this study proposes a novel vision-based inspection algorithm that entails selecting a dynamic feature-based method on the basis of a multiclassifier of support vector machines (SVMs for inspecting hybrid blurred/multiple object images. The proposed algorithm dynamically selects suitable inspection schemes for classifying the hybrid images. The inspection schemes include discrete wavelet transform, spherical wavelet transform, moment invariants, and edge-feature-descriptor-based classification methods. The classification methods for single and multiple objects are adaptive region growing- (ARG- based and local adaptive region growing- (LARG- based learning approaches, respectively. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can dynamically select suitable inspection schemes by applying a selection algorithm, which uses SVMs for classifying hybrid blurred/multiple object samples. Moreover, the method applies suitable feature-based schemes on the basis of the classification results for employing the ARG/LARG-based method to inspect the hybrid objects. The method improves conventional methods for inspecting hybrid blurred/multiple objects and achieves high recognition rates for that in manufacturing processes.

  7. Influence of processing parameters on long lasting hybrid phosphor for LED applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Abhilasha; Kumar, Ashwini; Dhoble, S. J.; Peshwe, D. R.

    2016-05-01

    Rare earth activated hybrid phosphors have made significant progress in terms of better light output, color properties and potential for long life. All these features coupled with low cost production and reduced maintenance have offered phosphor converted LEDs for diverse optoelectronic applications including signal lighting in advanced aviation. The present paper explores the effect of various processing parameters on luminescent hybrid phosphors fabricated through combustion synthesis.

  8. Fatty acid composition of maize germ oil from high-oil hybrids wet-milling processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Petar Lj.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize germ was obtained by wet-milling laboratory processing of domestic high-oil maize hybrids. After separation, the germ was subjected to extraction of maize oil. Fatty acid composition of maize germ oil was determined by gas chromatography. The results showed very high levels of unsaturated fatty acids and a constant sum of oleic and linoleic acids in oils of different maize hybrids.

  9. The HFEA public consultation process on hybrids and chimeras: informed, effective, and meaningful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylis, Françoise

    2009-03-01

    In September 2007, the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) in the United Kingdom concluded that "there is no fundamental reason to prevent cytoplasmic hybrid research ... this area of research can, with caution and careful scrutiny, be permitted." Later, in January 2008, HFEA issued two research licenses to create humanesque cytoplasmic hybrid embryos from which stem cells could be derived. This article critically examines the public consultation process that preceded these decisions, concluding that the process was flawed and demonstrating how the HFEA documents summarizing the findings of the public consultation process misrepresent the public's contributions to this policymaking initiative.

  10. A Hybrid FPGA/Coarse Parallel Processing Architecture for Multi-modal Visual Feature Descriptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Baunegaard With; Kjær-Nielsen, Anders; Alonso, Javier Díaz

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the hybrid architecture developed for speeding up the processing of so-called multi-modal visual primitives which are sparse image descriptors extracted along contours. In the system, the first stages of visual processing are implemented on FPGAs due to their highly parallel...

  11. Energy minimization of separation processes using conventional/membrane hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottschlich, D.E.; Roberts, D.L. (SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (USA))

    1990-09-28

    The purpose of this study was to identify the general principles governing the choice of hybrid separation systems over straight membrane or straight nonmembrane systems and to do so by examining practical applications (process design and economics). Our focus was to examine the energy consumption characteristics and overall cost factors of the membrane and nonmembrane technologies that cause hybrid systems to be preferred over nonhybrid systems. We evaluated four cases studies, chosen on the basis of likelihood of commercial viability of a hybrid system and magnitude of energy savings: (1) propane/propylene separation; (2) removal of nitrogen from natural gas; (3) concentration of Kraft black liquor; and (4)solvent deasphalting. For propane/propylene splitting, the membrane proved to be superior to distillation in both thermodynamic efficiency and processing cost (PC) when the product was 95% pure propylene. However, to produce higher purity products, the membrane alone could not perform the separation, and a membrane/distillation hybrid was required. In these cases, there is an optimum amount of separation to be accomplished by the membrane (expressed as the fraction of the total availability change of the membrane/distillation hybrid that takes place in the membrane and defined as {phi}{sub m}, the thermodynamic extent of separation). Qualitative and quantitative guidelines are discussed with regard to choosing a hybrid system. 54 refs., 66 figs., 36 tabs.

  12. Sol-gel Process in Preparation of Organic-inorganic Hybrid Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macan, J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic hybrid materials are a sort of nanostructured material in which the organic and inorganic phases are mixed at molecular level. The inorganic phase in hybrid materials is formed by the sol-gel process, which consists of reactions of hydrolysis and condensation of metal (usually silicon alkoxides. Flexibility of sol-gel process enables creation of hybrid materials with varying organic and inorganic phases in different ratios, and consequently fine-tuning of their properties. In order to obtain true hybrid materials, contact between the phases should be at molecular level, so phase separation between thermodynamically incompatible organic and inorganic phases has to be prevented. Phase interaction can be improved by formation of hydrogen or covalent bonds between them during preparation of hybrid materials. Covalent bond can be introduced by organically modified silicon alkoxides containing a reactive organic group (substituent capable of reacting with the organic phase. In order to obtain hybrid materials with desired structures, a detailed knowledge of hydrolysis and condensation mechanism is necessary. The choice of catalyst, whether acid or base, has the most significant influence on the structure of the inorganic phase. Other important parameters are alkoxide concentration, water: alkoxide ratio, type of alkoxide groups, solvent used, temperature, purity of chemicals used, etc. Hydrolysis and condensation of organically modified silicon alkoxides are additionally influenced by nature and size of the organic supstituent.

  13. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Coatings Through Dual-Cure Processes: State of the Art and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Malucelli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current state of the art related to the synthesis and characterization of hybrid organic-inorganic (O/I coatings obtained through the exploitation of dual-cure processes, which involve a photo-induced polymerization followed by a thermal treatment: this latter allows the occurrence of sol-gel reactions of suitable alkoxy precursors already embedded in the UV-curable system. After a brief introduction on hybrid organic-inorganic coatings, the first part of the review is focused on the design and feasibility issues provided by the dual-cure method, emphasizing the possibility of tuning the structure of the final hybrid network on the basis of the composition of the starting liquid mixture. Then, some recent examples of hybrid organic-inorganic networks are thoroughly described, showing their potential advances and the application fields to which they can be addressed.

  14. Strategic Co-Location in a Hybrid Process Involving Desalination and Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B. Krantz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on a Hybrid Process that uses feed salinity dilution and osmotic power recovery from Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO to achieve higher overall water recovery. This reduces the energy consumption and capital costs of conventional seawater desalination and water reuse processes. The Hybrid Process increases the amount of water recovered from the current 66.7% for conventional seawater desalination and water reuse processes to a potential 80% through the use of reclaimed water brine as an impaired water source. A reduction of up to 23% in energy consumption is projected via the Hybrid Process. The attractiveness is amplified by potential capital cost savings ranging from 8.7%–20% compared to conventional designs of seawater desalination plants. A decision matrix in the form of a customizable scorecard is introduced for evaluating a Hybrid Process based on the importance of land space, capital costs, energy consumption and membrane fouling. This study provides a new perspective, looking at processes not as individual systems but as a whole utilizing strategic co-location to unlock the synergies available in the water-energy nexus for more sustainable desalination.

  15. Strategic Co-Location in a Hybrid Process Involving Desalination and Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Victor S T; She, Qianhong; Chong, Tzyy Haur; Tang, Chuyang Y; Fane, Anthony G; Krantz, William B

    2013-07-04

    This paper focuses on a Hybrid Process that uses feed salinity dilution and osmotic power recovery from Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO) to achieve higher overall water recovery. This reduces the energy consumption and capital costs of conventional seawater desalination and water reuse processes. The Hybrid Process increases the amount of water recovered from the current 66.7% for conventional seawater desalination and water reuse processes to a potential 80% through the use of reclaimed water brine as an impaired water source. A reduction of up to 23% in energy consumption is projected via the Hybrid Process. The attractiveness is amplified by potential capital cost savings ranging from 8.7%-20% compared to conventional designs of seawater desalination plants. A decision matrix in the form of a customizable scorecard is introduced for evaluating a Hybrid Process based on the importance of land space, capital costs, energy consumption and membrane fouling. This study provides a new perspective, looking at processes not as individual systems but as a whole utilizing strategic co-location to unlock the synergies available in the water-energy nexus for more sustainable desalination.

  16. Anodic bonding using a hybrid electrode with a two-step bonding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Luo; Jing, Xie; Yang, Zhang; Chaobo, Li; Yang, Xia

    2012-06-01

    A two-step bonding process using a novel hybrid electrode is presented. The effects of different electrodes on bonding time, bond strength and the bonded interface are analyzed. The anodic bonding is studied using a domestic bonding system, which carries out a detailed analysis of the integrity of the bonded interface and the bond strength measurement. With the aid of the hybrid electrode, a bubble-free anodic bonding process could be accomplished within 15-20 min, with a shear strength in excess of 10 MPa. These results show that the proposed method has a high degree of application value, including in most wafer-level MEMS packaging.

  17. Organic-inorganic hybrid membranes in separation processes: a 10-year review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. C. Souza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In relation to some inorganic membranes, polymeric membranes have relatively low separation performance. However, the processing flexibility and low cost of polymers still make them highly attractive for many industrial separation applications. Polymer-inorganic hybrid membranes constitute an emerging research field and have been recently developed to improve the separation properties of polymer membranes because they possess properties of both organic and inorganic membranes such as good hydrophilicity, selectivity, permeability, mechanical strength, and thermal and chemical stability. The structures and processing of polymer-inorganic nanocomposite hybrid membranes, as well as their use in the fields of ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, pervaporation, gas separation and separation mechanism are reviewed.

  18. Application of Hybrid Genetic Algorithm Routine in Optimizing Food and Bioengineering Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; McCulloch, Richard

    2016-11-09

    Optimization is a crucial step in the analysis of experimental results. Deterministic methods only converge on local optimums and require exponentially more time as dimensionality increases. Stochastic algorithms are capable of efficiently searching the domain space; however convergence is not guaranteed. This article demonstrates the novelty of the hybrid genetic algorithm (HGA), which combines both stochastic and deterministic routines for improved optimization results. The new hybrid genetic algorithm developed is applied to the Ackley benchmark function as well as case studies in food, biofuel, and biotechnology processes. For each case study, the hybrid genetic algorithm found a better optimum candidate than reported by the sources. In the case of food processing, the hybrid genetic algorithm improved the anthocyanin yield by 6.44%. Optimization of bio-oil production using HGA resulted in a 5.06% higher yield. In the enzyme production process, HGA predicted a 0.39% higher xylanase yield. Hybridization of the genetic algorithm with a deterministic algorithm resulted in an improved optimum compared to statistical methods.

  19. Development of novel biocompatible hybrid nanocomposites based on polyurethane-silica prepared by sol gel process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashti, Ali; Yahyaei, Hossein; Firoozi, Saman; Ramezani, Sara; Rahiminejad, Ali; Karimi, Roya; Farzaneh, Khadijeh; Mohseni, Mohsen; Ghanbari, Hossein

    2016-12-01

    Due to high biocompatibility, polyurethane has found many applications, particularly in development of biomedical devices. A new nanocomposite based on thermoset polyurethane and silica nanoparticles was synthesized using sol-gel method. Sol-gel process was fulfilled in two acidic and basic conditions by using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and trimethoxyisocyanatesilane as precursors. The hybrid films characterized for mechanical and surface properties using tensile strength, contact angle, ATR-FTIR and scanning electron microscopy. Biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of the hybrids were assessed using standard MTT, LDH and TUNEL assays. The results revealed that incorporation of silica nanoparticles was significantly improved tensile strength and mechanical properties of the hybrids. Based on the contact angle results, silica nanoparticles increased hydrophilicity of the hybrids. Biocompatibility by using human lung epithelial cell line (MRC-5) demonstrated that the hybrids were significantly less cytotoxic compared to pristine polymer as tested by MTT and LDH assays. TUNEL assay revealed no signs of apoptosis in all tested samples. The results of this study demonstrated that incorporation of silica nanoparticles into polyurethane lead to the enhancement of biocompatibility, indicating that these hybrids could potentially be used in biomedical field in particular as a new coating for medical implants.

  20. Resonant photothermal laser processing of hybrid gold/titania nanoparticle films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schade, Lina; Franzka, Steffen; Dzialkowski, Kevin [Fakultät für Chemie, Universität Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen (Germany); Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, Carl-Benz-Straße 199, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Hardt, Sebastian; Wiggers, Hartmut [Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, Carl-Benz-Straße 199, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Institut für Verbrennung und Gasdynamik, Universität Duisburg-Essen, 47048 Duisburg (Germany); Reichenberger, Sven [Fakultät für Chemie, Universität Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen (Germany); Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, Carl-Benz-Straße 199, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Institut für Lacke und Oberflächenchemie, Hochschule Niederrhein, 47798 Krefeld (Germany); Wagener, Philipp [Fakultät für Chemie, Universität Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen (Germany); Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, Carl-Benz-Straße 199, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Hartmann, Nils, E-mail: nils.hartmann@uni-due.de [Fakultät für Chemie, Universität Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen (Germany); Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, Carl-Benz-Straße 199, 47057 Duisburg (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Photothermal processing of TiO{sub 2} and hybrid Au/TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles using continuous-wave lasers is demonstrated. • Processing of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles at 355 nm results in a transition from anatase to rutile. • Decoration of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles with Au nanoparticles results in an increased absorbance in the visible range. • Hybrid Au/TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles can be processed at 355 nm and 532 nm in a large laser parameter window. • Processing of hybrid Au/TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles at 532 nm can be carried out at low laser powers and short laser pulse lengths. - Abstract: Photothermal processing of thin anatase TiO{sub 2} and hybrid Au/anatase TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle films on glass supports is investigated using continuous-wave microfocused lasers at λ = 355 nm and λ = 532 nm. UV/Vis spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy are used for characterization. Processing of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle films is feasible at λ = 355 nm only. In contrast, the addition of Au nanoparticles enhances the overall absorbance of the material in the visible range and enables processing at both wavelengths, i.e. at λ = 355 nm and λ = 532 nm. Generally, laser heating induces a transition from anatase to rutile. The modification degree increases with increasing laser power and laser irradiation time. Resonant laser processing of hybrid Au/TiO{sub 2}-mesoporous films provide promising perspectives in various applications, e.g. in photovoltaics, where embedded nanoparticulate Au could be exploited to enhance light trapping.

  1. Processing investigation and optimization for hybrid thermoplastic composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M Tufail

    2007-01-01

    A thermoplastic based composite material is suitable for automobile and aerospace applications. The recyclability of thermoplastic and clean processing further enhance its use. The only limitation encountered in using this material is its high-melt viscosity. Various techniques have been developed to overcome this problem. Commingled materials are one of such methods adopted for making proper use of thermoplastic. A major problem observed during the use of a commingled material is its de-commingling, wherein, the uniform distribution of fiber and thermoplastic yarn gets disturbed and affects the final quality of the composite. The effects of the braiding process on laminate quality were investigated. Flat plaques were produced by braiding the commingled yarn, using a 48-carrier braiding machine. The braids (and control woven samples) were subsequently heated and consolidated in a nonisothermal compression molding operation. Prior to the manufacture of the 'best quality' plaques, a series of moldings were produced under different consolidation conditions, to study the dependence of properties on the process variables. This enabled a processing window to be established for each material and helped to separate the respective effects of yarn handling, textile processing, and consolidation on laminate properties.

  2. Design and implementation of a hybrid circuit system for micro sensor signal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zhuping; Chen Jing; Liu Ruqing, E-mail: wangzhuping169@163.com [School of Information and Electronics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2011-04-15

    This paper covers a micro sensor analog signal processing circuit system (MASPS) chip with low power and a digital signal processing circuit board implementation including hardware connection and software design. Attention has been paid to incorporate the MASPS chip into the digital circuit board. The ultimate aim is to form a hybrid circuit used for mixed-signal processing, which can be applied to a micro sensor flow monitoring system. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  3. Design and implementation of a hybrid circuit system for micro sensor signal processing*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhuping; Chen Jing; Liu Ruqing

    2011-01-01

    This paper covers a micro sensor analog signal processing circuit system (MASPS) chip with low power and a digital signal processing circuit board implementation including hardware connection and software design.Attention has been paid to incorporate the MASPS chip into the digital circuit board. The ultimate aim is to form a hybrid circuit used for mixed-signal processing, which can be applied to a micro sensor flow monitoring system.

  4. Coagulation-Adsorption Hybrid Process for the Treatment of Dyes and Pigments Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Karim Shah

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to improve the effectiveness of dyes and pigments wastewater treatment. Hybrid system of adsorption and coagulation was applied for the reduction of COD, color, turbidity and TSS. Activated carbon adsorbent was prepared from a waste of sugar industry boiler. It was processed through physicochemical treatment with sulfuric acid following grinding, sieving, washing and drying unit operations. Combined wastewater of dyes and pigments manufacturing plant was treated with a hybrid process of coagulation and adsorption. FeCl 3, FeSO 4and Alum coagulants were tested individually and found them less effective. It was revealed that FeCl 3 coagulation, adsorption and hybrid process reduced COD (41, 51 and 54%, Color (67, 70 and 89%, turbidity (69, 71 and 90% and TSS (82, 93 and 97% respectively. Combination of FeCl3 -SBFA (Sugarcane Bagasse Fly Ash proved 90% efficient in removal than coagulation as an individual process. 4g adsorbent dose was optimized for this hybrid process

  5. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION METHOD FOR BUSINESS PROCESS OF MACHINERY MANUFACTURER BASED ON DEA/AHP HYBRID MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ting; YI Shuping; YANG Yuanzhao

    2007-01-01

    A set of indices for performance evaluation for business processes with multiple inputs and multiple outputs is proposed, which are found in machinery manufacturers. Based on the traditional methods of data envelopment analysis (DEA) and analytical hierarchical process (AHP), a hybrid model called DEA/AHP model is proposed to deal with the evaluation of business process performance. With the proposed method, the DEA is firstly used to develop a pairwise comparison matrix, and then the AHP is applied to evaluate the performance of business process using the pairwise comparison matrix. The significant advantage of this hybrid model is the use of objective data instead of subjective human judgment for performance evaluation. In the case study, a project of business process reengineering (BPR) with a hydraulic machinery manufacturer is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the DEA/AHP model.

  6. Modeling and Simulation of Metallurgical Process Based on Hybrid Petri Net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yujuan; Bao, Hong

    2016-11-01

    In order to achieve the goals of energy saving and emission reduction of iron and steel enterprises, an increasing number of modeling and simulation technologies are used to research and analyse metallurgical production process. In this paper, the basic principle of Hybrid Petri net is used to model and analyse the Metallurgical Process. Firstly, the definition of Hybrid Petri Net System of Metallurgical Process (MPHPNS) and its modeling theory are proposed. Secondly, the model of MPHPNS based on material flow is constructed. The dynamic flow of materials and the real-time change of each technological state in metallurgical process are simulated vividly by using this model. The simulation process can implement interaction between the continuous event dynamic system and the discrete event dynamic system at the same level, and play a positive role in the production decision.

  7. Hybrid membrane operations in water desalination and industrial process rationalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drioli, E; Di Profio, G; Curcio, E

    2005-01-01

    Membrane science and technology are recognized today as powerful tools in resolving some important global problems, and developing newer industrial processes, needed from the imperative of sustainable industrial growth. In seawater desalination, for resolving the dramatic increase of freshwater demand in many regions of the world, membrane unitary operations or the combination of some of them in integrated systems are already a real means for producing water from the sea, at lower costs and minimum environmental impact, with a very interesting prospective in particular for poor economy countries. However, membranes are used or are becoming used in some important industrial fields, for developing more efficient productive cycles, with reduced waste of raw-material, reducing the polluting charge by controlling byproduct generation, and reducing overall costs. In the present paper, other than for seawater desalination applications, some industrial applications where membrane technology has led already to match the goal of process intensification are discussed.

  8. Hybrid colored noise process with space-dependent switching rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressloff, Paul C.; Lawley, Sean D.

    2017-07-01

    A fundamental issue in the theory of continuous stochastic process is the interpretation of multiplicative white noise, which is often referred to as the Itô-Stratonovich dilemma. From a physical perspective, this reflects the need to introduce additional constraints in order to specify the nature of the noise, whereas from a mathematical perspective it reflects an ambiguity in the formulation of stochastic differential equations (SDEs). Recently, we have identified a mechanism for obtaining an Itô SDE based on a form of temporal disorder. Motivated by switching processes in molecular biology, we considered a Brownian particle that randomly switches between two distinct conformational states with different diffusivities. In each state, the particle undergoes normal diffusion (additive noise) so there is no ambiguity in the interpretation of the noise. However, if the switching rates depend on position, then in the fast switching limit one obtains Brownian motion with a space-dependent diffusivity of the Itô form. In this paper, we extend our theory to include colored additive noise. We show that the nature of the effective multiplicative noise process obtained by taking both the white-noise limit (κ →0 ) and fast switching limit (ɛ →0 ) depends on the order the two limits are taken. If the white-noise limit is taken first, then we obtain Itô, and if the fast switching limit is taken first, then we obtain Stratonovich. Moreover, the form of the effective diffusion coefficient differs in the two cases. The latter result holds even in the case of space-independent transition rates, where one obtains additive noise processes with different diffusion coefficients. Finally, we show that yet another form of multiplicative noise is obtained in the simultaneous limit ɛ ,κ →0 with ɛ /κ2 fixed.

  9. Efficient ethanol recovery from fermentation broths with integrated distillation-vapor permeation hybrid process

    Science.gov (United States)

    The energy demand of distillation-molecular sieve systems for ethanol recovery/dehydration can be significant, particularly for dilute solutions. An alternative hybrid process integrating vapor stripping (like a beer still) with vapor compression and a vapor permeation membrane s...

  10. Efficient ethanol recovery from fermentation broths with integrated distillation-vapor permeation hybrid process

    Science.gov (United States)

    The energy demand of distillation-molecular sieve systems for ethanol recovery/dehydration can be significant, particularly for dilute solutions. An alternative hybrid process integrating vapor stripping (like a beer still) with vapor compression and a vapor permeation membrane s...

  11. Stress test: identifying crowding stress-tolerant hybrids in processing sweet corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improvement in tolerance to intense competition at high plant populations (i.e. crowding stress) is a major genetic driver of corn yield gain the last half-century. Recent research found differences in crowding stress tolerance among a few modern processing sweet corn hybrids; however, a larger asse...

  12. Hybrid direct carbon fuel cell anode processes investigated using a 3-electrode half-cell setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Arenillas, A.; Menendez, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    A 3-electrode half-cell setup consisting of a yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte support was employed to investigate the chemical and electrochemical processes occurring in the vicinity of a model hybrid direct carbon fuel cell (HDCFC) anode (Ni-YSZ) in contact with a molten carbon...

  13. Metal nanoparticle deposited inorganic nanostructure hybrids, uses thereof and processes for their preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenne, Reshef; Tsverin, Yulia; Burghaus, Uwe; Komarneni, Mallikharjuna Rao

    2016-01-26

    This invention relates to a hybrid component comprising at least one nanoparticle of inorganic layered compound (in the form of fullerene-like structure or nanotube), and at least one metal nanoparticle, uses thereof as a catalyst, (e.g. photocatalysis) and processes for its preparation.

  14. Easily processable multimodal spectral converters based on metal oxide/organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julián-López, Beatriz; Gonell, Francisco; Lima, Patricia P; Freitas, Vânia T; André, Paulo S; Carlos, Luis D; Ferreira, Rute A S

    2015-10-09

    This manuscript reports the synthesis and characterization of the first organic-inorganic hybrid material exhibiting efficient multimodal spectral converting properties. The nanocomposite, made of Er(3+), Yb(3+) codoped zirconia nanoparticles (NPs) entrapped in a di-ureasil d-U(600) hybrid matrix, is prepared by an easy two-step sol-gel synthesis leading to homogeneous and transparent materials that can be very easily processed as monolith or film. Extensive structural characterization reveals that zirconia nanocrystals of 10-20 nm in size are efficiently dispersed into the hybrid matrix and that the local structure of the di-ureasil is not affected by the presence of the NPs. A significant enhancement in the refractive index of the di-ureasil matrix with the incorporation of the ZrO2 nanocrystals is observed. The optical study demonstrates that luminescent properties of both constituents are perfectly preserved in the final hybrid. Thus, the material displays a white-light photoluminescence from the di-ureasil component upon excitation at UV/visible radiation and also intense green and red emissions from the Er(3+)- and Yb(3+)-doped NPs after NIR excitation. The dynamics of the optical processes were also studied as a function of the lanthanide content and the thickness of the films. Our results indicate that these luminescent hybrids represent a low-cost, environmentally friendly, size-controlled, easily processed and chemically stable alternative material to be used in light harvesting devices such as luminescent solar concentrators, optical fibres and sensors. Furthermore, this synthetic approach can be extended to a wide variety of luminescent NPs entrapped in hybrid matrices, thus leading to multifunctional and versatile materials for efficient tuneable nonlinear optical nanodevices.

  15. Easily processable multimodal spectral converters based on metal oxide/organic—inorganic hybrid nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julián-López, Beatriz; Gonell, Francisco; Lima, Patricia P.; Freitas, Vânia T.; André, Paulo S.; Carlos, Luis D.; Ferreira, Rute A. S.

    2015-10-01

    This manuscript reports the synthesis and characterization of the first organic-inorganic hybrid material exhibiting efficient multimodal spectral converting properties. The nanocomposite, made of Er3+, Yb3+ codoped zirconia nanoparticles (NPs) entrapped in a di-ureasil d-U(600) hybrid matrix, is prepared by an easy two-step sol-gel synthesis leading to homogeneous and transparent materials that can be very easily processed as monolith or film. Extensive structural characterization reveals that zirconia nanocrystals of 10-20 nm in size are efficiently dispersed into the hybrid matrix and that the local structure of the di-ureasil is not affected by the presence of the NPs. A significant enhancement in the refractive index of the di-ureasil matrix with the incorporation of the ZrO2 nanocrystals is observed. The optical study demonstrates that luminescent properties of both constituents are perfectly preserved in the final hybrid. Thus, the material displays a white-light photoluminescence from the di-ureasil component upon excitation at UV/visible radiation and also intense green and red emissions from the Er3+- and Yb3+-doped NPs after NIR excitation. The dynamics of the optical processes were also studied as a function of the lanthanide content and the thickness of the films. Our results indicate that these luminescent hybrids represent a low-cost, environmentally friendly, size-controlled, easily processed and chemically stable alternative material to be used in light harvesting devices such as luminescent solar concentrators, optical fibres and sensors. Furthermore, this synthetic approach can be extended to a wide variety of luminescent NPs entrapped in hybrid matrices, thus leading to multifunctional and versatile materials for efficient tuneable nonlinear optical nanodevices.

  16. Thermo-tunable hybrid photonic crystal fiber based on solution-processed chalcogenide glass nanolayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markos, Christos

    2016-01-01

    The possibility to combine silica photonic crystal fiber (PCF) as low-loss platform with advanced functional materials, offers an enormous range of choices for the development of fiber-based tunable devices. Here, we report a tunable hybrid silica PCF with integrated As2S3 glass nanolayers inside...... antiresonances by taking advantage the high thermo-optic coefficient of the solution-processed nanolayers. Two different hybrid fiber structures, with core diameter 10 and 5 mu m, were developed and characterized using a supercontinuum source. The maximum sensitivity was measured to be as high as 3.6 nm...

  17. Solution processable organic/inorganic hybrid ultraviolet photovoltaic detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Guo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV photodetector is a kind of important optoelectronic device which can be widely used in scientific and engineering fields including astronomical research, environmental monitoring, forest-fire prevention, medical analysis, and missile approach warning etc. The development of UV detector is hindered by the acquirement of stable p-type materials, which makes it difficult to realize large array, low-power consumption UV focal plane array (FPA detector. Here, we provide a novel structure (Al/Poly(9,9-di-n-octylfuorenyl-2,7-diyl(PFO/ZnO/ITO to demonstrate the UV photovoltaic (PV response. A rather smooth surface (RMS roughness: 0.28 nm may be reached by solution process, which sheds light on the development of large-array, light-weight and low-cost UV FPA detectors.

  18. Hard X-rays for processing hybrid organic-inorganic thick films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; Carboni, Davide; Pinna, Alessandra; Marmiroli, Benedetta; Malfatti, Luca; Innocenzi, Plinio

    2016-01-01

    Hard X-rays, deriving from a synchrotron light source, have been used as an effective tool for processing hybrid organic-inorganic films and thick coatings up to several micrometres. These coatings could be directly modified, in terms of composition and properties, by controlled exposure to X-rays. The physico-chemical properties of the coatings, such as hardness, refractive index and fluorescence, can be properly tuned using the interaction of hard X-rays with the sol-gel hybrid films. The changes in the microstructure have been correlated especially with the modification of the optical and the mechanical properties. A relationship between the degradation rate of the organic groups and the rise of fluorescence from the hybrid material has been observed; nanoindentation analysis of the coatings as a function of the X-ray doses has shown a not linear dependence between thickness and film hardness.

  19. Water-processed carbon nanotube/graphene hybrids with enhanced field emission properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Meng; Xu, Peng; Wang, Xu; Wu, Huizhen; Wang, Miao, E-mail: peizhao@zju.edu.cn, E-mail: miaowang@css.zju.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Song, Yenan; Li, Zhenhua; Zhao, Pei, E-mail: peizhao@zju.edu.cn, E-mail: miaowang@css.zju.edu.cn [Institute of Applied Mechanics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Shang, Xuefu [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Integrating carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene into hybrid structures provides a novel approach to three dimensional (3D) materials with advantageous properties. Here we present a water-processing method to create integrated CNT/graphene hybrids and test their field emission properties. With an optimized mass ratio of CNTs to graphene, the hybrid shows a significantly enhanced field emission performance, such as turn-on electric field of 0.79 V/μm, threshold electric field of 1.05 V/μm, maximum current density of 0.1 mA/cm{sup 2}, and field enhancement factor of ∼1.3 × 10{sup 4}. The optimized mass ratio for field emission emphasizes the importance of both CNTs and graphene in the hybrid. We also hypothesize a possible mechanism for this enhanced field emission performance from the CNT/graphene hybrid. During the solution treatment, graphene oxide behaves as surfactant sheets for CNTs to form a well dispersed solution, which leads to a better organized 3D structure with more conducting channels for electron transport.

  20. Water-processed carbon nanotube/graphene hybrids with enhanced field emission properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Song

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Integrating carbon nanotubes (CNTs and graphene into hybrid structures provides a novel approach to three dimensional (3D materials with advantageous properties. Here we present a water-processing method to create integrated CNT/graphene hybrids and test their field emission properties. With an optimized mass ratio of CNTs to graphene, the hybrid shows a significantly enhanced field emission performance, such as turn-on electric field of 0.79 V/μm, threshold electric field of 1.05 V/μm, maximum current density of 0.1 mA/cm2, and field enhancement factor of ∼1.3 × 104. The optimized mass ratio for field emission emphasizes the importance of both CNTs and graphene in the hybrid. We also hypothesize a possible mechanism for this enhanced field emission performance from the CNT/graphene hybrid. During the solution treatment, graphene oxide behaves as surfactant sheets for CNTs to form a well dispersed solution, which leads to a better organized 3D structure with more conducting channels for electron transport.

  1. Water-processed carbon nanotube/graphene hybrids with enhanced field emission properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Meng; Xu, Peng; Song, Yenan; Wang, Xu; Li, Zhenhua; Shang, Xuefu; Wu, Huizhen; Zhao, Pei; Wang, Miao

    2015-09-01

    Integrating carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene into hybrid structures provides a novel approach to three dimensional (3D) materials with advantageous properties. Here we present a water-processing method to create integrated CNT/graphene hybrids and test their field emission properties. With an optimized mass ratio of CNTs to graphene, the hybrid shows a significantly enhanced field emission performance, such as turn-on electric field of 0.79 V/μm, threshold electric field of 1.05 V/μm, maximum current density of 0.1 mA/cm2, and field enhancement factor of ˜1.3 × 104. The optimized mass ratio for field emission emphasizes the importance of both CNTs and graphene in the hybrid. We also hypothesize a possible mechanism for this enhanced field emission performance from the CNT/graphene hybrid. During the solution treatment, graphene oxide behaves as surfactant sheets for CNTs to form a well dispersed solution, which leads to a better organized 3D structure with more conducting channels for electron transport.

  2. A novel hybrid process of reverse electrodialysis and reverse osmosis for low energy seawater desalination and brine management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, W.; Krantz, W.B.; Cornelissen, E.R.; Post, J.W.; Verliefde, A.R.D.; Tang, C.Y.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel concept for a hybrid desalination system that combines reverse electrodialysis (RED) and reverse osmosis (RO) processes. In this hybrid process the RED unit harvests the energy in the form of electricity from the salinity gradient between a highly concentrated solution

  3. Ship-in-a-Bottle Biomicrochips Fabricated by Hybrid Femtosecond Laser Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugioka Koji

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate fabrication of highly functional biomicrochips by hybrid femtosecond laser processing. In this process, 3D microfluidic structures are first formed inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser direct writing followed by thermal treatment and successive chemical wet etching. Then, functional microcomponents are integrated inside the fabricated microfluidic structures by two-photon photopolyerization. We term the fabricated microchips ship-in-a-bottle biomicrochips,

  4. Energy transfer processes in semiconductor quantum dots: bacteriorhodopsin hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakovich, Aliaksandra; Sukhanova, Alyona; Bouchonville, Nicolas; Molinari, Michael; Troyon, Michel; Cohen, Jacques H. M.; Rakovich, Yury; Donegan, John F.; Nabiev, Igor

    2009-05-01

    The potential impact of nanoscience on energy transfer processes in biomolecules was investigated on the example of a complex between fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals and photochromic membrane protein. The interactions between colloidal CdTe quantum dots (QDs) and bacteriorhodopsin (bR) protein were studied by a variety of spectroscopic techniques, including integrated and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopies, zeta potential and size measurement, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. QDs' luminescence was found to be strongly modulated by bacteriorhodopsin, but in a controllable way. Decreasing emission lifetimes and blue shifts in QDs' emission at increasing protein concentrations suggest that quenching occurs via Förster resonance energy transfer. On the other hand, concave Stern-Volmer plots and sigmoidal photoluminescence quenching curves imply that the self-assembling of NCs and bR exists, and the number of nanocrystals (NCs) per bacteriorhodopsin contributing to energy transfer can be determined from the inflection points of sigmoidal curves. This number was found to be highly dependent not only on the spectral overlap between NC emission and bR absorption bands, but also on nanocrystal surface charge. These results demonstrate the potential of how inorganic nanoscale materials can be employed to improve the generic molecular functions of biomolecules. The observed interactions between CdTe nanocrystals and bacteriorhodopsin can provide the basis for the development of novel functional materials with unique photonic properties and applications in areas such as all-optical switching, photovoltaics and data storage.

  5. Hybrid computing: CPU+GPU co-processing and its application to tomographic reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agulleiro, J I; Vázquez, F; Garzón, E M; Fernández, J J

    2012-04-01

    Modern computers are equipped with powerful computing engines like multicore processors and GPUs. The 3DEM community has rapidly adapted to this scenario and many software packages now make use of high performance computing techniques to exploit these devices. However, the implementations thus far are purely focused on either GPUs or CPUs. This work presents a hybrid approach that collaboratively combines the GPUs and CPUs available in a computer and applies it to the problem of tomographic reconstruction. Proper orchestration of workload in such a heterogeneous system is an issue. Here we use an on-demand strategy whereby the computing devices request a new piece of work to do when idle. Our hybrid approach thus takes advantage of the whole computing power available in modern computers and further reduces the processing time. This CPU+GPU co-processing can be readily extended to other image processing tasks in 3DEM. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A Hybrid Low Temperature Surface Alloying Process for Austenitic Stainless Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y. Sun

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a novel, hybrid process developed to engineer the surfaces of austenitic stainless steels at temperatures below 450℃ for the improvement in wear and corrosion resistance. The process is carried out in the plasma of a glow discharge containing both nitrogen and carbon reactive species, and facilitates the incorporation of both nitrogen and carbon into the austenite surface to form a dual-layer structure comprising a nitrogen-rich layer on top of a carbon-rich layer.Both layers can be precipitation-free at sufficiently low processing temperatures, and contain nitrogen and carbon respectively in supersaturated fcc austenite solid solutions. The resultant hybrid structure offers several advantages over the conventional low temperature nitriding and the newly developed carburizing processes in terms of mechanical and chemical properties, including higher surface hardness, a hardness gradient from the surface towards the layer-core interface, uniform layer thickness, and much enhanced corrosion resistance. This paper discusses the main features of this hybrid process and the various structural and properties characteristics of the resultant engineered surfaces.

  7. Tunable high-refractive index hybrid for solution-processed light management devices (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachevillier, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    After the use of highly efficient but expensive inorganic optical materials, solution-processable polymers and hybrids have drawn more and more interest. Our group have recently developed a novel polymer-based hybrid optical material from titanium oxide hydrate exhibiting an outstanding set of optical and material properties. Firstly, their low cost, processability and cross-linked states are particularly attractive for many applications. Moreover, a high refractive index can be repeatedly achieved while optical losses stays considerably low over the entire visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. Indeed, the formation of inorganic nanoparticles, usually present in nanocomposites, is avoided by a specific formulation process. Even more remarkably, the refractive index can be tuned by either changing the inorganic content, using different titanium precursors or via a low-temperature curing process. A part of our work is focused on the reliable optical characterization of these properties, in particular a microscope-based setup allowing in-situ measurement and sample mapping has been developed. Our efforts are also concentrated on various applications of these exceptional properties. This hybrid material is tailored for photonic devices, with a specific emphasis on the production of highly efficient solution processable Distributed Bragg Reflectors (DBR) and anti-reflection coatings. Furthermore, waveguides can be fabricated from thin films along with in-coupling and out-coupling structures. These light managements structures are particularly adapted to organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) and light emitting diodes (OLEDs).

  8. Mechanical properties and production quality of hand-layup and vacuum infusion processed hybrid composite materials for GFRP marine structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim Sang-Young; Shim Chun Sik; Sturtevant Caleb; Kim Dave (Dae-Wook); Song Ha Cheol

    2014-01-01

    .... This paper aims to investigate the mechanical properties and failure mechanisms of the hybrid GFRP composites, formed by applying the hand lay-up processed exterior and the vacuum infusion processed...

  9. Influence of shielding gas pressure on welding characteristics in CO2 laser-MIG hybrid welding process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanbin Chen; Zhenglong Lei; Liqun Li; Lin Wu

    2006-01-01

    The droplet transfer behavior and weld characteristics have been investigated under different pressures of shielding gas in CO2 laser and metal inert/active gas (laser-MIG) hybrid welding process. The experimental results indicate that the inherent droplet transfer frequency and stable welding range of conventional MIG arc are changed due to the interaction between CO2 laser beam and MIG arc in laser-MIG hybrid welding process, and the shielding gas pressure has a crucial effect on welding characteristics. When the pressure of shielding gas is low in comparison with MIG welding, the frequency of droplet transfer decreases, and thedroplet transfer becomes unstable in laser-MIG hybrid welding. So the penetration depth decreases, which shows the characteristic of unstable hybrid welding. However, when the pressure of shielding gas increases to a critical value, the hybrid welding characteristic is changed from unstable hybrid welding to stablehybrid welding, and the frequency of droplet transfer and the penetration depth increase significantly.

  10. Polypropylene – zinc oxide nanorod hybrid material for applications in separation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakubiak Szymon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid filter material was obtained via modification of polypropylene (PP nonwoven with nanosize zinc oxide particles of a high aspect ratio. Modification was conducted as a three-step process, a variant of hydrothermal method used for synthesis of nano-ZnO, adopted for coating three dimensional polymeric nonwoven filters. The process consisted of plasma treatment of nonwoven to increase its wettability, deposition of ZnO nanoparticles and low temperature hydrothermal growth of ZnO rods. The modified nonwovens were investigated by a high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM. It has been found that the obtained hybrid filters offer a higher filtration efficiency, in particular for so called most penetrating particle sizes.

  11. Surface morphology of PMMA/boehmite hybrid nanostructures prepared via facile one-pot process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghamari, Misagh; Farzi, Gholamali

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we developed the novel aqueous-based PMMA/AlOOH hybrid by a one-pot process starting from their relevant precursors in a controlled manner. Starting chemical reactions directly from precursors and the sequence of adding reactants provide the possibility towards enhancing the homogeneity of the final product. Inorganic and organic segments were made compatible by means of oleic acid as a coupling agent. Boehmite to PMMA weight ratio as the main parameter was varied from 0 to 18% and the morphology, particle size, size distribution, and topography map of hybrids was shown to be composition dependent. Final PMMA/Bo nanohybrids were characterized using FTIR to confirm the chemical interactions between inorganic and organic segments. TEM analysis showed that nanohybrid particles with irregular shapes containing inorganic particles dispersed in the organic matrix are formed with an average diameter which depends on boehmite content. The presence of phase transformation of Bo makes PMMA/Bo hybrids significantly thermally stable. According to AFM topography map analysis and relevant Gaussian fit function, the roughness of nanocomposite, the size of hybrid nanoparticles and deviation from the mean value (size) were increased as Bo increases from 0 to 18.

  12. A hermetic sealing process for large irregularly shaped hybrid microcircuit enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahler, M. R.

    1977-01-01

    A system for sealing vacuum baked hybrids in a dry inert atmosphere using an overlapping spot resistance weld is described. A unique electrode configuration and fixturing that permits sealing of large and irregularly shaped gold plated Kovar packages to the hermeticity requirements of MIL-STD-883 was discussed. Metallurgical considerations and comparisons to laser sealing were made. Problems encountered during the development and optimization of the process were highlighted. Solutions to plating, fixturing, warpage, weld splatter and cracked bead problems are presented.

  13. Digital processing of in situ hybridization images: identification and spatial allocation of specific labels

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    In situ hybridization (ISH) method allows to reveal specific genes expression, identify specific cell types and detect areas or tissues, displaying differential gene expression. This work describes a standardized procedure of digital image processing that allows detailed analyses of ISH preparations. We have developed a software that allows through a graphical interface (a) to reliably identify and quantify ISH labels, (b) to locate each label within the image reference system (c) to assemble...

  14. Hybrid light emitting diodes based on solution processed polymers, colloidal quantum dots, and colloidal metal nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin

    This dissertation focuses on solution-processed light-emitting devices based on polymer, polymer/PbS quantum dot, and polymer/silver nanoparticle hybrid materials. Solution based materials and organic/inorganic hybrid light emitting diodes attracted significant interest recently due to many of their advantages over conventional light emitting diodes (LEDs) including low fabrication cost, flexible, high substrate compatibility, as well as tunable emission wavelength of the quantum dot materials. However, the application of these novel solution processed materials based devices is still limited due to their low performances. Material properties and fabrication parameters need to be carefully examined and understood for further device improvement. This thesis first investigates the impact of solvent property and evaporation rate on the polymer molecular chain morphology and packaging in device structures. Solvent is a key component to make the active material solution for spin coating fabrication process. Their impacts are observed and examined on both polymer blend system and mono-polymer device. Secondly, PbS colloidal quantum dot are introduced to form hybrid device with polymer and to migrate the device emission into near-IR range. As we show, the dithiol molecules used to cross-link quantum dots determine the optical and electrical property of the resulting thin films. By choosing a proper ligand for quantum dot ligand exchange, a high performance polymer/quantum dot hybrid LED is fabricated. In the end, the interaction of polymer exciton with surface plasmon mode in colloidal silver nanoparticles and the use of this effect to enhance solution processed LEDs' performances are investigated.

  15. Hybrid models for the simulation of microstructural evolution influenced by coupled, multiple physical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tikare, Veena [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hernandez-Rivera, Efrain [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Madison, Jonathan D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Holm, Elizabeth Ann [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Patterson, Burton R. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Homer, Eric R. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2013-09-01

    Most materials microstructural evolution processes progress with multiple processes occurring simultaneously. In this work, we have concentrated on the processes that are active in nuclear materials, in particular, nuclear fuels. These processes are coarsening, nucleation, differential diffusion, phase transformation, radiation-induced defect formation and swelling, often with temperature gradients present. All these couple and contribute to evolution that is unique to nuclear fuels and materials. Hybrid model that combines elements from the Potts Monte Carlo, phase-field models and others have been developed to address these multiple physical processes. These models are described and applied to several processes in this report. An important feature of the models developed are that they are coded as applications within SPPARKS, a Sandiadeveloped framework for simulation at the mesoscale of microstructural evolution processes by kinetic Monte Carlo methods. This makes these codes readily accessible and adaptable for future applications.

  16. Density functional theory calculation on many-cores hybrid central processing unit-graphic processing unit architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Luigi; Ospici, Matthieu; Deutsch, Thierry; Méhaut, Jean-François; Neelov, Alexey; Goedecker, Stefan

    2009-07-21

    We present the implementation of a full electronic structure calculation code on a hybrid parallel architecture with graphic processing units (GPUs). This implementation is performed on a free software code based on Daubechies wavelets. Such code shows very good performances, systematic convergence properties, and an excellent efficiency on parallel computers. Our GPU-based acceleration fully preserves all these properties. In particular, the code is able to run on many cores which may or may not have a GPU associated, and thus on parallel and massive parallel hybrid machines. With double precision calculations, we may achieve considerable speedup, between a factor of 20 for some operations and a factor of 6 for the whole density functional theory code.

  17. Fundamental phenomena on fuel decomposition and boundary layer combustion processes with applications to hybrid rocket motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Kenneth K.; Lu, Y. C.; Chiaverini, Martin J.; Harting, George C.

    1994-11-01

    An experimental study on the fundamental processes involved in fuel decomposition and boundary layer combustion in hybrid rocket motors is being conducted at the High Pressure Combustion Laboratory of the Pennsylvania State University. This research should provide a useful engineering technology base in the development of hybrid rocket motors as well as a fundamental understanding of the complex processes involved in hybrid propulsion. A high pressure slab motor has been designed and manufactured for conducting experimental investigations. Oxidizer (LOX or GOX) supply and control systems have been designed and partly constructed for the head-end injection into the test chamber. Experiments using HTPB fuel, as well as fuels supplied by NASA designated industrial companies will be conducted. Design and construction of fuel casting molds and sample holders have been completed. The portion of these items for industrial company fuel casting will be sent to the McDonnell Douglas Aerospace Corporation in the near future. The study focuses on the following areas: observation of solid fuel burning processes with LOX or GOX, measurement and correlation of solid fuel regression rate with operating conditions, measurement of flame temperature and radical species concentrations, determination of the solid fuel subsurface temperature profile, and utilization of experimental data for validation of a companion theoretical study (Part 2) also being conducted at PSU.

  18. Fundamental phenomena on fuel decomposition and boundary layer combustion processes with applications to hybrid rocket motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Kenneth K.; Lu, Y. C.; Chiaverini, Martin J.; Harting, George C.

    1994-01-01

    An experimental study on the fundamental processes involved in fuel decomposition and boundary layer combustion in hybrid rocket motors is being conducted at the High Pressure Combustion Laboratory of the Pennsylvania State University. This research should provide a useful engineering technology base in the development of hybrid rocket motors as well as a fundamental understanding of the complex processes involved in hybrid propulsion. A high pressure slab motor has been designed and manufactured for conducting experimental investigations. Oxidizer (LOX or GOX) supply and control systems have been designed and partly constructed for the head-end injection into the test chamber. Experiments using HTPB fuel, as well as fuels supplied by NASA designated industrial companies will be conducted. Design and construction of fuel casting molds and sample holders have been completed. The portion of these items for industrial company fuel casting will be sent to the McDonnell Douglas Aerospace Corporation in the near future. The study focuses on the following areas: observation of solid fuel burning processes with LOX or GOX, measurement and correlation of solid fuel regression rate with operating conditions, measurement of flame temperature and radical species concentrations, determination of the solid fuel subsurface temperature profile, and utilization of experimental data for validation of a companion theoretical study (Part 2) also being conducted at PSU.

  19. Hybrid computing: CPU+GPU co-processing and its application to tomographic reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agulleiro, J.I.; Vazquez, F.; Garzon, E.M. [Supercomputing and Algorithms Group, Associated Unit CSIC-UAL, University of Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Fernandez, J.J., E-mail: JJ.Fernandez@csic.es [National Centre for Biotechnology, National Research Council (CNB-CSIC), Campus UAM, C/Darwin 3, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-04-15

    Modern computers are equipped with powerful computing engines like multicore processors and GPUs. The 3DEM community has rapidly adapted to this scenario and many software packages now make use of high performance computing techniques to exploit these devices. However, the implementations thus far are purely focused on either GPUs or CPUs. This work presents a hybrid approach that collaboratively combines the GPUs and CPUs available in a computer and applies it to the problem of tomographic reconstruction. Proper orchestration of workload in such a heterogeneous system is an issue. Here we use an on-demand strategy whereby the computing devices request a new piece of work to do when idle. Our hybrid approach thus takes advantage of the whole computing power available in modern computers and further reduces the processing time. This CPU+GPU co-processing can be readily extended to other image processing tasks in 3DEM. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hybrid computing allows full exploitation of the power (CPU+GPU) in a computer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proper orchestration of workload is managed by an on-demand strategy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Total number of threads running in the system should be limited to the number of CPUs.

  20. Hybrid Baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    2003-01-01

    We review the status of hybrid baryons. The only known way to study hybrids rigorously is via excited adiabatic potentials. Hybrids can be modelled by both the bag and flux-tube models. The low-lying hybrid baryon is N 1/2^+ with a mass of 1.5-1.8 GeV. Hybrid baryons can be produced in the glue-rich processes of diffractive gamma N and pi N production, Psi decays and p pbar annihilation.

  1. Corn silage management I: effects of hybrid, maturity, and mechanical processing on chemical and physical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L M; Harrison, J H; Davidson, D; Robutti, J L; Swift, M; Mahanna, W C; Shinners, K

    2002-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of hybrid, maturity, and mechanical processing of whole plant corn on chemical and physical characteristics, particle size, pack density, and dry matter recovery. In the first experiment, hybrid 3845 whole plant corn was harvested at hard dough, one-third milkline, and two-thirds milkline with a theoretical length-of-cut of 6.4 mm. In the second experiment, hybrids 3845 and Quanta were harvested at one-third milkline, two-thirds milkline, and blackline stages of maturity with a theoretical length-of-cut of 12.7 mm. At each stage of maturity, corn was harvested with and without mechanical processing by using a John Deere 5830 harvester with an onboard kernel processor. The percentage of intact corn kernels present in unprocessed corn silage explained 62% of variation in total tract starch digestibility. As the amount of intact kernels increased, total tract starch digestibility decreased. Post-ensiled vitreousness of corn kernels within the corn silage explained 31 and 48% of the variation of total tract starch digestibility for processed and unprocessed treatments, respectively. For a given amount of vitreous starch in corn kernels, total tract starch digestibility was lower for cows fed unprocessed corn silage compared with processed corn silage. This suggests that processing corn silage disrupts the dense protein matrix within the corn kernel where starch is embedded, therefore making the starch more available for digestion. Particle size of corn silage and orts that contained corn silage was reduced when it was processed. Wet pack density was greater for processed compared with unprocessed corn silage.

  2. Solution-processed, nanostructured hybrid solar cells with broad spectral sensitivity and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Renjia; Zheng, Ying; Qian, Lei; Yang, Yixing; Holloway, Paul H; Xue, Jiangeng

    2012-06-07

    Hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells, as an alternative to all-organic solar cells, have received significant attention for their potential advantages in combining the solution-processability and versatility of organic materials with high charge mobility and environmental stability of inorganic semiconductors. Here we report efficient and air-stable hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells with broad spectral sensitivity based on a low-gap polymer poly[2,6-(4,4-bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b;3,4-b']-dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)] (PCPDTBT) and spherical CdSe nanoparticles. The solvents used for depositing the hybrid PCPDTBT:CdSe active layer were shown to strongly influence the film morphology, and subsequently the photovoltaic performance of the resulted solar cells. Appropriate post-deposition annealing of the hybrid film was also shown to improve the solar cell efficiency. The inclusion of a thin ZnO nanoparticle layer between the active layer and the metal cathode leads to a significant increase in device efficiency especially at long wavelengths, due to a combination of optical and electronic effects including more optimal light absorption in the active layer and elimination of unwanted hole leakage into the cathode. Overall, maximum power conversion efficiencies up to 3.7 ± 0.2% and spectral sensitivity extending above 800 nm were achieved in such PCPDTBT:CdSe nanosphere hybrid solar cells. Furthermore, the devices with a ZnO nanoparticle layer retained ∼70% of the original efficiency after storage under ambient laboratory conditions for over 60 days without any encapsulation.

  3. Preparation of polyaniline/sodium alanate hybrid using a spray-drying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, B. R., E-mail: bru-rms@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: fabiopassador@gmail.com, E-mail: pessan@ufscar.br; Passador, F. R., E-mail: bru-rms@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: fabiopassador@gmail.com, E-mail: pessan@ufscar.br; Pessan, L. A., E-mail: bru-rms@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: fabiopassador@gmail.com, E-mail: pessan@ufscar.br [Dep. de Engenharia de Materiais, Federal University of São Carlos (Brazil)

    2014-05-15

    Nowadays, hydrogen is highly interesting as an energy source, in particular in the automotive field. In fact, hydrogen is attractive as a fuel because it prevents air pollution and greenhouse emissions. One of the main problems with the utilization of hydrogen as a fuel is its on-board storage. The purpouse of this work was to develop a new hybrid material consisting of a polyaniline matrix with sodium alanate (NaAlH{sub 4}) using a spray-drying process. The polyaniline used for this experiment was synthesized by following a well-established method for the synthesis of the emeraldine base form of polyaniline using dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid as dopant. Micro particles of polyaniline/sodium alanate hybrids with 30 and 50 wt% of sodium alanate were prepared by using a spray-drying technique. Dilute solutions of polyaniline/sodium alanate were first prepared, 10g of the solid materials were mixed with 350 ml of toluene under stirring at room temperature for 24h and the solutions were dried using spray-dryer (Büchi, Switzerland) with 115°C of an inlet temperature. The hybrids were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry, FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The addition of sodium alanate decreased the glass transition temperature of the hybrids when compared to neat polyaniline. FT-IR spectrum analysis was performed to identify the bonding environment of the synthesized material and was observed that simply physically mixture occurred between polyaniline and sodium alanate. The SEM images of the hybrids showed the formation of microspheres with sodium alanate dispersed in the polymer matrix.

  4. Process planning optimization on turning machine tool using a hybrid genetic algorithm with local search approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliang Su

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A turning machine tool is a kind of new type of machine tool that is equipped with more than one spindle and turret. The distinctive simultaneous and parallel processing abilities of turning machine tool increase the complexity of process planning. The operations would not only be sequenced and satisfy precedence constraints, but also should be scheduled with multiple objectives such as minimizing machining cost, maximizing utilization of turning machine tool, and so on. To solve this problem, a hybrid genetic algorithm was proposed to generate optimal process plans based on a mixed 0-1 integer programming model. An operation precedence graph is used to represent precedence constraints and help generate a feasible initial population of hybrid genetic algorithm. Encoding strategy based on data structure was developed to represent process plans digitally in order to form the solution space. In addition, a local search approach for optimizing the assignments of available turrets would be added to incorporate scheduling with process planning. A real-world case is used to prove that the proposed approach could avoid infeasible solutions and effectively generate a global optimal process plan.

  5. Modeling and Optimizing Energy Utilization of Steel Production Process: A Hybrid Petri Net Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The steel industry is responsible for nearly 9% of anthropogenic energy utilization in the world. It is urgent to reduce the total energy utilization of steel industry under the huge pressures on reducing energy consumption and CO2 emission. Meanwhile, the steel manufacturing is a typical continuous-discrete process with multiprocedures, multiobjects, multiconstraints, and multimachines coupled, which makes energy management rather difficult. In order to study the energy flow within the real steel production process, this paper presents a new modeling and optimization method for the process based on Hybrid Petri Nets (HPN in consideration of the situation above. Firstly, we introduce the detailed description of HPN. Then the real steel production process from one typical integrated steel plant is transformed into Hybrid Petri Net model as a case. Furthermore, we obtain a series of constraints of our optimization model from this model. In consideration of the real process situation, we pick the steel production, energy efficiency and self-made gas surplus as the main optimized goals in this paper. Afterwards, a fuzzy linear programming method is conducted to obtain the multiobjective optimization results. Finally, some measures are suggested to improve this low efficiency and high whole cost process structure.

  6. An exergetic/energetic/economic analysis of three hydrogen production processes - Electrolysis, hybrid, and thermochemical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, J. E.; Eisermann, W.

    This paper presents the results of a combined first and second law analysis, along with capital and operating costs, for hydrogen production from water by means of electrolytic, hybrid, and thermochemical processes. The processes are SPE and Lurgi electrolysis with light water reactor power generation and sulfur cycle hybrid, thermochemical and SPE electrolysis with a very high temperature reactor primary energy source. Energy and Exergy (2nd law) flow diagrams for the process are shown along with the location and magnitude of the process irreversibilities. The overall process thermal (1st law) efficiencies vary from 25 to 51% and the exergetic (2nd law) efficiencies, referred to the fuel for the primary energy source, vary from 22 to 45%. Capital and operating costs, escalated to 1979 dollars, are shown for each process for both the primary energy source and the hydrogen production plant. All costs were taken from information available in the open literature and are for a plant capacity of 100 x 10 to the 6th SCF/day. Production costs vary from 10 to 18 $/GJ, based on the higher heating value of hydrogen, and are based on a 90% plant operating factor with a 21% annual charge on total capital costs.

  7. A New Efficient Hybrid Intelligent Model for Biodegradation Process of DMP with Fuzzy Wavelet Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mingzhi; Zhang, Tao; Ruan, Jujun; Chen, Xiaohong

    2017-01-01

    A new efficient hybrid intelligent approach based on fuzzy wavelet neural network (FWNN) was proposed for effectively modeling and simulating biodegradation process of Dimethyl phthalate (DMP) in an anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (AAO) wastewater treatment process. With the self learning and memory abilities of neural networks (NN), handling uncertainty capacity of fuzzy logic (FL), analyzing local details superiority of wavelet transform (WT) and global search of genetic algorithm (GA), the proposed hybrid intelligent model can extract the dynamic behavior and complex interrelationships from various water quality variables. For finding the optimal values for parameters of the proposed FWNN, a hybrid learning algorithm integrating an improved genetic optimization and gradient descent algorithm is employed. The results show, compared with NN model (optimized by GA) and kinetic model, the proposed FWNN model have the quicker convergence speed, the higher prediction performance, and smaller RMSE (0.080), MSE (0.0064), MAPE (1.8158) and higher R2 (0.9851) values. which illustrates FWNN model simulates effluent DMP more accurately than the mechanism model.

  8. A New Efficient Hybrid Intelligent Model for Biodegradation Process of DMP with Fuzzy Wavelet Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mingzhi; Zhang, Tao; Ruan, Jujun; Chen, Xiaohong

    2017-01-01

    A new efficient hybrid intelligent approach based on fuzzy wavelet neural network (FWNN) was proposed for effectively modeling and simulating biodegradation process of Dimethyl phthalate (DMP) in an anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (AAO) wastewater treatment process. With the self learning and memory abilities of neural networks (NN), handling uncertainty capacity of fuzzy logic (FL), analyzing local details superiority of wavelet transform (WT) and global search of genetic algorithm (GA), the proposed hybrid intelligent model can extract the dynamic behavior and complex interrelationships from various water quality variables. For finding the optimal values for parameters of the proposed FWNN, a hybrid learning algorithm integrating an improved genetic optimization and gradient descent algorithm is employed. The results show, compared with NN model (optimized by GA) and kinetic model, the proposed FWNN model have the quicker convergence speed, the higher prediction performance, and smaller RMSE (0.080), MSE (0.0064), MAPE (1.8158) and higher R2 (0.9851) values. which illustrates FWNN model simulates effluent DMP more accurately than the mechanism model. PMID:28120889

  9. Colloidal Au-enhanced surface plasmon resonance imaging: application in a DNA hybridization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manera, M. G.; Spadavecchia, J.; Taurino, A.; Rella, R.

    2010-03-01

    The detection of the DNA hybridization mechanism using monodispersed gold nanoparticles as labels is an interesting alternative to increase the sensitivity of the SPR imaging technique. DNA-modified Au nanoparticles (DNA-Au NPs) containing single-stranded (ss) portions of DNA were prepared by monitoring their monolayer formation by UV-vis spectroscopy. The hybridization process between specific thio-oligonucleotides immobilized on the DNA-Au NPs and the corresponding complementary strands is reported and compared with the traditional hybridization process on properly self-assembled thin gold films deposited on glass substrates. A remarkable signal amplification is observed, following the incorporation of colloidal Au into a SPR biosensing experiment, resulting in an increased SPR response to DNA-DNA interactions. In particular Fusarium thiolated DNA (5'HS poly(T)15ATC CCT CAA AAA CTG CCG CT-3) and trichothecenes complementary DNA (5'-AGC GGC AGT TTT TGA GGG AT-3') sequences have been explored due to their possible application to agro-industry for the control of food quality.

  10. All-optical quantum computing with a hybrid solid-state processing unit

    CERN Document Server

    Pei, Pei; Li, Chong

    2011-01-01

    We develop an architecture of hybrid quantum solid-state processing unit for universal quantum computing. The architecture allows distant and nonidentical solid-state qubits in distinct physical systems to interact and work collaboratively. All the quantum computing procedures are controlled by optical methods using classical fields and cavity QED. Our methods have prominent advantage of the insensitivity to dissipation process due to the virtual excitation of subsystems. Moreover, the QND measurements and state transfer for the solid-state qubits are proposed. The architecture opens promising perspectives for implementing scalable quantum computation in a broader sense that different solid systems can merge and be integrated into one quantum processor afterwards.

  11. Bismaleimide/Preceramic Polymer Blends for Hybrid Material Transition Regions. Part 1. Processing and Characterization (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    polymer matrix composite to a ceramic matrix composite. Thermal and elemental analysis, and morphology characterization of RD-730 preceramic polymer blends, which convert to silicon carbide upon pyrolysis, and Matrimid A/B polymer (a bismaleimide), were carried out as a function of cure cycle. Cure cycles were chosen to vary the resin viscosity during processing in order to affect the amount of phase separation observed. The results were then used to associate processing parameters with the miscibility of the two resins and the likelihood of producing a hybrid

  12. Attainability and minimum energy of single-stage membrane and membrane/distillation hybrid processes

    KAUST Repository

    Alshehri, Ali

    2014-12-01

    As an energy-efficient separation method, membrane technology has attracted more and more attentions in many challenging separation processes. The attainability and the energy consumption of a membrane process are the two basic fundamental questions that need to be answered. This report aims to use process simulations to find: (1) at what conditions a single-stage membrane process can meet the separation task that is defined by product purity and recovery ratio and (2) what are the most important parameters that determine the energy consumption. To perform a certain separation task, it was found that both membrane selectivity and pressure ratio exhibit a minimum value that is defined only by product purity and recovery ratio. The membrane/distillation hybrid system was used to study the energy consumption. A shortcut method was developed to calculate the minimum practical separation energy (MPSE) of the membrane process and the distillation process. It was found that the MPSE of the hybrid system is only determined by the membrane selectivity and the applied transmembrane pressure ratio in three stages. At the first stage when selectivity is low, the membrane process is not competitive to the distillation process. Adding a membrane unit to a distillation tower will not help in reducing energy. At the second medium selectivity stage, the membrane/distillation hybrid system can help reduce the energy consumption, and the higher the membrane selectivity, the lower is the energy. The energy conservation is further improved as pressure ratio increases. At the third stage when both selectivity and pressure ratio are high, the hybrid system will change to a single-stage membrane unit and this change will cause significant reduction in energy consumption. The energy at this stage keeps decreasing with selectivity at slow rate, but slightly increases with pressure ratio. Overall, the higher the membrane selectivity, the more the energy is saved. Therefore, the two

  13. Hybrid Modelling Approach to Prairie hydrology: Fusing Data-driven and Process-based Hydrological Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, B.; Nazemi, A.; Elshorbagy, A.; Mazurek, K.; Putz, G.

    2012-04-01

    Modeling the hydrological response in prairie regions, characterized by flat and undulating terrain, and thus, large non-contributing areas, is a known challenge. The hydrological response (runoff) is the combination of the traditional runoff from the hydrologically contributing area and the occasional overflow from the non-contributing area. This study provides a unique opportunity to analyze the issue of fusing the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) in a hybrid structure to model the hydrological response in prairie regions. A hybrid SWAT-ANN model is proposed, where the SWAT component and the ANN module deal with the effective (contributing) area and the non-contributing area, respectively. The hybrid model is applied to the case study of Moose Jaw watershed, located in southern Saskatchewan, Canada. As an initial exploration, a comparison between ANN and SWAT models is established based on addressing the daily runoff (streamflow) prediction accuracy using multiple error measures. This is done to identify the merits and drawbacks of each modeling approach. It has been found out that the SWAT model has better performance during the low flow periods but with degraded efficiency during periods of high flows. The case is different for the ANN model as ANNs exhibit improved simulation during high flow periods but with biased estimates during low flow periods. The modelling results show that the new hybrid SWAT-ANN model is capable of exploiting the strengths of both SWAT and ANN models in an integrated framrwork. The new hybrid SWAT-ANN model simulates daily runoff quite satisfactorily with NSE measures of 0.80 and 0.83 during calibration and validation periods, respectively. Furthermore, an experimental assessment was performed to identify the effects of the ANN training method on the performance of the hybrid model as well as the parametric identifiability. Overall, the results obtained in this study suggest that the fusion

  14. A hybrid CMOS-imager with a solution-processable polymer as photoactive layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baierl, Daniela; Pancheri, Lucio; Schmidt, Morten; Stoppa, David; Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Scarpa, Giuseppe; Lugli, Paolo

    2012-11-01

    The solution-processability of organic photodetectors allows a straightforward combination with other materials, including inorganic ones, without increasing cost and process complexity significantly compared with conventional crystalline semiconductors. Although the optoelectronic performance of these organic devices does not outmatch their inorganic counterparts, there are certain applications exploiting the benefit of the solution-processability. Here we demonstrate that the small pixel fill factor of present complementary metal oxide semiconductor-imagers, decreasing the light sensitivity, can be increased up to 100% by replacing silicon photodiodes with an organic photoactive layer deposited with a simple low-cost spray-coating process. By performing a full optoelectronic characterization on this first solution-processable hybrid complementary metal oxide semiconductor-imager, including the first reported observation of different noise types in organic photodiodes, we demonstrate the suitability of this novel device for imaging. Furthermore, by integrating monolithically different organic materials to the chip, we show the cost-effective portability of the hybrid concept to different wavelength regions.

  15. Dry Process for Manufacturing Hybridized Boron Fiber/Carbon Fiber Thermoplastic Composite Materials from a Solution Coated Precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belvin, Harry L. (Inventor); Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An apparatus for producing a hybrid boron reinforced polymer matrix composite from precursor tape and a linear array of boron fibers. The boron fibers are applied onto the precursor tapes and the precursor tape processed within a processing component having an impregnation bar assembly. After passing through variable-dimension forming nip-rollers, the precursor tape with the boron fibers becomes a hybrid boron reinforced polymer matrix composite. A driving mechanism is used to pulled the precursor tape through the method and a take-up spool is used to collect the formed hybrid boron reinforced polymer matrix composite.

  16. Hybridization of natural systems with advanced treatment processes for organic micropollutant removals: new concepts in multi-barrier treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakaran, Sairam; Maeng, Sung Kyu; Amy, Gary

    2013-07-01

    Organic micropollutants (OMPs) represent a major constraint in drinking water supply. In the past, emphasis has been on individual treatment processes comprising conventional treatment (coagulation, sedimentation, and filtration) followed by advanced treatment processes (adsorption, ion-exchange, oxidation, and membrane separation). With the depletion of water resources and high demand for power and chemical usage, efforts need to be made to judiciously use advanced treatment processes. There is a new interest in multiple barriers with synergies in which two coupled processes can function as a hybrid process. Within the context of this paper, the hybrid processes include a natural treatment process coupled with an advanced process. Pilot/full-scale studies have shown efficient removal of OMPs by these hybrid processes. With this hybridization, the usage of resources such as power and chemicals can be reduced. In this study, coupling/hybridization of aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) with oxidation (O3), advanced oxidation process which involves OH radicals (AOP), nanofiltration (NF), reverse osmosis (RO) and granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption for OMP removal was studied. O3 or AOP as a pre-treatment and GAC, NF, RO, or UV/chlorination as a post-treatment to ARR was studied. NF can be replaced by RO for removal of OMPs since studies have shown similar performance of NF to RO for removal of many OMPs, thereby reducing costs and providing a more sustainable approach.

  17. Hybridization of natural systems with advanced treatment processes for organic micropollutant removals: New concepts in multi-barrier treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Sudhakaran, Sairam

    2013-07-01

    In the past, emphasis has been on individual treatment processes comprising conventional treatment (coagulation, sedimentation, and filtration) followed by advanced treatment processes (adsorption, ion-exchange, oxidation, and membrane separation). With the depletion of water resources and high demand for power and chemical usage, efforts need to be made to judiciously use advanced treatment processes. There is a new interest in multiple barriers with synergies in which two coupled processes can function as a hybrid process. Within the context of this paper, the hybrid processes include a natural treatment process coupled with an advanced process. Pilot/full-scale studies have shown efficient removal of OMPs by these hybrid processes. With this hybridization, the usage of resources such as power and chemicals can be reduced. In this study, coupling/hybridization of aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) with oxidation (O3), advanced oxidation process which involves OH radicals (AOP), nanofiltration (NF), reverse osmosis (RO) and granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption for OMP removal was studied. O3 or AOP as a pre-treatment and GAC, NF, RO, or UV/chlorination as a post-treatment to ARR was studied. NF can be replaced by RO for removal of OMPs since studies have shown similar performance of NF to RO for removal of many OMPs, thereby reducing costs and providing a more sustainable approach. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Hybrid flotation--membrane filtration process for the removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blöcher, C; Dorda, J; Mavrov, V; Chmiel, H; Lazaridis, N K; Matis, K A

    2003-09-01

    A promising process for the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions involves bonding the metals firstly to a special bonding agent and then separating the loaded bonding agents from the wastewater stream by separation processes. For the separation stage, a new hybrid process of flotation and membrane separation has been developed in this work by integrating specially designed submerged microfiltration modules directly into a flotation reactor. This made it possible to combine the advantages of both flotation and membrane separation while overcoming the limitations. The feasibility of this hybrid process was proven using powdered synthetic zeolites as bonding agents. Stable fluxes of up to 80l m(-2)h(-1) were achieved with the ceramic flat-sheet multi-channel membranes applied at low transmembrane pressure (copper, nickel and zinc, were reduced from initial concentrations of 474, 3.3 and 167mg x l(-1), respectively, to below 0.05 mg x l(-1), consistently meeting the discharge limits.

  19. Resonant photothermal laser processing of hybrid gold/titania nanoparticle films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, Lina; Franzka, Steffen; Dzialkowski, Kevin; Hardt, Sebastian; Wiggers, Hartmut; Reichenberger, Sven; Wagener, Philipp; Hartmann, Nils

    2015-05-01

    Photothermal processing of thin anatase TiO2 and hybrid Au/anatase TiO2 nanoparticle films on glass supports is investigated using continuous-wave microfocused lasers at λ = 355 nm and λ = 532 nm. UV/Vis spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy are used for characterization. Processing of TiO2 nanoparticle films is feasible at λ = 355 nm only. In contrast, the addition of Au nanoparticles enhances the overall absorbance of the material in the visible range and enables processing at both wavelengths, i.e. at λ = 355 nm and λ = 532 nm. Generally, laser heating induces a transition from anatase to rutile. The modification degree increases with increasing laser power and laser irradiation time. Resonant laser processing of hybrid Au/TiO2-mesoporous films provide promising perspectives in various applications, e.g. in photovoltaics, where embedded nanoparticulate Au could be exploited to enhance light trapping.

  20. A Hybrid Approach to Processing Big Data Graphs on Memory-Restricted Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Harshvardhan,

    2015-05-01

    With the advent of big-data, processing large graphs quickly has become increasingly important. Most existing approaches either utilize in-memory processing techniques that can only process graphs that fit completely in RAM, or disk-based techniques that sacrifice performance. In this work, we propose a novel RAM-Disk hybrid approach to graph processing that can scale well from a single shared-memory node to large distributed-memory systems. It works by partitioning the graph into sub graphs that fit in RAM and uses a paging-like technique to load sub graphs. We show that without modifying the algorithms, this approach can scale from small memory-constrained systems (such as tablets) to large-scale distributed machines with 16, 000+ cores.

  1. Selected Parameters of Micro-Jet Cooling Gases in Hybrid Spraying Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczucka-Lasota B.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The innovative technology, like thermal spraying with a micro-jet cooling is one of the important modification of classical ultrasonic spraying methods. Using of micro-stream with gases like argon or nitrogen allows to cool the coating immediately after spraying, and thereby reduce the time of transition during the injection of each layer. As a result of the process, the fine dispersive structure of coatings is obtained during the shorter time in comparable to the classical high velocity oxygen fuel process (HVOF. The parameter of process and the type of stream equipment determine the quality of the obtained structure and thermal stress in the coating. The article presents the relationship between selected parameters of hybrid process and properties of the coatings. The presented technology should be adapted to the actual production of protective coating for machines and construction working in wear conditions.

  2. A New Method to Study the Sol-gel Transition Process of Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Bin; GAO Jian-gang; CHEN Da-zhu; LIU Jian-ping; HE Ping-sheng; ZHANG Qi-jin

    2005-01-01

    The sol-gel transition process of PMMA/SiO2 hybrid materials was first studied by means of the dynamic torsional vibration method. The different stages of the transition can be described by the change of torque. The temperature-dependent measurement of the gel time(tg) gives the possibility to determine the apparent activation energy(Ea) of this transition according to Flory′s gelation theory. The non-equilibrium thermodynamic fluctuation theory was used to predict the transition behavior. The isothermal transition experiments on hybrid sols with different TEOS(tetraethyl orthosilicate) contents were carried out. The results show that the Ea of a hybrid sol is higher than that of a non- hybrid sol of a TEOS-water-ethanol system. The increasing of TEOS content in a hybrid sol has no obvious effect on the Ea value, but it can enhance the sol-gel reaction rate.

  3. High-strength bolt-forming of fine-grained aluminum alloy 6061 with a continuous hybrid process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Hun; Hwang, Sun Kwang [National Research Laboratory for Computer Aided Materials Processing, Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Im, Yong-Taek, E-mail: ytim@kaist.ac.kr [National Research Laboratory for Computer Aided Materials Processing, Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Il-Heon; Bae, Chul Min [Wire Rod Research Group, Technical Research Laboratories, POSCO, 1 Goedong-dong, Nam-gu, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-785 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fine-grained AA6061-O was produced by a continuous hybrid process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It consists of rolling, ECAP, and drawing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-strength bolt was manufactured with the fine-grained AA6061-O. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The UTS and micro-hardness of the bolt was increased by 50%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The route C was better in making a uniform micro-hardness distribution in the bolt. - Abstract: It is well known that the development of a continuous manufacturing process to apply severe plastic deformation (SPD) is a major challenge for industrial usages to improve the mechanical properties of the material through grain refinement. In this study, fine-grained AA6061-O wire was manufactured by a two-pass hybrid process consisting of drawing, equal channel angular pressing and rolling in a continuous manner to investigate the effects of processing routes for two different routes, A and C, on the variation of ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and micro-hardness distribution. The UTS value (185 MPa) of the specimen processed by the two-pass hybrid process with route A was higher than that of 171 MPa obtained from the two-pass wire-drawing process and was equivalent to the level of 184 MPa processed by the three-pass wire-drawing process. The average micro-hardness value (Hv 58.0) obtained from the two-pass hybrid process through route C was the highest among all the cases. According to transmission electron microscopy, the original grain was subdivided and elongated owing to deformation during the processes. The specimen processed by the two-pass hybrid process through route C showed smaller deformation bands and had potentially higher angle grain boundaries compared to the specimen processed by the two-pass wire-drawing process. Finally, the high-strength bolt was manufactured using the fine-grained AA6061-O wire prepared by the continuous hybrid process to check its formability

  4. Hybrid Neural Network Model of an Industrial Ethanol Fermentation Process Considering the Effect of Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovanelli, Ivana C. C.; Rivera, Elmer Ccopa; da Costa, Aline C.; Filho, Rubens Maciel

    In this work a procedure for the development of a robust mathematical model for an industrial alcoholic fermentation process was evaluated. The proposed model is a hybrid neural model, which combines mass and energy balance equations with functional link networks to describe the kinetics. These networks have been shown to have a good nonlinear approximation capability, although the estimation of its weights is linear. The proposed model considers the effect of temperature on the kinetics and has the neural network weights reestimated always so that a change in operational conditions occurs. This allow to follow the system behavior when changes in operating conditions occur.

  5. ℋ∞ constant gain state feedback stabilization of stochastic hybrid systems with Wiener process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. K. Boukas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the stabilization problem of the class of continuous-time linear stochastic hybrid systems with Wiener process. The ℋ∞ state feedback stabilization problem is treated. A state feedback controller with constant gain that does not require access to the system mode is designed. LMI-based conditions are developed to design the state feedback controller with constant gain that stochastically stabilizes the studied class of systems and, at the same time, achieve the disturbance rejection of a desired level. The minimum disturbance rejection is also determined. Numerical examples are given to show the usefulness of the proposed results.

  6. Hybrid image and signal processing III; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 23, 24, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casasent, D.P.; Tescher, A.G.

    1992-01-01

    The present conference discusses the optical Gabor and wavelet transforms for image analysis, image segmentation via optical wavelets, semidifferential invariants, object labeling via convolution, tactile pattern recognition with complex linear morphology, a hybrid six-degree-of-freedom tracking system, and a hazard detection/avoidance sensor for NASA planetary landers. Also discussed are layered optical processing architectures, optoelectronic wide-world personality ROMs for high-speed control, a GaAs-based photorefractive time-integrating correlator, multispectral lossy data compression using vector quantization, broad vector quantization for transform image coding, and a mixed vendor computer architecture for precision image analysis.

  7. Open Access, Library Subscriptions and Article Processing Charges: Hybrid journals models and issues

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayakumar, J. K.; Tamarkin, Molly

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid journals contains articles behind a pay-wall to be subscribed, as well as papers made open access when author pays article processing charge (APC). In such cases, an Institution will end up paying twice and Publishers tend to double-dip. Discussions and pilot models are emerging on pricing options, such as “offset pricing,” [where APCs are adjusted or discounted with subscription costs as vouchers or reductions in next year subscriptions, APCs beyond the subscription costs are modestl...

  8. Organic Micropollutants Removal from Water by Oxidation and Other Processes:QSAR Models, Decision Support System and Hybrids of Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Sudhakaran, Sairam

    2013-08-01

    The presence of organic micropollutants (OMPs) in water is of great environmental concern. OMPs such as endocrine disruptors and certain pharmaceuticals have shown alarming effects on aquatic life. OMPs are included in the priority list of contaminants in several government directorate frameworks. The low levels of OMPs concentration (ng/L to μg/L) force the use of sophisticated analytical instruments. Although, the techniques to detect OMPs are progressing, the focus of current research is only on limited, important OMPs due to the high amount of time, cost and effort involved in analyzing them. Alternatively, quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models help to screen processes and propose appropriate options without considerable experimental effort. QSAR models are well-established in regulatory bodies as a method to screen toxic chemicals. The goal of the present thesis was to develop QSAR models for OMPs removal by oxidation. Apart from the QSAR models, a decision support system (DSS) based on multi-criteria analysis (MCA) involving socio-economic-technical and sustainability aspects was developed. Also, hybrids of different water treatment processes were studied to propose a sustainable water treatment train for OMPs removal. In order to build the QSAR models, the ozone/hydroxyl radical rate constants or percent removals of the OMPs were compiled. Several software packages were used to 5 compute the chemical properties of OMPs and perform statistical analyses. For DSS, MCA was used since it allows the comparison of qualitative (non-monetary, non-metric) and quantitative criteria (e.g., costs). Quadrant plots were developed to study the hybrid of natural and advanced water treatment processes. The QSAR models satisfied both chemical and statistical criteria. The DSS resulted in natural treatment and ozonation as the preferred processes for OMPs removal. The QSAR models can be used as a screening tool for OMPs removal by oxidation. Moreover, the

  9. Ground Motion Data Profile of Western Turkey with Intelligent Hybrid Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Kasim A.; Demir, Fuat

    2016-09-01

    The recent earthquakes caused severe damages on the existing buildings. By this motivation, an important amount of research work has been conducted to determine the seismic risk of seismically active regions. For an accurate seismic risk assessment, processing of ground motions would provide an advantage. Using the current technology, it is not possible to precisely predict the future earthquakes. Therefore, most of the current seismic risk assessment methodologies are based on statistical evaluation by using recurrence and magnitude of the earthquakes hit the specified region. Because of the limited number of records on earthquakes, the quality of definitions is questionable. Fuzzy logic algorithm can be used to improve the quality of the definition. In the present study, ground motion data profile of western Turkey is defined using an intelligent hybrid processing. The approach is given in a practical way for an easier and faster calculation. Earthquake data between 1970 and 1999 from western part of Turkey have been used for training. The results are tested and validated with the earthquake data between 2000 and 2015 of the same region. Enough approximation was validated between calculated values and the earthquake data by using the intelligent hybrid processing.

  10. Ground Motion Data Profile of Western Turkey with Intelligent Hybrid Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Kasim A.; Demir, Fuat

    2017-01-01

    The recent earthquakes caused severe damages on the existing buildings. By this motivation, an important amount of research work has been conducted to determine the seismic risk of seismically active regions. For an accurate seismic risk assessment, processing of ground motions would provide an advantage. Using the current technology, it is not possible to precisely predict the future earthquakes. Therefore, most of the current seismic risk assessment methodologies are based on statistical evaluation by using recurrence and magnitude of the earthquakes hit the specified region. Because of the limited number of records on earthquakes, the quality of definitions is questionable. Fuzzy logic algorithm can be used to improve the quality of the definition. In the present study, ground motion data profile of western Turkey is defined using an intelligent hybrid processing. The approach is given in a practical way for an easier and faster calculation. Earthquake data between 1970 and 1999 from western part of Turkey have been used for training. The results are tested and validated with the earthquake data between 2000 and 2015 of the same region. Enough approximation was validated between calculated values and the earthquake data by using the intelligent hybrid processing.

  11. Properties of Lead Zirconate Titanate Ceramics Determined Using Microwave and Hot-Press Hybrid Sintering Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hirofumi; Kato, Kazuaki; Qiu, Jinhao; Tani, Junji; Nagata, Kunihiro

    2001-09-01

    Piezoelectric materials play an important role in smart material and structural systems, and high-performance piezoelectric actuators with larger force and displacement output are in demand. It was shown in our previous work that the hybrid sintering process using a 28 GHz microwave technique and hot pressing offers advantages over conventional technologies reference. It was also confirmed that the maximum achieved value of piezoelectric constant d31 of the specimens of the hybrid-sintering process is approximately 360× 10-12 m/V, which is about 38% larger than 260× 10-12 m/V, the d31 of the conventionally sintered specimens. In this study, the material properties, including electromechanical coupling factor, Young’s modulus, frequency constant, Curie temperature and dielectric constant, of the specimens fabricated with the microwave sintering process were further investigated for different sintering temperatures. The Curie point Tc decreases, but the dielectric constant \\varepsilonr at Tc increases with the grain size of specimens for all sintering methods. The influence of grain size on Tc and \\varepsilonr can be attributed to the residual stress induced by the lattice mismatch between the cubic phase and the tetragonal-rhombohedral mixed phase.

  12. HYBRID SYSTEM BASED FUZZY-PID CONTROL SCHEMES FOR UNPREDICTABLE PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K. Tan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In general, the primary aim of polymerization industry is to enhance the process operation in order to obtain high quality and purity product. However, a sudden and large amount of heat will be released rapidly during the mixing process of two reactants, i.e. phenol and formalin due to its exothermic behavior. The unpredictable heat will cause deviation of process temperature and hence affect the quality of the product. Therefore, it is vital to control the process temperature during the polymerization. In the modern industry, fuzzy logic is commonly used to auto-tune PID controller to control the process temperature. However, this method needs an experienced operator to fine tune the fuzzy membership function and universe of discourse via trial and error approach. Hence, the setting of fuzzy inference system might not be accurate due to the human errors. Besides that, control of the process can be challenging due to the rapid changes in the plant parameters which will increase the process complexity. This paper proposes an optimization scheme using hybrid of Q-learning (QL and genetic algorithm (GA to optimize the fuzzy membership function in order to allow the conventional fuzzy-PID controller to control the process temperature more effectively. The performances of the proposed optimization scheme are compared with the existing fuzzy-PID scheme. The results show that the proposed optimization scheme is able to control the process temperature more effectively even if disturbance is introduced.

  13. Hybrid intelligent control of combustion process for ore-roasting furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aijun YAN; Tianyou CHAI; Fenghua WU; Pu WANG

    2008-01-01

    Because of its synthetic and complex characteristics, the combustion process of the shaft ore-roasting furnace is very difficult to control stably. A hybrid intelligent control approach is developed which consists of two systems: one is a cascade fuzzy control system with a temperature soft-sensor, and the other is a ratio control system for air flow with a compensation model for heating gas flow and air-fuel ratio. This approach combined intelligent control, soft-sensing and fault diagnosis with conventional control. It can adjust both the heating gas flow and the air-fuel ratio in real time. By this way, the difficulty of online measurement of the furnace temperature is solved, the fault ratios during combustion process is decreased, the steady control of the furnace temperature is achieved, and the gas consumption is reduced. The successful application in shaft furnaces of a mineral processing plant in China indicates its effectiveness.

  14. Hybrid-renewable processes for biofuels production: concentrated solar pyrolysis of biomass residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Anthe [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Geier, Manfred [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dedrick, Daniel E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The viability of thermochemically-derived biofuels can be greatly enhanced by reducing the process parasitic energy loads. Integrating renewable power into biofuels production is one method by which these efficiency drains can be eliminated. There are a variety of such potentially viable "hybrid-renewable" approaches; one is to integrate concentrated solar power (CSP) to power biomass-to-liquid fuels (BTL) processes. Barriers to CSP integration into BTL processes are predominantly the lack of fundamental kinetic and mass transport data to enable appropriate systems analysis and reactor design. A novel design for the reactor has been created that can allow biomass particles to be suspended in a flow gas, and be irradiated with a simulated solar flux. Pyrolysis conditions were investigated and a comparison between solar and non-solar biomass pyrolysis was conducted in terms of product distributions and pyrolysis oil quality. A novel method was developed to analyse pyrolysis products, and investigate their stability.

  15. The effect of microstructure and texture evolution on mechanical properties of low-carbon steel processed by the continuous hybrid process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sun Kwang; Baek, Hyun Moo [National Research Laboratory for Computer Aided Materials Processing, Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Il-Heon [Wire Rod Research Group, Technical Research Laboratories, POSCO, 1 Goedong-dong, Nam-gu, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-785 (Korea, Republic of); Im, Yong-Taek, E-mail: ytim@kaist.ac.kr [National Research Laboratory for Computer Aided Materials Processing, Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Chul Min [Wire Rod Research Group, Technical Research Laboratories, POSCO, 1 Goedong-dong, Nam-gu, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-785 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, the continuous hybrid process is newly designed and applied for producing grain-refined long and large cross-section wires of low-carbon steel at high speed at room temperature. The initial specimen, with a diameter of 13 mm, continuously passes through the rolls, equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) dies, and wire-drawing dies in sequence during the process. The specimens deformed by the continuous hybrid process without and with the wire-drawing dies were obtained to investigate the role in the deformation separately. Their microstructures, textures, and mechanical properties were investigated by optical microscopy (OM), electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD), X-ray diffraction (XRD), tension, and Vickers micro-hardness tests and were compared with those for the case processed by the conventional wire-drawing process. According to the present investigation, the continuous hybrid process can more efficiently manufacture fine-grained wires with a strong shear texture in a continuous way than the conventional wire-drawing process can. In addition, the ultimate tensile strength value of the specimen processed by the continuous hybrid process was 23.9% higher, although the elongation was slightly lower than the one produced by the conventional wire-drawing process. The plastic deformation was mainly imposed by the ECAP dies, and the wire-drawing dies improve the dimensional accuracy and increase the local strain homogeneity in the continuous hybrid process. It is demonstrated that the continuous hybrid process might be beneficial in commercializing a continuous application of the severe plastic deformation process for producing grain-refined wires for industrial applications.

  16. Mechanical properties and production quality of hand-layup and vacuum infusion processed hybrid composite materials for GFRP marine structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Young Kim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP structures are primarily manufactured using hand lay-up or vacuum infusion techniques, which are cost-effective for the construction of marine vessels. This paper aims to investigate the mechanical properties and failure mechanisms of the hybrid GFRP composites, formed by applying the hand lay-up processed exterior and the vacuum infusion processed interior layups, providing benefits for structural performance and ease of manufacturing. The hybrid GFRP composites contain one, two, and three vacuum infusion processed layer sets with consistent sets of hand lay-up processed layers. Mechanical properties assessed in this study include tensile, compressive and in-plane shear properties. Hybrid composites with three sets of vacuum infusion layers showed the highest tensile mechanical properties while those with two sets had the highest mechanical properties in compression. The batch homogeneity, for the GFRP fabrication processes, is evaluated using the experimentally obtained mechanical properties.

  17. Application of a hybrid Electrocoagulation-Fenton process in yarn dye wastewater: Kinetic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riadi, L.; Sapei, L.; Lidiawati, T.; Agustin, Y. E.

    2016-11-01

    Reactive dyes contain a significant portion of colorants used in yarn dying process and also in textile industry. Since the COD content is usually high in such wastewater,we conducted a hybrid electrocoagulation-fenton method to treat the wastewater. This work describes the application of the hybrid system to the removal of chemical oxygen demand and color from the wastewater in a batch reactor. Having worked with initial pH of 3,0; temperature at 30°C, molar ratio of Fe2+/H2O2 =1/10 and the mol ratio H2O2/COD = 4, we got 88.3% COD conversion and 88.5% color removal. The COD degradation process can be explained in two phases, the first phase is instantaneous reaction and the second phase is first order reaction. The kinetic constant was 0.0053 minute-1 and the rate of COD degradation was 0.0053[COD] mg/L minute.

  18. Hydrophobicity control by a supercritical drying technique in a sol–gel process with hybrid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Hongbo; Qiao, Zemin; Liu, Xiao; Cui, Xudong, E-mail: xudcui@gmail.com

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Sol–gel route is combined with polymerization without using modifier. • Supercritical drying control is the key to obtain super-hydrophobic surfaces. • The whole fabrication is technologically controllable and with low costs. • The production rate is higher than 90%. • The method provides a cost-effective way for industry applications. - Abstract: We successfully synthesized one type of cheap super-hydrophobic hybrid porous materials in a sol–gel process. In this route, hydrophilic polymers and TEOS-base sol are used as precursors, the ultraviolet ray-initiated polymerization and supercritical fluid drying techniques are combined together to fulfill this task. All fabricated samples exhibit lotus-leaf-like surface structures with super-hydrophobicity. The underlying mechanisms are carefully investigated using a field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). We found that a well-controlled drying process is crucial to the formation of such super-hydrophobic surfaces. As high as 90% production rate is obtained in our route and thus, it might provide a cost-effective way to produce super-hydrophobic hybrid materials for industry applications.

  19. Stochastic analysis and simulation of hydrometeorological processes for optimizing hybrid renewable energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsekouras, Georgios; Ioannou, Christos; Efstratiadis, Andreas; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2013-04-01

    The drawbacks of conventional energy sources including their negative environmental impacts emphasize the need to integrate renewable energy sources into energy balance. However, the renewable sources strongly depend on time varying and uncertain hydrometeorological processes, including wind speed, sunshine duration and solar radiation. To study the design and management of hybrid energy systems we investigate the stochastic properties of these natural processes, including possible long-term persistence. We use wind speed and sunshine duration time series retrieved from a European database of daily records and we estimate representative values of the Hurst coefficient for both variables. We conduct simultaneous generation of synthetic time series of wind speed and sunshine duration, on yearly, monthly and daily scale. To this we use the Castalia software system which performs multivariate stochastic simulation. Using these time series as input, we perform stochastic simulation of an autonomous hypothetical hybrid renewable energy system and optimize its performance using genetic algorithms. For the system design we optimize the sizing of the system in order to satisfy the energy demand with high reliability also minimizing the cost. While the simulation scale is the daily, a simple method allows utilizing the subdaily distribution of the produced wind power. Various scenarios are assumed in order to examine the influence of input parameters, such as the Hurst coefficient, and design parameters such as the photovoltaic panel angle.

  20. A hybrid analytical network process and fuzzy goal programming for supplier selection: A case study of auto part maker

    OpenAIRE

    Hesam Zande Hesami; Mohammad Ali Afshari; Seyed Ali Ayazi; Javad Siahkali Moradi

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research is to present a hybrid model to select auto part suppliers. The proposed method of this paper uses factor analysis to find the most influencing factors on part maker selection and the results are validated using different statistical tests such as Cronbach's Alpha and Kaiser-Meyer.The hybrid model uses analytical network process to rank different part maker suppliers and fuzzy goal programming to choose the appropriate alternative among various choices. The implementa...

  1. Hybrid manufacturing processes for fusion welding and friction stir welding of aerospace grade aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegesky, Megan Alexandra

    Friction stir welding and processing can provide for joints in aerospace grade aluminum alloys that have preferable material properties as compared to fusion welding techniques. Aerospace grade aluminum alloys such as AA2024-T3 and AA7075-T6 are considered non-weldable by traditional fusion welding techniques. Improved mechanical properties over previously used techniques are usually preferable for aerospace applications. Therefore, by combining traditional fusion welding and friction stir processing techniques, it could be plausible to create more difficult geometries in manufactured parts instead of using traditional techniques. While this combination of fusion welding and friction stir processing is not a new technology, its introduction to aerospace grade aluminum alloys as well as non-weldable alloys, is new. This is brought about by a lowered required clamping force required by adding a fusion weld before a friction stir processing technique. The changes in properties associated with joining techniques include: microstructural changes, changes in hardness, tensile strength, and corrosion resistance. This thesis illustrates these changes for the non-weldable AA2024-T351 and AA7075-T651 as well as the weldable alloy AA5052-H32. The microhardness, tensile strength and corrosion resistance of the four processing states: base material, fusion welded material, friction stir welded material, and friction stir processed fusion welded material is studied. The plausibility of this hybrid process for the three different materials is characterized, as well as plausible applications for this joining technique.

  2. Enhancing the efficiency of solution-processed polymer:colloidal nanocrystal hybrid photovoltaic cells using ethanedithiol treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Renjia; Stalder, Romain; Xie, Dongping; Cao, Weiran; Zheng, Ying; Yang, Yixing; Plaisant, Marc; Holloway, Paul H; Schanze, Kirk S; Reynolds, John R; Xue, Jiangeng

    2013-06-25

    Advances in colloidal inorganic nanocrystal synthesis and processing have led to the demonstration of organic-inorganic hybrid photovoltaic (PV) cells using low-cost solution processes from blends of conjugated polymer and colloidal nanocrystals. However, the performance of such hybrid PV cells has been limited due to the lack of control at the complex interfaces between the organic and inorganic hybrid active materials. Here we show that the efficiency of hybrid PV devices can be significantly enhanced by engineering the polymer-nanocrystal interface with proper chemical treatment. Using two different conjugated polymers, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and poly[2,6-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b;3,4-b']-dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)] (PCPDTBT), we show that treating the polymer:nanocrystal hybrid film in an ethanedithiol-containing acetonitrile solution can increase the efficiency of the hybrid PV devices by 30-90%, and a maximum power conversion efficiency of 5.2 ± 0.3% was obtained in the PCPDTBT:CdSe devices at 0.2 sun (AM 1.5G), which was slightly reduced to 4.7 ± 0.3% at 1 sun. The ethanedithiol treatment did not result in significant changes in the morphology and UV-vis optical absorption of the hybrid thin films; however, infrared absorption, NMR, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies revealed the effective removal of organic ligands, especially the charged phosphonic acid ligands, from the CdSe nanorod surface after the treatment, accompanied by the possible monolayer passivation of nanorod surfaces with Cd-thiolates. We attribute the hybrid PV cell efficiency increase upon the ethanedithiol treatment to the reduction in charge and exciton recombination sites on the nanocrystal surface and the simultaneous increase in electron transport through the hybrid film.

  3. Cleaner production for continuous digester processes based on hybrid Pareto genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Pulping production process produce large amount of wastewater and pollutant emitted, which has become one of the main pollution sources in pulp and paper industry. To solve this problem, it is necessary to implement cleaner production by using modeling and optimization technology. This paper studies the model and multi-objective genetic algorithms for continuous digester process. A model is established, in which environmental pollution and saving energy factors are considered. A hybrid genetic algorithm based on Pareto stratum-niche count is designed for finding near-Pareto or Pareto optimal solutions in the problem. A new genetic evaluation and selection mechanism is proposed. Using the real data from a pulp mill shows the results of computer simulation. Through comparing with the practical curve of digester,this method can reduce the pollutant effectively and increase the profit while keeping the pulp quality constant.

  4. Cleaner production for continuous digester processes based on hybrid Pareto genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Fu-Jiang; Wang, Hui; Li, Ping

    2003-01-01

    Pulping production process produces a large amount of wastewater and pollutant emitted, which has become one of the main pollution sources in pulp and paper industry. To solve this problem, it is necessary to implement cleaner production by using modeling and optimization technology. This paper studies the modeling and multi-objective genetic algorithms for continuous digester process. First, model is established, in which environmental pollution and saving energy factors are considered. Then hybrid genetic algorithm based on Pareto stratum-nichecount is designed for finding near-Pareto or Pareto optimal solutions in the problem and a new genetic evaluation and selection mechanism is proposed. Finally using the real data from a pulp mill shows the results of computer simulation. Through comparing with the practical curve of digester, this method can reduce the pollutant effectively and increase the profit while keeping the pulp quality unchanged.

  5. Optimization of process parameters in drilling of fibre hybrid composite using Taguchi and grey relational analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaya Ramnath, B.; Sharavanan, S.; Jeykrishnan, J.

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays quality plays a vital role in all the products. Hence, the development in manufacturing process focuses on the fabrication of composite with high dimensional accuracy and also incurring low manufacturing cost. In this work, an investigation on machining parameters has been performed on jute-flax hybrid composite. Here, the two important responses characteristics like surface roughness and material removal rate are optimized by employing 3 machining input parameters. The input variables considered are drill bit diameter, spindle speed and feed rate. Machining is done on CNC vertical drilling machine at different levels of drilling parameters. Taguchi’s L16 orthogonal array is used for optimizing individual tool parameters. Analysis Of Variance is used to find the significance of individual parameters. The simultaneous optimization of the process parameters is done by grey relational analysis. The results of this investigation shows that, spindle speed and drill bit diameter have most effect on material removal rate and surface roughness followed by feed rate.

  6. Combined Laser Beam Welding and Brazing Process for Aluminium Titanium Hybrid Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, F.; Grden, M.; Thomy, C.; Vollertsen, F.

    The current state of the art in light-weight construction is - for the case of aircraft structures - the use of either aluminium or titanium. Whereas aluminium is light-weight and less expensive, titanium offers superior corrosion properties at higher cost. In order to combine the advantages of both materials, a hybrid Ti-Al structure is proposed for e.g. seat-track application. In this paper, an overview of the results from this research work and the accompanying thermo-mechanical simulations will be reported and discussed. On the basis of the development of an appropriate system technology, the process development will be described, focusing on the main influencing parameters of the process on joint properties.

  7. System-wide hybrid MPC-PID control of a continuous pharmaceutical tablet manufacturing process via direct compaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ravendra; Ierapetritou, Marianthi; Ramachandran, Rohit

    2013-11-01

    The next generation of QbD based pharmaceutical products will be manufactured through continuous processing. This will allow the integration of online/inline monitoring tools, coupled with an efficient advanced model-based feedback control systems, to achieve precise control of process variables, so that the predefined product quality can be achieved consistently. The direct compaction process considered in this study is highly interactive and involves time delays for a number of process variables due to sensor placements, process equipment dimensions, and the flow characteristics of the solid material. A simple feedback regulatory control system (e.g., PI(D)) by itself may not be sufficient to achieve the tight process control that is mandated by regulatory authorities. The process presented herein comprises of coupled dynamics involving slow and fast responses, indicating the requirement of a hybrid control scheme such as a combined MPC-PID control scheme. In this manuscript, an efficient system-wide hybrid control strategy for an integrated continuous pharmaceutical tablet manufacturing process via direct compaction has been designed. The designed control system is a hybrid scheme of MPC-PID control. An effective controller parameter tuning strategy involving an ITAE method coupled with an optimization strategy has been used for tuning of both MPC and PID parameters. The designed hybrid control system has been implemented in a first-principles model-based flowsheet that was simulated in gPROMS (Process System Enterprise). Results demonstrate enhanced performance of critical quality attributes (CQAs) under the hybrid control scheme compared to only PID or MPC control schemes, illustrating the potential of a hybrid control scheme in improving pharmaceutical manufacturing operations.

  8. Start-up of the anammox process from the conventional activated sludge in a hybrid bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiumei Duan; Jiti Zhou; Sen Qiao; Xin Yin; Tian Tian; Fangdi Xu

    2012-01-01

    The anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process was successfully started up from conventional activated sludge using a hybrid bioreactor within 2 months.The average removal efficiencies of ammonia and nitrite were both over 80%,and the maximum total nitrogen removal rate of 1.85 kg1 N/(m3·day) was obtained on day 362 with the initial sludge concentration of 0.7 g mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS)/L.Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation of the granular sludge in the hybrid reactor clearly showed a high degree of compactness and cell sphericity,and the cell size was quite uniform.Transmission electron microscope photos showed that cells were round or oval,the cellular diameter was 0.6-1.0 μm,and the percentage of the anammoxosome compartment was 51%-85% of the whole cell volume.Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis (FISH) indicated that anammox bacteria became the dominant population in the community (accounting for more than 51% of total bacteria on day 250).Seven planctomycete 16S rRNA gene sequences were present in the 16S rRNA gene clone library generated from the biomass and affiliated to Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis and Candidatus Brocadia sp.,a new anammox species.In addition,the average effluent suspended solid (MLSS) concentrations of outlets Ⅰ (above the non-woven carrier) and Ⅱ (below the non-woven carrier) were 0.0009 and 0.0035 g/L,respectively.This showed that the non-woven carrier could catch the biomass effectively,which increased biomass and improved the nitrogen removal rate in the reactor.

  9. Effect of Particles Content on Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, and Electrochemical Behavior of Aluminum-Based Hybrid Composite Processed by Accumulative Roll Bonding Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattah-Alhosseini, Arash; Naseri, Majid; Alemi, Mohamad Hesam

    2017-03-01

    Effect of B4C/SiC particles content on the microstructure, deformation, and electrochemical behavior of aluminum-based hybrid composite processed by accumulative roll bonding (ARB) was investigated. The ARB process was used to fabricate hybrid composites which consist of 1 and 2.5 wt pct of B4C/SiC mixed particles as reinforcement. The microstructure of the fabricated hybrid composites after the ninth cycle of the ARB process exhibited an excellent distribution of B4C/SiC particles in the aluminum matrix where no porosity was observed. In addition, with increasing the particle content in the aluminum matrix, the hybrid composites demonstrated higher tensile strength and lower elongation. The ARB-processed hybrid composites exhibited 3.12 and 3.37 times higher hardness for samples having 1 and 2.5 wt pct B4C/SiC, respectively, than that of the annealed aluminum. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization curves revealed that the corrosion resistance dropped drastically by increasing the number of ARB cycles from 3 to 5. However, by further ARB processing, the corrosion resistance gradually increased, and finally, after 9 cycles reached to the values higher than those of 3-cycle ARB-processed samples.

  10. Effect of Particles Content on Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, and Electrochemical Behavior of Aluminum-Based Hybrid Composite Processed by Accumulative Roll Bonding Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattah-Alhosseini, Arash; Naseri, Majid; Alemi, Mohamad Hesam

    2017-01-01

    Effect of B4C/SiC particles content on the microstructure, deformation, and electrochemical behavior of aluminum-based hybrid composite processed by accumulative roll bonding (ARB) was investigated. The ARB process was used to fabricate hybrid composites which consist of 1 and 2.5 wt pct of B4C/SiC mixed particles as reinforcement. The microstructure of the fabricated hybrid composites after the ninth cycle of the ARB process exhibited an excellent distribution of B4C/SiC particles in the aluminum matrix where no porosity was observed. In addition, with increasing the particle content in the aluminum matrix, the hybrid composites demonstrated higher tensile strength and lower elongation. The ARB-processed hybrid composites exhibited 3.12 and 3.37 times higher hardness for samples having 1 and 2.5 wt pct B4C/SiC, respectively, than that of the annealed aluminum. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization curves revealed that the corrosion resistance dropped drastically by increasing the number of ARB cycles from 3 to 5. However, by further ARB processing, the corrosion resistance gradually increased, and finally, after 9 cycles reached to the values higher than those of 3-cycle ARB-processed samples.

  11. Hybrid microelectronic technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, P.

    Various areas of hybrid microelectronic technology are discussed. The topics addressed include: basic thick film processing, thick film pastes and substrates, add-on components and attachment methods, thin film processing, and design of thick film hybrid circuits. Also considered are: packaging hybrid circuits, automating the production of hybrid circuits, application of hybrid techniques, customer's view of hybrid technology, and quality control and assurance in hybrid circuit production.

  12. Closing the weld gap with laser/mig hybrid welding process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove; Wiwe, Bjarne David

    2003-01-01

    In this article, laboratory tests are demonstrated that systematically accesses the critical gap distance when welding CMn 2.13 mm steel with a 2.6 kW CO2 laser, combined with a MIG energy source. In the work, the welding speed is varied at gap distances from 0 to 0.8 mm such that the limits...... for obtaining sound welds are identified. The welds are quality assessed according to ISO 13.919-1 and EN25817, transversal hardness measurements are made and the heat input to the workpiece is calculated. The results show that the critical gap is 0.1 mm for a laser weld alone. With hybrid welding, this can...... be increased to 0.6 mm, even at a welding speed of 3.5 m/min. The maximum welding speed with the hybrid process is comparable to laser welding alone, 4.5 m/min. The measured hardness is comparable to MIG welding, and this corresponds to a 33 percent reduction compared to laser welding alone. The heat input...

  13. Wear Behavior of Aluminum Matrix Hybrid Composites Fabricated through Friction Stir Welding Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Halil Ibrahim KURT; Murat ODUNCUOGLU; Ramazan ASMATULU

    2016-01-01

    Effects of friction stir processing (FSP)parameters and reinforcements on the wear behavior of 6061-T6 based hybrid composites were investigated.A mathematical formulation was derived to calculate the wear volume loss of the composites.The experimental results were contrasted with the results of the proposed model.The influ-ences of sliding distance,tool traverse and rotational speeds,as well as graphite (Gr)and titanium carbide (TiC) volume fractions on the wear volume loss of the composites were also investigated using the prepared formulation. The results demonstrated that the wear volume loss of the composites significantly increased with increasing sliding distance,tool traverse speed,and rotational speed;while the wear volume loss decreased with increasing volume fraction of the reinforcements.A minimum wear volume loss for the hybrid composites with complex reinforcements was specified at the inclusion ratio of 50% TiC+50% Al2 O3 because of improved lubricant ability,as well as resist-ance to brittleness and wear.New possibilities to develop wear-resistant aluminum-based composites for different in-dustrial applications were proposed.

  14. Quantum control and process tomography of a semiconductor quantum dot hybrid qubit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dohun; Shi, Zhan; Simmons, C B; Ward, D R; Prance, J R; Koh, Teck Seng; Gamble, John King; Savage, D E; Lagally, M G; Friesen, Mark; Coppersmith, S N; Eriksson, Mark A

    2014-07-03

    The similarities between gated quantum dots and the transistors in modern microelectronics--in fabrication methods, physical structure and voltage scales for manipulation--have led to great interest in the development of quantum bits (qubits) in semiconductor quantum dots. Although quantum dot spin qubits have demonstrated long coherence times, their manipulation is often slower than desired for important future applications, such as factoring. Furthermore, scalability and manufacturability are enhanced when qubits are as simple as possible. Previous work has increased the speed of spin qubit rotations by making use of integrated micromagnets, dynamic pumping of nuclear spins or the addition of a third quantum dot. Here we demonstrate a qubit that is a hybrid of spin and charge. It is simple, requiring neither nuclear-state preparation nor micromagnets. Unlike previous double-dot qubits, the hybrid qubit enables fast rotations about two axes of the Bloch sphere. We demonstrate full control on the Bloch sphere with π-rotation times of less than 100 picoseconds in two orthogonal directions, which is more than an order of magnitude faster than any other double-dot qubit. The speed arises from the qubit's charge-like characteristics, and its spin-like features result in resistance to decoherence over a wide range of gate voltages. We achieve full process tomography in our electrically controlled semiconductor quantum dot qubit, extracting high fidelities of 85 per cent for X rotations (transitions between qubit states) and 94 per cent for Z rotations (phase accumulation between qubit states).

  15. Closing the weld gap with laser/mig hybrid welding process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove; Wiwe, Bjarne David;

    2003-01-01

    In this article, laboratory tests are demonstrated that systematically accesses the critical gap distance when welding CMn 2.13 mm steel with a 2.6 kW CO2 laser, combined with a MIG energy source. In the work, the welding speed is varied at gap distances from 0 to 0.8 mm such that the limits...... for obtaining sound welds are identified. The welds are quality assessed according to ISO 13.919-1 and EN25817, transversal hardness measurements are made and the heat input to the workpiece is calculated. The results show that the critical gap is 0.1 mm for a laser weld alone. With hybrid welding, this can...... be increased to 0.6 mm, even at a welding speed of 3.5 m/min. The maximum welding speed with the hybrid process is comparable to laser welding alone, 4.5 m/min. The measured hardness is comparable to MIG welding, and this corresponds to a 33 percent reduction compared to laser welding alone. The heat input...

  16. Hybrid-PIC Computer Simulation of the Plasma and Erosion Processes in Hall Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Richard R.; Katz, Ira; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Gamero-Castano, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    HPHall software simulates and tracks the time-dependent evolution of the plasma and erosion processes in the discharge chamber and near-field plume of Hall thrusters. HPHall is an axisymmetric solver that employs a hybrid fluid/particle-in-cell (Hybrid-PIC) numerical approach. HPHall, originally developed by MIT in 1998, was upgraded to HPHall-2 by the Polytechnic University of Madrid in 2006. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has continued the development of HPHall-2 through upgrades to the physical models employed in the code, and the addition of entirely new ones. Primary among these are the inclusion of a three-region electron mobility model that more accurately depicts the cross-field electron transport, and the development of an erosion sub-model that allows for the tracking of the erosion of the discharge chamber wall. The code is being developed to provide NASA science missions with a predictive tool of Hall thruster performance and lifetime that can be used to validate Hall thrusters for missions.

  17. Transient simulation of regression rate on thrust regulation process in hybrid rocket motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Hui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to study the characteristics of regression rate of solid grain during thrust regulation process. For this purpose, an unsteady numerical model of regression rate is established. Gas–solid coupling is considered between the solid grain surface and combustion gas. Dynamic mesh is used to simulate the regression process of the solid fuel surface. Based on this model, numerical simulations on a H2O2/HTPB (hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene hybrid motor have been performed in the flow control process. The simulation results show that under the step change of the oxidizer mass flow rate condition, the regression rate cannot reach a stable value instantly because the flow field requires a short time period to adjust. The regression rate increases with the linear gain of oxidizer mass flow rate, and has a higher slope than the relative inlet function of oxidizer flow rate. A shorter regulation time can cause a higher regression rate during regulation process. The results also show that transient calculation can better simulate the instantaneous regression rate in the operation process.

  18. Transient simulation of regression rate on thrust regulation process in hybrid rocket motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Hui; Li Yijie; Zeng Peng

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to study the characteristics of regression rate of solid grain during thrust regulation process. For this purpose, an unsteady numerical model of regression rate is established. Gas–solid coupling is considered between the solid grain surface and combustion gas. Dynamic mesh is used to simulate the regression process of the solid fuel surface. Based on this model, numerical simulations on a H2O2/HTPB (hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene) hybrid motor have been performed in the flow control process. The simulation results show that under the step change of the oxidizer mass flow rate condition, the regression rate cannot reach a stable value instantly because the flow field requires a short time period to adjust. The regression rate increases with the linear gain of oxidizer mass flow rate, and has a higher slope than the relative inlet function of oxidizer flow rate. A shorter regulation time can cause a higher regression rate during regulation process. The results also show that transient calculation can better simulate the instantaneous regression rate in the operation process.

  19. A hybrid process combining homogeneous catalytic ozonation and membrane distillation for wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Peng; Li, Jie; Hou, Deyin; Wang, Jun; Liu, Huijuan

    2016-10-01

    A novel catalytic ozonation membrane reactor (COMR) coupling homogeneous catalytic ozonation and direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) was developed for refractory saline organic pollutant treatment from wastewater. An ozonation process took place in the reactor to degrade organic pollutants, whilst the DCMD process was used to recover ionic catalysts and produce clean water. It was found that 98.6% total organic carbon (TOC) and almost 100% salt were removed and almost 100% metal ion catalyst was recovered. TOC in the permeate water was less than 16 mg/L after 5 h operation, which was considered satisfactory as the TOC in the potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP) feed water was as high as 1000 mg/L. Meanwhile, the membrane distillation flux in the COMR process was 49.8% higher than that in DCMD process alone after 60 h operation. Further, scanning electron microscope images showed less amount and smaller size of contaminants on the membrane surface, which indicated the mitigation of membrane fouling. The tensile strength and FT-IR spectra tests did not reveal obvious changes for the polyvinylidene fluoride membrane after 60 h operation, which indicated the good durability. This novel COMR hybrid process exhibited promising application prospects for saline organic wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. RECENT ADVANCES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D.

    2010-07-22

    Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. In the HyS Process, sulfur dioxide is oxidized in the presence of water at the electrolyzer anode to produce sulfuric acid and protons. The protons are transported through a cation-exchange membrane electrolyte to the cathode and are reduced to form hydrogen. In the second stage of the process, the sulfuric acid by-product from the electrolyzer is thermally decomposed at high temperature to produce sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The two gases are separated and the sulfur dioxide recycled to the electrolyzer for oxidation. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been exploring a fuel-cell design concept for the SDE using an anolyte feed comprised of concentrated sulfuric acid saturated with sulfur dioxide. The advantages of this design concept include high electrochemical efficiency and small footprint compared to a parallel-plate electrolyzer design. This paper will provide a summary of recent advances in the development of the SDE for the HyS process.

  1. Biomolecular hybrid material and process for preparing same and uses for same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungbae [Richland, WA

    2010-11-23

    Disclosed is a composition and method for fabricating novel hybrid materials comprised of, e.g., carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and crosslinked enzyme clusters (CECs). In one method, enzyme-CNT hybrids are prepared by precipitation of enzymes which are subsequently crosslinked, yielding crosslinked enzyme clusters (CECs) on the surface of the CNTs. The CEC-enzyme-CNT hybrids exhibit high activity per unit area or mass as well as improved enzyme stability and longevity over hybrid materials known in the art. The CECs in the disclosed materials permit multilayer biocatalytic coatings to be applied to surfaces providing hybrid materials suitable for use in, e.g., biocatalytic applications and devices as described herein.

  2. Optimization of the Thermosetting Pultrusion Process by Using Hybrid and Mixed Integer Genetic Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Tutum, Cem Celal; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2013-01-01

    In this paper thermo-chemical simulation of the pultrusion process of a composite rod is first used as a validation case to ensure that the utilized numerical scheme is stable and converges to results given in literature. Following this validation case, a cylindrical die block with heaters is added...... to the pultrusion domain of a composite part and thermal contact resistance (TCR) regions at the die-part interface are defined. Two optimization case studies are performed on this new configuration. In the first one, optimal die radius and TCR values are found by using a hybrid genetic algorithm based......) such that the total number of heaters is minimized while satisfying the constraints for the maximum composite temperature, the mean of the cure degree at the die exit and the pulling speed....

  3. Hybrid Genetic Algorithm Based Optimization of Coupled HMM for Complex Interacting Processes Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jianghua(刘江华); Chen Jiapin; Cheng Junshi

    2004-01-01

    Coupled Hidden Markov Model (CHMM) is the extension of traditional HMM, which is mainly used for complex interactive process modeling such as two-hand gestures. However, the problems of finding optimal model parameter are still of great interest to the researches in this area. This paper proposes a hybrid genetic algorithm (HGA) for the CHMM training. Chaos is used to initialize GA and used as mutation operator. Experiments on Chinese TaiChi gestures show that standard GA (SGA) based CHMM training is superior to Maximum Likelihood (ML) HMM training. HGA approach has the highest recognition rate of 98.0769%, then 96.1538% for SGA. The last one is ML method, only with a recognition rate of 69.2308%.

  4. Hybrid Metaheuristics for Solving a Fuzzy Single Batch-Processing Machine Scheduling Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Molla-Alizadeh-Zavardehi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a problem of minimizing total weighted tardiness of jobs in a real-world single batch-processing machine (SBPM scheduling in the presence of fuzzy due date. In this paper, first a fuzzy mixed integer linear programming model is developed. Then, due to the complexity of the problem, which is NP-hard, we design two hybrid metaheuristics called GA-VNS and VNS-SA applying the advantages of genetic algorithm (GA, variable neighborhood search (VNS, and simulated annealing (SA frameworks. Besides, we propose three fuzzy earliest due date heuristics to solve the given problem. Through computational experiments with several random test problems, a robust calibration is applied on the parameters. Finally, computational results on different-scale test problems are presented to compare the proposed algorithms.

  5. Hybrid metaheuristics for solving a fuzzy single batch-processing machine scheduling problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla-Alizadeh-Zavardehi, S; Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, R; Lotfi, F Hosseinzadeh

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with a problem of minimizing total weighted tardiness of jobs in a real-world single batch-processing machine (SBPM) scheduling in the presence of fuzzy due date. In this paper, first a fuzzy mixed integer linear programming model is developed. Then, due to the complexity of the problem, which is NP-hard, we design two hybrid metaheuristics called GA-VNS and VNS-SA applying the advantages of genetic algorithm (GA), variable neighborhood search (VNS), and simulated annealing (SA) frameworks. Besides, we propose three fuzzy earliest due date heuristics to solve the given problem. Through computational experiments with several random test problems, a robust calibration is applied on the parameters. Finally, computational results on different-scale test problems are presented to compare the proposed algorithms.

  6. Fabrication of hybrid nanostructured arrays using a PDMS/PDMS replication process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanin, H; Mohammadkhani, A; Jiang, K

    2012-10-21

    In the study, a novel and low cost nanofabrication process is proposed for producing hybrid polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) nanostructured arrays. The proposed process involves monolayer self-assembly of polystyrene (PS) spheres, PDMS nanoreplication, thin film coating, and PDMS to PDMS (PDMS/PDMS) replication. A self-assembled monolayer of PS spheres is used as the first template. Second, a PDMS template is achieved by replica moulding. Third, the PDMS template is coated with a platinum or gold layer. Finally, a PDMS nanostructured array is developed by casting PDMS slurry on top of the coated PDMS. The cured PDMS is peeled off and used as a replica surface. In this study, the influences of the coating on the PDMS topography, contact angle of the PDMS slurry and the peeling off ability are discussed in detail. From experimental evaluation, a thickness of at least 20 nm gold layer or 40 nm platinum layer on the surface of the PDMS template improves the contact angle and eases peeling off. The coated PDMS surface is successfully used as a template to achieve the replica with a uniform array via PDMS/PDMS replication process. Both the PDMS template and the replica are free of defects and also undistorted after demoulding with a highly ordered hexagonal arrangement. In addition, the geometry of the nanostructured PDMS can be controlled by changing the thickness of the deposited layer. The simplicity and the controllability of the process show great promise as a robust nanoreplication method for functional applications.

  7. Hybrid fNIRS-EEG based classification of auditory and visual perception processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix ePutze

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available For multimodal Human-Computer Interaction (HCI, it is very useful to identify the modalities on which the user is currently processing information. This would enable a system to select complementary output modalities to reduce the user's workload. In this paper, we develop a hybrid Brain-Computer Interface (BCI which uses Electroencephalography (EEG and functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS to discriminate and detect visual and auditory stimulus processing. We describe the experimental setup we used for collection of our data corpus with 12 subjects. We present cross validation evaluation results for different classification conditions. We show that our subject-dependent systems achieved a classification accuracy of 97.8% for discriminating visual and auditory perception processes from each other and a classification accuracy of up to 94.8% for detecting modality-specific processes independently of other cognitive activity. The same classification conditions could also be discriminated in a subject-independent fashion with accuracy of up to 94.6% and 86.7%, respectively. We also look at the contributions of the two signal types and show that the fusion of classifiers using different features significantly increases accuracy.

  8. Hot deformation behavior of an aluminum-matrix hybrid nanocomposite fabricated by friction stir processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodabakhshi, F. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9466, Azadi Avenue, 14588 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Gerlich, A.P. [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Simchi, A., E-mail: simchi@sharif.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9466, Azadi Avenue, 14588 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9466, Azadi Avenue, 14588 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kokabi, A.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9466, Azadi Avenue, 14588 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-02-25

    A fine-grained aluminum-matrix hybrid nanocomposite reinforced with TiO{sub 2}, MgO and Al{sub 3}Ti nanoparticles was prepared via reactive friction stir processing (FSP) of an Al–Mg sheet with pre-placed TiO{sub 2} particles (50 nm; 3.1 vol%). The microstructure of the hybrid nanocomposite comprises high-angle grain boundaries (~90%) with an average size of 2 µm and hard inclusions with sizes in the range of 30–50 nm. Evaluation of the hot deformation behavior of the nanocomposite by uniaxial tensile testing at different temperatures (300–450 °C) and strain rates (0.001–0.1 s{sup −1}) shows that the deformation apparent activation energy of the nanocomposite is 137 kJ mol{sup −1} at ≤300 °C. The values of the activation energy for the Al–Mg alloy before and after FSP at this temperature range are about 105 and 135 kJ mol{sup −1}, respectively. This observation highlights the role of ultrafine hard particles and the structural changes induced by FSP on the deformation process. At the higher temperatures, the deformation activation energy for the aluminum alloy without and with the reinforcing particles is 303 and 456 kJ mol{sup −1}, respectively. Detailed microstructural analysis by electron back scattered diffraction and transmission electron microscopy suggests that dynamic recrystallization is responsible for the deformation behavior at the elevated temperatures. Meanwhile, the presence of the hard nanoparticles operates as a grain growth inhibitor improving the thermal stability of the fine-grained aluminum alloy.

  9. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstra, J. A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of hybrid automata as timed transition systems. We also relate the synchronized product operator on hybrid automata to the parallel composition operator of the process algebra. It turns out that the f...

  10. Hybrid Pluggable Processing Pipeline (HyP3): A cloud-based infrastructure for generic processing of SAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenson, K.; Arko, S. A.; Buechler, B.; Hogenson, R.; Herrmann, J.; Geiger, A.

    2016-12-01

    A problem often faced by Earth science researchers is how to scale algorithms that were developed against few datasets and take them to regional or global scales. One significant hurdle can be the processing and storage resources available for such a task, not to mention the administration of those resources. As a processing environment, the cloud offers nearly unlimited potential for compute and storage, with limited administration required. The goal of the Hybrid Pluggable Processing Pipeline (HyP3) project was to demonstrate the utility of the Amazon cloud to process large amounts of data quickly and cost effectively, while remaining generic enough to incorporate new algorithms with limited administration time or expense. Principally built by three undergraduate students at the ASF DAAC, the HyP3 system relies on core Amazon services such as Lambda, the Simple Notification Service (SNS), Relational Database Service (RDS), Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), Simple Storage Service (S3), and Elastic Beanstalk. The HyP3 user interface was written using elastic beanstalk, and the system uses SNS and Lamdba to handle creating, instantiating, executing, and terminating EC2 instances automatically. Data are sent to S3 for delivery to customers and removed using standard data lifecycle management rules. In HyP3 all data processing is ephemeral; there are no persistent processes taking compute and storage resources or generating added cost. When complete, HyP3 will leverage the automatic scaling up and down of EC2 compute power to respond to event-driven demand surges correlated with natural disaster or reprocessing efforts. Massive simultaneous processing within EC2 will be able match the demand spike in ways conventional physical computing power never could, and then tail off incurring no costs when not needed. This presentation will focus on the development techniques and technologies that were used in developing the HyP3 system. Data and process flow will be shown

  11. A comparative life cycle assessment of hybrid osmotic dilution desalination and established seawater desalination and wastewater reclamation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Nathan T; Black, Nathan D; Cath, Tzahi Y

    2012-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the comparative environmental impacts of coupled seawater desalination and water reclamation using a novel hybrid system that consist of an osmotically driven membrane process and established membrane desalination technologies. A comparative life cycle assessment methodology was used to differentiate between a novel hybrid process consisting of forward osmosis (FO) operated in osmotic dilution (ODN) mode and seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO), and two other processes: a stand alone conventional SWRO desalination system, and a combined SWRO and dual barrier impaired water purification system consisting of nanofiltration followed by reverse osmosis. Each process was evaluated using ten baseline impact categories. It was demonstrated that from a life cycle perspective two hurdles exist to further development of the ODN-SWRO process: module design of FO membranes and cleaning intensity of the FO membranes. System optimization analysis revealed that doubling FO membrane packing density, tripling FO membrane permeability, and optimizing system operation, all of which are technically feasible at the time of this publication, could reduce the environmental impact of the hybrid ODN-SWRO process compared to SWRO by more than 25%; yet, novel hybrid nanofiltration-RO treatment of seawater and wastewater can achieve almost similar levels of environmental impact.

  12. A bioactive coating of a silica xerogel/chitosan hybrid on titanium by a room temperature sol-gel process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Shin-Hee; Lee, Eun-Jung; Yook, Se-Won; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Kim, Hae-Won; Koh, Young-Hag

    2010-01-01

    A bioactive coating consisting of a silica xerogel/chitosan hybrid was applied to Ti at room temperature as a novel surface treatment for metallic implants. A crack-free thin layer (coated on Ti with a chitosan content of >30 vol.% through a sol-gel process. The coating layer became more hydrophilic with increasing silica xerogel content, as assessed by contact angle measurement. The hybrid coatings afforded excellent bone bioactivity by inducing the rapid precipitation of apatite on their surface when immersed in a simulated body fluid (SBF). Osteoblastic cells cultured on the hybrid coatings were more viable than those on a pure chitosan coating. Furthermore, the alkaline phosphate activity of the cells was significantly higher on the hybrid coatings than on a pure chitosan coating, with the highest level being achieved on the hybrid coating containing 30% chitosan. These results indicate that silica xerogel/chitosan hybrids are potentially useful as room temperature bioactive coating materials on titanium-based medical implants.

  13. Hybrid wavelet-support vector machine approach for modelling rainfall-runoff process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komasi, Mehdi; Sharghi, Soroush

    2016-01-01

    Because of the importance of water resources management, the need for accurate modeling of the rainfall-runoff process has rapidly grown in the past decades. Recently, the support vector machine (SVM) approach has been used by hydrologists for rainfall-runoff modeling and the other fields of hydrology. Similar to the other artificial intelligence models, such as artificial neural network (ANN) and adaptive neural fuzzy inference system, the SVM model is based on the autoregressive properties. In this paper, the wavelet analysis was linked to the SVM model concept for modeling the rainfall-runoff process of Aghchai and Eel River watersheds. In this way, the main time series of two variables, rainfall and runoff, were decomposed to multiple frequent time series by wavelet theory; then, these time series were imposed as input data on the SVM model in order to predict the runoff discharge one day ahead. The obtained results show that the wavelet SVM model can predict both short- and long-term runoff discharges by considering the seasonality effects. Also, the proposed hybrid model is relatively more appropriate than classical autoregressive ones such as ANN and SVM because it uses the multi-scale time series of rainfall and runoff data in the modeling process.

  14. Towards Hybrid Online On-Demand Querying of Realtime Data with Stateful Complex Event Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Qunzhi; Simmhan, Yogesh; Prasanna, Viktor K.

    2013-10-09

    Emerging Big Data applications in areas like e-commerce and energy industry require both online and on-demand queries to be performed over vast and fast data arriving as streams. These present novel challenges to Big Data management systems. Complex Event Processing (CEP) is recognized as a high performance online query scheme which in particular deals with the velocity aspect of the 3-V’s of Big Data. However, traditional CEP systems do not consider data variety and lack the capability to embed ad hoc queries over the volume of data streams. In this paper, we propose H2O, a stateful complex event processing framework, to support hybrid online and on-demand queries over realtime data. We propose a semantically enriched event and query model to address data variety. A formal query algebra is developed to precisely capture the stateful and containment semantics of online and on-demand queries. We describe techniques to achieve the interactive query processing over realtime data featured by efficient online querying, dynamic stream data persistence and on-demand access. The system architecture is presented and the current implementation status reported.

  15. Study on Power Switching Process of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle with In-Wheel Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid electric vehicles with in-wheel motors (IWM achieve a variety of driving modes by two power sources—the engine and the IWM. One of the critical problems that exists in such vehicle is the different transient characteristics between the engine and the IWM. Therefore, switching processes between the power sources have noteworthy impacts on vehicle dynamics and driving performance. For the particular switching process of the pure electric mode to the engine driving mode, a specific control strategy coordinating clutch torque, motor torque, and engine torque was proposed to solve drivability issues caused by inconsistent responses of different power sources during the mode transition. The specific switching process could be described as follows: the engine was started by IWM with the clutch serving as a key enabling actuator, dynamic torque compensation through IWM was implemented after engine started, and, meanwhile, engine speed was controlled to track the target speed through the closed loop PID control strategy. The bench tests results showed that the vehicle jerk caused during mode switching was reduced and fast and smooth mode switching was realized, which leads to the improvement of vehicle’s riding comfort.

  16. Data-based hybrid tension estimation and fault diagnosis of cold rolling continuous annealing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Chai, Tianyou; Wang, Hong; Qin, Si-Zhao Joe

    2011-12-01

    The continuous annealing process line (CAPL) of cold rolling is an important unit to improve the mechanical properties of steel strips in steel making. In continuous annealing processes, strip tension is an important factor, which indicates whether the line operates steadily. Abnormal tension profile distribution along the production line can lead to strip break and roll slippage. Therefore, it is essential to estimate the whole tension profile in order to prevent the occurrence of faults. However, in real annealing processes, only a limited number of strip tension sensors are installed along the machine direction. Since the effects of strip temperature, gas flow, bearing friction, strip inertia, and roll eccentricity can lead to nonlinear tension dynamics, it is difficult to apply the first-principles induced model to estimate the tension profile distribution. In this paper, a novel data-based hybrid tension estimation and fault diagnosis method is proposed to estimate the unmeasured tension between two neighboring rolls. The main model is established by an observer-based method using a limited number of measured tensions, speeds, and currents of each roll, where the tension error compensation model is designed by applying neural networks principal component regression. The corresponding tension fault diagnosis method is designed using the estimated tensions. Finally, the proposed tension estimation and fault diagnosis method was applied to a real CAPL in a steel-making company, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. River Water Purification via a Coagulation-Porous Ceramic Membrane Hybrid Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荟钦; 仲兆祥; 李卫星; 邢卫红; 金万勤

    2014-01-01

    Membrane filtration technology combined with coagulation is widely used to purify river water. In this study, microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) ceramic membranes were combined with coagulation to treat local river water located at Xinghua, Jiangsu province, China. The operation parameters, fouling mechanism and pilot-scale tests were investigated. The results show that the pore size of membrane has small effect on the pseudo-steady flux for dead-end filtration, and the increase of flux in MF process is more than that in UF process for cross-flow filtration with the same increase of cross-flow velocity. The membrane pore size has little influence on the water quality. The analysis on membrane fouling mechanism shows that the cake filtration has significant in-fluence on the pseudo-steady flux and water quality for the membrane with pore size of 50, 200 and 500 nm. For the membrane with pore size of 200 nm and backwashing employed in our pilot study, a constant flux of 150 L·m-2·h-1 was reached during stable operation, with the removal efficiency of turbidity, total organic carbon (TOC) and UV254 higher than 99%, 45%and 48%, respectively. The study demonstrates that coagulation-porous ceramic membrane hybrid process is a reliable method for river water purification.

  18. Controllable lasing performance in solution-processed organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Tsung Sheng; Chou, Yu-Hsun; Hong, Kuo-Bin; Huang, Jiong-Fu; Chou, Chun-Hsien; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Chen, Fang-Chung; Lu, Tien-Chang

    2016-11-03

    Solution-processed organic-inorganic perovskites are fascinating due to their remarkable photo-conversion efficiency and great potential in the cost-effective, versatile and large-scale manufacturing of optoelectronic devices. In this paper, we demonstrate that the perovskite nanocrystal sizes can be simply controlled by manipulating the precursor solution concentrations in a two-step sequential deposition process, thus achieving the feasible tunability of excitonic properties and lasing performance in hybrid metal-halide perovskites. The lasing threshold is at around 230 μJ cm(-2) in this solution-processed organic-inorganic lead-halide material, which is comparable to the colloidal quantum dot lasers. The efficient stimulated emission originates from the multiple random scattering provided by the micro-meter scale rugged morphology and polycrystalline grain boundaries. Thus the excitonic properties in perovskites exhibit high correlation with the formed morphology of the perovskite nanocrystals. Compared to the conventional lasers normally serving as a coherent light source, the perovskite random lasers are promising in making low-cost thin-film lasing devices for flexible and speckle-free imaging applications.

  19. Co-Curing of CFRP-Steel Hybrid Joints Using the Vacuum Assisted Resin Infusion Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streitferdt, Alexander; Rudolph, Natalie; Taha, Iman

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the one-step co-curing process of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) joined with a steel plate to form a hybrid structure. In this process CFRP laminate and bond to the metal are realized simultaneously by resin infusion, such that the same resin serves for both infusion and adhesion. For comparison, the commonly applied two-step process of adhesive bonding is studied. In this case, the CFRP laminate is fabricated in a first stage through resin infusion of Non Crimp Fabric (NCF) and joined to the steel plate in a further step through adhesive bonding. For this purpose, the commercially available epoxy-based Betamate 1620 is applied. CFRP laminates were fabricated using two different resin systems, namely the epoxy (EP)-based RTM6 and a newly developed fast curing polyurethane (PU) resin. Results show comparable mechanical performance of the PU and EP based CFRP laminates. The strength of the bond of the co-cured samples was in the same order as the samples adhesively bonded with the PU resin and the structural adhesive. The assembly adhesive with higher ductility showed a weaker performance compared to the other tests. It could be shown that the surface roughness had the highest impact on the joint performance under the investigated conditions.

  20. Fuel decomposition and boundary-layer combustion processes of hybrid rocket motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaverini, Martin J.; Harting, George C.; Lu, Yeu-Cherng; Kuo, Kenneth K.; Serin, Nadir; Johnson, David K.

    1995-01-01

    Using a high-pressure, two-dimensional hybrid motor, an experimental investigation was conducted on fundamental processes involved in hybrid rocket combustion. HTPB (Hydroxyl-terminated Polybutadiene) fuel cross-linked with diisocyanate was burned with GOX under various operating conditions. Large-amplitude pressure oscillations were encountered in earlier test runs. After identifying the source of instability and decoupling the GOX feed-line system and combustion chamber, the pressure oscillations were drastically reduced from +/-20% of the localized mean pressure to an acceptable range of +/-1.5% Embedded fine-wire thermocouples indicated that the surface temperature of the burning fuel was around 1000 K depending upon axial locations and operating conditions. Also, except near the leading-edge region, the subsurface thermal wave profiles in the upstream locations are thicker than those in the downstream locations since the solid-fuel regression rate, in general, increases with distance along the fuel slab. The recovered solid fuel slabs in the laminar portion of the boundary layer exhibited smooth surfaces, indicating the existence of a liquid melt layer on the burning fuel surface in the upstream region. After the transition section, which displayed distinct transverse striations, the surface roughness pattern became quite random and very pronounced in the downstream turbulent boundary-layer region. Both real-time X-ray radiography and ultrasonic pulse-echo techniques were used to determine the instantaneous web thickness burned and instantaneous solid-fuel regression rates over certain portions of the fuel slabs. Globally averaged and axially dependent but time-averaged regression rates were also obtained and presented.

  1. A hybrid approach for treating fluorided water and biogeophysical monitoring of treatment processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K. P.

    2016-12-01

    A laboratory experiment has been conducted for investigating the possibility of development of novel techniques for treating fluoride contamination and monitoring of physico-chemical alterations caused by biogeochemical processes in the media. In the present study, high adsorption capacity and ion-exchange property of natural zeolites have been utilized in treating fluoride contamination. The preset goals are achieved by designing and constructing experimental setup consisting of three columns, first one is filled with 450 ppm fluorided water prepared by dissolving sodium fluoride in deionized water, the second is filled with zeolite and fluorided water, and the third is filled with zeolite, fluorided water, sodium lactate and the bacterial seed. The first and the second columns were poisoned with sodium azide for preventing the growth of microorganisms. The self-potential (SP) signals associated with physico-chemical alterations in natural zeolite induced by biogeochemical processes are measured by using Cu-CuSO4 gel electrodes. Liquid-phase analysis of samples from column two and three show the reduced concentrations of fluoride and aluminum and it indicates the possibility of precipitation of insoluble aluminum fluoride. This is further confirmed by the presence of fluoride and aluminum in the solid samples as detected by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The distinct SP of the order of -50 mV and 200 mV have been associated with biostimulated fluoride remediation and geochemical fluoride remediation processes respectively. Thus, there is a possibility of non-invasive monitoring of fluoride remediation processes driven by both microbes and chemical processes. It is found that after thirty-day nitrate and sulfate is introduced in column two due chemical interaction between water and natural zeolite. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that a hybrid approach, a combination of ion exchange and adsorption properties of natural zeolite and the bioremediation is more

  2. Structure-Property-Processing Correlations in Freeze-Cast Hybrid Scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Philipp Malte

    Porous materials are highly sought after for applications ranging from catalyst carriers to tissue scaffolds. Most applications require clearly defined structural features and a specific mechanical performance. Therefore, it is essential to establish systematic structure-property-processing correlations to be able to tailor both structure and mechanical properties for a particular application. Because the introduction of porosity is detrimental to the mechanical performance of highly porous structures, it is necessary to generate a structure that allows for the mechanical properties to be maximized. One example for such a structure are honeycombs. In addition to the porosity and pore morphology, the scaffold's performance depends on the properties inherent to the material from which it is made. Polymeric foams possess high toughness but low stiffness, whereas ceramic foams possess high stiffness but low toughness. Natural composites like bone, antler and nacre have both high stiffness and high toughness. This unusual set of mechanical properties is thought to be intricately linked to the multi-level hierarchical composite structure present in these materials. Great potential for the fabrication of stiff, strong and tough porous scaffolds is thus seen in nacre-like composite materials with a hierarchical, honeycomb-like structure. Freeze casting is a method with which such hybrid materials can be made, adding the third dimension to nacre by forming a highly porous, hierarchical bulk material, with dense, nacre-like cell walls. The nacre-like cell walls self-assemble during the directional freezing of a water-based ceramic-polymer slurry. Reported here are structure-property-processing correlations observed in these materials. They are unusual, because they are, like nacre, solely glued by a polymeric phase and not processed further by sintering. The results illustrate several pathways to control both structure and mechanical properties in freeze-cast composites and

  3. Multifunctional ZnO/Nylon 6 nanofiber mats by an electrospinning– electrospraying hybrid process for use in protective applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZnO/Nylon 6 nanofiber mats were prepared by an electrospinning–electrospraying hybrid process in which ZnO nanoparticles were dispersed on the surface of Nylon 6 nanofibers without becoming completely embedded. The prepared ZnO/Nylon 6 nanofiber mats were evaluated for their abilities to kill bacter...

  4. Fertilization effects on forest carbon storage and exchange, and net primary production: A new hybrid process model for stand management

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. A. Sampson; R. H. Waring; C. A. Maier; C. M. Gough; M. J. Ducey; K. H. Johnsen

    2006-01-01

    A critical ecological question in plantation management is whether fertilization, which generally increases yield, results in enhanced C sequestration over short rotations. We present a rotation-length hybrid process model (SECRETS-3PG) that was calibrated (using control treatments; CW) and verified (using fertilized treatments; FW) using daily estimates of H

  5. A Hybrid MPC-PID Control System Design for the Continuous Purification and Processing of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitraye Sen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a hybrid MPC (model predictive control-PID (proportional-integral-derivative control system has been designed for the continuous purification and processing framework of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs. The specific unit operations associated with the purification and processing of API have been developed from first-principles and connected in a continuous framework in the form of a flowsheet model. These integrated unit operations are highly interactive along with the presence of process delays. Therefore, a hybrid MPC-PID is a promising alternative to achieve the desired control loop performance as mandated by the regulatory authorities. The integrated flowsheet model has been simulated in gPROMSTM (Process System Enterprise, London, UK. This flowsheet model has been linearized in order to design the control scheme. The ability to track the set point and reject disturbances has been evaluated. A comparative study between the performance of the hybrid MPC-PID and a PID-only control scheme has been presented. The results show that an enhanced control loop performance can be obtained under the hybrid control scheme and demonstrate that such a scheme has high potential in improving the efficiency of pharmaceutical manufacturing operations.

  6. Effects of no feeding, maintenance feeding, and refeeding on production and processing characteristics of market-size hybrid catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pond study was initiated to evaluate effects of no feeding, maintenance feeding, and refeeding on production and processing characteristics of market-size hybrid catfish (female Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus × male Blue Catfish I. furcatus). Fish with an average weight of 644 g were stocked ...

  7. Unsymmetrical triphenylamine-oligothiophene hybrid conjugated systems as donor materials for high-voltage solution-processed organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripaud, Emilie; Rousseau, Theodulf; Leriche, Philippe; Roncali, Jean [Group Linear Conjugated Systems, CNRS Moltech-Anjou, University of Angers, 2Bd Lavoisier, 49045 Angers (France)

    2011-07-15

    The synthesis of unsymmetrical triphenylamine-oligothiophene hybrid conjugated systems bearing dicyanovinyl electron acceptor end-groups is presented. When used as molecular donor materials in solution-processed bulk heteroj-unction solar cells, these compounds lead to efficient devices with very high open-circuit voltages. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Membrane/distillation hybrid process research and development. Final report, phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazanec, T.J.

    1997-07-01

    This report covers work conducted under the grant awarded to BP by DOE in late 1991 entitled {open_quotes}Membrane/Distillation Hybrid Process Research and Development.{close_quotes} The program was directed towards development and commercialization of the BP process for separation of vapor phase olefins from non-olefins via facilitated transport using an aqueous facilitator. The program has come to a very successful conclusion, with formation of a partnership between BP and Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation (SWEC) to market and commercialize the technology. The focus of this report is the final portion of the program, during which engineering re-design, facilitator optimization, economic analysis, and marketing have been the primary activities. At the end of Phase II BP was looking to partner with an engineering firm to advance the selective olefin recovery (SOR) technology from the lab/demo stage to full commercialization. In August 1995 BP and SWEC reached an agreement to advance the technology by completing additional Phase III work with DOE and beginning marketing activities.

  9. A general strategy for nanohybrids synthesis via coupled competitive reactions controlled in a hybrid process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rongming; Yang, Wantai; Song, Yuanjun; Shen, Xiaomiao; Wang, Junmei; Zhong, Xiaodi; Li, Shuai; Song, Yujun

    2015-01-01

    A new methodology based on core alloying and shell gradient-doping are developed for the synthesis of nanohybrids, realized by coupled competitive reactions, or sequenced reducing-nucleation and co-precipitation reaction of mixed metal salts in a microfluidic and batch-cooling process. The latent time of nucleation and the growth of nanohybrids can be well controlled due to the formation of controllable intermediates in the coupled competitive reactions. Thus, spatiotemporal-resolved synthesis can be realized by the hybrid process, which enables us to investigate nanohybrid formation at each stage through their solution color changes and TEM images. By adjusting the bi-channel solvents and kinetic parameters of each stage, the primary components of alloyed cores and the second components of transition metal doping ZnO or Al2O3 as surface coatings can be successively formed. The core alloying and shell gradient-doping strategy can efficiently eliminate the crystal lattice mismatch in different components. Consequently, varieties of gradient core-shell nanohybrids can be synthesized using CoM, FeM, AuM, AgM (M = Zn or Al) alloys as cores and transition metal gradient-doping ZnO or Al2O3 as shells, endowing these nanohybrids with unique magnetic and optical properties (e.g., high temperature ferromagnetic property and enhanced blue emission).

  10. A Tire-Sulfur Hybrid Adsorption Denitrification (T-SHAD) process for decentralized wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krayzelova, Lucie; Lynn, Thomas J; Banihani, Qais; Bartacek, Jan; Jenicek, Pavel; Ergas, Sarina J

    2014-09-15

    Nitrogen discharges from decentralized wastewater treatment (DWT) systems contribute to surface and groundwater contamination. However, the high variability in loading rates, long idle periods and lack of regular maintenance presents a challenge for biological nitrogen removal in DWT. A Tire-Sulfur Hybrid Adsorption Denitrification (T-SHAD) process was developed that combines nitrate (NO3(-)) adsorption to scrap tire chips with sulfur-oxidizing denitrification. This allows the tire chips to adsorb NO3(-) when the influent loading exceeds the denitrification capacity of the biofilm and release it when NO3(-) loading rates are low (e.g. at night). Three waste products, scrap tire chips, elemental sulfur pellets and crushed oyster shells, were used as a medium in adsorption, leaching, microcosm and up-flow packed bed bioreactor studies of NO3(-) removal from synthetic nitrified DWT wastewater. Adsorption isotherms showed that scrap tire chips have an adsorption capacity of 0.66 g NO3(-)-N kg(-1) of scrap tires. Leaching and microcosm studies showed that scrap tires leach bioavailable organic carbon that can support mixotrophic metabolism, resulting in lower effluent SO4(2-) concentrations than sulfur oxidizing denitrification alone. In column studies, the T-SHAD process achieved high NO3(-)-N removal efficiencies under steady state (90%), variable flow (89%) and variable concentration (94%) conditions.

  11. Optical Image Classification Using Optical/digital Hybrid Image Processing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyang

    1990-01-01

    Offering parallel and real-time operations, optical image classification is becoming a general technique in the solution of real-life image classification problems. This thesis investigates several algorithms for optical realization. Compared to other statistical pattern recognition algorithms, the Kittler-Young transform can provide more discriminative feature spaces for image classification. We shall apply the Kittler-Young transform to image classification and implement it on optical systems. A feature selection criterion is designed for the application of the Kittler -Young transform to image classification. The realizations of the Kittler-Young transform on both a joint transform correlator and a matrix multiplier are successively conducted. Experiments of applying this technique to two-category and three-category problems are demonstrated. To combine the advantages of the statistical pattern recognition algorithms and the neural network models, processes using the two methods are studied. The Karhunen-Loeve Hopfield model is developed for image classification. This model has significant improvement in the system capacity and the capability of using image structures for more discriminative classification processes. As another such hybrid process, we propose the feature extraction perceptron. The application of feature extraction techniques to the perceptron shortens its learning time. An improved activation function of neurons (dynamic activation function), its design and updating rule for fast learning process and high space-bandwidth product image classification are also proposed. We have shortened by two-thirds the learning time on the feature extraction perceptron as compared with the original perceptron. By using this architecture, we have shown that the classification performs better than both the Kittler-Young transform and the original perceptron.

  12. A hybrid analytical network process and fuzzy goal programming for supplier selection: A case study of auto part maker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesam Zande Hesami

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to present a hybrid model to select auto part suppliers. The proposed method of this paper uses factor analysis to find the most influencing factors on part maker selection and the results are validated using different statistical tests such as Cronbach's Alpha and Kaiser-Meyer.The hybrid model uses analytical network process to rank different part maker suppliers and fuzzy goal programming to choose the appropriate alternative among various choices. The implementation of the proposed model of this paper is used for a case study of real-world problem and the results are discussed.

  13. Synthesis of biocompatible hydrophobic silica-gelatin nano-hybrid by sol-gel process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitha, S; Shajesh, P; Mukundan, P; Nair, T D R; Warrier, K G K

    2007-03-15

    Silica-biopolymer hybrid has been synthesised using colloidal silica as the precursor for silica and gelatin as the biopolymer counterpart. The surface modification of the hybrid material has been done with methyltrimethoxysilane leading to the formation of biocompatible hydrophobic silica-gelatin hybrid. Here we are reporting hydrophobic silica-gelatin hybrid and coating precursor for the first time. The hybrid gel has been evaluated for chemical modification, thermal degradation, hydrophobicity, particle size, transparency under the UV-visible region and morphology. FTIR spectroscopy has been used to verify the presence of CH(3) groups which introduce hydrophobicity to the SiO2-MTMS-gelatin hybrids. The hydrophobic property has also been tailored by varying the concentration of methyltrimethoxysilane. Contact angle by Wilhelmy plate method of transparent hydrophobic silica-gelatin coatings has been found to be as high as approximately 95 degrees . Oxidation of the organic group which induces the hydrophobic character occurs at 530 degrees C which indicates that the surface hydrophobicity is retained up to that temperature. Optical transmittance of SiO2-MTMS-gelatin hybrid coatings on glass substrates has been found to be close to 100% which will enable the hybrid for possible optical applications and also for preparation of transparent biocompatible hydrophobic coatings on biological substrates such as leather.

  14. Hybrid Pressure Retarded Osmosis−Membrane Distillation (PRO−MD) Process for Osmotic Power and Clean Water Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Gang

    2015-05-20

    A novel pressure retarded osmosis−membrane distillation (PRO−MD) hybrid process has been experimentally conceived for sustainable production of renewable osmotic power and clean water from various waters. The proposed PRO−MD system may possess unique advantages of high water recovery rate, huge osmotic power generation, well controlled membrane fouling, and minimal environmental impacts. Experimental results show that the PRO−MD hybrid process is promising that not only can harvest osmotic energy from freshwater but also from wastewater. When employing a 2 M NaCl MD concentrate as the draw solution, ultrahigh power densities of 31.0 W/m2 and 9.3 W/m2 have been demonstrated by the PRO subsystem using deionized water and real wastewater brine as the feeds, respectively. Simultaneously, high purity potable water with a flux of 32.5−63.1 L/(m2.h) can be produced by the MD subsystem at 40−60 °C without any detrimental effects of fouling. The energy consumption in the MD subsystem might be further reduced by applying a heat exchanger in the hybrid system and using low-grade heat or solar energy to heat up the feed solution. The newly developed PRO−MD hybrid process would provide insightful guidelines for the exploration of alternative green technologies for renewable osmotic energy and clean water production.

  15. Acclimatization process of tofu wastewater on hybrid upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor using polyvinyl chloride rings as a growth medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanqoritha, Nyimas; Turmuzi, Muhammad; Derlini

    2017-05-01

    The appropriate process to resolve sewage contamination which have a high organic using anaerobic technology. Hybrid Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactor is one of the anaerobic process which consists of a suspended growth media and attached growth media. The reactor has the ability to work at high load rate, sludge produced easily settles, high biomass and the separation of gas, solid and liquid excelent. The purpose of research is to study the acclimatization process in the reactor of Hybrid Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket using a polyvinl chloride ring as the attached growth medium. Reactor of Hybrid Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket use a working volume of 8.6 L. The operation consisting of 3 L suspended reactor and 5.6 L attached reactor. Acclimatization is conducted by providing the substrate from the smallest concentration of COD up to a concentration that will be processed. During the 50th day, acclimatization process assumed the bacteria begin to work, indicated by the dissolved COD and VSS decrease and biogas production. Due to the wastewater containing the high of protein in consequence operational parameters should be controlled and some precautions should be taken to prevent process partially or totally inhibited.

  16. Use of adaptive hybrid filtering process in Crohn's disease lesion detection from real capsule endoscopy videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charisis, Vasileios S; Hadjileontiadis, Leontios J

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this Letter is to present a new capsule endoscopy (CE) image analysis scheme for the detection of small bowel ulcers that relate to Crohn's disease. More specifically, this scheme is based on: (i) a hybrid adaptive filtering (HAF) process, that utilises genetic algorithms to the curvelet-based representation of images for efficient extraction of the lesion-related morphological characteristics, (ii) differential lacunarity (DL) analysis for texture feature extraction from the HAF-filtered images and (iii) support vector machines for robust classification performance. For the training of the proposed scheme, namely HAF-DL, an 800-image database was used and the evaluation was based on ten 30-second long endoscopic videos. Experimental results, along with comparison with other related efforts, have shown that the HAF-DL approach evidently outperforms the latter in the field of CE image analysis for automated lesion detection, providing higher classification results. The promising performance of HAF-DL paves the way for a complete computer-aided diagnosis system that could support the physicians' clinical practice.

  17. Solution-processible organic-inorganic hybrid bipolar field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Gil Jo; Kim, Kang Dae; Cho, Shinuk; Walker, Bright; Seo, Jung Hwa

    2016-04-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid bipolar field-effect transistors (HBFETs) comprising a layer of p-type organic poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) separated from a parallel layer of n-type inorganic zinc oxide (ZnO) were demonstrated by solution processing. In order to achieve balanced hole and electron mobilities, we initially optimized the hole-transporting P3HT channel by the addition of the polar non-solvent acetonitrile (AN) to P3HT solutions in chloroform, which induced a selfassembled nano-fibril morphology and an enhancement of hole mobilities. For the electron channel, a wet-chemically-prepared ZnO layer was optimized by thermal annealing. Unipolar P3HT FET with 5% AN exhibited the highest hole mobility of 7.20 × 10-2 cm2V-1s-1 while the highest electron mobility (3.64 × 10-2 cm2V-1s-1) was observed in unipolar ZnO FETs annealed at 200°C. The organic-inorganic HBFETs consisting of the P3HT layer with 5% AN and ZnO annealed at 200°C exhibited well-balanced hole and electron mobilities of 1.94 × 10-2 cm2V-1s-1 and 1.98 × 10-2 cm2V-1s-1, respectively.

  18. Evaluating water management strategies in watersheds by new hybrid Fuzzy Analytical Network Process (FANP) methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    RazaviToosi, S. L.; Samani, J. M. V.

    2016-03-01

    Watersheds are considered as hydrological units. Their other important aspects such as economic, social and environmental functions play crucial roles in sustainable development. The objective of this work is to develop methodologies to prioritize watersheds by considering different development strategies in environmental, social and economic sectors. This ranking could play a significant role in management to assign the most critical watersheds where by employing water management strategies, best condition changes are expected to be accomplished. Due to complex relations among different criteria, two new hybrid fuzzy ANP (Analytical Network Process) algorithms, fuzzy TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) and fuzzy max-min set methods are used to provide more flexible and accurate decision model. Five watersheds in Iran named Oroomeyeh, Atrak, Sefidrood, Namak and Zayandehrood are considered as alternatives. Based on long term development goals, 38 water management strategies are defined as subcriteria in 10 clusters. The main advantage of the proposed methods is its ability to overcome uncertainty. This task is accomplished by using fuzzy numbers in all steps of the algorithms. To validate the proposed method, the final results were compared with those obtained from the ANP algorithm and the Spearman rank correlation coefficient is applied to find the similarity in the different ranking methods. Finally, the sensitivity analysis was conducted to investigate the influence of cluster weights on the final ranking.

  19. Using Hybrid Decision Tree -Houph Transform Approach For Automatic Bank Check Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba A. Elnemr

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the first steps in the realization of an automatic system of bank check processing is the automatic classification of checks and extraction of handwritten area. This paper presents a new hybrid method which couple together the statistical color histogram features, the entropy, the energy and the Houph transform to achieve the automatic classification of checks as well as the segmentation and recognition of the various information on the check. The proposed method relies on two stages. First, a two-step classification algorithm is implemented. In the first step, a decision classification tree is built using the entropy, the energy, the logo location and histogram features of colored bank checks. These features are used to classify checks into several groups. Each group may contain one or more type of checks. Therefore, in the second step the bank logo or bank name are matched against its stored template to identify the correct prototype. Second, Hough transform is utilized to detect lines in the classified checks. These lines are used as indicator to the bank check fields. A group of experiments is performed showing that the proposed technique is promising as regards classifying the bank checks and extracting the important fields in that check.

  20. Online Model Learning of Buildings Using Stochastic Hybrid Systems Based on Gaussian Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzah Abdel-Aziz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamical models are essential for model-based control methodologies which allow smart buildings to operate autonomously in an energy and cost efficient manner. However, buildings have complex thermal dynamics which are affected externally by the environment and internally by thermal loads such as equipment and occupancy. Moreover, the physical parameters of buildings may change over time as the buildings age or due to changes in the buildings’ configuration or structure. In this paper, we introduce an online model learning methodology to identify a nonparametric dynamical model for buildings when the thermal load is latent (i.e., the thermal load cannot be measured. The proposed model is based on stochastic hybrid systems, where the discrete state describes the level of the thermal load and the continuous dynamics represented by Gaussian processes describe the thermal dynamics of the air temperature. We demonstrate the evaluation of the proposed model using two-zone and five-zone buildings. The data for both experiments are generated using the EnergyPlus software. Experimental results show that the proposed model estimates the thermal load level correctly and predicts the thermal behavior with good performance.

  1. Ammonia removal in the carbon contactor of a hybrid membrane process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoquart, Céline; Servais, Pierre; Barbeau, Benoit

    2014-12-15

    The hybrid membrane process (HMP) coupling powdered activated carbon (PAC) and low-pressure membrane filtration is emerging as a promising new option to remove dissolved contaminants from drinking water. Yet, defining optimal HMP operating conditions has not been confirmed. In this study, ammonia removal occurring in the PAC contactor of an HMP was simulated at lab-scale. Kinetics were monitored using three PAC concentrations (1-5-10 g L(-1)), three PAC ages (0-10-60 days), two temperatures (7-22 °C), in ambient influent condition (100 μg N-NH4 L(-1)) as well as with a simulated peak pollution scenario (1000 μg N-NH4L(-1)). The following conclusions were drawn: i) Using a colonized PAC in the HMP is essential to reach complete ammonia removal, ii) an older PAC offers a higher resilience to temperature decrease as well as lower operating costs; ii) PAC concentration inside the HMP reactor is not a key operating parameter as under the conditions tested, PAC colonization was not limited by the available surface; iii) ammonia flux limited biomass growth and iv) hydraulic retention time was a critical parameter. In the case of a peak pollution, the process was most probably phosphate-limited but a mixed adsorption/nitrification still allowed reaching a 50% ammonia removal. Finally, a kinetic model based on these experiments is proposed to predict ammonia removal occurring in the PAC reactor of the HMP. The model determines the relative importance of the adsorption and biological oxidation of ammonia on colonized PAC, and demonstrates the combined role of nitrification and residual adsorption capacity of colonized PAC.

  2. High process yield rates of thermoplastic nanofluidic devices using a hybrid thermal assembly technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uba, Franklin I; Hu, Bo; Weerakoon-Ratnayake, Kumuditha; Oliver-Calixte, Nyote; Soper, Steven A

    2015-02-21

    Over the past decade, thermoplastics have been used as alternative substrates to glass and Si for microfluidic devices because of the diverse and robust fabrication protocols available for thermoplastics that can generate high production rates of the desired structures at low cost and with high replication fidelity, the extensive array of physiochemical properties they possess, and the simple surface activation strategies that can be employed to tune their surface chemistry appropriate for the intended application. While the advantages of polymer microfluidics are currently being realized, the evolution of thermoplastic-based nanofluidic devices is fraught with challenges. One challenge is assembly of the device, which consists of sealing a cover plate to the patterned fluidic substrate. Typically, channel collapse or substrate dissolution occurs during assembly making the device inoperable resulting in low process yield rates. In this work, we report a low temperature hybrid assembly approach for the generation of functional thermoplastic nanofluidic devices with high process yield rates (>90%) and with a short total assembly time (16 min). The approach involves thermally sealing a high T(g) (glass transition temperature) substrate containing the nanofluidic structures to a cover plate possessing a lower T(g). Nanofluidic devices with critical feature sizes ranging between 25-250 nm were fabricated in a thermoplastic substrate (T(g) = 104 °C) and sealed with a cover plate (T(g) = 75 °C) at a temperature significantly below the T(g) of the substrate. Results obtained from sealing tests revealed that the integrity of the nanochannels remained intact after assembly and devices were useful for fluorescence imaging at high signal-to-noise ratios. The functionality of the assembled devices was demonstrated by studying the stretching and translocation dynamics of dsDNA in the enclosed thermoplastic nanofluidic channels.

  3. The Growth Analysis in the Kernel Filling Process of K-Type Hybrid 901 and Its Parent Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Yue-hua; LIU Ying-zhou; GAO Jun-feng

    2005-01-01

    Using Matlab software, the grain filling process of hybrid wheat 901 and its parents was fitted by Richards equation W = A/(1 +Be-kt in order to study the characteristics of grain filling of the hybrid. The active grain growth period of the hybrid was 6 d longer than that of Shaan 229, and its final grain weight (43.7 g/1000 grains) was higher than that of Shaan229 (36.3 g/1 000 grains). N values of 901 and R205 were both less than 1, and their grain growth was faster in the early filling stage, while slower in the middle-late stage. N value of Shaan 229 was >1, and its growth was slower in the early stage and faster in the middle stage. The period of early stage of 901 was shorter and of middle-late stage was longer. The situation of Shaan 229 was totally reversed. For parents, the father plant R205 was similar to hybrid wheat 901, whereas its mother plant K3314A similar to Shaan 229. It has been found that Richards equation was more suitable for fitting the grain filling process of wheat than Logistic equation.

  4. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  5. Continuity controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  6. SpaceCube v2.0 Space Flight Hybrid Reconfigurable Data Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, Dave

    2014-01-01

    This paper details the design architecture, design methodology, and the advantages of the SpaceCube v2.0 high performance data processing system for space applications. The purpose in building the SpaceCube v2.0 system is to create a superior high performance, reconfigurable, hybrid data processing system that can be used in a multitude of applications including those that require a radiation hardened and reliable solution. The SpaceCube v2.0 system leverages seven years of board design, avionics systems design, and space flight application experiences. This paper shows how SpaceCube v2.0 solves the increasing computing demands of space data processing applications that cannot be attained with a standalone processor approach.The main objective during the design stage is to find a good system balance between power, size, reliability, cost, and data processing capability. These design variables directly impact each other, and it is important to understand how to achieve a suitable balance. This paper will detail how these critical design factors were managed including the construction of an Engineering Model for an experiment on the International Space Station to test out design concepts. We will describe the designs for the processor card, power card, backplane, and a mission unique interface card. The mechanical design for the box will also be detailed since it is critical in meeting the stringent thermal and structural requirements imposed by the processing system. In addition, the mechanical design uses advanced thermal conduction techniques to solve the internal thermal challenges.The SpaceCube v2.0 processing system is based on an extended version of the 3U cPCI standard form factor where each card is 190mm x 100mm in size The typical power draw of the processor card is 8 to 10W and scales with application complexity. The SpaceCube v2.0 data processing card features two Xilinx Virtex-5 QV Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA), eight memory modules, a monitor

  7. Controlling Atomic, Solid-State and Hybrid Systems for Quantum Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullans, Michael John

    Quantum information science involves the use of precise control over quantum systems to explore new technologies. However, as quantum systems are scaled up they require an ever deeper understanding of many-body physics to achieve the required degree of control. Current experiments are entering a regime which requires active control of a mesoscopic number of coupled quantum systems or quantum bits (qubits). This thesis describes several approaches to this goal and shows how mesoscopic quantum systems can be controlled and utilized for quantum information tasks. The first system we consider is the nuclear spin environment of GaAs double quantum dots containing two electrons. We show that the through appropriate control of dynamic nuclear polarization one can prepare the nuclear spin environment in three distinct collective quantum states which are useful for quantum information processing with electron spin qubits. We then investigate a hybrid system in which an optical lattice is formed in the near field scattering off an array of metallic nanoparticles by utilizing the plasmonic resonance of the nanoparticles. We show that such a system would realize new regimes of dense, ultra-cold quantum matter and can be used to create a quantum network of atoms and plasmons. Finally we investigate quantum nonlinear optical systems. We show that the intrinsic nonlinearity for plasmons in graphene can be large enough to make a quantum gate for single photons. We also consider two nonlinear optical systems based on ultracold gases of atoms. In one case, we demonstrate an all-optical single photon switch using cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) and slow light. In the second case, we study few photon physics in strongly interacting Rydberg polariton systems, where we demonstrate the existence of two and three photon bound states and study their properties.

  8. Neural and Hybrid Modeling: An Alternative Route to Efficiently Predict the Behavior of Biotechnological Processes Aimed at Biofuels Obtainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraceno, Alessandra; Calabrò, Vincenza; Iorio, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    The present paper was aimed at showing that advanced modeling techniques, based either on artificial neural networks or on hybrid systems, might efficiently predict the behavior of two biotechnological processes designed for the obtainment of second-generation biofuels from waste biomasses. In particular, the enzymatic transesterification of waste-oil glycerides, the key step for the obtainment of biodiesel, and the anaerobic digestion of agroindustry wastes to produce biogas were modeled. It was proved that the proposed modeling approaches provided very accurate predictions of systems behavior. Both neural network and hybrid modeling definitely represented a valid alternative to traditional theoretical models, especially when comprehensive knowledge of the metabolic pathways, of the true kinetic mechanisms, and of the transport phenomena involved in biotechnological processes was difficult to be achieved. PMID:24516363

  9. Neural and hybrid modeling: an alternative route to efficiently predict the behavior of biotechnological processes aimed at biofuels obtainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcio, Stefano; Saraceno, Alessandra; Calabrò, Vincenza; Iorio, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    The present paper was aimed at showing that advanced modeling techniques, based either on artificial neural networks or on hybrid systems, might efficiently predict the behavior of two biotechnological processes designed for the obtainment of second-generation biofuels from waste biomasses. In particular, the enzymatic transesterification of waste-oil glycerides, the key step for the obtainment of biodiesel, and the anaerobic digestion of agroindustry wastes to produce biogas were modeled. It was proved that the proposed modeling approaches provided very accurate predictions of systems behavior. Both neural network and hybrid modeling definitely represented a valid alternative to traditional theoretical models, especially when comprehensive knowledge of the metabolic pathways, of the true kinetic mechanisms, and of the transport phenomena involved in biotechnological processes was difficult to be achieved.

  10. Solution-processed MoO3:PEDOT:PSS hybrid hole transporting layer for inverted polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiling; Luo, Qun; Wu, Na; Wang, Qiankun; Zhu, Hongfei; Chen, Liwei; Li, Yan-Qing; Luo, Liqiang; Ma, Chang-Qi

    2015-04-08

    Solution-processed organic-inorganic hybrids composing of MoO3 nanoparticles and PEDOT:PSS were developed for use in inverted organic solar cells as hole transporting layer (HTL). The hybrid MoO3:PEDOT:PSS inks were prepared by simply mixing PEDOT:PSS aqueous and MoO3 ethanol suspension together. A core-shell structure was proposed in the MoO3:PEDOT:PSS hybrid ink, where PEDOT chains act as the core and MoO3 nanoparticles connected with PSS chains act as the composite shell. The mixing with PEDOT:PSS suppressed the aggregation of MoO3 nanoparticles, which led to a smoother surface. In addition, since the hydrophilic PSS chains were passivated through preferentially connection with MoO3, the stronger adhesion between MoO3 nanoparticles and the photoactive layer improved the film forming ability of the MoO3:PEDOT:PSS hybrid ink. The MoO3:PEDOT:PSS hybrid HTL can therefore be feasibly deposited onto the hydrophobic photoactive polymer layer without any surface treatment. The use of the MoO3:PEDOT:PSS hybrid HTL resulted in the optimized P3HT:PC61BM- and PTB7:PC61BM-based inverted organic solar cells reaching highest power conversion efficiencies of 3.29% and 5.92%, respectively, which were comparable with that of the control devices using thermally evaporated MoO3 HTL (3.05% and 6.01%, respectively). Furthermore, less HTL thickness dependence of device performance was found for the hybrid HTL-based devices, which makes it more compatible with roll-to-roll printing process. In the end, influence of the blend ratio of MoO3 to PEDOT:PSS on photovoltaic performance and device stability was studied carefully, results indicated that the device performance would decrease with the increase of MoO3 blended ratio, whereas the long-term stability was improved.

  11. FPGA implementation of a hybrid on-line process monitoring in PC based real-time systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Bojan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents one way of FPGA implementation of hybrid (hardware-software based on-line process monitoring in Real-Time systems (RTS. The reasons for RTS monitoring are presented at the beginning. The summary of different RTS monitoring approaches along with its advantages and drawbacks are also exposed. Finally, monitoring module is described in details. Also, FPGA implementation results and some useful monitoring system applications are mentioned.

  12. Fundamental phenomena on fuel decomposition and boundary-layer combustion processes with applications to hybrid rocket motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Kenneth K.; Lu, Yeu-Cherng; Chiaverini, Martin J.; Harting, George C.; Johnson, David K.; Serin, Nadir

    1995-01-01

    The experimental study on the fundamental processes involved in fuel decomposition and boundary-layer combustion in hybrid rocket motors is continuously being conducted at the High Pressure Combustion Laboratory of The Pennsylvania State University. This research will provide a useful engineering technology base in the development of hybrid rocket motors as well as a fundamental understanding of the complex processes involved in hybrid propulsion. A high-pressure, 2-D slab motor has been designed, manufactured, and utilized for conducting seven test firings using HTPB fuel processed at PSU. A total of 20 fuel slabs have been received from the Mcdonnell Douglas Aerospace Corporation. Ten of these fuel slabs contain an array of fine-wire thermocouples for measuring solid fuel surface and subsurface temperatures. Diagnostic instrumentation used in the test include high-frequency pressure transducers for measuring static and dynamic motor pressures and fine-wire thermocouples for measuring solid fuel surface and subsurface temperatures. The ultrasonic pulse-echo technique as well as a real-time x-ray radiography system have been used to obtain independent measurements of instantaneous solid fuel regression rates.

  13. Material efficient production of complex (hybrid) components using semi solid forming processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedmüller, Kim Rouven; Liewald, Mathias

    2016-10-01

    By means of lightweight design and lightweight material structures, weight of single components and of resulting component assemblies should be reduced and, additionally, existing functionalities, reliabilities and material properties should be preserved. Therefore, on the one hand novel materials and hybrid material combinations are investigated and on the other hand weight reduction is realized by material efficient component designs. With regard to the manufacturing of such complex component geometries with high dimensional accuracy and relating to the realization of hybrid material concepts, semi solid forming technology offers promising prospects. This paper deals with two research projects recently conducted at the Institute for Metal Forming Technology (IFU, University of Stuttgart) in the field of this forming technology. First project is concerned with the manufacturing of hybrid components with integrated sensor and/or actuator functions and second project is in the field of material efficient manufacturing.

  14. Inkjet-printed zinc-tin-oxide TFTs with a solution-processed hybrid dielectric layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hye-Ryun; Kwack, Young-Jin; Choi, Woon-Seop

    2014-11-01

    Sol-gel TiO2 was synthesized and used as a gate dielectric for oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs). A hybrid gate insulator composed of sol-gel TiO2/thermally-grown SiO2 was applied to the inkjet-printed zinc-tin oxide (ZTO) TFTs for the first time. The electrical properties of an inkjet-printed ZTO TFT with a hybrid gate insulator show a mobility of 0.17 cm2/Vs, an on-to-off current ratio of 5 × 104, a subthreshold slope of 0.8 V/dec, and a threshold voltage of 0.6 V. The hybrid gate insulator for the inkjet-printed ZTO TFT shows a much improved operating voltage and subthreshold slope and a lower mobility compared to the SiO2 gate insulator.

  15. Hybrid modeling as a QbD/PAT tool in process development: an industrial E. coli case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Stosch, Moritz; Hamelink, Jan-Martijn; Oliveira, Rui

    2016-05-01

    Process understanding is emphasized in the process analytical technology initiative and the quality by design paradigm to be essential for manufacturing of biopharmaceutical products with consistent high quality. A typical approach to developing a process understanding is applying a combination of design of experiments with statistical data analysis. Hybrid semi-parametric modeling is investigated as an alternative method to pure statistical data analysis. The hybrid model framework provides flexibility to select model complexity based on available data and knowledge. Here, a parametric dynamic bioreactor model is integrated with a nonparametric artificial neural network that describes biomass and product formation rates as function of varied fed-batch fermentation conditions for high cell density heterologous protein production with E. coli. Our model can accurately describe biomass growth and product formation across variations in induction temperature, pH and feed rates. The model indicates that while product expression rate is a function of early induction phase conditions, it is negatively impacted as productivity increases. This could correspond with physiological changes due to cytoplasmic product accumulation. Due to the dynamic nature of the model, rational process timing decisions can be made and the impact of temporal variations in process parameters on product formation and process performance can be assessed, which is central for process understanding.

  16. Electrical property studies on chemically processed polypyrolle/aluminum doped ZnO based hybrid heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan Kumar, G.; Ilanchezhiyan, P.; Madhan Kumar, A.; Yuldashev, Sh. U.; Kang, T. W.

    2016-04-01

    A hybrid structure based on p-type polypyrolle (PPy) and n-type aluminum (Al) doped ZnO nanorods was successfully constructed. The effect of Al doping on material properties of wurtzite structured ZnO were studied using several analytical techniques. To establish the desired hybrid structure, pyrrole monomers were polymerized on hydrothermally grown Al doped ZnO nanorods by chemical polymerization. The current⿿voltage characteristics on the fabricated PPy/Al doped ZnO heterostructures were found to exhibit excellent rectifying characteristics under dark and illumination conditions. The obtained results augment the prescribed architecture to be highly suitable for high-sensitivity optoelectronic applications.

  17. Digital signal processing system design LabVIEW-bases hybrid programming

    CERN Document Server

    Kehtarnavaz, Nasser; Peng, Qingzhong

    2008-01-01

    Reflecting LabView's new MathScripting feature, the new edition of this book combines textual and graphical programming to form a hybrid programming approach, enabling a more effective means of building and analyzing DSP systems. The hybrid programming approach allows the use of previously developed textual programming solutions to be integrated into LabVIEW's highly interactive and visual environment, providing an easier and quicker method for building DSP systems.Features * The only DSP laboratory book that combines both textual and graphical programming * 12 lab experime

  18. In situ biosynthesis of bacterial nanocellulose-CaCO{sub 3} hybrid bionanocomposite: One-step process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadkazemi, Faranak, E-mail: f_mkazemi@sbu.ac.ir [Department of Cellulose and Paper Technology, Faculty of New Technologies Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Science and Research Campus, Zirab, Savadkooh, Mazandaran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faria, Marisa; Cordeiro, Nereida [Faculty of Exact Science and Engineering, University of Madeira, Funchal (Portugal)

    2016-08-01

    In this work, a simple and green route to the synthesis of the bacterial nanocellulose-calcium carbonate (BNC/CaCO{sub 3}) hybrid bionanocomposites using one-step in situ biosynthesis was studied. The CaCO{sub 3} was incorporated in the bacterial nanocellulose structure during the cellulose biosynthesis by Gluconacetobacter xylinus PTCC 1734 bacteria. Hestrin-Schramm (HS) and Zhou (Z) culture media were used to the hybrid bionanocomposites production and the effect of ethanol addition was investigated. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, inverse gas chromatography and thermogravimetric analysis were used to characterize the samples. The experimental results demonstrated that the ethanol and culture medium play an important role in the BNC/CaCO{sub 3} hybrid bionanocomposites production, structure and properties. The BNC/CaCO{sub 3} biosynthesized in Z culture medium revealed higher O/C ratio and amphoteric surface character, which justify the highest CaCO{sub 3} content incorporation. The CaCO{sub 3} was incorporated into the cellulosic matrix decreasing the bacterial nanocellulose crystallinity. This work reveals the high potential of in situ biosynthesis of BNC/CaCO{sub 3} hybrid bionanocomposites and opens a new way to the high value-added applications of bacterial nanocellulose. - Graphical Abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • BNC/CaCO{sub 3} hybrid bionanocomposites were produced using in situ biosynthesis process. • Ethanol and culture medium play an important role in the production and properties. • Z-BNC/CaCO{sub 3} bionanocomposites revealed higher O/C ratio and amphoteric surface character. • CaCO{sub 3} incorporated into the BNC decreased crystallinity.

  19. Experimental comparison of the MIG, friction stir welding, cold metal transfer and hybrid laser-MIG processes for AA 6005-T6 aluminium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Serafino; Sgambitterra, Emanuele; Rinaldi, Sergio; Gallone, Antonello; Viscido, Lucio; Filice, Luigino; Umbrello, Domenico

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the mechanical properties of welded joints of AA 6005-T6 aluminum alloy obtained with hybrid laser-MIG and cold metal transfer (CMT) welding were analyzed. The performance of hybrid laser-MIG and CMT welded joints were identified using tensile, bending, shear and fatigue life tests. Taking into account the process conditions and requirements, hybrid laser-MIG and CMT welding processes were compared with friction stir welding (FSW) and conventional metal inert gas (MIG) welding processes, shown in a previous work, to understand the advantages and disadvantages of the processes for welding applications of studied Al alloy. Better tensile, bending and shear strength and fatigue life behavior were obtained with hybrid laser-MIG and FSW welded joints compared with conventional MIG processes.

  20. A Hybrid ICA-SVM Approach for Determining the Quality Variables at Fault in a Multivariate Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehjen E. Shao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of a multivariate process with the use of multivariate statistical process control (MSPC charts has received considerable attention. However, in practice, the use of MSPC chart typically encounters a difficulty. This difficult involves which quality variable or which set of the quality variables is responsible for the generation of the signal. This study proposes a hybrid scheme which is composed of independent component analysis (ICA and support vector machine (SVM to determine the fault quality variables when a step-change disturbance existed in a multivariate process. The proposed hybrid ICA-SVM scheme initially applies ICA to the Hotelling T2 MSPC chart to generate independent components (ICs. The hidden information of the fault quality variables can be identified in these ICs. The ICs are then served as the input variables of the classifier SVM for performing the classification process. The performance of various process designs is investigated and compared with the typical classification method. Using the proposed approach, the fault quality variables for a multivariate process can be accurately and reliably determined.

  1. iMAGE cloud: medical image processing as a service for regional healthcare in a hybrid cloud environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Chen, Weiping; Nie, Min; Zhang, Fengjuan; Wang, Yu; He, Ailing; Wang, Xiaonan; Yan, Gen

    2016-11-01

    To handle the emergence of the regional healthcare ecosystem, physicians and surgeons in various departments and healthcare institutions must process medical images securely, conveniently, and efficiently, and must integrate them with electronic medical records (EMRs). In this manuscript, we propose a software as a service (SaaS) cloud called the iMAGE cloud. A three-layer hybrid cloud was created to provide medical image processing services in the smart city of Wuxi, China, in April 2015. In the first step, medical images and EMR data were received and integrated via the hybrid regional healthcare network. Then, traditional and advanced image processing functions were proposed and computed in a unified manner in the high-performance cloud units. Finally, the image processing results were delivered to regional users using the virtual desktop infrastructure (VDI) technology. Security infrastructure was also taken into consideration. Integrated information query and many advanced medical image processing functions-such as coronary extraction, pulmonary reconstruction, vascular extraction, intelligent detection of pulmonary nodules, image fusion, and 3D printing-were available to local physicians and surgeons in various departments and healthcare institutions. Implementation results indicate that the iMAGE cloud can provide convenient, efficient, compatible, and secure medical image processing services in regional healthcare networks. The iMAGE cloud has been proven to be valuable in applications in the regional healthcare system, and it could have a promising future in the healthcare system worldwide.

  2. Hybrid Statistical Testing for Nuclear Material Accounting Data and/or Process Monitoring Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ticknor, Lawrence O. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hamada, Michael Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sprinkle, James K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Burr, Thomas Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-04-14

    The two tests employed in the hybrid testing scheme are Page’s cumulative sums for all streams within a Balance Period (maximum of the maximums and average of the maximums) and Crosier’s multivariate cumulative sum applied to incremental cumulative sums across Balance Periods. The role of residuals for both kinds of data is discussed.

  3. Formation of catalytically active gold-polymer microgel hybrids via a controlled in situ reductive process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agrawal, Garima; Schuerings, Marco Philipp; van Rijn, Patrick; Pich, Andrij

    2013-01-01

    A newly developed N-vinylcaprolactam/acetoacetoxyethyl methacrylate/acrylic acid based microgel displays in situ reductive reactivity towards HAuCl4, forming hybrid polymer-gold nanostructures at ambient temperature without additional reducing agents. The colloidal gold nanostructure is selectively

  4. One-step Solution Processing of Ag, Au and Pd@MXene Hybrids for SERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satheeshkumar, Elumalai; Makaryan, Taron; Melikyan, Armen; Minassian, Hayk; Gogotsi, Yury; Yoshimura, Masahiro

    2016-08-01

    We report on one-step hybridization of silver, gold and palladium nanoparticles from solution onto exfoliated two-dimensional (2D) Ti3C2 titanium carbide (MXene) nanosheets. The produced hybrid materials can be used as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). An approximate analytical approach is also developed for the calculation of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) frequency of nanoparticles immersed in a medium, near the interface of two dielectric media with different dielectric constants. We obtained a good match with the experimental data for SPR wavelengths, 440 nm and 558 nm, respectively for silver and gold nanoparticles. In the case of palladium, our calculated SPR wavelength for the planar geometry was 160 nm, demonstrating that non-spherical palladium nanoparticles coupled with 2D MXene yield a broad, significanlty red-shifted SPR band with a peak at 230 nm. We propose a possible mechanism of the plasmonic hybridization of nanoparticles with MXene. The as-prepared noble metal nanoparticles on MXene show a highly sensitive SERS detection of methylene blue (MB) with calculated enhancement factors on the order of 105. These findings open a pathway for extending visible-range SERS applications of novel 2D hybrid materials in sensors, catalysis, and biomedical applications.

  5. Solution processeable organic-inorganic hybrids based on pyrene functionalized mixed cubic silsesquioxanes as emitters in OLEDs

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xiaohui

    2012-01-01

    Traditional materials for application in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are primarily based on small molecules and polymers, with much fewer examples of intermediate molecular weight materials. Our interest lies in this intermediate molecular weight range, specifically in hybrids based on 3-dimensional silsesquioxane (SSQ) cores that represents a new class of versatile materials for application in solution processable OLEDs. We report here various SSQ based hybrids that are easily prepared in one high-yield step from the Heck coupling of commercially available 1-bromopyrene, and 1-bromo-4-heptylbenzene with octavinyl-T8-SSQ, and a mixture of octavinyl-T8-, decavinyl-T10- and dodecavinyl-T12-SSQ. The resulting materials offer numerous advantages for OLEDs including amorphous properties, high-glass-transition temperatures (T g), low polydispersity, solubility in common solvents, and high purity via column chromatography. Solution processed OLEDs prepared from the SSQ hybrids provide sky-blue emission with external quantum efficiencies and current efficiencies of 3.64% and 9.56 cd A -1 respectively. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  6. Performance comparison of optimal fractional order hybrid fuzzy PID controllers for handling oscillatory fractional order processes with dead time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saptarshi; Pan, Indranil; Das, Shantanu

    2013-07-01

    Fuzzy logic based PID controllers have been studied in this paper, considering several combinations of hybrid controllers by grouping the proportional, integral and derivative actions with fuzzy inferencing in different forms. Fractional order (FO) rate of error signal and FO integral of control signal have been used in the design of a family of decomposed hybrid FO fuzzy PID controllers. The input and output scaling factors (SF) along with the integro-differential operators are tuned with real coded genetic algorithm (GA) to produce optimum closed loop performance by simultaneous consideration of the control loop error index and the control signal. Three different classes of fractional order oscillatory processes with various levels of relative dominance between time constant and time delay have been used to test the comparative merits of the proposed family of hybrid fractional order fuzzy PID controllers. Performance comparison of the different FO fuzzy PID controller structures has been done in terms of optimal set-point tracking, load disturbance rejection and minimal variation of manipulated variable or smaller actuator requirement etc. In addition, multi-objective Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) has been used to study the Pareto optimal trade-offs between the set point tracking and control signal, and the set point tracking and load disturbance performance for each of the controller structure to handle the three different types of processes. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Energy Efficient Microwave Hybrid Processing of Lime for Cement, Steel, and Glass Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fall, Morgana L; Yakovlev, Vadim; Sahi, Catherine; Baranova, Inessa; Bowers, Johnney G; Esquenazi\t, Gibran L

    2012-02-10

    In this study, the microwave materials interactions were studied through dielectric property measurements, process modeling, and lab scale microwave hybrid calcination tests. Characterization and analysis were performed to evaluate material reactions and energy usage. Processing parameters for laboratory scale and larger scale calcining experiments were developed for MAT limestone calcination. Early stage equipment design concepts were developed, with a focus on microwave post heating treatment. The retrofitting of existing rotary calcine equipment in the lime industry was assessed and found to be feasible. Ceralink sought to address some of the major barriers to the uptake of MAT identified as the need for (1) team approach with end users, technology partners, and equipment manufacturers, (2) modeling that incorporates kiln materials and variations to the design of industrial microwave equipment. This project has furthered the commercialization effort of MAT by working closely with an industrial lime manufacturer to educate them regarding MAT, identifying equipment manufacturer to supply microwave equipment, and developing a sophisticated MAT modeling with WPI, the university partner. MAT was shown to enhance calcining through lower energy consumption and faster reaction rates compared to conventional processing. Laboratory testing concluded that a 23% reduction in energy was possible for calcining small batches (5kg). Scale-up testing indicated that the energy savings increased as a function of load size and 36% energy savings was demonstrated (22 kg). A sophisticated model was developed which combines simultaneous microwave and conventional heating. Continued development of this modeling software could be used for larger scale calcining simulations, which would be a beneficial low-cost tool for exploring equipment design prior to actual building. Based on these findings, estimates for production scale MAT calcining benefits were calculated, assuming uptake of

  8. Dynamic modelling of an adsorption storage tank using a hybrid approach combining computational fluid dynamics and process simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, J.P.B.; Esteves, I.A.A.C.; Rostam-Abadi, M.

    2004-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package has been coupled with the dynamic process simulator of an adsorption storage tank for methane fuelled vehicles. The two solvers run as independent processes and handle non-overlapping portions of the computational domain. The codes exchange data on the boundary interface of the two domains to ensure continuity of the solution and of its gradient. A software interface was developed to dynamically suspend and activate each process as necessary, and be responsible for data exchange and process synchronization. This hybrid computational tool has been successfully employed to accurately simulate the discharge of a new tank design and evaluate its performance. The case study presented here shows that CFD and process simulation are highly complementary computational tools, and that there are clear benefits to be gained from a close integration of the two. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Processing, structure and flexural strength of CNT and carbon fibre reinforced, epoxy-matrix hybrid composite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Chandra Shekar; M Sai Priya; P K Subramanian; Anil Kumar; B Anjaneya Prasad; N Eswara Prasad

    2014-05-01

    Advanced materials such as continuous fibre-reinforced polymer matrix composites offer significant enhancements in variety of properties, as compared to their bulk, monolithic counterparts. These properties include primarily the tensile stress, flexural stress and fracture parameters. However, till date, there are hardly any scientific studies reported on carbon fibre (Cf) and carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced hybrid epoxy matrix composites (unidirectional). The present work is an attempt to bring out the flexural strength properties along with a detailed investigation in the synthesis of reinforced hybrid composite. In this present study, the importance of alignment of fibre is comprehensively evaluated and reported. The results obtained are discussed in terms of material characteristics, microstructure and mode of failure under flexural (3-point bend) loading. The study reveals the material exhibiting exceptionally high strength values and declaring itself as a material with high strength to weight ratio when compared to other competing polymer matrix composites (PMCs); as a novel structural material for aeronautical and aerospace applications.

  10. The Study of Microwave and Electric Hybrid Sintering Process of AZO Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-yun Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We simulated the microwave sintering of ZnO by 3D modelling. A large-size Al-doped ZnO (AZO green ceramic compact was prepared by slurry casting. Through studying the microwave and electric hybrid sintering of the green compact, a relative density of up to 98.1% could be obtained by starting microwave heating at 1200°C and increasing the power 20 min later to 4 kW for an AZO ceramic target measuring 120 × 240 × 12 mm. The resistivity of AZO targets sintered with microwave assistance was investigated. The energy consumption of sintering could be greatly reduced by this heating method. Until now, few studies have been reported on the microwave and electric hybrid sintering of large-size AZO ceramic targets. This research can aid in developing sintering technology for large-size high-quality oxide ceramic targets.

  11. Laser-ablated titania nanoparticles for aqueous processed hybrid solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körstgens, V.; Pröller, S.; Buchmann, T.; Moseguí González, D.; Song, L.; Yao, Y.; Wang, W.; Werhahn, J.; Santoro, G.; Roth, S. V.; Iglev, H.; Kienberger, R.; Müller-Buschbaum, P.

    2015-02-01

    Titania nanoparticles are produced by laser ablation in liquid in order to initiate functionalization of titania with the polymer for the active layer. By combining these titania nanoparticles and water-soluble poly[3-(potassium-6-hexanoate)thiophene-2,5-diyl] (P3P6T) hybrid solar cells are realized.Titania nanoparticles are produced by laser ablation in liquid in order to initiate functionalization of titania with the polymer for the active layer. By combining these titania nanoparticles and water-soluble poly[3-(potassium-6-hexanoate)thiophene-2,5-diyl] (P3P6T) hybrid solar cells are realized. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Full scheme of the production of solar cells, additional spectra and details of the measurement techniques. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr06782g

  12. Hybrid ion-exchange membranes for fuel cells and separation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Carretero, F. J.; Compañ, V.; Riande, E.

    This work reports the preparation and characterization of hybrid membranes cast from dispersions of inorganic fillers in sulfonated polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polystyrene solutions. Silica gel, SBA-15 and sepiolite, all of them functionalized with phenylsulfonic acid groups, were used as fillers. For comparative purposes, the performance of composite membranes cast from dispersions of functionalized inorganic fillers in Nafion ® solutions was investigated. Inspection of the texture of the membranes by using SEM techniques shows that the fillers are better dispersed in sulfonated polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polystyrene than in Nafion ®. The value of the water uptake for the membranes prepared from the former polyelectrolyte is in most cases at least three times that measured for hybrid Nafion ® membranes. The conductivity of the membranes was measured at 80 °C by impedance spectroscopy obtaining values of 3.44, 6.90 and 3.54 S m -1 for the hybrid membranes based on the triblock copolymer containing functionalized silica gel, SBA-15 and sepiolite fillers, respectively. These results compare very favourably with those obtained at 80 °C for Nafion ® hybrid membranes containing silica gel, SBA-15 and sepiolite, all of them fuctionalized with phenylsulfonic acid groups, whose conductivities are, 2.84, 6.75 and 3.31 S m -1, respectively. Resistance measurements carried out under controlled humidity conditions show that the conductivity of sulfonated triblock copolymer membranes containing functionalized SBA-15 filler undergoes a rather sharp increase when they are conditioned under an atmosphere of 75%, or larger, relative humidity.

  13. Hybrid OPC modeling with SEM contour technique for 10nm node process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitomi, Keiichiro; Halle, Scott; Miller, Marshal; Graur, Ioana; Saulnier, Nicole; Dunn, Derren; Okai, Nobuhiro; Hotta, Shoji; Yamaguchi, Atsuko; Komuro, Hitoshi; Ishimoto, Toru; Koshihara, Shunsuke; Hojo, Yutaka

    2014-03-01

    Hybrid OPC modeling is investigated using both CDs from 1D and simple 2D structures and contours extracted from complex 2D structures, which are obtained by a Critical Dimension-Scanning Electron Microscope (CD-SEM). Recent studies have addressed some of key issues needed for the implementation of contour extraction, including an edge detection algorithm consistent with conventional CD measurements, contour averaging and contour alignment. Firstly, pattern contours obtained from CD-SEM images were used to complement traditional site driven CD metrology for the calibration of OPC models for both metal and contact layers of 10 nm-node logic device, developed in Albany Nano-Tech. The accuracy of hybrid OPC model was compared with that of conventional OPC model, which was created with only CD data. Accuracy of the model, defined as total error root-mean-square (RMS), was improved by 23% with the use of hybrid OPC modeling for contact layer and 18% for metal layer, respectively. Pattern specific benefit of hybrid modeling was also examined. Resist shrink correction was applied to contours extracted from CD-SEM images in order to improve accuracy of the contours, and shrink corrected contours were used for OPC modeling. The accuracy of OPC model with shrink correction was compared with that without shrink correction, and total error RMS was decreased by 0.2nm (12%) with shrink correction technique. Variation of model accuracy among 8 modeling runs with different model calibration patterns was reduced by applying shrink correction. The shrink correction of contours can improve accuracy and stability of OPC model.

  14. Hybrid ion-exchange membranes for fuel cells and separation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Carretero, F.J.; Compan, V. [Departamento de Termodinamica Aplicada, ETSII, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, 46020 Valencia (Spain); Riande, E. [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros (CSIC), 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-11-08

    This work reports the preparation and characterization of hybrid membranes cast from dispersions of inorganic fillers in sulfonated polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polystyrene solutions. Silica gel, SBA-15 and sepiolite, all of them functionalized with phenylsulfonic acid groups, were used as fillers. For comparative purposes, the performance of composite membranes cast from dispersions of functionalized inorganic fillers in Nafion {sup registered} solutions was investigated. Inspection of the texture of the membranes by using SEM techniques shows that the fillers are better dispersed in sulfonated polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polystyrene than in Nafion {sup registered}. The value of the water uptake for the membranes prepared from the former polyelectrolyte is in most cases at least three times that measured for hybrid Nafion {sup registered} membranes. The conductivity of the membranes was measured at 80 C by impedance spectroscopy obtaining values of 3.44, 6.90 and 3.54 S m{sup -1} for the hybrid membranes based on the triblock copolymer containing functionalized silica gel, SBA-15 and sepiolite fillers, respectively. These results compare very favourably with those obtained at 80 C for Nafion {sup registered} hybrid membranes containing silica gel, SBA-15 and sepiolite, all of them fuctionalized with phenylsulfonic acid groups, whose conductivities are, 2.84, 6.75 and 3.31 S m{sup -1}, respectively. Resistance measurements carried out under controlled humidity conditions show that the conductivity of sulfonated triblock copolymer membranes containing functionalized SBA-15 filler undergoes a rather sharp increase when they are conditioned under an atmosphere of 75%, or larger, relative humidity. (author)

  15. Integrated pyrolucite fluidized bed-membrane hybrid process for improved iron and manganese control in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashtban Kenari, Seyedeh Laleh; Barbeau, Benoit

    2017-04-15

    Newly developed ceramic membrane technologies offer numerous advantages over the conventional polymeric membranes. This work proposes a new configuration, an integrated pyrolucite fluidized bed (PFB)-ceramic MF/UF hybrid process, for improved iron and manganese control in drinking water. A pilot-scale study was undertaken to evaluate the performance of this process with respect to iron and manganese control as well as membrane fouling. In addition, the fouling of commercially available ceramic membranes in conventional preoxidation-MF/UF process was compared with the hybrid process configuration. In this regard, a series of experiments were conducted under different influent water quality and operating conditions. Fouling mechanisms and reversibility were analyzed using blocking law and resistance-in-series models. The results evidenced that the flux rate and the concentration of calcium and humic acids in the feed water have a substantial impact on the filtration behavior of both membranes. The model for constant flux compressible cake formation well described the rise in transmembrane pressure. The compressibility of the filter cake substantially increased in the presence of 2 mg/L humic acids. The presence of calcium ions caused significant aggregation of manganese dioxide and humic acid which severely impacted the extent of membrane fouling. The PFB pretreatment properly alleviated membrane fouling by removing more than 75% and 95% of iron and manganese, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimization of Process Parameters of Hybrid Laser-Arc Welding onto 316L Using Ensemble of Metamodels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi; Jiang, Ping; Shao, Xinyu; Gao, Zhongmei; Cao, Longchao; Yue, Chen; Li, Xiongbin

    2016-08-01

    Hybrid laser-arc welding (LAW) provides an effective way to overcome problems commonly encountered during either laser or arc welding such as brittle phase formation, cracking, and porosity. The process parameters of LAW have significant effects on the bead profile and hence the quality of joint. This paper proposes an optimization methodology by combining non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) and ensemble of metamodels (EMs) to address multi-objective process parameter optimization in LAW onto 316L. Firstly, Taguchi experimental design is adopted to generate the experimental samples. Secondly, the relationships between process parameters ( i.e., laser power ( P), welding current ( A), distance between laser and arc ( D), and welding speed ( V)) and the bead geometries are fitted using EMs. The comparative results show that the EMs can take advantage of the prediction ability of each stand-alone metamodel and thus decrease the risk of adopting inappropriate metamodels. Then, the NSGA-II is used to facilitate design space exploration. Besides, the main effects and contribution rates of process parameters on bead profile are analyzed. Eventually, the verification experiments of the obtained optima are carried out and compared with the un-optimized weld seam for bead geometries, weld appearances, and welding defects. Results illustrate that the proposed hybrid approach exhibits great capability of improving welding quality in LAW.

  17. A forward osmosis-membrane distillation hybrid process for direct sewer mining: system performance and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ming; Nghiem, Long D; Price, William E; Elimelech, Menachem

    2013-01-01

    This study demonstrates the robustness and treatment capacity of a forward osmosis (FO)-membrane distillation (MD) hybrid system for small-scale decentralized sewer mining. A stable water flux was realized using a laboratory-scale FO-MD hybrid system operating continuously with raw sewage as the feed at water recovery up to 80%. The hybrid system also showed an excellent capacity for the removal of trace organic contaminants (TrOCs), with removal rates ranging from 91 to 98%. The results suggest that TrOC transport through the FO membrane is governed by "solute-membrane" interaction, whereas that through the MD membrane is strongly correlated to TrOC volatility. Concentrations of organic matter and TrOCs in the draw solution increased substantially as the water recovery increased. This accumulation of some contaminants in the draw solution is attributed to the difference in their rejection by the FO and MD systems. We demonstrate that granular activated carbon adsorption or ultraviolet oxidation could be used to prevent contaminant accumulation in the draw solution, resulting in near complete rejection (>99.5%) of TrOCs.

  18. Novel solar energy harvesting options based on solution-processable inorganic/organic hybrid materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stingelin, Natalie

    2015-03-01

    The growing demand for energy and increasing concerns for the effect of the excessive abuse of fossil fuels on the environment force the scientific world to search for alternative, clean and safe energy sources. Finding ways to harvest solar energy is thereby one of the most appealing options. Here, we present a novel approach that exploits the versatile properties of recently developed, photoactive organic/inorganic hybrid fluids based on titanium oxide hydrates and polyalcohols for the production of versatile solar fuels. We will show that such systems can absorb light in the UV-near visible wave-length range. The sunlight's energy is then converted into chemical energy in the form of reduced titanium species, which can be re-oxidised by oxygen when required. Therefore, the absorbed energy is stored as long as oxygen is excluded by the hybrid system. We, furthermore, demonstrate that once discharged, the fluid can be activated again by exposing it to sunlight and recycled - a property that is important technologically. The same hybrids can also be exploited to produce structures that permit efficient management of light. We will illustrate the potential of this class of materials based on some of our recent approaches to fabricate light-scattering and light in-coupling structures, and discuss future opportunities they open up.

  19. Investigation of the effectiveness of nutrient release from sludge foam after hybrid pretreatment processes by IR analysis and EDX Quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machnicka, Alicja; Grübel, Klaudiusz

    2016-12-01

    One of the problems in wastewater treatment technologies is the formation of foam/scum. It is thought that filamentous microorganisms are responsible for foam formation and foam elimination/destruction can be carried out by various methods, among which disintegration is included. Hybrid disintegration (chemical decomposition and hydrodynamic cavitation) of foam microorganisms results in the transfer of phosphates, ammonium nitrogen, magnesium and potassium from the foam solids into the liquid phase. Application of both methods as a hybrid pretreatment process caused an increase in the concentration of phosphates of about 650 mg [Formula: see text] L(-1) and ammonium nitrogen of about 30 mg [Formula: see text] L(-1). The concentration of Mg(2+) and K(+) in the solution increased from 6.8 and 26.1 mg Mg(2+) L(-1) to 32.2 and 82.2 mg K(+) L(-1), respectively. The presence of nutrients and metal cations in the solid phase of foam was acknowledged by EDX Quantification. The confirmation of physico-chemical changes and release of cellular matter as a result of cellular lysis (hybrid disintegration) was done by infrared analysis. It was demonstrated that the disintegration of foam permits the removal of a part of nutrients in the form of struvite.

  20. Molecular dynamics simulation of the formation of sp3 hybridized bonds in hydrogenated diamondlike carbon deposition processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Yasuo; Horiguchi, Seishi; Hamaguchi, Satoshi

    2010-04-01

    The formation process of sp3 hybridized carbon networks (i.e., diamondlike structures) in hydrogenated diamondlike carbon (DLC) films has been studied with the use of molecular-dynamics simulations. The processes simulated in this study are injections of hydrocarbon (CH3 and CH) beams into amorphous carbon (a-C) substrates. It has been shown that diamondlike sp3 structures are formed predominantly at a subsurface level when the beam energy is relatively high, as in the "subplantation" process for hydrogen-free DLC deposition. However, for hydrogenated DLC deposition, the presence of abundant hydrogen at subsurface levels, together with thermal spikes caused by energetic ion injections, substantially enhances the formation of carbon-to-carbon sp3 bonds. Therefore, the sp3 bond formation process for hydrogenated DLC films essentially differs from that for hydrogen-free DLC films.

  1. Research on Gear Shifting Process without Disengaging Clutch for a Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle Equipped with AMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Long Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic models of a single-shaft parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV equipped with automated mechanical transmission (AMT were described in different working stages during a gear shifting process without disengaging clutch. Parameters affecting the gear shifting time, components life, and gear shifting jerk in different transient states during a gear shifting process were deeply analyzed. The mathematical models considering the detailed synchronizer working process which can explain the gear shifting failure, long time gear shifting, and frequent synchronizer failure phenomenon in HEV were derived. Dynamic coordinated control strategy of the engine, motor, and actuators in different transient states considering the detailed working stages of synchronizer in a gear shifting process of a HEV is for the first time innovatively proposed according to the state of art references. Bench test and real road test results show that the proposed control strategy can improve the gear shifting quality in all its evaluation indexes significantly.

  2. Hybrid intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Cetorelli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    I introduce the concept of hybrid intermediaries: financial conglomerates that control a multiplicity of entity types active in the "assembly line" process of modern financial intermediation, a system that has become known as shadow banking. The complex bank holding companies of today are the best example of hybrid intermediaries, but I argue that financial firms from the "nonbank" space can just as easily evolve into conglomerates with similar organizational structure, thus acquiring the cap...

  3. Fate of bulk and trace organics during a simulated aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR)-ozone hybrid process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Min K; Drewes, Jörg E; Amy, Gary L

    2013-11-01

    The attenuation of bulk organic matter and trace organic contaminants (TOrCs) was evaluated for various aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR)-ozone (O3) hybrid treatment process combinations using soil-batch reactor and bench-scale ozonation experiments as a proof of concept prior to pilot and/or field studies. In water reclamation and especially potable reuse, refractory bulk organic matter and TOrCs are of potential health concern in recycled waters. In this study, the role of biotransformation of bulk organic matter and TOrCs was investigated considering different simulated treatment combinations, including soil passage (ARR) alone, ARR after ozonation (O3-ARR), and ARR prior to ozonation (ARR-O3). During oxic (aerobic) ARR simulations, soluble microbial-like substances (e.g., higher molecular weight polysaccharides and proteins) were easily removed while (lower molecular weight) humic substances and aromatic organic matter were not efficiently removed. During ARR-ozone treatment simulations, removals of bulk organic matter and TOrCs were rapid and effective compared to ARR alone. A higher reduction of effluent-derived organic matter, including aromatic organic matter and humic substances, was observed in the ARR-O3 hybrid followed by the O3-ARR hybrid. An enhanced attenuation of recalcitrant TOrCs was observed while increasing the ozone dose slightly (O3: DOC=1). TOrC removal efficiency also increased during the post-ozone treatment combination (i.e., ARR-O3). In addition, the carcinogenic wastewater disinfection byproduct N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was eliminated below the method reporting limit (<5 ng L(-1)) both during ARR treatment alone and the ARR-ozone hybrid.

  4. Fate of bulk and trace organics during a simulated aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR)-ozone hybrid process

    KAUST Repository

    Yoon, Min

    2013-11-01

    The attenuation of bulk organic matter and trace organic contaminants (TOrCs) was evaluated for various aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR)-ozone (O3) hybrid treatment process combinations using soil-batch reactor and bench-scale ozonation experiments as a proof of concept prior to pilot and/or field studies. In water reclamation and especially potable reuse, refractory bulk organic matter and TOrCs are of potential health concern in recycled waters. In this study, the role of biotransformation of bulk organic matter and TOrCs was investigated considering different simulated treatment combinations, including soil passage (ARR) alone, ARR after ozonation (O3-ARR), and ARR prior to ozonation (ARR-O3). During oxic (aerobic) ARR simulations, soluble microbial-like substances (e.g., higher molecular weight polysaccharides and proteins) were easily removed while (lower molecular weight) humic substances and aromatic organic matter were not efficiently removed. During ARR-ozone treatment simulations, removals of bulk organic matter and TOrCs were rapid and effective compared to ARR alone. A higher reduction of effluent-derived organic matter, including aromatic organic matter and humic substances, was observed in the ARR-O3 hybrid followed by the O3-ARR hybrid. An enhanced attenuation of recalcitrant TOrCs was observed while increasing the ozone dose slightly (O3: DOC=1). TOrC removal efficiency also increased during the post-ozone treatment combination (i.e., ARR-O3). In addition, the carcinogenic wastewater disinfection byproduct N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was eliminated below the method reporting limit (<5ngL-1) both during ARR treatment alone and the ARR-ozone hybrid. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Enhanced WWTP effluent organic matter removal in hybrid ozonation-coagulation (HOC) process catalyzed by Al-based coagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xin; Jin, Pengkang; Hou, Rui; Yang, Lei; Wang, Xiaochang C

    2017-04-05

    A novel hybrid ozonation-coagulation (HOC) process was developed for application in wastewater reclamation. In this process, ozonation and coagulation occurred simultaneously within a single unit. Compared with the conventional pre-ozonation-coagulation process, the HOC process exhibited much better performance in removing dissolved organic matters. In particular, the maximal organic matters removal efficiency was obtained at the ozone dosage of 1mgO3/mg DOC at each pH value (pH 5, 7 and 9). In order to interpret the mechanism of the HOC process, ozone decomposition was monitored. The results indicated that ozone decomposed much faster in the HOC process. Moreover, by using the reagent of O3-resistant hydroxyl radical (OH) probe compound, para-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis, it was observed that the HOC process generated higher content of OH compared with pre-ozonation process. This indicates that the OH oxidation reaction as the key step can be catalyzed and enhanced by Al-based coagulants and their hydrolyzed products in this developed process. Thus, based on the catalytic effects of Al-based coagulants on ozonation, the HOC process provides a promising alternative to the conventional technology for wastewater reclamation in terms of higher efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of processing routes in a multi-pass continuous hybrid process on mechanical properties, microstructure, and texture evolutions of low-carbon steel wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sun Kwang; Baek, Hyun Moo; Joo, Ho Seon; Im, Yong-Taek

    2015-03-01

    In this work, a multi-pass continuous hybrid (CH) process was experimentally applied with up to five passes with three processing routes, A, Bc, and C, to check the practicality of the processing routes and investigate their effect on the mechanical properties, microstructure, and texture evolutions of low-carbon steel wires. According to the present investigation, the wires processed by the 5th pass CH process with route A showed the highest ultimate tensile strength value (762 MPa) compared to those for routes Bc (718 MPa) and C (720 MPa), respectively. Based on the compression test results, the CH processed wire showed good workability when the aspect ratio was smaller than 2.4 for all the processing routes. According to the microstructure and texture evolutions, the grain sizes of the 5th pass CH processed wires decreased for all the processing routes than that of the initial specimen, and the wires showed mixed texture distribution of shear and drawing texture components. From the present investigation, it was concluded that the processing routes of the CH process could strongly affect the microstructure and texture evolutions, resulting in changes of the mechanical properties and workability of the low-carbon steel wires.

  7. Nanostructured Silica/Gold-Cellulose-Bonded Amino-POSS Hybrid Composite via Sol-Gel Process and Its Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Sivalingam; Kim, Heung Soo; Lee, Young-June; Hong, Gwang-Wook; Kim, Joo-Hyung

    2017-06-01

    It is demonstrated in this paper that silica nanoparticles coated with core/shell gold provide efficient thermal, optical, and morphological properties with respect to the cellulose-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) hybrid system. The one-step synthesis of a silica/gold nanocomposite is achieved with a simultaneous hydrolysis and reduction of gold chloride in the presence of formic acid, and the trimethoxysilane group acts as a silica precursor. The focus here comprises the synthesis of cellulose-POSS and silica/gold hybrid nanocomposites using the following two methods: (1) an in situ sol-gel process and (2) a polyvinyl alcohol/tetrakis (hydroxymethyl)phosphonium chloride process. Accordingly, the silica/gold core/shell nanoparticles are synthesized. The growth and attachment of the gold nanoparticles onto the functionalized surface of the silica at the nanometer scale is achieved via both the sol-gel and the tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride processes. The cellulose-POSS-silica/gold nanocomposites are characterized according to Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, Raman, X-ray diffraction, UV, photoluminescence, SEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, TEM, thermogravimetric, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analyses.

  8. Enhanced WWTP effluent organic matter removal in hybrid ozonation-coagulation (HOC) process catalyzed by Al-based coagulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Xin [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, 710055 (China); Jin, Pengkang, E-mail: pkjin@hotmail.com [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, 710055 (China); Hou, Rui [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, 710055 (China); Yang, Lei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, 3800 (Australia); Wang, Xiaochang C., E-mail: xcwang@xauat.edu.cn [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, 710055 (China)

    2017-04-05

    Highlights: • A novel HOC process was firstly put forward to apply in wastewater reclamation. • Interactions between ozone and Al-based coagulants was found in the HOC process. • Ozonation can be catalyzed and enhanced by Al-based coagulants in the HOC process. • HOC process showed better organics removal than pre-ozonation-coagulation process. - Abstract: A novel hybrid ozonation-coagulation (HOC) process was developed for application in wastewater reclamation. In this process, ozonation and coagulation occurred simultaneously within a single unit. Compared with the conventional pre-ozonation-coagulation process, the HOC process exhibited much better performance in removing dissolved organic matters. In particular, the maximal organic matters removal efficiency was obtained at the ozone dosage of 1 mgO{sub 3}/mg DOC at each pH value (pH 5, 7 and 9). In order to interpret the mechanism of the HOC process, ozone decomposition was monitored. The results indicated that ozone decomposed much faster in the HOC process. Moreover, by using the reagent of O{sub 3}-resistant hydroxyl radical (·OH) probe compound, para-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis, it was observed that the HOC process generated higher content of ·OH compared with pre-ozonation process. This indicates that the ·OH oxidation reaction as the key step can be catalyzed and enhanced by Al-based coagulants and their hydrolyzed products in this developed process. Thus, based on the catalytic effects of Al-based coagulants on ozonation, the HOC process provides a promising alternative to the conventional technology for wastewater reclamation in terms of higher efficiency.

  9. Molecular dynamics simulation of joining process of Ag-Au nanowires and mechanical properties of the hybrid nanojoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Ding

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The nanojoining process of Ag-Au hybrid nanowires at 800K was comprehensively studied by virtue of molecular dynamics (MD simulation. Three kinds of configurations including end-to-end, T-like and X-like were built in the simulation aiming to understand the nanojoining mechanism. The detailed dynamic evolution of atoms, crystal structure transformation and defects development during the nanojoining processes were performed. The results indicate that there are two stages in the nanojoining process of Ag-Au nanowires which are atom diffusion and new bonds formation. Temperature is a key parameter affecting both stages ascribed to the energy supply and the optimum temperature for Ag-Au nanojoint with diameter of 4.08 nm has been discussed. The mechanical properties of the nanojoint were examined with simulation of tensile test on the end-to-end joint. It was revealed that the nanojoint was strong enough to resist fracture at the joining area.

  10. Two-line Hybrid Glutinous Sorghum Variety Xiangliangyou Nuoliang 1 and Its Processed Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Sorghum subspecies and varieties in China Chinese sorghum has two species according to their grain's glutinousness degree: the Jing subspecies (not glutinous) and glutinous subspecies. Most hybrid sorghum varieties in commercial production in the country at present belong to the Jing subspecies grown in the northern China which is highly yielding but without satisfactory marketing price because of their poor palatability and less satisfactory spirit making quality. In comparison to the Jing varieties,the glutinous mostly grown in the south are local cultivars which often have fine table quality but low grain yield,and thus,their cultivation can't be expanded wide in the country.

  11. Hybrid Materials Prepared from Polymers and Self-assembled Systems by Physical Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean-Michel; Guenet

    2007-01-01

    1 Results A new type of hybrid materails prepared from ternary systems polymer/bicopper organic complex/solvent is presented.Each binary system displays differing types of behaviour: The polymer solutions produce thermoreversible gels while the bicopper organic complex (designated as CuS8) forms randomly-dispersed,self-assembling threads in organic solvents (See Fig.1(a),(b)).Fig.1 The CuS8 and ips thermoreversible gels Thermoreversible gels possess a fibrillar morphology with a typical mesh size ra...

  12. 40-Gb/s all-optical processing systems using hybrid photonic integration technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehayas, E.; Tsiokos, D.I.; Bakopoulos, P.;

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental performance characterization of all-optical subsystems at 40 Gb/s using interconnected hybrid integrated all-optical semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) gates and flip-flop prototypes. It was shown that optical gates can...... the potential that all-optical technology can find application in future data-centric networks with efficient and dynamic bandwidth utilization. This paper also reports on the latest photonic integration breakthroughs as a potential migration path for reducing fabrication cost by developing photonic systems...

  13. Large Unifying Hybrid Supernetwork Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Qiang; FANG; Jin-qing; LI; Yong

    2015-01-01

    For depicting multi-hybrid process,large unifying hybrid network model(so called LUHNM)has two sub-hybrid ratios except dr.They are deterministic hybrid ratio(so called fd)and random hybrid ratio(so called gr),respectively.

  14. A Low Power VITERBI Decoder Design With Minimum Transition Hybrid Register Exchange Processing For Wireless Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Haridas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes the low power implementation of Viterbi Decoder. Majority of viterbi decoder designs in the past use simple Register Exchange or Traceback method to achieve very high speed and low power decoding respectively, but it suffers from both complex routing and high switching activity.Here simplification is made in survivor memory unit by storing only m-1 bits to identify previous state in the survivor path, and by assigning m-1 registers to decision vectors. This approach eliminates unnecessary shift operations. Also for storing the decoded data only half memory is required than register exchange method. In this paper Hybrid approach that combines both Traceback and Register Exchange schemes has been applied to the viterbi decoder design. By using distance properties of encoder we further modified to minimum transition hybrid register exchange method. It leads to lower dynamic power consumption because of lower switching activity. Dynamic power estimation obtained through gate level simulation indicates that the proposed design reduces the power dissipation of a conventional viterbi decoder design by 30%.

  15. A Low Power VITERBI Decoder Design With Minimum Transition Hybrid Register Exchange Processing For Wireless Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Haridas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes the low power implementation of Viterbi Decoder. Majority of viterbi decoder designs in the past use simple Register Exchange or Trace back method to achieve very high speed and low power decoding respectively, but it suffers from both complex routing and high switching activity.Here simplification is made in survivor memory unit by storing only m-1 bits to identify previous state in the survivor path, and by assigning m-1 registers to decision vectors. This approach eliminates unnecessary shift operations. Also for storing the decoded data only half memory is required than register exchange method. In this paper Hybrid approach that combines both Trace back and Register Exchange schemes has been applied to the viterbi decoder design. By using distance properties of encoder we further modified to minimum transition hybrid register exchange method. It leads to lower dynamic power consumption because of lower switching activity. Dynamic power estimation obtained through gate level simulation indicates that the proposed design reduces the power dissipation of a conventional viterbi decoder design by 30%.

  16. Solution-processed hybrid cathode interlayer for inverted organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yulei; Zhang, Wenjun; Li, Xiaodong; Min, Chao; Jiu, Tonggang; Zhu, Yuejin; Dai, Ning; Fang, Junfeng

    2013-11-13

    A novel hybrid material CdS/2,9-Dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (CdS·BCP) was prepared from the decomposition of its organic soluble precursor complex Cd(S2COEt)2·(BCP) by low-temperature treatment. CdS·BCP, which integrated the favorable properties of solvent durability, and high electron mobility of CdS as well as the good hole blocking property of BCP, was designed and developed as the interface modification material to improve electron collection in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells (OSCs). The inverted OSCs with CdS·BCP as buffer layer on ITO showed improved efficiency compared with the pure CdS or BCP. Devices with CdS·BCP as interlayer exhibited excellent stability, only 14.19% decay of power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) was observed (from 7.47% to 6.41%) after stored in glovebox for 3264 h (136 days). Our results demonstrate promising potentials of hybrid materials as the interface modification layers in OSCs, and provide new insights for the development of new interface modification materials in the future.

  17. Hybrid Processes Combining Photocatalysis and Ceramic Membrane Filtration for Degradation of Humic Acids in Saline Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Song

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the combined effects of photocatalysis with ceramic membrane filtration for the removal of humic acid in the presence of salt; to simulate saline wastewater conditions. The effects of operating parameters, such as salinity and TiO2 concentration on permeate fluxes, total organic carbon (TOC, and UV absorbance removal, were investigated. The interaction between the humic acids and TiO2 photocatalyst played an important role in the observed flux change during ceramic membrane filtration. The results for this hybrid system showed that the TOC removal was more than 70% for both without NaCl and with the 500 ppm NaCl concentration, and 62% and 66% for 1000 and 2000 ppm NaCl concentrations. The reduction in UV absorbance was more complete in the absence of NaCl compared to the presence of NaCl. The operation of the integrated photoreactor-ceramic membrane filter over five repeat cycles is described. It can be concluded that the overall removal performance of the hybrid system was influenced by the presence of salts, as salt leads to agglomeration of TiO2 particles by suppressing the stabilising effects of electrostatic repulsion and thereby reduces the effective surface contact between the pollutant and the photocatalyst.

  18. A Hybrid Improved Genetic Algorithm and Its Application in Dynamic Optimization Problems of Chemical Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Fan; DU Wenli; QI Rongbin; QIAN Feng; ZHONG Weimin

    2013-01-01

    The solutions of dynamic optimization problems are usually very difficult due to their highly nonlinear and multidimensional nature.Genetic algorithm(GA)has been proved to be a feasible method when the gradient is difficult to calculate.Its advantage is that the control profiles at all time stages are optimized simultaneously,but its convergence is very slow in the later period of evolution and it is easily trapped in the local optimum.In this study,a hybrid improved genetic algorithm(HIGA)for solving dynamic optimization problems is proposed to overcome these defects.Simplex method(SM)is used to perform the local search in the neighborhood of the optimal solution.By using SM,the ideal searching direction of global optimal solution could be found as soon as possible and the convergence speed of the algorithm is improved.The hybrid algorithm presents some improvements,such as protecting the best individual,accepting immigrations,as well as employing adaptive crossover and Gaussian mutation operators.The efficiency of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated by solving several dynamic optimization problems.At last,HIGA is applied to the optimal production of secreted protein in a fed batch reactor and the optimal feed-rate found by HIGA is effective and relatively stable.

  19. Modeling of the coal gasification processes in a hybrid plasma torch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matveev, I.B.; Serbin, S.I. [Applied Plasma Technology, Mclean, VA (USA)

    2007-12-15

    The major advantages of plasma treatment systems are cost effectiveness and technical efficiency. A new efficient electrodeless 1-MW hybrid plasma torch for waste disposal and coal gasification is proposed. This product merges several solutions such as the known inductive-type plasma torch, innovative reverse-vortex (RV) reactor and the recently developed nonequilibrium plasma pilot and plasma chemical reactor. With the use of the computational-fluid-dynamics-computational method, preliminary 3-D calculations of heat exchange in a 1-MW plasma generator operating with direct vortex and RV have been conducted at the air flow rate of 100 g/s. For the investigated mode and designed parameters, reduction of the total wall heat transfer for the reverse scheme is about 65 kW, which corresponds to an increase of the plasma generator efficiency by approximately 6.5%. This new hybrid plasma torch operates as a multimode, high power plasma system with a wide range of plasma feedstock gases and turn down ratio, and offers convenient and simultaneous feeding of several additional reagents into the discharge zone.

  20. Hybrid Processes Combining Photocatalysis and Ceramic Membrane Filtration for Degradation of Humic Acids in Saline Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lili; Zhu, Bo; Gray, Stephen; Duke, Mikel; Muthukumaran, Shobha

    2016-03-01

    This study explored the combined effects of photocatalysis with ceramic membrane filtration for the removal of humic acid in the presence of salt; to simulate saline wastewater conditions. The effects of operating parameters, such as salinity and TiO₂ concentration on permeate fluxes, total organic carbon (TOC), and UV absorbance removal, were investigated. The interaction between the humic acids and TiO₂ photocatalyst played an important role in the observed flux change during ceramic membrane filtration. The results for this hybrid system showed that the TOC removal was more than 70% for both without NaCl and with the 500 ppm NaCl concentration, and 62% and 66% for 1000 and 2000 ppm NaCl concentrations. The reduction in UV absorbance was more complete in the absence of NaCl compared to the presence of NaCl. The operation of the integrated photoreactor-ceramic membrane filter over five repeat cycles is described. It can be concluded that the overall removal performance of the hybrid system was influenced by the presence of salts, as salt leads to agglomeration of TiO₂ particles by suppressing the stabilising effects of electrostatic repulsion and thereby reduces the effective surface contact between the pollutant and the photocatalyst.

  1. Uniform, High Efficiency, Hybrid CIGS Process with Application to Novel Device Structures: Annual Technical Report, 15 March 2005 - 14 March 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delahoy, A. E.; Chen, L.; Sang, B.

    2006-06-01

    One of the main Phase I objectives of this subcontract was for EPV to demonstrate 14%-efficient CIGS devices using a hybrid process. The processing was also required to have good control ability. These goals were successfully accomplished. It will be seen that during Phase I, we successfully developed a new, simplified hybrid process. A highlight of intensive work was the achievement of a 14.0% NREL-verified device at a CIGS thickness of 1.13 ..mu..m. The simplified hybrid process considerably reduces CIGS film formation time and offers the promise of being a truly cost-effective and manufacturable one. It is considered to be one of the more attractive CIGS processes in the industry.

  2. Production of Biodiesel from High Acid Value Waste Cooking Oil Using an Optimized Lipase Enzyme/Acid-Catalyzed Hybrid Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Saifuddin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is aimed at developing an enzymatic/acid-catalyzed hybrid process for biodiesel production using waste cooking oil with high acid value (poor quality as feedstock. Tuned enzyme was prepared using a rapid drying technique of microwave dehydration (time required around 15 minutes. Further enhancement was achieved by three phase partitioning (TPP method. The results on the lipase enzyme which was subjected to pH tuning and TPP, indicated remarkable increase in the initial rate of transesterification by 3.8 times. Microwave irradiation was found to increase the initial reaction rates by further 1.6 times, hence giving a combined increase in activity of about 5.4 times. The optimized enzyme was used for hydrolysis and 88% of the oil taken initially was hydrolyzed by the lipase. The hydrolysate was further used in acid-catalyzed esterification for biodiesel production. By using a feedstock to methanol molar ratio of 1:15 and a sulphuric acid concentration of 2.5%, a biodiesel conversion of 88% was obtained at 50 °C for an hour reaction time. This hybrid process may open a way for biodiesel production using unrefined and used oil with high acid value as feedstock.

  3. Abortive Process of a Novel Rapeseed Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Line Derived from Somatic Hybrids Between Brassica napus and Sinapis alba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Juan; GAO Ya-nan; KONG Yue-qin; JIANG Jin-jin; LI Ai-min; ZHANG Yong-tai; WANG You-ping

    2014-01-01

    Somatic hybridization is performed to obtain significant cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) lines, whose CMS genes are derived either from the transfer of sterile genes from the mitochondrial genome of donor parent to the counterpart of receptor or production of new sterile genes caused by mitochondrial genome recombination of the biparent during protoplast fusion. In this study, a novel male sterile line, SaNa-1A, was obtained from the somatic hybridization between Brassica napus and Sinapis alba. The normal anther development of the maintainer line, SaNa-1B, and the abortive process of SaNa-1A were described through phenotypic observations and microtome sections. The lforal organ of the sterile line SaNa-1A was sterile with a shortened iflament and delfated anther. No detectable pollen grains were found on the surface of the sterile anthers. Semi-thin sections indicated that SaNa-1A aborted in the pollen mother cell (PMC) stage when vacuolization of the tapetum and PMCs began. The tapetum radically elongated and became highly vacuolated, occupying the entire locule together with the vacuolated microspores. Therefore, SaNa-1A is different from other CMS lines, such as ogu CMS, pol CMS and nap CMS as shown by the abortive process of the anther.

  4. Electroless Sliver-Plating Process in the Preparation of 103Pd-125I Hybrid Brachytherapy Seed Cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Zhong-yong1,2;CHEN Bin-da1;Lv Xiao-zhou1;LU Jin-hui1;CUI Hai-ping1,2

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Electroless 103Pd plating and electroless Ag plating and chemical 125I depositing were took place on the surface of carbon rods in turn, which was a reliable method for the preparation of 103Pd-125I hybrid brachytherapy seed cores. 103Pd and 125I were deposited on the same substrate effectively through silver coating as a bridge. The process of electroless Ag plating was a novel and important step in the preparation of 103Pd-125I hybrid seed. In this work, the process of electroless Ag plating was studied using 0.5×3.0 mm carbon rods with palladium coating as substrate, silver-ammino complex as precursor, 110mAg as radioactive tracer, and hydrazine as reductant. The optimum conditions were AgNO3 2g/L,Na2EDTA 40 g/L,NH3•H2O 16.25%,H4N2•H2O 5‰,pH=10,t=60 min,and T=35 ℃. Sliver deposited on each carbon rod was uniform, and sliver-coating was white and smooth.

  5. Experimental investigations on the state of the friction-welded joint zone in steel hybrid components after process-relevant thermo-mechanical loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, B.-A.; Bouguecha, A.; Vucetic, M.; Peshekhodov, I.; Matthias, T.; Kolbasnikov, N.; Sokolov, S.; Ganin, S.

    2016-10-01

    As a part of the newly established Collaborative Research Center 1153 (SFB 1153) "Process chain for the manufacturing of hybrid high-performance components by tailored forming" at the Leibniz Universität Hannover, the Institute of Forming Technology and Machines (IFUM) examines the influence of thermo-mechanical stresses on the reduced Young's modulus as well as the hardness of hybrid (steel-steel compound) joined semi-finished products. Currently the expertise in the production of bulk metal formed parts is limited to mono-materials. For manufacturing parts of hybrid materials and also for the methods of the new process routes, practical experience has to be gained. The subproject C1 within the collaborative research center 1153 with the short title "Failure Prediction" deals with the question, if the hybrid semi-finished products fulfill the thermo-mechanical demands or if they fail at the joining zone (JZ) during forging. For this purpose, stresses similar to those in the process were imposed on hybrid semi-finished products by torsion tests by using the thermo-mechanical test system Gleeble 3800. Afterwards, the specimens were examined metallographically and by nanoindentations with the help of a TriboIndenter TI950. Thus, first knowledge on the behaviour of thermo-mechanical stresses on the reduced Young's modulus and the hardness of hybrid joined semi-finished parts was gained.

  6. Quantitative analysis of the cell voltage of SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolysis in hybrid sulfur process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lulu, Xue; Ping, Zhang, E-mail: zhangping77@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Songzhe, Chen; Laijun, Wang

    2016-09-15

    SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolysis (SDE) is the pivotal reaction in hybrid sulfur process. To date, the total cell potential for an SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolyzer has been identified to be controlled dominantly by the sulfuric acid concentration of the anolyte and electrolysis temperature. Potential loss in SDE can be separated into four components, i.e., equilibrium potential, anodic polarization overpotential, cathodic polarization overpotential, and ohmic loss. In this work, the potential individual components of SDE were measured and calculated. Results showed that the anodic polarization overpotential exhibited the highest ratio in the cell voltage of SDE reaction, and the kinetics of the anodic reaction was controlled by a distinct reaction process under different cell potentials. This study increases understanding on SDE and provides assistance to improve its performance.

  7. Performance of Aged PAC Suspensions in a Hybrid Membrane Process for Drinking Water Production

    OpenAIRE

    Stoquart, Céline

    2014-01-01

    Les procédés membranaires hybrides (PMH) allient la filtration membranaire basse pression à l’usage du charbon actif en poudre (CAP). Afin de diminuer les coûts opérationnels du procédé, il a été proposé de laisser vieillir le CAP dans le PMH et donc de minimiser le dosage de CAP frais. Peu d’information est disponible quant à la capacité résiduelle d’adsorption de suspensions de CAP âgées. L’importance relative de l’adsorption et de la biodégradation dans les réacteurs à CAP âgés sur le trai...

  8. Contribution of Dissolved Oxygen to Methylene Blue Decomposition by Hybrid Advanced Oxidation Processes System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heon Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results of photocatalysis under high dissolved oxygen (DO concentration conditions are reported. Methylene blue was used as the organic pollutant to be degraded by a novel microwave/UV/DO/TiO2 photocatalyst hybrid system. The degradation rate increased with TiO2 nanoparticle dosages and DO concentration. However, inhibition of photocatalysis due to bubbles produced by DO generator was also observed. When the DO generator was used to increase the DO concentration in the pollutant solution treated by the microwave-assisted UV-TiO2 photocatalysis, the decomposition rate constant was highest among all the experimental conditions tested in this study. This result demonstrated that high concentration of DO can enhance the photocatalytic reaction rate by causing a synergistic effect of constituent techniques.

  9. Processing and study of the wear and friction behaviour of discrete graded Cu hybrid composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Ram Prabhu

    2015-06-01

    Discrete functionally graded composites are the novel composites which have high potential in the brake friction material applications. In this paper, we have prepared discrete functional graded Cu/10%SiC/20%graphite(Gr)/10%boron nitride (h-BN) hybrid composites by the layer stacking compaction and pressure sintering techniques.We have considered two types of composites based on h-BN particle sizes. The size ranges of h-BN used were 140–180 and 3–25 m. The friction and wear properties of the composites were evaluated in a laboratory scale brake inertial dynamometer at low (5, 10 m s−1) and high sliding speeds (30, 35 m s−1) and, high braking load (2000 N) conditions. In addition, we have performed microstructure characterization, density, hardness and flexural strength measurements.Wear surface morphology studies were also carried out using stereoscope and scanning electron microscope. Our experiments lead to the following important results: (1) the large size h-BN particle improves the densification of the hybridized composite layer and provides higher wear resistance and better braking performance at all sliding speeds, (2) the wear loss (by mass) and the stopping distance/time increase with sliding speeds due to the increase in the braking energy, (3) at low sliding speeds (5, 10 m s−1), abrasive wear is the main wear mechanism, whereas many different wear mechanisms (delamination, oxidation, abrasive) are cooccuring at higher sliding speeds (30, 35 m s−1), (4) the mechanical properties (flexural strength and surface hardness) of composites are not affected by the h-BN particle size, (5) the incorporation of copper layer in the discrete layer structure deflects and arrests the crack at the copper/composite layer interface, thus improving the fracture resistance in addition to improving the bulk thermal conductivity.

  10. Scanning electrochemical microscopy of graphene/polymer hybrid thin films as supercapacitors: Physical-chemical interfacial processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Sanju, E-mail: sanju.gupta@wku.edu; Price, Carson [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western Kentucky University, 1906 College Heights Blvd., Bowling Green, KY 42101-3576 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Hybrid electrode comprising an electric double-layer capacitor of graphene nanosheets and a pseudocapacitor of the electrically conducting polymers namely, polyaniline; PAni and polypyrrole; PPy are constructed that exhibited synergistic effect with excellent electrochemical performance as thin film supercapacitors for alternative energy. The hybrid supercapacitors were prepared by layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly based on controlled electrochemical polymerization followed by reduction of graphene oxide electrochemically producing ErGO, for establishing intimate electronic contact through nanoscale architecture and chemical stability, producing a single bilayer of (PAni/ErGO){sub 1}, (PPy/ErGO){sub 1}, (PAni/GO){sub 1} and (PPy/GO){sub 1}. The rationale design is to create thin films that possess interconnected graphene nanosheets (GNS) with polymer nanostructures forming well-defined tailored interfaces allowing sufficient surface adsorption and faster ion transport due to short diffusion distances. We investigated their electrochemical properties and performance in terms of gravimetric specific capacitance, C{sub s}, from cyclic voltammograms. The LbL-assembled bilayer films exhibited an excellent C{sub s} of ≥350 F g{sup −1} as compared with constituents (∼70 F g{sup −1}) at discharge current density of 0.3 A g{sup −1} that outperformed many other hybrid supercapacitors. To gain deeper insights into the physical-chemical interfacial processes occurring at the electrode/electrolyte interface that govern their operation, we have used scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) technique in feedback and probe approach modes. We present our findings from viewpoint of reinforcing the role played by heterogeneous electrode surface composed of nanoscale graphene sheets (conducting) and conducting polymers (semiconducting) backbone with ordered polymer chains via higher/lower probe current distribution maps. Also targeted is SECM imaging that allowed to determine

  11. Scanning electrochemical microscopy of graphene/polymer hybrid thin films as supercapacitors: Physical-chemical interfacial processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanju Gupta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid electrode comprising an electric double-layer capacitor of graphene nanosheets and a pseudocapacitor of the electrically conducting polymers namely, polyaniline; PAni and polypyrrole; PPy are constructed that exhibited synergistic effect with excellent electrochemical performance as thin film supercapacitors for alternative energy. The hybrid supercapacitors were prepared by layer-by-layer (LbL assembly based on controlled electrochemical polymerization followed by reduction of graphene oxide electrochemically producing ErGO, for establishing intimate electronic contact through nanoscale architecture and chemical stability, producing a single bilayer of (PAni/ErGO1, (PPy/ErGO1, (PAni/GO1 and (PPy/GO1. The rationale design is to create thin films that possess interconnected graphene nanosheets (GNS with polymer nanostructures forming well-defined tailored interfaces allowing sufficient surface adsorption and faster ion transport due to short diffusion distances. We investigated their electrochemical properties and performance in terms of gravimetric specific capacitance, Cs, from cyclic voltammograms. The LbL-assembled bilayer films exhibited an excellent Cs of ≥350 F g−1 as compared with constituents (∼70 F g−1 at discharge current density of 0.3 A g−1 that outperformed many other hybrid supercapacitors. To gain deeper insights into the physical-chemical interfacial processes occurring at the electrode/electrolyte interface that govern their operation, we have used scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM technique in feedback and probe approach modes. We present our findings from viewpoint of reinforcing the role played by heterogeneous electrode surface composed of nanoscale graphene sheets (conducting and conducting polymers (semiconducting backbone with ordered polymer chains via higher/lower probe current distribution maps. Also targeted is SECM imaging that allowed to determine electrochemical (reactivity of surface ion

  12. Basic investigation about a new joining process called HFDB (Hybrid Friction Diffusion Bonding); Grundlegende Untersuchung ueber ein neues Schweissverfahren namens HFDB (Hybrid Friction Diffusion Bonding)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, Arne

    2010-07-01

    Scientific and technological objectives in the area of joining of materials for the transportation and energy industry have been the motivation for the development of a new joining method. For integral structures in aircraft a joining technology that is capable of joining metals which differ significantly in melting temperature and strength like titanium and aluminium is needed. In composite structures thin aluminium foils should be welded without degrading or destroying the intermediate polymers. Joining at low temperatures without mixing the joining partners is therefore desirable. Most of today's joining methods do not fulfil these requirements. In the course of this thesis a new joining technology named HFDB (Hybrid Friction Diffusion Bonding) has been developed. With this new joining technology the joining of similar and dissimilar materials of varying thicknesses (AA 2024; Al 7075; Al 99,5; 1.4301; Ti6Al4V; AZ31 in 0,1 mm up to 0,7 mm) as well as the manufacturing of a prototype for a heat-exchanger has been investigated. In addition a clamping set-up for the thin sheets has been developed and tested to avoid buckling during joining. Characterisation of the new bonding method has been established by means of metallographic procedures as well as mechanical testing (REM, {mu}CT, Nanoindenter, EDX, peel- and shear tensile tests, optical microscopy). Results of EDX as well as nano-indentation show a metallic joint in Aluminium /Aluminium as well as Aluminium / Titanium joints. A comparison of HFDB and DB results of the mechanical characterisation show comparable peel results at a significant lower heat input and processing time for HFDB. {mu}CT results show no vertical mixing of the materials across the bonding line. Only horizontal movement of the marker material can be observed. A micro structural investigation in combination with an analytical comparison shows a diffusion dominated joining mechanism. Furthermore the energy input and the bonding mechanism

  13. Comparison of Plasma, Metal Inactive Gas (MIG) and Tungsten Inactive Gas (TIG) Processes for Laser Hybrid Welding (302)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2003-01-01

    source, ignition and running torch stability, weld phase transformation and change in ductility and overall weld quality are described. The results show that all three processes can successfully be integrated with a CO2 laser beam for hybrid welding. Due to the pilot arc in plasma welding, this process......, the MIG process is more difficult to control than laser/plasma and laser/TIG processes. All three types of secondary heat sources enable an increased ductility of the weld as compared to pure laser welding when welding 1.8 mm GA 260 with a TIG torch and 2.13 mm CMn steel with a plasma arc or MIG......In this paper, TIG, plasma, and MIG processes have been individually combined with a 2.6 kW CO2 laser. In a number of systematic laboratory tests, the general benefits and drawbacks of each process have been individually assessed and compared. Aspects such as ease of integration with a CO2 laser...

  14. Comparison of Plasma, Metal Inactive Gas (MIG) and Tungsten Inactive Gas (TIG) Processes for Laser Hybrid Welding (302)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, TIG, plasma, and MIG processes have been individually combined with a 2.6 kW CO2 laser. In a number of systematic laboratory tests, the general benefits and drawbacks of each process have been individually assessed and compared. Aspects such as ease of integration with a CO2 laser...... source, ignition and running torch stability, weld phase transformation and change in ductility and overall weld quality are described. The results show that all three processes can successfully be integrated with a CO2 laser beam for hybrid welding. Due to the pilot arc in plasma welding, this process......, the MIG process is more difficult to control than laser/plasma and laser/TIG processes. All three types of secondary heat sources enable an increased ductility of the weld as compared to pure laser welding when welding 1.8 mm GA 260 with a TIG torch and 2.13 mm CMn steel with a plasma arc or MIG...

  15. Hybrid C-O-Ne white dwarfs as progenitors of type Ia supernovae: dependence on Urca process and mixing assumptions

    CERN Document Server

    Denissenkov, P; Herwig, F; Jones, S; Paxton, B; Nomoto, K; Suzuki, T; Toki, H

    2014-01-01

    When carbon is ignited off-centre in a CO core of a super-AGB star, its burning in a convective shell tends to propagate to the centre. Whether the C flame will actually be able to reach the centre depends on the efficiency of extra mixing beneath the C convective shell. Whereas thermohaline mixing is too inefficient to interfere with the C-flame propagation, convective boundary mixing can prevent the C burning from reaching the centre. As a result, a C-O-Ne white dwarf (WD) is formed, after the star has lost its envelope. Such a "hybrid" WD has a small CO core surrounded by a thick ONe zone. In our 1D stellar evolution computations, the hybrid WD is allowed to accrete C-rich material, as if it were in a close binary system and accreted H-rich material from its companion with a sufficiently high rate at which the accreted H would be processed into He under stationary conditions, assuming that He could then be transformed into C. When the mass of the accreting WD approaches the Chandrasekhar limit, we find a s...

  16. Torque coordinating robust control of shifting process for dry dual clutch transmission equipped in a hybrid car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z.-G.; Chen, H.-J.; Yang, Y.-Y.; He, L.

    2015-09-01

    For a hybrid car equipped with dual clutch transmission (DCT), the coordination control problems of clutches and power sources are investigated while taking full advantage of the integrated starter generator motor's fast response speed and high accuracy (speed and torque). First, a dynamic model of the shifting process is established, the vehicle acceleration is quantified according to the intentions of the driver, and the torque transmitted by clutches is calculated based on the designed disengaging principle during the torque phase. Next, a robust H∞ controller is designed to ensure speed synchronisation despite the existence of model uncertainties, measurement noise, and engine torque lag. The engine torque lag and measurement noise are used as external disturbances to initially modify the output torque of the power source. Additionally, during the torque switch phase, the torque of the power sources is smoothly transitioned to the driver's demanded torque. Finally, the torque of the power sources is further distributed based on the optimisation of system efficiency, and the throttle opening of the engine is constrained to avoid sharp torque variations. The simulation results verify that the proposed control strategies effectively address the problem of coordinating control of clutches and power sources, establishing a foundation for the application of DCT in hybrid cars.

  17. Nova tocha de plasma híbrida para o processamento de materiais New hybrid plasma torch for materials processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Thomas Lermen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O principal objetivo deste artigo foi apresentar um novo dispositivo para o processamento de materiais. Ele consiste em uma tocha de plasma híbrida, a qual é caracterizada pela formação simultânea de dois arcos plasma em apenas um dispositivo, gerando jato (de plasma com elevada densidade de energia. A tocha foi submetida aos seguintes testes experimentais: de funcionamento para verificar possíveis problemas de projeto e seus limites de operação; de caracterização, consistindo em determinar o comprimento do jato de plasma; de sua viabilidade para processamento de materiais (soldagem e corte. Com base nestes testes iniciais, alguns problemas de isolamento elétrico e térmico foram encontrados e resolvidos. Quanto aos resultados dos testes de caracterização, os parâmetros de funcionamento da tocha de plasma híbrida apresentaram influência significativa sobre o comprimento do jato de plasma. Os resultados obtidos nos testes de processamento de materiais foram satisfatórios, ou seja, é possível realizar soldagem e corte com esta tocha de plasma híbrida.The main aim of this paper was to present a new device for materials processing. It consist of a hybrid plasma torch which is characterized by the simultaneous formation of two plasma arcs in one device only, generating a (plasma jet with high energy density. The torch was submitted to the following trials: of operation to identify possible design problems and its operational torch limits; of characterization, consisting in plasma jet length determination; and of viability for materials processing (welding and cutting. Based on these initial trials, some electrical and thermal insulation problems were found and solved. Concerning the results of the characterization trials, the hybrid plasma torch parameters had a significant influence over the plasma jet length. The results obtained in the materials processing trials were satisfactory, i.e., it is possible to carry out welding and

  18. Hybrid electrooxidation and adsorption process for the removal of ammonia in low concentration chloride wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jing; Zhao, Qing-Liang; Zhang, Jun; Jiang, Jun-Qiu; Li, Wei; Yu, Hang; Huang, Li-Kun; Zhang, Yun-Shu

    2017-02-01

    The ammonia removal performance of a hybrid electrooxidation and adsorption reactor (HEAR) is evaluated. The influences of current density, chloride concentration, and packing particles for ammonia removal in HEAR were investigated, and the performance of HEAR under serials circulation was studied. Results indicated that ammonia removal efficiency achieved around 70 % under the optimal condition after 30-min electrolysis. The optimal condition was determined as current density of 10 mA/cm(2), Cl(-)/NH4(+) molar ratio of 1.8, and modified zeolites as particles. The ammonia adsorption kinetic and adsorption isotherm on zeolites fitted well with second-order kinetic and Langmuir isotherm model, respectively. Adsorption amount of ammonia on zeolites sampled at 30-min electrolysis achieved 2.4 mg/L, higher than 1.9 mg/L of zeolites at 20-min electrolysis, indicating that electrooxidation coupled with adsorption led to simultaneous ammonia removal and zeolite regeneration in HEAR. No decrease of ammonia removal efficiency was observed over several cycles with the electrooxidation treatment. The presence of free chlorine indicating ammonia removal in HEAR was due to the combined influence by adsorption and indirect electrooxidation. These results showed that HEAR was a prospective alternative as a tertiary treatment for wastewater with low chloride ions.

  19. A novel hybrid-maximum neural network in stereo-matching process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowski, Lukasz

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, the completely innovative architecture of artificial neural network based on Hopfield structure for solving a stereo-matching problem-hybrid neural network, consisting of the classical analog Hopfield neural network and the Maximum Neural Network-is described. The application of this kind of structure as a part of assistive device for visually impaired individuals is considered. The role of the analog Hopfield network is to find the attraction area of the global minimum, whereas Maximum Neural Network is finding accurate location of this minimum. The network presented here is characterized by an extremely high rate of work performance with the same accuracy as a classical Hopfield-like network, which makes it possible to use this kind of structure as a part of systems working in real time. The network considered here underwent experimental tests with the use of real stereo pictures as well as simulated stereo images. This enables error calculation and direct comparison with the classic analog Hopfield neural network as well as other networks proposed in the literature.

  20. Heat penalty and economic analysis of the hybrid sulfuric acid process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carty, R.H. (Kentucky Center for Energy Research Lab., Lexington); Conger, W.L.

    1980-01-01

    A heat penalty and economic analysis of the Westinghouse hydrogen process is made showing that the process efficiency is about 50.9% and the production cost of hydrogen based on 1976 cost figures is $8.20/GJ. A breakdown of the equipment in the process with the enthalpy change, entropy change, heat and work requirements, and heat penalty for each piece is given.

  1. Thickness control in a new flexible hybrid incremental sheet forming process

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, H.; LU, B; Chen,J.; Feng,S.; Li, Z; Long, H.

    2017-01-01

    Incremental sheet forming is a cost-effective process for rapid manufacturing of sheet metal products. However, incremental sheet forming also has some limitations such as severe sheet thinning and long processing time. These limitations hamper the forming part quality and production efficiency, thus restricting the incremental sheet forming application in industrial practice. To overcome the problem of sheet thinning, a variety of processes, such as multi-step incremental sheet forming, have...

  2. Monitoring and Control of the Hybrid Laser-Gas Metal-Arc Welding Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunerth, D. C.; McJunkin, T. R.; Nichol, C. I.; Clark, D.; Todorov, E.; Couch, R. D.; Yu, F.

    2013-07-01

    Methods are currently being developed towards a more robust system real time feedback in the high throughput process combining laser welding with gas metal arc welding. A combination of ultrasonic, eddy current, electronic monitoring, and visual techniques are being applied to the welding process. Initial simulation and bench top evaluation of proposed real time techniques on weld samples are presented along with the concepts to apply the techniques concurrently to the weld process. Consideration for the eventual code acceptance of the methods and system are also being researched as a component of this project. The goal is to detect defects or precursors to defects and correct when possible during the weld process.

  3. Development of a hybrid sputtering/evaporation process for Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acciarri, M.; Binetti, S.; Le Donne, A.; Lorenzi, B.; Caccamo, L.; Miglio, L. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali e Solar Energy Research Center MIB-SOLAR, Universita di Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Moneta, R.; Marchionna, S.; Meschia, M. [Voltasolar s.r.l, Turate (Italy)

    2011-08-15

    In this paper we report a new method for Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} deposition for solar cell application. Differently from the common co-evaporation process, an alterative approach for thin film Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} has been tested: the sputtering deposition of metal elements combined with the selenium evaporation. We have studied the relationships between the growth parameters of our hybrid sputtering/evaporation method and the chemical-physical properties of the CIGS films. The cells are completed with a CdS buffer layer deposited by chemical bath deposition and ZnO + ITO deposited by RF sputtering. Test solar cells of 0.5 cm{sup 2} have shown an efficiency of 10% and 2.5% on glass and stainless steel substrate respectively. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Hybrid Search for Faster Production and Safer Process Conditions in Friction Stir Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tutum, Cem Celal; Deb, Kalyanmoy; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate optimum process parameters and tool geometries in Friction Stir Welding (FSW) to minimize temperature difference between the leading edge of the tool probe and the work piece material in front of the tool shoulder, and simultaneously maximize traverse...... choices have been offered based on several process specific performance and cost related criteria....

  5. Structure–property tuning in hydrothermally stable sol–gel-processed hybrid organosilica molecular sieving membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elshof, ten J.E.; Dral, A.P.

    2016-01-01

    Supported microporous organosilica membranes made from bridged silsesquioxane precursors by an acid-catalyzed sol–gel process have demonstrated a remarkable hydrothermal stability in pervaporation and gas separation processes, making them the first generation of ceramic molecular sieving membranes w

  6. Supporting conceptual product design by hybrid simulation of use processes with scenario structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegte, W.F.; Horváth, I.

    2007-01-01

    The approach described in this paper aims to offer designers a new way to investigate use processes of products by integrating scenarios of expected user behaviour with simulations of physical artefact behaviour. Use is considered a key process in the life cycle of a product, being the phase in

  7. Supporting conceptual product design by hybrid simulation of use processes with scenario structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegte, W.F.; Horváth, I.

    2007-01-01

    The approach described in this paper aims to offer designers a new way to investigate use processes of products by integrating scenarios of expected user behaviour with simulations of physical artefact behaviour. Use is considered a key process in the life cycle of a product, being the phase in whic

  8. Micro tooling technologies for polymer micro replication: direct, indirect and hybrid process chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2009-01-01

    and performance of the corresponding micro mould. Traditional methods of micro tooling, such as various machining processes (e.g. micro milling, micro electrical discharge machining) have already reached their limitations with decreasing dimensions of mould inserts and cavities. To this respect, tooling process...

  9. A functionalized phosphonate-rich organosilica layered hybrid material (PSLM) fabricated through a mild process for heavy metal uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daikopoulos, Chris [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, Ioannina 45110 (Greece); Bourlinos, Athanasios B. [Institute of Materials Science, NCSR “Demokritos”, Ag. Paraskevi Attikis, Athens 15310 (Greece); Georgiou, Yiannis [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Department of Environmental and Natural Resources Management, University of Patras, Seferi 2, Agrinio 30100 (Greece); Deligiannakis, Yiannis, E-mail: ideligia@cc.uoi.gr [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Department of Environmental and Natural Resources Management, University of Patras, Seferi 2, Agrinio 30100 (Greece); Zboril, Radek [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Chemistry and Experimental Physics, Palacky University, Olomouc 77146 (Czech Republic); Karakassides, Michael A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, Ioannina 45110 (Greece)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Novel phosphonate-rich organosilica layered hybrid material (PSLM) fabricated through a mild xerogel process. • Surface Complexation Modeling reveals that PSLM bears 2 types of functional groups able to bind heavy metal. • Maximum metal uptake capacities were found 2.72 mmol g{sup −1} for Cu{sup 2+}, 1.67 mmol g{sup −1} for Pb{sup 2+} and 1.00 mmol g{sup −1} for Cd{sup 2+} at pH 7. • EPR spectroscopy reveals local coordination environment for Cu{sup 2+} ions. - Abstract: A phosphonate-rich organosilica layered hybrid material (PSLM) made of 3-(trihydroxysilyl)propyl methylphosphonate, monosodium salt, as the single silica source, has been obtained from its aqueous solution through a xerogel process and mild thermal aging. The method is simple, affording bulk quantities of powdered PSLM in a single-step. The hybrid is stable in water and possesses a high content of phosphonate groups fixed on the solid matrix. In addition, PSLM shows good thermal stability, which exceeds 300 °C in air. The material was characterized using SEM, TEM, XRD, FT-IR and TGA techniques. Potentiometric titrations show that PSLM bears high-surface density of phosphonate groups (3 mmol g{sup −1}). As a result, the material displays high metal uptake capacity for heavy metal ions such as Cu{sup 2+} (2.72 mmol g{sup −1}), Pb{sup 2+} (1.67 mmol g{sup −1}) and Cd{sup 2+} (1.00 mmol g{sup −1}) at neutral pH values e.g. the pH of natural waters. Detailed theoretical modeling using a Surface Complexation Model combined with Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy shows that the surface distribution of surface bound Cu{sup 2+} ions is rather homogeneous e.g. copper-binding phosphonate sites are arranged in average distances 5–8 Å.

  10. Hybrid alkali-hydrodynamic disintegration of waste-activated sludge before two-stage anaerobic digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grübel, Klaudiusz; Suschka, Jan

    2015-05-01

    The first step of anaerobic digestion, the hydrolysis, is regarded as the rate-limiting step in the degradation of complex organic compounds, such as waste-activated sludge (WAS). The aim of lab-scale experiments was to pre-hydrolyze the sludge by means of low intensive alkaline sludge conditioning before applying hydrodynamic disintegration, as the pre-treatment procedure. Application of both processes as a hybrid disintegration sludge technology resulted in a higher organic matter release (soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD)) to the liquid sludge phase compared with the effects of processes conducted separately. The total SCOD after alkalization at 9 pH (pH in the range of 8.96-9.10, SCOD = 600 mg O2/L) and after hydrodynamic (SCOD = 1450 mg O2/L) disintegration equaled to 2050 mg/L. However, due to the synergistic effect, the obtained SCOD value amounted to 2800 mg/L, which constitutes an additional chemical oxygen demand (COD) dissolution of about 35 %. Similarly, the synergistic effect after alkalization at 10 pH was also obtained. The applied hybrid pre-hydrolysis technology resulted in a disintegration degree of 28-35%. The experiments aimed at selection of the most appropriate procedures in terms of optimal sludge digestion results, including high organic matter degradation (removal) and high biogas production. The analyzed soft hybrid technology influenced the effectiveness of mesophilic/thermophilic anaerobic digestion in a positive way and ensured the sludge minimization. The adopted pre-treatment technology (alkalization + hydrodynamic cavitation) resulted in 22-27% higher biogas production and 13-28% higher biogas yield. After two stages of anaerobic digestion (mesophilic conditions (MAD) + thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD)), the highest total solids (TS) reduction amounted to 45.6% and was received for the following sample at 7 days MAD + 17 days TAD. About 7% higher TS reduction was noticed compared with the sample after 9

  11. From the Solution Processing of Hydrophilic Molecules to Polymer-Phthalocyanine Hybrid Materials for Ammonia Sensing in High Humidity Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudillat, Pierre; Jurin, Florian; Lakard, Boris; Buron, Cédric; Suisse, Jean-Moïse; Bouvet, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    We have prepared different hybrid polymer-phthalocyanine materials by solution processing, starting from two sulfonated phthalocyanines, s-CoPc and CuTsPc, and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), polyethylene glycol (PEG), poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide) (PAA-AM), poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) and polyaniline (PANI) as polymers. We also studied the response to ammonia (NH3) of resistors prepared from these sensing materials. The solvent casted films, prepared from s-CoPc and PVP, PEG and PAA-AM, were highly insulating and very sensitive to the relative humidity (RH) variation. The incorporation of s-CoPc in PDDA by means of layer-by-layer (LBL) technique allowed to stabilize the film, but was too insulating to be interesting. We also prepared PANI-CuTsPc hybrid films by LBL technique. It allowed a regular deposition as evidenced by the linear increase of the absorbance at 688 nm as a function of the number of bilayers. The sensitivity to ammonia (NH3) of PANi-CuTsPc resistors was very high compared to that of individual materials, giving up to 80% of current decrease when exposed to 30 ppm NH3. Contrarily to what happens with neutral polymers, in PANI, CuTsPc was stabilized by strong electrostatic interactions, leading to a stable response to NH3, whatever the relative humidity in the range 10%–70%. Thus, the synergy of PANI with ionic macrocycles used as counteranions combined with their simple aqueous solution processing opens the way to the development of new gas sensors capable of operating in real world conditions. PMID:25061841

  12. From the solution processing of hydrophilic molecules to polymer-phthalocyanine hybrid materials for ammonia sensing in high humidity atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudillat, Pierre; Jurin, Florian; Lakard, Boris; Buron, Cédric; Suisse, Jean-Moïse; Bouvet, Marcel

    2014-07-24

    We have prepared different hybrid polymer-phthalocyanine materials by solution processing, starting from two sulfonated phthalocyanines, s-CoPc and CuTsPc, and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), polyethylene glycol (PEG), poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide) (PAA-AM), poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) and polyaniline (PANI) as polymers. We also studied the response to ammonia (NH3) of resistors prepared from these sensing materials. The solvent casted films, prepared from s-CoPc and PVP, PEG and PAA-AM, were highly insulating and very sensitive to the relative humidity (RH) variation. The incorporation of s-CoPc in PDDA by means of layer-by-layer (LBL) technique allowed to stabilize the film, but was too insulating to be interesting. We also prepared PANI-CuTsPc hybrid films by LBL technique. It allowed a regular deposition as evidenced by the linear increase of the absorbance at 688 nm as a function of the number of bilayers. The sensitivity to ammonia (NH3) of PANi-CuTsPc resistors was very high compared to that of individual materials, giving up to 80% of current decrease when exposed to 30 ppm NH3. Contrarily to what happens with neutral polymers, in PANI, CuTsPc was stabilized by strong electrostatic interactions, leading to a stable response to NH3, whatever the relative humidity in the range 10%-70%. Thus, the synergy of PANI with ionic macrocycles used as counteranions combined with their simple aqueous solution processing opens the way to the development of new gas sensors capable of operating in real world conditions.

  13. From the Solution Processing of Hydrophilic Molecules to Polymer-Phthalocyanine Hybrid Materials for Ammonia Sensing in High Humidity Atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Gaudillat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We have prepared different hybrid polymer-phthalocyanine materials by solution processing, starting from two sulfonated phthalocyanines, s-CoPc and CuTsPc, and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP, polyethylene glycol (PEG, poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide (PAA-AM, poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA and polyaniline (PANI as polymers. We also studied the response to ammonia (NH3 of resistors prepared from these sensing materials. The solvent casted films, prepared from s-CoPc and PVP, PEG and PAA-AM, were highly insulating and very sensitive to the relative humidity (RH variation. The incorporation of s-CoPc in PDDA by means of layer-by-layer (LBL technique allowed to stabilize the film, but was too insulating to be interesting. We also prepared PANI-CuTsPc hybrid films by LBL technique. It allowed a regular deposition as evidenced by the linear increase of the absorbance at 688 nm as a function of the number of bilayers. The sensitivity to ammonia (NH3 of PANi-CuTsPc resistors was very high compared to that of individual materials, giving up to 80% of current decrease when exposed to 30 ppm NH3. Contrarily to what happens with neutral polymers, in PANI, CuTsPc was stabilized by strong electrostatic interactions, leading to a stable response to NH3, whatever the relative humidity in the range 10%–70%. Thus, the synergy of PANI with ionic macrocycles used as counteranions combined with their simple aqueous solution processing opens the way to the development of new gas sensors capable of operating in real world conditions.

  14. An Efficient Face Recognition System Based On the Hybridization of Pose Invariant and Illumination Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Muruganantham

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the previous decade, one of the most effectual applications of image analysis and indulgent that attracted significant consideration is the human face recognition. One of the diverse techniques used for identifying an individual is the Face recognition. Normally the image variations for the reason that of the change in face identity are less than the variations between the images of the same face under different illumination and viewing angle. Among several factors that manipulate face recognition, illumination and pose are the two major challenges. Pose and illumination variations harshly affect the performance of face recognition. Considerably less effort has been taken to deal with the problem of mutual variations of pose and illumination in face recognition, while several algorithms have been proposed for face recognition from fixed points. In this paper we intend a face recognition method that is forceful to pose and illumination variations. We first put forward a simple pose estimation method based on 2D images, which uses a proper classification rule and image representation to classify a pose of a face image. After that, the image can be assigned to a pose class by a classification rule in a low-dimensional subspace constructed by a feature extraction method. We offer a shadow compensation method that compensates for illumination variation in a face image so that the image can be predictable by a face recognition system designed for images under normal illumination condition. Starting the accomplishment result, it is obvious that our projected technique based on the hybridization system recognizes the face images effectively.

  15. Experimental Validation of Hybrid Distillation-Vapor Permeation Process for Energy Efficient Ethanol-Water Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The energy demand of distillation-based systems for ethanol recovery and dehydration can be significant, particularly for dilute solutions. An alternative separation process integrating vapor stripping with a vapor compression step and a vapor permeation membrane separation step,...

  16. Experimental Validation of Hybrid Distillation-Vapor Permeation Process for Energy Efficient Ethanol-Water Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The energy demand of distillation-based systems for ethanol recovery and dehydration can be significant, particularly for dilute solutions. An alternative separation process integrating vapor stripping with a vapor compression step and a vapor permeation membrane separation step,...

  17. Treatment of welding electrode manufacturing plant wastewater using coagulation/flocculation-nanofiltration as a hybrid process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Golestani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available High water consumption and water scarcity make industrial wastewater reuse necessary, especially in those industries characterized by polluted effluents such as welding electrode manufacturing industries. The present paper investigates the coupling of coagulation-flocculation with nanofiltration (NF to recycle water and reuse it in the process. First, the effect of different concentrations of a mixture of alum (Al2(SO43.18H2O and ferric chloride (FeCl3 on the pretreatment process was closely studied. Then the NF process was applied for complementary treatment. The NF results show that, by increasing both flow rate and transmembrane pressure (TMP, permeate flux is increased. The NF results also show that the COD value decreases below 2 mg/l, TDS rejection approaches 82%, turbidity decreases below 1 NTU and the hardness is lower than the factory constraint (100 mg/l as CaCO3, allowing the reuse of the treated wastewater in the process.

  18. A hybrid CMOS-imager with integrated solution-processable organic photodiodes

    OpenAIRE

    Baierl, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    The solution-processability of organic photodetectors allows a straightforward combination with other materials and technologies, including inorganic ones, without increasing cost and process complexity significantly compared to conventional crystalline semiconductors. Present CMOS-imagers exhibit a small pixel fill factor of about 30 % which decreases the light sensitivity significantly. The fill factor can be increased up to 100 % by replacing the silicon photodiodes with an organic ph...

  19. Enhancing ethylbenzene vapors degradation in a hybrid system based on photocatalytic oxidation UV/TiO{sub 2}-In and a biofiltration process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinojosa-Reyes, M. [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica A.C., Division de Ciencias Ambientales, Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Lomas 4a seccion, CP. 78216, San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. (Mexico); Rodriguez-Gonzalez, V. [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica A.C., Division de Materiales Avanzados, Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Lomas 4a seccion, CP. 78216, San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. (Mexico); Arriaga, S., E-mail: sonia@ipicyt.edu.mx [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica A.C., Division de Ciencias Ambientales, Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Lomas 4a seccion, CP. 78216, San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. (Mexico)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The best photocatalytic system for EB degradation was based on TiO{sub 2}-In 1%/365 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A maximum EC of 290 g m{sup -3} h{sup -1} for the hybrid system was obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hybrid process enhanced 40% the overall EC of ethylbenzene. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An overall mineralization of 67% for EB degradation was reached in the hybrid system. - Abstract: The use of hybrid processes for the continuous degradation of ethylbenzene (EB) vapors has been evaluated. The hybrid system consists of an UV/TiO{sub 2}-In photooxidation coupled with a biofiltration process. Both the photocatalytic system using P25-Degussa or indium-doped TiO{sub 2} catalysts and the photolytic process were performed at UV-wavelengths of 254 nm and 365 nm. The experiments were carried out in an annular plug flow photoreactor packed with granular perlite previously impregnated with the catalysts, and in a glass biofilter packed with perlite and inoculated with a microbial consortium. Both reactors were operated at an inlet loading rate of 127 g m{sup -3} h{sup -1}. The greatest degradation rate of EB (0.414 ng m{sup -2} min{sup -1}) was obtained with the TiO{sub 2}-In 1%/365 nm photocatalytic system. The elimination capacity (EC) obtained in the control biofilter had values {approx}60 g m{sup -3} h{sup -1}. Consequently, the coupled system was operated for 15 days, and a maximal EC of 275 g m{sup -3} h{sup -1}. Thus, the results indicate that the use of hybrid processes enhanced the EB vapor degradation and that this could be a promising technology for the abatement of recalcitrant volatile organic compounds.

  20. Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge with a hybrid process of low pressure wet oxidation and nanofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blöcher, Christoph; Niewersch, Claudia; Melin, Thomas

    2012-04-15

    Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge will become increasingly important within the next decades due to depletion of mineral phosphorus resources. In this work a new process concept was investigated, which aims at realising phosphorus recovery in a synergistic way with the overall sewage sludge treatment scheme. This process combines a low pressure wet oxidation for sewage sludge decomposition as well as phosphorus dissolution and a nanofiltration process to separate phosphorus from heavy metals and obtain a clean diluted phosphoric acid, from which phosphorus can be recovered as clean fertiliser. It was shown that this process concept is feasible for sewage sludge for wastewater treatment plants that apply enhanced biological removal or precipitation with alumina salts for phosphorus removal. The critical parameter for phosphorus dissolution in the low pressure wet oxidation process is the iron concentration, while in the nanofiltration multi-valent cations play a predominant role. In total, a phosphorus recovery of 54% was obtained for an exemplary wastewater treatment plant. Costs of the entire process are in the same range as conventional sewage sludge disposal, with the benefit being phosphorus recovery and reduced emission of greenhouse gases due to avoidance of sludge incineration.

  1. Investigation into environmentally friendly alternative cleaning processes for hybrid microcircuits to replace vapor degreasing with 1,1,1-trichloroethane. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, B.E.

    1997-02-01

    Two cleaning processes, one aqueous and one nonaqueous, were investigated as potential replacements for the vapor degreasing process using 1,1,1 trichloroethane (TCA) for hybrid microcircuit assemblies. The aqueous process was based upon saponification chemistry. A 10% solution of either Kester 5768 or Armakleen 2001, heated to 140 F, was sprayed on the hybrid at 450 psig and a flow rate of 5 gpm through a specially designed nozzle which created microdroplets. The nonaqueous process was based upon dissolution chemistry and used d-limonene as the solvent in an immersion and spray process. The d-limonene solvent was followed by an isopropyl alcohol spray rinse to remove the excess d-limonene. The aqueous microdroplet process was found to be successful only for solder reflow profiles that did not exceed 210 C. Furthermore, removal of component marking was a problem and the spray pressure had to be reduced to 130 psig to eliminate damage to capacitor end caps. The d-limonene cleaning was found to be successful for solder reflow temperature up to 250 C when using a four-step cleaning process. The four steps included refluxing the hybrid at 80 C, followed by soaking the hybrid in d-limonene which is heated to 80 C, followed by spray cleaning at 80 psig with room temperature d-limonene, followed by spray cleaning at 80 psig with room temperature IPA was developed to remove residual flux from the hybrid microcircuits. This process was the most robust and most closely matched the cleaning ability of TCA.

  2. Synthesis of Ag-doped hydrogenated carbon thin films by a hybrid PVD–PECVD deposition process

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Majji Venkatesh; Sukru Taktak; Efstathios I Meletis

    2014-12-01

    Silver-doped hydrogenated amorphous carbon (Ag-DLC) films were deposited on Si substrates using a hybrid plasma vapour deposition–plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PVD–PECVD) process combining Ag target magnetron sputtering and PECVD in an Ar–CH4 plasma. Processing parameters (working pressure, CH4/Ar ratio and magnetron current) were varied to obtain good deposition rate and a wide variety of Ag films. Structure and bonding environment of the films were obtained from transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy studies. Variation of processing parameters was found to produce Ag-doped amorphous carbon or diamond-like carbon (DLC) films with a range of characteristics with CH4/Ar ratio exercising a dominant effect. It was pointed out that Ag concentration and deposition rate of the film increased with the increase in d.c. magnetron current. At higher Ar concentration in plasma, Ag content increased whereas deposition rate of the film decreased. FTIR study showed that the films contained a significant amount of hydrogen and, as a result of an increase in the Ag content in the hydrogenated DLC film, $sp^{2}$ bond content also increased. The TEM cross sectional studies revealed that crystalline Ag particles were formed with a size in the range of 2–4 nm throughout an amorphous DLC matrix.

  3. A closed-loop forward osmosis-nanofiltration hybrid system: Understanding process implications through full-scale simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Phuntsho, Sherub

    2016-12-30

    This study presents simulation of a closed-loop forward osmosis (FO)-nanofiltration (NF) hybrid system using fertiliser draw solution (DS) based on thermodynamic mass balance in a full-scale system neglecting the non-idealities such as finite membrane area that may exist in a real process. The simulation shows that the DS input parameters such as initial concentrations and its flow rates cannot be arbitrarily selected for a plant with defined volume output. For a fixed FO-NF plant capacity and feed concentration, the required initial DS flow rate varies inversely with the initial DS concentration or vice-versa. The net DS mass flow rate, a parameter constant for a fixed plant capacity but that increases linearly with the plant capacity and feed concentration, is the most important operational parameter of a closed-loop system. Increasing either of them or both increases the mass flow rate to the system directly affecting the final concentration of the diluted DS with direct energy implications to the NF process. Besides, the initial DS concentration and flow rates are also limited by the optimum recovery rates at which NF process can be operated which otherwise also have direct implications to the NF energy. This simulation also presents quantitative analysis of the reverse diffusion of fertiliser nutrients towards feed brine and the gradual accumulation of feed solutes within the closed system.

  4. A hybrid cascade control scheme for the VFA and COD regulation in two-stage anaerobic digestion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Acosta, H O; Campos-Rodríguez, A; González-Álvarez, V; García-Sandoval, J P; Snell-Castro, R; Latrille, E

    2016-10-01

    A hybrid (continuous-discrete) cascade control is proposed to regulate both, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations in two-stage (acidogenic-methanogenic) anaerobic digestion (TSAD) processes. The outer loop is a discrete controller that regulates the COD concentration of the methanogenic bioreactor by using a daily off-line measurement and that modifies the set-point tracked by inner loop, which manipulates the dilution rate to regulate the VFA concentration of the acidogenic bioreactor, estimated by continuous on-line conductivity measurements, avoiding acidification. The experimental validation was conducted in a TSAD process for the treatment of tequila vinasses during 110days. Results showed that the proposed cascade control scheme was able to achieve the VFA and COD regulation by using conventional measurements under different set-point values in spite of adverse common scenarios in full-scale anaerobic digestion processes. Microbial composition analysis showed that the controller also favors the abundance and diversity toward methane production.

  5. Synthesis of titanium oxide nanoparticles using DNA-complex as template for solution-processable hybrid dielectric composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, J.C. [Center for Sustainable Materials Chemistry, 153 Gilbert Hall, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Mejia, I.; Murphy, J.; Quevedo, M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Dallas, TX (United States); Garcia, P.; Martinez, C.A. [Engineering and Technology Institute, Autonomous University of Ciudad Juarez, Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • We developed a synthesis method to produce TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles using a DNA complex. • The nanoparticles were anatase phase (~6 nm diameter), and stable in alcohols. • Composites showed a k of 13.4, 4.6 times larger than the k of polycarbonate. • Maximum processing temperature was 90 °C. • Low temperature enables their use in low-voltage, low-cost, flexible electronics. - Abstract: We report the synthesis of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles prepared by the hydrolysis of titanium isopropoxide (TTIP) in the presence of a DNA complex for solution processable dielectric composites. The nanoparticles were incorporated as fillers in polycarbonate at low concentrations (1.5, 5 and 7 wt%) to produce hybrid dielectric films with dielectric constant higher than thermally grown silicon oxide. It was found that the DNA complex plays an important role as capping agent in the formation and suspension stability of nanocrystalline anatase phase TiO{sub 2} at room temperature with uniform size (∼6 nm) and narrow distribution. The effective dielectric constant of spin-cast polycarbonate thin-films increased from 2.84 to 13.43 with the incorporation of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles into the polymer host. These composites can be solution processed with a maximum temperature of 90 °C and could be potential candidates for its application in low-cost macro-electronics.

  6. Hybrid performance measurement of a business process outsourcing - A Malaysian company perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluyinka, Oludapo Samson; Tamyez, Puteri Fadzline; Kie, Cheng Jack; Freida, Ayodele Ozavize

    2017-05-01

    It's no longer new that customer perceived value for product and services are now greatly influenced by its psychological and social advantages. In order to meet up with the increasing operational cost, response time, quality and innovative capabilities many companies turned their fixed operational cost to a variable cost through outsourcing. Hence, the researcher explored different underlying outsourcing theories and infer that these theories are essential to performance improvement. In this study, the researcher evaluates the performance of a business process outsource company by a combination of lean and agile method. To test the hypotheses, we analyze different variability that a business process company faces, how lean and agile have been used in other industry to address such variability and discuss the result using a predictive multiple regression analysis on data collected from companies in Malaysia. The findings from this study revealed that while each method has its own advantage, a business process outsource company could achieve more (up to 87%) increase in performance level by developing a strategy which focuses on a perfect mixture of lean and agile improvement methods. Secondly, this study shows that performance indicator could be better evaluated with non-metrics variables of the agile method. Thirdly, this study also shows that business process outsourcing company could perform better when they concentrate more on strengthening internal process integration of employees.

  7. A hybrid solution using computational prediction and measured data to accurately determine process corrections with reduced overlay sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Ben F.; Mokaberi, Babak; Mandoy, Ram; Pate, Alex; Huijgen, Ralph; McBurney, Mike; Chen, Owen

    2017-03-01

    Reducing overlay error via an accurate APC feedback system is one of the main challenges in high volume production of the current and future nodes in the semiconductor industry. The overlay feedback system directly affects the number of dies meeting overlay specification and the number of layers requiring dedicated exposure tools through the fabrication flow. Increasing the former number and reducing the latter number is beneficial for the overall efficiency and yield of the fabrication process. An overlay feedback system requires accurate determination of the overlay error, or fingerprint, on exposed wafers in order to determine corrections to be automatically and dynamically applied to the exposure of future wafers. Since current and future nodes require correction per exposure (CPE), the resolution of the overlay fingerprint must be high enough to accommodate CPE in the overlay feedback system, or overlay control module (OCM). Determining a high resolution fingerprint from measured data requires extremely dense overlay sampling that takes a significant amount of measurement time. For static corrections this is acceptable, but in an automated dynamic correction system this method creates extreme bottlenecks for the throughput of said system as new lots have to wait until the previous lot is measured. One solution is using a less dense overlay sampling scheme and employing computationally up-sampled data to a dense fingerprint. That method uses a global fingerprint model over the entire wafer; measured localized overlay errors are therefore not always represented in its up-sampled output. This paper will discuss a hybrid system shown in Fig. 1 that combines a computationally up-sampled fingerprint with the measured data to more accurately capture the actual fingerprint, including local overlay errors. Such a hybrid system is shown to result in reduced modelled residuals while determining the fingerprint, and better on-product overlay performance.

  8. Graphene-Inorganic Hybrids with Cobalt Oxide Polymorphs for Electrochemical Energy Systems and Electrocatalysis: Synthesis, Processing and Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sanju; Carrizosa, Sara B.

    2015-11-01

    We report on the synthesis and physical property characterization of graphene-inorganic `hybrid' nanomaterials coupled with nano-/microscale transition metal oxide polymorphs namely, cobalt oxides, i.e. CoO [Co(II)] and Co3O4 [Co(II, III)]), for alternative energy storage and conversion devices. Their demand is owed to higher specific capacitance, wide operational potential window, stability through charge-discharge cycling, environmentally benignity, easily processability, reproducibility and manufacturability. To accomplish this, we strategically designed these hybrids by direct anchoring or physisorption of CoO and CO3O4 on two different variants of graphene: graphene oxide which is semiconducting, and its reduced form showing conducting behavior via mixing dispersions of the constituents under mild ultrasonication and drop-cast (or spray-cast) resulting in different combinations. This facile approach affords strong chemical/physical attachment and is expected to have coupling between the pseudocapacitive transition metal oxides and supercapacitive graphene showing enhanced surface activity/reactivity and reasonable areal density of tailored interfaces. We used a range of complementary tools to establish microscopic structure-property-function correlations including scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy in conjunction with selected-area electron diffraction, and resonance Raman spectroscopy combined with elemental Raman mapping. They reveal surface morphology, local (lattice dynamical) and average structure and surface charge transfer/doping due to physically (or chemically) adsorbed cobalt oxide and highlight the surface structure and interfaces. This lays the groundwork to further investigate the electrochemical properties as high-performance supercapacitor cathodes, rechargeable secondary battery anodes and electrocatalytical platforms.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of AA 6061- Graphene - SiC hybrid nanocomposites processed through microwave sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauhari, Siddhartha; Prashantha Kumar, H. G.; Xavior, . M. Anthony

    2016-09-01

    As one of the most essential industrial and engineering materials, Aluminum alloy 6061 have been extensively used in automobile industries and many engineering applications due to its impending properties like low density, good structural rigidity, feasibility to incorporate and enhance the strength by addition of various reinforcing materials. The essential criteria in enhancing the properties without sacrificing the ductility is always challenging in Aluminum and its alloys based composites. In the recent years, enormous research has been carried on ceramic based and carbon based reinforcement materials used in Aluminum metal matrix composites. But the combination of both is never tried so far due to lack of processing methods. The current research work is carried out to process, synthesize and perform the characterization of Al 6061 matrix nanocomposites with Graphene of flake size 10 μm and SiC of particle size 10 pm as reinforcement combinations in various proportions (weight percentage) which are carried out through powder metallurgy (PM) approach. The powders are processed through ultrasonic liquid processing method and the mixtures were ball milled by adding SiC particles followed by uniaxial hot compaction. Thus prepared compacts are sintered (conventional and microwave) and mechanical properties like hardness, density are investigated as a function of Graphene and SiC concentrations (weight fraction). Relevant strengthening mechanism involved in the Al6061 - Graphene -SiC composites in comparison with monolithic Al 6061 alloy were discussed.

  10. Optimization of the Thermosetting Pultrusion Process by Using Hybrid and Mixed Integer Genetic Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baran, Ismet; Tutum, Cem C.; Hattel, Jesper H.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper thermo-chemical simulation of the pultrusion process of a composite rod is first used as a validation case to ensure that the utilized numerical scheme is stable and converges to results given in literature. Following this validation case, a cylindrical die block with heaters is added

  11. Optimization process planning using hybrid genetic algorithm and intelligent search for job shop machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Mojtaba; Bahreininejad, Ardeshir

    2011-08-01

    Optimization of process planning is considered as the key technology for computer-aided process planning which is a rather complex and difficult procedure. A good process plan of a part is built up based on two elements: (1) the optimized sequence of the operations of the part; and (2) the optimized selection of the machine, cutting tool and Tool Access Direction (TAD) for each operation. In the present work, the process planning is divided into preliminary planning, and secondary/detailed planning. In the preliminary stage, based on the analysis of order and clustering constraints as a compulsive constraint aggregation in operation sequencing and using an intelligent searching strategy, the feasible sequences are generated. Then, in the detailed planning stage, using the genetic algorithm which prunes the initial feasible sequences, the optimized operation sequence and the optimized selection of the machine, cutting tool and TAD for each operation based on optimization constraints as an additive constraint aggregation are obtained. The main contribution of this work is the optimization of sequence of the operations of the part, and optimization of machine selection, cutting tool and TAD for each operation using the intelligent search and genetic algorithm simultaneously.

  12. High performance adaptive image processing on multi-scale hybrid architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Fangbin

    2015-01-01

    In such an exciting age of information explosion, huge amount of visual data are produced continuously 24 hours, 7 days in both daily life and scientific research. Processing and storage of such a huge amount of data forms big challenges. Use of supercomputers tackles the need-for-speed challenge pa

  13. Medium-pressure clathrate hydrate/membrane hybrid process for postcombustion capture of carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linga, Praveen; Adeyemo, Adebola; Englezos, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This study presents a medium-pressure CO2 capture process based on hydrate crystallization in the presence of tetrahydrofuran (THF). THF reduces the incipient equilibrium hydrate formation conditions from a CO2/N2 gas mixture. Relevant thermodynamic data at 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mol % THF were obtained and reported. In addition, the kinetics of hydrate formation from the CO2/N2/ THF system as well as the CO2 recovery and separation efficiency were also determined experimentally at 273.75 K. The above data were utilized to develop the block flow diagram of the proposed process. The process involves three hydrate stages coupled with a membrane-based gas separation process. The there hydrate stages operate at 2.5 MPa and 273.75 K. This operating pressure is substantially less than the pressure required in the absence of THF and hence the compression costs are reduced from 75 to 53% of the power produced for a typical 500 MW power plant.

  14. Optimization of the Thermosetting Pultrusion Process by Using Hybrid and Mixed Integer Genetic Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baran, Ismet; Tutum, Cem C.; Hattel, Jesper H.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper thermo-chemical simulation of the pultrusion process of a composite rod is first used as a validation case to ensure that the utilized numerical scheme is stable and converges to results given in literature. Following this validation case, a cylindrical die block with heaters is added

  15. Prodiag--a hybrid artificial intelligence based reactor diagnostic system for process faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reifman, J.; Wei, T.Y.C.; Vitela, J.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Applequist, C. A. [Commonwealth Research Corp., Chicago, IL (United States); Chasensky, T.M. [Commonwealth Edison Co., Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Commonwealth Research Corporation (CRC) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) are collaborating on a DOE-sponsored Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), project to perform feasibility studies on a novel approach to Artificial Intelligence (Al) based diagnostics for component faults in nuclear power plants. Investigations are being performed in the construction of a first-principles physics-based plant level process diagnostic expert system (ES) and the identification of component-level fault patterns through operating component characteristics using artificial neural networks (ANNs). The purpose of the proof-of-concept project is to develop a computer-based system using this Al approach to assist process plant operators during off-normal plant conditions. The proposed computer-based system will use thermal hydraulic (T-H) signals complemented by other non-T-H signals available in the data stream to provide the process operator with the component which most likely caused the observed process disturbance.To demonstrate the scale-up feasibility of the proposed diagnostic system it is being developed for use with the Chemical Volume Control System (CVCS) of a nuclear power plant. A full-scope operator training simulator representing the Commonwealth Edison Braidwood nuclear power plant is being used both as the source of development data and as the means to evaluate the advantages of the proposed diagnostic system. This is an ongoing multi-year project and this paper presents the results to date of the CRADA phase.

  16. Porphyrinosilica and metalloporphyrinosilica: hybrid organic-inorganic materials prepared by sol-gel processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YASSUKO IAMAMOTO

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available New materials porphyrinosilica and metalloporphyrinosilica template have been obtained by a sol-gel processing where functionalyzed porphyrins and metalloporphyrins "building blocks" were assembled into a three-dimensional silicate network. The optimized conditions for preparation of these materials are revised. The monomer precursors porphyrinopropylsilyl and metalloporphyrinopropylsilyl preparation reactions and subsequent one pot sol-gel processing with tetraethoxysilane are discussed. In the case of metalloporphyrins the nitrogen base coordinates to the central metal and acts as a template in the molecular imprinting technique. UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, electron paramagnetic resonance, nuclear magnetic spectra, infrared spectra, luminescence spectra, surface area and electron spectroscopy imaging of the materials are used to characterize the prepared materials. The catalytic activities of these metalloporphyrinosilica- template are compared.

  17. Excitable laser processing network node in hybrid silicon: analysis and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahmias, Mitchell A; Tait, Alexander N; Shastri, Bhavin J; de Lima, Thomas Ferreira; Prucnal, Paul R

    2015-10-01

    The combination of ultrafast laser dynamics and dense on-chip multiwavelength networking could potentially address new domains of real-time signal processing that require both speed and complexity. We present a physically realistic optoelectronic simulation model of a circuit for dynamical laser neural networks and verify its behavior. We describe the physics, dynamics, and parasitics of one network node, which includes a bank of filters, a photodetector, and excitable laser. This unconventional circuit exhibits both cascadability and fan-in, critical properties for the large-scale networking of information processors based on laser excitability. In addition, it can be instantiated on a photonic integrated circuit platform and requires no off-chip optical I/O. Our proposed processing system could find use in emerging applications, including cognitive radio and low-latency control.

  18. Hybrid Processing Combining Electrostatic Levitation and Laser Heating: Application to Terrestrial Analogues of Asteroid Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul-François Paradis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrostatic levitation combined with laser heating is becoming a mature technique that has been used for several fundamental and applied studies in fluid and materials sciences (synthesis, property determination, solidification studies, atomic dynamic studies, etc.. This is attributable to the numerous processing conditions (containerless, wide heating temperature range, cooling rates, atmospheric compositions, etc. that levitation and radiative heating offer, as well as to the variety of diagnostics tools that can be used. In this paper, we describe the facility, highlighting the combined advantages of electrostatic levitation and laser processing. The various capabilities of the facility are discussed and are exemplified with the measurements of the density of selected iron-nickel alloys taken over the liquid phase.

  19. Performance and dye-degrading bacteria isolation of a hybrid membrane process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Sheng-Jie, E-mail: sjyou@cycu.edu.tw [Department of Bioenvironmental Engineering and R and D Center for Membrane Technology, Chung Yuan Christian University, No. 200, Rd. Chung-Pei, Chungli 320, Taiwan (China); Teng, Jun-Yu, E-mail: nickprometheus@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Civil Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chungli 320, Taiwan (China)

    2009-12-15

    Textile dyeing wastewater contains harmful compounds, which are toxic to both marine organisms and human beings if it discharged into an aquatic environmental without suitable treatment. In this study, the wastewater containing the azo dye, Reactive Black 5 (RB5), was partially treated in an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor which was further treated either in an aerobic membrane bioreactors (AOMBR) or in combined aerobic membrane bioreactor/reverse osmosis (AOMBR/RO) process. The results showed that in the anaerobic sequencing batch reactor the RB5 dye was degraded to form aromatic amine intermediate metabolites, which were further mineralized in the AOMBR. It was also observed that although all effluents from the AOMBR and AOMBR/RO processes met the Taiwan EPA's effluent criteria, irrespective of which membranes were used in the aerobic tank, the effluent from the AOMBR/RO process met the criteria for reuse for toilet flushing, landscaping, irrigation, and cooling water purposes, where as the AOMBR effluent only met the criteria for cooling water due to incomplete color removal. Five anaerobic high dye-degrading bacteria were isolated, which were identified to be the same species of Lactococcus lactis by 16S rRNA sequencing. The L. lactis showed complete degradation of RB5 and further studies showed that it can also able to degrade Reactive Red 120 and Reactive Yellow 84 efficiently within 6 h.

  20. Multi-objective optimization of process parameters in Electro-Discharge Diamond Face Grinding based on ANN-NSGA-II hybrid technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ravindra Nath; Yadava, Vinod; Singh, G. K.

    2013-09-01

    The effective study of hybrid machining processes (HMPs), in terms of modeling and optimization has always been a challenge to the researchers. The combined approach of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II) has attracted attention of researchers for modeling and optimization of the complex machining processes. In this paper, a hybrid machining process of Electrical Discharge Face Grinding (EDFG) and Diamond Face Grinding (DFG) named as Electrical Discharge Diamond face Grinding (EDDFG) have been studied using a hybrid methodology of ANN-NSGA-II. In this study, ANN has been used for modeling while NSGA-II is used to optimize the control parameters of the EDDFG process. For observations of input-output relations, the experiments were conducted on a self developed face grinding setup, which is attached with the ram of EDM machine. During experimentation, the wheel speed, pulse current, pulse on-time and duty factor are taken as input parameters while output parameters are material removal rate (MRR) and average surface roughness ( R a). The results have shown that the developed ANN model is capable to predict the output responses within the acceptable limit for a given set of input parameters. It has also been found that hybrid approach of ANN-NSGAII gives a set of optimal solutions for getting appropriate value of outputs with multiple objectives.

  1. Performance and microbial ecology of the hybrid membrane biofilm process for concurrent nitrification and denitrification of wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, L S; Nerenberg, R

    2007-01-01

    We report on a novel process for total nitrogen (TN) removal, the hybrid membrane biofilm process (HMBP). The HMBP uses air-supplying hollow-fibre membranes inside an activated sludge tank, with suppressed aeration, to allow concurrent nitrification and denitrification. We hypothesised that a nitrifying biofilm would form on the membranes, and that the low bulk-liquid BOD concentrations would encourage heterotrophic denitrifying bacteria to grow in suspension. A nitrifying biofilm was initially established by supplying an influent ammonia concentration of 20 mgN/L. Subsequently, 120 mg/L acetate was added to the influent as BOD. With a bulk-liquid SRT of only 5 days, nitrification rates were 0.85 gN/m(2) per day and the TN removal reached 75%. The biofilm thickness was approximately 500 lim. We used DGGE to obtain a microbial community fingerprint of suspended and attached growth, and prepared a clone library. The DGGE results, along with the clone library and operating data, suggest that nitrifying bacteria were primarily attached to the membranes, while heterotrophic bacteria were predominant in the bulk liquid. Our results demonstrate that the HMBP is effective for TN removal, achieving high levels of nitrification with a low bulk-liquid SRT and concurrently denitrifying with BOD as the sole electron donor.

  2. SYNTHESIS AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF A NOVEL ORGANIC/INORGANIC HYBRID NONLINEAR OPTICAL POLYMER VIA SOL-GEL PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-xia Xi; Zhong Li; Zhao-xi Liang

    2001-01-01

    A new organic/inorganic hybrid nonlinear optical (NLO) material was developed by the sol-gel process of an alkoxysilane dye with tetraethoxysilane. A NLO moiety based on 4-nitro-4′-hydroxy azobenzene was covalently bonded to the triethoxysilane derivative, i.e. γ-isocyanatopropyl triethoxysilane. The preparation process and properties of the sol-gel derived NLO polymer were studied and characterized by SEM, FTIR, 1H-NMR, UV-Vis, DSC and second harmonic generation (SHG) measurement. The results indicated that the chemical bonding of the chromophores to the inorganic SiO2 networks induces Iow dipole alignment relaxation and preferable orientational stability. The SHG measurements also showed that the bonded polymer film containing 75 wt% of the akoxysilane dye has a high electro-optic coefficient (r33) of7. 1 pm/V at 1.1 μm wavelength, and exhibit good SHG stability, the r33 values can maintain about 92.7% of its initial value at room temperature for 90 days, and can maintain about 59.3% at 100℃ for 300 min.``

  3. The uncertainty of atmospheric processes in planning a hybrid renewable energy system for a non-connected island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniil, Vasiliki; Pouliasis, George; Zacharopoulou, Eleni; Demetriou, Evangelos; Manou, Georgia; Chalakatevaki, Maria; Parara, Iliana; Georganta, Xristina; Stamou, Paraskevi; Karali, Sophia; Hadjimitsis, Evanthis; Koudouris, Giannis; Moschos, Evangelos; Roussis, Dimitrios; Papoulakos, Konstantinos; Koskinas, Aristotelis; Pollakis, Giorgos; Gournari, Panagiota; Sakellari, Katerina; Moustakis, Yiannis

    2017-04-01

    Non-connected islands to the electric gird are often depending on oil-fueled power plants with high unit cost. A hybrid energy system with renewable resources such as wind and solar plants could reduce this cost and also offer more environmental friendly solutions. However, atmospheric processes are characterized by high uncertainty that does not permit harvesting and utilizing full of their potential. Therefore, a more sophisticated framework that somehow incorporates this uncertainty could improve the performance of the system. In this context, we describe several stochastic and financial aspects of this framework. Particularly, we investigate the cross-correlation between several atmospheric processes and the energy demand, the possibility of mixing renewable resources with the conventional ones and in what degree of reliability, and critical financial subsystems such as weather derivatives. A pilot application of the above framework is also presented for a remote island in the Aegean Sea. Acknowledgement: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided moral support for the participation of the students in the Assembly. *The "Stochastics in Energy Resources Management (NTUA)" Team: Nikos Mamasis, Andreas Efstratiadis, Hristos Tyralis, Panayiotis Dimitriadis, Theano Iliopoulou, Georgios Karakatsanis, Katerina Tzouka, Ilias Deligiannis, Vicky Tsoukala, Panos Papanicolaou and Demetris Koutsoyiannis

  4. Supercritical CO2 assisted process for the production of high-purity and sterile nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan hybrid scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruphuy, G; Souto-Lopes, M; Paiva, D; Costa, P; Rodrigues, A E; Monteiro, F J; Salgado, C L; Fernandes, M H; Lopes, J C; Dias, M M; Barreiro, M F

    2017-05-04

    Hybrid scaffolds composed of hydroxyapatite (HAp), in particular in its nanometric form (n-HAp), and chitosan (CS) are promising materials for non-load-bearing bone graft applications. The main constraints of their production concern the successful implementation of the final purification/neutralization and sterilization steps. Often, the used purification strategies can compromise scaffold structural features, and conventional sterilization techniques can result in material's thermal degradation and/or contamination with toxic residues. In this context, this work presents a process to produce n-HAp/CS scaffolds mimicking bone composition and structure, where an innovative single step based on supercritical CO2 extraction was used for both purification and sterilization. A removal of 80% of the residual acetic acid was obtained (T = 75°C, p = 8.0 MPa, 2 extraction cycles of 2 h) giving rise to scaffolds exhibiting adequate interconnected porous structure, fast swelling and storage modulus compatible with non-load-bearing applications. Moreover, the obtained scaffolds showed cytocompatibility and osteoconductivity without further need of disinfection/sterilization procedures. Among the main advantages, the proposed process comprises only three steps (n-HAp/CS dispersion preparation; freeze-drying; and supercritical CO2 extraction), and the supercritical CO2 extraction show clear advantages over currently used procedures based on neutralization steps. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Application of a Hybrid Uf-Ro Process to Geothermal Water Desalination. Concentrate Disposal and Cost Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaszewska Barbara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available M embrane-based water desalination processes and hybrid technologies are often considered as a technologically and economically viable alternative for desalination of geothermal waters. This has been confirmed by the results of pilot studies concerning the UF-RO desalination of geothermal waters extracted from various geological structures in Poland. The assessment of the feasibility of implementing the water desalination process analysed on an industrial scale is largely dependent on the method and possibility of disposing or utilising the concentrate. The analyses conducted in this respect have demonstrated that it is possible to use the solution obtained as a balneological product owing to its elevated metasilicic acid, fluorides and iodides ions content. Due to environmental considerations, injecting the concentrate back into the formation is the preferable solution. The energy efficiency and economic analysis conducted demonstrated that the cost effectiveness of implementing the UF-RO process in a geothermal system on an industrial scale largely depends on the factors related to its operation, including without limitation the amount of geothermal water extracted, water salinity, the absorption parameters of the wells used to inject water back into the formation, the scale of problems related to the disposal of cooled water, local demand for drinking and household water, etc. The decrease in the pressure required to inject water into the formation as well as the reduction in the stream of the water injected are among the key cost-effectiveness factors. Ensuring favourable desalinated water sale terms (price/quantity is also a very important consideration owing to the electrical power required to conduct the UF-RO process.

  6. Hybrid Integrated Si/SiN Platforms for Wideband Optical Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-08

    through an aligned EBL, selective dry etching of the ALD oxide in F-based plasma to reach to Si pedestal, followed by an e-beam evaporation of a 500 nm...DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for public release. 6 comparing plasma -enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), ALD, and hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ... etching processes to carve out channels of 10 μm width with 250 μm spacing from each other. As shown in Figure 1-d, by adding these "vent channels

  7. Application of the hybrid complexation-ultrafiltration process for metal ion removal from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng Jianxian [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201 (China) and College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)], E-mail: zengjianxian@163.com; Ye Hongqi [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Hu Zhongyu [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201 (China)

    2009-01-30

    Complexation-ultrafiltration process was investigated for mercury and cadmium removal from aqueous solutions by using poly(acrylic acid) sodium salt (PAASS) as a complexing agent. The kinetics of complexation reactions of PAASS with the metal ions were studied under a large excess PAASS and pH 5.5. It takes 25 and 50 min for mercury and cadmium to get the complexation equilibrium, respectively, and the reaction kinetics can be described by a pseudo-first-order equation. Effects of various operating parameters such as loading ratios, pH values, etc. on metal rejection coefficients (R) were investigated. In the process of concentration, membrane fluxes decline slowly and R values are about 1. The concentrated retentates were used further for the decomplexation. The decomplexation ratio of mercury-PAASS complex is about 30%, whereas that of cadmium-PAASS complex reaches 93.5%. After the decomplexation, diafiltration experiments were carried out at pH 2.5. Cadmium can be diafiltrated satisfactorily from the retentate, but for mercury it is the contrary. Selective separation of the both metal ions was studied from a binary solution at pH 5. When mercury, cadmium and PAASS concentrations are 30, 30 and 40 mg L{sup -1}, respectively, mercury is retained by ultrafiltration while almost all cadmium passes through the membrane.

  8. Application of the hybrid complexation-ultrafiltration process for metal ion removal from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jianxian; Ye, Hongqi; Hu, Zhongyu

    2009-01-30

    Complexation-ultrafiltration process was investigated for mercury and cadmium removal from aqueous solutions by using poly(acrylic acid) sodium salt (PAASS) as a complexing agent. The kinetics of complexation reactions of PAASS with the metal ions were studied under a large excess PAASS and pH 5.5. It takes 25 and 50 min for mercury and cadmium to get the complexation equilibrium, respectively, and the reaction kinetics can be described by a pseudo-first-order equation. Effects of various operating parameters such as loading ratios, pH values, etc. on metal rejection coefficients (R) were investigated. In the process of concentration, membrane fluxes decline slowly and R values are about 1. The concentrated retentates were used further for the decomplexation. The decomplexation ratio of mercury-PAASS complex is about 30%, whereas that of cadmium-PAASS complex reaches 93.5%. After the decomplexation, diafiltration experiments were carried out at pH 2.5. Cadmium can be diafiltrated satisfactorily from the retentate, but for mercury it is the contrary. Selective separation of the both metal ions was studied from a binary solution at pH 5. When mercury, cadmium and PAASS concentrations are 30, 30 and 40 mg L(-1), respectively, mercury is retained by ultrafiltration while almost all cadmium passes through the membrane.

  9. A Hybrid Fuzzy Analytic Network Process Approach to the New Product Development Selection Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiuh-Cheng Chyu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New product development selection is a complex decision-making process. To uphold their competence in competitive business environments, enterprises are required to continuously introduce novel products into markets. This paper presents a fuzzy analytic network process (FANP for solving the product development selection problem. The fuzzy set theory is adopted to represent ambiguities and vagueness involved in each expert’s judgment. In the proposed model, the fuzzy Kano method and fuzzy DEMATEL are employed to filter criteria and establish interactions among the criteria, whereas the SAM is applied to aggregate experts’ opinions. Unlike the commonly used top-down relation-structuring approach, the proposed FANP first identifies the interdependence among the criteria and then the identified relationships are mapped to the clusters. This approach is more realistic, since the inner and outer relationships between criteria are simultaneously considered to establish the relationships among clusters. The proposed model is illustrated through a real life example, with a comparative analysis using modified TOPSIS and gray relation analysis in the synthesizing phase. The concluded results were approved by the case company. The proposed methodology not only is useful in the case study, but also can be generally applied in other similar decision situations.

  10. Solution-processed zinc oxide nanoparticles/single-walled carbon nanotubes hybrid thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fangmei; Sun, Jia; Qian, Chuan; Hu, Xiaotao; Wu, Han; Huang, Yulan; Yang, Junliang

    2016-09-01

    Solution-processed thin-film transistors (TFTs) are the essential building blocks for manufacturing the low-cost and large-area consumptive electronics. Herein, solution-processed TFTs based on the composites of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were fabricated by the methods of spin-coating and doctor-blading. Through controlling the weight of SWCNTs, the ZnO/SWCNTs TFTs fabricated by spin-coating demonstrated a field-effect mobility of 4.7 cm2/Vs and a low threshold voltage of 0.8 V, while the TFTs devices fabricated by doctor-blading technique showed reasonable electrical performance with a mobility of 0.22 cm2/Vs. Furthermore, the ion-gel was used as an efficient electrochemical gate dielectric because of its large electric double-layer capacitance. The operating voltage of all the TFTs devices is as low as 4.0 V. The research suggests that ZnO/SWCNTs TFTs have the potential applications in low-cost, large-area and flexible consumptive electronics, such as chemical-biological sensors and smart label.

  11. Feasibility study for the treatment of municipal wastewater by using a hybrid bio-solar process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwal, Anjali; Chaudhary, Rubina

    2016-07-15

    A moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) coupled with solar parabolic structured system has been designed and developed to get the maximum organic load removal and microbial disinfection from the wastewater. The effluent was first subjected to organic degradation in MBBR (with optimized carrier filling rate of 30%) followed by the bacterial degradation using solar energy in parabolic trough and the changes in values of parameters like pH, turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), bio-chemical oxygen demand (BOD) and microbial count were monitored. The titanium dioxide (TiO2) was used as a photocatalyst for the removal of organic load from the wastewater but in optimized conditions. At optimum dose of 1.0 g/L of TiO2 and pH value of 7.6, maximum COD removal of 69% and 13% was achieved at sunny days (solar irradiation 400-700 W m(-2)) and cloudy days (solar irradiation 170-250 W m(-2)) respectively within 5-6 h solar irradiation time. The results obtained showed that it is possible to decrease in six logarithms (log) the concentration of TC and FC within only 240 min of solar exposure. Moreover, this process can offer economically reasonable, chemical free and practical solution to the processing of municipal wastewater where solar intensity is readily available and can be used for making zero liquid discharge (ZLD) an effective reality.

  12. Optimization of process parameters in CNC turning of aluminium alloy using hybrid RSM cum TLBO approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudrapati, R.; Sahoo, P.; Bandyopadhyay, A.

    2016-09-01

    The main aim of the present work is to analyse the significance of turning parameters on surface roughness in computer numerically controlled (CNC) turning operation while machining of aluminium alloy material. Spindle speed, feed rate and depth of cut have been considered as machining parameters. Experimental runs have been conducted as per Box-Behnken design method. After experimentation, surface roughness is measured by using stylus profile meter. Factor effects have been studied through analysis of variance. Mathematical modelling has been done by response surface methodology, to made relationships between the input parameters and output response. Finally, process optimization has been made by teaching learning based optimization (TLBO) algorithm. Predicted turning condition has been validated through confirmatory experiment.

  13. Effect of hybrid fiber reinforcement on the cracking process in fiber reinforced cementitious composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Eduardo B.; Fischer, Gregor; Barros, Joaquim A.O.

    2012-01-01

    The simultaneous use of different types of fibers as reinforcement in cementitious matrix composites is typically motivated by the underlying principle of a multi-scale nature of the cracking processes in fiber reinforced cementitious composites. It has been hypothesized that while undergoing...... tensile deformations in the composite, the fibers with different geometrical and mechanical properties restrain the propagation and further development of cracking at different scales from the micro- to the macro-scale. The optimized design of the fiber reinforcing systems requires the objective...... assessment of the contribution of each type of fiber to the overall tensile response. Possible synergistic effects resulting from particular combinations of fibers need to be clearly identified. In the present study, the evaluation of the response of different fiber reinforced cementitious composite...

  14. Novel antifoam for fermentation processes: fluorocarbon-hydrocarbon hybrid unsymmetrical bolaform surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calik, Pinar; Ileri, Nazar; Erdinç, Burak I; Aydogan, Nihal; Argun, Muharrem

    2005-09-13

    As foaming appears as a problem in chemical and fermentation processes that inhibits reactor performance, the eminence of a novel fluorocarbon-hydrocarbon unsymmetrical bolaform (FHUB: OH(CH2)11N+(C2H4)2(CH2)2(CF2)5CF3 I-) surfactant as an antifoaming agent as well as a foam-reducing agent was investigated and compared with other surfactants and a commercial antifoaming agent. The surface elasticity of FHUB was determined as 4 mN/m, indicating its high potential on thinning of the foam film. The interactions between FHUB and the microoganism were investigated in a model fermentation process related with an enzyme production by recombinant Escherichia coli, in V = 3.0 dm3 bioreactor systems with V(R) = 1.65 dm3 working volume at air inlet rate of Q(o)/V(R) = 0.5 dm3 dm(-3) min(-1) and agitation rate of N = 500 min(-1) oxygen transfer conditions, at T = 37 degrees C, pH(o) = 7.2, and C(FHUB) = 0 and 0.1 mM, in a glucose-based defined medium. As FHUB did not influence the metabolism, specific enzyme activity values obtained with and without FHUB were close to each other; however, because of the slight decrease in oxygen transfer coefficient, slightly lower volumetric enzyme activity and cell concentrations were obtained. However, when FHUB is compared with widely used silicon oil based Antifoam A, with the use of the FHUB, higher physical oxygen transfer coefficient (K(L)a) values are obtained. Moreover, as the amount required for the foam control is very low, minute changes in the working volume of the bioreactor were obtained indicating the high potential of the use of FHUB as an antifoaming agent as well as a foam-reducing agent.

  15. Preparation and characterization of hybrid materials of epoxy resin type bisphenol a with silicon and titanium oxides by sol-gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrillo C, A.; Osuna A, J. G., E-mail: acc.carrillo@gmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Coahuila, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Blvd. Venustiano Carranza y Jose Cardenas Valdes, 25000 Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico)

    2011-07-01

    Hybrid materials were synthesized from epoxy resins as a result bisphenol type A-silicon oxide and epoxy resin bisphenol type A-titanium oxide were obtained. The synthesis was done by sol-gel process using tetraethyl orthosilicate (Teos) and titanium isopropoxide (I Ti) as inorganic precursors. The molar ratio of bisphenol A to the inorganic precursors was the studied variable. The materials were characterized by thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The hybrid nature of the materials was demonstrated through thermal analysis and infrared spectroscopy. In both systems, as the amount of alkoxide increased, the bands described above were more defined. This behavior indicates the interactions between the resin and the alkoxides. Hybrids with Teos showed a smoother and homogeneous surface in its entirety, without irregularities. Hybrids with titanium isopropoxide had low roughness. Both Teos and I Ti hybrids showed a decrease on the atomic weight percentage of carbon due to a slight reduction of the organic part on the surface. (Author)

  16. Membrane flux dynamics in the submerged ultrafiltration hybrid treatment process during particle and natural organic matter removal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Xiaojian Zhang; Yonghong Li; Jun Wang; Chao Chen

    2011-01-01

    Particles and natural organic matter (NOM) are two major concerns in surface water,which greatly influence the membrane filtration process.The objective of this article is to investigate the effect of particles,NOM and their interaction on the submerged ultrafiltration (UF) membrane flux under conditions of solo UF and coagulation and PAC adsorption as the pretreatment of UF.Particles,NOM and their mixture were spiked in tap water to simulate raw water.Exponential relationship,(JP/JP0 =axexp{-k[t-(n- 1)T]}),was developed to quantify the normalized membrane flux dynamics during the filtration period and fitted the results well.In this equation,coefficient a was determined by the value of Jp/Jp0 at the beginning of a filtration cycle,reflecting the flux recovery after backwashing,that is,the irreversible fouling.The coefficient k reflected the trend of flux dynamics.Integrated total permeability (ΣJp) in one filtration period could be used as a quantified indicator for comparison of different hybrid membrane processes or under different scenarios.According to the results,there was an additive effect on membrane flux by NOM and particles during solo UF process.This additive fouling could be alleviated by coagulation pretreatment since particles helped the formation of flocs with coagulant,which further delayed the decrease of membrane flux and benefited flux recovery by backwashing.The addition of PAC also increased membrane flux by adsorbing NOM and improved flux recovery through backwashing.

  17. A stepwise recovery of metals from hybrid cathodes of spent Li-ion batteries with leaching-flotation-precipitation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanfang; Han, Guihong; Liu, Jiongtian; Chai, Wencui; Wang, Wenjuan; Yang, Shuzhen; Su, Shengpeng

    2016-09-01

    The recovering of valuable metals in spent lithium-ion battery cathodes brings about economic and environmental benefits. A stepwise leaching-flotation-precipitation process is adopted to separate and recover Li/Fe/Mn from the mixed types of cathode materials (hybrid wastes of LiFePO4 and LiMn2O4). The optimal operating conditions for the stepwise recovery process are determined and analyzed by factorial design, thermodynamics calculation, XRD and SEM characterization in this study. First, Li/Fe/Mn ions are released from the cathode using HCl assisted with H2O2 in the acid leaching step. The leachability of metals follows the series Li > Fe > Mn in the acidic environment. Then Fe3+ ions are selectively floated and recovered as FeCl3 from the leachate in the flotation step. Finally, Mn2+/Mn3+ and Li+ ions are sequentially precipitated and separated as MnO2/Mn2O3 and Li3PO4 using saturated KMnO4 solution and hot saturated Na3PO4 solution, respectively. Under the optimized and advisable conditions, the total recovery of Li, Fe and Mn is respectively 80.93 ± 0.16%, 85.40 ± 0.12% and 81.02 ± 0.08%. The purity for lithium, ferrum and manganese compounds is respectively 99.32 ± 0.07%, 97.91 ± 0.05% and 98.73 ± 0.05%. This stepwise process could provide an alternative way for the effective separation and recovery of metal values from spent Li-ion battery cathodes in industry.

  18. INVESTIGATION OF HYBRID OXIDATION PROCESSES (UV/TIO2/H2O2) FOR SELECTED ORGANIC MICROPOLLUTANTS ELIMINATION AND CHANGE OF WATER TOXICITY

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    All of the available and applicable chemical oxidants were found to affect the quality of the treated water or wastewater. It has been commonly observed that the oxidation processes generate by-products, which often possess unknown biological activity. Accordingly, the present study assessed the degree of degradation of mixture of selected micropollutants and the change of the solution toxicity in the UV/TiO2/H2O2 hybrid process. Water containing bisphenol A and diclofenac at a concentration ...

  19. Hybrid digital signal processing and neural networks for automated diagnostics using NDE methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyaya, B.R.; Yan, W. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1993-11-01

    The primary purpose of the current research was to develop an integrated approach by combining information compression methods and artificial neural networks for the monitoring of plant components using nondestructive examination data. Specifically, data from eddy current inspection of heat exchanger tubing were utilized to evaluate this technology. The focus of the research was to develop and test various data compression methods (for eddy current data) and the performance of different neural network paradigms for defect classification and defect parameter estimation. Feedforward, fully-connected neural networks, that use the back-propagation algorithm for network training, were implemented for defect classification and defect parameter estimation using a modular network architecture. A large eddy current tube inspection database was acquired from the Metals and Ceramics Division of ORNL. These data were used to study the performance of artificial neural networks for defect type classification and for estimating defect parameters. A PC-based data preprocessing and display program was also developed as part of an expert system for data management and decision making. The results of the analysis showed that for effective (low-error) defect classification and estimation of parameters, it is necessary to identify proper feature vectors using different data representation methods. The integration of data compression and artificial neural networks for information processing was established as an effective technique for automation of diagnostics using nondestructive examination methods.

  20. Hybrid Membrane/Absorption Process for Post-combustion CO2 Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shiguang; Shou, S.; Pyrzynski, Travis; Makkuni, Ajay; Meyer, Howard

    2013-12-31

    This report summarizes scientific/technical progress made for bench-scale membrane contactor technology for post-combustion CO2 capture from DOE Contract No. DE-FE-0004787. Budget Period 1 (BP1) membrane absorber, Budget Period 2 (BP2) membrane desorber and Budget Period 3 (BP3) integrated system and field testing studies have been completed successfully and met or exceeded the technical targets (≥ 90% CO2 removal and CO2 purity of 97% in one membrane stage). Significant breakthroughs are summarized below: BP1 research: The feasibility of utilizing the poly (ether ether ketone), PEEK, based hollow fiber contractor (HFC) in combination with chemical solvents to separate and capture at least 90% of the CO2 from simulated flue gases has been successfully established. Excellent progress has been made as we have achieved the BP1 goal: ≥ 1,000 membrane intrinsic CO2 permeance, ≥ 90% CO2 removal in one stage, ≤ 2 psi gas side pressure drop, and ≥ 1 (sec)-1 mass transfer coefficient. Initial test results also show that the CO2 capture performance, using activated Methyl Diethanol Amine (aMDEA) solvent, was not affected by flue gas contaminants O2 (~3%), NO2 (66 ppmv), and SO2 (145 ppmv). BP2 research: The feasibility of utilizing the PEEK HFC for CO2-loaded solvent regeneration has been successfully established High CO2 stripping flux, one order of magnitude higher than CO2 absorption flux, have been achieved. Refined economic evaluation based on BP1 membrane absorber and BP2 membrane desorber laboratory test data indicate that the CO2 capture costs are 36% lower than DOE’s benchmark amine absorption technology. BP3 research: A bench-scale system utilizing a membrane absorber and desorber was integrated into a continuous CO2 capture process using contactors containing 10 to 20 ft2 of membrane area. The integrated process operation was stable through a 100-hour laboratory test, utilizing a simulated flue gas stream. Greater than 90% CO2 capture combined with 97

  1. Decreasing Data Analytics Time: Hybrid Architecture MapReduce-Massive Parallel Processing for a Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdeslam Mehenni

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As our populations grow in a world of limited resources enterprise seek ways to lighten our load on the planet. The idea of modifying consumer behavior appears as a foundation for smart grids. Enterprise demonstrates the value available from deep analysis of electricity consummation histories, consumers’ messages, and outage alerts, etc. Enterprise mines massive structured and unstructured data. In a nutshell, smart grids result in a flood of data that needs to be analyzed, for better adjust to demand and give customers more ability to delve into their power consumption. Simply put, smart grids will increasingly have a flexible data warehouse attached to them. The key driver for the adoption of data management strategies is clearly the need to handle and analyze the large amounts of information utilities are now faced with. New approaches to data integration are nauseating moment; Hadoop is in fact now being used by the utility to help manage the huge growth in data whilst maintaining coherence of the Data Warehouse. In this paper we define a new Meter Data Management System Architecture repository that differ with three leaders MDMS, where we use MapReduce programming model for ETL and Parallel DBMS in Query statements(Massive Parallel Processing MPP.

  2. Hybrid Orbital and Numerical Grid Representationfor Electronic Continuum Processes: Double Photoionization of Atomic Beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yip, Frank L; McCurdy, C. William; Rescigno, Thomas N

    2010-04-19

    A general approach for ab initio calculations of electronic continuum processes is described in which the many-electron wave function is expanded using a combination of orbitals at short range and the finite-element discrete variable representation(FEM-DVR) at larger distances. The orbital portion of the basis allows the efficient construction of many-electron configurations in which some of the electrons are bound, but because the orbitals are constructed from an underlying FEM-DVR grid, the calculation of two-electron integrals retains the efficiency of the primitive FEM-DVR approach. As an example, double photoionization of beryllium is treated in a calculation in which the 1s{sup 2} core is frozen. This approach extends the use of exterior complex scaling (ECS) successfully applied to helium and H{sub 2} to calculations with two active electrons on more complicated targets. Integrated, energy-differential and triply-differential cross sections are exhibited, and the results agree well with other theoretical investigations.

  3. Load balancing prediction method of cloud storage based on analytic hierarchy process and hybrid hierarchical genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiuze; Lin, Fan; Yang, Lvqing; Nie, Jing; Tan, Qian; Zeng, Wenhua; Zhang, Nian

    2016-01-01

    With the continuous expansion of the cloud computing platform scale and rapid growth of users and applications, how to efficiently use system resources to improve the overall performance of cloud computing has become a crucial issue. To address this issue, this paper proposes a method that uses an analytic hierarchy process group decision (AHPGD) to evaluate the load state of server nodes. Training was carried out by using a hybrid hierarchical genetic algorithm (HHGA) for optimizing a radial basis function neural network (RBFNN). The AHPGD makes the aggregative indicator of virtual machines in cloud, and become input parameters of predicted RBFNN. Also, this paper proposes a new dynamic load balancing scheduling algorithm combined with a weighted round-robin algorithm, which uses the predictive periodical load value of nodes based on AHPPGD and RBFNN optimized by HHGA, then calculates the corresponding weight values of nodes and makes constant updates. Meanwhile, it keeps the advantages and avoids the shortcomings of static weighted round-robin algorithm.

  4. Modelling Efficient Process Oriented Architecture for Secure Mobile Commerce Using Hybrid Routing Protocol in Mobile Adhoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra Kiran N

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The proposed research work presents a novel approach of process oriented architecture for secure mobile commerce framework using uniquely designed hybrid mobile adhoc routing protocols using reactive and proactive type in real time test-bed. The research work discusses about deployment of mobile commerce which is one of the emerging trend in mobile applications with huge demands. Majority of the existing system lacks either QoS or efficient security protocol when it relates to secure mobile transaction due to the reason that development in wireless technology involved in m-commerce is still in its nascent stage. The real time test bed has been implemented with 20 Intel Atom processor with 32 bit OS establishing an adhoc network and by providing a random mobility to achieve any file type transfer from node to node. For the real-time set up purpose, the experiment is conducted in wireless infrastructure with mobility using G-based Linksys wireless router. Iteration of experiments conducted shows a satisfactory results. This research journal will provide insights with various parameters, security requirements, and concepts which is required in creating a robust model for secure m-commerce system.

  5. A Hybrid Stochastic-Interval Analytic Hierarchy Process Approach for Prioritizing the Strategies of Reusing Treated Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Jing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a hybrid stochastic-interval analytic hierarchy process (SIAHP approach to address uncertainty in group decision making by integrating interval judgment, probabilistic distribution, lexicographic goal programming, and Monte Carlo simulation. A case study related to wastewater treatment plant (WWTP effluent reuse was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach. Four candidate alternatives including city moat landscaping, municipal reuse, industrial reuse, and agricultural irrigation were evaluated by five experts according to technical, economic, and environmental criteria. The results suggest that industrial reuse (0.18–0.3 is more preferred over municipal reuse (0.16–0.25 or agricultural irrigation (0.17–0.26 in most replications. The final score of city moat landscaping ranges from 0.11 to 0.31 which indicates a great divergence of expert opinions. It can be concluded that choosing industrial reuse seems to give the best overall account of technical, economic, and environmental concerns. The proposed SIAHP approach can aid group decision making by accommodating linguistic information and dealing with insufficient information or biased opinions.

  6. A hybrid approach identifies metabolic signatures of high-producers for chinese hamster ovary clone selection and process optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Oliver; Müller, Dirk; Didzus, Katharina; Paul, Wolfgang; Lipsmeier, Florian; Kirchner, Florian; Niklas, Jens; Mauch, Klaus; Beaucamp, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    In-depth characterization of high-producer cell lines and bioprocesses is vital to ensure robust and consistent production of recombinant therapeutic proteins in high quantity and quality for clinical applications. This requires applying appropriate methods during bioprocess development to enable meaningful characterization of CHO clones and processes. Here, we present a novel hybrid approach for supporting comprehensive characterization of metabolic clone performance. The approach combines metabolite profiling with multivariate data analysis and fluxomics to enable a data-driven mechanistic analysis of key metabolic traits associated with desired cell phenotypes. We applied the methodology to quantify and compare metabolic performance in a set of 10 recombinant CHO-K1 producer clones and a host cell line. The comprehensive characterization enabled us to derive an extended set of clone performance criteria that not only captured growth and product formation, but also incorporated information on intracellular clone physiology and on metabolic changes during the process. These criteria served to establish a quantitative clone ranking and allowed us to identify metabolic differences between high-producing CHO-K1 clones yielding comparably high product titers. Through multivariate data analysis of the combined metabolite and flux data we uncovered common metabolic traits characteristic of high-producer clones in the screening setup. This included high intracellular rates of glutamine synthesis, low cysteine uptake, reduced excretion of aspartate and glutamate, and low intracellular degradation rates of branched-chain amino acids and of histidine. Finally, the above approach was integrated into a workflow that enables standardized high-content selection of CHO producer clones in a high-throughput fashion. In conclusion, the combination of quantitative metabolite profiling, multivariate data analysis, and mechanistic network model simulations can identify metabolic

  7. Hybrid halide perovskite solar cell precursors: colloidal chemistry and coordination engineering behind device processing for high efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Keyou; Long, Mingzhu; Zhang, Tiankai; Wei, Zhanhua; Chen, Haining; Yang, Shihe; Xu, Jianbin

    2015-04-01

    The precursor of solution-processed perovskite thin films is one of the most central components for high-efficiency perovskite solar cells. We first present the crucial colloidal chemistry visualization of the perovskite precursor solution based on analytical spectra and reveal that perovskite precursor solutions for solar cells are generally colloidal dispersions in a mother solution, with a colloidal size up to the mesoscale, rather than real solutions. The colloid is made of a soft coordination complex in the form of a lead polyhalide framework between organic and inorganic components and can be structurally tuned by the coordination degree, thereby primarily determining the basic film coverage and morphology of deposited thin films. By utilizing coordination engineering, particularly through employing additional methylammonium halide over the stoichiometric ratio for tuning the coordination degree and mode in the initial colloidal solution, along with a thermal leaching for the selective release of excess methylammonium halides, we achieved full and even coverage, the preferential orientation, and high purity of planar perovskite thin films. We have also identified that excess organic component can reduce the colloidal size of and tune the morphology of the coordination framework in relation to final perovskite grains and partial chlorine substitution can accelerate the crystalline nucleation process of perovskite. This work demonstrates the important fundamental chemistry of perovskite precursors and provides genuine guidelines for accurately controlling the high quality of hybrid perovskite thin films without any impurity, thereby delivering efficient planar perovskite solar cells with a power conversion efficiency as high as 17% without distinct hysteresis owing to the high quality of perovskite thin films.

  8. Hybrid Finite-Discrete Element Simulation of the EDZ Formation and Mechanical Sealing Process Around a Microtunnel in Opalinus Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisjak, Andrea; Tatone, Bryan S. A.; Mahabadi, Omid K.; Grasselli, Giovanni; Marschall, Paul; Lanyon, George W.; Vaissière, Rémi de la; Shao, Hua; Leung, Helen; Nussbaum, Christophe

    2016-05-01

    The analysis and prediction of the rock mass disturbance around underground excavations are critical components of the performance and safety assessment of deep geological repositories for nuclear waste. In the short term, an excavation damaged zone (EDZ) tends to develop due to the redistribution of stresses around the underground openings. The EDZ is associated with an increase in hydraulic conductivity of several orders of magnitude. In argillaceous rocks, sealing mechanisms ultimately lead to a partial reduction in the effective hydraulic conductivity of the EDZ with time. The goal of this study is to strengthen the understanding of the phenomena involved in the EDZ formation and sealing in Opalinus Clay, an indurated claystone currently being assessed as a host rock for a geological repository in Switzerland. To achieve this goal, hybrid finite-discrete element method (FDEM) simulations are performed. With its explicit consideration of fracturing processes, FDEM modeling is applied to the HG-A experiment, an in situ test carried out at the Mont Terri underground rock laboratory to investigate the hydro-mechanical response of a backfilled and sealed microtunnel. A quantitative simulation of the EDZ formation process around the microtunnel is first carried out, and the numerical results are compared with field observations. Then, the re-compression of the EDZ under the effect of a purely mechanical loading, capturing the increase of swelling pressure from the backfill onto the rock, is considered. The simulation results highlight distinctive rock failure kinematics due to the bedded structure of the rock mass. Also, fracture termination is simulated at the intersection with a pre-existing discontinuity, representing a fault plane oblique to the bedding orientation. Simulation of the EDZ re-compression indicates an overall reduction of the total fracture area as a function of the applied pressure, with locations of ineffective sealing associated with self

  9. Feature Geo Analytics and Big Data Processing: Hybrid Approaches for Earth Science and Real-Time Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, D. J.; Raad, M.; Hoel, E.; Park, M.; Mollenkopf, A.; Trujillo, R.

    2016-12-01

    Introduced is a new approach for processing spatiotemporal big data by leveraging distributed analytics and storage. A suite of temporally-aware analysis tools summarizes data nearby or within variable windows, aggregates points (e.g., for various sensor observations or vessel positions), reconstructs time-enabled points into tracks (e.g., for mapping and visualizing storm tracks), joins features (e.g., to find associations between features based on attributes, spatial relationships, temporal relationships or all three simultaneously), calculates point densities, finds hot spots (e.g., in species distributions), and creates space-time slices and cubes (e.g., in microweather applications with temperature, humidity, and pressure, or within human mobility studies). These "feature geo analytics" tools run in both batch and streaming spatial analysis mode as distributed computations across a cluster of servers on typical "big" data sets, where static data exist in traditional geospatial formats (e.g., shapefile) locally on a disk or file share, attached as static spatiotemporal big data stores, or streamed in near-real-time. In other words, the approach registers large datasets or data stores with ArcGIS Server, then distributes analysis across a cluster of machines for parallel processing. Several brief use cases will be highlighted based on a 16-node server cluster at 14 Gb RAM per node, allowing, for example, the buffering of over 8 million points or thousands of polygons in 1 minute. The approach is "hybrid" in that ArcGIS Server integrates open-source big data frameworks such as Apache Hadoop and Apache Spark on the cluster in order to run the analytics. In addition, the user may devise and connect custom open-source interfaces and tools developed in Python or Python Notebooks; the common denominator being the familiar REST API.

  10. Hybridizing Daphnia communities from ten neighbouring lakes: spatio-temporal dynamics, local processes, gene flow and invasiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Mingbo; Gießler, Sabine; Griebel, Johanna; Wolinska, Justyna

    2014-04-12

    In natural communities of cyclical parthenogens, rapid response to environmental change is enabled by switching between two reproduction modes. While long periods of asexual reproduction allow some clones to outcompete others, and may result in "clonal erosion", sexual reproduction restores genetic variation in such systems. Moreover, sexual reproduction may result in the formation of interspecific hybrids. These hybrids can then reach high abundances, through asexual clonal reproduction. In the present study, we explored genetic variation in water fleas of the genus Daphnia. The focus was on the short-term dynamics within several clonal assemblages from the hybridizing Daphnia longispina complex and the impact of gene flow at small spatial scales. Daphnia individuals belonged either to the parental species D. galeata and D. longispina, or to different hybrid classes, as identified by 15 microsatellite markers. The distribution and genotypic structure of parental species, but not hybrids, corresponded well with the geographical positions of the lakes. Within parental species, the genetic distance among populations of D. galeata was lower than among populations of D. longispina. Moreover, D. galeata dominance was associated with higher phosphorous load. Finally, there was no evidence for clonal erosion. Our results suggest that the contemporary structure of hybridizing Daphnia communities from ten nearby lakes is influenced by colonization events from neighbouring habitats as well as by environmental factors. Unlike the parental species, however, there was little evidence for successful dispersal of hybrids, which seem to be produced locally. Finally, in contrast to temporary Daphnia populations, in which a decrease in clonal diversity was sometimes detectable over a single growing season, the high clonal diversity and lack of clonal erosion observed here might result from repeated hatching of sexually produced offspring. Overall, our study provides insights into

  11. Electrochemical hydrogen evolution of multi-walled carbon nanotube/micro-hybrid composite decorated with Ni nanoparticles as catalyst through electroless deposition process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Nazanin; Doroodmand, Mohammad Mahdi; Sabbaghi, Samad; Sheikhi, Mohammad Hossein

    2013-08-01

    Hydrogen evolution of multi-walled nanotube (MWCNT)/micro-hybrid polymer composite, decorated with Ni nanoparticles through electroless deposition process is studied by the electrochemical method. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) is utilized to clearly study the electrochemical hydrogen storage/evolution behavior of the composite through a potential window ranging from -1.60 to +0.60 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). Hydrogen adsorption/desorption peaks are positioned at -1.52 and -0.05 V, respectively. Chronoamperometry is also applied to estimate active surface area (0.145 m(2)g(-1)) of the composite as well as the diffusion coefficient (3.4×10(-11) m(2) s(-1)) of adsorbed hydrogen process. According to the chrono-charge/discharge technique, the capacity of fabricated Ni-MWCNT/micro-hybrid composite is estimated to be 2.98 wt.% during charging for a certain time (40 min).

  12. Selective treatment of VOC-polluted industrial air using an hybrid adsorption-ozonization process; Traitement selectif de l'air industriel pollue en COV par un procede hybride adsorption-ozonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manero, M.H. [Toulouse-3 Univ., Lab. d' Ingenierie des Procedes de L' Environnement, INSA de Toulouse, 31 (France); Monneyron, P. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., Lab. Transfert, Ecoulement, Fluides, Energetiques (TREFLE), UMR 8508, 33 - Talence (France)

    2005-09-01

    This article describes an hybrid process combining the adsorption on zeolites and the oxidation by ozone at ambient temperature and pressure in a single reactor for the selective treatment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). After several cycles of operation, the zeolite capacity is maintained and not altered by the ozonization. The analysis of the output gases shows the absence of ozone and only traces of oxidation products meaning that the oxidation of the organic molecules is complete. The oxygen statuses show that the ozone introduced in the system is totally used to oxide VOCs. The industrial scale feasibility of the method requires further studies. (J.S.)

  13. Al-doped ZnO/Ag grid hybrid transparent conductive electrodes fabricated using a low-temperature process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Ha-Rim; Oh, Sung-Tag [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul 139-743 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang Yeoul [Future Convergence Ceramic Division, Korea Institute Ceramic Engineering and Technology (KICET), Seoul 233-5 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Seong-Ho [Energy Research Division, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), Daegu 711-873 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Il-Kyu, E-mail: ikpark@ynu.ac.kr [Department of Electronic Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongbuk 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Hyo-Jin, E-mail: hjahn@seoultech.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul 139-743 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Al-doped ZnO/Ag transparent conductive electrode is fabricated at low temperature. • Performance of the hybrid transparent conductive electrode affected by the structure. • The performance enhancement mechanism is suggested. - Abstract: Al-doped ZnO (AZO)/Ag grid hybrid transparent conductive electrode (TCE) structures were fabricated at a low temperature by using electrohydrodynamic jet printing for the Ag grids and atomic layer deposition for the AZO layers. The structural investigations showed that the AZO/Ag grid hybrid structures consisted of Ag grid lines formed by Ag particles and the AZO layer covering the inter-spacing between the Ag grid lines. The Ag particles comprising the Ag grid lines were also capped by thin AZO layers, and the coverage of the AZO layers was increased with increasing the thickness of the AZO layer. Using the optimum thickness of AZO layer of 70 nm, the hybrid TCE structure showed an electrical resistivity of 5.45 × 10{sup −5} Ω cm, an optical transmittance of 80.80%, and a figure of merit value of 1.41 × 10{sup −2} Ω{sup −1}. The performance enhancement was suggested based on the microstructural investigations on the AZO/Ag grid hybrid structures.

  14. Novel organic–inorganic amorphous photoactive hybrid films with rare earth (Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}) covalently embedded into silicon–oxygen network via sol–gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qiang; Sheng, Ye; Zheng, Keyan; Qin, Xuming; Ma, Pingchuan; Zou, Haifeng, E-mail: haifengzou0431@gmail.com

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The hybrids are prepared through the hydrolysis and condensation process. • The hybrids are amorphous and heat stabilized. • The hybrids containing Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} show the typical red and green emissions. - Abstract: Novel organic–inorganic hybrid amorphous thin films were synthesized by linking lanthanide (Tb{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+}) complexes through 3,4-bis(3-(triethoxysilyl)propylcarbamoyloxy)benzoic acid using sol–gel method. These inorganic–organic hybrids were characterized in detail by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, wide angle X-ray diffraction, themogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscope, and fluorescence spectra. The above research results indicate that the hybrids possess high thermal-stability, amorphous structure features and especially favorable luminescent performances, such as long luminescent decay lifetime, high quantum yield etc.

  15. Optical response of Ce(III and Eu(II doped hybrid materials synthesised by Sol-Gel processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordoncillo, E.

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the preparation of two hybrid organic-inorganic matrices via sol–gel, starting from alkylalkoxisilanes Si(CH3(OCH2CH33 (MTEOS–SiH(CH3(OCH2CH32 (MDES, A system, and SiH(CH3(OCH2CH32 (MDES SiH(OCH2CH33 (TREOS, B system, together with zirconium n-propoxide. Another type-A is carried out by adding acetylacetone, A-acac system. The matrices are characterised by infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-MAS, and chemical analysis. Optical characteristics of the matrices have been studied. A-acac and B matrices are doped with an Eu(III salt, and A and B matrices are doped with a Ce(IV salt. Absorption and emission studies show the presence of Eu(II and Ce(III. The transition metal alkoxide that catalysed cleavage of the Si–H bonds was used to reduce in situ at room temperature, the rare earth cations. Depending on chemical strategy, the resulting hybrid materials can be processed as transparent bulks or coatings which exhibit a good transparency in the UV–visible domain. Both the undoped and the rare earth doped matrices exhibit a strong blue emission.

    En este trabajo se aborda la preparación de dos matrices híbridas orgánico-inorgánicas por vía sol-gel, a partir de mezclas de alquilalcoxisilanos Si(CH3(OCH2CH33 (MTEOS–SiH(CH3(OCH2CH32 (MDES, sistema A, y SiH(CH3(OCH2CH32 (MDES–SiH(OCH2CH33 (TREOS, sistema B, en presencia de n-propóxido de circonio. Se efectúa una variación del sistema A por adición de acetilacetona, sistema A-acac. Las matrices se caracterizan por espectroscopia infrarroja, resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN-MAS y análisis químico. Se estudian las características ópticas de los materiales obtenidos. Las matrices A-acac y B se dopan con una sal de Eu(III y las matrices A y B con una sal de Ce(IV. Los estudios de absorción y emisión indican la presencia de Eu(II y Ce(III, es decir estos estados de oxidación se han generado in situ a temperatura ambiente en los

  16. High Refractive Organic–Inorganic Hybrid Films Prepared by Low Water Sol-Gel and UV-Irradiation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Yuan Ma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic hybrid sols (Ti–O–Si precursor were first synthesized by the sol-gel method at low addition of water, and were then employed to prepare a highly refractive hybrid optical film. This film was obtained by blending the Ti–O–Si precursor with 2-phenylphenoxyethyl acrylate (OPPEA to perform photo-polymerization by ultraviolet (UV irradiation. Results show that the film transparency of poly(Ti–O–Si precursor-co-OPPEA film is higher than that of a pure poly(Ti–O–Si precursor film, and that this poly(Ti–O–Si precursor-co-OPPEA hybrid film exhibits a high transparency of ~93.7% coupled with a high refractive index (n of 1.83 corresponding to a thickness of 2.59 μm.

  17. PREPARATION OF POLYIMIDE-BaTiO3 HYBRID FILMS BY A DISPERSION PROCESS AND THEIR MICROSTRUCTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue-sheng Li; Yue-jin Tong; Kai Jing; Meng-xian Ding

    2001-01-01

    Barium titanate (BaTiO3) powders with particle sizes of 30~50 nm were prepared from barium stearate, titanium alkoxides and stearic acid by stearic acid-gel method. Dispersing the agglomerate of BaTiO3 nanoparticles into poly(amic acid) solution followed by curing led to the formation of polyimide hybrid films. The hybrid films were transparent and well distributed with BaTiO3 nanoparticles when the BaTiO3 content was less than 1 wt%. Highly loaded hybrid film containing 30 wt % BaTiO3 was tough, had a smooth surface and possessed much higher dielectric and piezoelectric constants than the parent polyimide.

  18. The Role of Nanocrystal Size in Solution Processable CdSe:P3HT Hybrid Photovoltaic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Susnata; Ray, Samit K

    2016-05-01

    Hybrid photovoltaic devices were fabricated using different sizes of CdSe quantum dots with different loading concentrations in P3HT matrix. CdSe quantum dots were synthesized chemically using olive oil as the capping agent, instead of toxic phosphine. The efficiency of hybrid poly-(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) P3HT:CdSe photovoltaic device was found to depend on the size as well as the loading of the nanocrystals. A maximum power conversion efficiency of -0.8% was achieved under AM1.5G solar illumination for the device with -5.3 nm CdSe nanocrystals. A hybrid photovoltaic device was demonstrated on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates paving the way to achieve flexible,transparent and printable devices.

  19. A conceptual demonstration of freeze desalination-membrane distillation (FD-MD) hybrid desalination process utilizing liquefied natural gas (LNG) cold energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2012-09-01

    The severe global water scarcity and record-high fossil oil price have greatly stimulated the research interests on new desalination technologies which can be driven by renewable energy or waste energy. In this study, a hybrid desalination process comprising freeze desalination and membrane distillation (FD-MD) processes was developed and explored in an attempt to utilize the waste cold energy released from re-gasification of liquefied natural gas (LNG). The concept of this technology was demonstrated using indirect-contact freeze desalination (ICFD) and direct-contact membrane distillation (DCMD) configurations. By optimizing the ICFD operation parameters, namely, the usage of nucleate seeds, operation duration and feed concentration, high quality drinkable water with a low salinity ∼0.144 g/L was produced in the ICFD process. At the same time, using the optimized hollow fiber module length and packing density in the DCMD process, ultra pure water with a low salinity of 0.062 g/L was attained at a condition of high energy efficiency (EE). Overall, by combining FD and MD processes and adopting the optimized operation parameters, the hybrid FD-MD system has been successfully demonstrated. A high total water recovery of 71.5% was achieved, and the water quality obtained met the standard for drinkable water. In addition, with results from specific energy calculation, it was proven that the hybrid process is an energy-saving process and utilization of LNG cold energy could greatly reduce the total energy consumption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Removal Natural Organic Matter (NOM in Peat Water from Wetland Area by Coagulation-Ultrafiltration Hybrid Process with Pretreatment Two-Stage Coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmud Mahmud

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The primary problem encountered in the application of membrane technology was membrane fouling. During this time, hybrid process by coagulation-ultrafiltration in drinking water treatment that has been conducted by some research, using by one-stage coagulation. The goal of this research was to investigate the effect of two-stage coagulation as a pretreatment towards performance of the coagulation-ultrafiltration hybrid process for removal NOM in the peat water. Coagulation process, either with the one-stage or two-stage coagulation was very good in removing charge hydrophilic fraction, i.e. more than 98%. NOM fractions of the peat water, from the most easily removed by the two-stage coagulation and one-stage coagulation process was charged hydrophilic>strongly hydrophobic>weakly hydrophobic>neutral hydrophilic. The two-stage coagulation process could removed UV254 and colors with a little better than the one-stage coagulation at the optimum coagulant dose. Neutral hydrophilic fraction of peat water NOM was the most influential fraction of UF membrane fouling. The two-stage coagulation process better in removing the neutral hidrophilic fraction, while removing of the charged hydrophilic, strongly hydrophobic and weakly hydrophobic similar to the one-stage coagulation. Hybrid process by pretreatment with two-stage coagulation, beside can increased removal efficiency of UV254 and color, also can reduced fouling rate of the ultrafiltration membraneIt must not exceed 250 words, contains a brief summary of the text, covering the whole manuscript without being too elaborate on every section. Avoid any abbreviation, unless it is a common knowledge or has been previously stated.

  1. Simple synthesis of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} sphere composite from hybrid process with improved thermal stability for catalytic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Regina C.R., E-mail: reginaclaudiasantos@yahoo.com.br [Department of Analytical Chemistry and Physical Chemistry, Federal University of Ceará, Campus of Pici, Fortaleza, CE, CEP: 60440-554 (Brazil); Pinheiro, Antônio N.; Leite, Edson R. [Department of Chemistry, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, SP, CEP: 13560-905 (Brazil); Freire, Valder N. [Department of Physics, Federal University of Ceará, Campus of Pici, Fortaleza, CE, CEP: 60440-554 (Brazil); Longhinotti, Elisane; Valentini, Antoninho [Department of Analytical Chemistry and Physical Chemistry, Federal University of Ceará, Campus of Pici, Fortaleza, CE, CEP: 60440-554 (Brazil)

    2015-06-15

    Aluminium oxide spheres were synthesized by the hybrid process applying the biopolymer chitosan. After the calcination process the porous spheres were characterized by Chemical elemental analysis (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption isotherms, infrared spectroscopy (IR), and CO{sub 2} temperature programmed desorption (CO{sub 2}-TPD). The effect of thermal treatment on surface properties of the oxide spheres was also evaluated by the catalytic ethanol dehydration reaction. The hybrid method produced interesting results related to the thermal stability against sintering process and consequently low decreases of surface area. The hybrid spheres calcination at 900 and 1200 °C produced a metastable phases of alumina with a high surface area, and nanometric crystallites. Additionally, the spheres of mixed silica-alumina synthesized by this method reveal the formation of porous spheres with highly acidic OH groups, which was suggested by the catalytic performance. - Highlights: • Al and Si/Al oxide spheres with promising properties are synthesized by hybrid method. • Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} spheres show high thermal stability and resistance the loss surface area. • The SiO{sub 2} addition plays an important role in the structure and porosity of the spheres. • Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} spheres presented a good activity to conversion ethanol. • The activity is related to the surface area and density of OH groups on surface.

  2. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-04-01

    Natural hybridization is reproduction (without artificial influence) between two or more species/populations which are distinguishable from each other by heritable characters. Natural hybridizations among marine fishes were highly underappreciated due to limited research effort; it seems that this phenomenon occurs more often than is commonly recognized. As hybridization plays an important role in biodiversity processes in the marine environment, detecting hybridization events and investigating hybridization is important to understand and protect biodiversity. The first chapter sets the framework for this disseration study. The Cohesion Species Concept was selected as the working definition of a species for this study as it can handle marine fish hybridization events. The concept does not require restrictive species boundaries. A general history and background of natural hybridization in marine fishes is reviewed during in chapter as well. Four marine fish hybridization cases were examed and documented in Chapters 2 to 5. In each case study, at least one diagnostic nuclear marker, screened from among ~14 candidate markers, was found to discriminate the putative hybridizing parent species. To further investigate genetic evidence to support the hybrid status for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations together, the potential reasons that triggered each hybridization events and the potential genetic/ecology effects could be discussed. In the last chapter, sequences from 82 pairs of hybridizing parents species (for which COI barcoding sequences were available either on GenBank or in our lab) were collected. By comparing the COI fragment p-distance between each hybridizing parent species, some general questions about marine fish hybridization were discussed: Is

  3. Hybrid design tools for conceptual design and design engineering processes: bridging the design gap: towards an intuitive design tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendrich, Robert Eric

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid Design Tools; Representation; Computational Synthesis. Non-linear, non-explicit, non-standard thinking and ambiguity in design tools has a great impact on enhancement of creativity during ideation and conceptualization. Tacit-tangible representation based on a mere idiosyncratic and individu

  4. Hybrid Qualifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    has turned out as a major focus of European education and training policies and certainly is a crucial principle underlying the European Qualifications Framework (EQF). In this context, «hybrid qualifications» (HQ) may be seen as an interesting approach to tackle these challenges as they serve «two...... masters», i.e. by producing skills for the labour market and enabling individuals to progress more or less directly to higher education. The specific focus of this book is placed on conditions, structures and processes which help to combine VET with qualifications leading into higher education...

  5. Photoinduced energy transfer processes in hybrid organic-inorganic multichromophoric arrays arranged on a truxene-based platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diring, Stéphane; Ventura, Barbara; Barbieri, Andrea; Ziessel, Raymond

    2012-11-14

    The synthesis, photophysical characterization and energy-transfer features of a series of hybrid truxene derivatives peripherally decorated with inorganic Os-containing polypyridine units and organic Bodipy dyes are reported. The photoactive terminal units are coupled to the central truxene scaffold by rigid ethynyl linkers in a star-shaped arrangement. The absorption range widely covers the UV-Vis spectrum and the Os (3)MLCT or the Bodipy triplet act as final collectors of the absorbed energy.

  6. Simulation of mode conversion process from upper-hybrid waves to LO-mode waves in the vicinity of the plasmapause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Kalaee

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to clarify the role of the mode conversion process in the generation mechanism of LO-mode waves in the equatorial region of the plasmasphere, we have investigated the linear mode conversion process among upper-hybrid-resonance (UHR-mode, Z-mode and LO-mode waves by a numerical simulation solving Maxwell's equations and the equation of motion of a cold electron fluid. The wave coupling process occurring in the cold magnetized plasma are examined in detail. In order to give a realistic initial plasma condition in the numerical experiments, we use initial parameters inferred from observation data obtained around the generation region of LO-mode waves obtained by the Akebono satellite. A density gradient is estimated from the observed UHR frequency, and wave normal angles are estimated from the dispersion relation of cold plasma by comparing observed wave electric fields. Then, we perform numerical experiments of mode conversion processes using the density gradient of background plasma and the wave normal angle of incident upper hybrid mode waves determined from the observation results. We found that the characteristics of reproduced LO-mode waves in each simulation run are consistent with observations.

  7. Solution-processed highly conductive PEDOT:PSS/AgNW/GO transparent film for efficient organic-Si hybrid solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiaojing; Song, Tao; Cui, Wei; Liu, Yuqiang; Xu, Weidong; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Sun, Baoquan

    2015-02-11

    Hybrid solar cells based on n-Si/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene- sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) heterojunction promise to be a low cost photovoltaic technology by using simple device structure and easy fabrication process. However, due to the low conductivity of PEDOT:PSS, a metal grid deposited by vacuum evaporation method is still required to enhance the charge collection efficiency, which complicates the device fabrication process. Here, a solution-processed graphene oxide (GO)-welded silver nanowires (AgNWs) transparent conductive electrode (TCE) was employed to replace the vacuum deposited metal grid. A unique "sandwich" structure was developed by embedding an AgNW network between PEDOT:PSS and GO with a figure-of-merit of 8.6×10(-3) Ω(-1), which was even higher than that of sputtered indium tin oxide electrode (6.6×10(-3) Ω(-1)). A champion power conversion efficiency of 13.3% was achieved, because of the decreased series resistance of the TCEs as well as the enhanced built-in potential (Vbi) in the hybrid solar cells. The TCEs were obtained by facile low-temperature solution process method, which was compatible with cost-effective mass production technology.

  8. Solution processed, hybrid 2D/3D MoS2/Si heterostructures with superior junction characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Subhrajit; Biswas, Souvik; Das, Soumen; Ray, Samit K

    2017-02-03

    We report a theoretical and experimental investigation of the hybrid heterostructure interfaces between atomically thin MoS2 nanocrystals (NCs) on Si platform for their potential applications towards next generation electrical and optical devices. Mie theory based numerical analysis and COMSOL simulations based on finite element method (FEM) have been utilized to study the optical absorption characteristics and light matter interactions in variable sized MoS2 NCs. The size dependent absorption characteristics and the enhancement of electric field of the heterojunction in the UV-visible spectral range agree well with the experimental results. A lithography-free, wafer scale, 2D materials on a 3D substrate hybrid vertical heterostructure has been fabricated using colloidal n-MoS2 NCs on p-Si. The fabricated p-n heterojunction exhibited excellent junction characteristics with a high rectification ratio suitable for voltage clipper and rectifier applications. The current-voltage characteristics of the devices under illumination have been performed in the temperature range of 10-300 K. The device exhibits a high photo-to-dark current ratio of ~3 x 103 and a responsivity comparable to a commercial Si photodetector. The excellent heterojunction characteristics demonstrate the great potential of MoS2 NCs based hybrid electronic and optoelectronic devices in near future.

  9. Label-Free Dengue Detection Utilizing PNA/DNA Hybridization Based on the Aggregation Process of Unmodified Gold Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsulida Abdul Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A label-free optical detection method based on PNA/DNA hybridization using unmodified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs for dengue virus detection has been successfully developed. In this study, no immobilization method is involved and the hybridization of PNA/DNA occurs directly in solution. Unmodified AuNPs undergo immediate aggregation in the presence of neutral charge peptide nucleic acid (PNA due to the coating of PNA on AuNPs surface. However, in the presence of complementary targets DNA, the hybridization of PNA probe with target DNA forms negatively charged complexes due to the negatively charged phosphate backbone of the target DNA. The negatively charged complexes adsorbed onto the AuNPs surface ensure sufficient charge repulsion, need for AuNPs dispersion, and stability in solution. The detection procedure is a naked eye method based on immediate color changes and also through UV-vis adsorption spectra. The selectivity of the proposed method was studied successfully by single base mismatch and noncomplementary target DNA.

  10. Applying new hybrid method of analytical hierarchy process, Monte Carlo Simulation and PROMETHEE to prioritize and selecting appropriate target market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Kariznoee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Making decision to choose the appropriate target market is one of the key decisions in the success of firms, which has direct effect in the amount of their profits. The aim of this paper is to introduce and use of new hybrid method of AHP, Monte Carlo simulation and PROMETHEE to prioritize cities to establish retailers, considering different indices. The problem of this study is related to a factory, constructing premade pieces of buildings, that to introduce and distribute its new products is searching the new retailers in different cities. To prioritize cities, with the interview with experts and the studying of the previous works the indices have been determined and the hierarchy pattern has been made. Then using the hybrid method of AHP and Monte Carlo simulation the weights of the indices have been determined and then using PROMETHEE method the best city has been chosen and the other ones have been prioritized. From the benefits of the new introduced hybrid method with respect to other ways of selecting target markets is decreasing the risk and increasing the power of decision making.

  11. Towards Ideal NOx and CO2 Emission Control Technology for Bio-Oils Combustion Energy System Using a Plasma-Chemical Hybrid Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, M.; Fujishima, H.; Yamato, Y.; Kuroki, T.; Tanaka, A.; Otsuka, K.

    2013-03-01

    A pilot-scale low-emission boiler system consisting of a bio-fuel boiler and plasma-chemical hybrid NOx removal system is investigated. This system can achieve carbon neutrality because the bio-fuel boiler uses waste vegetable oil as one of the fuels. The plasma-chemical hybrid NOx removal system has two processes: NO oxidation by ozone produced from plasma ozonizers and NO2 removal using a Na2SO3 chemical scrubber. Test demonstrations of the system are carried out for mixed oils (mixture of A-heavy oil and waste vegetable oil). Stable combustion is achieved for the mixed oil (20 - 50% waste vegetable oil). Properties of flue gas—e.g., O2, CO2 and NOx—when firing mixed oils are nearly the same as those when firing heavy oil for an average flue gas flow rate of 1000 Nm3/h. NOx concentrations at the boiler outlet are 90 - 95 ppm. Furthermore, during a 300-min continuous operation when firing 20% mixed oil, NOx removal efficiency of more than 90% (less than 10 ppm NOx emission) is confirmed. In addition, the CO2 reduction when heavy oil is replaced with waste vegetable oil is estimated. The system comparison is described between the plasma-chemical hybrid NOx removal and the conventional technology.

  12. A hybrid magnetic/complementary metal oxide semiconductor process design kit for the design of low-power non-volatile logic circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pendina, G.; Prenat, G.; Dieny, B.; Torki, K.

    2012-04-01

    Since the advent of the MOS transistor, the performance of microelectronic circuits has followed Moore's law, stating that their speed and density would double every 18 months. Today, this trend tends to get out of breath: the continuously decreasing size of devices and increasing operation frequency result in power consumption and heating issues. Among the solutions investigated to circumvent these limitations, the use of non-volatile devices appears particularly promising. It allows easing, for example, the power gating technique, which consists in cutting-off the power supply of inactive blocks without losing information, drastically reducing the standby power consumption. In this approach, the advantages of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) compared with other non-volatile devices allow one to design hybrid CMOS/magnetic circuits with high performance and new functionalities. Designing such circuits requires integrating MTJs in standard microelectronics design suites. This is performed by means of a process design kit (PDK) for the hybrid CMOS/magnetic technology. We present here a full magnetic PDK, which contains a compact model of the MTJ for electrical simulation, technology files for layout and physical verifications, and standard cells for the design of complex logic circuits and which is compatible with standard design suites. This PDK allows designers to accurately and comfortably design high-performance hybrid CMOS/magnetic logic circuits in the same way as standard CMOS circuits.

  13. Organic-inorganic crosslinked and hybrid membranes derived from sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone)/silica via sol-gel process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shaoguang; Shang, Yuming; Wang, Yingzi; Xie, Xiaofeng; Mathur, V. K.; Xu, Jingming

    A series of covalently crosslinkable organic-inorganic hybrid membranes have been prepared from sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (SPAES) with pendant propenyl moiety and various amounts of vinyl substituted silica via sol-gel process which are then thermally crosslinked in the presence of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) initiator. The obtained membranes are characterized in terms of oxidative stability, thermal property, ion exchange capacity (IEC), water uptake, swelling ratio in methanol aqueous solution, proton conductivity, and methanol permeability coefficient. The results indicate that the oxidative stability and thermal stability of the hybrid membranes are improved. Moreover, introduction of silica reduces the water uptake and methanol swelling of membranes. The swelling ratio of membranes in 2 mol L -1 methanol aqueous solution at 80 °C slowly decreases from 26 to 19% with the increase of SiO 2 content from 0 to 12 wt.%. Furthermore, with the increase in silica content, the methanol permeability coefficient of the hybrid membranes decreases at first and then increases. When the silica content reaches 8 wt.%, the methanol permeability coefficient is at the minimum of 6.02 × 10 -7 cm 2 s -1, a 2.64-fold decrease compared with that of the pristine SPAES membrane. Moreover, the proton conductivity is found to be at about 95% of that of pristine polymer at that silica content.

  14. The effect of concentration ratio and type of functional group on synthesis of CNT-ZnO hybrid nanomaterial by an in situ sol-gel process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini Largani, Sekineh; Akbarzadeh Pasha, Mohammad

    2016-12-01

    In this research, MWCNT-ZnO hybrid nanomaterials were synthesized by a simple sol-gel process using Zn(CH3COO)2·2H2O and functionalized MWCNT with carboxyl(COOH) and hydroxyl(OH) groups. Three different mass ratios of MWCNT:ZnO = 3:1, 1:1 and 1:3 were examined. The prepared nanomaterials were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Successful growth of MWCNT-ZnO hybrids for both COOH and OH functional groups and all the three mass ratios were obtained. The ZnO nanoparticles attached on the surfaces of CNTs have rather spherical shapes and hexagonal crystal structure. By increasing the concentration of ZnO, the number and average size of ZnO nanoparticles decorated the body of CNTs in hybrid structures increase. By increasing the ZnO precursor, the distribution of ZnO nanoparticles that appeared on the surface of CNTs becomes more uniform. The SEM observation beside EDX analysis revealed that at the same concentration ratio the amount of ZnO loading on the surface of MWCNT-COOH is more than MWCNT-OH. Moreover, the average size of ZnO nanoparticles attached on the surface of COOH functionalized CNTs is relatively smaller than that of OH functionalized ones.

  15. Organic-inorganic crosslinked and hybrid membranes derived from sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone)/silica via sol-gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Shaoguang; Shang, Yuming; Wang, Yingzi; Xie, Xiaofeng; Xu, Jingming [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Mathur, V.K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of New Hampshire, NH 03824 (United States)

    2010-05-01

    A series of covalently crosslinkable organic-inorganic hybrid membranes have been prepared from sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (SPAES) with pendant propenyl moiety and various amounts of vinyl substituted silica via sol-gel process which are then thermally crosslinked in the presence of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) initiator. The obtained membranes are characterized in terms of oxidative stability, thermal property, ion exchange capacity (IEC), water uptake, swelling ratio in methanol aqueous solution, proton conductivity, and methanol permeability coefficient. The results indicate that the oxidative stability and thermal stability of the hybrid membranes are improved. Moreover, introduction of silica reduces the water uptake and methanol swelling of membranes. The swelling ratio of membranes in 2 mol L{sup -1} methanol aqueous solution at 80 C slowly decreases from 26 to 19% with the increase of SiO{sub 2} content from 0 to 12 wt.%. Furthermore, with the increase in silica content, the methanol permeability coefficient of the hybrid membranes decreases at first and then increases. When the silica content reaches 8 wt.%, the methanol permeability coefficient is at the minimum of 6.02 x 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}, a 2.64-fold decrease compared with that of the pristine SPAES membrane. Moreover, the proton conductivity is found to be at about 95% of that of pristine polymer at that silica content. (author)

  16. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  17. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak; Harale, Aadesh; Park, Byoung-Gi; Liu, Paul K. T.

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  18. Modeling materials and processes in hybrid/organic photovoltaics: from dye-sensitized to perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Filippo

    2014-11-18

    CONSPECTUS: Over the last 2 decades, researchers have invested enormous research effort into hybrid/organic photovoltaics, leading to the recent launch of the first commercial products that use this technology. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have shown clear advantages over competing technologies. The top certified efficiency of DSCs exceeds 11%, and the laboratory-cell efficiency is greater than 13%. In 2012, the first reports of high efficiency solid-state DSCs based on organohalide lead perovskites completely revolutionized the field. These materials are used as light absorbers in DSCs and as light-harvesting materials and electron conductors in meso-superstructured and flat heterojunction solar cells and show certified efficiencies that exceed 17%. To effectively compete with conventional photovoltaics, emerging technologies such as DSCs need to achieve higher efficiency and stability, while maintaining low production costs. Many of the advances in the DSC field have relied on the computational design and screening of new materials, with researchers examining material characteristics that can improve device performance or stability. Suitable modeling strategies allow researchers to observe the otherwise inaccessible but crucial heterointerfaces that control the operation of DSCs, offering the opportunity to develop new and more efficient materials and optimize processes. In this Account, we present a unified view of recent computational modeling research examining DSCs, illustrating how the principles and simulation tools used for these systems can also be adapted to study the emerging field of perovskite solar cells. Researchers have widely applied first-principles modeling to the DSC field and, more recently, to perovskite-based solar cells. DFT/TDDFT methods provide the basic framework to describe most of the desired materials and interfacial properties, and Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics allow researchers the further ability to sample local minima and

  19. Fabrication of Al/Graphite/Al2O3 Surface Hybrid Nano Composite by Friction Stir Processing and Investigating The Wear and Microstructural Properties of The Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mostafapour

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir processing was applied for fabricating an aluminum alloy based hybrid nano composite reinforced with nano sized Al2O3 and micro sized graphite particles. A mixture of Al2O3 and graphite particles was packed into a groove with 1 mm width and 4.5 mm depth, which had been cut in 5083 aluminum plate of 10 mm thick. Packed groove was subjected to friction stir processing in order to implement powder mixture into the aluminum alloy matrix. Microstructural properties were investigated by means of optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. It was found that reinforcement particle mixture was distributed uniformly in nugget zone. Wear resistance of composite was measured by dry sliding wear test. As a result, hybrid composite revealed significant reduction in wear rate in comparison with Al/AL2O3 composite produced by friction stir processing. Worn surface of the wear test samples were examined by SEM in order to determine wear mechanism.

  20. New DAPI and FISH findings on egg maturation processes in related hybridogenetic and parthenogenetic Bacillus hybrids (Insecta, Phasmatodea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marescalchi, O; Scali, V

    2001-10-01

    Bacillus stick insects have proved adequate for studying a wide array of reproductive modes: sexual, parthenogenetic, hybridogenetic, androgenetic. Hybridogenetic strains (B. rossius-grandii) were thought to discard the paternal "grandii" haploset during first meiotic division and keep the "rossius" hemiclone, whereas the clonal B. whitei (=rossius/grandii) would maintain its hybrid structure by fusing back two nonsister nuclei-each derived from previously segregated heterospecific complements-by the end of the 2(nd) meiotic division. New investigations on laid eggs and ovariole squashes, either DAPI stained or FISH labeled, revealed that in hybridogens the "grandii" set is excluded from the germ line prior to meiosis and that a DNA extra-synthesis should occur to produce hemiclonal eggs after two cytologically normal meiotic divisions. On the other hand, in B. whitei eggs no genome segregation appears to occur and an intrameiotic DNA extra-synthesis must take place to produce 2n tetrachromatidic oocytes I; these divide twice and give unreduced clonal eggs. The new findings bring hybridogenetic oogenesis of Bacillus to be coincident with that of the known hemiclonal organisms and point to an independent onset of B. whitei from hemiclonal strains. In addition, B. whitei gains a closer resemblance to B. lynceorum owing to the sharing of a cytologically identical egg maturation mechanism, of the same maternal ancestor and of peculiar chromosomal features. It is here suggested that B. lynceorum originated from the incorporation of an "atticus" genome into a B. whitei egg, according to a pathway of repeated hybridization often occurred with other polyploid hybrids.

  1. Bench-Scale Development of a Hybrid Membrane-Absorption CO{sub 2} Capture Process: Preliminary Cost Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Brice; Kniep, Jay; Pingjiao, Hao; Baker, Richard; Rochelle, Gary; Chen, Eric; Frailie, Peter; Ding, Junyuan; Zhang, Yue

    2014-03-31

    This report describes a study of capture costs for a hybrid membrane-absorption capture system based on Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR)’s low-pressure membrane contactors and the University of Texas at Austin’s 5 m piperazine (PZ) Advanced Flash Stripper (AFS; 5 m PZ AFS) based CO2 capture system. The report is submitted for NETL review, and may be superseded by a final topical report on this topic that will be submitted to satisfy the Task 2 report requirement of the current project (DE-FE0013118).

  2. Numerical investigations with a hybrid isentropic-sigma model. I - Normal-mode characteristics. II - The inclusion of moist processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, R. B.; Johnson, Donald R.; Reames, Fred M.; Zapotocny, Tom H.; Wolf, Bart J.

    1991-01-01

    The normal-mode characteristics of baroclinically amplifying disturbances were numerically investigated in a series of adiabatic simulations by a hybrid isentropic-sigma model, demonstrating the effect of coupling an isentropic-coordinate free atmospheric domain with a sigma-coordinate PBL on the normal-mode characteristics. Next, the normal-mode model was modified by including a transport equation for water vapor and adiabatic heating by condensation. Simulations with and without a hydrological component showed that the overall effect of latent heat release is to markedly enhance cyclogenesis and frontogenesis.

  3. New Transportation Technology : Norm Activation Processes and the Intention to Switch to an Electric/Hybrid Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Nordlund, A.; Jansson, J.; Westin, K.

    2016-01-01

    Since humans' activities contribute to climate change it is important to change behavior. Switching to a hybrid/plugin/electric vehicle (HEV/PHEV/EV) for personal transport can be one way. In this study the intention to switch to a HEV/PHEV/EV is studied from the theoretical framework of the moral norm-activation theory of altruism (Schwartz, 1977) and the Value-Belief-Norm (VBN) Theory of environmentalism (Stern et al., 1999). Data was collected using a survey to three groups, alternative fu...

  4. Quantitative fluorescent in-situ hybridization: a hypothesized competition mode between two dominant bacteria groups in hydrogen-producing anaerobic sludge processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C-L; Chen, C-C; Lin, C-Y; Liu, W-T

    2009-01-01

    Two hydrogen-producing continuous flow stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) fed respectively with glucose and sucrose were investigated by polymerase chain reaction-denatured gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH). The substrate was fed in a continuous mode decreased from hydraulic retention time (HRT) 10 hours to 6, 5, 4, 3, and 2 hours. Quantitative fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) observations further demonstrated that two morphotypes of bacteria dominated both microbial communities. One was long rod bacteria which can be targeted either by Chis150 probe designed to hybridize the gram positive low G + C bacteria or the specific oligonucleotide probe Lg10-6. The probe Lg10-6, affiliated with Clostridium pasteurianum, was designed and then checked with other reference organisms. The other type, unknown group, which cannot be detected by Chis150 was curved rod bacteria. Notably, the population ratios of the two predominant groups reflected the different operational performance of the two reactors, such as hydrogen producing rates, substrate turnover rates and metabolites compositions. Therefore, a competition mode of the two dominant bacteria groups was hypothesized. In the study, 16S rRNA-based gene library of hydrogen-producing microbial communities was established. The efficiency of hydrogen yields was correlated with substrates (glucose or sucrose), HRT, metabolites compositions (acetate, propionate, butyrate and ethanol), thermal pre-treatment (seed biomass was heated at 100 degrees C for 45 minutes), and microbial communities in the bioreactor, not sludge sources (municipal sewage sludge, alcohol-processing sludge, or bean-processing sludge). The designed specific oligonucleotide probe Lg10-6 also provides us a useful and fast molecular tool to screen hydrogen-producing microbial communities in the future research.

  5. How common is homoploid hybrid speciation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumer, Molly; Rosenthal, Gil G; Andolfatto, Peter

    2014-06-01

    Hybridization has long been considered a process that prevents divergence between species. In contrast to this historical view, an increasing number of empirical studies claim to show evidence for hybrid speciation without a ploidy change. However, the importance of hybridization as a route to speciation is poorly understood, and many claims have been made with insufficient evidence that hybridization played a role in the speciation process. We propose criteria to determine the strength of evidence for homoploid hybrid speciation. Based on an evaluation of the literature using this framework, we conclude that although hybridization appears to be common, evidence for an important role of hybridization in homoploid speciation is more circumscribed.

  6. A natural driven membrane process for brackish and wastewater treatment: photovoltaic powered ED and FO hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Pinoy, Luc; Meesschaert, Boudewijn; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2013-09-17

    In isolated locations, remote areas, or islands, potable water is precious because of the lack of drinking water treatment facilities and energy supply. Thus, a robust and reliable water treatment system based on natural energy is needed to reuse wastewater or to desalinate groundwater/seawater for provision of drinking water. In this work, a hybrid membrane system combining electrodialysis (ED) and forward osmosis (FO), driven by renewable energy (solar energy), denoted as EDFORD (ED-FO Renewable energy Desalination), is proposed to produce high-quality water (potable) from secondary wastewater effluent or brackish water. In this hybrid membrane system, feedwater (secondary wastewater effluent or synthetic brackish water) was drawn to the FO draw solution while the organic and inorganic substances (ions, compounds, colloids and particles) were rejected. The diluted draw solution was then pumped to the solar energy driven ED. In the ED unit, the diluted draw solution was desalted and high-quality water was produced; the concentrate was recycled to the FO unit and reused as the draw solution. Results show that the water produced from this system contains a low concentration of total organic carbon (TOC), carbonate, and cations derived from the feedwater; had a low conductivity; and meets potable water standards. The water production cost considering the investment for membranes and solar panel is 3.32 to 4.92 EUR m(-3) (for 300 days of production per year) for a small size potable water production system.

  7. A hybridGaussian-discrete variable representation approach to molecular continuum processes II: application to photoionization of diatomic Li2+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rescigno, Thomas N; Yip, Frank L.; McCurdy, C. William; Rescigno, Thomas N.

    2008-08-01

    We describe an approach for studying molecular photoionization with a hybrid basis that combines the functionality of analytic basis sets to represent electronic coordinates near the nuclei of a molecule with numerically-defined grid-based functions. We discuss the evaluation of the various classes of two-electron integrals that occur in a hybrid basis consisting of Gaussian type orbitals (GTOs) and discrete variable representation (DVR) functions. This combined basis is applied to calculate single photoionization cross sections for molecular Li_2+, which has a large equilibrium bond distance (R=5.86a_0). The highly non-spherical nature of Li_2+ molecules causes higher angular momentum components to contribute significantly to the cross section even at low photoelectron energies, resulting in angular distributions that appear to be f-wave dominated near the photoionization threshold. At higher energies, where the de Broglie wavelength of the photoelectron becomes comparable with the bond distance, interference effects appear in the photoionization cross section. These interference phenomena appear at much lower energies than would be expected for diatomic targets with shorter internuclear separations.

  8. Hybrid organotin and tin oxide-based thin films processed from alkynylorganotins: synthesis, characterization, and gas sensing properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Laetitia; Brötz, Joachim; Fuess, Hartmut; Gurlo, Aleksander; Riedel, Ralf; Toupance, Thierry

    2014-10-08

    Hydrolysis-condensation of bis(triprop-1-ynylstannyl)butylene led to nanostructured bridged polystannoxane films yielding tin dioxide thin layers upon UV-treatment or annealing in air. According to Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, contact angle measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) data, the films were composed of a network of aggregated "pseudo-particles", as calcination at 600 °C is required to form cassiterite nanocrystalline SnO2 particles. In the presence of reductive gases such as H2 and CO, these films gave rise to highly sensitive, reversible, and reproducible responses. The best selectivity toward H2 was reached at 150 °C with the hybrid thin films that do not show any response to CO at 20-200 °C. On the other hand, the SnO2 films prepared at 600 °C are more sensitive to H2 than to CO with best operating temperature in the 300-350 °C range. This organometallic approach provides an entirely new class of gas-sensing materials based on a class II organic-inorganic hybrid layer, along with a new way to include organic functionality in gas sensing metal oxides.

  9. Nuclear driven water decomposition plant for hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, G. H.; Brecher, L. E.; Farbman, G. H.

    1976-01-01

    The conceptual design of a hydrogen production plant using a very-high-temperature nuclear reactor (VHTR) to energize a hybrid electrolytic-thermochemical system for water decomposition has been prepared. A graphite-moderated helium-cooled VHTR is used to produce 1850 F gas for electric power generation and 1600 F process heat for the water-decomposition process which uses sulfur compounds and promises performance superior to normal water electrolysis or other published thermochemical processes. The combined cycle operates at an overall thermal efficiency in excess of 45%, and the overall economics of hydrogen production by this plant have been evaluated predicated on a consistent set of economic ground rules. The conceptual design and evaluation efforts have indicated that development of this type of nuclear-driven water-decomposition plant will permit large-scale economic generation of hydrogen in the 1990s.

  10. Hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J.G.W. [Electrical Machines (United Kingdom)

    1997-07-01

    The reasons for adopting hybrid vehicles result mainly from the lack of adequate range from electric vehicles at an acceptable cost. Hybrids can offer significant improvements in emissions and fuel economy. Series and parallel hybrids are compared. A combination of series and parallel operation would be the ideal. This can be obtained using a planetary gearbox as a power split device allowing a small generator to transfer power to the propulsion motor giving the effect of a CVT. It allows the engine to run at semi-constant speed giving better fuel economy and reduced emissions. Hybrid car developments are described that show the wide range of possible hybrid systems. (author)

  11. The Role of Hybrid Make-to-Stock (MTS) - Make-to-Order (MTO) and Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) Inventory Control Models in Food and Beverage Processing Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najhan Mohd Nagib, Ahmad; Naufal Adnan, Ahmad; Ismail, Azianti; Halim, Nurul Hayati Abdul; Syuhadah Khusaini, Nurul

    2016-11-01

    The inventory model had been utilized since the early 1900s. The implementation of the inventory management model is generally to ensure that an organisation is able to fulfil customer's demand at the lowest possible cost to improve profitability. This paper focuses on reviewing previous published papers regarding inventory control model mainly in the food and beverage processing industry. The author discusses four inventory models, which are the make-to-stock (MTS), make-to-order (MTO), economic order quantity (EOQ), and hybrid of MTS-MTO models. The issues raised by the researchers on the above techniques as well as the elements need to be considered upon selection have been discussed in this paper. The main objective of the study is to highlight the important role played by these inventory control models in the food and beverage processing industry.

  12. Wastewater Treatment for Removal of Recalcitrant Compounds:A Hybrid Process for Decolorization and Biodegradation of Dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carolyn Palma; Andrea Carvajal; Carlos Vasquez; Elsa Contreras

    2011-01-01

    While conventional wastewater treatments for urban effluents are fairly routine and have proved highly effective,industrial wastewater requires more complex and specific treatments.This paper provides a technological strategy for removal of recalcitrant contaminants based on a hybrid treatment system.The model effluent containing a binary mixture of synthetic dyes is treated by a combination of a preliminary physicochemical stage followed by a biological stage based on ligninolytic enzymes produced by Phanerochaete chrysosporium.This proposal includes biosorption onto peat as pretreatment,which decreases the volume and concentration to be treated in the biological reactor,thereby obtaining a completely decolorized effluent.The treated wastewater can therefore be reused in the dyeing baths with the consequent saving of water resources.

  13. Synthesis, Processing, and Characterization of Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Cross-Linked Silica, Organic Polyimide, and Inorganic Aluminosilicate Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Baochau N.; Guo, Haiquan N.; McCorkle, Linda S.

    2014-01-01

    As aerospace applications become ever more demanding, novel insulation materials with lower thermal conductivity, lighter weight and higher use temperature are required to fit the aerospace application needs. Having nanopores and high porosity, aerogels are superior thermal insulators, among other things. The use of silica aerogels in general is quite restricted due to their inherent fragility, hygroscopic nature, and poor mechanical properties, especially in extereme aerospace environments. Our research goal is to develop aerogels with better mechanical and environmental stability for a variety of aeronautic and space applications including space suit insulation for planetary surface missions, insulation for inflatable structures for habitats, inflatable aerodynamic decelerators for entry, descent and landing (EDL) operations, and cryotank insulation for advance space propulsion systems. Different type of aerogels including organic-inorganic polymer reinforced (hybrid) silica-based aerogels, polyimide aerogels and inorganic aluminosilicate aerogels have been developed and examined.

  14. A hybrid enrichment process combining conjugated polymer extraction and silica gel adsorption for high purity semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jianfu; Li, Zhao; Lefebvre, Jacques; Cheng, Fuyong; Dunford, Jeffrey L.; Malenfant, Patrick R. L.; Humes, Jefford; Kroeger, Jens

    2015-09-01

    A novel purification process for the enrichment of sc-SWCNTs that combines selective conjugated polymer extraction (CPE) with selective adsorption using silica gel, termed hybrid-CPE (h-CPE), has been developed, providing a high purity sc-SWCNT material with a significant improvement in process efficiency and yield. Using the h-CPE protocol, a greater than 5 fold improvement in yield can be obtained compared to traditional CPE while obtaining sc-SWCNT with a purity >99.9% as assessed by absorption spectroscopy and Raman mapping. Thin film transistor devices using the h-CPE derived sc-SWCNTs as the semiconductor possess mobility values ranging from 10-30 cm2 V-1 s-1 and current ON/OFF ratio of 104-105 for channel lengths between 2.5 and 20 μm.A novel purification process for the enrichment of sc-SWCNTs that combines selective conjugated polymer extraction (CPE) with selective adsorption using silica gel, termed hybrid-CPE (h-CPE), has been developed, providing a high purity sc-SWCNT material with a significant improvement in process efficiency and yield. Using the h-CPE protocol, a greater than 5 fold improvement in yield can be obtained compared to traditional CPE while obtaining sc-SWCNT with a purity >99.9% as assessed by absorption spectroscopy and Raman mapping. Thin film transistor devices using the h-CPE derived sc-SWCNTs as the semiconductor possess mobility values ranging from 10-30 cm2 V-1 s-1 and current ON/OFF ratio of 104-105 for channel lengths between 2.5 and 20 μm. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04851f

  15. Identification and characterization of protein interactions in the mammalian mRNA processing body using a novel two-hybrid assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloch, Donald B., E-mail: bloch@helix.mgh.harvard.edu; Nobre, Rita A.; Bernstein, Gillian A.; Yang, Wei-Hong

    2011-09-10

    Components of the mRNA processing body (P-body) regulate critical steps in mRNA storage, transport, translation and degradation. At the core of the P-body is the decapping complex, which removes the 5' cap from de-adenylated mRNAs and mediates an irreversible step in mRNA degradation. The assembly of P-bodies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thaliana and Drosophila melanogaster has been previously described. Less is known about the assembly of mammalian P-bodies. To investigate the interactions that occur between components of mammalian P-bodies, we developed a fluorescence-based, two-hybrid assay system. The assay depends on the ability of one P-body component, fused to an exogenous nuclear localization sequence (NLS), to recruit other P-body components to the nucleus. The assay was used to investigate interactions between P-body components Ge-1, DCP2, DCP1, EDC3, RAP55, and RCK. The results of this study show that the modified two-hybrid assay can be used to identify protein interactions that occur in a macromolecular complex. The assay can also be used to efficiently detect protein interaction domains. The results provide important insights into mammalian P-body assembly and demonstrate similarities, and critical differences, between P-body assembly in mammalian cells compared with that of other species. -- Research highlights: {yields} A two-hybrid assay was developed to study interactions in macromolecular complexes. {yields} The assay was applied to interactions between components of mRNA P-bodies. {yields} The assay effectively and efficiently identified protein interaction domains. {yields} P-body assembly in mammalian cells differs from that in other species.

  16. In-situ optical emission spectroscopy for a better control of hybrid sputtering/evaporation process for the deposition of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posada, Jorge; Jubault, Marie [Institute of Research and Development on Photovoltaic Energy (IRDEP), EDF-CNRS-Chimie ParisTech, UMR 7174, 6 Quai Watier, 78401 Chatou (France); Bousquet, Angélique; Tomasella, Eric [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Institute of Chemistry of Clermont-Ferrand (ICCF), CNRS-UMR 6296, 24 Avenue des Landais, 63171 Aubière (France); Lincot, Daniel [Institute of Research and Development on Photovoltaic Energy (IRDEP), EDF-CNRS-Chimie ParisTech, UMR 7174, 6 Quai Watier, 78401 Chatou (France)

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we have developed a hybrid one-step co-sputtering/evaporation Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) process, where Cu, In and Ga are sputtered simultaneously with the thermal evaporation of selenium, thus avoiding the H{sub 2}Se use. An appropriate control of the selenium flux is very important to prevent the target poisoning and hence some material flux variations. Indeed, the control of the CIGS composition must be rigorous to ensure reproducible solar cell properties. In this regard, a study of the correlations between plasma species and thin film composition, structure and morphology has been performed by varying power values and Se evaporation temperature in the 170 to 230 °C range. We started by studying the plasma with a powerful technique: optical emission spectroscopy, following light emissions from different plasma species: sputtered Cu, Ga, In but also evaporated Se. Hence, we determined the Se flow threshold avoiding target poisoning and the main parameter controlling the CIGS composition. Obviously, we also focused our interest on the material. We measured film composition and thickness of the samples with X-ray fluorescence and by energy dispersive X-ray. Different phases formed during the process were identified by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The optoelectronic cell properties showed promising efficiency of 10.3% for an absorber with composition ratios of [Cu]/([In] + [Ga]) = 1.02 and [Ga]/([In] + [Ga]) = 0.44. Finally, this work shows that we are able to control this hybrid process and thus the structure and composition of CIGS thin film for industrial transfer in the photovoltaic field. - Highlights: • We have developed a hybrid one-step co-sputtering/evaporation Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} process. • Correlations between plasma species and thin film composition have been performed. • We determined the Se flow threshold avoiding target poisoning. • Efficient small-area CIGS cells with 10.3% efficiency were fabricated.

  17. Novel Water Treatment Processes Based on Hybrid Membrane-Ozonation Systems: A Novel Ceramic Membrane Contactor for Bubbleless Ozonation of Emerging Micropollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stylianos K. Stylianou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is the presentation of novel water treatment systems based on ozonation combined with ceramic membranes for the treatment of refractory organic compounds found in natural water sources such as groundwater. This includes, firstly, a short review of possible membrane based hybrid processes for water treatment from various sources. Several practical and theoretical aspects for the application of hybrid membrane-ozonation systems are discussed, along with theoretical background regarding the transformation of target organic pollutants by ozone. Next, a novel ceramic membrane contactor, bringing into contact the gas phase (ozone and water phase without the creation of bubbles (bubbleless ozonation, is presented. Experimental data showing the membrane contactor efficiency for oxidation of atrazine, endosulfan, and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE are shown and discussed. Almost complete endosulfan degradation was achieved with the use of the ceramic contactor, whereas atrazine degradation higher than 50% could not be achieved even after 60 min of reaction time. Single ozonation of water containing MTBE could not result in a significant MTBE degradation. MTBE mineralization by O3/H2O2 combination increased at higher pH values and O3/H2O2 molar ratio of 0.2 reaching a maximum of around 65%.

  18. Solution processed SiN{sub x}C{sub y}O{sub z} thin films thermally transformed from silicon oxide/melamine hybrid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jaehun [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300, Chunchun-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Fujihara, Kan [KANEKA Corporation, 5-1-1 Torikai-Nishi, Settsu, Osaka 566-007 (Japan); Pu, Lyongsun [KANEKA Corporation, 5-1-1 Torikai-Nishi, Settsu, Osaka 566-007 (Japan); School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University 300, Chunchun-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Ji-Beom [School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University 300, Chunchun-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jun Young; Cho, Sung M.; Lee, Youngkwan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Chunchun-dong, Jangan Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Woo [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kyonggi University, 94-6 yiui-dong Yeongton-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 443-760 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Taeseon, E-mail: Taeseon.Hwang@unlv.edu [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300, Chunchun-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 4505 Maryland Parkway, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States); Nam, Jae-Do, E-mail: jdnam@skku.edu [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300, Chunchun-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, 300, Chunchun-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-31

    In this study, a solution-processable precursor of melamine and silicon oxide, was prepared and thermally converted into inorganic thin films of SiN{sub x}C{sub y}O{sub z}. Using tetra-ethoxysilane and hydroxyl-methyl-melamine, a transparent coating with a high loading content of silica of up to 50% was achieved through the hydrolysis/condensation reactions, which provided a transmittance of 85.1% (thickness of 1.5 ± 0.2 μm) and hard coating grade of 4H pencil test. When the silica/melamine coating was further heat-treated up to 900 °C in an inert environment, the organic melamine was converted into an inorganic compound composed of Si, N, C, and O atoms in the form of SiN{sub x}C{sub y}O{sub z}. The relative compositions of films varied with the heat-treatment temperature, e.g., providing SiN{sub 0.03}C{sub 0.59}O{sub 1.87} for the thin film heat-treated at 700 °C. The resulting inorganic thin films were mechanically strong and optically shiny with a low root mean square of roughness (< 1.0 nm) giving dielectric constants varying from 2.75 to 1.82 with heat treatment temperature that could be used as low-k materials in commercialized optoelectronic devices. - Highlights: • A solution-processable dielectric layer was fabricated through sol–gel process. • A fabricated hybrid film has an excellent optical transmittance and hardness. • The hybrid film was converted into an inorganic compound in the form of SiN{sub x}C{sub y}O{sub z}. • The dielectric constant of heat-treated specimen was measured lower than 2.0.

  19. RDNA cloning vector pVE1, deletion and hybrid mutants and recombinant derivatives thereof products and processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacNeil, T.; Gibbons, P.H.

    1987-10-27

    This patent describes novel plasmid pVE1, deletion mutants thereof, recombinant derivatives thereof, which is the same as the genome or nucleic acid of such plasmids and derivatives of such genome, which are useful as recombinant DNA cloning vectors into host organisms, such as bacteria, for example, Streptomyces avermitilis. Portions of such plasmid genome are additionally useful as adjuncts in recombinant DNA cloning procedures, for examples: 1. to permit the maintenance of cloned DNA in the host, either in an integrated state or as an autonomous element; 2. to serve as promoters for increasing expression of endogenous or foreign genes wherein the promoters are ligated to such genes or otherwise serve as promoters; and 3. to serve as regulatory elements for achieving control over endogenous and foreign gene expression. As cloning vectors, pVE1 its deletion mutants, and other derivatives serve for the amplification and transfer of DNA sequences (genes) coding for useful functions. Such modified cloning vectors are introduced into the recipient organism by conjugation or transformation; wherein the hybrid DNA functions in an integrated mode and/or in plasmid mode.

  20. Metallurgical and mechanical characterization of mild steel-mild steel joint formed by microwave hybrid heating process

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amit Bansal; Apurbba Kumar Sharma; Shantanu Das

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, mild steel–mild steel (MS-MS) joints fabricated through microwave hybrid heating (MHH) have been characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), electron probe micro analyser (EPMA), Vicker’s microhardness measurement and tensile strength. The XRD spectrum of the developed joints shows substitution type of solid solution form in the joint zone. The back scattered electron (BSE) images of the joint obtained by SEM show complete melting of powder particle and consequently diffusion bonding takes place between the substrate and the powder particle. The electron probe micro analysis shows diffusion of element across the joint. The Vicker’s micro hardness of the joints was measured to be 420 ± 30 Hv, which is higher than that of substrate hardness 230 ± 10 Hv. The tensile strength of the sample was measured by an universal testing machine and found to be 240 MPa which is about 50% of base material strength. The SEM micrographs of the fractured sample indicate mixed modes of failure during fracture of the joint; both ductile and brittle modes of failures occurred as indicated by dimple and cleavage of the brittle faces, respectively.

  1. The governance of hybrid organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spear, Roger; Cornforth, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this chapter is on the governance of third sector organizations (TSOs) and the challenges that are raised by hybridity. In particular it will focus on the question how does hybridity affect governance structures and processes and the challenges that governing bodies face?......The focus of this chapter is on the governance of third sector organizations (TSOs) and the challenges that are raised by hybridity. In particular it will focus on the question how does hybridity affect governance structures and processes and the challenges that governing bodies face?...

  2. Hybrid polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye; Shaghasi, Tarana

    2016-11-01

    The present invention provides hybrid polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity. The present invention also provides polynucleotides encoding the hybrid polypeptides; nucleic acid constructs, vectors and host cells comprising the polynucleotides; and processes of using the hybrid polypeptides.

  3. The Conceptual Design of an Integrated Nuclearhydrogen Production Plant Using the Sulfur Cycle Water Decomposition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farbman, G. H.

    1976-01-01

    A hydrogen production plant was designed based on a hybrid electrolytic-thermochemical process for decomposing water. The sulfur cycle water decomposition system is driven by a very high temperature nuclear reactor that provides 1,283 K helium working gas. The plant is sized to approximately ten million standard cubic meters per day of electrolytically pure hydrogen and has an overall thermal efficiently of 45.2 percent. The economics of the plant were evaluated using ground rules which include a 1974 cost basis without escalation, financing structure and other economic factors. Taking into account capital, operation, maintenance and nuclear fuel cycle costs, the cost of product hydrogen was calculated at $5.96/std cu m for utility financing. These values are significantly lower than hydrogen costs from conventional water electrolysis plants and competitive with hydrogen from coal gasification plants.

  4. Hybrid data acquisition and processing strategies with increased throughput and selectivity: pSMART analysis for global qualitative and quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Amol; Peterman, Scott; Ahmad, Shadab; Sarracino, David; Frewen, Barbara; Vogelsang, Maryann; Byram, Gregory; Krastins, Bryan; Vadali, Gouri; Lopez, Mary

    2014-12-05

    Data-dependent acquisition (DDA) and data-independent acquisition strategies (DIA) have both resulted in improved understanding of proteomics samples. Both strategies have advantages and disadvantages that are well-published, where DDA is typically applied for deep discovery and DIA may be used to create sample records. In this paper, we present a hybrid data acquisition and processing strategy (pSMART) that combines the strengths of both techniques and provides significant benefits for qualitative and quantitative peptide analysis. The performance of pSMART is compared to published DIA strategies in an experiment that allows the objective assessment of DIA performance with respect to interrogation of previously acquired MS data. The results of this experiment demonstrate that pSMART creates fewer decoy hits than a standard DIA strategy. Moreover, we show that pSMART is more selective, sensitive, and reproducible than either standard DIA or DDA strategies alone.

  5. Application of high silica zeolite ZSM-5 in a hybrid treatment process based on sequential adsorption and ozonation for VOCs elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitan, Hicham; Manero, Marie Hélène; Valdés, Héctor

    2016-03-01

    In this study, a hydrophobic synthetic zeolite, namely ZSM-5 is chosen as an adsorbent/catalyst for toluene removal. Experimental results showed that toluene adsorption onto ZSM-5 was favourable, following a Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. ZSM-5 zeolite was regenerated using gaseous ozone at low temperature. Adsorbed toluene was oxidised, releasing mainly CO2 and H2O. Traces of oxidation by-products such as acetic acid and acetaldehyde were formed and remained adsorbed after the oxidativate regeneration with ozone. After four successive cycles of adsorption/ozonation, the adsorption efficiency was not affected (92%-99%). These results showed that volatile organic compound (VOC) removal by adsorption onto ZSM-5 zeolite followed by ozone regeneration could be used as a promising hybrid process for the control of VOC emissions in terms of efficiency.

  6. SOUNDS OF THE RESISTANCE, BLACKENING PROCESS AND CULTURAL HYBRID OF RESISTANCE, A DECOLONIZING GLANCE UPON THE MUSICAL PRACTICES OF TRADITIONAL CAUCAN VIOLINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Almonacid González

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The following paper deals with the diverse forms of coloniality as well as with the resultant scenarios of dominance. Through these very scenarios and their particular moments in history, first as individuals and subjugated communities and then through their resistance against the hegemonic view of western modern world, it tracks the historic itinerary of Afro-descendant communities of northern Cauca in Colombia. It is also discussed here the colonial nature of a major part of Colombian musical academy along with its legitimating role of structures of power inherited from colonial times. The main point here is the presentation of two concepts developed in a research work entitled THE ZERO POINT OF COLOMBIAN MUSIC: A decolonizing glance upon the musical practices of traditional Caucan violins, which have been respectively nominated blackening process and cultural hybrid of resistance and are the result of field observation of the already mentioned practices from a decolonizing perspective.

  7. Hybrid zero valent iron (ZVI)/H2O2 oxidation process for landfill leachate treatment with novel nanosize metallic calcium/iron composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Son Dong; Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Lee, Byoung Ho

    2017-04-01

    A novel nanosize metallic calcium/iron dispersed reagent was synthesized and tested as coagulant/catalyst in a hybrid zero valent iron (ZVI)/H2O2 oxidation process to treat leachate. Two different types of leachates, one from municipal solid waste (MSW) tipping hall (MSWIL) and second from an MSW landfill site (MSWLL), were collected and characterized. The morphology, elemental composition, and mineral phases of the nano-Ca/CaO and nano-Fe/Ca/CaO were characterized by scanning electron microscopy-electron dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and x-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis. The coagulation process with 2.5 g L(-1) nano-Ca/CaO attained 64.0, 56.0, and 20.7% removal of color, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total suspended solids (TSS) in MSWLL. With only 1.0 g L(-1) of nano-Fe/Ca/CaO, relatively high color, COD and TSS removal was achieved in MSWLL at 67.5, 60.2, and 37.7%, respectively. The heavy metal removal efficiency reached 91-99% after treatment with nano-Fe/Ca/CaO in both leachate samples. The coupling process, using 1.0 g L(-1) of nano-Fe/Ca/CaO and 20 mM H2O2 doses, achieved enhancement removal of color, COD, and TSS, up to 95%, 96%, and 66%, respectively, without initial pH control. After this treatment, the color, COD, TSS, and heavy metals were significantly decreased, fitting the Korean discharge regulation limit. A hybrid coupled zero valent iron (ZVI)/H2O2 oxidation process with novel nanosized metallic calcium/iron dispersed reagent proved to be a suitable treatment for dealing with leachate samples. Conventional treatments (biological or physicochemical) are not sufficient anymore to reach the level of purification needed to fully reduce the negative impact of landfill leachates on the environment. This implies that new treatment alternatives species must be proposed. A coupled zero valent iron (ZVI)/H2O2 oxidation process proved to be a suitable treatment for dealing with leachate samples. Coagulation with nFe/Ca/CaO allows 91-99% of

  8. Rethinking Process-Based Writing Approaches in the ESOL Middle School Classroom: Developing Linguistic Fluency via Hybrid Pedagogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Anjali

    2012-01-01

    This article calls for a rethinking of pure process-based approaches in the teaching of second language writers in the middle school classroom. The author provides evidence from a detailed case study of the writing of a Korean middle school student in a U.S. school setting to make a case for rethinking the efficacy of classic process-based…

  9. Optimisation of the geometry of the drill bit and process parameters for cutting hybrid composite/metal structures in new aircrafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbilir, Ozden

    Owing to their desirable strength-to-weight characteristics, carbon fibre reinforced polymer composites have been favourite materials for structural applications in different industries such as aerospace, transport, sports and energy. They provide a weight reduction in whole structure and consequently decrease fuel consumption. The use of lightweight materials such as titanium and its alloys in modern aircrafts has also increased significantly in the last couple of decades. Titanium and its alloys offer high strength/weight ratio, high compressive and tensile strength at high temperatures, low density, excellent corrosion resistance, exceptional erosion resistance, superior fatigue resistance and relatively low modulus of elasticity. Although composite/metal hybrid structures are increasingly used in airframes nowadays, number of studies regarding drilling of composite/metal stacks is very limited. During drilling of multilayer materials different problems may arise due to very different attributes of these materials. Machining conditions of drilling such structures play an important role on tool wear, quality of holes and cost of machining.. The research work in this thesis is aimed to investigate drilling of CFRP/Ti6Al4V hybrid structure and to optimize process parameters and drill geometry. The research work consist complete experimental study including drilling tests, in-situ and post measurements and related analysis; and finite element analysis including fully 3-D finite element models. The experimental investigations focused on drilling outputs such as thrust force, torque, delamination, burr formation, surface roughness and tool wear. An algorithm was developed to analyse drilling induced delamination quantitatively based on the images. In the numerical analysis, novel 3-D finite element models of drilling of CFRP, Ti6Al4V and CFRP/Ti6Al4V hybrid structure were developed with the use of 3-D complex drill geometries. A user defined subroutine was developed

  10. Hybrid robust model based on an improved functional link neural network integrating with partial least square (IFLNN-PLS) and its application to predicting key process variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yan-Lin; Xu, Yuan; Geng, Zhi-Qiang; Zhu, Qun-Xiong

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a hybrid robust model based on an improved functional link neural network integrating with partial least square (IFLNN-PLS) is proposed. Firstly, an improved functional link neural network with small norm of expanded weights and high input-output correlation (SNEWHIOC-FLNN) was proposed for enhancing the generalization performance of FLNN. Unlike the traditional FLNN, the expanded variables of the original inputs are not directly used as the inputs in the proposed SNEWHIOC-FLNN model. The original inputs are attached to some small norm of expanded weights. As a result, the correlation coefficient between some of the expanded variables and the outputs is enhanced. The larger the correlation coefficient is, the more relevant the expanded variables tend to be. In the end, the expanded variables with larger correlation coefficient are selected as the inputs to improve the performance of the traditional FLNN. In order to test the proposed SNEWHIOC-FLNN model, three UCI (University of California, Irvine) regression datasets named Housing, Concrete Compressive Strength (CCS), and Yacht Hydro Dynamics (YHD) are selected. Then a hybrid model based on the improved FLNN integrating with partial least square (IFLNN-PLS) was built. In IFLNN-PLS model, the connection weights are calculated using the partial least square method but not the error back propagation algorithm. Lastly, IFLNN-PLS was developed as an intelligent measurement model for accurately predicting the key variables in the Purified Terephthalic Acid (PTA) process and the High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) process. Simulation results illustrated that the IFLNN-PLS could significant improve the prediction performance.

  11. Hydrogen production by the solar-powered hybrid sulfur process: Analysis of the integration of the CSP and chemical plants in selected scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberatore, Raffaele; Lanchi, Michela; Turchetti, Luca

    2016-05-01

    The Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) is a water splitting process for hydrogen production powered with high temperature nuclear heat and electric power; among the numerous thermo-chemical and thermo-electro-chemical cycles proposed in the literature, such cycle is considered to have a particularly high potential also if powered by renewable energy. SOL2HY2 (Solar to Hydrogen Hybrid Cycles) is a 3 year research project, co-funded by the Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking (FCH JU). A significant part of the project activities are devoted to the analysis and optimization of the integration of the solar power plant with the chemical, hydrogen production plant. This work reports a part of the results obtained in such research activity. The analysis presented in this work builds on previous process simulations used to determine the energy requirements of the hydrogen production plant in terms of electric power, medium (550°C) temperature heat. For the supply of medium temperature (MT) heat, a parabolic trough CSP plant using molten salts as heat transfer and storage medium is considered. A central receiver CSP (Concentrated Solar Power) plant is considered to provide high temperature (HT) heat, which is only needed for sulfuric acid decomposition. Finally, electric power is provided by a power block included in the MT solar plant and/or drawn from the grid, depending on the scenario considered. In particular, the analysis presented here focuses on the medium temperature CSP plant, possibly combined with a power block. Different scenarios were analysed by considering plants with different combinations of geographical location and sizing criteria.

  12. Modeling of Drying Process and Energy Consumption of Onion (Ex-gidankwanoSpp. Slices in a Hybrid Crop Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Nwakuba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High consumption of energy in the drying industry has prompted extensive research regarding various aspects of crop drying energy consumption. Specific energy consumption, moisture ratio and thermal efficiency in drying of fresh ex-gidankwano onions variety were determined using a hybrid electric-gas dryer at air temperatures of 50, 60 and 70oC, and at air velocities of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5m/s. Thin layer models were selected by carrying out statistical analyses to fit the drying rate data to themodels. The Page drying model was found more suitable to describe the drying behaviour of onions slices based on its highest average R2 -values of 0.99 and lowest average RMSE of 3.91for all temperatures and air velocitiesirrespective of the heat source. Records of drying rates and energy consumption were made using electronic weighing balances and the Arduino microprocessor respectively. Results obtained show that the specific energy consumption decreases with increase in air temperature but increases with increase in air velocity in both heat sources. The minimum and maximum specific energies for the electric and gas heat sources were 48.73MJ/kg and 90.21MJ/kg, and 36.83MJ/kg and64.65MJ/kg of moisture evaporated respectively.The thermal efficiency of the heat sources increased proportionally with increasing drying air temperature and decreased with increase in drying air velocity with maximum values of 54.8% and 68.2% for the electric and gas heaters respectively. The gas heat source performed more efficiently in terms of energy consumption and thermal efficiency at different temperatures and air velocities.

  13. Membrane-assisted vapor stripping: energy efficient hybrid distillation-vapor permeation process for alcohol-water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Energy efficient alternatives to distillation for alcohol recovery from dilute solution are needed to improve biofuel sustainability. A process integrating steam stripping with a vapor compression step and a vapor permeation membrane separation step is proposed. The...

  14. Experimental Evaluation of Hybrid Distillation-Vapor Permeation Process for Efficient Ethanol Recovery from Ethanol-Water Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    The energy demand of distillation-based systems for ethanol recovery and dehydration can be significant, particularly for dilute solutions [1]. An alternative separation process integrating vapor stripping with a vapor compression step and a vapor permeation membrane separation ...

  15. Experimental Evaluation of Hybrid Distillation-Vapor Permeation Process for Efficient Ethanol Recovery from Ethanol-Water Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    The energy demand of distillation-based systems for ethanol recovery and dehydration can be significant, particularly for dilute solutions [1]. An alternative separation process integrating vapor stripping with a vapor compression step and a vapor permeation membrane separation ...

  16. Membrane-assisted vapor stripping: energy efficient hybrid distillation-vapor permeation process for alcohol-water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Energy efficient alternatives to distillation for alcohol recovery from dilute solution are needed to improve biofuel sustainability. A process integrating steam stripping with a vapor compression step and a vapor permeation membrane separation step is proposed. The...

  17. Hybrid processing of Ti-6Al-4V using plasma immersion ion implantation combined with plasma nitriding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Maria Margareth da

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the fact that the Ti-6Al-4V alloy has good mechanical properties, excellent resistance to corrosion and also excellent biocompatibility, however with low wear resistance, this work aims to test plasma processes or combination of plasma and ion implantation processes to improve these characteristics. Two types of processing were used: two steps PIII (Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation combined with PN (Plasma Nitriding and single step PIII treatment. According to Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES results, the best solution was obtained by PIII for 150 minutes resulting in ~ 65 nm of nitrogen implanted layer, while the sample treated with PIII (75 minutes and PN (75 minutes reached ~ 35 nm implanted layer. The improvement of surface properties could also be confirmed by the nanoindentation technique, with values of hardness increasing for both processes. AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy characterization showed that the single step PIII process presented greater efficiency than the duplex process (PIII + PN, probably due to the sputtering occurring during the second step (PN removing partially the implanted layer of first step (PIII.

  18. Hybrid Al/steel-joints manufactured by ultrasound enhanced friction stir welding (USE-FSW): Process comparison, nondestructive testing and microscopic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomä, M.; Wagner, G.; Straß, B.; Wolter, B.; Benfer, S.; Fürbeth, W.

    2017-03-01

    The process of friction stir welding (FSW) is an innovative joining technique, which proved its potential in joining dissimilar metals that are poorly fusion weldable. This ability opens a wide range for applications in industrial fields, where weight reduction by partial substitution of conventional materials through lightweight materials is a current central aim. As a consequence of this, the realization of aluminum / steel-joints is of great interest. For this material compound, several friction stir welds were carried out by different researchers for varying Al/steel-joints, whereas the definition of optimal process parameters as well as the increase of mechanical properties was in the focus of the studies. To achieve further improved properties for this dissimilar joint a newly developed hybrid process named “ultrasound enhanced friction stir welding (USE-FSW)” was applied. In this paper the resulting properties of Al/steel-joints using FSW and USE-FSW will be presented and compared. Furthermore, first results by using the nondestructive testing method “computer laminography” to analyze the developed joining area will be shown supplemented by detailed light-microscopic investigations, scanning electron microscopic analysis, and EDX.

  19. Hybrid perovskite solar cells: In situ investigation of solution-processed PbI2 reveals metastable precursors and a pathway to producing porous thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Barrit, Dounya

    2017-04-17

    The successful and widely used two-step process of producing the hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite CH3NH3PbI3, consists of converting a solution deposited PbI2 film by reacting it with CH3NH3I. Here, we investigate the solidification of PbI2 films from a DMF solution by performing in situ grazing incidence wide angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) measurements. The measurements reveal an elaborate sol–gel process involving three PbI2⋅DMF solvate complexes—including disordered and ordered ones—prior to PbI2 formation. The ordered solvates appear to be metastable as they transform into the PbI2 phase in air within minutes without annealing. Morphological analysis of air-dried and annealed films reveals that the air-dried PbI2 is substantially more porous when the coating process produces one of the intermediate solvates, making this more suitable for subsequent conversion into the perovskite phase. The observation of metastable solvates on the pathway to PbI2 formation open up new opportunities for influencing the two-step conversion of metal halides into efficient light harvesting or emitting perovskite semiconductors.

  20. Effect of membrane and process characteristics on cost and energy usage for separating alcohol–water mixtures using a hybrid vapor stripping–vapor permeation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Alcohols, including ethanol and butanol, are receiving increased attention as renewable liquid biofuels. Alcohol concentrations may be low in a biological process due to product inhibition and, for non-starch feedstocks, limited substrate concentrations. The result is...

  1. Process development and exergy cost sensitivity analysis of a hybrid molten carbonate fuel cell power plant and carbon dioxide capturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrpooya, Mehdi; Ansarinasab, Hojat; Moftakhari Sharifzadeh, Mohammad Mehdi; Rosen, Marc A.

    2017-10-01

    An integrated power plant with a net electrical power output of 3.71 × 105 kW is developed and investigated. The electrical efficiency of the process is found to be 60.1%. The process includes three main sub-systems: molten carbonate fuel cell system, heat recovery section and cryogenic carbon dioxide capturing process. Conventional and advanced exergoeconomic methods are used for analyzing the process. Advanced exergoeconomic analysis is a comprehensive evaluation tool which combines an exergetic approach with economic analysis procedures. With this method, investment and exergy destruction costs of the process components are divided into endogenous/exogenous and avoidable/unavoidable parts. Results of the conventional exergoeconomic analyses demonstrate that the combustion chamber has the largest exergy destruction rate (182 MW) and cost rate (13,100 /h). Also, the total process cost rate can be decreased by reducing the cost rate of the fuel cell and improving the efficiency of the combustion chamber and heat recovery steam generator. Based on the total avoidable endogenous cost rate, the priority for modification is the heat recovery steam generator, a compressor and a turbine of the power plant, in rank order. A sensitivity analysis is done to investigate the exergoeconomic factor parameters through changing the effective parameter variations.

  2. THERMALLY CLEAVABLE HYBRID MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Gaina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermally cleavable hybrid materials were prepared by the Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction of poly(vinyl furfural to N phenylmaleimido-N’-(triethoxysilylpropylurea followed by the sol-gel condensation reaction of trietoxysilyl groups with water and acetic acid. Thermal and dynamic mechanical analysis, dielectric and FTIR spectroscopy were used to characterize the structure and properties of the composites. The size of the inorganic silica particles in the hybrid material varied dependent on the silica content. The DSC study of the prepared materials revealed that the cleavage process of the formed cycloadducts takes place at temperatures varying between 143-165°C and is an endothermic process.

  3. The potential of hybrid forward osmosis membrane bioreactor (FOMBR) processes in achieving high throughput treatment of municipal wastewater with enhanced phosphorus recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Guanglei; Zhang, Sui; Srinivasa Raghavan, Divya Shankari; Das, Subhabrata; Ting, Yen-Peng

    2016-11-15

    Extensive research in recent years has explored numerous new features in the forward osmosis membrane bioreactor (FOMBR) process. However, there is an aspect, which is revolutionary but not yet been investigated. In FOMBR, FO membrane shows high rejection for a wide range of soluble contaminants. As a result, hydraulic retention time (HRT) does not correctly reflect the nominal retention of these dissolved contaminants in the bioreactor. This decoupling of contaminants retention time (CRT, i.e. the nominal retention of the dissolved contaminants) from HRT endows FOMBR a potential in significantly reducing the HRT for wastewater treatment. In this work, we report our results in this unexplored treatment potential. Using real municipal wastewater as feed, both a hybrid microfiltration-forward osmosis membrane bioreactor (MF-FOMBR) and a newly developed hybrid biofilm-forward osmosis membrane bioreactor (BF-FOMBR) achieved high removal of organic matter and nitrogen under HRT of down to 2.0 h, with significantly enhanced phosphorus recovery capacities. In the BF-FOMBR, the used of fixed bed biofilm not only obviated the need of additional solid/liquid separation (e.g. MF) to extract the side-stream for salt accumulation control and phosphorus recovery, but effectively quarantined the biomass from the FO membrane. The absence of MF in the side-stream further allowed suspended growth to be continuously removed from the system, which produced a selection pressure for the predominance of attached growth. As a result, a significant reduction in FO membrane fouling (by 24.7-54.5%) was achieved in the BF-FOMBR due to substantially reduced bacteria deposition and colonization.

  4. A Hybrid Model Approach for Achieving the Highest Level of Matching Between the “Print and Original” in the Sheet-Fed Offset Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendrakumar Anayath

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to explore an optimized hybrid system through dual measurement approach of contrast measurement method and CIE L*a*b* measurement method to arrive a logical interface for achieving the highest matching between the print and original in sheet fed offset printing process. The work was started with the detailed study of contrast measurement, CIE L*a*b* measurement method, visual and computational intelligence based assessment and control. The master was designed in such a way that value of density and other values can be measured easily in effective way. X-Rite eXact instrument is used for capturing the readings, the 10 standard observers were selected initially by manual method and finally by using on line Fransworth-Munsell 100 Hue Colour Vision Test and visual assessments and judgement were done on X-Rite’s Macbeth Lighting Booth and their visual assessments are recorded, analyzed and represented. All the parameters like Paper, Ink, Measuring Conditions and Measuring Instruments etc. were maintained in compliance with ISO specifications. After the analysis of data, the study reached to the following main conclusion i.e. It is observed that almost in all the cases, preference of the Standard Observers are for Delta E Value leading to the higher contrast value instead of Minimum Delta E with less contrast value. Therefore the dual approach of “Hybrid System” will help us to arrive at the most convincing, measurable and perceptually acceptable print result which will be the highest (closest match to the original by clubbing the best of “CIE Lab, Contrast Method and Standard Observers Visual Perception” as there are positives and negatives in all these three when one approaches individually. The objective of this paper was to develop a dual measurement approach of CIE Lab & Contrast to arrive at a logical inference for the highest level of matching between the original and print in the sheet fed offset printing.

  5. Acoustic Data Processing and Transient Signal Analysis for the Hybrid Wing Body 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Christopher J.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Humphreys, William M.; Spalt, Taylor B.; Stead, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    An advanced vehicle concept, the HWB N2A-EXTE aircraft design, was tested in NASA Langley's 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel to study its acoustic characteristics for var- ious propulsion system installation and airframe con gurations. A signi cant upgrade to existing data processing systems was implemented, with a focus on portability and a re- duction in turnaround time. These requirements were met by updating codes originally written for a cluster environment and transferring them to a local workstation while en- abling GPU computing. Post-test, additional processing of the time series was required to remove transient hydrodynamic gusts from some of the microphone time series. A novel automated procedure was developed to analyze and reject contaminated blocks of data, under the assumption that the desired acoustic signal of interest was a band-limited sta- tionary random process, and of lower variance than the hydrodynamic contamination. The procedure is shown to successfully identify and remove contaminated blocks of data and retain the desired acoustic signal. Additional corrections to the data, mainly background subtraction, shear layer refraction calculations, atmospheric attenuation and microphone directivity corrections, were all necessary for initial analysis and noise assessments. These were implemented for the post-processing of spectral data, and are shown to behave as expected.

  6. Olefins-selective asymmetric carbon molecular sieve hollow fiber membranes for hybrid membrane-distillation processes for olefin/paraffin separations

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Liren

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, the development of asymmetric carbon molecular sieve (CMS) hollow fiber membranes and advanced processes for olefin/paraffin separations based on the CMS membranes are reported. Membrane-based olefin/paraffin separations have been pursued extensively over the past decades. CMS membranes are promising to exceed the performance upper bound of polymer materials and have demonstrated excellent stability for gas separations. Previously, a substructure collapse phenomenon was found in Matrimid ® precursor derived CMS fiber. To overcome the permeance loss due to the increased separation layer thickness, 6FDA-DAM and 6FDA/BPDA-DAM precursors were selected as potential new precursors for carbon membrane formation. Defect-free asymmetric 6FDA-DAM and 6FDA/BPDA-DAM hollow fibers were successfully fabricated from a dry-jet/wet-quench spinning process. Polymer rigidity, glass-rubber transition and asymmetric morphology were correlated. CMS hollow fiber membranes produced from 6FDA-polymer precursors showed significant improvement in permeance for ethylene/ethane and propylene/propane separations. Further studies revealed that the CMS membranes are olefins-selective, which means the membranes are able to effectively separate olefins (ethylene and propylene) from paraffins (ethane and propane). This unique feature of CMS materials enables advanced hybrid membrane-distillation process designs. By using the olefins-selective membranes, these new processes may provide advantages over previously proposed retrofitting concepts. Further applications of the membranes are explored for hydrocarbons processes. Significant energy savings and even reduced footprint may be achieved in olefins production units. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Hybrid Metaheuristics

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to provide a state of the art of hybrid metaheuristics. The book provides a complete background that enables readers to design and implement hybrid metaheuristics to solve complex optimization problems (continuous/discrete, mono-objective/multi-objective, optimization under uncertainty) in a diverse range of application domains. Readers learn to solve large scale problems quickly and efficiently combining metaheuristics with complementary metaheuristics, mathematical programming, constraint programming and machine learning. Numerous real-world examples of problems and solutions demonstrate how hybrid metaheuristics are applied in such fields as networks, logistics and transportation, bio-medical, engineering design, scheduling.

  8. Hybrid laser-arc welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybrid laser-arc welding (HLAW) is a combination of laser welding with arc welding that overcomes many of the shortfalls of both processes. This important book gives a comprehensive account of hybrid laser-arc welding technology and applications. The first part of the book reviews...... the characteristics of the process, including the properties of joints produced by hybrid laser-arc welding and ways of assessing weld quality. Part II discusses applications of the process to such metals as magnesium alloys, aluminium and steel as well as the use of hybrid laser-arc welding in such sectors as ship...... building and the automotive industry. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Hybrid laser-arc welding, will be a valuable source of reference for all those using this important welding technology. Professor Flemming Ove Olsen works in the Department of Manufacturing...

  9. Preparation and characterization of SiC/C/SiC composites by hybrid wet/vapour processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licciulli, A. [Centro Nazionale Ricerca e Sviluppo Materiali, Brindisi (Italy). PASTIS; De Riccardis, F. [Centro Nazionale Ricerca e Sviluppo Materiali, Brindisi (Italy). PASTIS; Quirini, A. [Centro Nazionale Ricerca e Sviluppo Materiali, Brindisi (Italy). PASTIS; Nannetti, C.A. [ENEA-INN-NUMA C.R. Casaccia, Roma (Italy); Filacchioni, G. [ENEA-INN-NUMA C.R. Casaccia, Roma (Italy); Pilloni, L. [ENEA-INN-NUMA C.R. Casaccia, Roma (Italy); Botti, S. [ENEA-INN-FIS C.R. Frascati, Roma (Italy); Ortona, A. [INTERNOVA, Milano (Italy); Cammarota, A. [INTERNOVA, Milano (Italy)

    1997-06-01

    In this work the preparation of ceramic matrix composites with improved mechanical properties and reduced process time and cost has been investigated. A combination of liquid and vapour infiltration processes has been developed for producing SiC(fibers)/C/SiC composites. 2D-woven Nicalon fibers were coated with pyrolitic carbon and stacked to form flat panel preforms. Chemical vapour infiltration was achieved using methyltrichlorosilane (MTS) as SiC precursor in a hot wall reactor under isothermal (1050 C) and isobaric (20torr) conditions. The solution infiltration was achieved using polycarbosilane (PCS) as SiC precursor along with laser formed SiC nanopowders. Pyrolysis was performed in inert atmosphere up to 1100 C. Various combinations of the two routes were tested in order to optimise the composite properties. A short vapour infiltration run was used to form a uniform SiC deposit on the fibers that were subsequently filled by several cycles of liquid infiltration/pyrolysis. CVI was also effective to fill the submicron porosity resulting from PCS to SiC transformation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is presented for the description of the morphology of the composites. Mercury porosimetry along with SEM, was used to evaluate the infiltration yield and the quality of the deposit in the various steps of the process. The mechanical behavior of the composites was investigated by flexural tests. Fibers push-in by microindentation measurements were performed to characterize the fiber/matrix interface and to investigate how it is affected by the pyrocarbon coating on the fibers. On the basis of the obtained results, a preparative process for SiC/SiC composites can be optimized by the proper use of both liquid and vapour infiltration. (orig.)

  10. Hybrid fabrication process of additive manufacturing and direct writing for a 4 X 4 mm matrix flexible tactile sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Sang Gu; Lee, In Hwan [Chungbuk National University, Chungju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyong Chang [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Various machines require data from their external environments for safety and/or accuracy. In this respect, many sensors that mimic the human sensory system have been investigated. Among these, tactile sensors may be useful for obtaining data on the roughness of, and external forces acting upon, an object. Several tactile sensors have been developed; however, these are typically fabricated via a series of complex processes, and hence are unsuitable for volume manufacturing. In this paper, we report a fabrication process for a 4 X 4 mm matrix flexible sensor element using layered manufacturing and direct-write technology. A composite composed of photocurable resin and Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was used as the sensing material. The MWCNTs were mixed with the photocurable resin using ultrasonic dispersion, and the liquid mixture exhibited excellent piezoresistive properties following curing using ultraviolet light. The used photocurable resin is flexible and elastic after curing. Therefore, the composite material can be bent and deformed. To use this composite material with the flexible sensor, dispensing characteristics were examined using direct-write technology. For the acquisition of sensor data, a commercial pin-header was inserted and photocurable resin was filled up to the height of pin-header and cured . Then, the composite material was dispensed onto the pin-header as a sensing material. Using this process, a flexible sensor with piezoresistive properties was formed.

  11. Acetic acid recovery from a hybrid biological-hydrothermal treatment process of sewage sludge - a pilot plant study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J; Dare, P; Estcourt, G; Gapes, D; Lei, R; McDonald, B; Wijaya, N

    2015-01-01

    A two-stage process consisting of anaerobic fermentation followed by sub-critical wet oxidation was used to generate acetic acid from sewage sludge at pilot scale. Volatile fatty acids, dominated by propionic acid, were produced over 4-6 days in the 2,000 L fermentation reactor, which also achieved 31% solids reduction. Approximately 96% of the carbon was retained in solution over the fermentation stage. Using a 200 L wet oxidation reactor operating in batch mode, the second stage achieved 98% volatile suspended solids (VSS) destruction and 67% total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD) destruction. Acetic acid produced in this stage was recalcitrant to further degradation and was retained in solution. The gross yield from VSS was 16% for acetic acid and 21% for volatile fatty acids across the process, higher than reported yields for wet oxidation alone. The pilot plant results showed that 72% of the incoming phosphorus was retained in the solids, 94% of the nitrogen became concentrated in solution and 41% of the carbon was converted to a soluble state, in a more degradable form. Acetic acid produced from the process has the potential to be used to offset ethanol requirements in biological nutrient removal plants.

  12. Nanoscaled tin dioxide films processed from organotin-based hybrid materials: an organometallic route toward metal oxide gas sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Laetitia; Babot, Odile; Saadaoui, Hassan; Fuess, Hartmut; Brötz, Joachim; Gurlo, Aleksander; Arveux, Emmanuel; Klein, Andreas; Toupance, Thierry

    2012-11-07

    Nanocrystalline tin dioxide (SnO(2)) ultra-thin films were obtained employing a straightforward solution-based route that involves the calcination of bridged polystannoxane films processed by the sol-gel process from bis(triprop-1-ynylstannyl)alkylene and -arylene precursors. These films have been thoroughly characterized by FTIR, contact angle measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force (AFM) and scanning electron (SEM) microscopies. Annealing at a high temperature gave 30-35 nm thick cassiterite SnO(2) films with a mean crystallite size ranging from 4 to 7 nm depending on the nature of the organic linker in the distannylated compound used as a precursor. In the presence of H(2) and CO gases, these layers led to highly sensitive, reversible and reproducible responses. The sensing properties were discussed in regard to the crystallinity and porosity of the sensing body that can be tuned by the nature of the precursor employed. Organometallic chemistry combined with the sol-gel process therefore offers new possibilities toward metal oxide nanostructures for the reproducible and sensitive detection of combustible and toxic gases.

  13. The governance of hybrid organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spear, Roger; Cornforth, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this chapter is on the governance of third sector organizations (TSOs) and the challenges that are raised by hybridity. In particular it will focus on the question how does hybridity affect governance structures and processes and the challenges that governing bodies face?...

  14. High-efficiency aqueous-solution-processed hybrid solar cells based on P3HT dots and CdTe nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shiyu; Chen, Zhaolai; Li, Fenghong; Xu, Bin; Song, Jiaxing; Yan, Lulin; Jin, Gan; Wen, Shanpeng; Wang, Chen; Yang, Bai; Tian, Wenjing

    2015-04-08

    Without using any environmentally hazardous organic solution, we fabricated hybrid solar cells (HSCs) based on the aqueous-solution-processed poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) dots and CdTe nanocrystals (NCs). As a novel aqueous donor material, the P3HT dots are prepared through a reprecipitation method and present an average diameter of 2.09 nm. When the P3HT dots are mixed with the aqueous CdTe NCs, the dependence of the device performance on the donor-acceptor ratio shows that the optimized ratio is 1:24. Specifically, the dependence of the device performance on the active-layer thermal annealing conditions is investigated. As a result, the optimized annealing temperature is 265 °C, and the incorporation of P3HT dots as donor materials successfully reduced the annealing time from 1 h to 10 min. In addition, the transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy measurements demonstrate that the size of the CdTe NCs increased as the annealing time increased, and the annealing process facilitates the formation of a smoother interpenetrating network in the active layer. Therefore, charge separation and transport in the P3HT dots:CdTe NCs layer are more efficient. Eventually, the P3HT dots:CdTe NCs solar cells achieved 4.32% power conversion efficiency. The polymer dots and CdTe NCs based aqueous-solution-processed HSCs provide an effective way to avoid a long-time thermal annealing process of the P3HT dots:CdTe NCs layer and largely broaden the donor materials for aqueous HSCs.

  15. Hybrid composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available effect was observed for the elongation at break of the hybrid composites. The impact strength of the hybrid composites increased with the addition of glass fibres. The tensile and impact properties of thermoplastic natural rubber reinforced short... panels made from conventional structural materials. Figure 3 illustrates the performance of cellular biocomposite panels against conventional systems used for building and residential construction, namely a pre- cast pre-stressed hollow core concrete...

  16. Multi-Impact Durability and Processing of Thick-Section Carbon-Glass/Epoxy Hybrid Composites Toughened With Thermoplastic Polyurethane Inter-Layer Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    2 2.2 Standard Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding ( VARTM ) with SC-15 Resin .......2... VARTM ). ................................................9 Figure 7. Force vs. displacement for Hybrid no. 5...12. C-scan image showing progression of delamination in Hybrid no. 4 (PA- VARTM ). 12 Figure 13. C-scan image showing progression of delamination in

  17. Low-temperature bonding process for the fabrication of hybrid glass-membrane organ-on-a-chip devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocock, Kyall J.; Gao, Xiaofang; Wang, Chenxi; Priest, Craig; Prestidge, Clive A.; Mawatari, Kazuma; Kitamori, Takehiko; Thierry, Benjamin

    2016-10-01

    The integration of microfluidics with living biological systems has paved the way to the exciting concept of "organs-on-a-chip," which aims at the development of advanced in vitro models that replicate the key features of human organs. Glass-based devices have long been utilized in the field of microfluidics but the integration of alternative functional elements within multilayered glass microdevices, such as polymeric membranes, remains a challenge. To this end, we have extended a previously reported approach for the low-temperature bonding of glass devices that enables the integration of a functional polycarbonate porous membrane. The process was initially developed and optimized on specialty low-temperature bonding equipment (μTAS2001, Bondtech, Japan) and subsequently adapted to more widely accessible hot embosser units (EVG520HE Hot Embosser, EVG, Austria). The key aspect of this method is the use of low temperatures compatible with polymeric membranes. Compared to borosilicate glass bonding (650°C) and quartz/fused silica bonding (1050°C) processes, this method maintains the integrity and functionality of the membrane (Tg 150°C for polycarbonate). Leak tests performed showed no damage or loss of integrity of the membrane for up to 150 h, indicating sufficient bond strength for long-term cell culture. A feasibility study confirmed the growth of dense and functional monolayers of Caco-2 cells within 5 days.

  18. Multi-format all-optical processing based on a large-scale, hybridly integrated photonic circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougioukos, M; Kouloumentas, Ch; Spyropoulou, M; Giannoulis, G; Kalavrouziotis, D; Maziotis, A; Bakopoulos, P; Harmon, R; Rogers, D; Harrison, J; Poustie, A; Maxwell, G; Avramopoulos, H

    2011-06-01

    We investigate through numerical studies and experiments the performance of a large scale, silica-on-silicon photonic integrated circuit for multi-format regeneration and wavelength-conversion. The circuit encompasses a monolithically integrated array of four SOAs inside two parallel Mach-Zehnder structures, four delay interferometers and a large number of silica waveguides and couplers. Exploiting phase-incoherent techniques, the circuit is capable of processing OOK signals at variable bit rates, DPSK signals at 22 or 44 Gb/s and DQPSK signals at 44 Gbaud. Simulation studies reveal the wavelength-conversion potential of the circuit with enhanced regenerative capabilities for OOK and DPSK modulation formats and acceptable quality degradation for DQPSK format. Regeneration of 22 Gb/s OOK signals with amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise and DPSK data signals degraded with amplitude, phase and ASE noise is experimentally validated demonstrating a power penalty improvement up to 1.5 dB.

  19. Towards sustainable membrane filtration of palm oil mill effluent: analysis of fouling phenomena from a hybrid PAC-UF process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amosa, Mutiu Kolade

    2016-10-01

    Sustainability of a membrane process depends on many factors of which fouling mitigation is the most central. Because membrane fouling phenomenon is very complex, extent of fouling potential of a feedwater with respect to a membrane has to be identified right from the design stage. This will acquaint engineers with the proper fouling mitigation measures during operation. This study presents a preliminary fouling data from the ultrafiltration of biotreated palm oil mill effluent (POME) after an upstream adsorption process. The flux decline is studied in a typical constant-pressure experiments with a cross-flow ultrafiltration of biotreated POME through Sartocon® polyethersulfone membranes (MWCOs 1, 5 and 10 kDa) at applied pressures of 40, 80 and 120 kPa. Results are examined, within the frame of the common blocking mechanisms and it was found that the blocking index η decreased from 2 to 0. Pore blocking phenomenon was successively observed from complete blocking (η = 2) down to cake filtration (η = 0), and the early blockage of the pores and a formation of a cake resulted in a limiting cake height. Thus, cake filtration could be best used to explain the fouling mechanisms of biotreated POME on the ultrafiltration membranes based on the R 2 values at all applied pressures. This demonstrates that the fouling was as a result of gradual reversible cake deposition which could easily be removed by less onerous cleaning methods. In addition, it could be concluded that the upstream adsorption reduced the particulate deposition on the membrane surface.

  20. Hybrid Logical Analyses of the Ambient Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, hybrid logic is used to formulate three control flow analyses for Mobile Ambients, a process calculus designed for modelling mobility. We show that hybrid logic is very well-suited to express the semantic structure of the ambient calculus and how features of hybrid logic can...

  1. Hybrid modeling of convective laminar flow in a permeable tube associated with the cross-flow process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venezuela, A. L.; Pérez-Guerrero, J. S.; Fontes, S. R.

    2009-03-01

    The confined flows in tubes with permeable surfaces are associated to tangential filtration processes (microfiltration or ultrafiltration). The complexity of the phenomena do not allow for the development of exact analytical solutions, however, approximate solutions are of great interest for the calculation of the transmembrane outflow and estimate of the concentration polarization phenomenon. In the present work, the generalized integral transform technique (GITT) was employed in solving the laminar and permanent flow in permeable tubes of Newtonian and incompressible fluid. The mathematical formulation employed the parabolic differential equation of chemical species conservation (convective-diffusive equation). The velocity profiles for the entrance region flow, which are found in the connective terms of the equation, were assessed by solutions obtained from literature. The velocity at the permeable wall was considered uniform, with the concentration at the tube wall regarded as variable with an axial position. A computational methodology using global error control was applied to determine the concentration in the wall and concentration boundary layer thickness. The results obtained for the local transmembrane flux and the concentration boundary layer thickness were compared against others in literature.

  2. The clustering-based case-based reasoning for imbalanced business failure prediction: a hybrid approach through integrating unsupervised process with supervised process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Yu, Jun-Ling; Yu, Le-An; Sun, Jie

    2014-05-01

    Case-based reasoning (CBR) is one of the main forecasting methods in business forecasting, which performs well in prediction and holds the ability of giving explanations for the results. In business failure prediction (BFP), the number of failed enterprises is relatively small, compared with the number of non-failed ones. However, the loss is huge when an enterprise fails. Therefore, it is necessary to develop methods (trained on imbalanced samples) which forecast well for this small proportion of failed enterprises and performs accurately on total accuracy meanwhile. Commonly used methods constructed on the assumption of balanced samples do not perform well in predicting minority samples on imbalanced samples consisting of the minority/failed enterprises and the majority/non-failed ones. This article develops a new method called clustering-based CBR (CBCBR), which integrates clustering analysis, an unsupervised process, with CBR, a supervised process, to enhance the efficiency of retrieving information from both minority and majority in CBR. In CBCBR, various case classes are firstly generated through hierarchical clustering inside stored experienced cases, and class centres are calculated out by integrating cases information in the same clustered class. When predicting the label of a target case, its nearest clustered case class is firstly retrieved by ranking similarities between the target case and each clustered case class centre. Then, nearest neighbours of the target case in the determined clustered case class are retrieved. Finally, labels of the nearest experienced cases are used in prediction. In the empirical experiment with two imbalanced samples from China, the performance of CBCBR was compared with the classical CBR, a support vector machine, a logistic regression and a multi-variant discriminate analysis. The results show that compared with the other four methods, CBCBR performed significantly better in terms of sensitivity for identifying the

  3. Effect of excimer laser annealing on a-InGaZnO thin-film transistors passivated by solution-processed hybrid passivation layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermundo, Juan Paolo; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Fujii, Mami N.; Nonaka, Toshiaki; Ishihara, Ryoichi; Ikenoue, Hiroshi; Uraoka, Yukiharu

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of excimer laser annealing (ELA) as a low temperature annealing alternative to anneal amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) passivated by a solution-processed hybrid passivation layer. Usually, a-IGZO is annealed using thermal annealing at high temperatures of up to 400 °C. As an alternative to high temperature thermal annealing, two types of ELA, XeCl (308 nm) and KrF (248 nm) ELA, are introduced. Both ELA types enhanced the electrical characteristics of a-IGZO TFTs leading to a mobility improvement of ~13 cm2 V-1 s-1 and small threshold voltage which varied from ~0-3 V. Furthermore, two-dimensional heat simulation using COMSOL Multiphysics was used to identify possible degradation sites, analyse laser heat localization, and confirm that the substrate temperature is below 50 °C. The two-dimensional heat simulation showed that the substrate temperature remained at very low temperatures, less than 30 °C, during ELA. This implies that any flexible material can be used as the substrate. These results demonstrate the large potential of ELA as a low temperature annealing alternative for already-passivated a-IGZO TFTs.

  4. One-dimensional full wave treatment of mode conversion process at the ion-ion hybrid resonance in a bounded tokamak plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monakhov, I.; Becoulet, A.; Fraboulet, D.; NGuyen, F

    1998-09-01

    A consistent picture of the mode conversion (MC) process at the ion-ion hybrid resonance in a bounded plasma of a tokamak is discussed, which clarifies the role of the global fast wave interference and cavity effects in the determination of the MC efficiency. This picture is supported by simulations with one-dimensional full wave kinetic code `VICE`. The concept of the `global resonator`, formed by the R = n{sup 2}{sub ||} boundary cutoffs [B. Saoutic et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1647 (1996)], is justified, as well as the importance of a proper tunneling factor choice {eta}{sub cr} = 0.22 [A. K. Ram et al., Phys. Plasmas 3, 1976 (1996)]. The MC scheme behavior appears to be very sensitive to the MC layer position relative to the global wave field pattern, i.e. to the local value of `poloidal` electric field at the resonance. Optimal MC regimes are found to be attainable without requirement of a particular parallel wavenumber choice. (author) 40 refs.

  5. Application of sludge-based carbonaceous materials in a hybrid water treatment process based on adsorption and catalytic wet air oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julcour Lebigue, Carine; Andriantsiferana, Caroline; N'Guessan Krou; Ayral, Catherine; Mohamed, Elham; Wilhelm, Anne-Marie; Delmas, Henri; Le Coq, Laurence; Gerente, Claire; Smith, Karl M; Pullket, Suangusa; Fowler, Geoffrey D; Graham, Nigel J D

    2010-12-01

    This paper describes a preliminary evaluation of the performance of carbonaceous materials prepared from sewage sludges (SBCMs) in a hybrid water treatment process based on adsorption and catalytic wet air oxidation; phenol was used as the model pollutant. Three different sewage sludges were treated by either carbonisation or steam activation, and the physico-chemical properties of the resultant carbonaceous materials (e.g. hardness, BET surface area, ash and elemental content, surface chemistry) were evaluated and compared with a commercial reference activated carbon (PICA F22). The adsorption capacity for phenol of the SBCMs was greater than suggested by their BET surface area, but less than F22; a steam activated, dewatered raw sludge (SA_DRAW) had the greatest adsorption capacity of the SBCMs in the investigated range of concentrations (oxidation tests, the SBCMs demonstrated catalytic behaviour arising from their substrate adsorptivity and metal content. Recycling of SA_DRAW in successive oxidations led to significant structural attrition and a hardened SA_DRAW was evaluated, but found to be unsatisfactory during the oxidation step. In a combined adsorption-oxidation sequence, both the PICA carbon and a selected SBCM showed deterioration in phenol adsorption after oxidative regeneration, but a steady state performance was reached after 2 or 3 cycles.

  6. Insights into electrode/electrolyte interfacial processes and the effect of nanostructured cobalt oxides loading on graphene-based hybrids by scanning electrochemical microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sanju; Carrizosa, Sara B.

    2016-12-01

    Nanostructured cobalt oxide polymorphs (CoO and Co3O4) deposited via electrodeposition allowed optimal loading on supercapacitive graphene nanosheets producing a set of graphene-based hybrids namely, CoO/GO, CoO/ErGO, Co3O4/GO, Co3O4/rGO, and Co3O4/ErGO, as pseudocapacitive electrochemical electrodes. We gained fundamental insights into the complex physicochemical interfacial processes at electrode surfaces and electrode/electrolyte (or solid/liquid) interfaces by scanning electrochemical microscopy operating in the feedback probe approach and imaging modes while monitoring and mapping the redox probe (re)activity behavior. We determined the various experimental descriptors including diffusion coefficient, electron transfer rate, and electroactive site distribution on electrodes. We emphasize the interplay of (1) heterogeneous basal and edge plane active sites, (2) graphene surface functional moieties (conducting/semiconducting), and (3) crystalline spinel cobalt oxides (semiconducting/insulating) coated graphene, reinforcing the available electron density of states in the vicinity of the Fermi level contributing to higher electroactivity, faster interfacial diffusion, and shorter distances for electron transfer, facilitated through molecular and chemical bridges obtained by electrodeposition as compared with the physical deposition.

  7. Conditional Hybrid Nonclassicality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo, E.; Sperling, J.; Costanzo, L. S.; Bellini, M.; Zavatta, A.; Vogel, W.

    2017-09-01

    We derive and implement a general method to characterize the nonclassicality in compound discrete- and continuous-variable systems. For this purpose, we introduce the operational notion of conditional hybrid nonclassicality which relates to the ability to produce a nonclassical continuous-variable state by projecting onto a general superposition of discrete-variable subsystem. We discuss the importance of this form of quantumness in connection with interfaces for quantum communication. To verify the conditional hybrid nonclassicality, a matrix version of a nonclassicality quasiprobability is derived and its sampling approach is formulated. We experimentally generate an entangled, hybrid Schrödinger cat state, using a coherent photon-addition process acting on two temporal modes, and we directly sample its nonclassicality quasiprobability matrix. The introduced conditional quantum effects are certified with high statistical significance.

  8. A hybrid process of biofiltration of secondary effluent followed by ozonation and short soil aquifer treatment for water reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, I; Mamane, H; Cikurel, H; Jekel, M; Hübner, U; Avisar, D

    2015-11-01

    The Shafdan reclamation project facility (Tel Aviv, Israel) practices soil aquifer treatment (SAT) of secondary effluent with hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of a few months to a year for unrestricted agricultural irrigation. During the SAT, the high oxygen demand (>40 mg L(-1)) of the infiltrated effluent causes anoxic conditions and mobilization of dissolved manganese from the soil. An additional emerging problem is the occurrence of persistent trace organic compounds (TrOCs) in reclaimed water that should be removed prior to reuse. An innovative hybrid process based on biofiltration, ozonation and short SAT with ∼22 d HRT is proposed for treatment of the Shafdan secondary effluent to overcome limitations of the existing system and to reduce the SAT's physical footprint. Besides efficient removal of particulate matter to minimize clogging, coagulation/flocculation and filtration (5-6 m h(-1)) operated with the addition of hydrogen peroxide as an oxygen source efficiently removed dissolved organic carbon (DOC, to 17-22%), ammonium and nitrite. This resulted in reduced effluent oxygen demand during infiltration and oxidant (ozone) demand during ozonation by 23 mg L(-1) and 1.5 mg L(-1), respectively. Ozonation (1.0-1.2 mg O3 mg DOC(-1)) efficiently reduced concentrations of persistent TrOCs and supplied sufficient dissolved oxygen (>30 mg L(-1)) for fully oxic operation of the short SAT with negligible Mn(2+) mobilization (process provided DOC reduction of 88% to a value of 1.2 mg L(-1), similar to conventional SAT, while improving the removal of TrOCs and efficiently preventing manganese dissolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hybrid laser-arc welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    the characteristics of the process, including the properties of joints produced by hybrid laser-arc welding and ways of assessing weld quality. Part II discusses applications of the process to such metals as magnesium alloys, aluminium and steel as well as the use of hybrid laser-arc welding in such sectors as ship...... building and the automotive industry. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Hybrid laser-arc welding, will be a valuable source of reference for all those using this important welding technology. Professor Flemming Ove Olsen works in the Department of Manufacturing...

  10. Formal Description of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chaochen; Ji, Wang; Ravn, Anders P.

    1996-01-01

    A language to describe hybrid systems, i.e. networks of communicating discrete and continuous processes, is proposed. A semantics of the language is given in Extended Duration Calculus, a real-time interval logic with a proof system that allows reasoning in mathematical analysis about continuous ...... processes to be embedded into the logic. The semantics thus provides a secure link to hybrid system models based on a general theory of dynamical systems....

  11. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic monitoring of sol-gel process in synthesis of PbS-TiO{sub 2} hybrid nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanmohammadi, Mohammadreza, E-mail: mrkhanmohammadi@gmail.co [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, IKIU, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fard, Hassan Ghafoori [Electrical Engineering Department, Amir-Kabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Garmarudi, Amir Bagheri; Khoddami, Nafiseh [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, IKIU, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-09-30

    A typical hybrid nanostructure was prepared consisting of lead sulfide (PbS) nano-crystals, embedded in titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) using sol-gel method. The synthesis procedure was monitored by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Spectroscopic investigations indicated that PbS nano-crystals are embedded in the TiO{sub 2} matrix with no strong Ti-O-Pb-S bonding. The size of PbS hybrid nanostructures decreased with diminishing lead and sulfur mole concentrations. The smallest size of NCs has been obtained in 10% of mole concentration (30-45 nm particle size for the hybrid nanostructure). The morphology and microstructure of the nano hybrid was investigated by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction.

  12. Study of hybrid laser / MAG welding process: characterization of the geometry and the hydrodynamics of the melt pool and development of a 3D thermal model; Etude du procede de soudage hybride laser/MAG: Caracterisation de la geometrie et de l'hydrodynamique du bain de fusion et developpement d'un modele 3D thermique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Guen, E.

    2010-11-15

    Hybrid laser/MIG-MAG welding shows high advantages compared to laser welding or GMAW arc welding used separately. Thanks to this process, higher productivity can be gained through higher welding speed, higher squeeze tolerance moreover possible improvement of the metallurgical properties of the weld seam can be obtained. However, many operating parameters have to be set up in order to achieve optimal process. The complex physical phenomena, which govern welding process, have to be understood in order to use efficiently this technique in mass production. Understanding of these phenomena is also necessary to program numerical simulations which fit to this process. In the first step, experimental studies have been carried out with GMAW, laser and hybrid welding on samples of S355 steel. Influence of operating parameters has been analyzed through films performed with speed camera and macro-graphies of weld seam cross section. Surface deformations of the melt pool, induced by the arc pressure, weld pool length, droplet detachment and welding speed, have been analyzed precisely from images of the surface melt pool. In a second step, a numerical model was developed using the COMSOL Multiphysics software for MAG, laser and hybrid laser/MAG welding processes. A 3D quasi-stationary model has been calculated from the temperature field within the metal. The originality of the MAG and hybrid model lies in the prediction of the melt pool surface profile used to determine the 3D geometry, by taking into account the material input. The influence of different parameters such as arc power and speed welding on the efficiency as well as the distribution radius of the arc power and the arc pressure are analyzed through validations with different experimental results and different calculation configurations. (author)

  13. The hybrid BCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Pfurtscheller

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, everybody knows what a hybrid car is. A hybrid car normally has 2 engines, its main purpose being to enhance energy efficiency and reduce CO2 output. Similarly, a typical hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI is also composed of 2 BCIs or at least one BCI and another system. Such a hybrid BCI, like any BCI, must fulfil the following four criteria: (i the device must rely on signals recorded directly from the brain; (ii there must be at least one recordable brain signal that the user can intentionally modulate to effect goal-directed behaviour; (iii real time processing; and (iv the user must obtain feedback. This paper introduces some hybrid BCIs which have already been published or are currently in development or validation, and some concepts for future work. The BCIs described classify 2 EEG patterns: One is the event-related (desynchronisation (ERD, ERS of sensorimotor rhythms, and the other is the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP. The hybrid BCI can either have more than one input whereby the inputs are typically processed simultaneously or operate 2 systems sequentially, whereby the first system can act as a “brain switch”. In the case of self-paced operation of a SSVEP-based hand orthosis control with an motor imagery-based switch it was possible to reduce the rate of false positives during resting periods by about 50% compared to the SSVEP BCI alone. It is shown that such a brain switch can also rely on hemodynamic changes measured through near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. Another interesting approach is a hybrid BCI with simultaneous operations of ERD- and SSVEP-based BCIs. Here it is important to prove the existing promising offline simulation results with online experiments. Hybrid BCIs can also use one brain signal and another input. Such an additional input can be a physiological signal like the heart rate but also a signal from an external device like, an eye gaze control system.

  14. Selective sequential separation of ABS/HIPS and PVC from automobile and electronic waste shredder residue by hybrid nano-Fe/Ca/CaO assisted ozonisation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Lee, Byoung Ho; Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Simion, Cristian

    2017-02-01

    The separation of plastics containing brominated flame retardants (BFR) like (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), high-impact polystyrene (HIPS), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)) from automobile and electronic waste shredder residue (ASR/ESR) are a major concern for thermal recycling. In laboratory scale tests using a hybrid nano-Fe/Ca/CaO assisted ozonation treatment has been found to selectively hydrophilize the surface of ABS/HIPS and PVC plastics, enhancing ABS wettability and thereby promoting its separation from ASR/ESR by means of froth flotation. The water contact angles, of ABS/HIPS and PVC decreased, about 18.7°, 18.3°, and 17.9° in ASR and about 21.2°, 20.7°, and 20.0° in ESR respectively. SEM-EDS, FT-IR, and XPS analyses demonstrated a marked decrease in [Cl] and a significant increase in the number of hydrophilic groups, such as CO, CO, and (CO)O, on the PVC or ABS surface. Under froth flotation conditions at 50rpm, about 99.1% of combined fraction of ABS/HIPS in ASR samples and 99.6% of ABS/HIPS in ESR samples were separated as settled fraction. After separation, the purity of the recovered combined ABS/HIPS fraction was 96.5% and 97.6% in ASR and ESR samples respectively. Furthermore, at 150rpm a 100% PVC separation in the settled fraction, with 98% and 99% purity in ASR and ESR plastics, respectively. Total recovery of non-ABS/HIPS and PVC plastics reached nearly 100% in the floating fraction. Further, this process improved the quality of recycled ASR/ESR plastics by removing surface contaminants or impurities.

  15. Micro and nano-biomimetic structures for cell migration study fabricated by hybrid subtractive and additive 3D femtosecond laser processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, Felix; Serien, Daniela; Wu, Dong; Xu, Jian; Kawano, Hiroyuki; Midorikawa, Katsumi; Sugioka, Koji

    2017-02-01

    Lab-on-a-chip devices have been intensively developed during the last decade when emerging technologies offered possibilities to manufacture reliable devices with increased spatial resolution. These biochips allowed testing chemical reactions in nanoliter volumes with enhanced sensitivity and lower consumption of reagents. There is space to further consolidate biochip assembling processing since the new technologies attempt direct fabrication in view of reducing costs and time by increasing efficiency and functionalities. Rapid prototyping by ultrafast lasers which induces local modifications inside transparent materials of both glass and polymers with high precision at micro- and nanoscale is a promising tool for fabrication of such biochips. We have developed a new technology by combining subtractive ultrafast laser assisted chemical etching of glasses and additive two-photon polymerization to integrate 3D glass microfluidics and polymer microcomponents in a single biochip. The innovative hybrid "ship-in-a-bottle" approach is not only an instrument that can tailor 3D environments but also a tool to fabricate biomimetic in vivo structures inside a glass microfluidic chip. It was possible to create appropriate environment for cell culturing and to offer robustness and transparency for optical interrogation. Cancer cells were cultivated inside biochips and monitored over short and long periods. With the view of understanding cancer cells specific behavior such as migration or invasiveness inside human body, introduction of different geometrical configurations and chemical conditions were proposed. The cells were found responsive to a gradient of nutrient concentration through the microchannels of a 3D polymeric scaffold integrated inside glass biochip.

  16. Taguchi design optimization of machining parameters on the CNC end milling process of halloysite nanotube with aluminium reinforced epoxy matrix (HNT/Al/Ep hybrid composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S. Pang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the application of Taguchi optimization methodology in optimizing the cutting parameters of end-milling process for machining the halloysite nanotubes (HNTs with aluminium reinforced epoxy hybrid composite material under dry condition. The machining parameters which are chosen to be evaluated in this study are the depth of cut (d, cutting speed (S and feed rate (f. While, the response factors to be measured are the surface roughness of the machined composite surface and the cutting force. An orthogonal array of the Taguchi method was set-up and used to analyse the effect of the milling parameters on the surface roughness and cutting force. The result from this study shows that the application of the Taguchi method can determine the best combination of machining parameters that can provide the optimal machining response conditions which are the lowest surface roughness and lowest cutting force value. For the best surface finish, A1–B3–C3 (d = 0.4 mm, S = 1500 rpm, f = 60 mmpm is found to be the optimized combination of levels for all the three control factors from the analysis. Meanwhile, the optimized combination of levels for all the three control factors from the analysis which provides the lowest cutting force was found to be A2–B2–C2 (d = 0.6 mm, S = 1000 rpm, f = 40 mmpm.

  17. 用于生产TAEE的反应精馏和全蒸发的混合过程%Hybrid Process of Reactive Distillation and Pervaporation for the Production of Tert-amyl Ethyl Ether

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amornchai Arpornwichanop; Ukrit Sahapatsombud; Yaneeporn Patcharavorachot; Suttichai Assabumrungrat

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a reactive distillation column in which chemical reaction and separation occur simultane-ously is applied for the synthesis of tert-amyl ethyl ether (TAEE) from ethanol (EtOH) and tert-amyl alcohol (TAA).Pervaporation, an efficient membrane separation technique, is integrated with the reactive distillation for enhancing the efficiency of TAEE production. A user-defined Fortran subroutine of a pervaporation unit is developed, allowing the design and simulation of the hybrid process of reactive distillation and pervaporation in Aspen Plus simulator.The performance of such a hybrid process is analyzed and the results indicate that the integration of the reactive distillation with the pervaporation increases the conversion of TAA and the purity of TAEE product, compared with the conventional reactive distiUation.

  18. Total environmental impacts of biofuels from corn stover using a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) model combining Process LCA and Economic Input-Output LCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changqi; Huang, Yaji; Wang, Xinye; Tai, Yang; Liu, Lingqin; Liu, Hao

    2017-08-10

    Studies on the environmental analysis of biofuels by fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing (BFPH) have so far only focused on the environmental impacts from direct emissions and included few indirect emissions. The influence of ignoring some indirect emissions on the environmental performance of BFPH has not been well investigated and hence is not really understood. In addition, in order to avoid shifting environmental problems from one media to another, a comprehensive assessment of environmental impacts caused by the processes must quantify the environmental emissions to all media (air, water, and land) in relation to each life cycle stage. A well-to-wheels assessment of the total environmental impacts resulting from direct emissions and indirect emissions of a BFPH system with corn stover is conducted using a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) model combining the economic input-output LCA and the process LCA. The Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts (TRACI) has been used to estimate the environmental impacts in terms of acidification, eutrophication, global climate change, ozone depletion, human health criteria, photochemical smog formation, ecotoxicity, human health cancer and human health non-cancer, caused by 1 MJ biofuel production. Taking account of all the indirect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the net GHG emissions (81.8 gCO2-eq /MJ) of the biofuels are still less than those of petroleum-based fuels (94 gCO2-eq /MJ). Maize production and pyrolysis and hydroprocessing make major contributions to all impact categories except the human health criteria. All impact categories resulting from indirect emissions except the eutrophication and smog air make more than 24% contribution to the total environmental impacts. Therefore, the indirect emissions are important and can't be ignored. Sensitivity analysis has shown that corn stover yield and bio-oil yield affect the total environment impacts of the biofuels more

  19. Flexible SiInZnO thin film transistor with organic/inorganic hybrid gate dielectric processed at 150 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J. Y.; Kim, S.; Hwang, B.-U.; Lee, N.-E.; Lee, S. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Silicon indium zinc oxide (SIZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) have been fabricated on a flexible polyimide (PI) substrate by using organic/inorganic hybrid gate dielectrics of poly-4vinyl phenol (PVP) and Al2O3. To improve the mechanical stability, Al2O3 has been used as a buffer layer on the flexible substrate. The Al2O3 layer of hybrid gate dielectrics protected the organic gate dielectric and improved mechanical flexibility. The different surface roughness of the gate dielectrics is investigated. The performance of the device with smooth surface roughness was significantly improved. Finally, the electrical characteristics of the TFTs with hybrid gate dielectrics were measured as well as the promising electrical endurance characteristics at the bending radius of 5 mm.

  20. Preparation of Transparent Bulk TiO2/PMMA Hybrids with Improved Refractive Indices via an in Situ Polymerization Process Using TiO2 Nanoparticles Bearing PMMA Chains Grown by Surface-Initiated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Satoshi; Fujita, Masato; Idota, Naokazu; Matsukawa, Kimihiro; Sugahara, Yoshiyuki

    2016-12-21

    Transparent TiO2/PMMA hybrids with a thickness of 5 mm and improved refractive indices were prepared by in situ polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) in the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles bearing poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) chains grown using surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP), and the effect of the chain length of modified PMMA on the dispersibility of modified TiO2 nanoparticles in the bulk hybrids was investigated. The surfaces of TiO2 nanoparticles were modified with both m-(chloromethyl)phenylmethanoyloxymethylphosphonic acid bearing a terminal ATRP initiator and isodecyl phosphate with a high affinity for common organic solvents, leading to sufficient dispersibility of the surface-modified particles in toluene. Subsequently, SI-ATRP of MMA was achieved from the modified surfaces of the TiO2 nanoparticles without aggregation of the nanoparticles in toluene. The molecular weights of the PMMA chains cleaved from the modified TiO2 nanoparticles increased with increases in the prolonging of the polymerization period, and these exhibited a narrow distribution, indicating chain growth controlled by SI-ATRP. The nanoparticles bearing PMMA chains were well-dispersed in MMA regardless of the polymerization period. Bulk PMMA hybrids containing modified TiO2 nanoparticles with a thickness of 5 mm were prepared by in situ polymerization of the MMA dispersion. The transparency of the hybrids depended significantly on the chain length of the modified PMMA on the nanoparticles, because the modified PMMA of low molecular weight induced aggregation of the TiO2 nanoparticles during the in situ polymerization process. The refractive indices of the bulk hybrids could be controlled by adjusting the TiO2 content and could be increased up to 1.566 for 6.3 vol % TiO2 content (1.492 for pristine PMMA).

  1. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Vivek; Tawfik, Magdy S.

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy concept is becoming a reality for the US energy infrastructure where combinations of the various potential energy sources (nuclear, wind, solar, biomass, and so on) are integrated in a hybrid energy system. This paper focuses on challenges facing a hybrid system with a Small Modular Reactor at its core. The core of the paper will discuss efforts required to develop supervisory control center that collects data, supports decision-making, and serves as an information hub for supervisory control center. Such a center will also be a model for integrating future technologies and controls. In addition, advanced operations research, thermal cycle analysis, energy conversion analysis, control engineering, and human factors engineering will be part of the supervisory control center. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure would allow operators to optimize the cost of energy production by providing appropriate means of integrating different energy sources. The data needs to be stored, processed, analyzed, trended, and projected at right time to right operator to integrate different energy sources.

  2. Checkpointing for a hybrid computing node

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cher, Chen-Yong

    2016-03-08

    According to an aspect, a method for checkpointing in a hybrid computing node includes executing a task in a processing accelerator of the hybrid computing node. A checkpoint is created in a local memory of the processing accelerator. The checkpoint includes state data to restart execution of the task in the processing accelerator upon a restart operation. Execution of the task is resumed in the processing accelerator after creating the checkpoint. The state data of the checkpoint are transferred from the processing accelerator to a main processor of the hybrid computing node while the processing accelerator is executing the task.

  3. Advances in the study of hybrid finite elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Some new concepts and research progress in hybrid finite elements advanced in recent years are in troduced. On the basis of incompatible energy consistency analysis, the optimal condition of hybrid elements is derived and the formulation for fulfilling this condition is given. A post-processing penalty equilibrium optimization technique of hybrid element is presented to create high quality hybrid model. For incompressible problems, a method of deviatoric hybrid element is proposed and unification of computation between compressible and incompressible media is achieved.

  4. Intervarietal and intravarietal genetic structure in Douglas-fir: nuclear SSRs bring novel insights into past population demographic processes, phylogeography, and intervarietal hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loo, Marcela; Hintsteiner, Wolfgang; Pötzelsberger, Elisabeth; Schüler, Silvio; Hasenauer, Hubert

    2015-05-01

    Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) is one of numerous wide-range forest tree species represented by subspecies/varieties, which hybridize in contact zones. This study examined the genetic structure of this North American conifer and its two hybridizing varieties, coastal and Rocky Mountain, at intervarietal and intravarietal level. The genetic structure was subsequently associated with the Pleistocene refugial history, postglacial migration and intervarietal hybridization/introgression. Thirty-eight populations from the USA and Canada were genotyped for 13 nuclear SSRs and analyzed with simulations and traditional population genetic structuring methods. Eight genetic clusters were identified. The coastal clusters embodied five refugial populations originating from five distinct refugia. Four coastal refugial populations, three from California and one from western Canada, diverged during the Pleistocene (56.9-40.1 ka). The three Rocky Mountain clusters reflected distinct refugial populations of three glacial refugia. For Canada, ice covered during the Last Glacial Maximum, we present the following three findings. (1) One refugial population of each variety was revealed in the north of the distribution range. Additional research including paleodata is required to support and determine whether both northern populations originated from cryptic refugia situated south or north of the ice-covered area. (2) An interplay between intravarietal gene flow of different refugial populations and intervarietal gene flow by hybridization and introgression was identified. (3) The Canadian hybrid zone displayed predominantly introgressants of the Rocky Mountain into the coastal variety. This study provides new insights into the complex Quaternary dynamics of this conifer essential for understanding its evolution (outside and inside the native range), adaptation to future climates and for forest management.

  5. 一种适应GPU的混合OLAP查询处理模型%GPU Adaptive Hybrid OLAP Query Processing Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宇; 张延松; 陈红; 王珊

    2016-01-01

    The general purpose graphic computing units (GPGPUs) have become the new platform for high performance computing due to their massive parallel computing power, and in recent years more and more high performance database research has placed focus on GPU database development. However, today's GPU database researches commonly inherit ROLAP (relational OLAP) model, and mainly address how to realize relational operators in GPU platform and performance tuning, especially on GPU oriented parallel hash join algorithm. GPUs have higher parallel computing power than CPUs but less logical control and management capacity for complex data structure, therefore they are not adaptive for directly migrating the in-memory database query processing algorithms based on complex data structure and memory management. This paper proposes a GPU vectorized processing oriented hybrid OLAP model, semi-MOLAP, which combines direct array access and array computing of MOLAP with storage efficiency of ROLAP. The pure array oriented GPU semi-MOLAP model simplifies GPU data management, reduces complexity of GPU semi-MOLAP algorithms and improves their code efficiency. Meanwhile, the semi-MOLAP operators are divided into co-computing operators on CPU and GPU platforms to improve utilization of both CPUs and GPUs for higher query processing performance.%通用GPU因其强大的并行计算能力成为新兴的高性能计算平台,并逐渐成为近年来学术界在高性能数据库实现技术领域的研究热点.但当前GPU数据库领域的研究沿袭的是ROLAP(relational OLAP)多维分析模型,研究主要集中在关系操作符在GPU平台上的算法实现和性能优化技术,以哈希连接的GPU并行算法研究为中心.GPU拥有数千个并行计算单元,但其逻辑控制单元较少,相对于CPU具有更强的并行计算能力,但逻辑控制和复杂内存管理能力较弱,因此并不适合需要复杂数据结构和复杂内存管理机制的内存数据库查询处理算

  6. Effect of different processes and Ti/Zn molar ratios on the structure, morphology, and enhanced photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic performance of Ti3+ self-doped titanium-zinc hybrid oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Rongrong; Wang, Qingyao; Gao, Shanmin; Wang, Zeyan; Huang, Baibiao; Dai, Ying; Lu, Jun

    2015-07-01

    Ti3+ self-doped titanium-zinc hybrid oxides with different phase compositions and morphologies were successfully synthesized using Zn powder as the reductant and Zn source by a chemical-reduction precipitation method with subsequent thermal treatment. The fabricated Ti3+ self-doped TiO2(A)/TiO2(R), TiO2(A)/TiO2(R)/ZnTiO3, and TiO2(A)/ZnO heterojunctions were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The effects of various Ti/Zn molar ratios and preparation processes on the structural, morphological, optical, photocurrent and photocatalytic properties of the resultant samples were investigated systematically. Results reveal that Ti3+ self-doping enhances the photoabsorption capability of titanium-zinc hybrid oxides in the visible-light region. Moreover, different processes and Ti/Zn molar ratios play great influences on the structure, morphology, optical, photocurrent and photocatalytic properties of the final products. Ti3+ self-doped titanium-zinc hybrid oxides exhibit excellent photocurrent and photocatalytic activity than pure TiO2 and ZnTiO3 under visible-light irradiation (λ ≥ 400 nm). The most active Ti3+ self-doped titanium-zinc hybrid oxides photoanode presents significantly improved water splitting performance. The synergistic effect between the Ti3+ self-doped and heterojunctions is responsible for the enhanced performance of these materials.

  7. Effect of different processes and Ti/Zn molar ratios on the structure, morphology, and enhanced photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic performance of Ti3+ self-doped titanium–zinc hybrid oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Rongrong; Wang, Qingyao; Gao, shanmin; Wang, Zeyan; Huang, Baibiao; Dai, Ying; Lu, Jun

    2015-07-01

    Ti3+ self-doped titanium–zinc hybrid oxides with different phase compositions and morphologies were successfully synthesized using Zn powder as the reductant and Zn source by a chemical-reduction precipitation method with subsequent thermal treatment. The fabricated Ti3+ self-doped TiO2(A)/TiO2(R), TiO2(A)/TiO2(R)/ZnTiO3, and TiO2(A)/ZnO heterojunctions were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The effects of various Ti/Zn molar ratios and preparation processes on the structural, morphological, optical, photocurrent and photocatalytic properties of the resultant samples were investigated systematically. Results reveal that Ti3+ self-doping enhances the photoabsorption capability of titanium–zinc hybrid oxides in the visible-light region. Moreover, different processes and Ti/Zn molar ratios play great influences on the structure, morphology, optical, photocurrent and photocatalytic properties of the final products. Ti3+ self-doped titanium–zinc hybrid oxides exhibit excellent photocurrent and photocatalytic activity than pure TiO2 and ZnTiO3 under visible-light irradiation (λ ≥ 400 nm). The most active Ti3+ self-doped titanium–zinc hybrid oxides photoanode presents significantly improved water splitting performance. The synergistic effect between the Ti3+ self-doped and heterojunctions is responsible for the enhanced performance of these materials.

  8. Hybrid Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F. (Inventor); Roberts, Gary D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid gear consisting of metallic outer rim with gear teeth and metallic hub in combination with a composite lay up between the shaft interface (hub) and gear tooth rim is described. The composite lay-up lightens the gear member while having similar torque carrying capability and it attenuates the impact loading driven noise/vibration that is typical in gear systems. The gear has the same operational capability with respect to shaft speed, torque, and temperature as an all-metallic gear as used in aerospace gear design.

  9. Printed hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karioja, Pentti; Mäkinen, Jukka-Tapani; Keränen, Kimmo; Aikio, Janne; Alajoki, Teemu; Jaakola, Tuomo; Koponen, Matti; Keränen, Antti; Heikkinen, Mikko; Tuomikoski, Markus; Suhonen, Riikka; Hakalahti, Leena; Kopola, Pälvi; Hast, Jukka; Liedert, Ralf; Hiltunen, Jussi; Masuda, Noriyuki; Kemppainen, Antti; Rönkä, Kari; Korhonen, Raimo

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents research activities carried out at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland in the field of hybrid integration of optics, electronics and mechanics. Main focus area in our research is the manufacturing of electronic modules and product structures with printed electronics, film-over-molding and polymer sheet lamination technologies and the goal is in the next generation of smart systems utilizing monolithic polymer packages. The combination of manufacturing technologies such as roll-to-roll -printing, injection molding and traditional component assembly is called Printed Hybrid Systems (PHS). Several demonstrator structures have been made, which show the potential of polymer packaging technology. One demonstrator example is a laminated structure with embedded LED chips. Element thickness is only 0.3mm and the flexible stack of foils can be bent in two directions after assembly process and was shaped curved using heat and pressure. The combination of printed flexible circuit boards and injection molding has also been demonstrated with several functional modules. The demonstrators illustrate the potential of origami electronics, which can be cut and folded to 3D shapes. It shows that several manufacturing process steps can be eliminated by Printed Hybrid Systems technology. The main benefits of this combination are small size, ruggedness and conformality. The devices are ideally suited for medical applications as the sensitive electronic components are well protected inside the plastic and the structures can be cleaned easily due to the fact that they have no joints or seams that can accumulate dirt or bacteria.

  10. Design Procedure for Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Tjelflaat, Per Olaf

    Mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately during many years. The natural next step in this development is development of ventilation concepts that utilises and combines the best features from each system into a new type of ventilation system - Hybrid Ventilation....... Buildings with hybrid ventilation often include other sustainable technologies and an energy optimisation requires an integrated approach in the design of the building and its mechanical systems. Therefore, the hybrid ventilation design procedure differs from the design procedure for conventional HVAC....... The first ideas on a design procedure for hybrid ventilation is presented and the different types of design methods, that is needed in different phases of the design process, is discussed....

  11. 溶胶-凝胶法制备含氟聚丙烯酸酯/SiO2杂化材料%Study On Fluoro-Acrylate Polymer/SiO2 Hybrids Prepared by Sol-Gel Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱斯文; 吴文健; 王建方; 刘长利; 张学骜

    2008-01-01

    Silica sols were synthesized by an acid-catalyzed sol-gel process,and fluoro-acrylate polymer/SiO2 hybrid materials were prepared by silica sols in-situ polymerized with acrylate monomers.The structure,morphologies and surface chemical composition of the hybrid system was characterized by FT-IR,FESEM and XPS.It was found that in the hybrid system,SiO2 subsisted in networks,and covalent linked with organic components.The effects of morphology,distribution and interfacial conditions of inorganic disperse phase on the surface,thermal and mechanical properties of hybrids were investigated.The result showed that with the increase of SiO2 content,the water contact angle,thermal stability and hardness of the hybrids were enhanced,but the adhesion of the hybrid coatings increased firstly and then decreased.%用酸催化溶胶-凝胶法制得SiO2溶胶,与丙烯酸酯单体原位聚合,制备了含氟聚丙烯酸酯/SiO2杂化材料.通过红外光谱、场发射扫描电镜、X射线光电子能谱对杂化材料的结构、形态及表面化学组成进行了表征,表明SiO2在杂化体系中以Si-O网络的形式存在,并且与有机相之间有良好键合.并研究了SiO2相的形态、分布和界面状况对杂化材料的表面性能、热学性能和力学性能的影响.测试结果证实,随着SiO2含量的增加,杂化材料的疏水性、热稳定性和硬度都逐渐增强,附着力则是先增大后减小.

  12. SYNTHESIS OF MESOPOROUS POLY(STYRENE-co-MALEIC ANHYDRIDE)/SILICA HYBRID MATERIALS VIA A NONSURFACTANT-TEMPLATED SOL-GEL PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie-bin Pang; Kun-yuan Qiu; Yen Wei

    2000-01-01

    Mesoporous poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride)/silica hybrid materials have been prepared. The synthesis was achieved by the HCl-catalyzed sol-gel reactions of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer in the presence of 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES) as a coupling agent and citric acid as a nonsurfactant template or pore-forming agent, followed by ethanol extraction. Characterization results from nitrogen sorption isotherms and powder Xray diffraction indicate that polymer-modified mesoporous materials with large specific surface areas (e.g. 900 m2/g) and pore volumes (e.g. 0.6 cm3/g) could be prepared. As the citric acid concentration is increased, the specific surface areas, pore volumes and pore diameters of the hybrid materials increase.

  13. Intuitionistic hybrid logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area.......Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area....

  14. Photocatalytic oxidation removal of Hg0 using ternary Ag/AgI-Ag2CO3 hybrids in wet scrubbing process under fluorescent light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Anchao; Zhang, Lixiang; Chen, Xiaozhuan; Zhu, Qifeng; Liu, Zhichao; Xiang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    A series of ternary Ag/AgI-Ag2CO3 photocatalysts synthesized using a facile coprecipitation method were employed to investigate their performances of Hg0 removal in a wet scrubbing reactor. The hybrids were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption, XRD, SEM-EDS, HRTEM, XPS, DRS and ESR. The photocatalytic activities of Hg0 removal were evaluated under fluorescent light. The results showed that AgI content, fluorescent light irradiation, reaction temperature all showed significant influences on Hg0 removal. NO exhibited significant effect on Hg0 removal in comparison to SO2. Among these ternary Ag/AgI-Ag2CO3 hybrids, Ag/AgI(0.1)-Ag2CO3 showed the highest Hg0 removal efficiency, which could be ascribed to the effective separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs between AgI and Ag2CO3 and the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect in the visible region by metallic silver nanoparticles (Ag0 NPs). The trapping studies of reactive radicals showed that the superoxide radicals (rad O2-) may play a key role in Hg0 removal under fluorescent light. According to the experimental and characterization results, a possible photocatalytic oxidation mechanism for enhanced Hg0 removal over Ag/AgI(0.1)-Ag2CO3 hybrid under fluorescent light was proposed.

  15. Study on separation of chlorobenzene and acetic acid azeotrope by distillation-crystallization hybrid separation process%蒸馏-结晶耦合工艺分离乙酸-氯苯共沸体系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋闯

    2015-01-01

    本文主要对蒸馏-结晶耦合工艺分离共沸体系进行研究。以乙酸-氯苯为研究对象,对耦合工艺的原理和实验装置进行研究设计。通过对回流比,结晶终温,降温速率和发汗等工艺条件的考察,得出蒸馏-结晶耦合工艺分离乙酸-氯苯共沸体系的最佳条件,即:最佳回流比为2,结晶终温为-6℃,降温速率为0.2618℃/min.,发汗时间为2.5h。%This paper mainly studies that binary azeotrope system has been separated by the distillation-crystallization hybrid separa-tion process .Taken chlorobenzene and acetic acid for researching objects,the principle of hybrid separation process was studied and the experimental equipment was designed.By studing of the reflux ratio, final crystallization temperatures,the cooling rate and sweating, opti-mum conditions of separating chlorobenzene-acetic acid azeotrope by distillation-crystallization hybrid separation process were determined. The best reflux ratio was 2, the final crystallization temperature was -6℃, the cooling rate was 0.2618℃/min, sweating time was 2.5h.

  16. Hybridized tetraquarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Esposito

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X,Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules but rather a manifestation of the interplay between the two. While meson molecules need a negative or zero binding energy, its counterpart for h-tetraquarks is required to be positive. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs0π± channel by the D0 Collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb Collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X,Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568 are also made.

  17. Hybridized Tetraquarks

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, A.; Polosa, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X, Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules. The latter would require a negative or zero binding energy whose counterpart in h-tetraquarks is a positive quantity. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs pi+- channel by the D0 collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X, Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568) are also made.

  18. Hybrid winding concept for toroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Henrik; Andersen, Thomas; Knott, Arnold;

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a hybrid winding concept for toroids using the traces in a printed circuit board to make connection to bended copper foil cutouts. In a final product a number of strips with a certain thickness would be held by a former and the whole assembly could be placed by pick...... and placement machinery. This opens up the possibility for both an automated manufacturing process and an automated production process of toroidal magnetics such as power inductors, filtering inductors, air core inductors, transformers etc. Both the proposed hybrid and the common wire wound winding...

  19. A Proposal on the Search for the Hybrid with IG(JPC) = 1-(1-+) in the Process J/ψ → pωππ at Upgraded BEPC/BES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI De-Min; YU Hong; SHEN Qi-Xing

    2001-01-01

    We give the moment expressions for the boson resonances X with spin-parity JPXXC = 0++, 1-+, 1++ and 2++ possiblyproduced in the process J/ψ→ pX, X → b1 (1235)π, b1 →ωπ in terms of the generalized moment analysis method. The resonance with JPXXC= 1 -+ can be distinguished from other resonances by means of these moments except for some rather special cases. The suggestion that the search for the hybrid with IG( JPc) = 1-(1-+) can be performed in the decay channel J/ψ→ pωππ at upgraded BEPC/BES is presented.``

  20. Dedicated optoelectronic stochastic parallel processor for real-time image processing: motion-detection demonstration and design of a hybrid complementary-metal-oxide semiconductor- self-electro-optic-device-based prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassinelli, A; Chavel, P; Desmulliez, M P

    2001-12-10

    We report experimental results and performance analysis of a dedicated optoelectronic processor that implements stochastic optimization-based image-processing tasks in real time. We first show experimental results using a proof-of-principle-prototype demonstrator based on standard silicon-complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology and liquid-crystal spatial light modulators. We then elaborate on the advantages of using a hybrid CMOS-self-electro-optic-device-based smart-pixel array to monolithically integrate photodetectors and modulators on the same chip, providing compact, high-bandwidth intrachip optoelectronic interconnects. We have modeled the operation of the monolithic processor, clearly showing system-performance improvement.